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Title: Keys to Fungi on Dung
Author: Richardson, Mike, Watling, Roy
Language: English
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165 Braid Road,


Royal Botanic Garden,

  Published by the British Mycological Society
  PO Box 30, Stourbridge
  West Midlands DY9 9PZ

  © British Mycological Society 1997

  Printed in Scotland by BPC-AUP Aberdeen Ltd

  ISBN 0 9527704 2 3

  The first edition of these keys was published in the _Bulletin of the
  British Mycological Society_ 2, 18-43 (1968) and 3, 86-88, 121-124 (1969)
  in an attempt to bring together in one place information for the
  identification of coprophilous fungi which would be useful to teachers
  and others interested in these fungi. They were issued as a separate
  publication in 1972, and with corrections in 1974. They were reprinted in
  1982 with additions. This latest edition is an update of all the earlier
  ones, with current nomenclature and recent references, and the inclusion
  of some additional species.

    December 1996


Coprophilous fungi are highly satisfactory for demonstrating the diversity
and morphology of a group of related organisms within an ecological system.
Representative genera of most major groups of fungi can usually be
guaranteed to appear on dung after a period of incubation. There is no
shortage of dung in our fields and woods, and this material will always
produce characteristic fungi at whatever time of year it is collected.

Dung is best incubated in a light place, for example on a table in a warm
room, on layers of moist filter paper or other absorbent material. For
rabbit pellets, and samples of similar size, Petri dishes are ideal; for
horse 'apples', and larger types of dung, large covered dishes such as
glass casseroles, plastic sandwich boxes or yoghurt pots are needed. The
top third cut from a plastic lemonade or mineral water bottle fits neatly
in a Petri dish, and replacing the screw cap with a cotton wool plug allows
aeration and gives adequate height for developing basidiomycetes. Samples
should not be kept in airtight containers for any length of time after
collection, as in such conditions insects and nematodes tend to break down
the dung, and anaerobic conditions which do not favour the fungi rapidly
develop. If they cannot be set to incubate soon after collection they can
be gently air dried, as most dung fungi will remain alive after such
treatment and grow out when the sample is eventually moistened. The
absorbent material should be kept moist. Although free water will not allow
the best development of ascomycetes, the succession of basidiomycetes
appears to vary with the wetness of the dung. Earthworms and insect larvae
should be excluded from the samples as far as possible, for they break up
the dung too much; activity of the latter can be reduced by spraying
lightly with a household insecticide. If space is limited and cultures are
kept nearby, it is very important to prevent mite infestation. Containers
can be isolated by placing on glass plates lightly smeared with Vaseline,
to which an acaricide (e.g. methyl benzoate) can be added.

Fungi are best sought with a stereoscopic binocular microscope, when their
full beauty will be seen, but a hand lens or simple magnifier, although
less convenient, is sufficient for all but the smallest forms. The larger
ascomycetes and most of the basidiomycetes are readily seen with the
unaided eye, but the binocular microscope is still very useful for
observing the gross features of the veil of the basidiomycetes. Perithecia,
apothecia and similar structures can be removed with fine needles or
forceps quite cleanly for mounting, initially in water, on slides.
Subsequent irrigation with iodine solution will allow any reaction of ascus
wall, tip or pore to be observed, and mounting in diluted Indian ink can
enhance the visibility of appendages, caudae and sheaths which occur on
some spores. Spore discharge in the ascomycetes often occurs from mature
asci when material is mounted in water, so mature spores can immediately be
seen. Many of the coprophilous toadstools (agarics), because of their small
size and/or rapidly deliquescent nature, often do not give spore prints in
the normal way, but mature spores can usually be found on the stipe or in
natural spore prints formed on the absorbent material on which the dung is
supported. For accurate identification the ability to measure the size of
spores and other structures will be necessary. Basic microscopical
technique and mycological knowledge is assumed. Common species are well
described and illustrated in popular books, and references are given to
specialist works to allow descriptions of less common species to be found.
It will be necessary to refer to these for critical taxa. Although this
edition contains about one half more species than the 1982 edition, there
are still many species to be described and new records and observations to
be made, especially in the Ascomycotina.

Four keys are presented. Keys 1 and 2 (MJR) are to the coprophilous
ascomycetes, a very diverse group which, although not covering all the
possible types of reproductive structure found in the class, contains many
of the important types. The information for the identification of these
fungi is dispersed throughout the literature, and many new species are
still being discovered and described. Some appear to be world-wide in their
distribution, others more restricted, with a prevalence of reports from
either arctic, temperate or tropical regions. These keys are not
exhaustive, since there are far too many species to make it practical to
include them all. They do, however, include most genera, and the commoner
or well known species of temperate regions. Specific (and even generic)
limits in some cases (e.g. _Coprotus_ / _Ascophanus_ / _Ryparobius_ /
_Thelebolus_) are still the subject of debate and the choice of names to
use in the key for a few taxa has been a compromise. Key 2 includes the
original 'plectomycete' key (RW), which contains fungi which may not be
strictly coprophilous in the normal sense, but fungi which occur on hair,
horn, bone and cadavers, and may thus be found on carnivore dung or pellets
of owls and other birds of prey.

Key 3 (RW, p. 52) is to the basidiomycetes of dung and associated debris.
The part of the key dealing with the agarics attempts to be as complete as
possible. Since the toadstools have always been thought of as the best
known of the coprophilous fungi, attention to their taxonomy has often been
careless. In this key the opportunity has been taken to adopt a rather
narrow species concept, and to provide in certain places indications of
where distinct taxa, even autonomous species, may be found after further
laboratory work. Many of these types have been cultured and appear to
differ vegetatively in ways which support observations of gross morphology.
Coprophilous agarics are popular material for genetic studies and
additional information on veil structure, spore number etc. of individual
species is given, even when these are not 'key characters'.

Key 4 (MJR, p. 63) is to the Zygomycota (phycomycetes) which are
characteristic of dung and amongst the first to appear when freshly dropped
dung is incubated. They soon disappear, however, but their fruiting can be
prolonged by plating small portions of dung on a nutrient medium (e.g.
potato carrot or potato dextrose agar) to which has been added a small
amount of antibiotic to reduce bacterial growth. This method is especially
suitable for the parasitic and predacious fungi. A cultural approach is
essential for the identification of many of these fungi and the above
media, and oatmeal agar, are suitable for culture as well as isolation. For
this reason the study of this group of fungi is less easy than that of the
ascomycetes and basidiomycetes but, because the asexual stages are
characteristic, we have attempted to key out the commoner genera which
might be found, with notes on common species. The asexual spores are
sporangiospores formed in sporangia; some sporangia produce a single spore
within a closely fitting sporangium, and have in the past been erroneously
described as conidia. A great range of sporangial structure occurs within
the orders concerned. The classical structure is the massive (up to 250µm
diam.) multispored sporangium with an internal columella which remains
after the spores have been dispersed (e.g. _Mucor_); those of _Mortierella_
are similar, but smaller and without a columella. Other sporangia are much
reduced and may be only 10-20µm diam., and contain only a small number of
spores (_Thamnidium_) or one spore (_Chaetocladium_); these small globose
structures are termed sporangioles. Spores may also form in chains; the
chains are in terminal groups and are formed by the differentiation of the
contents of cylindrical sporangia which are considered to be part-sporangia
(merosporangia). When the sporangial wall has disappeared the spore chains
may remain discrete and intact, or they may collapse into a wet droplet of
spores (_Syncephalastrum_, some _Piptocephalis_). Members of the
Kickxellaceae (e.g. _Coemansia_, _Kickxella_) have single spored
merosporangia produced in serried ranks on boat-shaped or swollen
structures (sporoclades). The sexual spores (zygospores) are rarely seen
without culturing; oatmeal agar is one which favours their production. The
key includes one member of the Entomophthorales, which also produces
single-spored sporangia. Other members of this order may be found
parasitising the various animals which live in dung; many other predacious
fungi may also be seen, e.g. parasites of amoebae (_Acaulopage_). The key
is of necessity far from complete, and omits members of the Dimargaritales,
which have been found frequently on dung of small mammals in America.

Mitosporic fungi ('Fungi Imperfecti') and myxomycetes have been excluded,
since they would expand the range of these keys beyond what was initially
intended, although numerous species of both groups occur on dung when
incubated in a damp chamber. For mitosporic fungi see Seifert, Kendrick &
Murase (1983) and Ellis & Ellis (1988); for myxomycetes see Eliasson &
Lundqvist (1979). As practical keys, rather than a taxonomic treatment,
taxonomic authorities have not been cited. For ascomycetes, Cannon,
Hawksworth & Sherwood-Pike (1985) have been followed, unless there is a
more recent treatment of a group. For the basidiomycetes the 'New Checklist
of British Agarics and Boleti' (Dennis, Orton & Hora, 1960, _Supplement to
the Transactions of the British Mycological Society_ 43) has been followed,
and _The British Fungus Flora_ (Orton & Watling, 1979 and Watling, 1982).


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  records of _Delitschia_ from Venezuela. _Canadian Journal of Botany_ 55,

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  Valldosera, M. & Guarro, J. (1989). Estudios sobre hongos copróphilos
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  Valldosera, M. & Guarro, J. (1989). Estudios sobre hongos copróphilos
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  aislados en España. XVIII. Bibliographic catalogue of Ascomycotina.
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  coprophilous fungi from Spain. _Mycological Research_ 95, 243-246.

  Winter, G. (1884-1887). Ascomyceten: Gymnoasceen und Pyrenomyceten. VOL.
  1, Abt. 2 of _Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora_. (Pyrenomycetes).

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  Yao, Y-J. & Spooner, B. M. (1996). Notes on British species of
  _Cheilymenia_. _Mycological Research_ 100, 361-367.


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  Mitteleuropa._ Fischer Verlag.

  Moser, M. (1983). _Keys to Agarics and Boleti_ (English translation by S.
  Plant). Roger Phillips, London.

  Orton, P. D. & Watling, R. (1979). _British Fungus Flora: Coprinus._ Her
  Majesty's Stationery Office, Edinburgh.

  Phillips, R. (1981). _Mushrooms and other fungi of Great Britain and
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  Benjamin, R. K. (1961). Addenda to the merosporangiferous Mucorales.
  _Aliso_ 5, 11-19.

  Benjamin, R. K. (1963). Addenda to the merosporangiferous Mucorales.
  _Aliso_ 5, 273-288.

  Benjamin, R. K. (1965). Addenda to the merosporangiferous Mucorales.
  _Aliso_ 6, 1-10. (The 4 papers above are an excellent account of
  _Syncephalis_, _Piptocephalis_, _Coemansia_ and other unusual allied
  phycomycetes, republished (1967) as _Bibliotheca Mycologica_ 5 by J.
  Cramer, Lehre).

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  scientifiques de l'Université de Besançon_, Series 2 3, 95-105.

  Hesseltine, C. W. (1955). Genera of Mucorales with a note on their
  synonymy. _Mycologia_ 47, 344-363. (With good key; many other papers by
  Hesseltine, with others, in _Mycologia_, _American Journal of Botany_,
  _American Midland Naturalist_ and _Lloydia_).

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  in relation to spore liberation. _Transactions of the British Mycological
  Society_ 46, 115-134.

  Naumov, N. A. (1939). Clés des Mucorinées. _Encyclopédie mycologique_ 9,

  Zycha, H., Siepmann, R. & Linneman, G. (1969). _Mucorales._ J. Cramer,
  Lehre. (A revision of Zycha, 1935).


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  in New Zealand._ Victoria University Press, Wellington.

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  North-western Europe._ Hodder & Stoughton, London.

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  interssanti del litorale Toscano._ Schede di Micologia VOL. 1. Fondazione
  Centro Studi Micologici Dell' A. M. B., Vicenza, Italy.

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  fungi._ Academic Press, New York.

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  Substrates._ Croom Helm, London & Sydney.

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  Notiser_ 132, 551-568. (A list of 34 spp., with some descriptions and

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  International, Wallingford.

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  British fungi, 4th Edition. _Bulletin of the British Mycological Society_
  16, 36-55; 92-112.

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  _Annals of Botany, London_ 15, 313-357.

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  hyphomycetes on dung._ University of Waterloo Biology Series No. 27.

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  Mycological Society_ 54, 161-180.

Key 1. Ascomycota

  1        Ascoma either globose to flask shaped, usually with an
           easily observable pore or neck (PERITHECIUM or
           PSEUDOTHECIUM, figs 16, 18, 19, 22, 27, 30, 32, 34-37),
           or discoid (APOTHECIUM, figs 1, 3, 4, 7, 11-14). Spores
           usually 8 in each ascus (less frequently 4, 16, 32, 64,
           128 etc.). Asci ellipsoid to cylindrical, borne in a
           distinct hymenium, thus appearing in fascicles or
           distinct groups when the fruit body is squashed.               2
  -        Ascoma globose to subglobose, lacking a definite pore
           or neck (CLEISTOTHECIUM or GYMNOTHECIUM, figs 38, 39,
           46). Asci globose to subglobose, 8-spored, not in a
           distinct hymenium, appearing quite free when the fruit body
           is squashed.                                  KEY 2, 148 (p. 45)

  2(1)     Ascoma a PERITHECIUM or PSEUDOTHECIUM, usually dark in
           some part, not opening to a disc but remaining globose
           or flask shaped. Asci unitunicate, not operculate but
           often with an apical pore, which may stain blue in
           iodine, or bitunicate.                          KEY 2, 1 (p. 24)
  -        Ascoma an APOTHECIUM, white or lightly coloured, soft
           fleshed, opening out to a disc or cushion shape when
           mature. Asci unitunicate.                                      3

  3(2)     Asci opening by an operculum (fig. 8), a bilabiate
           vertical split down to a subapical ring of thickening
           (fig. 15), or apparently just bursting.                        4
  -        Asci inoperculate, with an apical pore.                       96

  4(3)     Spores 8 (occasionally 4) in an ascus, colourless,
           purple or brown.                                               5
  -        Spores more than 8 in an ascus, colourless.                   77

  5(4)     Spores remaining colourless.                                   6
  -        Spores purple or brown at maturity.                           39

  6(5)     Apothecia with obvious hairs.                                  7
  -        Apothecia without obvious hairs (microscopic hairs up to
           50µm long may be present).                                    14

  7(6)     Hairs brown. Apothecia orange, red orange or yellow
           orange.                                (_Cheilymenia_, fig. 1) 8
  -        Hairs colourless. Apothecia colourless or pinkish.
                                                  (_Lasiobolus_, fig. 3) 12

  8(7)     Apothecia with stellate hairs. Spores 14-20 × 8-11µm.
                                        _Cheilymenia stercorea_ (figs 1, 2)
  -        Apothecia without stellate hairs.                              9

  9(8)     Spores 14.5-18 × 8-9.5µm. Asci 10-13µm diam. Apothecia
           2mm diam. or more.                      _Cheilymenia coprinaria_
  -        Spores larger, 17 × 10µm or more.                             10

  10(9)    Apothecia reddish orange, up to 1mm diam., marginal
           hairs rooting, wall 2-4µm thick. Spores 21-26 ×
           10-13.8µm.                                _Cheilymenia fimicola_
  -        Apothecia pale orange yellow, marginal hairs
           superficial, wall up to 2µm thick.                            11

  11(10)   Asci up to 22µm diam. Spores 17-27 × 10-14.5µm.
                                                  _Cheilymenia pulcherrima_
  -        Asci wider, 25µm diam. or more. Spores 23-26.5 × 13-16.5µm.
                                                     _Cheilymenia raripila_

[Illustration: FIG. 1. _Cheilymenia stercorea_, apothecium.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2. _C. stercorea_, stellate and rooted hairs.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3. _Lasiobolus ciliatus_, apothecium.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4. _Iodophanus carneus_, apothecium and spore.]

