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Title: A Manual of Bird Study - A Description of Twenty-Five Local Birds with Study Options
Author: Carr, William H.
Language: English
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                         A MANUAL OF BIRD STUDY


                            A Description of
              Twenty-five Local Birds with Study Outlines


                            WILLIAM H. CARR
              _Assistant Curator, Department of Education_


                    School Service Series—Number One
                       Third Edition, March, 1934


                        Department of Education
                   American Museum of Natural History
                   77th Street and Central Park West
                             New York City



   CIRCULATING NATURE COLLECTIONS OF BIRDS IN THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF
                            NATURAL HISTORY


This Bird Study Manual is intended especially for the use of teachers and
pupils in the New York City Schools. It is written primarily to describe
the birds contained in the circulating nature study collections which
the American Museum of Natural History loans to public schools. However
it may be used as a general guide to bird study as well. The various
study outlines tell the story of different projects that may be
developed in connection with birds. Typical birds are illustrated. As
much as is possible in the life history of each bird is given. The bird
poems may be used in connection with the study of English. The study of
birds may very well be correlated with the studies of many other
subjects such as Civics, Geography and other topics.

The purpose of the loan collections of birds and other animals in the
American Museum of Natural History is to place in the hands of teachers
good material for classroom instruction, At the same time authoritative
data is given with each collection. These loan collections are available
for any teacher in any school in Greater New York.

The method of obtaining these collections has been made the simplest
possible as far as the teachers are concerned. At least once a year (in
September), and sometimes twice a year, a return postal card is mailed
to every school principal in the City system, All that the principal has
to do to obtain the collections is to indicate by numerals the sequence
in which he wants the collections delivered, signing his name and school
number. The Museum messengers will then deliver the collections, and
call for them, without any more effort on the part of the schools. The
entire cost of this service is borne by the Museum.

Teachers are urged, whenever possible, to bring their classes to the
American Museum of Natural History, at 77th Street and Central Park
West, to take advantage of the opportunities for further study that are
offered. In the many halls of birds and animals, the home life and the
general habitat of the creatures are given in detail. There is a free
guide service for teachers and pupils. Also there are classes for school
children held in the new School Service Building. In fact, the wealth of
natural history study material is always there, available in many ways
for the use of all who desire to further their knowledge of the animals
of the out-of-doors.

Applications for these collections and for further information should be
addressed to The American Museum of Natural History, 77th Street and
Central Park West, New York City.
                                  George H. Sherwood, _Curator-in-Chief_
                                        _Department of Public Education_


The American Museum of Natural History has five collections of birds to
lend to Public Schools. These five are:

                            The Bluebird Set

Bluebird—Phoebe—Barn Swallow—House Wren—Chimney Swift.

                              The Owl Set

Chickadee—Nuthatch—Song Sparrow—Screech Owl—Kinglet.

                             The Robin Set

Robin—Red-winged Blackbird—Baltimore Oriole—Chipping Sparrow—Meadowlark.

                            The Blue Jay Set

Blue Jay—Downy Woodpeckcr—Starling—Junco—English Sparrow—Crossbill.

                        The Scarlet Tanager Set

Scarlet Tanager—Red-eyed Vireo—Goldfinch—Hummingbird—Pigeon.

        Other Types of Loan Collections That May be Secured Are:

Insects—Sponges and Corals—Crustaceans—Minerals and Rocks—Native
Woods—Starfishes and Worms—Mollusks.



                        SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS


It is sometimes helpful to study birds by the “Question and Answer”
method. The following questions are written to suggest others of a
similar nature.

What is a Bird? A bird is an animal that has feathers. No other animal
      has feathers.

    [Illustration: A “CITY” OF STRANGE BIRDS

    Some of the brightest spots in childhood are connected with a vague
    realization of the beauty and mystery of the world.]

    [Illustration: THE ORDER POSTCARD

    Requisitioning the service has been simplified to the nth degree.
    All that a principal needs to do to obtain the collections is to
    indicate by numerals the sequence in which he wants them delivered.]

What are Feathers Used For? Feathers help to keep the bird warm. With
      the aid of feathers the bird flies.

What Other Creature is Able to Fly Without the Aid of Feathers? The bat
      can fly upon wings of thin skin.

What are the Names of Some Birds that are Noted for Their Ability to
      Swim, Fly, Creep, and Walk? The Bald Eagle and the Condor are both
      birds that are very strong fliers. Can you name any others? The
      ducks are at home in the water. Can you name any other birds that
      are able to swim with ease? The little Brown Creeper and many
      other birds are very happy in their ability to creep up and to
      climb trees. The Chicken and the Partridge are both excellent
      walkers. Name some other birds that walk.

What Birds Help the Trees to Live by Killing Harmful Insects? The
      Woodpeckers help the trees in this way. Name some other birds that
      find food upon the trunks of trees.

What May we Attempt to do to Protect Birds? We may help birds to live by
      giving them drinking places and bird baths in the Summer, and food
      tables in the Winter. We can help by not going near birds’ nests
      and by not harming birds in any manner.



                   SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS AND PUPILS
                        ADDITIONAL STUDY TOPICS


Birds are to be found in almost “every corner of the earth.” Their study
has a world wide interest and appeal. The following list is intended to
serve as an aid in bringing to mind subjects that may be developed
out-of-doors, or studied in the class room.

Vision of Birds: The keen power of sight of Hawks and Eagles; the Owl’s
      eye at night.

Variation in Structure of Bill: Adaptations of the sharp pointed, curved
      beak of the flesh-eating Hawks; the small, pointed bill of the
      insect-eating Warbler.

Variation in Structure of Feet: The strong grasping talons of
      flesh-eaters; the powerful “walking feet” of the Chicken; the
      perching feet of the Chickadee,

Habits of Cleanliness in Birds: Cleaning nests, bathing in water and
      dust.

    [Illustration: A NATURE-STUDY COLLECTION—THE BLUEJAY SET

    The specimens are delivered to the school in a wooden carrying case
    about the size of an ordinary suitcase. The birds are mounted on
    individual pedestals and can easily be removed from the case. Thus
    the specimens may be used singly or collectively. They can be
    handled and seen from all sides.]

The Flight of Birds: Powerful, sustained flight of the Condor; darting
      flight of flycatchers; suspension in air, or hovering flight of
      the Hummingbird and Sparrow Hawk.

Migration of Birds: Travels from one continent to another, often over
      wide expanse of water; journey of the Golden Plover.

Training of Young Birds by Their Parents: Young Barn Swallows forced
      into the air; Robins offering food to young and thus enticing them
      to leave the nest.

The Songs of Birds: The Parrots, Thrushes, Sparrows. Songs of male birds
      during breeding season, imitation and mimicry—Catbird; warning
      cries, call notes.

Care and Feeding of Young: Different methods employed by parents. The
      Pelican, the Robin, the Swallows, the Flicker.

Types of Nests: Construction, materials used, building location; nest of
      Bank Swallow, hanging nest of Baltimore Oriole, Crow’s nest.

Weapons of Fighting: Spurs, wings, bills, talons.

Protective Coloration: Similarity of plumage, color and markings to
      habitat.—the Wood Thrush, the Partridge.

Bird Houses: Different types, how made, how placed, how used.

Bird Conservation: Methods of preservation in various states. Laws for
      protection.

Relation of Birds to Agriculture: Insect eaters, seed eaters, rodent
      destroyers.

The Bird’s Feather: Feathers for study will be given to teachers upon
      request.

(Note). These are but a few of the subjects that might very well be
considered.



                         OUTLINE FOR BIRD STUDY
                  (Suggestions to Teachers and Pupils)


In observing birds out-of-doors or in the class room, with an idea of
studying or identifying them, there are certain definite things to know
and to remember. The following outline makes some suggestions of what to
look for when a bird is seen for the first time, or when you are
studying a mounted specimen or colored picture.

Movements: See whether the flyer hops or walks when it is on the ground.
      Does it hang upside down, move slowly or quickly, swim or creep?
      Remember that the same bird may have a different appearance at
      various times.

Disposition: Did you ever think of a bird in connection with its having
      a disposition? Notice whether it is unsuspicious, wary, social,
      solitary, etc.

Flight: Does the bird that flies over your head travel rapidly or
      slowly? Does it flap along or does it sail and soar? Maybe it
      undulates (flies up and then down in half-moon curves) as the
      Goldfinch does.

Song: There are many times when you may hear a bird but not see it. Thus
      you should listen for songs very carefully. Notice whether the
      song is continuous, short, loud, low, pleasing, unattractive, and
      whether it comes from the ground, from a higher perch, or from the
      air.

Call Notes: Nearly all birds have a Call Note that is different from the
      regular song. These notes may be of various sorts such as
      scolding, warning, alarm, signalling, as well as a number of
      others.

Size: In the field, you cannot run up to a wild bird and measure it with
      a ruler, but what you can do is to compare it in size with some
      other bird that you do know. Compare the unknown bird with an
      English Sparrow which is about 6 inches long, a Robin about 10 and
      a Crow 19 inches long. Remember, 6, 10 and 19.

Form: Note the shape of the bill, length of the tail, shape of wings.

