Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, Volume 2 (of 3)
Author: Parker, Henry
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, Volume 2 (of 3)" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



                      VILLAGE FOLK-TALES OF CEYLON

                                Vol. II


                      Collected and Translated by

                               H. PARKER

               Late of the Irrigation Department, Ceylon


                                 LONDON
                               LUZAC & CO.
                     Publishers to the India Office
                                  1914



CONTENTS


STORIES OF THE CULTIVATING CASTE

    NO.                                             PAGE

     76  A Legend of Kandy                             3
     77  The Gamarala's Daughter                       4
     78  The Gamarala's Girl                           7
     79  How Gourds were put in Small-Mouthed Pots    10
     80  The Royal Prince and the Carpenter's Son     13
     81  Concerning a Royal Prince and a Princess     23
     82  The Princes who Learnt the Sciences          33
         The Nobleman and his Five Sons (Variant A)   36
         The Seven Princes (Variant B)                39
         The Attempt of Four Brahmana Princes to
         Marry (Variant C)                            42
     83  The Story of Kalundawa                       46
     84  How the Poor Prince became King              50
     85  How the Gardener became King                 54
     86  How the Foolish Man became King              57
     87  The Foolish Man                              60
     88  The Story of Marirala                        64
     89  The Invisible Silk Robe                      66
     90  The Foolish Youth                            70
     91  The Story of the Seven Thieves               76
     92  The King who became a Thief                  81
     93  The Female Fowl Thief                        88
     94  Gampolaya and Raehigamaya                    90
     95  The Story of the Two Liars                   96
     96  The Three Hettiyas                           98
     97  Concerning Two Friends                      101
     98  Concerning Four Friends                     107
     99  Concerning a Horse                          109
    100  The Story of the Pearl Necklace             111
    101  The Widow Woman and Loku-Appuhami           116
    102  The Decoction of Eight Nelli Fruits         121
    103  The Prince and Princess and Two Devatawas   124
    104  Concerning the Prince and the Princess
         who was Sold                                130
    105  The Princess Hettirala                      137
    106  The Maehiyalle-gama Princess                142
    107  The Wicked Princess                         146
    108  Holman Pissa                                151
    109  Concerning a Vaedda and a Bride             157
    110  A Story about a Vaedda                      160
    111  The Story of the Four Giants                162
    112  The Story about a Giant                     172
    113  Hitihami the Giant                          175
    114  The New Speech                              181
    115  The Master and Servant                      191
    116  How the Son-in-Law Cut the Chena            192
    117  A Girl and a Stepmother                     195
    118  The Wicked Elder Brother                    198
    119  Nahakota's Wedding Feast                    201
    120  How a Man Charmed a Thread                  204
    121  How the Rice and Curry became Raw           206
    122  How a Woman ate Cooked Rice by Stealth      207
    123  How a Woman Offered Cakes                   208
    124  The Manner in which a Woman prepared
         a Flour Figure                              210
    125  How a Woman became a Lapwing                212
    126  The Story of the Seven Wicked Women         215
    127  The Story of the Old Man                    219
    128  The Magic Lute Player                       221
    129  The Lad who Sang Songs                      223
    130  The Hunchback Tale                          226
    131  The Poor Man and the Jewels                 228
    132  The Learned Poor Man                        230
    133  A Poor Man and a Woman                      234
    134  The Story of the Rakshasa and the Princess  237
    135  The Way the Rakshasi Died                   241
    136  How a Rakshasa turned Men and Bulls
         into Stone                                  244
    137  The Rakshasa-eating Prakshasa               247
         The Rakshasa-eating Prakshasa (Variant A)   256
         The Rakshasis-eating Prakshasa (Variant B)  257
         The Rice-dust Porridge (Variant C)          262
         The Evidence that the Appuhami ate Paddy
         Dust (Variant D)                            266
    138  The Story of the Cake Tree                  269
         The Lad and the Rakshasi (Variant A)        275
         The Cake Tree (Variant B)                   276
    139  The Girl, the Monk, and the Leopard         280
    140  The Washerman and the Leopard               286
    141  The Frightened Yaka                         288
    142  The Story of the Seven Yakas                292
    143  The Yaka and the Tom-tom Beater             294
    144  How a Tom-tom Beater got a Marriage from
         a Gamarala                                  296
    145  The Gem Yaksani                             299
    146  The Na, Mi, and Blue-Lotus Flowers'
         Princesses                                  309
         The Story of the She-Goat (Variant A)       320
         The Story of a Nobleman's Son (Variant B)   323
    147  The Loss that occurred to the Nobleman's
         Daughter                                    330
    148  The Ratemahatmaya's Presents                333
    149  The Prince and the Minister                 334
    150  The Story of King Bamba                     339
    151  Concerning a Royal Princess and a Turtle    345
    152  The Story of a King and a Prince            356
    153  The Story of the Gourd                      361
    154  The Story of the Shell Snail                364
    155  The Queen of the Rock House                 367
    155A The Story of the Elder Sister and Younger
         Brother                                     377
    156  The Queen and the Beggar                    380
    157  The Frog in the Queen's Nose                382
    158  Concerning a Bear and the Queen             385
    159  The Leopard and the Princess                388
    160  The Story of the Foolish Leopard            393
    161  The Story of the Dabukka                    396
    162  The Leopard and the Calf                    399
    163  The Ash-Pumpkin Fruit Prince                401
    164  The Kabaragoya and the Widow                407
    165  The Frog Jacket                             409
    166  The Four-faced King and the Turtle          411
    167  The Story of the Cobra and the Prince       414
    168  The Ant Story                               417
    169  The Gamarala and the Cock                   419
    170  Concerning the Golden Peacock               421
    171  The Story of the Brahmana's Kitten          425
    172  The Story of the Mango Bird                 430
    173  How the Parrot explained the Law-suit       435
    174  The Parrot and the Crow                     440
    175  The Crow and the Darter                     442
    176  Concerning the Crows and the Owls           443
    177  The Female Lark                             445

Index                                                449


See Additional Notes and Corrections in the Appendix, Vol. III.



STORIES OF THE CULTIVATING CASTE


NO. 76

A LEGEND OF KANDY [1]


At a certain place in Lankawa (Ceylon), there was an extensive
forest. In that forest there were elephants, bears, leopards, wanduras,
[2] and many other jungle animals.

At any time whatever, at the time when any animal springs for seizing
an animal that is its prey, it comes running near a rock that is in an
open place in the forest. Having arrived near the rock, the animal that
ran through fear goes bounding back after the animal that is chasing
it. Regarding that rock, it was the custom that it was [known as]
"The Rock of the Part where there is Tranquillity" (Sen-kada-gala [3]).

One day a Basket-mender for the purpose of cutting bamboos went
into this forest. While he was cutting bamboos a certain jackal went
driving a hare on the path. At the time when the hare arrived near
this rock the jackal began to run back, and the hare ran behind it.

The Basket-mender, having been looking at this, examined the place,
and having gone near the King who was ruling at that time, told him
of this circumstance. And the King, having thought that it is a good
victorious ground, went there, and having built a city makes it his
capital (raja-dhaniya). For that city he made the name Senkadagala
[Nuwara--that is, Kandy].


                                                           Uva Province.



NO. 77

THE GAMARALA'S DAUGHTER


In a certain country there were a Gamarala and a daughter of the
Gamarala's, it is said. Well then, for the Gamarala they brought
a Gama-mahage. [4] The Gama-mahage's daughter and that Gamarala's
daughter stayed in one place. The Gamarala and the Gama-mahage cook
and eat separately; the Gamarala's daughter and the Gama-mahage's
daughter cook and eat separately.

A King comes every day to the house in which are the two
girls. Afterwards, the Gama-mahage's daughter, having quarrelled
with the Gamarala's daughter, went to the Gama-mahage and told tales:
"A King comes every day to the house we are in."

Then the woman said, "Daughter, you go to that house to-day [and
watch if he comes]." Having said "Ha" (Yes), that girl went.

Afterwards the girl came to the house in which was the Mahage. After
having come, she said, "Mother, to-day also the King came."

Then that girl's mother, having cut her finger-nails [5] and given
them into the hand of the girl, said, "Daughter, take these and place
them upon the beam of the threshold." The girl, having taken them and
placed them on the beam of the threshold, came to the Mahage's house.

On the following day the girl did not go to the house of the Gamarala's
daughter. That day, also, came the King. After he came he placed
his foot on the beam of the threshold; then the finger-nails pricked
him. Immediately the King went to the city on the back of the tusk
elephant.

On the following day, when that [Gamarala's] girl was weeping and
weeping under a tree because he did not come, while some crows
were swallowing and swallowing the fruits of the trees a crow said,
"Ando! What is that Gamarala's daughter crying for?" The other crow
said, "What is it to thee! Do thou in silence quickly swallow two or
three fruits off that."

Afterwards, it having become night, part of the crows went to
the nests; two still remained over in the tree. One of them said,
"Ane! What is that Gamarala's daughter crying for?" The other crow
said, "What is it to thee! Do thou in silence swallow the fruits
off that. All the crows went away; mustn't we also go? It has become
night."

Then the Gamarala's daughter laments, "A light was falling and falling
[into my life]; it is not there now."

The crow said, "Being without a light, what art thou lamenting for?"

The girl said, "A King was coming and coming to our house. Our
stepmother having placed some finger-nails on the threshold, they
pricked the King's foot, and having gone to the city he does not come
now. On account of that I am lamenting."

Then the crow said, "What are you lamenting for on that account! Having
shot (with bow and arrow) a crow that is flying [in the air] above,
and extracted its fat, should you take it to the city in which the King
is, when you have rubbed it on the wound in the foot it will heal."

Afterwards the girl, having shot a crow that was flying above, and
extracted its fat, and tied up a packet of it, and dressed in men's
clothes, went to the city, taking the fat.

The girl, having gone to the city, and gone to the palace in which
is the King, said, "What will He give me to cure His foot?" [6]

The King replied, "I will give a gold ring."

Then the girl rubbed the oil [on the wound], and after she drew out
the finger-nail the foot became well. After that the King gave the
girl the gold ring. The girl, taking it, came home.

The King, taking a sword, on the following day came on the back of
the tusk elephant to the house in which is the girl. The girl was
asleep. Then the King descended from the tusk elephant, and taking
the sword went to the place where the girl was. "Get up, thou,"
he said. The girl arose. Then the King prepared to cut her neck.

The girl, having made obeisance, said, "Don't cut me with the sword;
it was I who cured His foot."

"How didst thou cure it?" he said.

"I went to the city in which He was, and having rubbed fat [on the
wound] and drawn out the finger-nail, came back," the girl said.

Then the King said, "How didst thou go to my palace?"

The girl replied, "I went in men's clothes, and having rubbed oil on
the foot and drawn out the finger-nail, I came back."

"If thou drewest it out, where is now the gold ring I gave thee?" he
said.

Then the girl, saying, "Here is the gold ring He gave me," showed it
to the King.

After that, placing the girl on the back of the tusk elephant, he
went to the palace in the city.


                                                 North-western Province.



Regarding the poisonous nature of the finger-nails, see vol. i,
pp. 124 and 128.

In Indian Fairy Tales (M. Stokes), p. 199, a Princess in the disguise
of a Yogi cured a Prince who had married her, and who had been poisoned
by means of powdered glass laid on his bed. She applied earth from
the foot of a tree, mixed with cold water, and rubbed this over him
for three days and nights. When the Prince wished to reward her, she
asked for a ring and handkerchief that she gave him on their wedding
day. She afterwards informed him that it was she who had cured him,
but he would not believe her until she produced these articles.



NO. 78

THE GAMARALA'S GIRL


In a certain city there was a King, it is said. The King sends
letters into various countries to be explained. When they were sent,
no one could explain the things that were in the letters. When he
sent the letters, on the following day [the recipients] must come
near the King. When they come the King asks the meaning in the letter;
no one can tell it. Well then, he beheads the man.

Thus, in that manner he sent letters to seven cities. From the seven
cities seven men came to hand over the letters. He beheaded the
seven persons.

On the eighth day a letter came to the Gamarala. There is a girl of the
Gamarala's. When they brought the letter the girl was not at home; she
went to the village to pound paddy. Pounding the paddy and taking the
rice, when the girl is coming home the Gamarala is weeping and weeping.

So the girl asked, "What is it, father, you are crying for?"

Then the Gamarala says, "Daughter, why shouldn't I cry? The King
who beheaded seven men of seven cities has to-day sent a letter to
me also. Now then, the letter which the people of seven cities were
unable to explain, how can I explain? Well then, mustn't I take the
letter to-morrow? It is I who must take the letter. When I have gone he
will behead me. Well then, owing to your being [left] without anyone,
indeed, I am weeping."

Then the girl said, "Where is it, for me to look at, that
letter?" Asking for it, and having explained all the things that
were in the letter, she said to the Gamarala, "Father, having gone
to-morrow, to what the King asks say thus and thus."

The Gamarala on the following day went and handed over the letter. The
King, in the very way in which he asked those seven persons, brought
up the Gamarala, and asked him. The Gamarala replied in the very
way the girl said. Then the King asked the Gamarala, "Who expounded
this?" The Gamarala said, "There is a daughter of mine; that daughter
herself explained it."

After that, the King said, "To-morrow we are coming for the marriage
[to your daughter]. You go now, and having built inner sheds and
outer sheds, and milked milk from oxen, and caused it to curdle,
and expressed oil from sand, place them [ready]; those [previously]
unperformed matters," he said.

