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Title: Hawaii National Park: A Guide for the Haleakala Section - Island of Maui, Hawaii
Author: Ruhle, George Cornelius
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                        _Copyright 1959 by the_
                   HAWAII NATURAL HISTORY ASSOCIATION

                UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                         NATIONAL PARK SERVICE

    [Illustration: NATIONAL PARK SERVICE]

                        PUBLISHED IN COOPERATION
                     WITH THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE

    Covers: Silversword in bloom



                          HAWAII NATIONAL PARK
                            _A Guide for the
                           Haleakala Section
                        Island of Maui, Hawaii_


                                   by
                            George C. Ruhle
                    _illustrated by Donald M. Black_

    [Illustration: HAWAII · NATURAL · HISTORY · ASSOCIATION]

                           PUBLICATION OF THE
                   HAWAII NATURAL HISTORY ASSOCIATION
                               JUNE, 1959

    [Illustration: On the Sliding Sands Trail]



                               _Preface_


Most of us yearn to travel, and the preliminary to travel is to choose a
place that others, people or books, say is interesting, then find out
more about it.

This guide is to help you find out more about Haleakala. It is neither a
reference book nor a treatise. It sums up what many have studied and
observed. It skims over the myths that the mountain itself created in
the imagination of old Hawaiians. It reflects also the labor and thought
of the compiler. Its aim is to satisfy your interest while you are here
on the brim, or at some other point. For some of you it may be the start
of a deeper curiosity, to be satisfied by further reading elsewhere.

Think of this booklet as a chatty companion along the way, and a ready
reminder after you have left, of your pleasant experience at Haleakala.



The system of 29 National Parks contains areas of superlative scenic and
scientific grandeur essentially in the primitive state. The National
Park Service of the Department of the Interior administers these, as
well as 152 other areas of outstanding national significance. The law of
the land enjoins us to use them in such manner that they may be passed
unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.

The story of HAWAII NATIONAL PARK is the story of active volcanism
singularly marked by eruptions of very fluent lava. The park is in two
sections; that on the island of Maui, discussed in this guide, includes
the great eroded crater of Haleakala Volcano; that on the island of
Hawaii embraces the summits of Mauna Loa and Kilauea Volcanoes.



                               HALEAKALA


    [Illustration: The silversword is the pride and distinction of
    Haleakala.]

Haleakala _is a great volcano, 33 miles long and 10,025 feet high.
During a long period of inactivity, stream erosion cut two deep valleys,
Keanae and Kaupo, into its sides. These joined near the summit. When
volcanic activity once again resumed, flows of aa and blankets of
cinders were spread on the valley floors. A multicolored cover,
emphasized by symmetrical cones, formed the new floor of the depression,
now loosely called Haleakala Crater._

_The well chosen name, Hale-a-ka-la, means House of the Sun. Old
Hawaiians associated Maui, a trickster demi-God, with the mountain. He
was a legendary figure throughout Polynesia long before a few of its
inhabitants discovered and settled in Hawaii, bringing their gods with
them._

_How Maui brought down or ensnared the sun has several versions. Maui’s
mother, Hina, had trouble drying bark cloth, kapa, because the day was
too short, its warmth insufficient. The sun just sped too fast across
the sky. So Maui fashioned a strong net to snare it in its course. A
slight variant, possibly less used, appeals more strongly. In early
dawn, one can watch strong streamers of light from the rising sun break
through the clouds and stalk across the crater. With these spidery legs
the sun progresses through the heavens. As one by one they were placed
over Koolau Gap, Maui seized them and bound them with strong thongs to
an ohia tree. Thus captured, the sun pleaded for release. This Maui
granted on promise of a slower gait, for which Hina as well as the rest
of us can be eternally thankful._



                          _Table of Contents_


                                                                     Page
  Preface                                                             iii
  Haleakala                                                            iv
  PART I
  Your Vacation in the Haleakala Section                                1
  Access                                                                1
  What to do and see                                                    1
  Hosmer Grove Campground and Picnic Area                               2
  The Trail System                                                      4
  Park Cabins                                                           4
  Suggested Hiking Trips                                                5
  An Outfit for Hiking in Haleakala Crater                              7
  Horseback Crater Trips                                                7
  Numbered Points of Interest on the Map                                8
  PART II
  Haleakala Hawaiiana                                                  16
      Maui Legends                                                     16
      The Legend of Kihapiilani                                        18
      The Tradition of Kaoao                                           21
      Archeological Study                                              22
  The Historical Background                                            24
      Important Dates                                                  36
  Geology                                                              42
      The Origin of the Scenic Features                                42
      The Geological Interpretation                                    46
  Haleakala Plants                                                     49
      Plant Notes                                                      55
          The Ferns                                                    55
          The Native Grasses                                           56
          The Sedges—Fig. 1                                        56, 71
          Rush                                                         57
          Painiu                                                       57
          Mauu-laili                                                   57
          Orchids—Fig. 2                                           58, 71
          Alaalawainui                                                 58
          Sandalwood—Fig. 3                                        58, 72
          Sheep Sorrel                                                 58
          Hawaiian Buttercup                                           59
          Hoawa                                                        59
          Hawaiian Hawthorn                                            59
          Hawaiian Raspberry—Fig. 5                                59, 73
          Mamane—Fig. 4                                            60, 72
          Nohoanu—Fig. 6, 7                                        60, 74
          Hawaiian Holly                                               60
          Olomea                                                       61
          Aalii—Fig. 8                                             61, 75
          Begonia                                                  53, 61
          Tarweed                                                      61
          Ohio Lehua—Fig. 9                                        62, 75
          Evening Primrose                                             62
          Apeape                                                   54, 62
          Olapa—Fig. 10                                            62, 76
          Ohelo—Fig. 11                                            62, 76
          Pukiawe—Fig. 12                                          63, 77
          Kolea—Fig. 13                                            63, 77
          Selfheal                                                     63
          Puaainaka                                                    63
          Groundcherry                                                 63
          Plantain                                                     64
          Kukaenene—Fig. 15                                        64, 79
          Pilo—Fig. 14                                             64, 78
          Manono                                                       64
          Catchfly—Fig. 16                                         65, 79
          Oha                                                          65
          Naupaka                                                      65
          Maui Wormwood—Fig. 17                                    65, 80
          Kookoolau                                                    66
          Kupaoa—Fig. 18, 19                                       66, 81
          Pamakani                                                     67
          Hairy Cat’s Ear                                              67
          Wood Groundsel                                               68
          Tetramalopium—Fig. 20                                53, 68, 82
          Silversword                                   Cover, iv, 47, 68
  Summary Lists                                                        70
  The Birds and Mammals                                                83
  The Insect Life                                                      85
  Hawaiian Words and Place Names                                       89
  Hui O Ahinahina                                                      93
  Additional Help                                                      93
  Mileages                                              Inside back cover
  Map                                                        Center Pages



                             YOUR VACATION


Anticipate a restful, invigorating interlude. Islanders consider
vacation on the cool mountain an inexpensive, pleasant variant from a
mainland trip.

Silversword Inn at an elevation of 6,800 feet is popular with luncheon
guests and with those staying overnight to view sunset or sunrise from
the summit of the great mountain. Attractive, friendly, comfortable, it
is the loftiest hostelry in the islands. There is no formal atmosphere:
warm, casual clothing is worn; it is strictly “come in as you are.”

Hiking and riding in the vicinity of the inn are favorite pastimes.
Adjacent groves of trees of the Temperate Zone impart an aspect novel to
the islands. A visit is highlighted by trips into the crater and to the
summit, less than thirty minutes distant by car. The cup runneth over
for photographers and nature enthusiasts. You can enjoy cool, restful
nights between daytime drives to the many points of interest on Maui.
For further details, reservations, and rates, consult the Manager,
Silversword Inn, R.R. 53, Waiakoa, Maui, Hawaii, or Mr. William S.
Ellis, Jr., 900 Nuuanu Ave., Honolulu 17, Hawaii.


                                 ACCESS

The Haleakala road climbs through plantations and ranchland from Kahului
Harbor and Kahului Airport to the park entrance at an elevation of 6,740
feet. The distance by the shortest route is thirty miles. The highway
continues eleven miles further to the Park Observatory on the western
rim of Haleakala Crater and to the 10,025-foot summit. No bus service
exists, but taxis and U-drive cars are hired at the airport and in the
towns of Kahului and Wailuku. The sole access into the crater is over
good trails for travel on foot or by horse.


                           WHAT TO DO AND SEE

The start of a drive to the park is made by one of three paved routes.
The shortest is Pukalani Road. The other two turn inland at Paia or
Haiku and traverse more interesting country. The three routes converge
at Pukalani Junction ten miles up the mountain. PUKALANI means a hole in
heaven, which picturesquely describes the fact that the sun breaks
through at this place despite a general overcast elsewhere.

As the road rises up and ever up, it unfolds distant views of fields of
sugar cane and pineapple, of West Maui Range, 6,000 feet high, and of
Molokai, Lanai, Kahoolawe, and Molokini Islands beyond channels of blue
sea. 100 miles southward, the tops of the snowy volcanoes on the Island
of Hawaii float on billowy clouds. 10,000 feet below, the aquamarine
Pacific fringes Maui with white surf.

Three viewpoints along the road overlook the great crater: Leleiwi, at
the 9,000-foot switchback; Kalahaku, two miles below the summit: and the
Park Observatory, near the top. The roadway extends along the crest one
mile southwestward to a scenic point beyond the park boundary and a
communication station of the Civil Aeronautics Administration.

Just above the park entrance, Silversword Inn, a National Park
concession, offers meals, rooms, souvenirs, horseback riding and guided
horseback trips into the crater. Across from the inn, a paved spur road
leads a half mile to Hosmer Grove Campground and Picnic Area.

Haleakala Crater is a favorite with those who like the back-country; its
inspiring scenery and restful solitude are great reward for time and
effort. The National Park Service maintains three cabins on the crater
floor and 30 miles of well-marked trails for hikers and horseback
parties.


                HOSMER GROVE CAMPGROUND AND PICNIC AREA

A quarter mile above the park entrance, opposite the driveway to the
inn, a paved lane, one-half mile long, leads to the Hosmer Grove
Campground and Picnic Area. It has a shelter for rainy weather that
contains two tables and two charcoal burners. Four additional tables
with adjacent charcoal burners are in an open site below the road.
Running water, parking space for eight cars, and sites for pitching
tents are provided. Charcoal may be purchased at the inn. A self-guiding
nature trail leads through the grove.

    [Illustration: HOSMER GROVE
    CAMPGROUND AND PICNIC AREA]

The grove was named for the first Territorial forester, Dr. Ralph S.
Hosmer, who experimented with planting temperate trees at high altitudes
on Haleakala and Mauna Kea. Trees, planted here in 1910, include the
deodar, _Cedrus deodara_ from the Himalayas; the tsugi, _Cryptomeria
japonica_ from Japan; eucalypti from Australia; and from the mainland a
cypress, _Cupressus arizonica_; a juniper, _Juniperus virginiana_;
Douglas fir, _Pseudotsuga taxifolia_; incense cedar, _Libocedrus
decurrens_; two spruces, _Picea canadensis_, _P. excelsa_; and seven
pines: lodgepole, _Pinus contorta_, Coulter or big-cone, _P. coulteri_,
Jeffrey, _P. jeffreyi_, longleaf, _P. palustris_, ponderosa or western
yellow, _P. ponderosa_, white, _P. strobus_, and Scotch, _P.
sylvestris_. Many of these have survived and have borne fruits. The huge
keeled cones of Coulter pines are cherished as ornaments in some homes.

Native plants associated with the area are the shrubs: Haleakala
sandalwood, mamane, pukiawe, aalii, mountain pilo, ohelo, silver
geranium, kupaoa; two or three ferns; two sedges; and three native
grasses.

Two thirds of the distance to the grove, the crater trail from the inn
starts up the mountain to the left. This is a connecting link, 1¾ miles
long, to the Halemauu Trail which it joins a half mile below its start
on the highway. _See Numbered Points of Interest, No. 9._


                            THE TRAIL SYSTEM

The Sliding Sands Trail, the popular route into the crater, starts from
the parking area at the Observatory. It is constructed along the south
side of the crater to Kapalaoa Cabin six miles away. Connecting trails
go to Paliku Cabin, four miles farther. The Halemauu Trail has two upper
ends, at the 8,000-foot elevation on the highway and on the Hosmer Grove
Campground Spur near Silversword Inn. Halemauu Trail goes down Leleiwi
Pali, the west wall, to Holua Cabin, four miles from the road or six
miles from the lodge. The trail continues easterly from Holua for six
miles along the north side of the crater floor to Paliku. Branch trails
are built to points of interest. The Kaupo Trail through Kaupo Gap
leaves Paliku Cabin and the crater to make a rapid descent of the
southern, sun-drenched slope.


                              PARK CABINS

Each of the three visitor cabins within the crater, Kapalaoa, Paliku,
and Holua, is equipped with running water, a wood-burning cookstove,
firewood, kerosene lamps, cooking and eating utensils, twelve bunks,
mattresses, and blankets. Use of these cabins by hikers on a priority
reservation basis is granted free of charge by the Park. In
consideration for their use _cabins should be left clean and in order_
by each party. The following arrangements are necessary: write the Park,
giving an outline of your proposed trip, number in the party, exact
calendar dates, and names of specific cabins which you wish to use each
night. The address is: “Hawaii National Park, Haleakala Section, P. O.
Box 456, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii.” Cabin reservations can also be made by
telephoning the Park. When you arrive in the Park, stop at the
Administration Building for your permit, cabin key, and orientation.


                         SUGGESTED HIKING TRIPS

_For safety reasons, all visitors are required to obtain permits from
the rangers for all trips into the crater, other than those with
Silversword Inn guides._


_Short Walks for the Day Visitor_: (1) Along Halemauu Trail from the
highway to the Crater Rim, three-quarters of a mile. Views down Keanae
Valley, across Koolau Gap to Hanakauhi, and of Halemauu Trail. (2) A
short distance down the Sliding Sands Trail. _Be careful not to travel
too far down._ The return climb is exhausting at this high altitude. (3)
To the top of White Hill. The trail winds among ancient Hawaiian
stonewalled encampment sites.

_One-day hikes into crater_: (1) Down Halemauu Trail to Holua Cabin and
return to the highway, a scenic trip of eight miles that can be taken by
any reasonably good hiker. It is not recommended when clouds blanket the
pali and Koolau Gap. Allow a half-day for hiking. (2) Down Sliding Sands
Trail to the crater floor, across Ka Moa o Pele Trail to Halemauu Trail
at Pele’s Paint Pot or Bottomless Pit, and return to the highway via
Holua and the Halemauu Trail. This colorful, spectacular twelve-mile
trip is recommended only for good hikers. Allow eight hours of hiking
time. _At your risk_, rangers can often arrange to move your car for you
to the place at which the Halemauu Trail emerges on the highway.

_Overnight crater hikes_: Hike down Sliding Sands Trail; spend the night
at either Paliku, Kapalaoa, or Holua Cabin; return via Halemauu Trail.
The choice overnight hike to Paliku, a 20-mile round-trip, is
recommended for good hikers only. The trip with an overnight stop at
Kapalaoa is 14 miles long. The shortest route from the foot of Sliding
Sands Trail to Holua via Ka Moa o Pele leaves only the four-mile climb
via Halemauu Trail for the second day. _The Sliding Sands Trail is not
recommended for return from a crater trip._ The long climb to an
elevation of 10,000 feet is too exhausting for most people.

_Two and three day crater hikes_: Entry via the Sliding Sands and return
via Halemauu Trail is recommended. A three-night trip stopping at
Kapalaoa, Paliku, and Holua allows leisurely enjoyment of the crater.
Good health and fair walking ability are all that are required for these
longer trips.

    [Illustration: 1. Koolau Gap; 2. Waikau; 3. Hanakauhi Peak; 4.
    Paliku; 5. Puu Maile; 6. Kaupo Gap; 7. Haleakala Peak; 8. Puu Kumu;
    9. Puu Naue; 10. Ka Moa o Pele; 11. Puu o Maui; 12. Kamohoalii; 13.
    Ka Lua o ka Oo; 14. Puu o Pele.]

No guide service is available or necessary for parties hiking or riding
their own stock into the crater. However, a permit is required before
you start your trip within the crater. For details, consult the section
labelled “Park Cabins.”


                AN OUTFIT FOR HIKING IN HALEAKALA CRATER

Clothing should consist of hiking shoes, slacks, shirt, jacket, hat, and
preferably a light raincoat. Basketball shoes or keds are preferred by
some. Because of the chill climate at elevations of seven to ten
thousand feet, warm clothing is advisable. In climbing, temperature goes
down as you go up. The top of Haleakala averages thirty degrees cooler
than sea level. You should bring your food for the trip, a knapsack,
sunburn lotion, soap, hand towel, dish towel, matches, and simple first
aid. As cooking facilities in the cabins are adequate, food need not be
precooked.


                         HORSEBACK CRATER TRIPS

Silversword Inn provides horseback trips on good stock with a competent
guide. Food is provided, cooking is done by the guide, and sleeping
accommodations are arranged by the management. A guest need only concern
himself about personal effects and clothing suitable for riding in a
cool climate. For rates and trip reservations, telephone or write to the
Manager, Silversword Inn, R.R. 53, Waiakoa, Maui, Hawaii, or to Mr.
William S. Ellis, Jr., 900 Nuuanu Ave., Honolulu 17, Hawaii.

_If you have your own horses_ make the same arrangements as hikers for
entry into the crater and for cabin use. You may travel on any of the
crater trails. Fenced horse pastures are adjacent to each of the cabins.



                 NUMBERED POINTS OF INTEREST ON THE MAP


_Basic data for this section was compiled by the park staff and
submitted by Eugene J. Barton, Assistant Superintendent in charge of
Haleakala from 1949-1955. The map is in the center of the booklet._


1. _Park entrance_ (elev. 6,740′) _and inn_: The park entrance, marked
by a rustic sign, is on the slope of Puu Nianiau, an ancient cinder
cone. _Nianiau_ is Hawaiian for swordfern. One quarter mile above the
entrance turn right to the Silversword Inn for meals, lunches, overnight
accommodations, color pictures, slides, and souvenirs of the park. The
inn arranges guided trips through Haleakala Crater.


2. _Ralph S. Hosmer Grove_: Across from the lodge, a paved spur road
leads to the Hosmer Grove Campground and Picnic Area.


3. _Headquarters of the Haleakala Section of Hawaii National Park_: Stop
at the Administration Building beside the road for information, permits,
cabin keys needed on crater trips, and for assistance in case of trouble
or accident. The park maintenance area is located behind the station. As
you drive toward the summit, note the small native trees and shrubs
growing along the road. This elfin forest was all but destroyed by goats
and cattle; it has recovered under National Park protection. The book,
“Plants of Hawaii National Park,” and the section on plants in this
guide may help you identify the different species. These and other
publications of the Hawaii Natural History Association may be purchased
at the inn or at Park Headquarters.