    [Illustration: _Bird with parts labeled_]

    [Illustration: “BIRDS THAT ARE OUR FRIENDS”

    One of the new “Habitat Group” circulating nature-study collections.
    The label-holders are hinged to the back of the case and close over
    the ends, protecting the glass during transportation. The label at
    the left is general and gives reasons why birds are our friends.
    That on the right deals with the habits and use of the specific
    birds in the case, each being identified by a simple drawing instead
    of by title or number.]

Markings and Color: See just where the markings are. Remember that if a
      bird were seen without feathers, it would look quite a bit like
      any other animal. The next time you have a chicken after the
      feathers have been removed, look at it closely. The wings look
      like arms, and as a matter of fact, they have three “fingers,”
      which may be easily seen. The bird has a crown on its head; he has
      “cheeks,” a breast, a throat, a belly, and a rump as well as other
      external or outside parts. Do not say that you saw a bird that was
      “black and white and brown all over.” No one could tell you what
      sort of a bird that was. _See_—just what you are looking at. As
      with the Markings, you should know something of the parts of a
      bird before you are able to tell just where the colors occur. How
      many colors are there on the under side of the Robin?

Appearance: The bird may be alert, wide awake or pensive as though it
      had just lost a friend. Its tail may be drooped, its crest erected
      or its feathers ruffled.

Haunts: Where did you see the bird? Was it near the seashore, beside the
      river, in the woods, the fields, a place where the land was low
      and swampy or high and rocky, or was it down near the side of the
      lake?

Season: The time of year that the bird is seen is a very important thing
      to notice and to take into consideration. Look for the times when
      birds first arrive and when they leave. Did you see them in the
      winter, spring, summer, or fall? Are they permanent residents?

Food: When you walked through the pasture or through the park and saw a
      bird eating something, did you stop and try to discover what that
      food was? Was the bird eating berries, insects, seeds? How was
      this food secured?

Mating: Every bird has certain courtship habits. Note these antics.

Nesting: Observe the choice of nesting site, the materials used in the
      nests, such as mud, grass, leaves, and so on. Notice the
      construction, the number and the color of the eggs; and the
      incubation period, or the length of time the eggs take to hatch;
      and above all things, _do not in any way disturb any bird’s nest_.

The Young: Watch and learn what food the young ones are given by the
      parents; how they are cared for; the time they remain in the nest;
      their cries, actions, first flights, and so on.

How to Find Birds:

  (a)—_When_—The best times of day are early morning and late afternoon.
  Why is this true?

  (b)—_Where_—A watered meadow with trees here and there attract birds.
  Learn this from observation.

  (c)—_How_—Use common sense as to dress and general actions. Sit down
  and let the birds come to you.

Based on Dr. Frank M. Chapman’s “A Bird’s Biography,” p. 73—Bird Life,
published by D. Appleton & Co., New York.



                              THE BLUEBIRD


In this locality some of the Bluebirds are with us all the year through.
However, they are not so often seen in winter as in warmer summer
months. The Starlings and the English Sparrows have driven them from
many former nesting sites.

Food: The Bluebird eats many insects, including beetles, grasshoppers
      and different kinds of caterpillars. He also often feeds upon such
      fruits as cedar berries, wild cherries and those of other wild
      plants.

Bill: The bill of this bird is much like that of the Robin and the
      Thrushes. These birds are very closely related.

Feet: Being a typical perching bird, the Bluebird has very well
      developed feet. The hind toe is larger than any of the front ones
      and is of great value in grasping a twig or larger branch.

Nest: When the Bluebird has found his mate, the pair begin their search
      for a home. It may be in a hollow tree, fence post, or in a box
      built by some friendly hand. Within the nesting hole a bed of
      dried grass is made. Five or six pale blue eggs are laid and then
      the new family is well on its way.

Song: The song of the Bluebird, while not very lengthy, is very soft and
      sweet. It has a musical tone and is one of the most beautiful of
      the early Spring bird voices. The notes are somewhat unsteady and
      have a tender, plaintive quality.

John Burroughs has said of the Bluebird:—

  “And yonder Bluebird, with the earth tinge on his breast and the sky
  tinge on his back, did he come down out of heaven on that bright March
  morning when he told us so softly and plaintively that, if we pleased,
  Spring had come?”

William Cullen Bryant has written:—

  “When beechen buds begin to swell,
  And woods the Bluebird’s warble know,
  The yellow violet’s modest bell
  Peeps from last year’s leaves below.”

And Lowell:—

  “Shifting his light load of song,
  From post to post along the cheerless fence.”

    [Illustration: _The Bluebird—7 inches_]



                               THE PHOEBE


Toward the end of March, the peaceful, confiding Phoebe ventures
northward. Sometimes ice and snow greet the little bird, but on he goes
to take the weather as it comes. The return journey to the far south
does not begin until the first frosty nights of September tell the story
of approaching winter.

Food: At the time of the Phoebe’s arrival, some of the first flying
      insects are trying their wings. As the Phoebe is a flycatcher, he
      may be seen, darting and wheeling about, in pursuit of his food.
      The snap of his beak may be heard as some small creature is
      overtaken and swallowed. Beetles, weevils, flies, grasshoppers and
      other insects help to feed this bird.

Bill: The bill of the Phoebe is admirably adapted to its feeding habits.
      This Quill is quite broad and strong. Upon each side are small
      “bristles” which help the bird to feed while flying. How do these
      “bristles” help?

Wings and Tail: The Phoebe is an expert in the air. His wings and tail
      are comparatively long and powerful. Compare them with those of
      the Wren. Which one of the two is the best flier? Why?

Song: While resting and while watching for insects, the Phoebe often
      perches upon the end of a branch or fence post and
      sings—“_pewit-phoebe-phoebe-phoebe_.” At the same time, he moves
      his tail with a sideway sweep, in a jerky little way. He is not
      much of a singer, but when the sound, “_phoebe-phoebe_” comes to
      us in March or early April, we know that Spring will soon be here.

Nest: The nest of the Phoebe is well built of mud, moss and other
      materials. It is sometimes lined with wool and feathers. The
      structure is placed on some flat surface, such as upon a rafter
      beneath a bridge or in a barn. Occasionally the nest is built
      under some sheltering bank or cliff. The eggs are usually white.

Of the Phoebe, Lowell has written:

  “Phoebe is all it has to say,
  In plaintive cadence o’er and o’er
  Like children that have lost their way
  And know their names, but nothing more.”

    [Illustration: _The Phoebe, a Flycatcher—7 inches_]



                            THE BARN SWALLOW


The Barn Swallows arrive in the North toward the end of April and leave
early in September. They are sociable birds and travel in huge flocks.

Food: Insects, caught upon the wing, form the diet of those Swallows.
      They dart here and there, over field and water, catching their
      prey in swift, graceful flight.

Feet: Often, in the season of migration, thousands of Swallows perch
      upon telephone wires, sometimes in such large numbers that the
      wires are broken. Their small feet are well suited for this, but
      not for walking upon the ground.

Tail: The tail of the Barn Swallow is deeply forked. When perched, these
      long protruding outer tail feathers serve to distinguish the Barn
      Swallow from all other native Swallows.

Song: The gentle twitter of the Barn Swallow is a familiar sound about
      many a farm where an old barn or other outbuilding may provide a
      nesting site. It is a musical sound that changes to a
      “_kit-tic—kit-tic_” when the bird becomes excited.

Nest: The cup-shaped nest of the Barn Swallow is made of mud and is
      lined with grass and feathers. It is stuck to the side of a rafter
      or beam or against the inside of the weather-boarding of an old
      barn where a broken window pane or other hole admits the bird from
      the out-of-doors. The eggs are white, speckled with brown and
      lavender.

    [Illustration: THE TREE SWALLOW

    Tree Swallows nest both in hollow trees and in nesting boxes that
    man has erected for their use. The upper parts of this bird are of a
    blue-green color while the under parts are of a pure white. When
    going to the south they collect in huge flocks and, after having
    flown high into the air, they begin their journey in the daytime. At
    Long Beach, Long Island, thousands of them have been observed
    feeding upon the bayberry bushes just before they started south.]

    [Illustration: 1. Purple Martin
    Shining blue-black; wings and tail duller
    2. Eave or Cliff Swallow
    Back and crown steel blue, forehead cream white, throat and sides of
    the head chestnut, breast brownish gray, under part whitish
    3. Sandbank Swallow
    Upper parts and band on breast brownish gray, throat and under parts
    white
    4. Barn Swallow
    Under parts dark blue, forehead, throat and breast reddish brown
    5. Tree Swallow
    Upper parts dark blue or green, throat and under parts white]



                             THE HOUSE WREN


Some day, late in April, the House Wren will appear to add to the
growing bird population. Not until the middle of August or the end of
September will he depart. He is the most common of our Wrens.

Food: Ninety-eight percent of the food of this small bird is made up of
      insects.

Actions: These little birds are very restless. They seem never to be
      still. From dawn to dark they are bobbing, hopping, and bowing
      about with tireless energy. The stiff tail, constantly jerked, is
      usually in an upright perky position, and is a true mark of the
      Wren’s personality.