When the Gamarala is coming home the girl is not at home. Having
gone to pound paddy, and having pounded the paddy, when she comes,
taking the rice, that day, also, the Gamarala, weeping and weeping,
is digging some holes for posts.

So the girl asked, "What, father, are you crying for to-day also?"

Then the Gamarala says, "Ane! Daughter, the King is coming to-morrow to
summon you in marriage, and return. Owing to it, the King said to me,
'Having built inner sheds and outer sheds, having milked milk from
oxen and caused it to curdle, and having expressed oil from sand,
place them [ready].' Now, then, how shall I do those things? It is
through being unable that I am weeping."

Then the girl says, "Father, no matter for that. Simply stay
[here]. Please build the [usual] sorts of inner sheds and outer
sheds. How are you to milk milk from oxen and curdle it? How are you
to express oil from sand?" Afterwards the Gamarala indeed built the
inner sheds and outer sheds.

On the very day on which the King said he is coming, the girl, with
another girl, taking a bundle of cloth, went along the road to meet
the King. On the road there is a sesame chena. By the chena they met
the King.

When coming very far away, the Ministers said at the hand of the King,
"That one coming in front is the Gamarala's daughter herself." The
Gamarala's daughter, too, did go in front.

Then the King asked at the hand of the Gamarala's daughter, "Where,
girl, art thou going?"

The Gamarala's daughter replied, "We are going [because] our father
has become of age [in the same manner as women]. On account of it
[we are going] to the washermen."

The King said, "How, girl, are men [affected like women]?"

Then the girl said, "So, indeed! You, Sir, told our father that having
built inner sheds and outer sheds, having milked milk from oxen,
and caused it to curdle, and having expressed oil from sand, [he is]
to place them [ready]. How can these be [possible]? In that way,
indeed, is the becoming of age by males [in the same manner as women]."

Then the King, having become pleased with the girl, asked yet a
word. He plucked a sesame flower, and taking it in his hand asked
the girl, "Girl, in this sesame flower where is the oil?"

Then the girl asked, "When your mother conceived where were
you. Sir?" [7]

Immediately (e parama) the King descended from the horse's back; and
placing the Gamarala's girl upon the horse, and the King also having
got on the horse, they went to the palace. The other girl came alone
to that girl's house.

On the second day, the King having sent the Ministers and told
the Gamarala to come, marrying the girl to the King she remained
[there]. The Gamarala also stayed in that very palace.


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 79

HOW GOURDS WERE PUT IN SMALL-MOUTHED POTS


At a certain time a man cut a sesame chena. In the sesame chena the
sesame flowers blossomed. There was a female child of the man's.

The child one day having gone to the sesame chena, while she was there
the King came, in order to go near the sesame chena. Thereupon the King
asked at the hand of the girl, "Girl, the flower that has blossomed,
where did it come from in the plant?"

Then the girl asked at the hand of the King, "Before your mother was
married where were you?"

At that time, the King having become angry at the word which the
girl said, told the girl's father to come. After he came he said,
"Because your girl said such a wicked word, come [to me after] putting
a hundred gourd fruits in a hundred [small-mouthed] copper pots."

Thereupon, the man being afraid at this word went home, and remained a
dead dolt (manda). Then the girl asked, "Why, father, are you without
sense?" Then the man told her the word said by the King.

Having heard it, the girl said, "Father, why are you frightened at
that? I will tell you a stratagem for that," and told him to bring a
hundred [small-mouthed] copper pots. After he brought them, she told
him to bring a hundred gourd-flower fruits (the small fruit at the
base of the flower). After he brought them, she told him to put the
hundred gourds into those hundred copper pots, and after he put them
in, the girl and the man went to the King, and handed them over.

Having given them, as they were coming away, the King said to the girl,
"I will cause thee to be in widowhood."

Then the girl said, "I will get a dirty cloth [set] on your head."

The King, after that man and girl went away, came and married
her. Having married her, and stayed a little time, in order to make
her a widow he went on a journey which delayed him six months.

Having waited until the time when he was going, what does this girl
do? Having made up her hair-knot on the top of her head, tying it
there, tying on a bosom necklace (malayak) like the Hettiyas, she
went to the sewing-shop. Learning sewing for the whole of the six
months, she sewed a good hat, putting a dirty cloth at the bottom
[inside it], and above it having fastened [precious] stones; it was
at the sewing-shop.

At that time, as that King, the six months having been spent, was
coming home through the middle of the street, he saw a costly hat
in the shop; and having given a thousand masuran, taking the hat and
placing it on his head, he went away.

Having gone, he said to the girl, "I caused thee to be in widowhood,
didn't I? I said so."

Then the girl said, "On your head you got my dirty cloth, didn't
you? I said so."

The King said, "You are not old enough [8] to get your dirty cloth
on my head."

Thereupon the girl said, "Break up the hat and look."

Then when the King broke up the hat and looked the dirty cloth was
there. After that, having said, "The two persons are equal to each
other," they remained in much trust [in each other].


                                                 North-central Province.



In Indian Night's Entertainment (Swynnerton), p. 315, a girl, the
daughter of a smith, whom a Prince wanted to marry, in order to show
her cleverness made some large earthenware jars, and without burning
them painted and enamelled them, and introduced a small water-melon
into each. When the melons had grown so as to fill the jars, she sent
two of them to the palace, with a request that the melons should be
taken out without breaking the jars or melons. No one being able
to do it, she obtained permission to visit the palace, wrapped a
wet cloth round each jar until it became soft, expanded the mouths,
extracted the melons, and remade the jars as before.

The smart village girl is known in China also. There is an account
of one in Chinese Nights' Entertainment (A. M. Fielde), p. 57, the
incidents being unlike those of the Sinhalese tale, however.

In the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed., vol. iii, p. 202) there is a
story of a smart village girl and a King of Persia, Kisra Anushirwan,
in which the King married the girl.



NO. 80

THE ROYAL PRINCE AND THE CARPENTER'S SON


In a certain country there were a King and a Queen. In the same
city there were a Carpenter and his wife. There was a Prince of the
King's. There was a son of the Carpenter's.

They sent these two near a teacher to learn letters and sciences. After
a number of years, one day, in order to look at this Prince's learning,
the King, having gone near the teacher who teaches the sciences,
and made inquiry regarding the Prince's lessons, [ascertained that]
the King's Prince was not able to [understand] any science; the
Carpenter's son was conversant (nipuna) with all sciences.

Thereupon the King, having become grieved, went to the palace,
and said to the Queen, "Thy Prince is a decided miserable fool. [9]
Because of it, I must behead the Prince," the King settled.

Then the Queen said to the Prince, "As you have not got any learning
he has settled to behead you. Because of it, leave this city, and go
somewhere or other." Having said [this], and, unknown to the King,
tied up and given the Prince a package of cooked rice, and given him a
horse and a sword and a thousand masuran, she sent him on his journey.

This Prince and the Carpenter's son were very great confidential
friends. Because of it, the Prince, having said that he must go [after]
having spoken to his friend, went near his friend, and said, "Our
father, because I am unable to [understand] letters and sciences, has
settled to behead me. Because of it, I am going to another country."

Thereupon the Carpenter's son said, "If you, Sir, are leaving this
city and going away, I also must go to the place where you are
going." Having said [this], the Carpenter's son set out to go with
the Prince.

Then the Prince said, "As for me, blame having fallen on me from the
King, I am going; there is no reason at all for you to go." That word
the Carpenter's son would not hear. Both of them having mounted on
the horse, entered the jungle, and began to go away.

At the time when they had gone a number of gawuwas (each of four
miles), it became night; and having gone upon a high rock, and eaten
the packet of cooked rice that was brought, at the time when the two
persons were talking the Prince saw that a great light had fallen
somewhat far away. Having said, "Friend, get up and look what is
that light," when that one arose and looked, a great Nagaya, having
ejected a stone, is eating food.

The Prince said, "How is the way to take the stone?"

The Carpenter's son said, "You go, and, taking the stone, come back
running, without having looked back. The Cobra will come running;
then I will cut it down."

The Prince said, "I cannot; you go and bring it."

Thereafter, the Carpenter's son having gone, at the time when he
was coming back [after] taking the stone, the Cobra came after him,
crying and crying out. The Prince, taking [the stone] and having
waited, cut it down. Instantly, both of them having mounted on the
back of the horse, began to run off.

Having gone very far, after they halted they looked at the stone. On
the stone was written, "There is a well in this jungle. When one has
held the stone to the well, the water will dry up. Having descended
into the well, when one has looked there will be a palace; there will
also be a Princess in the palace. If there should be a person who
has obtained this stone, it is he himself whom this Princess will
marry." [This] was written upon the stone.

Thereafter, after it became light, these two persons began to seek the
well. At the time when they were seeking and looking for it they met
with the well. When they held the stone to the well the water dried
up. Both of them having descended into the well, when they looked
about, they met with the palace also; the Princess, too, was there.

Thereupon the royal Prince said to the Carpenter's son, "Owing to your
good luck we met with this gem-treasure [10] and the Princess. Because
of that, let the Princess be for you."

The Carpenter's son said to the Prince, "You, Sir, are a great
fool. You are my royal Prince; it is not right to say this word to me."

Thereafter, having married the Princess to the Prince, and united
the two persons, and set that Naga gem in a ring, and put it on
the Prince's finger, he said, "On the Princess's asking for this
ring on any day whatever, [11] don't give it. Women are never to
be trusted." Having taught the Prince [this], having said, "In any
difficulty whatever, remember me," the Carpenter's son, plunging
into the water, came to the surface of the ground, and went [back]
to their city.

While this Prince and Princess were [there], one day she begged
and got the ring that was on the Prince's hand, in order to look at
it. When she begged and looked at it, this Princess saw that these
matters were written in Nagara letters.

On the following day, begging the ring from the Prince, and having
gone noiselessly, when she held it out to the well the water dried
up. Thereupon, the Princess, having mounted upon the well mouth, and
stayed looking about, came again to the palace. In that manner, several
times begging for the ring she stayed on the well mouth, and came back.

One day, at the time when the Vaedda who goes hunting for the King
of that city was going walking [in the forest], the Vaedda, having
heard that this Princess sitting on the mouth of the well is singing,
went and peeped, and remained looking at her. Thereafter he went and
told the King of that city, "In such and such a jungle there is a
well. Sitting on the well mouth, a Princess was singing and singing
songs. Having stayed there, she jumped into the well. When I went
and looked there is only water. The beauty of her figure is indeed
like the sun and moon. In this city there is not a woman of that kind."

Thereupon the King having become much pleased, on the following day
the Vaedda, and the King, and the Minister, the whole three persons,
went to look at the Princess. Having gone, at the time when they were
hidden the Princess came that day also, and sitting on the well-mouth
sang songs. Thereupon the King, taking the sword, went running to
seize the Princess. As soon as the Princess saw them she jumped into
the well. The King having gone near the well, when he looked there
is only water. The Princess was not to be seen.

Thereafter, the King, having been astonished, came to the city. Having
come, he gave public notice by beat of tom-toms that if there should
be a person who brought and gave him the Princess who is in the
well in such and such a jungle, he will give him goods [amounting]
to a tusk-elephant's load, and a half share from the kingdom. [This]
he made public by the notification tom-toms.

At the time when they were going in the street beating the notification
tom-toms, a widow woman stopped the notification tom-toms, and asked,
"What is it?"

The notification tom-tom beater said, "The King said that to a person
who brought and gave him the Princess who is in the well in such and
such a jungle, he will give these goods, and a share from the kingdom."

Thereupon the widow woman said [to the King], "I can. [12] Having
constructed a watch-hut near the well in that jungle, you must give
it to me," she said. The King very speedily sent men, and built a
watch-hut, and gave it.

This old woman went [there], and at the time when she was in the
watch-hut, the Princess came, and sitting down upon the well mouth,
sang songs.

Thereupon the widow woman, drawing together the folds of her rags,
breaking [loose] her hair and letting it hang down, placing her hand
to her head, weeping and weeping, crying and crying out, came to the
place where the Princess is.

The Princess asked, "What, mother, are you weeping and weeping for?"

"Ane! Daughter, there is a male child of mine. The child does not
give me to eat, and does not give me to wear. Having beaten me he
drove me away, to go to any place I like."

Then the Princess said, "I will give you to eat and to wear. There is
not anyone with me." Calling this old woman she went to her palace. The
Prince also having become pleased, amply provided for the old woman.

Very many times calling this old woman, [the Princess] having gone
to the well-mouth, and stayed [there] singing songs, returned.

One day this old woman, taking a piece of stone in her hand,
unknown (himin) to the Princess, asked at the hand of the Princess,
"Ane! Daughter, how does the water dry up in this well? How does
it fill?"

The Princess said, "Mother, there is a stone in my hand. By its power
the water dries up, and fills it."

[Saying], "Ane! Daughter, where is it? Please let me, too, look at it,"
she begged for and got the stone. Having been looking and looking at
it a little time, she dropped that piece of stone which was in her
hand, for the Princess to hear. This gem-treasure the woman hid.

[The Princess] having said, "Appoyi! Mother, you dropped the
stone!" the two persons, striking and striking themselves, began to
cry, saying and saying, "For us, in the midst of this forest, from
whom will there be a protection from everything (saw-saranak)?"

At the time when they were weeping and weeping, having said,
"It is becoming night," the old woman said to the Princess,
"Now then, daughter, for us two to remain thus, a fine place (hari
taenak) is this forest wilderness! There will be elephants, bears,
leopards. Because of that, let us go. There is my house; having gone
[there], early to-morrow morning let us come again here." Having said
[this], deceiving the Princess, they went away.