4. _Leleiwi Overlook_; _Kalahaku Overlook_: At the switchback near the
9,000-foot contour, a parking space has been constructed that is
labelled LELEIWI OVERLOOK. This is above Holua and the Halemauu Trail,
so that parties can be watched as they go down Leleiwi Pali. On clear
days, the whole length of Keanae Valley can be seen through Koolau Gap.
The lateral view extends from Hana Airport across the big isthmus to
Kihei on Maalaea Bay. On afternoons, clouds roll into the gap, making
this a good place to see the Brocken Specter. One’s shadowy image
appears within a circular rainbow, projected against the bank of cloud.
KALAHAKU OVERLOOK (elev. 9,325′) is a remarkable view point on the
crater rim that is reached by a short spur off the main park road. It is
the site of the Old Rest House, in which travellers on foot or horseback
stayed overnight before the road was built. Silversword plants may be
seen just below the main parking area. KALAHAKU is the name of the
rugged pali forming the crater wall at this point. The name means
“meeting place of the headmen or chiefs.”


5. _The Observatory_ commands a spectacular view of the crater near the
summit of Haleakala. It was erected in 1937 by the National Park Service
for your comfort and convenience. The observatory is the main objective
of most visitors to Haleakala. Besides being a welcome shelter during
inclement weather, it has a large relief map and interpretive
orientation devices. Modern rest rooms are located to the rear of the
building.


6. _White Hill, Pakaoao_ (elev. 9,865′); _start of Sliding Sands Trail_:
The rocky hill, just above the observatory, is capped with andesite, a
volcanic rock lighter in color and different in composition from the
common basaltic lava of Hawaii. The southwest slope, up which the trail
leads, is covered with Hawaiian sleeping shelters consisting of oval
stone-walled enclosures. These gave protection against the wind, fog,
and cold that is common here. They may have been used long ago by
wayfarers or by sentries and groups of warriors stationed at this
commanding site. They may also have served as ambush for professional
robbers, _aihue_, who waylaid travellers in lonely places. Refer to the
topic, “The Tradition of Kaoao” in “Haleakala Hawaiiana” for more of the
story.


7. _Red Hill, Pakaoao, Summit of Haleakala_ (original English name,
Pendulum Peak; elev. 10,025′): To drive to the summit take the paved
road, turning sharply left below the observatory parking area. Red Hill
is the highest of the three prominent recent cinder cones. Early morning
is a good time to view extended panoramas and distant seascapes, before
streaks of clouds form shelves along the sides of the mountain. But
afternoon is better for viewing the crater, as its features appear in
excellent light and color at that time. A pointer table by the road
indicates the names of islands and peaks seen. An Army radar and radio
communication station was located on Red Hill during World War II.

    [Illustration: Halemauu Trail on Leleiwi Pali.]


8. _Skyline Drive_: An improved driveway to the Civil Aeronautics
Repeater Station leaves the park at the pass between Red Hill and
Kolekole. Views stretch down the vast, precipitous southwest outer slope
of Haleakala to the Lualailua Hills and a desert seashore, ten thousand
feet below. Morning will most likely yield the cloud-free views. The
Aeronautics Station is open to visitors. A parking area is just outside
the gate to the station. Kolekole is the site of television relays and a
satellite tracking station. It is a mile from the Observatory to the
summit of Kolekole. It is 1.7 miles from the Observatory at the FAA
Station. Magnetic Peak is across the road from Red Hill. A huge
curiously shaped bomb on its skyline has a silhouette that looks much
like a sitting duck.

    [Illustration: Volcanic bomb on Magnetic Peak.]


9. _The Halemauu Trail_ starts from a curve on the park road at the
8,000 foot elevation. It leads down a gentle slope for eight-tenths of a
mile to the crater rim. An alternate start is on the driveway into
Hosmer Grove Campground, near Silversword Inn. Built by the National
Park Service in 1937, the trail drops with a gentle grade down the
1500-foot Leleiwi Pali to the crater floor. It suggests thrilling trails
in Glacier National Park and other rugged mainland areas as it swings
and clings to the vertical cliffs. Hike to the crater rim for
spectacular views of Windward Maui and Keanae Valley in fair weather; if
clouds are rolling up Koolau Gap in the evening, you may possibly be
greeted by the Specter of the Brocken. Silver geraniums, Hinahina, small
spherical shrubs peculiar to Haleakala, grow along the upper trail and
road. HALEMAUU, grass house, is said to be derived from one formerly
located near the head of the trail.


10. _Holua Cabin_ rests in a grassy plot at the foot of the towering,
3,000-foot Leleiwi Pali. Introduced grasses grow in the meadow near it.
The pale “moss” on the rough lava flow is _Stereocaulon_, actually a
lichen, that strange combination of an alga and a fungus growing
together to appear as one plant. This pioneer on barren new lavas is
sometimes called Hawaiian Snow. The comparatively recent flow in front
of the cabin contains lava tubes or caves. These are rough and
dangerous, and should not be entered except by especially equipped
parties. Holua Cave, above the cabin, was used as a night shelter before
the cabin was built.


11. _Silversword Loop_, a quarter-mile long, deviates from Halemauu
Trail past several clumps of silversword. Hollows and slopes of the old,
weathered, red lava flow in this area have favorable conditions for
their growth. Near the east end of the loop, the main trail passes among
many piles of stones, ahus, markers, and platforms built by the
Hawaiians. This place, known as KEAHUOKAHOLO, appears to have had
special or sacred significance. State law, as well as Hawaiian customs
and ethics, strictly forbids disturbing or damaging any of these ancient
structures.


12. _Kihapiilani Road_: From a black, cinder-covered flat, an old
Hawaiian pathway crosses the rough shoulder of the small cone on Halalii
to smoother surface between Mamane Hill and Puu Kumu. It is six to eight
feet wide and is paved with flat stones. The start, difficult to locate,
is to the right of a small, horned spattercone seen from the trail as
you look toward Hanakauhi Peak. A chief, Kihapiilani, built the trail
over Mauna Hina along the North Rim to a pond, Wai Ale, probably the
present Wai Anapanapa on the exterior slope. Refer to “The Legend of
Kihapiilani” in “Haleakala Hawaiiana” for the story.


13. _Bottomless Pit_ is a yawning black well, ten feet in diameter,
rimmed with colored lava spatter a few feet high. _Use caution
approaching its edge._ Baseless legend claims that it sinks to sea
level. Although no bottom can be seen, debris chokes the opening sixty
or seventy feet below. It is a vent, through which superheated gases
were emitted in an eruption of long ago. The rim around the throat
indicates that a little lava sputtered out with the gas. During the
flank eruptions of Mauna Loa and Kilauea similar vents exhale columns of
blue, incandescent gases at intervals. Old Hawaiians at Kaupo say that
the pit was used for disposition of umbilical cords of babies. Various
reasons are assigned to the custom, such as to make the child strong, or
to prevent its becoming a thief.


14. _Ka Moa o Pele Trail_ branches from the foot of the Sliding Sands
Trail to join the Halemauu Trail across the crater. It is a scenic route
between silverswords on Ka Moa o Pele, a red cinder cone. Flowering
plants can usually be seen from June to September. Pa Puaa o Pele,
Pele’s Pig Pen, is the rim of a spatter cone, now buried, in the low
pass between Halalii and Ka Moa o Pele. Hikers from Sliding Sands to
Holua should go around the right or east side of Halalii to see the
Bottomless Pit and Pele’s Paint Pot, a colorful pass just a short
distance beyond.


15. _Bubble Cave_ is a large, collapsed bubble with heavy walls. It was
blown by gases in ancient molten lava. Only a small segment collapsed in
the center of the roof, which serves as entrance and smoke-hole;
old-timers were wont to camp in this natural shelter. It was the rest
stop now supplanted by Kapalaoa Cabin.


16. _Wailuku Cabin_, outside the park, was built by the State Board of
Agriculture and Forestry for the use of hunters. Arrangements for its
use must be made at the Maui Office of the Board in Kahului. Trails to
it are not of park standards and are not recommended to sightseers.


17. _Old and New Volcanics_: Dikes that protrude as slabs of
light-colored rock from slopes of the ridge toward Hanakauhi mark part
of the ancient divide between Koolau and Kaupo Valleys, the great
erosional canyons worn into the mountain during an age of quiescence.
This divide is deeply buried inside the crater under the cinders and
flows of renewed eruptions that form the present floor. Adjacent Mauna
Hina and Namana o ke Akua, green with shrubs, grass, and scrub mamane,
are cinder cones from ancient eruptions. Puu Nole, a garish, black
youngster in the community, has only silverswords on its barren slopes.
Towards Paliku the trail is flanked by some of the most recent lava
flows, only a few hundred years old. Their source vents are visible on
the slopes of Hanakauhi and the north wall of the crater.


18. _Lauulu Trail_ is plainly visible as it zigzags up the north wall.
Although not maintained at present, it is passable and allows rugged
enthusiasts to climb the rim for views of the crater. On the outer
slopes, moist grassy plots, often fog-bound, blend into jungle that
drops to the Hana Coast, 8,000 feet below. Kalapawili Ridge extends from
the summit of Hanakauhi Mountain eastward around the head of Kipahulu
Valley to the tiny lake, Wai Anapanapa. It is readily traversable for
the good hiker.


19. _Paliku_ is very different from the desert wastes in the other parts
of the crater. Lush grass and ferns, overhanging forest trees, and a
verdant cover on a towering pali result from abundant clouds pushed by
the trade winds over the east wall. AKALA, the giant Hawaiian raspberry,
ripens abundantly back of the cabins in July. It is excellent for pie,
conserves, or dessert. Native Hawaiian trees include: MAMANE, far larger
than the scrubby growth in the crater; OHIA, with gray-green leaves and
red lehua flowers; KOLEA, with thick magnolia-like leaves four inches
long; OLAPA, with leaves that tremble in the slightest breeze, like
those of quaking aspen. The conifer above the Ranger Cabin is a
cryptomeria, a Japanese evergreen planted early in this century.


20. _Kipahulu Valley_, beyond the eastern rim, is a remote, jungle
wilderness walled in by loftiest cliffs; a no man’s land, it has barely
been explored, let alone touched or altered by civilization. Look from
the cabin at Paliku across the pasture to the lowest notch in the sheer
eastern pali. For a view into Kipahulu, a good climber can follow an old
goat trail, steep and tortuous, that leads up the left side of the draw
to this notch. A chorus of bird songs rises from the primeval forest in
Kipahulu. With them you may hear complacent squeals of wild pigs that
have been undisturbed for generations.


21. _Kaupo Trail_ is a good trail that winds down Kaupo Gap, across
little meadows, through groves of small AALII trees, and under spreading
KOA trees to the park boundary which is below the 4,000-foot contour.
Wild goats may be heard on the pali or on the lavas in the gap. Kaupo
Ranch extends below the park. From the redwood water tanks, a jeep trail
descends through pastures to ranch headquarters. It is 8 miles from
Paliku to ranch headquarters, which can be hiked in a half day. Kaupo
Village on the belt road around Haleakala is 1½ miles further. The route
is interesting, but arrangements must be made in advance to be met by
car either at the ranch or the village. It is fifty miles from Central
Maui by the shortest road. Although Kaupo Trail crosses private
property, advance permission is not required to use it; but, in due
consideration, please use care to close gates and do not molest or
damage any property. _The reverse trip from Kaupo Village into the
crater is not recommended_ because of the long, arduous climb up the
unsheltered, south-facing mountain slope.

    [Illustration: Paliku Cabin.]



                          HALEAKALA HAWAIIANA


                              MAUI LEGENDS

Thus starts the story of Maui, beloved demi-god of all Polynesia in the
never-never land of long ago. Not wanted as a babe, for he was scrawny
and deformed, his mother, Hina, wrapped him in a lock of her hair and
cast him into the sea. But jellyfish rescued and mothered him, and the
god, Kanaloa, gave him protection. For all that, the growing youngster
yearned for his own, so that one day he crept back and stealthily
mingled with his four brothers. He was accepted in the family circle
only after much pleading by the eldest boy.

Maui-of-a-thousand-tricks is the favorite nickname given this
delightful, oft thoroughly human scamp. Throughout his escapades he was
ever faithful to man, so frequently fickle and unworthy. Maui made the
birds visible, for at first they could only be heard as they sang and
fluttered through the air. Maui invented spears and barbed fishhooks.
His greatest catch, so runs his fish story, was with a huge hook of
powerful magic made from the lifeless jawbone of his grandmother, who
was remarkable, for only one side of her body was alive. He tricked his
brothers into the task of manning the paddles while he, equipped with
his potent tackle, fished up the Hawaiian Islands from the depths of the
ocean. Maui first had strictly admonished the brothers not to watch him,
but only to look straight ahead. When curiosity overcame the belabored
paddlers, they disobeyed. The line parted as they looked back, leaving
the land only partly emerged, a chain of islands instead of a continuous
whole.

The story of the island of Maui thus begins and—so runs one version—Maui
lived in plain fashion on simple fare in a humble grass hut at Kauiki,
the famous foothill of Haleakala in the district of Hana. Hawaii at the
time was covered by darkness and fog, so Maui pushed the heavens to
their present position far above the highest mountains, Haleakala, Mauna
Kea, Mauna Loa, and Hualalai. Before this feat, man had to stoop and
crawl, pressed closely to the ground, for the skies were low, and were
held up by the plants whose leaves became flattened by their burden,
even as they remain today. Yet even now, when Maui is asleep, the
heavens rush back as somber clouds and darken the country with storms.
From Kauiki, Maui made his important journey to the crater to capture
the sun and force it to move slowly through the heavens that tapa may be
dried and fruits can mature. Also there are more daylight hours for
fishing and ceremonial preparations in the _heiau_. This legend, the
most pertinent to this guide, is sketched in the Introduction to Part I.

Most Hawaiian legends place Maui’s home in the black lava bank of the
Wailuku River above Hilo, while his mother chose the dark cave behind
Rainbow Falls. His exploits, so often capricious, more frequently
reflect a benefactor’s concern for mankind. Maui disclosed the art of
making fire by rubbing sticks together. Previously, man was dependent on
Pele’s volcanic furnace or on embers carefully nurtured to kindle his
fires. Maui wrung the secret from Alae, the reluctant mud-hen, who alone
knew it and guarded it with greatest care. Exasperated by repeated
frustration and deception, Maui, once he had gained her secret, punished
the stubborn bird by rubbing her head with a stick so roughly that all
the feathers came off and raw flesh appeared, which is how it remains
today.

Maui in his noblest moment gave his all for man, whose frailty brought
about the downfall of both. For Maui, too, was doomed to die some day,
since his father, like Achilles’ nurse Cynosura, had neglected a part of
the proper ceremony to make him immortal. Maui abhorred the fact that
man must die, for he regarded death as degrading and an insult to the
dignity of man. The secret of life was hidden within the heart of
Hina-nui-kepo, the dread ogress of death. To win immortality one had to
steal through her jaws, which had sharp basalt teeth, enter into the
inky blackness of the stomach, and tear out the heart. This could only
be done while Hina slept. First, Maui turned man into a little bird, and
advised him to keep very quiet, lest he awaken the fearful goddess from
her slumber. Then he went stealthily about his fearsome task, speedily
and alone. All went well until the return journey; alas! poor, weak man
could not restrain himself, but burst into uncontrollable laughter as he
watched the plight of the demigod within the ugly, gaping fish-mouth of
Hina. The great jaws closed with a snap that crushed Maui and left Death
ever after the victor. Greater love hath no man!


It would seem that the crater so high in the sky, so remote in location,
so difficult in access, so desolate in appearance, so dread in origin,
should have been shunned by the early native. Quite the contrary, many
marks of frequent and varied use may be discovered in the crater. A
trail through it connected the busy sites on West Maui and the isthmus
with Kaupo and Hana near the eastern shore. This direct route avoided
the wet heavily forested northern slopes of the mountain as well as the
precipitous, arid, rough terrain on the southwest. It was easily
traversed, in spite of the climb involved.


                       THE LEGEND OF KIHAPIILANI

“Kihapiilani was one time King of Maui. It was he who caused the road
from Kawaipapa to Kahalaoaka to be paved with smooth rocks, even to the
forests of Oopuloa in Koolau, Maui. He also was the one who built the
road of shells on Molokai.” “And,” the great Hawaiian antiquarian,
Abraham Fornander, might have continued, “he caused the trail across the
crater of Haleakala to be paved with water-worn stones, to the foot of
Hanakauhi of the mists.” Kihapiilani was the great public works king of
the islands.

Because of Kihapiilani a most remarkable event of ancient Hawaiian
history came to pass, the expedition of numberless canoes.

Three and a half centuries ago, Piilani, a king of Maui, had four
children: two sons, Lonoapii who was the eldest child, and Kihapiilani,
the youngest; and two daughters, Piikea, who became the wife of King Umi
of Hawaii, and Kihawahine, now regarded as the lizard god. When the old
king was dying, he adjured his successor, Lonoapii, to take his place as
father and to be kind to the younger brother. But alas, the young prince
was neglected and treated with contempt. One day at Waihee, two
calabashes of small fish, _nehu_, still wet with sea water, were brought
to Lonoapii. These he gave to everybody except the younger brother, who,
therefore, reached out and helped himself. This angered the king so that
he hurled the calabash and its contents into Kihapiilani’s face. Without
a word, Kihapiilani arose and travelled to Kula. After some time, he
told his story to the _kahuna_ Apuna and asked what he should do. Apuna
replied that he should seek advice at Keanae from a _kahuna_ named
Kahoko. Kahoko sent him to Hana, and from there to Hawaii, following a
certain dark object as guide. Kihapiilani and his retinue travelled the
windward side of Kohala on foot, swimming through shark-infested waters
around the bold headlands. Everywhere people gathered to him, for he was
handsome and brave. When he reached Laupahoehoe, in Hamakua, he found
his sister, Piikea, living with her husband, Umi. Umi had already become
a great chief for he had overthrown his tyrant brother, Hakau, but his
greatest deeds were yet to follow. These include the union of all of the
island of Hawaii under his rule.

When Kihapiilani explained that he was seeking someone to avenge him,
for Lonoapii had thrown salt water into his face, Piikea goaded Umi to
help him, for he had crossed the seas. So Umi sent messengers with
orders that _koa_ be felled and many canoes made ready for the crossing
to Maui. These were so numerous that when the first canoe reached
Kauiki, the last were still in Waipio. The sea was covered with canoes.
Umi ordered the canoes to be fastened bow to stern by twos, and in this
way the men walked across instead of sailing, the canoes being a
dependable road. This is known in legend as the sailing of numberless
canoes.

At Kauiki fortress the leader, Hoolae, fought bravely from the top of
the hill in daytime, but at night he set a huge wooden image of a man
with a bristling war club at the head of the ladder up which the
attackers had to climb. The trick frightened away all approaching
enemies, while the defenders slept in peace. One night, however,
Piimaiwaa took his war club and approached the giant. He hurled insults
at him from a safe distance. As his taunts drew no response or movement,
Piimaiwaa twirled his war club, threatened with gestures, and gradually
crept closer to discover the clever ruse that had fooled the forces of
Umi. With that obstacle gone, Umi’s men surprised and slew the enemy.
Hoolae was captured and killed on the eastern side of Haleakala. War
spread over all of Maui, until Lonapii was slain at Waihee and
Kihapiilani became king of the island. It could well be that during this
campaign Kihapiilani became acquainted with our crater, across which he
later constructed the paved trail, another monument to his reign.