Song: The House Wren is more noted for the quantity of his song than for
      the quality. Although parts of his singing are soft and musical,
      there are other times when scolding, grating notes mar the
      performance. Constantly singing, the Wren goes about his work.
      Even when flying or perching with a worm in his beak, he will sing
      away as though the thoughts of mere food were far indeed from his
      mind. The true song is a spontaneous and rollicking outburst, and
      is sung with real abandon that fairly makes the small feathered
      body tremble with the force of its effort.

Nest: The nest of the House Wren is made within some cavity, either
      natural or man-made. If no hollow tree is about, an eave spout
      will do, provided that an English Sparrow has not found it first.
      Wrens have even been known to build their nests in old shoes! The
      material used consists of grass and short twigs, feathers and like
      material. The eggs, sometimes as many as eight in number, are
      thickly speckled with pinkish brown.

Flight: The flight of the Wren is very erratic. It darts here and there
      with much speed. Although not a very strong flier, the bird
      travels in many places that larger birds could never manage.

    [Illustration: _The House Wren—4¾ inches_]



                           THE CHIMNEY SWIFT


The Chimney Swift, which is in no way related to the Swallows, is seen
in the North toward the end of April or early in May. From the last
weeks of August until late in September, southward bound flocks may be
seen, and then the bird has left us until Spring comes again.

Food: The Swifts feed entirely while flying. They eat small flying
      insects of many kinds, catching them chiefly in the early morning
      and late afternoon.

Feet: Seldom does the Swift alight upon any flat-topped object. Its
      characteristic perching place is upon some rough-surfaced tree or
      chimney where the small, weak feet cling to the wall and hold the
      bird in an upright position.

Tail: The tail of the Chimney Swift is used as a prop to aid the bird in
      holding fast to vertical surfaces. The feathers of this fan-shaped
      prop are spine-tipped.

Wings and Body: The body of the Swift is “cigar shaped.” The wings are
      slender though powerful and have long outer feathers that help him
      to fly for hours at a time.

Song: The Chimney Swift has no true song. His singing efforts result in
      a “_chip-chip-chip_” repeated over and over again, with a
      twitter-like rhythm, sometimes sounding
      “_chippy-chippy-chippy-chip_.”

Nest: The nest of this bird is an unusual structure made of twigs that
      are glued together with its glutinous saliva. It forms a shallow,
      saucer-shaped platform in which the small white eggs are laid.
      Before man-made chimneys offered nesting sites, the Swifts built
      in hollow trees.

    [Illustration: _Chimney Swift—5½ inches_]



                             THE CHICKADEE


The friendly, sometimes inquisitive Chickadees, are with us all through
the year. Ever active, they fly here and there searching for food, and
giving their cheerful calls.

Bill: The tweezer-like bill of this little bird is very well adapted to
      the catching and eating of small insects and their eggs.

Habits: The Chickadees are never strangers to one who walks within sight
      or hearing of them. They fly very near and have even been known to
      perch upon the hand of different bird watchers who have
      sufficiently gained their confidence. The gray and black colors of
      these small balls of feathers match the tree trunks and branches
      upon which the Chickadees climb and hang in search of food.

Song: The Chickadee tells his own name when he sings. Ella G. Ives has
      said:

  “I know a little minister who has a big degree;
  Just like a long-tailed kite, he flies his D. D. D. D.”

  “Chickadee-dee-dee!” is the music that comes from this small gymnast
  of the branches. Sometimes a “Phoebe” call note is also given. It is
  quite simple to imitate this note by whistling. If you do it correctly
  the Chickadee may answer.

Nest: An old, hollow stump or fence post is often chosen by the
      Chickadee for a home. The nest within is built of moss, plant
      fibers, grasses, and feathers. From five to nine eggs are laid.
      They are of a white color spotted with a ruddy brown.

Ralph Waldo Emerson admired the Chickadee who braved the winter’s cold,
and seemed so happy in the very coldest of weather. He wrote this about
the little bird:

  “This scrap of valor just for play
  Fronts the north wind in waistcoat gray,
  As if to shame my weak behavior.”

    [Illustration: _The Chick-a-dee—5¼ inches_]



                      THE WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH


The Nuthatch is one of the tree trunk birds that, in the wintertime, is
a close friend of the Chickadees and the Downy Woodpeckers. He is with
us all the year around. Some people have called him the “Upside down
bird” due to the fact that he is able to run up and down the trunks of
trees in almost every conceivable position.

Food: The food of the Nuthatch consists of the small insects that live
      under and upon the bark of trees. The small, sharp pointed beak is
      well adapted to pry off sections of loose bark that may house some
      eggs, larvae or pupae of insects that are hidden for the cold
      months.

Habits: Edith M. Thomas has written a little poem about the Nuthatch. It
      is a good description of the acrobatic powers of these little gray
      birds of the woods.

  “Shrewd little haunter of woods all gray,
  Whom I met on my walk of a winter day—
  You’re busy inspecting each cranny and hole
  In the ragged bark of a hickory bole;
  You intent on your task, and I on the law
  Of your wonderful head and gymnastic claw!”

  “The Woodpecker may well despair of this feat—
  Only the fly with you can compete!
  So much is clear; but I fain would know
  How you can so reckless and fearless go,
  Head upward, head downward, all one to you,
  Zenith and nadir, the same in your view.”

Nest: The nest of the Nuthatch is located in a hole in a tree or stump.
      It is lined with feathers, leaves and other similar materials. The
      white eggs are thickly speckled with a rufous and lavender color.
      From five to eight eggs are laid.

Song: Some one has described the song of this bird as being like the
      laugh of a very old man. As the Nuthatch pauses from his work to
      inspect you, he may suddenly decide that you are no longer worthy
      of his attention. With a harsh little “yank-yank,” he will then
      continue his insect hunting and leave you to marvel at his
      actions.

    [Illustration: _The White-breasted Nuthatch—6 inches_]



                            THE SONG SPARROW


The Song Sparrow is a member of a very large family. His near relations
are found in many regions of the earth. In winter, fall and spring, he
is with us to represent his kind, and a fine representative he is, with
his good spirits and ever-ready song.

Field Marks: The red-brown line behind the Song Sparrow’s eye, combined
      with the tiny splash of black and brown which streaks his breast
      are two marks by which the bird may be identified. The larger
      blotch of color upon the breast is in the center of the “splash.”

Song: This Sparrow is a musician of fine ability. The call note is but a
      metallic “_chip_.” The homing song is worthy of the attention of
      any one who likes to hear good music in the out-of-doors. There is
      no one song but rather a combination of songs which are varied
      from time to time. The beginning of the song is usually of three
      sustained introductory notes. The following notes rise in rapid
      succession and are of a pure musical quality. The strain is a
      cheerful, simple melody.

Nest: The nest of the Song Sparrow is built either upon the ground or in
      bushes. It is made of coarse grasses, rootlets, dead leaves,
      strips of bark and similar materials. The eggs, four or five in
      number, are of a bluish white with brownish markings which are
      often so numerous that they conceal the underlying color.

Food: The diet of the Song Sparrow consists largely of the seeds of
      harmful weeds. It also feeds upon insects such as ants, beetles,
      and weevils. The beak of this Sparrow is comparatively large and
      strong. It is well adapted to open large seed pods in order to
      reach and eat the kernel within.

Henry Van Dyke has written a little poem about the Song Sparrow. The
first stanza of the poem, from “Builders and Other Poems” is given here:

  There is a bird I know so well,
  It seems as if he must have sung
  Beside my crib when I was young;
  Before I knew the way to spell
    The name of even the smallest bird,
    His gentle, joyful song I heard.
  Now see if you can tell, my dear,
  What bird it is that every year,
  Sings, “Sweet-sweet-sweet, very merry cheer.”

    [Illustration: _The Song Sparrow—6¼ inches_]



                              SCREECH OWL


This little permanent resident is quite common in the outlying sections
of the cities. He seems to care for the society of man. Very often, he
is to be found near human dwellings rather than far out in the woods.
Just why we should call this bird the “Screech Owl” is somewhat of a
mystery. The Owl has a tremulous, quavering voice that in no way
suggests a “screech.” Perhaps it is that the name has come to us from
Europe. At any event, it is not appropriate to our small Owl.

Food: Sometimes in walks out-of-doors we may come upon small, gray
      colored pellets made of hair and tiny bones. Very often, these
      have been ejected by the Screech Owl, who is able to digest the
      flesh of his prey but not the skeleton and the outer covering.
      This beneficial night flier feeds upon mice and other creatures.
      His sharp, hooked beak is adapted to tearing food and his rather
      long and pointed little talons are of great use in grasping it.

Color: There are two color phases of the Screech Owl. One is a mixture
      of mottled reddish brown, and the other a brownish gray shade
      tinged with black. These two phases have nothing to do either with
      sex, age, or season.

“Ears:” The two small tufts, one on either side of the head, are not
      ears at all. They are merely feathers. They may well serve to
      distinguish this bird from the Acadian or Saw-whet Owl which is
      not at all common.

Nest: The nest of the Screech Owl is often placed in a hole in a hollow
      tree. The pure white eggs, some five or six in number, are laid in
      April.

