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Title: Colored girls and boys' inspiring United States history - and a heart to heart talk about white folks
Author: Harrison, William Henry
Language: English
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“_SERVICE OUR MISSION._”

(_Graduating Class Motto_)

[Illustration: WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, Jr.,

    As a hustling agent delivering his popular book, which (by making
    the saddest person laugh, the jolliest person cry and the most
    thoughtless person think), is selling itself like buckwheat cakes
    and sausage steaming-hot some frosty morn or cool refreshing ice
    cream when the sun is very warm.]



                                COLORED

                            GIRLS AND BOYS’

                               INSPIRING

                             UNITED STATES
                                HISTORY

                                 AND A

                          HEART TO HEART TALK

                                 ABOUT

                              WHITE FOLKS

                                  BY

                      WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, JR.


                            COPYRIGHT 1921

                                  BY

                      WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. JR.


                        THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED

                    TO THOSE COLORED GIRLS AND BOYS

               UPON WHOSE NOBLE EFFORTS AND ACHIEVEMENTS
                     WILL REST THE FOUNDATIONS FOR
                         THE FUTURE SUCCESS OF

                            THE NEGRO RACE:

                                  AND

                   TO ALL THOSE WHITE WOMEN AND MEN

                 WHOSE KIND ENCOURAGEMENT OF AND JUST
                DEALINGS WITH ALL HUMANITY ARE BRINGING
                ABOUT BETTER UNDERSTANDING AND GREATER
                         CO-OPERATIONS BETWEEN

                       WHITE AND COLORED PEOPLE.


                      COMPOSED--COMPILED--WRITTEN

                          ARRANGED--DESIGNED

                                  AND


                            MADE FROM ALONG

                =THE FAMOUS PICTURESQUE LEHIGH VALLEY=

                       OF PENNSYLVANIA, U. S. A.

                                  BY

                      WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, JR.



TABLE OF CONTENTS


Actors                                                               233

Agriculture                                                           96

Architects                                                           186

Army Officers                                                         57

Artists                                                              184

Athletics                                                            203


Bankers                                                              118

Baseball                                                             213

Basketball                                                           218

Bishops                                                               73

Boley, Okla.                                                          40

Books                                                                154

Business                                                             114

Business Schools                                                     113

Business People                                                      122


Churches                                                              65

City Officers                                                         45

Civil War                                                             26

Colleges, Colored                                                    161

Colleges, White                                                      160

Colonial War                                                          17

Colored Women’s Clubs                                                 86

Composers                                                            200

Congressmen                                                           42


Dentists                                                             175

Diplomats                                                             43


Elocutionists                                                        239


Field Sports                                                         205

Folklore Songs                                                        36

Football                                                             204

Fraternal Orders                                             128-252-253


Golfing                                                              231


Higher Education                                                     159

Hospitals                                                            174


Industrial Education                                                 106

Insurance                                                            125

Inventions                                                           176


Lawyers                                                              130

Liberty Bonds                                                         61


Magazines                                                            148

Marcus Garvey                                                         95

Medicine                                                             170

Mexican War                                                           21

Ministers                                                             73

Music                                                                188


N.A.A.C.P.                                                           245

Newspapers                                                           135

“Negro Servants”                                                      10

Negro Business League                                                 89

Nurses                                                               174


Orators                                                              157


Pan-African Congress                                                  92

Pianists                                                             198

Plantation Morals                                                     30

Poets                                                                180

Prize Fighters                                                       220


Reconstruction Days                                                   38

Real Estate                                                          121

Revolutionary War                                                     18

Rowing                                                               227

Rural Schools                                                        110


Science                                                              164

Sculptors                                                            187

Singers                                                              192

Slaves                                                                10

Skating                                                              230

Spanish American War                                                  47

State Legislators                                                     45

Spingarn Medalists                                                    94

Statisticians                                                        157

Sunday Schools                                                        78

Swimming                                                             228


Tennis                                                               230

Theaters                                                             239


Underground R. R.                                                     22

Urban League                                                         248


Violinists                                                           195


War of 1812                                                           19

White Friends                                                        242

World War                                                             49


Y. M. C. A.                                                           83

Y. W. C. A.                                                           79



AUTHOR’S PREFACE

        NOT TO BOAST BUT TO BOOST

    Negroes should find great pride indeed
        In Race progress herein they read;
    But to such readers let me tell
        This book means not our heads to swell;
    For five of the greatest rich white men
        Could buy the wealth of our Race: and then!

    So this book is neither a brag nor boast
        But just to inspire our younger host
    To elevate their racial name
        From poisoned stains of slavery shame,
    By climbing to the highest heights
        Thro aid of friends who are “real whites”.


Twenty-five years ago, when a lad fifteen years old attending the
public schools of Pennsylvania, in which State I was born and reared,
certain ideas and sentiments caused me to secretly resolve that some
day, when I had gotten together the necessary data, I would write just
such a book as is contained herein. At the time that resolution was
formed, I was attending the Darlington School in Middletown District,
Delaware County over which Prof. A. G. C. Smith was Superintendent.
And I remember with much gratefulness my first and last public school
teachers, Misses Carrie V. Hamilton and Rebecca R. Crumley and Prof.
Smith for their kind and frequent words to me as encouragement to
continue my education after graduating from the public schools.

My favorite study was the United States History, and even at the tender
age of fifteen years, I was greatly surprised and Race pridely hurt not
to find any history, except about slavery, in such books concerning
the American Negro. I had such childish confidence in my school books
and their authors that I felt sure if Negroes had fought and died in
the several American wars; had become great poets, orators, artists,
sculptors, etc., the histories I was studying would have mentioned
such. I thought in doing that they would have been preserving United
States valuable history more so than merely giving just credit to
the Colored people who had made such history. I did not know that
right then the attentions of many public school children in far
away Europe were often called to the histories of such distinguished
Colored Americans as Phyllis Wheatley, the poetess; Frederick
Douglas, the orator; Henry O. Tanner, the artist; Edmonia Lewis, the
sculptoress--all of them having won recognition and fame in Europe as
well as in America.

My youthful ignorance, regarding the achievements of my race, is easily
explained when it is taken into consideration that I was a farmer
boy living far from libraries I had never seen and Negro histories
I had never heard about. And the United States histories then used
in the public schools had nothing in them to enlighten me on that
subject. They misled and kept me, along with thousands of other Colored
school children, in absolute ignorance relative to the progress and
attainments of the American Colored people. So whenever our history
classes went up to recite and my white classmates proudly went through
the lessons about General George Washington, Noah Webster, Benjamin
Franklin, Eli Whitney, Longfellow, etc., while I knew and could just as
easily recite such history, nevertheless, my feelings of crushed race
pride and mortification were beyond expression because not one thing
could I proudly recite from my lessons about great things my people had
accomplished in America.

It is the same with the United States histories used in our public
schools of today. They do not relate about Crispus Attucks, a Negro
soldier and the first Colonist martyr to give his life for America in
the Revolutionary War; nor about the Colored sailor, William Tillman,
who received six thousand dollars from the Federal Government for
recapturing a stolen schooner from the Rebels in the Civil War; nor
about the Colored Registrars of the United States Treasury, B. K.
Bruce, J. W. Lyons, W. T. Vernon and J. C. Napier, whose names, during
different administrations covering a period of more than thirty years,
appeared on all the United States paper money made and issued during
that period; nor about Matthew A. Henson, who was with Commodore
Peary when he (Peary) discovered the North Pole; nor about Booker T.
Washington, one of the greatest orators America has ever produced and
also builder of one of the most famous institutions of learning not
only in America but in the world.

As I said before, I knew nothing about such Negro history while I was
a farmer’s boy, but I could never quite rid myself of a feeling that
the Colored people in the United States did have a worthy history. I
studied the white man’s U. S. History from cover to cover and learned
all I could from it, but I got no more racial inspiration from it than
a white boy would get from studying only a Negro history in which
nothing was written about his own racial achievements. So I secretly
resolved to immediately begin to quietly and patiently research for
American Negro data in order to some day publish a book so that future
Colored school children would not be kept in ignorance about their own
race history. I felt it was perfectly right and necessary to study the
white man’s history at the school desks, but if Colored children were
not permitted to study the history of their own race at the same desks,
it was perfectly right and necessary that Colored children learn about
the achievements of their great men and women at their home firesides
within their family circles.

So for the benefit mostly of Colored youths, here are the crude results
of my boyhood resolutions and manhood efforts after twenty-five years
filled with trying discouragements, and bitter disappointments, but
also just as full of unswerving determinations, constant hopefulness,
upward climbs, ceaseless works and fervent prayers to God to succeed.

The author wishes to use this place and opportunity to express his
deepest thanks to the more than one hundred prominent Colored men
and women, living in as many large cities in all parts of the United
States, who so friendly sent to him up-to-date information regarding
the progress and success of Colored people in those cities.

For the unusual generosity and kindness in giving of their valuable
time to personally and helpfully send to him exceptionally fitting
and authentic Negro data, the writer most courteously acknowledges
and gratefully names the following distinguished Colored and white
contributors;

    Mr. Cleveland G. Allen, New York City, N. Y., Associate Editor of
    the New York Home News, and Lecturer on Negro Music in the Public
    Schools of New York City.

    Rev. G. W. Allen, D. D., Editor & Manager of Southern Christian
    Recorder, Nashville, Tenn.

    Attorney Violette N. Anderson, foremost woman lawyer in Chicago,
    Ill., and one of the most prominent Colored women in her profession
    in America.

    Rev. F. P. Baker, prominent minister in Evansville, Ind.

    Miss Eva D. Bowles, New York City, N. Y., Executive Secretary in
    charge of Colored Work of the Young Women’s Christian Association.

    Mr. Thomas F. Blue, Head of Colored Library, Louisville, Ky.

    Miss Mabel S. Brady, Branch Y. W. C. A. Secretary, Kansas City, Mo.

    Rev. Geo. F. Bragg, prominent minister and author of Baltimore, Md.

    Mr. Chas. H. Brooks, Phila., Pa., Sec’y of Cherry Bldg. & Loan
    Ass’n, and prominent in insurance business.

    Captain Walter R. Brown, Assistant Commandant, Hampton Institute,
    Va.

    Rev. Russell S. Brown, prominent minister in Atlanta, Ga.

    Mr. Walter A. Butler, San Francisco, Cal., Financier and President
    of the Northern California Branch of the N. A. A. C. P.

    Rev. H. W. Childs, D. D., LL. D., prominent minister in Pittsburgh,
    Pa., and member of the Executive Board of New England Baptist
    Convention.

    Dr. J. B. Claytor, prominent physician in Roanoke, Va.

    Mr. M. L. Collins, Editor of Shreveport Sun, Shreveport, La.

    Prof. J. W. Cromwell, Historian, and instructor of higher education
    in Washington, D.C.

    Mr. A. G. Dill, New York City, Editor of The Brownies’ Book and
    Business Manager of The Crisis Magazine.

    Prof. Carl Diton, Phila., Pa., noted composer, organist and pianist.

    Mr. James E. Gayle, New Orleans, La., Editor of The Vindicator, and
    Manager of the Pythian two hundred thousand dollar Temple in that
    city.

    F. Grant Gilmore, Author, Playwright and Producer, Philadelphia, Pa.

    Bishop Robert E. Jones, Editor of Southwestern Christian Advocate,
    New Orleans, La., first and only Negro elected Presiding Bishop
    over the Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Texas Diocese of the
    Methodist Episcopal Church.

    Mr. Joseph L. Jones, Founder & President of the Central Regalia
    Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.

    Rev. D. J. Jenkins, D. D., Editor of Charleston Messenger, Founder
    and President of The Orphan Aid Society, Charleston, S. C.

    Hon. Jas. Weldon Johnson, New York City, N. Y., United States
    ex-Consul to several foreign countries, Associate Editor of The New
    York Age, Secretary of the National Association for the Advancement
    of Colored People.

    Mr. Tony Langston, Chicago, Ill., Advertising Manager of Chicago
    Defender and eight theaters, President of Langston’s Slide and
    Advertising Company.

    Mr. Matt. N. Lewis, Editor of The Star, Newport News, Va.

    Principal Isaac H. Miller, A. B., Cookman Institute, Jacksonville,
    Fla.

    Mr. J. E. Mitchell, Editor of The Argus, St. Louis, Mo.

    Dr. J. E. Mooreland, New York City, N. Y., International Secretary
    and Head of the Colored Department of the Young Men’s Christian
    Association.

    Mr. Daniel Murray, Assistant Librarian, Congressional Library,
    Washington, D.C.

    Dr. Harvey Murray, M. D., prominent physician, Wilmington, Del.

    Mrs. Mary F. Parker, Chester, Pa., Undertaker and Embalmer, and
    Fraternal worker.

    The late Mr. Chris Perry, who until his death was Editor of
    The Philadelphia Tribune and President of National Negro Press
    Association.

    Attorney T. Gillis Nutter, Charleston, W. Va., Representative in
    the West Virginia Legislature.

    Mr. Geo. W. Perry, Boley, Oka., Editor of Boley Progress and
    prosperous farmer.

    Mr. Jos. L. Ray, Bethlehem, Pa., Confidential Man of Mr. Charles M.
    Schwab.

    Mr. John H. Rives, Dayton, Ohio, Editor of The Dayton Forum.

    Hon. F. M. Roberts, Sacramento, Cal., Assemblyman in the California
    State Legislature.

    Mr. C. K. Robinson, Editor of Independent Clarion, St. Louis, Mo.

    Mr. R. H. Rutherford, President & Treasurer of The National Benefit
    Life Insurance Co., Washington, D.C.

    Miss Myrtilla J. Sherman, In Charge of Negro Record Department, The
    Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Hampton, Va.

    Mr. John A. Simms, Jacksonville, Fla., Editor of The Florida
    Sentinel.

    Attorney Harry C. Smith, Cleveland, Ohio, Editor of Cleveland
    Gazette, ex-Member of the Ohio State Legislature where he
    introduced as Bills and had enacted as Laws, The Ohio Anti-Lynching
    Law and The Ohio Civil Rights Law.

    Mr. C. C. Spaulding, Durham, N. C., Vice-President & Gen’l Manager
    of The North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company.

    Mrs. Maggie L. Walker, Richmond, Va., R. W. G. Secretary &
    Treasurer of the I. O. of St. Luke, and President of the St. Luke
    Bank.

    Miss H. Georgiana Whyte, Chicago, Ill., Editor of the Women’s
    Department, The Favorite Magazine.

    Mr. J. Finley Wilson, Washington, D.C., Editor of The Washington
    Eagle, and President of The National Negro Press Association.

    Dr. Carter G. Woodson, Washington, D.C., Editor of The Journal of
    Negro History, and Director of Research for The Association For The
    Study of Negro Life and History, Incorporated.

    Mr. P. B. Young, Norfolk, Va., Capitalist and Editor of The Journal
    and Guide.

But the full credit, due for most of the Negro data references
contained in this book, the author takes great pleasure in justly
acknowledging and gratefully extending, through the Negro Year Book,
to its Editor, Prof. Monroe N. Work, Director, Department of Records
and Research, Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, Tuskegee, Ala.,
whose personal consent was obtained by the writer to take extracts from
the Negro Year Book.

_William Henry Harrison, Jr._



FIRST AFRICANS VISIT VIRGINIA

INVITED GUESTS DETAINED

    White settlers came invitedless
        And made this land their home so real;
    So Negroes to, have right to feel
        This is their home without appeal;
    For they were brought invited guests
        And told that they must always stay;
    So this is why they are here today
      Most loyal citizens every way.
                 --_Harrison._


Over three hundred years ago (1619) Africans were first brought as
“Negro Servants” (Ref. Prof. Monroe N. Work’s Negro Year Book; page
153, 1918-1919 edition) to the early colonies of the United States by
the captain of a Dutch ship who sold twenty Negroes to white plantation
owners at Jamestown, Virginia. As the results of those and many other
native Africans being later captured and forcibly brought to America,
real slavery was finally started and spread so rapidly that there were
about four million slaves in the United States by January 1, 1863.
At that time all the slaves in the Rebel states were set free by the
Emancipation Proclamation of President Abraham Lincoln, who was later
murdered for that Godly act by one of his own race. But today Abraham
Lincoln is remembered in all civilized countries as one of the greatest
among the greatest men the world has ever known; as the noblest
president who has ever governed the United States and as the truest and
most fair-minded white friend the Negro race has ever had. On December
18, 1865 the adoption of the 13th Amendment to The Constitution of the
United States gave freedom to the remaining slaves who lived in the
states that had not rebelled against the Union. Thus in these two legal
ways, that were made possible by the Northern States winning the Civil
War, were all the slaves in the United States of America set free.

When the few broad-minded white people in the early colonies stopped
to realize that the first African people who arrived were not used
to America’s new foods, unusual hard work, cold changeable climates
and were without a knowledge of the white man’s language, habits and
religion; it is no great wonder why that small portion of justice
thinking white people so readily saw unusual good qualities and latent
talents in a group of supposed brainless heathens who so quickly,
peacefully and profitably stepped from the narrow paths of African
savagery into the broad avenues of American civilization. But the large
numbers of narrow-minded people, who then (as now) tried so hard to
make themselves and others believe that Negroes were inferior human
beings to themselves, put forth the explanation that the remarkable
and rapid adjustments of the slaves to American surroundings were due
to their childlike dispositions to imitate actions, to humbly obey
orders and their great physical strength to do all kinds of hard work
at all times under all conditions. Such people were entirely wrong in
such ideas, just as all ill-meaning prejudiced ideas keep their owners
wrong, mean and in the lowest stages of human society. When men and
women allow their minds to become poisoned with hateful, envious and
jealous prejudice toward other people and refuse to have anything to do
with them because they are Colored, they have and show just about as
much greatness in good taste and good common-sense as if they were to
refuse to puff on their favorite brand of Havana cigars or to nibble
on one of Mr. Huyler’s famed chocolate bon-bons just because the cigar
and bon-bon are of rich brown colors. Such narrow-minded actions do not
make people great except in their own home-town little social circles.
And when they leave home and go out into the world to mingle among
well-cultured, highly educated and broad-minded people, prejudiced men
and women soon find that their supposed greatness along side of, for
instance, an Abraham Lincoln or a Harriet Beecher Stowe[A] is as large
as a grain of sand is along side of a mountain. If President Lincoln
had not preserved the Union and signed the Emancipation Proclamation,
or if Mrs. Stowe had not written Uncle Tom’s Cabin,[A] but instead,
both had turned up their noses in disdain, tossed their heads in
haughty proudness and snobbishly spurned well-behaved, well-dressed and
intelligent people just because of their colors; the names of Lincoln
and Stowe (in stead of now being enshrined in the Hall Of Fame and
written in the world’s history ever to be remembered and beloved by all
nations) would have been buried and forgotten a few years after their
owners had died as is the case with the names of all race prejudiced
people. But this point regarding the utter foolishness and ignorance of
people showing race prejudice was much more ably and vividly brought
out in one of Mr. McKay’s bull’s-eye-shot and soul-stirring pictures
that appear in the Sunday issues of the New York American--one among
several such big white journals from which the writer derives new
inspiration and increased knowledge every Sunday. This picture and
editorial in question, that described the “Namaqua” savage tribe of
Negroes living in the African jungles, were printed in the March 6,
1921 issue of the New York American, and the following is an extract
from that article titled “Shooting At The Storm.”

“The savages of Africa had first of all to fight and conquer the
burning sun, hence the black skin that keeps off the deadly “actinic
rays” that would quickly destroy any white race in their climate, and
the thick woolly hair, saturated with grease, protecting the skull from
the heat and the deadly effect of those same rays.

“As we think of different kinds of human beings, let us judge them by
the conditions under which they live, whether they be Eskimos near the
North Pole or men like these Namaquas at the Equator.

“Self-satisfied ignorance is horrified at the Eskimo eating enormous
quantities of rank, fat whale blubber. Any race transferred to the
Arctic Circle would do that or die. Ignorance despises the black skin
and woolly hair of the African. Any white race transferred to the
African tropics would develop such skin and hair, or it would die.

“UNDERSTAND what you are discussing, as far as possible, before
discussing it. An eagle cannot understand a turtle, or a turtle an
eagle. And a cow, mildly grazing, cannot understand either. Every human
being that despises another, no matter what the other may be, simply
represents the animal expression of prejudice based on ignorance.”

Now the real truth, as to how those strange and friendless slaves
were able to so readily adapt themselves to this country and so aptly
adopt the methods and customs of the colonists, is that from mere
force of habits they put into their everyday lives their inherited
qualities of open-friendliness, big-heartedness, broad-mindedness,
trustworthiness, constant-loyalty, quick-alertness, unbounded-patience,
everready-forgivefulness and undying hopefulness. These qualities
(in which all civilized countries of today stand badly in need of a
much broader growth and a higher culture) had been handed down to the
American slaves by their African forefathers who had for centuries
dwelt in the darkest and wildest torrid jungles without a knowledge
of the white man’s civilization. And those black ancestors had passed
to their suffering offsprings such full portions of the above named
manhood and brotherhood principles that the slaves were able, as they
pitifully and tearfully went back and forth to their body-torturing and
spirit-crushing tasks, to shame, by their unspiteful and unrevengeful
actions under such cruel treatments, just a little measure of their
inherited virtues into the so-called civilized, educated and Christian
white people who held them in bondage. It must be granted that their
owners did teach the slaves (whose foreparents had lived in a very
hot country where little clothing was needed and food was plentiful
without working for it) how to properly dress and how to regularly
work. And although those enslaved people were taught those good habits
only as means for their selfish and greedy owners to enable themselves
to get richer, nevertheless, the Colored people of to-day are glad
and thankful that they are now able to turn to their own personal
and racial advantages the industrial habits learned by their people
in slavery. On the other hand, Colored people will always be sorry
and unthankful to those brute overseers and raping slave owners who
so sinfully and beastfully forced upon and taught numerous and most
harmful immoral vices to their slaves. And those soul-damning and
life-sapping vices are still clinging to and leaving their marks on
the rapidly advancing Colored people, just as the poison ivy clings to
and mars the health and beauty of the young and tender acorn sprouts
as they struggle upward to become future majestic oaks in the densely
foliaged forests.

However, all of the white people in America at that time did not
approve of or own slaves (just as all of the white people in the United
States today do not approve of nor take part in discriminating against
respectable Colored people) because they knew it was not right. They
had the kind of Christianity that was real and pure enough to make
their minds fully understand and their hearts to tenderly feel that
slavery in its kindest manner is the worse sin against God and the
greatest crime against humanity. And it was this class of God-serving
and fellowman-loving white men and women who secretly and in great
danger of being caught and punished (for the laws of the country
forbid the educating of slaves) taught the otherwise friendless people
in bondage their first knowledge of God and Jesus Christ. When it is
remembered that those African people were just a few years out of a
land where the practices of their tribes for centuries had been to
worship in a different religion; it is easily seen that the slaves were
an unusual reasoning, sensible and broad-minded group of uncivilized
people to have so quickly found the mistake in and so suddenly thrown
aside their old and false religion and so readily accepted in its place
the new and true Faith.


Answered Prayers

During the two hundred and forty-four years of their bitter servitude
those shackled people had learned to place so much faith and trust in
their newly found religion that they felt sure God in his own wisdom,
time and manner would hear and answer their usually silent and always
heart-rending prayers for deliverance from slavery.

So as Southern heats washed briny sweat into their sun-dazed eyes, or
Northern colds checked frozen blood from flowing through their veins;
the hopeful prayers of the slaves, that they and their children might
some day become free, were constantly offered up from the tobacco
plantations of Virginia; from the cotton belts of Alabama, Georgia and
Mississippi; from the corn fields of Tennessee and Texas; from the rice
swamps of South Carolina; from the orange groves of Florida; from the
stone quarries of Connecticut, New York, and Pennsylvania; from the
truck farms of Delaware, Maryland and New Jersey; from the turpentine
forests of North Carolina; from the blue grass meadows of Kentucky;
from the fishing banks of Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island
and from the cane-brakes of Louisiana.

Likewise, the Colored people of today, as they patiently and gradually
draw themselves up and away from the slum and slime of slavery, are
constantly sending up to Heaven from the east, the west, the north and
the south points of this country their hopeful and earnest prayers that
God in His mysterious way will convert and bring back to Christianity
those prejudiced, heathenish and uncivilized members of the Caucasian
race who persecute and discriminate against all darker races just on
account of their progress. As living witnesses and proofs that such
prayers are already being duly heard and daily answered by God, the
author will tell on the following pages of this book (mainly for the
inspiration of Colored boys and girls so that they will not lose
confidence in themselves, trust in mankind and faith in God) just a
little of the remarkable progress and success made by the American
Colored people during their fifty-eight years of freedom.

But the Negro youths who read these following pages should ever bear in
mind that the members of their race who have climbed and mounted these
rounds of success have only been able to do so through the guidance
and care of God; through the unswerving determinations and ceaseless
struggles on the part of themselves and through the hearty good-will
and brotherhood helpfulness of the thousands of American white people
who are today true and loyal friends of the American Colored people.

[Illustration]



THE COLORED RACE IN THE WARS OF THE U. S.


In the Colonial, French and Indian Wars

(1704-1759)

Even farther back than 1704 Colored freemen and slaves showed their
braveness and fighting abilities by taking active parts in helping
the white plantation owners to protect and preserve their homes from
the justly aggrieved Indians. Around the above date and the period
between the years 1708 and 1718 a series of Colonial and Indian wars
took place. These conflicts stretched from little but dignified Rhode
Island (Queen Anne’s War) through the Tuscarora Indian War down to the
Yamassee Indian War that for a time threatened to wipe away the rice
and indago colony of South Carolina. Included among these military
operations were the French and Indian Wars in which many Negroes gave
good accounts of themselves, foremost among them being Sam Jenkins and
Israel Titus who showed unusual braveness under the commands of General
Washington and Braddock.


IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR

(1775-1783)

Crispus Attucks

    His statue stands in Boston park
      To tell the sacred battle mark
    Where first his life met death’s decree
      So freedom to these States could be.
                --_Harrison_

Although such records cannot be found on the pages of the United States
histories used in the American public schools, a trip to cultured
Boston will enable one to read on the monuments in public squares and
in the public libraries the name and facts about the glorious deeds
of that pioneer Negro patriot, Crispus Attucks who fell as the first
American martyr in the Boston Massacre of 1770. It is also in the
Puritan records of New England where one may learn about Peter Salem,
the Colored soldier who avenged the death of the first seven American
martyrs at Lexington and Concord by slaying Major Pitcairn, the British
officer who in company with his men charged against the Colonists at
Bunker Hill. Among the hundreds of other men of color who took parts in
those fierce skirmishes were Salem Poor, reported at the Commander’s
office for extraordinary bravery at Bunker Hill, and “Black Prince”
cited for unexcelled gallantry at Newport. It is understood that among
those who received pensions at the close of the war were Cato Howe, A.
Ames and T. Coburn.

Few know that it was a Colored man, Jordan Freeman, who timely and
mortally received on his ready spear point the British officer, Major
Montgomery as he daringly leaped, followed by his soldiers, over the
walls of Griswold, an American fort. Later on in that same battle
of 1781 the Colonists were over powered and compelled to surrender,
whereupon the American leader, Ledyard, courteously handed his sword
to the British officer in command. That unfair Englishman upon
receiving the sword immediately thrust it up to the hilt through the
body of Ledyard. A Colored soldier, Lambo Latham, who was standing
near and saw the dastardly act, made one mighty pantherlike leap and
loyally avenged the death of his American commander by plunging his
bayonet clear through the body of that ungallant Britisher. For that
act of fidelity and patriotism, Lambo Latham received over thirty
bayonet stabs from the enemy before he stopped fighting and gave his
last breath for America and its white people who at that moment were
denying their Colored slaves the same sweet freedom for which they were
fighting to get from England.

Not only did “John Bull’s” subjects have to face human lions in the
forms of fighting Colored men, but they also had to feel the pains
and fear the death dealing blows of human tigeresses in the forms of
Colored women fighters. And all Americans who are truely proud of
their country and its real history should read and remember about
one Molly Pitcher, who after her husband had been killed in the
battle of Monmouth, bravely took his place at a cannon and nervely
upheld America’s cause during the remainder of that fierce and bloody
conflict. Then there was the undaunted and resourceful Deborah Gannet,
who by assuming the name of “Bob Shurtliff” entered the American army
and went through more than one year of actual battlefield fighting and
camp life exposure. And during her entire service she successfully kept
her moral purity by cleverly hiding from the officials and the soldiers
the knowledge of her sex. This in other words read her war record on a
pension certificate granted to her after her honorable discharge from
the army. And there were doubtless many other unrecognized but noble
Negro women who entered numerous conflicts and gave their last drop
of blood and lives in order that the white colonists might enjoy the
freedom that their Colored brothers and sisters then saw no signs of
ever receiving.


In the War of 1812

(1812)

There are few people who know that one of the main causes of The War
of 1812 was on account of the British forcibly taking and compelling
three Americans (two Negroes and one Caucasian) to sail under the
English flag. It was in that same war that a Colored soldier, Jefferys,
on seeing a body of American troops retreating under heavy fires from
the enemy, dashed to their front, rallied them together, led their
steps back and repelled the British soldiers who were about to break
through a very important but weak point in General Jackson’s defense
at Mobile. That general not only noted that leadership rally but gave
full credit and praise where it was due. He also expressed gratefulness
to the soldier of color whose ideas first suggested the successful use
of bales of cotton for breastworks in fortifications. In the battles
around New Orleans he looked with soldierly pride upon the splendid
fighting of his black troops.

When American school children learn from their United States histories
that clean-cut and famous naval battle report, “We have met the enemy
and they are ours” ..., such histories do not also inform their
readers that the personal pronouns “we” and “ours” so prominent in
Commodore Perry’s above message includes the heroic deeds of Colored
sailors as well as white. So when in reciting these stirring words
their iron-charged bloods suddenly gallop through their veins; their
chests expand wide with national pride; their heads jerk erect with
proud fighting spirits and their eyes sparkle bright with slumbering
fires, such patriotic emotions have been unknowingly and involuntarily
aroused in true American youths because of the loss of Colored blood
and lives as well as of white in those lake battles. And among those
weather-beaten bronze “salts” were Jack Johnson (not our present
ex-champion heavyweight prize fighter of the world) and John Davis
who were both especially mentioned for distinguished service on the
schooner, “George Thompson.” That world known message of 1812 also
included many other Negro sailors who pitted their bravery and brawn
against the British “tars” in order to help Commodore Oliver Hazard
Perry to break the backbone of the War of 1812 by opening up a clear
passage on the Great Lakes. It was through that same newly made water
path that General William Henry Harrison (the hero of Tippicanoe, Log
Cabin and Hard Cider) and his seasoned famed Indian fighters were
conveyed in order to enter Canada where they completely defeated the
artful Proctor and slew the cunning Tecumseh in that savagely fought
battle of The Thames. Thus Colored fighters helped to end the foxy and
wolfish Proctor-Tecumseh partnership that had annoyed and tormented for
so long the American settlers on the Northern frontiers.


In the Mexican War

(1845-1847)

If it were possible for General Santa Anna to bodily slip back to
earth, personally mingle amid and chat with those of his soldier
friends who are still living; it is more than likely that among the
many things talked over they would seriously mention the fact of having
caught many hasty glances of dark fighting faces under command of the
American Generals Taylor and Scott who kept the Mexicans on a constant
hop-step-and-a-jump around Vera Cruz, Buena Vista and other places in
that section.

On account of Negroes at that period being greatly removed from the
United States Army and State Militias, because of racial questions,
it is not likely that many Colored fighters had a chance to get busy
in that one and a half year backyard quarrel and fight. There was
published in a Western paper a few years ago an account of a Mexican
War Colored veteran known as Captain Jackson who died in Chicago, Ill.,
in 1894. And in order to have received that military title, officially
or unofficially he surely must have used some brain power as well as
much brawn force in helping to establish America’s boundary line on the
Southern frontier.



THROUGH THE “UNDERGROUND RAILROAD”

EVERY LOCAL WAS A SPECIAL

    No thundering trains on iron laid tracks:
        No steel made cars with cushioned backs:
    No tickets punched by uniformed crews:
        Yet a railroad it was: I’ll soon show you.

    Fleet-footed horses on soft dirt roads
        Stole by in nights with slavery loads
    To stations anew further on the way
        Where all were hid throughout the day.

    Engineers, Conductors and Agents most
        Were of Quaker stock--that Godly host,
    Who through their silent night-dark roads
        Transported blacks from slavery goads.
                 --_Harrison._


Many years before the Civil War there was organized among the Northern
white and Christian people, mostly Quakers, a secret society to help
runaway slaves to escape from the South into the free states and
Canada. This society, on account of its hidden, winding and rapid ways
of carrying its fleeing and hunted passengers into places of freedom
and safety, was known as the “Underground Railroad”.

“As early as 1786, there are evidences of an underground road. A letter
of George Washington, written in that year, speaks of a slave escaping
from Virginia to Philadelphia, and being there aided by a society of
Quakers formed for the purpose of assisting in liberating slaves. It
was not, however, until after the War of 1812, that escaped slaves
began to find their way by the underground roads in considerable
numbers to Canada.”

“From Maine to Kansas, all the northern States were dotted with the
underground stations and covered with a network of the underground
roads. It is estimated that between 1830 and 1860 over 9,000 slaves
were aided to escape by way of Philadelphia. During this same period
in Ohio, 40,000 fugitives are said to have escaped by way of the
underground railroad.”

Reference (Work’s Negro Year Book; page 167, 1918-1919 edition).

Without doubt, among the greatest workers in that society and truest
white friends to the freedom seeking slaves were; Calvin Fairbanks who
was arrested and kept for over fifteen years in Southern jails where
he was daily whipped until blood flowed from his back, just because
he helped human beings to get their freedom; Thomas Garrett who was
jailed and had to sell all his personal property and real estate to pay
the fines imposed upon him by the Southerners for doing the works of
Jesus Christ by aiding the weak and comforting the suffering. And when
penniless Thomas Garrett got out of jail he continued to help runaway
slaves to find their freedom; Samuel May whose Christianity helped
thousands of Colored people to enjoy the freedom due all human beings
instead of suffering yokes and chains belonging to dumb beasts of
burden; and Levi Coffin, who was recognized as the central electrical
force that so powerfully and silently drove on, and the chief
consulting engineer who so watchfully kept in motion the ever welloiled
and frictionless machinery of the underground railroad systems.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following names are those of some of the leading free Colored
people who in every way possible were foremost in helping to liberate
from slavery their less fortunate race brothers and sisters in the
South:

    “Brown, William Wells.--Anti-slavery agitator. Agent of the
    underground railroad. Born a slave in St. Louis, Mo., 1816.”

    “Douglass, Frederick.--Noted American anti-slavery agitator and
    journalist. Born a slave at Tuckahoe, near Easton, Maryland,
    February.., 1817. Died February 2, 1895.”

    “Whipper, William.--Successful business man, anti-slavery agitator,
    editor of The National Reformer.”

    “Forten, James.--Negro abolitionist. Born in Philadelphia,
    September 6, 1776; died March 4, 1842. Forten was a sail-maker by
    trade.”

    “Harper, Mrs. Frances E. Watkins.--Distinguished anti-slavery
    lecturer, writer and poet. Born of free parents, 1825, Baltimore,
    Maryland; died February 22, 1911.”

    “Hayden, Lewis.--Born 1815, died 1889. Runaway slave from Kentucky
    to Boston, Abolitionist.”

    “Ray, Charles B.--Anti-slavery Agitator. Agent Underground
    Railroad. Born Falmouth, Mass., December 25, 1807; died New York
    City, August 15, 1886. Congregational minister and editor of the
    Colored American from 1839 to 1842.”

    “Nell, William C.--Anti-slavery agitator and author of Boston. In
    1840 was a leader in the agitation for public schools to be thrown
    open to Negro children.”

    “Lane, Lunsford.--Born a slave at Raleigh, N. C. He is placed in
    Prof. Bassett’s “History of the Anti-Slavery Leaders of North
    Carolina” among the four prominent abolitionists of that State.”

    “Purvis, Robert.--Anti-slavery agitator; chairman of the
    Philadelphia Vigilance Committee of the Underground Railroad, and
    member of the first Anti-slavery Convention in 1833.”

    “Redmond, Charles Lenox.--Born at Salem, Massachusetts, 1810, died
    1873. First Negro to take lecture platform as an anti-slavery
    speaker.”

    “Russwurm, John Brown.--Born in Jamaica, 1799; died in Liberia,
    1851. Editor of the first Negro newspaper published in the United
    States, the “Freedmen’s Journal,” published in New York City, 1827.”

    “Tubman, Harriet.--Fugitive slave and one of the most famous of the
    underground railroad operators, died March 10, 1913.”

    “Truth, Sojourner.--A noted anti-slavery speaker, born about 1775,
    in Africa. Brought when a child, to America, she was sold as a
    slave in the State of New York.”

    “Still, William.--Secretary of the Philadelphia Vigilance Committee
    of the Underground Railroad. Born October 7, 1821, in Burlington
    County, New Jersey.”

    “Walker, David.--First Negro to attack slavery through the press.
    Born free at Wilmington, North Carolina, 1785.”

    “Gibbs, Miffin Wistar.--Lawyer and anti-slavery agitator; born in
    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April, 1823. He died in Little Rock,
    Ark., July 11, 1915.”

    “Knights of Liberty.--In 1846 Moses Dickson and eleven other free
    Negroes organized at St. Louis, The Knights of Liberty for the
    purpose of overthrowing slavery. Ten years was to be spent working
    slowly and secretly making their preparations and extending the
    society.”

    Reference: (Work’s Negro Year Book; pages 168-69-70-71, 1918-1919
    edition)

To the Colored boys and girls who desire to learn more about such
mysterious underground railroad trains, that with their nervy and
plucky passengers holding on with all their might, were constantly
diving into and running under rivers as well as climbing upon and
rolling down mountain sides without ever being wrecked or seldom losing
a passenger, the writer begs to offer the following suggestion:

Any evening when such boys and girls suddenly get a burning thirst
to visit the “movies” and drink in the red-blooded and heroic screen
capers of a Wm. S. Hart, a Pearl White or a Douglass Fairbanks; let
those boys and girls go to the nearest library instead, secure a
copy of William Still’s “Underground Railroad Records”, and return
home with it. In its stories they will find just as hair-raising
adventures and exciting escapes as are to be found in any of Doyle’s
Sherlock Holmes detective cases; between its leaves they will find the
same kind of serious wit and humor that smile up from a Walt Mason
newspaper article; from cover to cover they will find the same kind of
heart-rending and flesh-suffering word pictures that Longfellow and
other authors have so vividly painted in telling of the expulsions and
wanderings of the doomed Arcadians; but, last and most important of all
they will find every one of its pages to contain as true and valuable
American history as ever appeared in the writings of a Bancroft, a
Fiske, a Higginson, a Prescott or a Ridpath.

[Illustration]



IN THE CIVIL WAR

(1861-1865)

ABRAHAM LINCOLN

    On American pages of history space,
        The world gives Lincoln the highest place,
    For the triple service his life did give
        So all men in freedom here could live.

    When he signed his immortal name that day,
        It meant that together the States must stay;
    It lead the slaves to their freedom goals;
        It washed one sin from the Rebels’ souls.
                 --_Harrison_


If Colored men and women in the previous wars could become such
wonderful fighters and loyal Americans with no knowledge and little
hope of ever receiving freedom from their unnumbered slave sufferings
and sacrifices; then, how much braver and more patriotic would they
be when fighting with a new hope and full knowledge that their future
freedom depended upon the success of the side on which they were
fighting? It is needless to say that out of the more than one hundred
forty thousand Colored people who took active parts in the Civil War,
there were countless numbers of gallant and self-sacrificing deeds
performed by them that were only seen and noted by God. And those acts
of valor and heroism that were witnessed and recorded here on earth
by mankind are so numerous that space herein will not allow but the
mention of a very few.

       *       *       *       *       *

Captain Andre Cailloux was one of the bravest soldiers to fall in the
Union charge on Fort Hudson. It is said that his Company charged that
fort six times looking point-blank into the red-flaming, fire-spitting,
bullet-biting and smoke-breathing mouths of the enemy’s cannons, with
a heavy loss among his men in each charge. Feeling sure he was going
to his certain death, yet never flynching, a Colored soldier, Anselmas
Plancianocis, who was a color sergeant, uttered the following words to
his commander before departing to his post of duty within gun range
and full view to the enemy; “Colonel, I will bring back these colors
in honor, or report to God the reason why.” He never brought back the
colors. At another time during the noted battle at Fort Wagner, it
was William Carney who upon seeing the colors about to trail on the
ground as they slipped from the relaxing grasp of a dying comrade,
quickly leaped to his side grabbed the flag staff and planted it on the
breastworks. When he in turn was severely wounded and carried to the
rear, he had just strength and breath enough to whisper, “Boys, the Old
flag never touched the ground.” Both artists and poets have often come
forth to paint and sing of the fierce fighting and brave stand made
by that famous 54th Massachusetts Colored Regiment and its fearless
and beloved white commander, Col. Robert Gould Shaw. He fell in the
thickest of the battle surrounded by hundreds of his wounded and dying
Colored troops whom he had watched over as a loving father and always
led as a fighting officer. Although Col. Shaw and his men were greatly
outnumbered by the enemy who repulsed their attack at Fort Wagner, the
Colored soldiers, who had marched continually a day and a night without
stopping and then pitched right into fighting without rest or food,
proved to both the North and South that they were among the bravest of
brave soldiers.

Civil War veterans now living, and when meeting each other usually
become so excited when tongue fighting their battles over again that
they forget for the time being all about their rheumatics and, throw
away their canes as they hop about trying to imitate their former
military actions in battles. Those who were there take delight in
telling how Gen. Fitzhugh Lee and his prancing Old Dominion well
trained white soldiers met their “Waterloo” in Fort Powhatan at the
hands of the belittled and untrained slave troops. It was at Fort
Harrison in Virginia that the Southerners on seeing Negro troops
charging on the fort, taunted them with, “Come on darkies, we want your
muskets.” Eye witnesses say that the so-called “darkies” being so used
to obeying orders really did take the guns to the fort, but several
hours afterwards when the smoke had cleared away it was seen that those
Rebels who had remained to accept the muskets had received the bayonet
ends through their bodies instead of the trigger ends into their hands.
Gen. B. F. Butler’s records show that his ten regiments of ex-slave
soldiers brought victory and fame all along their fighting lines.

Aside from the chief motive to help free themselves, without doubt one
of the main things that spurred the Negro men to fight so valiantly was
their constant memory of Fort Pillow. At that fort were stationed 292
Northern white soldiers and 262 Colored troops, all under the command
of Major L. F. Booth. On the twelfth of April 1864 that place was
surrounded by a much larger Confederate force under Generals Chalmers
and Forest and ordered to surrender. Upon the fort refusing to do so,
the Rebels closed in with their usual battle cry, “No Quarter”. And
then as they broke in the fort and overpowered the handful of Union
men, there began a scene of unmentioned butchering and slaughtering of
Northern white soldiers and Colored ex-slave men, women and children
that far surpassed in horribleness the massacre of Custer and his
faithful little band by the Sioux chief, Sitting Bull and his merciless
Indian warriors. So after that whenever Colored men entered battles
their answer to the Rebel’s “No Quarter” was a challenge “Remember Fort
Pillow,” and times too numerous to mention did Negro soldiers fully
avenge that awful massacre of their comrades on that April day in Fort
Pillow.

By reading the battlefield records of Gen. Thomas at Miliken’s Bend;
Gen. Morgan at Nashville; Gen. Blount at Henry Springs; Gen. Smith at
Petersburg; Generals S. C. Armstrong, B. F. Butler and O. O. Howard at
other vital places, as well as the fighting records made in Virginia
at Wilson Wharf, Deep Bottom, Fair Oaks, Hatchers Run and Farmville;
full proofs can be found regarding the Colored soldiers’ supreme brave
fights made for a twofold purpose--the saving of the Union and the
freedom of themselves.

In summing up this part of this very important topic, the writer
can think of no better way of strengthening the truth of foregoing
assertions relative to Negro battlefield valour and loyalty in the
Civil War than by quoting the following: “When the battle test came
these regiments justified the hopes entertained by their sanguine
friends.” This just and high tribute was paid to Colored Civil War
fighters by Comrade John McElroy, a white editor of Washington,
D.C., in the editorial correspondence of his National Tribune
published April 7, 1921. He had written about General Rufus Saxton of
Massachusetts taking military command of St. Helena Island, S. C. and
forming the thousands of idle Negro men into regiments during the early
stages of the Civil War.


On the Sea

In the month of June, 1861, the Union schooner, “S. J. Waring” was
captured by the Confederate privateer, “Jeff Davis”. All the crew of
the schooner, with the exception of a Colored man, William Tillman and
two white men, were taken from the ship and replaced by Rebel sailors.
At an opportune moment Tillman killed the Rebel captain and mate, drove
all the other Rebels at the point of a gun below deck and took full
charge of the ship. After ploughing through a terrific storm, during
which time the Rebel sailors were brought up and forced to help man the
wave-tossed ship, the Colored sailor safely guided the recaptured “S.
J. Waring” into the harbor of New York. For that nervy and patriotic
act he received from the Federal Government prize money amounting to
six thousand dollars.

It was through the cool-headedness, gamesness and shrewd planning
of Robert Small, a man of color, that the Confederate gunboat, “The
Planter” was stolen out of Charleston Harbor, running the gauntlet of
the Rebel’s watchful forts and barking cannons and safely delivered
into the hands of a Northern squadron. In payment for this naval
strategy Robert Small was made captain of the gunboat he captured and
during his service continued to show marked fearlessness as a fighting
sailor and unusual executive ability as a commanding officer.

When the Civil War was finally ended by General Ulysses S. Grant of
the Union Army compelling General Robert E. Lee of the Rebel Army to
surrender at Appomattox Court House, Va., on April 9, 1865, the Colored
soldiers and sailors laid aside their warfare weapons with proud and
thankful feelings that they had been given such great chances to help
fight for and secure their own freedom.



ON THE PLANTATIONS

BROAD-MINDEDNESS

    From African jungles to American shores,
      Negroes were brought to do all the chores;
    Though bought and sold without due blame,
      They now forgive this country’s shame.
                 --_Harrison_.


The slaves who went into the battles of the Civil War came up to all
the standards of loyalty and bravery that had been set for them as
fighting soldiers. But it was left to the millions of Colored men
who staid on the plantations during the war to come up to and go far
beyond the standards of moral self-control and human just treatment
set by their owners. The Colored men who were in the war were really
enjoying a temporary freedom while they were fighting for a permanent
freedom. But it was quite different with the shackled men who staid
on the plantations during the war. They were then slaves not only one
way but in three ways. First, they were still slaves to their owners
as they were yet under their control; secondly, they were slaves to
themselves inasmuch as they were their own bosses and overseers to
plant, cultivate and reap the crops in the absence of the white men;
thirdly and most important of all, they were slaves to the trust and
honor under which they had been left with the care and protection of
the white women and children on the plantations. And no records in
history have been found to show where those thousands of white wives,
daughters, mothers and sisters made complaints to their returned
husbands, sons, fathers and brothers about having forced upon them
insulting and raping attentions from those millions of slave men under
whose whole care those white women had been freely left and safely kept
during the Civil War.

If those Colored men had wanted to copy the spiteful, revengeful and
immoral actions of most of their white owners, they could easily have
mistreated or destroyed all of those helpless white women and children
in revenge for the two hundred and forty-four years of unspeakable
crimes committed against their Colored womanhood by the Southern
white slave owners and overseers. Or the slaves could have run away,
joined the Union Army in a mass and left alone those destitute
white women and children to starve on the untilled plantations. But
those men of the Negro race, not then three hundred years from the
underbrush of Africa, had under their dark skins too much inborn
manhood and brotherhood qualities to stoop down to such beastily
acts. They naturally grasped that grand and big opportunity to show
to the Southern white people and the rest of the watchful world (that
helplessly looked on in silence but with pitiful and admiring glances)
that they had in their characters and dispositions and knew when and
how to use them, the sterling principles of open-fairness, loyal
friendliness, tender feelings, human considerations, moral self-control
and Christlike mercy.

It is undeniably true that as early as 1860 there were in the United
States over five hundred eighty-eight thousand Mulattoes. (Ref.
Work’s Negro Year Book, page 432, 1918-1919 edition). Among that
large number many thousands were beautiful and innocent girls who
were either retained as their white owners’ immoral mistresses on
Southern plantations or sold hither and thither from the Potomac
River to the Gulf of Mexico to be forced into shameful and degraded
lives a thousand-fold more friendless, unhappy and unprotected than
Longfellow’s wandering Evangeline.

As the Civil War did not begin until 1861, it is readily seen that
those one half million and more Mulattoes were not the results of slave
men forcing immoral attentions upon the white women and girls left
under their personal cares during the four years of the Civil War. But
those half-Colored, half white people were the undeniable results of
the brutal rapings of white plantation owners and overseers upon their
helpless and unprotected black slave women for over two hundred years.
So is it strange that fair and pure minded white people throughout
the world, knowing and seeing all around them today the increased
results of those first beastily actions by immoral members of their own
race, listen without interest but with shame and impatience whenever,
through sheer politeness, they are compelled to remain as audiences
before certain classes of Southern men who for centuries (including
today) have been talking through mouth and press about keeping their
Southern white blood untainted and unstained? Colored boys and girls,
therefore, should not become down-hearted and discouraged when they
read in newspapers or hear from platforms such Southern white men
writing or making such “Jekel-Hyde” talks; because close-observing,
sound-reasoning and fair-judging white people in the South, in the
North and throughout the world fully understand the whole situation and
do not in the least take such Southern false utterances seriously. In
fact they usually cannot keep from laughing at the funny side of the
whole thing and say among themselves, “How absurd.”

No one but God knows the number of deceived Southern white married
women who during slavery days secretly worried themselves sick, slowly
pined away and silently died of broken hearts in their richly furnished
colonial mansions, because of the ever haunting, taunting and stinging
knowledge that their unfaithful, disloyal and immoral husbands as
well as being the fathers of their white wives’ children were also
the fathers of their slave mistresses’ Mulatto offsprings. So is it
surprising that clean-living, clean-thinking and justice-loving white
people always exchange knowing winks with their friends and hurriedly
put handkerchiefs up to their mouths in order to hide disgusted
features and weary yawns whenever they find themselves in places where
they have to listen to certain classes of Southern white men who for
centuries (including today) have been boasting from platform and press
about their unsurpassed and unexcelled fidelity and chivalry to their
Southern white womanhood? Instead of losing their ambitions and hopes
when hearing and reading such blaspheming words against their race and
progress, Colored boys and girls should take on new hope and redouble
their efforts in striving to become even more devout Christians,
higher learned students, better skilled industrial workers and fuller
law-abiding citizens. In reference to the inferiority of their colors,
Colored youths should remember that the prettiest thing in the world
(the rainbow) is Colored, and yet, no one is able to resist the
fascinations of its archful beauty or forget the consolations of its
floodless promise, just because Nature with splashing rain drops and
flashing sun rays oft ribbons the sky with rainbow hues.

No one but God knows the number of black slave women who moaned
their heart strings loose and died of broken spirits either in their
one-roomed log cabins or out in fence-cornered fields, because of the
ever torturing knowledge that the virtues and womanhoods of themselves
and the chaste maidenhoods of their immatured and innocent daughters
had been repeatedly and forcibly taken or sold by their white owners
and overseers. Yet, not one of those white rapists was lynched,
tortured and burned at the stake by Negroes, not even at the close of
the Civil War when there were thousands of ex-slave holders living
in some Southern districts where the Colored people outnumbered the
white people five to one. And surely, after gallantly fighting through
the thickest and hottest battles of the war, it was not fear nor
cowardice that held those Colored men from avenging the unprintable
immoral wrongs forcibly done for over two hundred years to their
unprotected and helpless Colored women. But, it was the living up to
and the carrying out of a certain high civic principle of their African
tribal laws that they had inherited and which prevented the ex-slaves
from striking such a revengeful blow upon the Southern whites. For
among savage tribes in Africa the universal punishment for raping was
certain death; different tribes having different methods of dealing
out that penalty. But that punishment was never dealt out by a mob.
Those tribes so respected and obeyed the laws under which they lived
and were governed that as savage as they appeared to be, they always
had enough self-control over their tempers and passions to leave the
captures, trials, convictions and executions of such offenders to be
carried out by their chiefs and their assistants who had been put
in their offices for such purposes. And since America had made laws
and appointed officers who should have caught, tried, convicted and
punished those Southern white men who raped enough black women to cause
the birth of over a half million Mulattoes, the ex-slave men felt
that even if those laws had not been enforced by people who had been
selected to do so, it was not their rights to take the laws into their
own hands by forming themselves into lynching mobs. They felt that just
as raping of either black or white women is a most damnable crime; so
is lynching either by black or white mobs a most hellish sin. In making
comparisons between the ancient laws of Nippur and the modern laws of
the United States, relative to slaves, the world-famed journalist,
Arthur Brisbane, in the June 22, 1920 issue of the New York American,
under the title, “Today”, wrote in part as follows:

“Five thousand years ago some laws were better than those of our day.

“For instance, in those ancient laws, if a slave woman had a child,
the father being her owner, the mother and the child were set free. In
magnificent America, in Lincoln’s day, thousands of slave children,
with slave owners for fathers, were sold in the public markets.”

Now, not for one moment do intelligent and law-abiding Colored citizens
uphold or make excuses for the brutish crimes committed by the
degenerate members (and there are many) of their own race. For they
fully realize that it means a faster and higher progress of all their
people to have Colored criminals punished to the fullest extent of the
law, after they have been given the same fair trials, convictions and
sentences that are handed out to the thousands of white criminals who
commit the same kind of crimes. And just as Colored degenerates are
disgusting and shameful to up-right living white people, so are white
degenerates disgusting and shameful to up-right living Colored people.
Thus the broad-minded and law-abiding Colored and white citizens now
mutually know that it is for the greater advancement of both races and
a closer brotherhood combining of all Americans for them to see to
it, as far as possible, that all criminals be rightly protected when
arrested, given fair trials, safely guarded after sentenced and fully
punished in a confinement where they cannot further morally lower
themselves nor longer dilute the purity of human society.

And in thus far carrying out their Christian duties for the elevation
of humanity, good Colored and white people are contented in knowing
that for those criminals of both races who are shrewd enough to escape
the detection and punishment of earthly laws, there is a Heavenly law
that never fails to punish them at the proper time. And even while on
their death beds those evil doers are twisting and turning in mental
and bodily sufferings, they will not on account of their torturing
pains be able to truthfully and peacefully chant such consoling lines
that are found in Tennyson’s poem “Crossing The Bar”, nor will their
names be written in that “Book of Gold” where it is said Abou Ben Adhem
had his name inscribed above all of those who loved the Lord, because
he (Abou Ben Adhem) loved all his fellowmen.

[Illustration]



FOLK-LORE SONGS OF THE AMERICAN NEGRO

DIFFERENT EMOTIONS

Prayer

    From lips of slaves with age bent low,
        Wet prayers burst forth in deepest flow
    To God above that some new light
        Would slaves unborn save from such plight.

Work

    Down they went the great long rows
        Swinging scythes and chopping hoes
    In time with cheerful labor songs
        To ease the work and sting of thongs.

Song

    “Camp Meetin” times were when their songs
        Rang loose full pathos of slave wrongs,
    And pent-up hearts with anguish fills
        Were drained as springs on sloping hills.

Play

      When work was done and nights were theirs,
        They oft did have most jolly fairs
    Quilting rags or shucking corn
        With laughter, dance and fiddles worn.
                 --_Harrison._


“The only American music”. This is the terse, sincere and high comment
made quite a number of years ago by Edward Everett Hale, author of “A
Man Without a Country”, in relation to the rightful recognition and
value of the American Negro melodies sung on the Southern plantations
during slavery. Since then, well-read, well-bred and music loving
people of both races have come to fully recognize, acknowledge and
appreciate the truthfulness of the above compliment.

For many years after their freedom great number of ex-slaves harbored
bitter dislikes toward these songs because they so clearly and
painfully reminded them of their past ill-treatment and sufferings
during slave days. Most of their children caught this feeling direct
from their parents or indirectly through their own vivid imaginations
formed from what they had heard about slavery. But quick and deep
understanding people of both races soon found in these crude tuneful
words something far more interesting and touching than mere memories
of slavery sins and sufferings--they saw and felt in such weird and
original chants the most beautiful and truest life pictures of the
true soul that it is possible for human being to paint with colorful
and verbal expressions of tear moistened sorrows and smile dried
joys. Thus music lovers and masters began at once to value this music
as among the most precious finds to be added to their treasuries of
folk-lore songs.

World recognized Negro music transposers and composers are today taking
these rough, crude and half-savage chants and, without destroying their
originalities of construction or pureness of quality, lifting them from
the lowest depths of ignorant fun-making burlesquers to the highest
level of intelligent and serious-minded music admirers. And throughout
the musical world today celebrated chorus leaders, conductors, etc., of
both races in giving even operatic recitals indicate by their programs
rendered that they consider no first-class recital complete unless one
or more of its numbers are expressions of Negro folk-lore music as
Burleigh, Dett, Diton, Work and others have so classically elevated
them. These broad-minded and just manifestations are gradually causing
the general public to become more interested in, give more serious
thought to, and show more appreciation of the true dignity and value of
these melodies. They are also rapidly educating the American Colored
people as a mass not to hate and cast aside but to love and preserve
this music as a race pride heritage so costly purchased and handed down
by their fore-parents and as one of the most valuable and rare features
of American history.

