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´╗┐Title: Terra Australis Incognita - A New Southern Discovery, containing A Fifth Part of the World
Author: Quir, Ferdinand  de
Language: English
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indicated by +plus signs+.

 _Terra Australis Incognita_:
 A New Southern
 A Fifth Part of the WORLD;
 Lately found out by
 A _Spanish_ Captain.

Printed in the Year 1617; And now Re-printed.

[Illustration: Gemino facit commercia Mundo]

 Printed for +William Bray+ in _Exeter-Court_,
 near _Exeter-Change_ in the _Strand_.

 Copy of a PETITION
 Presented to the
 KING of _Spain_,

_Capt._ Peter Ferdinand de Quir, _touching
the Discovery of the Fifth part of
the World, called_ Terra Australis
Incognita, _and of the great Riches
and Fertility of the same_.


I am called Captain _Peter Ferdinand De Quir_, a most humble Servant and
Subject of your Majesty's, who in all Submission do shew unto you, that
this is the Eighth Petition, which by me hath been presented to your
Majesty's View, to perswade the Conduction of some Colonies, unto the
Land which your Majesty hath commanded to be discovered in the Country
of _Terra Australis incognita_: And yet to this Hour no Resolution is
taken in this Affair, neither have I received any Answer or Hope,
whereby I might rest assured to obtain my Dispatch, although I have
attended Fourteen Months in your Court, and have employ'd Fourteen Years
in this Discovery, unto the which I have been induced by the meer
Goodness of the Cause, and in the Assuredness of the same have obdurated
my self against all Difficulties and Contradictions whatsoever. I have
desperately exposed my self to a thousand Perils both by Sea and Land, I
have diminished and sunk my Estate, I have been travailed with many
Afflictions in my Person, and suffered such strange and extraordinary
Crosses, that they seem almost incredible to my self; and all, that so
Religious an Undertake should not unworthily be abandoned. In regard
whereof, I do most humbly beseech your Majesty in the Bowels of the
Divine Charity, that you would be pleased to take Order, that I be not
deprived of the Fruits of this Design, which with such Instance I do
desire, and which with so much Justice are due unto my continual Pains
and Travel: Nor that I be debarr'd from the Effects of so considerable
and well-grounded a Request, whose principal Scope is the Glory of God,
and of your Majesty, and from whence infinite Benefits are likely to
issue forth, which will live as long as the Fabrick of the World shall
subsist, and after the Dissolution thereof, will remain to all Eternity.

Touching the Extent of these Regions newly discovered, grounding my
Judgment on that which I have seen with mine own Eyes, and upon that
which Captain _Lewes Paez de Terres_ Admiral of my Fleet, hath
represented unto your Majesty, the Length thereof is as great as all
_Europe_ and _Asia the Less_, unto the Sea of _Bachu_, _Persia_, and all
the Isles, as well of the Ocean, as of the _Medeterranean_ Sea, taking
_England_ and _Island_ into this Account.

This unknown Country is the Fifth part of the Terrestrial Globe, and
extendeth it self to such Length, that in probability it is twice
greater in Kingdoms and Seignories, than all that which at this Day doth
acknowledge Subjection and Obedience unto your Majesty.

These Regions know no Neighbourhood either of _Turks_ or _Moors_, or of
any other Nation which attempteth War upon confining Countries. The Land
which we have discovered is all seated within the _Torrid Zone_, and a
great Tract thereof reacheth unto the Equinoctial Circle, which is
elevated unto them to 90 Degrees above the Horizon, and in some Places a
little less. And if the Success prove answerable unto the Hopes, there
will be found _Antipodes_ unto the better part of _Africk_, unto all
_Europe_, and to the greater Portion of _Asia_. But you must observe,
that as the Countries which we have discover'd in 15 Degrees of
Latitude, are better than _Spain_, so the other which are opposed to
their Elevation, must by Proportion and Analogy prove some Terrestrial