Some believe that the trails paved with waterworn rocks were built by
_menehune_, the dwarf race supposed to work secretively at night.
Actually, the commoners performed the labor, being pressed into service
for the task. They formed an endless chain from the coast, so that rocks
could be passed from hand to hand until carefully fitted into place on
the walkway. The spaces between the larger stones were often filled with
sand or gravel.


The early Mauians had many names for different parts of the crater. Some
places had two names; sometimes one name served more than one place.
Thus there is duplication of use of the name Haleakala, for besides
being the name of the whole volcano, it is also applied to the peak on
the rim west of Kaupo Gap. Or could _haole_ confusion have given rise to
use for the whole mountain a name that once applied only to a prominence
on the rim?

    [Illustration: White Hill, Pokaoao.]


                         THE TRADITION OF KAOAO

White Hill, Pakaoao, (see Numbered Points of Interest, topic 6) is of
pale gray andesitic basalt that splits into slabs. On the leeward side
are many enclosures built of stone, 3 or 4 feet high, which are believed
to have been erected as shelters or bivouacs by the men of Kaoao, a
quarrelsome chieftain who sought refuge on the mountain after he was
driven out of Kaupo, early in the 18th century. Dr. Kenneth Emory of
Bishop Museum has an unpublished manuscript, in Hawaiian, of a legend
given to him on June 22, 1922 by Joseph V. Marciel, an old native of
Maui. Copy of the translation by Maunupau of Honolulu was graciously
given to me so that the story could be told here.

    [Illustration: The South Wall: Haleakala Peak on left, Puu Kumu on
    right.]

The _heiau_ of Keahuamanono on Haleakala Peak was built by Kaoao,
younger brother of Kekaulike, great king of Maui. The brothers were not
friends. Kaoao lived on the mountain, but Kekaulike and his men lived by
fishing and raising crops in Nuu, the district west of Kaupo Valley. One
day Kaoao sent his men north to find food from Keanae to Hana. After
they had departed, Kaoao journeyed to his brother’s house, which he
found deserted since Kekaulike had gone fishing. Kaoao proceeded to pull
and destroy all of his brother’s crops, and then returned up the
mountain.

Kekaulike was very angry when he discovered all his crops had been
destroyed. As he knew whom to blame, he ordered his men to wrap _’ala_,
sling stones, in ti leaves as if they were potatoes. Armed with these
they marched up the mountain, and found Kaoao with his bodyguard only,
for his men had not returned from the foray for food. The defenders were
soon overpowered, but Kaoao jumped over a cliff in an attempt to escape.
Kekaulike found him dying, and quickly put an end to him. When Kaoao’s
men returned from Koolau they found that their leader had been dead many
days.


                          ARCHEOLOGICAL STUDY

Dr. Kenneth Emory made an extensive archeological survey of Haleakala
Crater in 1920. He records 58 stone terraces and platforms, 9 groups of
open stone shelters, hundreds of _ahu_, and the paved trail of
Kihapiilani.[1] (See Numbered Points of Interest, topic 18.)

The huge structure built by Kaoao, as mentioned earlier in this chapter,
stands in the saddle above Kapalaoa, due south of Puu Maile. This is
west of the highest point on Haleakala Peak. It measures 57 × 36 feet
and has an eastern supporting wall 18 feet high. This has the appearance
of a _heiau_, possibly used for the worship of Pele. As such, it
resembles Oalalauo which was located on the rim of Kilauea Iki in the
Kilauea Section of Hawaii National Park. Oalalauo, seen in ruins in
1823, was described by the missionary William Ellis, who, probably the
first European to go to Kilauea Crater, has given us the first record of
a visit.[2]

Since the crater is a place of restricted access, it was used for burial
sites, which is quite in keeping with practice elsewhere in the Hawaiian
Islands. A curious local custom was the deposit of umbilical cords of
Kaupo babies in certain localities, principally in the Bottomless Pit
(Numbered Points of Interest, topic 13), and in Na Piko Haua, a pit 15
feet in diameter and 10 feet deep that is located northeast of Halemauu
Trail, less than a half mile east of Holua Cabin. The cord was wrapped
in a small piece of tapa, or, in recent days, in a scrap of gay calico
and tied with string. Sometimes it was placed in a bottle or other
container. This was then carefully stowed in crevices or cast into
Bottomless Pit. Reasons given for the practice vary. It was believed
that if the cord were destroyed or eaten by rats the child would become
a thief. Some claimed that proper disposition made a child strong. Some
aver that the custom persists to this day, showing, like belief in the
existence of Pele, the durability of ancient superstitions.

On the north wall above Paliku is a rock, Pohaku Palaha or Broad Rock,
which is called the “hub of East Maui.” Boundary lines radiating from it
mark off the pie-shaped land divisions, _ahupuaa_, that extend in all
directions to the shores of the ocean.

It is quite natural that legends, traditions, and superstitions should
be woven in and about such a great natural feature as this crater. All
prominent places had original Hawaiian names, although some were changed
with time and some are now lost. Ka Lua o ka Oo was the residence of
Kamohoalii, the brother of Pele and the king of vapor. Between Halalii
and Ka Moa o Pele is the rim of a spatter cone, Pa Puaa o Pele, which is
30 feet square with an opening on the northwest side. It protrudes only
10 feet above later volcanic deposits. This was a place of highest
_kapu_ (taboo). Merely to disturb a single grain of sand within it will
bring fog and rain, possibly death. Emory discloses the local belief
that a stone structure, 9 × 5 feet, located 45 feet east of the rim,
holds the bones of two men and a woman who had violated this _kapu_ and
who had perished in the ensuing fog. His investigation failed to reveal
any burial within the structure. In vaguer vein, it was held that a
similar fate would be meted to those disturbing a silversword. Were the
National Park committed to a policy of nature protection through fear,
this belief would be helpful indeed.



                       THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND


Captain James Cook discovered Maui on November 26, 1778, as he sailed
southwestward from Alaska on his last voyage. His record for the day
gives us the first description of Haleakala: “An elevated hill appeared
in the country, whose summit rose above the clouds. The land, from this
hill, fell in a gradual slope, terminating in a steep, rocky coast; the
sea breaking against it in a most dreadful surf.... On the 30th ...
another island was seen to the windward, called, by the natives,
_Owhyhee_. That along which we had been for some days, was called
_Mowee_.”[3]

After sailing along the eastern and southern coasts of the island of
Hawaii in its two armed ships, _Resolution_ and _Discovery_, the
expedition landed at Kealakekua Bay on January 17, 1779. Captain Cook
was worshipped as the incarnation of the god Lono, but he overstayed his
welcome, ill-will and violence taking its place. A climax was reached
over the theft of a ship’s cutter, which was broken up merely for its
nails and ironware. On February 14, Cook tried to seize the aged king
Kalaniopuu to hold as a hostage until reparation was made. In the
scuffle that ensued, the Great Mariner was killed by an _alii_, who
thrust quite through his back an iron dagger, a chief article of trade
of the Expedition. Upon departure toward the northwest, the survivors
reached Maalaea Bay on February 24, on which date the journal remarks
about Maui: “This side of the island forms the same distant view as the
north-east; ... the hilly parts, connected by a low flat isthmus,
having, at the first view, the appearance of two separate islands.”

The ill-fated French explorer, Count Jean Francois de Galaup de la
Perouse, arrived with his two frigates on May 28, 1786, in the bay
southwest of Haleakala that today bears his name. He recorded: “At every
instant we had just cause to regret the country we had left behind us;
and to add to our mortification, we did not find an anchoring place well
sheltered till we came to a dismal coast where torrents of lava had
formerly flowed like the cascades which pour forth their water in other
parts of the island.”[4] This reference is to the latest flows of
Haleakala. See page 37.

On Vancouver’s first exploring expedition to the islands, Edward Bell
made the following entry for March 6, 1792 in the log of the _Chatham_:
“... the south shore ... had by no means a very inviting appearance,—it
was remarkably high and seemed extremely barren;—from the top of the
Mountains to the waters edge are deep Gullies or ruts form’d I suppose
by the water running down,—and there appeared but little wood on this
side (except towards the Top) and as little Cultivation, here and there
we saw a few Huts and a small Village, several of which appeared half
way up.”

On Vancouver’s next visit, Thomas Manby recorded in the journal for
March 10, 1793: “... south side of the island which presented a prospect
not very grateful to the eye as the land was high and rugged with
frequent mounds of Cinders caused by volcanic eruptions.” On March 14,
1793, the botanist A. Menzies, with some of Vancouver’s crew, climbed a
valley back of Lahaina and made botanical observations.

When the first missionaries from New England came to Hawaii, Elisha
Loomis, a printer, remarked in his journal for March 30, 1820: “As we
double the northern extremity of Owhyhee the lofty heights of Maui are
on our right.” The spelling, Maui, is evidently a correction made later,
as the original spelling appears elsewhere in early missionary usage.
Already by 1822, the members of this expedition had adopted the five
vowels and seven consonants of the Romance languages used today in
reducing the Hawaiian language to writing and printing. Thus, the
confusion of earlier English writers was dispelled.

Lorrin Andrews and Jonathan F. Green, ordained missionaries, and Dr.
Gerrit P. Judd, physician, were with the third mission from New England.
They arrived in Honolulu on March 30, 1828. They visited Rev. William
Richards in Lahaina and toured Maui the following summer. Extracts
concerning the trip of Dr. and Mrs. Judd were published in 1880 with an
introductory note by Albert Francis Judd, a son. In the preface, dated
May 1861, Mrs. Judd states that the sketches were “culled and abridged
from a mass of papers” without pretense of writing a history. Under the
date of July 1828, the narrative relates a Fourth of July excursion and
includes: “The mountain on the east division is Haleakala (house of the
sun), and is the largest crater in the world, but is not in action.”[5]
Unfortunately, the original notes have been lost, and the reference to
the mountain by name must have been inserted at a much later date in
preparing the manuscript for publication. It would be hard to believe
that Mrs. Judd could possibly have started the fiction, “largest crater
on earth,” at the early date of 1828. The Judds did not climb the
mountain during their visit, and Hawaiians were not in a position to
make comparisons among craters of the world.

On August 21, 1828, Richards, Andrews, and Green made the first recorded
ascent of Haleakala. They could not have known a name for the mountain,
for they refer to it only as “the highest land on Maui” and as “an
extinct volcano.” Not until six years later was their account published.
The following quotations relate to their trip:[6] “Mr. Richards had for
years been particularly desirous of making the tour of this island for
the purpose of examining and improving the schools, etc., but having
been alone, it has hitherto been impracticable for him to leave his
family for a sufficient length of time. During the present season this
object has been accomplished.” Mr. Richards had arrived in Hawaii in
1823, and had taken over the mission in Lahaina shortly afterwards at
the request of Queen Keopuolani. He had not mentioned the big mountain
in previous correspondence and reports.

“Here (at ’Kaalimaile,’ perhaps the Haliimaile of today) we tarried
overnight, intending, in the morning, to ascend the mountain, near which
we were, and sleep on the highest land on Maui. We were told by the
natives, that the way was long, but the ascent very easy. We suppose no
English travellers had ever ascended this mountain.

“21. We rose early, and prepared for our ascent. Having procured a
guide, we set out; taking only a scanty supply of provisions. Half way
up the mountain, we found plenty of good water, and, at a convenient
fountain, we filled our calabash for tea. By the sides of our path, we
found plenty of ohelos, (a juicy berry, very palatable,) and,
occasionally, a cluster of strawberries. On the lower part of the
mountain, there is considerable timber; but as we proceeded, it became
scarce; and, as we approached the summit, almost the only thing, of the
vegetable kind, which we saw, was a plant which grew to the height of
six or eight feet, and produced a most beautiful flower. It seems to be
peculiar to this mountain, as our guide and servants made ornaments of
it for their hats, to demonstrate to those below, that they had been to
the top of the mountain.

“It was nearly 5 o’clock, when we reached the summit; but we felt
ourselves richly repaid for the toil of the day, by the grandeur and
beauty of the scene, which at once opened up to our view. The day was
very fine. The clouds, which hung over the mountains on West Maui, and
which were scattered promiscuously, between us and the sea, were far
below us; so that we saw the _upper side_ of them, while the reflection
of the sun painting their verge with varied tints, made them appear like
enchantment. We gazed on them with admiration, and longed for the pencil
of Raphael, to give perpetuity to a prospect, which awakened in our
bosoms unutterable emotions. On the other side, we beheld the seat of
Pele’s dreadful reign. We stood on the edge of a tremendous crater, down
which, a single misstep would have precipitated us, 1,000 or 1,500 feet.
This was once filled with liquid fire, and in it, we counted sixteen
extinguished craters. To complete the grandeur of the scene, Mouna Kea,
and Mouna Roa lifted their lofty summits, and convinced us, that, though
far above the _clouds_, we were far below the feet of the traveller who
ascends the mountains of Hawaii. By this time, the sun was nearly sunk
in the Pacific; and we looked around for a shelter during the night. Our
guide and other attendants we had left far behind; and we reluctantly
began our descent, keeping along on the edge of the crater.

“After descending about a mile, we met the poor fellows, who were
hobbling along on the sharp lava, as fast as their feet would suffer
them. They were glad to stop for the night, though they complained of
the _cold_. We kindled a fire, and preparations were made for tea and
lodgings. The former we obtained with little trouble. We boiled part of
a chicken, roasted a few potatoes, and, gathering round the fire, we
made a comfortable meal; but the place of lodging, we obtained with some
difficulty. At length, we spread our mats and blankets in a small yard,
enclosed, probably, by natives, when passing from one side of the island
to the other. We were within twenty-feet of the precipice, and the wind
whistled across the valley, forcibly reminding us of a November evening
in New England. The thermometer had fallen from 77 to 43* (*The next
morning, the thermometer stood at 40.), and we shivered with the cold.
The night was long and comfortless.

“22. Early in the morning, we arose, and reascended the mountain, to its
summit, and contemplated the beauties of the rising sun, and gazed a
while longer, on the scenery before us. There seemed to be but two
places, where the lava had found a passage to the sea, and through these
channels, it must have rushed with tremendous velocity. Not having an
instrument, we were unable to ascertain the height of the mountain. We
presume it would not fall short of 10,000 feet.* (*This, I believe, is
the height at which it has generally been estimated.) The circumference
of the great crater, we judged to be no less than fifteen miles. We were
anxious to remain longer, that we might descend into the crater, examine
the appearance of things below, and ascend other eminences; but as we
were nearly out of provisions, and our work but just commenced, we
finished our chicken and tea, and began our descent.

“Nothing remarkable occurred, on our way down....”

The United States Exploring Expedition under the command of Lieutenant
Charles Wilkes, USN, visited Hawaii in 1840 and 1841. On February 15,
1841, Wilkes dispatched Messrs. Pickering, Drayton, and Breckenridge
from Hilo to explore Maui. They were joined at Lahaina by Rev. Andrews,
his son, four students of the seminary, and six _kanakas_ to carry their
food. At Wailuku they were joined by Mr. Bailey (see page 40). They
spent the night at an elevation of 1,692 feet on the sugar plantation of
Lane and Minor, two Bostonians. The story of their ascent, which is the
second recorded, is told by quoting from their report:[7]

“The next day, the party set out at an early hour, in hopes of reaching
the summit, but it began to rain violently, in consequence of which they
took shelter in a large cave, at an altitude of eight thousand and
ninety feet. Here many interesting plants were found, among which were
two species of Pelargonium, one with dark crimson, the other with lilac
flowers; the Argyroziphium began to disappear as they ascended, and its
place was taken up by the silky species, which is only found at high
altitudes. From the cave to the summit they found shrubby plants,
consisting of Epacris, Vaccinium, Edwardsia, Compositae, and various
rubiaceous plants.

“On their arrival at the edge of the crater, on the summit, the clouds
were driving with great velocity through it, and completely concealed
its extent. The height, as ascertained by the barometer, was ten
thousand two hundred feet. The driving of the sleet before the strong
gale soon affected the missionaries and native students, the latter of
whom for the first time, felt the effects of cold. The limit-line of
woods was ascertained to be at six thousand five hundred feet.

“Some sandalwood bushes were noticed about five hundred feet above the
cave. Above the cave the ground assumed a more stony appearance, and the
rock became now and then more visible, which had not before been the
case. Where the rock was exposed it was found to be lava more or less
vesicular, but no regular stream was observed. The surface of the lava
appeared to be more thickly covered with earth than that of Mauna Kea,
and consequently a greater proportion of soil existed, as well as a
thick coating of gravel. Near the summit, bullock-tracks were observed,
and likewise those of wild dogs, but no other animals were seen except a
few goats.

“The crater of Haleakala, if so it may be called, is a deep gorge, open
at the north and east, forming a kind of elbow: the bottom of it, as
ascertained by the barometer, was two thousand seven hundred and
eighty-three feet below the summit peak, and two thousand and
ninety-three feet below the wall. Although its sides are steep, yet a
descent is practicable at almost any part of it. The inside of the
crater was entirely bare of vegetation, and from its bottom arose some
large hills of scoria and sand: some of the latter are of an ochre-red
colour at the summit, with small craters in the centre. All bore the
appearance of volcanic action, but the natives have no tradition of an
eruption. It was said, however, that in former times the dread goddess
Pele had her habitation here, but was driven out by the sea, and then
took up her abode on Hawaii, where she has ever since remained. Can this
legend refer to a time when the volcanoes of Maui were in activity?

“The gravel that occurred on the top was composed of small angular
pieces of cellular lava, resembling comminuted mineral coal. The rock
was of the same character as that seen below, containing irregular
cavities rather than vesicles. Sometimes grains of chrysolite and
horn-blende were disseminated. In some spots the rock was observed to be
compact, and had the appearance of argillite or slate: this variety
occurred here chiefly in blocks, but was also seen in situ. It affords
the whetstones of the natives, and marks were seen which they had left
in procuring them.

“Of the origin of the name Mauna Haleakala, or the House of the Sun, I
could not obtain any information. Some of the residents thought it might
be derived from the sun rising from over it to the people of West Maui,
which it does at some seasons of the year.

“Having passed the night at the cave, Mr. Baily (_sic_) and young
Andrews preferred returning to the coast, rather than longer to endure
the cold and stormy weather on the mountain.

“Our gentlemen made excursions to the crater, and descended into it. The
break to the north appears to have been occasioned by the violence of
volcanic action within. There does not appear any true lava stream on
the north, but there is a cleft or valley which has a steep descent:
here the soil was found to be of a spongy nature, and many interesting
plants were found, among the most remarkable of which was the
arborescent Geranium.