The old woman with dishonest secrecy having sent word to the King,
the King came, and calling the Princess went [with her] to the palace.

Thereafter, the King published by beat of tom-toms that he has brought
the Princess who stayed on the well mouth. He made public that on
such and such a day he will marry this Princess.

Thereupon the Princess said, "In that manner I cannot contract
marriage. My two parents have told me that the Prince [I am to marry]
and I, both of us, having rowed a Wooden Peacock machine [13] in
the sky, and having come back, after that must contract marriage,
they have ordered." This word the Princess said as the Princess knows
that the first friend of the Prince's, that is, the Carpenter's son,
can construct the Wooden Peacock machine.

Thereafter, the King of this city employed the notification tom-tom,
"Who can construct the Wooden Peacock machine? If there should be a
person who can, speedily come summoning him near the King."

At the time when they were beating the notification tom-tom, that
Carpenter's son, having caused the notification tom-tom to halt, said,
"I can construct the Wooden Peacock machine." Thereupon, summoning
the Carpenter's son, they went to the royal house.

The King ordered that he should receive from the palace many
presents. The King commanded that having quickly constructed the
Wooden Peacock machine, and also prepared a person to row it, he
should bring it.

Thereafter, the Carpenter's son, ascertaining about the Princess who
stayed at the well, quickly having set off, went near the well in the
jungle, and diving into the water, and having gone to the palace, when
he looked, the Prince having become stupefied through want of sleep,
[14] had fallen down unconscious.

Thereupon the Carpenter's son, having spoken to the Prince, said,
"Didn't I tell you, Sir, 'Don't give the ring into the hand of the
Princess,' ascertaining that this danger will happen? But," he said to
the Prince, "don't you at any time become unhappy. [15] I will again
bring the Princess near this palace, and give her to you." Saying,
"Please remain in happiness," the Carpenter's son returned to the city,
and began to construct the Wooden Peacock machine.

While constructing it, he made inquiry how this widow woman was,
[and learnt that] a male child of this widow woman's was lost while
very young (lit., from his small days).

One day, in the night the Carpenter's son, tying up a bundle of clothes
and a packet of cooked rice, went, just as it was becoming night,
[16] to the house at which is the widow woman. Having gone [there]
he spoke: "Mother, mother!"

Thereupon the woman quickly having arisen and come, asked, "Where,
son, where were you for so many days?"

Thereupon the Carpenter's son said, "Ane! Mother, having tramped
through many countries, I have not obtained any means of subsistence. I
obtained a few pieces of cloth and a little rice." Saying "Here,"
he gave them into the hand of that woman.

"What are these for, son? Look; I have received from the King much
goods, and a part of the kingdom," she said to the Carpenter's son.

The old woman thought he was her own son. Having allowed him to
press her eyes while she is lying down, the old woman said, "Son,
I have still got something."

Having said, "Ane! Mother, where is it? Please let me look at it,"
begging for it, when he looked [it was] that gem-treasure.

Thereafter, having given it [back] into the hand of the old woman,
and waited until the time when the woman goes to sleep, stealing that
stone the Carpenter's son came away.

Then, constructing the Wooden Peacock machine, he went near the
King. Having gone, he said, "Except myself no one else can row this."

At that time, the King and the Princess, both of them, having mounted
on the Wooden Peacock machine [after] putting on the royal ornaments,
these three persons rowed [aloft in] the Wooden Peacock machine.

Having rowed very high above the sea, and stopped the Wooden Peacock
machine, the Carpenter's son, taking the sword in his hand, asked the
King whence the King obtained this Princess. Thereupon the King said
that a widow woman of this city brought and gave him the Princess
who stayed at a well in the midst of the forest.

Then the Carpenter's son said, "Why do you desire others' wives? How
much [mental] fire will there be for this Princess's husband! What
His Highness (tuma) did is a great fault."

Having said this, he cut down the King and dropped him into the sea,
and, taking the Princess, rowed near that well in the jungle. Having
gone [down the well] to the palace, and caused that Prince to put
on these royal ornaments, the Prince, and the Princess, and the
Carpenter's son, the whole three persons, having gone on the Wooden
Peacock machine to the city, and said that the King and the Princess
had contracted the marriage, that day with great festivity ate the
[wedding] feast; but any person of the city was unaware of this
abduction [17] [of the King] which he effected.

Thereafter, this Prince and Princess having been saluted [18] by
that widow woman, having tried her judicially they subjected her to
the thirty-two tortures and beheaded her, and hung her at the four
gate-ways, it is said.

The Carpenter's son became the Prince's Prime Minister. The Prince
exercised the sovereignty with the ten [royal] virtues, it is said.


                                                 North-western Province.



The ten royal virtues are: Almsgiving, keeping religious precepts,
liberality, uprightness, compassion, addiction to religious
austerities, even temper, tenderness, patience, and peacefulness
(Clough).

Regarding the flying wooden Peacock, see also the next story and
No. 198 in vol. iii. In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes),
vol. ii, p. 378, there is also an account of a similar flying-machine
called a Peacock, on which a young man, accompanied by the maker,
first went to marry a girl, and afterwards, against the advice of
its maker, flew aloft to show the people his own skill. He did not
know how to make it return, and at last the cords broke, it fell in
the sea, and he was drowned.

In Folklore of the Santal Parganas (collected by Rev. Dr. Bodding),
pp. 378, 380, etc., there are several accounts of houses under the
water; these were the residences of Bongas or deities.

In The Indian Antiquary, vol. i, p. 115, Mr. G. H. Damant gave a
Bengal story in which a King's son descends into a well, and finds
there a Princess in a house, imprisoned by Rakshasas.

In Folk-Tales of Bengal (L. Behari Day), p. 17 ff., a Prince and
a Minister's son who was his bosom friend, while on their travels
obtained a Cobra's jewel, and by means of it saw a palace under the
water of a tank. They dived down to it, found a Princess who had
been imprisoned there by the Cobra, which had died on losing its
magic jewel, and the Prince married her by exchanging garlands of
flowers. After the Minister's son left them in order to prepare for
their return, the Princess, while the Prince was asleep, by means
of the magic jewel ascended to the surface of the water, and sat on
the bathing steps. On the third occasion when she did this, a Raja's
son saw and fell in love with her. As soon as she observed him she
descended to her palace, and the young man went home apparently
mad. The Raja offered his daughter's hand and half his kingdom to
anyone who could cure his son. An old woman who had seen the Princess
offered to do it, and a hut was built for her on the embankment of the
tank. When the Princess came to the bank the woman offered to help her
to bathe, secured the jewel, and the Princess was captured. When the
Minister's son returned on a day previously arranged, he heard that
the Princess was to be married in two days. He personated the widow's
son, who was absent, and was well received by the widow, who handed
him the magic jewel. He saw the Princess, managed to escape with her,
and they joined the Prince.

In The Kathakoça (Tawney), p. 91, a serpent Prince saved a Queen who
had been pushed into a well by her stepmother, and made a palace in
the well, in which she lived until she was able to rejoin her husband.

In Folk-Tales of Hindustan (Shaik Chilli), p. 52, a Princess who had
been carried off and was about to be married to a Raja's son, stated
(by pre-arrangement with her husband's party, who had come to rescue
her) that it was "the custom of her family to float round the city in
a golden aerial car with the bridegroom and match-maker." The Raja
sent men to find a car. Two of her husband's friends, a goldsmith
and a carpenter, now produced such a car. When the Raja, his son,
the Princess, and the witch who had abducted her, began to sail above
the city in it, at the Princess's request the car was stopped at a
pre-arranged place, the Prince and his four friends sprang into it,
took it high in the air, drowned the Raja, his son, and the witch,
and returned with the Princess to their own city.

In the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed., vol. iii, p. 137 ff.) there
is an account of a flying ebony horse, which rose or descended when
suitable pegs were turned. When it was brought to a Persian King,
his son tried it, was carried away like the Prince in the next story,
and at last descended on the roof of a palace, where he saw and fell
in love with the royal Princess, and returning afterwards, carried
her off.

In the Tota Kahani (Small), p. 139, a young man made a flying wooden
horse, by means of which a merchant's daughter, who had been abducted
by a fairy, was recovered.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 57, a young Brahmana
who plunged into the Ganges to rescue a woman who appeared to be
drowning found a temple of Siva, and a palace in which the girl who
was a Daitya (an Asura) lived.

In the same volume, p. 392, there is an account of a flying chariot,
"with a pneumatic contrivance," made by a carpenter. A man flew two
hundred yojanas (each some eight miles in length) before descending;
he then started it afresh and flew another two hundred. On p. 390
wooden automata made by the same carpenter are mentioned; they "moved
as if they were alive, but were recognised as lifeless by their want
of speech." A similar automaton is mentioned in Cinq Cents Contes
et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. iii, p. 170; it was able to sing and
dance. (This work consists of translations from the Chinese Tripitaka;
all appear to have been translated from Indian originals, usually in
the early centuries after Christ.)

In The Indian Antiquary, vol. x, p. 232 (Tales of the Panjab, p. 42),
in the story of Prince Lionheart, by Mrs. F. A. Steel, his carpenter
friend went in search of a Princess who had been carried off by a
King. He made a flying palankin, and returned in it with her.



NO. 81

CONCERNING A ROYAL PRINCE AND A PRINCESS [19]


In a certain city there were a King, a Carpenter, and a
Washerman. There were three male children of these three persons. They
sent these three children to learn letters near a teacher a yojana
distant, or four gawuwas [20] distant. These three having at one
time set off from the city when they went for [learning] letters,
both that royal Prince and the Washer lad went and said the letters;
when they are coming back the Carpenter's son is even yet going
on the road. Those two go with much quickness. Because of it, the
Carpenter's son said at his father's hand, "We three having set off
at one time from the city, when we have gone, those two having got
in front and gone, and said their letters, come back. Having gone
(started) at one time, on even a single day having said my letters
I was unable to come [with them]."

Thereafter, he made for the Carpenter's son a [flying] Wooden Peacock
machine, and gave him it. He having gone rowing it [through the air],
and said his letters, when he is coming back those two are still going
[on the road], for [their] letters.

One day the royal Prince said to the Carpenter's son, "Ane! Friend,
will you let me row and look at the Wooden Peacock machine?" he asked.

Thereupon the Carpenter's son, having said, "It is good," and having
told him the manner of treading on the chain, gave him it. Just as
the Prince was taking hold of the chain, he went [up] in the Wooden
Peacock machine, and was fixed among the clouds in the sky. At that
time the King of the city and the multitude were frightened.

Thereafter, having assembled the city soothsayers and astrologers,
[the King] asked, "When will this Prince, taking the Wooden Peacock
machine, come down?"

Thereupon the soothsayers said, "After he has gone for the space of
[21] three years and three months, having come back he will fall in
the sea."

Thereupon the King said to the Ministers, "Having been marking
that number of years and number of days, surrounding the sea (i.e.,
keeping a watch all along the shore), and having been laying nets,
as soon as the Prince falls you must take him ashore," he commanded.

Thereafter, at the time when the Prince was holding the cords of
the Wooden Peacock machine, it began to descend lower. At a burial
ground at another city the Wooden Peacock machine came down upon
a Banyan-tree.

Thereupon the Prince, having placed the Wooden Peacock machine on
the tree, and descended from the tree, went to the city, and began
to walk about. At the time when the Princess of the King of the city,
with yet [other] Princesses, was bathing at a pool, the Princess saw
him at the time when this Prince also was going walking.

As soon as she saw him, the Princess thought, "If I marry the Prince
it is good." The Prince also thought, "If I marry this Princess it
is good." Except that the two thought to themselves of each other,
there was no means of talking together. Because of it, the Princess,
plucking a blue-lotus flower in the pool, placed it on her head after
having smelt (kissed) it; and again, having crushed it, threw it down,
and trampled on it. The Princess did thus for the Prince to perceive
that when he married her she would be submissive and obedient to
him. The Prince understood it, and kept it in mind.

Thereafter, at the time when the Prince was going walking in the city,
he met with the palace in which is the Princess. At the time when the
Prince had been there a little while, the Princess opened a window
of the upper story, and when she was looking in the direction of the
street, saw that this Prince was [there], and spoke to him. At that
time she said to the Prince, "After it has become night I [shall]
have opened this window. You come [then]."

Then the Prince having come after all in the palace got to sleep,
when he looked the window was opened. Having spoken to the Princess,
he entered the palace. The two having conversed, the Prince, before
it became light, got out of the palace, and having gone away, and
waited until the time when it became night, comes again.

Thereupon the Princess, in order to keep the Prince in the very palace,
told a smith of the city to come secretly; and having given him also
a thousand masuran, and made the man thoroughly swear [to secrecy],
the Princess said, "Having made a large lamp-stand, and made it [large
enough] for a man to be inside it, and turned round the screw-key
belonging to it, as though bringing it to sell bring it to the
palace. When you bring it I will tell the King, and I will take it."

The smith having gone, and made the lamp-stand in the manner the
Princess said, brought it near the King. Then the Princess having
come and said, "I want this," took it, and put it in the palace. To
the smith the King gave five hundred masuran.

Thereafter, having put that Prince inside the lamp-stand, he
remained [there]. When not many days had gone by, the Princess became
pregnant. The King having perceived that the Princess was pregnant,
placed a guard round the palace, and having published by beat of
tom-toms [that they were] to seize this thief, the King and the guards
made all possible effort to seize the thief, but they were unable.