  When night time comes, the Whip-poor-will sings,
  The Owl sails off on noiseless wings
  To search for mice and other things;
  And I go home to bed.

    [Illustration: _Screech Owl_]



                              THE KINGLETS


There are two varieties of Kinglets in this section of the country, the
Golden-crowned and the Ruby-crowned. Both members of the family are
beautiful little birds that visit us in autumn and depart in the spring.
They are not with us during the warmer months. In the coldest time of
the year these little, restless wanderers among the trees may be seen
and heard. Except for the Humming-bird and the Winter Wren, the Kinglets
are the smallest birds that we have.


                        The Ruby-Crowned Kinglet

The male bird may be identified by the partly concealed tiny crest of
red which the bird often raises.


                       The Golden-Crowned Kinglet

A crest of gold marks this cousin of the Ruby-crowned. Often no color is
visible upon the head except the uniform olive or greenish tinge.
However, when the bird is excited, the crest is raised and it is then
that the color of the crown may be very well seen.

Habits: The Kinglets are friendly birds that often come very near. They
      seem to be much more tame than the warblers.

Food: A constant search for tiny insects occupies the time of the
      Kinglets.

Song: The Ruby-crown is the superior singer of the two. His song
      consists of a loud, clear warble, interrupted here and there with
      a wren-like chatter. The Golden-crown’s song may be expressed as
      “tzze, tzze, tzze, tzze, ti, ti, tir, t-t-t-.” The call note is an
      extremely high-pitched “ti-ti.”

Nest: The roundish nests of the Kinglets are made of moss, thin strips
      of inner bark, feathers and other like materials. These nests are
      made in evergreen trees and are sometimes placed as high as sixty
      feet above the ground.

    [Illustration: _Ruby-crowned Kinglet—4¼ inches_]



                                 ROBIN


Our native Robin is not closely related to the bird that the English
call “Robin Redbreast.” He is rather a relative of the Bluebird and the
Thrush. Before the young of the Robin leave the nest, their breasts are
speckled as are the breasts of the Thrushes. After the first moult, this
marking disappears. Some of the Robins are with us all through the year.
However, only the hardiest of them stay during the Winter. The majority
travel to the warmer climates. Those who come to us from the South
arrive about the first of March and depart toward the end of October.

                                  Song:
  “In the sunshine and the rain
  I hear the robin in the lane
  Singing. ‘Cheerily,
  Cheer up, cheer up;
  Cheerily, Cheerily, Cheerily, Cheer up’.”

A writer in “A Masque of Poets” has described the cheer in the Robin’s
song very well. Robin music has real melody and expression. Indeed,
there are very few of our birds that have what might be called as great
a vocabulary, or as many expressive notes, as has this familiar bird.

Nest: The nest of the Robin is built of grasses, rootlets and leaves.
      The interior is well lined or plastered with a layer of mud.
      Another layer of fine grass forms the bed upon which the greenish
      blue eggs are laid. These eggs are from three to five in number.
      Robins often raise two families each year. The young of the first
      brood leave the nest toward the first of July.

Food: In June and July, Robins feed to some extent upon berries and
      similar fruits. However, what little harm they may do in this way
      is vastly offset by the good that is done during the rest of the
      year. The Robins are gleaners of insects. They eat great
      quantities of beetles and their grubs, grasshoppers, crickets,
      ants and other plant pests. One of the most comical sights of bird
      feeding is to see a large, round, healthy Robin struggle to pull a
      resisting, equally healthy, earthworm from its hole in the ground.
      Often, the worm breaks in two and the Robin, suddenly and most
      unexpectedly, tumbles over backward. The Robin seems to “Listen”
      for the worm as he walks and hops over the lawn in the early
      morning.

    [Illustration: Song: The song of the Robin in early Spring tells us
    that warm weather is not far off. We look for his brick red breast
    and watch him as he feeds about our lawns and gardens.]

    [Illustration: _The Robin—10 inches_]



                        THE RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD


Early in March, the male Redwing arrives. It is not until two or three
weeks later that the female comes from the south to join his company and
to sail about over the cat-tails of the marsh. When August has gone by,
the adult Blackbirds are seldom seen. It is in July that the young and
old birds congregate in large flocks to prepare themselves for the
journey southward. Red-winged Blackbirds from farther north may be seen
as late as October.

Markings: The male Red-winged Blackbird is of a faultless glossy black
      with shoulder patches, or epaulets, of a bright scarlet, edged
      with gold. His mate is of a more sober appearance—streaked with
      modest brown.

Song: Henry D. Thoreau described the Red-winged Blackbird’s song
      as—“_Chonk-a-ree_.” These free, truly bubbling notes are given
      again and again as the birds go about their everyday tasks in the
      Spring. The arrival of the females, however, is perhaps the signal
      for the greatest singing effort on the part of the males. It is at
      this time, especially, that the marshland is fairly alive with the
      rich reed-like song that
      repeats—“_Conk-a-ree_”—“_Conk-a-ree_”—“_Conk-a-ree_”!

Nest: The nest of this bird is woven of grasses, weed-stalks and
      rootlets. Sometimes it is built in a friendly, compact mass of
      cat-tail, and other nests may be seen in low bushes or tussocks.
      These Redwings do not welcome visitors to their nesting sites.
      They raise very strenuous objections, and, in their attempt to
      drive away the intruder, bird, beast or man, they will fly very
      near, scolding in harsh tones the meanwhile.

Eggs: The eggs of the Red-winged Blackbirds are truly unusual in their
      markings. They are of a pale blue ground, or base color, and are
      often scrawled over with a dark purple or black. They appear to
      have been stepped upon by a bird that has first dipped its toes in
      a bottle of ink. These eggs are from three to five in number.

    [Illustration: _The Red-winged Blackbird—9½ inches_]



                            BALTIMORE ORIOLE


  “How comes it, Oriole, thou hast come to fly
  In tropic splendor through our northern sky?”

Edgar Fawcett asks this question in his poem. Who is there that may
answer him? The Baltimore Oriole comes to us in early May and stays
until about the first of September. This bird, sometimes called the
Golden Robin, is a namesake of George Calvert, or Lord Baltimore, who
was the first proprietor of Maryland. Indeed, he does seem “golden” as
he flashes about among green leaves. However, he is a relation of the
blackbirds, rather than of the robins.

Colors: The brilliant orange and black feathers of the Oriole are the
      marks by which the bird may be identified. The head, shoulders and
      neck, and the upper section of the back are of a gleaming black.
      The breast is of a bright orange, sometimes almost golden in its
      color.

Song: A loud, sometimes bold, whistle from the top of a sweeping elm
      tree often announces the presence of the Baltimore Oriole. He is a
      fine songster of considerable ability. His song is characterized
      by a richness that gives a truly musical quality to his efforts.

The same poet asks further:

  “At some glad moment was it Nature’s choice and charm
  To dower a scrap of sunset with a voice?”

Nest: The beautiful hanging nest of the Baltimore Oriole is often
      suspended from the end of the branch of some shade tree, where it
      sways with every passing breeze. It is composed of hair, strings,
      grasses, bark lining and other similar materials all closely
      interwoven with the greatest of skill. The eggs, four to six in
      number, are of a white color marked with wavy blackish lines and
      spots. This bird has been known to make very good use of yarn,
      string, and even strips of cloth, placed where they might easily
      be found and woven into the nest. Some nests built almost entirely
      of string have been found.

    [Illustration: _The Baltimore Oriole—7½ inches_]



                            CHIPPING SPARROW


The sociable personality of the Chipping Sparrow enables the bird
student to make his close acquaintance. He is a little bird of modest
habits, who shows his trust in the human race by living very near to the
homes of man. In early April “Chippy” arrives. He leaves for the South
about the first of November.

Song: “_Chippy—Chippy—Chippy_” is all this small Sparrow has to say.
      Certainly, this is not an especially attractive song, and yet it
      is very much in keeping with the unassuming disposition of the
      bird. It could scarcely be called a song. It is an extremely high
      pitched note with very little musical quality. Nevertheless,
      somewhat monotonous though the songs may be, they seem to have a
      peculiarly friendly air, that, at times, is very welcome.

Food: Injurious insects are eaten in large quantities by the Chipping
      Sparrows. Beetles, grasshoppers and other similar insects are the
      prey of this bird. Many different types of seeds constitute the
      rest of the diet. “Chippy” will readily accept human hospitality
      whenever crumbs are scattered, provided, of course, that the
      English Sparrow does not arrive at the feeding station first.

Nest: The nest of the Chipping Sparrow is built in bushes, shrubs,
      trees, or in the old vines that grow about country houses. The
      nest is lined with long hairs. One often wonders where the bird
      finds so many of them. Grass and fine twigs are used for the main
      construction of the home.

Remarks: The little chestnut cap of the Chipping Sparrow is perhaps his
      most noticeable marking. By this, and by his small size, he may be
      readily identified. He is sometimes called the “Least” Sparrow.
      Like some other members of the Sparrow family, he sometimes awakes
      in the middle of the night and bursts into song.