“The floor of the crater, in the north branch, is extremely rough and
about two miles wide at the apex, which extends to the sea. In the
ravines there is much compact argillaceous rock, similar to what had
been observed on Mauna Kea, retaining, like it, pools of water. The
rock, in general, was much less absorbent than on the mountains of
Hawaii.

“Mr. Drayton made an accurate drawing or plan of the crater, the
distances on which are estimated, but the many cross bearings serve to
make its relative proportions correct. Perhaps the best idea that can be
given of the size of this cavity, is by the time requisite to make a
descent into it being one hour, although the depth is only two thousand
feet. The distance from the middle to either opening was upwards of five
miles; that to the eastward was filled with a line of hills of scoria,
some of them five or six hundred feet high; under them was lying a lava
stream, that, to appearance, was nearly horizontal, so gradual was its
fall. The eastern opening takes a short turn to the southeast, and then
descends rapidly to the coast.

“At the bottom were found beds of hard gravel, and among it what
appeared to be carbonate of lime, and detached black crystals like
augite, but chrysolite was absent.

“From the summit of the mountain the direction of the lava stream could
be perceived, appearing, as it approached the sea, to assume more the
shape of a delta.

“From the summit the whole cleft or crater is seen, and could be traced
from the highest point between the two coasts, flowing both to the
northward and eastward. Volcanic action seems also to have occurred on
the southwest side, for a line of scoria hills extends all the way down
the mountain, and a lava stream is said to have burst forth about a
century ago, which still retains its freshness. The scoria hills on the
top very much resemble those of Mauna Kea, but the mountain itself
appears wholly unlike either of the two in Hawaii, and sinks into
insignificance when compared with them.

“Although I have mentioned lava streams on this mountain, yet they are
not to be understood as composed of true lava, as on Mauna Loa; none of
the latter were seen except that spoken of on the southwest side, and
none other is believed to exist. No pumice or capillary glass was at any
time seen, nor are they known to exist on this island. On the wall of
the crater, in places, the compass was so much affected by local
attraction as to become useless.

“Near the summit is a small cave, where they observed the silkworm eggs
of Mr. Richards, which were kept here in order to prevent them from
hatching at an improper season. The thermometer in the cave stood at
44°; the temperature at the highest point was 36°, and in the crater
71°. After three days’ stay, the party returned to the establishment of
Messrs. Lane and Minor, and thence to Wailuku. They were much gratified
with their tour.”

The name Haleakala can thus be regarded as having been formally
introduced by members of the Wilkes Expedition. As the fame of the
beauties and wonders of the mountain spread, visitors from all parts of
the globe came to make the arduous climb to the summit. Most found
shelter from the elements in natural caves. Big Flea and Little Flea
caves, a quarter of a mile from the summit, are often mentioned in early
accounts. That their accommodation was not highly relished can be seen
from a description by Damon in 1847: “... which did not hold out many
attractions, and I have good reasons for believing it already possessed
tenants that would sharply contend for occupancy with any way-faring and
luckless wight.”[8] In tales of early visits, literature—especially the
Bible—was gleaned for phraseology that might help portray emotions felt;
fantastic similes and metaphors were drawn to transmit comprehension of
the scene. On a visit in 1853, G. W. Bates mentioned: “From the point
where I stood a huge pit, capable of burying three cities as large as
New York—opened before me.”[9] True, New York then lacked its present
colossal stature, but a milder expression, “could hold the whole of New
York City” still is in use today. For information, the following areas
are given from _Thrum’s Annual_ and the _World Almanac_: area of
Haleakala “crater,” 19.0 sq. mi.; area of Maui, 728 sq. mi.; area of
Manhattan borough, 31.2 sq. mi.; area of New York City, 381 sq. mi.
Discomforts, silversword, sandalwood, wild dogs, cattle, goats, the
weather, and personal impressions form much of the subject matter of
early essays.

The early residents of Maui recognized the value of the mountain as a
scenic feature and tourist attraction. Their first move was for better
overnight shelter on the mountain. C. W. Dickey in 1894 raised $850 by
popular subscription for material with which to build a simple shelter
at Kalahaku Lookout. H. P. Baldwin and the sugar plantations furnished
labor and pack animals. The long trip of 25 miles to the location had to
be made on foot or by saddle, and required a full, tiring day; all
building material except rock had to be transported by pack stock. In
painfully characteristic manner, many of those for whose benefit the
sweat and toil were expended proved unworthy since they roughly abused
the structure. Windows were broken, timber in the floor and walls was
ripped out and used for firewood, and garbage and filth accumulated. A
tropical storm added to the damage by unroofing the house; Worth Aiken
raised $1,500 for its renovation and repair. In 1914-15, the cabin was
improved with a concrete floor, metal doors, and metal shutters. Two
additional dormitories were added in 1924-25 at a cost of $11,000 and
operation of the building was turned over to E. J. Walsh, manager of the
Grand Hotel, Wailuku. Usefulness dropped with the opening of the
Haleakala Road, so that on September 24, 1934 its custodian, the Maui
Chamber of Commerce, transferred ownership to the National Park Service.
The structures were razed in 1957, but plans are underway to replace
them with a modern observatory in which people may look at the scene in
glass-enclosed comfort.

In the movement to create a National Park in Hawaii in the early part of
the 20th century, the idea developed that it should consist of the
craters of Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and Haleakala. The citizens of Maui gave
full approval for including their beloved mountain. Hawaii National
Park, composed of these three sections, was established by Act of
Congress on August 1, 1916, but formal dedication was delayed until
1921. Following improvement of Halemauu Trail in 1929, a permanent
ranger position was set up for continuous attention to the area. Today
it is administered by an assistant superintendent who has a staff of two
rangers and a naturalist.

The building of a road to the summit was fulfillment of a promise to the
people of Maui when the park was created. The first step had to be
construction by the Territory of a highway from Pukalani Junction to the
park boundary near Puu Nianiau. This was completed at a cost of $504,000
in April 1933 after 39 months of work. As with similar projects
elsewhere in Hawaii, superstitions of long-ago reappeared. Although not
antagonistic to progress, Hawaiians raised a cry that all effort was
futile; the chicken god, Kalau-heli-moa, would conspire and never permit
the project to be completed. Every mishap was attributed to this
nemesis.

The Park Service completed its commitment soon afterwards at the cost of
$376,000. The road was armor-surfaced in the fall of 1935. Extensive,
appropriate dedication ceremonies were held for the opening.

With the establishment of a Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camp in
Kilauea, a strip camp of 25 men was set up near Puu Nianiau cinder cone.
Part of the time, a tent camp was also established within the crater.
Many improvements became possible through this undertaking. The
observatory building on the summit was constructed in 1936; the three
shelters within the crater, Kapalaoa, Paliku, and Holua, were built a
year later. Prior to their completion, overnight shelter was sought in
caves, the best known being Bubble Cave (see Numbered Points of
Interest, topic 15) and Holua Cave which is in the pali wall behind the
cabin.

The CCC camp was abandoned in April 1941, and its structures were turned
over to the Army that greatly improved them. During the period of its
occupancy, the Army constructed for radar installation the ugly concrete
block house that still protrudes on the summit of Red Hill. With
evacuation of the military, the CCC quarters were adapted for the
service of a concessioner to supply meals and lodging within the park.

Normal travel to Haleakala was interrupted for a year when the section
was closed following the attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941.
Annual travel had passed the 25,000 mark in 1939. Travel for the year
1958 reached a high of 56,940 visitors.

The summit of Haleakala attracted early consideration as a site for
various scientific studies. It is a prime target for many scientific
planners, because the high mountain is situated in the middle of a broad
ocean, yet the summit is readily accessible by road. Often this
eagerness has obscured possible use of other suitable sites and has
clashed with the basic purpose of the area as a National Park. The
National Park Service strives to keep the scene as primitive as
possible, assiduously blending buildings and structures into the
landscape, whereas the non-conformist gives no thought to this but
follows the easiest way. Too often economy of construction and
operation, together with careless housekeeping, invert an attraction to
a repulsion which even the splendor of the scene cannot offset. Skyline
buildings, obtrusively strung wires, thoughtlessly gouged land, and
abandoned debris are not conducive to aesthetic experience, whatever
their purpose or whoever the offender.

    [Illustration: Haleakala holiday.]

The earliest scientific study associated with the mountain concerned
weather. It is said that the Hawaiian Islands are situated near a
critical area in the Pacific which is a birthplace of weather. The
summit offers an ideal place for detection and observance of the
formation of high clouds. Much additional research is needed to provide
a steady flow of data for successful and safe operation of air
transportation. Many crashes have been blamed on lack of weather data.
The task is not always simple, as statistical readings may be confusing.
Those made on Red Hill, for example, are influenced by local circulation
set up by the heating of several square miles of black, barren lava and
cinders.

The Federal Aeronautics Administration maintains a station a mile beyond
Red Hill. In the earlier fifties cosmic radiation was studied with a
huge revolving truss located back of Red Hill. The military has set up
apparatus and teams from time to time for experiments with radio, radar,
and radiation. Finally, for the International Geophysical Year,
Haleakala summit was chosen for one of the important satellite tracking
stations supervised by the Smithsonian Institution of Washington.


                            IMPORTANT DATES

500 A. D., ca.—Hawaii discovered by Hawaii-loa, Polynesian
      fisherman-navigator who, tradition says, came from Kahiki
      (Tahiti?), an island to the south. He made several round trips,
      bringing with him a large company of retainers.

1100 ca.—After a wave of navigation, intercourse with Tahiti ended.

1300 ca.—According to an ancient chant, _mele_, Kalaunuiohua, _moi_ of
      Hawaii, conquered Maui. _Moi_, in 19th century Hawaiian, signifies
      the supreme ruler or head chief, now usually termed _king_.

1500—Piilani, king of Maui. He was succeeded by Lonoapii who in turn was
      overthrown by his brother Kihapiilani and his brother-in-law, King
      Umi of the Big Island. Bloody battles stretched from Kauiki to the
      sands of Waihee.

1555—Possible discovery of Hawaii by Juan Gaetano, Spanish navigator. He
      prepared a manuscript chart now in the Spanish archives which
      contains a group of islands in the latitude of Hawaii but whose
      longitude is 10 degrees too far to the east. What corresponds to
      Maui is called _La Desgradiada_, the unfortunate. The largest,
      most southerly island, which should be the present Hawaii is
      labelled _La Mesa_, the table. Three other islands, appearing to
      be Kahoolawe, Lanai, and Molokai, are called _Los Monjes_, the
      monks.

1736—King Kekaulike died and was succeeded by Kamehamehanui.

1737—Alapainui, _moi_ of Hawaii, invaded Maui via Kaupo. He took with
      him two young princely half-brothers, Kalaniopuu and Keoua. Keoua
      was father of Kamehameha I. Since Alapainui found his adversary,
      Kekaulike, dead, he made peace with the nephew, Kamehamehanui. The
      two joined forces to repel the invader, Kapiiohokalani of Oahu, in
      bloody, obstinate battles that ended in the rout of the Oahu army
      at Kawela, Molokai.

1738—At Keawawa, West Maui, Alapanainui and Kamehamehanui decisively
      defeated Kauhi, the latter’s brother and usurper of power.

1750 ca.—The calculated date of the most recent activity of Haleakala,
      the Keoneoio flow above La Perouse Bay. The flow originated at
      Kaluaolapa at an elevation of 575 feet, and from vents one mile
      further northeast at an elevation of 1,550 feet. The method of
      dating is interesting. In 1841, Rev. Edward Bailey of Wailuku
      inquired about the eruption and was informed by Hawaiians that it
      happened at the time of their grandfathers. In 1906, Lorrin A.
      Thurston was told by a Chinese-Hawaiian cowboy, Charles Ako, that
      his father-in-law’s grandfather at the time of the event was just
      old enough to carry “two” coconuts 4 or 5 miles from the sea to
      the upper road at an elevation of 2,000 feet. Since Hawaiians
      counted coconuts by fours, “two” probably refers to a total of
      eight nuts. Mr. Bailey was told that a woman and child were
      trapped by the flow but escaped after it cooled. By 1922, 80 years
      later, this tale had grown into a neo-myth about a husband and
      wife with their two children. The mother and her young daughter
      fled _mauka_, but were seized by Pele, and turned into the two
      lava columns that stand beside the vent at Kaluaolapa. The father
      and son, plunged into the sea and started swimming toward
      Kahoolawe. Pele cast rocks after them and turned the two to stone.
      The two rocks, a big and a little one, can be seen today rising
      out of the sea several hundred feet out from shore as proof of the
      tale. Mr. Thurston’s estimate of the date of the eruption is 1750
      while J. F. G. Stokes, Hawaiian ethnologist, favors a later date,
      possibly 1770.

1754—Kalaniopuu, warlike king of Hawaii, captured the fortress Kauiki
      and held it successfully for more than 20 years.

1765—Kamehamehanui died and was succeeded by his brother, Kahekili.

1768—Queen Kaahumanu was born at Kauiki. She became the favorite wife of
      Kamehameha I.

1775—Kalaniopuu was defeated by Kahekili at Kaupo.

1776—Kalaniopuu invaded Maui at Maalaea; his army was annihilated on the
      sand hills near Wailuku.

1777—Kalaniopuu took Lanai but again was repelled when he tried to
      invade Maui.

1778, November 26—Captain James Cook, Royal British Navy, discovered
      Maui.

1781—Kahekili reconquered East Maui. He recaptured the fort at Kauiki by
      cutting off the water supply. To show contempt, he baked the
      bodies of the defenders in earth ovens.

1786—Kamehameha I sent an expedition to recapture East Maui. It was
      defeated at Kipahulu by Kalanikapule, the son of King Kahekili.

1786, May 28—La Perouse visited Maui and camped on Keoneoio lava flow.

1790—Olowalu massacre. The snow, _Eleanor_, under Captain Simon Metcalf,
      treacherously opened fire on native boats following a truce made
      after one white sailor had been murdered. More than a hundred
      natives were slaughtered.

1790—Conquest of Maui by Kamehameha I after landing at Hana. He
      decisively defeated Kalanikapule, in the Battle of Iao Valley or
      Kepaniwai.

1793—Vancouver visited Maui on his second expedition. He tried to bring
      about an end to the wars and to establish a lasting peace between
      Maui and Hawaii.

1795—Maui was subdued by Kamehameha I without a battle.

1819—Kamehameha I, king of all Hawaii, died. Abolition of the _kapu_
      system by Kamehameha II, incited by his guardian, Queen Kaahumanu.

1823—The Christian mission at Lahaina was founded by Rev. William
      Richards and A. S. Stewart. On September 16, Queen Keopuolani, a
      wife of Kamehameha I and a devout Christian, died at Lahaina. She
      was buried with services by Rev. William Ellis.

1824—At Lahaina, Queen Regent Kaahumanu orally proclaimed a law
      forbidding desecration of the Sabbath, fighting, murder, and
      theft.

1825—The English frigate _The Blonde_ anchored off Lahaina with the
      bodies of King Liholiho (Kamehameha II) and his queen, Kamamalu.
      They had died from measles while on a visit to London.

1825—The crew from the Whaler _Daniel_ attempted to demolish the home of
      Rev. Richards, Lahaina.

    [Illustration: Sliding Sands Trail.]

1826—Mosquitoes from Mexico were introduced at Lahaina by the SS
      _Wellington_.

1827—The Whaler _John Palmer_ fired on the home of Rev. Richards.

1829—Ascent of Haleakala by a missionary party.

1834—First Hawaiian newspaper _Lama Hawaii_ was published at Lahainaluna
      Mission School.

1839—An Hawaiian “Bill of Rights” was signed at Lahaina by Kamehameha
      III. It afforded protection to all people and their property while
      they conformed to the laws of the kingdom.

1841—Haleakala Crater was visited by Pickering and Breckenridge of the
      United States Exploring Expedition under Captain John Wilkes, U.
      S. Navy.

1841-1849—Peak of whaling industry in Hawaii. Lahaina was visited by 596
      Whalers in 1846.

1850—David Malo, Hawaiian antiquarian and teacher at Lahainaluna School,
      Lahaina, conducted Rev. William P. Alexander and Curtis Lyons from
      Kaupo through Haleakala Crater, to Makawao, “a trip never before
      undertaken by white men.”

1876—S. F. Alexander and H. P. Baldwin started construction of the
      Hamakua Ditch, first big irrigation project in Hawaii.

1890—First pineapples were planted at Haiku.

1893—Overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of the Republic of
      Hawaii. Queen Liliuokalani was the last reigning sovereign.

1898, August 12—Hawaii was annexed to United States by joint legislation
      of Congress. President Dole was appointed first governor.

1916—Hawaii National Park was established by Act of Congress on August 1
      with Haleakala Crater forming the Section on Maui.

1921—Hawaii National Park was formally opened.

1929, November 11—Establishment of commercial air service between the
      islands.

1930—First permanent park position (ranger) was established to give
      continuous service at Haleakala.

1931—First permanent park naturalist was appointed for Hawaii National
      Park, although temporary, summer interpretive services were
      started in the late twenties by the employment of Otto Degener,
      formerly botanist at the University of Hawaii. Dr. Degener,
      presently writing Book 6 of his “_Flora Hawaiiensis_,” kindly
      supplied many of the scientific plant names for this guide.

1935 February 23—Dedication ceremonies of Haleakala Road in Hawaii
      National Park.

1937—Kapalaoa, Paliku, and Holua cabins were constructed.

1941—Haleakala closed to travel for military reasons.

1952-3—Present exhibits were installed in Summit Observation Station.

1958—Permanent naturalist position established for Haleakala.

1959—Hawaii becomes the 50th state in the Union.



                                GEOLOGY


                   THE ORIGIN OF THE SCENIC FEATURES

_The Island of Maui_ was built by two volcanoes. That forming West Maui
is deeply dissected into several high peaks. The old summit crater now
is encompassed by the head of Iao Valley. Mt. Kukui, the highest point,
has an elevation of 5,788 feet.

East Maui is built of three series of lava products from Haleakala
Volcano whose flows extended westward across the present isthmus to come
to rest against the base of West Maui Volcano. These represent three
great periods of activity, the latter two being separated by a long
interval of quiescence that was characterized by intense erosion and
mild, if any, eruptions. Geologists designate these three periods by the
names Honomanu, Kula, and Hana. The mountain was built over three rifts,
northerly, easterly, and southwesterly, each extending about fifteen
miles.

In earliest (Honomanu) time, about the beginning of the Ice Ages, a
symmetrical shield like Mauna Loa was built of pahoehoe and aa basalts
8,500 feet above present sea-level. During the next (Kula) cycle,
eruptions were more explosive in nature; flows were composed of more
viscous andesite between which layers of ash and soil accumulated. Big
cinder cones and extensive ash beds were formed at this time. Like Mauna
Kea today, the Honomanu dome was capped by a craterless mound of
cinders, 2,500 feet high, that was studded with many lesser cones. The
summit was a mile east of the present top on Red Hill and a thousand
feet higher than it is today.