A widow woman said, "I can seize him if you will allow me to go
evening and morning to the palace in which is the Princess, to seize
the thief." Thereupon the King gave permission to the woman to go
and stay during the whole [22] of both times.

When several days had gone by, this woman, having perceived that a man
is inside that lamp-stand, one day having gone taking also a package
of fine sand, during the visit, while she stayed talking and talking
with the Princess put the sand of the package round the lamp-stand,
and having spread it thinly, came away. The Princess was unable to
find this out.

When that woman went on the morning of the following day, and looked,
the Prince's foot-prints were in that sand. As soon as she saw it,
the woman went and said to the King, "I caught the thief. Let us
go to look." The old woman having gone, said, "There! It is inside
that lamp-stand, indeed, that the thief is," and showed them to the
King. At that time, when the King broke the lamp-stand and looked,
the thief was [there].

Thereafter the King gave orders that having tortured the thief,
and taken him away, they were to behead him, he said to the
executioners. Thereupon the executioners [after] pinioning the Prince,
beating the execution tom-tom, took him to that burial-ground.

At that time the Prince said to the executioners, "If you kill any
person, having given him the things he thinks of to eat and drink--is
it not so?--you kill him. Because of it, until the time when I come
[after] going into this Banyan-tree and eating two Banyan fruits,
remain on guard round this tree. There is no opportunity (taenak)
for me to bound off and go elsewhere."

Thereupon, the executioners having said, "It is good," the Prince
ascended the tree, and having mounted on that Wooden Peacock machine,
rowed into the sky. While the executioners were looking the Prince
went flying away.

The executioners having said that blame will fall [on them] from
the King, caught and cut a lizard (katussa), and having gone [after]
rubbing the blood on the sword, showed it to the King, and said that
they beheaded the thief.

From that day, the Princess from grief remained without eating and
drinking. Several days afterwards, the Prince, having come rowing the
Wooden Peacock machine, and caused it to stop on the palace in which
is the Princess, and having removed the tiles, dropped the jewelled
ring that was on the Prince's hand at the place where the Princess
is. He also dropped a robe of the Prince's.

Thereupon the Princess, getting to know about the Prince's [being
on the roof], threw up the cloth [again]. Tying the hand-line to
descend by, at that time the Prince, having descended, said to the
Princess, "To kill me they took me to the burial-ground. I having
caused the executioners to be deceived, and climbed up the tree--my
Wooden Peacock machine was on the tree--I mounted it and went rowing
away." Thereafter, the Prince and Princess, both of them, went away.

At the time when they were going, ten months were completed for the
Princess. While they were going, pains began to seize her. [The Prince]
having lowered the Wooden Peacock machine in a great forest jungle,
and in a minute having made a house of branches, the Princess bore
[a child].

Thereupon the Prince said, "Remain here until I go and bring a
little fire." Saying [this] to the Princess, the Prince went rowing
the Wooden Peacock machine. Having gone, at the time when, taking
the fire in a coconut husk, he was coming rowing the Wooden Peacock
machine over the midst of the sea, the coconut husk having burnt,
the fire seized the Wooden Peacock machine, and it burnt away.

The Prince having come [there], fell in the sea. That foretold
number of years also had been finished on that day. The person who
stayed casting nets in the sea [there], as soon as the Prince fell
got him ashore. The Prince, planting a vegetable garden at the city,
remained there.

While the Princess who bore [the child] in that forest jungle was
without any protection from all things (sawu-saranak), this trouble
having become visible to an ascetic person who practises austerity
in that forest jungle, he came to the place where the Princess was,
and spoke to her.

Thereupon the Princess, after she saw the ascetic, having a little
abandoned the trouble that was in her mind, said to the ascetic,
"While I walk into the midst of this forest seeking a little ripe
fruit, will you look after this child until I come?" she asked.

The ascetic said, "Should I hold the child it is impure (kilutu)
for me. Because of it, you having made a stick platform (maessak),
and hung it by a creeper, and having tied a creeper to the platform,
go after having sent the child to sleep on the platform. At the time
when the child cries I will come, and hold the creeper by the end,
and shake it; then the child will stop." Having done in the manner
the ascetic said, the Princess, seeking ripe fruits, ate.

One day, the Princess having suckled the child, and sent it to sleep on
the platform, went to seek ripe fruits. Thereafter, that child having
rolled off the stick platform and fallen on the ground, at the time
when it was crying the ascetic heard it, and came; when he looked,
the child having rolled over had fallen on the ground. Thereupon,
because it was impure for the ascetic to hold the child, he plucked a
flower, and having performed an Act of Truth for the flower, thought,
"May a child be created just like this child." Thereafter, a child
was created just like it.

The Princess having come back, and having seen, when she looked,
that two children are [there], the Princess asked the ascetic,
"What is [the reason of] it? To-day two children!"

The ascetic said, "When I was coming, the child, having fallen, was
crying and crying. Because it is impure for me to hold the child,
I created a child just like it."

The Princess said, "I cannot believe that word. If so, you must create
a child again, for me to look at it."

Thereupon the ascetic said, "According to the difficulty there is
for you to rear one child, when there are three how much difficulty
[will there be]!"

"No matter. [Please] create and give me it; I can rear it."

Thereupon, the ascetic plucked a flower, and having performed an Act
of Truth, when he put it on the stick platform a child was created
just like it.

Thereafter, the Princess having been pleased, reared the children. The
children having grown up, walked in the midst of the forest, seeking
ripe fruits, and having come back the children gave them to their
mother, and [then] began to eat.

One day, at the time when these three are going walking, they met
with a great river. When they looked, on the other bank of the river
a great vegetable garden is visible. Thereupon these three having
said [to each other], "Can you swim?" swam a considerable distance,
and came back, saying, "Let us come to-morrow morning." Having gone
seeking a very few ripe fruits, they gave them to their mother.

On the following day, early in the morning, taking bows and arrows,
the whole three went to the edge of the river. Having gone [there],
and the whole three having gone swimming to the vegetable garden,
when they looked many kinds of ripe fruits were [there].

Thereafter, these three having plucked [some], at the time when they
are eating them the gardeners who watch the garden saw them, and
having come running, prepared (lit., made) to seize them. Thereupon
these three, taking their bows, prepared to shoot. The gardeners
bounded off, and having gone running, told it at the hand of the King.

These three having eaten as much as possible, [after] plucking a great
many crossed over [the river], and went away. At that time the King
said to the gardeners, "Should these thieves come to-morrow also,
let me know very speedily."

The following day, also, those three persons came, and at the time
when they are plucking [the fruit], the gardeners went and told
him. Thereupon the King, taking bows and arrows, came and shot at
them. When he shot, the arrow having gone, when near these Princes
turned (lit., looked) back, and fell down.

Thereafter, that party shot at the King. Then also, in the very [same]
way, the arrow having gone, when near the King turned (looked) back,
and fell down.

Thereupon, the whole two parties, after having come near [each other],
spoke, "This was a great wonder. The circumstance that out of the
two parties no one was struck, is a great wonder. Because of it,
let us, the whole two parties, go near the panditayas [for them]
to explain this."

Thereupon, the whole of the two parties having gone, told the
panditayas this circumstance that had occurred. Then the panditayas,
having explained it, said to the King, "You, Sir, now above three or
four years ago, summoned a Princess [in marriage]. The Princess's,
indeed, are these three, the children born to you, Sir. Because of it,
the Gods have caused this to be seen. Go, and summoning the Princess
from the place where she is, [be pleased] to come," the panditayas
said to the King.

Thereafter, the King having remembered her, at that moment decorating a
ship, with the sound of the five musical instruments he went into the
midst of the forest in which is that Princess; and having come back
[after] calling the Princess, the Princess, and the three Princes,
and the King remained at the garden, it is said.


                                                 North-western Province.



In Indian Nights' Entertainment (Swynnerton), p. 9, a Prince mounted
on a magic wooden flying-horse that a friend of his, a carpenter's
son, had brought to the palace, and flew away on it. The carpenter
promised that it would return in two months. The Prince alighted by
moonlight on a palace roof five hundred leagues away, and fell in
love with a Princess whom he saw there. After they had conversed, he
flew off, fixed the horse in pieces amid the branches of a large tree,
and stayed at a widow's house, returning each night to the palace. In
the end he was arrested and condemned to death. When the executioners
were about to hang him he got permission to climb up the tree, put
the horse together, sailed back to the palace, and carried off the
Princess to his father's home.

In Indian Fairy Tales (M. Stokes), p. 158, a Prince who had stolen
a magic bed which transported those who sat on it wherever desired,
visited a Princess at night by means of it, and afterwards married her.

In the same work, p. 208, a Prince and Princess saw each other at a
fair. While the Prince watched her from his tent, she took a rose in
her hand, put it to her teeth, stuck it behind her ear, and lastly
laid it at her feet. The Prince could not understand her meaning,
but a friend explained it, and said that she intended him to know that
her father's name was Raja Dant (King Tooth), her country the Karnatak
(karna = ear), and her own name Panwpatti (Foot-leaf).

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 487, it is stated that
while Sita, the wife of Rama, was dwelling at Valmiki's hermitage
with her infant son Lava, she took the child with her when she went to
bathe one day. The hermit, thinking a wild beast had carried it off,
created another child resembling it, from kusa grass, and placed it
in the hut. On her return he explained the matter to her, and she
adopted the infant, to which the name Kusa was given.

In the same work, vol. ii, p. 235, a girl who came to bathe gave
signals to a Prince by means of a lotus flower, which she put in her
ear, and then twisted into the form of an ornament called dantapatra,
or tooth-leaf. After this she placed another lotus flower on her head,
and laid her hand on her heart.

In Folk-Tales of Kashmir (Knowles), 2nd ed., p. 215, a Princess
covered her face with lotus petals, and held up an ivory box to be
seen by a Prince who was looking at her. By these signals he learnt
her name and that of her city. He went to the city, visited her each
day in a magic swing, and at length they eloped and were married.

In Sagas from the Far East, p. 110, a wood-carver's son fashioned
a hollow flying Garuda (possibly in the form of a Brahminy Kite),
inside which a friend whose wife had been abducted flew to the Khan's
palace where she was detained, and brought her away.

In the same work, p. 316, a Princess made signals to a King's young
Minister as follows: She raised the first finger of her right hand,
then passed the other hand round it, clasped and unclasped her hands,
and finally laid one finger of each hand beside that of the other hand,
and pointed with them towards the palace.

In the Maha Bharata and Ramayana javelins or arrows are sometimes
represented as returning to the sender, who in such cases was a
being possessing supernatural power. Thus, according to one story
of Daksha's sacrifice, when the energy of a dart thrown by Rudra at
Vishnu was neutralised, it returned to Rudra. In the fight between
Karna and Arjuna some arrows which the former discharged returned to
him (Karna Parva, lxxxix.).

In performing an Act of Truth such as is mentioned in this story, the
person first states a fact and then utters a wish, which in reality
is a conjuration, the efficacy of which depends on the truth of the
foregoing statement.

Thus, in the Jataka No. 35 (vol. i, p. 90) the Bodhisatta in the form
of a helpless quail nestling [23] extinguished a raging bush fire
that was about to destroy it and other birds, by an Act of Truth,
which took this form:--


       "With wings that fly not, feet that walk not,
        Forsaken by my parents here I lie!
        Wherefore I conjure thee, dread Lord of Fire,
        Primæval Jataveda, turn! go back!"


The account then continues: "Even as he performed his Act of Truth,
Jataveda [the Fire Deity] went back a space of sixteen lengths; and
in going back the flames did not pass away to the forest, devouring
everything in their path. No; they went out there and then, like a
torch plunged in water."

There are several other examples in the Jataka stories, and one in
No. 83 in this volume. In the first volume, p. 140, the Prince cut
in two the gem through the efficacy of an Act of Truth expressed
in a slightly different form: "If so-and-so be true, may so-and-so
happen." This is the usual type of the conjuration; it occurs also
in the story numbered 11. See also the Mahavansa, Professor Geiger's
translation, p. 125, footnote.

Other examples are given in the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i,
p. 330, vol. ii, p. 82; Sagas from the Far East, p. 47; Von Schiefner's
Tibetan Tales (Ralston), p. 284; Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues,
vol. ii, pp. 358, 396; and in the Maha Bharata.

In chapter xvii. of the Mahavansa (Professor Geiger's translation,
p. 118), King Tissa proved the authenticity of the collar-bone relic
of Buddha by an asseveration of this kind. In chapter xviii. (p. 125),
the Emperor Asoka severed the branch of the Bo-tree at Gaya, in order
to send it to Ceylon, by an Act of Truth, previously drawing a magic
line with a pencil of red arsenic round the branch to mark the place
where it was to break off. In chapter xxv. (p. 171), King Duttha-Gamani
by similar means is said to have caused the armour of his troops to
take the colour of fire, so that they might be discriminated from
the Tamils whom he was fighting.

With regard to the messages given by signals, the reader may remember
Rabelais' account of the argument by signs between Panurge and
Thaumaste (Pantagruel, cap. xix.).

Kandian girls make almost imperceptible signals to each other. If
without moving the head the eyes be momentarily directed towards the
door, the question is asked, "Shall we go out?" An affirmative reply
is given by an expressionless gaze, a negative one by closing the
eyes for an instant.



NO. 82

THE PRINCES WHO LEARNT THE SCIENCES


At a certain city there is a King, it is said. There are four Princes
(sons) of the King, it is said. At the time when he told the four
persons to learn the sciences that are [known] in that country,
they were unable to learn the sciences.

After that, the King, bringing a sword, told them to [go elsewhere and]
learn the sciences [or he would kill them].