    [Illustration: _The Chipping Sparrow or “Chippy”—5¼ inches_]



                             THE MEADOWLARK


This bird of the fields may be seen during every month of the year.
After walking among the grasses, it may suddenly fly up and may be
identified by the conspicuous white outer tail feathers which flash in
the sunlight.

Field Marks: The black crescent upon the yellow breast of the Meadowlark
      is a fine field mark. In the early morning, when a rising sun
      shines upon the open meadows, this bright yellow patch seems to
      be, in itself, a reflected spot of golden light. In winter, a
      brownish tone, more like the dried swamp grasses, covers the
      plumage.

Food: Insects form the major portion of food for this guardian of the
      hay fields. Sow-bugs, weevils, grasshoppers, ticks, plant-lice and
      other enemies of the farmer all fall prey to the pointed,
      searching beak.

Nest: The beautiful little nest, sometimes arched over, is built of dry
      grass. It lies hidden upon the ground, often defying the keenest
      of eyes of hawk and man alike. The eggs are white, speckled with a
      reddish brown color. They may number from four to six.

Song: The music of this ground bird is somewhat sad. A slurred whistle,
      rising from the grass in spring and early summer, tells of the
      hiding place of the Meadowlark, singing in a plaintive minor key.
      Sometimes this song comes from the air. Its clear notes may be
      heard all through the year.

                           _Spring o’ the Year_
  The Meadowlark’s song is “Spring o’ the year,”
          As he flies o’er fields of hay;
  He sings of his toil and not of the cheer
          That lies in a land far away.

Remarks: The protective coloration of the Meadowlark is of great help to
      the bird. The soft brown and ground colors aid it in escaping such
      enemies as Hawks and other preying creatures. To a soaring bird of
      prey, the Meadowlark must seem to be only a section of the ground
      upon which it walks.

    [Illustration: _The Meadowlark—10¾ inches_]



                              THE BLUE JAY


The Blue Jay is closely related to the Crow. He shows this relationship
in a number of ways. He is very intelligent, has a keen sense of humor
and is an observer of birds and men. All the year long he makes himself
known to us by his striking plumage, loud voice, and active body. During
the nesting season, however, he is comparatively quiet and we see little
of him.

Food: During eight or nine months of the year the Blue Jay earns an
      honest living. He eats many harmful insects, frogs, snails, and
      even small fish and mice. In the breeding season, however, the Jay
      sometimes turns robber and has been known to steal the young of
      other birds. Nevertheless the Jay is a likable creature, and
      probably before human beings came to disturb him he was not quite
      so much of a nuisance to other birds as he is now.

Song: The clearly whistled note of this bird proclaims the name
      _Jay!—Jay!—Jay!_ in loud, harsh, ringing notes. Sometimes the song
      is quite pleasing with a bell-like quality. Some think that when
      the Jay calls he says _Thief! Thief! Thief!_

Nest: The Blue Jay often constructs his nest in a convenient crotch of a
      tree. It is built of twigs quite strongly interwoven. The lining
      is of leaflets. The inside of the nest is not by any means soft.
      The pale olive brown or green eggs sprinkled with brownish are
      from four to six in number.

Remarks: It is in the winter time that we really know the Jay in motion.
      When the snow is on the ground and the woods and fields are quiet
      it seems a fine thing to see dashing through the branches, calling
      again and again, a bright bluish bird who gives an entirely
      different atmosphere to the outdoors. Being something of a mimic,
      he sometimes takes delight in imitating the songs of such birds as
      the Red-shouldered Hawk and other songs that have a similar ring.
      He has been called a reprobate, but, despite his bad habits, who
      is there that does not appreciate his vivacity and ever-active
      personality?

    [Illustration: _The Bluejay—11½ inches_]



                            DOWNY WOODPECKER


This little member of the Woodpecker family is a permanent resident with
us. All the year through he is to be seen busily engaged in his life
work, which is a constant search for food. The Downy Woodpecker may be
distinguished from the Hairy Woodpecker mainly by its smaller size and
by its outer tail feathers which are barred with black.

Food: The food of nearly all Woodpeckers consists of insect material
      that is found on or within the bark of trees. Thus when the Downy
      Woodpecker is searching for food, he may be seen upon the tree
      trunks or even hanging beneath branches pecking away, excavating
      and digging. To name the injurious insects that form this
      Woodpecker’s diet would take a long list. “Every stroke with which
      he knocks at the door of an insect’s retreat sounds the crack of
      doom. He pierces the bark with his beak, then with his barbed
      tongue drags forth an insect, and moves on to tap a last summons
      on the door of the next in line.”

Nest: The Downy Woodpecker makes his own home. He uses his beak for a
      chisel and for a pick, and digs away at some hollow tree stump
      making a neat little round hole that leads to a cavity wherein the
      white eggs are laid. By way of a bed for these eggs the Woodpecker
      uses a few soft chips. These same holes are often used the next
      season by some little Chickadee who is only too glad to take
      advantage of his opportunity.

Song: In addition to tapping or drumming upon a hollow stump, thus
      making a noise like a tiny drummer, the Downy Woodpecker also has
      a sort of song. The notes are rather business-like and come
      through the woods industriously,—in rapid
      succession—_peek-peek-peek!_ Sometimes, especially when
      interrupted, the notes may sound like _chink-chink-chink!_

Remarks: In the winter time the Downy Woodpecker leads a rather solitary
      life flying about in the woods, searching here and there, calling
      now and then, and patiently waiting for the return of Spring. In
      the Spring, however, when the mating season comes again, the Downy
      takes a new interest in life, becomes more active and generally
      shows himself to be very well aware of the fact that soon he must
      expect to work upon his new home. It is at this time that the call
      note _peek-peek-peek!_ comes more sharply than ever.

    [Illustration: _Downy Woodpecker—6 inches_]



                              THE STARLING


Like the English Sparrow, the Common Starling has become a Naturalized
American Citizen. He was introduced from Europe in 1890, when sixty of
his kind were released in Central Park, New York City. He is a very
permanent resident wherever he has spread, and, because of the fact that
he often ousts local or native birds, he is somewhat objectionable.

Song: The song of the Starling has many attractive notes. The whistles
      are especially appreciated by city dwellers who seldom hear the
      songs of more gifted birds. An indescribable jumble of notes
      characterizes the remainder of the Starling’s musical efforts.
      William H. Hudson has written a very good description of this
      bird’s song—“His merit lies less in the quality of the sounds he
      utters than in their endless variety. In a leisurely way he will
      sometimes ramble on for an hour, whistling and warbling very
      agreeably, mingling his finer notes with chatterings, squealings
      and sounds as of snapping the fingers.”

Nest: The Starling will build in crevices of buildings, in hollow trees
      or in bird houses erected for the use of other birds. The nesting
      material consists of grasses, straw, twigs and other available
      material. The eggs, four to six in number, are of a pale bluish
      color.

Food: The Starling eats a great number of insects. Cultivated cherries,
      unfortunately, also, are very well liked by the bird who feeds
      upon them quite often during the breeding season.

Remarks: The plumage of the male Starling is quite beautiful. It is of
      an irridescent, metallic color in the spring and summer. In the
      winter, a brownish gray obscures the more brilliant colors. The
      bill of the bird is yellow in summer, but dark horn-color in
      winter.

    [Illustration: _Starling—8½ inches_]



                                 JUNCO


The slate-colored Junco comes down from the North to spend the winter in
a more moderate climate. He may be first seen toward the last of
September. The departure for the North is made about the first of May.
They are certainly welcome visitors, coming as they do when most of our
smaller birds have gone on further South. In small flocks, these plump
little birds hop and fly, here and there, over the snow, searching for
weed seeds and other food.

Song: The notes that are more frequently heard are sharp little
      “_tsips_” given rather as a call note than as a song. The true
      music or regular song of the Junco is a decidedly musical trill.
      Sometimes, when disturbed, the birds will utter a short “_smack!_”
      and fly to some other place where they may be uninterrupted in
      their hunting.

Markings: The Junco is a very trim little bird, with a somewhat stylish
      appearance. He is quite plump and has a covering of neat slate
      color above and upon the throat in a “bib” formation. The belly is
      white. Two very conspicuous white outer tail feathers are the most
      striking identification marks.

Bill: This bird is a member of the Sparrow family. He has a thick,
      pointed little bill that is of great service in crushing seeds.
      When the sun shines directly through this bill, a flesh-colored
      pink is shown.

Nest: The Junco nests from northern New York and New England, northward.
      The nest is made of fine rootlets, grasses, and moss, interwoven
      and built upon the ground or just above in small bushes, and lined
      with hairs.

Remarks: The sociability of the Junco is mainly responsible for his
      traveling in small flocks during the winter time. Crumbs and
      similar foods are greatly welcomed by this bird, who will often
      come quite near to human homes if sufficiently invited. The flash
      of white and gray is a welcome sight as a small band of these
      birds comes flying into the garden when the clouds above are heavy
      and gray with oncoming snow. It is at this time that we most
      appreciate their company.