Among the foremost composers, singers and lecturers in the Negro race
who are giving tremendous aid and are largely responsible for the
development of the above favorable sentiments are Cleveland G. Allen,
New York, N. Y., Harry Burleigh, New York, N. Y., R. Nathaniel Dett,
Hampton, Va., Carl Ditson, Phila., Pa., E. Azalia Hackley, Detroit,
Mich., Kathleen P. Howard, Birmingham, Ala., J. Wesley Jones, Chicago,
Ill., Jennie C. Lee, Tuskegee, Ala., Nellie M. Mundy, New York, N. Y.,
Jas. A. Mundy, Chicago, Ill., F. J. and J. W. Work.



THROUGH RECONSTRUCTION DAYS

FREDERICK DOUGLASS

    Oft in the past has his life been told,
        And others again should it oft unfold
    To learn of the greatness he did reap,
        As orator, editor, statesman deep.

    The following lines of marginal flight
        Show a Negro’s rise from depth to height:
    Fred Douglas unknown in slavery shame
        Elevated his name to the Hall of Fame.
                 --_Harrison._


In taking a swift but careful glance back to that historical and
red-letter year of 1863, it will be noted that there was born at that
time into these United States a form of whole liberty that had been
fathered and nourished by the world-beloved Abraham Lincoln. Before
the above date this country had existed under only a one-sided liberty
that had been won from the English for the white Americans by the
illustrious George Washington. But it was left for Abraham Lincoln to
win for the United States a two-sided liberty by cutting the chains
of slavery from the wrists and ankles of the black Americans and also
refreeing the white Americans by unchaining from their souls the
slave-holding temptations they had become too weak-minded to resist and
too selfish to give up of their own accord.

As soon as the Colored people had passed out from the sufferings of
slavery, they were at once compelled as free, but ignorant, homeless
and penniless, people to begin their upward struggles and progress
through a reign of terror. This reign of terror was caused by the
brutal treatment and murdering of thousands of innocent Colored people
and the destruction of their properties by an uneducated, uncivilized
and unchristianized element of Southern white people who were known as
“Night Riders”, “Ku Klux Klan”, etc., of whom the best minded white
people even in the South were ashamed.

But the sturdy and hopeful Colored people came through that awful
ordeal as they had come through slavery, with increasing determination
and greater efforts to push forward and upward to the best and highest
things in life. However, it was only their unfaltering trust in God
that gave them enough hopeful vision in the future; it was only their
gratitude to and appreciation of their Northern and Southern white
aiding friends that retained them enough patience and faith in mankind;
it was only their keenness to see the funny side of life’s happenings
that enabled them to laugh and keep cheerful; it was only their ability
and willingness to do any and all kinds of hard work that enabled them
to sleep through the whole nights with peaceful minds; and it was only
their great big healthy (everlasting-non-fasting) appetites that gave
them enough vitality, stamina, physical strength and energy-plus to
pass through those years of body sufferings and spirit crushings and
safely reach their present stages of upward progress and onward success.

Thus the Negro race has proven that just as a red-blooded,
self-confident, self-reliant and resourceful individual cannot rest
with a peaceful and happy mind as long as staying in the easygoing,
smoothly-worn and narrow “rut” of a least-resistance, non-progressive
position, but fearlessly steps out with a determined mind, hopeful
heart and unbounded enthusiasm to face and overcome the ups-and-down of
this rough-and-ready world that finally yields up to that individual
his or her well-earned and genuine success; so will a race of people of
similar qualities and aspirations be restless until it wades and crawls
out of a miry and stagnant pool of ignorance and poverty and enters a
channel of freshly flowing active thoughts where it can freely swim
abreast in fair competition with other races in order to reach those
distant ports of Christian service, citizenship usefulness, financial
independence, self culture and human helpfulness.

While the Negro race in the United States succeeded in swimming into
that channel in 1861, it has never been allowed, like other races
therein, to use either a rapid-lunging and noisy over-head double-arm
stroke or a swift-gliding and noiseless under-water crawl-stroke;
but, has been compelled to paddle along using a one-arm bull-frog
stroke, having one leg and arm tied together with strings of race
discriminations, the entire racing course clogged with floating
debris of public decayed sentiments and a plaited cord of race
jealousy-envy-spite tied to the big toe of the free leg that has
been roughly and constantly yanked back throughout the swim. With all
that prejudiced and unsportsmanlike handicap, the American Colored
people have increased their ownership of homes from twelve thousand
in 1866 to six hundred thousand in 1919; they owned in 1910 over two
hundred thousand farms that with other real estate holdings comprised
twenty-one million acres of land; in 1866 they ran a little over
two thousand business enterprises and in 1919 they had increased
that number to fifty thousand business concerns doing a volume of
business amounting to about one billion two hundred million dollars;
in 1919 there were annually being spent for their education fifteen
million dollars; starting out in 1866 with seven hundred churches they
kept on building and buying Houses of God until in 1919 they owned
forty-three thousand such buildings valued at more than eighty-four
million dollars; and while the American Colored people in 1866 were
worth twenty million dollars, they continued to earn and save money
until in 1919 they had accumulated a wealth of one billion one hundred
million dollars. (above figures extracted from Work’s Negro Year Book,
1918-1919 edition, pgs. 1-2-345.)

There are located in over 25 States throughout the Union nearly a
hundred towns and villages that are inhabited and governed wholly by
Colored people. The largest of these settlements is described below.


BOLEY, OKLAHOMA

Boley, Oklahoma, was founded on September 22, 1904 by two Colored men,
T. M. Haynes and James Barnett, and since then has enjoyed the greatest
growth of any exclusive Negro community in the United States. There is
a population of 2,500 in the city and 1,200 in the adjoining district.
There are no white people living in the city and all of the farms
within a distance of 8 to 10 miles are owned, with but few exceptions,
by Colored farmers who possess as much as 900 acres individually.
Farming is the chief industry of the community and about 90 per cent of
the population own modern homes, many of them costing $5,000 and more.

All of the city offices, telephone exchange, telegraph office, depot
agency, Post Office (only Third Class one in the world totally
run by Negroes) are conducted by Colored people. All the business
establishments and industries, that are of nearly every kind including
several cotton gins are owned and carried on by Negro business men and
women, one merchant being worth $100,000.00. The city has its own paved
streets, electric light plant, ice plant, water system, and modern city
High School costing $20,000, two private newspapers and a private Bank.

Some of the important buildings and institutions in the city are the
State School of the C. M. E. Church that has a modern three-story
$20,000 building; the Masonic three-story Temple; The Widow and Orphan
Home of the U. B. F. Grand Lodge; the $150,000 State Tubercular
Sanitarium for Negroes; and seven churches with creditable buildings.
Prospects are so promising that the community is expecting to have oil
wells within the next two or three years.

This is not a bad record for such a handicapped life swimmer as the
Negro Race is compelled to be in the United States and certainly proves
that, when it comes to keeping a lead-weighted body above the water
surface and at the same time make progress up a rough stream against a
strong down-flowing prejudiced current, the Negro, if he really is a
fifth cousin to the foolish, noisy, frolicsome and “Call Of The Wild”
goose family, he is also a first cousin to the sensible, industrious,
frugal, quiet, dignified and home-loving swan family.



IN CONGRESS


It is a most remarkable fact that only seven years after the
emancipation of his race, Hiram R. Revels, a Colored man, entered
the United States Congress as a senator from Mississippi. But it
becomes a two-fold remarkable and interesting fact when one learns
that the Congressional seat taken by Revels was the chair made vacant
by Jefferson Davis who left Congress and the Union side to join the
Confederacy where he later became its president and leader to keep
Negroes in slavery. That explains the question so many people have
asked why Revels only served one year (1870-1871) in the Senate. He
was elected to serve the last year that Jeff Davis had left unfinished
in his term when he went over to the Rebel forces. B. K. Bruce, also
from Mississippi, served a full term of six years in the Senate. So far
those two have been the only Colored men to be seated and serve in the
U. S. Senate. In 1872, P. B. S. Pinchback, a Colored man, was elected
to the U. S. Senate, but the right of the Legislature to legally elect
a senator was challenged. The contention was urged that the Legislature
itself was not legally elected. The contest lasted four years and ended
with seven Republican Senators voting with the Democrats to deny him
the seat. He was later given four years salary as a senator. During the
period of Reconstruction right after the Civil War this same Colored
man was elected and served as Lieutenant-Governor of Louisiana and once
while the Governor, W. P. Kellogg was absent from the State for a brief
period, Lt. Gov. P. B. S. Pinchback acted as Governor of Louisiana.

J. R. Lynch was elected from Mississippi to the U. S. House of
Representatives. Other Colored men who have been members in the House
were as follows: Louisiana sent J. H. Menard and C. E. Nash; Georgia
sent J. T. Long; Alabama sent B. S. Turner, J. T. Rapier, and J.
Harlson; Virginia sent J. M. Langston; Florida sent J. T. Walls; South
Carolina took the lead in numbers by sending R. B. Elliott, R. C.
DeLarge, R. H. Cain, A. J. Ransier, Robert Small, T. E. Miller, G. W.
Murray, and J. H. Rainey who by being elected five times exceeded any
other Negro in length of service (ten years) in the House. But it was
left for North Carolina to “Tar Heel” in the rear of that Congressional
noble march by sending the latest Colored member to Congress in the
person of the late George H. White, who as a Representative had
been proceeded from that same state in the same branch of the U. S.
Legislature by J. Hyman, J. E. O’Harra and H. P. Cheatham. (extracts
from Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, pg. 207.)


In The U. S. Diplomatic Service

While a U. S. Senator or Representative acts in the Legislature at
Washington, D.C. as spokesman for a few thousand people living in a
certain section of the state that elects him; a Minister or Consul to
foreign countries acts as a spokesman for all the millions of American
citizens living in all the United States of America. Thus, while the
Colored Congressman held a very honorable and influential federal
position; the Colored man who had served either as a minister or consul
to foreign lands was the one who really shouldered the highest and most
responsible Government position ever accorded to an American Colored
person.

Some of those of the Race who have served in this last named branch
of the Government are: A. H. Grimke, Minister to San Domingo, E. D.
Bassett, Frederick Douglas, J. S. Durham, S. A. Furness, and L. W.
Livingston, Ministers and Consuls to Haiti; T. M. Chester, Dr. J. R.
Grossland, J. L. Johnson and E. W. Lyons, Consul and Ministers to
Liberia; Jas. Weldon Johnson, Consul to Puerto Cabello, Venezuela,
to Corinto, Nicaragua and to the Azores; J. C. Carter, and M. Wistar
Gibbs, Consuls to Madagascar; Wm. H. Hunt and W. A. Jackson, Consuls
to France; R. T. Greener, Consul to Vladivostok; W. J. Yerb, Consul
to Dakar, West Africa. (some of above extracts from Work’s Negro Year
Book, 1918-1919 edition, pg. 208).

Others of the Race who have in the past or are at present holding
important Federal positions are Chas. W. Anderson, Collector of
Internal Revenue, New York City; E. T. Attwell, Director of Negro
Industries during the World War; Dr. Bozerman, Postmaster of
Charleston, S. C.; R. W. Bundy, Secretary to Legation in Liberia;
Phil H. Brown, Commissioner of Conciliation in the U. S. Labor Dept.;
J. E. Bush, Receiver of Public Money, Kansas; B. K. Bruce, Register
of Treasury, Washington, D.C.; J. A. Cobb, Ass’t U. S. District
Attorney, Washington, D.C.; C. S. Cottrell, Collector of Internal
Revenue, Honolulu; W. S. Cohen, Land Office Commissioner, La.; Wm.
Crum, Collector of Customs, Charleston, S. C.; J. C. Dancy, Recorder
of Deeds, Washington, D.C.; J. H. Deveaux, Collector of Customs,
Savannah, Ga.; Frederick Douglas, Recorder of Deeds and U. S. Marshall
of the District of Columbia; Miss Helen Erwin, Director of Colored
Industrial Housing, during World War; H. O. Flipper, Special Ass’t to
the Alaska R. R. Commissioner; Geo. E. Haynes, U. S. Director of Negro
Economies, during the World War; Perry W. Howard, Special Ass’t U. S.
Attorney General; E. H. Hewlett, Judge, Municipal Court, Washington,
D.C.; Henry Lincoln Johnson, Recorder of Deeds and Republican National
Committeeman, Washington, D.C.; J. E. Lee, Collector Internal Revenue,
Florida; Wm. H. Lewis, Ass’t U. S. Attorney General, Boston, Mass.;
Jas Lewis, Collector of Port, La.; Judson W. Lyons, Register of U.
S. Treasury, Washington, D.C.; Wm. Matthews, Ass’t U. S. District
Attorney, Boston, Mass.; Whitfield McKinley, Collector of Port,
Georgetown, D.C.; J. C. Napier, Register of U. S. Treasury, Washington,
D.C.; J. B. Peterson, Chief Deputy Collector, Internal Revenue, Porto
Rico; ex-Lieut. Gov. P. B. S. Pinchback, Special Agent Internal
Revenue, New York; Dr. C. V. Roman, Field Secretary in Venereal Medical
Division of U. S. Army, during World War; H. E. Rucker, Collector
Internal Revenue, Ga.; Emmett J. Scott, Special Commissioner to
Liberia, and Special Ass’t Secretary to Secretary of War, during World
War; Robert Small, Collector of Port, Beaufort, S. C.; R. L. Smith,
Deputy U.S. Marshall, Texas; Robert H. Terrell, Judge, Municipal
Court, Washington, D.C.; Ralph W. Tyler, Auditor of Navy, and Foreign
War Correspondent, during World War; W. T. Vernon, Register of U. S.
Treasury, Washington, D.C.; and S. Laing Williams, Ass’t U. S. District
Attorney, Chicago, Ill.


In State Legislatures

Upon being elected in 1866 to the Massachusetts House of
Representatives, C. L. Mitchell and E. G. Walker, became the first
Colored men to serve in any state legislature in America. Since that
time up to the present day nearly a thousand men of the Race have
served as Representatives in different state legislatures. Some of
those having been elected within the past few years as members of state
congressional bodies are as follows:

W. G. Alexander, New Jersey; J. C. Asbury, H. W. Bass and A. F.
Stevens, Pennsylvania; J. A. Brown, H. E. Davis and H. C. Smith, Ohio;
J. C. Coleman, H. J. Copehart, J. M. Ellis, E. H. Harper, T. G. Nutter,
C. Payne and H. H. Railey, West Virginia; W. R. Douglass, A. H. Roberts
and S. B. Turner, and Robt. R. Jackson, Illinois; J. C. Hawkins, New
York; E. A. Johnson, N. Y.; W. M. Moore, Missouri; F. M. Roberts,
California and J. M. Ryan, District of Columbia.


In City Government

The following names are those of a few of the many Colored politicians
scattered throughout the country who are earnestly and intelligently
helping their city governments to direct old and make new laws for the
welfare of all races in their represented districts:

Councilman J. A. Adams, Annapolis, Md.; Alderman L. B. Anderson,
Chicago, Ill.; Councilman J. Brown, Urbana, Ohio; Councilman V.
Chambliss, Mounds, Ill.; Councilman R. A. Cooper, Philadelphia;
ex-Alderman Oscar De Priest, Chicago, Ill.; Councilmen T. W. Fleming,
Cleveland, Ohio, S. A. Furniss, Indianapolis, Ind., W. M. Fitzgerald,
Baltimore, Md.; Alderman, G. W. Harris, and Assemblyman J. C. Hawkins,
New York City, N. Y.; Alderman J. H. Hopkins, Wilmington, Del.;
Alderman H. R. Jackson, Chicago, Ill.; Councilman Robt. R. Jackson,
Chicago, Ill.; Assemblyman E. A. Johnson, New York City, N. Y.;
Councilman W. T. McQuinn, Baltimore, Md.; C. Scott, Worcester, Mass,
and H. St. Clair, Cambridge, Md.; Alderman T. E. Stevens, Cleveland,
Tenn.; Councilmen H. Ward, Nicholasville, Ky. and F. F. Wright, Boston,
Mass.; Committeeman E. H. Wright, Chicago, Ill. (some of the above
names are extracts from Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, page
54.) Milton White and Amos Scott are very prominent in Phila., Pa.
politics as well as unusually successful businessmen.



IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR


Whenever Colored people hear mentioned the Spanish-American War,
their first thoughts naturally dig up proud memories of the 9th and
10th Colored Cavalries, the 24th and 25th Colored Regiments, The
8th Illinois, Ohio Battalion and others bravely facing raining shot
and shell pouring down from the hill tops of El Caney and San Juan.
And ever will it go down in history that they were members of the
celebrated 10th Colored Cavalry who while fighting on San Juan Hill
sprang to the timely rescue of the late Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and
his famous Rough Riders and saved them from certain and horrible deaths
at the hands of the merciless Spaniards.

But why here go further into details regarding the conduct of Colored
men in that war when the official reports of such capable warriors
and experienced military judges as Major-Generals W. R. Shafter, J.
F. Kent, H. W. Lawton, Joseph Wheeler, Colonel (now General) Leonard
Wood and other high commanding officers give rightful credit and praise
to the Colored soldiers who displayed such remarkable patriotism and
heroism in that short and fierce “There’ll be a Hot Time in the Old
Town To-night” war? (This quotation is the title of a very popular tune
sung during this war by the American soldiers and civilians.)

When Hobson made his dare-devil and world-famed sea trip through a
gauntlet of Spanish frowning guns, there were more than twenty-five
Colored sailors with him who then shared all of his dangers and later
a little of his fame. Another most important naval action centered
around a Colored sailor, John C. Jordan, Chief Gunner’s Mate, who on
May 1, 1898 during the battle of Manilla fired the first shot from the
crusier, “Olympia,” flag ship of the late Admiral Dewey. That was the
shot that opened the first decisive battle of the Spanish-American
War as well as starting the destruction of the modern Spanish Armada.
It is surely in place to mention here that Jordan entered the Navy as
a third-class apprentice and was honorably retired as a Chief Petty
Officer after spending thirty of his best years in the Navy working and
waiting for “Uncle Sammy” to give him his just recognition and “Aunt
Liberty” to give him a fuller caress of citizenship privileges.


In the Massacre at Carrizal

Another backyard quarrel and fight occured 1916 between the United
States and Mexico. The famous 10th Colored Cavalry, 24th and 25th
Colored Infantries were sent with Chicago National Guards to help watch
the American border. On the morning of June 21, 1916, two divisions of
the 10th Cavalry, Companies C and K, wished to pass through Carrizal to
reach Villa Alunado. They were invited to come nearer for a friendly
parley with the Mexicans. As the American soldiers drew closer to the
place many of the Mexicans slyly, slowly and seemingly unconcerned
quietly fell back, spread out and in Indian style rapidly formed a
circle around the little band of unsuspecting Americans before they
had really noticed what had been done. At an unseen given signal the
Colored troops were suddenly attacked. They were outnumbered eight to
one and in the engagement lost fifteen killed, had nine wounded and
twenty-three captured, who received much inhuman treatment from the
hands of their captors. Among the many brave acts of heroism during the
day’s fighting was the one of Peter Bagstaff, a trooper of the 10th
Cavalry, who in the very face of the Mexicans’ hailing shots staid
by the side of his mortally wounded Lieut. H. F. Adair, giving that
officer physical aid until death ended his sufferings.



IN THE WORLD WAR

(1914-1918)

JAMES REESE EUROPE

    All sing the praise of Europe’s Band
        That took such cheer to “No Man’s Land”
    His were the tunes that led in line
        The Colored bands of famed jazz time.

    When life got “blue” to soldier lads,
        And thots of home made hearts so sad,
    Clownish slurs on “Jim’s” freak slides (trombones)
        Made big loud smiles in camps abide.

    To kings and queens of “Over There”,
        He always played his jazziest air;
    And generals often sent for him
        To come and please their music whim.

    From depths to heights he upward grew:
        Then sudden death shut out of view
    That Negro Sousa’s hidden chords
        A world has lost from Bandrom boards.
                 --Harrison.


Regardless of their two hundred and ninety-eight years of unstained and
unquestioned loyalty and patriotism in America, Colored people at the
time the United States was about to enter the World War, were made to
feel that they were not needed nor wanted in the conflict. And on many
occasions they were even told that the World War was not their affair
but was a “white man’s war.” Here is again shown where an inherited
African instinct--that of usually being able to sense some big future
happening--enabled the American Colored people to see far enough into
the distance to fully realize that white people who made such remarks
were sadly mistaken. Colored people then knew as all other people later
found out that they were as much concerned and needed in that world
conflict as any and all other races of people who took part in it.

But not until America was fearfully startled and sensibly awakened by
the rapid and persistent progress of the Germans into France did this
country reluctantly consent to give the Colored soldiers a half-fair
chance and part in the war. And even then their acceptances had more
the resemblances of the probationary trials of total strangers rather
than the glad welcomings of life-long and never-failing friends. In
other words, figuratively speaking, it was in the highly tempered
crucibles of the World War’s whitehot furnaces of universal conflict
that Negro Americanism was put through a retesting process, in order to
determine the actual purity of its material and abstract composition.
As to the outcome of that unnecessary and unjust retesting process,
let the reader (like a minutely trained chemist) sum up in accurate
notations the final results, but only after carefully weighing and
reweighing the following analysis in the ever-balanced scales of
impartiality.

Henry Johnson, Albany, N. Y. and Needham Roberts, of Trenton, N. J.
were the first two Americans soldiers, Colored or white, who were
honored by the French Government with the much coveted Croix de
Guerre. These men were privates in the 369th Infantry, formerly the
distinguished Fifteenth New York National Guard Regiment, that had been
brigaded with French troops. It was during the loneliest and latest
hours of a night in May, 1918 while Johnson and Roberts were on guard
duty at an outpost on the Front near the German lines that they were
suddenly surrounded and attacked by a raiding party of a score of
German soldiers. Although the two colored boys used their firearms with
quickness and deadly aim to keep the enemy off, the superior number
of Germans, wounding Johnson three times and Roberts twice, closed in
on them in a hand-to-hand death struggle. They soon had Roberts on
the ground helpless, one German at his head and another at his feet.
Johnson noticing the sad plight of his loyal friend, leaped forward
like a wild cat at bay and with one mighty downward blow of his bolo
knife split wide open the head of the enemy who was strangling Roberts.
Then with a crouching pantherlike spring Johnson made a terrific
sweep with his trusty knife that completely opened the stomach of the
German at Roberts’ feet. Although on the ground covered with blood
and gore, Roberts upon thus being released immediately began to hurl
hand grenades among the enemy with telling effect. As the foe, with
whose stomach Johnson’s bolo knife had made such a deep and lasting
acquaintance, was the leader of the raiding party, the then thoroughly
frightened Germans suddenly lost their nerve, dropped their weapons,
picked up their helpless ones and made a hasty retreat. Some of the
Germans had been killed and many of the party received such wounds and
indelible marks that throughout their future lives they will always be
reminded that American Colored is a guaranteed fast dye (slow die) that
does not run.

Among the three hundred thousand and more Colored soldiers who served
in the United States Army during the World War, twenty thousand were
already prepared and in fighting trim when America declared war
against Germany. Those twenty thousand men were divided into the First
Separate Battalion of the District of Columbia; Company G, Tennessee
National Guards; First Separate Companies of Maryland and Connecticut;
Company L, National Guards of Massachusetts; Ninth Battalion of Ohio;
15th New York National Guard; Eighth Illinois Regiment; 9th and 10th
Cavalries; 24th and 25th Infantries. After spending the necessary time
in undergoing the proper government training, 639 Colored men took and
satisfactorily passed the required military examination, and on October
15, 1917 were commissioned at Fort Dodge as officers in the United
States Army. They were divided into 106 Captains, 329 First Lieutenants
and 204 Second Lieutenants.

During and at the close of the great war, leading white newspapers vied
with each other in filling their columns about the unsurpassed bravery
and patriotism of Colonel “Bill” Hayward, the clear-headed and nervy
white commander and his seasoned Colored 15th Regiment of New York. It
was the first Colored combat regiment to go overseas and was brigaded
with the French fighting forces as the 369th Regiment. To his admiring
Colored soldiers, “Fighting Bill” Hayward was known as “The Hell Man”
and to the surprised Germans the Colored fighters of the old 15th
Regiment were frightfully known as the “Bloodthirsty Black Tigers.”

A few years before that time William Hayward had been elected the
youngest judge in Nebraska and was known in that state as her
“Handsomest Man”. But with all of that previous civic and social
honor and fame, “Fighting Bill” never forgot to be a real “white man”
and gentleman as well as a strict and just commander at all times
to his Colored troops. When resting in camp he regarded and treated
them as human beings and full American citizens, and when in the
thickest of battles he did not ask them to go where he dared not to
venture, (if there ever was such a place). In battlefield action he
always led his men--he never followed them. This explains why he and
his “Black Tigers” won undying fame and glory by holding a certain
sector of trenches at Bois d’Hause Champagne for ninety-one days and
then charging in great victory over the top of Belleau Woods and the
bodies of falling Germans. It was during a very dangerous charge
that a French commander seeing Hayward and his Colored men about to
plunge into what seemed to be a sure death trap, ordered the American
fighters back. Big Bill Hayward was already in motion and shouted over
his shoulder, “My men don’t come back! They will go through hell, but
they won’t come back.” And with that parting farewell, the “Hell Man”
and his impatiently waiting “Black Tigers” plunged forward and were
soon busy serving to the open-mouthed enemy such a smoking hot dish
of scrambled shots, shells, and bayonets that in swallowing them down
those war-hungry Germans at once and for all times became completely
filled and lost their appetites for everything. On their return after
so quickly and efficiently serving such a well prepared menu, Hayward
and his fighters were decorated with the Croix de Guerre.

At Metz, Argonne Forest and St. Dis in the Sectors of Marbacne, Meuse
and Vosges, the newly trained 92nd Colored Division, mostly manned
by Colored officers, went into the thickest of the battles with such
telling effects that fourteen officers and forty-three non-officers
were awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. When those battles were
over and the survivors learned that they had lost from among their
chums 209 killed in action, 32 dead from wounds, 589 slightly or
severely wounded, 700 overcome by the German’s scientific gases and 18
unaccounted for, the 92nd Division became even more convinced that it
had well earned the many honors and distinctions accorded to it.

Those regiments that were brigaded with the French Army were; the
369th, 370th, 371st, and 372nd Infantries. In the engagements of
Marson-en-Champagne, Minancourt and Bois d’Hause Champagne, the
369th Infantry (N. Y. 15th) took an active part and it was at
Marson-en-champagne that the whole regiment was cited for deeds of
valor and awarded the Croix de Guerre. It was at Soissons Front that
the most formidable oppositions were successfully faced by the 370th
Infantry (Illinois 8th) that was commanded by Negro officers from
Lieut. Col. O. B. Duncan, down. The final capture of Hill 304 after
a severe encounter by that regiment proved to the Germans that those
Colored lads had not paddled across the “Big Pond” to learn the “Goose
Step.” The loss of 1,065 out of 2,384 men signifies the serious
activities of the 371st Infantry in the Champagne Sector between
September 18th and October 6th, 1918. Besides the entire regiment
receiving citation for extreme bravery, its regimental colors were
decorated. It was this regiment that broke a standing record at that
time by shooting down three German airplanes on the wing. The 372
Infantry took part in the fighting around Vacquois Sector and Argonne
West, places not very far from the celebrated Verdun. For distinguished
service all along the fighting lines the whole regiment was decorated
with the Croix de Guerre.

While the 369th (New York 15th) enjoyed the distinctions of being the
first Colored fighting organization to go overseas into action and the
first Allied division (Colored or white) to reach the banks of the
Rhine; it was the 370th (8th Illinois) Infantry that won the glory of
probably fighting the last engagement of the World War. It appears that
on the morning of November 11, 1918 the French commander sent word to
the officer in charge of the 370th Regiment to cease firing at 11 a.m.
as the Armistice would be signed at that hour. But the Colored troops
were pressing forward so rapidly after the enemy that it was long past
11 a.m. before the messenger could overtake them. When he did finally
ride up to the regiment, it was just putting on the finishing “frills
and frazzles” in capturing a German army train and its crews of fifty
supply wagons.

Through the untiring efforts of Dr. Joel E. Spingarn, one of the
truest and most loyal friends the American Colored people have today,
Dr. W. E. B. Dubois, Editor of the Crisis, Col. Charles Young, U. S.
Army and many other prominent Colored leaders and friends of the race,
the Secretary of War authorized on May 19, 1917 the establishment of
an Officers’ Reserve Training Camp for Colored soldiers at Fort Des
Moines, Iowa. This is the place where the 639 Colored men mentioned
elsewhere in this article were trained before being commissioned into
the United States Army. After being divided into as equal groups as
possible these officers were ordered to report on November 1, 1917 for
regular duty in the following named camps: Camp Dix, New Jersey; Camp
Dodge, Iowa; Camp Funston, Kansas; Camp Grant, Illinois; Camp Meade,
Maryland; Camp Sherman, Ohio; and Camp Upton, New York.


Special National Guards

It was just at that most critical time during the first months of
this same year, (1917) before the United States declared war against
Germany, and when no white man in America positively knew nor
absolutely trusted any other white man as to his real one hundred
percent Americanism, that the Administration called out the first
Separate Colored Battalion of the District of Columbia. This group
of well trained and true loyal American soldiers was made a Special
National Guard to defend, from the enemies of the Government, the
Capitol, White House and other important Federal buildings located in
Washington, D.C. the Capital of the United States of America. The mere
fact that the Administration did not select a white group of soldiers
for such a purpose at such a critical time when spies of the enemy
were everywhere in every form proves without a doubt that the American
white people not only had to admit among themselves but were forced to
acknowledge to the whole world that this was one time in the history of
the country when they had not confidence enough in members of their
own race to intrust to them the Nation’s most valuable and delicate
assets and responsibilities, namely; its filed-away official records,
its treasuries of monies, its cherished honors and its liberty-loving
Government. And the necessary intrusting of such national assets and
responsibilities to the care of Colored soldiers reminded the outside
world (what American white people should never forget) that the
Colored people in the United States form the backbone of the American
nation; especially when the Nation is required to use that backbone
in overthrowing such white traitors of this country as the despised
Benedict Arnold and such white murderers of Presidents as the scorned
J. W. Booth.

That Special Colored Guard of Honor was under a Colored commander,
Major James E. Walker, who at all times intelligently and fearlessly
directed and guided his men in so successfully carrying out that
responsible and trustworthy task. And it was on account of his constant
exposure to all kinds of early spring weather (They started guard
duty March 25, 1917.) while daily and nightly directing and watching
the movements of his men, that Major Walker contracted the incurable
cold which resulted in his fatal illness and untimely death just in
the flower of his youth and in the performance of one of the most
confidential and mental-straining duties the Nation could impose upon
a citizen; guarding the history, good name, wealth and liberty of one
hundred ten million people.



ON THE SEA

_“Of The People, By The People, For The People.”_

    On U. S. Ships, Colored men deserve
        More than to cook or meals to serve;
    And some are worthy of better fates
        Than be only stewards and gunners’ mates.

    Miss “Annapolis-Stevens” should never forget
        Foreign nations are looking in shocking regret
    At her vamping white boys, for caresses to get
        In this School where one Colored has studied but yet.
                 --_Harrison._


In regard to the Colored men who took part in Naval strifes on the
high seas, it has been estimated that at least ten thousand of them
served in the Navy during the World War. While they were not allowed
to advance in the Navy in proportion to their advancement in the Army,
nevertheless, Colored college graduates and students, fully knowing
such facts, put aside for the time being their educational ambitions
and careers, entered the Navy and patriotically as well as unselfishly
served in the menial positions of stewards, cooks and mess boys. And
judging from the sleek full cheeks and plump round bodies of the
officers and sailors aboard the vessels, those Colored boys, who were
broad-minded and big-hearted enough to put down college pride and take
up in its place national patriotism, went into galley and mess rooms
and used the same kind of brain power in wrestling with pots and pans,
foods and dishes as they had so brilliantly used in tussling with
slippery mathematical, historical and linguistic problems when in their
college class-rooms.

And who but God has an accurate record of the noble deeds humbly
performed by many of those entrapped and unrescued Colored firemen and
stokers who to the very last possible moment kept up the motor powers
of their vessels in trying to outspeed and outdodge the death dealing
submarine torpedoes? Those swift snakelike missives were always aimed
and usually struck at either the life-giving lungs (fire rooms) or
the pulsating hearts (engine rooms) of their objects. And it was in
those vital organs of several great sea-ploughing vessels where many
feverishly working, loyally dying and unsung Colored heroes went down
to forever sleep in the dark deep chambers of “Father Neptune.”



THE STEVEDORES


While their duties, not being on the battle fields nor firing lines,
called forth no spectacular incidents, citations for bravery or award
of medals, nevertheless, the work of the stevedores was as important
and valuable as the efforts of any other division in the World War.
And their giant strengths and swiftness of movements in loading and
unloading supply transports on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean played
a very very clever part in helping the world to finally get a Zbyszko
“toe-hold” a Stecher “scissors-hold” and a Lewis “strangle-hold” upon
Germany and gradually forcing her shoulders backward and flat upon the
universal mat of democracy.

    (For some of the facts and figures used in writing-up the actual
    military and naval actions of the different wars that have been
    recorded on the foregoing pages, the writer is reverently grateful
    to his deceased Father, who as a runaway slave served through the
    Civil War, and other veterans of the Civil, Spanish-American and
    World Wars. But for the remainder and majority of such war data
    herein used, the author is fully indebted to The National Benefit
    Life Insurance Company, through the generous courtesies of its
    President, Mr. R. H. Rutherford, Washington, D.C., whose personal
    permission the writer secured to use such data in this book.)



HIGHEST COLORED OFFICERS IN THE UNITED STATES ARMY

A BRUNETTE GENERAL

    Through all the wars these States have gone,
        A million Colored their parts have borne,
    But never a General has one been made:
        Yet, Lafayette’s France have them so paid,
    For character there out-points darkest shade.

    Colored taxes are yearly in dollars fed
        To help in the drilling of West Point’s tread:
    On kinder treatments Negroes should have dined,
        Who rarely got there and mostly resigned.

    If length of service and training thorough,
        And physical fitness without a blur
    Mark Colored soldiers for station anew,
        “Uncle Sam,” they would fill them both brave and true;
    These nephews who never have treasoned you.
                 --_Harrison._


Those who have been appointed the highest Colored officers in the
United States Regular Army are as follows:

  Colonel Charles Young (retired) Tenth Cavalry.
  Lieutenant Colonel Allen Allensworth (retired) deceased,
    Chaplain, Twenty-fourth Infantry.
  Lieutentant Colonel Benjamin O. Davis, Ninth Cavalry.
  Lieutenant Colonel John E. Green, Militia Attache, Monrovia, Liberia.
  Major William T. Anderson (retired) Chaplain, Tenth Cavalry.
  Major John R. Lynch (retired) Paymaster.
  Major Richard R. Wright, Paymaster, 1898, Spanish-American War.
  Major George W. Prioleau, Chaplain, Twenty-fifth Infantry.
  Captain W. E. Gladden, Chaplain, (retired) Twenty-fourth Infantry.
  Captain T. G. Steward, Chaplain retired, Twenty-fifth Infantry.
  Captain Oscar J. W. Scott, Chaplain, Tenth Cavalry.
  Major Louis A. Carter, Chaplain, Ninth Cavalry.
  First Lieutenant A. W. Thomas, Chaplain Twenty-fourth Infantry.

Those who held the highest Colored commissions above captains in the
United States Army during the World War are as follows:

  “Colonels:
    Franklin A. Denison, 370th Infantry; Charles Young retired.

  Lieutenant Colonels:
    Ollie B. Davis, 9th Cavalry; Otis B. Duncan, 370th Infantry; John E.
    Green, Military Attache, Monrovia, Liberia.

  Majors:
    “Thomas B. Campbell; Milton T. Dean, 317th Ammunition Train; John C.
    Fulton, 372nd Infantry; William B. Gould, Jr., National Guard; Charles
    L. Hunt, 370th Infantry; William H. Jackson, 369th Infantry; Thomas
    H. Moffatt, 371st Infantry; Adam E. Patterson, Judge Advocate, 92nd
    Division; Rufus M. Stokes, 370th Infantry; James E. Walker, 372nd
    Infantry; Arthur Williams, 370th Infantry.”

(The above list of officers’ names are quoted from Work’s Negro Year
Book, edition 1918-1919, pages 223-228.)



IN THE WORLD WAR


At Home

Relative to the willing sacrifices, unfaltering patriotism and loyalty
of the millions of Colored people who remained at home in the United
States during the World War, several books could be written but limited
space herein will not permit but a few paragraphs covering their many
activities.

After the white American men had enlisted or were drafted into the Army
and Navy, there were left vacant thousands and thousands of responsible
positions. The European foreigners who had previously immigrated here
and were immediately given (even before they could understand the laws
of the land or speak its language) full American opportunities and
privileges, except the ballot, were now found unreliable. Great hordes
of them showed their gratefulness to America for earlier throwing wide
open her doors to them by refusing to come up to her test of one
hundred percent Americanism. Even after all of the available mothers,
wives, daughters and sisters of the departed white American soldiers
were used in such places, there still remained many thousands of
positions unfilled. All that time millions of Colored men and women
who were loyally and willingly asking and waiting to fill such places
were at first purposely ignored. Because of the lack of sufficient man
power, the cog-wheels of industry all over the country began to stop.
It seemed as though the American white sentiment of prejudiced feeling
against the Colored people had become so bitter that the country was
willing to commit industrial suicide while stopping to wallow in its
mires of racial hatred.

But a certain good white sentiment (that usually turns up sooner
or later, and in some cases more later (than sooner) after great
sufferings have been caused) gently but firmly reminded America that
there were millions of Colored people who were able and willing to
fill those places. They were the people who had made and spent their
money here to enrich and build up America as well as at all times and
under all conditions had proved themselves most loyal and trustworthy
citizens. That reminder although known to be wholly true was still
laughed and sneered at by many until they were suddenly and painfully
brought to realize that they must either employ Colored people in
those positions or let the country go in starvation and ruin for want
of sufficient and proper productions. Colored men and women were then
at first reluctantly given employment in all parts of the country
in almost all kinds of work. Thus for the first time since their
forefathers and mothers had arrived in America nearly three hundred
years before, Colored people were nationally allowed to use and enjoy
many of the opportunities and privileges that had been stingingly
withheld from them merely because they were Negroes and freely given
to (many times forced upon) alien enemies just because they were
Caucasians.

Leaving home in the morning long before dawn and returning late after
twilight, Colored men faithfully dug coal in the mines of Alabama,
Iowa, West Virginia and elsewhere in order that various kinds of
industrial plants might continue to run in full blast and that
transportation carriers might quicken their speeds to stations and sea
ports. “A. J. Webster, a coal miner of Buxton, Iowa, is reported to
have broken the record by earning $214.06 in 14 working days, during
the last half of July, 1918. The wage was based on the amount of coal
mined.”

In the shipyards along both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, where the
long swift-keeled ocean grey hounds and the heavy big-bodied sea-pacing
mastiffs were rapidly born into life, thousands of Colored men were
busily helping to assemble the durable steel ribs into place and rivet
the armorplate hides of those ferocious watch dogs that prowled back
and forth sleeplessly guarding the front doors of their master and
mistress--“Uncle Samuel” and “Aunt Liberty”. And among those Colored
ship builders, it was Charles Knight and his crew of seven men, who
on July 16, 1918, at the Bethlehem Steel Company’s Sparrow Point,
Md., plant, drove 4,875 rivets in a 9 hour day. The highest previous
record of 4,442 rivets for the same time had been made in Scotland.
Knight and his men, therefore, were the first Americans (Colored or
white) to break and bring that record to the United States. His regular
services for the day earned him $102; he received a bonus of $50.00
for bringing the record to America, and twenty-five pounds sterling
($125.00) offered through the London Daily Mail by Mr. McLeod, the head
of a London Shipbuilding Company, to the one who broke the record. Thus
Knight received for his one day’s labor $277.00, besides having the
honor of being the first American to break the European riveting record.

Many people have heard the time-worn expression “make bricks fly”,
but it has been left for Alonzo Harshaw, a Colored artisan, to break
a record by making bricks fly in laying them at the rate of sixty
thousand paving bricks per day. It is said that Harshaw, who works for
the Southern Paving & Con. Co., lays bricks with such rapidity and
exactness that he has been photographed while at work by several moving
picture firms.

In the rolling mills, steel and iron foundries, Colored men were
there in thousands sweating away their strength and burning up their
vitality before blistering metals in order that the best possible steel
and iron might be made strong and durable enough to withstand the
bursting shells and the snake gliding torpedoes from the submarines of
the scientific Germans.

Pushing pens and pencils on top of desks, tapping keys of clicking
typewriters, bending over buzzing sewing machines, plying needles over
tailors’ benches, before the humming looms, by the dangerous railroad
crossings, in the car-filled train yards, between the handles of
loaded wheelbarrows, through the crops of farmerette fields, among the
death-dealing explosives in munition and arsenal plants and in many
other places, thousands of brave and willing Colored women were to be
found either in yeowomen’s suits or overalls and blouses steadfastly
working with cheery dispositions and hopeful smiles.

In December, 1918, two distinguished Colored Americans were sent to
Europe on special missions as follows; Dr. Robert R. Moton, who was
sent by the President of the United States and the Secretary of War to
investigate the conditions of and talk to the Colored soldiers, and
Dr. W. E. B. DuBois who went to Europe as the representative of the N.
A. A. C. P. and The Crisis to collect historical data pertaining to
the American Colored fighters in the World War and to call and form a
Pan-African Congress.


At Home Buying Liberty Bonds

“The Biennial meeting of the National Association of Colored Women’s
Clubs was held in Denver, Colorado in July, 1918. Among the important
subjects considered at this meeting were: Temperance, Suffrage,
Lynchings, Religious Work, Negro Women’s Problems, Food Conservation
and what the Negro Women Were Contributing to War Work Service. It was
pointed out that the Association had representation on the Women’s
Committee of the Council of National Defense, that in the Third Liberty
Loan, 7,000 Negro Women were at work and raised $5,000,000. It was
also stated that, judging from the number of buttons sold through the
colored women’s clubs, that about $300,000 had been contributed in Red
Cross Drives.”

“David H. Rains, a wealthy Negro farmer, living near Shreveport,
Louisiana, walked into the Liberty Loan Headquarters in that city
and purchased $100,000 worth of the Fourth Liberty Loan Bonds and
said that: ‘If they fell short of the quota he would make up the
deficiency.’ (Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, pages 48-49).
According to an article on page 273 in the April 1921 issue of The
Crisis, ‘Mr. Rains, who is reputed to be worth $1,500,000, owns 2,000
acres of land on which there are 40 producing oil wells; he pays a
clerk $100 a day to check up his royalties.’”

“A report from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was that the Negro school
children subscribed for $27,000 worth of Third Liberty Loan Bonds.
Through a Negro bank in that city, over $400,000 worth of Bonds were
bought, and it was stated that the total amount of Third Liberty
Loan Bonds purchased by the Negroes of Philadelphia was more than
$1,000,000.”

“At the close of the Third Liberty Loan Drive, the United States
Treasury Department awarded first place among all the banks of the
country to a Negro bank, the Mutual Savings, Portsmouth, Virginia. This
bank was given a quota of $5,700 to raise. A total of over $100,000,
almost twenty times the stipulated quota was raised. This bank was
assigned $12,500 as its quota of the Fourth Liberty Loan. Its total
subscription for this loan was reported to have been $115,000.”

“The Negroes of Jacksonville, Florida, were awarded the first honor
flag given to Negroes for exceeding their quota in the Third Liberty
Loan Drive. They were asked to raise $50,000; they raised $250,000. In
the Fourth Liberty Loan Drive, they were assigned a quota of $500,000
and raised over $100,000 more than this amount. The following are
additional examples of subscriptions of Negroes to the Fourth Liberty
Loan: Mobile, Alabama, $250,000; Norfolk, Virginia, $250,000; Kansas
City, Missouri, $500,000; Savannah, Georgia, $500,000; Memphis,
Tennessee, $700,000; Chicago, Illinois, $1,000,000; Birmingham,
Alabama, $1,155,000; Maryland, $2,000,000.”

“When Secretary McAdoo visited Little Rock, Arkansas, in the interest
of the First Liberty Loan, he was presented with a certified check
for $60,000 as the Mosaic Templars’ bit toward financing the war. This
society’s subscriptions were added to for subsequent loans until a
total of $135,000 was invested in Liberty Bonds.”

Not only rich Colored people gave freely of their wealth, but poor
Colored people sacrificed to extents that are not imaginable in giving
their last few dollars to help end that world strife, as soon as
possible.

“Mary Smith, a colored cook in Memphis, Tennessee, was asked by her
mistress if she would not undertake to buy a $100 Bond. Mary said: “No.
I don’t want no little $100 Bond. I want a $1000 and I am going to pay
cash for it.” She gave her lifetime’s savings to help the United States
carry on the war.”

“The Chicago Illinois Post, in an editorial headed: “The Widow’s Mite,”
among other things said: “We should like to tell the story of an old
Negro woman, who, with seamed face and knotted hands, lives on the
South Side and works for $7 a week. ‘Out of these meager wages,’ says
the Favorite Magazine, ‘this daughter of a race that has traveled the
road of trials and tribulations, has purchased three Liberty Bonds
and $25 worth of War Savings Stamps. She contributes $5 a month to
her church--before the war it was $10--belongs to the N. A. A. C.
P. and a Court of Calanthe, subscribed to three Negro periodicals
and contributes a dollar a month to the Home for the Aged. She does
not knit, but she sits sometimes in the sunset, dreaming of the two
stalwart sons that she has given the nation to fight its battles across
the sea’.””

“Warner Brown, of Brenham, Texas, an ex-slave, seventy-five years old,
had accumulated $50 by chopping wood and doing other jobs. He invested
this in a Liberty Bond.” “Gilbert Denman, an eighty-seven year old
Negro of Greenville, Alabama after listening to an appeal of speakers
from a war relic train, tendered his entire worldly wealth, fifteen
cents, to the cause of the United States Government.”

Since a large percentage of the loyalty and patriotism of American
citizens was weighed on the Roosevelt standard testing machine of 100
per cent Americanism with weights of paper, silver and gold money; then
surely the two hundred twenty-five million dollars and more in cash
that was dumped into the American scales of Liberty Loan Campaigns,
Thrift Stamps, Red Cross Drives and other War Work activities, by the
Colored people in the United States, pushed high above the level the
opposite scales that contained Negro one hundred per cent Americanism.

Thus did the Colored people at home give their over-flowing measure and
extra weight of money toward the putting down of a threatened world
autocracy and the establishment of a hopeful universal democracy. And
justly may those Colored people, who stayed at home in America during
the World War and so unselfishly gave of their strength and money,
truthfully and consolingly repeat that beautiful, fifty-fifty and
“square deal” law of King David’s found in First Samuel, thirtieth
chapter, twenty-fourth verse: “But as his part is that goeth down to
the battle, so shall his part be that tarrieth by the stuff; they shall
part alike.”

    (All quotations, facts and figures contained in this chapter titled
    “In The World War At Home”, unless otherwise stated herein, are
    extracts taken from Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition,
    pages 14-45-46-47-48-49-50.)

[Illustration]



IN THE CHURCHES

FRESH AIR RELIGION

    The preachers of to-day now seek
        Fresh air within God’s House to keep;
    And not hot rooms with germ-filled airs
        In sermons and their church affairs.
                 --_Harrison._


Even during the Revolutionary War, George Leile, a Baptist slave who
had been freed by his owner, preached to slaves in Savannah, Ga. From
that time on up the Negro pulpit has been wielding among the masses of
Colored people in America an influence for good that is the first of
all influences that has the greatest hold upon the Race.

Some of the other early preachers who helped to lay the rock foundation
of this ruling influence were Lemuel Haynes of Connecticut, a wonderful
orator and honored veteran of the Revolutionary War; Richard Allen and
Absolem Jones of Pennsylvania, Allen having founded the famous old
Bethel Church in Philadelphia and was ordained in 1816 the first bishop
of the A. M. E. Church; Amanda Smith of Maryland, who won thousands
of Colored and white converts over to God as a result of her powerful
sermons and temperance lectures in England, Scotland, Africa and India
as well as in America; John Chavis of North Carolina, who on account
of his superior education won fame and recognition as a school teacher
of rich white Southern boys and girls and also as a powerful pulpit
preacher to enslaved men and women of his own race; and John Gloucester
of Tennessee and Pennsylvania, who was the first Colored minister of
a Presbyterian church in the United States. Thus were the ways those
early God-Fearing men and women of days before and right after the
Civil War blazed the plain guiding marks in the forests of ministry, in
order that the clear-sighted and sure-footed gospel leaders who have
since followed them might have no trouble in choosing the right paths
through which to lead their trusting and loyal congregations.

    The following is an article quoted from the August 6, 1921, issue
    of the _Chicago Defender_:

“_C. T. Walker, Noted Pastor, Dies in South._”--“Augusta, Ga., Aug.
5--The Rev. Charles T. Walker, often referred to as the greatest
preacher of his time, died Friday July 29, at his home here.

“Dr. Walker was vice-president of the National Baptist convention of
the United States and pastor of the Tabernacle Baptist church here for
the past forty years, excepting five years when he was pastor of the
Mount Olivet Baptist church, New York City.

“He founded the Y.M.C.A. in New York City for our people, traveled
extensively in Europe and the Holy Land, and was the author of a number
of books of travel as well as sermons.

“As an evangelist, he was widely known, and no other minister ever drew
larger crowds when he spoke. His church in this city was often visited
by Northern winter tourists, among them former President Taft and John
D. Rockefeller. It was the latter who paid an artist to paint pictures
of the Christ Child on the walls of Rev. Walker’s church.”


“To Pastor A Large White Church”

“Toronto, Can.--To fill the pulpit of one of the largest Presbyterian
churches (white) in Toronto for five weeks with one of our ministers
is the interesting departure from the general rule of supply for the
summer months that Knox church is making this year. For last week and
all of August, Rev. Joseph J. Hill of Roawohe Baptist Church, Hot
Springs, Ark., will occupy Knox church pulpit. Dr. Hill has been a
professor of science in a southern university, and is a graduate of the
Academy of Music. He is a quiet, appealing and persuasive preacher with
a message all his own, which he delivers with great eloquence. During
the summer holidays, last year, he preached in the Moose Jaw Methodist
church, with a seating capacity of 1,000 which was crowded at all
services.”

The above is extracted from the Cleveland Gazette issued August 6, 1921.

As soon as Sunday School children of the Race have grown old and large
enough to understand and bear more weighty religious burdens, they
are at once invited to join the present four million Colored church
members, who are only too anxious to take in new members under the
Divine leadership and protection of the fourty-three thousand churches
owned by people of the Race in the United States. When it is proved by
facts and figures that about one-third of the Colored people in this
country are members in churches and that they have put over eighty-five
million dollars of their hard earned money into these present church
properties they own; it is plainly seen that people of the Negro race
still have perfect faith and trust in and are continuing to work for
and with the God, Who inspired the immortal Abraham Lincoln to free
their slave working and hopeful praying foreparents.

(Ref.: Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, pgs. 1-234-5-6-7).

Colored ministers of today, on account of their all-around advancements
have been able to bring about a better understanding and knowledge of
the true teachings of the Bible. For instance, they are teaching their
congregations that the timely, proper and equal uses of emotional and
practical religion are necessary. Thus the masses of people attending
Colored churches are fast learning from their pulpits that there is
just as much needs for Christianity in practical business and social
dealings with each other on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday,
Friday and Saturday, as there is for Christianity in their church
emotional ceremonies conducted among themselves before the altars on
Sunday. Also ministers of today have long since come to differ from
most of those “old school” ministers (God blessed them for doing the
best they knew how) who taught their people to live, think and say, to
other races, “Give us Jesus and you can take the dollar.” So the “new
school” and more businesslike ministers of these times are patiently
teaching, fast convincing and gradually converting their congregations
in the belief and truth that it is just as much Christianity in the
honest earning, the frugal saving, the fair investment, the wise
spending and the merciful sharing of a dollar with the poor and needy,
as there is need for Christianity in the saving of their souls and the
spreading of the gospel.

Along other practical lines these gospel leaders are having remarkable
success, especially in large cities where many Colored people live.
It is wonderful to see how these practical ministers have taught their
congregations that they are showing as much reverence to God when they
pass out of their churches after services and go quietly and orderly
to their homes (instead of great numbers of them stopping right in
front of their church doors with loud talk and laughter and blocking
the whole pavement, against people who wish to go by, for fifteen
and twenty minutes) as they do when sitting quietly and dignified in
their church pews listening to the sermons. Such gospel leaders in
every instance finally win their members over to their sides in such
matters by pleasantly and plainly pointing out that people of other
races seldom attend Colored churches of today and see the polished
and refined ways people of the Race deport themselves. But if just
two or three dozen members of a church come out after services and
thoughtlessly block the side walks, go along the streets or ride in
the trolley cars roughly laughing and loudly talking their church and
private affairs to each other from one end of the car to the other;
they are seen and heard by other races who class not only the church
but the whole Negro race with those few loud-mouthed, absent-minded
and sometimes vain Colored people who often use such shameful public
manners to attract attention to themselves and their clothes; just like
the same class of uncouth white people do.

Of course, when white men and women appear in public places acting and
talking in noisy, unrefined and vulgar ways, the Colored man or woman
(no matter how little learning he or she may have) who sees and hears
such actions, never judges and stamps the intelligent, refined and
well-behaved portion of the Caucasian race as a whole group of people
also to be ignored and discriminated against. But when a person of
color sees and hears such vulgar actions on the part of a white person,
that Colored person merely comments to himself; “There is a human being
who is a sample of the worse element among the white people and is
far from being a fair and pure sample of the best people in the white
race.” Then that broad-minded Colored person will at once throw the
incident off his mind. He will then turn his back on the uncouth white
person with disgust and in facing about will the very next moment
give the fullest consideration, the most humane treatment, the most
polite manners and the deepest respect to the white lady or gentleman
whose Christian speech and civilized actions warrant and deserve
such courtesies. And this is only one of the countless (big) little
instances in which the American Colored people are daily showing their
practical use of the Golden Rule; (cornerstone in the foundation and
keystone in the archway of the white man’s Christianity).

Thus the brotherhood actions and manners of the masses of Negroes,
(from the hod-carrier to the president of a university and from the
scrub woman to the president of a national organization) in being
broad-minded and big-hearted enough to fair-mindedly apply the Golden
Rule to the Caucasian race, so as to mentally separate and treat
accordingly the good white people from the bad, are certainly proving
that the Colored people as a whole are daily putting into practical
usages the Lord’s Golden Rule in much more Christlike ways than the
white race is itself. Of course, there are exceptions in both races,
but considering both from the standpoint of masses the above assertion
cannot be truthfully denied.

A present day exception on the white side may be cited as
follows:--During the summer of 1920 when Southern white savages turned
Paris, Texas into a human slaughter house by lynching, torturing and
burning alive of human beings, Rev. R. P. Shuler, (white) a prominent
Methodist minister living in that community fearlessly denounced the
mob at the time of its heathenish actions and at the risk of his own
life. Later, when speaking of a former statement he had made regarding
the lynching, according to an article in the July 24, 1920 issue of the
Chicago Defender, he said:

“The above statement, I make in the face of the advice that has
come to me from many friends that such a policy is and will be at
present unsafe for me. I am informed that my life has been numerously
threatened if I make such a statement. I am told that the mob used my
name repeatedly in such a manner as to very much concern my friends. I
can truthfully say that the attitude of this mob toward me does not
in the least concern me. Better men than myself have died when far
less was at stake. I am only concerned in doing my God-appointed duty
in this situation. Therefore, without apology or plea for quarter, I
unhesitatingly condemn the burning of these men in our city as an act
of lawlessness, which if carried to its legitimate ends, would destroy
our government and damn our civilization. And in making this statement
I ask for neither the protection of my friends nor the mercy of my
enemies.”

If all other white ministers were to take such fearless and open stands
against such savage doings, that are heaping as much shame and stain
on the United States as such crimes in Europe ever heaped on Turkey,
they could in a few years make these United States a truly Christian
land. And in taking such stands such ministers (if they showed the
same kind of faith in God as Rev. Shuler did who is still living and
preaching) they would also be delivered from a threatening mob. But
where within the recent past or the present have there stepped out from
the white ministry two Rev. Shulers? Among all the nationally famed
white evangelists, which one or three of recent times have in preaching
in all parts of the United States proved himself a second Henry Ward
Beecher, an Elijah P. Lovejoy or a C. T. Torry, who fearlessly and
fruitfully preached against all national as well as local sins, crimes
and lawlessness that came under their notice?

Among all the white ministers in the United States, only they
themselves can tell how many of them peacefully feel within their
secret hearts and contentedly feel within their reasoning minds that
they are giving full reverences to God, full honor to their calling
and full service toward all weak and suffering humanity through their
Sunday preachings against all sins and crimes? And among them only they
can tell how many of them, through advising words in reasoning talks,
are trying each Sunday (if only for five minutes) to blow out and drown
the sinful sparks of jealousy, envy, malice and hate that instantly
flame up in the breasts of so many of their church members as soon
as they see a Colored person, even if that person is well-behaved,
well-educated, well-dressed and well-to-do. Such feelings merely on
account of color are not natural and God has not meant for such to be;
for if He had, He would have made the brown earth white, the green
grass white, the blue sky white, the yellow sun white. These are the
greatest things in the world and all of them are colored. Even the
water, that covers three-fourths of the earth (while it is supposed
to be colorless) is more colored than it is white. Those white people
who wish that there were no colored on earth should remember that God
in His infinite wisdom fully realized in making the universe that if
He made all things white the glare would be so great and intense that
every seeing thing would be driven totally blind. So God put soft and
blending colors on earth in order that humanity might retain its sight
to see His works and learn to love them but not to look upon any of His
works with scorn and hatefulness.