  12(7)    Hairs 600µm or longer. Spores 19-23 × 7-10µm.
                                                  _Lasiobolus macrotrichus_
  -        Hairs shorter, up to 600µm.                                   13

  13(12)   Asci clavate, 20µm diam. or wider. Spores 19-22 ×
           10.5-13.5µm.                               _Lasiobolus cuniculi_
  -        Asci cylindrical, up to 20µm diam. Spores 18-22.5 ×
           9.5-11.5µm.                       _Lasiobolus ciliatus_ (fig. 3)

  14(6)    Asci blue in iodine solution.                                 15
  -        Asci not blue in iodine.                                      24

  15(14)   Spores large, 30-42 × 15-18µm, warted, ellipsoid with
           acute apices.                              _Thecotheus cinereus_
  -        Spores smaller, smooth or only finely ornamented              16

  16(15)   Apothecia brownish, large, 1cm diam. or more.      (_Peziza_) 21
  -        Apothecia pale, up to 4mm diam. Asci protruding from
           hymenium when ripe.                                           17

  17(16)   Apothecia white to pink, up to 2mm diam. Spores finely
           verruculose, 18-25 × 8-14µm.       _Iodophanus carneus_ (fig. 4)
  -        Apothecia pale, variously coloured when fresh, but drying
           darker. Spores smooth.                         (_Thecotheus_) 18

  18(17)   Spores apiculate at each end, smooth.                         19
  -        Spores not apiculate, 20-22 × 8-10µm.   _Thecotheus agranulosus_

  19(18)   Spores with a collar at the base of the apiculus.             20
  -        Spores without a collar at the base of the apiculus,
           16-21 × 8-12µm.                          _Thecotheus apiculatus_

  20(19)   Apothecia white. Spores 20-22 × 10-12µm, apiculus
           4-6µm diam.                              _Thecotheus perplexans_
  -        Apothecia yellowish. Spores 12-15 × 7.5-9µm, apiculus
           2.5-3.5µm diam.                           _Thecotheus africanus_

  21(16)   Spores smooth, without guttules.                              22
  -        Spores verruculose or spinulose, 15-18 × 8-9µm, with 1
           guttule. Paraphyses with clavate apices, with brown
           contents. Apothecia asymmetrical, extended on one side.
                                                          _Peziza pleurota_

  22(21)   Spores 19-24 × 10.5-14µm. Apothecia yellowish brown,
           up to 10cm diam.                             _Peziza vesiculosa_
  -        Spores up to 10µm wide.                                       23

  23(22)   Apothecia ca 1cm diam., umber with a paler margin.
           Spores 15-22 × 9-10µm.                           _Peziza bovina_
  -        Apothecia up to 2cm diam., pale brown. Spores 13-16
           × 7-9µm.                                         _Peziza fimeti_

  24(14)   Apothecia robust, up to 4mm diam., orange or with brownish
           or purple tints.                                              25
  -        Apothecia smaller, rarely more than 1mm, pale, yellowish
           green, orange, grey or chestnut.                              32

  25(24)   Apothecia orange or red.                                      26
  -        Apothecia discrete, brownish or purple.           (_Fimaria_) 27

  26(25)   Apothecia crowded, 1-3mm diam., orange, with a granular
           surface. Asci up to 190 × 15µm. Spores 15-18.5 ×
           7-9.5µm. Paraphyses strongly clavate to apex up to 14µm
           diam, filled with orange granules.          _Coprobia granulata_
  -        Apothecia discrete, 1-2mm diam., orange or red. Asci
           240 × 10-12µm. Spores 12-15 × 7-8µm. Paraphyses yellow,
           only slightly swollen from 2µm to 3-4µm at apex.
                                                    _Ascophanus bresadolae_

  27(25)   Spores 8-9.5 × 4-4.5µm.                         _Fimaria equina_
  -        Spores larger.                                                28

  28(27)   Spores 20-38 × 10-13µm.                       _Fimaria hepatica_
  -        Spores shorter.                                               29

  29(28)   Spores 10-13 × 7-9µm.                          _Fimaria porcina_
  -        Spores 13-17 × 7-11µm.                                        30

  30(29)   Disc punctate with asci. Paraphysis tips swollen up to
           3-5µm. Spores 14.5-16 × 9.5-11µm.              _Fimaria leporum_
  -        Disc not punctate with asci. Paraphysis tips not or
           only slightly swollen.                                        31

  31(30)   Apothecia pale yellowish. Spores 13-15.5 × 7.5-8.5µm.
                                                       _Fimaria theioleuca_
  -        Apothecia chestnut/purplish brown. Spores 14-17 ×
           7-8.5µm.                                      _Fimaria cervaria_

  32(24)   Spores less than 10µm long.                                   33
  -        Spores mostly longer than 10µm.                               36

  33(32)   Paraphyses markedly capitate to 5-6µm, with yellowish
           green contents. Apothecia dull at first, yellowish at
           maturity. Spores 7-10 × 2-4.5µm.
                                          _Thelebolus microsporus_ (fig. 5)
  -        Paraphyses only slightly inflated above, without
           coloured contents. Apothecia whitish or grey.                 34

  34(33)   Spores 5-7 × 3-4µm. Asci 38-42 × 6-7µm. Apothecia smoky
           grey, 0.3-0.4mm diam.                    _Ascophanus cinerellus_
  -        Spores larger. Apothecia pale, white or yellowish.            35

  35(34)   Apothecia up to 1.2mm diam. Asci short stalked, 40-55 ×
           8-12µm. Spores 7.5-9 × 4.5-5.5µm.          _Coprotus glaucellus_
  -        Apothecia 0.2-0.5mm diam. Asci attenuate below, 65-85 ×
           10-15µm. Spores 8-10 × 5-6.5µm.               _Coprotus lacteus_

  36(32)   Apothecia chestnut brown up to 1mm diam. Asci 160 ×
           13µm. Spores 13-16 x 8-11µm. Paraphyses forked, with
           swollen tips.                              _Ascophanus misturae_
  -        Apothecia lighter coloured. Asci less than 150µm long.        37

  37(36)   Spores 14-18 × 9-11µm. Apothecia pale yellow/orange, up
           to 1.5mm diam. Asci cylindrical, 110-150 × 12-15µm.
           Paraphyses yellowish, slightly inflated to 4-5µm at
           apices.                                    _Coprotus ochraceus_
  -        Spores less than 15µm long. Apothecia up to 0.6mm diam.
           Asci less than 100µm long.                                    38

[Illustration: FIG. 5. _Thelebolus microsporus_, ascus and paraphysis.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6. _Ascodesmis microscopica_, ascospores.]

  38(37)   Apothecia bright yellow. Asci cylindrical clavate,
           attenuate below, 65-90 × 10-15µm. Spores 12-14 ×
           6-8.5µm. Paraphyses branched, apices inflated to
           4-5µm, with yellow contents.                  _Coprotus aurorus_
  -        Apothecia white/pale yellow, with darker margin. Asci
           broadly clavate, stalked below 40-55 × 15-30µm.
           Spores 9-15 × 6.5-9.5µm. Paraphyses inflated above to
           5-8µm, hyaline.                         _Coprotus granuliformis_

  39(5)    Spores spherical or broadly ellipsoid, brown, ornamented
           with warts, anastomosing ridges or a reticulum. Asci
           clavate. Apothecium without excipulum.
                                                  (_Ascodesmis_, fig. 6) 40
  -        Spores ellipsoid or spherical, hyaline at first, then
           purple, becoming brown at maturity; epispore smooth,
           finely verruculose, warted or cracked. Asci cylindrical.
           Excipulum present.                                            45

  40(39)   Spores 18-21.5 × 13.5-17.5µm.            _Ascodesmis macrospora_
  -        Spores up to 16µm.                                            41

  41(40)   Spores ± spherical, L/B ratio mostly up to 1.2.               42
  -        Spores ± broadly ellipsoidal, L/B ratio mostly 1.2 or more.   43

  42(41)   Spores ornamented with round warts, 8.5-11 × 8.3-10µm.
                                                          _Ascodesmis nana_
  -        Spores ornamented with a network of ridges, 10.5-14 ×
           9-12µm.                                _Ascodesmis sphaerospora_

  43(41)   Spores with a prominent reticulum of ridges (fig. 6),
           11-15.5 × 8-13.5µm. Apothecia 150-300µm diam.
                                         _Ascodesmis microscopica_ (fig. 6)
  -        Spore ornament not a reticulum.                               44

  44(43)   Spores with 1 simple or branched ridge and isolated or
           occasionally connected warts, 11-14.5 × 7-11.5µm.
           Apothecia up to 500µm diam.                 _Ascodesmis porcina_
  -        Spores with isolated warts, some joined to form short
           ridges, but not a reticulum, often capitate, 9.5-12.5
           × 7.5-10µm. Apothecia 50-150µm diam.      _Ascodesmis nigricans_

  45(39)   Spores separate in the ascus.                   (_Ascobolus_) 46
  -        Spores firmly joined together, both in the ascus and
           after ejection (fig. 10).                      (_Saccabolus_) 66

  46(45)   Spores spherical.                                             47
  -        Spores ellipsoid.                                             48

  47(46)   Spores 10.5-13.5µm, epispore with numerous but isolated
           warts.                         _Ascobolus brassicae_ (figs 8, 9)
  -        Spores 11.5-13.5(15)µm, epispore with subparallel
           occasionally anastomosing lines.         _Ascobolus crosslandii_

  48(46)   Spores very large, mostly 50-70 × 25-35µm, almost oblong
           with rounded ends, typically with few cracks in the
           epispore.                       _Ascobolus immersus_ (figs 7, 9)
  -        Spores smaller, with epispore smooth, warted or with cracks.

  49(48)   Epispore strongly and irregularly wrinkled with a
           vesiculose layer of pigment, 11.6-16 × 6.5-9.3µm.
           Paraphyses capitate up to 18µm. Apothecia up to 0.6mm
           diam.                                 _Ascobolus rhytidiosporus_
  -        Epispore not strongly wrinkled/vesiculose.                    50

  50(49)   Epispore basically smooth or warted, perhaps with a few
           irregular cracks.                                             51
  -        Epispore with a clear pattern of cracks or lines.             56

[Illustration: FIG. 7. Apothecia of, from left, _Ascobolus furfuraceus_,
_A. immersus_ and _A. albidus_.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8. _A. brassicae_, ascus with spores and detail of

[Illustration: FIG. 9. Ascospores of, clockwise from left, _A. immersus_,
_A. stictoideus_, _A. albidus_, _A. brassicae_ and _A. crenulatus_.]

  51(50)   Spores up to 25µm long.                                       52
  -        Spores longer, 25µm or more.                                  54

  52(51)   Epispore smooth, finely granular or punctate. Gelatinous
           material unilateral, not surrounding spore.                   53
  -        Epispore warted, spores 18.5-21(22.5) × (9)10-11.5µm,
           surrounded by gelatinous sheath.         _Ascobolus hawaiiensis_

  53(52)   Spores 18-24 × 10-13µm. Hymenial mucus greenish yellow.
           Excipulum not brown.                          _Ascobolus mancus_
  -        Spores 20-25 × 11-13µm. Hymenial mucus sulphur yellow.
           Excipulum with rich brown intercellular pigment.
                                                       _Ascobolus boudieri_

  54(51)   Epispore smooth or finely granular, spores 23-29(32)
           × 12-17µm.                                   _Ascobolus elegans_
  -        Epispore warted.                                              55

  55(54)   Spores with a regular pattern of warts and intact
           epispore, 26-32 × 15-17.5µm.
                                           _Ascobolus stictoideus_ (fig. 9)
  -        Spores with irregular patches of thicker pigment,
           especially at the poles, 28-35 × 16-18µm.
                                                      _Ascobolus degluptus_

  56(50)   Spores mostly 18 × 10µm or larger.                            57
  -        Spores mostly smaller than 20 × 10µm.                         61

  57(56)   Apothecia small, mostly up to 1mm diam., colourless.
           Spores 20-35 × 11-14µm, epispore cracks distant,
           irregular, often anastomosing.
                                            _Ascobolus albidus_ (figs 7, 9)
  -        Apothecia larger, usually 1mm diam. or more, disc
           yellowish, greenish, purplish or brownish.                    58

  58(57)   Apothecia crowded, purplish or purplish brown with
           intercellular pigment. Spores 18-28 × 10-12µm, with
           longitudinal anastomosing cracks.
                                              _Ascobolus roseopurpurascens_

  -        Apothecia yellowish or greenish.                              59

  59(58)   Spores 17-22 × 9.5-12µm with a few widely spaced and
           irregularly oriented cracks.               _Ascobolus michaudii_
  -        Spores with closely spaced, ± longitudinal, cracks, with
           varying degrees of anastomosis.                               60

  60(59)   Apothecia furfuraceous, sessile. Ascus wall blue in
           iodine. Spores 19-28 × 10-14µm.
                                           _Ascobolus furfuraceus_ (fig. 7)
  -        Apothecia smooth, substipitate. Ascus wall only faintly
           blue in iodine. Spores 19-22 × 9.5-13µm.
                                                     _Ascobolus perplexans_

  61(56)   Apothecia large, stipitate, 5-10mm diam. Spores 16-19.5
           × 8.5-10µm, with subparallel, longitudinal, only rarely
           anastomosing lines.                       _Ascobolus lignatilis_
  -        Apothecia up to 2mm diam.                                     62

  62(61)   Apothecia white.                                              63
  -        Apothecia yellow, green or brownish.                          64

  63(62)   Spores 13-17 × 7.5-8.5µm, with a coarse reticulum of fine
           cracks when mature. Only recorded on grouse, capercaillie
           etc. (Tetraonidae) dung.                  _Ascobolus carletonii_
  -        Spores 16-20 × 8-10µm, with a pattern of longitudinal
           anastomosing cracks. Only recorded on deer dung.
                                                  _Ascobolus sacchariferus_

  64(62)   Spores 14.5-16 × 8-9µm, epispore lines not densely
           crowded.                                    _Ascobolus cervinus_
  -        Spores smaller, epispore with densely crowded, rarely
           anastomosing cracks.                                          65

  65(64)   Apothecia greenish yellow, furfuraceous, with crenulate
           margin. Spores 9.5-15 × 6-8µm.
                                            _Ascobolus crenulatus_ (fig. 9)
  -        Apothecia brownish yellow to brown, smooth, with
           undifferentiated margin. Spores 12.5-14.5 × 7-8.5µm.
                                                        _Ascobolus minutus_

  66(45)   Asci 4-spored. Spore clusters 42-58 × 14-20µm. Spores
           16.5-23 × 9.5-12µm, smooth to finely punctate, but with
           a thick cap or girdle of reticulated or warted pigment.
                                                  _Saccobolus quadrisporus_
  -        Asci 8-spored.                                                67

  67(66)   Spore clusters ± globular, 17-26(39) × 15-20µm.               68
  -        Spore clusters elongated, 2-3 times as long as wide.          69

  68(67)   Spore clusters compact, subglobose, with only the
           exposed surface of spores pigmented, ornamented with
           small and coarse warts.                  _Saccobolus dilutellus_
  -        Spores loosely united in cluster, ornamented with
           small isolated warts covering most of their surface.
                                               _Saccobolus globuliferellus_

  69(67)   Apothecia yellow. Spores in 4 rows of 2 longitudinally
           arranged spores (fig. 10).                                    70
  -        Apothecia hyaline or violaceous (some mature darker).
           Spores in 2 rows of 3 and 1 row of 2 (fig. 10).               73

  70(69)   Spore clusters 40µm or longer.                                71
  -        Spore clusters up to 40µm long.                               72

  71(70)   Spore clusters 50-71 × 16-25µm. Spores 22-29 ×
           8.5-14.5µm, smooth or rarely finely punctate, with
           distant irregular cracks.          _Saccobolus glaber_ (fig. 10)
  -        Spore clusters 43-51 × 14-17µm. Spores 16-22 × 7.5-9µm,
           with fine isolated warts.                  _Saccobolus citrinus_

  72(70)   Spores 14-17.5(19.5) × 7.5-8.5(10)µm, easily separated
           at maturity. Spore clusters becoming shorter and more
           rounded with maturity. Apothecia up to 300µm diam.,
           inconspicuous due to their solitary nature and the
           predominantly brownish colour due to the mature spores.
                                           _Saccobolus truncatus_ (fig. 10)
  -        Spores 11.5-13.5 × 5.5-6.5µm.               _Saccobolus minimus_

  73(69)   Apothecia white, covered with tapering squamules
           composed of septate hyphae. Spore clusters 38-43 ×
           15-17µm. Spores 16-17.5 × 7-8.5µm, smooth or finely
           punctate.                               _Saccobolus caesariatus_
  -        Apothecia not white, without tapering scales.                 74

  74(73)   Spore clusters mostly over 40µm long.                         75
  -        Spore clusters mostly under 40µm long.                        76

  75(74)   Spore clusters 38-62 × 14-19µm. Spores 13-21.5 ×
           6.5-9.5µm, smooth, finely warted or with reticulate
           cracks. Apothecia 0.2-2mm diam.
                                          _Saccobolus versicolor_ (fig. 10)
  -        Spore clusters 42-60 × 18-24µm. Spores very coarsely
           warted, 17.5-23 × 8.5-10µm (inc. warts).     _Saccobolus beckii_

[Illustration: FIG. 10. Spore clusters of, from left, _Saccobolus
versicolor_, _S. glaber_ and _S. truncatus_.]