    [Illustration: _The Junco—6¾ inches_]



                          THE ENGLISH SPARROW


The English Sparrow is most often referred to as a pest. It is a
permanent resident in more senses than one. It was in 1851 and 1852 at
Brooklyn, New York, that the small bird was first introduced. During the
first 20 years or so it was mostly confined to the larger cities in the
east. However, due to the bird’s rapid increase it has spread throughout
every State in the Union and has proved itself to be truly a great
nuisance. Native birds have been driven from their homes and have been
robbed of much of their food and many of their nesting sites.

Song: The English Sparrow has no true song, but rather is content to
      call _Chirp—Chirp—Chirp—Chirp!_ over and over again. Sometimes, in
      the larger cities such as New York, far from the parks where no
      other birds would probably be, the hardy little Sparrow is
      welcomed by the children to whom, without him, bird life would be
      entirely a closed book. Thus it is that the _chirp-chirp-chirp!_
      is not unwelcome everywhere.

Nest: Dr. Frank M. Chapman has said that the English Sparrow builds its
      nest of any available material, in any available place. Behind
      window shutters, in upturned eave spouts and gutters, beneath
      roofs, in holes in trees and in almost every conceivable place,
      this bird makes its home. The eggs, four to seven in number, vary
      greatly in coloration. Sometimes they are plain white, sometimes
      almost completely colored with olive brown. They are often marked
      with olive.

Remarks: Even though this little bird is truly a pest it seems a shame
      to criticize him in too harsh terms. After all, it is not his
      fault that he was brought to a country whose climate and general
      living conditions proved to be exactly what he wanted. He has
      thrived because his adopted habitat has proved to be ideal. Let us
      not confuse this bird in any way with our truly native sparrows
      whose habits are so entirely different from this little English
      Colonist. The names of some of our North American birds of the
      same family are the field sparrow, the song sparrow, the vesper
      sparrow and many others whose lives, unfortunately, are not nearly
      so well known.

    [Illustration: _The English Sparrow_]



                            SCARLET TANAGER


The Tanagers do not winter north of the Mexican border. In the summer
there are four species that occur in the United States, only two of
which inhabit this section of the country. The Scarlet Tanager is one of
the most common of these. He arrives early in May and departs early in
October. These beautiful birds are not often seen unless we look up into
the trees. The male bird, with his truly startling colors, is a sight to
remember. The wings and tail are a jet black and the rest of the body is
a remarkable scarlet. The female is more modestly marked with olive.

Song: The song of the Scarlet Tanager resembles that of a Robin, but is
      much more throaty or buzzy,—causing one to think of a Robin
      singing with a cold in his syrinx. John Burroughs has referred to
      it as a “proud gorgeous strain.” The tones have a truly “proud”
      quality, and well express the feelings of one who would like to
      lie idle in the woods to fully enjoy the content and peace of a
      warm spring day. They suggest the quiet of a _tired_ bumblebee
      droning his way homeward at the end of a hard day’s work. The call
      note has been represented as “_Chip-churr—chip-churr_.”

Nest: The nest of this bird is made of stems, rootlets, and strips of
      bark. It is sometimes quite loosely constructed and is placed upon
      the outspreading limb of a tree sometimes as high as forty feet.
      The eggs, three to five in number, are of a greenish blue blotched
      with a chestnut color.

Food: The Scarlet Tanager destroys numerous harmful insects and is for
      this reason a very beneficial bird. Click-beetles, crane-flies,
      weevils and numerous caterpillars form a large part of his diet.
      The Tanager also eats some vegetable food such as small fruits,
      berries and the seeds of plants, most of which are wild.

Remarks: The male Summer Tanager, which is another species, is of dull
      red above and a vermilion beneath. The female of this relation of
      the Scarlet Tanager is of a yellowish green above with a dull
      yellow upon the underside.

  These Tanagers are truly tropical in their appearance. They are
  animated touches of color that seem somehow to be foreign to our
  Northern woods.

    [Illustration: _The Scarlet Tanager—7½ inches_]



                             RED-EYED VIREO


Except for the Catbird, the most talkative bird that we know is the
Red-eyed Vireo. He is first to be seen in late April. When October has
come, the Red-eye travels Southward. All through the warm days of spring
and summer, this persistent little bird sings and sings. Mr. Wilson
Flagg has called him “The Preacher Bird.” This title is indeed well
earned for he seems to say, over and over—“You see me—I see you—do you
hear me? Do you believe me?”

Nest: The pendant nest of the Red-eyed Vireo hangs from a forked branch.
      It is made of small bits of dead wood, plant down, paper and
      strips of thin bark all very neatly interwoven to form a tiny bird
      basket. The eggs, three to four in number, are of a white color
      with a few specks of brown or umber upon the larger end.
      Frequently the Cowbird leaves her egg in this little bird’s nest.
      This poem by Faith C. Lee, in _Bird-Lore_, gives one person’s
      opinion of the Cowbird.

                             _Red-Eyed Vireo_
  “When overhead you hear a bird
    Who talks, or rather chatters,
  Of all the latest woodland news,
    And other trivial matters,
  Who is so kind, so very kind,
    She never can say no.
  And so the nasty Cowbird
    Drops an egg among her row
  Of neat white eggs. Behold her then,
    The Red-eyed Vireo!”

Markings: The trim little crown of the Red-eyed Vireo is of gray color,
      bordered upon either side by a neat little band of black. The eye
      of the bird is brick-red with a white line directly above.

Food: Although this bird is not a member of the family of Warblers, his
      habits are somewhat similar. Insect food is found in the trees,
      shrubs, and bushes.

Mabel Osgood Wright has referred to the Red-eyed Vireo as a bird of the
mid-day. In her children’s poem of nine stanzas, entitled “The Birds and
the Hours,” she says:

    [Illustration: _The Red-eyed Vireo—6 inches_]

                                  _Noon_
  “Who is the Bird of the middle day?
    The green-winged, red-eyed Vireo gay,
  Who talks and preaches, yet keeps an eye
    On every stranger who passes by.”

The Red-eye has been known to become so tame that persons have stroked a
bird upon the back as she sat upon the nest.



                             THE GOLDFINCH


One of the merriest of all the many birds is the Goldfinch, or “Wild
Canary,” as he is sometimes called. When winter, with its biting cold
and thick snow comes, we still find this cheerful little bird, visiting
with its many friends, perhaps perched on some barren branch, twittering
its gay little song to any who care to listen. It is during these months
that we find he has changed his bright yellow coat for one of olive
green. However, he still wears his little black cap as his head
covering.

Song: Not only does the Goldfinch resemble the Canary in color, but his
      singing is quite canary-like, as well. His song is lively,
      spontaneous and decidedly musical, often described as
      “_per-chic-o-ree_.” It is frequently given as the bird is on the
      wing. The flight is undulating and as the bird rises in a great
      upward curve, a clear song, with its wild care-free quality,
      joyously fills the air.

Nest: The nest of the Goldfinch is sometimes found in low bushes or in
      trees. It is one of the most beautiful structures that may be seen
      out-of-doors. Fine grass and moss are used for the exterior, while
      the very lightest of thistle-down is collected for the soft nest
      lining. Fortunate, indeed, are the little birds who are reared in
      this truly silken couch. The eggs, three to six in number, are of
      a pale, bluish white color.

Remarks: The female Goldfinch is much darker in color. Instead of the
      black cap and black wings of the male, she is covered with a
      brownish olive above, and a yellowish white beneath. Indeed, she
      is much the more modest of the two. This little “Wild Canary,” who
      sings as he flies, is as useful as he is attractive. He eats
      objectionable weed seeds and other similar food. He is greatly
      attracted by sun-flower seeds and he would often come very close
      to our homes if we provided for him. When we see the Goldfinch
      dipping through the air, and hear his happy “_per-chic-o-ree_,”
      even from a distance we can make no mistake about his identity;
      for of all the birds that have definite habits, the Goldfinch is
      most characteristic in his manner of flying.

    [Illustration: _Goldfinch—5¼ inches_]



                     THE RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD


The only species of Hummingbird that we know in the Northeast is the
Ruby-throat. This little whirring jewel comes to us from the South in
very early May and departs by the first of October. It is interesting to
learn that there are at least five hundred known species of Hummingbirds
in the New World. They are found only in North and South America, the
greatest numbers being in South America in Ecuador and Columbia, where
Dr. Frank M. Chapman writes that they inhabit the Andean regions.

Song: The Ruby-throated Hummingbird utters only a little “squeak” and
      thus may be said to possess no true song. Mr. F. Schuyler Mathews
      has said that this note might possibly mean—“Look out now; don’t
      attempt to catch me by the tail while my head is buried in this
      morning-glory!” The “humming” sound is made by the rapidly beating
      wings. Indeed, these wings move so rapidly that they are invisible
      as the bird hovers in mid-air while investigating some flower.

Food: The diet of this Hummingbird consists of tiny insects and also of
      the nectar of flowers.

Nest: This rare little structure is built upon a horizontal tree limb,
      quite far from the ground. It is built of the very softest of
      plant down, covered upon the outside with small bits of lichens
      and bound to the branch with fibers. This delicate little
      composition is most difficult to find. Often it is only discovered
      by accident, perched upon its swaying foundation. The two white
      eggs, about the size of beans, are incubated and then the two
      diminutive birds appear in the silken thimble. The entire family
      could be contained in a spoon.