While intelligent preachers of the Race upon quietly and carefully
looking about them see that practically the entire earth is one mass
of colors--the majority of internal and external earth elements,
the foods, the clothes, inside and outside building materials and
furnishings are colored; yet these Negro ministers teach their
congregations that the white color God has placed here has as much
right on earth as the big majority of colors. And there are such
advising and logical talks going on every Sunday from the Colored
pulpits in order to keep down race prejudice and friction. And Colored
ministers are silently and hopefully praying to God that He will
finally soften, melt and move the hearts of the white ministers so that
they will at last come forward and do their parts by logic reasonings
with their white congregations a few minutes every Sunday regarding
the rights of all colors of peoples to live unmolested and progress
unhindered here on earth. It has been left for the white press to
come forward and take the lead (which it is nobly and increasingly
doing) in this movement of reasoning with the masses of white people
in America regarding racial discriminations and injustices. But the
entire world, including the American white press itself, is looking on
in puzzled and wondering silence as it continues to hopefully wait for
the American white ministry to dutifully and courageously come forward
in a mass and take its rightful lead in this Christian movement to
help bring about a closer brotherhood co-operation, a truer Christlike
understanding and a smoother racial adjustment between the white and
Colored people living in the United States. The influence of the white
church is the greatest human power in the world--it unintentionally
encourages mobs and rioting in America by continuing to keep silent
on the question, but it can intentionally discourage and prevent
in a very short time the occurence of a second Arkansas, Atlanta,
Chester, Chicago, Duluth, East St. Louis, Houston, Philadelphia, Tulsa,
Washington and other race riots, if it will come out as a whole all
over the country and speak to its congregations Sunday after Sunday
against such barbarism and heathenism being constantly carried on here
in the United States.

According to notices that have recently appeared in the white press,
The Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, spurred on by
the barbarisms carried on at the riot of Tulsa, Okla. of a few months
ago, has boldly come forward and denounced such sins and crimes. In
order to bring about better relations between the two Races and help
to prevent such future occurences, this Council has already appointed
a Commission that has held a meeting in Washington, D.C. It is planned
to hold conferences, composed of white and Colored clergymen, all over
the country, and an effort will be made to have the white churches to
educate their audiences regarding the sins of race prejudice and the
crimes resulting therefrom. So just as God in His own time answered
the prayers of American slaves that they and their children would some
day become free; He is gradually and surely answering the prayers of
persecuted Negroes of today that the white ministry will come forward
and take its proper place as a leader in helping to swing into the
right channels the public sentiments of white people regarding their
Christlike treatments of Colored neighbors. Colored people must
continue to work and pray and be hopeful that out of this movement will
eventually come a second Henry Ward Beecher of modern times.

On the following pages are named some of the highest men in the
Colored ministry, who have been for years using every Christlike means
within their powers to help bring about more mutual understandings and
feelings between the two races:

Bishops J. W. Alstork, W. W. Beckett, G. L. Blackwell, P. A. Bouldin,
I. P. Brooks, W. S. Brooks, C. S. Brown, R. B. Bruce, J. S. Caldwell,
A. J. Carey, R. A. Carter, W. D. Chappelle, E. W. Chaver, N. C.
Cleaves, G. C. Clement, G. W. Clinton, J. M. Connor, L. J. Coppin,
M. W. Clair, E. Cottrell, Archdeacons H. B. Delaney and E. T. Denby,
Bishops Derrick, J. A. Ellison, J. S. Flipper, W. A. Fountain, A.
Grant, J. S. Green, T. L. Griffiths, C. R. Harris, W. H. Heard, J. J.
Higgs, L. H. Holsey, John Hurst, J. A. Johnson, W. D. Johnson, Wyatt
Johnson, J. H. Jones, R. E. Jones, L. W. Kyles, Isaac Lane, B. F. Lee,
W. L. Lee, J. W. Lee, C. A. Moore, R. P. Morgan, H. B. Parks, C. H.
Phillips, J. F. Ramsey, I. N. Ross, B. T. Ruley, Archideacon J. S.
Russell, Bishops C. S. Smith, B. T. Tanner, P. Taylor, E. Tyre, W. T.
Vernon, A. J. Warner, R. S. Williams, W. N. Winston and P. H. Wright.

From among the thousands of Colored ministers all over the country,
the names below are those sent to the author from the following large
cities, where immense congregations are ministered unto by their
spiritual leaders, who are also Sunday after Sunday calmly pacifying
and patiently advising their congregations in order to keep them
on peaceful and frictionless relations (without sacrificing their
citizenship rights) with the white people with whom they daily come in
contact:

    Alexandria, Va.: Revs. H. A. Haynes, L. A. King, S. B. Ross.

    Atlanta, Ga.: Revs. R. S. Brown, P. J. Bryant, H. W. Evans, E.
    Hall, J. A. Lindsay, H. C. Lyman, R. H. Singleton, S. D. Thorn.

    Atlantic City, N. J.: Revs. J. W. Brown, J. N. Deaver, J. P.
    Gregory, W. E. Griffen, A. L. Martin, L. C. Scott, W. Tyler.

    Augusta, Ga.: Revs. Dorsett, C. Floyd, C. T. Walker, R. S. Williams.

    Baltimore, Md.: Revs. G. F. Bragg, J. T. Colbert, M. H. Davis, W.
    H. Deane, J. R. L. Diggs, J. H. Dovey, J. Gray, J. W. Hill, Harvey
    Johnson, Earnest Lyons, C. E. Stewart, J. H. Dorsey, C. R. Uncles.

    Birmingham, Ala.: Revs. C. W. Brooks, L. G. Duncan, J. W. Goodgame,
    R. N. Hall, F. W. Riley, T. W. Sherrill.

    Boley, Okla.: Revs. J. S. Dawson, T. C. Martin, N. J. Johnson.

    Boston, Mass.: Revs. A. R. Cooper, L. Ferguson, D. S. Klugh, W. D.
    McLain, A. L. Scott, M. M. Shaw, B. W. Swain, C. A. Ward.

    Buffalo, N. Y.: Revs. E. R. Bennett, H. Durham, E. J. Echolson, H.
    A. Garcia, J. Nash.

    Brooklyn, N. Y.: Revs. J. B. Adams, N. P. Boyd, W. C. Brown, W. S.
    Carpenter, G. F. Miller, H. H. Procter, W. P. Wallace, A. K. Warren.

    Camden, N. J.: Revs. J. S. Braithwaite, H. W. Cummings, G. Morris,
    W. S. Saunders, J. R. White.

    Charleston, S. C.: Revs. E. L. Baskerville, J. E. Beard, C. A.
    Harrison, D. J. Jenkins, W. J. Jones, R. Kemp, T. D. Nelson, J. R.
    Pearson, C. H. Uggams.

    Charleston, W. Va.: Revs. M. W. Johnson, E. H. Whitefield, C. H.
    Woody.

    Charlotte, N. C.: Revs. F. L. Brodie, G. D. Donowa, J. E. King, A.
    Mason, M. D. Melodona, W. M. Miller, R. P. Wyche.

    Chattanooga, Tenn.: Revs. C. G. Bell, W. H. Heath, J. H. Henderson,
    J. L. B. Johnson, C. M. Robins, C. C. Stewart, C. C. Tucker.

    Chester, Pa., Revs. J. R. Bennett, E. E. Durant, H. J. Ryder, T. M.
    Thomas, H. Tyree.

    Chicago, Ill.: Revs. W. M. Bennett, S. L. Birt, C. H. Clarke, W. D.
    Cook, J. M. Henderson, H. M. Jackson, J. H. Simon, H. E. Stewart,
    J. G. Walker, L. K. Williams.

    Cincinnati, Ohio.: Revs. J. P. Blackburn, W. L. Brean, E. H. Oxley,
    Wilbur Page.

    Cleveland, Ohio: Revs. H. C. Bailey, C. G. Fishback, J. S. Jackson,
    L. C. Jefferson, P. O’Connell, R. H. Suthern.

    Columbia, S. C.: Revs. J. F. Green, M. F. Haygood, M. G. Johnson,
    J. R. Jones, H. M. Moore, J. Perry, D. F. Thompson, C. M. Young.

    Columbus, Ohio: Revs. J. W. Carter, E. A. Clarke, H. W. Cooper, G.
    L. Davis, R. D. Phillips, J. B. Pius, H. W. Smith.

    Danville, Va.: Revs. W. E. Carr, J. R. Cooper, G. W. Goods, A.
    Murray, J. A. Valentine.

    Dayton, Ohio: Revs. J. D. Anderson, D. E. Bass, J. N. S. Belbader,
    O. W. Childers, W. H. Riley, T. J. Smith.

    Denver, Colo. Revs. W. H. Thomas, S. A. Strippling, I. S. Wilson.

    Des Moines, Iowa: Revs. S. Bates, S. L. Birb, D. W. Claybrook, E.
    S. Hardge, E. A. Liles, G. W. Robinson.

    Detroit, Mich: Revs. T. J. Askew, F. Begnall, R. L. Bradby, A.
    Gomez, C. A. Hill, W. R. Rutledge.

    Durham, N. C.: Revs. W. C. Cleland, J. E. Kiklaird, J. H. Pacheal,
    J. Smalls, R. Spiller, J. L. White.

    Evansville, Ind: Revs. F. P. Baker, J. S. Haddison, H. B. Mayes, M.
    McIntyre, J. Rouse.

    Fort Smith, Ark.: Revs. W. E. Guy, E. D. Hill, J. T. Jones, Wm.
    Jones, C. H. Whitted.

    Fort Worth, Texas: Revs. A. L. Dotson, S. A. Nelson, S. R. Prince,
    M. H. Spencer, W. G. Upshur.

    Gary, Ind.: Revs. M. Bolden, A. Kittrell, W. H. Saunders, W. T.
    Whitsett.

    Greenville, S. C.: Revs. A. R. Burk, C. H. Copeland, C. F. Gandy,
    J. H. McAdams, C. F. Rice, S. J. Simkin.

    Hampton, Va.: Revs. J. D. Baker, J. W. Brown, E. H. Hamilton, J. W.
    Patterson.

    Harrisburg, Pa.: Revs. C. H. Fareira, G. W. Cregg, A. J. Greene, W.
    Parchment, C. F. Jenkins.

    Hartford, Conn.: Revs. R. R. Ball, O. H. Brown, W. Byrd, C. L.
    Fisher, C. N. Gibbons, W. B. Reed, J. A. Wright.

    Helena, Ark.: Revs. L. S. Arnold, W. E. Briett, H. W. Holloway, E.
    C. Morris, D. S. Shadd.

    Hopkinsville, Ky.: Revs. M. Brooks, T. H. Copeland, M. Kirby, W. M.
    Newell, E. Williams.

    Houston, Texas: Revs. C. K. Brown, J. R. Burdett, E. H. Bolden, F.
    L. Lights.

    Indianapolis, Ind.: Revs. J. S. Bailey, C. S. Dusenberry, B. H.
    Ferrell, A. H. Maloney, G. W. Ward, B. J. Westbrook, C. S. Williams.

    Jackson, Miss.: Revs. S. C. Greer, R. Isabelle, B. T. McEween, M.
    L. Vonadore.

    Jacksonville, Fla.: Revs. W. W. Carter, J. E. Ford, E. J. Gregg, J.
    K. Salterwhite, S. H. Savage, W. R. Stephens.

    Jersey City, N.J.: Revs. W. A. Byrd, A. Carter, A. C. Sanders, W.
    S. Smith.

    Kansas City, Kan.: Revs. W. A. Boran, J. F. Griffin, D. A. Holmes,
    W. A. Johnson.

    Kansas City, Mo.: Revs. S. A. Bacote, G. H. Daniels, D. A. Homes,
    J. B. Isaacs, J. W. Lowe, W. T. Osborne, M. E. Spatches.

    Leavenworth, Kan.: Revs. Curtis, Hayes, Scott, and Wright.

    Little Rock, Ark.: Revs. J. A. Booker, F. H. Cook, J. M. Mitchell,
    R. B. Porter, J. M. Reed, J. P. Robinson.

    Los Angeles, Cal.: Revs. W. B. Butler, W. T. Cleghorn, J. D.
    Gordon, N. P. Cregg, A. P. Shaw, A. M. Ward, J. H. Wilson.

    Louisville, Ky.: Revs. J. H. Frank, E. G. Harris, C. H. Parrish, W.
    H. Sheppard, W. P. Stanely, C. C. Steward, N. H. Williams.

    Lynchburg, Va.: Revs. G. E. Curry, L. O. Lewis, B. Whitlock.

    Memphis, Tenn.: Revs. J. Bell, R. L. Campbelle, T. O. Fuller, S.
    E. Griggs, J. Q. Johnson, W. J. McMichael, H. L. Patterson, R. B.
    Roberts, F. G. Snelson, A. M. Townsend, M. I. Warfield.

    Milwaukee, Wis.: Revs. J. O. Morley, R. Russell.

    Minneapolis, Minn.: Revs. J. A. Breedlove, V. S. Cooper, J. J.
    Evans, F. Leatled, T. J. J. Merritt, G. W. Mirchell, T. A. Smith,
    C. H. Thomas.

    Mobile, Ala.: Revs. W. E. D. Claybrook, C. F. Johnson, G. W.
    Johnson, H. D. Parker, W. D. Speights.

    Montgomery, Ala.: Rev. I. Champney, W. M. Madison, A. J. Stokes, P.
    W. Walls.

    Mound Bayou, Miss.: Revs. A. A. Cosen, F. Morgan, J. R. Powe.

    Muskogee, Okla.: Revs. T. M. Greene, S. S. Jones, J. Johnson, A. R.
    Norris, J. Roker, A. Wells.

    Nashville, Tenn.: Revs. G. W. Allen, H. A. Boyd, R. H. Boyd, W.
    Haynes, E. P. Jones, W. Beckham, R. P. Russell, P. Taylor.

    Newark, N.J.: Revs. Bonfield, Brown, Derrick, Ellerson, Flipping,
    Hubbard, Ricks, and Welcher.

    New Orleans, La.: Revs. W. G. Alston, J. L. Burrell, H. H. Dunn, A.
    Hubbs, T. F. Robinson, A. Simmons, C. C. Smith, E. A. Wittenberg,
    E. A. White.

    Newport News, Va.: Revs. J. W. Brown, A. A. Galvin, G. D.
    Jimmerson, C. E. Jones, J. T. McDuffie, W. H. Sayles, W.
    Scarborough, E. E. Smith, J. H. Smith, S. A. Snuggs, C. A. Ward.

    New York City, N.Y.: Revs. H. C. Bishop, W. H. Brooks, J. W. Brown,
    F. A. Culler, E. W. Daniels, W. P. Hayes, F. Howard, F. M. Hyder,
    J. W. Johnson, W. R. Lawton, A. C. Powell.

    Norfolk, Va.: Revs. W. H. Bowling, J. D. Lee, S. S. Morris, L. E.
    B. Rosser, B. W. White, F. W. Williams, C. P. Madison.

    Oakland, Cal.: Revs. J. M. Brown, C. C. Carter, G. C. Coleman, L.
    S. Goolsby, J. B. Holmes, D. R. Wallace, A. O. Newman.

    Omaha, Neb.: Revs. W. F. Botts, J. A. Broadnax, T. A. Taggart, R.
    Taylor, M. H. Wilkinson, J. A. Williams.

    Philadelphia, Pa.: Revs. M. Anderson, F. H. Butler, W. A. Creditt,
    W. F. Graham, W. A. Hannum, W. A. Harrod, L. G. Jordan, S. J.
    Jones, J. R. Logan, J. M. Moses, W. G. Parks, H. L. Phillips, C. A.
    Tindley, M. Winston, R. G. Williams, E. C. Young.

    Phoebus, Va.: Rev. A. A. Graham.

    Phoenix, Arz.: Revs. C. H. Gilmore, T. J. Sanford.

    Pine Bluff, Ark.: Rev. A. W. Clark, A. H. Hill, I. C. Hodges, S. A.
    Mosely, H. W. Savage.

    Pittsburgh, Pa.: Revs. J. C. Austin, S. H. Bishop, H. W. Childs, G.
    W. Gaines, C. Y. Trigg, C. H. Trusty.

    Portland, Oregon: Rev. J. W. Anderson, J. R. Fox, J. E. Reynolds,
    W. W. Howard, A. C. Yearwood.

    Princeton, N. J.: Revs. A. E. Bennett, A. George, W. H. Hicks.

    Providence, R. I.: Revs. P. M. Brown, R. A. Carroll, W. S. Holland,
    W. J. Moss, I. S. Sisco, J. S. Blake.

    Raleigh, N. C.: Revs. C. C. Asken, A. D. Avery, A. C. Cochran, L.
    A. Fairley, A. W. Pegnes, J. W. Walker.

    Richmond, Va.: Revs. M. E. Davis, A. Gill, A. A. Rector, W. F.
    Johnson, Z. D. Lewis, T. J. Ring, W. H. Stokes, J. L. Taylor.

    Roanoke, Va.: Revs. L. L. Downing, J. H. Hatcher, A. L. James, W.
    E. Lee, H. Mapson, Jr., B. G. Whitlock.

    Sacramento, Cal.: Revs. J. A. Allen, T. A. Collins, T. A. Harvey,
    A. Prior.

    San Antonio, Texas: Revs. G. F. Curry, S. J. Johnson, I. H. Kelley,
    L. H. Richardson.

    San Francisco, Cal.: Revs. W. J. J. Byers, J. A. Dennis, J.
    Washington.

    Salt Lake City, Utah: Rev. X. C. Runyon.

    Saratoga Springs, N. Y.: Rev. T. R. Brown.

    Savannah, Ga.: Revs. W. G. Alexander, J. H. Brown, T. J. Goodall,
    S. T. Redd, J. A. Richie, D. Wright.

    Seattle, Wash.: Revs. J. B. Barbour, W. D. Carter, D. A. Graham.

    Shreveport, La.: Revs. L. Allen, Jr., J. M. Carter, G. W. Mills, G.
    T. Stinson.

    St. Louis, Mo.: Revs. B. F. Abbott, D. R. Clark, S. A. Mosely, S.
    W. Parr, B. G. Shaw, G. E. Stevens, C. A. Williams.

    St. Paul, Minn.: Rev. J. A. Anderson, G. W. Camp, T. J. Carr, B. H.
    Hodge, A. H. Lealted, S. L. Theobold, J. S. Strong.

    Tampa, Florida: Revs. W. J. Ballan, W. O. Barley, M. T. Culmer, G.
    Griffin, T. Gurley, S. A. Williams.

    Terre Haute, Ind.: Revs. O. H. Banks, C. M. C. Hammonds, W. S.
    Hodge, C. L. Upthegrove.

    Washington, D.C.: Revs. W. H. Brooks, T. J. Brown, W. H. Carey,
    M. W. Clair, F. J. Grimke, J. R. Hawkins, W. H. Jernagin, C. L.
    Mitchell, W. D. Norman, C. M. Turner.

    Wichita, Kan.: Revs. S. B. Butler, E. F. Fishback, E. P. Geiger, J.
    R. Ransom.

    Wilberforce, Ohio: Rev. T. G. Steward.

    Wilmington, Del.: Revs. H. Y. Arnett, H. C. Jones, J. U. King, B.
    F. Moore.

    Wilmington, N. C.: Revs. J. R. Bormes, W. H. Moore, J. A. Jackson,
    A. Williet, A. Wilson.

Aside from the foregoing list of Colored ministers, there are many
thousands of others whose names the writer did not get in his research
but who are known to be faithfully serving on similar or smaller but
none the less important scales in the above or smaller cities, towns,
villages and country districts all over the United States.

[Illustration: THE GLOBE--BETHLEHEM, PA., SATURDAY, APRIL 3, 1920

_Eastertide and Springtime_

    From spring does Easter get its blend
        In new-born life of plants and men,
    And thus the two will ever trend,
        While God with love the world does tend.

    New life and hope in spring are seen,
        As fields unfold their rugs of green
    Where robins bold in songs serene
        Strut forth in cheer that is supreme.

    Fresh is the air with fragrant smell;
        Calm are the creeks of winter swell;
    And pious men will always tell
        Of peace they hear in Easter’s knell.

    Young crops on farms have just begun
        To feel the warmth of golden sun
    That sends its beams to dance and run
        With little babes in play and fun.

    Up from the mire of earth’s black room
        White lilies rise in purest bloom
    To drive away all tainted gloom
        And leave on earth their sweet perfume.

    Thus did our Christ from manger start
        And served the role of Jesus’ part--
    Thence on the cross to give His heart
        In pay for sins that must depart.

    So to our minds is always borne
        That every man can shed his thorn
    As did our Christ so bruised and torn
        From earth arose on Easter morn.
                 --William Henry Harrison, Jr.,
                        820 Wyandotte St.
]



IN THE SUNDAY SCHOOLS


In no surroundings of childhood, except the home life, is there a more
suitable or fruitful place in which to spiritually nourish and grow up
Colored youths than in the forty-six thousand or more Colored Sunday
Schools where over two million boys and girls are regularly having
impressed upon their tender and open minds the religious teachings of
the Bible.

As a step toward further broadening the Sunday School work among
American Colored children and at the same time enabling them to get
better teachings about the Christian religion, The International Sunday
School Association began in 1911 to organize classes for specially
training Sunday School teachers among the young men and women attending
Colored colleges and large schools. Many white friends to the Race
became interested in this good movement, especially Mr. W. N. Hartshorn
of Boston, Mass., who gave of his own personal money $15,000 to pay the
expenses of a fair trial of the work. This Christian effort has aroused
so much interest and has grown so rapidly that at present upward of two
hundred Colored universities, colleges and large schools have accepted
and given this Sunday School Teachers’ Course a regular place in their
class room studies.

Some of the foremost religious leaders who are helping to direct and
carry on this much needed work among American Colored children are
Bishop Geo. W. Clinton and Dr. R. H. Boyd, both life members of the
International Sunday School Association; Prof. Wm. B. Matthews, member
of the Executive Committee of the above association, Dr. H. G. Lyman,
Supt. of work among Colored people, and Mr. M. L. Finckel, President
of the American Sunday School Union. (Ref.: Work’s Negro Year Book,
1918-1919 edition, pgs. 1-257-8).



THE YOUNG WOMEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION

THE GIRL RESERVE

    If she’s a three-angled, true “Y” Girl Reserve;
        The world she is willing to Christlike serve:
    Her sunshine smiles will come thru rains;
        Her kind heart will guide her fertile brains:
    She will love to work as well as play;
        She will have “good times” but not too gay:
    She will swim the streams and camp the woods;
        She will love all sports that are pure and good:
    And thus she learns “the simple life” reader
        To make her some day a great woman leader.
                 --_Harrison._


Under the sisterly and wise supervision of Miss Eva D. Bowles, as the
first salaried Y. W. C. A. Colored branch secretary in New York City
and since then Executive of Colored Work, the Young Women’s Christian
Association for Colored girls and women has made wonderful progress,
since 1907 when Mrs. Wm. A. Hunton was appointed by the National Board
to investigate and arouse interest in the work. As Special Student
Worker, Miss Catherine Lealted greatly aided in building up and
strengthening this work in Colored schools until she took up work in
another field of uplift.

Today there are over fifty city Y. W. C. A. Colored Branches in as many
cities in 23 states and the District of Columbia; while there are at
least 100 such branches in Colored schools located in 18 States and
the District of Columbia. Just as the school branches are the means
of helping to build up and fortify the practical Christian minds of
the girls who join them; the city branches prove sheltering havens and
protections for self-respecting and self-supporting Colored single
girls and women when they leave such schools and respectable homes
to embark upon the rough oceans of life and desire to nightly anchor
in places of moral protection, social uplift, mental development,
sanitary conditions, congenial companionships, pleasures of innocence
and Christian influences. For the safe arrival and calm anchorage
of such Colored girls and women, the writer assures them that the
following list of addresses is a true compass needle that will, when
they set-sail for a new city port, safely guide them into any of the
following beacon-lighted Y. W. C. A. Christian Harbors:

  Atlanta, Georgia, Y. W. C. A., 196 Piedmont Avenue.
  Augusta, Georgia, Y. W. C. A., 1104 Gwinnett Street.
  Baltimore, Maryland, Y. W. C. A., 1200 Druid Hill Avenue.
  Bridgeport, Conn., Y. W. C. A., 70 Beach Street.
  Brooklyn, N. Y., Y. W. C. A., 45 Ashland Place.
  Camden, N. J., Y. W. C. A., 829 Kaighn Avenue.
  Charleston, S. C., Y. W. C. A., 106 Coming Street.
  Chattanooga, Tenn., Y. W. C. A., 411 East 9th Street.
  Chicago, Ill., Y. W. C. A., 3541 Indiana Avenue.
  Cincinnati, Ohio, Y. W. C. A., 704 Eighth Street.
  Columbia, S. C., Y. W. C. A., 1323 Assembly Street.
  Columbus, Ohio, Y. W. C. A., 495 East Long Street.
  Dayton, Ohio, Y. W. C. A., 800 West Fifth Street.
  Des Moines, Iowa, Y. W. C. A., 728 Walnut Street.
  Detroit, Mich., Y. W. C. A., 2111 St. Aubin Avenue.
  East St. Louis, Mo., Y. W. C. A., 826 East Broadway.
  Fort Worth, Texas, Y. W. C. A., 415 East 6th Avenue.
  Germantown, Pa., Y. W. C. A., 6128 Germantown Avenue.
  Harrisburg, Pa., Y. W. C. A., 804 Cowden Street.
  Houston, Texas, Y. W. C. A., 806 Clay Avenue.
  Jersey City, N. J., Y. W. C. A., 31 Ege Avenue.
  Kansas City, Mo., Y. W. C. A., 1501 East 19th Street.
  Little Rock, Ark., Y. W. C. A., 924 Gaines Street.
  Los Angeles, Cal., Y. W. C. A., 1108 West 12th Street.
  Louisville, Ky., Y. W. C. A., 1021 W. Madison Street.
  Lynchburg, Va., Y. W. C. A., 613 Monroe Street.
  McKeesport, Pa., Y. W. C. A., 317 Tenth Street.
  Montclair, N. J., Y. W. C. A., 159 Glenridge Avenue.
  Nashville, Tenn., Y. W. C. A., 436 Fifth Avenue, North.
  Newark, N. J., Y. W. C. A., 71 Wilsey Street.
  Newcastle, Pa., Y. W. C. A., 140 Elm Street.
  Newport News, Va., Y. W. C. A., 2300 Madison Avenue.
  New York City, N. Y., Y. W. C. A., 179 West 137th Street.
  Oakland, Cal., Y. W. C. A., 828 Linden Street.
  Omaha, Neb., Y. W. C. A., 2306 No. 22nd Street.
  Orange, N. J., Y. W. C. A., 78 Oakwood Avenue.
  Petersburg, Va., Y. W. C. A., 457 Harding Street.
  Philadelphia, Pa., Y. W. C. A., 756 South 16th Street.
  Pittsburgh, Pa., Y. W. C. A., 2215 Wylie Avenue.
  Portland, Oregon, Y. W. C. A., Broadway and Taylor Streets.
  Richmond, Va., Y. W. C. A., 515 South 7th Street.
  San Antonio, Texas, Y. W. C. A., 328 North Pino Street.
  St. Joseph, Mo., Y. W. C. A., 1021 Francis Street.
  St. Louis, Mo., Y. W. C. A., 703 North Garrison Street.
  St. Paul, Minn., Y. W. C. A., 598 West Central Avenue.
  Springfield, Ohio, Y. W. C. A., 134 West Clark Street.
  Warren, Ohio, Y. W. C. A., 132 North Park Avenue.
  Washington, D.C., Y. W. C. A., 901 Rhode Island Avenue.
  Williamsport, Pa., Y. W. C. A., 429 Walnut Street.
  Winston-Salem, N. C., Y. W. C. A., 717 East Depot Street.
  Youngstown, Ohio, Y. W. C. A., 248 Belmont Avenue.

Among the foremost Y. W. C. A. Colored leaders who are so nobly
and ably assisting Miss Eva D. Bowles in the smooth and efficient
supervision of the above named branches are Misses May B. Belcher,
Crystal Bird, Mabel Brady, Mary E. Jackson, Josephine Pinyon, Lucy B.
Richmond, Adele F. Ruffin, Clayda Williams, Mrs. Charlton Wallace, and
Mrs. Cordella A. Winn. Before her death on December 31, 1919, Mrs.
Marie A. Wilder was one of the most faithful and hardest workers in the
above group.

But the main stream of success connected with this work has come about
through the “working together” “branch relationship” co-operation
on the parts of Mrs. Samuel J. Broadwell, Treasurer; Miss Mable
Cratty, Gen’l Sec’y; Mrs. Jas. S. Cushman, 1st Vice-Pres.; Mrs. John
French, Chairman Execu. Com.; Mrs. Lewis H. Lapham, Sec’y; Mrs. Wm.
W. Rossiter, 2nd Vice-Pres.; and Mrs. Robt. E. Speer, President, who
compose the National Board (white) of The Young Womens Christian
Association of the United States of America. And in the different
cities where they are established the white and Colored branch workers
are carrying on the above co-operations. During the World War, the
War Work Council showed its co-operation by appointing a Colored Work
Committee with Miss Eva D. Bowles as Executive and Mrs. Charlton
Wallace as Chairman and, The War Work Council, “recognizing the loyalty
and need of the colored girls and women in this country, appropriated
$400,000 for the work.”

In speaking of the work of this committee Miss Bowles said, “The Y. W.
C. A. is the only organization that is handling the work with all girls
alike, and the result of its efforts is bound to be the building up of
the confidence of the colored race, not only in the nation itself but
in Christianity. With the colored, as with all other women and girls
throughout the world, the aim of the Y. W. C. A. is a constructive
foundation of Christian ideals. Girls are girls, whatever their race or
complexion. As naturally as a flower demands sunshine and rain, a girl
craves good times, pretty clothes and happiness.”

In closing this vital chapter, the writer can think of no better way
than to quote the following words of Miss Bowles when she summed up the
past and pointed out the future regarding the leaderships of Colored
women among their own people in the United States.

“The war has given opportunity to the colored woman to prove her
ability for leadership. She had her chance and she made good. With all
the strength of having suffered, she will be able, through the patience
born of suffering, to lead the women and girls whom only she can lead.
The time is past for white leadership for colored people. As white and
colored women, we must understand each other, we must think and work
and plan together for upon all of us rests the responsibility of the
girlhood of our nation.”

[Illustration]



THE YOUNG MEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION

THE “Y” MEN

    The buildings where, “Y” men do live
        Have comforts like, dear mothers give.
    Fine lodgings they are for single men,
        Who with the best do want to blend.
    Without rank smoke and vulgar swear
        Billiards and pool are also there
    The gym., the baths and sleeping rooms
        Give to their healths the greatest booms.
    Night schools and also Christian talks
        Do most to guide young “Y” men walks.
                 --_Harrison._


The 110 Negro college Young Men’s Christian Associations and the fifty
or more city branches is as many cities in twenty-three different
states in the Union are really God-sends to thousands of young Colored
men who prefer to spend their spare minutes in the best places of
physical cleanliness, social purity and mental advancement. These
“Y” branches in the cities are also great blessings for thousands of
intelligent, refined and progressive Colored men who are constantly
visiting strange places on important businesses and want to be sure
they are stopping in modern, sanitary, decent, respectable and
congenial lodgings.

Mr. Julius Rosenwald of Chicago, Ill. made an offer in 1911 to give
the sum of $25,000 to every city in the United States that would raise
$75,000 by public subscription for the construction of a Y. M. C. A.
building for the use of Colored people. This offer was gladly and
eagerly accepted and as a result buildings have already been erected
in Atlanta, Ga., Baltimore, Md., Brooklyn, N.Y., Chicago, Ill.,
Columbus, O., Indianapolis, Ind., Kansas City, Mo., New York City, N.
Y., Philadelphia, Pa., Pittsburgh, Pa., St. Louis, Mo., and Washington,
D.C. During the past ten years Mr. Rosenwald has given $350,000 toward
the erection of these buildings, other white people have given nearly a
million dollars, while Colored people have contributed over a quarter
of a million dollars. Thus over two million dollars have already been
expended in the construction of Y. M. C. A. buildings in cities for
Colored men.

Great credit for the early development and rapid growth of this work is
due the late W. A. Hunton, who was made a member on the staff of the
International Secretary Board of the Y. M. C. A. Today this work is
continuing to rapidly grow and spread with the friendly co-operation
and hearty support of Messrs. B. H. Fancher, Treas., A. E. Marling,
Chairman and J. R. Mott, Gen’l Sec’y of The International Committee of
the Y. M. C. A., and under the wise supervision of Dr. J. E. Mooreland,
who is being ably assisted by H. K. Craft, W. C. Craver, R. P. Hamlin,
C. H. Tobias, J. B. Watson, Max Yergen and other efficient members
on that large staff. During the World War 350 Y. M. C. A. Colored
Secretaries, under the guidance of Dr. J. E. Moorland, R. B. DeFrantz,
W. J. Faulkner, J. F. Gregory and G. L. Johnson loyally served Colored
soldiers stationed in 55 camps, training schools and forts in America.
Among those who were the leaders in Y. M. C. A. and social work among
the Colored soldiers over-seas were J. E. Blanton, Mrs. Helen Curtis,
Miss Helen Hagan, Dr. John Hope, Mrs. Addie Hunton, Miss Katherine
Johnson, Dr. B. M. Murrell, Dr. H. H. Proctor, C. H. Williams and Max
Yergen.

In the following named cities Y. M. C. A. Branches are being directed
and carried on by their secretaries for the encouragement and uplift of
Colored youths:

  Akron, Ohio, G. W. Thompson, Secretary, 259 So. Main Street.
  Asheville, N. C., N. Martin, Secretary, Market & Eagle Streets.
  Atlanta, Ga., W. J. Trent, Secretary, 146 Butler Street.
  Atlantic City, N. J., C. M. Cain, Secretary, 1711 Artic Avenue.
  Augusta, Ga., Silas Floyd, Secretary, 9th and Miller Streets.
  Baltimore, Md., S. S. Booker, Secretary, 1619 Druid Hill Avenue.
  Beloit, Wis., J. D. Stevenson, Secretary, Colored Men’s Branch.
  Benham, Ky., Alex. Gregory, Secretary, Colored Men’s Branch.
  Birmingham, Ala., A. M. Walker, Secretary, Acipco Branch.
  Bluefield, W. Va., P. A. Goins, Secretary, 432 Scott Street.
  Boston, Mass., B. F. Seldon, Secretary, 316 Huntington Street.
  Brooklyn, N. Y., R. M. Meroney, Secretary, 405 Carlton Avenue.
  Buxton, Iowa, W. L. Hutcherson, General Secretary.
  Camden, N. J., E. C. Richardson, Secretary, Hunton Branch.
  Charleston, S. C., G. D. Brock, Secretary, 61 Cannon Street.
  Charlotte, N. C., J. B. F. Prather, Y. M. C. A., State Committeeman.
  Chicago, Ill., George R. Arthur, Secretary, 3763 So. Wabash Avenue.
  Cincinnati, Ohio, B. W. Overton, 436 W. Ninth Street.
  Columbus, Ohio, N. B. Allen, Secretary, 202 E. Spring Street.
  Columbus, Ga., Robert D. Kelsey, Secretary, 521 Ninth Street.
  Crossett, Arkansas, Chas. E. Johnson, Secretary Colored Men’s Dep’t.
  Dallas, Tex., J. D. Rice, Secretary, 3710 State Street.
  Dayton, Ohio, John A. Green, Secretary, Fifth Street Branch.
  Denver, Col., T. J. Bell, Secretary, 2800 Glenarm Street.
  Detroit, Mich., H. S. Dunbar, Secretary, 1930 St. Antonia Street.
  Des Moines, Iowa, E. C. Robinson, Secretary, 782 West 9th Street.
  East Moline, Ill., B. G. Smith, Secretary, Colored Men’s Branch.
  East St. Louis, Ill., J. E. Nance, Secretary, Colored Men’s Branch.
  Englewood, N. J., W. H. Kindle, Secretary, 135 W. 132nd St., N.Y. City.
  Evanston, Ill., J. D. Ross, Secretary, 1014 Emerson Street.
  Fort Worth, Tex., S. H. Fowler, Sr., Secretary, 915½ Calhoun Street.
  Gary, Ind., H. K. Craft, Secretary, 1716 Washington Street.
  Germantown, Pa., Leon C. James, Secretary, 132 West Rittenhouse St.
  Greenwood, Miss., Thos. M. Elliott, Secretary, Hunton Branch, Box 283.
  Harrisburg, Pa., Fritz Caneler, Secretary, 644 Broad Street.
  Houston, Texas, H. P. Carter, Secretary, 711 Prairie Avenue.
  Indianapolis, Ind., F. E. DeFrantz, Secretary, 450 N. Senate Avenue.
  Indiana Harbor, Ind., A. G. Fallings, Secretary, 2115 137th Street.
  Kansas City, Mo., F. A. Harris, Secretary, 1824 Pasco Boulevarde.
  Los Angeles, Cal., T. A. Greene, Secretary, 1400 E. Ninth Street.
  Louisville, Ky., J. W. Ramsey in charge, 920 West Chestnut St.
  Marshall, Tex., J. W. Davis, Secretary, Colored Men’s Branch.
  Miami, Fla., G. P. McKinney, Jr., Secretary, 1st Street & Avenue H.
  Mineola, Long Island, R. T. Weatherby, Secretary, Nassau-Suffolk County.
  Mobile, Ala., W. J. Williams, Secretary, 510 Congress Street.
  Montclair, N. J., C. H. Bullock, Secretary, Bloomfield Avenue Branch.
  Nashville, Tenn., W. N. Sanders, Secretary, Cor. Cedar St., & 4th Ave. No.
  Newport News, Va., A. F. Williams, Secretary, 2201 Marshall Avenue.
  New York City, N. Y., Thos. E. Taylor, Secretary, 181 West 135th Street.
  Norfolk, Va., C. C. Dogan, Secretary, 440 E. Queen Street.
  Oakland, Cal., Allen O. Newman, Secretary, Colored Men’s Branch.
  Orange, N. J., J. W. Bowers, Secretary, 34 Cebtral Place.
  Philadelphia, Pa., H. W. Porter, Secretary, 1724 Christian Street.
  Pittsburgh, Pa., S. R. Morsell, Secretary, 1847 Central Avenue.
  Princeton, N. J., H. H. Cain, Secretary, 102 Witherspoon Street.
  Richmond, Va., Secretary, 214 East Leigh Street.
  Ridgewood, N. J., A. E. Flournoy, Secretary, 220 Broad Street.
  Rouse, Col., W. T. Thornton, Secretary, Colo. Fuel & Iron Company.
  Savannah, Ga., T. Walter Moore, Secretary, 817 West Broad Street.
  Sewickley, Pa., J. T. Morris, Secretary, 411 Walnut Street.
  Springfield, Ohio, W. S. Smith, Secretary, 209 So. Center Street.
  St. Louis, Mo., D. D. Jones, Secretary, 2839 Pine Street.
  Tulsa, Okla., G. A. Gregg, Secretary, Hunton Branch.
  Washington, D.C., Wm. Stevenson, Secretary, 1816 12th Street, N. W.

[Illustration]



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLORED WOMEN

NATIONAL COLORED CLUB WOMEN

    “Lifting As We Climb”--Their motto in life
        Is their battle cry in uplift strife
    In leading their women to higher things
        So better to rear their Race off-springs.
                 --_Harrison._


While they went about their self-imposed and greatly beneficial tasks
in somewhat crude ways that were executed under circumstances far more
trying and peculiar than these modern times; nevertheless, Harriet
Tubman and Sojourner Truth may be rightly called the first real welfare
and uplift national workers among American Colored women. And the
histories of the untiring efforts, speakings and lectures of those two
pioneers who fearlessly worked for the freedom of their Race sisters
and brothers should be learned by all Colored youths, especially girls.

While leading Colored women throughout the country as far back as 1894
had already decided and carefully planned to gather and form some kind
of a national body among themselves, they were indeed suddenly inspired
to whole-heartedly and fearlessly carry out those plans immediately,
when a prejudiced white editor of a village paper in the United States
published an open letter in which he accused alike all American Colored
women as being without moral characters and uplifting principles.
Not only the educated, refined and moral Colored women resented and
challenged that poisoned-pen letter that had lied on and slandered a
whole race of their sisters, but the largest nationally known white
newspapers of large cities in both America and Europe came out in
broad-minded editorials verbally chastising and denouncing without
mercy that editor of their race who stained his profession and shamed
his race by stooping so low in unsuccessfully using that narrow-minded
and short-sighted means of gaining subscriptions for his failing paper
and fame for his unheard of name.

As a result of the above plans and decisions nearly a dozen States
sent upward of a hundred leading and representative Colored women
who met in July 1895 in Boston, Mass., where the first National
Convention of Colored Women was formed, with Mrs. Josephine St. Pierre
Ruffin as president, Mrs. Booker T. Washington and Mrs. Helen Cook as
Vice-Presidents and Miss Elizabeth C. Carter as secretary. During the
meeting that convention was given the name of “The National Association
of Colored Women.” This body became affiliated with The National
Council of Women in 1900 and was incorporated in 1904. At different
times it has had as its presidents; Mrs. Mary Church Terrell, A. M.,
Washington, D.C., Mrs. Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee Institute, Ala.,
Miss Elizabeth C. Carter, New Bedford, Mass., Mrs. Mary B. Talbert,
Buffalo, N. Y. and Miss Hallie Q. Brown, Wilberforce, Ohio, who is
its present presiding officer. Those who are Miss Brown’s closest
assistants in helping to carry on this noble work are named as follows:
Mrs. Janie Porter Barrett, Peake, Va., Mrs. Ruth L. Bennett, Chester,
Pa., Mrs. Alice Cary, Atlanta, Ga., Mrs. Charlotte Dett, Niagara Falls,
N. Y., Mrs. Addie W. Dickerson, Phila., Pa., Mrs. C. L. Hamilton,
Indianola, Ill., Mrs. C. R. McDowell, Hannibal, Mo., Mrs. J. C. Napier,
Nashville, Tenn., Miss Georgia A. Nugent, Louisville, Ky., Mrs. Minnie
Scott, Toledo, Ohio, Mrs. E. J. N. Simms, Spokane, Wash., Mrs. Mamie E.
Steward, Louisville, Ky., Mrs. Marion Wilkerson, Orangeburg, S. C. and
Mrs. W. T. B. Williams, Tuskegee Institute, Ala.

In regard to the relations of this association with the International
Council of Women, several Colored women have attended different
European meetings as representatives from the United States. Foremost
among such women are Miss Hallie Q. Brown, Mrs. Mary Church Terrell,
Mrs. Mary B. Talbert and Dr. Mary F. Waring. The following is an
extract from the July 1921 issue of The Crisis:

“The Committee on International Relations--the highest committee of
women in personnel of representatives in the League of Nations--has
chosen Mrs. Mary B. Talbert as a member. Mrs. Talbert was the first
accredited Negro delegate to sit in the International Council of women
and one of five American women to speak for the National Council of
Women of the United States of America in the House of Parliament at
Norway.”

The quotation below is taken from the February 1921 issue of The
Favorite Magazine. “Dr. Mary F. Waring, recently returned from a trip
through eleven European countries, and one of twenty American women to
represent the United States at the International Council of Women in
Norway. She had the distinction of being the only woman commissioner of
the Lincoln Jubilee in 1915 and the organizer of the Red Cross units
Canteen and Home Nursing classes during the World War. After the war
the Community Service appointed her as a national organizer for girls’
work.”

Some of the national leading and most prominent Colored women before
the public today who as workers in this association or along other
elevating lines have encouraged, inspired and helped thousands of
American Colored girls to move out of Nobody’s Alley and live on
Somebody’s Avenue are Miss Mary M. Bethune, Daytona, Fla., Miss Eva D.
Bowles, New York City, N. Y., Miss Hallie Q. Brown, Wilberforce, O.,
Miss Nannie H. Burroughs, Washington, D.C., Madame E. Azalia Hackley,
Detroit, Mich., Mrs. Addie W. Hunton, New York City, N. Y., Miss Jane
E. Hunter, Cleveland, O., Miss Lucey Laney, Augusta, Ga., Mrs. S. W.
Layton, Phila., Pa., Mrs. R. R. Moton, Tuskegee, Ala., Mrs. Alice
Dunbar Nelson, Wilmington, Del., Mrs. Mary B. Talbert, Buffalo, N. Y.,
Mrs. Florence C. Talbert, Detroit, Mich., Mrs. Mary Church Terrell,
Washington, D. C., Mrs. Maggie L. Walker, Richmond, Va., Dr. Mary F.
Waring, Chicago., Ill., Mrs. Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee Institute,
Ala. and Mrs. Butler R. Wilson, Boston, Mass.

[Illustration]



National Uplift Organization founded and run by Negroes


The National Negro Business League

In 1900 the late Dr. Booker T. Washington, founder of Tuskegee
Institute, organized in Boston, Mass. The National Negro Business
League, which is now under the forceful and energetic leadership of
Dr. Robert R. Moton. Such nationally known men as Chas. Banks, J. C.
Napier and Emmett J. Scott are among those who are closely allied with
the president of this League in so widely spreading its influences of
encouragement, inspiration and business knowledge.

As a description of the workings of this organization, the writer gives
below some extracts from an article written for the August 13, 1921
issue of The Chicago Defender by E. Davidson Washington, son of the
late Dr. Booker T. Washington.

“While the Business League has a distinctive purpose (that of promoting
the commercial and financial development of our Race,) it does not
attempt to prescribe for every racial endeavor; yet it is a significant
fact that through the instrumentality of this the national body and
its more than 600 local branches or local leagues scattered throughout
the country a very large part of the progress made by the Race in the
direction of home and farm ownership, banking, insurance, manufacturing
and mercantile enterprises has been achieved since the organization of
the Business League.

“Among the many subjects discussed are such as: “Making Farming Pay,”
“Building a Negro Town,” “The Relation of Education to Business,”
“Conducting a Grocery Store,” “Editing a Newspaper” and many others
which space will not permit me to mention here. Questions are asked,
and in that way those who did not come up to their expectations the
previous year try, when they return to their various communities, as
far as possible, to put into practice what they have gained through the
league.

“The symposiums conducted in the main convention by the following
organizations are highly interesting and instructive: The National
Negro Bankers’ Association, the National Negro Funeral Directors’
Association, the National Negro Press, the National Negro Bar
Association and the National Negro Insurance Men.

“Finally, as a Race we must not be discouraged. There will come to us,
as to all races, seasons of depression and gloom. Once in a while even
those in high places may seem to seek to insult, humiliate and harass
us, but they cannot last. “The morning cometh.” Those who treat us
unjustly are losing more than we are. Above all, we must not lose faith
in ourselves nor in our Race. We must be as proud of being Negroes as
a Japanese is of being a Japanese. It is through such meetings as the
National Negro Business League that the Negro is encouraged and made
to look upon the brighter side of life and with more optimism for the
future than ever before.”


Association For The Study of Negro Life and History

American school white boys and girls get the larger part of their
inspirations to become great men and women mostly from what they read
in the public school United States Histories about big things members
of their race have done. As white authors in writing such histories saw
fit to leave out of them all references (with the exception of slavery)
to the parts the American Colored people have had in helping to make
American history, public school Colored boys and girls get no racial
encouragements nor inspirations from such histories.

The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, organized in
1915, is doing a grand work in helping to supply the American Colored
youth with the desired encouraging and inspiring information relating
to Negro historical achievements in the United States. The president of
this organ, R. E. Park is ably assisted in this work by such scholars
as Drs. J. E. Mooreland and C. G. Woodson.


The National Equal Rights League

The National Equal Rights League was started in 1910 and one of its
chief purposes is contending for and securing in peaceful but firm
ways the same equal rights in the United States for American Colored
citizens as those so generously given to members of other races,
especially many foreigners in this country who do not understand the
laws, cannot speak the language and have no intentions of becoming
naturalized. The president of this organization is N. S. Taylor, who is
loyally assisted by such race leaders as Wm. Monroe Trotter, and B. N.
Murrell.


The Lincoln League of America

The Lincoln League of America is an organization that was started in
1919, and one of its main objects is to instil race pride on a broader
scale among Colored people and at the same time encourage them along
all lines of citizenship privileges and advancement. Roscoe C. Simmons
is president of this body and is nobly aided in this work by such
national figures as Henry Lincoln Johnson and Walter Cohen.


National Association of Teachers for Colored Schools

The National Association of Teachers for Colored Schools is under
the scholarly and experienced leadership of Prof. J. M. Gandy. It is
due mostly to this organization that the managements and sentiments
of the different Southern Colored colleges and schools have come to
better understand each other and thereby work in closer conjunction and
harmony for the broadest and most practical development of Negro youths
in both industrial and higher education. Other officials who have
helped to bring about such good feelings are S. X. Floyd and W. H. A.
Howard.


Negro Organization Society

Although it has not yet developed into a national organization, the
Negro Organization Society of Virginia is making rapid strides in that
direction. It was organized several years ago, at the wise suggestion
of the late Dr. H. B. Frissell, by Major R. R. Moton, who with the
valuable assistance of Captain Allen Washington, Profs. J. M. Gandy,
T. C. Erwin, Rev. A. A. Graham, Lawyer T. C. Walker, Hon. Robert.
E. Clay and others soon made it a leading source of encouragement
and helpfulness throughout the entire State. While its purpose is to
unite into one large solid body for more mutual understandings all
the church, fraternal and social organizations and societies, big and
little, in the State; it has no desires nor intentions whatever of
selfishly absorbing within itself or taking away the individuality of
any organized body that comes under its advice and help.

One of the chief objects of this society is to gather all such
organizations in the state under its guiding wisdom and sheltering arms
into one big congenial family, whose members may then be constantly
taught how best to work in helpful understandings and harmony among
themselves and in brotherhood co-operations with their white neighbors
in order to secure “better health, better schools, better homes and
better farms” for the Colored people. These efforts have proven so
fruitful that this society has already overflown its Virginian cup of
uplift influence that is now running and dripping over the sides into
surrounding states. And under the continued successful “Whooping-up”
campaigns of its present leader, Major Allen Washington, this organ is
destined some day to become one of the most helpful national movements
in America in aiding to bring about stronger and broader good-will
feelings between the two races and at the same time more friendly
and solidly uniting all Colored organizations for a more rapid and
all-round advancement of the Negro Race.



THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS


On February 19, 1919, Dr. W. E. B. DuBois, editor of The Crisis,
called a meeting known as The Pan-African Congress that held three
days’ session in the Grand Hotel, Paris, France. It was attended by
fifty-eight delegates representing sixteen different Negro groups, who
passed resolutions of which two of the most important paragraphs are
quoted below as follows:

“Whenever persons of African descent are civilized and able to meet the
tests of surrounding culture, they shall be accorded the same rights as
their fellow citizens: they shall not be denied on account of race or
color a voice in their own Government, justice before the courts and
economic and social equality according to ability and desert.

“Whenever it is proven that African natives are not receiving just
treatment at the hands of any State or that any State deliberately
excludes its civilized citizens or subjects of Negro descent from
its body politic and cultural, it shall be the duty of the League of
Nations to bring the matter to the attention of the civilized world.”

Along with Dr. DuBois, some of the other internationally known persons
who attended that first Congress were Boisneuf, Deputy from Guadaloupe;
Captain Boutte; Canadace, French Deputy from Guadaloupe; Mme Chapoteau;
Mrs. Helen M. Curtis; Diagne, French Deputy from Senegal; Grossilliere,
Deputy from Martinique; Mrs. Ida Gibbs Hunt; Mrs. Addie W. Hunton; Dr.
John Hope; President King, Peace Delegate from Liberia; B. F. Seldon
and Roscoe C. Simmons.

The Pan-African Congress plans to hold its second meeting in Europe
in 1921 and hold sessions in four different countries as follows: in
London, England on August 28th and 29th; in Brussels, Belgium on August
31st, September 1st and 2nd; in Paris, France on September 4th and
5th, and a “Special Committee to visit the Assembly of the League of
Nations, Geneva, Switzerland, after September 6th.”

In brief (according to the July 1921 issue of The Crisis) the chief
working plans mapped out on the practical progress of this Congress
are as follows: to satisfy the urgent need of securing first-hand
information “about Africa’s physical, climatic and commercial
conditions, as well as the attitude of the natives and the European
governments”; to thresh such newly gained knowledge and put it into
the form of a statement, presenting the main social problems which
face the Negros of the world; to enable the leaders of the different
Negro groups the world over to become acquainted; to get in touch
with and put before those persons, groups, nations and organizations
of various races who either do sympathize with the peoples of Africa
and their descendants or who would sympathize with them if they knew
the fundamental characteristics, needs and deserts of the black man all
over the globe; to have the Pan-African Congress finally evolved into
one permanent body that welds the Negro people and their friends for
the emancipation of the race.

“For his services in originating and conducting in Paris the
Pan-African Congress”, Dr. DuBois was presented with the Spingarn
Medal. And this Pan-African Congress, “in the judgment of President
Hope of Morehouse College”, “made the Negro representatives from
seventeen countries discover that the problems of colored people the
world over are the same.” The origin and purpose of the above mentioned
Spingarn Medal is explained in the following quotation:

“A few years ago Dr. J. E. Spingarn of New York decided that he would
offer each year a gold medal to be awarded to the man or woman of
African descent who had rendered valuable, though perhaps somewhat
inconspicuous, service to his race and to modern civilization.
Dr. Spingarn had very clearly in his mind the “for merit” type of
decoration. This idea has always been kept before the committee on
award”. (Ref. July 1920 issue of the Southern Workman).

A complete list of those who have been awarded the Spingarn Medal since
1915, when it was first presented, up to the present date is as follows:

  1915, Dr. Ernest E. Just, Scholar-Scientist.
  1916, Colonel Chas. Young, United States Army.
  1917, Harry T. Burleigh, Singer-Composer.
  1918, Wm. Stanley Braithwaite, Poet-Critic.
  1919, Archibald H. Grimke, Author-Orator.
  1920, Dr. W. E. B. DuBoise, Sociologist-Author.
  1921, Charles E. Gilpin, Celebrated Actor.



MARCUS GARVEY

Whatever may be their private thoughts and judgements as to the
methods, purposes and final results of his efforts; the one conclusion
at which close observing Colored and white people alike have
unanimously arrived and publically admitted is that the Negro, Marcus
Garvey (who is estimated to have united more than a million of his Race
people into different organizations) has unquestionably become “The
World’s Greatest Group Organizer” of today.

Relative to the Race interests, efforts and leaderships of Dr. DuBois
and Mr. Garvey, the writer quotes below the very logical and impartial
editorial that appeared in Editor J. Finley Wilson’s “Washington Eagle”
that was published September 17, 1921, in Washington, D.C.


    “WORLD LEAGUE OF THE AFRICAN RACES NECESSARY”

    “We are very much in favor of the Pan-African movement which Dr.
    W. E. B. DuBois has in charge and is trying to make a success of.
    The race needs an international organization which will gather
    representatives of the African peoples of the world, where their
    rights and wrongs may be registered and looked after, and where,
    annually, they may gather in an open congress or a discussion and
    agreement upon questions affecting them. The question is a broad
    one, race-embracing, and should be considered from that viewpoint.

    “On the other hand, we are very much in favor of the movement
    fostered by Mr. Marcus Garvey, the provisional president of Africa,
    to create a sentiment in Africa in favor of a oneness of sentiment
    among Africans themselves and the building up of African States
    for Africans. Mr. Garvey has been pointing out, recently, and very
    wisely, we think, that the time may come when Afro-Americans who
    are dissatisfied with their conditions in States of the United
    States may desire to go to Africa, and to a State in Africa
    governed by Africans. This is reasonable foresight.

    “There are millions of Jews working hard for the rehabilitation of
    Palestine who have no desire to make it their home, as they are
    satisfied in the States where they are, but there are millions
    who are not satisfied, as in Turkey and Russia, who would go
    to Palestine and build its waste places while repatriating it.
    It is in the same way that we regard the building of a strong
    African State as a sufficient asylum of those of the race who are
    persecuted anywhere on the globe that they may be.

    “Mr. Garvey is as much of a prophet in his way as Dr. DuBois, and
    we should be willing to hold up the hands of both of them in any
    plans they may advance which seems possible of working out for the
    good of the race. Both of them have ideas and methods we do not
    approve, but that would be the case with any movement whatsoever,
    that may be started, on a large or small scale, by any man or group
    of men of the race, but it should not prevent us from encouraging
    them in any idea or plan which appears reasonable and possible of
    resulting in good for the race.

    “A World League of African People is necessary. An Independent
    African State in Africa is necessary. We already have Liberia and
    Abyssinia, but we need more than these, and stronger than both of
    them.”