So all the four Princes, tying up a bundle of cooked rice, went
away, and having gone to yet a city and sat down at a halting-place
(ruppayak), the eldest Prince said, "At the time when we are coming
back we must assemble together at this very halting-place."

After that, the eldest Prince arrived (baehunaya) at a city. At the
time when he asked, "What is the science that is [known] in this
city?" they said, "In this city there is sooth."

"You must go and send me to the house where they say sooth," he
said. Then they went and sent him. The Prince learnt sooth.

The next (etanama) Prince arrived (baessa) at a city. He asked,
"What is the science that is [known] in this city?" "In this city
there is theft," they said.

"Please go and conduct me to the house where theft is [known],"
he said. That one learnt theft.

The next Prince went and arrived at a city. "What is the science that
is [known] in this city?" he asked. "Archery is [known] in this city,"
they said.

"Please go and send me to the house where there is archery," he
said. They went and sent him. That one learnt archery.

The next Prince went and arrived at a city. "What is the science that
is [known] in this city?" he asked. "In this city there is carpenter's
work," they said.

"Please go and send me to the house where there is carpenter's work,"
he said. That one learnt carpenter's work.

After that, the soothsayer [Prince] looked into the sooth, [to
ascertain] on what day the other three persons would come. When he
looked, it appeared that on the very day when the eldest Prince comes
back the other three persons also will come.

The eldest Prince having set off and come, returned to the
halting-place (ruppe) at which they stayed that day. Having come,
while he was there the other three also came and arrived at that
halting-place.

"What is the science you learnt?" they asked from the eldest Prince. "I
learnt sooth," he said.

They asked the next Prince, "What is the science you learnt?" "I
learnt theft," he said.

They asked the next Prince, "What is the science you learnt?" "I
learnt archery," he said.

They asked the young Prince, "What is the science you learnt?" "I
learnt carpenter's work," said the young Prince.

The three persons asked the eldest Prince, "What is there at our
house?" Then he said, "On the Palmira-tree a female crow (kawadi),
having laid three eggs, is sitting on them," he said.

"What is missing from our house?" they asked. "The Rakshasa having
taken the King's Queen to that [far] shore of the sea, [after]
putting her in the middle room (lit., house) in the midst of seven,
[24] has put the seven keys in his mouth," he said.

After that, the whole seven came to the city. The King having come
rubbing (whetting) a sword, asked the eldest Prince, "What is the
science you learnt?" "I learnt sooth," he said.

He asked the next Prince, "What is the science you learnt?" "I learnt
theft." He asked the next Prince; "I learnt archery." He asked
the youngest Prince, "What is the science you learnt?" "I learnt
carpenter's work," he said.

Having said, "It is good," the King asked, "What is there at my
house?" "On the Palmira-tree a female crow is sitting on three eggs,"
[the eldest Prince] said.

"What is lost from my house?" he asked, to look [if he knew]. "The
Rakshasa having gone away, and put the King's Queen in the middle house
(room) in the midst of seven, has placed the seven keys in his mouth,"
he said.

"Doer of theft, without the female crow's flying away, while it
is [sitting there] in that manner, take an egg, and come back,"
he said. Without the crow's flying away, while it was [sitting]
in that manner he took an egg, and came back.

Having caused the egg to be buried under the rice winnowing tray,
he said, "Archer, without swerving to that side or this side, shoot
[for the arrow] to go cutting it quite across." He shot so as to go
quite across.

"Doer of carpenter's work, fasten this [egg] in the very manner in
which it was [at first]," he said. He fastened it in the very way in
which it was.

"Robber, without the crow's flying (padinne), go and place [the egg
in the nest], and come back," he said. He went and placed it [in the
nest], and came back.

"Can you bring back this Queen?" he asked. "We can," they said.

The whole four persons having gone, the thief went into the
[Rakshasa's] house, and brought out the Queen successfully. When he was
bringing her the Rakshasa was asleep. Taking the Queen, they came away.

When they were coming, they told [the soothsaying Prince] to look by
[means of] sooth [what the Rakshasa was doing]. Still he slept. Having
come very far in that way, they told him to look [again]. "He is now
coming on the path," he said.

When they were returning thus, [the Rakshasa], having come quite near,
sprang at them. At that very time the archer shot [at him; the arrow]
having gone cutting his neck, he fell.

The ship in which they had gone was damaged (tuwala wuna). The
carpenter made [the damage good]. Then, [after crossing the sea]
they brought the Rakshasa's head and the Queen, and gave them to the
King. Thereupon the King gave them the sovereignty.

Then the soothsayer says, "[The sovereignty ought to belong to
me]. Through my looking at the sooth, indeed, ye will get the country,
[if ye receive it]," he said.

Then the thief says, "[The sovereignty ought to belong to me]. It
was necessary that I should go and take [the Queen] successfully from
the Rakshasa. [If ye get it], it is owing to me that ye will get the
country," he said.

Then the archer says, "[The sovereignty ought to belong to me]. When
the Rakshasa came in order to go [after] eating you, through my having
shot him and killed him ye will get the country [if ye receive it]."

Then the Carpenter says, "[The sovereignty ought to belong to me]. Your
ship having broken, by my fastening it [together] at the time when
it was becoming rotten, ye will get the country [if ye receive it]."

Afterwards they gave the sovereignty to the eldest Prince.


                                                Bintaenna, Uva Province.



THE NOBLEMAN [25] AND HIS FIVE SONS. (Variant a.)


In a city there are five sons of a nobleman. In yet [another] city
there is a Princess without both parents. The Princess is a person
possessing many articles. Having thought that when the eldest son of
the nobleman went there she must make him stop [there], and having
spoken with the Princess's kinsfolk [regarding it], the eldest son
having gone near the Princess she caused him to remain.

After he stayed there many days, this Princess asks this nobleman's
son, "What do you know of the sciences?" Then he says, "I don't know
a single one." Having said, "If so, you cannot stay near me; go you
away," she drove him away.

This nobleman's son came home. The nobleman asks his son, "What have
you come for?"

"The Princess asked me, 'What do you know of the sciences?' I said,
'I don't know anything.' 'If so, you cannot stay near me,' she
said. Because of that I came," he said.

Immediately, this nobleman says to all his five sons, "Unless you five
learn five sciences, without [doing so] don't come to my house." Having
said it he drove them away. Thereupon, these five persons went to five
cities, and learning five sciences, after much time came home. [One was
a soothsayer, the second was a marksman, the third a thief, the fourth
made very rapid journeys, and the fifth could bring the dead to life.]

This nobleman, after that having summoned the eldest son, asked,
"What is the science that thou knowest?"

"I know [how] to tell sooth," he said.

To look at this one's knowledge, the nobleman, having seen that a
female crow had laid eggs in a tree, said, "Should you tell me the
sooth that I ask, you are [really] an astrologer." Having given his
son betel he asked it [mentally].

After he asked it, this one says, "Father, you have asked me if a
female crow has laid eggs in a tree. Is it not so?" he asked.

Thereupon, the nobleman said to the one who was able to shoot, "Come
here. Without the female crow's knowing it, and without breaking the
egg, shoot thou so that it may become marked [only],--an egg out of the
eggs that are in that nest," he said. The nobleman's son having said,
"It is good," shot in the manner he told him.

Then this nobleman, having summoned the thief, says, "Go thou, and
without the crow's knowing, bring thou only the egg which this one
shot." Having said, "It is good," he brought that very egg.

Then the nobleman said, "Go again, and place thou it [back in the
nest]." He said, "It is good," and went and put it [back].

Thereupon, [having called the eldest son again], what sooth did the
nobleman ask? Thinking it in his mind [only], he asked, "How are now
the happiness and health of the Princess whom you at first summoned
[in marriage]?"

After he asked, this one having looked at the sooth, says, "The
Princess having now died, they have taken her to bury," he said.

Thereupon, the nobleman said to the one who is able to go on rapid
journeys, "Go, and do not allow them to bury her"; he went accordingly.

Then this nobleman said to the one who causes life to be restored,
[26] "Go and restore the life of the Princess, and come thou back to
my city." Having said, "It is good," this one went, and, causing her
life to be restored, the person who made rapid journeys, and the one
who caused life to be restored, and the Princess, all three persons,
came to the nobleman's city.

Thereupon the Prince who caused her life to be restored, says,
"I shall take the Princess whose life I caused to be restored."

Then the person who went on rapid journeys says, "Unless I had gone
quickly, and had not allowed them to bury her, and if they had buried
her, how would you take her? Because it is so, I shall take her."

Then the soothsayer says, "If I had not looked at the sooth, and told
[you about her death], how would you two take her? Because it is so,
I shall take her."

Then the nobleman says, "Unless I caused the sooth to be looked at,
[27] how would you three otherwise take her? Because it is so,
I shall take her." Owing to that, these four persons were quarrelling.

Now then, out of these four persons, to whom does she belong? According
to our thinking, indeed, she belongs to the nobleman.


                                                 North-western Province.



THE SEVEN PRINCES. (Variant b.)


At a certain city there are a King and a Queen. There are seven Princes
of the King. The King every day [goes] to fish (lit., to lower bait).

One day, the Princes having said, "Let us also go to look at the
fishing," the King and the seven Princes went to the river to fish. The
King having fished three Lullu, [28] gave them into the hand of the
seven Princes to bring.

The youngest Prince said, "Elder brother, let us put these into the
water to look if they go down (sink)."

Afterwards they put the three fishes in the water. Two went down;
one remained over. Taking that fish, the seven Princes came to the
city. Having come, and given it into the hand of the Queen, they said,
"Our father the King gave us three Lullu. [29] When we were bringing
them younger brother said to us, 'Let us place the three Lullu in the
water to look if they go down.' Afterwards we placed them [in it]. Then
two Lullu went down; this Lula remained over. Having cooked this one
for our father the King, cook for us and give us a packet of rice,"
they said. The Queen having cooked and placed [ready] the Lula for
the King, cooked a packet of rice for the seven Princes, and gave it.

After that, the seven Princes, taking the packet of cooked rice,
went away. [30] Having thus gone, the whole seven ate the packet of
cooked rice near a piece of garden. When the whole seven were going
away again, they met with a soothsayer. Then the eldest Prince said,
"I must stay near this soothsayer," and having said it he stopped
near the soothsayer.

When the other six persons were going away, they met with a man who
knows the crows' language. After that, the next Prince stayed near
the man who knows the crows' language. When the other five were
going away they met with a shooter [31]; near the shooter stayed
the next Prince. When the other four were going away they met with
a plough carpenter; near the carpenter stayed the next Prince. When
the other three were going away they met with a ball-playing man;
near the ball-playing man stayed the next Prince. When the other two
were going away they met with a gang of thieves; both of them stayed
near the gang of thieves.

A long time the two persons in the gang of thieves remained breaking
and breaking into houses. Having been thus and thus, the two persons
spoke together: "Seeking articles [to take back with us] let us go
to look at our elder brothers." Having said [this, after] getting
the articles they came near the Prince who stayed near the man who
is striking balls. When they looked he was learning to play at balls
better than the ball-playing man.

That Prince said, "Let us go to see the other [next] elder brother
of ours." Having said [this], the three Princes came near the
Prince who remained near the plough-carpenter; when they looked the
Prince also was learning to bore (widinda) ploughs better than the
plough-carpenter.

That Prince said, "Let us go to the place where elder brother is." They
came to look at the Prince who remained near the shooter. Having come
there, when they looked he, also, was learning to shoot better than
the shooter.

After that, the Prince said, "Let us go to look at that other elder
brother of ours." They came near the Prince who remained near the man
who knows the crows' language. Having come there, when they looked he,
also, was learning the crows' language better than the man who knows
the crows' language.

After that, the Prince said, "Let us go near that other elder brother
of ours, near the Prince who remained near the soothsayer." The
whole of the six Princes having come, when they looked he, also,
was learning to say sooth better than the soothsayer.

After that, the whole of the seven Princes having [thus] met together,
came to the Princes' city. Thereupon, the King and the seven Princes
went to the river to bathe. When they were bathing a crow cawed;
then the King said, "Who can explain the language of that crow?"

Then the Prince who knows the crows' language said, "I can. That cawed,
having been at the place where it is roosting on the eggs."

Then the King said, "Who can take the eggs by stealth [without
disturbing the crow]?" The two who stayed in the gang of thieves
having said, "We can," the two Princes taking the crow-eggs gave them
to the King.

After that the King and the seven Princes having come to the city,
the King asked, "Who can say sooth?" The eldest Prince said, "I can,"
he said.

The King said, "Look and find by sooth seven Princesses for you seven
persons," he said.

Afterwards the Prince having looked by sooth, said, "At such and
such a city there is a Princess; at such and such a city there is a
Princess." Saying and saying [this], he mentioned separately seven
Princesses who are at seven cities.

Then the King said, "Who can, [after] stealing them, come with those
seven Princesses?" The two who remained in the gang of thieves having
said, "We can," that day night having gone and having stolen two and
come back, he gave the two Princesses to the eldest elder brother
and the next elder brother.

On the following day night having gone and having come back [after]
stealing a Princess, he gave the Princess to the next elder brother.

On the following day they went, and [after] stealing two Princesses
for the [next] two persons, thereafter they went back to the very
gang of thieves.


                                 Tom-tom Beater. North-western Province.



This story is probably defective in parts, and some incidents in the
last portion appear to have been omitted,--regarding the ball player,
the shooter, and the plough maker.



THE ATTEMPT OF FOUR BRAHMANA PRINCES TO MARRY. (Variant c.)