As Kula eruptions declined and grew less frequent, running water cut
deeply into the sides of the mountain and excavated four great valleys,
Keanae, Kaupo, Kipahulu, and Waihoi, that had broad heads, thousands of
feet deep. Numerous lesser valleys were later to be buried more or less
by lava flows. Most of the eastern summit ridge was worn away; Kaupo and
Keanae Valleys met near the summit and fused into a great depression
like that near the head of Iao Valley today. At one time, a great flow
of mud, probably triggered by an earthquake, swept all before it as it
moved down Kaupo Valley into the sea. Its remnants today are 350 feet
deep at Puu Maneoneo near the coastal road. A similar mass movement of
rock on soft mud was started by an earthquake on April 2, 1868 at Wood
Valley, west of the Kilauea Section of Hawaii National Park; the flow,
in its precipitous descent, buried a village with 31 people and more
than 500 head of stock.

In recent times, volcanism again quickened at Haleakala, giving the
third (Hana) series of volcanics. This veneered the east and west slopes
of the volcano, covered the floor of the depression, and pushed great
lava flows through Koolau and Kaupo Gaps to the sea. Large flows and
cones mask the divide that delimited the two great valleys. During Hana
time, the northern rift alone remained inactive. The most recent
activity, dated by Hawaiian legend as 1750, is represented by two bare,
black flows above La Perouse Bay, the southwest corner of the island.

    [Illustration: The Recent Cinder Cones.]

Haleakala Crater, 7 miles long and 2½ miles wide, is locally proclaimed
the largest extinct crater on earth, but the claim like the name is
inaccurate. Nevertheless, it possesses a most unusual geological origin
and beauty that give it a worthy place among the National Parks.

    [Illustration: HAWAII NATIONAL PARK
    HALEAKALA SECTION]

                            NUMBERED POINTS
  1. PARK ENTRANCE; SILVERSWORD INN
  2. HOSMER GROVE CAMPGROUND AND PICNIC AREA
  3. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, HAWAII NATIONAL PARK, HALEAKALA SECTION
  4. KALAHAKU OVERLOOK; SILVERSWORD PLANTS
  5. OBSERVATORY
  6. WHITE HILL, START OF SLIDING SANDS TRAIL
  7. RED HILL; SUMMIT OF HALEAKALA
  8. SKYLINE DRIVE
  9. START OF HALEMAUU TRAIL
  10. HOLUA CABIN
  11. SILVERSWORD LOOP
  12. ANCIENT HAWAIIAN TRAIL
  13. BOTTOMLESS PIT
  14. KA MOA O PELE TRAIL
  15. BUBBLE CAVE
  16. WAIKAU CABIN
  17. VOLCANIC DIKES; ANCIENT DIVIDE BETWEEN KOOLAU AND KAUPO RIVER
          VALLEYS
  18. LAUULU TRAIL
  19. PALIKU CABIN
  20. KIPAHULU VALLEY
  21. KAUPO TRAIL
  KIPAHULU FOREST RESERVE
  KOOLAU FOREST RESERVE
  HALEAKALA RANCH


                     THE GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION

The summit depression of Haleakala stimulates speculation, and competent
geologists have come up with widely differing hypotheses regarding its
origin. In the account of their visit (see The Historical Background, p.
29), the first foreign visitors naturally used the term “crater,” which
has been in vogue ever since. Pickering and Drayton of the Wilkes
Expedition remark, “The crater of Haleakala, if so it may be called, is
a deep gorge.”[10]

Drayton’s sketch was the first published map of the crater. James Dana,
the great geologist with the Expedition, sailed past the mountain and
later wrote a physiographic description based on notes made by Pickering
and Drayton. In the official report, he expressed the idea, suggested by
the crude map, that the mountain has been ripped apart by mighty
convulsions that attended the most recent activity, so that the
northeastern (Hana) part was separated along a zigzag crack from the
rest of the mountain by the width of Keanae and Kaupo Valleys.[11]
During the great eruptions that attended the rending, lava covered the
floor and poured in great floods through Koolau and Kaupo Gaps.

W. D. Alexander, who surveyed the crater in 1869, believed: “... this is
a real terminal crater, and not merely ‘a deep gorge open at the north
and east’ or a caldera. I have indeed heard the theory proposed that the
mountain is but a wreck of a complete dome with a small terminal crater,
the whole top of which has fallen in and been carried away, as is
supposed to have been the case with some of the volcanoes of Java, and
the caldera of Palma.”[12]

C. E. Dutton, volcanologist of the United States Geological Survey,
objected to Dana’s explanation and wrote that the depression is
“strictly homologous” to Kilauea Crater, that is, a collapsed
caldera.[13] He assumed that this had been tapped by the upper ends of
Keanae and Kaupo drainages. In 1887, Dana had opportunity to make a
quick trip through the crater and down Kaupo Valley, so that he tempered
his earlier opinion and decided that Keanae and Kaupo valleys might be
graben.[14] Reginald Daly of Harvard rejected the hypothesis that the
depression was like Kilauea Crater, since arcuate faults so prominent at
Kilauea are apparently absent at Haleakala.[15] In his paper on
petrography, Whitman Cross stated, “What is commonly called the crater
of Haleakala appears to me to be, in some part at least, a result of
erosion.”[16] At about the same time, Sidney Powers stated his belief
that Kipahulu and Waihoi Valleys are graben, but he based his opinion on
“authentic reports” and does not claim that he saw the valleys.[17]

    [Illustration: Ahinahina (silversword).]

H. T. Stearns analyzed carefully all the supporting evidence and
objections to the various viewpoints.[18] Of all of his profession, he
made the most thorough field surveys, with the conclusion that the
“crater” is chiefly erosional, affected by the recession of two great
amphitheater-headed valleys, instead of by collapse, sliding away of the
side of a cone, or explosion. Small craters may have existed at the
time, but not a large one resembling the present depression. He believed
that the big size results from the fact that the heads were offset and
not in a straight line. The shape of the depression is what would result
upon the fusion of two amphitheater heads similar to those of Waikoi,
Kipahulu, and Manawainui valleys of today. Each of these is a typical
Hawaiian valley, narrow at the base, but with a broad amphitheater at
the head. Kipahulu is separated from Waihoi and from Kaupo Valleys by
narrow divides. It can be assumed that a similar divide once separated
the amphitheaters at the heads of the early Kaupo and Keanae drainages.
Stearns further believes that once the rift zone was reached, stream
erosion was greatly accelerated because of the loosely knit structure,
the presence of many weak cinder cones, and the dike complex. This
complex, as in other places in Hawaii, must have yielded perennial
spring water to accelerate erosion. His summary is as follows:

“No stratigraphic or constructural evidence was found to support the
hypothesis that Haleakala Crater is a true caldera, that it was formed
by renting, or that Keanae and Kaupo valleys tapping this depression are
grabens. Instead, detailed mapping and the examination of water tunnels
show that Haleakala dome has been eroded by a number of great valleys.
The hypothesis is presented that the so-called “crater” of Haleakala is
chiefly, if not entirely, the result of the coalescence of the
amphitheater heads of Kaupo and Keanae valleys and that renewed volcanic
activity has partly masked their former divide and partly filled these
valleys with lava flows.”


                            HALEAKALA PLANTS

Haleakala rises above the belt of warm trade winds into the cold, dry
climate of the Alpine Zone. Temperatures at night may drop below
freezing even in the warmer part of the year; the growing season is
short and life is severe. The sparse plants that can live here crouch
closely to the ground, diffusing or forming compact rosettes. All they
have in which to grow are porous rocks and loose cinders that cannot
hold moisture, lack organic matter, and do not yield a firm base for
rooting. Species extending to lower elevations are here depauperate from
wind and cold, although elsewhere they may attain a sturdy stature, even
tree-size. Few seedlings are seen; individuals whose life span has
finished remain conspicuous in death. Neither trees nor mats of shrubs
are seen, but mosses and lichens find this Alpine desert to their
liking. Oddly enough, one looks in vain for brilliant blossoms, such as
one has come to expect in the high Sierra and the Rockies. The summit is
a biological island on an oceanic island which, geological evidence
indicates, never was part of a continent. The Hawaiian Chain was never
near land of appreciable height and size.

How the Alpine plants came to Hawaii is uncertain since they have
descended from ancestors so remote that past relationships are vague.
The great Swedish botanist, Carl Skottsberg, believes that they are
derived from a flora that grew on summits higher than any that exist
today. Such assumption adds to the problem, as little else leads one to
believe that elevations ever significantly exceeded 14,000 feet, i.e.,
the highest that exist today. In a report for the Fifth International
Botanical Congress (Proceedings, pp. 91-97, Cambridge, 1931), Skottsberg
listed 13 species found exclusively in the Alpine Zone, all of which are
endemic, native to no other place than Hawaii’s highest volcanoes. Three
other species listed as occurring in the Alpine Zone extend their range
downward into the next lower Subalpine Zone, for which he has listed a
total of 23 species, 20 of which he labels endemic. These adjoining
zones are not sharply delimited, but blend into each other at 9,000
feet.

As elevation decreases and conditions for growth become better, the
number of plant species increases. The Subalpine Zone with lower limits
just above the park entrance has some of the most interesting plants
found in the islands. Trees are absent but some of its shrubs extend
their range to lower elevations and grow big, sometimes even to
tree-size. Most Subalpine plants have small leaves or leaflets,
indicating that lasting moisture is still scant. Occasional snowfall
seldom remains long and never piles into drifts, which would conserve
moisture.

Most of the interior of the crater is bare or thinly covered with
vegetation. The uncongenial climate of the summit spills into it and
extends throughout its length, though the elevation is much lower.
Extensive aa flows, ash, and cinder cones cover the floor. Yet the
crater has perhaps become best known through the presence of one of its
plants, the silversword. Also, the lips of Koolau and Kaupo Gaps are
botanically distinctive in contrast to the barreness elsewhere. This
results from the fog and rain that sweep through them in late morning,
only to dissolve upon mixing with the warmer air inside. As the day
progresses, clouds push further and further inward, until, rarely, the
whole depression may become filled. Koolau especially is a
treasure-trove for the plant-lover. Below 6,000 feet, quite outside the
park, it becomes impenetrable jungle surpassed only by that in Kipahulu
Valley, a few miles east. Kaupo Cap is comparatively dry, but it
supports a sparse scrub cover of great interest. The lower parts of
Kaupo Valley are grazing land. Paliku is the only place within the park
in which vegetation is lush. As it climbs Leleiwi Pali, Halemauu Trail
is bordered by OHELO and ferns, among them AMAUMAU which is pleasing to
the weary hiker’s eye.

In the northwestern angle of the park not far from the inn, Nianiau
Crater has had a renowned floral character and history. Today it is
overgrazed and drab. Dr. Joseph Rock, Hawaii’s famed dendrologist,
discovered a curious tree _lobelia_, _Clermontia haleakalensis_, growing
within it. He happily described the plant as “antediluvian in
appearance.” This most primitive member of a distinctive Hawaiian floral
group had a robust trunk from which clumsy, stubby branches shot off,
each crowned with a feather-duster of long, thick, strap-shaped leaves
like some pompous dictator’s headdress. MAMANE and AKALA grew thickly
around it; rarer associates included tree geraniums, _Neurophyllodes
sp._, with flowers like violets, tree _Railliardia_, shrubby Hawaiian
buttercups, and greensword, _Argyroxiphium virescens_, that is
threatened with extermination by grazing to an extent greater than of
its relative, the silversword.

    [Illustration: BISHOP MUSEUM, J. F. ROCK COLLECTION
    Clermontia Haleakalensis.]

Even though they are outside the park, some plant communities on the
outer slopes of the mountain should be mentioned, because they are
related to park forms and carry a compelling interest. The trail from
Olinda to Waikamoi is through a transition forest between the wet and
the dry that once drew botanists from many parts of the globe. It is now
overgrown with foreign weeds, so that native shrubs survive only here
and there. The mountain forests above Olinda have all been destroyed and
are replaced by plants from faraway lands.

Although it now lies devastated by change, one of the richest botanical
regions in Hawaii comprises the forbidding lava fields of Auwahi on the
southwest slope of Haleakala. Fifty species of native trees once thrived
in its fabulous mixed forests. The only known specimen of Maui
hibiscadelphus, _H. wilderianus_, a relative of the hibiscus, was found
here. It had a curved corolla that opened only slightly at the top. Its
congener, _H. giffardianus_, once equally rare, still survives in Kipuka
Puaulu at Kilauea, where a few vigorous plants, started by air-layering,
receive tender care from the National Park. The last known Maui specimen
of MAHOE, _Alectryon macrococcus_, grows in an Auwahi gulch. This tree
has large double fruits (_mahoe_ means _twins_) that split open to
expose a shiny, chestnut-brown seed clasped in a brilliant scarlet aril.
The ALANI, _Pelea multiflora_, of the lava fields is festooned with a
lichen, _Usnea australis_, that appears to prefer it to all other trees.
Haleakala sandalwood, _Santalum haleakalae_, with attractive red flowers
grows to be a tree 25 feet tall. Other famous native trees include
’OHE’OHE, _Tetraplasandra kauaiensis_; ’OHE, _Tetraplasandra meiandra_;
A’E, _Fagara_ sp.; ’ALA’A, _Planchonella auahiensis_, with golden
fruits; HO’AWA, _Pittosporum terminalioides_; OLOPUA, _Nestegis
sandwicensis_; A’IA’I, _Pseudomorus sandwicensis_; MEHANE, _Antidesma
pulvinatum_; and KAUILA, _Alphitonia ponderosa_, whose hard and durable
timber was used in sacred structures.

Many unusual plants occur in the steep valleys to the north and east
outside the park. Since the dense jungles in which they grow are
inaccessible except to hardiest botanists, they are seldom seen. Here
grow ’APE’APE, _Gunnera petaloidea_, a plant with geranium-like leaves
three or more feet in diameter; a delicate, rare, native begonia,
_Hillebrandia sandwicensis_; several exquisitely flowering lobelias. The
summit bogs on Kukui and Mt. Eke in West Maui have a curious,
distinctive flora that includes three species with origins ascribed to
the Antarctic: _Orebolus furcatus_, a sedge; _Acaena exigua_ of the Rose
Family; and _Lagenophora mauiensis_, a composite.

    [Illustration: BISHOP MUSEUM, J. F. ROCK COLLECTION
    Tetromalopium.]

    [Illustration: BISHOP MUSEUM, J. F. ROCK COLLECTION
    Begonia.]

The Haleakala road is the easiest way to reach elevations above 7,000
feet in Hawaii. The lower mountain slopes up which it winds were once
clothed with fern jungles that yielded with altitude to dry forest. All
is now altered. Extensive grasslands and eucalyptus groves today leave
the lasting impression on the visitor. Even on the heights, cattle,
goats, introduced plants, insects, and other agents have wrought
permanent change. Rare and interesting forms of native life have been
exterminated or are well on the way to extinction. The National Park is
trying hard to save what is left of the native cover within its
boundaries and to restore the former scene wherever it is possible to do
so.

    [Illustration: BISHOP MUSEUM, J. F. ROCK COLLECTION
    ’Ape’ape.]

Plants of the distinctive Haleakala environment show differences, some
slight, some considerable, from close relatives elsewhere. Examples are
the OLAPA at Paliku, the silversword, and the KUPAOA. The differences
have been fashioned by combinations of factors. The unstable, permeable
ash and cinders have scant soil and little available mineral matter.
They cannot hold water nor do they yield secure anchorage. The effects
of winds, isolation, exposure, and nature of terrain are reflected by
the distorted shapes. Silversword, _Artemisia_, _Bidens_, and many other
plants well show adaptation to peculiar environment. Why are some
species found nowhere else? How did the plants get here in the first
place and how have they changed with the passing of time? What has been
the impact of exotics? What use did the Hawaiians make of the plants? To
the hurried and casual visitor, the flora of Haleakala may appear drab
and uninteresting. With better acquaintance, it becomes a stimulating
study indeed.



                              PLANT NOTES


THE FERNS. The Sliding Sands Trail drops from White Hill on bare slopes
of red and gray Cinders. As it levels below Puu o Pele, a lush, green
carpet spreads along the south wall of the crater. It is a surprise to
discover that ferns compose the verdure, for several kinds find the
shelter of the cliffs agreeable. Haleakala’s KA’UPU, _Polystichum
haleakalense_ Brack., a rather coarse, low plant with scaly stems, grows
among the shrubs. The pellucid polypody, ’AE, _Polypodium pellucidum_
Kaulf., and the maidenhair spleenwort, ’IWA’IWA, _Asplenium
adiantum-nigrum_ L., grow here, but they are common elsewhere as well.
Iwaiwa is a small plant with shiny, slender stems and stiff, triangular
fronds that thrives in the brush. On Leleiwi Pali it is a tiny thing,
clinging to the rocks. This fern is known in mountainous regions in many
countries. Another maidenhair spleenwort, ’OWALI’I, _Asplenium
trichomanes_ L., makes its home on barren lava above 5,000 feet on the
inner slopes of the crater. Its small, opposite, rounded or ovate frond
segments, _pinnae_, grow on wiry stems that form dense clumps. Look for
it along Halemauu Trail on Leleiwi Pali. It is found in the temperate
zones and on high mountains in many parts of the world.

Bracken, KILAU, _Pteridium aquilinum_ var. _decompositum_ (Gaud.) Tryon,
a stiff cosmopolitan, is among the best-known ferns. It grows in grassy
spots inside and outside the crater. Foraging pigs, seeking its tasty
rootstocks, often uproot it in the forests. The young leaves of
AMA’UMA’U, _Sadleria cyatheoides_ Kaulf., add a touch of red along
Halemauu Trail on Leleiwi Pali. At Paliku, several moisture-loving ferns
grow on logs, rocks, and moss-covered trees. Large, dense ae are quite
unlike the frail specimens on Leleiwi Pali. The following can be seen in
damp spots and on tree trunks: Maui’s paddle, ’EKAHA, _Elaphoglossum
reticulatum_ (Kaulf.) Gaud., with paddle-shaped blades 6-12 inches long;
’EKAHA-’AKOLEA, _Pleopeltis thunbergiana_ Kaulf., a small fern with
tough, pale, elliptico-oblong (paddle-shaped) fronds; and MOA, _Psilotum
complanatum_ Sw., belonging to a small group of tropical plants,
PSILOTALES, which reproduce by spores, but are distinct from true ferns,
clubmosses, and the better-known orders.

Swordfern, NI’ANI’AU or ’OKUPUKUPU, _Nephrolepis exaltata_ (L.) Schott.,
is widely distributed at Haleakala as it is elsewhere in Hawaii.
Cliffbrake, KALAMOHO LAULI’I, _Pellaea ternifolia_ (Cav.) Link, grows
among rocks in dry, sunny locations at higher elevations above the park
entrance and inside the crater. It is common. The bluish-green pinnae of
this short, slender fern grow on opposite sides of the dark, wiry stems.
They are cleft into three linear segments.