  This little midget with throat of red,
    That hums through the air like a bee;
  Is it a bird or a fairy instead,
    That hovers for mortals to see?
  Or is it a flower with silvery wing,
    Content to fly though it never may sing?

  On soft summer days, where the Jewel-weed grows,
    This flash from the Tropics may seem,
  In its darting and dashing wherever it goes,
    To be like the thread of a dream
  That journeys as even a dream may do,
    To visit the blossoms and taste of the dew.

    [Illustration: _The Ruby-throated Hummingbirds—3½ inches_
    Male above, female below]

    [Illustration: _Common Pigeon_]

    [Illustration: _Red Crossbill_]



                               BIRD GAMES


There are many different games that may be played to add interest to a
study of birds. Some of these are adaptable for out-of-doors and some
for the class room. One game that has proven itself to be rather
popular, is _a game of bird parts_.

Equipment: For equipment it is necessary for the instructor to have
      either a large colored picture or a real specimen of some bird as
      the Meadowlark which is rather distinctively marked.

Rules: First the instructor calls the attention of the children to the
      various parts of the bird as outlined upon the chart in this
      booklet. He then asks the children to stand and calls out such
      body parts as the crown, the nape, the throat, and the shoulder
      asking the children to put their hands quickly on the parts of
      their bodies that are named. After this brief review the
      instructor holds up a different bird and points to the different
      parts such as the yellow nape of the Bobolink, the reddish breast
      of the Grosbeak and asks the children to name quickly the parts as
      they are indicated, at the same time placing their hands upon
      these parts as before. The child who makes a mistake is made to
      keep his hand where it is, and, by process of elimination, with
      the use of several birds it is often possible to find one child
      who has alone been undefeated.


                            BIRDS’ NEST GAME

In order to appreciate what wonderful structures birds’ nests really
are, it is sometimes helpful to try to build a nest.

Equipment: Let each child gather several handfuls of dried grass, short
      dead twigs, strips of inner bark, leaves and similar nesting
      material. These may be brought to the classroom or else the game
      may be played in the open.

Rules: The instructor should give a brief talk on different types of
      birds’ nests such as the Robins’ and Crows’. For this purpose,
      several real birds’ nests as examples would be most useful. The
      children should be allowed a given time to construct their nests.
      At the end of this period, it is just barely possible that there
      may be one nestlike structure in the group. This nest will of
      course be the winning one. This is one way in which the children
      may appreciate the true birds’ nests.



                     THE MIGRATIONS OF LOCAL BIRDS


Our local bird life may be divided roughly into two parts: the
_Permanent Residents_ and the _Transients_. As Mr. Ludlow Griscom has
said “It is idle to look for Warblers in January or Ducks in July.” We
must know which of our birds are with us all the year and which visit us
for a short time. The following is a list that will help us to tell
_when_ to look for different birds at different seasons.

A. Permanent Residents.

  In general, the birds that are present during the months of November,
  December, January and February are to be found hereabouts during the
  entire year. These are the Crow, several of the Owls, the Song
  Sparrow, the Partridge, etc. However, we also have winter visitors,
  such as the Kinglets, the Brown Creeper, the Snowbird and others that
  return to the north during the warm season of the year.

B. Spring Visitors.

  1. _March._ During this month a gradual influx of birds is noticed.
  The following is a list of these bolder visitors.

  (Feb. 15 to March 25)
  Meadowlark
  Rusty Blackbird
  Red-winged Blackbird
  Green-winged Teal
  Kingfisher
  Phoebe
  Cowbird
  Morning Dove
  Purple Grackle
  Fox Sparrow
  Robin
  Bluebird
  Wood Duck
  Killdeer Plover
  Woodcock

  2. _April_
  (March 25 to April 12)
  Pied-billed Grebe
  Blue-winged Teal
  Great Blue Heron
  Wilson’s Snipe
  Piping Plover
  Osprey
  Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
  Vesper Sparrow
  Ruby-crowned Kinglet
  Savannah Sparrow
  White-throated Sparrow
  Chipping Sparrow
  Field Sparrow
  Swamp Sparrow
  Tree Swallow
  Yellow Palm Warbler
  Pine Warbler
  Hermit Thrush

  (April 17 to 25)
  Bittern
  Black-crowned Night Heron
  Clapper Rail
  Virginia Rail
  Towhee
  Barn Swallow
  Blue-headed Vireo
  Black-and-White Warbler
  Myrtle Warbler
  Black-throated Green Warbler
  Louisiana Water Thrush
  Brown Thrasher

  (April 25 to 30)
  Green Heron
  Greater Yellowlegs
  Spotted Sandpiper
  Broad-winged Hawk
  Whip-poor-will
  Chimney Swift
  Purple Martin
  Cliff Swallow
  Bank Swallow
  Rough-winged Swallow
  Yellow Warbler
  House Wren

  3. _May:_ This is the best month of the year for observation work if a
  large list of birds is the thing desired. Birds are now coming
  northward with a rush, the peak of the migration season is reached,
  and it is possible to see over 100 species in a single day.

  (May 2 to 7)
  Solitary Sandpiper
  Pigeon Hawk
  Hummingbird
  Kingbird
  Crested Flycatcher
  Least Flycatcher
  Baltimore Oriole
  Orchard Oriole
  Grasshopper Sparrow
  Rose-breasted Grosbeak
  Tanager
  Warbling Vireo
  Yellow-throated Vireo
  White-eyed Vireo
  Nashville Warbler
  Blue-winged Warbler
  Parula Warbler
  Black-throated Blue Warbler
  Chestnut-sided Warbler
  Prairie Warbler
  Northern Water-thrush
  Hooded Warbler
  Northern Yellow-throat
  Ovenbird
  Redstart
  Catbird
  Wood Thrush
  Veery

  (May 9 to 12)
  Acadian Flycatcher
  Red-eyed Vireo
  Worm-eating Warbler
  Blackburnian Warbler
  Yellow-breasted Chat
  Olive-backed Thrush
  Magnolia Warbler
  Canadian Warbler

  (May 10 to 14)
  Nighthawk
  Bobolink
  White-crowned Sparrow
  Lincoln’s Sparrow
  Golden-winged Warbler
  Tennessee Warbler
  Cape May Warbler
  Bay-breasted Warbler
  Blackpoll Warbler
  Wilson’s Warbler
  Long-billed Marsh Wren
  Gray-checked Thrush

  (May 15 to 26)
  Yellow-billed Cuckoo
  Black-billed Cuckoo
  Wood Pewee
  Indigo Bunting
  Cedar Waxwing
  Olive-sided Flycatcher
  Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
  Alder Flycatcher
  Kentucky Warbler
  Morning Warbler

  4. _June:_ The majority of the local birds are nesting during this
  month and the others have gone on to breeding grounds further north.

  5. _July:_ The breeding and the song seasons are now nearly concluded.
  The moulting has begun and the woods and fields are quiet in the warm
  sunlight.

C. AUTUMN TRANSIENTS: Among the first of the birds to leave for the
South, the following may be noted:

  1. _August_

  (August 1 to 30)
  Great Blue Heron
  Sora Rail
  Clive-sided Flycatcher
  Golden-winged Warbler
  Tennessee Warbler
  Cape May Warbler
  Magnolia Warbler
  Bay-breasted Warbler
  Blackburnian Warbler
  Northern Water Thrush
  Mourning Warbler
  Wilson’s Warbler
  Canadian Warbler

  2. _September:_ The Southward migration continues.

  (September 1 to 10)
  Nashville Warbler
  Parula Warbler
  Black-throated Blue Warbler
  Blackpoll Warbler
  Black-throated Green Warbler
  Connecticut Warbler

  (September 10 to 30)
  Wilson’s Snipe
  Broad-winged Hawk
  Pigeon Hawk
  White-throated Sparrow
  Palm Warbler
  Olive-backed Thrush
  Coot
  Savannah Sparrow
  Junco
  Lincoln’s Sparrow

  3. _October:_ As the insects disappear when the frost arrives, so do
  the birds, that need this form of food, go Southward. Thus the weather
  is mainly responsible for the date on which the remaining species
  leave for the South. An accurate list is hardly possible.



                              BIBLIOGRAPHY


Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America: Frank M. Chapman. D.
      Appleton & Co., New York.

  This book is very complete and deals with various phases of bird life.
  It is a valuable handbook for teachers.

Handbook of Birds of Western United States: Florence Merriam Bailey.
      Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.

Bird Life: Frank M. Chapman. D. Appleton & Co., New York.

  Popular edition with colored plates for teachers and children, alike.

Birds of Village and Field: Florence Merriam Bailey. Houghton Mifflin
      Co., Boston. For teachers and children.

Wild Wings: H. K. Job. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. For teachers and
      children.

Among the Water Fowl: H. K. Job. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. For
      teachers and children.

Birds of Central Park: Ludlow Griscom. American Museum of Natural
      History. For teachers and children.

Birds of New York City Region: Ludlow Griscom. American Museum of
      Natural History. For teachers.

Birds of New York: (2 volumes). Eaton. New York State Museum.