ON THE FARM

  EDUCATION                                    THE NEGRO NEEDS ALL

  Wild men first learned to scratch the ground:--Agricultural Education
  In building caves first trades they found:   --Industrial Education
  Then exchange of hides made business boom,   --Commercial Education
  And science was born gazing stars and moon   --University Education
                 --_Harrison._


Since the raising of tobacco, cotton, corn, sugar cane and other farm
products had been the main reason for starting slavery in America, it
is plainly seen that farming was the chief work of the Colored people
until they were set free. And it is quite natural that they took a
great dislike to a work that they had been compelled to do against
their wills for over two hundred years. So at the close of the Civil
War when they were free to choose their own work, the majority of
ex-slaves were willing to do any kind of labor under the sun (or over
the sun for that matter) but work on the farm. Such a state of affairs
continued for a number of years and caused much of the rich fertile
lands in the South to go unfarmed, neglected and runned-down, but after
some years away from the only kind of work they knew the most about,
their dislike to farming began to lessen and they gradually drifted
back to work patches of land on shares with their former owners who
had survived the war. And their return to the bosom of nature rapidly
increased as the ex-slaves saw how it would enable them to make a
living and save money to buy land for themselves.

As a result of that movement back to the farms which continued to
increase, there were, according to the 1910 census, over two hundred
thousand farms or twenty-one million acres of land owned in the United
States by Colored people. Negroes in the South alone own more than
two hundred thousand of those farms that are valued at more than four
hundred million dollars. Just in the state of Virginia Colored people
own over one million acres of land that are valued at over ten million
dollars. The following named are just a handful of the Colored farmers
throughout the South and West who own and cultivate farms ranging in
size from 500 to 3,000 acres of land; J. N. Brown, Tenn.,; J. Collins,
S. C.; Robt. Chatman, Texas; Wash Dillard, Texas; Lewis Dolphin,
Okla.; J. G. Groves, Kan.; Wiley Hinds’ family, Cal.; J. A. Hickey, G.
N. Humphries, Texas; Howard Jackson, Ala.; Chas. Jackson, La.; Deal
Jackson, Ga.; Y. U. Jones, Texas; John Lyttle, N. C.; J. H. McDuffy,
Fla.; Wm. Mazy, John F. McGowon, L. A. Nash, Lance Parker, Dennis
Pollard, H. Penneth, Jack Taylor, Texas; Jake Simmons, Okla.; R. L.
Smith, Newton Smith, La.; A. W. Taylor, Texas; J. Thompson, Ga.; W. B.
Turner, Va., and Frank Wallace, Texas.

Through the encouragement and helpfulness of such farming agencies
as the Smith-Lever Funds for Agricultural Extension Education, the
Smith-Hughes Funds for Vocational Education, The Federal Farm Loans and
the Farmers’ Co-operative Demonstration Work, a new interest, rekindled
enthusiasm and extra efforts have been aroused among Colored farmers in
all parts of the country. They have at last been made to plainly see
and fully understand that it is always to their seemingly dull country
barnyard gates that the boiled-shirt, stiff-collared and learned
business and college men of the cities must sooner of later turn for
their ham and eggs, steak and chops, bread and butter and different
vegetables. These same farmers manfully realize that they or others
can only produce such necessities of life by daily mingling among the
neighing horses, the mooing cows, the grunting pigs, the bleating
sheep, the cackling hens and the crowing roosters. They are the people
who with rolled-up sleeves cheerfully feel they must be stained with
the earth’s sweet dirt (for what is so fragrant, so refreshing and so
sweet as the smell of newly plowed furrows on an early spring morn,
when crows overhead fly with taunting caws and robins scratch the sods
for a wormy cause?) or the city folks for want of life-giving foods
would soon die of starvation.

In order to help prevent the above dreaded calamity overtaking the
country by learning how to better intensify crops and redouble their
products, Colored farmers both young and old are taking either short or
full courses in scientific agriculture in the following named schools
that are a few among the many giving such instructions:

Agricultural & Mechanical College for Negroes, Normal, Ala.;
Agricultural & Industrial State School, Nashville, Tenn.; Agricultural
& Technical College, Greensboro, N. C.; Agricultural & Normal
University., Langston, Okla.; Alcorn Agricultural & Mechanical College,
Alcorn, Miss.; Branch Normal College, Pine Bluff, Ark.; Downingtown
Industrial & Agricultural College, Downingtown, Pa.; Florida
Agricultural & Mechanical College Tallahassee, Fla.; Georgia Normal
& Agricultural College, Albany, Ga.; Hampton Normal & Agricultural
Institute, Hampton, Va.; Armstrong Agricultural & Industrial Institute,
West Butler, Ala.; Tuskegee Normal & Industrial Institute, Tuskegee,
Ala. (extracts from Negro Year Book, 1918-1918 edition, pgs. 2-308-345)

As soon as Colored men have finished agricultural courses in the above
named or other schools, they are fully prepared to locate in any
section of the country and put into practice the farming theories they
have just learned. It is quite natural that the majority of them want
to settle and farm in the South--the birth place of their parents and
usually of themselves, and the best farming district in the United
States, and many of them do settle there. But quite a few (and the
number is rapidly increasing) after deciding to follow farming as a
life work have settled in the North, or even better have followed
Horace Greeley’s famous advice “Young man, go West”. There they have
settled with assurances of better human treatments and fuller civic
rights due all human beings and American citizens, than they would
have received if they had settled in many parts of the South. On the
Pacific Coast they have found farming conditions more in accord with
their special agricultural training than any place in America with
the exception of the South. And whenever any of those Colored farmers
arrived in California, for instance, without money to buy a few acres
of land, they at once hired themselves out to farmers (without any fear
of Southern peonage systems) and in a little while had saved enough
money to strike out for themselves. During the time they served as farm
laborers they were able to get practical and valuable experience in
three ways; through experimenting they got acquainted with the Western
crops that were new to them; they got acquainted with the customs
and habits of the people, and they had time to carefully and slowly
investigate many sections of the country before selecting the plot of
land and district in which they planned to later and permanently settle.

The following two quotations are parts of articles written by Governor
Wm. D. Stephens and Secretary of State Frank C. Jordan of California,
and which articles appeared in the April 1, 1920 issue of the
California Free Lance that has since been absorbed into the California
Voice. The reading of these quotations may be of interest to those
concerned.

Governor Stephens said--“Workers are what we need and opportunity was
never so widely open to the Negro as it is today. A very large number
of Colored workers are well fitted for farm labor and it would be
better for them, and a measure of aid to our agricultural interests,
if they could be diverted from the cities into the country. The farm
laborer situation is difficult in this state and steps might well be
taken to shift to the country those Colored men who are residing in
large cities, under conditions unsuited to them. Our Negro workers
could themselves help to solve this problem. Any effort initiated on
their part undoubtedly would meet with active encouragement. Some
adaptation to new conditions would be necessary, but this could easily
be brought about through co-operation between Negro workers and the
employing farmers of our state. I regard this matter of shifting
workers who are misplaced in cities to the farms of our state as a
matter of importance, and I invite the earnest attention of the Negro
people to it as one primarily in their interest as well as being for
the best interest of our state.”

Secretary of State, Jordan said in part: “California today has need of
farmers and farm laborers. There is a general alarm felt by persons
acquainted with farming conditions at the shortage of laborers. The
farmer or farm laborer has a comfortable living under health-giving
conditions and the money he makes he can save. He is an independent
producer and plays a most important part in the national welfare. The
California lands are marvels of richness. Truck gardening, fruit
orchards, wheat and rice fields, cotton lands--in fact, nearly all
farm culture--can be found in this State. The important question at
present is, Where are we to find laborers to increase and intensify
cultivation? Immigration from European countries has practically
ceased. Mexican labor is difficult and uncertain. We can only hope for
laborers to come from the more thickly settled parts of the country.
The youth of today needs to be educated not only in the technique of
farming, but also in the advantages of farm life. The prosperity of the
nation rests largely on the agricultural workers. The city dwellers
cannot reduce the high cost of living without the farmer’s co-operation
in increased production. The factory worker depends upon the farmer
for food. His high wages mean little to him unless food is plentiful.
Let a young man consider carefully the opportunities offered by
country as well as civic life--the sturdy independence, the healthful
surroundings, the wholesome food, of the former--before he decides what
his life work will be.”

Copied below is another article “Land Conditions” that appeared in the
same issue of the Free Lance and which article goes more in detail
regarding the wonderful opportunities of farm life in California--the
land of not-too-cold nor not-too-hot climate, the land of singing
birds, blooming flowers and golden fruits.

“Probably the greatest opportunity for the race lies in the
agricultural sections of the state. Land at reasonable prices is now
being offered by the Southern Pacific Land Company in sixteen counties
in various parts of the state. While a great deal of this land is
available for grazing purposes, yet there are large tracts awaiting
the coming of the man with the plow, chief among which are sections
laying in the beautiful Antelope Valley, situated in Los Angeles
county, which section’s chief products are alfalfa, grain, fruit and
dairying products. The soil of this valley is somewhat varied. The
upper mesas and slopes in the main valley are decomposed granite of
fine texture, with considerable vegetable humus. In the lower levels
there are great deposits of silt and in every case the soils are light
and easy to work The water conditions are all that can be desired,
there being quite a deal of artesian wells, where the water is found at
depths varying from 50 to 600 feet. Prices of land in this valley vary
from $2 to $10 per acre for grazing land and from $10 to $71.50 for
agricultural lands, with possibilities of irrigation by pumping.

“In Fresno county, the home of the raisin and the Thompson grapes,
there will be found plenty of opportunities for dairying, fruit and
general farming. This county has now quite a large number of Negro
ranchers who are engaged profitably in various agricultural pursuits.
The price of land in this vicinity ranges from $20 to $143 per acre,
with fine possibilities of irrigation by pumping.

“Nearly all sections in the State of California are filled with
opportunities for men with small capital to engage in various kinds of
farming. While some are impressed by the large ranches, there is ample
opportunities to engage in small farming projects. Land at reasonable
prices and for all purposes can be obtained in the following counties;
Siskiyou, Shasta, Tehama, Butte, Nevada, Yuba, El Dorado, Monterey,
Stanislaus, Fresno, Imperial, Riverside, San Bernardino, Los Angeles,
Kern and Tulare, Recent reports from various sections of the State show
that there are now over 2100 Negroes engaged in agricultural, forestry
and animal husbandry in this State.”

In his annual report of February 1920, Secretary Houston of the
Department of Agriculture pointed out that when both the acreage and
yield per acre are taken into account, the American farmer leads the
world in individual production of crops. He further pointed out that
the aggregate value of all crops raised in the United States for that
year amounted to over fifteen billion dollars. These facts are truly
very encouraging and complimentary to the American farmer and are
quite apt to give him somewhat of a “big-head” until he reads “Social
Aspects of the Decreasing Food Surplus in The United States.” This is
a nation-wide agricultural survey written by one of America’s best
authorities on that subject, Prof. Bernhard Ostrolenk, Director of the
National Farm school at Farm School, Pa.

One of the most startling facts and timely warnings he brings out in
his survey is that three million farms in the United States are idle on
account of the American people not developing their unimproved lands.
In writing about the already improved lands and abandoned farms, he
says in part:

“And now we come to the most serious aspect of the agricultural
situation in the United States. For the period of 1900 to 1910 more
than two and a half million people left the country to go to the
cities. Double that figure could safely be assumed to be the true
situation from 1910 to 1920. A tragedy is facing the country. Scarcity
of food means dissatisfaction, unrest, riots, mob rule, anarchy.

“Instead of proud boasting when new acquisitions are made in our
cities, new apprehensions for the future food supply should be aroused.
Can the Nation afford to be indifferent to the farmer much longer? We
need an exodus from our congested districts back to the soil and the
National Farm School is ready to lead in that movement. We have proved
that it can be done by taking raw city youths and training them to be
successful farmers. Eighty-seven per cent of our graduates own and
operate their own farms.”

In giving out this advice and information of deep thought and timely
warning, Prof. Ostrolenk has meant for it to apply to and benefit the
great masses of Colored people who are jammed in the cities living in
unsanitary courts and alleys, as he has meant for it to influence the
masses of his own people who have left the country for the cities. And
in putting a last spread on this bread-and-butter subject, the writer
can truthfully say that just as the National Farm School, under the
direction of Prof. Ostrolenk, is taking the lead among other white
agricultural schools in helping to solve this great problem by turning
out such efficient white farmers; so are Hampton Institute, under
the guidance of Dr. Jas. E. Gregg, and Tuskegee Institute, under the
leadership of Dr. Robt. R. Moton, gladly and whole-heartedly joining
hands with the National Farm School in helping to bring about this
“Back-to-the-Farm” movement by taking the lead among other Negro
agricultural schools in turning out practically and scientifically
trained Colored farmers.

Young men who wish to take a scientific course in agriculture but
hesitate to do so because they fear their race and color will prevent
them from getting sales for their products, should remember that:

The greatest and only food supplier in the world (the earth) is
Colored, and that no race of people ever attempts to wean itself from
sucking its daily life-giving nourishments from Nature’s nippled
breasts just because those breasts are made of the brown colored dust
and dirt from which all crops must come.

[Illustration]



ON THE FARM

CHESTNUT HUNTING

    It was after four, one Friday when
        We all rejoiced at school-week end,
    And plans were made for Saturday roves
        Among the trees of chestnut groves.

    And half that night we thought of fun
        That we would have when day begun;
    So up we got with early sun
        To get our chores real quickly done.

    The cross-roads by the old mill-dam
        Was where we formed our happy band
    Of laughing girls and whistling boys,
        Who vied their chums in making noise.

    Blushing maids in tam-o’-shanters,
        And teasing lads with roguish banters
    All romped away one happy crew
        To where we knew the best nuts grew.

    What luck to be a boy or girl,
        When leaves begin to brown and curl!
    What joy it is to feel the thrill
        That’s in the air from hill to hill!

    Tramping over knolls and dales,
        We saw a woods fenced in with rails;
    And there tree limbs were bending down
        Thick with burs all big and round.

    Then we raced by rocky juts,
        Until we spied the brownish nuts
    Peeping down from sticky burs
        Smooth inside as softest furs.

    Boys shook boughs and nuts rained down
        Rolling over frost-bit ground:
    Those whose hands the burs did bruise
        Upon them stamped with heavy shoes.

    Some stood on the ground below
        So their clubs to better throw:
    Girls with sacks from flour mill
        Picked enough each bag to fill.

    When on a fence we climbed to chat,
        The top rail broke and down we sat
    On sticky burs all round about
        That made us dance as well as pout.

    What jolly times we had out there
        Joking some two as a loving pair,
    ’Till baskets all were well heaped up,
        When home we went to get our sup’.

    We hid the nuts clear out of sight,
        To roast or boil some winter night,
    When coals glowed red within the grate
        And snow outdoors fell deep and late.

    Oh! that I were a youth once more
        To gather chestnuts as of yore
    From trees that once had blooming health
        But long since dead from insects’ stealth.

    Whenever now through woods I go,
        My anguished heart does overflow
    To see the blighted chestnut die
        While puzzled science no cure does spy.
                 --_Harrison._

[Illustration]



IN THE TRADE SCHOOLS

BOOKER T. WASHINGTON

    He loved both mankind and the soil,
        And taught his folks to learn to toil
    In all trades of the manual work
        That kept them from an idle shirk.

    Tuskegee stands a monument
        To Booker T. whose life was spent
    On begging trips for cash and fuel
        To build and run that world-famed school.
                 --_Harrison._


Just as the late Dr. Booker T. Washington, founder of the wonderful
school, Tuskegee, was the greatest agricultural and industrial leader
of his race in the United States; so Dr. Robert R. Moton, former
educator at Hampton Institute and present principal of Tusgkee
Institute, is today the foremost leader of the American Colored people
in industrial and agricultural education. And the tireless efforts and
uplifting influence of those two great industrial leaders have either
originated or greatly encouraged and advanced much of the skilled
industrial and intensive agricultural progress made by the Colored
people in America during the past thirty or more years.

But the pioneer and greatest industrial educator of them all was
General Samuel Chapman Armstrong who founded in 1868 the famous
Hampton Institute, which is said to be the leading school of its kind
in America, and among the best in the world. For years not even many
intelligent white and Colored people looked with kindly favor upon
General Armstrong’s then new and strange methods of teaching the head,
the hand and the heart to work together for the highest development
of an individual or a race. People then generally thought that it was
foolish to go to school just to learn the trades or how to work on a
farm, as they had always been taught that schools were places where one
went to learn to study books alone. And that was what nearly every one
wanted to do as it was thought to be a disgrace and dishonor to work
with the hands. But many years had not passed before it was seen and
proved that General Armstrong’s methods were among the most valuable
educational teachings in the world.

And today civilized countries throughout the world are using in their
private, public and government schools vocational and industrial plans
and methods copied after those originated by the far-sighted General
Armstrong and so successfully carried on after his death by Dr. Hollis
Burke Frissell. The unusual beneficial careers of those two life long
friends of Colored peoples stand with the foremost among the careers
of many brave white men and women who have not been ashamed to follow
the footsteps of Christ by unselfishly giving their lives and fortunes
for the encouragement and uplift of an oppressed people. Since the
death of Dr. Frissell a few years ago, Hampton has been under the
careful and progressive leadership of Dr. Jas. E. Gregg who has kept
up the high grade of industrial education he found there. He has also
raised the academic standards to higher planes, in order to better
fit his graduates to more successfully face the advanced educational
requirements they have to meet when going out into the world to wring
success from the opportunities that will constantly come into their
callings.

Below are named a few of the other Colored industrial schools that are
yearly turning out hundreds of skilled and practical auto repairers,
blacksmiths, bricklayers, carpenters, cabinetmakers, domestic
science teachers, dressmakers, engineers, house matrons, machinists,
milliners, painters, printers, plumbers, school teachers, shoemakers,
steamfitters, tailors, tinsmiths, upholsters, wheelwrights and other
artisans.

Albion Academy, Franklintown, S. C.; Americus Institute, Americus, Ga.;
Berean Ind. School, Phila., Pa.; Calhoun Colored School, Calhoun, Ala.;
Camden Colored High School, Camden, Ark.,; Coleman College, Gibsland,
La.; Betts Academy, Trenton, S. C.; Cheyney Training School, Cheyney,
Pa.; Christiansburg Ind. Institute, Cambria Va.; Clayton Ind. School,
Manor, Texas; Clinton Nor. & Ind. College, Rockhill, S. C.; Colored
Industrial School, Cincinnati, O.; Cookman, Institute, Jacksonville,
Fla.; Daytona Training School for Girls, Daytona, Fla.; Delaware Nor. &
Ind. School, Dover, Del.; Dunbar Training School, Brownsville, Tenn.;
Florida Bapt. Academy, St., Augustine, Fla.; Fort Valley High & Ind.
Inst., Fort Valley, Ga.; Fort Worth Ind. & Mech. Col., Fort Worth,
Tex.; Georgia State & Ind. College, Savannah, Ga.; Greenville Ind.
Inst., Greenville, Miss.; Haines Nor. & Ind. Insti., Augusta, Ga.;
Henderson Normal Inst., Henderson, N. V.; Joseph Brick Ind. School,
Bricks, N. C.; Lincoln Normal School, Marion, Ala.; Lincoln Inst, of
Kentucky, Lincoln Ridge, Ky.; Knox Academy, Selma, Ala.; Manassas
Ind. School, Manassas, Va.; Mary Potter Memorial School, Oxford, N.
C.; Mayesville Ind. Inst., Mayesville, S. C.; Mound Bayou Ind. Col.,
Mound Bayou, Miss.; National Training School, (women) Washington, D.C.;
New Jersey Nor. Training School, Bordentown, N. J.; Oklahoma Nor. &
Ind. Inst., Boley, Okla.; Penn Normal & Ind. School, Frogmore, S. C.;
Princess Anne Academy, Princess Anne, Md.; Prairie View State Nor. &
Ind. School, Prairie View, Texas; Schofield N. & Ind. Inst., Aiken, S.
C.; Sater State Normal & Ind. School, Winston-Salem, N. C.; Snow Hill
Inst., Snow Hill, Ala.; St. Augustine School, Raleigh, N. C.; St. Paul
Nor. & Ind. Inst. Lawrenceville, Va.; Vicksburg Ind. School, Vicksburg,
Miss.; Voorhees Ind. School, Denmark, S. C.; State College for Colored
Youth, Dover, Del.; Walker Bapt. Inst., Augusta, Ga.; Waters Normal
Inst., Winton, N. C. (extracts from Work’s Negro Year book, 1918-1919
edition, pages 309-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20).


IN THE TRADE SCHOOLS

While a great many of these schools are kept going through the
donations of money by Northern white individuals and organizations as
well as by the aid of several state appropriations, the majority of
them are supported and run by Colored people themselves. “The African
Methodist Episcopal Church is raising each year about $500,000 for the
support of its twenty colleges and normal schools. The Negro Baptists
are giving support to about 110 colleges and academies.” All together
there are about 175 such schools supported by different Colored church
denominations that raise each year for this purpose about two million
dollars. The properties of these schools thus supported are worth
about two million five hundred thousand dollars. (Ref: Works Negro Year
Book 1918-1919 edition page 286.)

Among the foremost Colored leaders in industrial education are J. B.
Dudley, Winston-Salem, N. C., W. J. Edwards, Snow Hill, Ala., J. M.
Gandy, Petersburg, Va., W. H. Goler, Salisbury, N. C., W. J. Hale,
Nashville, Tenn., J. R. E. Lee, Kansas City, Mo., E. A. Long, Cambria,
Va., R. R. Moton, Tuskegee, Ala., J. S. Russell, Lawrenceville, Va.,
Emmett J. Scott, Washington, D.C., R. R. Wright, Sr., Savannah, Ga.

[Illustration]



IN THE RURAL SCHOOLS


When it is taken into consideration that in 1910, just 47 years
after their freedom was received, there were less than three million
illiterate Negroes in America out of their population of ten million,
it will be seen that the Colored people under most unfavorable
circumstances that have always existed have made very good strides
along educational lines. Rural education among them began as early as
1861 when the first real day school was started near Fortress Monroe,
Va., by the American Missionary Association. That school, which was
taught by Miss Mary S. Peake, a Colored teacher, was the forrunner of
Negro rural school education in the South as well as the pioneer site
of the present Hampton Institute. The movement continued to grow and
spread so rapidly that in 1870 through the assistance of the Freedman’s
Bureau, there had been established in different parts of the South over
four thousand common schools.

While it is true that the majority of the Southern white people apposed
the education of the Negro, there were many of the best thinking among
them who did everything possible to elevate their Colored population.
Together with the hundreds of Northern white people (mostly of the
Quaker and Puritan stocks) who willingly gave their times, fortunes
and in many cases their lives for this cause, different white church
denominations and other organizations spent large sums of money for the
establishment of schools and the support of teachers for the work. As
the outgrowth of that early start there are today in just the Southern
States alone over two million Colored children attending public schools
that are being taught by nearly thirty-seven thousand Colored teachers.
(Ref: Work Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, page 269.)

The greatest encouragement and help that the Southern Colored people
have received in the development of their rural school systems have
come from the Rosenwald Rural School Fund, which was founded by Mr.
Julius Rosenwald, President of the Sears-Roebuck Company of Chicago,
Ill. The following quotation is an extract from Work’s Negro Year
Book, 1918-1919 edition, page 291; “June 12, 1914, Mr. Rosenwald
announced that through the Tuskegee Institute he would provide money to
assist in erecting rural school-houses for Negroes in the South under
the following terms: that the people in the community where a school
house is to be erected shall secure from the public school funds or
raise among themselves an amount equivalent to or larger than that
given by Mr. Rosenwald. It is understood that in no case will the sum
given by Mr. Rosenwald exceed $400 for a one-teacher school and $500
for a two-teacher school.”

In the April 23, 1921 issue of the Chicago Defender there appeared an
article on the above subject and the following quotation is an extract
from that article: “Nearly 400 rural schools will have been completed
during the year ending July 1 with aid from the Rosenwald fund. Of
the money required to erect these schools our people in the South
gave $500,000, the white people $500,000, various states $800,000 and
Mr. Rosenwald $500,000. All the Rosenwald schools have been put in
operation. Altogether, more than 1,000 schools have been built in the
South with the aid from the Rosenwald fund.”



IN BUSINESS SCHOOLS

THE PEN AND THE TYPEWRITER

    Years back pen and pencil were always cross
        For every one used them as though a horse:
    They were pushed and pulled without respite,
        And made to draw heavy lines just right.

    Not a figure was cut without their aid
        Nor a letter was built without their shade;
    And well did they have good cause to fret
        And wish for some other the work to get.

    One day a man from Remington came
        With a funny thing that bore his name;
    Then Smith-Underwood did saunter in
        To ease the work of the weeping pen.

    Now pen and pencil are mad as a bee
        And say they would even a mule rather be
    Than lie on a desk as dull as a log
        Or stay on the floor like a poodle dog.
                 --_Harrison._


As Colored people have branched out into more numerous and new business
enterprises, they have found that in order to place their ventures
on foundations that are sure and firm they must learn certain book
knowledge as well as getting actual working experiences in modern
businesses. They have also noticed through observations or experiences
that no matter how well a business may be founded and grounded it will
not continue to succeed unless its detailed operations are carried on
by specially trained and capable workers. Since they, with but few
exceptions, have not been allowed to attend, simply on account of their
Race, white business schools and colleges to receive such preparations,
Colored people have in many of the large cities in America established
their own business schools and colleges. From among the many such
schools the following named are the few that have come under the
writer’s notice during his limited research efforts:

The progressive city of Jacksonville, Fla., has the honor of housing
probably the largest and most modernly equipped private school of this
nature not only in America but in the world among Colored people.
The founder and president of this institution is Prof. R. W. Walker.
Through his patient and untiring efforts, unusual business and
teaching abilities, he has built up an enrollment of over one thousand
local and correspondent students in his college that is established in
its own fifty thousand dollar building which is open day and night the
year round for class room work. Aside from its school rooms Walker’s
National Business College has a dormitory for the boarding and lodging
of its out-of-town students.

The Derrick Business School has within the past five years made such
rapid growth and progress under the sound establishment, expert
teaching and sane management of Miss M. J. Derrick that it is now
centrally located in its own building in one of the most exclusive
business sections of Philadelphia, Pa. Miss Derrick has the distinction
of being the only Colored person who owns and manages a business
college that teaches the famous “Boyd’s 30-Day System.” This school
also has its own dormitories for the accommodation of its students
living out of the city and state.

More than ten years ago The Stenographers’ Institute was founded in
Philadelphia, Pa., by Prof. E. T. Duncan. Since that time he has built
up a commercial school of such efficiency that his reputation has
brought to him not only local students but young men and women living
in several other cities and states. The enrollment of his school has
become so large that in the near future he will be compelled to seek
new and larger quarters.

The New York Academy presided over by Prof. R. W. Justice, and
Braithwaite Shorthand School managed by Prof. I. N. Braithwaite are
two business schools in New York City operated by Colored men who are
doing much for the elevation of their race by turning out competent
commercial graduates.

In Chicago, Ill., Prof. M. J. Treadwell’s Commercial Institute and The
Central School of Commerce, of which Prof. W. D. Alimono an expert
bookkeeper and accountant is president, are two Colored business
schools that rank in the first class.

Prof. Chas. A. Brown’s Bruno School of Business, Brooklyn, N. Y.,
is also an institution of modern methods and is doing its part in
preparing for future careers stenographers, typewriters, bookkeepers
and other students in various commercial subjects.



IN BUSINESS

RACIAL CO-OPERATION

    When Race stores are tidy and neatly bent,
    And act polite when you spend but a cent;
    Then do buy their wares, if fair and good,
    And as Jew Folks, help your own Racehood.
                 --_Harrison._


Colored boys and girls who wish to learn about what some of their race
people have done in big business should read the following and thereby
get encouragement and inspiration.

One of the very first Colored persons (thanks to and honor due Negro
womanhood) to develop an enterprise from a local venture into a
successful national and international commercial standard was the
far-seeing and progressive late Madam C. J. Walker, of Indianapolis
and New York. Starting with a few cents in her pocket but with a full
knowledge of the value of her beauty culture and toilet articles,
with even fuller knowledge of their urgent need among her Colored
sisters, and with the fullest determination and confidence to succeed,
Mrs. Walker within the short period of twelve years made for herself
a wealth of one million dollars. This fortune included a modernly
equipped home in Indianapolis, Ind., a fifty thousand dollar residence
in New York City, and a two hundred fifty thousand dollar mansion
at Irvington-on-the-Hudson, New York. Aside from the numerous and
unrecorded sums of money she gave to both Colored and white charities
during her twelve years of wonderful financial career, Mrs. Walker
at her death bequeathed one hundred thousand dollars to be used in
many charitable ways for the encouragement and uplift of her race.
The business, Madam C. J. Walker Manufacturing Co., was left to her
daughter, Mrs. Lelia Walker Wilson, whose business abilities handed
down to her from her gifted mother, together with her own original
ideas and efforts have already increased the enterprise. Mrs. Walker’s
life of marvelous success will ever stand out as a clear beacon light
to Negro youths, especially Colored girls. And when the circumstances
under which she labored are taken into just consideration her
achievements are recognized as worthy of being recorded on the best
pages of American history.

Right on the heels of the above business wonder is the commercial
success of Mr. and Mrs. A. E. Malone, St. Louis, Mo., who are also in
the same line of business. On account of the superior quality of their
goods, the urgent demands for same and the resulting satisfaction
they are giving, their business has increased so rapidly that they
were compelled to recently erect a two hundred fifty thousand dollar
five-story fireproof building. In this structure are housed their
manufacturing plant and office force. The Malones are giving $5,000
toward the Colored Y. M. C. A. Work and various other sums of money for
different lines of betterment for their race, (like the late Madame
Walker and several other wealthy Colored people) show they are with a
Good Samaritan spirit taking altruistic advantages of their unusual
success in business by repeatedly aiding their less fortunate Race
people or humanity in general after they have found the need of such
aid is for a worthy and good cause. So Mr. & Mrs. Malone are today
equally dividing their time between the expansion of their Poro College
business and the encouragement and uplift of their struggling Race.

(Figures extracted from Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, p.
3).

Colored girls who want to go into business for themselves or be
successful in anything but hesitate and hold back because they belong
to the Negro race and are Colored, should remember that:--The most
powerful thing in the world (the sun) is Colored, and just because
Nature has willed that it must get up every morning and retire every
evening with a red rosy face does not mean that it is blushing with
shame or holding back its leadership in light and energy just because
it happens to be a golden color.

According to an article that appeared in the April 16, 1921 issue of
the Chicago Defender, the Kashmir Chemical Co., and the Nile Queen Co.
are to be formed into one corporation in its own three story building
and is to have a capital of two hundred thousand dollars. This is
also a beauty culture business and is under the hustling and capable
leaderships of its president David Manson and his associates J. D.
Bell, George Walker and C. A. Barnett.

To be awarded first prize at the Paris Exposition in 1900 and the
Jamestown Exposition in 1907 and to be awarded a contract by the United
States Government to supply its army during the World War, is what
A. C. Howard’s shoe polish has accomplished for him. And today the
products of A. C. Howard Shoe Polish Manufacturing Co., New York have
become known on both sides of the oceans.

Because of their unusual business success the writer quotes below from
Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919, pages 360-361, sketches telling
about the accomplishments of three among America’s foremost Colored
business men.

“Boyd, Dr. R. H. Prominent minister in the Baptist denomination.
He established in 1896, the National Baptist Publishing House at
Nashville, Tenn. The printing plant occupies a half block in the
business portion of the city. It pays its employees over $200,000 a
year for labor. According to inventory made by Bradstreet’s Agency,
the value of stock, equipment and property of the concern is about
$350,000. Here all the books and pamphlets needed in the Sunday School
and church work of the Negro Baptists are published. Dr. Boyd is the
president of the National Negro Doll Company, which manufacturers high
class Negro dolls.”

“Merrick, John. One of the most successful Negro business men in the
United States. He was born in Clinton, North Carolina, September 7,
1859; died August 6, 1919; was a bricklayer by trade, and later, became
a barber. In 1898 he founded the North Carolina Mutual and Provident
Association, which is one of the strongest Negro insurance companies in
the world. He was one of the wealthiest Negroes in North Carolina. He
owned a large amount of real estate. His monthly rent income was over
$500.”

“Smith, Robert L. Born in Charleston, South Carolina, 1861. Founder of
the Farmer’s Improvement Society of Texas. He graduated from Atlanta
University, and for a time was editor of a paper in Charleston. He then
went to Texas and became a teacher. In 1895 he was elected a member
of the Texas Legislature. Wishing to help the people, he organized in
1890, the Farmers’ Improvement Society. The members of the Association
now own over 75,000 acres of land worth considerably over $1,000,000.
In 1906 the Society founded an agricultural college at Ladonia, Texas,
and in 1911, they organized a bank at Waco, Texas. The Society also
operates an overall factory at Waco. Under the Auspices of the Society
Farmers’ Institutes and fairs are held.”

On account of having detailed knowledge of their enterprises unshaken
determination to succeed, unusual energetic efforts, strict attention
to business, courteous manners to customers, integrity of word, prompt
payment of debts, frugal methods of saving and living within their
means, the late Messrs. McKee, Minton, Smith, Stevens and Trower of
Philadelphia, Pa., in accumulating wealth amounting to millions of
dollars, proved themselves among the most prominent and successful
Colored business men the United States have produced.

[Illustration]



IN BANKING

EVERY DOLLAR SAVED SHOWS A LITTLE MORE (SENSE) CENTS

    In good strong banks all youths should seek
        One dollar at least to save per week;
    So when old age on them does creep
        They’ll not in poorness have to weep.
                 --_Harrison._


As off-springs of people who three hundred years ago were savages in
Africa, and as decendents of people who were in the United States as
slaves for two hundred forty-four years; the American Colored people of
today, less than sixty years from slavery, own and operate seventy-two
Banks. These Banks carry a capital of about two million five hundred
thousand dollars and do an annual business of about thirty-five million
dollars. (Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, page 367).

This marvelous and successful commercial plunge is the most dazzling
banking achievement, as far as history records, ever made in the world
in the same length of time, by a like group of people placed under the
same kind of circumstances. In fact, this most heavily handicapped
business broad-jump has been made with such sudden rapidity, length of
leap and sure-footed landing that financial judges and onlookers of all
races are still dizzy from trying to measure the distance and solve how
it was covered.

Banking critics throughout the country seem to agree in estimating E.
C. Brown, President of Brown and Stevens Bank, Phila., Pa., and Brown
Savings & Banking Co., Norfolk, Va., as the foremost Colored banking
financier of today in America. Aside from having many heavy real estate
holdings in numerous Southern and Northern cities, he is founder and
president of the Quality Amusement Corporation that owns and operates
the Lafayette Theater in New York, the Dunbar Theater, in Phila., Pa.,
and theaters either under construction or contemplation in several
other large cities.

According to an article that appeared on August 13, 1920 in the Dayton
Forum, a Negro paper published by J. H. Rives, Dayton, Ohio, the first
Colored bank in the United States to report resources of over one
million dollars is the Solvent Savings Bank & Trust Co. of Memphis,
Tenn. Its cashier, B. M. Roddy stated that the bank does business with
twenty-five thousand people. These facts together with a fuller and
more detailed notification were sent to the State Commission on June
30th of that year. Other Colored banks that separately had resources
of over nine hundred thousand dollars and were expected to reach the
million dollar mark by the end of that year were the Brown Savings
& Banking Co., Norfolk, Va., and the Wage Earners Savings Bank in
Savannah, Ga. The St. Lukes Bank, Richmond, Va., the only institution
of its kind founded and presided over by a Colored woman, Mrs. Maggie
L. Walker, has resources of over five hundred thousand dollars. Other
banks that have gone over the half million dollar mark in resources
are, The Mechanics Bank, Richmond, Va., The Mutual Savings Bank,
Portsmouth, Va., and the Tide Water Bank, Norfolk, Va. Twenty-five
Colored banks throughout the country each have over two hundred fifty
thousand dollars in resources. Colored people have one national bank,
not so long established in Chicago, Ill., The Doughlass National Bank
of which P. W. Chavers is president. The Brown & Stevens Bank, Phila.,
Pa., and the Binga State Bank, Chicago, Ill., have both reached the
million dollar mark in resources. The last named bank, of which Jesse
Binga is founder and president, has a capital and surplus of one
hundred twenty thousand dollars.

The names in the following list have been handed to the writer as being
just a few from among many such Colored banks in the United States
that are laid on sound foundations, efficiently conducted and fully
recognized for their business integrity, steady financial growth and
broadening moral influences.

                      Banks                               Presidents

  C. H. Anderson Co., Bankers, Jacksonville, Fla.     C. H. Anderson
  Atlanta State Savings Bank, Atlanta, Ga.,               J. A. Ross
  Auburn Savings Corporation, Atlanta, Ga.,              B. J. Davis
  Central State Bank, Gary, Ind.,                      W. C. Hueston
  Citizens State Banking Co., New Orleans, La.,         J. H. Lowery
  Citizens & Southern Banking Co., Phila., Pa.,     R. R. Smith, Sr.
  Charleston Mutual Savings Bank,                     (not informed)
  Crawford Bank, Boston, Mass.,                       David Crawford
  Crown Savings Bank, Newport News, Va.,              (not informed)
  Farmers & Merchants Bank, Boley, Okla.,               D. J. Turner
  Farmers Improvement Bank, Waco, Texas,                      R. L. Smith
  Fraternal Bank & Trust Co., Forth Worth, Texas,            Thomas Mason
  Mechanics Savings Bank, Richmond, Va.,                John Mitchell, Jr.
  Mechanics & Farmers Bank, Durham, N. C.,                   W. G. Pearson
  Mound Bayou State Bank, Mound Bayou, Miss.,                  D. A. Carr.
  Peoples Federation Bank, Charleston, S. C.,                W. H. Johnson
  One Cent Savings Bank, Nashville, Tenn.,                      R. H. Boyd
  Penny Savings & Loan and Investment Co., Augusta, Ga.,      R. S. Williams.
  Northcross & Curtis Bank, Detroit, Mich.,               Dr. Northcross.
  Savannah Savings & R. E. Corp’n, Savannah, Ga.,             W. S. Scott.
  Industrial Savings Bank, Washington, D.C.,                 J. W. Lewis.
  Fraternal Savings Bank, Memphis, Tenn.,                     J. J. Scott.
  Tide Water Bank & Trust Co., Norfolk, Va.,                   P. B. Young
  Steel City Bank, Pittsburgh, Pa.,                         (not informed)
  Tuskegee Institute Savings Bank, Tuskegee, Ala.,         Warren Logan.
  Modern Savings & Trust Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.,             J. H. Phillips

“The Allied Bankers’ Corporation will serve as a clearing house for
banks, life and fire insurances companies, manufacturing companies and
for business generally. The enterprise is to be owned by and operated
wholly in the interest of and for the economic development of the
Race.” This quotation is extracted from an article that appeared in the
December 11, 1920 issue of the Chicago Defender. In speaking of this
movement, the article further stated that a group of Colored bankers
and business men were combining in forming and having incorporated
a one million dollar concern to be known as the Allied Bankers and
Industrial Corporation.

“Application for charter has already been made by the following bankers
and business men: L. E. Williams, president Wage Earners’ Savings Bank,
Savannah, Ga.; Harry E. Pace, formerly secretary-treasurer Standard
Life Insurance Company, now president of Pace Phonograph company,
New York City; E. C. Brown, president of Brown & Stevens, bankers,
Philadelphia, Pa., and president Quality Amusement Corporation; John
E. Nail, of Nail & Parker, real estate dealers, New York City; J. S.
Jones, secretary-treasurer Tidewater Bank and Trust Company, Norfolk,
Va.; Charles Banks, Mound Bayou, Miss., and Emmett J. Scott, formerly
assistant to Secretary of War Baker and now secretary-treasurer of
Howard University.”



IN REAL ESTATE.


Within the past twenty years Colored real estate owners and brokers
throughout the country have made real estate deals running up into
millions of dollars. Some of the heaviest transactions have been made
by Nail & Parker, New York City, Watt Terry, Brocton, Mass., and
New York City, the late P. A. Payton, New York City, A. F. Herndon,
Atlanta, Ga., R. L. Smith, Waco, Texas, Brown & Stevens, Phila., Pa.,
Jesse Binga, Chicago, Ill., M. L. Harris, Washington, D.C., H. M.
Burkett, Baltimore, Md., W. Lewis, C. Tolson, Baltimore, Md., R. H.
Watterford, Gary, Ind., J. T. Jackson, Germantown, Pa., S. J. Jones,
Phila., Pa., H. Rudduth, Cincinnati, Ohio, Isadore Martin, Phila.,
Pa., J. L. Slaughter & Co., Faulkner & Cook Co., Anderson & Terrell
Co., Harvey Watkins Co., Chicago, Ill., McKinley, Walker and DeVeille,
Washington, D.C., P. H. Sykes, Phila., Pa.

According to an article that appeared on page 53 in the May 1920 issue
of The Crisis, Nail & Parker, New York real estate brokers, handle
over a million dollars yearly in rentals and commissions. During the
year 1919 Colored people purchased over four million dollars worth of
property in the Harlem section of New York City. But what is said to
have been the largest real estate transaction ever made in the United
States at one time by Colored people was when six large modern De Luxe
Elevator Apartments, that had been constructed on West 141st and 142nd
Street, New York City at a cost of one million five hundred thousand
dollars, were purchased by an organized group of Negro business men.
(Ref. Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, page 3).

Through his personal research work in the following cities, the writer
has been able to uncover from among the many thousands of Colored
business people throughout America, the following unusually successful
business Colored men and women each reputed able to write his or her
personal check for twenty-five thousand dollars; nearly all of them
have saved a fortune of fifty thousand dollars; a large number of them
have reached the one hundred thousand dollar mark; numbers of them
have two hundred fifty thousand dollars to their credits; many of them
count their wealth up to five hundred thousand dollars and quite a few
of them own over a million dollars in cash and property. But in reading
this list let the readers say, as the Queen of Sheba said when she paid
a visit to King Solomon and viewed his wealthy kingdom, “The half has
not been told.” Because the author would remind the reader that all
over the United States there are just as successful and wealthy Colored
business men and women whose names do not appear in this list simply
because he was unable to locate such names during his much handicapped
research work.

Atlanta, Ga.
  A. F. Herndon, Barber & Real Estate.
  J. O. Ross, Merchant & Banker.

Atlantic City, N. J.
  B. G. Fitzgerald, Cafe & Hotel.
  J. B. Ford, Real Estate.

Baltimore, Md.
  J. C. Burton, Merchant.
  E. B. Taylor, Caterer, Banker.
  H. O. Wilson, Banker.

Bethlehem, Pa.
  J. L. Ray, Restaurant Manager.

Birmingham, Ala.
  N. B. Smith, Real Estate.

Boley, Okla.
  L. L. Dolphin, Merchant.
  T. L. Woods, Merchant.

Boston, Mass.
  D. Crawford, Banker.

Buffalo, N. Y.
  C. H. Patrick, Druggist.
  E. D. MacAden, Hotel Manager.

Brooklyn, N. Y.
  L. Williams, Tailor (retired).

Camden, N. J.
  C. W. Moore, Contractor.

Charleston, W. Va.
  C. H. James, Wholesale Merchant.

Charleston, S. C.
  J. W. Frazer, Contractor.
  T. T. Edwards, Contractor.

Charlotte, N. C.
  T. L. Tate, Barber.
  C. B. Bailey, Insurance.

Chattanooga, Tenn.
  C. Marshall, Merchant.

Bristol, Tenn.
  R. E. Clay, Barber, Real Estate.

Chester, Pa.
  Geo. Nugent, Hotel Proprietor.
  E. F. Wright, Hotel Proprietor.

Chicago, Ill.
  E. H. Morris, Capitalist.
  Jesse Binga, Banker.

Cincinnati, Ohio.
  J. L. Jones, Regalia Manfgr.

Cleveland, Ohio.
  J. E. Reed, Real Estate.

Columbia, S. C.
  I. S. Levy, Merchant Tailor.
  J. C. Sawyer, Cotton Dealer.

Columbus, Ohio.
   C. W. Bryant, House Mover.

Danville, Va.
  J. R. Wilson, Real Estate.

Darby, Pa.
  J. M. Drew, Expressman.

Dayton, Ohio.
  J. H. Finley, Carpet Factory.

Denver, Col.
  A. A. Waller, Real Estate.
  L. H. Lighterner, Real Estate.

Des Moines, Iowa.
  Chas. Cousins, Merchant.

Detroit, Mich.
  Dr. Northcross, Banker.
  H. S. Ferguson, Caterer.

Durham, N. C.
  W. G. Pearson, Capitalist.

Fort Smith, Ark.
  G. S. Winston, Real Estate.

Fort Worth, Texas.
  W. M. McDonald, Financier.

Gary, Ind.
  J. Smith, Real Estate.

Greenville, S. C.
  J. P. Chappell, Real Estate.

Hampton, Va.
  W. T. Anderson, Merchant.

Harrisburg, Pa.
  W. M. Felton, Airplanes & Autos.

Hartford, Conn.
  C. Grant, Wood Yard.

Helena, Ark.
  Scott Bond, Merchant.
  Dr. N. B. Hauser, Druggist.

Houston, Texas.
  R. L. Andrews, Real Estate.

Indianapolis, Ind.
  Mrs. Lelia Walker Wilson, Manfgr.

Jackson, Miss.
  S. D. Redmond, Real Estate.

Jacksonville, Fla.
  A. L. Lewis, Insurance.
  W. J. Geter, Real Estate.

Jersey City, N. J.
  W. C. Lee, Merchant.

Kansas City, Kan.
  W. Price, Real Estate.

Kansas City, Mo.
  H. L. Kinsler, Real Estate.
  W. S. Wood Druggist.

Knoxville, Tenn.
  Calvin Johnson, Capitalist, retired.

Leavenworth, Kan.
  S. T. Jones, Coal & Feed Dealer.

Little Rock, Ark.
  C. E. Bush, Manufacturer.

Los Angeles, Cal.
  R. C. Owens, Real Estate.
  A. J. Roberts, Undertaker.

Louisville, Ky.
  W. S. Lovett, Banker.
  R. I. Smith, Moving & Packing.

Lynchburg, Va.
  A. Humbles, Merchant, (retired).

Memphis, Tenn.
  R. R. Church, Real Estate, Capitalist.
  T. H. Hayes, Undertaker.

Milwaukee, Wis.
  John Malone, Hotel Manager.

Mobile, Ala.
  J. T. Paterson, Real Estate.

Montgomery, Ala.
  V. H. Tulane, Real Estate.

Mound Bayou, Miss.
  Chas. Banks, Real Estate.

Knoxville, Tenn.
  Calvin Johnson, Capitalist (retired).

Morrisville, Pa.
  J. W. Lewis, Real Estate.

Muskogee, Okla.
  Miss Sarah Rector, Oil Wells.
  B. J. Elliott, Real Estate.

Nashville, Tenn.
  R. H. Boyd, Publisher.
  P. Taylor, Real Estate.

Newark, N. J.
  H. J. Brown, Undertaker.
  G. Bowles, Mover & Storage.

New Orleans, La.
  R. H. V. DeJoie, Insurance.
  Wm. Robinson, Merchant.

Newport News, Va.
  Miss Lelia Brown, Theatre.
  S. A. Howell, Banker.

New York City, N. Y.
  J. E. Nail, Real Estate.
  J. C. Thomas, Undertaker.

Norfolk, Va.
  P. B. Young, Financier.

Oakland, Cal.
  Wiley Hines, Real Estate.

Nebraska, Omaha.
  J. H. Broomfield, Real Estate.

Phila., Pa.
  E. C. Brown, Banker.
  W. W. H. Casselle, Undertaker.
  Beresford Gale, Financier.
  Augustine and Baptiste, Caterers.
  W. A. Davis, Druggist.
  J. T. Gibson, Theater Owner.

Phoebus, Va.
  J. I. Fountain, Barber.

Phoenix, Ariz.
  M. H. Shelton, Real Estate.

Pine Bluff, Ark.
  R. Y. Longly, Barber.

Pittsburgh, Pa.
  C. W. Posey, Coal Operator.
  J. H. Phillips, Banker.

Portland, Oregon.
  Rutherford Bros., Merchants.

Portland, Maine.
  M. S. Green, Real Estate.

Portsmouth, Va.
  L. C. Brown, Banker.

Princeton, N. J.
  Mrs. Wm. Moore, Real Estate.
  E. S. Johnson, (Rtd.) Merchant.

Raleigh, N. C.
  B. O. Kelly, Merchant.
  C. W. Matthews, Real Estate.

Richmond, Va.
  John Mitchell, Banker-Editor.
  A. D. Price, Undertaker.

Roanoke, Va.
  A. F. Brooks, Real Estate.

Sacramento, Cal.
  T. D. Walker, Barber.

San Antonio, Texas.
  J. A. Grumbles, Real Estate.

San Francisco, Cal.
  W. A. Butler, Real Estate.

Savannah, Ga.
  L. E. Williams, Banker.
  F. F. Jones, Butcher.

Seattle, Wash.
  E. R. James, Real Estate.

Shreveport, La.
  C. Jackson, Real Estate.
  I. S. Stokes, Planter.
  J. S. Williams, Undertaker.

St. Louis, Mo.
  Mr. and Mrs. E. A. Malone, Mfgs.
  W. C. Gordon, Undertaker.

St. Paul, Minn.
  W. T. Frances, Lawyer.

Terre Haute, Ind.
  R. C. Simpson, Real Estate.

Washington, D.C.
  J. W. Lewis, Banker.
  R. H. Rutherford, Insurance.

Wichita, Kan.
  Mrs. H. G. Bradford, Cafe Owner.

Wilmington, Del.
  Dr. S. G. Elbert, Real Estate.

Wilmington, N. C.
  J. H. Shaw, Undertaker.

[Illustration]



IN INSURANCE

POVERTY IN OLD AGE

    While now you have both youth and health,
        Endow your life for old aged wealth,
    Or loved ones, (if death first you claim),
        So WANT will not bow them in shame.
                 --_Harrison._


One of the chief living conditions surrounding the American Colored
people that always stood as a puzzled question to the masses of
American white people was; how did Negroes (considering the low
cheating wages, until the World War, they had always received for
their work and the usually double prices they were made to pay in
buying clothes, furniture, homes, etc.) manage to keep up decent living
expenses, save money and at the same time nourishingly care for their
sick and properly bury their dead? It has never been understood why so
few Colored people have been seen as beggars, and paupers holding up
every other street corner or silently filling the potter fields; while
these same places have always been over-crowded with dependent white
people, who in their prosperous life times had received the highest
paid wages and given the lowest bargain sales. When it is remembered
that there is over ninety million Caucasians in the United States
against twelve million Negroes, even then the percentage of whites in
such places is much larger than that of the blacks. And from the fact
that in nearly every large city in America there are to be found white
men and women who own homes and thousands of dollars and still beg on
street corners proves that begging is easier and comes more natural to
white than to Colored people, because no instance has ever been heard
of a Negro street begging when owning a home or money in a bank.

Now the facts that answer the puzzled question, as to how Negroes have
always been able to “get along” generally under all circumstances, are
the insurance companies, fraternal orders and beneficial societies
founded and operated by Colored people in America. There is nothing
in the world (including death) that the average Colored people dread
more than to face downright poverty, need and beggary, and to prevent
such misfortunes they become full members in these organizations even
from childhood. For this reason insurance enterprises have proven to
be one of the most congenial occupations, quickest, surest and best
paying business into which Negro business men have so far ventured. On
the other hand the founders and managers of these companies have taken
full advantage of their opportunities to give to the masses of people
in their companies a timely, practical and material helpfulness that is
surpassed by no other group of Colored business leaders.

Philadelphia, Pa., has the honor of having been the home of the first
Negro insurance company, in the United States, which was the American
Insurance Company founded in 1810.

The following named are a few of the many Colored insurance companies
throughout the country that together have policies in force valued at
about sixty million dollars and annually write up insurance amounting
to about forty million dollars.

Afro-American Industrial Ins. Co., Jacksonville, Fla.; American Mutual
Benefit Association, Houston, Tex.; Georgia Mutual Ins. Co., Augusta,
Ga.; Keystone Aid Society, Phila., Pa.; Liberty Life Ins. Co., Ill.
and Ind.; Liberty Mutual Life & Health Ins. Co., Savannah, Ga.;
Mammouth Life and Accident Ins. Co., Louisville, Ky.; Mutual Relief
and Benevolent Ass’n, Columbia, S. C.; National Benefit Life Ins. Co.,
Washington, D.C.; North Carolina Mutual and Provident Ass’n, Durham,
N. C.; Fireside Mutual Ins. Co., Atlanta, Ga.; Provident Ins. Co.,
Chicago, Ill.; Southern Life Ins. Co., Baltimore, Md.; Standard Life
Ins. Co., Atlanta, Ga.; Superior Mutual Ins. Co., The Lincoln Life Ins.
Co., New Orleans, La.; Underwriters’ Mutual Ins. Co., Chicago, Ill.;
Union Central Relief Ass’n, Birmingham, Ala.; Union Mutual Ins. Co.,
Jacksonville, Fla.; Unity Ind. and Life Ins. Co., New Orleans, La.;
Unity Mutual Ins. Co., Chicago, Ill.; Union Guarantee and Ins. Co., of
Miss., Jackson, Miss.; Richmond Beneficial Ins. Co., Richmond, Va.;
Southern Aid Society of Virginia, Richmond, Va.; Virginia Beneficial
and Ins. Co., Norfolk, Va. (Extracts from Works’ Negro Year Book,
1918-1919 edition, pgs. 359-60).

Some of the foremost leaders who have built up in the past or are today
building up Colored insurance business in America are as follows: J.
C. Asbury, Philadelphia, Pa., Geo. W. Blount, Portsmouth, Va., Chas.
H. Brooks, Philadelphia, Pa., Edw. Bowen, E. H. Carry, Wm. Carter,
Chicago, Ill., D.C. Chandler, Columbus and C. R. Davis, Cincinnati,
O., P. H. V. Dejoie, C. C. Dejoie, Chicago, Ill., T. K. Gibson,
Atlanta, Ga., F. L. Gillespie, Geo. W. Green, Chicago, Ill., H. E.
Hall, Louisville, Ky., B. L. Jordan, Richmond, Va., Wm. H. King, W.
J. Latham, Chicago, Ill., the late John Merrick, Durham, N. C., J. E.
Mitchell, A. J. Pullen, Chicago, Ill., H. E. Perry, Atlanta, Ga., H.
E. Pace, A. D. Price, and J. T. Carter, Richmond, Va., J. A. Robinson,
Atlanta, Ga., Wm. Roland, Chicago, Ill., R. H. Rutherford, S. W.
Rutherford, Washington, D.C., Wm. Roland, H. B. Streeter, C. S. Smith,
Chicago, Ill., C. C. Spaulding and F. Winslow, Durham, N. C.

[Illustration]



SECRET AND FRATERNAL ORGANS

HELPFUL BOOSTS.

    In time of need they give full aid
        To those whose fees are fully paid:
    They also loan with gleeful pride
        Tame goats a child could easily ride.
                 --_Harrison._


In 1784 a Boston Negro, Prince Hall, was granted a warrant from England
to establish the African Lodge, No. 459 of the Masons; and in 1843
Peter Ogden, a Colored organizer in New York, secured a charter from
England to set up the Philomathean Lodge No. 646 of the Odd Fellows.
Since then the Knights of Pythias, the True Reformers, The Elks, the
Grand United Order of Galilean Fishermen, the National Order of Mosaic
Templars, the Independent Order of St. Luke and the Grand United Order
of Tents (which last named order is one of the best managed and most
progressive societies organized and run entirely by women) have been
established and become nationally known. The following is quoted from
Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, page 457:

    “There are over sixty secret and fraternal organizations among
    Negroes in the United States of a more or less national scope. It
    is estimated that they have a total membership of about 2,000,000.
    Large sums of money have come into the treasuries of the various
    secret organizations. The Knights of Pythias have collected over
    $1,000,000 for endowment. There is over $50,000 in the Grand Lodge
    treasury. A considerable part of the money collected by the orders
    has been permanently invested. It is estimated that the Masons have
    about $1,000,000 worth of property; the Odd Fellows $2,000,000; and
    the Pythians $2,500,000. It is probable that altogether the Negro
    secret societies in the United States own $20,000,000 worth of
    property. The Odd Fellows have in New Orleans, a building that cost
    $36,000, and in Atlanta and Philadelphia, buildings that have cost
    $100,000 each. In Indianapolis, New Orleans and Chicago, Knights
    of Pythias own buildings each worth from $30,000 to $100,000.
    The Negro secret societies are paying attention to the improving
    of the health of their members. The Supreme Lodge of the Knights
    of Pythias has erected a sanitarium at Hot Springs, Arkansas;
    the Mosaic Templars and other societies have established health
    bureaus.”

    Some of the leaders in the most prominent and best known of these
    organs are as follows:


    MASONS

  Imperial Potentate, C. R. Blake, Charlotte, N. C.
  Imperial Chief Rabban, R. E. Monroe, Chicago, Ill.
  Imperial High Priest and Prophet, R. F. Husley, Wheeling, W. Va.
  Imperial Treasurer, C. A. Freeman, Washington, D.C.
  Imperial Recorder, Levi Williams, Jersey City, N. J.
  National Grand Commander, Bishop J. W. Alstork, Montgomery, Ala.
  National Deputy Grand Commander, Dr. A. R. Robinson, Phila., Pa.
  National Grand Secretary, R. J. Simmons, Atlanta, Ga.