THE NATIVE GRASSES. Several native grasses grow above the park entrance:
_Trisetum glomeratum_ (Kunth) Trin., _Deschampsia australis_ forma
_haleakalensis_ Skottsb., and _Agrostis sandwicensis_ Hillebr. The
_Trisetum_, also common inside the crater, is called mountain pili, PILI
being the lowland grass known in many tropical regions and used for
thatching houses in Hawaii. The Hawaiian name for _T. glomeratum_ is
PILIUKA, upland pili. In some places it is also called HE’U PUEO, the
hoot of an owl.

All three grasses are tufted, i.e., bunch grasses. The _Deschampsia_ has
tough, wiry blades (leaves) with shiny, open panicles of flowers and
seeds. The _Agrostis_ has stiffly upright blades and culms (jointed
stems) with spike-like panicles. The pili has flat blades usually
covered with soft hairs. The panicles are contracted or spike-like.


THE SEDGES. Fig. 1. Sedges are generally grasslike wind-pollinated herbs
that grow in tufts or bunches. They are often the dominant plants in
cold marshes, especially in the Arctic. They have little economic value
and grazing animals find them unpalatable. Some have tough, pliable
stems that are woven into mats and baskets; some have fruiting spikes
that are attractive in dry bouquets. Most have 3-angled stems around
which the blades are ranked. The inconspicuous, green flowers are
crowded in tight, flattened spikes, often grouped on top of a slender,
grasslike stem. Hawaii has a dozen or more native genera with many of
its species widespread in the world.

The species common on the upper slopes of Haleakala and on the crater
floor, _Gahnia gaudichaudii_ Steud., bears shiny, ebony fruits. These
can dangle, suspended by the wilted, threadlike stamens for more than a
year from the fruiting stalk. Another sedge, _Carex macloviana subfusca_
(W. Boott) Kukenth., grows in clumps along the south wall. The fruiting
stalks bear cylindrical or ovoid clusters of 4-9 spikelets, each ½-1
inch long. This sedge grows from Lapland and Greenland to northern South
America, but in Hawaii it has been found only on Haleakala and Kohala
Mountains above 4,000 feet. The Hawaiian variety was first described
from a specimen collected at Lake Tahoe, California. The interesting
_Oreobolus furcatus_ H. Mann, mentioned as occurring on West Maui, also
grows in Koolau Gap.


RUSH, _Luzula hawaiiensis_ (O. Ktze.) Buch. A visitor brought me a small
tufted plant with grass-like leaves covered with soft, silky hairs. He
was all excited, believing he had found a young silversword on the
cinder flats near the summit of Mt. Hualalai. The plant was the endemic
rush that lives in wet places above 3,000 feet in the mountains of Maui,
Hawaii, and Kauai. In Haleakala Crater, I found it on Leleiwi Pali and
near Paliku, where others might mistake it for an immature silversword
or greensword. The Hawaiian general name for grasses, sedges, and rushes
is MAU’U.


PAINIU, _Astelia degeneri_ Skottsb. This plant is reported by Degener to
be growing within the crater.[19]


MAU’U-LA’ILI, _Sisyrinchium acre_ H. Mann. A native member of the Iris
Family with grass-like leaves that grows on old lava flows between
altitudes of 3,500 and 7,500 feet on Maui and Hawaii. It is an
attractive plant that rarely exceeds 12 inches high. In July and August
it bears yellow flowers ¾ inch across that last only a few hours. In the
crater it may be found in Koolau and Kaupo Gaps. The leaves, bound
tightly around the wrists and ankles, stain the skin a blue color that
lasts several days. This stain was regarded as proof that a person had
been to the crater. A number of other species of the genus are mainland
wildflowers commonly called blue-eyed grass.


ORCHIDS. Fig. 2. The Orchid Family of over 15,000 species is second only
to the Composite Family in size, yet only three species of three genera
are native in Hawaii, a land connected in thought with an exuberance of
gay orchids. Moreover, the three endemic species are characterized by
small size, relative rarity, and inconspicuous flowers. Twayblade,
_Liparis hawaiiensis_ H. Mann, grows in open woods on the ground and on
moss-covered trees on the flanks of the volcano and at Paliku. The
rarest of the three natives, _Habenaria holochila_ Hillebr., has been
found growing 1-2½ feet high in deep moss in fog-swept Koolau Gap. It
bears its dull-greenish, inconspicuous orchids on a tall, many-flowered
spike.


’ALA ’ALAWAINUI, _Peperomia sp._ A small herb with succulent leaves
found at Paliku. It is a member of the Pepper Family, _Piperaceae_, to
which AWA, _Piper methysticum_, belongs. There are many Peperomias
native to Hawaiian forests. Some have leaves with gay red undersides.


SANDALWOOD, ’ILIAHI, _Santalum haleakalae_ Hillebr. Fig. 3. A small but
striking tree found above the park entrance, in Koolau Gap, and along
the Kaupo Trail below Paliku. It has leathery, dark green leaves so that
it stands out in the vegetation and is readily distinguished from afar.
In mid-summer, corymbs of four-pointed, deep-red or vermillion flowers
appear on the ends of branches. The dry heartwood has the fragrance
which is associated with the name sandalwood. Degener tells the detailed
story of sandalwood trade that flourished in the islands for fifty years
beginning in 1790.[20]


SHEEP SORREL, _Rumex acetosella_ L., an abundant, well-known, introduced
weed found both inside the crater and out. A native species called
PAWALE, _Rumex gigantius_ Ait., is more interesting. It grows as a
stocky undershrub on barren lava flows and in rock crevices inside the
crater. In Koolau Gap, it becomes a sprawling vine. It is said that a
mixture of an extraction from the boiled bark and AWA was used by
Hawaiians for skin diseases. This was tried in vain as a cure for
leprosy when the disease first appeared in the islands in 1840.


HAWAIIAN BUTTERCUP, MAKOU, _Ranunculus hawaiiensis_ A. Gray. Like the
native violets and geraniums, members of this genus, well-known on the
mainland, either become bushy or spread as a woody vine in Hawaii. Two
native species occur on Haleakala, but the yellow-flowered, sprawling
_R. mauiensis_ A. Gray is reported only outside the park. The larger
flowered, erect Hawaiian buttercup, however, was reported by J. F. Rock
to be abundant formerly in Puu Nianiau Crater. It is a coarse,
hollow-stemmed, hairy herb with compound leaves divided into three
sharply-toothed, irregular leaflets. Within Haleakala Crater it grows on
moist, grassy slopes in Koolau Gap.


HO’AWA, _Pittosporum confertiflorum_ A. Gray. A small tree, sometimes
becoming 25 feet tall. The large leaves, shiny green on top, brown hairy
underneath, are crowded like whorls on the ends of the branches. In the
centers of these, dense clusters of fleshy, cream-colored flowers appear
in late summer. Wrinkled fruits, resembling English walnuts, hang on the
trees throughout the year. Very few trees grow in the crater, but they
are more numerous above 4,000 feet along the Kaupo Trail and at
Ulupalakua. The genus of some 200 species is widespread; it has many
species native to Hawaii. Some kinds are well-known garden plants.
_Pittosporum tobira_ (Thunb.) Ait., a native of China and Japan, is a
favorite shrub in California.


HAWAIIAN HAWTHORN, ’ULEI, _Osteomeles anthyllidifolia_ Smith (Lindl). A
spreading shrub with compound leaves and fragrant, small, white flowers,
like apple blossoms, that may appear throughout the year. The fruit is
white and contains five stony seeds. Plants growing on ash flats are
very small. The strong but pliable wood of ulei was used for digging
sticks, fish spears, and hoops to keep the mouths of fishing nets open.


HAWAIIAN RASPBERRY, ’AKALA, _Rubus hawaiiensis_ A. Gray. Fig. 5. A shrub
with attractive pink flowers abundant at Paliku. It is found also in
Koolau Gap at the foot of Leleiwi Pali and elsewhere. The fruit,
agreeable but somewhat bitter, is remarkable for its large size. It
ripens about the Fourth of July or later. A trailing native, _R.
macraei_ A. Gray, sprawls in foggy Koolau Gap. Its large, dark fruits
are bitter.


MAMANE, _Sophora chrysophylla_ Salisb. Fig. 4. A common native shrub or
small tree of the Bean Family both inside and outside the crater up to
tree line. It is recognized by more or less downy, narrow, compound
leaves, racemes of yellow flowers, and twisted pods that have four wings
and are constricted between the seeds. Goats eat it greedily and quickly
exterminate it in an area. The hard, durable wood was used by Hawaiians
in many ways; today it is a principal firewood for the crater cabins. A
tree in full bloom is a beautiful object. The height of the flowering
season is mid-spring.


GERANIUM, NOHOANU, HINAHINA. Fig. 6, 7. _Neurophyllodes tridens_
(Hillebr.) Degener & Greenwell is common above the park entrance and on
the south wall within the crater. It sometimes becomes three feet tall
and is readily identified by its silvery leaves, each of which has three
small teeth on the end. The white flowers have purplish veins especially
toward their centers. The blooming season is July to October. The
silvery aspect of the plant, like the silversword, is imparted by a mesh
of fine white hair that reflects the light of a passing car as
effectively as the glass-beaded paint of directional signs.

Two native geranium relatives grow in Koolau Gap, _N. ovatifolium_ (A.
Gray) Degener & Greenwell and its variety _superbum_. The latter is
common on the trail to Waikau not far from the foot of Leleiwi Pali.

One of the common plants growing on the crater floor is the exotic
pink-flowered _G. carolinianum_ var. _australi_ (Benth.) Fosberg whose
pointed fruiting bodies give it the common name, _cranesbill_.


HAWAIIAN HOLLY, KAWA’U, _Ilex anomala_ Hook and Arn. The forest growing
on the talus behind the Paliku cabins is the finest within the crater. A
striking tree of this association is the Hawaiian holly that has dark,
shiny, oval leaves with conspicuous networks of slightly depressed veins
that make identification easy. Dense panicles of small, white flowers
are followed by shiny, black drupes, like Christmas holly “berries.” The
genus is that of the English holly. Curiously, the scientific name has
been locally corrupted to _ileck_.


OLOMEA, _Perrottetia sandwicensis_ A. Gray. A native shrub or small tree
belonging to the same family as the bittersweet of the continent. The
numerous tiny, round, red fruits, borne in panicles, suggest the
relationship. The bright red venation of leaves and petioles make the
plant easily recognized. I know of no plants within the park, but found
many trees a thousand feet below the park boundary in Keanae Valley.


A’AL’II, _Dodonaea eriocarpa_ Smith. Fig. 8. This is a common shrub in
several varieties along the highway and in the western end of the
crater. At Paliku and Kaupo Gap it becomes a tree up to 20 feet high and
8 inches in diameter. Its flowers are inconspicuous but clusters of dry,
reddish fruit-capsules contrast, flower-like, with the surrounding green
foliage. The fruits, abundant from July to September, are used for leis
and dry bouquets. The hard brown heartwood was used for spears,
_pololu_, daggers, _pahoa_, and other implements.


BEGONIA—PUAMAKANUI, _Hillebrandia sandwicensis_ Oliv. (See illustration
p. 53.) The only native begonia, found in wet ravines often by
waterfalls. It grows profusely at Koolau a mile below Holua Cabin at the
foot of the rain-drenched _pali_. This succulent herb has a tuberous
rhizome, unbranched, slender stems, and hairy, toothed leaves 4-10
inches in diameter. From June to August it bears sprays of bright, pink
and white flowers. This is one of the floral treasures of Hawaii.


TARWEED. _Cuphea carthagenensis_ (Jacq.) McBride. A low, sticky, hairy
perennial from tropical America widely spread at lower elevations in the
park. It has red or green branches, small ovate leaves, and tiny but not
unattractive pink flowers ¼ inch across. Plants in rock crevices on
cliffs are tiny; on the crater floor, they may become a foot high and
form a dense shrubby mat over a sizeable area. The plant belongs to the
LYTHRACEAE or Crepe Myrtle Family.


’OHI’A LEHUA, _Metrosideros collina_ (Forst.) A. Gray. Fig. 9. This, the
commonest tree in the islands, consists of a swarm of hybrids of which
the parentage is still unknown. It is scattered within the park to tree
line. It is abundant in the eastern end of the crater and at Paliku. The
beautiful flowers, mostly red, a few yellow, may appear throughout the
year. Here spring seems to be the best season for them.


EVENING PRIMROSE, _Raimannia odorata_ (Jacq.) Sprague & Riley. A
slender, erect, hairy South American herb introduced forty years ago. It
is a prolific bloomer, is widespread, and, in blooming season, the most
conspicuous flower both at Park Headquarters and within the crater. The
large, sulphur-yellow flowers appear at night, but wilt within the
following day, turning reddish as they do so.


’APE’APE—_Gunnera petaloidea_ Gaud. (See illustration p. 54.) A
huge-leaved forest perennial with a massive prostrate stem which stands
erect 3 or 4 feet at the tip. In the center of the leaves a tall stalk
rises that bears hundreds of small yellow-brown flowers. I know of no
plants within the crater, but some grow within a mile of the park
boundary below Koolau Gap, as well as in adjacent wet valleys.


OLAPA, _Cheirodendron trigynum_ (Gaud.) Heller. Fig. 10. This tree
occurs in several varieties. The variety _oblongum_ Sherff grows 30 feet
tall around the cabins at Paliku, also at Ulupalakua. The variety
_mauiense_ Levl. common at Olinda, also grows in Kaupo Gap. The genus is
Hawaiian but has a lone representative in the Marquesas. It is
widespread in deep soils in all of the islands. The leaves are compound
with 3 or 5 leaflets which, at Paliku, have reddish petioles. The
panicles of small, green flowers are followed by black drupes. The
leaves, bark, and fruit are said to have yielded a blue dye for staining
tapa.


’OHELO, _Vaccinium reticulatum_ Smith. Fig. 11. Hikers in the crater are
grateful for the widespread ohelo bushes that yield pleasant fruits to
be nibbled along the way. In areas rich in moisture, like Koolau Gap,
large, maroon bell-shaped flowers droop from the axels of the leaves.
The berries found in the eastern end of the crater appear to be largest.
The bearing season appears at its height in mid-autumn. The plants along
the Halemauu Trail constitute a distinct species, _V. berberidifolium_
Skottsb.


PUKIAWE, _Styphelia tameiameiae_ (Cham.) F. Muell. Fig. 12. A most
abundant shrub, both inside and outside the crater, but near the top it
is replaced by a trailing shrub that has been classified as _S.
douglasii_ (A. Gray) Hochr. The berries of this plant are white, pink,
red, or mahogany brown; they are most abundant in winter, but some may
be seen on the shrub throughout the year.


KOLEA, _Suttonia lessertiana_ (A.DC.) Mez; syn. _Rapanea lessertiana_
(A.DC.) Degener and Hosaka. Fig. 13. This variable tree grows up to 50
feet tall as one of the common trees around Paliku cabins. The thick
leaves with short petioles, crowded near the ends of thick branches,
have a beautiful roseate hue when young. The branches are studded with
spurs on which grow small 5-parted flowers in clusters of three or more
that are followed by dark, purplish-red or black fruits up to ¼ inch in
diameter, often so numerous that the branch is completely hidden.
Hawaiians made a red dye for tapa from the sap and bark. The crimson sap
bleeds freely from a cut made deeply into the bark of a living tree.


SELFHEAL, _Prunella vulgaris_ L., a common weed of Eurasian origin, is
widespread in rocky, scrub cover, and at Paliku. A dense cluster of
small, lipped, blue to purple flowers appears on the end of each upright
stem.


PUA’AINAKA, _Stenogyne rotundifolia_ A. Gray. This endemic long-branched
shrub of the Mint Family is found only on Haleakala. Within the crater
and on upper slopes it is trailing and is relatively rare, being most
abundant in Kaupo Gap. The attractive, pale purple flowers in whorls of
six are 1½ inches long and are covered with silky, white hair. They
appear in late summer. Outside the crater, _S. haliakalae_ Wawra is
abundant in forests as a large, diffuse shrub that often forms a dense
mat over surrounding shrubs. Another mint, _Stenogyne crenata_ A. Gray,
was collected by Skottsberg among shrubs on the south wall of the
crater.


GROUNDCHERRY, _Cape Gooseberry_, POHA, _Physalis peruviana_ L. A South
American perennial herb, widely scattered throughout Hawaii, well-known
for its round, orange, many-seeded, husk-enclosed fruits that are edible
raw or preserved. It grows extensively in Kaupo Gap. The large yellow
flowers with brownish spots near the center appear from June to late
fall in this area.


PLANTAIN, LAUKAHI, _Plantago_ sp. Plantain is a hardy, cosmopolitan,
stemless weed forming a rosette of broadly oval leaves, 1-10 inches
long, near the ground. The tiny flowers and seed capsules are borne as
cylindrical heads at the ends of tall stalks. The plant is widespread
along the side of the road as well as within the crater. Of several
hundred species of _Plantago_, four or more are endemic to Hawaii. One
of these, _P. princeps_ Cham. & Schl., is a shrub several feet high with
tufts of long narrow leaves at the ends of the branches. It grows on
cliffs at Kaupo Gap. Other plantains with thick leaves, silky
underneath, creep on the ground in Koolau Gap.


KUKAENENE, _Coprosma ernodioides_ A. Gray. Fig. 15. A common woody shrub
with long trailing branches that send up short, erect, densely foliose
branchlets at each node. The awl-shaped leaves are rigid and dark-green.
The fruits are shiny black drupes which are a favorite food of the
native goose, _nene_.


PILO, _Coprosma montana_ Hillebr. Fig. 14. One of the commonest shrubs
throughout the crater and from Park Headquarters to 9,000 feet outside
the crater. It is a small tree up to 20 feet tall in Kaupo Gap. As a
shrub the ascending tips look like jets shot up from densely foliose
branchlets. The alternate, small, thick leaves have conspicuous nerves
impressed on the upper face. Below each pair of leaves is a pair of
triangular bracts, stipules, with cilia on the upper border. The
greenish, inconspicuous flowers are followed by showy, bright orange,
yellow, or red fruits which make the plant a subject attractive to color
photographers in fall.


MANONO, _Gouldia terminalis_ (H. & A.) Hillebr. A shrub or small tree
growing on the talus above the Paliku cabins. It has shiny, opposite
leaves and dense terminal clusters of greenish, four-lobed, cup-shaped
flowers that are followed by small black berries. It blooms in late
summer. The genus is one of three in the Coffee Family that are endemic
to Hawaii.


CATCHFLY, _Silene struthioloides_ A. Gray. Fig. 16. A plant that is
typical only of arid Cinders and ash on East Maui and on the island of
Hawaii. With the silversword as its companion in Haleakala Crater the
plants are found at the bases of barren cones. They show neat adaptation
to their stark home. The Haleakala plants, as illustrated, are low and
compact, but those growing at Kilauea Crater bear only a few awl-shaped
leaves and resemble dead twigs. The thick tap roots are sweet and
edible. About 250 species belong to this genus, a member of the Pink or
Carnation Family. A well-known introduced weed, the English catchfly,
_Silene anglica_ L., was reported by Degener at 10,000 feet on
Haleakala.