  76(74)   Spore clusters compact, 26-43 × 13-19µm. Spores 13.5-18
           × 7.5-9.5µm, epispore with fine or coarse warts.
           Apothecia 0.3-0.8mm diam.                  _Saccobolus obscurus_
  -        Spore clusters elongated, 28-37 × 10-13µm. Spores
           10-14.5 × 5-7.5µm, epispore smooth or very finely
           granular. Apothecia 0.1-0.3mm diam.
                                                  _Saccobolus depauperatus_

  77(4)    Asci operculate or bursting, without a subapical ring.
           Spores ellipsoid.                                             78
  -        Apothecia white, often minutely hairy at the margin.
           Ascus dehiscing by a vertical slit; the slit is
           prevented from running right down the ascus by a
           subapical ring of thickening. Spores ellipsoid-fusiform.
                                              (_Ascozonus_, figs 14, 15) 90

  78(77)   Asci 16-spored. Spores ellipsoid, 11-16 × 7-10µm.
                                                  _Coprotus sexdecemsporus_
  -        Asci more than 16-spored.                                     79

  79(78)   Asci 32-spored.                                               80
  -        Asci more than 32-spored.                                     84

  80(79)   Asci very large, nearly 0.5mm long, spores 30-35 ×
           13-17µm (32-40 × 20-24µm in Kimbrough, 1969). Apothecia
           pale coloured.                           _Thecotheus pelletieri_
  -        Asci and spores smaller.                                      81

  81(80)   Spores 10µm or longer.                                        83
  -        Spores up to 10µm long.                                       82

  82(81)   Spores ellipsoid, with minute scattered warts visible
           under oil-immersion, 7-9 × 4-4.5µm. Apothecia densely
           crowded, 90-120µm diam., with 8-13 asci. Asci 32-55
           × 16-18µm with (24-)32 spores. Paraphyses 1.5-2µm,
           clavate to 4-4.5µm.                         _Thelebolus caninus_
  -        Spores subacute at apices, ca 6 × 4µm (described as
           'minute'; this value is suggested by Boudier's comparison
           with _R. dubius_, for which measurements are given).
           Apothecia densely crowded, tawny yellowish-brown.
                                                      _Ryparobius brunneus_

  83(81)   Spores 10-12.5 × 5-7.5µm. Asci clavate, 75-100 ×
           20-30µm. Paraphyses enlarged to 6µm at apex.
                                                         _Coprotus albidus_
  -        Spores 13.5-17.5 × 7-8µm. Asci 10-15 per apothecium,
           120-175 × 50-75µm. Paraphyses filiform.
                                                  _Coprotus rhyparobioides_

  84(79)   Asci with up to 64 spores.                                    85
  -        Asci with many more than 64 spores--impractical to count.     86

  85(84)   Asci 64-spored, broad clavate with short stalk, 80-130
           × 30-60µm. Spores 8-12 × 4-7µm.                _Coprotus niveus_
  -        Asci broadly clavate with up to 64 spores, 60-100 ×
           20-30µm. Spores 7-10 × 4.5-5.5µm. Apothecia superficial,
           on the surface of the substrate, yellowish brown,
           gregarious, united into a crust.         _Thelebolus crustaceus_

  86(84)   Apothecia superficial, 400-600µm diam., with prominent,
           acuminate, superficial, 1-2-septate hairs, 80-190µm
           long, often roughened towards their apex, with one
           1000+-spored ascus, 110-240 × 15-27µm. Spores very
           variable, 6.5-16 × 3.7-8.8µm (mostly 7.5-13 × 4.5-7µm).
                                                      _Lasiobolus monascus_
  -        Apothecia minute, rarely above 350µm diam., globose and
           immersed in substrate when young. Asci broad globose,
           with 100-200 spores. Usually only 1-3 asci in each
           apothecium, which dehisce by bursting at the apex.            87
           (Other _Ryparobius_ spp. will key out here [e.g. _R. dubius_,
           _R. myriosporus_, _R. pachyascus_ and _R.
           polysporus_]. They all have scattered to gregarious,
           immersed to semi-immersed apothecia 100-200µm diam.,
           with relatively few asci, each with 100-250 ellipsoid
           to subacuminate ca 5-7 × 3-4µm spores. There are
           insufficient modern observations to allow their
           identification and separation with confidence).

  87(86)   Apothecia with a few, but obvious, setae. Spores 9 × 7µm
           or larger.                                                    88
  -        Apothecia without setae. Spores ellipsoid, 6-9 × 3.5-4µm.     89

  88(87)   Spores ellipsoid, 9-11 × 7-9µm. Setae up to 600µm long.
                                                      _Trichobolus zukalii_
  -        Spores subglobose, 11-12 × 10-11µm. Setae up to 300µm long.
                                      _Trichobolus sphaerosporus_ (fig. 11)

  89(87)   Apothecia and asci large, 170-250µm diam.
                                          _Thelebolus stercoreus_ (fig. 12)
  -        Apothecia and asci small, rarely above 80-90µm diam.
                                               _Thelebolus nanus_ (fig. 13)

  90(77)   Asci 16(-24)-spored. Spores not closely aggregated into
           an imbricated mass, 13-14 × 6µm (8-9 × 4µm)[1].
           Apothecial hairs rough, subulate.        _Ascozonus parvisporus_
  -        Asci with 32 or more spores.                                  91

  91(90)   Asci 32-spored. Spores 16.5-18 × 4.5-5µm (11-12 ×
           3-3.5µm)[1]. Apothecia with a single row of sharp,
           pointed, roughened hairs.                   _Ascozonus crouanii_
  -        Asci more than 32-spored.                                     92

  92(91)   Asci 48-spored. Spores spindle-shaped, 12-14.5 × 2.5-4µm.
                                                      _Ascozonus leveillei_
  -        Asci more than 48-spored.                                     93

  93(92)   Asci 64-spored.                                               94
  -        Asci more than 64-spored.                                     95

  94(93)   Apothecia with a short base of globose cells, with
           minutely roughened marginal hairs up to 30 × 8µm. Spores
           elliptic-fusoid, 12-14 × 3-5µm.
                                     _Ascozonus woolhopensis_ (figs 14, 15)
  -        Apothecia sessile, with aseptate smooth hairs. Spores
           21 × 7.5µm (13-14 × 4.5-5µm)[1].         _Ascozonus cunicularis_

[Illustration: FIG. 11. _Trichobolus sphaerosporus_, apothecium.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12. _Thelebolus stercoreus_, apothecium.]

[Illustration: FIG. 13. _T. nanus_, mature and immature apothecia, and
detail of ascus dehiscence.]

[Illustration: FIG. 14. _Ascozonus woolhopensis_, apothecium and apothecial

[Illustration: FIG. 15. _A. woolhopensis_, ascus with spores and detail of

  95(93)   Apothecia with a short base of globose cells, with
           short, irregular hairs. Asci 64-96-spored Spores
           elliptic-fusoid, 14-14.5 × 5-5.5µm (10-15 × 3.5-4µm)[1].
                                                    _Ascozonus leveillanus_
  -        Apothecia sessile, dotted with hairs in connate groups
           of 2-3. Asci with 128 or more spores. Spores 10 × 5µm
           (7 × 3.5µm)[1].                            _Ascozonus subhirtus_

  96(3)    Apothecia stalked.                                            97
  -        Apothecia not stalked.                                        98

  97(96)   Apothecia up to 2mm diam., with a short cylindrical stalk,
           light brown. Asci 150 × 10µm. Spores hyaline, with 2 oil
           drops, occasionally 1-septate, 13-15 × 4.5µm.
                                                          _Lanzia cuniculi_
  -        Apothecia up to 3mm diam., pale olivaceous to grey, with
           a long, slender, reddish-brown stalk arising from a
           sclerotium in the dung. Asci 30-40 × 4-5µm. Spores
           ellipsoid, grey-brown, 4-4.5 × 2µm.     _Martininia panamaensis_

  98(96)   Spores 7-11(14) × 1.75-2.75µm. ellipsoid, ellipsoid-
           fusiform or slightly clavate. Apothecia yellowish brown
           when fresh, drying darker, up to 1mm diam. Asci 42-60 ×
           7.5-9µm, pore weakly blue in iodine.          _Pezizella albula_
  -        Spores and asci smaller.                                      99

  99(98)   Spores linear, 3-5 × 1µm. Asci 30 × 5µm, cylindrical
           with a short stipe. Paraphyses not clavate but fused
           to form an epithecium. Apothecia pale pellucid,
           0.5-1mm diam.                                 _Orbilia leporina_
  -        Spores longer, subulate, curved.                             100

  100(99)  Spores 7-8.5 × 1.2-1.8µm. Asci 36-40 × 3-5µm, gradually
           tapering to a short base. Paraphyses enlarged to 3µm at
           apex, covered with brown granules. Apothecia light brown,
           0.4-1.mm diam.                                _Orbilia fimicola_
  -        Spores 8-10.55 × 0.9-1µm. Asci 30-45 × 3µm,
           cylindrical-clavate with narrow tapering base and
           truncate apex. Paraphyses 2µm diam., the tips with a
           crust-like secretion fusing together to form a shiny
           epithecium. Apothecia white to yellowish, 180-700µm diam.
                                                     _Orbilia fimicoloides_

Key 2. Perithecial, pseudothecial, cleistothecial and gymnothecial fungi

  1         Perithecia occurring singly or in groups, but directly
  (key 1,2) on the dung or buried in it (figs 16, 28, 19, 22, 27,
            30, 32, 34-36).                                               2
  -        Perithecia occurring in or on a mass of fungal tissue
           (stroma) growing in or on the dung (figs 32, 37).            135

  2(1)     Spores black, brown or dark olive-greenish.                    3
  -        Spores hyaline or pale coloured, at least under the
           microscope (may be coppery red _en masse_).                  117

  3(2)     Spores smooth, without an ornamentation of hyaline pits.       4
  -        Spores 1-celled, ornamented with hyaline pits.
                                                      (_Gelasinospora_) 114

  4(3)     Perithecia dark, olive, brown or black.                        5
  -        Perithecia reddish brown, orange or golden, globose,
           with a neck. Spores black, limoniform.                       116

  5(4)     Perithecia globose, surmounted by a dense tuft of greyish
           green hairs, which may be branched or simple, straight
           or curly. Spores olivaceous, limoniform. Asci clavate,
           soon disappearing. (A large genus not characteristic
           of dung, but occurring occasionally).
                                                     _Chaetomium_ (fig. 16)
  -        Perithecia more pyriform, or if globose then with a
           distinct neck, may be setose but not densely hairy,
           with clavate or cylindrical asci.                              6

  6(5)     Each spore composed of 4 or more cells in a row (figs
           17, 21). Asci bitunicate (figs 20, 23).                        7
  -        Spores 1- or 2-celled. Asci bitunicate or unitunicate.        29

  7(6)     Spores 16-32-celled, united firmly together in a bundle
           both in the ascus and after discharge. Germ slits
           usually absent.                                  (_Sporormia_) 8
  -        Spores each with 4 or more cells, each spore free and
           surrounded by its own gelatinous sheath. Germ slits
           usually present.                             (_Sporormiella_) 11

  8(7)     Spores 16-20-celled.                                           9
  -        Spores 29-32-celled, 130-160 × 4-6µm.      _Sporormia mirabilis_

  9(8)     Spores 16-celled, 85-116 × 5-6.5µm.         _Sporormia fimicola_
  -        Spores smaller.                                               10

  10(9)    Spores 16-celled, 37-45 × 3µm. Asci 50-60 × 10-12µm.
                                                  _Sporormia sp._ (fig. 17)
           [recorded as _S. fimetaria_ by Richardson (1972);
           see also Bell (1983) and Dissing (1992)]
  -        Spores 16-20-celled, 50-57 × 3.5-4.5µm. Asci 70-80 ×
           12-16µm.                                   _Sporormia fimetaria_
           (These two taxa may represent the extremes of _S. fimetaria_).

  11(7)    Spores 4-celled.                                              12
  -        Spores more than 4-celled.                                    22

  12(11)   Spores more than 65-70µm long.                                13
  -        Spores less than 65-70µm long.                                15

[Illustration: FIG. 16. _Chaetomium_ sp., perithecium and spore.]

[Illustration: FIG. 17. _Sporormia_ sp., ascus and spores.]

[Illustration: FIG. 18. _Sporormiella ovina_, pseudothecium.]

[Illustration: FIG. 19. _S. intermedia_, pseudothecium.]

[Illustration: FIG. 20. _S. intermedia_, immature bitunicate ascus and
mature ascus with outer layer ruptured.]

[Illustration: FIG. 21. Ascospores of, from left, _S. ovina_, _S.
intermedia_ (with gelatinous sheath characteristic of the genus), _S.
lageniformis_, _S. vexans_, _S. bipartis_ and _S. minima_.]

  13(12)   Spores 65-95 × 15-18µm.               _Sporormiella megalospora_
  -        Spores longer than 90µm.                                      14

  14(13)   Spores 90-118 × 15-20µm. Asci tapering gradually from
           the broadest part near the apex to a 'stipe'.
                                         _Sporormiella ovina_ (figs 18, 21)
  -        Spores 91-114 × (14)18-21µm. Asci cylindrical, abruptly
           contracted below to a short 'stipe'.
                                                    _Sporormiella borealis_

  15(12)   Spores mostly less than 35µm long.                            16
  -        Spores mostly between 35-60µm long.                           19

  16(15)   Spores less than 25µm long.                                   17
  -        Spores 25-35(38)µm long.                                      18

  17(16)   Spores (15)17-24(26) × 5-7µm, end cells broadly conical.
           Ascospores uniseriate. Asci 120-135µm long. Pseudothecia
           250-300µm diam.                         _Sporormiella pulchella_
  -        Spores 16-22 × 4.5-5.5µm, end cells subovate. Ascospores
           biseriate. Asci 95-125µm long. Pseudothecia 300-350µm
           diam.                               _Sporormiella nigropurpurea_

  18(16)   Spores 30-38.5 × 5.5-6.5µm. Asci clavate, tapering
           gradually below to a 'stipe'.            _Sporormiella leporina_
  -        Spores 27-36(38) × 4-6(8)µm, tending to break in two at
           the middle septum. Asci cylindrical, abruptly contracted
           below.                           _Sporormiella minima_ (fig. 21)

  19(15)   Spores with end cells rounded. Asci cylindrical,
           abruptly contracted below.                                    20
  -        Spores with end cells tapered and slightly conical.
           Asci clavate, tapering gradually to a long stalk.             21

  20(19)   Spores 45-65 × 8-11.5µm.
                                     _Sporormiella intermedia_ (figs 19-21)
  -        Spores 38-46 × 6.5-8µm.                 _Sporormiella australis_

  21(19)   Spores 45-60 × 11.5-14µm, germ slits parallel with
           long axis.                            _Sporormiella grandispora_
  -        Spores 35-45(48) × 7-9(10)µm.
                                      _Sporormiella lageniformis_ (fig. 21)

  22(11)   Spores 5-celled, 70-80 × 17-19µm.       _Sporormiella pentamera_
  -        Spores more than 5-celled.                                    23

  23(22)   Spores 7- or 8-celled.                                        24
  -        Spores 13-celled, 46-60 × 9-10µm.      _Sporormiella antarctica_

  24(23)   Spores 7-celled.                                              25
  -        Spores 8-celled.                                              26

  25(24)   Spores 40-55 × 7-9µm, readily disarticulating, the end
           cells longer than wide, the rest shorter than wide.
                                            _Sporormiella vexans_ (fig. 21)
  -        Spores 70-80 × 16-18µm, end cells rounded.
                                                   _Sporormiella heptamera_