All those Quarters swarm with an incredible Multitude of inhabitants,
whereof some are white, others black, and in Colour like unto those
which the _Spaniards_ call _Mulatos_, or half _Moors_, and others of a
mingled Complexion. Some! wear their Hair long, black, and scatter'd,
others have their Hair crisped and thick, and others very yellow and
bright. Which Diversity is an apparent Argument, that there is Commerce
and Communication amongst them. And this Consideration, together with
the Bounty which Nature hath bestowed on the Soil, their Inexperience of
Artillery and Guns, and their Unskilfulness in labouring in Mines, with
other semblable Circumstances, doth induce me to infer, that all the
Country is rich and well-peopled. It seemeth they know little what
belongeth to Artificial Trades; for they have neither Fortifications nor
Walls, and live without the Awe of Kings or Laws. They are a simple
People, canton'd into' several Sects, and Factions, and exercise much
Disagreement amongst themselves. The Arms which they use are Bows and
Arrows, which are not poisoned or steeped in the Juice of venomous Herbs,
as the Custom is of many other Countries: They do also carry Clubs,
Truncheons, Pikes, Darts, to hurl with the Arm, all which ate framed
only of Wood. They do cover themselves from the Waste of Girdling-place
down to the half of their Thighs; they are very studious of Cleanliness,
tractable, gleeful, and wonderously addicted to be grateful unto those
that do them a Courtesie, as I have experienced many times. The which
doth build in me a belief, that, with the Assistance of God, if they may
be gently and amiably intreated, they will be found very docible and
easie of Manage, and that we shall without much Work accommodate our
selves unto them. And it is most necessary to observe this way of
Sweetness, especially in the Beginning, that the Inhabitants may be
drawn along to this so holy and saving an End, whereof we ought to take
a particular Care and Zeal, as well in small things, as in Matters of
more Importance. Their Houses are built of Wood, covered and tiled with
Palm-tree Leaves; they have Pitchers and Vessels made of Earth, they are
not without the Mystery of Weaving, and other Curiosities of that kind.
They work on Marble, they have Flutes, Drums and Wooden-Spoons, they set
apart certain Places for Oratories and Prayers, and for Church-yards.
Their Gardens are artificially severed into Beds, bordered and fashioned
with distinct Limits; Mother of Pearl, and the Shells which contain
Pearl, they have in much use and Estimation, of which they make Wedges,
Razors, Saws, Cutters, and such like instruments; They also do make
thereof Pearls and great Beads to wear about their Necks; they that do
dwell in the Islands have Boats very artificially made, and exceedingly
commodious for Sailing, which is a certain Argument that they confine
upon other Nations that are of a more polished and elegant Behaviour.
And this also they have of our Husbandry, that they cut Cocks and geld

Their Bread is usually made of three Sorts of Roots, which grow there in
great abundance. Neither do they employ much Labour in making this
Bread, for they do only roast the Roots until they are soft and tender.
They are very pleasant to the Taste, wholsome and nourishing, they are
of a good Length, there being of them of an Ell long, and the half of
that in Bigness.