’OHA, _Labelia grayana_ E. Wimm. A low plant with woody trailing stems
with knobby leaf scars and ending with a crowded arrangement of silvery,
linear leaves, 4-8 inches long and crowned with densely flowered
racemes, 6-15 inches long. The flowers are lilac-blue with a satiny
sheen. The plant is not uncommon on wet _pali_ from 5,000-7,000 feet at
Paliku, Kaupo and Koolau Gaps, and in the northwestern end of the
crater. It is a glorious plant worth hunting for and going miles to see.


NAUPAKA. _Scaevola chamissoniana_ Gaud. This shrub was noted only on the
east side of Kaupo Gap. This is a varying species found up to the
6,000-foot elevation. It is not common and blooms in summer. The white
flowers with purplish streaks are slit to the base on the upper side.
They look like flower-halves rather than complete corollas. There are
several legends about the peculiar flower, each dealing with lovers
separated from each other. In a song composed about it, the lovers were
forceably parted, so the girl divided a perfect corolla, giving one half
to her lover while keeping the other half herself. One of the lovers
carried the flower to the sea, _naupaka kahakai_, the other to the
mountain, _naupaka kuahiwi_, where the plants are found today.


MAUI WORMWOOD, _Artemisia mauiensis_ (A. Gray) Skottsb. Fig. 17. Typical
of Maui and found only on Haleakala, this hoary ornamental shrub,
usually 2-3 feet high, perches on cliffs usually above the reach of man.
It has a densely-branched crown with silvery leaves that are aromatic
and bitter. The leaves are composed of thin segments that are covered
with a mat of cottony hair, giving the plant a silvery appearance. The
small orange flowers are borne in terminal panicles.

The Hawaiians call the wormwood AHINAHINA, applied also to silversword,
geranium, and other gray plants. The basic word refers to the color of
silvery-gray hair, the connection being obvious. Hawaiians use the
pounded leaves to relieve asthma. The genus is large, having some 250
species that are generally found in arid regions. The sagebrush of the
western states, _A. tridentata_ Nutt., is the best known to most park
visitors.


KO’OKO’OLAU, _Bidens_ sp. Like _Artemisia_, the genus is a huge one with
over 200 species and belongs to the Composite Family which includes
dandelions, daisies, and sunflowers. E. E. Sherff of the Chicago Museum
of Natural History, a specialist on the genus, lists sixty species
native to Hawaii. Native KO’OKO’OLAU are shrubby and often of great
beauty. This is true of _B. campylotheca pentamera_ Sherff which sprawls
over the vegetation in Koolau Gap. It has fern-like leaves and large,
pretty, yellowish flower-heads. Hawaiians use the tips of young plants
for tea, often in preference over imported tea.

Besides the native varieties, three introduced species grow in the
islands, including beggar ticks or Spanish needles, _B. pilosa_ L. It is
a nuisance, as the three-pronged fruits that give it the common name
readily attach themselves to clothing as well as to fur of passing
animals.


KUPAOA, NA’ENA’E. Fig. 18, 19. Several kinds of composite shrubs are
called by these names, both of which mean fragrance or perfume. They
were used for scenting tapa. They belong to the endemic genera
_Dubautia_ and _Railliardia_, both of which have species found in the
park. _Dubautia plantagiena_ var. _platyphylla_ Hillebr. Gaud., a shrub
at 6,000 feet in Kaupo and Koolau Gaps, has linear leaves 4-8 inches
long, with 7-13 conspicuous nerves. It is a small tree below Nianiau
Crater. It is a handsome sight when in flower; the flower-heads are
yellow. In general appearance it is much like that of _Railliardia
platyphylla_ A. Gray which grows in cinders and ash, mostly inside the
crater. At 8,000 feet, _R. platyphylla_ becomes a straggling shrub. The
commonest member of this group, _Railliardia menziesii_ A. Gray, is a
shrub in the crater and on the rim from 8,000-10,000 feet. Between 6,000
and 7,000 feet it is a tree up to 20 feet tall. The dark green, pointed,
linear, fleshy leaves are ranked in vertical rows of four on upright
stems and branches. Its dark yellow flower-heads are borne in panicles.
_R. scabra_ DC., found in Kaupo Gap and on Leleiwi Pali, does not have
the regular leaf arrangement.


PAMAKANI-HAOLE, _Eupatorium glandulosum_ HBK. _Eupatorium_ is another
huge genus of the Composite Family with several hundred species, mostly
from tropical America. Five species have been introduced into Hawaii of
which two are bad pests. _E. glandulosum_, a native of Mexico, spread
rapidly on Maui, crowding out desirable plants and making pasturelands
worthless. A parasitic insect, _Procecidochares utilis_ Stone, was
introduced in 1944 to combat it. This insect belongs to the order
DIPTERA, the flies, gnats, midges, and mosquitoes, and to the family
TRYPETIDAE, that includes the Mediterranean fruitfly and the common
“apple-worm” which is actually the larva of a fly. The trypetids infest
living plants, frequently causing galls, and have piercing ovipositors,
often prominent, with which females deposit eggs beneath the skin of
their host.

It is not expected that the studied introduction of a parasite will
result in the extermination of a host, but rather that it will check
unbridled increase and spread. The method is termed “biological
control.” It has been successfully adopted against several menaces, such
as cactus, lantana, and a fern-weevil, _Syragrius fulvitarsis_ Pascoe,
that kills amaumau ferns in the Kilauea Crater area.

Pamakani abound throughout the crater, even clinging as tiny starvelings
in small cracks in cliffs, like those along Halemauu Trail. Every plant
shows swellings in which the little maggots live, and exit holes through
which the new adults emerge. Many plants bear only few leaves and fight
tenaciously for survival. Big plants may be seen along Kaupo Trail.
_Pamakani_ means _wind-blown_, in reference to the method of seed
dispersal.


HAIRY CAT’S-EAR, “Dandelion,” _Hypochoeris radicata_ L. A common
composite, native to the Mediterranean, found in abundance throughout
the park. Its narrow leaves with yellow hairs form flat rosettes. A
branching, leafless stalk up to a foot or more tall bears yellow
flower-heads, an inch in diameter, that resemble the well-known
dandelion, _Taraxacum officinale_ Weber, by which common name many call
the cat’s-ear. The hairless, _H. glabra_ L. is a smaller plant with
smooth leaves and flower-heads ¼ inch in diameter. The cat’s-ear is a
favorite food of the Hawaiian goose, _nene_. _Gosmer_ is a common name
used locally.


WOOD GROUNDSEL, _Senecio sylvaticus_ L., a native of Europe, is a
branching, weedy herb, 1-2 feet high, abundant along the foot of
Kalahaku Pali. It has irregularly lobed leaves and small yellow flowers
in a tight flower head, ⅓ inch long and ½ inch in diameter.


TETRAMALOPIUM. Fig. 20, illustration p. 53. This endemic genus has a
dozen species, two of which are a pride of Haleakala. The small leaves
are narrow and crowded at branch ends. The showy flowerheads of white,
pinkish, or lavender ray florets surround a disk of purplish central
florets. _T. humile_ (A. Gray) Hillebr. is found inside and outside the
crater between 6,000-9,000 feet. It is a small, low, shrubby plant with
narrow, spoon-shaped leaves quite covered with sticky, curly hair. The
plant growing in cracks between rocks at the very summit is stiffer and
considerably different.


SILVERSWORD, AHINAHINA, _Argyroxiphium sandwicense_ DC. Illustrations on
cover and pages iv, 47. As famous as the crater itself, and almost as
well-known, the silversword is regarded as typical of Haleakala,
although its natural range embraces Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, and Hualalai
from 7,000 to 12,000 feet. A lustrous silvery down thickly covers all
leaves and makes the plant exceedingly beautiful. It is highly evolved
to withstand the extreme dryness of cinder cones and the intense
sunlight of lofty elevation. Surprising to most visitors on first
acquaintance is the fact that it bears no relationship to the yucca of
the Lily Family, but belongs to the COMPOSITAE along with sunflowers,
asters, and chrysanthemums. Like _Dubautia_ and _Railliardia_, it has no
close relatives outside of the islands. _Wilkesia_, endemic to Kauai, is
so closely similar that some authorities class it in the genus
_Argyroxphium_.

The Haleakala silversword has a short, simple, woody stem 2-3 inches in
diameter crowded with thick, dagger-like leaves arranged spirally around
it. After growth from 7 to as much as 20 years, a foliose raceme 3-8
feet high develops on which 100-500 flower-heads nod. Each has a central
disk of hundreds of bright yellow florets surrounded by a score of short
reddish-purple ray florets. The flowering season is from June through
October. The whole plant dies after flowering but once.

The greensword, _A. virescens_ Hillebr., a much rarer plant with green
leaves, once grew from 6,000 to 9,000 feet. Today it has all but
vanished; a few plants are still to be found in Koolau Gap just outside
the park, and between rocks on the edges of cliffs at Kaupo Gap.

Visitors once gathered specimens of silversword as evidence that they
had been up the mountain, even as the mountaineer gathers edelweiss in
Switzerland. Thoughtless people uprooted the silvery globes merely to
watch them tumble down the slopes. Goats eat the growing heart of the
plant. Grazing stock are incompatible with its existence. It has many
insect parasites (see The Insect Life). All of these, singly and in
combination, threaten the existence of the species.

The outer slopes of the mountain had thousands of silverswords according
to early accounts, while today they are rare. In the crater, some of the
cones were so thickly covered that they appeared to be bathed in
moonlight. Except for strong, enlightened action, this beautiful plant
might have completely vanished from the mountain.



                             SUMMARY LISTS


The following are incomplete lists of plants reported at various places
within the park. They may serve as the start or a check for those
wishing to know something of the plants in a certain area. The names
given are those most commonly used locally or those used to head the
corresponding sections above.

COMMONEST SHRUBS ALONG THE HIGHWAY above Headquarters. Sandalwood,
mamane, geranium (_N. tridens_), aalii, ohia, ohelo, pukiawe, mountain
pilo, kupaoa.

WIDESPREAD below 8,500 feet. _Stereocaulon_ lichen (mostly on barren
lava), pellucid polypody, maidenhair spleenwort, cliffbrake, swordfern,
bracken, sedge (_Gahnia_), sheep sorrel or dock; ulei, mamane, aalii,
tarweed, ohia, evening primrose, ohelo, pukiawe, selfheal, plantain,
kukaenene, mountain pilo, kupaoa, pamakani, hairy cat’s-ear, horseweed.

SUMMIT FLORA (above 8,500 feet). Mountain pili (grass), trailing
pukiawe, _tetramalopium sp._, kupaoa, common dandelion.

CRATER FLOOR on ash or barren lava. Mountain pili, sheep sorrel, ulei,
mamane, bur clover, white clover, cranesbill, aalii, tarweed, ohia,
evening primrose, ohelo, pukiawe, selfheal, common plantain, kukaenene,
mountain pilo, catchfly, kupaoa, pamakani, hairy cat’s-ear, Canadian
horseweed, _Tetramalopium humile_, silversword.

KOOLAU GAP. Amaumau, rush, mauulaili, tree orchid, sandalwood, pawale,
Hawaiian buttercup, trailing _akala_, native strawberry, nohoanu,
apeape, highbush ohelo, trailing plantain, lobelia, wormwood, trailing
kookoolau, greensword.

PALIKU. Amaumau, ekaha, akaha akolea, twayblade, alaalawainui, hoawa,
akala, kawau, olapa, kolea, manono, lobelia, naenae.

KAUPO GAP. Rush, mauulaili, sandalwood, hoawa, puaainaka, poha, common
potato (naturalized), Jerusalem cherry, tree plantain, lobelia, naupaka,
_Dubautia sp._, _Railliardia scabra_.

    [Illustration: Figure 1—SEDGE, _Gahnia_]

    [Illustration: Figure 2—HAWAIIAN ORCHID, _Liparis_]

    [Illustration: Figure 3—SANDALWOOD, _Santalum haleakalae_]

    [Illustration: Figure 4—MAMANE, _Sophora chrysophylla_]

    [Illustration: Figure 5—HAWAIIAN RASPBERRY, _Rubus hawaiiensis_]

    [Illustration: Figure 6—HINAHINA, _Geranium tridens_]

    [Illustration: Figure 7—NOHOANU, _Geranium (Neurophyllodes)
    arboreum_]

    [Illustration: Figure 8—AALII, Seed capsules, leaf detail]

    [Illustration: Figure 9—OHIA LEHUA, Twig with flower beginning to
    open]

    [Illustration: Figure 10—OLAPA]

    [Illustration: Figure 11—OHELO]

    [Illustration: Figure 12—PUKIAWE, Twig, flower magnified]

    [Illustration: Figure 13—KOLEA, showing fruit]

    [Illustration: Figure 14—MOUNTAIN PILO. Twig, fruits, leaf shapes,
    magnified flower and leaf showing veination]

    [Illustration: Figure 15—KUKAENENE, fruiting twig, male and female
    flowers]

    [Illustration: Figure 16—CATCHFLY, _Silene struthioloides_]

    [Illustration: Figure 17—MAUI WORMWOOD, leaves, magnified flowers]

    [Illustration: Figure 18—NAENAE, _Dubautia plantaginea_]

    [Illustration: Figure 19—KUPAOA, _Raillardia menziesii_]

    [Illustration: Figure 20—TETRAMALOPIUM]



                         THE BIRDS AND MAMMALS


It is a general rule that, as among plants, numbers and species of birds
decrease as one goes up a mountain. It is true also that native Hawaiian
birds are to be found mostly in upland forests. Of the members of the
endemic nectar-sipping family, DREPANIDAE, _’apapane_ and _’i’iwi_ may
be seen up to 8,500 feet. They are associated with ohia which give them
their food. _’Amakihi_ are fond of the mamane blossoms, so it is not
surprising to find them widespread although not numerous in the park.
Far rarer is the little Maui creeper, _’alauahio_, which finds insects
and spiders for food in the bark of trunks and branches of trees and
shrubs. It follows the latter up to the Alpine Zone.

Except for migrants and sea birds, other natives nowadays are absent.
Occasionally an Hawaiian owl, _pueo_, has been seen flying over
grasslands near the park entrance and at Paliku. Tropic birds, _koa’e_,
occasionally soar around the cliffs inside the crater. The dark-rumped
petrel, _’ua’u_, a vanishing species, is heard at night back of Holua
and Kapalaoa cabins, and at Leleiwi Overlook. This pigeon-sized bird of
the ocean nests in burrows 4-6 feet deep, at the bases of cliffs in the
crater. Both young and adults were formerly hunted, often with nets,
because they were highly prized as food. Bird catching was an important
occupation of Hawaiians; at times one stumbles upon the remains of
shelter caves and campsites used by them in a lonely mountain vastness.
Except the period from early May to mid-August while it is away on its
migration to Alaska, the golden plover, _kolea_, is a most conspicuous
bird inside and outside the crater.

Introduced birds are everywhere. The Japanese white-eye or _mejiro_ can
be found in vegetation up to the Alpine Zone. It is especially common at
Paliku, the most rewarding bird area in the park. The Pekin nightingale
or Japanese hill robin, _sochi-cho_, goes all the way to the summit. I
observed a pair at the structure on Red Hill, and picked up a dead one
above the elevation of the Observatory. They sing in the trees around
Paliku. Linnets and skylarks are often seen or heard anywhere up to the
Alpine Zone. Commoner at low elevations, a mockingbird appears
infrequently above Park Headquarters, and mynahs visit the inn grounds
in summer. They also appear at Paliku. English sparrows may linger
around the horse barns, as expected.

The most conspicuous and commonest Haleakala birds are introduced
game-birds. Ringnecked pheasants are flushed or heard up to 8,500 feet,
while Chukar partridges are numerous from 7,500 to 10,000 feet. Both of
these are abundant in the crater. The Chukar, only a newcomer here, is
already definitely at home. California quail scurry from the road or
trail at elevations up to 7,500 feet. In 1958, 27 Erchel’s francolin
were released just below the park line near the inn, but success of
their establishment is still a question.

The bat was apparently the only mammal living in Hawaii at the time when
Polynesian navigators first visited here. They carried the pig, dog, and
tramp rat along with them on their voyages. After Cook, many mammals
were brought in, some of which readily reverted to a wild state. These
include sheep, goats, cattle, horses, burros, dogs, cats, and mongooses.

The feral goat is the problem child of the Haleakala area. Often a
beautiful creature, with long, black, flowing hair, it soon exterminates
silversword, mamane, and desirable vegetation wherever it is left
uncontrolled. Upon being forceably separated from its mother, the
terrified kid quickly becomes tame and attaches itself as closely to the
human associate as it did to its natural parent. Occasionally a stray
dog that has reverted to the wild is seen in the park area. It is only a
reminder of the days of the past century when packs roamed the side of
the mountain and harassed visitors with their ferocity. Joining their
members were wild bullocks that also constituted a threat. These were
inevitably mentioned in all journals of early visitors. In the wet
forested areas below Koolau Gap, on the fringe of upper Kipahulu Valley,
and along the rim at Waianapanapa, pigs flourish in bliss that is broken
only occasionally by a local hunter who seeks them just outside the
boundary of the park.



                          THE INSECT LIFE[21]


Hawaii National Park is rich in insect life although, as is typical of
insular areas, insects are much more sparse than in continental regions.
Most of our insects are endemic species, i.e., are found only in these
islands; many are very limited in distribution. For the most part the
endemic insects are associated with the native plants. Most of our
insects are comparatively small and inconspicuous; nevertheless, a great
many are strange and unusual so that our fauna is particularly
interesting to the scientist. We have none of the larger, showy
butterflies and other insects which the visitor often expects to find
here. No noxious or harmful species are present in areas used by park
visitors, but the large blowflies which breed in goat carcasses in
Haleakala Crater sometimes become a nuisance, due to their presence in
large numbers. These are mainland species which have been accidentally
introduced into Hawaii and which are now restricted to the highland
areas where the climate is temperate. With the exception of lice and
domestic flies, which were brought here by the Hawaiians themselves,
Hawaii was free of pestiferous insects before the arrival of the
Europeans.

One of the best known endemic Hawaiian insects is the butterfly named
after King Kamehameha, _Vanessa tameamea_, a highly colored relative of
the painted lady, the tortoise shells, and the red admiral butterflies
of the mainland. This species is highly prized by amateur butterfly
collectors since it is found no place else in the world. Its colors are
orange, brown, and black. The female has small white spots in the apical
portions of the front wings; these spots are rosy colored in the male.
The caterpillars, green or purplish, feed on the leaves of the _mamaki_.
Adults are found in forests throughout the islands. They are attracted
to the native hydrangea, _kanawao_, to the introduced thimbleberry, or
to the sap exuding from _koa_ or _naio_. This butterfly is a strong
flier, and ranges from the seacoast to the top of Haleakala. The female
of _Hodegia apetala_, an endemic genus of only one described species, is
an Hawaiian moth unable to fly.[22] The male is unknown. This jumping
insect, related to the bollworm, lives in bunch grass near the summit.
The narrow, pointed, reduced, ashen-brown wings are ½ inch long; the
abdomen, about as long as the wings, is brownish gray.