  26(24)   Spores mostly longer than 45µm.                               27
  -        Spores less than 50µm long, not disarticulating at the
           central septum.                                               28

  27(26)   Spores 45-60 × 5-7.5µm, disarticulating at the central
           septum, all cells the same width.
                                          _Sporormiella bipartis_ (fig. 21)
  -        Spores 50-59 × 10-12µm, not disarticulating, 3rd cell
           down wider than the others.           _Sporormiella corynespora_

  28(26)   Spores (33)37-40(49) × 7-9µm, cylindrical. Asci
           abruptly contracted below.                 _Sporormiella pascua_
  -        Spores 40-48 × 7-8µm, fusiform cylindrical. Asci gradually
           tapered below.                           _Sporormiella octomera_

  29(6)    Spores obviously 2-celled at maturity.                       30
  -        Spores 1-celled, or appearing 1-celled at maturity.
           (Those of _Podospora_, _Schizothecium_ etc. are 2-celled
           in early stages of their development, but only one cell
           matures to become pigmented; the other remains hyaline,
           often collapses, and may be difficult to see).               47

  30(29)   Spores 23-28 × 13-17µm, upper cell dark, 15-19µm, with
           close, blunt spines giving the impression of a pitted
           spore surface, with apical germ pore, the lower cell
           hyaline, 6-8.5µm, smoky-brown. Asci unitunicate,
           4-spored. Perithecia 400µm diam.
                                       _Apiosordaria verruculosa_ (fig. 24)
  -        Both cells of spore similar in shape, size and colour.        31

  31(30)   Asci unitunicate. Spores with a 'gelatinous' appendage
           at each end. Perithecial neck with setae.                     32
  -        Asci bitunicate. Spores without gelatinous appendages,
           although a sheath may be present.                             33

  32(31)   Spores 38-48 × 11-14µm, appendages longitudinally
           fibrillate.                              _Zygospermella striata_
  -        Spores 46-68 × 11-17µm, appendages hollow, not
           fibrillate.                   _Zygospermella insignis_ (fig. 25)

  33(31)   Spores with each end truncated by a germ pore.
           Pseudothecia with dark bristles at neck.
                                                    (_Trichodelitschia_) 34
  -        Spores with rounded ends and germ slits along the sides.
           Pseudothecial neck smooth or hairy, but without setae.
                                                 (_Delitschia_, fig. 26) 36

  34(33)   Spores 28-34 × 9-12µm.             _Trichodelitschia aedelphica_
  -        Spores smaller.                                               35

  35(34)   Spores 20-27.5 × 8-11µm.
                                 _Trichodelitschia bisporula_ (figs 22, 23)
  -        Spores 18-21 × 6-7µm.                  _Trichodelitschia munkii_

  36(33)   Asci ca 256-spored. Spores 14-15 × 6-8µm.
                                                    _Delitschia myriaspora_
  -        Asci 8-spored.                                                37

  37(36)   Spores less than 20µm long.                                   38
  -        Spores more than 20µm long.                                   41

  38(37)   Spores 8-11 × 3-5µm.                     _Delitschia perpusilla_
  -        Spores 10-20µm long.                                          39

  39(38)   Spores 10-14 × 5-6µm.                     _Delitschia marchalii_
  -        Spores longer.                                                40

  40(39)   Spores 14-18 × 6-10µm, uniseriate. Asci 70-90 × 7-16µm.
                                                      _Delitschia niesslii_
  -        Spores (16)18-20(22.5) × 6-7.5µm, biseriate. Asci
           80-145 × 20-25µm.              _Delitschia consociata_ (fig. 26)

  41(37)   Spores mostly wider than 20µm.                                42
  -        Spores mostly less than 20µm wide.                            43

  42(41)   Spores 50-64 × 19-23µm.                  _Delitschia furfuracea_
  -        Spores 50-70 × 25-33µm.           _Delitschia winteri_ (fig. 26)

  43(41)   Spores 20-25 × 4.5-6µm, the cells slightly tapered and
           almost completely separated. Pseudothecia hairless,
           globose, ca 200µm diam.        _Delitschia leptospora_ (fig. 26)
  -        Spores longer and wider.                                      44

  44(43)   Spores transversely septate.                                  45
  -        Spores obliquely septate, deeply constricted at the
           septum, 35-50 × 15-18µm.                     _Delitschia didyma_

  45(44)   Pseudothecia hairy. Spores 37-50 × 17-20µm, not deeply
           constricted at the septum.            _Delitschia chaetomioides_
  -        Pseudothecia smooth.                                          46

  46(45)   Spores biseriate, 45-55 × 13-16µm, one cell usually
           larger than the other, deeply constricted at the
           septum and readily separating.               _Delitschia canina_
  -        Spores uniseriate, 40-55 × 16-21µm, both cells equal.
                                                    _Delitschia patagonica_

[Illustration: FIG. 22. _Trichodelitschia bisporula_, pseudothecium.]

[Illustration: FIG. 23. _T. bisporula_, expanded ascus broken through the
outer wall, with spores.]

[Illustration: FIG. 24. _Apiosordaria verruculosa_, ascospores.]

[Illustration: FIG. 25. _Zygospermella insignis_, ascus and ascospore.]

[Illustration: FIG. 26. Ascospores of, from left, _Delitschia winteri_, _D.
consociata_ and _D. leptospora_.]

  47(29)   Spores with colourless 'gelatinous' secondary appendages
           (caudae, fig. 28) at one or both ends (not always easy
           to see; mounting in Indian ink is useful, and essential
           for some). A hyaline (empty) cell, the primary appendage
           (fig. 28), may also be present.                               48
  -        Spores without caudae, although a colourless gelatinous
           sheath may be present. Primary appendages present or
           absent.                                                       88

  48(47)   Perithecia often hairy or tomentose when young. Immature
           spores long, wavy cylindrical, with a row of globules,
           and more likely to be seen than mature spores (fig. 29).
           Secondary appendages thin, simple, up to 60 × 3µm.
           Mature spores with a dark cell 14-25 × 7-13µm and
           pedicel (primary appendage) 25-50 × 3-6µm.
                                                          (_Cercophora_) 49
  -        Perithecia often with scales or setae at the neck or
           tomentose. Caudae, simple or compound. Immature spores
           clavate or ellipsoid, not long, wavy cylindrical.
           Mature spores readily observed.                               51

  49(48)   Immature spores 45-70 × 4-6µm.                                50
  -        Immature spores smaller, 38-52 × 3-3.5µm. Mature spores
           with upper (dark) cell 14-18 × 7-9µm; hyaline pedicel
           27-36 × 3-3.5µm.                          _Cercophora silvatica_

  50(49)   Perithecia with white or grey tomentum. Young spores
           45-65 × 4.5-6µm. Mature spores with upper cell 17-25 ×
           8.5-13µm and pedicel 30-50µm long.
                                          _Cercophora coprophila_ (fig. 29)
  -        Perithecia with flexuose brown hairs and, at the neck,
           tufts of agglutinated, swollen, obtuse hairs. Young
           spores 52-68 × 4-5µm. Mature spores with upper cell
           15-25 × 9-11µm and pedicel 35-45µm long.
                                                     _Cercophora mirabilis_

  51(48)   Primary appendage absent.                 (_Arnium_, fig. 28) 52
  -        Primary appendage present.                                    60

  52(51)   Asci (64-)128-spored. Spores 18-26 × (10)12-15µm.
           Perithecial neck sometimes with rigid, brown, septate
           hairs up to 330µm.                            _Arnium leporinum_
  -        Asci 4- or 8-spored.                                          53

  53(52)   Asci 4-spored.                                                54
  -        Asci 8-spored.                                                55

  54(53)   Spores ellipsoid, sometimes inequilaterally flattened,
           44-54 × 22-30µm, with 1 apical germ pore, caudae not
           swelling in water. Perithecium usually with lateral
           tufts of agglutinated hairs up to 550µm long.
                                                        _Arnium arizonense_
  -        Spores evenly ellipsoid-fusiform, 31-55 × 18-25µm, with
           germ pore at each end, caudae covering germ pores, 35-60
           × 7-11µm, but rupturing and swelling to up to 130 ×
           50µm, and becoming diffuse and irregular. Perithecial
           neck covered with rigid hairs up to 190 × 2.5µm.
                                                            _Arnium hirtum_

  55(53)   Perithecial neck distinctly setose with rigid hairs.          56
  -        Perithecial neck without setae.                               57

  56(55)   Spores evenly ellipsoid-fusiform, 31-55 × 18-25µm, with
           germ pore at each end, caudae covering germ pores, 35-60
           × 7-11µm, but rupturing and swelling up to 130 × 50µm,
           and becoming diffuse and irregular. Perithecial neck
           covered with rigid hairs up to 190 × 2.5µm.
                                                            _Arnium hirtum_
  -        Spores slightly inequilateral, 35-43 × 17-23µm, caudae
           50-75 × 5-8µm, not covering germ pores. Perithecial
           neck with brown hairs up to 250µm long.
                                                          _Arnium cervinum_

  57(55)   Perithecia covered with a dense tomentum of septate
           flexuous hairs. Spores mostly longer than 45µm. Only
           occasionally fimicolous.                                      58
  -        Perithecia without a tomentum. Spores up to 45µm.             59

  58(57)   Spores (40)45-54 × 25-35µm, uniseriate. Tomentum pale
           or grayish.                                      _Arnium olerum_
  -        Spores 47-70 x 20-30µm, biseriate above. Tomentum
           olivaceous brown.                            _Arnium tomentosum_

  59(57)   Spores somewhat inequilateral, rounded below, pointed
           above, 31-40 × 18-24µm, caudae 50-120 × 6-10µm, with 1
           apical germ pore not covered by cauda.
                                                        _Arnium caballinum_
  -        Spores equilateral, 36-44 × 20-23µm, caudae 50-80 ×
           6-8µm, covering germ pores.                      _Arnium mendax_

  60(51)   Perithecia with scales at the neck, composed of inflated
            and agglutinated cells (fig. 27, S. conicum). _S
                                                       (_Schizothecium_) 61
  -        Perithecia setose or hairy at the neck, but not with
           inflated cells, or neck black but almost hairless.
                                                           (_Podospora_) 70

  61(60)   Asci 4-spored.                                                62
  -        Asci 8-spored.                                                63

  62(61)   Spores 11-14.5 × 6.5-9µm.        _Schizothecium nanum_ (fig. 28)
  -        Spores 19-24 × 12-14.5µm.            _Schizothecium tetrasporum_

  63(61)   Spores more than 30µm long.                                   64
  -        Spores less than 30µm long.                                   65

  64(63)   Perithecia crowned with a fascicle of long agglutinated
           hairs at the neck, up to 335µm long. Spores 31-40 ×
           15-25µm, biseriate.                      _Schizothecium aloides_
  -        Perithecia with shorter, less remarkable tufts. Spores
           30-45 × 19-24µm, ± uniseriate.         _Schizothecium glutinans_

  65(63)   Perithecial neck with rigid setae, as well as
           agglutinated hairs (which may be greatly reduced).
           Asci 140-210 × 19-25µm, broadest at the markedly
           rounded apex. Spores 18-23 × 11-14µm.
                                                    _Schizothecium pilosum_
  -        Perithecial neck without rigid setae. Asci broadest
           in the middle.                                                66

  66(65)   Spores mostly over 23µm long.                                 67
  -        Spores up to 23µm long.                                       69

  67(66)   Spores 22-25(27) × 11-13µm. Scales at neck distinct.
                                                 _Schizothecium hispidulum_
  -        Spores wider, 12-19µm                                         68

  68(67)   Perithecia 0.5-1mm high, scales at neck usually well
           developed. Spores (23)26-30 × 12-17µm.
                                          _Schizothecium conicum_ (fig. 27)
  -        Perithecia 1-2mm diam., subpyriform, neck velvety with
           indistinct scales. Spores 24-28 × 15-19µm.
                                                _Schizothecium squamulosum_

  69(66)   Spores 17-23 × 8.5-13.5µm, primary appendage slender
           cylindrical, 6-8 × 2µm. Perithecia 0.25-0.7mm high,
           sometimes with poorly developed scales.
                                        _Schizothecium vesticola_ (fig. 28)
  -        Spores 11-14 × 6-8µm, primary appendage short, 2µm long,
           almost triangular. Perithecia 0.3-0.45mm high, with
           short agglutinated hairs.               _Schizothecium cervinum_

  70(60)   Asci 4-spored. Spores 35-40 × 18-19µm.     _Podospora pauciseta_
  -        Asci with more than 4 spores.                                 71

[Illustration: FIG. 27. Perithecia, from left, of _Podospora
appendiculata_, _Schizothecium conicum_, _P. excentrica_ and _P.
decipiens_, with detail of hairs. FIG. 28. Ascospores of, from left,
_Podospora excentrica_, _P. appendiculata_, _S. vesticola_, _S. nanum_, _P.
decipiens_, _'P. dagobertii'_ and _Arnium_ sp. FIG. 29. _Cercophora
coprophila_, immature (l) and mature (r) ascospores.]

  71(70)   Asci 8-spored.                                               72
  -        Asci with more than 8 spores.                                82

  72(71)   Spores more than 45µm long.                                  73
  -        Spores less than 45µm long.                                  74

  73(72)   Spores 48-60 × 27-31µm, caudae apparently striate.
           Perithecia superficial, covered with rigid,
           nonagglutinated hairs up to 120µm.         _Podospora fimiseda_
  -        Spores 50-68 × 22-32µm, caudae apparently segmented,
           with an intestine-like appearance. Perithecia immersed
           to superficial, with a long neck, tomentose with long
           flexuous hairs when young, more or less glabrous when
           mature.                                _Podospora intestinacea_

  74(72)   Perithecia superficial, ovoid to globose, covered with
           short (up to 100µm), sparse, radiating, hyaline tipped,
           hairs. Spores 24-31 × 11-15µm, with simple caudae.
                                    _Podospora appendiculata_ (figs 27, 28)
  -        Perithecia with base immersed in substrate, pyriform,
           without such hairs.                                           75

  75(74)   Perithecial neck with short tubercular hairs, up to 20µm
           long. Spores 32-42 × 17-22µm, with a long but withering
           primary appendage. Caudae in two rings, one inserted near
           the base of the primary appendage, the other at the spore
           apex. The individual filaments may be free, but often
           clump together to form an apparently broad appendage.
                                        _Podospora decipiens_ (figs 27, 28)
  -        Perithecial hairs longer. Caudae single or 4 at each end.     76

  76(75)   Spores with 4 caudae at each end.                             77
  -        Spores with a single cauda at each end.                       78

  77(76)   Spores 40-45 × 22-25µm.            _Podospora gwynne-vaughaniae_
  -        Spores 29-40 × 16-25µm.                     _Podospora communis_

  78(76)   Spores less than 30 × 15µm.                                   79
  -        Spores larger than 30 × 15µm.                                 80

  79(78)   Spores 21-28 × 11-14µm, primary appendage 12-14 × 4µm.
           Perithecia 0.3-0.5mm diam., neck setose with rigid
           cylindrical hairs. Asci 200-250 × 22-26µm, broadest
           in the middle.                             _Podospora ellisiana_
  -        Spores 18-23 × 11-14µm, primary appendage 4-8 × 3µm.
           Perithecia 0.2-0.3mm diam., neck setose with rigid
           hairs. Asci 140-210 × 19-25µm, broadest at the markedly
           rounded apex.                            _Schizothecium pilosum_

  80(78)   Perithecia ca O.9-1.4mm high × 0.6-0.7(0.85)mm diam.,
           neck not hairy. Spores (29)36-45 × (17.5)22-27µm,
           caudae ephemeral and difficult to see, even in Indian
           ink.                                      _Podospora pyriformis_
  -        Perithecial neck with tufts of rigid hairs.                   81

  81(80)   Perithecia 0.38-0.53mm high × 0.21-0.38mm diam.,
           ± immersed, with hairs at the neck up to 335µm long,
           grouped in rigid fascicles. Spores slightly flattened
           on one side, 30-37 × 18-24µm, caudae invisible in water.
                                       _Podospora excentrica_ (figs 27, 28)
  -        Perithecia ca 0.8-1.4mm high × 0.4-0.7mm diam.,
           semi-immersed, hairy all over, flexuous below, rigid
           and pointed at the neck up to 170µm. Spores 33-45 ×
           22-27µm.                                  _Podospora perplexens_