  ODD FELLOWS

  Grand Master, E. H. Morris, Chicago, Ill.
  Grand Master, J. S. Noel, Charleston, W. V.
  Deputy Grand Master, I. L. Roberts, Boston, Mass.
  Deputy Grand Master, W. T. Francis, St. Paul, Minn.
  Grand Secretary, Jas. F. Needham, Phila., Pa.
  Grand Secretary, R. J. Nelson, Harrisburg, Pa.
  Grand Treasurer, C. Colbourne, Wilmington, Del.


  PYTHIANS

  Supreme Chancellor, S. W. Green, New Orleans, La.
  Supreme Chancellor, W. Ashbie Hawkins, Baltimore, Md.
  Supreme Vice Chancellor, E. C. Tidrington, Indianapolis, Ind.
  Supreme Vice Chancellor, W. H. Willis, New York City, N. Y.
  Supreme Master of Exchequer, J. H. Young, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.
  Supreme Master of Exchequer, J. C. Anderson, Crewe, Va.
  Supreme Keeper of Records and Seals, Dr. E. E. Underwood, Frankfort, Ky.
  Supreme Keeper of Records and Seals, G. E. Gordan, Chelsea, Mass.


  MOSAIC TEMPLARS

  National Grand Master, S. J. Elliot, Little Rock, Arkansas.
  National Grand Secretary, C. E. Bush, Little Rock, Arkansas.
  National Grand Treasurer, J. A. Davis, Little Rock, Arkansas.


  ORDER OF ELKS

  Grand Exalted Ruler, G. W. F. McMechen, Baltimore, Md.
  Grand Esteemed Leading Knight, W. C. Trueheart, Atlantic City, N. J.
  Grand Secretary, G. E. Bates, Jersey City, N. J.
  Grand Treasurer, J. T. Carter, Richmond, Va.


  ORDER OF ST. LUKE

  Right Worthy Grand Chief, Mrs. Minnie L. Banks, Macon, Ga.
  Right Worthy Vice Chief, Dr. H. L. Harris, Richmond, Va.
  R. W. G. Secretary and Treasurer, Mrs. Maggie L. Walker, Richmond, Va.


  TRUE REFORMERS

  Grand Worthy Master, S. S. Morris, Richmond, Va.
  Grand Worthy Secretary, Maurice Rouselle, Richmond, Va.
  Grand Worthy Treasurer, Dr. W. H. Smith, Richmond, Va.


  GALILEAN FISHERMAN

  National Grand Ruler, Joseph P. Evans, Baltimore, Md.
  Vice Grand Ruler, G. W. V. Grey, Norfolk, Va.
  Grand Treasurer, J. F. Henry, Cambridge, Md.


  ORDER OF TENTS

  Supreme Matron, Mrs. C. A. Gilpin, Richmond, Va.
  Deputy Matron, Mrs. A. J. Valentine, Chester, Pa.
  Grand Secretary, Miss Adeline M. Ward, Norfolk, Va.

    (Extracts from Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, pgs.
    457-8-9-60).



AMONG THE LAWYERS

A LAWYER IN TIME SAVES MANY A DIME.

    A timely “Eagle” ’tis better to pay
        To “Blackstone’s” grads, who know the say
    About strange deals you plan to pave,
        And also your cash you want to save.
                 --_Harrison._


A. B. Macon was the first Negro in the United States to be admitted
before the bar to practice law, which occured in Massachusetts in 1845.
Since he thus blazed such a path through the law fields of America,
Colored men and women have continued to follow that pathway until today
there are about one thousand Colored lawyers practicing in different
parts of the United States. And they are making splendid records
before judge benches and jury boxes by legally understanding, plainly
interpreting, and loyally defending the laws of this land.

When Miss Charlotte Ray, as the first Colored woman lawyer in America,
graduated from Howard University in 1872, she was fully justified in
lightly and nimbly stepping off the campus of her Alma Mata with her
heart excitedly beating in her eagerness to at once secure a case and
descend upon some court room where she could try out her logical,
convincing and persuasive pleadings.

Since Miss Ray’s graduation as a lawyer, it is found that while many,
say twenty-five or thirty Colored women in the United States have up
to the present time secured their degree of LL. B., few of them are
today engaged in active law practice. Among this number the writer has
only been able to locate the following who are today practicing law in
this country: Attorneys Violette N. Anderson, Chicago, Ill., Carolyn
Hall Mason and Marie Nadras, Washington, D.C. and Mrs. Jessica Morris,
wife of Edward H. Morris, the foremost practicing Colored attorney in
Chicago, is a graduate of the 1920 law class of Northwestern University
and during the month of July 1921 successfully passed her State Bar
Examination. At this writing she had not taken up active practice.
Attorney Violette N. Anderson, 145 No. Clark Street, Chicago, Ill.,
is very anxious and has for quite a while been trying to locate and
get into communication with every Colored woman lawyer in the United
States, in order to form a National Association.

One of the many up-lifting acts performed for Colored people by Charles
Sumner, that fearless Abolitionist and loyal friend to the Negro race,
was to make it possible in 1865 for John Rock to be admitted as the
first Negro to practice law before the United States Supreme Court.

The first Negro to hold a city judgeship in the United States was M.
Wistar Gibbs, who in 1873 was elected to that responsible and dignified
position in Little Rock, Ark. This learned lawyer also at different
times filled such national positions as Register of the U. S. Land
Office in Arkansas and United States Consul to the Island of Madagascar.

(Ref. Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition pgs. 171-283.)

Without doubt the best known and most popular Colored lawyer in the
United States today is Judge Robt. H. Terrell, who as Municipal Judge
for many years repeatedly appointed in Washington, D.C., by both
Republican and Democratic Presidents, has won and held the good-will
and respect of his white associates because of his all-round judical
wisdom and logical decisions in the court room. By his pleasant and
friendly manners as well as loyalty and pride in his Race, Judge
Terrell has also endeared himself in the hearts of the great masses of
Colored people in all parts of the country where he has traveled and
spoken.

Many Negro lawyers in different parts of the country have won national
recognitions and reputations by their legal fights before city or state
legislative bodies for equal citizenship rights and protection of
Colored citizens in the United States. The following are among those
whose names come to the writer’s mind at this moment:

Hon. Harry C. Smith, while a member of the Ohio Legislature, drew up
an Anti-lynching Bill and introduced it into that body in 1894 and
re-introduced it in 1896 when it was enacted into a law, which has
been upheld on several occasions by the Supreme Court of Ohio. This
law is one of the best pieces of legislature of such nature enacted by
any state in the Union, and other States that have formed such laws
have modeled them after the Ohio measure. Attorney Smith was also the
sponsor of the present Ohio Civil Rights Law.

Hon. Robt. R. Jackson is the father of the Illinois Civil Rights Bill
that went through the Illinois General Assembly while he was a member
of it. It has been through his wisdom and untiring efforts that several
other city and state bills have been drawn up and passed as laws for
the benefit of the Colored people in Illinois.

Hon. H. J. Copehart with the assistance of Hon. T. G. Nutter, both
members of the W. Va. Legislature, has succeeded in putting through the
House and Senate of that state one of the severest anti-lynching bills
so far passed by any state legislative body. Representative Nutter,
among the numerous measures he has had passed, is producer of the bills
that were passed and enacted into laws to establish an industrial
school for Colored boys and an industrial home for Colored girls in W.
Va.

Hon. F. M. Roberts is the first and only Negro serving as a State
Assemblyman in the California Legislature. Since he was first elected
in 1918 and re-elected in 1920, he has been the means of having put
through several bills that have been enacted into laws for the welfare
of Negroes in California.

Hon. J. C. Asbury, a Pennsylvania Representative, is father of the
Equal Civil Rights Bill that was recently killed in the Pennsylvania
State Senate after having passed through the House. Legislator Asbury
made such a well prepared legal fight for the passage of his bill
that even those who fought against it were compelled to admire the
flawlessness of the measure and the intelligent and manly contest by
its sponsor.

Many other notable Negro lawyers too numerous to mention here have
taken courageous and successful stands in using their legal abilities
along the above lines as well as defending riot victims of their race
in different parts of the country. The following names are of other
prominent Colored attorneys about whom the writer learned during his
research work in the following named cities:

Atlanta, Ga.
  P. Allen, A. T. Walden.

Atlantic City, N. J.
  J. A. Lightfoot, I. N. Nutter.

Augusta, Ga.
  J. Lyons, A. Shadd.

Baltimore, Md.
  J. T. Davis, R. F. Bond, G. F. McMeeken,
  J. H. Payne, G. L. Pendleton, A. W. Hawkins.

Birmingham, Ala.
  E. A. Brown.

Boley, Okla.
  M. H. Martin, W. S. Peters.

Boston, Mass.
  E. P. Benjamin, L. S. Hicks, W. H. Lewis,
  W. B. Matthews, C. Morgan, B. R. Wilson.

Brooklyn, N. Y.
  F. Giles, R. A. Lattimore, S. Pease, G. E. Wibercan.

Camden, N. J.
  John Martin.

Charleston, S. C.
  W. A. Dart, E. F. Smith.

Charleston, W. Va.
  C. E. Kimbrough, T. G. Nutter.

Charlotte, N. C.
  J. T. Saunders.

Chattanooga, Tenn.
  J. G. Burger, W. H. Hixon.

Chester, Pa.
  W. H. Ridley.

Chicago, Ill.
  Violette Anderson, Jessica Morris, G. W. Ellis, E. H. Morris,
  Judge W. H. Harrison, H. M. Porter, J. A. Scott, S. A. Watkins,
  S. L. Williams, E. H. Wright.

Cincinnati, Ohio.
  A. L. Beaty, W. B. Bush.

Cleveland, Ohio.
  T. W. Flemming, A. H. Martin, H. E. Murrell, A. Hamilton, H. C. Smith.

Columbia, S. C.
  N. J. Frederick.

Columbus, Ohio.
  C. R. Doll, J. S. Farrison, W. King.

Danville, Va.
  J. C. Carter.

Dayton, Ohio.
  W. J. Buyden, T. Norris.

Denver, Col.
  E. P. Blackmore, G. G. Ross.

Des Moines, Iowa.
  S. J. Brown, J. B. Morris, J. L. Thompson.

Detroit, Mich.
  Attorneys Mahoney, Johnson and Roxborough.

Durham. N. C.
  R. M. Andrews, E. W. Cannady.

Evansville, Ind.
  J. Holt, E. J. Tildrinton.

Fort Worth, Texas.
  W. H. Griggs, H. W. Hatton.

Gary, Ind.
  P. F. Bouldt, L. A. Caldwell.

Hampton, Va.
  A. W. E. Bassette, Sr. and Jr., G. W. Fields.

Harrisburg, Pa.
  W. J. Carter, J. W. Parks.

Helena, Ark.
  W. L. Scott.

Hopkinsville, Ky.
  C. W. Merriweather.

Houston, Texas.
  L. V. Allen, M. H. Broyles.

Indianapolis, Ind.
  R. L. Brokenburr, W. K. Brown.

Jackson, Miss.
  P. W. Howard, S. D. Redmond.

Jacksonville, Fla.
  S. D. McGill, I. L. Purcell.

Jersey City, N. J.
  R. Hartgson, R. S. Rice.

Kansas City, Kan.
  I. F. Bradely, D. Green, L. W. Johnson.

Kansas City, Mo.
  C. H. Calloway, W. C. Houston,   A. L. Knox.

Leavenworth, Kan.
  T. W. Bell, D. Jones.

Little Rock, Ark.
  S. A. Jones, T. J. Price.

Los Angeles, Cal.
  E. B. Ceruti, W. O. Tyler, A. G. Wickliffe, Charles Darden.

Louisville, Ky.
  W. C. Brown, W. H. Wright.

Memphis, Tenn.
  B. T. Booth, W. H. Foote.

Bemidji, Minn.
  C. W. Scrutchins.

Duluth, Minn.
  Elisha Scott.

Mound Bayou, Miss.
  B. A. Green.

Muskogee, Okla.
  T. R. Price.

Nashville, Tenn.
  J. W. Grant, W. H. Hodgkins, J. C. Napier.

Newark, N. J.
  Attorneys Douglass & Standard.

New Orleans, La.
  F. B. Smith, R. C. Metoyer, J. Thornton.

Newport News, Va.
  J. T. Newsome, W. E. Parker, R. H. Pree, J. L. Raney, P. S. Scott.

New York, N. Y.
  J. D. Carr, C. G. French, E. A. Johnson, W. H. Smith,
  J. C. Thomas, J. D. Wetmore, J. F. Wheaton.

Norfolk, Va.
  J. D. Diggs, J. M. Harrison.

Oakland, Cal.
  E. A. Carter, J. D. Drake, A. O. Neal, Y. L. Richardson, L. Sledge.

Omaha, Neb.
  H. J. Pinkett, A. P. Scruggs.

Phila. Pa.
  J. C. Asbury, G. L. Dickinson, M. L. Lewis, J. A. Sparks, W. H. Thompson.

Pine Bluff, Ark.
  J. F. Jones, W. W. Shelton.

Pittsburgh, Pa.
  W. M. Randolph, W. H. Stanton, F. R. Stewart, R. L. Vann.

Portland, Oregon.
  Eugene Minor.

Portsmouth, Va.
  W. M. Reid.

Providence, R. I.
  J. B. Edwards, J. LeCount.

Raleigh, N. C.
  W. P. Ancrum, D. P. Love.

Richmond, Va.
  J. T. Carter, J. T. Hewin.

Roanoke, Va.
  A. J. Oliver, J. L. Reid.

San Antonio, Texas.
  R. A. Campbell, L. W. Grenely, J. G. Wimberly.

San Francisco, Cal.
  O. Audson, J. D. Drake.

Savannah, Ga.
  J. H. Kinckle, J. G. Lemon.

Seattle, Wash.
  C. R. Anderson.

Shreveport, La.
  C. M. Roberson.

St. Louis, Mo.
  C. E. Clark, H. G. Phillips, G. L. Vaughan.

St. Paul, Minn.
  J. L. Ervin, W. T. Frances, H. Turner.

Tampa, Fla.
  Z. D. Greene.

Terre Haute, Ind.
  J. W. Henry.

Washington, D.C., H. E. Davis,
  J. A. Cobb, R. A. Hughes, Judge R. H.
  Terrell. W. C. Martin, Carolyn H. Mason, Marie Nadras.

Wichita, Kan.
  F. L. Martin.



IN NEWSPAPER WORK

NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES.

    From corners of, the world’s four climes
        Fresh news they bring of latest times.
    Of all the readings, left at our doors
        News journals bring most varied lores.
                 --_Harrison._


Starting out in 1827, when the first Colored newspaper in the United
States, The Freedmen’s Journal was published in New York City by John
B. Russwurm, the number of Negro journals have so increased until today
there are between two and three hundred secular weekly and two daily
newspapers published in the United States by Colored people. (Ref.;
Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, pgs. 170-461).

The honor of being acclaimed dean of today in Negro newspaper editorial
work falls upon the venerable shoulders of the “Grand Old Scribe,” T.
Thomas Fortune, once editor of the famous New York Age and still a
widely read contributor to some of the leading newspapers and magazines
in the country. This pioneer journalist (who was at one time “right
hand man” to the great white journalist, Chas. A. Dana, who bought
and revived the moribund New York Sun into one of the greatest papers
in America) was doing newspaper work as far back as 1879 on the New
York Globe, a leading white paper. Around that time Fortune was also
the trusted friend and valuable current informer and adviser of such
capable and fearless leaders as H. P. Brooks, J. W. Cromwell, C. N.
Otey and Frederick Douglass, who was termed by Mr. Fortune as “The lion
of them all.”

The younger Colored newspaper men of today are all well acquainted with
the history of Fred Douglass’ fighting abolition paper, “The North
Star” that he first published at Rochester, N. Y., in 1847 and later
renamed it “Fred Douglass’ Paper”, which in 1860 he absorbed into
“Douglass Monthly” a magazine he first began to publish in 1858.

There are yet living today many older men and women who can vividly
recall from personal observation how that great orator, reformer,
statesman and journalist could in a column on his editorial page wield
a pungent pen against the enemy of his race so forcefully by turning
out polished and gentlemanly invective articles that neither feared
nor spared but manfully denounced and exposed those who held or upheld
slavery. And in another column on that same editorial page he could
just as ably use an unsurpassed tactful ability in penning mutual and
grateful paragraphs to the loyal friends of his race, who were at once
more strongly allied to his side; or, he could in a third column just
as diplomatically word a concilatory open-letter to the half-decided
whites who, after thoroughly reading and thoughtfully thinking over
his heart-rending and convincing sentences were usually completely
persuaded to friendly join his cause for the freedom of his people.
And the increasing denouncements and criticisms that are read in the
Northern white press against the present barbarous peonage systems
carried on in the South today are but very very faint echoes of the
clarion and stenotorian thunderings that electrically flashed, roared
and rumbled seventy years ago throughout the world from the columns
of “The North Star” or from the actual lips of Fred Douglass while
lecturing in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales against the real
slavery that the South was then savagely carrying on with his race.

Another pioneer in this line of work is Phil H. Brown of Kentucky, who
has been following newspaper writing for over thirty years. Aside from
being an editor on daily and weekly journals, he has been connected
with the Chicago Daily News, The New York Journal and the New York
Sun all white papers. He has also written articles for Frank Leslie’s
New York publications and the humorous magazines “Judge”. For three
national campaigns Mr. Brown has ably directed the newspaper publicity
among American Colored people for the Republican National Committee.
He has just been appointed under President Harding’s administration as
Commissioner of Conciliation in the Department of Labor.

Another seasoned scribe of the “old school” who is yet, after fifty
years of active newspaper work, able to give the “new school” young
reporters many valuable pointers, as to the best kind of punch
(sparkling but not wet) to put into their night write-ups, is the spry
and jolly Civil War veteran, Sergeant Ralph Hawkins.

Charles Stewart, as a scribe of the first order, has put more than two
score years in this field in gathering news for some of the leading
white and Colored papers of the country. His abilities as a good mixer,
keen observer, good reasoner and an expert shorthand writer enabled him
years ago by using his clever disguises to get the inside secret and
puzzling facts to make numerous big newspaper write-ups on important
and vital events that had not been unearthed, after repeated trials,
by, some of the country’s most expert white newspaper reporters.

The late Richard W. Thompson was a man of wide newspaper experience
and knowledge. He was at different times on the editorial staffs of
the Washington Colored American and the Indianapolis World. He was the
founder of a newspaper bureau in Washington, D.C. from where he sent
out his famous letters to Colored papers throughout the country. He
was without doubt one of the hardest workers Colored journalism has
ever had. On more than one occasion the writer has seen Mr. Thompson
take down notes all day and sit up that entire night getting out press
releases for the next day.

In the deanship of newspaper work with T. T. Fortune is A. J. Murphy,
editor of his nationally known Afro-American published in Baltimore,
Md. Newspaper men who come in contact with Mr. Murphy are greatly
encouraged and benefited as the results of his unusual journalistic
abilities and experience extending over scores of years.

Ralph W. Tyler, World War newspaper writer and now on the editorial
staff of the Cleveland Advocate, and L. T. Thompson World War
Historian, are among the foremost newspaper men in the Race today.
To them, on account of their bravery to face all kinds of perils and
unselfish expending of tireless efforts to get true facts first-hand,
goes much of the honor or the gathering and compiling of the data
pertaining to the accurate history of the American Colored soldiers and
sailors in the World War.

Cleveland G. Allen, one of the best known of the younger newspaper
men of the race, is making journalism his profession. Aside from
being the only Negro reporter in 1911 at the Ecumenical Conference at
Toronto, Canada, and acting as traveling newspaperman with the late
Bishop Alexander Walters, he was for many years one of Dr. Booker T.
Washington’s Northern publicity men. It was mainly through his efforts
that the name of a Negro, Frederick Douglass, was first brought before
the Hall of Fame, and through his newspaper work an investigation was
conducted against the discriminations of Colored sailors in the U. S.
Navy. He has written a great deal for daily newspapers of New York and
the entire country on the Negro question and at one time conducted a
National News Bureau for the Negro Press. Having studied in Union High
School, Greenville, S. C.; in the New York Evening High School three
years where he won oratorical honors; two years of journalism in New
York University; studying at the Angelus Academy of Music where he
won a scholarship; and at present taking up special work at Columbia
University: Mr. Allen, on account of the above preparations and
experiences, is well fitted to hold his present positions as a member
on the editorial staff of “Home News” a large white newspaper in New
York, and as an appointed lecturer on Negro Music for the Board of
Education in New York City. He has a brother, Henry Allen, who is also
a prominent newspaperman at Stamford, Conn.

Among America’s foremost Colored women newspaper writers of today is
Frances Berry Coston of Indianapolis, Ind. Her chief work is in feature
articles and stories. Having graduated from Berea College; from the
Chicago University post-graduate course in literature and languages;
from the Pulitzer School of Journalism at Columbia University and from
the celebrated Harvard Starred Course in English, (given primarily
for authors and journalists) Mrs. Coston is well prepared and fully
capable to hold her present position. She is Literary Correspondent for
the Indianapolis News, one of the largest and most influential white
dailies, not only in the West, but throughout the country. Because of
her unusual efficiency and versatile abilities as a writer, she is
permitted by the editorial staff to turn out articles on any subject or
along any literary line she may desire. Mrs. Coston is given all the
work she can do on the literary page of this paper, and in connection
with the Book Review Department of the News, she is allowed to make her
own selections from the literary editor’s desk.

While still in his teens during the early nineties, Jas. A. Jackson
of Bellefonte, Pa., started his newspaper career with the Daily News,
a white newspaper published in his home town. Since that time he has
developed to such a high standard until today he stands among the most
widely known feature short story Colored and white writers of today.
His stories have frequently appeared on the magazine pages of the
Sunday editions of the New York Sun and the New York Herald. On account
of his very wide travels throughout the United States and abroad, he
has become acquainted with many of the most prominent newspapermen on
both sides of the ocean. With several of these writers and authors
he has joined in writing articles for some of America’s most popular
magazines as well as noted newspapers published in European countries.
In 1912 he wrote a lengthy article, “The Negro At Large” and in 1918
he wrote “The Underlying Cause of Race Riots.” These masterpieces of
journalism were greatly quoted by many newspapers and magazines, after
the articles had first appeared in the New York Globe. Mr. Jackson’s
latest literary step was made when he recently accepted a membership on
the editorial staff of “The Billboard”, as Dramatic Reviewer. This is
an amusement weekly (white) publication that was founded in New York
many years ago and today has a circulation of over two hundred thousand
copies a week.

The two daily newspapers run by Colored people in the United States are
W. T. Andrews’ Baltimore Herald that is published in Baltimore, Md.,
and Arthur Craig’s The Daily Star which is published in New York City
where it has a daily circulation of over forty thousand copies.

Among the Colored newspapers in the United States, Robt. S. Abbott’s
Chicago Defender (World’s Greatest Weekly) is recognized as having
the largest circulation. This newspaper recently moved into its own
two hundred fifty thousand dollar, three-story, modern building that
contains a print shop, four linotype machines, and four-deck Goss
straight-line press.

“The late Christopher James Perry was born in Baltimore, Md., September
11, 1854. At an early age he went to Philadelphia, where he obtained
employment and became a student of the public night school. In 1884,
after some of his writings had been published, he became a special
writer for the Sunday Mirror, of Philadelphia, to report the activities
of the Negroes of the city. He later started the Philadelphia Tribune,
a Negro weekly, which has been published for 36 years. This newspaper
is published in the Tribune Building and has a $100,000 plant of which
Mr. Perry was the sole owner.” Quoted from the Sept. 1921 issue of the
Crisis:

Another one of the best nationally known Colored papers that is doing
business in its own establishment that is completely equipped with the
most modern newspaper machinery is Fred R. Moore’s New York Age. This
paper is one of the oldest and most popular in the field, and is also a
weekly issue. There are other Colored newspapers throughout the country
that are in their own modernly equipped establishments.

Those named in the following listed cities are just a few of
the Colored newspapers that, on account of their up-to-date
instructive-news, all round influence for encouragement and inspiration
and constant race loyalty, have won race leading reputations of the
first quality for themselves and their editors not only in their own
cities but throughout and beyond their own states:

Atlanta, Ga.
  B. J. Davis’ Atlanta Independent, A. Grace’s
  Atlanta Post, Chas. Howell’s Atlanta Constitution.

Atlantic City, N. J.
  J. A. Lightfoot’s Atlantic City Advocate,
  Harry Jackson’s Atlantic City News.

Augusta, Ga.
  Editor Simmons’ The Echo.

Baltimore, Md.
  A. J. Murphy’s The Afro-American, W. T. Andrews’ The Daily Herald.

Birmingham, Ala.
  O. W. Adams’ Birmingham Reporter.

Boley, Oklahoma.
  G. W. Perry’s Boley Progress, A. L. Moore’s Boley News.

Boston, Mass.
  Wm. M. Trotter’s Boston Guardian, Wm. Murray’s Boston Chronicle.

Buffalo, N. Y.
  E. O. Brown’s Buffalo American.

Brooklyn, N. Y.
  Wm. McKinney’s Brooklyn Informer.

Camden, N. J.
  Marcus Mann’s Camden Tribune.

Charleston, S. C.
  D. J. Jenkins’ Charleston Messenger.

Charlotte, N. C.
  J. W. Crocketh’s Progressive Messenger.

Chattanooga, Tenn.
  J. J. Oldfield’s Chattanooga Defender.

Chicago, Ill.
  R. S. Abbott’s Chicago Defender.
  W. C. Linton’s The Whip, J. A. Taylor’s
  The Broad Ax, W. D. Neighbors’ The Chicago Idea.

Cincinnati, O.
  W. P. Dabney’s The Union, Hardin Tolbeat’s Cincinnati Journal.

Cleveland, O.
  H. C. Smith’s Cleveland Gazette, A. Forte’s Cleveland Advocate.

Columbia, S. C.
  J. A. Roach’s Southern Indicator.

Columbus, O.
  J. W. Carter’s Ohio State Monitor.

Danville, Va.
  H. T. Houston’s The Headlight.

Dayton, O.
  J. A. Rives’ Dayton Forum.

Denver, Col.
  J. D. Rivers’ Denver Statesman, C. S. Muse’s The Denver Star.

Des Moines, Iowa.
  E. Mash’s The Bystander.

Detroit, Mich.
  W. P. Kemp’s Detroit Leader. The Compass.

Dallas, Texas.
  J. R. Jordan’s The Dallas Express.

Fort Worth, Texas.
  J. I. Dotson’s Fort Worth Hornet.

Gary, Ind.
  J. D. Cooke’s Nat’l Defender & Sun.

Greenville, S. C.
  C. C. Clarkson’s Southern Enterprise.

Harrisburgh, Pa.
  F. L. Jefferson’s The Advocate Verdict.

Helena, Ark.
  H. W. Hallaway’s Interstate Reporter.

Houston, Texas.
  C. F. Richardson’s Houston Informer.

Indianapolis, Ind.
  G. L. Knox’s The Freeman, J. D. Howard’s
  The Ledger, A. E. Manning’s The Indianapolis World.

Jackson, Miss.
  J. W. Hair’s The Farmer.

Jacksonville, Fla.
  J. A. Simm’s The Florida Sentinel.

Kansas City, Kan.
  T. Kennedy’s Kansas City Advocate.

Kansas City, Mo.
  C. A. Franklin’s Kansas City Call, N. C. Crews’ The Sun.

Little Rock, Ark.
  L. N. Porter’s Arkansas Banner.

Los Angeles, Cal.
  F. M. Roberts’ The New Age, C. A. Spear’s The Eagle.

Louisville, Ky.
  I. W. Cole’s Louisville Leader, Wm. Warley’s Louisville News.

Lexington, Ky.
  E. D. Willis’ Lexington Weekly News.

Madison, Wis.
  J. A. Josey’s Wisconsin Weekly Blade.

Memphis, Tenn.
  S. W. Broome’s The Memphis Times, J. E. Washington’s The Western
  World Reporter.

Minneapolis, Minn.
  R. B. Montgomery’s The National Advocate.

Mobile, Ala.
  George U. Cloud’s Mobile Forum.

Montgomery, Ala.
  J. E. McCall’s The Emancipator.

Mound Bayou, Miss.
  W. M. Lott’s National News Digest.

Muskogee, Okla.
  W. H. Twine’s Muskogee Cimeter.

Nashville, Tenn.
  H. A. Boyd’s Nashville Globe, W. A.
  Water’s Peoples Advocate, Bessie P. Rhoda’s Nashville Eye.

Newark, N. J.
  Editor Pollard’s New Jersey Observer.

New Orleans, La.
  Jas. E. Gayle’s The Vindicator.

Newport News, Va.
  M. N. Lewis’ The Star.

New York City, N. Y.
  J. H. Anderson’s Amsterdam News, Geo. Harris’
  New York News, W. H. Ferris’ The Negro World, The Daily Star.

Norfolk, Va.
  P. B. Young’s Journal & Guide.

Oakland, Cal.
  E. Marshall’s California Voice.

Oklahoma City, Okla.
  R. Dungee’s The Black Dispatch.

Omaha, Neb.
  J. Albert Williams’ The Monitor.

Phila., Pa.
  Chris Perry’s Philadelphia Tribune,
  J. W. Parks’ Philadelphia American, Arthur Lynch’s Public Journal.

Phoenix, Ariz.
  A. R. Smith’s Phoenix Tribune.

Pine Bluff, Ark.
  J. H. Harrison’s The Monitor.

Pittsburg, Pa.
  Robt. L. Vann’s Pittsburg Courier.

Portland, Org.
  E. D. Cannady’s The Advocate.

Portsmouth, Va.
  C. C. Summerville’s The Virgil.

Princeton, N. J.
  D. La Tourette’s Princeton Packet.

Providence, R. I.
  F. R. Purnell’s The Advance.

Raleigh, N. C.
  L. M. Cheeks’ Raleigh Independent.

Richmond, Va.
  John Mitchell’s Richmond Planet, Maggie L. Walker’s St. Lukes Herald.

Sacramento, Cal.
  J. M. Collins’ Western Review.

San Antonio, Tex.
  G. W. Bouldin’s San Antonio Inquirer.

San Francisco, Cal.
  J. L. Derrick’s Western Outlook, G. E. Watkins’ Western Appeal.

Savannah, Ga.
  S. C. Johnson’s Savannah Tribune.

Seattle, Wash.
  S. P. BeDow’s The Searchlight.

Shreveport, La.
  M. L. Collins’ Shreveport, Sun, Samuel and Carter’s News-Enterprise.

St. Louis, Mo.
  J. E. Mitchell’s St. Louis Argus, C. K. Robinson’s Independent Clarion.

St. Paul, Minn.
  J. Q. Adams’ The Appeal.

Tampa, Fla.
  M. D. Potter’s Tampa Bulletin.

Terre Haute, Ind.
  C. E. Rochelle’s Emancipator.

Washington, D.C.
  J. Finley Wilson’s The Washington Eagle,
  Mrs. Eva A. Chase’s The Washington Bee,
  D. Eugene Taylor’s Washington American, F. M. Murray’s Washington Tribune.

Wichita, Kan.
  W. A. Betts’ Wichita Protest, H. T. Simms’ The New Star.

Wilmington, Del.
  Editor Nelson’s The Advocate.


Religious Papers

Among the three score and more religious Colored newspapers in America,
R. E. Jones’ Southwestern Christian Advocate of New Orleans, La., R. R.
Wright’s Christian Recorder of Phila., Pa. J. D. Crenshaw’s National
Baptist Voice of Nashville, Tenn. and N. S. Epps’ Baptist Herald
of New York City are some of the most nationally known and widely
circulated.


National Negro Press Association

The National Negro Press Association, of which J. Finley Wilson is
president, is an organization among Colored newspaper editors for the
purpose of uniting them in mutual friendships and understanding. At
their annual meetings they become better acquainted and exchange their
different ideas in order to become better news informers and stronger
champions through their organs for justice to their race.


The Associated Negro Press

Although not yet three years old, the Associated Negro Press, of
which N. D. Brascher of Chicago, Ill., is editor-in-chief, is already
exerting a wonderful influence in the field of Negro journalism and
is doing excellent work in so efficiently gathering and so promptly
releasing to its newspaper members the most vital current events of the
day.

The noble and tireless efforts of the Colored editors, in trying to
help convert the prejudiced white people of the United States from
their unjust hatred, discrimination and cruelties upon the Negro race
just because of its progress, are each day being more ably backed up by
the American white press. As the writer has said in the chapter dealing
with church work, white papers throughout the country are increasing
in numbers in making their editorials stronger and stronger in justly
denouncing mob rule, its results and future reaction upon these United
States. This sentiment in the white press is increasing and spreading
so rapidly that even white papers in different parts of the South are
fearlessly joining this movement for right.

In the summer of 1918 a Southern paper, the San Antonio Express of
Texas set aside a fund of one hundred thousand dollars to be used in
helping to put down lynching in the United States. This money is to be
used to pay rewards for the arrest and conviction of all persons taking
part in lynchings. Other Texas white papers, the Houston Post and
the Austin American have on different occasions come out strongly in
contending for fair treatment and justice to the Colored people.

With reference to the jury which heard the evidence in the peonage
trial of John S. Williams, Georgia white planter, accused of killing
eleven Negro farm hands, and on trial for the slaying of one of them,
and which jury brought in a verdict of guilty, with life sentence,
but urged “mercy” on the court; the following editorial by Thomas W.
Loveless appeared in a Georgia white paper, The Enquirer-Sun, according
to an article that came out in the April 16, 1921 issue of the Chicago
Defender:

“A Newton county jury has tried John S. Williams, the Jasper county
multimurderer, found him guilty, and recommended him to the mercy of
the court. By what process of reasoning the jury arrived at this form
of verdict is difficult if not well nigh impossible to imagine. This
is, if we try to analyze it by any ‘process of reasoning’, but if we
brush aside all subterfuge and hypocrisy and tell the plain truth about
it, the verdict--as great a travesty of justice as it is--is not so
difficult to understand.

“And this plain truth is we have not yet reached that stage of grace,
or of justice, in Georgia where we ‘hang a white man for killing a
nigger’, as the expression is and has long been ...

“However, the owner and operator of this Georgia ‘murder farm’ escapes
with his own life--a penitentiary sentence--and perhaps a pardon later
on if he lives long enough and his family can bring enough influence to
bear.

“Thus do we again ‘advertise Georgia.’ God help her.”

Referring to the recent Tulsa, Oklahoma race riot, in which the mob
destroyed forty-four blocks of Negro property, the following extracts
are parts of an editorial that appeared in the July 7, 1921 issue of a
white newspaper, The National Tribune of Washington, D.C.


“The Burning Disgrace of ‘Race Riot’”.

“As we have said before, there is a strong element in Tulsa coming from
the renegade whites who fled out of the reach of justice to start
a so-called “race riot” on any pretext. The more that the situation
is studied the less provocation there was for such an outrage. The
absurdity of the white girl’s story that she had been insulted by a
negro boy was apparent on its face. It is said her reputation was not
of the best and no one apparently stopped to think of the impossibility
of such an outrage in the most public place in a city of 100,000
people. The elevator which she was running was in the most conspicuous
part of the building.

“The riot was made possible by the worthlessness of the police and
judiciary. As usual in a place of such sudden rise to greatness as
Tulsa, the vicious elements have entirely too large a control of
the municipal authorities. The houses of ill-fame, gambling joints,
bootleggers, and other criminals have too much to say as to the
selection of officials. For 14 years Tulsa has been in the absolute
control of this element. The better class of people were too much
absorbed making the easy money possible there to bother themselves and
give up any time to politics.

“Quite a number of negroes have made fortunes in Tulsa and they became
the special objects of the mob. One colored man owned and operated
a printing plant with $25,000 of printing machinery in it. It was
assailed and burned to the ground by a mob led by a man who had been
working a linotype at a salary of $48 a week. Of course, this linotype
man professed to be a “perfect Southern gentleman” and superior to a
negro, although he degraded himself by working for him at good wages.
Dr. A. C. Jackson, a colored physician, who was called by competent
authorities the most able negro surgeon in America, was marked for the
wrath of the mob because he owned $100,000 worth of property. He tried
to fight against the mob and surrendered under a pledge of protection,
but was murdered on his way to jail.” ...

The above are but a few of the many such editorials that have recently
come under the notice of the writer, and if white editors who run out
such editorials could just mingle among the masses of both races where
their papers are read and listen to the comments being made, they
would be amazed to note the influence for good that such writings are
exerting. And if now in this critical period of racial unrest, the
majority of white editors through this land together with the white
clergy will take such stands for law and order, the race prejudice in
this country will be checked before its barbarism pulls the United
States down, down, down to the very lowest and most despised race among
all nations and countries--civilized and uncivilized. For this unjust
public sentiment can only be checked and changed by the right kind of
influences starting from the white pulpits and printing rooms. The
frequent clashings of swords cannot force about such a change, but the
constant exchange of reasoning sermons and editorials can persuade such
a change to come about.

If it is the fear of losing their congregations and churches that
prevents so many white ministers from taking such a stand; then the way
to be outspoken (instead of silent) against mob sins and crimes, and
still keep “Mrs. Wolf” from grinning at them through their parsonage
windows, is for all of them to become outspoken. And as their people
must continue to have churches and be preached to, those ministers
would still hold their pulpits as they would then be the only kind of
preachers (outspoken) to listen to.

If it is the fear of losing their subscribers and seeing their papers
go into the waste baskets that keeps so many white editors from
taking such a rightful stand; then the way to keep and increase their
subscribers and at the same time keep “Mr. Wolf” from sniffing around
the kitchen doors, is for all editors to begin to use the “Golden
(printer’s guiding) Rule” to measure out their editorials on the Race
questions. As their people must have newspapers in order to learn what
is going on in the world, rather than get no papers they would buy the
only kind (the fair and just) that would then be printed. And in using
the above methods in bringing about brotherhood and Christlike feelings
between the two races, no one would be the loser, but all would be the
gainers.

As another witness and proof that courageously standing for right and
fearlessly denouncing wrong through their convincing columns does not
weaken but eventually strengthens and increases the influence of such
white periodicals; the writer quotes below in part an editorial that
appeared in the September 14, 1921 issue of The Nation, a world-famed
white magazine that has been successfully published in New York for
over fifty years during all which time its publication has continued to
grow and spread as the results of just such Golden Rule editorials as
the following:

“The daughter of Mr. J. B. Webb, “prominent in financial and social
circles,” chose to marry a groom, her sister having previously married
a policeman.... The newspapers sent around special reporters in
battalions. Then up spoke Mr. Webb: “It’s rotten, that’s what I call
it--rotten! To tear a person’s life to shreds like this, and bring
up for the public eye the affairs of one poor little girl.” To which
we say a hearty Amen. But more rotten than this outrageous violation
of individual rights by the press is the careless or malicious zest
with which certain papers, especially in the South, publish stories
from depraved or irresponsible white women accusing some black man of
a more or less grave offense against them. Every newspaperman knows
that just such a story started the Tulsa riots, as well as those in
Washington and in Omaha. Yet here we find on the front pages of the
Memphis Commercial Appeal two circumstantial stories of attack by
Negroes on white women. Both of them were false, as the newspaper
itself admitted less conspicuously next day. This sort of thing is all
too common and not every city has a paper as bold as the Memphis Press
in denouncing it. It is high time for a renascence of ethical standards
in newsgathering.”


In Magazine Writing

Just as Dr. W. E. B. DuBois is recognized as the foremost magazine
writer in the Negro race, not only in America but throughout the
world; it is said he has also made The Crisis Magazine, of which he
is editor-in-chief, the widest read Colored magazine of its kind not
only in the Western but also in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is estimated
that this magazine is read each month by nearly four hundred thousand
people.

Among lettered Colored women, Miss Jessie R. Fauset, a graduate of
Cornell where she was made a member of the Phi Betta Kappa Fraternity,
later becoming a teacher of French and Latin in the M Street High
School, Washington, D.C., and at present Literary Editor of the The
Crisis Magazine, is today recognized by the best critics as a leading
and most versatile magazine writer.

Such wise, timely and meatful articles as “Race Consciousness,” “Heart
Talk,” “Representation of the American Woman,” “World Brotherhood,”
“Oil Upon Troubled Waters” are among the many writings that have
stamped Miss H. Georgiana Whyte, editor of the Women’s Department of
The Favorite Magazine, as one of the most forceful and helpful magazine
writers among Colored women.

Aside from long ago proving himself as one of the ablest Colored
newspaper editors in the country, Attorney Robt. L. Vann of Pittsburgh,
Pa., has shown by the high quality of his Competitor Magazine that as a
writer in this field he is second to none.

The cheerfulness and life that Editor Fenton Johnson puts into his
Favorite Magazine explains why it is having such a rapid growth and has
become a sure-enough favorite with the Colored readers, not only in its
home city of Chicago but throughout the country.

The inspiring snap that Editor Willis N. Huggins throws into his
UpReach Magazine accounts for it being so popular, especially with
the younger and progressive element among the Colored readers who are
always benefited by such well chosen and written articles.

The exceptional ability to so vividly portray human nature from the
viewpoints of both races when building up stories is one of the secrets
that is the cause of Editor Aubery Bowser’s Rainbow Magazine being
sought after by all readers who want to learn and understand the inside
life situations as they really exist when the two races come in close
contact.

Except those people who personally go through the tedious processes
of a similar work, no one is able to fully realize and appreciate the
value of the up-to-date culled, methodically complied, instructively
built-up and tastily arranged matter that Miss Madeline G. Allison
presents each month in The Crisis: under the heading “The Horizon.” In
monthly compiling the tremendous new store of varied and far-reaching
data her department contains, Miss Allison is doing a grand and unique
piece of literary writing the workmanship and quality of which any
magazine of any race would be proud to carry.

As the results of the deep thinking and outspoken opinions that get
down to the very core and essence of the subjects handled by them,
Editors Owens and Chandler, through the medium of their magazine The
Messenger are fast mounting top rungs in their profession and at the
same time attracting the wide attentions of well-versed and seasoned
newspaper and magazine people in both races.

Although it has not been founded very long, the Method Magazine, edited
by F. H. Hallion, of Richmond, Va., is attracting wide attention on
account of its instructive and helpful articles pertaining to business
relations in their many fields of activities.

The Brownies’ Book, edited by W. E. B. DuBois, & A. G. Dill of New
York City, N. Y., is something entirely new in the field of Negro
journalism. It is, “A monthly magazine for children which attempts to
bring to them: The best in pictures and stories of Negro life. The life
and deeds of famous men and women of the Negro race. The current events
of the world told in beautiful language which children can understand.”

In going out of the way to thoughtfully assert that the Brownies’ Book
should be in every Negro home where there are children; the writer
expresses such a sentiment, not because of being more partial to this
certain magazine and its editors than to other magazines and their
editors, but, because he is ever proud to admit that he is really
cranky partial to any Negro history no matter under what covers it may
appear. Especially is this true when such history is written (as in
the Brownies’ Book) in plain, easy, truthful and interesting English
that makes first and lasting impressions upon young and tender Negro
minds before they are indelibly imprinted and permanently poisoned by
the devilish trash contained in blood-thirsty, underworld, dime novels
so youthfully secured and greedily read by unwatched and idle-minded
children of all races.

Although it is not a monthly magazine but a quarterly journal, The
Journal of Negro History, edited by Carter G. Woodson of Washington,
D.C. is a nationally known publication of instruction, encouragement
and inspiration for the American Colored people, of matured years who
wish to learn their Race history.

Monroe N. Work’s marvelously compiled Negro Year Book is conceded to
be the greatest compact work of literary science ever produced by
an American Negro. What the World Almanac is to the Caucasian Race,
The Negro Year Book is to the Negro Race. The following quotation is
what a leading white newspaper, The New York Sun, commented on this
masterpiece of literature: “Interesting and important is the array of
facts relating to the Negro contained in the Negro Year Book. The book
is a perfect encyclopedia of achievements by Negroes in all ranks of
life, of the history of the race in the United States, of Legislative
enactments relating to them, of activity in all branches, particularly
education. The book is indispensable to all who have to deal with any
phase of the Negro question.”

The following is a list of the most important monthly, quarterly or
yearly magazines or journals published in the United States by Colored
people:

American Caterer & Gazette Guide,
  Editor J. A. Ross, Buffalo, N. Y.

American Musicians’ Magazine,
  Editor W. A. Potter, Phila., Pa.

Amusement World,
  Editor Jack Trotter, Chicago, Ill.

Brotherhood Magazine,
  Editor C. H. Taylor, Chicago, Ill.

Brownies’ Book,
  Editors W. E. B. DuBois & A. G. Dill, New York, N.Y.

Business Men’s Bulletin,
  Editor Edw. Perkins, Chicago, Ill.

Journal of Nat’l Medical Ass’n,
  Editor Dr. J. A. Kenney, Tuskegee, Ala.

Journal of Negro History,
  Editor C. G. Woodson, Washington, D.C.

Music and Poetry,
  Editor Nora Douglass Holt, Chicago, Ill.

National Association Notes,
  Editor Mrs. Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee, Ala.

The Colored Teacher,
  Editor F. A. McGinnis, Wilberforce, Ohio.

The Competitor,
  Editor Robt. L. Vann, Pittsburgh, Pa.

The Crisis,
  Editor Dr. W. E. B. DuBois, New York City, N. Y.

The Crusader,
  Editor, C V. Briggs, New York City, N. Y.

The Favorite,
  Editor Fenton Johnson, Chicago, Ill.

The Half Century,
  Editor Katherine W. Irmin, Chicago, Ill.

The Master Musician,
  Editor G. W. Parris, Phila., Pa.

The Method,
  Editor F. H. Hallion, Richmond, Va.

The Messenger,
  Editors Owens and Chandler, New York City, N. Y.

The Pullman Porter’s Review,
  Editor Z. Withers, Chicago, Ill.

The Rainbow,
  Editor Aubrey Bowser, New York City, N. Y.

The Negro Year Book,
  Editor Monroe N. Work, Tuskegee Inst., Ala.

The Negro Musician,
  Editor Henry L. Grant, Washington, D.C.

The Search Light.
  Editor A. B. Vincent, Raleigh, N. C.

The Up-Reach Magazine,
  M. N. Huggins, Chicago, Ill.

Some names in above list are extracts from Negro Year Book, 1918-1919
edition, (Page 465).

As a successful magazine essay prize writer, Isaac Fisher, of
Nashville, Tenn., is recognized today as the foremost in the Negro
race. The following quotation is part of an article that appeared in
the July 9, 1921 issue of the Chicago Defender:

“The third prize of $75, offered by the Metropolitan Magazine of New
York in its contest for writers on the subject, “Can We Keep Peace with
Japan,” was won by Isaac Fisher, editor of the Fisk University News,
according to an announcement made in the August issue of the magazine
just released....

“Among the prizes he has won in the past through his writings are first
prize of $500 offered by Everybody’s Magazine; first prize of $100
offered by the St. Louis Post-Dispatch; first prize of $50 offered
for the best digest of the merits of the money-weight scales; second
prize of $400 offered by Hart, Schaffner & Marx’ executive committee of
Chicago; second prize of $100 offered by the Manufacturers’ Record of
Baltimore.

“Those who know Mr. Fisher’s records are aware that these are but a
few of the prizes he has won in competition with the best minds of the
country. It will be remembered that he won the first prize of $500 in
Everybody’s Magazine contest in competition with 900 writers, including
some of the best legal and professional men of the country.”

In summing up, the leading Colored short-story writers of today who are
known throughout the country as standing contributors to newspapers and
magazines are Frances Coston Berry, Indianapolis, Ind., Aubrey Bowser,
New York, Chas. W. Chestnut, Cleveland, O., W. E. B. DuBois, New York,
Jessie R. Fauset, New York, Isaac Fisher, Nashville, Tenn., T. Thomas
Fortune, New York, W. N. Huggins, Chicago, Ill., Jas. A. Jackson, New
York, A. L. Jackson, Chicago, Ill., Jas. Weldon Johnson, N. Y., Fenton
Johnson, Chicago, Ill., Alice Dunbar Nelson, Wilmington, Del., Beatrice
(Neave) Perry, Phila., Pa.

[Illustration]



IN BOOK WRITING

INSPIRING BOOKS

    When winds outside are howling loud,
        And snows fall fast from winter cloud,
    Or burning sun peeps through the leaves;
        As gently they dart from summer breeze;
    Let me sit near winter’s purring fire,
        Or by summer’s gurgling brook retire.
    With books to read of great deeds done
        By those who from low depths did run.
                 --_Harrison._


On account of the present day rapid streams of their smoothly flowing
inks into the deep-lettered channels of their versatile works, the
following named persons, according to the estimation of one of
America’s best literary critics, are ten of the foremost American
Colored authors of today:

Wm. S. Braithwaite, Boston, Mass., Benjamin G. Brawley, Atlanta, Ga.,
W. E. B. Dubois, Jessie R. Fauset, Jas. Weldon Johnson, New York City,
Georgia D. Johnson, Kelly Miller, Washington, D.C., Lucian B. Watkins,
Annapolis, Md., Carter G. Woodson, Washington, D.C. and Monroe N. Work,
Tuskegee, Alabama.

The following more detailed list contains the names of some of the
foremost Colored authors and their most important works produced in
America:

Delilah L. Beasley’s
  Negro Trail Blazers of California.

Ford S. Black’s
  Blue Book of Chicago.

Aubrey Bowser’s
  The Man Who Would be White.

R. H. Boyd’s
  Sunday School Commentary.

St. Elmo Brady’s
  Household Chemistry for Girls.

Wm. S. Braithwaite’s
  Anthology of Magazine Verse--Golden Treasury of
  Magazine Verse--Lyrics of Life and Love--Story of the Great War.

C. F. Bragg’s
  Men of Maryland--Afro-American Church Workers.

Benj. G. Brawley’s.
  History of The Negro--The Negro in Literature and Art.

Chas. W. Chestnutt’s
  The Conjur Woman--The House Behind The Cedars--The
  Marrow of Tradition--Frederick Douglass.

Jos. S. Cotter, Sr’s.
  Caleb The Degenerate--Links of Friendship--Sequel
  to The Pied Piper--White Song and A Black Song.

Jos. S. Cotter, Jr’s.
  Band of Gideon--Out of The Shadows.

L. J. Coppin’s
  Unwritten History.

A. B. Cosey’s
  American and English Law on Titles of Record.

J. W. Cromwell’s
  The Negro in American History.

D. W. Culp’s
  Twentieth Century of Negro Literature.

Frederick Douglass
  My Bondage and Freedom--Life and Times of Frederick Douglass.

W. E. B. DuBois
  The Suppression of The Slave Trade--Souls of Black
Folks--The Quest of The Silver Fleece--John Brown--Darkwater.

Paul Lawrence Dunbar’s
  Folks From Dixie--Love and Landry --Lyrics of Lowly
  Life--Uncalled--Heart of Happy Hollow--Lyrics of The He
  Hearthstone-- Strength of Gideon and Other Stories--Complete
  Poems--Lyrics of Love and Laughter--Lyrics of Sunshine and Shadow--Poems
  of Cabin and Field--Life and Works of Paul Lawrence Dunbar.

H. O. Flipper’s
  Colored Cadets At West Point.

A. H. Grimke’s
  Negro and The Elective Franchise.

S. E. Griggs’
  Life’s Demand or According to Law--The Hindered Hand-Unfettered.

Frances E. Harper’s
  Iola Leroy--Miscellaneous Poems --Sketches of Southern Life.

Algernon B. Jackson’s
  The Man Next Door.

Jas. Weldon Johnson’s
  The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man--Fifty Years and Other Poems.

Edw. A. Johnson’s
  Light Ahead For the Negro-- School History of The Negro Race
  In America--The Negro in The Spanish-American War.

Georgia D. Johnson’s
  An Autumn Love Cycle--Heart of A Woman and Other Poems--Shadow Song.

M. A. Majors’
  Noted Negro Women.

Jas. E. McGirth’s
  The Triumph of Ephraim --Some Simple Songs.

Kelly Miller’s
  Out of The House of Bondage--Race Adjustment--World War For Human Rights.

J. E. Moorland’s
  Training of The Negro Minister.

Mrs. N. F. Mosselle’s
  Afro-American Women.

R. R. Moton’s
  Finding A Way Out.

Daniel Murray’s
  Encyclopedia Of The Negro.

Alice Dunbar Nelson’s
  Masterpieces of Eloquence--Goodness of St. Rocque And Other Stories.

D. A. Payne’s
  History Of The A. M. E. Church

I. G. Penn’s
  The Afro-American Press.

C. H. Phillips’
  History of The C. M. E. Church.

William Pickens’
  The Heir of Slaves.

J. A. Rogers’
  From Superman to Man--An Open Letter To Congress.

Emmett J. Scott’s
  Booker T. Washington, Builder of a Civilization--Scott’s Official History
  of The American Negro In The World War.

W. H. Shackelford’s
  Along the Highway--Poems.

Mrs. S. M. Steward’s
  Women In Medicine.

Allison W. Sweeney’s
  History Of The World War.

B. T. Tanner’s
  History & Government Of The A. M. E. Z. Church Men.

Booker T. Washington’s
  Up From Slavery--Frederick Douglass--My Larger
  Education--Character Building--The Man Farthest
  Down--Working With The Hands--Future Of The American
  Negro--Negro In Business--Sowing
  and Reaping--Tuskegee and Its People.--Story of
  My Life And Work.

Geo. W. Williams’
  History Of The Negro Race
  In America--History Of The Negro Troops In The Rebellion.

Carter G. Woodson’s
  A Century of Negro Migration--Education Of The Negro Prior To 1861.

John W. Work’s
  Folk Songs Of The American Negro.

Monroe N. Work’s
  Negro Year Book.

R. R. Wright, Sr’s.
  Negro Education in Georgia.

R. R. Wright, Jr’s.
  Centennial Encyclopedia Of The African M. E. Church.

(Some names in above list are from Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition,
Pgs. 481-2-3.)


Noted Colored Statisticians

Dr. W. E. B. DuBois, Harvard graduate, Editor of The Crisis and The
Brownies’ Book, New York City, and recognized as the leading Negro
Sociologist in the world, is in possession of more authentic data
covering the social life of the American Colored people than any other
member of the race.

Dr. Geo. E. Haynes, Columbia graduate, U. S. Director of Negro
Economics during the World War, and Dr. R. R. Wright Jr., graduate of
the University of Pa., and editor of the Christian Recorder, Phila.,
Pa., are the two leading American Colored authorities on economic data
relative to the all-round labor, industrial and living conditions of
the Colored people in America.

Prof. W. T. B. Williams, Harvard graduate, Vice-Principal of Tuskegee
Institute and Field Agent for the Jeanes and Slater Funds, is estimated
to have on his “finger tips” more convincing and reliable facts and
figures pertaining to the purposes, needs kinds and grades of work done
and results obtained in Negro universites, colleges, industrial normal
schools and rural county schools than any educator in America.

Prof. Monroe N. Work, a University of Chicago graduate, editor of
the Negro Year Book and Director of Department Records and Research,
Tuskegee Institute, Ala., is the foremost Negro not only in America,
but throughout the world, who has in his possession the greatest
amount of authentic statistics covering the all-round past and present
activities of the Colored people in the United States of America.


Colored Orators and Lecturers

Some of the foremost Colored orators and lecturers who are most
frequently on the platform before the American public today are J.
W. E. Bowen, Atlanta, Ga., W. E. B. DuBois, New York City, N. Y.,
Geo. E. Haynes, Washington, D.C., Eva D. Bowles, New York City.,
Hallie Q. Brown, Wilberforce, Ohio, E. K. Jones, Jas. Weldon Johnson,
New York City, N. Y., Mordecai Johnson, Charleston, W. Va., Kelly
Miller, Washington, D.C., Chas. S. Morris, Jr., Norfolk, Va., J. E.
Moorland, New York, N. Y., R. R. Moton, Tuskegee, Ala., Wm. Pickens,
New York City, N. Y., C. V. Roman, Nashville, Tenn., Roscoe C. Simmons,
Louisville, Ky., Mary C. Terrell, Washington, D. C., Wm. M. Trotter,
Boston, Mass.

Now, if after reading through the foregoing pages of inspiration,
regarding the successes of Negro writers, some Colored girls and boys
should still lack courage, because of their color and race, to throw
their talents into such literary avenues, they should remember that:--

The most important thing about a newspaper, magazine or book is not its
white pages, (because such pages can be and often are colored) but the
most important thing in such a publication is its print of jet black
letters and words. But if those genuine Ethiopian letters refused, just
because of their color, to mingle with and make lasting impressions
upon the fair Caucasian pages of newspapers, magazines and books; why
my discouraged young friends, there would be no fields nor meadows of
journalism in which white people could even enter to frolic in the
games of “pen and pencil pushing.”

[Illustration]



IN HIGHER EDUCATION

GLAD HELLOES

    Did joys spring up within your heart,
      When autumn days bade you depart
    Back to your campus truly veer
      To meet classmates to you so dear?
                 --_Harrison._


SAD GOOD-BYES.

    Did you ever have glad feelings sad,
      When June told you the books to shirk
    And classmates whom with fun you had
      You parted from to face life’s work?
                 --_Harrison._


For the Colored youths of exceptional mental abilities and talents who
desire to fit themselves along higher educational lines, there are 86
Negro universities and colleges and numerous white universities and
colleges in the North and West where they can learn art, chemistry,
dentistry, law, medicine, music, pharmacy, theology and other higher
subjects. Up to the present time over 7000 Colored students have
graduated from American colleges and of this number upward of ten
or eleven hundred have graduated from white colleges. According to
the July 1921 issue of The Crisis, 85 Colored Bachelors of Arts, &
Sciences, 11 Masters of Arts and 3 Doctors in Philosophy graduated
from white colleges in 1921, while 376 Bachelors of Arts, 80 Doctors
of Medicine, 73 Dentists, 27 Pharmacists, 25 Lawyers and 45 Ministers
graduated from Colored colleges in 1921. The three Colored scholars
who graduated from the white colleges with the honors of Doctor of
Philosophy are Misses Eva B. Dykes, Radcliffe College; Sadie T.
Mossell, University of Pennsylvania, and Georgiana Simpson, University
of Chicago. Miss Eunice R. Hunton, “an excellent student throughout her
course” has the distinction of receiving the two honor degrees A. B.
and A. M. upon her graduation in 1921 from Smith College, Mass.