A certain Brahmana had a daughter named Candrapati. She was a person
endowed with beauty. Four Brahmana Princes having heard of the
excellence of her figure, came to try to marry her. The Brahmana her
father having inquired what sciences they knew, each one said that
he did not know [any]. He said that he could not marry and give the
Princess-daughter to them.

Thereupon, they four having arrived at shame, came near a travellers'
rest-house, and conversing [said], "We four persons having gone
separately to districts for learning sciences, [after] three months in
succession again let us arrive at this very place." Promising [this],
and having looked in the four directions, they departed. In this
manner the four of them having arrived each in a different district,
and having [become] conversant with the sciences,--looking at omens,
going in the sky, abating poison, giving life [anew,--after] three
months in succession arrived at the aforesaid travellers' rest-house.

Thereafter, they four again departed for taking in marriage the
Princess. At that time a Huna (House Lizard) cried. Then the person
who was clever at omens told the remaining three persons that a
cobra having bitten the Princess, they are taking her to the grave
at that time.

Thereupon the person who possessed the power of flight through the
air, having gone by the power of flight through the air, together
with the other three, halted at the grave of the dead body. Then the
poison discharger reduced the poison; the other gave her life.

Afterwards, while the four of them are one by one boasting of the
gain due to themselves, they quarrelled over it. For that reason,
not obtaining the Princess, they again went away.


                                                 North-western Province.



In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 349, four Brahmana
brothers decided to "search through the earth and acquire some magic
power." So they separated and went east, west, north, and south, after
fixing upon a meeting-place. The rest of the story differs from the
Sinhalese one; they met together, found a piece of bone, gave it flesh,
hide, limbs, and life, so that it became a lion which killed them.

In the same work, vol. i, p. 499, four men wanted to marry a Princess;
one was a clever weaver, one a Vaisya who knew the language of beasts
and birds, the third a Kshatriya who was an expert swordsman, the
fourth a Brahmana who could raise the dead to life. She refused all
four, and died after three months, and the Brahmana was unable to
restore life to her corpse as she was only human owing to a curse
which had come to an end. See also vol. ii, p. 276.

In the same work, vol. ii, pp. 242, 258, there are variants in the
series of Trivikramasena and the Vetala, the second one being like
the Sinhalese tales in several respects. The father promised a girl
to a man who had magic power, the mother promised her to one who
had knowledge, her brother promised her to a hero. When they all
came on the appointed day, she had disappeared. The learned man
ascertained that she had been abducted by a Rakshasa, the magician
prepared a magic chariot in which all three went to rescue her, and
the hero killed the Rakshasa. Each one claimed her in a similar form
of words to that employed by the learned man, who said, "If I had not
known where this maiden was, how would she have been discovered when
concealed?" The King decided that the hero ought to marry her.

In the Tota Kahani (Small), p. 51, a carpenter, goldsmith, tailor, and
hermit, halting in a forest one night and each working in turn, carved
the figure of a beautiful woman, robed it, adorned it, and caused it
to be endowed with life. In the morning they quarrelled regarding the
ownership of the woman, and all those to whom the matter was referred
also claimed her. When the decision was left to a large old tree,
"the tree of decision," it burst open, and the woman entering it
became wood once more.

In the same work, p. 139, three young men saved a merchant's daughter
from a fairy who had abducted her. One discovered where she was, the
second made a flying wooden horse, on which the third rode and brought
her back after killing the fairy. They then quarrelled regarding their
claims to marry her. The parrot which related the story considered
that she belonged to the last one because he risked his life for her.

At p. 157 also, a girl's husband who had vowed to offer his own head to
a deity in case he married her, decapitated himself at the temple. A
Brahmana who entered feared he would be charged with murdering him,
and cut off his head also. The girl came, and was about to follow
their example when a voice from the shrine informed her that if she
joined the heads to the trunks the two persons would be restored to
life. In doing this she misplaced the heads, and both persons then
claimed her. The parrot was of opinion that she belonged to the man
with her husband's head. There is a variant in the Katha Sarit Sagara
(Tawney), vol. ii, p. 261, the second man being the girl's brother.

In Sagas from the Far East, p. 109, five companions went in search of
the sixth, whose life-index tree had withered. One found him buried
under a rock; the second, a smith's son, broke it and took out the
body; the third, a doctor's son, made a potion which caused it to
revive. The five then helped the man to recover his wife, who had
been abducted by a Khan, and each one claimed her as his reward. In
their struggle for her she was torn in pieces.

In the same work, p. 299, four youths, working in turn, made a girl
out of wood and gave her a soul; each one claimed her. The decision
was that she belonged to the fourth, who gave the figure life.

In this work, p. 277, it is stated that Prince Vikramaditya learnt from
robber bands the art of robbery, and from fraudulent dealers to lie.

In A. von Schiefner's Tibetan Tales (Ralston), p. 93, Prince
Abhaya, son of Bimbisara, King of Magadha, is stated to have learnt
coach-making; another son, Jivaka, became a celebrated doctor. A full
account of him is given in Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes),
vol. iii, p. 331ff. Sir R. Burton stated that, according to ancient
Mohammedan practice, all rulers should learn a handicraft. (Arabian
Nights, Lady Burton's ed., vol. i, p. 339, note).

In Folk-Tales of Kashmir (Knowles), 2nd ed., p. 110, a Prince who
had been trained by an expert robber stole the egg from under a hawk
while it sat on its nest, without disturbing the bird.

There are West African variants of the Sinhalese tale. One from the
coast provinces on the north side of the Congo is given in Notes on
the Folklore of the Fjort (Dennett), p. 33. A hunter who had three
wives was killed while hunting. The first wife dreamt of this, the
second guided the others to the spot, the third collected simples
and revived him. When they quarrelled regarding the one to whom his
life was due, and it was settled that the one whose food he ate first
should be considered his preserver, he ate the food of the third wife,
and the majority of the people approved of his decision.

In the same work, p. 74, the beautiful daughter of Nzambi, the Earth
Goddess, could only be won by an earthly being who could bring down the
heavenly fire. The spider went to fetch it, assisted by the tortoise,
rat, woodpecker, and sandfly. Each of the animals afterwards claimed
the girl, and in the end, Nzambi, as she could not give her to all,
paid each one her value, and the girl remained unwed.

A variant of the Sierra Leone district is given in Cunnie Rabbit,
Mr. Spider, and the Other Beef (Cronise and Ward), p. 200. A man
who had four young sons was killed while hunting. The sons heard the
story from their mother when they were full grown, and went in search
of him. The eldest found his gun and bones, the second collected and
joined them, the third re-made the body with mud, the youngest blew
up the nose through a charmed horn, and he became alive. The narrator
stated that it has been impossible to decide to whom of the three
his restoration to life was due.



NO. 83

THE STORY OF KALUNDAWA


In a certain country there were a Gamarala and Gama-mahage (his
wife). There were seven daughters of the Gamarala's; there was no male
child. Taking another male child, they reared him for themselves. This
child was very thoroughly doing the work at the Gamarala's house.

Thereafter, after he became big, they asked at the hand of the
Gamarala's daughters, "Who is willing to marry this child?"

All [the elder ones] said, "We don't want that scabby filthy one,"
but there was willingness [on the part] of the last young one. The
two persons having married, the other six began to treat this young
one harshly, but she did not take to heart (lit., mind) the things
they are saying.

While they are thus, the Gamarala's son-in-law went to a smithy to
get a digging hoe made. He said to the smith, "Ane! Make and give me
a digging hoe." Although the smith took no notice of it, yet for many
days he went again and again. He did not make and give the digging hoe.

One day, at the time when the smith was eating cooked rice, having
put into the heat a piece of iron refuse which this person had thrown
away, he began to blow the skins (bellows).

Then the figure of a great lion having come to the smith, he came
running, leaving the cooked rice and food, and when he looked, having
seen that very valuable iron is becoming hot, in an instant he made the
digging hoe and gave it. Thereafter, the smith said to the Gamarala,
"This child is a very virtuous royal Prince. To this one, without
delay a kingdom is about to descend."

This boy again one day went to another man to ask for (borrow)
a yoke of oxen. When he went there the man said, "I cannot to-day;
come to-morrow." [32] The man brought him there many days. He did
not give the yoke of oxen: "There are no oxen with me to give,"
[he said]. Well then, this one in sorrow came to his house.

Although two [semi]-wild male buffaloes of the Gamarala's are staying
on two hills, no one is able to catch them. Thereafter, this one,
taking a yoke and having gone to the rice field, performed an Act
of Truth. [33] Having set up the yoke in the grass, he said, "The
sovereignty will fall to me indeed. The wild one on that hill and
the wild one on this hill, to-morrow morning must have presented
[themselves] neck by neck to this yoke."

Thereafter, on the following day morning, he said to this one's wife,
"Taking a little food, come to the rice field; I am going to plough."

Then the woman said, "Where have you cattle to plough?" Having said
it, she laughed.

This one said, "There will be a yoke of cattle for me in the rice
field."

Having gone to the field, when he looked, both the wild buffaloes
had come, presenting their necks to the yoke. Well then, this one
having tied the yoke began to plough. His wife having come to the
rice field taking the food, when she looked, saw that this one is
ploughing. Afterwards, having gone near the yoke, she said, "There
will be much weariness; be good enough to eat a little food."

Thereafter, having stopped the yoke of cattle, and gone to a shade
[after] washing off the mud, and having eaten the food, through
weariness he placed his head on the waist pocket of his wife a little
time, and went to sleep.

While he was sleeping there a little time a dream appeared: on the
yoke a hive of Bambara bees has been fastened. Then having awoke,
he said to the woman, "Ane! Bolan, in a dream a hive of Bambaras was
fastened on the yoke; look."

Then the woman laughed and said, "If so, a kingdom will fall to
you now."

When he had been [sleeping] there again a little time, [he said],
"Ane! Bolan, maggots [34] fell on the great toe of my foot; look."

At that, also, this woman laughed, and said, "If so, you will receive
the sovereignty now."

When he was there [asleep] a little time again, the clods (hi kaeta)
which this one ploughed up appear to be of silver colour. Again he
said to the woman, "The plough clods are silver colour; look."

At that, also, this woman laughed, and said, "If so, you will receive
the sovereignty immediately."

Again, when he had been sleeping, he said, "Ane! Bolan, I hear a
great noise; look."

At that, also, this woman having laughed, says, "Fetching you to go,
they are coming to appoint you to the sovereignty."

Again, when he had been sleeping, he said, "Ane! Bolan, I hear the
noise very near this; look."

This woman says, "Ane! There is nothing to be seen. On account of the
three worlds [35] that you ploughed your head is made crazy. Be good
enough to sleep a little time without speaking."

When a little time had gone again, she awoke him: "The sound of the
five kinds of tom-toms, [36] and the decorated tusk elephant are
coming. Be pleased to arise quickly."

Just as this one was awaking, the tusk elephant having come,
kneeled down.

Thereafter, having caused this one to bathe in scented sandal-wood
water, having put on him the royal ornaments, and having put in that
very manner the ornaments on his wife also, they placed both of them
on the back of the tusk elephant.

As they were going, he caused the smith to be brought, and impaled
him. Having caused the person who did not give the yoke of buffaloes
to be brought, he heated cow-dung, and having held both his lips to
both sides, he poured it down his throat.

As he was going near the house of the Gamarala, the King said, for
the Gamarala's daughters to hear:--


    Kalundawa pinma kale.     Kalundawa performed very
                                                meritorious acts.
    Kalu undae pin no-kale.   The agreeable ones performed not
                                                meritorious acts.


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 84

HOW THE POOR PRINCE BECAME KING


In a certain country there was a Prince, [the son] of a poor King, it
is said. The Prince went to another country to learn letters. Having
gone there, and in no time learning his letters, he said to the
teacher, "I must go to my village." Afterwards the teacher gave
him permission.

After that, while the Prince was coming to the city, the Prince having
become hungry, remained sleeping near a tree. A man having come there
said, "What, Prince, art thou sleeping there for? It is not good to
sleep there; [be pleased] to get up," he said.

Then the Prince said, "I cannot even get up. I am hungry; because of
it, indeed, I have fallen down here."

Then the man says, "Well, then, what shall I do? In my hand also
there is not a thing to give for food. There is an Attikka tree
[37]; on that Attikka tree the fruit will be ripe. Let us go [for me]
to show it to thee."

Causing the Prince to arise, and having come near the Attikka tree,
that very man, having plucked Attikka and given it to the Prince, after
he ate said to the Prince, "Now then, go you along that path. Well,
I'm going;" and the man went away.

After that, as the Prince also was coming along the path he met
with a leopard [standing] across the path. The Prince cannot come
[on account of it]. Well then, while the Prince is there a man is
coming along in the direction in which the Prince is. Then, as the
man would drive this leopard to the Prince, he shouted, and said "Hu,"
and clapped his hands. Then the leopard bounded off and went away.

Afterwards that man having come near the Prince, asked, "Prince,
where art thou going?"

The Prince says, "Having gone in this manner to learn letters, I am
going to my city."

Then the man says, "Going to the city does not matter to you. Come,
to go with me."

The Prince says, "How shall I go in that way? My parents will seek
me. Because of it, having gone to the city, and asked at the hand of
my parents I will come," he said.

Then the man said, "I will be of the assistance that parents are
of. You come with me."

Afterwards the Prince went with the man. Having gone, they went to
a city. Staying at a resting-place at the city, and doing hired work
in the city, the two persons are getting their living.

When they were there no long time, one day the man said to the Prince,
"Child, I cannot work in this manner. You go and seeking [materials]
for food, come back."