There is great store of excellent Fruits in these Countries. There are
six kinds of Maple-trees, Almond-trees of four sorts, and other Trees
called _Obi_, resembling almost in Fruit and Greatness our Quince-trees.
Innumerable Walnut-trees are found there, and of Citron-trees the
Barbarians have no Dearth, nor of other great and excellent Fruits,
which we have seen and tasted. They have moreover Sugar-Canes, large in
Size, and in great Plenty; they have Knowledge of our ordinary Apples;
they have Palm-trees without Number, out of which there may easily be
drawn a Juice, which will make a Liquor alluding much to Wine, as also
Whey, Vinegar, and Honey, the Kernels thereof are exceeding sweet. And
they have Fruits which the _Indians_ call _Cocos_, which being green do
make a kind of Twine, and the Pith is almost like in Taste unto the
Cream of Milk: When they are ripe they serve for Meat and Drink both by
Land and Sea; And when they wither and fall from the Tree, there
sweateth out an Oil from them, which is very good to burn in Lamps, and
is medicinable for Wounds, and not unpleasant to be eaten. Of their
Rinds or Barks there are made Bottles, and other like Vessels, and the
inner Skin doth serve for Tow or Moss to stop and close up the Leakes in
Ships. Men do make Cables and other Cordage of them, which are of
sufficient Strength to draw a Cannon, and are fit for other domestick
Uses. But that which is more special, they do there use the Leaves of
Palm-trees, which they amass together, to make Sails of them for Vessels
of small Bulk and Burthen. They make likewise fine thin Matts of them,
and they do serve for Tiles to cover the House without, and for Hangings
to cloath the House within. And these Houses are built of the Branches
of Trees that are strait and long, of which they do likewise make Pikes,
and other sorts of Weapons, as also Oars to row with, and Utensils for
the House. You are to note, that these Palm-trees resemble Vines, from
whence they gather their Materials for Wine all the Year long, which
they make without much Cost, or Labour. Amongst their Herbage and
Garden-Fruits; we have seen Melons, Pears great and little, and sundry
sorts of Pot-Herbs. And they have also Beans For Flesh, they are stored
with a great Number of Hogs, which are like unto ours. They have Hens,
Capons, Partridges, Ducks, Turtles, Pigeons, Stock-Doves, and Goats, as
one of my Captains doth relate. And the _Indians_ themselves have
assured us that there are Cows and Oxen. There are also sundry sorts of
Fish, Harghi, Persereyes, Lize, Soles, Trouts, Shads, Macabises,
Casanes, Pampani, Pilchards, Thorn-backs or Skate-fish, Cuculi, Congers,
Porposes, Rochets, Muskles, Lobsters, and many other, the Names whereof
I cannot now remember. But it is probable that there are divers other
kinds, since those which I have recounted were taken hard by our Ships.
And upon ripe and serious Consideration of that which I have represented
unto you, a Man may easily collect, that such plentiful and different
Varieties of all things, may yield large means to inhabit there, with
great and singular Delights. There is Stuff for Marchpanes and sweet
Confections of all sorts, without borrowing any Spice for the
Composition of them elsewhere. And for my Mates the Mariners, besides
those Particulars which I have before set down, there will be no want of
Gammons, Sausages, and other salt Meats which Hogs do yield; neither of
Vinegar, Spiceries, and other Sauces that serve for Delicacy, and to
awake the Appetite. And you must observe, that many of these things are
the same with those which we have in our Parts, and possibly they are
there in greater abundance; by all which it is easily to be conjectured,
that this Country is fit for the production of all that which groweth in

The Riches which I have seen in those parts is Silver and Pearl. Another
Captain in his Relation doth report, that he hath seen Gold, which are
the three most precious Darlings that lie and are cherished in the Bosom
of Nature. We have also both of us seen many Nutmegs, much Mastick,
Ginger, and Pepper. There is also Cinamon; and it is likely that Cloves
may be found in those parts, since so many other sorts of Spiceries and
Aromatical Drugs do prosper there; and that the rather, because these
Countries lie very near the parallel of the Isles of _Terre-natte_,
_Bachian_, and the _Moluccos_. There are likewise Materials for all
sorts of Silk, and we have seen Anise-seed and excellent good Ebony, as
also other kind? of Wood proper for the Building of as many Ships as one
will desire, and Stuff to make Sails for the same. Three sorts of
Materials there are wherewithal to make Cordage, and one of them is very
like unto our Hemp. Moreover, out of the Oil of _Cocos_, whereof I have
already made mention, there is a kind of bituminous Stuff extracted,
called _Galagala_, which may be well used for Pitch. They make also a
kind of Rosen, with which the _Indians_ pitch their Boats, which they
call _Piraques_. And since there are Goats and Cows in those parts,
without question we shall have Goat-Skins, Leather, Tallow, and Flesh in
full abundance. The Bees which we have seen there do make proof, that
there will be no Scarcity of Honey and Wax. And there is good Appearance
to discover many other things which are not yet known, to say nothing
touching the Form and Site of the Country. Unto all which, if that be
adjoined, which the Industry of Man may contribute to those Parts, since
there is such abundance of Commodities, which the Country itself doth
yield, and such Hope to transport thither those things which grow with
us, the best and choicest whereof that _Peru_ and _New Spain_ bring
forth, I have resolved to transfer thither; it is to be hoped that this
will so enrich that Country, that it will be able to nourish and furnish
not only the Inhabitants of the same, and those of _America_, but give
an Accession unto _Spain_ itself both of Riches and Extent of Command:
And this may be accomplished after the manner which I have projected,
and will unfold unto those which shall lend an assisting Hand for the
Guiding and Consummation of this Work.