The first Colored person to graduate from a Northern white college
was John Brown Russworm, who graduated from Bowdoin in 1826. Aside
from holding for years the world recognition and honor of being both
the greatest scholastic and athletic university in America, Harvard
University is also known throughout the Eastern and Western Hemispheres
as practicing the truest and highest standards of broad-minded,
one-hundred percent Americanism toward its Colored students of any
similar white institution in America. As a result of such brotherhood
feelings existing there between the two races, more Negroes on an
average enter and graduate from the different departments of Harvard
than from any other great Northern white college. Its front doors
(as well as back doors) are always standing ajar with latch strings
hanging on the outside for the unembarrassed entrance of any worthy
applicant whether he be rich or poor, white or black. And when a
Colored student at Harvard joins his white school chums in singing
their college song--“Fair Harvard,” he sings it with the same fullness
and pathos in heart, the same peacefulness and contentment in mind
and the same truthfulness and sincerity in words that he hopes when
he enters the world to be able to sing in every country, over which
floats the “Red White and Blue”--“My Country ’tis of thee, sweet land
of liberty”--letting his voice come to its fullest accent and climaxing
crescendo on the word--LIBERTY.

Other leading white universities or colleges having encouraged and
welcomed Colored students to study in and graduate from their class
room, as well as to play and star on their varsity teams are as follows:

Amherst, Mass., Bates, Maine, Brown, R. I., California, Cal.,
Carnegie, Pa., Chicago, Ill., Cincinnati, O.; Clark, Mass., Colby,
Me., Columbia, N. Y., Cornell, N. Y., Dartmouth, N. H., Dubuque, Ia.,
Illinois, Ill., Indiana, Ind., Kansas, Kan., Lafayette, Pa., (and the
racial broad-mindedness, human brotherhood and one-hundred percent
Americanism sentiment relative to the Negro at Lehigh University, Pa.,
as a student, is becoming so pronounced there as to indicate that
Lehigh may eventually join these other white schools with her sister
Lafayette in having Colored American citizens to study and recite in
her class rooms) Massachusetts, Mass., Michigan, Mich,. New York, N.
Y., Northwestern, Ill., Ohio State, O., Pennsylvania, Pa., Pittsburgh,
Pa., Radcliffe, Mass., Rutgers, N. J., Smith, Mass., Syracuse, N. Y.,
Temple, Pa., Tufts, Mass., Washington & Jefferson; Wellesley, Williams,
Mass., Wisconsin, Wis., Yale, Conn.

Some of the Negro universities and colleges that are preparing
young men and women of the Race to enter the different fields of
professionalism for the betterment and uplift of themselves and their
people are named below as follows:

Allen Univ., Columbia, S. C.; Arkansas Bapt. Col., Little Rock, Ark.;
Altanta Bapt. Col., Atlanta Univ., Atlanta, Ga.; Barber Memorial
Seminary, (women) Anniston, Ala.; Benedict Col., Columbia S. C.; Biddle
Univ., Charlotte, N. C.; Claflin, Col., Orangeburg, S. C.; Clarke
Univ., Atlanta, Ga.; Edward Waters Col., Jacksonville, Fla.; Fisk
Univ., Nashville, Tenn.; Hartshorn Col., (women) Richmond, Va.; Howard
Univ., Washington, D.C.; Jackson Col., Jackson, Miss.; Knoxville Col.;
Knoxville, Tenn.; Lane Col.; Jackson, Tenn.; Lincoln Univ., Lincoln,
Pa.; Livingston Col., Salisbury, N. C.; Mary Allen Seminary, (women)
Crockett, Texas; Mary Holmes Seminary, (women) West Point, Miss.;
Meherry Univ., Nashville, Tenn.; Miles Memorial Col., Birmingham, Ala.;
Morehouse Col., Atlanta, Ga.; Morgan Col., Baltimore, Md.; Morris Brown
Univ., Atlanta, Ga.; National Training School, Durham, N. C.; National
Training School, (women) Washington, D.C.; Paine Univ., Augusta, Ga.;
Paul Quinn Col., Waco, Tex.; Payne Univ., Selma, Ala.; Philander Smith
Col., Little Rock, Ark.; Roger Williams Univ., Nashville, Tenn.;
Rust Univ., Holley Springs, Miss.; Selma Univ., Selma, Ala.; Scotia
Seminary, (women) Concord, N. C.; Shaw Univ., Raleigh, N. C.; Geo.
R. Smith Col., Sedalia, Mo., Spellman Seminary, (women) Atlanta,
Ga.; Shorter Col., Little Rock, Ark.; State Normal Col., Normal,
Ala.; Straight Col., New Orleans, La.; Southern Univ., Baton Rouge,
La.; Talladega Col., Talledega, Ala.; Touguloo Univ., Touguloo,
Miss.; Virginia Union Univ., Richmond, Va.; Western Univ., Quindaro,
Kan.; Wilberforce Univ., Wilberforce, O.; West Va. Collegiate Inst.,
Institute, West Va.; Wiley Col., Marshall, Tex. (extracts from Work’s
Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, pgs. 303-4-5).

Some of the foremost Colored leaders in higher education as well
as among the most noted scholars of today are: H. S. Blackiston,
Institute, W. Va., St. Elmo Brady, Washington, D.C., John W. Davis,
Institute, W. Va., John A. Gregg, Wilberforce, O., G. E. Haynes,
Washington D.C., John Hope, Atlanta, Ga., Elmer S. Imes, New York
City, E. E. Just, Washington, D.C. Clement Richardson, Jefferson City,
Mo., L. J. Rowan, Alcorn, Miss., W. S. Scarborough, Wilberforce, O.,
J. B. Simpson, Richmond, Va., C. H. Turner, St. Louis, Mo., N. B.
Young, Tallahassee, Fla., R. C. Woods, Lynchburg, Va., C. G. Woodson,
Washington, D.C., R. R. Wright, Jr., Phila., Pa.

Whenever a Colored person makes a phenomenal advancement in any special
and worthy field of progress, some jealous enemy of the race silently
creeps out at once, loads his donkey cart full of smoked glasses,
leather glasses, sun glasses, eye glasses, spy glasses, magnifying
glasses, old ladies’ spectacles, microscopes, telescopes, X-Rays,
etc., etc., etc., and scoots around examining even the very breath
the unsuspecting Colored person leaves upon the air. If the surmised
results of that examination and the color of the victim’s skin in any
way suggests that he has one drop of Caucasian blood in him; then
the credit for all the success he has attained is given to the white
race--just as a little patch of white hair on the forehead of an
otherwise jet black horse is the cause of that black horse winning a
race.

Allowing such enemies of Negroes to retain their foolish beliefs rather
than waste valuable time trying to convince them they’re wrong, the
writer, for the benefit of well-meaning but easily influenced white
people who might be led astray by the above foolish beliefs, picks
out just one from among scores of full-blooded Negroes of highest
attainments in different fields. This selected and highly gifted
Negro scholar is Dr. W. S. Scarborough, A. M., LL. D., Ph. D. about
whom there has never been the slightest question regarding his not
being a genuine Negro. He was for many years president of Wilberforce
University and is a member of at least seven national and international
educational societies the majority to which no other Negro belongs. At
this writing Dr. Scarborough has just sailed for Europe where he will
represent America in several international meetings of educational
societies. He is the author of a Greek Grammar and several other
original works in Greek.

Talented high school Colored youths who wish to go to college, but
hesitate to go as high as possible in education for fear of their
learned colored complexions displeasing other races, should remember
that:

The highest thing in the world (the sky) is Colored, and who is not at
all times over-joyed in spirits and much benefited in hopefulness when
seeing blue patches of the elevated sky after it has been hidden for
several days behind clouds that may even be of snowy whiteness?

[Illustration]



IN THE SCIENCES

MAT HENSON

    When he looked around to call the roll,
        As he first discovered the Northern Pole;
    Commodore Peary had by his side
        Mat Henson, a Negro, true and tried.
                 --_Harrison._


While the American Negro in the field of science has not yet produced
an Agassiz, the Race has already developed two men far advanced along
this path in the persons of Dr. Ernest R. Just, Head Professor of
Physiology at Howard University and Dr. Chas. H. Turner, Professor of
Biology at Howard University.

As the only magna cum laude man in his class of 1907, Dr. Just
graduated from Dartmouth College, and in 1916 received his degree, Ph.
D. from the University of Chicago in zoology and physiology. Among
the many scientific subjects upon which he has written he has chiefly
dwelt upon artificial parthenogenesis and fertilization. For ten years
he has spent his summer vacations as a student in research work at the
Marine Biological Laboratory at Wood’s Hole, Mass. On account of his
minute scientific researches and conclusions he has been made a member
in the Sigma Xi and Phi Beta Kappa Societies, The American Society of
Zoologists, the American Museum, and the American Association for the
Advancement of Science.

In order to further inspire Negro youths who plan to make this
particular professional line their work, the writer will cite an
incident that fully proves Dr. Just’s recognition and valuation in the
world of science. During the summer of 1920, the highest scientific
organ in the United States, The National Academy of Sciences, provided
a grant to Dr. Just, through Howard University, to cover research work
in the field of physiology. As this is the first grant of its kind not
only to a Negro but to a member of any race, it further proves that
hard study and sweaty work, bull dog grit and grip to never loose your
hold, mule stubborness to brace your hind feet in holding your grounds
and at the same time flopping your ears to all discouraging sounds,
taking tortoise steps slow but always forward, while keeping an eagle
eye on some chosen lofty peak, will finally result in any Colored
person, although prejudiced handicapped, reaching the highest point in
any noble calling.

Aside from the University of Chicago honoring him with the degree of
Ph. D. in 1907, the world’s greatest scientists in America and Europe
have weighed and found the full value of Dr. Chas. H. Turner as a
Biologist of the first order in the special fields of neurology and
comparative psychology.

Here and abroad scientific students and teachers alike constantly turn
for information and references to his writings on the habits and manner
of the Burrowing and Honey Bees, the Common Roach, the Mason Wasp, the
Ant and several other species of larger sized and more advanced insect
vertebrates. Some other of his research articles that have appeared in
some of the best magazines of science are Morphology of the Nervous
System of the Genus Cypris; Ecological Notes on the Cladocrea and
Copspoda of Augusta; the Mushroom Bodies of the Crawfish, Morphology of
the Avian Brain and other subjects along these lines. (Extracts from
Southern Workman, July 1920 issue, pgs. 324-26).

Negro boys who read these pages will notice that just as it is the
colored bees that are willing to drudge day after day in gathering
and laying aside bits by bits of the sweetest thing on earth (honey)
for future use; so has Dr. Turner (like all present and future youths
must do if they wish to gain success in any calling) been willing to
patiently and tirelessly plod ahead gathering and adding little by
little of the greatest thing on earth (knowledge) to his store of
wisdom. Today his research stack has piled up into such a vast heap
that he is now able to scatter it into scientific pastures in such
aways as to be of the most fertilizing values therein for the enriching
of future young minds and for the growing of reputation and fame for
himself.

The most original and beneficial researches and discoveries in the
American Negro field of chemistry have been made by Prof. G. E. Carver,
Director of Agricultural Research in Chemistry at Tuskegee Institute,
Tuskegee, Ala. Chief among his twenty and more discovered chemical
products that are today being used as practical farm and household
necessites are as follows: dressing for canvass shoes, made from
Macon County clays; dyes made from dandelion, black oak, wood ashes,
sweet gum, willow, swamp-maple, sweet potatoes, pomegranate, peanuts,
sage, orange, muscatine grape, onions, velvet beans and tomato vines;
cotton-stalk fibre for rope, cordage, mats and carpets; furniture
stains made from native clays and vegetables; feathers for millinery
purposes, secured from native wild and barn-yard fowls; laundry blues,
20 varieties; okra fibre for paper, rope, cordage, strawboard, matting
and carpet; poplar bark for artificial ribbon; Tonic stock feed, made
of snap corn, velvet beans, cotton-seed meal, and china berries,
containing protein, 14.5 per cent., fats, 4.5;, crude fibre 12, and
carbohydrates 52; Ultramarine Dyes, made from Macon County clays and
used for cotton, wool, silk, and leather; White and Color Washes, made
from clays; Wistaria for basketry work. One of his chemical products
that attracted the widest attention was Prof. Carver’s Sweet Potatoes
Flour that was successfully used during the World War by the Tuskegee
Institute (which has a population around two thousand students and
instructors) as a substitute for wheat flour. (Ref. Work’s Negro Year
Book, 1918-1919 edition, p. 42).

Quite a number of Colored men and women have graduated in chemistry
and physics with high honors from some of the leading universities in
America, and are today holding responsible and high salaried positions
either as professors in colleges or as consulting chemists in private
commercial corporations. Among such professors in colleges are St. Elmo
Brady and E. Chandler who have attracted unusual attention to their
chemical experiments and for their accurate conclusions have received
their Ph. D. degrees from the University of Illinois. Dr. Brady is
author of a book on chemistry.

For the past twenty-five years a Colored man by the name of O. W.
Collins has been employed by the R. W. Hunt Bureau of Inspection, said
to be the largest engineering corporation in America. Mr. Collins is an
analytical and consulting chemist for that corporation.

Harry Keelan, a Harvard graduate, during the World War resigned a $300
a month position as consulting chemist in a New York white firm, in
order to join some other Colored men in organizing a company for the
manufacture of dyes. In this industry he was ably assisted by E. L.
Davidson, another Harvard graduate, and the quality of their dyes was
of such high grade and standard that their firm was unable to fill the
rush orders for their products.

Miss Deborah Henderson graduated from the Central High School, Detroit,
Mich., attending the Oberlin College where her scholastic achievements
won her the much coveted “key”. Then entering the University of Chicago
she attended there until her graduation as a ranking bacteriologist
and chemical technician, as well as serving during her senior year
as president of the Alpha Kappa Sorority. Miss Henderson is only
one among numerous Colored women who have successfully invaded the
highest chemical fields. After reaching that stage of advancement,
they have experimentally as well as theoretically peeped and peered
into many scientific secret lanes and avenues until they learned much
of the hidden and inexhaustive mysteries therein. And with the proper
encouragements, facilities and surroundings, it is not impossible for
some American Colored women scientist some day becoming a second Madame
Curie by finally discovering and giving to the world another hidden
force of the elements, like Radium, that will greatly benefit humanity
and add much to the store of man’s scientific knowledge.

The following quotation is part of an article that appeared in the
April 9, 1921 issue of the Chicago Defender:

“In the various fields of learning the race has wrought and has its
representatives; but not until now have we had a graduate doctor of
metaphysics. The pioneer in this instance is Dr. Adene C. E. Minott,
founder and head of the Clio School of Mental Sciences, Inc., 3543
State street, this city.

“While yet a girl in her teens, Miss Minott showed exceptional ability.
She graduated first in her class from Grammar School No. 80, New York
City, and won the prize for general excellence from her teacher,
Miss Mary E. Eaton. Miss Minott then entered the Girl’s Technical
High School of that city and, after receiving necessary academic
counts, entered the Mac Donnall College of Phrenology and Psychology,
Washington, D.C. Because she was a Race woman, she was not permitted
to study with the regular classes, but forced to take the course by
private instruction. Despite this disadvantage, Miss Minott completed
the studies in one-half the regular time, graduated with honors and
received the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy.

“Returning to New York City, she next forced admittance into the
world-famed American Institute of Anthropology, perfecting herself as
a teacher in five branches of anthropology, as follows: Phrenology,
physiognomy, practical psychology, physiology and anatomy of the brain.
When she graduated from this institution, as a mark of distinction
for an excellent record, she was presented with a membership medal
and received the degree of Fellow of the American Institute of
Anthropology, this making her the only Race woman in the United States
to graduate from this institution or holding such a degree.

“Two years ago Prof. Minott began an intensive course in metaphysics
and business psychology at the College of Metaphysics, St. Louis, Mo.
She completed the courses and took the midwinter examinations recently,
passing with honors and receiving the title and degree of Doctor of
Metaphysics, being the first again of the Race to receive that degree
in this country.

“The first years of Dr. Minott’s practice were confined to an exclusive
clientele among the whites of New York City. Five years ago, however,
she was prevailed upon to establish a branch of the Clio School of
Mental Sciences in Chicago, and to centralize her efforts somewhat upon
the developing and improving of her own people. This she did, and her
efforts have met with enviable success and gratifying appreciation.”

Miss Minott’s unusually successful career proves that a Colored girl
has the same brain power to reach the mental heights a white girl is
able to attain, even when that Colored girl is given only half the
encouragement, half the privileges and half access to the proper
environments. It is true that all Colored girls cannot soar as high in
education as Miss Minott, but all Colored girls can improve themselves
from day to day if they will only decide to study. A cook can elevate
herself to a hairdresser; a chambermaid can elevate herself to a
dressmaker; a waitress can elevate herself to a stenographer and
typewriter; a factory girl can elevate herself to a bookkeeper and a
child’s nurse can elevate herself to a school teacher. But such girls
cannot reach such successes if they go to ball rooms and cabarets to
elevate their skirts instead of going to night schools to elevate
their minds. It all depends upon each girl herself whether she will do
drudgery work all her life or whether she will do it a few years as a
stepping stone while she is preparing herself for something higher.

Colored cooks, waitresses, etc., who think it is no use to develop
their minds, or study for more education just because they are Colored
and will not get a chance to use such education, should remember that:

They would never have grape fruits, oranges or bananas to prepare and
serve if those fruits refused to grow and develop because of their
yellow skins; they would never have coffee to serve if it had refused
to grow because it is brown; they would never have steak to broil
and serve if yellow alderney or black holstein cattle had refused to
develop from calves to cows because of their colors. Thus, if fruits,
vegetables and dumb animals keep right on growing and developing into
their fullest bloom of power and usefulness regardless of their colors;
why should not Colored girls, who have brains to think, hands to work
and God to guide them in right, do the same?



IN MEDICINE.

THE MEDICINE MAN

      (The fellow who makes you one minute cry
    To give you more years of health and spry.)

    At least once a year he ought to test
        Heart, lungs and kidneys for your best.
    LOVE, air and water you’ll longer enjoy,
        If doctors thus you’ll timely employ.
                 --_Harrison._


IN order to help look after the general health, advise and encourage
good physical conditions and thereby save and prolong the lives of the
several million Colored people residing in the United States, and to
assist in easing the pains and sufferings of all humanity; there are
between four and five thousand Colored physicians today practicing
medicine in America. While the majority of these professional men are
located in parts of this country where they do business exclusively
among their own people, there are hundreds of Colored doctors residing
in many other states where the number of their white patients is as
large as among their own race.

In 1767 there was born in Philadelphia, Pa., a slave by the name of
Jas. Derham, who in his early life was taught medicine by his white
owner, a practicing physician. After Derham had saved enough money to
set himself up in business and had secured his freedom, he moved to New
Orleans, La., where in a few years he built up both a large practice
and an independent fortune. It is said that Dr. Derham was the first
Negro in the United States to be recognized as a practicing physician.

Dr. Daniel H. Williams of Chicago, Ill., not only is spoken of as
being in the front rank of the foremost physicians and surgeons of
the Negro race but he is also classed with the first medical men of
any race or nation. He is the founder of the celebrated Provident
Hospital and Training School of Chicago and was Surgeon-in-Chief of
the famous Freedman’s Hospital, Washington, D.C., under President
Cleveland’s administration. His medical ability became so widely known
that he has been called to nearly every important part of the United
States for consultation. His skill in being the first surgeon to make
a successful operation on the human heart has won him world-wide
reputation. As a result of his deep medical studies and most delicate
surgical operations he has been honored with the first Negro membership
in the American College of Surgeons.

Dr. Algernon B. Jackson, Phila., Pa., has the distinction of receiving
a Fellowship in the American College of Physicians, as a result
of his great all-around medical skill and especially his first
discovery of a cure for articular rheumatism. He is Head of the Mercy
Hospital, which is one of the most practically and beautifully located
Colored institutions of its kind not only in Philadelphia but in the
United States. The results of Dr. Jackson’s medical experiments and
discoveries have been published in leading medical journals and have
won a name for him here and abroad.

Aside from teaching as a professor in one of the leading white medical
schools in Boston, Mass., Dr. S. C. Fuller, a Neuropathologist of
nationwide fame, is also serving as a member on the medical staff of
the Massachusetts Hospital (white) for the insane. In this capacity
he has from time to time made some very valuable discoveries and
suggestions that have been accepted and put into practical and
beneficial uses for the treatment and care of the insane.

The honor of being the first Colored physician to be accepted as an
interne in the Bellevue Hospital, a New York City white institution
of world-wide renown, rests upon the capable shoulders of Dr. U. G.
Vincent. A few years ago he graduated with such high honors from the
University of Pa., that he was not compelled (as is usually the case)
to take the interne entrance examination when admitted to the Bellevue
Hospital.

Dr. Louis T. Wright, of Atlanta, Ga., now of New York, graduated
from Harvard University among the brainiest men of his class. As a
young physician both in age and practice, he is making wonderful
strides along medical paths and has already discovered a new method
of vaccination that has been tested and used by the United States
Government.

On account of some extra special and greatly beneficial medical
efforts having been spent in their unusually successful careers, the
following names have been handed to the writer as belonging to a few
of the Colored physicians who are recognized as standing among the
very highest in their profession. E. A. Balloch, Washington, D.C.,
H. R. Butler, Atlanta, Ga., J. E. Cannady, Charleston, W. Va., A. M.
Curtis, Washington, D.C., U. G. Dailey, Chicago, Ill., J. J. France,
Portsmouth, Va., S. A. Furniss, Indianapolis, Ind., J. H. Hale,
Nashville, Tenn., Geo. C. Hall., Chicago, Ill., J. A. Kenney, Tuskegee,
Ala., N. F. Mossell, Phila., Pa., H. M. Murray, Wilmington, Del., W. L.
Perry, St. Louis, Mo., C. V. Roman, Nashville, Tenn., E. P. Roberts,
New York City, N. Y., H. A. Royster, Raleigh N. C., York Russell, New
York City, N. Y., W. A. Warfield, Washington, D.C., and A. Wilberforce
Williams, Chicago, Ill.

As the result of often handicapped and hurried researches in the
hundred or more following named cities, the writer was only able to
secure the few names listed below from among the thousands of doctors
unlocated but who are just as skilled in the healing powers and just as
learned in the medical science whereever they may be practicing:

Atlanta, Ga.
  Dr. R. A. Carter, Drs. J. W. Burney,
  H. R. Bulter, C. H. Johnson, H. E. Nash, J. A. Slater.

Atlantic City, N. J.
  Drs. R. E. Harris, C. McGuire.

Augusta, Ga.
  Drs. T. W. Josey, G. N. Stoney.

Baltimore, Md.
  Drs. H. F. Brown, J. C. Brown, D. E. Campbell, H. White, W. H. Wright.

Birmingham, Ala.
  Drs. J. W. Anderson, H. C. Bryant, U. G. Mason, J. B. Clayton, E. R. Dudley.

Boley, Okla.
  Drs. J. D. Nelson, W. A. Paxton, J. W. Young.

Boston, Mass.
  Drs. C. Garland, C. Harrison, I. L. Roberts, B. Robinson.

Buffalo, N. Y.
  Drs. M. A. Allen, H. Lewis.

Brooklyn, N. Y.
  Drs. R. Birnie, F. M. Jacobs, R. Johnson, O. M. Waller.

Camden, N. J.
  Drs. C. T. Branch, I. Wilson.

Charleston, S. C.,
  Drs. M. M. Edwards, W. H. Johnson, J. M. Thompson, W. H. Miller

Charleston, W. Va.
  Drs. J. E. Cannady, H. F. Gamble, R. L. Jones.

Charlotte, N. C.
  E. F. Tyson, J. T. Williams.

Chattanooga, Tenn.
  Drs. T. A. Key, W. A. Thompson.

Chester, Pa.
  Dr. J. H. Miller, K. L. Kurd, E. E. Raven.

Chicago, Ill.
  Drs. U. G. Dailey, S. C. Dickson, W. S. Grant,
  G. C. Hall, E. B. Ramsey, A. Wilberforce Williams, Daniel H. Williams.

Cincinnati, O.
  Drs. E. B. Gray, F. W. Johnson.

Cleveland, O.
  Drs. E. A. Bailey, C. H. Garvin, E. J. Gregg, O. A. Taylor, J. T. Sykes.

Columbia, S.C.
  N. A. Jenkins, F. B. Johnson.

Columbus, O.
  W. W. Cooper, W. A. Method, W. R. Morrison, W. Woodlin.

Danville, Va.
  F. W. James, A. L. Winslow.

Dayton, O.
  L. H. Cox, B. A. Rose.

Denver, Col.
  S. A. Huff, J. H. Westbrook.

Des Moines, Iowa.
  Drs. A. J. Booker, A. Jefferson.

Detroit, Mich.
  Drs. Northcross and Turner.

Durham, N. C.
  Drs. C. Donnell, A. M. Moore.

Evansville, Ind.
  G. W. Buckner, H. Thompson.

Fort Smith, Ark.
  Drs. S. W. Harrison, N. H. Lockhart.

Fort Worth, Texas.
  Drs. A. B. Borders, J. W. Tildon.

Gary, Ind.
  Drs. Baskett and Blackwell, C. E. Hawkins.

Greenville, S.C.
  Dr. A. E. Boyd.

Hampton, Va.
  Drs. W. E. Atkins, C. S. Bassette, Burl Bassette, J. J. Jones.

Harrisburg, Pa.
  C. L. Carter, C. H. Crampton, M. H. Layton, A. L. Marshall, J. T. Warrick.

Hartford, Conn.
  Dr. H. W. Furniss.

Helena, Ark.
  Drs. A. D. Beacly, S. H. Horgoods.

Hopkinsville, Ky.
  Dr. B. O. Moore.

Houston, Texas.
  B. J. Covington, H. E. Lee.

Indianapolis, Ind.
  Drs. H. W. Armistead, S. A. Furniss, J. H. Ward, H. L. Hummonds.

Jackson, Miss.
  Dr. R. S. Johnson.

Jacksonville, Fla.
  Drs. C. F. Duncan, M. F. McCleary, J. S. Hills, A. H. Kennibrew.

Jersey City, N.J.
  Drs. G. E. Cannon, P. F. Ghee.

Kansas City, Kan.
  Drs. J. N. Sohns, S. H. Thompson.

Kansas City, Mo.
  Drs. E. C. Bunch, T. C. Brown, C. M.
  Kane, J. E. Perry, J. F. Shannon, W. J. Tompkins, T. C. Unthank.

Knoxville, Tenn.
  Drs. D. W. Crawford, S. M. Clark, H. M. Green.

Leavenworth. Kan.
  Drs. C. M. Moates, Silas Jackson.

Little Rock, Ark.
  Drs. J. T. Clowers, G. W. S. Ish, J. G. Thornton.

Los Angeles, Cal.
  Drs. C. Ballard, Anna Leggett, J. S. Outlaw, L. Stovall.

Lexington, Ky.
  Dr. J. E. Hunter.

Louisville, Ky.
  Drs. J. M. Hammons, A. C. McIntyre, E. D. Wedbee, W. H. Pickett.

Memphis, Tenn.
  Drs. A. N. Townsend, C. A. Terrell, J. T. Wilson

Milwaukee, Wis.
  Drs. F. Boget, H. B. Stokes.

Mobile, Ala.
  Drs. T. N. Harris, H. R. Williams.

Montgomery, Ala.
  Drs. R. T. Adair, F. D.
  Boswell, H. P. Dawson, F. C. Cuffey, J. A. Deramiur, Wm. Washington.

Mound Bayou, Miss.
  Dr. D. H. Broomfield.

Muskogee, Okla.
  Drs. H. L. Meckelroy, R. H. Watterford.

Nashville, Tenn.
  Drs. L. A. Fisher, J. H. Hale,
  A. L. Herron, J. T. Phillips, C. V. Roman, J. N. Holman, F. A. Stewart.

Newark, N.J.
  Drs. S. S. Bruington, Green and Wolfe.

New Orleans, La.
  Drs. A. W. Braizer, L. T. Burbridge, R. Fredricks.

Newport News, Va.
  Drs. W. P. Dickerson,
  C. A. Easton, W. T. Foreman, J. H. Robinson, C. W. Scott, P. S. Scott.

New York City, N.Y.
  Drs. E. P. Roberts, York Russell, U. G. Vincent,
  L. T. Wright, W. M. Wilson, A. S. Reed.

Norfolk, Va.
  Drs. P. L. Barber, J. D. Jackson.

Omaha, Neb.
  Drs. L. E. Britt, J. H. Hutten.

Philadelphia, Pa.
  Drs. F. C. Antoine, Eugene Hinson,
  Chas. Lewis, A. B. Jackson, N. F. Mossell,
  P. J. Taylor, J. D. Turner, Minton, Lennon, McDougall, Sinclair.

Phoenix, Arizona.
  Dr. W. C. Hackett.

Pine Bluff, Ark.
  Drs. H. L. Jordan, J. W. Parker.

Pittsburgh, Pa.
  Drs. F. F. Bishop, J. T. Allen, J. B. Shepard, G. G. Terfley, A. C. Kyles.

Portland, Oregon.
  Dr. J. A. Merriman.

Portland, Me.
  Dr. Herndon White.

Portsmouth, N. H.
  Dr. C. A. Randolph.

Portsmouth, Va.
  Dr. J. J. France, W. T. Jones.

Providence, R. I.
  Drs. W. H. Higgins, J. Robinson, J. Birch.

Raleigh, N.C.
  Drs. C. A. Dunston, L. E. McConley,
  J. O. Plumber, H. A. Royster, P. F. Roberts, J. T. Northam.

Richmond, Va.
  Drs. H. A. Allen, W. H. Hughes, M. B. Jones, J. H. Blackwell.

Roanoke, Va.
  Drs. J. B. Claytor, J. H. Roberts.

San Antonio, Texas.
  Drs. W. M. Drake, C. A. Whitten.

San Francisco, Cal.
  Drs. R. N. Arthurton, W. W. Purnell.

Savannah, Ga.
  Drs. O. C. Clayborne, F. S. Belcher,
  W. C. Blackman, W. A. Harris, G. W. Smith.

Seattle, Wash.
  Drs. D. T. Cardwell, C. F. Maxwell.

Shreveport, La.
  Drs. E. B. Liddel, D. A. Smith.

St. Louis, Mo.
  Drs. W. P. Curtis, J. T. Caston,
  R. C. Haskell, W. L. Perry, S. P. Stafford,
  D. Weaver, J. A. Grossland, C. L. Thomas.

St. Paul, Minn.
  Drs. W. D. Bloom, V. Turner.

Tampa, Fla.
  Dr. J. A. White.

Terre Haute, Ind.
  Drs. A. L. Cabell, D. A. Bethea.

Washington, D.C.
  Drs. S. L. Carson, E. A. Balloch,
  A. M. Curtis, W. A. Warfield, E. D. Williston, R. A. Burton.

Wichita, Kanin.
  Drs. J. E. Farmer, F. O. Miller.

Wilmington, Del.
  Drs. C. Banston, S. G. Elbert, H. Murray.

Wilmington, N. C.
  Drs. F. F. Burnett, S. M. Key.


Hospitals and Nurses

Although American Negroes own and conduct over one hundred modernly
equipped hospitals, even that number of buildings does not afford space
enough to properly house the three thousand Colored graduate nurses now
practicing in the United States, should all those angels of mercy at
the same time apply for accommodations in the above institutions.

The writer regrets that as hard and patiently as he researched he was
unable to secure a list of names of the Colored women doctors who
are to-day practicing medicine in the United States. It, therefore,
affords him great pleasure, at the very last moment on the eve of this
publication coming from the press, to be able to rush in his book from
the September 24, 1921, issue of the Chicago Defender, the following
article regarding the distinguished abilities and works of one of the
numerous Negro women physicians to-day following their profession in
America:


“WOMAN DOCTOR RECEIVES FRENCH MEDAL OF HONOR.”

    “Newport, R. I., Sept., 23.--Dr. Harriet A. Rice, prominent in
    Newport circles, received from the French government this week the
    Reconnaissance Francaise, a bronze medal, awarded her in July 1919,
    for her work overseas during the war. The medal reached her through
    the French Embassy at Washington.

    “Dr. Rice is a graduate of Wellesley College and of the Women’s
    Medical College of New York. She served in the French military
    hospital during the greater part of the war from 1915 to the
    signing of the armistice, and it is for these services that she is
    decorated. The medal was presented her by Prince de Bearn, charge
    d’affaires of the French embassy.

    “According to the citation which accompanied the medal, the woman
    is honored by the French government because of “her devotion and
    ability in caring for the French wounded during the war.”



IN DENTISTRY

THE TOOTHACHE MAN.

    (The fellow who loves your tooth to jerk
    And then with a smile, asks: “Did it hurt?”)

    Yearly to him folks ought to go
        To learn of holes they do not know;
    So toughest steaks to finely grind
        With nature’s teeth and not false kind.
                 --_Harrison._


Among the five hundred or more Colored dentists in America, who
are today practicing in offices furnished with their own surgical
instruments as well as gas, electrical and other modern appliances,
Drs. Chas. E. Bentley, Chicago, Ill., and Chas. H. Roberts, New York
City, according to competent judges are considered two of the most
prominent and best all-round authorities in their profession. And in
nearly every other large city there are similar expert and successful
dentists, a list of whom the writer was unable to get. (extracts from
Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, pgs. 422-23-24).



IN INVENTIONS

NEW IDEAS--NEW THINGS.

    Creative folks are oft jeered fools
        For thinking things along new rules;
    But when such folks invent things real
        How foolish those who laughed must feel.
                 --_Harrison._


One of the chief reasons why the United States has made such rapid
and wonderful progress along all lines of industrial civilization and
today stands first among all countries in wealth is due mostly to the
original ideas and inventive powers of the American Yankee. And to
prove that the original ideas of Negroes have had a very important part
in helping to make the United States such a leading and resourceful
nation, the following citations are but a few of the two thousand and
more inventions that Colored people in America have had patented and
put on the market for practical use.

“The first Negro to receive a patent on an invention was Henry Blair,
of Maryland, who, in 1834 and 1836, was granted patents on a corn
harvester. He is supposed to have been a free Negro.”

“Benjamin Banneker,--Noted Negro Astronomer. Born free, November 9,
1731, in Baltimore County, Maryland. Received some education in a pay
school. Early showed an inclination for mechanics. About 1754, with
imperfect tools, constructed a clock which told the time and struck the
hour. This was the first clock constructed in America.”

“William B. Purvis, of Philadelphia, has inventions covering a variety
of subjects, but directed mainly along a single line of experiment and
improvement. He began in 1912, the invention of machines for making
paper bags, and his improvements in this line of machinery are covered
by a dozen patents. Some half dozen other patents granted Mr. Purvis,
include three patents on electric railways, one on a fountain pen,
another on a magnetic car-balancing device, and still another for a
cutter for roll holders.”

“Joseph Hunter Dickinson, of New Jersey, specializes in the line of
musical instruments, particularly playing the piano. He began more
than fifteen years ago to invent devices for automatically playing
the piano. He is at present in the employ of a large piano factory.
His various inventions in piano-player mechanism are adopted in the
construction of some of the finest piano-players on the market. He has
more than a dozen patents to his credit already, and is still devoting
his energies to that line of inventions.”

“Frank J. Ferrell, of New York, has obtained about a dozen patents for
his inventions, the larger number of them being for improvement in
valves for steam engines.”

“Benjamin F. Jackson, of Massachusetts, is the inventor of a dozen
different improvements in heating and lighting devices, including a
controller for a trolley wheel.”

“Charles V. Richey, of Washington, D.C., has obtained about a dozen
patents on his inventions, the last of which was a most ingenius device
for registering the calls on a telephone and detecting the unauthorized
use of that instrument.”

“The late Granville T. Woods, of New York, and his brother, Lyates took
out some fifty or more patents. Wood’s inventions principally relate
to electrical subjects, such as telegraph and telephone instruments,
electrical railways and general systems of electrical control.
Several are on devices for transmitting telegraphic messages between
moving trains. According to Patent Office Records, several of Woods’
patents have for valuable considerations been assigned to the foremost
electrical corporations, such as the General Electric Company, of
New York, and the American Bell Telephone Company, of New York. Mr.
Woods’ inventive faculty also worked along other lines. He devised an
incubator, a complicated amusement device, a steam boiler furnace and a
mechanical brake.”

“John Ernest Matzeliger, born Dutch Guiana, 1852, died, Lynn,
Massachusetts, 1889. He is the inventor of the first machine that
performed automatically all the operations involved in attaching soles
to shoes. This wonderful achievement marked the beginning of a distinct
revolution in the art of making shoes by machinery. Matzeliger
realized this, and attempted to capitalize it by organizing a stock
company to market his invention; but his plans were frustrated through
failing health and lack of business experience and shortly thereafter
he died. The patent and much of the stock of the company organized by
Matzeliger was bought up. The purchase laid the foundation for the
organization of the United Shoe Machinery Company the largest and
richest corporation of the kind in the world.”

“During 1917-1918, Negroes made a large number of inventions. Many
of these related to the war. Charles Stevenson of Amarillo, Texas,
invented a glass war bomb. It was reported that L. A. Hayden, a native
of Charlotte, North Carolina, invented an airship stableizer which
was adopted by the British Government and that he was commissioned
a Second Lieutenant in the British aviation corps. Julius Hart of
Columbus, Georgia, invented three war bombs which were reported to be
of great military value and that for one the War Department gave him
$15,000. Wm. D. Polite, of Charlotte, North Carolina, has patented an
anti-aircraft gun.”

“Jacob W. F. Berry of Decatur, Alabama, invented an electrically driven
submarine. H. A. Cooper of Sabetha, Kansas, invented a submarine
detector. Henry Grady of Westbourne, Tennessee, has had patented a
Torpedo-Catcher and a Mine Destroyer.”

“The ‘national safety helmet’ or hood, invented by Garrett A. Morgan of
Cleveland, is reported to have been used by the United States and the
Allies to combat poisonous gases and as a safety device on Submarines.
The ‘Safety Hood and Smoke Protector’ was originally invented for
firemen.

“In addition to seven American patents on this device, Mr. Morgan
holds patents for Canada, England, Germany and other countries.
This invention received a gold medal prize from the American Museum
of safety and the first grand prize at the second Inter-National
Convention of Safety and Sanitation which was held at New York City. In
1914, the Inter-National Fire chief’s Association in session in New
Orleans, voted Mr. Morgan a gold honorary membership badge. ‘The safety
hood’ is manufactured by the Safety Device Company of which Mr. Morgan
is the general manager. As a protection for firemen, it is in use in a
large number of cities.”

“H. C. Webb of Bradentown, Florida, is the inventor of the Webb
Palmetto Grubbing Machine, which removes the stumps from 5 to 10 acres
of land per day.”

C. J. Perry, of Cincinnati, O., has invented a hydro-carbon device
that saves 10 to 20 percent of coal fuel and also consumes 85 percent
of the smoke. This invention is now in use on the Milwaukee Railroad
and in the Metropole Hotel in Chicago, Ill. C. H. Jackson has invented
a diving outfit with which the world record for deep-sea diving has
been broken. Miss Alice H. Parker, of Washington, D.C., has received a
patent on a heating furnace. Wm. Solder, Boston, Mass., has been given
a patent on a cooking stove and water heater combined.

“The largest number of patents received on inventions, by a Negro,
was by Elijah McCoy, of Detroit, Michigan. McCoy obtained his first
patent in July, 1872, and his last one in 1917. During this period
of forty years he invented one thing after another and has some
fifty-eight patents to his credit. His inventions cover a wide range
of subjects, but relate particularly to the lubricating of machinery.
He was a pioneer in the art of steadily supplying oil to machinery in
intermittent drops from a cup so as to avoid the necessity for stopping
the machine to oil it. McCoy’s lubricating cup was famous thirty years
ago as a necessary equipment for all-up-to-date machinery.” (quotations
from Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, pgs. 5-6-7-8-341-2-3-4)



IN POETRY

THE POETS

    As the artists see, so the poets feel
        Inspiring powers that make them steal
    Away to write some pictured scene
        So to help the world to get serene.
                 --_Harrison._


The first Colored poetess in America to win national and international
fame was Phyllis Wheatley, who was brought from Africa in 1761 and sold
as a slave in Boston, Mass. Finding Phyllis to be an unusually quick
and apt child to learn, her owner spared no pains to give her the best
of education. Her poetry writing began at an early age. She became
so intelligent and self-cultured that the most wealthy and refined
white people of the day entertained her. All the time she was writing
verses of the highest quality. Finally going to Europe her success
was even greater there to such an extent that she appeared before the
Royal Courts of England and received high honors. Her literary works
were reviewed by some of the best scholars in England where much of
her poetry was published in London under the title “Poems on Various
Subjects, Religious and Moral”.

The late Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Negro Poet-Laureate, is considered the
greatest poet the Negro race has produced. Starting as an elevator
boy he struggled through one disappointment after another to get an
education. All that time he was writing poetry and finally after his
works came under the notice of such great white writers as William Dean
Howells and James Whitcomb Riley, the genius of Dunbar and the value of
his writings became world known. He traveled all about giving recitals
of his poetry that took the country by storm. His prose works won just
as much admiration and comment. His writings were based on the American
Negro in and out of slavery and the pen pictures he has drawn are
masterpieces of literature. Chief among his compositions are; “Lyrics
of Lowly Life”, “Lyrics of The Hearthstone,” “Heart of Happy Hollow”,
“Folks From Dixie,” “Oak and Ivy”, “Uncalled”, “Love and Landry” and
“The Sports Of The Gods.”

William Stanley Braithwaite, as editor of “The New Poetry Review” of
Cambridge, author of “The Anthology of Magazine Verse”, editor of “The
Contemporary American Poets Series” and annual reviewer of the poetry
that appears in the leading magazines of America, is recognized as the
leading Colored poet and among the foremost world poets of today. A few
of his works are: “The House of Falling Leaves”, “The Book of Victorian
Verse”, “Life of Lyrics and Love”, “The Book of Georgian Verse”, “The
Book of Elizabethian Verse”, and “The Book of Restoration Verse.” He
was awarded the Spingarn Medal in 1918.

James Weldon Johnson is a poet and writer of first note, and his poem
“The Young Warrior,” that was set to music by Harry T. Burleigh, almost
became the national hymn of Italy during the World War. His poem
“Fifty Years” that appeared in many of the leading white magazines and
newspapers during the first part of 1913, brought forth high comment
from all parts of the country. His poems have appeared in the Century,
the Independent, the Crisis and other publications. He has published
some of his poetry in a book titled “Fifty Years and Other Poems.”

“Mr. Johnson is a young colored poet of America. Some of his verse is
in the cultivated English, some in the broken language of the American
Negro. The latter rings true. They express with singular intensity
the joys and sorrows of a subject race.” The above comment was made
by The London Literary World regarding the poetic abilities of Fenton
Johnson, Chicago, Ill. Aside from receiving high mentions from The New
York World, and Poetry, a magazine of Verse, some of his works were
also included in Braithwaite’s “Anthology of Magazine Verse for 1918”
and “The Chicago Anthology”. One of his recent volumes of poetry that
attracted praiseworthy attention on both sides of the ocean is “A
Little Dreaming.”

While the facts, that short stories of the highest order are constantly
flowing from her pen point (or typewriter) and that she is Literary
Editor of The Crisis, have gained for her the distinction of being a
foremost prose writer among Colored women in America today; Jessie
Redmon Fauset, on account of the numerous outputs and unusual high
quality of her poems, is also recognized as one of the best verse
writers among Colored people on both sides of the ocean.

The father and son poets, Jos. S. Cotter, Sr. and Jr., have produced
verse matter that stands among the best in the country among Colored
writers. Information regarding the works of these composers will be
found else-where in this book. But a praiseworthy mention regarding
Jos. S. Cotter, Jr., who died in his early twenties and for several
years before that had been confined on a bed of affliction, should be
made herein. While other poets have had their health, strength and
vigor to do their work, young Cotter was suffering almost constant pain
in bed while turning out his poetry that came from the depths of his
patient soul, and ring as true as a pure-cast bell.

Georgia Douglas Johnson was born in Atlanta, Ga., was educated in the
public schools and at the Atlanta University after which she took a
course of music at the Oberlin Conservatory. Her first book, “The Heart
of a Woman and Other Poems” with an introduction by William Stanley
Braithwaite, was published by the Cornhill Co. of Boston, Mass.,
three years ago; her second book, “An Autumn Love Cycle,” will be out
shortly. Her third book, “Shadow Song” is entirely different to the
other two, being entirely racial, treated in the over-tone style of
suggestion. This book will appear some months after the “Love Cycle.”
The above quotation is in part an editorial note that appeared in the
May 1921 issue of Music and Poetry. The high standard and amazing
numbers of Mrs. Johnson’s verses that appear in leading magazines are
attracting wide attention and have already placed her in a class among
the leading Colored writers before the public today.

Claude McKay, a poet of international reputation, enjoys the honor
of being one of the first Colored writers to be made an associate
editor on the staff of a white national magazine--The Liberator, which
is published in New York City. Mr. McKay has for several years been
writing poetry for many of the leading magazines in Europe as well as
for Colored and white periodicals in America. His book, “Spring in New
Hampshire and Other Poems” has brought forth high literary comment from
verse critics in both countries.

“Miscellaneous Poems” and “Sketches of Southern Life” are two titles
covering some of the verses produced by the poetess, Frances E. Harper,
who also wrote first quality prose. Jas. E. McGirth wrote “Some Simple
Songs” and other verse matter that has stood the test of the best
critics.

The late J. D. Corrothers gained much distinction as a prose and verse
writer and for several years his poems appeared in some of the leading
white magazines. George R. Margeston’s book of poems “Songs of Life”
has brought forth much favorable comment, and stamped him as a poet who
is fast forging to the front.

All verse critics who regularly read the close-to-nature, true-to-life,
heart-to-heart and cheerful little poems that weekly head the editorial
pages of the Chicago Defender, join in acclaiming Alfred Anderson the
Edgar A. Guest “Sunshine Poet” of the Negro Race. A few of the many
other Colored verse writers whose poems frequently appear in leading
magazines are Carrie C. Clifford, Sergt. Allen R. Griggs, Jr., Thos.
M. Henry, Sarah C. Fernandas, Leslie P. Hill, Roscoe Jamison, Chas.
Bertram Johnson, Winifred Virginia Jordan, Will Sexton and Lucian B.
Watkins, the last named writer being considered among the foremost
writers the race has produced during the past few years.

[Illustration]



AMONG THE ARTISTS

THE ARTIST.

    In everything, real artists see
        Some good therein God made pretty:
    Such finds they gladly then set free
        So all can share the new beauty.
                 --_Harrison._


According to page 331 of the 1918-1919 edition of Work’s Negro Year
Book, “Bannister, E. M., of Providence, Rhode Island, was one of the
first Negroes in America to achieve distinction as a painter. He was
the founder of the Providence Art Club, which is to-day the leading
art organization in Providence. “Its membership, mostly, if not wholly
white, includes many of the leading citizens of the city and state.”
One of Mr. Bannister’s pictures “Under the Oaks” was awarded a medal at
the Centennial Exposition of 1876. The picture became the property of
the Duffe Estate of New York City.”

Henry O. Tanner, born in Pittsburgh, Pa., and now living in Paris,
France, is the greatest artist in the Negro race and among the best
of all races. His early life along artistic lines was one of hard
struggles, constant ambitions, unshaken determinations and final
success, until today his works are known and treasured all over the
world. His most successful paintings are those describing different
incidents that are taught in the Bible. Among his many pictures that
have won fame and fortunes for him are; “The Banjo Lesson”, “Christ
Walking on the Sea”, “The Holy Family”, “Hills Near Jerusalem”, “Christ
at the Home of Lazarus”, “Mary and Elizabeth” and “The Hiding of
Moses.” Mr. Tanner is the son of Bishop B. T. Tanner.

“Mr. William Scott is considered by critics to be one of the foremost
artists in America. He excells alike in the difficulties of portrait
painting and in the cleverness and subtlety of his cartoon work. In
a time when artists are becoming more and more a necessity of modern
life, his ability bids fair to lift him even more to the top of his
profession. Mr. Scott led his class at the Chicago Art Institute.” This
quotation is extracted from the November-December 1920 issue of Fenton
Johnson’s Favorite Magazine.

The following extract about Mr. Scott is from Work’s Negro Year Book,
1918-1919 edition, page 331: “He took the Magnus Brand Prize for two
successive years. He studied in Paris at the Julian Academy and under
Henry O. Tanner. Three of his paintings were accepted by the Salon
des Beaux Arts at Toquet. The Argentine Republic purchased one of his
pictures, La Pauvre Voisine. He has completed Mural paintings for
public buildings in Evanston, Illinois; Chicago and Indianapolis. He
is interesting himself in Negro subjects and is doing in painting what
Dunbar has done in verse.”

The late Wm. A. Harper of Chicago, Ill., although a young man at his
death had already won recognition for his paintings and himself. He had
spent two year of study in Paris and has been successful in exhibiting
his paintings at the Chicago Art Institute. Chief among his works are
“The Last Gleam”, “The Hillside”, and “The Gray Day.”

A few of the many present day Colored artists who have also become
recognized and prominent in this art are; Lulu Adams, Los Angles,
Cal.; Ernest Atkinson, Baltimore, Md.; C. L. Boydkin, Boston, Mass.;
C. L. Dawson, Chicago, Ill.; Arthur Diggs, J. B. Davidson, Washington,
D.C.; W. M. Farrow, Frances Grant, Marcellus Hawkins, Chicago, Ill.;
J. Hardwick, L. Harris, Louise Latimer, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Effie Lee,
Wilberforce, Ohio; L. M. Rogers, Harvey Roseland, Washington, D.C.;
A. A. Smith, New York; Frank Waltz, N. Y.; Hilda Wilkerson, Arthur
Winslow, Chicago, Ill.; and Sidney Woodward, New York, (some of above
names are extracts from Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, pg. 331.)

Miss Laura Wheeler’s painting “Heirlooms” won first place in New York
City among 500 art exhibits at the Water Color Club. Aside from being
an instructor in the art department of the Cheyney School, Cheyney,
Pa., and illustrator for such national magazines as The Crisis, she is
recognized as one of the foremost Colored women artists in America.

At the John Wanamaker Art Exhibition held in Philadelphia, Pa., not
many months ago, K. G. Ganaway, a Colored butler in Chicago, Ill.,
entered his photographic picture “The Spirit of Transportation”, which
won first prize out of 900 pictures exhibited by many of the country’s
most experienced and expert white photographers residing in different
parts of the United States. While other people in going to railroad
stations saw nothing interesting there but hurrying crowds of people,
truck loads of baggage and black sooty trains and sheds, Mr. Ganaway’s
artistic eye and timely focused camera soared above those common place
things as he saw and portrayed the wonderful beauty of the dust laden
tapering and yellow beams of lights and shadows caused by the sun’s
golden rays streaming through the dingy skylights of the Terminal’s
high and arched ceilings.


Architects

In nearly every American city of importance where the Negro population
is large there are Colored architects of recognized standing and
ability. The following are just a few of those names that have come
under the hurried notice of the writer: W. T. Bailey, Memphis, Tenn.;
A. I. Cassell, Baltimore, Md.; W. C. Cook, Gary, Ind.; W. H. Hammond,
Pittsburgh, Pa.; I. T. Hatton, Washington, D.C.; Benjamin and William
Hazel, Boston, Mass.; Harry S. James, Seattle, Washington, now in Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil; H. N. Johnson, Norfolk, Va.; the late J. T. N.
Minot, New York City; J. C. Norman, Charleston, W. Va.; J. W. Robinson
and Henry Robinson, Hampton, Va.; Chas. T. Russell, A. M. Segoins,
Baltimore, Md., V. W. Tandy, New York City, W. T. White, Kansas City,
Mo. and P. R. Williams, Los Angeles, Cal.

[Illustration]



AMONG THE SCULPTORS

MAGIC CHISELS.

    We read in fairy tales of old
        Of crude things wanded into gold;
    But we have fairies of to-day
        Who breath life into stone and clay.
                 --_Harrison._


Prejudice against her race and sex did not deter the colored girl,
Edmonia Lewis, from struggling upward to honor and fame as a sculptor.”
This is what was written about that great genius on page 64 in “Pushing
To The Front” one of the books of Orison Swett Marden, who aside from
being editor of the New Success Magazine is also known in all lands
as the greatest and widest read inspirational white writer in the
world today. Among the chief works of Miss Lewis are: “The Death of
Cleopatra” that was exhibited in 1876 at the Centennial Exhibition in
Philadelphia, Pa., “The Freed Woman”, “The Marriage of Hiawatha” and
the bust of Robert Gould Shaw.

Residing in So. Framington, Mass., is Meta Vaux Warrick (Mrs. S. C.
Fuller) who is considered a leading Colored sculptress in America
today. What is known as her masterpiece, “The Wretched”, a sculptured
group, was exhibited in Paris in 1903. Some of her other productions
are; “The Silent Appeal”, “The Dancing Girl”, “The Wrestlers”, and “The
Immigrant in America.”

Standing in the front ranks of this art is May Howard Jackson of
Washington, D.C. In both the Vorhoff Art Gallery and the Corcoran Art
Gallery the results of her talents have been successfully exhibited.
Her recent bust of Paul Lawrence Dunbar, that was unveiled in one of
the Washington High Schools, has aroused much interest and favorable
comment not only in the national capital but throughout the country.
(Ref.: Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, pgs. 331-2)



IN VOCAL MUSIC

HEAVENS REPAST.

    No human sound is there on earth
        To equal that of songful mirth
    That sweetly flows from gifted voice
        To feed the soul with Heaven’s choice.
                 --_Harrison._


Each new day echoes the triumph of some individual who has gloriously
bridged chasms of earthly deterrents--racial, financial, mental,
physical and moral--during which time that individual has been torn
and left naked, bleeding and despondent; but to the brave these
vicissitudes never weaken, but strengthen, and they fight with the
tenacity of a savage, finally reaping conquest after conquest. Roland
Hayes, tenor of Boston illustrates the result of being firm, holding
on, fighting, and today he has achieved what every artist desires
as a reward of their genius, their years of struggle to excell, the
recognition of the world, of kings and queens. And May 2 the cables
flashed word that a Negro tenor had been received at the palace to sing
for the royal family, and was presented a diamond pin by King George,
the significant manner in which royalty pays homage to great musicians
of the world. They were delighted with the voice and manner of the
singer, and the king observed how different the songs were from what
the English were taught to believe were characteristic Negro melodies.
We have always been caricatured, always portrayed as the jester for
the world’s amusement, and Mr. Hayes did not overlook the opportunity
to rescue our folk songs from the debasement they have suffered from
the result of pernicious money mongers, and present them as the sorrow
songs of a persecuted people filled with weariness and renunciation.

“His sojourn in London has been marked with success after success,
beginning with his premiere recital, significant with concurrent praise
from the critics. An appearance at the dinner given by the American
Society to British women at the Hotel Cecil, on which occasion he
sang “The Star-Spangled Banner.” His appearances at two concerts
given by the Samuel Coleridge-Taylor Choral Society (Mrs. I. F.
Coleridge-Taylor, patron; Sir. Charles V. Stanford, president, and
Douglas M. Durston, conductor) in aid of the mayor’s unemployment fund
and numerous concerts, the last of which, April 16, was a huge success
financially and artistically. The critics said many lovely things of
Mr. Hayes anent his voice, his style, his intelligence and manner; but
to us who know and love him, who feel his very heart throb as he pleads
through his art for his people, recognize and understand that his voice
wails in eagerness for deliverance, freedom, the right to breathe and
live untrammeled and unoppressed.

“A word is here appropriate in praise of Lawrence Brown, who has been
his sympathetic accompanist and collaborator in the settings of a
number of spirituals for concert use. Mr. Brown is also an excellent
pianist, and the critics recognize his dual talent by always giving him
a share in their notes.”

The above quotation is extracted from an editorial that appeared on
page 13 in the May 1921 issue of Nora Douglas Holt’s monthly magazine,
Music and Poetry, that is published in Chicago, Ill.

Mr. Hayes received his musical education in the New England
conservatory of Music, Boston, Mass., and today is acclaimed not only
the foremost tenor in the Negro race but one of the greatest tenors in
the world.

Colored and white song critics on both sides of the ocean have for many
years recognized Harry T. Burleigh as the leading baritone soloist in
the Negro race. For the past twenty or more years he has been a soloist
in the choir of the St. George’s Protestant Church, which is one of
the leading and wealthiest white churches in New York City, having on
its membership roll such world-known names as Seth Low and J. Pierpont
Morgan. Mr. Burleigh is also a composer of international fame, and
his “Deep River” is frequently sung in different parts of the world
by famous white singers. More mention of Mr. Burleigh’s celebrated
compositions will be made elsewhere in this book.