  82(71)   Asci 16-32-spored. Perithecial neck with short tubercular
           hairs. Spores 25-36 × 15-24µm. Caudae in two rings, one
           inserted at the base of the primary appendage, the other
           at the spore apex; individual filaments may be separate
           or clumped to appear as a broad single appendage
           (cf. _P. decipiens_).                     _Podospora pleiospora_
  -        Asci with more than 32 spores.                                83

  83(82)   Perithecia with tufts of rigid hairs at neck. Asci with
           more than 64 spores.                                          84
  -        Perithecia without tufts of rigid hairs. Asci 64-spored.      87

  84(83)   Spores 14-17 × 9-11µm. Asci 256-spored. Perithecia ca
           500µm diam., immersed, except for the neck, which has
           tapered tufts of hairs up to 300µm.       _Podospora curvicolla_
  -        Spores larger. Perithecia semi-immersed.                      85

  85(84)   Spores (18)20-26 × 12-16µm, caudae of 2-several filaments
           covered with granules. Asci 512-spored. Perithecia up to
           1mm high × 0.95mm diam., neck with rigid but
           non-agglutinated hairs up to 130µm long.
                                                 _Podospora granulostriata_
  -        Caudae simple, without granular appearance. Asci
           128-spored. Perithecia not larger than 750µm high ×
           500µm diam., with rigid, non-agglutinated hairs up
           to 190µm long at neck.                                        86

  86(85)   Spores 17-19 × 10-12µm.                       _Podospora setosa_
  -        Spores 19-24 × 11-16µm.                    _Podospora tarvisina_
           (See discussion in Lundqvist (1972) on these last three names)

  87(83)   Spores 24-34 × 14-19µm, caudae in two rings, one inserted
           at the base of the primary appendage, the other at the
           spore apex; individual filaments may be separate or
           clumped to appear as a broad single appendage (cf.
           _P. decipiens_/_P. pleiospora_). Perithecia ca 0.6-1.1mm
           high × 0.4-0.5mm diam., covered with flexuous hairs or
           rarely smooth.                            _Podospora myriaspora_
  -        Spores 15-20 × 10-15µm, caudae small, simple and
           evanescent. Perithecia 0.4-0.5mm high, covered with
           long flexuous hairs.                        _Podospora collapsa_

  88(47)   Spores with primary appendage.                                89
  -        Spores without primary appendage.                             93

  89(88)   Spores with primary appendage directed towards base of
           ascus.                                                        90
  -        Spores with primary appendage directed towards apex of
           ascus.                                         (_Anopodium_)  91

[Illustration: FIG. 30. Perithecia of, from left, _Coniochaeta ligniaria_,
_C. scatigena_ and _C. hansenii_. FIG. 31. Ascospores of _C. scatigena_ (l)
and _C. ligniaria_ (r).]

  90(89)   Spores 34-45 × 19-25µm, without caudae but surrounded
           by a thin (ca 5µm) gelatinous sheath. Perithecia ca
           0.5-0.7mm diam., ± smooth.                   _Podospora globosa_
  -        Spores 17-20 × 8-9.5µm, flattened on one side, convex
           on the other. Perithecia 0.3-0.45µm diam., with distal
           cells of agglutinated hairs fimbriate.     _Podospora fimbriata_

  91(89)   Perithecia hairy. Spores 27-32 × 16-19µm, appendage
           15-18 × 2.5-3µm.                         _Anopodium ampullaceum_
  -        Perithecia glabrous.                                          92

  92(91)   Spores 28-32 × 16-21µm, appendage 12-15 × 3-3.8µm.
                                                          _Anopodium epile_
  -        Spores 30-37 × 16-20µm, appendage 24-27 × 5µm.
                                         _'Podospora' dagobertii_ (fig. 28)
           (The combination in _Anopodium_ has not been made; see
           Lundqvist, 1964, 1972)

  93(88)   Spores flattened, disc shaped, with a germ slit around
           the edge. Perithecial neck with short (up to 120µm)
           setae.                           (_Coniochaeta_, figs 30, 31) 94
  -        Spores ellipsoid. Perithecial neck without setae or with
           very prominent (up to 950µm) tufts of agglutinated hairs.     99

  94(93)   Asci with numerous (64-128) spores.                           95
  -        Asci 8-spored.                                                96

  95(94)   Spores 6-10 × 5-9 × 4-7µm. Perithecial setae up to 120µm
           long.                           _Coniochaeta hansenii_ (fig. 30)
  -        Spores 13-16 × 9.5-13.5 × 5.5-8µm. Perithecial setae
           up to 35µm long.                               _Coniochaeta_ sp.

  96(94)   Spores 7-9 × 6-8 × 5-6µm, slightly flattened.
                                                   _Coniochaeta leucoplaca_
  -        Spores larger.                                                97

  97(96)   Spores narrowly elliptical in face view (length more than
           2 × width), ca 13-18 × 6-9 × 4-6µm.
                                                    _Coniochaeta saccardoi_
  -        Spores broadly elliptical to nearly circular in face
           view (length less than 2 × width).                           98

  98(97)   Spores (9)10-16(20) × 7.5-10(15) × (4)5-8µm. Neck setae
           20-50µm long.              _Coniochaeta ligniaria_ (figs 30, 31)
  -        Spores (16)17-23 × (10)13-19 × 7.5-10(15)µm. Neck setae
           40-80µm long.              _Coniochaeta scatigena_ (figs 30, 31)

  99(93)   Perithecial neck with prominent agglutinated tufts of
           rigid setae up to 950µm long. Spores 43-54 × 20-29µm,
           with apical germ pore. A gelatinous sheath which surrounds
           the whole spore swells in water, and appears fringed at
           the margin and radially striate.           _Arnium macrothecium_
  -        Perithecial neck without setae. Gelatinous sheaths may be
           clearly visible around spores, but are not complex in
           structure.                                                   100

  100(99)  Spores with germ slit along the side. Ascus with a large
           and complex plug at the tip staining blue or red in KI
           (other genera have asci with blue staining ascus tips,
           but the feature is very pronounced in this genus and is
           unlikely to be mistaken). Perithecia form singly or
           severally in a stroma which is usually of limited extent,
           often without a definite margin. [N.B. if orange and
           with a stroma see _Selinia_, 119].
                                                 (_Hypocopra_, fig. 32) 101
  -        Spores without germ slits, but often asymmetrical, and
           with a small papilla at the basal end. Asci without
           complex apical plug.                   (_Sordaria_, fig. 33) 107

  101(100) Spores mostly less than 25µm long.                           102
  -        Spores more than 25µm long.                                  104

  102(101) Spores 9-14 × 6-7µm.                         _Hypocopra parvula_
  -        Spores larger.                                               103

  103(102) Stroma with a brown hyphal mat between perithecial necks.
           Spores 19-27 × 10-14µm.            _Hypocopra equorum_ (fig. 32)
  -        Stroma with white hyphae between black perithecial
           necks, becoming smooth. Spores 23-25 × 12-14µm.
                                                      _Hypocopra brefeldii_

  104(101) Ascospores up to 15µm wide.                                  105
  -        Ascospores 15µm or wider.                                    106

  105(104) Ascospores 25-31 × 10-15µm, distinctly flattened on one
           side. Ascus plug blue in KI, but becoming reddish.
                                                     _Hypocopra planispora_
  -        Ascospores 26-32 × 13-14µm, ellipsoid and narrowed
           towards their ends.                    _Hypocopra stephanophora_

  106(104) Ascospores 27-43 × 16-20µm.                 _Hypocopra merdaria_
  -        Ascospores 38-50 × 19-24µm.              _Hypocopra stercoraria_

  107(100) Spores up to 10µm long.                                      108
  -        Spores 10µm or longer.                                       109

  108(107) Asci 8-spored. Spores 8 × 4µm.                 _Sordaria minima_
  -        Asci ca 128-spored. Spores 5-8 × 4-5µm.
                                                       _Sordaria polyspora_

  109(107) Spores relatively narrow, at least twice as long as wide,
           22-26 × 9-12µm. Gelatinous sheath broad, distinct.
                                                          _Sordaria alcina_
  -        Spores relatively broad, less than twice as long as wide.

  110(109) Spores mostly 25µm or longer.                                111
  -        Spores up to 25µm long.                                      112

  111(110) Spores (21)23-29(30) × 14.5-17(18)µm, with apiculate
           base. Gelatinous sheath broad, distinct. Asci 240-300
           × 20-24µm.                                    _Sordaria superba_
  -        Spores (26)28-35 × (17)18-22µm, with slightly apiculate
           base. Gelatinous sheath broad, distinct. Asci 280-350 ×
           30-35µm.                                   _Sordaria macrospora_

  112(110) Spores with gelatinous sheath absent or very thin,
           19.5-25 × 15.5-19µm.                 _Sordaria humana_ (fig. 33)
  -        Spores with gelatinous sheath, up to 15µm diam.              113

  113(112) Spores obovoid to broadly ellipsoid, 18-23 × 12-15µm.
                                                          _Sordaria lappae_
  -        Spores ellipsoid, 17-25 × 10-14µm.
                                              _Sordaria fimicola_ (fig. 33)

[Illustration: FIG. 32. _Hypocopra equorum_, perithecium with limited
stroma, and detail of ascus tip with blue staining plug and spore. FIG. 33.
Ascospores, from left, of _Sordaria fimicola_, _S. humana_ and _Sphaerodes

  114(3)   Spores 20-28 × 12-16µm, with subacute ends, each with a
           germ pore.                              _Gelasinospora adjuncta_
  -        Spores larger.                                               115

  115(114) Asci 4-spored. Spores 24-29 × 15-18µm, with rounded ends
           and one germ pore.                   _Gelasinospora tetrasperma_
  -        Asci 8-spored. Spores 26-3              _Gelasinospora cerealis_

  116(4)   Perithecia orange to golden, often gregarious, almost
           spherical, necks ca 50µm diam., 15µm high, setae at
           ostiole hyaline, up to 35 × 3µm. Spores limoniform,
           with a germ pore at each end, 15-25 × 9-16µm.
                                            _Sphaerodes fimicola_ (fig. 33)
  -        Perithecia yellow or reddish brown (darker when filled
           with mature spores), neck 50µm long, with setae at the
           ostiole 40-70µm long. Spores dark brown to black,
           limoniform, 20-34 × 11-17µm, with apical germ pore.
                                                 _Melanospora brevirostris_

  117(2)   Asci more than 8-spored.                         see Key 1 at 86
  -        Asci with 8 or fewer spores, or asci evanescent, not
           readily observed.                                            118

  118(117) Perithecia orange/yellow, 500-1000µm diam. Spores long
           (over 45µm) or 2-celled if shorter.                          119
  -        Perithecia smaller, or black or with a neck. Spores
           shorter (less than 20µm) or septate if longer.               120

  119(118) Perithecia orange, 500-1000µm diam., in small groups on
           a limited stroma. Spores thick walled, 48-60 × 22-26µm,
           with a gelatinous sheath.                      _Selinia pulchra_
  -        Perithecia orange yellow, superficial, ca 500µm diam.,
           with ostiole in a disc surrounded by silvery triangular
           tufts of hyphae ca 100µm long. Spores ellipsoid,
           1-septate, 12-14 × 4-5µm.                     _Nectria suffulta_

  120(118) Perithecia reddish brown or pale, hyaline, with a
           distinct neck.                                               121
  -        Perithecia black.                                            131

  121(120) Perithecia globose, up to 250µm diam., immersed, reddish
           brown, with a neck 1-3 mm long. Asci broad ellipsoid,
           5-8.5µm, rapidly breaking down and difficult to see.
           Spores ellipsoid-allantoid. 5.5-7 × 1.5-2µm, collecting
           in a pearly droplet at the fringed tip of the
           perithecial beak.               _Viennotidia fimicola_ (fig. 34)
  -        Perithecia pyriform, very pale in colour, 60-200µm diam.,
           with a neck 60-700µm long. Asci rarely visible. Spores
           pointed-fusiform, 1-3 septate, often with a sheath and
           clumped together in fascicles.
                                              (_Pyxidiophora_, fig. 36) 122

  122(121) Neck 95-145µm long, brown, rugose, with cells arranged
           in 5-6 longitudinal rows visible in one view. Spores
           38-52µm long.                        _Pyxidiophora badiorostris_
  -        Neck not brown or rugose, composed of hyaline,
           irregularly arranged cylindrical cells.                      123

  123(122) Spores less than 45µm long.                                  124
  -        Spores more than 45µm long.                                  125

  124(123) Spores 35-45µm long, with brown apical or subapical
           patches of pigment.              _Pyxidiophora brunneocapitatus_
  -        Spores 35-43µm long, without brown apical or subapical
           patches of pigment.                   _Pyxidiophora microsporus_

  125(123) Spores mostly 45-60µm long.                                  126
  -        Spores mostly longer than 60µm.                              129

[Illustration: FIG. 34. _Viennotidia fimicola_, perithecium and spores.
FIG. 35. _Phomatospora coprophila_, perithecium, and ascus with spores.
FIG. 36. _Pyxidiophora petchii_, perithecium and spores.]

  126(125) Perithecia 70-100µm diam., neck 100-190µm long. Spores
           (43)48-58(65)µm long.                      _Pyxidiophora grovei_
  -        Perithecia usually less than 80µm diam.                      127

  127(126) Perithecial necks mostly less than 100µm long. Spores
           (45)48-57(60)µm long.                 _Pyxidiophora arvernensis_
  -        Perithecial necks up to 200µm long.                          128

  128(127) Spores 45-53µm long.            _Pyxidiophora petchii_ (fig. 36)
  -        Spores 53-65µm long.                _Pyxidiophora schotterianus_

  129(125) Spores 60-70µm long.                                         130
  -        Spores (75)80-90(100)µm. Perithecia 120-160µm diam.,
           neck 220-370µm long.                  _Pyxidiophora bainemensis_

  130(129) Perithecial necks 300-700µm long. Spores 60-70µm.
           Perithecia 100-120µm diam.          _Pyxidiophora spinuliformis_
  -        Perithecial necks 225-265µm long. Spores 65-70µm.
           Perithecia 110-125µm diam.              _Pyxidiophora marchalii_

  131(120) Perithecia small, up to 400µm diam., with hairy necks.
           Spores hyaline or pale, coppery-red en masse, extruded
           in tendrils.                                                 132
  -        Perithecia larger, without hairy necks. If smaller than
           200µm, with spores smaller than 5 × 3µm.                     134

  132(131) Spores reniform, with gelatinous sheath, 3.5 × 2-3µm,
           yellow, reddish brown _en masse_ in extruded tendrils.
           Asci spherical, evanescent. Perithecia black, spherical,
           200-400µm diam., with cylindrical neck up to 300µm long,
           with sparse pointed hairs.             _Microascus longirostris_
  -        Spores larger, not reniform. Perithecia up to 300µm diam.    133

  133(132) Perithecial necks long, up to 750µm, with terminal hairs
           up to 1500µm, curved or circinate at tips. Spores
           limoniform, 7-10.5 × 5.5-7µm.            _Lophotrichus ampullus_
  -        Perithecial necks short, ca 50µm, with long straight
           tapering hairs. Spore shape limoniform/variable, 6-7.5 ×
           5-5.5µm, with prominent germ pores.     _Lophotrichus bartletti_

  134(131) Perithecia up to 150µm diam., immersed but for a conical
           neck 50-75µm high. Asci 50 × 2-2.5µm. Spores minute,
           cylindrical, 3.5-4.5 × 1.75-2.5µm.
                                        _Phomatospora coprophila_ (fig. 35)
  -        Perithecia more obvious, often hairy, or tomentose when
           young. Immature spores up to 70µm long, wavy
           cylindrical, with a row of globules inside and a short
           thin appendage at each end.               (see _Cercophora_, 49)

  135(1)   Perithecia immersed, surrounded at the neck by a very
           limited flange-like stroma which is easily overlooked.
                                                       see _Hypocopra_, 101
                                            or if orange see _Selinia_, 119
  -        Stroma very conspicuous.                                     136

  136(135) Perithecia in a subglobose group at the tip of the
           stromatic stalk. Spores with germ slit and gelatinous
           sheath.                                     (_Podosordaria_) 137
  -        Perithecia not in a terminal head.                           139