Now by that Land which we have already discovered outwardly and along
the Shores, without Entrance into the inward Parts, we do conceive a
certain Argument, that as much Riches, Commodities, and Greatness, may
be hoped for from thence, as we have already in these Countries. And you
may be pleased to understand that my principal Aim was to take a View
only of those ample Regions which we have discovered; for by reason of
many Sicknesses which have weakened me, and some other Chances, whereof
I will at this time make no mention, I was not able to survey all which
I desired, neither could I in a full Month have seen all that, which I
was of my self inclinable to view.

You are not to make your Judgment of the _Indians_ that inhabit these
Countries according to the Honour of the People here, or conceive them
to be affected with the same Desires, Pleasures, Necessities, or
Estimation of things that we are: But you are to make account that they
are a People whose Care is studiously placed upon this, that they may
live easily in this World, and pass their Days with the least Pain and
Perturbation they can. And this is indeed their Practice, for they do
not bestow themselves on those things, which with such Vexation and
Torment we here labour to obtain.

There are found in this Country as many Commodities, both for the
Support and Delectation of the Life of Man, as may be expected from a
Soil that is manurable, pleasant and very temperate. It is a fat and a
fertile Land, where in many places Clay is found, which will prove of
excellent Use to build Houses, and to make Tiles and Bricks, and will
serve for whatsoever is usually made of Earth. There is no Dearth of
Marble and other good Stones, wherewith, if there be Occasion, there may
be built Structures of greater State and Magnificence.

The Country aboundeth in Wood, fit for all Works and Uses, whereunto the
same is commonly put. There are spacious and goodly Plains, and Fields
that are divided and interlaced with Brooks, Trenches and Rivers. There
are great and high Rocks, sundry Torrents, Rivers great and little, on
Which Water-mills for Corn may, with much Commodiousness, be built and
placed, as also Engines to make Sugar, Tucking mills, Forges, and all
other Instruments which in their Use do require Water.

We have found Salt-pits there, and, which is a Note of the Fertility of
the Soil, there are in many places Canes, whereof some are five of six
Handfuls thick, with Fruit answerable to that Proportion. The Top of
that Fruit is very small and hard, and the Skin thereof is exceeding
sweet. There are also Flints for Fire, equal in Goodness to those of
_Madrid_. The Bay of St. _James_ and St. _Philip_ hath twenty Leagues of
Bank, and is without Mud, into which there is a sure and safe Entrance
both by Day and Night. It is sheltered and covered with many Houses,
which in the Day-time we have seen a far off to send forth Smoak, and in
the Night to shew forth Fire.

The Haven, called _The true Cross_, is of that spacious Capacity, that
it is able to contain a Thousand Ships. The Bottom, as I have said, is
without Mud, and hath a blackish colour'd Sand wherewithal it is
covered. There are no Gulfs or deep Pits, but an assured and easie
Anchorage in what part soever you will, from forty to half a Fathom; and
it is between the Mouths of two Rivers, the one whereof is as great as
that of _Quadalguiver_, and hath Mud of a Fathom deep, over which our
Shalops and Boats did pass.

For the other River, when our Skiffs went to water there, they found the
Entrance safe and easie. And a Man may from the very Mouth of the River
take in as much fresh Water as he will. The place where Ships may be
unloaded hath three Leagues of Gravel, mingled with little Flints,
blackish and very heavy, which will serve for Balast for Ships. The Bank
is straight and united, on which much green Grass doth grow and prosper,
and that makes me to conceive that the Sea doth not beat or rage
thereupon: I observe that the Trees are strait, and the Branches not
dismembred, which is a Token that there are no Tempests there. Touching
the Port, besides the Commodities which I have already discoursed of,
there is one of marvellous Pleasure and Contentation. And that is, at
the Dawning of the Day you shall hear from a Wood, which is near at
hand, a sweet and various Harmony of a thousand Birds of all sorts,
amongst which we could distinguish the Nightingales, Black-birds,
Quails, Goldfinches, Swallows almost without Number, Parrochito's, and
one Parrot we marked there, and Creatures of sundry other kinds, even
down to Grass-hoppers and Field-Crickets.