Afterwards the Prince from the following day went [alone] for hired
work, and [after] finding [and doing] it, returned. In that way for
not many days he is getting a living.

One day, a King and soldiers came to that city from another country to
fight the King of that country, and surrounded the city. After that,
the King told the Ministers to go to the battle. The King did not go
to the battle. Afterwards the Ministers prepared to go to the battle,
taking weapons and implements.

Then this Prince said to that man, "Grandfather, I also must go to
the fight."

Then the man says, "Ane! Child, what battle [is there] for us! We poor
men, can we go to fight with a King? You remain silent, doing nothing."

Then the Prince said, "No, grandfather, I can fight very well."

The man still said "Don't." Then the Prince says, "Grandfather,
however much you should say 'Don't,' I am indeed going." Having said
[this] the Prince went when the Ministers were going.

Having gone there and waited for the fight, when on both sides they
were making ready, this Prince said at the hand of the Ministers,
"Give [38] me a weapon from those which you brought, for me to remain
for the fight."

Then the Ministers say, "What fighting dost thou know? Do thou be
silent, doing nothing." Having said it, they scolded the Prince. After
that, the Prince having bounded to one side, remained doing nothing.

Then, having begun the battle, they were fighting; on this side many
Ministers were cut down. [After] cutting them down, this side is
coming to lose. The Prince having seen it, taking a weapon of that
dead Minister's, fought and cut down the King and army of that side;
and this side having conquered, the Ministers and the remaining people
and this Prince came to the city.

The Ministers having come to the royal palace, said to the King,
"Many of our army died."

Then the King asked, "If so, owing to whom did you win in this battle?"

The Ministers said, "A youngster went with us. It is owing to the
youngster, indeed, that we conquered."

Afterwards the King asked, "Where is the boy?" As the Prince was
here he went before the King. The King asked, "From what country
camest thou?"

The Prince said, "I am a stranger."

Then the King asked, "What dost thou want done?"

The Prince said, "I will take anything I receive." After that the
King gave him villages, gave goods.

After that, staying in these villages, that man and the Prince, both
of them, were obtaining a livelihood from the goods. At the time when
they were [there], the King had become very aged. While he was thus
the King died.

For the King there was neither a Prince nor anyone. Because of it, at
the time when the Ministers, decorating the tusk elephant, are going
in the four streets with the sound of the five musical instruments,
the tusk elephant, having gone to the house at which are that Prince
and the man, kneeled near that Prince.

Having been [there] at the time when it was kneeling, the Ministers,
causing the Prince to bathe in scented water, and placing the Prince
on the tusk elephant, came to the royal palace, [and he became King].

Until the end of the Prince's life he remained exercising the
sovereignty. The man who stayed with the Prince having become the
Minister to the King, stayed in the palace itself.


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 85

HOW THE GARDENER BECAME KING


In a certain city there is a King, it is said. The King told them
to plant a garden. After that, he said, "Can anyone (kata) plant
a garden?"

One man said, "I can." Every day the King gave the things the man
wanted. The man, cutting channels and fixing the fence, began to plant
the garden; he set various kinds [of plants] in the garden. After
that, the King went to look at the garden; he saw that there were
various kinds of sugar-cane, sweet oranges, mandarin oranges, in the
garden. The King said to the gardener that he must look well after
the garden.

In that way, after not many days, the King said to the gardener,
"Take bows and arrows; should thieves come, shoot them." Thereupon,
by the authority of the King, he was thinking of shooting should they
come in from outside.

Not many days after that, the King said to the Adikarama (Minister),
"Let us go to the garden [secretly] to look into the examination
[of it made] by the gardener."

Then the Adikarama said, "The order made by Your Honour is [that he
is] to shoot thieves. It is not good for us to go."

The King said, "That man by this time is asleep."

Afterwards the King and the Adikarama, after the foolish King had
taken off the royal ornaments, that very night, taking the disguise of
thieves, went to the garden. Having gone, they began to pluck oranges.

Then the gardener awoke. The man, taking his bow, and having come,
shot at the King; when he shot him (widapuhama) the King died.

After that, the Adikarama and the gardener spoke together, "What
shall we do about this?" Speaking [further] the Adikarama said,
"The things that are to happen happened." [39] Having said [this],
the Adikarama having told the gardener to cut a hole, when he cut it
they buried the King.

After that, the Adikarama said to the gardener, "Come, and go to
the palace."

The two persons having gone to the palace, and [the Minister]
having decorated the gardener with the royal insignia (abarana),
while he was on the Lion throne all the Chiefs make obeisance. [40]
The Adikarama does not make obeisance.

Regarding this matter the King thought he must tell him a
parable. Having thought so, and having called the Adikarama, he said,
"In the midst of the forest there are many kinds of trees. Having
cut a tree of good race out of them, and shaved [the bark off] it,
and planed it, and done carving work, they take it as a log for a
travellers' shed (ambalama). Taking it [there], after they have built
the travellers' shed, do both persons possessing lineage and persons
of no lineage stay in the travellers' shed?" [41] he asked.

When he asked, the Adikarama said, "All persons stay in the travellers'
shed."

After that, the King said, "[There is] service for persons possessing
the Adikarama lineage, service for persons of no lineage, service for
[all in] the world." [42]

After that, the Adikarama from that day made obeisance to the King.

Well then, the King remained exercising the sovereignty quite
virtuously (hondinma), without injustice.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Orientalist, vol. ii, p. 55, a similar story is given, as
related to Mr. K. J. Pohath by a Buddhist monk. According to it,
the King visited the garden alone, pretending to steal Kaekiri
fruits, and was shot by the gardener. When he was dead the gardener
reported the matter to the Adikar, who got the King buried secretly,
and proclaimed the gardener King. Some poor people whose lands the
Adikar had seized complained to the new King, who held an enquiry,
and gave judgment in their favour, remarking, "Adikar, even though
it should so happen that I might be obliged to go back to the Kaekiri
garden, I cannot say that the lands in dispute belong to you."



NO. 86

HOW THE FOOLISH MAN BECAME KING


In a certain country there was a Gamarala, it is said. There was a
daughter of the Gamarala's. Bringing a son-in-law for the daughter,
when he was there for many days the men of the village spoke of going
to Puttalam.

Then this Gamarala's son-in-law said to the Gamarala, "Father-in-law, I
also must go to Puttalam." The Gamarala said, "It is good, son-in-law."

After that, the whole of them obtaining occupation in loading sacks,
the son-in-law went on the journey, and the Gamarala remained
[at home].

The son-in-law, setting off for the journey, at the time when he was
going along driving thirty [pack] bulls, met with a company of men
going [after] placing sacks on twelve horses.

After he met with them this man said, "Ane! Friends, taking my
thirty bulls, give me (dilalla) those few horses." Then the men said,
"It is good."

This man having given the thirty bulls, at the time when he was going
along taking the twelve horses, he met with yet a company of men who
were going taking two elephants.

After that, this man said, "Friends, taking my twelve horses, will
you give me those two elephants?" The men said, "It is good."

Then this man, having given the twelve horses, at the time when he
was going along taking the two elephants, he met with yet some men
who were going hunting, taking twelve dogs.

Then this man asked, "Friends, taking my two elephants, will you give
me those twelve dogs?" The men said, "It is good."

After that, this man having given the two elephants, at the time
when he was going on taking the twelve dogs he met with a company of
potters, taking some pingo (carrying-stick) loads of pots.

Then the man asked, "From these twelve dogs taking six, will you
give me for cooking in order to eat, a small cooking pot and a large
cooking pot?" The men said, "It is good."

After that, the man having given six dogs, taking a small cooking
pot and a large cooking pot he went hunting with the other six dogs.

Having gone into the jungle, and prepared a hearth near an ant-hill, in
order, after having cooked, to eat cooked rice, at the time when he was
breaking fire-wood a cobra that was in that ant-hill came and bit the
man. Then the man swooned owing to the poison's having fallen there.

At the time when a Vaedda of another distant place came walking [there]
while hunting, he saw that there are six dogs; and having seen that
there is a hearth, said, "Why are these six dogs here, and a hearth,
without a man?" While he was seeking and looking about, he saw that
the man had fallen down. Having seen him, and lifted him up, when he
looked [at him] the man was [as though] dead.

After that, the Vaedda having said, "What is this man dead for?" When
he looked [after] going near the body, there was a wound, and the
Vaedda perceived that a snake had bitten him. Ascertaining it, after
he had applied medicine the man got up.

Then the Vaedda asked, "What happened to you?"

This man said, "The journey I came on is thus; the things that happened
to me are thus. Having come hunting, and prepared the hearth, in order,
after I had cooked here, to eat, when I was breaking firewood a cobra
bit me."

The Vaedda said, "Come away, and go with me." This man having said,
"Ha," the six dogs and the man went with the Vaedda to the Vaedda's
city. Having gone there, that day the Vaedda gave him food.

During the time while the man was there, that very day night the
King of the city died. On the following day morning, there being no
person for the sovereignty, [after] decorating the tusk elephant the
Ministers went [with it] to seek a King.

At the time when they were going, this tusk elephant was going along
looking at the Vaedda's house. As it was going, that man whom the
cobra bit was lying down in the Vaedda's veranda. The tusk elephant
went and knelt near the man.

After that, the Ministers, having told this man to get up, when he
arose bathed him with perfumed water, and having decorated him with
the royal crown, placing him on the back of the tusk elephant went
to the palace.

After he went there, the King caused the Vaedda to be brought, and
said, "Owing to you, indeed, I attained to such exalted things." Having
said, "Because of it, receive the post of Adikarama (Minister),"
he appointed the office of Adikarama to the Vaedda.

Having given him it, he remained up to the end of his life exercising
the sovereignty with the ten [royal] virtues.


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 87

THE FOOLISH MAN


In a certain country there are a woman and a man, it is said. There
are two daughters of the two persons. They gave one daughter [in
marriage]. The man at the place where they gave the daughter had
suitable things.

A very rich man having come, asked the other daughter [in
marriage]. Then the girl's father said, "I will not give her to you;
the lineage (wanse) of your people is not good."

After that another man came and asked. The man had nothing; his
lineage alone was good. The girl's mind was to go to the man who
formerly came and asked, [but she was given to the second one].

Well then, when the girl [after her marriage] is without [sufficient]
to eat and to wear, one day the girl's father went to see the
girl. Afterwards, having given the man sitting accommodation, [43]
and got the fire together, and put a potsherd on the hearth, she put
tamarind seeds in the potsherd, and they began to fry, making a sound,
"Kas, kas."

Then the girl's father says, "What, daughter, are you frying?"

The girl said, "Father, I am frying our lineage, [the only thing
we possess]."

After that, anger having come to the man, he got up, and came to
his village. Having come there, on the following day, he went to the
place where the other daughter is.

When he went there, the daughter, having cooked the sweetmeats called
Wellawaehun for the father, gave him to eat. He had not eaten them
since he was born.

That day, having eaten, when he was coming to his village saying and
saying, "Wellawaehun, Wellawaehun," in order not to forget the name
of them, his foot struck a stone that was on the path.

Then the man was caused to exclaim "Hobbancodi" [44]; "Wellawaehun"
was forgotten. From there until the time when he comes to his village,
having come saying and saying "Hobbancodi, Hobbancodi," he says to
his wife, "Bolan, to-day in our girl's quarter I ate Hobbancodi. The
taste is very good; you cook them, too."

Thereupon the woman says, "Ane! I have not even heard of them since
I was born, so how shall I cook them?"

Then the man, saying and saying, "What, Bola! Strumpet! Do you say
you don't know? I ate them now, and came."

While the two old people are quarrelling about this, men of the
village having come, a man said, "She indeed is doing all this,
bringing her mouth like a Wellawaehun roll."

"There! I [meant to] say those indeed," the man said.

After that, they two, having joined together, cooked five Wellawaehun
rolls. Thereupon the man said, "There are three for me, two for
you." The woman, too, said, "There are three for me, two for you." They
two being unable to divide these, made an agreement, that is, "Let
us two remain without speaking. For the person who speaks first there
are two," they agreed.

Being satisfied with it, having shut the door, they lay down. While
they are lying down thus, perceiving that there was not any sound
of them, the men of the village came, and having spoken to the
door, finding that there was no sound they said, "These will have
died." Having split open the door and gone into the house, at the
time when they looked they remained as though dead.

After that, in order to carry them to bury, men tied their hands and
feet. The man, while they are tying his feet, having got hurt, said,
"Uwah."

Thereupon the woman said, "There are two for you."

Scolding and scolding these two persons for their act, the men
went away.



The first part of this story belongs to the North-western Province;
the middle part is found in the Western Province also, to which,
also, the latter part belongs.



In The Orientalist, vol. i, p. 237, Mr. H. White mentioned that a
story about the frying of the family honour is contained in a work
called Atita-vakya-dipaniya. In that instance apparently the pan
which was placed on the fire was empty.

In the same Journal, vol. i, p. 136, a variant of the latter part of
the tale is given by Miss S. J. Goonetilleke. Twenty-five idiots were
employed by a Gamarala, and it was their duty to provide plantain leaf
plates for the other servants and themselves. One day they decided
that they gave themselves unnecessary trouble in doing work which a
single person could perform, so it was settled that all should sleep,
and that the man who first opened his eyes or uttered a sound should
cut all the leaves. When the leaves were not forthcoming at the
meal-time the Gamarala and his men went in search of the idiots, and
being unable to arouse them, thought they were dead and dug a grave
for them. One after another they were thrown into it in silence, but
as they were being covered with earth a digging tool struck one on the
leg, causing him to utter an involuntary groan. The others instantly
arose and told him that henceforth he must provide all the leaf plates.