  137(136) Stalk short, 3-5mm. Spores (12)14-19 × 6-9µm, slightly
           flattened on one side.                   _Podosordaria leporina_
  -        Stalk long, 1-6cm. Spores larger.                            138

  138(137) Spores 21-24 × 11-12µm. Stromatic stalk hairy.
                                                    _Podosordaria tulasnei_
  -        Spores 40-60 × 20-30µm. Stromatic stalk not hairy.
                                                 _Podosordaria pedunculata_

  139(136) Stroma externally black, rooted or partially immersed
           in the dung, expanding at the surface to form a white
           disc up to 15mm diam., punctate with black perithecial
           ostioles.                                        (_Poronia_) 140
  -        Stroma not as above.                                         141

  140(139) Spores 18-26 × 7-12µm, bean shaped, with gelatinous
           sheath. Stroma deeply rooted. Especially on horse dung.
                                                         _Poronia punctata_
  -        Spores (22)25-32(35) × (12)14-18µm, oblong ellipsoid to
           slightly fusiform. Stroma not deeply rooted. Especially
           on rabbit dung near the sea.                     _Poronia erici_

  141(139) Stroma spreading over surface of dung or filamentous.
           Spores ellipsoid to slightly flattened on one side,
           with germ slit. (Xerophilic fungi developing after
           long periods of relatively dry incubation).
                                                            (_Wawelia_) 142
  -        Stroma clavate, black, partly immersed to superficial,
           usually aggregated in small groups, ca 1-1.5mm high
           × 0.6-0.7mm diam., each containing a single perithecium.
           Spores ellipsoid with germ pore and gelatinous sheath.
                                                      (_Bombardioidea_) 146

  142(141) Stroma spreading on substrate, black brown, firm but
           not brittle. Ascomata globose, 0.5-1mm, with white
           hyphae at neck. Spores broad limoniform, 15-19
           × 9-10µm.                                       _Wawelia effusa_
  -        Perithecia globose to pyriform, black, brown or dark
           grey, produced laterally along the length of fine
           stromatal strand growing from the dung.                      143

  143(142) Asci 4-spored.                                               144
  -        Asci 8-spored.                                               145

  144(143) Spores 15-18 × 9-12µm. Perithecia up to 400µm diam.,
           dark grey at maturity, single or clustered, the ostiole
           with a crown of silvery white hyphae. Stromata up to
           30 × 0.1-0.5mm.                                    _Wawelia_ sp.
  -        Spores 6-8 × 4-6µm. Stromata conical, white, 5-12
           × 1-2mm.                                         _Wawelia regia_

  145(143) Perithecia hairy, globose, 350-500µm diam., stromatal
           strands up to 25mm long. Spores ellipsoid, flattened
           on one side, 9-12 × 6-8µm.                   _Wawelia octospora_
  -        Perithecia villose with conidiophores, globose,
           230-420µm diam., produced laterally on stromatic
           filaments 20-30 × 0.1-0.3mm. Filaments pink at first,
           with a white pointed tip, becoming brown, velvety with
           conidiophores. Spores ellipsoid to flattened on one
           side, 7.5-9.5 × 3-4.5µm.                 _Wawelia_ sp. (fig. 37)

[Illustration: FIG. 37. _Wawelia_ sp., stromatic filaments with perithecia
growing from a rabbit pellet, ascospores, and conidiophore and conidia.]

  146(141) Asci 8-spored. Spores 20-31 × 9.5-15µm.
                                              _Bombardioidea bombardioides_
  -        Asci 4-spored.                                               147

  147(146) Spores 24-34 × 15-19(20)µm. Basal germ pore less
           distinct than the apical one.
                                              _Bombardioidea serignanensis_
  -        Spores 34-43 × 16-22µm. Distinct germ pore at each end
           of spore.                              _Bombardioidea stercoris_

  148      Fruit bodies solitary or in small groups, each a
  (key 1,1)  subglobose, fertile, light brown head on a slender
           sterile stalk. Head soon bursting to expose the yellow
           ochraceous spore mass. On mixtures of bird droppings,
           cast pellets and decaying animal material.                   149
  -        Fruit bodies superficial, lacking a distinct stalk.          150

  149(148) Spores 5-8 × 2-3µm. Head 1-2mm diam.
                                                _Onygena corvina_ (fig. 38)
  -        Spores 7-9 × 4-6µm, 4-5µm. Head 2-4mm diam.
                                                           _Onygena equina_

  150(148) Fruit bodies with an external wall of loosely
           anastomosing and interwoven hyphae, and with ±
           specialised terminal cells (GYMNOTHECIA, fig. 39).           151
  -        Fruit bodies with a well defined parenchymatic wall
           (CLEISTOTHECIA, fig. 46).                                    161

  151(150) Gymnothecia with simple thin-walled, ± uniform and
           poorly developed hyphae constituting the outer hyphal
           sheath.                                                      152
  -        Gymnothecia with thick-walled hyphae modified at their
           ends into appendages, or if thin-walled then always
           accompanied by appendages (i.e. curled, toothed or
           pointed hyphae).                                             155

[Illustration: FIG. 38. _Onygena corvina_, habit sketch, ascus and

  152(151) Gymnothecia red-orange to brick-red. Ascospores orange,
           subglobose to ellipsoid, with an equatorial furrow,
           smooth, 4.5-5.5 × 3.5-4.5µm.       _Arachniotus ruber_ (fig. 40)
  -        Gymnothecia white or yellow, never orange or brick-red.
           Ascospores without an equatorial furrow.                     153

  153(152) Gymnothecia white. Ascospores hyaline, ellipsoid,
           smooth, 3-4 × 2-2.5µm.                    _Arachniotus candidus_
  -        Gymnothecia distinctly pigmented, yellow or brown.
           Ascospores larger than 4µm.                                  154

  154(153) Gymnothecia yellow brown. Ascospores orange to brownish,
           slightly lenticular, smooth or slightly roughened,
           5-6.5 × 3.3-4.6µm.                       _Arachniotus confluens_
  -        Gymnothecia lemon yellow. Ascospores lemon yellow,
           lenticular, smooth, 5-6 × 3-4.5µm.        _Arachniotus citrinus_

[Illustration: FIG. 39. Habit sketch of a gymnothecium and ascus. FIGS
40-45. Spores and peridial hyphae. FIG. 40. _Arachniotus ruber._ FIG. 41.
_Myxotrichum chartarum._ FIG. 42. _Gymnoascus californiensis._ FIG. 43.
_Gymnoascus reesii._ FIG. 44. _Ctenomyces serratus._ FIG. 45. _Arthroderma

  155(151) Gymnothecia possessing only thick pigmented hyphae.          156
  -        Gymnothecia possessing ± thin, hyaline hyphae with only
           a few, although often distinctive, appendages (i.e.
           comb-shaped end cells or dumb-bell shaped asperulate
           cells accompanying twisted and bent hyphae).                 160

  156(155) Gymnothecia brown-black or dark greenish-grey, with
           external hyphae with spine-like branches and septate,
           hooked appendages. Ascospores orange brownish, ovate,
           delicately striate, 4-5.2 × 2.4-3.3µm.
                                          _Myxotrichum chartarum_ (fig. 41)
  -        Gymnothecia never black, and, if possessing thick-walled
           hyphae, then appendages never septate. Ascospores smooth,
           or if ornamented then asperulate or echinulate.              157

  157(156) Gymnothecia rose to orange-brown or yellowish.
           Appendages curved or irregularly branched and pointed,
           never verticillately branched. Ascospores smooth, or
           at most asperulate.                                          158
  -        Gymnothecia red-brown with appendages verticillately
           branched. Ascospores 3-4.5 × 2-2.8µm, yellowish brown,
           lenticular.                        _Actinodendron verticillatum_

  158(157) Gymnothecia rosy pink when young, becoming browner,
           with spines and curved, non-septate hairs. Ascospores
           hyaline, globose to subglobose, asperulate,
           3-5 × 2.5-4µm.             _Gymnoascus californiensis_ (fig. 42)
  -        Gymnothecia yellow. Ascospores smooth.                       159

  159(158) Gymnothecia yellow to yellow-brown, without elongated
           appendages but with thick-walled branches, few of
           which are pointed. Ascospores globose-ellipsoid,
           yellow to brownish, 3-4.5 × 3.5µm.
                                              _Gymnoascus reesii_ (fig. 43)
  -        Gymnothecia golden yellow to reddish-brown, with
           acute-ended appendages. Ascospores lenticular, smooth,
           hyaline, 2.5-3.5 × 2-2.5µm.            _Pseudogymnoascus roseus_

  160(155) Gymnothecia orange brown, with comb-like appendages.
           Ascospores slightly lenticular, pale orange, 3.3-3.6
           × 2-2.6µm.                       _Ctenomyces serratus_ (fig. 44)
  -        Gymnothecia whitish to pale ochraceous, particularly
           when dry, with few appendages but those present twisted
           and bent, and their branches constricted with regular
           or irregular dumb-bell shaped cells. Hyphal walls
           asperulate or with protuberances. Ascospores smooth,
           lenticular, hyaline, 2.4-3.3 × 2µm.
                                            _Arthroderma curreyi_ (fig. 45)

  161(150) Asci relatively large, 100-200-spored, 1-3/fruit body.
           'Cleistothecia' minute, <100 (rarely <250)µm diam.,
           immersed.                      see _Thelebolus_ etc. (Key 1, 86)
  -        Asci with 8 or fewer spores.                                 162

  162(161) Ascospores purple at maturity, large, 50-70 × 25-35µm,
           epispore with a few longitudinal cracks.
                                       see _Ascobolus immersus_ (Key 1, 48)
  -        Ascospores smaller, hyaline, yellow, olivaceous, brown
           or black.                                                    163

  163(162) Ascospores olivaceous, brown or black, at least in part.     164
  -        Ascospores aseptate, hyaline, yellow or other pale colours.  174

  164(163) Ascospores 4-celled (cf. _Sporormiella_), with germ
           slits, readily fragmenting. Asci clavate, bitunicate.
           Cleistothecia black, shiny, up to 500µm diam.                165
  -        Ascospores 1- or 2-celled.                                   166

  165(164) Ascus stalk up to 20µm long. Ascospores 25-32 × 5µm.
                                                        _Preussia vulgaris_
  -        Ascus stalk 30-60µm long. Ascospores 26-38 × 5-7µm.
                                            _Preussia funiculata_ (fig. 47)

  166(164) Ascospores 2-celled.                                         167
  -        Ascospores 1-celled.                                         170

  167(166) Spores unequally 2-celled, one brown ellipsoid, with an
           apical germ pore, 10-12 × 6.5-7.5µm, the other a basal
           hyaline, cylindrical pedicel, 6-8 × 3µm. Cleistothecia
           black, globose, up to 250µm diam., covered with
           flexuous brown hairs up to 1mm long. Asci evanescent.
                                                      _Zopfiella erostrata_
  -        Spores equally 2-celled.                                     168

  168(167) Spores not constricted at the septum, ellipsoid,
           golden-brown, 25-30 × 10-15µm with 1-3 guttules in
           each cell. Cleistothecia gregarious on a mycelial mat,
           whitish to pale orange, up to 500µm diam.
                                        _Heleococcum aurantiacum_ (fig. 48)
  -        Spores hyaline, divided into two almost globose cells
           by the constricting septum. Ascomata superficial,
           globose, dark coloured.                      (_Mycoarachis_) 169

  169(168) Asci 8-spored, 5.5-11µm diam. Spores 5-5.5 × 3-3.5µm.
                                                      _Mycoarachis inversa_
  -        Asci 4-spored, 6-6.5µm diam. Spores 4.5-5 × 2-2.5µm.
                                                   _Mycoarachis tetraspora_

  170(166) Asci broad-clavate, (1)-2-(3)-spored, 30-50 × 13-18µm.
           Spores brown-black with short ridges and warts,
           subglobose, 12-15.5 × 11-12.5µm, with a single germ pore.
                                            _Copromyces bisporus_ (fig. 49)
  -        Asci 8-spored.                                               171

  171(170) Spores globose, sooty brown, 3µm diam. Cleistothecia
           gregarious, with basal spirally coiled appendages,
           black, 100-200µm diam., partially immersed in a white
           to red felty hyphal mat.               _Pleuroascus nicholsonii_
  -        Spores larger, ellipsoid or limoniform.                      172

[Illustration: FIG. 46. Habit sketch of cleistothecia. FIGS 47-54. Asci and
spores. FIG. 47. _Preussia funiculata._ FIG. 48. _Heleococcum aurantiacum._
FIG. 49. _Copromyces bisporus._ FIG. 50. _Arachnomyces nitidus._ FIG. 51.
_Orbicula parietina._ FIG. 52. _Roumegueriella rufula._ FIG. 53.
_Aphanoascus stercoraria._ FIG. 54. _Pseudeurotium ovale._]

  172(171) Spores olivaceous, limoniform, usually with an apical
           germ pore. Perithecia greyish or greenish, abundantly
           hairy, branched or simple, straight or curly. Asci
           pedicellate, soon disappearing.            see _Chaetomium_ at 5
  -        Spores darker, with 1 or more minute germ pores.
           Cleistothecia distinctly but not abundantly hairy.           173

  173(172) Spores smoky brown, broadly ovoid, 9-14 × 6-9µm.
           Cleistothecial hairs short, up to 30µm.
                                                      _Thielavia wareingii_
  -        Spores dark brown, flattened limoniform, 13-16 × 10-13
           × 8-9µm. Cleistothecial hairs of two types, some smooth,
           dark brown, arising from the base up to 3mm long,
           others greyish green, rough, up to ca 120µm.
                                                         _Thielavia fimeti_

  174(163) Cleistothecia produced within a common arachnoid
           mycelial mass. Spores smooth or minutely asperulate,
           yellow to yellow-brown, broadly ellipsoid, 4-5 × 3-5µm.
                                                   _Aphanoascus fulvescens_
  -        Cleistothecia single or gregarious, but not on or in
           a mycelial mass.                                             175

  175(174) Cleistothecia 170-750µm diam., covered with long
           (several mm when extended), thick-walled, aseptate,
           helical appendages. Asci clavate cylindrical,
           evanescent, 35-62 × 12-21µm. Spores ellipsoid, hyaline,
           12-17 × 9-12µm.                          _Lasiobolidium spirale_
  -        Cleistothecia without coiled appendages.                     176

  176(175) Cleistothecia with hairs or appendages.                      177
  -        Cleistothecia smooth.                                        178

  177(176) Cleistothecia black, shining, 100-200µm diam., with dark
           brown-black thick-walled hairs with hooked tips. Asci
           8-15µm diam. Spores straw or copper coloured, ellipsoid,
           4-7 × 3.5-4.5µm with de Bary bubble and a germ pore at
           each end.                                        _Kernia nitida_
  -        Cleistothecia reddish brown, less than 1mm diam., with
           long simple appendages curled at the tips. Spores
           hyaline, oblate, 3.55 × 2-3µm.
                                           _Arachnomyces nitidus_ (fig. 50)

  178(176) Ascospores globose, larger than 9µm.                         179
  -        Ascospores ellipsoid, up to 9µm. Asci always subglobose.     180

  179(178) Ascospores, smooth, 9-13µm.       _Orbicula parietina_ (fig. 51)
  -        Ascospores ornamented, 13-24µm Asci subglobose.
           Cleistothecia ochraceous, becoming yellowish brown
           or flushed cinnamon.           _Roumegueriella rufula_ (fig. 52)

  180(178) Ascospores hyaline, then faintly yellowish, minutely
           spiny, 2.5-3 × 2-2.5µm. Cleistothecia pale, then
           dark brown.                  _Aphanoascus stercoraria_ (fig. 53)
  -        Ascospores hyaline, then brown, smooth, 5.5-6 × 3.5-4µm.
           Cleistothecia dark brown from the beginning.
                                            _Pseudeurotium ovale_ (fig. 54)

Key 3. Basidiomycota

  1        Basidia single-celled (fig. 55).                               2
  -        Basidia transversely or longitudinally septate (fig. 55),
           or difficult to observe.                                      71

  2(1)     Fruit body agaricoid, i.e. mushroom-shaped with gills
           underneath cap (figs 56, 67).                                  3
  -        Fruit body not agaricoid, without gills (figs 65, 66).        69

  3(2)     Spore print white or pale coloured, hyaline s.m. (Usually
           on straw/dung mixtures, never on raw dung except when
           very old).                                                     5
  -        Spore print coloured.                                          4

  4(3)     Spore print pinkish or pale cinnamon, honey-coloured s.m.
           (Usually on straw/dung mixtures, never on raw dung).           6
  -        Spore print darker, in shades of brown or black.               8

  5(3)     Stem eccentric. Fruit body pure white. Spores ellipsoid,
           smooth.                                   _Pleurotellus_ s. lato
           (If gills pink and spores longitudinally ridged see
           _Clitopilus passackerianus_, fig. 67)
  -        Stem central.                                                  7

[Illustration: FIG. 55. From left, sketches of holobasidium, with mature
basidiospore showing germ pore; auriculariaceous basidium; tremellaceous
basidium, lateral view and as often seen in sections.]