Every Morning and Evening we received a most odoriferous sweet Smell,
sent unto our Nostrils from the infinite Diversity of Flowers and Herbs
which grow there, amongst which we observed the Blossoms of Oranges and
Basil. All which (with a Number of other Varieties) doth make us think
that the Air is clear and healthy, and that the Nature of the place is
of a good Temperature, The Haven and Bay are therefore of the greater
Estimation, because they have the Neighbourhood of so many goodly
Islands that are there, and especially of those Seven which are said to
have 200 Leagues of Extent: And surely one of them (which is some twelve
Leagues distant from the Haven) is fifty Leagues in Circuit. In brief,
_Sir_, I do affirm unto your Majesty, that you may give Command to have
a goodly and great City built in this Port and Bay, which are in fifteen
Degrees and forty Minutes of the Southern Elevation, and those that
shall inhabit there shall have plenty of Riches, and all other
Conveniences which they can desire. Time will shew and discover all
these Commodities, and in this place there may be made the Discharge and
Unloading of all the Wares and Merchandizes of the Countries of
_Chilly_, _Peru_, _Panania_, _Macaraqua_, _Guttimala_, _New-Spain_,
_Terre-natte_, and the _Philippines_, all which Countries are under the
Command of your Majesty. And if you shall acquire unto your self the
Dominion of these Seigniories which I do now present, I do make so great
an Esteem of them, that besides their being the Key of all the rest,
they will (in my Opinion) prove another _China_ or _Japan_, and equalize
the other rich Islands which are on this side of _Asia_ in Traffick of
curious and precious Merchandizes, to speak nothing of the Augmentation
and Extent of your Power, and the Establishment which you may make unto
your self of your Dominions by the Accession of so great a Country. That
which I have given unto your View in my Discourse is of much
Slenderness, in regard of that which I do probably conceive of this
Land, the which I am ready to make appear in the Presence of
Mathematicians. Neither will I vex this Paper to demonstrate unto you,
that these Countries will be able at the first Aboord to nourish 20000
_Spaniards_. In Sum this is, _Sir_, the World whereof _Spain_ is the
Center, and that which I have related, is the Nail by which you may
judge of the whole Body, which I pray you to take into your Observation.

You may judge by that which I have already represented, what the
Goodness and Temperature of the Air is; whereunto this may be added for
a further Testimony, that although all our Company were Strangers, yet
never a one of them was sick, albeit they were in continual Travel and
Labour, and did sometimes sweat, and sometimes take Wet. They drank
Water fasting, and fed many times on that which the Earth did there
bring forth. Neither had they any regard to keep themselves from the
Serenes, nor from the Moon or Sun, which indeed in those Parts is not
over-vehement. Only about Mid-night, they covered themselves with Wool,
and did lie and repose themselves thereupon. And for the Inhabitants,
they are commonly healthy, and many of them very aged, although they
have nothing but the bare Earth for their Pallet, which is an Argument
of the Wholesomeness and Pureness of the Soil. For if it were a wet and
weeping Ground, or had any Viciousness in the Mould, they would raise
their Lodgings higher from the Earth, as they do that live in the
_Philippines_, and other Countries which I have viewed. And this is
further confirmed by their Flesh and Fish, which although it be
unsalted, yet will it keep sweet, and without Corruption two Days. And
the Fruits which are brought from thence are exceeding good, as we had
Proof by two that I took care to bring along with me, altho' they had
not their full Maturity and Growth when I gathered them from the Tree.
We have not seen any barren and sandy Ground, nor any Thistles, or Trees
that are thorny, of whose Roots do shew themselves, no Marshes or Fenns,
no Snow upon the Mountains, no Snakes or Serpents, no Crocodiles in the
Rivers, no Worms that use with us to hurt and consume our Grain, and to
work us so much Displeasure in our Houses, no Fleas, Catterpillers, or
Gnats. This is a Prerogative that hath the Advantage of all the
Privileges that Nature hath bestowed on other Places, and is worthy to
be compared, or rather preferred before any Delicacy of the Countries of
_India_, some of which are abandoned and uninhabited, meerly by reason
of these Incommodities, and of sundry others that are distastful unto
the Inhabitants, as my self have oftentimes been Witness.

These (_Sir_) are the Vertues and Excellences of the Countries which I
have discovered, of which I have already taken the Possession in the
Name of your Majesty and under your Royal Banner, as appeareth by the
Acts which I keep safely in my Power, whereunto I proceeded after this
ensuing manner.

First (_Sir_) we erected a Cross, and built a Church in Honour of our
Lady of _Loretto_. Then we caused Twenty Masses to be celebrated there,
and our Troops made haste thither to gain some Indulgences. We also made
a solemn Procession, and observed the Feast of the Blessed Sacrament,
the which was carry'd in Procession, your Banner being ever displayed,
and marching before it thro' a great Circuit of Countries, which were
honour'd with the Presence of the same.