As one walks over open patches at higher elevations a brown moth, 1½
inches wide, rises readily before one. This is _Agrotis aulacias_ that
possesses great powers of flight.[23] The genus of 27 species is related
to army worms, cut-worms, and a host of agricultural pests. _Fletcherana
insularis_ is a geometrid moth (inch worm, measuring worm, or looper)
found in late spring high above the forest belt near the park entrance.
The insect is an inch wide, its color is white, speckled with black. The
genus of 5 species is confined to Hawaii.

_Nesophrosyne haleakala_ is a mottled, gray-brown leafhopper, ⅛ inch
long; the head and front part of the thorax are yellowish. In the park
it is found in _pilo_ and _ohelo_ at 8,500 or 9,000 feet. The genus is
endemic and contains over 60 forms distributed throughout the islands.

An undesirable pest has publicized its presence high above the park
entrance by leaving its name on two caves which early visitors found
convenient for shelter. Big Flea and Little Flea Caves often appear in
accounts of early trips, but never without mention of the annoyance that
was caused by their permanent occupants. Of the 7 different kinds of
fleas recorded for Hawaii, only the so-called cat flea (_Ctenocephalides
felis_) annoys people to any extent. Several species of fleas infest the
Hawaiian rat and were presumably brought in when this rodent arrived
with the earliest Polynesian immigrants.

Because the beautiful silversword has no very close relatives, which
means that its ancestors arrived in Hawaii in earliest time, any species
of insects associated solely with it as a host plant draws particular
interest. Moreover, since the survival of silverswords is precarious in
this day of rapid change, all agents that threaten must be carefully
scrutinized. Silverswords are specific hosts to a half dozen or more
endemic species of insects.[24] Among Lepidoptera, the family of moths
and butterflies, the larvae of a pyralid moth, _Rhynchephestia
rhabdotus_, feeds in the flower-heads, destroying the seeds.
Caterpillars of a noctuid, _Euxoa epicremma_, have been collected
beneath plants. The caterpillars of a tineid moth have been found among
dead leaves. Of the DIPTERA, great numbers of yellow maggots of a gray
fly, _Tephritis cratericola_, feed on the seeds and prevent their
development. The larvae of one of the Coleoptera, a beetle described as
_Aescheithmysus terryi_, feeds apparently only on old and dead stems. A
relative, _A. swezeyi_, similarly feeds on _Railliardia_. Great members
of a leaf-hopper, _Iburnia argyroxiphii_, suck the sap of Haleakala
silverswords. It is preyed upon by a wasp, _Polynema sp._, so tiny that
the naked eye can hardly see it. The wasp lays its egg in the egg of the
hopper. The larval wasp, upon hatching, feeds on the contents of the
hopper egg, pupates within it, and emerges from it.

The Paliku area is very rich in insect life; many hundreds of species
have been recorded from here and many are apparently very restricted in
distribution and are known only from this locality. Species of
pomace-flies (DROSOPHILIDAE) and the long-legged flies (DOLICHOPODIDAE)
are especially prevalent at Paliku. Two species of the native genus
_Idiomyia_ are the largest members of DROSOPHILIDAE found any place in
the world; they measure approximately 7 mm. in length. Two species of
flightless Neuroptera (_Pseudopsectra cookeorum_ and _lobipennis_) occur
on the vegetation (_Dubautia_, _Metrosideros_, and _Cyanea_) in
Haleakala; these represent one of the strangest entomological
curiosities of the world.

Over five thousand species of insects have been recorded from the
Hawaiian Islands and it is probable that several thousand more species
remain to be described. In the past our knowledge of the insects was
based largely upon the monumental study, “Fauna Hawaiiensis,”[25]
published by a group of institutions including the British Museum
(Natural History) and the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. A new faunistic
study is now under way titled “Insects of Hawaii.”[26] This is an
extremely valuable reference work and is indispensable to anyone
studying Hawaiian insects. It gives a complete review of the insects
from the lowest orders through the butterflies and larger moths. Two
volumes on the DIPTERA are now in press. Volume one gives a most
comprehensive account of the mode of dispersal of our endemic fauna and
flora to these islands. It is estimated that the 3,722 known endemic
insects developed from approximately 250 ancestral species.



                     HAWAIIAN WORDS AND PLACE NAMES


THE HAMZA. During the centuries, changes occur in dialects. Hawaiian is
one of the dialects of the Polynesian language. A striking change in
Hawaiian is the dropping of the letter _k_ that once appeared in some
words. But instead of complete discard of the sound, its former
existence is revealed as a little catch in the throat, called a glottal
stop. This is represented in print by a mark (’) called _hamza_. The
omission of this mark can spell a word of entirely different meaning.
Yet, without explanation, the hamza can be more bewildering than helpful
to those unfamiliar with Hawaiian. Its use in this book therefore has
been limited to this section and to the section on plants, because it is
needed if correct pronunciation is attempted. And who fails to want to
try Hawaiian on his tongue!

  These brief, literal interpretations are not mentioned in the text.
  Principal authorities are K. E. Emory and M. K. Pukui.

AHU—Pile, cairn, altar, shrine. Often a small or large pile of stones
erected as a trailmark or landmark. _Ahu_ were sometimes put up by
passing parties as monuments or evidence that they had been there, even
as mountain climbers do to this day. To be assured of a safe journey, an
_ahu_ of three stones was made as tribute to the god of the locality.

ALII—_Ali’i_, chief, chiefess, sovereign, ruler. One of the upper class.

HALALII—_Hala-li’i_, fun-making, from the name of a traditional chief of
Ni’ihau.

HALEAKALA—_Hale-a-ka-la_ is usually interpreted as “house of the sun,” a
simple translation of the Hawaiian name given us for the mountain. It
assumes vague reference to the Maui legend. An old explanation converted
the translation to “house built by the sun.” Rev. A. O. Forbes[27] says
that the name is a corruption of _Alehe-ka-la_, “snarer of the sun,” in
reference to Maui’s deeds. Still another version would have it
_Ahale-ka-la_, to be interpreted as “rays of the sun.”

HALEMAUU—_Hale mau’u_ is grass hut; _hale ma’u’u_ signifies damp house.

HANA—Bay or valley, when used in a place name.

HANAKAUHI—_Hana-ka-uhi_, the mist-maker; yam valley.

HAOLE—A foreigner, one of foreign extraction; today, usually in
reference to a Caucasian; adj., foreign.

HEIAU—Pre-christian place of worship, hence, usually translated temple.
This was often a stone platform or an earth terrace.

HOLUA—A course used for the ancient royal sport of sliding down steep
slopes; also the sled itself.

HONOKAHUA—_Hono-ka-hua_, joined foundation.

IAO—_’I-ao_, high; into the clouds.

KAHULUI—_Ka-hului_, a sea for drag-net fishing.

KALAHAKU—The proclamation of the Lord.

KALAPAWILI—_Ka-lapa-wili_, winding or twisting ridge.

KALUAAWA—_Ka-lua-’awa_, the _’awa_ pit. _’Awa_ or _kawa_ is the
well-known traditional drink of Polynesia made from _Piper methysticum_.

KALUAIKI—_Ka-lua-iki_, small pit or crater.

KALUANUI—_Ka-lua-nui_, large pit or crater.

KALUA O KA OO—_Ka lua o ka ’o’o_, the pit of the _’o’o_. The _’o’o_, now
extinct, was an endemic, black, nectar-sipping bird. It had tufts of
yellow feathers under each wing and at the base of the tail, which were
used in featherwork.

KALUA O UMI—Umi’s Cave.

KAMOALII—_Ka moa li’i_, the little chicken.

KA MOA O PELE—Pele’s chickens or chicken coop.

KANAKA—(_Haw. pl. kanaka_; _Eng. pl. kanakas_) human being, person, man.

KAPA—Tapa, a cloth made from the bark of _mamaki_ or _wauke_; formerly,
clothes of any kind; bedclothes.

KAPALAOA—_Ka palaoa_, the _palaoa_ was a highly-prized pendant of
whale-tooth ivory, a symbol of royalty over the theft of which wars were
waged.

KAUPO—_Kau po_, to land at night. A variety of banana is given this
name, probably after the place name.

KAWILINAU—_Ka wili nau_, literally, the twist of pain. This is the
Hawaiian place name for Bottomless Pit.

KEAHUOKAHOLO—_Ke ahu o ka holo_, a heap resulting from a landslide.

KEANAE—_Ke ’anae_, the large mullet.

KEONEHEEHEE—_Ke one he’ehe’e_, the sliding sands.

KIHEI—Shoulder covering; a rectangular fine mat or tapa used as a
mantle.

KIPAHULU—Worn-out soil.

KOLEKOLE—Bright red, blood red.

KOOLAU—_Ko’olau_, windward side.

KUIKI—_Ku iki_, a moment’s stop, a short halt.

KUMUILIAHI—_Kumu ’iliahi_, sandalwood trunk.

LAUULU—_Lau ’ulu_, leaf of breadfruit tree.

LELEIWI—Carved figure on the bowsprit of a canoe or ship.

LILINOI—Goddess of Haleakala.

MAKAWAO—_Maka wao_, forest region.

MAUI—Contrary to popular belief and despite the similar spelling, the
island does not bear the name of the demigod. The name of the island is
pronounced mow-ee. This almost rhymes with an enthusiastic “WOWIE!”
especially as a Virginian might pronounce it. The _au_ must be treated
in the fashion for Hawaiian dipthongs, that is, the crisp vowels are
more loosely connected than in the English, and a slight accent is
imposed on the leading one. The demigod’s name has three syllables, with
accent on the second, i.e., the _u_. Thus, Ma-u’-i.

MAUNA—Mountain.

MAUNA HINA—Gray mountain.

MOI—_Mo’i_(A 19th Century word), King, queen, sovereign.

NAMANA O KE AKUA—_Na mana o ke akua_, the miraculous power, _mana_, of
Deity, gods, or spirits.

NA PIKO HANA—The hiding place for navel cords.

NIANIAU—_Ni’ani’au_, the sword fern.

OILI PUU—_’O’ili pu’u_, hill appearing, hill shot out.

PALIKU—_Pali ku_, upright cliff.

POHAKU PALAHA—Broad stone; wide stone.

PUKALANI—_Puka lani_, heavenly entrance, chief’s doorway.

PUU—_Pu’u_, hill. This is contracted in some names to _pu_.

PUU HELE—_Pu’u hele_, moving hill.

PUU KAUAUA—_Pu’u ka uaua_, the stubborn hill; the tough hill.

PUU KUMU—_Pu’u kumu_, stump hill.

PUU MAILE—_Maile_ is a fragrant vine, _Alyxia oliviformis_, used and
loved like the laurel of Europe.

PUU MANEONEO—_Pu’u mane’one’o_, itching hill. _Maneoneo_ means _barren_.

PUU NAUE—_Pu’u naue_, trembling hill; loose or insecure hill.

PUU NOLE—Grumbling hill.

WAIALE—_Wai’ale_, rippling water.

WAI ANAPANAPA—_Wai ’anapanapa_, sparkling water.

WAIHOI—_Wai ho’i_, water that returned.

WAIKAU—_Wai kau_, water on a high place.

WAIKEKEEHIA—_Keke’ehia_ means to twist and wind like a rivulet or
stream, hence, the name is interpreted as crooked waters.

WAILUKU—_Wai luku_, water of destruction.



                            HUI O AHINAHINA


The exclusive Society of the Silversword (Hui o Ahinahina) invites you
to become a member if you have visited the summit or the crater of
Haleakala. Only one class of membership. Life: one dollar! By joining
you can help scientific study, interpretation, and display exhibits of
the Park. Exchange your dollar at the Park or at the office of
Silversword Inn for a silvery, engraved certificate, suitable for
framing. With pride you can hand it down to your grandchildren, a
souvenir of Haleakala.



                            ADDITIONAL HELP


The following publications contain information on the two sections of
Hawaii National Park. They may be purchased at either Park
Administration Office, at Silversword Inn, Haleakala, and at the Volcano
House at Kilauea.

_Volcanoes of Hawaii National Park._ (pamphlet) by Gordon A. MacDonald
and Douglas H. Hubbard.

  Hawaii Natural History Association, 1951.    50¢

_Ferns of Hawaii National Park._ (pamphlet) by Douglas H. Hubbard.

  Hawaii Natural History Association, 1952.    50¢

_Trailside Plants of Hawaii National Park._ (pamphlet) by Douglas H.
Hubbard and Vernon R. Bender, Jr. Hawaii Natural History Association,
1960.

_Plants of Hawaii National Park._ By Otto Degener, 1945.   $4.00

  Illustrative of Plants and Customs of the South Seas.

_The Land of Pele._ (pamphlet) by Nash Castro.

  A historical sketch of Hawaii National Park.
  Hilo Tribune Herald, Ltd., 1953.    85¢



Cartons, cigarette butts, and other trash do not add to your enjoyment
of the park. You can easily dispose of these so that they cannot become
obnoxious to you and those who come after you. With the number of
visitors increasing each year, you can help protect and preserve the
natural scene by placing all paper and other refuse in containers
provided for this purpose and by refraining from picking or breaking
flowers, plants, and natural specimens. _Won’t you do your share?_ THANK
YOU.



                                MILEAGES


  Roads
      Park Boundary to:                      Miles
          Silversword Inn                      1.0
          Hosmer Grove                         1.5
          Park Headquarters                    2.0
          Halemauu Trail                       5.6
          Leleiwi Overlook                     8.4
          Kalahaku Overlook                   10.1
          Observatory                         12.1
          Red Hill (Summit)                   12.8
          CAA Station                         13.8
  Halemauu Trail
      Silversword Inn to:                    Miles
          Halemauu Trail Junction              2.9
          Holua Visitor Cabin                  5.9
      Haleakala Park Road to:
          Holua Visitor Cabin                  3.9
      Holua Visitor Cabin to:
          Silversword Loop                      .9
          Bottomless Pit                       2.3
          Bubble Cave                          3.3
          Kapalaoa Visitor Cabin               3.8
          Paliku Visitor Cabin                 6.3
          Kaupo Village                       14.1
  Sliding Sands Trail
      Observatory to:                        Miles
          Holua Visitor Cabin                  7.4
          Kapalaoa Visitor Cabin               5.8
          Bubble Cave                          6.5
          Paliku Visitor Cabin                 9.8
          Kaupo Village                       17.5
  Miscellaneous Mileages:
      Holua Visitor Cabin to                   3.8 Miles
      Kapalaoa Visitor Cabin
      Kapalaoa Visitor Cabin to                4.0
      Paliku Visitor Cabin
      Paliku Visitor Cabin to Holua            6.3
      Visitor Cabin (Direct Route
      via Halemauu Trail)
      White Hill                               0.2
      Crater Overlook Trail                    350 Feet



                            A FEW STATISTICS


 Area of the Crater                                      19 Square miles
 Circumference of the Crater                             20 Miles
 Extreme length of the Crater                            7½ Miles
 Extreme width of the Crater                             2½ Miles
 Elevation of the summit of Red Hill                 10,005 Feet
 Elevation of Puu o Maui                              8,133 Feet
 Elevation of Park Boundary, Kaupo Trail              3,847 Feet
 Elevation of Park Boundary, Koolau Gap               6,450 Feet
 Area of the Haleakala Section, Hawaii National Park   26.7 Square miles



                               Footnotes


[1]Emory, Kenneth P., An Archaeological Survey of Haleakala, Bernice P.
    Bishop Museum, Occasional Papers, vol. VII, No. 11. 1921.

[2]Ellis, William, A Narrative of a Tour Through Hawaii, or Owhyhee;
    with remarks on the History, Traditions, Manners, Customs and
    Language of the Inhabitants of the Sandwich Islands, London 1825.

[3]“Voyages of Discovery of Captain James Cook,” vol. II, page 958. Ward
    Luck, Bowden & Co., London.

[4]L. A. Milet-Mureau, ed., “Voyage de la Perouse Autour du Monde”
    (Paris, an V) II, 110-129.

[5]“Honolulu; Sketches of the Life, Social, Political, and Religious in
    the Hawaiian Islands from 1828 to 1861,” Laura Fish Judd; Honolulu,
    1880.

[6]THE MISSIONARY HERALD, v. XXV, August 1829, No. 8, pp. 246-251 (no
    author).

[7]Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the Years
    1838, 1839, 1840, 1941, 1942. Charles Wilkes. U.S.N. v. IV, 1845,
    pp. 252-256.

[8]Damon, S. C., Ascent of Haleakala, The Friend, vol. 5, pp. 116-117,
    1847.

[9]Bates, Geo., Sandwich Island Notes, pp. 116-117, New York, 1854.

[10]Wilkes, Chas., Narrative of the U. S. Exploring Expedition, vol. 4,
    p. 254, 1845.

[11]Dana, J. D., U. S. Exploring Expedition 1838-42, vol. 10, Geology,
    p. 228, 1849.

[12]W. D. Alexander, On the Crater of Haleakala, Island of Maui,
    Hawaiian Group. Am. Jour. Sci. 2nd ser., vol. 49, No. 145, P. 48,
    Jan. 1870.

[13]Dutton, C. E., Hawaiian Volcanoes, U. S. Geol. Survey, 4th ann.
    rept., pp. 81-219, 1874.

[14]Dana, J. D., Characteristics of Volcanoes, New York, 1891, pp.
    277-278.

[15]Daly, R. A., Igneous Rocks and the Depths of the Earth, p. 171, New
    York, 1933.

[16]Cross, Whitman, Lavas of Hawaii and their Relations: U. S. Geol.
    Survey Prof. Paper 88, p. 25, 1915.

[17]Powers, Sidney. Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 28, p. 512, 1925.

[18]Stearns, H. T., Origin of Haleakala Crater, Maui, Hawaii: Geol. Soc.
    America Bull., vol. 53, pp. 1-14, 1942.

[19]Degener, O., Plants of Hawaii National Park, p. 101; Flora
    Hawaiiensis, Family 68, 1946.

[20]Degener, O., Plants of Hawaii National Park, pp. 142-148.

[21]Basic data for this section prepared under the supervision of D.
    Elmo Hardy, Entomologist, University of Hawaii, to whom grateful
    acknowledgement is made.

[22]Perkins, R. C. L., Ent. Monthly Magazine, 32:195, 1896.

[23]Myrick, E., Fauna Hawaiiensis, vol. 1, p. 145, 1899.

[24]Swezey, O. H. and Degener, Otto. Insect fauna of the silversword and
    greensword. Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc., 7(1): 183-195, 1928.

[25]Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the Land Fauna of the Hawaiian Islands.
    Edited by David Sharp. Vols. I-III. Cambridge, England. 1899-1913.

[26]Zimmerman, Elwood C. Insects of Hawaii. Vols. 1-3, 1948-1959. Univ.
    of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

[27]Rev. A. O. Forbes, Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1881, p. 59,
    Thos. G. Thrum, editor, Honolulu.


    [Illustration: Silversword in bloom]



                          Transcriber’s Notes


—Silently corrected a few typos.

—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





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