  6(4)     Fruit body white, ivory or very pale tan, with a smell of
           cucumber. Gills decurrent.                   _Clitocybe augeana_
  -        Fruit body yellow, with scaly cap. Gills free or just
           adnate. Fruit body with distinct ring and granular veil.
           (Commonly in plant pots. Probably associated with peaty
           material more than dung).             _Leucocoprinus birnbaumii_
           (_L. cepaestipes_ and _L. lilacinogranulosus_ occur in similar

  7(5)     Fruit body with amethyst/purple shades, with eccentric
           stem. Spores subglobose, slightly ornamented to nearly
           smooth. (On compost heaps in gardens).            _Lepista nuda_
  -        Fruit body with pink gills and distinct volva at stem
           base. Cap white to pale hazel. Stem white. Spores
           broadly ellipsoid, smooth.                _Volvariella speciosa_

  8(4)     Spore print distinctly brown (fulvous, tawny, rust
           coloured etc.).                                                9
  -        Spore print some darker shade, fuscous, fuliginous or
           violaceous black.                                             20

  9(8)     Stem distinctly annulate, apex striate.     _Conocybe percincta_
           (Has been found on straw/dung mixtures, never on raw
  -        Stem lacking a veil.                                          10

  10(9)    Cap rich chrome yellow, viscid, soon reduced to a
           sticky mass, easily collapsing.           _Bolbitius vitellinus_
  -        Cap in shades of brown, never brightly coloured and if
           collapsing then cap elongate-cylindric and white to
           pale cream.                                                   11

  11(10)   Spore print dull, sepia or snuff-brown. On rabbit
           pellets in sand dunes.                    _Agrocybe subpediades_
  -        Spore print, brighter coloured, orange/rust brown.
                                                            (_Conocybe_) 12

  12(11)   Gill edge with irregularly fusoid cystidia with obtuse
           apices (lageniform). Cap viscid.           _Conocybe coprophila_
  -        Gill edge with distinctly capitate cells resembling a
           glass stoppered bottle (lecythiform). Cap never viscid,
           often pubescent under a lens.                                 13

  13(12)   Stem covered in long hairs.                                   14
  -        Stem covered in lecythiform cells similar to those on
           gill edge, giving a farinaceous appearance under a lens.
           NEVER with long hairs. (Dung/straw mixtures). Large as
           in a _Cortinarius_. Spores smooth.            _Conocybe intrusa_
           (_C. leucopus_ has been found on manured soil in gardens;
           _C. antipus_ has hexagonal spores and grows on dung piles).

  14(13)   Stem with both long hairs and lecythiform cystidia.
           [Illustration]                                                15
  -        Stem with hairs and lageniform cystidia.
           [Illustration]                                                16

  15(14)   Spores 11-14 × 7-9µm. Taste and smell strong, of fresh
           meal.                                       _Conocybe farinacea_
  -        Spores large, over 15 × up to 10µm. Taste and smell
           none or slightly acidic.                    _Conocybe pubescens_
           (_C. subpubescens_ might be found on straw/dung mixtures, and
           differs in spores 11-13 × 6-8µm).

  16(14)   Basidia 2-spored.                            _Conocybe rickenii_
  -        Basidia 4-spored.                                             17

  17(16)   Spores ellipsoid.                                             18
  -        Spores lentiform, angular in face view.
                                                  _Conocybe lenticulospora_

  18(17)   Cap grey, contrasting with yellowish cream gills and
           pale stem. Spores 10.5-12.5 × 6-7µm.        _Conocybe murinacea_
  -        Cap pinkish brown or tawny.                                   19

  19(18)   Spores 11-12 × 7.2-7.8µm. Cap sienna. On raw dung.
                                                       _Conocybe fimetaria_
  -        Spores 10-12 × 6-7µm. Cap pinkish to cinnamon brown.
           On manured soil or sewage sludge.
                                                  _Conocybe fuscomarginata_
           (_Conocybe siennophylla_ might be found on straw/dung mixtures
           or in soil in greenhouses. It differs in having smaller spores).

  20(8)    Cap deliquescing to some degree at maturity. Basidia
           of 2 or 3 different sizes.                       (_Coprinus_) 21
  -        Cap not deliquescing. Basidia of one size only.               49

  21(20)   Veil on cap absent, cap either covered with small
           hairs (setules) or naked.                                     22
  -        Cap covered with a granular, micaceous, powdery or
           fibrillar veil.                                               28

[Illustration: FIG. 56. Habit sketch of a stipitate agaric, _Psathyrella
stercoraria_, with section. FIG. 57. Sketch of gill section of
_Psathyrella_ sp., showing position of marginal (m) and facial (f)
cystidia. FIG. 58. _Coprinus pellucidus_, habit and vertical section of cap
cuticle. FIG. 59. _C. pseudoradiatus_, habit and veil constituents. FIG.
60. _C. vermiculifer_, habit and veil constituents. FIG. 61. _C.
filamentifer_, veil constituents. FIG. 62. _C. stercoreus_, habit. FIG. 63.
_C. cordisporus_, vertical section of cap showing nature of veil cells on
the cap cuticle. FIG. 64. Veil cells with structural (l) and superficial
crystalline (r) ornamentation.]

  22(21)   Cap without setules.                                          23
  -        Cap with setules.                                             24

  23(22)   Cap minute, 1-5mm high before expanding, reddish orange
           at first, soon fading. Basidiospores almost globose
           to triangular in one view, elliptic in another, 7-10
           × 7-9 × 5.5-6.5µm. (2- and 4-spored forms have been
           found).                                         _Coprinus miser_
  -        Cap larger, up to 15mm when expanded. Basidiospores
           pip-shaped, 7.5-8.5 × 9.5-11 × 9.5-11.5µm. (4-spored).
                                                        _Coprinus nudiceps_

  24(22)   Spores hexagonal, 10-13 × 6.5-7.5µm. Cap purplish.
                                                  _Coprinus hexagonosporus_
  -        Spores ellipsoid. Cap brown or reddish, without
           purplish tints.                                               25

  25(24)   Basidia 4-spored.                                             26
  -        Basidia 2-spored. Spores 11-13 × 5.5-7µm. Facial
           cystidia absent.                             _Coprinus bisporus_
           (_Coprinus sassii_, not yet recorded in British Isles, has
           2-spored basidia with very large ellipsoid spores up to 20µm

  26(25)   Cap with a mixture of hyaline and brown thick-walled
           setules. Spores 9-10 × 5.5-6µm, with eccentric germ
           pore. Facial cystidia absent.
                                                 _Coprinus heterosetulosus_
  -        Cap with only one type of setule. Facial cystidia
           present or absent.                                            27

  27(26)   Facial cystidia present. Spores 7.9-13.3 × 4.4-6.4µm,
           with apical germ pore.                      _Coprinus stellatus_
  -        Facial cystidia absent. Spores elongate and narrow,
           rarely greater than 5µm wide, with apical germ pore.
           Fruit body usually quite small, up to 6mm before
           expanding.                       _Coprinus pellucidus_ (fig. 58)
           (Several species in the group, e.g. _C. congregatus_ and
           _C. ephemerus_ have been found on straw/dung mixtures).

  28(21)   Veil strongly adhering to cap. Spores elliptic ovate,
           15-20 × 8-12µm. Stem with distinct ring. Usually on
           buried dung.                             _Coprinus sterquilinus_
  -        Veil more floccose or powdery. Stem lacking ring or,
           if present (_C. ephemeroides_), fruit body small with
           5-angled spores less than 10µm long.                          29

  29(28)   Veil composed of filamentous units.                           30
  -        Filamentous units, if present, masked by a preponderance
           of rounded cells.                                             35

  30(29)   Veil composed of strings of sausage-shaped, thin-walled,
           hyaline cells.                                                31
  -        Veil composed of rather narrow, slightly thickened hyphae.    32

  31(30)   Spores large, 11-14 × 6-7µm. Cap up to 1cm before
           expanding. Fruit body with or without a rooting base.
                                                        _Coprinus radiatus_
  -        Spores smaller, up to 9µm long. Cap up to 6mm before
           expanding. Fruit body without a rooting base.
                                         _Coprinus pseudoradiatus_ (fig 59)
           (_C. cinereus_ is found on straw/dung mixture and
           _C. macrocephalus_, with large spores, has been recorded on
           raw dung).

  32(30)   Veil citrus- or lime-yellow, or a mixture of hyaline
           and brown strongly coloured hyphae.                           33
  -        Veil grey or whitish.                                         34

  33(32)   Veil of yellow hyphae. Spores 10.5-12.5 × 6-7.5µm.
                                                   _Coprinus luteocephalus_
  -        Veil with brown hyphae. Spores 7-9 × 3.5-5µm.
                                                     _Coprinus poliomallus_

  34(32)   Veil hyphae thin-walled. Spores 6.5-7.5 × 5µm,
           'shouldered' about the apiculus.
                                          _Coprinus filamentifer_ (fig. 61)
  -        Veil hyphae thin- and thick-walled, often with clamps.
           Spores elliptic-oblong, 9-10 × 5-6µm.
                                          _Coprinus vermiculifer_ (fig. 60)
           (_Coprinus flocculosus_, with spores 11.5-16.5 × 6-9.5µm, can
           be found on straw/dung mixtures).

  35(29)   Stem with small, distinct ring. Spores subglobose to
           lentiform and 5-angled, 6-9 × 6.5-8 × 5-6µm.
                                                    _Coprinus ephemeroides_
  -        Stem at most with fibrils, even then rarely forming a
           faint ring zone.                                              36

  36(35)   with setules in addition to veil.                             37
  -        Cap without setules.                                          38

  37(36)   Cap cystidia tapered. Spores 11-14 × 5-6.5µm.
                                                      _Coprinus heptemerus_
  -        Cap cystidia capitate. Spores 10-11 × 6-7µm.
                                                          _Coprinus curtus_

  38(36)   Veil of inflated bladder-like cells attached to
           filamentous units. Spores 7.5-8 × 4.5-5.5µm.
                                                         _Coprinus utrifer_
  -        Veil of globose and subglobose cells and filamentous
           units often encrusted or with minute projections found
           sometimes at cap margin.                                      39

  39(38)   Globose cells, if ornamented then possessing crystalline
           or amorphous material (dissolved by 1N HCl, fig. 64.)         40
  -        Globose cells covered in small fine blunt projections
           on the walls (not removed by 1N HCl, fig. 64).                45

  40(39)   Basidia 2-spored.                                             41
  -        Basidia 4-spored.                                             42

  41(40)   Spores 14-17 × 8.5-10 × 12.5-14µm.       _Coprinus pachyspermus_
  -        Spores smaller, 9-11 × 6-6.5 × 8-9µm.     _Coprinus cordisporus_
                                                            (2-spored form)

  42(40)   Spores less than 10µm long.     _Coprinus cordisporus_ (fig. 63)
           (_C. patouillardii_ is known on garden refuse, and an
           undescribed species with lemon-shaped spores has recently
           been found).
  -        Spores 10µm or more long.                                     43

  43(42)   Veil soon discolouring greyish, drab or buff, Spores
           11.5-14.5 × 6-8 × 7.5-9µm.                _Coprinus cothurnatus_
  -        Veil remaining snowy white, only slowly discolouring
           greyish.                                                      44

  44(43)   Fruit bodies several cm tall. Spores 15-19 × 8.5-11.5 ×
           11-13µm.                                       _Coprinus niveus_
  -        Cap small, 5-6mm at first. Spores 14-16 x 8-9 ×
           10-12.5µm.                                 _Coprinus latisporus_

  45(39)   Basidia 3-spored.                                             46
  -        Basidia 4-spored.                                             47

  46(45)   Spores narrow, 8.5-11 × 5-6.2µm.              _Coprinus triplex_
  -        Spores broad, 9-10 x 6-6.5 × 6-7µm, slightly flattened
           in face view.                               _Coprinus trisporus_
           (These are possibly a single taxon).

  47(45)   Spores 7-8 × 4-4.5µm, perispore not visible in water
           or alkali mounts.                _Coprinus stercoreus_ (fig. 62)
  -        Spores 9µm or more long.                                      48

  48(47)   Spores 9-11 × 5.5-6µm. Perisporal sac none or
           incomplete or indistinct.                 _Coprinus foetidellus_
  -        Spores longer, 10.8-13.5 × 5.5-7µm, with distinct
           perispore with dark lines and inclusions. Distinctive
           smell of gas.                              _Coprinus narcoticus_
           (_C. sclerotiger_ is found on straw/dung mixtures, and the
           smaller _C. tuberosus_ on garden refuse etc.).

  49(20)   Spores not discoloured in conc. H2SO4.                        50
  -        Spores discolouring in conc. H2SO4. Gills not spotted
           at maturity.                                                  56

  50(49)   Cap cuticle cellular. Gills spotted at maturity. (More
           often on rich, 'dungy', soils. _P. subbalteatus_, with
           copper coloured cap, drying paler but retaining a dark
           marginal zone, occurs in gardens on mulch etc.).
                                                           (_Panaeolus_) 51
  -        Cap cuticle filamentous.                                      66

  51(50)   Velar remnants very obvious, either as an appendiculate
           veil or as a distinct ring.                                   52
  -        Lacking all velar remnants.                                   54

  52(51)   Cap distinctly pigmented, with appendiculate veil.            53
  -        Cap pale coloured, smooth, semi-globate, soon cracking.
           Gills with marginal cystidia only.
                                                  _Panaeolus papilionaceus_

  53(52)   Cap brown, smooth, sometimes viscid, not exceedingly
           wrinkled.                               _Panaeolus campanulatus_
  -        Cap grey, olivaceous, even black, with contrasting
           white appendiculate veil.               _Panaeolus sphinctrinus_

  54(51)   Cap with or without appendiculate veil, but always with
           distinct ring.                            _Panaeolus semiovatus_
  -        Cap lacking veil.                                             55

  55(54)   Cap pinkish ochraceous to tawny-buff. Lacking facial
           cystidia.                                  _Panaeolus speciosus_
  -        Cap whitish or slightly yellowish. With facial cystidia.
                                                     _Panaeolus antillarum_

  56(49)   Gills with facial cystidia often containing yellow
           amorphous material when seen in ammonia solution or
           deep blue with cotton blue.                    (_Stropharia_) 57
           (Blue-green _S. cyanea_ & _S. aeruginosa_ often occur in
           rich garden soils).
  -        Gills lacking facial cystidia. Never with yellowing
           cystidia in ammonia.                            (_Psilocybe_) 58
           (Red-capped _P. aurantia_ can be found on straw/mulch mixtures
           in gardens).