  These large volumes contain very complete descriptions. They are
  illustrated with beautiful color plates by Louis Agassiz Fuertes,
  which are especially useful to children.

A Guide To the Birds of New England and Eastern New York: Ralph Hoffman.
      Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. For teachers.

Field Book of Wild Birds and Their Music: F. Schuyler Mathews. G. P.
      Putnam’s Sons, New York. For teachers and pupils.

The Importance of Bird Life: G. Inness Hartley. The Century Company, New
      York. For teachers and pupils.

Birdcraft: Mabel Osgood Wright. Macmillan Company, New York. For
      children.

Gray Lady and the Birds: Mabel Osgood Wright. Macmillan Company, New
      York. For children.

What Bird is That? Frank M. Chapman. D. Appleton & Co., New York. For
      teachers and pupils.

American Birds Photographed and Studied From Life: William L. Finley.
      Charles Scribners Sons, New York.

Useful Birds and Their Protection: Edward H. Forbush. Massachusetts
      State Board of Agriculture, Boston.

  This book contains illustrations of noxious insects and the birds that
  feed upon them.

How To Study Birds: Herbert K. Job. Outing Publishing Company.

Bird Houses and How To Build Them: Ned Dearborn. Farmer’s Bulletin 609,
      Sup’t. of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

Attracting Birds about the Home—Bulletin No. 1. National Association of
      Audubon Societies, New York City.



                    AN EARLY MORNING WITH THE BIRDS


  “Wild birds change their season in the night.
  And wail their way from cloud to cloud
  Down the long wind.”

One early October morning I lay on the hard-packed ground, longing for
the sun to rise. I had slept here all night long that I might see the
birds at dawn. Deceived by the warmth of the previous day, I had not
brought enough blankets and was therefore exceedingly uncomfortable in
the cold breeze.

At the foot of the hill upon which stood my camp, there was a spring-fed
pond. Dammed at one end, it comfortably filled the head of a small
valley. Leading from it was a broad, grassy tidal flat that receded from
the visible Long Island Sound. To shore birds this marshy place was an
ideal feeding spot.

Over the dark, motionless surface of the lake there floated a fog bank,
suspended about twenty feet from the surface. More vapor was slowly
growing into a gigantic mushroom.

As I watched this increasing filmy mantle, I saw first one and then
another gray shape pass into it and disappear, only to emerge again at
some other point and vanish in the darkness of the oak-lined shore. At
first I could not imagine what these ghost-like shapes were, and then,
just as I had about decided that they were the result of a freakish wind
playing with stray cloudlets, there came a gruff “quawk, quawk, quawk,”
taken up by one and then another of the shapes until the place echoed
with hoarse cries. I realized that the Black-crowned Night Heron was
taking his final morning sail preparatory to going to roost in some
nearby tree for the day. Like the owl, he preferred the night for his
activities.

Gradually the noise subsided as the Herons settled on various branches.
The mist above the pond began to disappear, and the small, shapeless
clouds far up in the sky took on a suggestion of color. Now was the time
to arise. In a very little while the woods would be filled with flying,
feeding birds, and the best time of day for bird observation would be at
hand. Yet so cold was I that it was impossible to move a limb. Several
times, off to one side, a faint-voiced little White-throated Sparrow
gave a feeble imitation of his beautiful spring-and-summer song. It was
as though his vocal organs had become less pliant through disuse and
exposure to the cold.

What a brave little singer he is, even though his efforts are not always
equally repaid. I think it is partially what Hudson would call the
“human note” that so endears the White-throat’s song to me. There is
truly an intimate quality in the first sustained note of his song. But
in the final, high and infinitely sweet tones there is a suggestion of a
song that is too pure to be voiced by anything that is bound to the
earth. Many have been the hot summer days when, tired and pack-weary, I
have paused for a moment to rest at some bramble-covered clearing in the
deep woods, and that cheery little forest voice of the Peabody bird,
coming unexpectedly from some unseen branch, would refresh me as much as
a drink at some cool spring. I look forward to his singing from one year
to the next.

A massive white oak spread its powerful branches at least one hundred
feet above my head. It was a majestic and beautiful living monument to a
mighty nature. Some of the topmost limbs seemed to reach up and
disappear in the sky, so perfectly did their pale gray bark blend with
the early morning light. For some time I listened to the soft rustling
of the wind among its myriad drying leaves. Then very subtly from the
tree top there came a different sound, which impressed itself upon my
consciousness as would the faint perfume of a distant flower bed slowly
approached. Gradually it increased until the leafy whispering became
almost inaudible, and the air was filled with an indescribable,
high-pitched musical breathing. It was as though countless tiny
creatures were conversing a great way off.

Turning squarely on my back, I for a moment saw nothing in the leafy
midst so far above. As my eyes became more properly focussed, however,
they distinguished some small objects of about the same size. My glasses
were safely stored in the heel of a large shoe close at hand. Forgetting
the chill air, I uncovered my chest and arms long enough to take out the
binoculars.

There in the tree top I saw a moving mass of very small birds that were
flying from one twig to another with scarcely any pause in their
activities. No sooner would one move out of sight than another would
come flying into the tree and take his place. The entire gathering was
ever going southward. A few of the number came down to the lower
branches where their identity could be more readily determined. I
realized that I was witnessing the fall migration of a large group of
American warblers.

Among the most prominent of the small birds were the female and young
Redstarts, who flashed into view many times. The yellow on the outer
tail feathers was plainly visible as they sped here and there after any
insect that might be about. The Myrtle Warbler, with his four yellow
spots on crown, rump, and on each side of his breast, was very largely
represented in the tree top. The dainty little Yellow Warbler and the
Black-throated Blue were also there. What a multitude they were and what
a long fearsome journey they had yet to travel! It would be hard to
enumerate all of the various dangers that beset these little birds as
they fly mile after mile through the air at night, and more particularly
as they rest and feed near the ground during the day.

Even as I watched, a marauding Screech Owl glided overhead on noiseless
wings. Instantly the twittering died, only to be recommenced after the
Owl had passed quite harmlessly by.

What busy little creatures these birds were! They searched every leaf
and let no morsel of food, insect or plant, escape. How well they knew
that birds that fly in the night must feast in the daytime. They were
with me for about fifteen minutes, and then, as gradually as they had
come, so did they pass on until at last not a single one was to be seen.

For some time I lay there trying vainly to warm myself after my warbler
exposure. Not a sound was to be heard—even the wind had become silent.
Then suddenly there came from not very far a call of “Teacher, Teacher,
_Teacher_, TEACHER.” Never before or since have I heard the “teacher
bird” announce himself so late in the season. He was also on his journey
southward. His smaller brother warblers took to the tree tops but he,
although of the same family, preferred the ground where he might look
among the leaves for choice bits of food. This bird is known by a
diversity of names. He is called by many the “oven-bird”, due to the
Dutch-oven-like structure of his nest; but to me he is, as he was to
John Burroughs, the “Teacher Bird.”

When I go off alone into the woods I want some sort of “burglar alarm”
to warn me of strangers in camp on windless nights. I resort to a very
ancient but effective practice. By gathering many armfuls of dry, dead
leaves and piling them all about my tent I feel fairly sure that no
prowler can take me by surprise. I had provided myself with just such an
alarm on this overnight hike, and was made aware by a slight rustling
close to my tent that I had a caller of some kind. For a moment I
thought it was a gray squirrel, but then the nature of the noise seemed
different and I was puzzled as to who my visitor might be.

In a moment I found out. A most beautiful, clean-cut little Wood Thrush
came hopping along before my tent. He looked very cold, and for that
reason aroused my sympathy at once. His shapely brown head was tucked
down between the shoulder blades as far as possible. So cold was he that
he did not even look for food, but with no apparent thought as to
direction, moved along evidently just to keep warm. It gave me a mental
picture of myself as I would be when I arose. My main object would be to
get the fire going so as to keep warm; food would come later.

The Thrush passed out of my sight without having paid any attention to
me. I thought him gone for all time; but no, in a moment he reappeared
and to my intense delight came stalking straight towards the tent, still
in the frozen manner.

Suddenly, I am positive, he saw me. His head was taken from between the
shoulders, and every part of the bird seemed instantly on the alert. The
contrast was startling. Here was a most active and intelligent creature
where before had been one that looked remarkably dull and stupid.

Slowly, and with the utmost caution, he advanced until not more than two
feet separated us. There he stopped and literally looked me up and down.
Not a sound nor a movement did I make, so fearful was I of frightening
my guest away. What a remarkably clean white breast he had, and how
distinct were the round black spots with which it was speckled! Here was
the woodland brother of the Robin and the Bluebird right where I could
put my hand on him. After he had become satisfied that I was harmless
and was no more interesting than any of the queer-looking fallen logs or
rocks of the forest, he turned his back, rather rudely, and left the
tent.

It was then that I arose and went about my fire making. If the birds
were so anxious to have me see them that they were forced to come into
my tent I could no longer refuse them. A hasty breakfast over, I started
off into the woods, glasses in hand, in quest of the birds that were
calling.



                                 NOTES



                          Transcriber’s Notes


—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—Silently corrected a few palpable typos.

—Transcribed handwritten in-photo captions.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





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