“Guide to Voice Culture” is a book written by Madame E. Azalia Hackley.
This book is soundly based on the ripe and rich experiences gained by
Mrs. Hackley after an untiring and extensive preparation under the best
voice culture masters in America and Europe. For many years she was the
most prominent Colored singer in America. For several years past she
has been devoting her time and energies in traveling throughout the
country organizing and presenting chorus recitals dealing mostly or
wholly with American Negro folklore songs. In thus constantly coming in
personal contact with the masses of Colored people in all parts of the
United States, Mrs. Hackley is doing more today than any musician in
personally meeting and influencing so many Colored people to learn to
love, sing, and preserve Negro plantation melodies.

Anita Patti Brown of Chicago, Ill., is today one of the most eminent
sopranos belonging to the Negro race. She has made numerous and
unusually successful trips throughout America and the West Indies, and
those who have heard her remarkable singing instantly fall in love with
her full round voice of natural richness and sweetness. Among her most
catchy pieces is the one titled “Villanelle” which has been reproduced
on Columbia Phonograph records with great success.

Florence Cole Talbert, aside from winning the diamond medal at the
Chicago Musical College has also won national reputation as one of the
leading sopranos among the American Colored people. Although high up on
the ladder of songhood, she is continuing to climb to the top by taking
special courses in Chicago under such famed teachers as Oscar Saenger
and Madame Valerie. This great singer’s home is in Detroit, Michigan.

Cleota Collins, Columbus, Ohio, is a soprano of note, and, as the
editor of Music and Poetry has so well said, “is a young woman with a
frail body but such an enormous mentality and a voice that makes you
close your eyes and listen to her interpretation of songs that set your
senses titilating. But she has worked patiently to acquire this power
and now condescends to tell young students how she did it.” She is
associate editor of Music and Poetry.

Although he is at present living in New Zealand, where he has endeared
himself in the hearts of all music lovers there H. Hodges can be
rightly claimed an American product on account of his native home
being Boston, Mass. His commanding and well trained talented voice
is one of the wonders of Auckland where he conducts one of the most
exclusive music studios.

After spending several years of personal sacrifices and hard study
in America, France and England, Rachel Walker of Cleveland, Ohio was
finally rewarded by receiving personal recognition and praise from
kings and queens during her first successful appearance in Europe. And
today she is classed among the best of American Colored song birds.

Worcester, Mass., and New England in general is justified in being so
proud of Estelle P. Clough who has won for herself first place among
great Colored singers. She has successfully appeared in most of the
important cities in the United States.

Wm. H. Richardson of Boston, Mass., is one of the best Colored
baritones in America. He has made numerous joint recitals with Maud
Cuney Hare through the United States and has met with great success on
all occasions.

In singing compositions of Negro, French, German, Italian and Russian
musicians, Wilson Lamb of Orange, N. J., demonstrates in his recitals
that he has a baritone voice of marked agreeableness and unusual
control. Each year when he gives his big recitals his voice shows the
favorable results of his continued hard study and practice, and white
papers are unstinting in giving him praise.

For twenty years Sisseretta Jones has successfully managed a musical
company of her own organization known as “The Black Patti Troubadors”.
In all the European cities they visited they had over-crowded houses
night after night. It must be said to the glowing credit and praise of
Madame Jones that she is probably the only woman in America, Colored or
white, who has been successful in organizing and keeping together for
so many years such a high-classed group of musical entertainers.

During the early eighties Madame Selika better known as “Black Patti”,
went to Europe and completely captivated the friendship of music lovers
in the “Old Country” by her marvelous birdlike thrills and matchless
renditions of her famous “Echo Song.” The great range and sweetness of
her voice was a delightful mystery to all who heard her.

It was as far back as 1851, at the time the world-famed Jenny Lind
(white) was enjoying her greatest fame, that Elizabeth T. Greenfield
a Colored woman came into prominence as a noted singer. She was often
called the “Black Jenny Lind” and won fame in America and Europe where
she was given the pet name of “The Black Swan.”

In the minds of many people still living there are yet fond
recollections of that human song bird, Flora Batson, (Mrs. Bergen)
who was born in Providence, R. I.. The music people in America,
Europe, Africa, Australia and New Zealand considered it a rare treat
to hear her touching and pathetic voice that had such bell-like tones
and clarity of enunciation. For ninety-one continuous nights at a
revival in New York City her voice held vast crowds spellbound as they
tearfully listened to her soul-touching voice sing “Six Feet of Earth
Make Us All One Size.” And hundreds of curious and prejudiced white
people who first went to those meetings to jeer and make fun had their
set minds suddenly converted by listening to the truth and full meaning
of that song and had their frozen hearts completely melted by the
soulful shocks of that great singer’s voice. (Ref. Work’s Negro Year
Book, 1918-1919 edition, pgs. 326-7-8).

Anna and Emma Hyers, soprano and contralto; Wallace Kine, tenor; John
Lucca and Frederick Louidin, Bassos, of the Old School, were among the
foremost singers of their times and proved vocal marvels to all who
heard them sing in America and Europe. For years the well trained and
talented quartettes of Fisk University, Hampton and Tuskegee Institutes
have been winning fame throughout America and even in Europe as
unsurpassed singers of Negro plantation songs.

Below are the names of just a few human Colored song-birds of today
whom the writer was able to discover among the many flocks that,
although now perched very high, are constantly flitting up and up
toward the top branches of solo-song trees.

Marion Anderson, Phila., Pa., Martha B. Anderson, sopranos; E. H.
Boatner, baritone, Boston, Mass.; Minnie Brown, soprano, N. Y.;
Edmonia H. Brown, soprano, Kansas City, Mo.; Arthur Brown, baritone,
Mayme C. Byron, soprano, T. Bryant, tenor, Grace Campbell, soprano,
Chicago, Ill.; C. Carroll Clark, baritone, New York City; Dessa
Clements, soprano, H. Delmore, tenor, Boston, Mass.; L. B. Duppe,
baritone, Springfield, Mass.; Isabelle Givens, soprano, Cincinnati,
O.; Leroy Goodman, tenor, Columbus, O.; Mrs. H. L. Grant, soprano,
Washington, D.C.; C. J. Harbour, tenor, Okmulgee, Okla.; Blanche D.
Harris, soprano, New York City; S. Hilliard, tenor, Chicago, Ill.;
Revella Hughes, soprano, New York City; Mrs. H. Hunter, soprano,
Durham, N. C.; Alfred H. Johnson, baritone, C. L. Johnson, tenor New
York City; Marie P. Johnson, soprano, Ella F. Jones, soprano, Lulu
R. Jones, soprano, Mary Jones, soprano, Chicago Ill.; Josephine A.
Junius, contralto; Paige I. Lancaster, baritone, John T. Lattimore,
tenor, Hampton, Va.,; Jennie C. Lee, soprano, Tuskegee, Ala.; Annie H.
Lee, soprano, Baltimore, Md., Lawrence Lomax, tenor, C. A. Marshall,
baritone, Junious Maxwell, tenor, Lydia McClain, soprano, Phila., Pa.;
B. D. McCorkel, tenor, Carolyn Montgomery, contralto; J. A. Myers,
tenor, Nashville, Tenn.; W. P. Norcum, baritone, Portsmouth, Va.;
Alice M. Pettijohn, soprano, Amherst, Mass.; Mrs. C. Rechley, soprano,
Baltimore, Md.; Wm. Simmons, basso, Chicago, Ill.; Maud J. Roberts,
soprano, Chicago, Ill.; W. Ryder, basso, Cincinnati, O.; N. Clark
Smith, tenor, Kansas City, Mo.; Innis Simpson, tenor, Leon Simpson,
soprano, Princeton, N. J.; Luela D. Smith, soprano, Daisey Tapley,
contralto, Grace W. Thompson, soprano, Lillian E. Tibbs, soprano,
Washington D.C.; S. A. Thomas, basso, Newport News, Va.; Mabel O.
Story, soprano, St. Louis, Mo.; Emlyne J. Tindley, contralto, Phila.,
Pa; Clarence Tisdale, tenor, Chicago, Ill.; Mrs. F. K. Watkins,
soprano, Durham, N. C.; Junius Williams, basso, New York City; Mrs. L.
Wilson, soprano, Baltimore, Md.; Sidney Woodward tenor, New York City;
Mary Stafford, soprano, New York.

Having as its object, “To foster Negro talent; labor for economic and
educational betterment”, The National Association of Negro Musicians,
under the wise leadership of Henry L. Grant, is wielding a musical
influence for good that is being felt and appreciated not only by
American Colored and white musicians but by music lovers of both races
even abroad. Other nationally known musicians, who, as officers in this
organization, are ably assisting their president in furthering the
inspirational and elevating work of this organ are; Melville Charleton,
R. Nathaniel Dett, Carl Diton, Kemper Herreld, Nora Douglass Holt,
Deacon Johnson, H. P. B. Johnson, R. Agustus Lawson, W. H. Loving,
Harriet G. Marshall, James A. Mundy, Alice Carter Simmons, T. Theo.
Taylor, Clarence C. White and Fred J. Work.

If there be Colored youths who, after reading these inspirational
pages, still lack ambition and courage to develop musical talents they
possess, because of their race and color, such youths should remember
that:--

The most popular and sweetest singing bird in the world (the canary)
is Colored. But if hundreds of years ago that bird had ruined his
God-gifted voice with discouraged croakings about its yellow feathers,
the canary bird of today would be not able to sing so sweetly as to
cause its listeners to completely forget it is a bird with a colored
complexion. Its singing is so sweet and beautiful that people learn to
see beauty and loveliness in its yellow coat that Nature has given it.

[Illustration]



IN INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC

MUSIC’S POWER.

    From cradle down unto the grave
        Does mankind ever sweet sounds crave;
    And like the beasts that roar and rave
        His passions bow as music’s slave.
                 --_Harrison._


“The Negro race has produced two violinists who have attracted national
attention as artists, Clarence Cameron White and Joseph H. Douglass.
They occupy first rank among American musicians and the race is justly
proud of them.” The above quotation that originally appeared in the
American artists Review, is an extract from Work’s Negro Year Book,
1918-1919 edition, p. 329.

Mr. White, whose home is in Boston, has spent many years of hard
studying in both America and Europe, and aside from being a violinist
of the first rank, he is also a noted composer. One of his greatest
compositions “The Cradle Song” is written for either the violin or
piano and has brought praises from all critics who have heard it. “A
New System of One Octave Scale Studies for the Violin”, of which Mr.
White is the author, is a book that is being used extensively in music
schools.

Joseph Henry Douglass, grandson of the great Frederick Douglass, is
a native of Washington, D.C. The foundation of his superb playing of
today was laid in the New England Conservatory of Music, the New York
Conservatory of Music and some of the best music schools in London.
During the score or more years he has made annual recitals throughout
the country, he, the same as Mr. White, has played before presidents
of the United States. Mr. Douglass fills the responsible position of
Instructor in Instrumental Music at Howard University, Washington, D.C.

A few of some other violinists of the first order are; Wm. Butler,
Walter Craig, Brooklyn, N.Y., Harrison Farrell, Harrison Emanuel,
Chicago, Ill., Kemper Herreld, Atlanta, Ga., Edwin F. Hill,
Philadelphia., Pa., Louisa V. Jones, New York, Leonard Jeter, New York
Hall, Johnson, H. Kerr, Baltimore, Md., David L. Martin, New York,
Eugene Mars Martin, New York, A. W. Ross, New York, Prof. Tenyck,
Brooklyn, N.Y., Harrison Watts, Baltimore, Md.

Maud Cuney Hare of Boston, Mass., has for years been recognized
as one of the leading pianists in America. She is nationally and
internationally known and her playing has met the stamped approval of
the most critical of critics. She is a member of the Music and Lecture
Guild of New England (a white organization) and is also music critic
for the Crisis Magazine.

As an accomplished musician, Hazel Harrison is one of the best among
the best Colored or white pianists in America. Although a musical
prodigy from early childhood, her youthful life has been one constant
grind of theory, study and practical application under such world-known
pianists and teachers as Busoni, Egan, Petri and Victor Heinne. And
still she improves.

Helen Hagan is another pianist who is recognized as being among the
foremost musicians in the United States, as the result of her strenuous
studies under such noted French masters as Saint-Saens, Vincent
D’Indy, Claude Debussy and her playing under the severe criticisms
of Gabriel Faure, Paul Dukas, Chaussons and Severac. As one of the
associate editors on the staff of Music and Poetry, she is doing great
inspirational work in its piano department.

Carl Diton’s transcription of “Swing Low Sweet Chariot” for the organ
has been published by G. Schirmer Co., one of the largest white music
publishers in America. This composition has a melody of remarkable
sweetness and is one of the few pieces that brings into full play
all parts of the organ. Mr. Diton has studied in Europe as well as
in America and today is recognized as one of the leading pianists,
organists and composers in this country.

Melville Charlton of Brooklyn, N. Y., is estimated by knowing critics
as being one of the most talented and efficient pipe organist among
Colored people in America. He is an unquestioned authority on this
instrument that has taken up many of his years in theory study
and practical application. The following named are a few mentioned
from among the hundreds of other exceptionally trained organists in
different parts of the country: Rudolph Grant, New York, William King,
Phila., Pa., George Ruffin and Fred White, Boston, Mass., Mrs. Corinne
Wilson, Chicago, Ill.

“It Takes Love to Cure the Heart’s Disease”, “Loveless Love” and
“Caroline Shout” were among the first player-piano rolls that were
recorded by Jas. P. Johnson, a Colored pianist, who has signed a
contract to make recordings for the Q. R. S. Music Company, which is
the largest player-piano roll manufacturers in the world.

One of the greatest musical wonders, Colored or white, America has
ever produced was Thomas G. Bethune, who was born a blind slave at
Columbus, Ga., He became known throughout the world as “Blind Tom”.
He played difficult pieces on the piano when only four years old and
began giving concerts when eight years old. Although he had never
received any instructions he could correctly imitate the most difficult
piece after hearing it played but once. He was taken to Europe where
he won fame and honors playing before the crowned heads in all of the
important countries. His audiences would sit spellbound and entranced
as he imitated on the piano nearly every imaginable sound. Especially
were they moved and seemed to feel they were going through the actual
experience when he played “The Shipwreck.” At such times his magic
fingers drew from the ivory keys the far and low rumblings of fast
coming storms; the clanking of rattling chains among hastening crews;
the weird moans of increasing winds; the blood-curdling shrieks
of swooping sea-gulls; the distant booms of beach-breaking waves;
the flapping slaps of wind-whipped sails; the creaking timbers of
tossed-about ships; the soft murmurs of praying voices; the sudden
crashes of lightning bolts; loud rolling peals of overhead thunder and
the splashing sounds of down-pouring rains.

Another piano prodigy of the race is J. W. Boone of Columbia, Mo., who
became blind in his infancy. He is known as “Blind Boone” and although
he has been touring the country for forty years, he is still giving
piano recitals that hold his audiences in wonder and awe. He has such
a wonderful memory for musical details and such a delicate ear for
detecting musical sounds that he frequently listens to the playing of a
recognized pianist who has the sight of both eyes, and when that person
has finished, “Blind Boone” will go to the piano and amuse the audience
by showing the mistakes made by the other player and then presenting
the piece correctly. By many critics he is considered today as the
equal if not the superior of the famous “Blind Tom”. (Ref. Work’s Negro
Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, pgs. 327-28-29).

Named below are a few of the many Colored pianists in America today,
many of them having studied under some of the best masters in Europe
as well as in America, and all of them being finished musicians, and
several of them of national renown.

Nettie C. Asberry, Tocoma, Wash., S. N. Arter, Neola Bailey, Hampton,
Va., Bertha Beaumann, Boston, Mass., “Eubie” Blake, Lawrence Brown,
Boston, Mass., J. H. Buchanan, Durham, N. C., Mrs. L. E. Cain,
Princeton, N. J., Mae Clements, Mrs. R. N. Dett, Hampton, Va., Cleo M.
Dickerson, Chicago, Ill., N. Doxey, Eva Dykes, Washington, D.C., J.
H. Hebron, Phila., Pa., Mary Gibson, Washington, D.C., Clyde Glass,
Wilhelmina Harrison, and Mildren B. Jones of Chicago, Ill., E. Aldama
Jackson, N. Y., William King, Phila., Pa., Mrs. E. Lambert, Princeton,
N. J., Wm. S. Lawrence, Boston, Mass., Andradas Lindsay, A. Matthews,
Cincinnati, Ohio, Susie McDonald, Newark, N. J., Martha Mitchell,
Nellie M. Mundy, N. Y., Josephine Muse, Washington, D.C., Portia W.
Pittman, Maud Powell, A. W. Quarles, Cincinnati, Ohio., Helen H. Price,
Brooklyn, N. Y., C. Luckeyth Roberts, N. Y., Arthur W. Ross, Ruth
Rowan, Durham, N. C., Amy Steffens, Milwaukee, Wis., Samuel Stewart,
Columbus, Ohio, T. T. Taylor, Chicago, Ill., Roy Tibbs, Washington,
D.C., Hazel D. Thomas, E. Torney, Baltimore, Md.

The Pace Phonograph Corporation, New York City, is the first of its
kind in the world to be composed only of Colored people. It is presided
over by Harry H. Pace, a Colored man who founded it, and it is
turning out records reproducing only Negro music sung or played only
by Colored musicians. All of its officials and employees are Colored,
and its chief purpose is to preserve in vocal form such as are left of
the slave-songs of America. Its records are known as the “Black Swan
Records,” that are already in much demand and finding large sales.

Today the original and unique, singing of Perry Bradford’s “blues”
by Mamie Smith, is attracting admiration and endless praise on both
sides of the ocean. Her successful singing for the reproduction of
her voice on the records of the Okeh Phonograph Co., has made her the
first Colored female singer to so suddenly achieve world fame along
that line. It is said that the royalties from her records amount to
such a sum that it would gladden and look big in the eyes of even prima
donna singers in the operatic world. The records containing her voice
are in such demand by the public that the manufacturers turning out
the disc have to put on night shifts in conjunction with day shifts
in order to fill the orders piled up on their desks. In the fall of
1920 Miss Smith’s stage singing had become so popular that she had to
table engagements from Paris and London in order to fill a thirty week
touring engagement in the United States.

Band Musicians throughout the world heard of and learned to admire the
late James Reese Europe, who was one of the greatest “jazz” musicians
the world has ever heard. Of the four best bands overseas during the
World War and representing the four greatest nations, James Europe’s
American Colored bandmen were in demand more than any of the others,
especially in England and France.

At the St. Louis World Exposition of 1904 and at the Panama Exposition
held at San Francisco, Cal., in 1915, Major W. H. Loving, as conductor
of the famous Philippine Band, was among those who were awarded the
highest band honors for being among the greatest bandmasters of
the world. Other Colored musicians who have achieved success and
recognition as band leaders are quite numerous in America, and a few
of them are mentioned herewith; Lieut. Tim Bryan, F. L. Drye, W. H.
Howard, W. L. Jackson, C. Wesley Johnson, N. Clarke Smith, A. J.
Thomas, W. H. Vodery, and P. G. Lowery who has developed such a great
band that yearly throughout the seasons it is to be found with the
Ringling Bro. Show as one of its most important bands. W. H. Graham, as
well as a great band leader is a talented composer of band music. His
home is in Denver, Colorado.

According to the determinations of one of America’s nationally
recognized authorities and critics on Negro music composition, the
following ten named Colored composers are among the foremost in the
United States:

    Harry T. Burleigh, whose “Deep River”, “Jean” and “The Soldier”
    are three of his voice compositions that are among his numerous
    spirituals and art-songs published by Ricordi & Co., New York City.
    For his work as a singer and composer, Mr. Burleigh was awarded the
    1917 Spingarn Medal.

    Melville Charlton, whose piano production: Poeme Crotique is
    published by Schirmer & Co., New York City.

    Will Marion Cook, whose “The Bandanna Land”, “The Casino Girl”,
    and “The Rain Song” are among his popular choruses in Negro style
    that are published by Schirmer & Co., New York City. As director
    of The New York Syncopated Orchestra and the celebrated Clef Club
    Orchestra, Mr. Cook has won himself a place among the first-place
    orchestra leaders in America and Europe.

    R. Nathaniel Dett, whose chorals: “Chariot Jubilee”, “Listen To The
    Lambs” and “I’m So Glad Trouble Don’t Last Alway” are among his
    voice spirituals published by John Church Co., New York City; his
    piano composition “Magnolia” which is one among others published
    by Summy & Co., Chicago. A white publication, Musical America of
    December 17, 1919, said, “If R. Nathaniel Dett had written no other
    work, his “Chariot Jubilee” would suffice to make his name.” Mr.
    Dett is also a noted pianist.

    Carl Diton, whose pipe Organ production; “Swing Low Sweet, Chariot”
    is published by Schirmer & Co., New York City, and whose voice
    composition; “Swing Low Sweet Chariot” is published by Presser &
    Co., Philadelphia, Pa.

    Helen Hagan, who has composed for the piano; Concerto with
    orchestral accompaniment (manuscript).

    J. Harvey Hebron, who has produced for the voice splendid
    semi-classic ballads (American Magazine Co., 1514 South St.,
    Phila., Pa.,) and for the violin and piano: Sonata in E
    (manuscript).

    J. Rosamond Johnson, whose classic ballads and light operas have
    been written for the white company, Klaw & Erlanger and such noted
    white actresses as Lillian Russell. In the production of many of
    his pieces, J. Rosamond was ably assisted by his brother James
    Weldon Johnson who also was the translator for the English libretto
    of “Goyescas” the Spanish grand opera produced by the Metropolitan
    Opera Company in 1915. James W. also has several French music
    translations to his credit. The works of J. Rosamond Johnson are
    published by Ditson & Co., Boston, Mass.

    Gerald Tyler, who has composed for the voice, Art-songs that are
    published by Schirmer & Co., New York City.

    Clarence Cameron White, whose violin Spirituals are published by
    Carl Fisher & Co., New York.

The “blue song” compositions of W. C. Handy are known and sung all
over the world. He is president of the Handy Music Co., of New York
City, which is the leading firm of its kind among Colored people in the
world. Perry Bradford is composer of the “Crazy Blues” that have made
himself, Mamie Smith and the Okeh phonograph records nationally and
internationally famous.

N. Clark Smith is second to none among American Colored musicians as
a composer of instrumental, especially, band music. For several years
he was band leader of the Tuskegee Institute expert band and also
served for a long period as bandmaster of the famous Old Illinois 8th
Regiment. Today he is Director of Music at the Lincoln High School,
Kansas City, Mo.

The following list contains the names of some of the leading musicians
who are foremost composers of different lines of music: Mrs. B.
Consuelo Cook, J. E. Dowell, E. Edmonds, W. H. Farrell, Harry Freeman,
Jessie L. Gaynor, A. P. Grant, H. P. Gilbert, L. Godfrey, Nora Douglass
Holt, Edwin F. Hill, E. A. Jackson, Scott Jolpin, E. T. Jenkins, Joe.
Jordan, Turner Layton, Therwold Otterstrom, Dave Payton, J. S. Pollen,
Alex Rogers, H. E. Stewart, Dekiven Thompson, Clarence Williams,
Spencer Williams, Geo. Hoff.

[Illustration]



IN ATHLETICS

SOME MAN.

    When a white star fames in football fray,
        Three rivals at most against him play;
    And he gets the cheers of every fan
        For they feel for him no racial ban;
      But when Colored star in white games set
        Eleven “cave men” play him “to get”;
    And when thro it all they can’t him “can”
        He sure must be what is called “SOME MAN”.
                 --_Harrison._


The main thing every boy and girl should have or begin to acquire
in early life, and then continue to keep during his manhood or her
womanhood, is a clean, healthy, supple and well-developed muscular body
that is guided and governed by a pure thinking and self-controlling
mind. And such a body is mainly built up and preserved by taking plenty
of out-door playful exercises in early childhood; by taking frequent
parts in athletics games played in a fair and honest way against
friendly rivals while in young manhood and womanhood; and by regularly
and systematically going through a good drill of setting-up exercises,
gymnastics or calisthenics throughout both middle and old age. These
same childhood games and youthful athletic sports have their good
effects upon the young and tender minds by early teaching them courage
in times of facing big odds and developing self-control during the
angry moments of an exciting game when temptations so often come up to
strike an unfair blow or say some mean and rude thing. And these same
out-door activities have their purifying results upon those minds in
that they are nearer to Nature and thereby prompt more Godly thoughts,
words and deeds among such minds than do certain in-door pastimes that
are not so wholesome. No country in the world surpasses America in the
general suppleness in movement, gracefulness of carriage and all-round
muscular development and physical prowess of the bodies belonging to
its people. And the following named records show that American Colored
youths have played large and valuable parts in helping to build up the
physical reputation of the United States that is today recognized as
the leading country in international athletic sports.


In Football

W. H. Lewis (one of the ablest Colored lawyers in America today)
before graduating from Harvard proved to be the greatest football
center, Colored or white, in his college and of his time. Every fall
when Harvard now faces her, Brown University heaves a loud sigh of
regret that Fritz Pollard, a Colored All-American Half-back, is not
on her football team to again and mostly alone carry the brown and
white pennant to a crushing victory over the almost unbeatable crimson
and white colors. Williams has since made such a football record at
Brown that he was given a place on an All-American team by the New
York World. It was Johnny Shelbourne, All-American Fullback, who was
one of the four stars on Dartmouth football team that so smoothly
steam-rollered the team of the University of Pa., with a score of
44 to 7 on Franklin Field, at Philadelphia, Pa., November 13, 1920.
Shelbourne is also such a sprinter that he is able to “fade-away”
over a 40 yard stretch in 4 4-5 seconds. Calloway not only made the
Varsity team of Columbia but has proved one of its most valuable men.
All football teams that have recently played against Northwestern
University have felt the brawn and held the weight of “Buddy” Turner.
Washington & Jefferson in their latest football games have fully
relied upon the punting toe of their Colored player, West. Athletic
writers and critics on the staffs of both the Chicago Tribune and
Colliers Weekly have given Duke Slater, the Iowa tackle, a place on
an All-Western football team. Leon Taylor was made All-Ohio Conferee
fullback at Oberlin, Ohio. Smith’s tricks of going completely wild when
turned loose on the gridiron of Michigan Agr. College caused them to
put him on an All-American team for safe keeping. When knocking men
right and left on the field of Minnesota University, Marshall acted
so much like a Minnesota Indian on the war path that they had to do
something to sort of tame him down, so they put him on an All-American
team. Beside winning his letters in baseball, basketball and track
athletics, A. Hamblin of Knox College was made captain of his 1918
football team. M. Richmond, on account of his excellent defensive and
offensive playings was made captain of the Des Moines College 1917
football team. Sol Butler, when playing on the Dubuque College football
team, came in such close contact with and made such lasting impressions
on his opponents that they will until their dying days remember having
met a Sol Butler at some time and at some place. W. E. Morrison and
W. Brown were two of the outstanding stars who played on the Tuft
College varsity eleven at the times it beat Harvard and gave Princeton
one of the toughest battles and one of the worse heart-stop-beating
scares it has ever had on a football field. In New England, the names
and pigskin deeds of those two charging warriors, especially that
of Morrison are still fondly remembered and always referred to with
admiration and pride. Paul Robeson of Rutgers College was made an
All-American End. Walter Camp (white) of Yale University in selecting
his All-American Football Team of 1918 said, “There never was a more
serviceable end, both in attack and defense than Robeson--the 200 pound
giant of Rutgers. Defensively this team is remarkably strong with
Robeson and Alexander backing up the line as secondary defense; Taking
turns at this they would be employed in a line of work to which they
are thoroughly accustomed and in which they have had no peers in many
years.” (quotation from Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, page
44). Other Colored youths who have won distinction as football players
in white universities and colleges are; Taylor at the University of
Pa., Bullock at Dartmouth, Gray and Pinkett at Amherst, Ayler at Brown,
Chadwell at Williams, Craighead at Massachusetts Agri. College, Jones
at Harvard, Ransom at Belout, Young and Wheeler at Illinois, Johnson
and Ross at Nebraska, Tibbs at Syracuse, Green at Western Reserve and
Roberts at Colorado Reserve, Niles at Colby.


On The Track and Field

Howard P. Drew, the present holder of the Official A. A. U. world
record of 9 3-5 seconds for 100 yds, was selected in 1918 as a member
of the All-American Athletic Team and in 1919 as a member of the
All-American Track Team. In writing of Drew in the Philadelphia North
American of July 17, 1920, Lawson Roberston (white) Coach of Athletics
at the University of Pa., said: “Just before Drew broke down eight
years ago in Stockholm he showed enough speed in his trial heat to
warrant the belief that he could beat any man in the final by 3 yards.
In the semifinal heat he “pulled” his tendon when he had covered about
80 yards and limped in the remainder of the distance. Even at that he
won his semi-final heat by about eight yards from Thomas of Princeton,
the 1912 intercollegiate champion.” The following quotation on Drew is
extracted from Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919, page 44: “At the 1918
Western Conference College Outdoor Track and Field Championship Events,
Howard Drew, the world’s famous sprinter staged a comeback by winning
against a very fast field the 100 and 220 yard dashes. A comment on
Drews’ performance said: “By winning the 100 and 220 yard dashes from
the fastest fields that the middle western colleges could boast, Drew
demonstrated that his victories were not due to accident or lack of
formidable opponents. If any further proof were needed, the time would
amply attest the high standard of Drew’s sprinting as he ran the 100 in
10 seconds. When it is taken into consideration that Drew is 28 years
of age and has been competing for thirteen years, during which time he
has won numerous victories and equalled the world’s record time in both
of these events, it can be seen that his latest triumphs are little
short of athletic marvels.”

Beside being one of its best football players, Sol Butler was also one
of the best all-round athletes Dubuque College ever turned out, and
was holder of the American A. A. U. broad jump record of twenty-four
feet and eight inches. In July 1919 Butler (now of Drake College) won
the broad jump in the Inter-Allied Games at Pershing Stadium, France.
He was one of the athletes selected to represent the United States in
those games. Butler also won the broad jump event at the Relay Carnival
of the University of Pa., by leaping 23 feet 5 3-4 inches. Even in his
youngster frolics while attending the Hutchinson, Kan. High School,
Butler showed his unusual speed by getting loose at Evanston, Ill., on
March 28, 1914, and pushing 60 yards of air out of the way in 6 2-5
seconds. When he finally slowed down at the end of that affair and
kept still long enough to listen he learned those boyhood runaway wild
steps had established the best United States Inter-Scholastic Track
Record for that event.


Edward Orval Gourdin

The field sensation among the white colleges during the past two years
has been E. O. Gourdin, the Harvard all-round star athlete. This
Colored athlete is at this writing unquestionably the backbone and
mainstay of the Harvard track team, and throughout their competitions
with other colleges, Gourdin has been in the majority of cases the
highest individual point scorer for his college. And yet, his victories
have been under the most trying conditions and circumstances. Being
a star in many events and the chief one upon whom Harvard depended,
in numerous meets he has repeatedly been called upon to skip from one
event to another and back again without stopping to catch his breath or
get a rest: even fates, especially during the spring of 1921 seeming to
be against him, for it usually rained the day before or the day he had
to perform. As his best work is done on dry ground, and he fully knows
it, his wet, muddy and slippery events were of course entered with a
certain amount of mental depression, but his courage never faltered
nor his willingness halted. During the spring of 1921 when Harvard and
Yale met in their annual track meet, the track was soaked from a former
rain; yet, Gourdin won the 100 yard dash from Yale in 10 2-5 seconds.
Although the runway was uncertain from dampness, the take-off risky for
the same reason and the pit wet from holding rain, he won the broad
jump from Yale by hurling himself through the air 24 feet and 4 inches.
In the shot-put under favorable conditions he clears 41 feet and in the
220 yard dash he hugs 22 seconds so tight that it can’t get away from
him.


Extra! Extra! Extra! Special Delivery Red Rush Telegram!

At last, fates and the atmospheric elements smiled down upon the
Colored athletic world wonder and marvel, “Ned” Gourdin, by giving him
“A Perfect Day” (no drizzling rains, no wet slippery grounds, no damp
heavy airs) on July 23, 1921. On this date, that hilariously kissed
the sun “good night” and joyously embraced the moon “good morning”,
was held a dual track meet between the Harvard-Yale teams and the
Oxford-Cambridge teams of England, at the Harvard Stadium. Regarding
the results of that meet, the writer quotes the following extracts as
part of an article that, according to the Chicago Defender of July 30,
1921, appeared in the July 25, 1921 issue of the Boston Daily Post:


“By Wilton Vaugh”

“Edward Orval Gourdin now goes down in the Harvard annals as the
greatest track athlete ever to represent the Crimson.

“His record-breaking jump of 25 feet 3 inches in the running broad jump
last Saturday at the stadium international college meet was just a
climax to his amazing achievements on the cinders.


“Amazing Record”

“But that particular feat alone would have been enough to rank “Ned”
with the elite of Cambridge, because the world has been waiting twenty
years for a man capable of matching Peter O’Connor’s leap of 24 feet
11¾ inches. The Harvard idol accomplished it, and with such a margin
that it now seems hopeless of developing a greater jumper for a number
of years, anyway.

“His all-round prowess on the track would have been sufficient to rate
him with the best. Had he chosen to specialize in any one of the eight
events it is not beyond the scope of human thought to see him shatter
different marks. His best winning records in the matches he has already
tried are:



  100-yard dash--9 4-5 seconds.
  220-yard dash--22 1-5 seconds.
  440-yard run--52 1-5 seconds.
  Running broad jump--25 feet 3 inches.
  Running high jump--5 feet 9 inches.
  Running hop, step and jump--45 feet 3 inches.
  Javelin throw--140 feet.
  Discus throw--110 feet.

    In the above meet on July 23, 1921 Gourdin also won the 100-yard
    dash from his closest rival, Rudd, the famed sprinter and captain
    of the British team.

During his athletic career, the late J. B. Taylor of the University
of Pa., was a track wonder in both America and Europe. When in action
he had the easiest and prettiest carriage of body and the smoothest
clocklike movement of limbs of any sprinter seen on the cinder path for
years. When making his 440 yard and other records he used a remarkable
sprinting stride of nine feet--about two feet longer than the average
sprinter takes.

While at Harvard, T. Cable won fame as a hammer thrower; L. V. Alexis
was a star trackman, and E. L. Davidson won the 125 pound-class
wrestling Collegiate Championship in competing against the best white
wrestlers of his class from the other six big colleges that had entered
the match. A. L. Jackson was one of the best hurdlers Harvard ever
turned out. B. Dismond of the University of Chicago and Lee Umble of
Colorado University made records for their schools, and Umble is today
one of the best wrestlers of his class in the West. J. T. Carter has
won recognition as a crack sprinter on the Brown track team, Dewey
Rogers is a star trackman on the University of Pa. track team and his
ability to push 440 yards back of him in 50 2-5 seconds shows he has a
pair of heels that must be closely watched or they may some day on some
cinder path get fast ideas to elope from their owner. Rogers in one of
his 440 yards sprints defeated the captain of his own track team--Earl
Eby.

Roy Morris has won a national reputation as a sprinter of note. R.
E. Johnson of Pittsburgh, is one of the best 5,000 and 10,000 meter
runners in the country. Little Charley Mitchell of the St. Christopher
Club, New York, is one of the pluckiest and ablest marathon runners
in the land and has finished eighth out of a string of sixty. G. L.
Brashear, now coach of Straight University, New Orleans, La., was at
one time one of the best all-round athletes in California. E. Niles has
repeatedly shown that he is one of the best 440 and 880 yard sprinters
in New England.

“The New York Athletic Club games saw another promising Negro athlete
come into prominence. Billy Parker, representing the St. Christopher
Club, raced to an easy victory in the 1,000 yard run. He won about as
he pleased in 2:10. Parker is one of the best-looking runners that the
Colored clubs have developed in years. He is big, rangy, and a good
strider.” The above is what Howard Valentine, a sport writer, had to
say in a white paper, the New York Globe, about Wm. S. (Billy) Parker
who so easily defeated some of the fastest Colored and white runners
in the East. Parker is also one of the foremost basketball players
in the East. Young men who are interested in bicycle riding might be
encouraged to learn here that little Major Taylor, a Colored man,
during the year 1900 held the championship as the fastest bicycle rider
in America.


Track and Field Records Held by Colored Youths

    Best Western Inter-Collegiate Conference Record. 440 Yards, 47 2-5
    seconds, Binga Dismond, Chicago, at Evantson, Ill., June 3, 1916.

    Best United States Inter-Scholastic Track Record. 60 yards, 6 2-5
    seconds, Sol Butler, Hutchinson, (Kansas) High School, at Evanston,
    Ill. March 28, 1914.

    In July, 1919 Butler (now of Drake) won the broad jump in the
    Inter-Allied Games at Pershing Stadium, France.


Track Amateur World Records

  100 Yards, 9- 3-4 seconds
    by H. P. Drew at Berkley, California, March 28, 1914.
  130 Yards, 12 4-5 seconds,
    H. P. Drew at Brooklyn, N. Y., Nov. 22, 1913.
  220 Yards, 21 1-5 seconds,
    H. P. Drew at Clearmont, California, Feb. 28. 1914.


Colored Youths Who Have Won Unusual Distinctions in Track and Field
Work in White Colleges.

  Sol Butler        All-round Athlete          Drake University
  Theodore Cable    Hammer Thrower             Harvard University
  Binga Dismond     440 Yard Runner            Chicago University
  Howard P. Drew    Short Distant Runner       So. Cal. University
  Edwin O. Gourdin  All-round Athlete          Harvard University
  W. R. Granger     Half Miler                 Dartmouth College
  Irving Howe       Short Distant Runner       Colby College
  A. L. Jackson     Hurdler                    Harvard University
  Wm. B. Matthews   Baseball player            Harvard University
  Fritz Pollard     Hurdler and Football       Brown University
  Dewey Rogers      Sprinter                   University of Pa.
  John B. Taylor    440 Yard Sprinter          University of Pa.
  Joseph E. Trigg   Oarsman                    Syracuse University
  Fred White        Short and Middle Sprinter  University of Pa.


Howard and Lincoln at the University of Pennsylvania

At the University of Pa., Relay Games held April 29 and 30, 1921, on
Franklin Field, Phila., Pa., the Howard University track team took
a one mile relay race away from Bowdoin College, Carnegie School of
Technology, Tufts College and several other white colleges of that
stamp. The Lincoln University track team in a one mile relay race also
romped away from the teams of George Washington University and a number
of other such white institutions.

Beside gaining honors in winning those only two events in which they
were entered, each of these two Colored teams was presented with a
banner and each member of the teams was given a gold watch. The outcome
of those two events not only brought encouragements to athletes in
all Negro schools and pride to members of the Race throughout the
country, but it convinced the athletic world of two truths. First, the
brotherhood and true sportsmanship feelings between white and Colored
schools in America are slowly but surely increasing and becoming closer
and more friendly. Secondly, Negro universities, colleges and schools
are today turning out athletes who can hold their own when competing
with athletes developed by white schools of the same class.


Colored Athletes in Colored Universities and Colleges.

Those Colored youths mentioned in the preceding chapter are but a few
of the Colored athletes who while attending white schools successfully
matched the stamina, endurance and strength of their muscles, bones
and will powers against those of Caucasian youths. The following named
Colored athletes are those who studied and competed among themselves in
Colored Universities, colleges and schools under instructions of their
college trained Colored Athletic coaches, and who would have carried
away many athletic first honors had they attended white schools and
taken parts in sports:

    Atlanta University--L. R. Harper, all-round star athlete: L. D.
    Maxwell, football and baseball star; W. S. Fuller, basketball star.

    Fisk University:--H. A. Johnson, all-round star athlete; W. H.
    Zeigler, football star; L. O. McVey, baseball star.

    Hampton Institute:--James Gayle, all-round star athlete; J. E.
    Scott, football star; J. W. Harvey, football and baseball star; V.
    S. Brown, basketball star.

    Howard University:--C. Coleman, all-round star athlete; G. Brice,
    football star; G. Gilmore, basketball star; F. Sykes, baseball star.

    Lincoln University:--W. P. Young, all-round star athlete; H. G.
    Ridgely, football star; M. F. Wheatland, basketball star; L.
    Holloway, baseball star.

    Morehouse College:--J. C. Walker, all-round star athlete; R.
    Richardson, football star; Edw. Hope, basketball star; S. Duncon,
    baseball star.

    Shaw University:--M. Walker, all-round star athlete; W. Crump,
    football star; L. W. Cook, basketball star; D. W. Graham, baseball
    star.

    Talladega College:--L. H. Cox, all-round star athlete; C. Coles and
    R. E. Rivers, football stars; Q. Gordon, baseball star.

    Tuskegee Institute:--G.H. Kitchen, all-round star athlete; A. L.
    Williams, football star; C. C. Hart, basketball star; J. F. Ross,
    baseball star.

    Va. Union University:--H.B. Hucles, all-round star athlete; S.
    B. Taylor, football star; B. C. Gregory, basketball star; S. B.
    Taylor, baseball star.

    Va. Normal and Ind. School:--J. F. Nicholas, all-round star
    athlete; E. C. Melton, football star; A. C. Jackson, baseball star.

    Wilberforce University:--I. Lane, all-round star athlete: T. Reid,
    football star; S.H. Hull, basketball star; L. Townsend, baseball
    star.

[Illustration]



BASEBALL

“PLAY BALL.”

    From early spring until late fall,
        This Nation’s hobby is baseball;
    And while such season is in reign
        Few men or boys do stay real sane.
                 --_Harrison._


Cris Terriente, Colored champion home-run hitter and out-fielder, and
known as the Cuban “Babe Ruth”, was a marvel even several years ago
when he played in the United States with the famous Colored teams,
American Giants of Chicago and the All-Nationals of Kansas City. This
Colored ball player has been frequently estimated by white baseball
critics as being an equal home-run hitter to the celebrated “Babe
Ruth”, whose services were sold by a Boston team to a New York team
for over one hundred thousand dollars. And one of those well-meaning
white critics, when commenting on the wonderful baseball playing of
Terriente, so far forgot his “square-deal” and one hundred per cent
Americanism as to allow some of his grayless brain matter and stagnant
watery thoughts to soak through his system and overflow into his pen
point that splashed little puddles of poisoned ink. In his article he
lamented the fact that it was impossible to “indelibly white-wash”
Terrente so as to make him white enough to be accepted as a playing
member on one of the Big League White baseball teams.

Now, if that same baseball critic had entered the United States Army as
either a volunteer or a draftee in the World War and had been dying of
thirst on the bloodsoaked and bone-strewn plains of “No Man’s Land”,
it is wondered if he would have thought it necessary to “indelibly
white-wash” Colored soldiers before accepting from their black lips,
and greedily pressing to his own parched white lips, the begged-for
water canteens of the Colored soldiers? For such exchanges of canteens
between generous Colored and dying white soldiers occurred thousands
of times and in not one instance did those famished white men allow
color prejudice to stand between them and a few mouthsfuls of left-over
Colored water that meant the saving of their lives. Nevertheless, a
majority of those soldiers whose lives had been saved by the timely
swallows of water from the canteens of black soldiers, immediately
resumed their persecution of and discriminations against the Negro race
even before they got back home to America.

Thus while history shows that the majority of white people, when in
the jaws of threatened or actual death, become too “color-blind” and
“near-sighted” to see the hue of the hand or the shape of the face
that comes to its help and vital rescue; history also shows that
a great many white people, while in the pink of life, health and
prosperity, allow their visions to become so magnified and their minds
to become so overrun and soaked with vile race prejudice that they
constantly see imaginary color-lines that really do not exist. They
also are constantly building up before law-abiding, clean-living and
progressive classes of Colored people certain racial barriers that are
not only proving a stain but also a shame (in the eyes of the rest
of the onlooking world) upon this land of freedom, civilization and
Christianity. But at this time and place the writer will not go further
into this particular phase of this color-line subject, as it is being
more fully dealt with in the writing of one of his other books.

Fair-minded white people are justly ashamed of the words and actions of
such members of their race as the above mentioned reporter, and already
bright rays of hope are beginning to shine in the Big League for
Colored baseball players. In this direction The Continental League with
headquarters at Boston, Mass. and formed by the white baseball magnate,
Andrew Lawson, has really wedged the first opening. At the formation of
this league, Lawson admitted two Colored teams, one from Providence,
R. I. and the other from Boston, the latter team having both Colored
and white players. This is the greatest bit of encouragement Colored
professional baseball players in America have ever received. The
chairman of the Board of Directors of The Continental League is R.
T. Murray, a Colored man. This league’s influence for the spreading
of broad-mindedness and fair-play is already being noticed among the
officials of other white Big Leagues. At the end of the baseball season
of 1920, Colored teams were allowed to play against many of the big
white league teams on their barn-storming tours.

During that season Bolden’s Hilldale team played against Connie Mack’s
team of All-Stars at the National League Park, Phila., Pa., in which
game Bolden’s team lost by a score of 2 to 1.

Bolden’s team also played against the famous “Babe” Ruth and his
All-Stars at the National League Park, Phila., Pa., in which game
Bolden’s team won by a score of 5 to 0. In this game, Flourney the
Hilldale pitcher not only kept “Babe” Ruth from getting one of his
famous home-runs but struck him out twice. “Babe” Ruth was also struck
out at Shibe Park, Phila., Pa., during the same season by “Cannon Ball”
Redding, star pitcher on the Atlantic City Bacharach Giants team.

Tesreau’s Bears played against Carl May’s All Stars at Dyckman Oval at
which place the Yankees defeated the Colored team on both ends of a
double-header by scores of 10 to 0 and 5 to 3.

The Lincoln Colored Giants played and defeated the New York Giants
(white) in New York by a score of 4 to 1. Williams the Colored pitcher
struck out thirteen men on the white team.

As far back as the early eighties, M. F. Walker proved himself such
a good pitcher that he played on a white league ball team in Toledo,
Ohio, and a Frank Grant also played on big white league teams in
Connecticut, New York and Pennsylvania. William B. Matthews, during his
college days at Harvard caused quite a sensation throughout the country
by his unexcelled ball playing and mainly through his star playing
his college nine won sweeping victories all down the line of their
engagements.

In taking hurried glances over past performances of present day Colored
baseball players, the following named are but a few picked from among
those who think, dream, talk and act so much over the diamond that
baseball has become their middle names:

T. Brown of American Giants, Cockerell and Flourney of Hilldale,
Holland of Detroit Stars, Leblanc of Cuban Stars Redding of Bacharach
Giants, Rogan of St. Louis Giants and J. Williams of Lincoln Giants put
forth the same kind of energy and earnestness in making moundmen fan
the wind and think holes are in their bats as did Mathewson, Shawkey
and Alexander, the great white pitchers, against their players.

Duncan of Chicago Giants, Ray of Kansas City Monarchs, Rodguez of
Cincinnati Stars, Rojo of Bacharach Giants, Santop of Hilldale Quakers
and Webster of Detroit Stars use the same kind of stickability in
freezing onto hot balls as the white past masters in backstop, Schalk
and O’Neill.

Bost of Oakland Braves, Grant of American Giants, Jeffries of Chicago
Giants, Pettus of Bacharach Giants and Richards of Godfrey’s California
All-Stars go through the same kind of successful limber-jointed
jumping-jack antics on first base as McInnis and Kelly in the big white
leagues.

Crowell of Tesreau Bears, Holloway of Indianapolis A. B. C’s. Holtz of
St. Louis Giants and Thomas of Columbus Buckeyes have the same love for
and show just as much jealously over the second bag as the crack second
basemen, Collins and Hornsby don’t try to hide.

Day of Indianapolis A. B. C’s, Dinan of Tesraeu Bears, Fial of Lincoln
Giants, Francis of Hilldale Quakers, Brown of Norfolk Giants and F.
Hill of Detroit Stars are just as busy nailing and crucifying the last
hopes of runners at third base as Groh and Gardner, who are about the
best among white third basemen.

Dobbins of Hilldale Quakers, Hewitt of St. Louis Giants, Lloyd of
Columbus Buckeyes and Lundy of Bacharach Giants while panning the same
kind of red-hot frying sizzlers at shortstop as the celebrated Wagner
and Bancroft, also usually salt and pepper those frying sizzlers with
most amusing capers and comedian stage acts.

Briggs of Hilldale Quakers, Gans of Lincoln Giants, P. Hill of Detroit
Stars, Jenkins of Chicago Giants, Kemp of Norfolk Giants, Thomas of
Baltimore Black Sox, and Weeks of Pittsburgh Stars have that same
knack of vamping the sun straight in the face without blinking an eye
while pulling down a twenty-two story sky-scrapping fly, like the rangy
outfielders Speaker and Burns.

Meadows of Godfrey’s California All-Stars, Santop of Hilldale Quakers
and Torrenti of American Giants are just as much interested in
astronomy and scientific research as “Babe” Ruth and Sisler when they
start a message to the planet Mars by way of a home-run baseball.

While big Jeff Tesreau has tried so hard and done so well, he has not
yet become so big a thief as Ty Cobb in stealing bases and pawning runs
at home-plate.

All of the other players, on these Colored teams, whose names have
not been mentioned are also A-1 baseball jugglers and would make good
showing to their credits in any of the white Big Leagues that would
give them a fair and square chance to play on their teams.

And Colored boys who are talented and aspire to become great ball
players should not lose ambition and hang back because of their race
or color: They should take on new courage by reading here; that the
most youthful and hopeful things (the grass and leaves) in the world,
are Colored, and no one who looks “green” with hate and envy is able
to stop Dame Nature each spring from stepping boldly out and, without
apologies to men of any race, drapping the woods and fields with her
colored shades of green.

[Illustration]



BASKETBALL

GEORGE GILMORE.

    With Howard and Loendi it was the same;
        G. Gilmore to them did dribble much fame.
    Sure in quick shooting and true in his pass
        He often proved himself in a peerless class.

    All basketball folks his death do regret,
        But none of those people will soon forget
    His gliding ways up and down the floor,
        And the side-line cry, “Here comes Gilmore!”
                 --_Harrison._


Among Colored schools, Hampton, Howard and Lincoln form the big
basket-ball right-angle triangle whose three angles each year are
usually so constantly and rapidly twisted and turned to equal
elevations of degrees, that it is not until the end of the season, when
the three-sided affair finally settles on a steady foundation, that the
spectators are really able to see and tell the base of this triangle
from its hypothenuse and altitude.

Johnny Johnson, the Colored right-forward on the Columbia University
varsity basketball team, in playing against the teams of Harvard, Yale,
Dartmouth, Pennsylvania and other big colleges, in nearly every case
scored the majority of points for his college team. His playing against
these colleges was so brainy, spectacular and effective that it caused
the leading white sport pages to give him glowing compliments relative
to his being one of the best basketball players in the country.

In several large cities Colored athletes have organized and wonderfully
developed some of the swiftest and most efficient basketball teams
in America. Among the leading teams are: Dr. Johnson’s Forty Club of
Chicago, Cum Posey’s Loendi Club of Pittsburgh, Chas. Bradford’s St.
Christopher Club of New York, Manager Accoe’s A. C. Lightning Five of
Brooklyn, C. Cain’s Vandals, of Atlantic City, “Babe” Thomas’ Alpha
Big Five of New York, Douglas’ Spartan Braves of New York, Moss’
Center Five of Toledo, Ohio, All-Scholastics of Harrisburg, the Alcoes
of Washington, D.C., the Athenians of Baltimore and the Pioneers of
Cleveland, Ohio.

Among those players on these teams whose names, through observation
and information, the writer was able to get are: Betts, Blueitt, Sol
Butler, Brown, Bundy, Capers, Cooper, Duff, Fial, Fields, Forbes,
Gumbs, Howard, Hubbard, Jenkins, Moss Posey, Ricks, Sessons, Slocum,
Young and Winters. The other players on these teams were always doing
such tricky feinting dizzy ducking, dazzling dodging, sudden blocking,
slippery sliding, magic dribbling, lightning shooting and bull’s eye
caging that the writer was not able to corner them in, so as to trip
them up and hold them down long enough to get their names.

[Illustration]



PRIZE FIGHTING.

“JACK” JOHNSON.

    Talk as you may of his private life;
        “Jack” led the world in fistic strife,
    And Johnson today has as keen a sense
        As any new man in self-defense.
                 --_Harrison._


The decisions the United States Government made during the World War,
regarding the urgent necessity of including boxing in its all-round
training in preparing the soldiers and sailors for war, at last brought
the art of self-defense into its own and accorded it the proper
recognition and value it should have officially received years ago.
In private life prize fighting had its followers in both America and
Europe as far back as a hundred years ago. About that time a Virginia
Negro slave by the name of Tommy Molineaux whipped all American boxers
who met him after which he went to Europe where he was beaten by the
Englishman, Cribb, who was at that time the champion of Great Britain.

Along in the 70’s, George Godfrey was in his prime and became known
on both sides of the ocean on account of whipping the famous white
fighter, Lannon, in one of the greatest prize fights ever “pulled
off” in New England. Godfrey fought seventy-six rounds with the
great fighter, Jake Kilrain and he also staid twenty rounds with the
“Australian Black Wildcat,” Peter Jackson. As John L. Sullivan, known
as the greatest white slugger of all times, was then in his prime and
zenith, Godfrey repeatedly tried to meet him in the ring but Sullivan
always managed to evade a fight with him.

Peter Jackson, although an Australian by birth, spent his best fighting
years in America. He fought with, came out even or on top of all the
best men of his days. It was he who fought a 61 round draw with James
J. Corbett, who is known as the most scientific heavyweight champion
boxer the world has ever seen. Jackson was considered by many as the
quickest heavyweight foot worker in the game. It is said that he was
so uncanny quick on his feet that many times when an opponent made
a lunge at him, Jackson would dodge the blow, circle to the rear of
the fighter and pin him one back of the ear before the opponent could
regain his balance, face around and throw up his guard to block off the
blow. During all the time he was meeting the best heavyweights, Jackson
held out a standing challenge to John L. Sullivan, who never would meet
him in the ring. But John L. was always truthful enough to admit that
he did not consider himself champion of the world because he had never
whipped Peter Jackson. (for proof of this statement write to the Editor
of Everybody’s Column, Philadelphia Inquirer, Phila., Pa.) According
to an article that appeared in the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin of
January 26, 1921, and which was written by Hughey Fullerton a white
sport critic, John L. Sullivan also side stepped another Colored
heavyweight prize fighter, who was known in Louisiana as “Black Zeke”.
This “Zeke” who weighed 220 pounds and was six feet two inches tall,
could lift a bale of cotton weighing five hundred pounds. In reference
to this fighter a paragraph in the above mentioned article read as
follows: “After the Sullivan-Kilrain fight Mr. Carrol tried to arrange
a bout between “Zeke” and John L. The latter refused and the planter
followed Sullivan over the country, but to no avail.” So while Sullivan
was truthfully champion over the world of white fighters, there were
at least three Colored fighters, George Godfrey, Peter Jackson and
“Black Zeke” over whom John L. never was champion, because he had never
whipped any one of them although all three had repeatedly followed and
challenged him after they had met and held their own with the other
best men of their times.

Of all prize fighters, Colored or white, the world has ever known,
George Dixon was declared the most wonderful of them all. Being a
little over four feet tall, weighing less then 130 pounds, with small
tapering legs that seemed to sweat tears of pain under the weight of
his gigantic chest and unusually broad shoulders from which dangled
muscular arms of such thickness and length that they looked unnatural,
Dixon presented a most uncanny and formidable foe when stripped in the
ring waiting for action. He always proved just as formidable as he
looked; for when he warmed up and got into real action, it seemed to
his opponent that Mr. & Mrs. Satan and their entire brood of little
Satan imps from Hades had been turned loose in the ring. During a
period of ten years (1890-1900) Dixon at different times held both the
Bantamweight and Featherweight championships of the world. And one
of the main reasons why his name will ever go down in ring history
as the “Wonder of Wonders” is that he did something no other world
champion has ever done--he “came back” three times and regained his
lost championship. It is said that he made a record of over a thousand
clean knockouts during his fighting career. His three “Come backs” were
staged as follows: Benny Jordan took the title from him and he regained
it from Eddie Santry; Frankie Erne gave Dixon a good spanking one
year and the next year he thrashed that same Frankie Erne; Sol Smith
gave him a good lacing, and the same year, Dixon in a return battle
took back his title and in doing so (to use a frequent and amusing
expression of one “Tommy” Howard, a jolly fellow and Virginia old-time
friend of the writer’s) “nearly shook the living life out of him.”

Because Dixon always went into the squared-circle to give his best in
manhood fighting and not his worse in childhood playing and faking,
he was respected and beloved by fight fans of all classes and colors,
which was proved by the most celebrated sport followers of the day,
including ex-Heavy-weight Champion James J. Corbett, acting as
pallbearers at his funeral.

Joe Walcott and Dixie Kid were two other great little fighters and they
both became Welterweight world Champions, Walcott from 1901 to 1904 and
Dixie Kid from 1904 to 1908. It is said of these two fighters, that,
like Dixon, they became famous in their readiness to meet top-notch
fighters who were nearly twice their height and weight. When they could
get such big men in the ring with them, they usually jumped clear off
the floor to land a mighty crushing paw upon some rival’s tempting jaw
that then and there felt nothing more.