  57(56)   Cap sticky, semi-globate ± expanding at maturity. On raw
           dung.                                   _Stropharia semiglobata_
  -        Cap plano-convex, often broad with a central umbo,
           margin flaring with age. On dungy mixtures in
           gardens.                                _Stropharia stercoraria_

  58(56)   Stipe bluing, with ring. Spores ellipsoid, 11-14 ×
           6.5-7.5µm. Fruit body with mealy smell and taste.
                                                      _Psilocybe fimetaria_
  -        Stipe lacking distinct ring, or if with ring or ring
           zone 2-spored and/or stem not bluing. Fruit body without
           mealy smell and taste.                                        59

  59(58)   Stem always with distinct ring. Basidia 2-spored.
           Spores 15-20µm long.                     _Psilocybe luteonitens_
  -        Stem with or without ring. Basidia 4-spored. If with
           ring, spores smaller.                                         60

  60(59)   With ring zone.                                               61
  -        Lacking velar remnants on stem, or only appendiculate
           teeth at cap margin.                                          62

  61(60)   Spores slightly angular/limoniform, 11-13(14) × 7-8µm.
           Often on sewage sludge.                     _Psilocybe merdaria_
  -        Spores 13-14 × 7.5-8.5µm.                   _Psilocybe moelleri_

  62(60)   Spores 14-20 × 8-10µm.                 _Psilocybe subcoprophila_
  -        Spores smaller.                                               63

  63(62)   Spores lentiform, angled, 6-8(8.5) × 4.5-5.5 ×
           3.75-4.5µm.                                 _Psilocybe bullacea_
           (_P. crobula_, occasional on dung, differs in lacking purple
           colour in gills, and slightly smaller, ovoid, not angular,
  -        Spores larger.                                                64

  64(63)   Spores ellipsoid to slightly amygdaliform.
                                                      _Psilocybe merdicola_
  -        Spores lentiform, angular.                                    65

  65(64)   Spores 11-13(14) × 7-8(9)µm.        see _Psilocybe merdaria_, 61
  -        Spores 12-15 × 8-9.5µm                    _Psilocybe coprophila_

  66(50)   Round cells on cap as a micaceous veil. (Re-examine
           gill face; if different sized basidia and facial
           cystidia separating the gills are present go to
           _Coprinus_ at 21).                   _Psathyrella sphaerocystis_
  -        Cap lacking veil, or if present then fibrillar.               67

  67(66)   White copious veil at margin or also covering cap
           centre. Spores 10-12 × 5.5-6µm.           _Psathyrella coprobia_
  -        Lacking copious veil.                                         68

  68(67)   With red edge to gill. Spores 12-13 × 6-6.5µm, with
           central germ pore.                     _Psathyrella stercoraria_
  -        Lacking red gill edge. Spores with eccentric germ pore.
                                                   _Psathyrella coprophila_
           (_P. fimetaria_ differs in spore size; there are several members
           of the _P. prona_ group which grow on soil/straw mixtures).

  69(2)    Fruit body club-shaped.              _Typhula setipes_ (fig. 65)
           (_Clavaria acuta_ often grows on peaty soil in pots
           in greenhouses).
  -        Fruit bodies effuse, resupinate                               70

  70(69)   Fruit-body cobweb-like and greyish white. Basal hyphae
           3-4.5µm wide. Spores sub-globose, 4.5µm diam. (Generally
           on old dung or straw/soil mixtures).        _Athelia coprophila_
           (If with spiny spores 5-6µm diam., see the recently recorded
           _Tomentellopsis echinospora_).
  -        Fruit-body with pores, white or flushed slightly
           ochraceous, brownish or greyish. (On clods of soil in
           dunged land).                           _Cristella candidissima_

  71(1)    Fruit body either a cup containing several 'eggs' or a
           single orange or yellowish gelatinous sphere.                 72
  -        Fruit-body effuse, without distinct shape.                    73

  72(71)   Fruit-body whitish or pale yellow, up to 2.5mm diam.,
           splitting at maturity to shoot away the orange/yellow
           spore mass.                   _Sphaerobolus stellatus_ (fig. 66)
  -        Fruit-body cup shaped, with silvery-grey 'eggs'.
           (Usually on dung and straw or attached to rabbit
           pellets).                                   _Cyathus stercoreus_
           (_Cyathus vernicosus_ often grows in plant pots on rich soil).

  73(71)   Basidia with transverse septa. Spores 11 × 7µm. Fruit
           body pinkish.                              _Platygloea fimicola_
           (Not British; included for completeness. _Pilacrella solani_,
           with a glistening stipitate head, has been isolated from
           dungy soil).
  -        Basidia with longitudinal septa. Spores 14-18 × 9-10µm.
           Fruit body cream-white or ivory.           _Sebacina incrustans_

[Illustration: FIG. 65. Habit sketch of _Typhula_ sp. Note attachment to
sclerotium. FIG. 66. _Sphaerobolus stellatus_, habit. FIG. 67. _Clitopilus
passackerianus_, a sessile agaric--habit sketch and section.]

Key 4. Zygomycota

  1        Spores formed in multispored sporangia (figs 68, 70,
           72, 75, 76) or in few-spored sporangioles (figs 70, 73).       2
  -        Multispored sporangia and globose sporangioles absent.
           Spores formed singly on terminal, lateral or
           intermediate vesicles (figs 74, 79, 80, 82-86), or
           in short chains (figs 77, 78, 81).                            11

  2(1)     Sporangiophore stout, simple, with a subsporangial
           swelling and a basal swelling buried in the substrate.
           Sporangia tough walled, black, projected some distance
           towards the light when mature, and sticking to whatever
           they hit.                                  _Pilobolus_ (fig. 76)
              e.g. spores pale yellow, 8-10 × 5-6µm - _P. crystallinus_
                     spores orange, 12-20 × 6-10µm. - _P. kleinii_
  -        Sporangiophores not stout; sporangia not violently
           discharged.                                                    3

  3(2)     Sporangial wall black, tough, not readily broken when
           touched. Sporangia with a sticky base, becoming
           attached to whatever they contact after the marked
           elongation of the white sporangiophores at maturity.
                                                        _Pilaira_ (fig. 75)
                  e.g. spores yellowish, 8-10 × 6µm - _P. anomala_
                   spores colourless, 11-13 × 6-8µm - _P. moreaui_
  -        Sporangial wall diffluent, spores readily removed in
           a droplet, or fragile and then spores easily dispersed
           by external violence.                                          4

  4(3)     Sporangiophores stiff and metallic in appearance,
           growing towards the light and often to great length
           (5-30cm).                                           _Phycomyces_
             e.g. spores 10.5-30 × 6.5-17µm; columella pyriform;
                                   sporangiophores up to 30cm - _P. nitens_
             spores 8-13 × 5-7.5µm; columella spherical or ovoid;
                            sporangiophores up to 30cm - _P. blakesleeanus_
  -        Sporangiophores white, not reaching extreme lengths.           5

  5(4)     Small lateral sporangia (sporangioles) present.               10
  -        Sporangioles absent.                                           6

  6(5)     Sporangiophores usually grouped, less often single,
           connected by stolon-like hyphae.                               7
  -        Sporangiophores arising singly, or if grouped then
           lacking stolon-like hyphae.                                    9

  7(6)     Stolons joining groups of sporangiophores often with
           rhizoids at the base of the group.                             8
  -        Sporangiophores arising singly or in groups from
           stolons, which may be 'rooted' at intervals along
           their length, but rarely beneath the groups of
           sporangiophores.                             _Absidia_ (fig. 71)
                    e.g. sporangiophores grouped, rhizoids poorly
                       developed; spores 2.5-4.5µm diam. - _A. corymbifera_
            sporangiophores grouped, rhizoids strongly developed;
                                     spores 2.5-3.5µm diam. - _A. orchidis_

  8(7)     Sporangiophores mostly unbranched.          _Rhizopus_ (fig. 69)
             e.g. spores irregularly angular-ovoid, 8-14 × 11µm
                                                           - _R. nigricans_
  -        Sporangiophores with a whorl of branches beneath the
           main sporangium, each with a small columellate
           sporangium. Spores 6-8.5µm.                _Actinomucor elegans_

[Illustration: FIG. 68. _Mucor_, habit and detail of sporangium before and
after dehiscence. FIG. 69. _Rhizopus_, habit. FIG. 70. _Thamnidium
elegans_, habit and detail of sporangioles. FIG. 71. _Absidia_, habit. FIG.
72. _Mortierella_, habit and sporangiophore tip after sporangial
dehiscence. FIG. 73. _Helicostylum_, sporangioles. FIG. 74.
_Chaetocladium_, sporangioles. FIG. 75. _Pilaira_, sporangiophores before
and after elongation, and sporangium. FIG. 76. _Pilobolus_, sporangiophore.
FIG. 77. _Syncephalis_, habit, sporangiophore and merosporangia. FIG. 78.
_Piptocephalis_, habit and detail of final branch with head cell and
merosporangia. FIG. 79. _Oedocephalum_, habit and sporing head. FIG. 80.
_Rhopalomyces_, sporing head. FIG. 81. _Syncephalastrum_, habit and detail
of merosporangium. FIG. 82. _Coemansia_, habit, sporoclade with sporangia
and sporangium with spore inside. FIG. 83. _Kickxella_, habit and
sporoclade. FIG. 84. _Cunninghamella_, habit and fertile head. FIG. 85.
_Mycotypha_ (l) and _Ostracoderma_ (r) conidiophores. FIG. 86.
_Ballocephala_, habit of sporangiophores growing from parasitised
tardigrade, sporangiophore and sporangia.]

  9(6)     Sporangia often with pigmented walls, yellowish when
           young, finally grey or black, with well marked columella
           left after spore dispersal. Individual sporangiophores
           observable with unaided eye, up to 20mm long.
                                                          _Mucor_ (fig. 68)
                        e.g. spores smooth, 7-8 × 2.5-4.5µm - _M. hiemalis_
                                spores smooth, 6-12 x 3-6µm - _M. mucedo_
                            spores asperulate, 5-8.µm diam. - _M. plumbeus_
           (N.B. _Zygorhynchus_ would key out with _Mucor_. It is more
           often isolated from soil, and is distinguished from _Mucor_
           by the presence of zygospores with unequal suspensors)
  -        Sporangia white, without a columella, readily becoming
           a spore droplet. Sporangiophores delicate, often only
           200-400µm long. Fine, white, garlic-smelling mycelium
           often present.                           _Mortierella_ (fig. 72)
           e.g. spores 16-27µm diam, few in each sporangium;
           sporangiophores ca 150µm, with short lateral branches
                                          at right angles - _M. reticulata_
           spores 6-10 x 4-6µm; sporangiophores 2-3mm high,
                                    with ascending branches - _M. bainieri_
          spores 4-10µm; sporangiophores richly branched - _M. candelabrum_

  10(5)    Sporangioles formed at the final tips of a densely
           dichotomous system of branchlets, originating some
           distance below a terminal sporangium (which may be
           absent in young specimens). Sporangioles up to 25µm
           diam., with up to 6 spores. Spores 8-12 × 6-8µm.
                                             _Thamnidium elegans_ (fig. 70)
  -        Sporangioles either at the curved tips of slender
           branches, or clustered in groups about halfway along
           tapering branches which radiate from the sporangiophore
           below the sporangium; the branch tips of the latter
           give the fertile portion of the sporangiophore a
           bristly appearance.                     _Helicostylum_ (fig. 73)
                  e.g. spores 8-17 × 3-7µm; sporangioles on short
                secondary or tertiary branches; fertile region bristly
                                      with sterile branches - _H. fresenii_
                spores 6-8 × 4µm; sporangioles reflexed, on slender
              primary or secondary branches; fertile region without
                                          sterile branches - _H. pyriforme_

  11(1)    Spores formed in chains.                                      12
  -        Spores formed singly.                                         14

  12(11)   Sporangiophores regularly and repeatedly dichotomously
           branched. Chains of 2-10 spores produced in small
           groups, which may be wet or dry, on deciduous heads,
           4-15µm diam. Parasitic on other fungi, mostly other
           Mucorales.                             _Piptocephalis_ (fig. 78)
              e.g. spores 4-5 × 2-3µm, in pairs; heads dry -  _P. lepidula_
                spores 5-6 × 2-2.5µm, in chains of 4-9;
                                             heads dry - _P. cylindrospora_
                spores 4-8 × 2-4µm, in chains of 3-5; heads dry;
                          sporangiophore without rhizoids - _P. freseniana_
                spores 4-6 × 4-4.5µm, in chains of 3-6; heads wet;
                                 sporangiophore with rhizoids - _P. repens_
                spores 3-5 × 2-2.5µm, in chains of 3-5, heads wet; head
                cell lyses, to leave only a fringe at the tip of the
                                  very fine sporangiophore - _P. fimbriata_
  -        Sporangiophores simple or irregularly branched.               13

  13(12)   A large conspicuous fungus, macroscopically Mucor-like,
           mycelium coarse. Sporangiophores with a distinct terminal
           swelling with crowded spore chains. Spores usually 5-10
           in a chain, globose to ovoid, 2-8 × 4-6µm.
                                      _Syncephalastrum racemosum_ (fig. 81)
  -        Sporangiophores less conspicuous, 100-1000µm high, with
           a 'holdfast' at the base attaching the sporangiophore to
           the substrate. Mycelium very fine. Parasitic on other
           Mucorales.                               _Syncephalis_ (fig. 77)
                        e.g. sporangiophores 100-200µm high, with three
                 'nodes' along their length; merosporangia often forked
                         at the basal cell; spores 8-10 × 6µm - _S. nodosa_
                        sporangiophores up to 750µm high; merosporangia
                usually subdivided at their base into several branches,
                 each with 5-10 spores; spores 5-10 × 3-4µm - _S. depressa_
           (N.B. _Oedocephalum_ spp. (fig. 79), the anamorphic states of
           many dung fungi (esp. Ascobolaceae and Pezizaceae),
           _Rhopalomyces_ (fig. 80), and some _Aspergillus_ spp. are
           superficially similar to _Syncephalis_ at first sight).

  14(11)   Sporangia containing a single closely fitting elongated
           spore, produced in serried ranks on one side of a
           boat-shaped branch (sporoclade).                              15
  -        Single-spored sporangia ('spores') globose, produced
           singly or if in groups not on sporoclades.                    16

  15(14)   Sporoclades lateral. Sporangiophores usually yellowish.
           (No parasitism has been demonstrated, but in culture
           grows much better in the presence of the white,
           garlic-smelling _Mortierella_ spp.).       _Coemansia_ (fig. 82)
           e.g. spores 6-11µm long; sporoclades spirally arranged
                                              around the axis - _C. erecta_
           spores 16-18µm long; sporoclades formed on one side of the
                    axis, causing it to curve to one side - _C. scorpoidea_
  -        Sporoclades produced in a terminal verticil.
           Sporangiophores shining white.
                                          _Kickxella alabastrina_ (fig. 83)

  16(14)   Spores produced in clusters below the apex of the final
           branches of a compound, often trifid, branching system
           which is given a bristly appearance by the projecting
           tips. Superficially similar to _Thamnidium_ or
           _Helicostylum_. Capable of parasitising, and growing
           much better in association with, other Mucorales.
                                                  _Chaetocladium_ (fig. 74)
                           e.g. spores smooth, 4-6µm diam. - _C. brefeldii_
                                spores echinulate, 6.5-9.5µm - _C. jonesii_
  -        'Spores' not produced in subterminal clusters, but
           terminally on lateral vesicles, or over the surface of
           swollen fertile regions of the sporangiophore.                17

  17(16)   Sporangiophores up to 250µm high. Lateral vesicles
           numerous, each producing a single 'spore', which is
           projected when mature. Parasitic on tardigiades.
                                                   _Ballocephala_ (fig. 86)
  -        Sporangiophores visible with the unaided eye. Spores
           produced on swollen parts of the sporangiophore.              18

  18(17)   Sporangiophores branched, with more or less globose
           terminal fertile regions. Spores dry and powdery,
           yellowish or pinkish in mass.         _Cunninghamella_ (fig. 84)
                 e.g. spores smooth, ovoid, 18-22 × 10-14µm or
                                       globose, 8-10µm diam. - _C. elegans_
                           spores echinulate, ovoid, 8-12µm - _C. africana_
  -        Sporangiophores unbranched, fertile portion 200-300 ×
           15-20µm. Fertile region terminal only, cylindrical.
           Spores smooth, greyish in mass, 2-4µm diam.
                                           _Mycotypha microspora_ (fig. 85)
           (N.B. _Ostracoderma epigea_ (fig. 85), the anamorph of
           _Peziza astracoderma_, which occurs on paper and sometimes
           dung and highly organic substrates, was originally described
           as _Mycotypha dichotoma_. The fertile regions are cylindrical
           but multiple as the result of several close dichotomous
           divisions at the base of the fertile portion).


[1] There are few reports of _Ascozonus_, apart from _A. woolhopensis_.
    Observed spore sizes of _A. woolhopensis_ suggest that measurement of
    Renny's (1874) illustrations of spores leads to values which are too
    large (19-20 × 6-6.5µm). Those in parentheses are what they might be,
    based on the discrepancy between observed values for _A. woolhopensis_
    and Renny's illustration.

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