In three several Places we set up your Titles, in every one of which we
prepared and erected two Columns, with the Arms of your Majesty tricked
and garnished thereupon: so that I may with good Right affirm, that
since this will challenge to be one of the Parts of the World, the
Impress of _Plus ultra_ is accomplished, and because it stretcheth unto
the Continent, whether it be forward or behind it skills not, the Bounds
of your Dominions are with much Spaciousness enlarged. Now all this
which I have performed receiveth its Root from this the faithful Zeal
which I bear unto your Majesty, that to all the Titles which you already
do possess, you may adjoin this which I represent, and that the Name of
TERRA AUSTRALIS INCOGNITA may be blazoned and spread over the Face of
the whole World to the Glory of God, who hath revealed this Country, and
hath given me the Grace to guide my Course thither, and to return to the
Presence of your Majesty, before whom I do present and prostrate my self
with the same Affection and Zeal unto this Work which I had before, and
which hath grown up with me as it were from my Cradle, and for the
Nobleness and Worth thereof, I do still tender and cherish the same with
the greatest Love that can be.

I do confidently believe, that your Majesty doth use so much Prudence in
your Councils, and are so magnanimous and full of Christian Piety, that
you will (with your best Care) embrace all the Conducements which may
further the Habitation of these new discovered Countries. And the
principal Reason to put a Tye and Obligation upon us not to leave them
abandoned, is, in regard that this is the sole ordinary way to establish
the Knowledge of God, and Faith among them, and to bring to pass that
his Name may be adored and called upon, where the Devil usurpeth so much
Reverence and Invocation. And this ought to be embraced with the more
Readiness, because it is the Channel to convey and disperse all
abundance of Commodities amongst your Subjects. And hereby you shall be
eased of many Disturbances and Vexations, which will assuredly be put
upon you, in case the Hereticks should enter and nestle there, and
should vent their erroneous Doctrines amongst them, whereby they would
convert all the Blessings which I have hitherto recounted unto you, into
assured Incommodities and Mischiefs, and would arrogate unto themselves
the Name of the Lords of the _Indies_, to the utter Ruin and Desolation
of those Countries. I make no question but your Majesty well weigheth of
what Importance this Danger of which I speak may prove, and what evil
Consequence some other Hazards may carry with them, which are either at
this time imminent, or may succeed hereafter. And if this should happen,
it would cost you innumerable Thousands of Gold and Men, before you
shall be able to give a Remedy unto the same. Acquire therefore, _Sir_,
while that Occasion is offered you (that one Day you may purchase Heaven
unto yourself:) Acquire (I say) with a little Money, which you misplace
upon _Peru_, a never-dying Reputation, and this _New World_ with all the
Benefits which it reacheth out unto you. And since there is none that
craveth a Reward for these good Tidings that is brought you concerning
so great and singular a Blessing, which God hath been pleased to lock up
until your happy time, I am he, _Sir_, that do demand it, and my humble
Request unto you is only this, That you would be of that Graciousness
unto me, as to dispatch and give me mine Answer; for the Galleons are
ready to hoise Sail, and I have much way to go, and many things must be
fitted and disposed for the Voyage. There is no Hour passes, which
carrieth not with it an assured Loss both in regard of spiritual and
temporal Blessings, the Damage whereof can never be made up or repaired.

If upon a bare Suspicion _Christophorus Columbus_ did pursue his Design
with so much Obstinacy, you are not to account it strange in me if the
Things which I have beheld with mine Eyes, and touch'd with mine Hands,
do put some kind of Constraint upon me to be importunate.

Let it therefore please your Majesty, amongst so many Expedients which
you have at hand, to lever and put apart some one for the Accomplishment
of this Work, that after all these Languishments, I may at length meet
with the Success of my Desires. I do assure you that you will find my
Propositions most just, and that I shall be of Sufficiency to give you
Satisfaction in all things. This, _Sir_, is a great Work, against which
the Devil doth bandy himself with all the Puissance he may; and it is
not consonant to Reason, to abandon these Countries to his Tyranny and
Power, which do know your Majesty for their Patron and Defender.


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