But the “Old Master” of them all, who even today is conceded to have
been one of if not the cleanest hitting, quickest moving, gamest
staying and most scientific boxers, Colored or white, big or little,
who ever one-stepped, two-stepped, waltzed and Virginia-reeled into and
around a roped-circle, was the ring’s national favorite, Joe Cans of
Baltimore, Md. This great little fighter, who was as much a pet of the
white sporting faction as of the Colored element, took the Lightweight
championship away from Frank Erne in 1892 and kept it for six years.
During that time he defeated all the best men in his field and jumped
over the fence into the Welterweight pastures where he gored and tossed
into the air several human beings and caused many to climb up on the
fence in order to keep out of his way, until they saw that his constant
mad rushes had weakened his stamina and tore down his system. It was
during the zenith of his fighting career that whenever Gans started
from home to engage in a fight his mother would laughingly say, “Bring
home the bacon, Joe.” The boy fully understood and appreciated his
mother’s encouraging joke and never returned home, when in his prime,
without bringing along the winner’s roll of money. Joe Gans was as
game as any game rooster that ever threw defiant crows from a barnyard
gate and when he was in great need of money, to get a fight he would
make such vitality sapping and strength weakening weights that people
wondered how he was able to stand up much less jump around and fight.
And to the very last, poor, broken-bodied, but not broken spirited, Joe
Gans put up one of the gamest losing battles ever fought against that
greatest champion--of all times among all peoples--Death.

“Panama Joe Gans” a Colored fighter of today has added laurels to the
name he has adopted by becoming Middleweight Champion. Like his late
namesake he is willing at all times to give the best of them in and out
of his class chances to win his title. Just because he is a champion
he does not draw the “color line” against any white fighter but fights
as often as four and five times a month with his championship at stake
every time.

Other Colored fighters who were among the best in their times and who
no doubt would have won championships in and out of their classes,
had the “color lines” not been drawn around them, are; Bob Armstrong,
Jack Blackburn, Bobbie Dobbs, Sam Hopkins, Young Peter Jackson, Joe
Jeanette, Sam Langford, Sam McVey and Fred Morris.

Some of the present day Colored fighters who are most frequently
heard about are Jeff Clark, Leo Johnson, Jamaica Kid, Kid Norfolk,
Benny Ponteau, Bill Tate, Jack Thompson, Jack White and Harry Wills,
challenger and dreaded foe of Dempsey.

From 1908 to 1914 the world heavyweight champion fighter was Jack
Johnson, the only Colored man who ever wore that crown of ring glory
and belt of fighting fame. Unlike any of the white heavyweight
champions, Johnson won the title twice: first from Tommy Burns in 1908
and secondly on that memorial Fourth of July 1910, from Jim Jefferies,
who along with the American public disputed Jack’s right to the title.
After his complete whipping of Jefferies, the Colored fighter, proved
to the entire world that he was not only the rightful holder of the
title but that he was also one of the best champions the ring had ever
seen. Because of his having the pantherlike movements and quickness
of a Peter Jackson, the straight-arm punch of a John L. Sullivan, the
scientific hit-and-get-away style of a James J. Corbett, the ring
generalship and craftiness of a “Bob” Fitzsimmons and the gameness
and stamina of a “Jim” Jefferies, plus his own level-headedness and
cheerful fighting disposition, the best fight critics in America and
Europe considered “Jack” Johnson when in his prime, as being the best
all-round and equally balanced heavyweight fighter who ever crawled
through the ropes to battle in a prize ring.

Regarding the Johnson-Willard fight in Havana, Cuba, at which time the
heavyweight title passed from Johnson to Willard the writer quotes here
an extract that is taken from the article, “Jack Johnson Tells The
Truth” that was written by Juli Jones, Jr. in the August 6, 1921 issue
of The Chicago Defender.

“The sporting editor of the New York Sun printed an article which
stated that Jack Johnson said the Willard fight was on the level; that
he did not lay down to Willard in Havana, Cuba. This statement coming
from Johnson, printed in one of America’s first-class dailies, is the
first good step that Johnson has taken to win the favor of the real
sporting public. The present public will not stand for a crook or a bad
loser. It killed Fred Fulton, a very likable man.

“Johnson in part made it quite plain when he stated if he was going
to lay down to Willard he would have done so in the seventh or ninth
round, and not wait until the twenty-sixth to flop. He also stated
he had always fought square and that was the reason he got to the
top. Johnson gives a good reason for his failure to whip Willard, a
very good reason. First, he had underestimated Willard, hadn’t proper
training, ran around on the ocean looking for a battle ground. These
had their effects on the fight.”

Throughout his marvelous fighting career, Johnson was climbing to
success under most unfavorable conditions. White fighters in winning
championships have only to fight against and beat down the opponent
in the ring before them. But before he even got a chance to fight for
the titled belt, “Jack” had always to mentally fight race prejudice
on the outside of the ring at the same time he was physically beating
down his white opponent in the ring. It would be hard to find
proper words to describe the great fistic career Johnson would have
made for himself if he had received the same kind of unprejudiced
encouragements and boostings all white champions receive. And if up to
this date nearly one hundred million of white Americans consider it
wonderful to have produced out of that number seven white heavyweight
champion fighters--Sullivan, Corbett, Fitzsimmons, Jefferies, Burns,
Willard, and Dempsey; or in other words a champion for ever fourteen
million of their population: then it must be most wonderful that less
than thirteen million of Colored Americans, under most unfair and
persecuting conditions, have produced one heavyweight champion fighter
of the world--John Arthur (“Jack”) Johnson.

For the benefit of those people who, on account of their jealousy
and envy of Johnson’s fighting ability, try to defame and lower his
character to the lowest, the writer would suggest the reading of the
logic article--“Jack Johnson, Self-Made Man” that was written in the
May 15, 1920 issue of the Chicago Defender by the able sport scribe,
Juli Jones, Jr. The following is an extract from that article:

“Both races got Jack wrong. His aim in life was not to be a doctor,
preacher, lawyer or Race Leader. He set out to be the best man with
his fists, which he did beyond all question of doubt. We cannot find
one case where Jack ruined any young girl’s future or broke up any
man’s happy home; neither was he mixed up in any barroom fights. Never
was he found in the gutter drunk or making a disgraceful fellow of
himself, throwing away his money. On the other hand, since Jack has
been self-exiled from his country, press reports from England, France,
Spain and Mexico tell us that he has conducted himself in the most
gentlemanly way and is welcome back in their countries at any time.
How many, men who have been born under any flag could have stood what
Jack has stood for the past six or eight years and still be in the
limelight, handing the world a golden smile, saying, “Good will to all
men.”

Now, not for one moment is the writer, in dealing with this subject,
attempting to shield or cover-up any short-comings that may have
occured in the private life of Jack Johnson. But, if after reading
the above quotation there still be those people who continue to sneer
at and belittle the upward struggles and crowning success of this
professional fighter, the writer would kindly suggest that each one of
such people ask himself or herself the following question:

Have I (with all my good birth, pleasant and elevating home life, early
encouragements, full privileges, unnumbered opportunities, unchecked
enthusiasms, unshaken determinations, wide preparations, various
abilities, friendly boostings and perfect living) ever stood for one
whole day upon the top round of world recognized success in my chosen
life work; as “Jack” Johnson stood for six years on the top round of
world recognized success in his self-selected life calling?

[Illustration]



ROWING

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:

    To get rid of that “Bay Window,”
        Just hurry up and learn to row;
    And if your back is getting weak
        Pull on the oars once every week.
                 --_Harrison._


Thus far have Colored athletes pushed onward. But the following are
a few mentioned fields of athletics in which Colored youths have not
become very active or efficient mainly because of the lack of certain
facilities and sufficient appliances and accommodations for proper and
seasonable trainings.

Rowing crews have not been developed in any of the Colored
universities, colleges and schools to any outside recognized extent.
This fact is quite explainable and excusable when it is taken into
consideration that few of these institutions are located near natural
and adequate bodies of water for such purposes. Bordentown School,
Bordentown, N.J. and Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va., are perhaps the
two most favorable exceptions in this case. Both of these schools have
peaceful streams of gurgling waters that flow so near as to softly
caress the oft kissed lips of their water-edged lawns.

Calmly setting upon the banks of the Hampton River, an arm of the
Merrimac-Monitor famed-Hampton Roades, Hampton Institute has running
before its very doors a half mile of nearly straight and unusually
smooth body of water that is wide enough to float at least three crews
abreast. Peacefully nestling on a high projecting hill, Bordentown
School can look miles either way upon the historical Delaware as it
gently flows below making a wide, graceful bend from upward Trenton to
downward Camden.

There are already hopeful signs appearing which show that both of these
institutions in the near future will take full advantages of their
natural and wonderful water facilities by developing rowing crews that
some day will be second to none in the country. By the time this stage
of their rowing development has been reached, it is hoped that the
racial, and sportsmanship feelings between white and Colored colleges
will have become so brotherly and peacefully allied, that, the rowing
crews of Annapolis will be friendly competing against Hampton oarsmen,
and the shellmen of Princeton will be friendly churning the Delaware
waters against the crews of the Bordentown School. And when such times
do come about, the writer feels sure that the oarsmen of Hampton and
Bordentown will guarantee to keep enough water between themselves
(either at the bow or stern) and the shells of Annapolis and Princeton
to wash away and keep down any waves of “color line” that might
suddenly arise to dampen the sportsmanship and one-hundred percent
Americanism atmosphere of the occasions.

[Illustration]



SWIMMING

DIVING-TREADING-FLOATING.

    I worship this my hobby’s call,
        And all youths ought to learn it all
    In water that is deep and wet
        Where confidence they can beget
    So as to rescue one’s own life
        And other folks in drowning strife
                 --_Harrison._


General swimming as a recreation and pastime by the Colored people
in the United States has in the past been sadly neglected for some
excusable and some unexcusable reasons. The chief excusable reasons
have been that with few exceptions they have not had access to the
places where they could indulge in this sport and that they did not
have the money with which to promote and construct such places for
themselves. The main, unexcusable reason has been that they, with but
few exceptions, were too timid and scared of drowning to enter water
deep enough and stay there long enough to learn how to swim.

For instance, the writer several years ago made personal investigations
among many Colored fishermen, oystermen and crabmen who live along the
shores of and spend the biggest part of their lives on the Chesapeake
Bay in little boats that every year are numerously overturned by
sudden squalls and storms. And to his great and painful surprise he
learned from those men themselves that the majority of them could not
swim a stroke, while among those who had learned to swim, but few had
confidence enough in themselves to believe they could even swim a half
or one mile. And yet those men daily risked their lives and ventured
out upon that deep and uncertain body of water without attempting
to revive and develop that valuable and necessary instinct that is
born in every human being and every dumb animal. As the result of
such thoughtless neglect of their own personal welfare, many of those
cheerful, honest, frugal, hard-working, plain-living and law-abiding
people are drowned each year because of their not knowing how to swim.

But today, through the cities’ public recreation ponds being opened
to Colored youths, the increased erections of Y. M. C. A.’s and Y. W.
C. A.’s of the Colored branches with modernly inclosed pools, Colored
universities, colleges and large schools gradually constructing
gymnasiums containing up-to-date natatoriums, and business men of the
Race buying and improving seashore hotel resorts with beach bathing
privileges such as Dale’s at Cape May, N. J., Bay Shore near Old Point
Comfort, Va., Fitzgerald and Ovington Hotels and Walls’ beach at
Atlantic City, N. J., and Idlewild, Ill., a new interest in learning
the art of swimming is being increasingly aroused among Colored people
throughout America. When fine swimming centers such as the Chicago
Wabash Avenue Y. M. C. A. puts before its Race boys the placards and
advertisements--“One Thousand Boys Wanted To Learn How To Swim”, it
shows that Colored swimming instructors are using every persuasive
means to get their youths interested and skilled in this most useful
and refreshing pastime. These teachers fully realize that when their
art is rightly learned and properly performed it not only brings
into exercise practically every muscle of the body but also enables
its possessor when necessary to save his own as well as the lives
of others. Thus, with these encouragements, interests, facilities,
privileges and proper instructions rapidly increasing; it is not
“building castles in the air” to prophesy that within a reasonable
length of time the Negro race in America will produce a Colored Norman
Ross and a Colored Ethelda Bliebtry as champion swimmers.

[Illustration]



SKATING.

DUTCH ROLL FIGURE EIGHT-GRAPE-VINE TWIST

    Great are my joys on skating night,
        When moonshine* flows in streams so light,
    While some strong lassie keeps my stride
        As o’er smooth ice we fancy glide.
    (*I mean the moonshine from the sky
        And not from raisins, corn nor rye.)
                 --_Harrison._


When in future winters young men and women of the Race are justly
admitted to the ice-skating rinks; they sensibly decide to spend less
of their time in hot-stuffy parlors, etc., and with ice skates stay out
more in the free, fresh, health renewing air upon the parks’ frozen
lakes and streams: they will certainly find among themselves a talented
skater who may later build up to a white Chas. Jewtraw, short distant;
a Mrs. F. F. MacMillian, fancy; or a J. F. Donohue, long distant, ice
skating champions.

[Illustration]



TENNIS

IT’S ALL IN THE GAME

    This is a pastime full of fun
        And makes the players jump and run;
    But when the ladies “serve” “love all”,
        Some fellows’ hearts begin to crawl.
                 --_Harrison._


As they are constantly laying out and regularly using new private and
club tennis courts all over the country, the Race will in due time
mould one of its Tally R. Holmes into a Wm. T. Tilden or Jay Gould
championship quality; just as it will some day take one of its Miss
Slowes or Miss Channels and bloom her into a Mrs. Molla Bjurstedt
Mallory top-rung record holder.



GOLFING

“TEE-OFF” AND “FORE”

    While it is called rich people’s game
        Poor folks should learn it just the same;
    And tramp the meadows and the hill
        To let fresh air their lungs to fill:
    But if too poor to hire a caddy
        Then use instead your sweetheart’s Daddy.
                 --_Harrison._


When the Colored people become enough interested in golf to take
advantage of the privileges that are today granted to them on several
public links, and which privileges will increase as time goes on; they
will then begin to forward one of their Jim Barnes or Robert Balls into
a champion Jock Hutchinson, just as they will some day discover and
begin to develop a Colored woman into a championess Aleca Stirling.



An Athletic Dawn of To-morrow

    Today fresh air is free: but how long will it be?
        (We better snuff it while it’s pure
        Before the airplanes leave no more.) needed]
    Young folks should stay more in pure airs
        And outdoor sports seek for health cares;
    And lessen more house party ’fairs
        Held in hot rooms stuffed with stale airs.
                 --_Harrison._


The writer recently received from Mr. Chas. H. Williams, Head of
the Physical Culture Department of Hampton Institute, a graduate of
that institution as well as Harvard University and one of the most
successful Colored athletic directors in the country, official letters
and architectural drawings relative to a campaign having already been
launched by Hampton Institute to raise funds for the construction of
a thirty thousand dollar modernly equipped athletic field. When this
pioneer movement for Negro field sports is completed and opened for
general inspection and national track meets; it will then, as the Mecca
in America for Colored field sports, most certainly arouse unbounded
interests, inspirations and determinations in the minds of visitors
from other Colored schools that do not possess such advantages. And
as those visitors turn homeward bound their enthusiasms are going
to be elevated to such high and lasting hopes and longings that they
will dreamingly hear, until materially heeded, conscience voices from
the clouds above that will softly and encouragingly whisper; “Go thou
likewise and do the same.” Thus a real athletic dawn will eventually
light up and spread over many Negro schools in such ways as to enable
them in due time to turn out athletes who will surprise the world by
making unheard-of and unbelievable new track records. For instance,
as Edward O. Gourdin, the Colored and greatest track athlete Harvard
University has ever had, did July 23, 1921 at the Harvard Stadium when,
in competing against Great Britain’s best athletes, he made a new
running broad jump world record by leaping 25 feet 3 inches. In making
that wonderful jump he beat Peter O’Connor’s then world record of 24
feet 11¾ inches that track athletes all over the world for the past
20 years had repeatedly tried but always failed to beat until Gourdin,
a Negro, came along and did the trick by over a clear margin of 3
inches.

After reading the foregoing pages of Negro success in athletics,
Colored youths have every right to become inspired to redouble their
efforts in trying to win even more first places along these lines. But
if a Colored athlete should at any time just before entering a severe,
critical and history making contest suddenly become discouraged and
heavy-hearted, because of his race and color; he should remember that:--

The swiftest and most valuable piece of horse-flesh in the world
(Man-O-War) is not white, but is a light-red bay, and from the firm
tread of his feet, prancing swing of his legs, proud carriage of his
body, beautiful arch of his neck, graceful poise of his head, and
fearless look in his eyes, shows he is neither ashamed of his horsehood
nor his well-colored natural coat. So this three-year-old colt did
not fret and worry about his brunette complexion nor the odds in
years against him as he nearly divorced his body from his shadow in
winning the Canadian race that gave him the title, “King of the turf”,
seventy-five thousand dollars in money, and a five thousand dollar gold
cup that otherwise would have gone to the four-year-old British colt,
Sir Barton.



ON THE STAGE

CHARLES L. GILPIN

    The sun first drowned the night from day,
        As it came from depths to light the way;
    And Charles S. Gilpin did first bob up
        To damp race feelings in banquet’s cup.

    To-day on Thespian mount he stands
        One black with nine white in these lands;
    And his Broadway light has lit the ways
        For more of his Race in serious plays.
                 --_Harrison._

BERT WILLIAMS

    Second to none as a natural-born actor,
        Bert Williams to-day is a leading factor,
    When on the stage in humorous moods
        Feeding Broadway with amusement foods.
                 --_Harrison._


Reinold Wolf, (white) one of the leading stage critics of today, wrote
of Bert Williams as being “The greatest comedian on the American
Stage.” Years back this noted actor was a partner in the famous
“Abyssinia” Williams & Walker Company. For several years he has been
a star actor in The Zeigfield Follies, a leading white high-class
Vaudeville Company. The instant that Williams appears before the
footlights, whether he moves, stands still or doesn’t do either, he
captures his audience, and when with a word-speaking look, a suggestive
motion and a life-pictured song he is always able to bring down a most
dignified house in uproarious laughter; it is no wonder that he has
been titled the Harry Lauder of the Negro race. For years the Columbia
Phonograph Co., has been reproducing Mr. Williams’ songs on their
records that are in great demand, especially his ever-popular songhit
“Parson Eatmore”.

Aida Overton Walker, at the time of her death, was mentioned by some
of the New York papers as having been the Lillian Russell of the Negro
race. Appearing first as a chorus dancer in “Isham’s Octoroons” she
through untiring and ceaseless work improved her acting until she
reached her highest dancing feature in the interpretation of “Salome”,
which acting was said to have been of a Mary Garden standard. In their
primes and times, Aida and her talented husband, George Walker were
the dancing Castles of that period, and no couple, Colored or white,
before or since, have been able to excel them in their world-famed
“Cake Walks” that they executed by invitation before most of the kings
and queens in Europe. Her singing of “Why Adam Sinned”, “It’s Hard to
Love Somebody When Somebody Don’t Love You”, and “If You Ain’t Got No
Money, Well, You Needn’t Come Around”, had not been equaled by any
singer in that line until our present and famous Mamie Smith first
daintly tripped forth and with those hypnotizing smiles of hers caused
the audience to quiver and tremble from the crown of its head to the
sole of its feet while listening to her life-action singings of “That
Thing Called Love”, “You Can’t Keep a Good Man Down” and “It’s Right
Here For You.”

George Walker, the one-time partner of Bert Williams and the late
husband of Aida Walker, was the real “Bon Bon Buddy” singer and starred
with Williams in “Sons of Ham”, “Bandanna Land”, “In Dahomey” etc.
“Bob” Cole, as leader of the renowned Cole and Johnson Company, won a
great deal of his stage glory in the presentation of “The Red Moon”.
As well as an actor he was a composer of note and among his best
productions that attracted wide attention and afforded much amusement
for the theatre goers were “A Shoo Fly Regiment”, “Katydid” and “I Must
Have Been A Dreaming.”

Before going any further mention ought to be made of the world-famed
Ira Aldridge, who was born in Bel Air, Maryland in 1810 and therefore
can be rightly classed as an American product, although he spent most
of his years and died in Europe. Even today he is considered as one
of the greatest actors the Negro race has ever had. Going to Europe
when young and studying at Glasgow University, Scotland, he excelled
in composition work and won many prizes. Winning one success after
another, he finally reached his zenith in the playing of Othello,
the Moor. From that time until his death he was without a peer in
portraying that character, and few have equaled him since. His acting
was infused with so much intelligence, personality, naturalness and
composure that he was always assured of over-crowded theatres and was
constantly entertained and awarded gold medals of honor by the crowned
rulers of England, Prussia, Austria, Russia and many other important
countries in Europe. As Mr. Aldridge made his home in London, his widow
and two talented daughters, Luranah A. Aldridge, a contralto singer of
European fame, and Amanda Aldridge, a celebrated composer known by her
professional works as “Montague Ring”, continue to reside in that city.

(Ref.: Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, pgs. 335).

The name of Samuel Milady (better known as Sam Lucas) will ever go down
in Thespian circles as one of the greatest performers in the old school
of Negro actors. He not only wrote the sensational play of his day,
“My Grandfather’s Clock”, but played its leading role. But his world
popularity and fame were mostly won through his impressive playing of
“Uncle Tom” in the original white “Uncle Tom’s Cabin Company.”

S. Tutt Whitney and J. Homer Tutt, with their “Smarter Set” Co., are
to stageland today what Williams and Walker were with their Company
years ago. The team work of Whitney and Tutt is without doubt the most
wonderful combination of versatile comedy acting put forth over the
footlights within the past ten years. They produce and act their own
compositions to full houses whenever and wherever they perform, and one
of their latest hits is “Bamboula.”

A Colored comedian who is in a class by himself is the many-sided Billy
King. His ability to make people laugh without tickling them in their
ribs or even on their knees is nationally known. Beside being a genius
in acting, he is versatile composer of over a hundred stage productions
in which he has played the leading parts in scores of them. His show
is such a financial success that it is said he annually pays over two
hundred thousand dollars as salaries to the half hundred or more people
in his employment. Billy King is without doubt the greatest individual
producer-performer of high-class musical comedy in the Negro race
today. He is also one of those (scarce-as-hen-teeth) human beings on
earth who seems to have been born under certain stars whose horoscopic
influences magnetize dollars from every place and steadily drop them
into his pockets whether he is working or playing. For Mr. King is
just as financially successful in his insurance company and other
business seriousness as he is in his theatrical fun making.

Two of the leading moving picture actors among the American Colored
people are: Noble Johnson who has appeared in such national reels as
“Intolerance” and “The Death Warrant”, and Donald Lashley who has acted
and posed for pictures with Alice Joyce, played forty-five weeks with
Billie Burke in “Caesar’s Wife”, and took part in “The Passion Flower”
with Norma Talmadge. During the four years he has been acting for the
screens he has played in company with many other white moving picture
stars.

According to an article that appeared in the May 27, 1921 issue of
the Negro Star of Wichita, Kansas, Colored people in America own and
operate seven film companies producing pictures with Negro casts.
One of these companies is The Lincoln Motion Picture Company, which
is incorporated in California and has been producing moving picture
films for the past five years. Negro actors and actresses are wholly
featured in its reels that are shown in Colored theatres and other
institutions throughout the United States. Among its star reel features
are: “Realization of a Negro’s Ambition”, “The Trooper of Troop K.”
“Law of Nature” and “By Right of Birth.” The Micheaux Film Corporation,
Chicago, Ill., is another nationally known moving picture producer.
The founder and president of this company is Oscar Micheaux, who is
recognized as America’s foremost Negro producer. His chief productions
are “The Brute”, “The Homesteader”, “The Gunsaulus Mystery”, “The
Symbol of The Unconquered” and “Within Our Gates”.

Some of the leading Colored moving picture stars of today are: Dick
Abrams, Jack Austin, L. De Bulger, Jim Burris, Lawrence Chenault,
Louise Dunbar, Iris Hall, Evelyn Preer, E. G. Tatum, Walker Thompson,
Lee Whipper and Mattie Wilkes, W. H. Herman.

Right here before the facts again slips from the writer’s mind, must be
mentioned two actors, the late Tom Brown and Ernest Hogan. On account
of their seemingly unlimited theatrical abilities, their earnestness in
performing and their cheerful and lovable dispositions, those two were
among the best and most popular actors during their times.

S. H. Dudley aside from having shone in the center of the actor’s
spotlight when taking active parts on the stage, has become one of
America’s leading Colored theatrical promoters, builders and managers
in the country. He is owner or part owner of theatres in Washington,
D.C., Petersburg, Va. and other cities. In theatrical circles the name
of Dudley is as familiar and popular among Colored people as the name
of Keith is among white people.

“The King Pin of ’em all” (A humorous and fitting description made by
the “Old Roll Top Desk Man, With the Million Dollar Smile”) is Charles
S. Gilpin the world-famed dramatic actor, who was given the highest
thespian honors of the season on Broadway.

“Never in the history of the stage has an actor been accorded the class
of press notices handed Gilpin during his present engagement. What he
did in a dramatic way in “Abraham Lincoln” attracted the plaudits of
the critics of the metropolitan press; but his wonderful work in “The
Emperor Jones” has more than eclipsed anything seen on Broadway in many
years. Indeed, some writers claim that never before has a character
been portrayed in as graphic a manner as is the title role in Gilpin’s
present vehicle.” The above is an extract taken from an article that
appeared in the March 26, 1921 issue of the Chicago Defender and which
article was written by Tony Langston, Dramatic Editor and Advertising
Manager of that paper.

To the thoughtless observer the sudden leap to fame by this Colored
actor looked like a streak of good luck: but not so. Years ago
when Gilpin was working as a coal miner, butler, porter and many
other menial jobs he was, perhaps unknown to even himself, making
preparations to face some big event that his elevating aspirations
pushed him on to meet. He was an actor then, but he had not found
himself and his talents were undeveloped. When he organized the first
Lafayette dramatic players in New York many years ago he was beginning
to find and unfold himself. This unfolding continued for sometime
until he was given a cast in John Drinkwater’s “Abraham Lincoln.”
Then (what Gilpin knew for years but did not get a chance to show)
the nation learned that in this man were the qualities and abilities
of a great actor. So when the big opportunity came for Gilpin to play
the principal actor in Eugene O’Neill’s play, “The Emperor Jones”,
this Colored man’s previous years of hard struggles in and out of
his avenues of cherished hopes had well equipped him for the place.
Chance may have put him there, but luck did not keep him there. Only
long preparations and the proper qualifications that are allied with
those preparations can balance and keep a man on such a high and dizzy
steeple point as that, and also enable him to hold a Spingarn Medal.

Some of the other Colored actors and actresses in America who have
mounted high enough upon the Thespian ladder to catch glimpses of
its topmost rung and are rapidly climbing thereto, are; Dick Abrams,
George Allen, Mrs. Chas. Anderson, Chas. Anderson, Emmett Anthony,
Austin & Delaney, “Chick” Beaman, Andrew Bishop, “Eubie” Blake, Laura
Bowman, Clarence Brooks, Shelton Brooks, Teressa Brooks, Ida Brown, L.
De Bulger, Jim Burris, H. B. Carter, Estelle Cash, Lawrence Chenault,
Inez Clough, Lulu Coates, Julian Costello, Amon Davis, Hazel Davis, A.
B. DeComathierre, Cleo Desmond, Evelyn Ellis, Ada Forman, Charlotte
Freeman, Lottie Ghee, Ella Goodloe, Alice Gorgas, Richard Gregg,
Lawrence Griner, Iris Hall, Harper & Blank, Grace Howell, Maud Jones,
Joe Jordan, Sidney Kirkpatrick, Margeurite Lee, Tom Lemonier, Florence
McClain, Irvin C. Miller, Abbie Mitchell, Lionel Monogus, Frank
Montgomery, Francis Mores, Moss & Frye, Clarence Muse, Chas. Olden,
Laura Prampin, Harry Prampin, Ethel Pope, Evelyn Preer, Gladys Price,
Arthur Ray, “Bob” Russell, Gertrude Saunders, Seamore & Jeanette,
Arthur Simmons, Nobble Sissle, “Bob” Slater, Mildrew Smallwood, Eddie
Stafford, Susie Sutton, E. G. Tatum, Walker Thompson, “Babe” Townsend,
Andrew Tribble, Lee Whipper, Maybelle Whitman, Fannie Wise, Eddie
Brown, Marie Lucus.


Elocutionists

Some of the foremost dramatic readers and elocutionists of today are;
Hallie Q. Brown, who is also president of The National Association of
Colored Women, Wilberforce, Ohio, Fannie H. Clint, New York, Madame
Coppage, Norfolk, Va., Henrietta V. Davis, Washington, D.C., Richard B.
Harrison, Chicago, Ill., Madamme Johnson, Berkley, Cal., Maud Jones,
New York, Frances E. Motin, St. Louis, Mo., Elmer L. Payne, Bethlehem,
Pa., Theodore Shackelford, New York, Ruby Pelleford, Sabina, Ohio,
Anna Teney, Chicago, Ill., Charles W. Wood, Tuskegee, Ala., and Alonzo
Jackson, Phila., Pa., who is Founder and Principal of the Garrick
Dramatic School in that city.


RED BLOODED AIRY PLAYS

    Theaters of the Negro Race
        Today try hard in every case
    To ventilate their ceilings space
        And thus save lungs within the Race.
                 --_Harrison._

“According to J. A. Jackson, of the Billboard, Negroes support 328
Vaudeville and 611 motion pictures theatres in 21 States. The smallest
theatre seats 200 and the largest 1,800. Since September, 1920, 25 new
acts, 14 companies and 12 theatres have entered the field.” The above
quotation is an extract from the July, 1921 issue of The Crisis. John
T. Gibson, Phila., Pa. owner of the New Standard and Dunbar Theaters
in that city, and Rufus G. Byars, Washington, D.C. owner and promoter
of a chain of theaters, are recognized as two of the most successful
theatrical owners and promoters in the Negro Race today.

The writer presents the following names as being only a few belonging
to the many many foremost Colored theatrical owners, managers,
promoters, editors, writers and critics, who are using their utmost
talents and energies to inspire and present intelligent entertainment
and clean, wholesome amusement for the Colored theatre goers:

C. P. Bailey, Clarence Bennett, E. C. Brown, Romeo L. Dougherty, E. B.
Dudley, S. H. Dudley, C. H. Douglass, Hubert H. Harrison, H. J. Huey,
Jas. A. Jackson, Georgia H. Jones, Tony Langston, F. M. Murray, A.
B. Nordecai, E. L. Pankey, Sam E. Reevin, W. S. Scales, Jesse Shipp,
Milton Starr, E. S. Stone, W. J. Styles, C. H. Turpin, Lester B.
Walton, and G. Grant Williams, Deacon Johnson.

Perhaps the greatest collective sign of the rapid and wonderful
progress made along executive lines by Colored theatrical promoters and
performers in America is seen in the formation of at least three big
organizations pertaining to their own management and welfare.

The National Managers’ Protective Association is an organization
to encourage the progress and promote the welfare of all connected
with the Negro stage. Three of its chief duties are; first, to see
that Negro players be encouraged in every way to entersperse their
acts with clean, worth while offerings in songs and new material;
secondly, to agree to such arrangements that the booking exchange,
will give acts contracts that will be played as given, eliminating
lay-offs, with shortest possible jumps, and salary in keeping, and
thirdly, to arbitrate all complaints of managers, actors or agents,
and see that a just settlement is given the parties, each case to be
decided upon its merits. The officers of this organ are as follows:
President C. H. Turpin, of the Booker T. Washington Theatre, St. Louis,
Mo., Vice-President, E. B. Dudley, of the Dudley Theatre, Detroit,
Mich., and Secretary-Treasurer, T. S. Finley of the Lyceum Theatre,
Cincinnati, Ohio.

The Theatre Owners’ Booking Association by its own name implies what
its chief duties are, and it is only necessary to say that the rapidly
increasing numbers of theatre managers who are joining this association
in order to be assured of regular and best plays being booked for their
houses, vividly shows the necessity and value of such an organ. Its
President is Milton Starr, Nashville, Tenn., Vice-President, C. H.
Turpin, St. Louis, Mo., Secretary, W. S. Scales, Winston-Salem, N. C.,
and Treasurer-Manager, S. E. Reevin, Chattanooga, Tenn.

A most recent organization along these lines is known as The Actors’
Legion with headquarters at Cincinnati, Ohio. Its membership is to be
composed of actors and actresses.., and one of its chief duties is
to see that matters of importance to performers will be speedily and
properly adjusted. The writer was not able to get a list of the names
belonging to the officers of this body.

Tony Langston, born in Detroit, Michigan, (fortunately several years
after Noah’s Flood and a few years before Volstead’s Drought) and today
living in Chicago never very far from nor out of sight of “Dear Old
State Street”, is without question the most popular Colored theatrical
writer not only in America but throughout the world. He writes the
widest variety of subjects of any present-day penman in that line and
is read by more than one million people each and every week. Nine years
ago he entered the establishment of the Chicago Defender by way of
its back door and on a salary less than the devil (printer’s) himself
receives. To-day, he (Tony, not the devil) walks in and out the front
doors of this firm as the highest paid writer in the history of Colored
journalism.

When he first took hold of the dramatic sheet of this paper and held
it up before the sun (son--excuse the pun), he could see just about as
much matter on it as is seen in the hole (whole) of a doughnut. Since
then he has been constantly thumping and pounding on Colored theatrical
Boards with such hard and well-aimed blows (not with hammers and nails,
but with ability, hard work, tact, cheerfulness, sympathy, friendliness
and a “Million Dollar Smile”) that to-day the dramatic construction of
the Chicago Defender averages over thirty thousand dollars yearly in
advertising.

Aside from being Advertising Manager of the above mentioned journal,
which is popularly known as the “World’s Greatest Weekly”, this
all-round journalist, who is fondly called the “Old Roll Top Desk Man,”
holds similar positions in connection with the Avenue, Grand, States,
Phoenix, Lincoln, Atlas, Monogram, Owl and Pickford Theatres. He is
also President of the Langston Slide and Advertising Company.



“REAL WHITE” FRIENDS

HOPEFULNESS AND GRATEFULNESS.

    Through all his trials upon this land,
        Some white folks take the Negro’s stand;
    And this has kept his hopes alive
        For higher things to ever strive
    So as to show his worth and thanks
          To those who share their brains and banks.
                 --_Harrison._


From the year 1619 when Negroes were first brought from Africa to the
American Colonies, Colored people had from the very first a few of the
truest kind of friends among a certain class of broad-minded, clean
hearted and Christian white people. This group of people never was in
favor of slavery but they could not stop it because their numbers were
so much smaller than those who wanted and did have slaves. But white
friends of those shackled human beings rapidly increased in numbers
until 1861 when they felt that at last they were not only evenly
matched but also had the sentiment of the rest of the world with them
against the Southern white enemies of the Negro in freedom. Even during
the darkest days of slavery there were white men and women in both
the North and South, who after having slaves given to them by their
parents, became so heavy of heart and worried in mind because of their
parts in such soul damming sins and crimes that they would not longer
keep their Colored people as slaves but set them free. Then again on
account of some valuable deeds or services they had performed, many
slaves were made free outright or were allowed to work their freedom
out on easy terms. Some owners, while they were not quite Christianized
or civilized enough to free their slaves, were in several ways quite
kind to them and sometimes secretly (for the laws of the land forbid
owners educating their slaves) taught them to read and write in
somewhat the same amusing and pitying manner that tender-hearted boys
and girls of today are kind to their pet birds and rabbits and teach
them several smart tricks but yet will not open the cage doors and turn
them loose.

Thus in the above ways there were during the whole period of slavery
in the colonies a certain number of Negroes who had secured their
freedom as well as good educations in many instances. This explains how
it is possible for the writer to truthfully mention within these pages
historical facts relative to certain Colored people becoming noted
teachers, preachers, doctors, newspaper editors, etc., long before the
Civil War and the freedom of all Negroes in America.

Through the agencies of such organizations and societies as named below
thousands of Northern white people either by means of their money or
through actual service among the Colored people in the South showed
their unquestioned friendships for the Negro race. Some of the most
important of those friendly organs were as follows:

“Freedman’s Bureau, American Missionary Association, The American
Freedmen’s Union Commission, The Baltimore Association for the Moral
Educational Improvement of the colored people, The Western Freedmen’s
Aid Commission, National Freedmen’s Relief Association of the
District of Columbia, The Soldiers’ Memorial Society of Boston, Old
School General Assembly Presbyterian Church, American Baptist Home
Mission Society, The New England Yearly Meeting of Friends, and The
Pennsylvania Friends’ Freedmen’s Relief Association of Philadelphia.

The two Presidents of the United States who have proved themselves,
through both words and deeds, truly to have been the greatest white
friends the Negro race has ever had in the White House were Abraham
Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant.

The following are a few names handed to the writer by capable
estimators as being among the many thousands of America’s “real white”
people, who, either before or during the Civil War, Reconstruction
Period or during the present times, have shown by their encouraging and
fearless words and their generous and helpful deeds that they had or
have within them the deepest brotherhood interest for the truest humane
welfare and progress of the Negro Race:

  Wm. Anthony Aery              Editor
  Samuel Chapman Armstrong      Educator
  Miss Alice M. Bacon           Philanthropist.
  Dr. Gamaliel Bailey           Editor, Abolitionist
  Henry Ward Beecher          Preacher
  Arthur Brisbane             Journalist
  Arnold Buffum               Abolitionist
  Horace Bumstead             Educator
  Benjamin F. Butler          General
  Natalie Curtis Burlin       Composer-Author
  John Brown                  Agitator-Abolitionist
  Dr. Wallace Buttrick        Educator
  George W. Cable             Novelist
  Dorothy Canfield            Novelist
  Andrew Carnegie             Philanthropist
  Gen. H. W. Carpenter        Philanthropist
  Dr. J. M. Clark             Educator
  Joshua Coffin               Abolitionist
  Mrs. Mary Crozier           Philanthropist
  Frank W. Darling            Philanthropist
  Miss Jane E. Davis          Editor
  Dr. Jas. H. Dillard         Educator
  Dr. J. Stanley Durkee       Educator
  L. C. Dyer                  Congressman
  John T. Emlen               Philanthropist
  Samuel Ettleson             Senator
  Mrs. Mary Evans             Philanthropist
  Calvin Fairbanks            Underground R. R. Agent
  Homer L. Ferguson           Philanthropist
  Dr. C. H. Fisk              Educator
  Jos. B. Foraker             Lawyer-Senator
  A. S. Frissell              Banker
  Dr. Hollis Burke Frissell   Educator
  F. Nathan Fritch            Manufacturer-Merchant
  Wm. Lloyd Garrison          Agitator-Abolitionist
  Eugene G. Grace             Manufacturer-Merchant
  Dr. Jas. E. Gregg           Educator
  Mrs. J. H. Hammond          Publicity Worker
  Warren G. Harding           President
  Atticus G. Haygood          Educator
  William Hayward             Colonel
  Mrs. Mary Hemenway          Philanthropist
  O. O. Howard                General
  Julia Ward Howe             Philanthropist
  Dr. G. W. Hubbard           Educator
  Collis P. Huntington        Philanthropist
  Mrs. C. P. Huntington       Philanthropist
  Miss Elizabeth Hyde         Educator
  Mrs. D. Willis James        Philanthropist
  Miss Anna T. Jeanes         Philanthropist
  W. N. Harthorn              Philanthropist
  Mrs. John S. Kennedy        Philanthropist
  Robt. T. Kerlin             Educator-Author
  F. H. Keys                  Philanthropist
  F. E. Lewis                 Lawyer and Ex-Mayor
  H. E. and R. A. Lewis       Manufacturers-Merchants
  Colonel Little              U. S. Army
  Elijah P. Lovejoy           Preacher-Abolitionist
  Martin E. Madden            Congressman
  Joseph C. Manning           Congressman
  Frederick L. Marquand       Philanthropist
  Samuel J. May               Underground R. R. Agent
  Dr. F. A. McKenzie                Educator
  Mendell McCormick                 Senator
  Dr. C. M. Melden                  Educator
  Dr. C. F. Meserve                 Educator
  Lucretia Mott                     Philanthropist
  John R. Mott                      Y. M. C. A. Worker
  Robert C. Ogden                   Philanthropist
  Mary White Ovington               Authoress-Lecturer
  Robt. W. Paterson                 Philanthropist
  Geo. Foster Peabody               Philanthropist
  Wendell Phillips                  Agitator-Abolitionist
  Dr. Geo. P. Phenix                Educator
  Dr. John B. Rendali               Educator
  R. J. Reynolds                    Philanthropist
  John D. Rockefeller               Philanthropist
  Theodore Roosevelt                President
  Julius Rosenwald                  Philanthropist
  Mrs. Russell Sage                 Philanthropist
  J. G. Schmidlap                   Philanthropist
  Charles M. Schwab                 Manufacturer-Merchant
  Herbert J. Seligman               Author
  John Sherman                      Senator
  John F. Slater                    Philanthropist
  R. C. Solt                        Banker
  Joel E. Spingarn                  Philanthropist
  Miss Caroline Phelps-Stokes       Philanthropist
  Moorefield Storey                 Lawyer
  Mrs. Valeria Stone                Philanthropist
  Harriett Beecher Stowe            Novelist-Abolitionist
  Wm. Jay Schieffelin               Philanthropist
  Prof. T. L. Stewart               Educator
  Charles Sumner                    Senator-Abolitionist
  Dr. F. A. Sumner                  Educator
  Robert S. Taylor                  Lawyer
  Dr. W. P. Thirkield               Bishop
  Oswald Garrison Villard           Editor
  Dr. E. T. Ware                    Educator
  John Wanamaker                    Philanthropist
  Mrs. Sarah E. Whitin              Philanthropist
  John Greenleaf Whittier           Poet
  Linderman, Warren & Robt. Wilbur  Bankers
  Henry Wilson                      Abolitionist, Vice-President

(Some names in above list are extracts from Work’s Negro Year Book,
1918-1919 edition, p. 34.)


The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People has
its headquarters in New York City. This organization was fittingly
originated in 1909 at a banquet celebrating the one-hundredth
anniversary of the birth of the immortal Abraham Lincoln. The one who
made the first move for its organization was a white woman, Miss Mary
White Ovington, who is recognized today as the Harriet Beecher Stowe
of her race. She is a graduate of Radcliffe College and is the author
of several books. It has been greatly through her untiring and helpful
efforts that this organ now has in America, Canada, Canal Zone and
Philippine Islands nearly four hundred branches that have a membership
of over one hundred thousand. At this writing the association is
conducting a campaign for the securing of two hundred fifty thousand
members. The true steering rudder of this tremendous ark of safety is
in the steady hands of Moorfield Storey, who as its pilot is being ably
assisted in accurately compassing all rightful courses by his keen-eyed
lookout crew that is composed of Robt. W. Bagnall, Dr. W. E. B. DuBois,
Archibald H. Grimke, Rev. John H. Holmes, Mrs. Addie W. Hunton, Bishop
John Hurst, Jas. Weldon Johnson, Miss Mary White Ovington, William
Pickens, Arthur B. Spingarn, J. E. Spingarn, Mrs. Mary B. Talbert,
Oswald Garrison Villard and Walter White.

The work of this association is best explained in the following matter
which is a copy of one of its programs:


Done in 1920

    1. Anti-Lynching.--Had introduced in both the House and the Senate
    anti-lynching measures, as a result of which it is expected that
    Congress will enact laws making lynching a federal offense.

    2. The Vote.--Took the matter of disfranchisement of colored voters
    in the South before the House Committee on the Census; introduced
    evidence to prove the denial of the right to vote by terrorization
    and other means; demanded the fair and impartial enforcement
    of election laws in the southern states, or the reduction of
    representation wherever the right to vote is denied.

    3. Haiti.--American misrule in the black republic of Haiti was
    brought into the light of pitiless publicity, forcing investigation
    by the Navy Department and resulting in the introduction in
    the Senate and House of bills providing for Congressional
    investigation.

    4. Legal Defense.--Defended Arkansas riot victims and had their
    cases appealed; 6 of the 12 men condemned to death granted new
    trials on constitutional grounds; Robert L. Hill, charged with
    being the chief “conspirator” in these riots, freed. Extradition
    of Tom Ray from Michigan to Georgia fought. Numerous civil rights
    cases contested by the branches.

    5. Ku Klux Klan.--A campaign was begun against the revived Ku Klux
    Klan, which eventually put the Klan on the defensive.

    6. Publicity.--The most formidable weapon for fighting wrong and
    injustice is publicity. Placed The Crisis each month before more
    than 350,000 readers. Sent 131 press releases to more than 500
    white and colored papers all over the country. Sent out 220,550
    leaflets and pamphlets.


Program for 1921

    1. Anti-Lynching legislation by Congress.

    2. Abolition of Segregation in the Departments at Washington.

    3. Enfranchisement of the Negro in the South or reduction of
    southern representation, if necessary.

    4. Restoration of Haitian Independence and Reparation, as far as
    possible for wrongs committed there by the American administration,
    through Congressional investigation of both military and civil acts
    of the American occupation.

    5. Presentation to the New President of a mammoth petition of say,
    100,000 bona fide signers, collected by the various branches,
    requesting the pardon of the soldiers of the 24th Infantry
    imprisoned at Leavenworth on the charge of rioting at Houston,
    Texas.

    6. The Abolition of Jim Crow Cars in interstate traffic.

    7. Treatment of Colored Men in the Army and Navy; (a) In the Army,
    admission to artillery units, from which they are now excluded,
    promotion in the medical and other corps, and the elimination of
    other forms of discrimination; (b) In the Navy obtaining ratings
    as non-commissioned officers once more, instead of their present
    enlistment only as mess-boys, that is, as servants.

    8. Appointment of a National Inter-Racial Commission to make an
    earnest study of race conditions and race relations in the United
    States.

    9. Appointment of Colored Assistant Secretaries in the Departments
    of Labor and Agriculture which would give the Negro official
    representation in the two phases of national life where he needs
    most and suffers most.

    10. Continuance of the Fight in the Arkansas Cases.

    11. The Successful Holding of the Second Pan-African Congress that
    the colored peoples of the world may gain a mutual understanding of
    their common problems.

    12. The Defeat by Every Legitimate Means of the Nefarious Ku Klux
    Klan, both South and North.


National Urban League

Another organization that is second to none in its usefulness and
helpfulness to the America Colored people is the National Urban League
for Social Service Among Negroes. This body was formed in 1911 and is
also under the guidance of one of the staunchest white friends the
Race has in the person of L. Hollingsworth Wood. His keen foresight
discovers and leaves no stone unturned in bringing about for Colored
people throughout the country fair chances to work in new lines of
industry and be accorded just privileges to live in sanitary and
comfortable quarters. This league has branches in more than thirty
cities where thousands of Colored people yearly receive social and
industrial helpfulness of the most encouraging nature. Few people know
the full value of the tremendous work this league is doing and of the
rapid growth it is making.

Those who are, as the chief officers in this league, wisely and
unstintingly giving their time and efforts to aid Mr. Wood in this
great work are W. H. Baldwin, A. S. Frissell, A. L. Jackson, E. K.
Jones, Dr. R. R. Moton, Kelly Miller, John T. Emlen, J. C. Thomas and
Lillian A. Turner.

Praiseworthy and thankful mention should be made on these pages
regarding the backboned manhoods and Christian stands for protection
and justice to Colored people three Southern governors have fearlessly
taken within the past two years.

In July 1920, Governor Thos. W. Bickett of North Carolina sent the
State Militia, under Capt. M. P. Fowler, to Graham, N. C. with orders
to halt and prevent a white mob from breaking into jail and lynching
three Negro prisoners. After the troops had arrived and were placed on
guard the mob advanced on the jail to secure the prisoners but were
halted and scattered by the militia’s machine gun that killed one and
wounded three of the would-be lynchers.

During March 1921, Governor Edwin P. Morrow of Kentucky removed from
office the white jailer, J. H. Edgar for allowing a white mob to enter
the jail and lynch Richard James a Colored prisoner. This Governor also
offered a reward of one thousand five hundred dollars for the capture
and conviction of each member of the mob.

Right on the heels of the exposure and arrest of the Georgia white
planter, J. S. Williams, who was convicted in April 1921 for the murder
of Lindsey Peterson, a Colored laborer on Williams peonage plantation
where the murdered bodies of at least ten other Colored laborers were
found; Governor Hugh M. Dorsey, of Georgia had published and freely
circulated a pamphlet entitled, “The Negro in Georgia.” In this
publication the Governor bravely and in detail tells of 135 incidents
of cruelties committed upon Georgia Negroes. In only two of these cases
were the victims accused of crimes against white women. The remaining
133 exposures tell of the whippings, shootings, lynchings, and the
enslavement of Colored laborers under the forced labor systems, as
well as the driving away of wealthy Colored people from their homes by
bodily abuses or threatened tortures.

When it is taken into consideration that those officials fully knew
that their stands against and exposures of such savage behaviors of
their own people would without doubt mean their political deaths,
as well as making for themselves state wide enemies who would not
hesitate to do them physical harm; the acts of those Governors were
really those of heroes. In performing their full official and Christian
duties, they have already influenced many other Southern officials
to come forward like real men and help to wash away from the South
(especially Georgia) its world-wide stain and shame.

During the past twenty years, Hon. Joseph C. Manning of Alabama,
because of his continued courageous stands and his mighty platform and
pen fights for justice to the Colored people, especially in the South,
has constantly proved himself one of the most fearless and truest white
friends the Negro race has in America today. In the April 23, 1921
issue of the Chicago Defender there was republished the article “Let
Him Have Due Credit” that appeared in the April 16, 1921 issue of The
Washington Bee. The article in part says:

“The peonage conditions in Georgia and the trail that has been going on
down there recalls that it was Hon. Joseph C. Manning of Alabama who
first brought peonage conditions in Alabama and the South to national
attention and into national discussion.

“A letter written by Mr. Manning to the New York Evening Post in 1903
not only assailed this condition but named the peonage perpetrators.
The Literary Digest made a review of the newspaper comment the article
aroused. The papers in Alabama, some of them, vilified Mr. Manning
unmercifully. He was denounced as a “defamer of his state”, branded
as a liar, the peonage conditions were denied; but, in not a great
while, the citizens he named were prosecuted and convicted through the
operations of the Department of Justice when Mr. Moody was Attorney
General.

“In the matter of peonage, as well as in the showing up of “black belt”
frauds in the South, it was none other than Hon. Joseph C. Manning who
took the initiative and has stood the burden to follow for having stood
for right.

“Precisely as he fought “black belt” frauds, helping to unseat Southern
members of Congress in 1897, he has kept on fighting disfranchisement
and arraigned lynching and all sorts of mobs and mob government.

“President Harding, when in the United States Senate, was called on
frequently by Mr. Manning, who discussed these wrongs with the man who
was to become President. The Bee then followed the work being done, in
1917, right here in Washington by Mr. Manning. No man, more than the
President of the United States, knows about this self-sacrificing labor
of Mr. Manning for right and for justice.”

[Illustration]



CORRECTED FRATERNAL INFORMATION


In order to prevent possible misleadings or misunderstandings on the
part of any reader, the writer quotes below, from pages 457-8 of
Work’s Negro Year Book, 1918-1919 edition, the relative positions of
officers in different divisions of the Orders of Masons, Odd Fellows
and Pythians, which detailed information he found it impossible to put
on pages 128-9 on account of lack of space.


“MASONS”

    Imperial Council Ancient Egyptian

    Arabic Order of Nobles of The Mystic Shrine.

    Officers:

  Imperial Potentate, C. R. Blake, Charlotte, N. C.
  Imperial Chief Rabban, R. E. Moore, Chicago, Ill.
  Imperial High Priest and Prophet, R. F. Husley, Wheeling, W. Va.
  Imperial Treasurer, C. A. Freeman, Washington.
  Imperial Recorder, Levi Williams, Jersey City.

    Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Masons

    Officers of Northern Jurisdiction:

  Sovereign Grand Commander, J. F. Richards, Detroit, Mich.
  Lieutenant Sovereign Grand Commander, R. E. Moore, Chicago, Ill.
  Grand Secretary, W. H. Miller, Philadelphia, Pa.

    Officers of Southern Jurisdiction:

  Sovereign Grand Commander, T. W. M. Grant, Sr., New Orleans, La.
  Lieutenant Sovereign Grand Commander, James T. Logan, Natchez, Miss.
  Grand Chancellor, Leon W. Taylor, New Orleans.

    Royal Arch Masons

    Officers:

  President, W. T. Butler, New York.
  Treasurer, T. M. Holland, Chicago.
  Secretary, James O. Bampfield, Washington.

    Ancient York Masons

    Officers of National Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted York Rite
    Masons:

  National Grand Commander, Bishop J. W. Alstork, Montgomery, Ala.
  National Deputy Grand Commander, Dr. A. R. Robinson, Philadelphia, Penna.
  National Grand Secretary, R. J. Simmons, Atlanta, Ga.



“ODD FELLOWS”

    Grand Officers: (Morris Faction)

  Grand Master, E. H. Morris, 219 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, Ill.
  Deputy Grand Master, I. L. Roberts, Boston.
  Grand Secretary, James F. Needham,
    N. W. Cor. 12th and Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa.
  Grand Treasurer, W. David Brown, New York City.

    Grand Officers: (Davis Faction)

  Grand Master, J. S. Noel, Charleston, W. Va.
  Deputy Grand Master, W. T. Francis, St. Paul, Minn.
  Grand Secretary, R. J. Nelson, Harrisburg, Pa.
  Grand Treasurer, C. Colbourne, Wilmington, Del.



“KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS OF NORTH AMERICA, SOUTH AMERICA, EUROPE, ASIA,
AFRICA, AND AUSTRALIA.”

    Officers of Supreme Lodge:

  Supreme Chancellor, S. W. Green, 226 South Robertson St., New Orleans, La.
  Supreme Vice Chancellor, E. C. Tidrington, Indianapolis, Ind.
  Supreme Master of Exchequer,
    J. H. Young, 405 Martin St., Pine Bluff, Arkansas.
  Supreme Keeper of Records and Seal, Dr. E. E. Underwood, Frankfort, Ky.



“KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS (EASTERN AND WESTERN HEMISPHERE.)”

    “Meets biennially. The Officers are:

  Supreme Chancellor, W. Ashbie Hawkins, Baltimore.
  Supreme Vice-Chancellor, W. H. Willis, New York City.
  Supreme Master of Exchequer, J. C. Anderson, Crewe, Va.
  Supreme Keeper of Records and Seal, G. E. Gordon, Chelsea, Mass.”



I MUST PROCLAIM YOUR ABSENT NAME IS NOT MY BLAME


    If on this book’s few pages space
      Some worthy one of either Race
    Finds not his name in any place,
      Think not it is the author’s slight
    That kept your name from inky write;
      For he has toiled both day and night
    In vain research both far and near
      To get more facts than here appear.
    Thus blame not him for real neglect
      ’Cause your own name he did not get:
    And if a wrong fact herein be
      It was not writ intentionally.
    So friend, resume your cheerful moods
      And smile away those fretful broods
    For of all names in type here set
      The writer makes no one his pet,
    But equally lauds all those who seek
      To inspire youths and help the weak.
                     _The Author._



            ADVERTISEMENT


    Race PARENTS should this book now buy
    And teach their CHILD big things to try.

    To PEOPLE who know not the Race
    This book will TELL about its pace.

    This BOOK unbashfully contends
    Its ever VAMPING for new FRIENDS.

    After YOU have read this book
    Do SHOW it to the BOSS and COOK.

    If to this Race you be a friend
    This BOOK you’ll surely RECOMMEND.

    All folks who plan to “KNOCK” this book
    Such “BOOST” will make the people look.

    No use to HIDE it on some shelf
    ’Cause it sticks out and SHOWS itself.

    Before you get that SUICIDE BLUE
    Just BUY this BOOK and read it thro.

    Some NIGHT when you pay HER a call
    About this book tell SWEETHEART all.

    Give on next CHRISTMAS OR BIRTHDAY
    This BOOK to cheer your BEAU real gay.

    The PRICE herein asked for this BOOK
    Is DIRT CHEAP, if you would once look
    And weigh GREAT VALUES it contains
    As gleaned from study, WORK and brains.


                 PRICE OF BOOK, $1.50. BY MAIL, $1.60.

                 MONEY TO BE SENT WHEN ORDERING BOOK.

      Do not send postage stamps. Checks accepted when certified.

                 SEND MONEY BY POST OFFICE MONEY ORDER

                                Address

                      WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, Jr.

                820 Wyandotte Street,-:-Bethlehem, Pa.


FOOTNOTES:

[A] As the result of her being kind, courteous and considerate of the
feelings of respectable Colored people with whom she came in contact
and her writing against slavery in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, the name of
Harriet Beecher Stowe stands today as the most widely known and famous
women authoress the world had ever known. During the first year her
book was published over 100 editions appeared, and up to the present
time it is said that at least two million copies of it have been sold
throughout the United States and foreign countries. Aside from the
English language, it has been issued in over a score of other civilized
languages. It is estimated as being the most popularly read book in the
world with the exception of the Bible. It has been just as successfully
produced on the stage and since its first publication in book form in
1852, it has continued to hold its popularity as no other book has
ever done for such a period of years with the exception of the Bible.
It is estimated that during just the first year Uncle Tom’s Cabin was
published its authoress received at least $50,000 as royalties from its
sales.

This is how the unknown and poor but mannerly refined, highly cultured,
sensibly educated and broad-minded white lady, Mrs. Harriet Beecher
Stowe, made for herself everlasting fame, immortalized her name and at
the same time reaped an independent fortune; just by sowing seeds of
consideration and kindness among, looking upon and treating as God’s
human beings and full-fledged American citizens the Colored people in
the United States

As the above were the earthly rewards the hearts of weak and sinful
mankind were softened and melted enough to give to Mrs. Stowe, just
think of the indescribable rewards the always loving heart of the
strong and pure Almighty God is today bestowing upon her in Heaven with
Him.





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