In the stories appended to the Pantcha-Tantra of the Abbé Dubois,
a man at night disputed with his wife as to whether men or women
are the greater chatterboxes, and each wagered a betel leaf that the
other would speak first. As they did not appear next day, the door of
their apartment was broken open, and the two were found sitting up but
deprived of speech. It was concluded that they were suffering from some
inimical magic, for which a Brahmana recommended the application of
heated gold to their bodies. The man was burnt on his sole, above the
knees, at both elbows, on the stomach, and on the crown of the head,
and bore it in silence; but when the woman was burnt on the sole she
cried, "Appa! That is enough," and handed her husband the betel leaf.

In Folklore in Southern India (Pandit Natesa Sastri), p. 277, (Tales
of the Sun, p. 280), a beggar and his wife who had been at a feast
at which they ate muffins (tosei), cooked five muffins, and agreed
that whoever opened an eye or spoke first should have only two of
them. They then bolted the door and lay down. After three days the
villagers entered by the roof and saw that the couple were apparently
dead. They were carried to the cremation ground, placed on two pyres
which were raised, and lights were applied. When the fire reached
the man's leg a voice came from his pyre, "I shall be satisfied with
two muffins." From the other pyre a voice replied, "I have gained
the day; let me have the three." When the villagers heard the story,
it was decided that, having apparently died and been on the funeral
pyre, they could not return to the village or it would perish, so a
separate hut was built for them.

In Indian Nights' Entertainment (Swynnerton), p. 14, a farmer and
his wife who disputed regarding the shutting of the door, agreed that
it should be closed by the one who spoke first. After a wild dog had
eaten their food, the barber called, shaved the man's head and half
his beard and moustache, and blackened him with lamp-black. When the
wife, who had gone out, returned and asked what he had been doing,
she was told that it was she who must close the door.

In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. ii, p. 209,
a man and his wife made three cakes; each ate one, and they agreed
that the first who spoke should allow the other to eat the third
cake. Robbers broke in, began to collect all the goods in the house,
and at last seized the wife. The man still did not utter a word; when
the woman cried out and scolded him, he said, "Wife, it is certainly
I who have gained the cake."



NO. 88

THE STORY OF MARIRALA


In a country a man near the [New] Year spoke to the people of the
village: "To bring palm sugar let us go to the quarter where there is
palm sugar." "It is good," a few people said. Having said "I am going
to-morrow," and having plucked fifty coconuts and removed the husks,
he placed them in the corner in the house.

On the following day morning, bringing the pingo stick and two sacks
outside, and having broken [open] the sacks, and placed them below
the raised veranda, when he was going into the house to bring the
coconuts [his] wife said, "Stop and eat cooked rice. Be good enough
to tie the pingo load."

Having said, "If so, give me the cooked rice at the raised veranda,"
at the time when he was eating the cooked rice his relatives brought
a coconut apiece; when they said, "Bring and give each of us also a
packet of palm sugar," he replied, "Put them into those sacks."

Subsequently, having eaten cooked rice and arisen, at the time
when, having lifted the two sacks, he looked at them, there were
collected together [in them coconuts] to the extent that he can
carry. Subsequently, taking from his house, for expenses [on the
journey], rice and two coconuts, having put them in a sack he tied up
the pingo load. Afterwards, having called up the people who are going
[with him], taking the pingo load he set off and went.

Having gone many gawwu (each of four miles) in number, [after]
exchanging [the coconuts for] palm sugar, he came back to the
village. On the following day morning, having summoned the people of
the village who gave the coconuts, and looked at the account according
to the manner in which they gave the coconuts, he apportioned and gave
[the packets of palm sugar] to them.

Subsequently, at the time when he looked in the sack there was [left]
one packet of palm sugar. When he inquired about it and looked, he
perceived that it was exchanged for one out of the two coconuts that
he carried for expenses.

Afterwards having gone into the house, when he looked [there] having
seen that there was [still] in the corner the heap of coconuts which
he had husked for carrying, [and that he had taken only his relatives'
coconuts, and left his own at home], he said, "Apoyi! What is the
thing that has happened to me!" and struck blows on his breast.

Then his wife got to quarrelling with him. Unable [to bear] the worry,
having gone running to the pansala that was near he told the Lord
(monk) the whole of these matters that occurred.

"A barterer, [45] a fool like you, there is nowhere whatever in this
country," the Lord said.

Beginning from that time (taen), until he dies everybody called him
Mariya (Barterer).


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 89

THE INVISIBLE SILK ROBE [46]


A Brahmana having told some men to come from a certain city, and
having praised the robes which the King of the city is wearing, this
Brahmana made seven stanzas, and gave them to those seven men. Those
very seven men having taken the seven stanzas and gone, employed yet
[another] Brahmana and got them explained. Should you say, "How was
the meaning?" it was praise of the copper [coloured] silk robe which
the King of that city is wearing.

After they got this meaning explained, these seven men spoke together,
"Let us make up a trick at this place." Speaking [thus] together,
they arrived at a city at which there is a foolish King.

Arriving [there], they spoke to the King of the city: "Maharaja, what
a robe that is which Your Majesty is wearing! We have woven a copper
[coloured] silk robe for the King of our city, and given it. It is
like the thin silk robes obtained from the divine world. Having looked
in the direction of that King, when we looked in your direction you
appear like a servant who is near that King," these seven men said.

While hearing this word, shame was produced in the King. Having been
produced, he thought to himself, "While I also am a King, what is it to
me!" Thinking, "Cannot I cause those silk robes to be woven?" he asked,
"For [weaving] the silk robes what sort of other things are necessary?"

Then the seven men say regarding it, "Having obtained silk thread from
good silk yarn (lit., thread), be good enough to give us it. Having
constructed a place in your auspicious [47] Sal [trees] garden, you
must give us it. You must bring to that place and give us food and
drink," they said to the King. Having said it, they said at the very
time, "The silk cloth that we weave is not visible to a base-born
person. Should he be a well-born (saha-jataka) person it is visible
to him," they said to the King.

At that time the King having procured silk thread to his mind gave
it. The men having taken it to the auspicious Sal garden, and the
party putting the thread away, when people come to look at the
copper [coloured] silk robes these seven men run there and here in
the auspicious Sal [48] garden. The silk robe is not visible; only
according to the manner in which these seven persons are running the
extent [of it] is visible. Thereupon the men think in their minds,
"Because we are base-born this copper [coloured] silk robe is not
visible to us." What of their thinking so! Except that each separate
person thinks it for himself, no one speaks it.

The King sent a messenger for the purpose of looking whether, having
woven the robes, they are finished. Having seen that, except that
after tying the hand-lines (at-wael) they are causing [their arms]
to row (paddanawa), [49] the robe is not visible, [he thought],
"Should I say that I do not perceive the robe they will say I am the
son of a courtesan." Because of shame at it, the messenger having gone
to the royal house, said, "The gang of them having assembled together
are weaving a priceless robe. His [50] work is not finished. Having
completed the work they will dress Your Honour in the robe," he said.

On account of the statement of the messenger, many persons went to
look at the robe, but except that they were causing [their arms] to
row, the robe was not visible to anyone. The whole of the retinue who
came, through fear that they will say they are illegitimate persons,
without seeing the robe having said and said, "We perceive it. It is
indeed a very costly robe," went away.

Having woven for seven days, after the seven days' date which they
got to finish in had elapsed, the King went to look at the silk
robe. Having gone, when he looked it was not visible to the King
also. What of its not [being visible]! He does not tell anyone the
word of its not being visible.

After that, those men having come, said to the King, "Having woven the
copper [coloured] silk robe, it is finished. For you, Sir, with our
[own] hands we must robe you in it," they said. "Having got out all the
clothes which there are, descended from seven ancestors in succession,
you must dress. Having dressed, you must give us all those clothes,"
they said to the King.

The King, having heard the word, taking out all the royal vestments
[51] that were of the time of his ancestors, and having adorned
himself in a good manner, and driven away everybody, gave the party
these clothes and all the other clothes that there were.

After he gave them, all the seven men having surrounded him and said
that they are putting on the King the copper [coloured] silk dress,
began to stroke his body everywhere. They began to stroke the head,
having said that they were putting on the crown. They stroked the
arms, having said that they were putting on the jacket. In that
way having stroked all parts of the body, and having said that they
had dressed him, they caused them to bring the King into the middle
of the great retinue, and said thus to the citizens: "Neither His
Majesty our King nor any person of the retinue dwelling in this
city in the olden time before this, either put on a robe in this
manner, or saw one. Because of that, the whole of you, [after our]
dressing His Majesty the King in this robe, causing His Majesty the
King to sit on the festival tusk elephant, and having caused him to
perambulate towards the right through all places in the city, again
conduct him to the royal house." Having said this, they brought the
tusk elephant, and caused the King to sit on the tusk elephant naked;
and they began to go in procession to all places of the city.

These men, taking [the contents of] this house of the royal insignia
(rajabandagare), and having acted deceitfully, and said that they
had woven the copper [coloured] silk robe,--because they got [the
contents of] the house of the royal insignia when they were going,
established for the city the name "[City] of Tambraparnni Island,"
[52] and went away.

This foolish King remained without clothes.


                                                 North-western Province.



In Indian Nights' Entertainment (Swynnerton), p. 60, a girl who had
promised to prove that the King sometimes lied, invited the King to
visit a palace she had built, and to see God there, but stated he was
visible only to one person at a time, and only if he was of legitimate
birth. The two Ministers first entered successively, saw nothing,
and declared that they had seen God inside. The King then entered,
and on coming out insisted that he also had seen God there. The girl
then convicted him of telling a falsehood, and as usual in folk-tales
was married by the King.

In Les Avadanas (Julien), No. xxxix, vol. i, p. 150, there is a story
of a fool who handed some cotton to a spinner, and begged him to make
it into extremely fine thread. The man did so, but the fool thought
it too coarse. The spinner became angry, and pointing to the air with
his finger, said, "There are extremely fine threads." When the man
asked how it was he could not see them, the spinner replied it was
because of their extreme thinness, which was such that even the best
workmen could not see them, much less a stranger. The fool gave him
a fresh order, and paid him handsomely.



NO. 90

THE FOOLISH YOUTH


In a certain country there are a woman and a man and a youth (their
son), it is said.

While they were there, the woman having given eight panams [53] to
the youth said, "Son, take these eight panams to the shop and bring
two plates."

After that, the youth taking the eight panams to the shop said to the
trader, "Mudalali, give me two plates." The trader, taking two plates,
gave them to the youth.

The youth said, "How is the price for these plates?"

Then the trader said, "For one plate it is seven tuttu (quarter
panams); for two plates give me fourteen tuttu (= three and a half
panams).

After that, the youth says, "Mudalali, are you trying to cheat me? You
cannot cheat me. I will not give fourteen tuttu; also I did not bring
fourteen tuttu. Mother gave me eight panams. [54] For the eight panams
she told me to get two plates. If you will give them for the eight
panams, give me two plates."

Having said this, and given the eight panams to the trader, while
he was coming away, taking the two plates, he met with a gang of
thieves. Having met with them, they asked at the hand of the youth,
"Where did you go?"

Then the youth says, "Having told me to go to the shop to bring
two plates, mother gave me eight panams. Taking them, and going to
the shop, I asked the price for plates. Well then, the man tried to
cheat me. For the two plates he told me to give fourteen tuttu. Also
in my hand there were not fourteen tuttu; it was eight panams that I
took. Having given the eight panams I am taking home these two plates."

Then the men said, "If so, don't you go home. We are going to break
[into] a house; come, and go for that."

Afterwards the youth, having said "Ha," went with the thieves to break
[into] the house. Having gone there and bored a hole through the wall,
the thieves said to the youth who went for plates, "Go inside the
house and put out into the light both all the things which you can
lift and [the things] which you cannot lift. We will take them."

After that, the youth, having crept into the house, put out all the
things which the youth could lift. Having put them out, the youth
could not lift the stone on which coconut was ground.

The man who owned the house was sleeping, placing his head on the
stone. The youth having shaken the man's body, awoke him. "Get up
quickly. To take this stone outside I cannot lift it alone. Take hold
of this a little in order to get it out," he said.

The man having awoke at once, and seized and tied the youth, caught
part of those men; part of them ran off.

The thieves who were caught, and the youth, and the man who owned the
house, all went for the trial. As they were going on the road, says
the youth, "I am not a thief at all. Our mother gave me eight panams
to bring two plates from the shop. Having gone to the shop I asked the
price for plates. The man tried to cheat me; for two plates he asked
fourteen tuttu. I did not give them; also in my hand there were not
fourteen tuttu. I only gave eight panams, and taking the two plates,
as I was going away I met with these men. Then the men said to me,
'Where did you go?' they asked. 'I went to the shop to get two plates,'
I said. Then the men said, 'If so, don't go home. We are going to
break [into] a house; you come too.' So I came. Having come there,
the men bored a hole through the wall, and said to me, 'Creep you
into this. Put outside the things you can lift and the things you
can't.' I afterwards crept into the house, and put outside those I
could lift. I tried to lift the stone on which your head was placed
while you were sleeping. I couldn't lift it, so in order to get it
out I awoke you. Well then, so much is my fault; I am not a thief. Now
then, if you are going to put me in prison, put me in prison."

After that the man said, "I will not put you in prison; doing the
work that I tell you, you can stay with me."

The boy said, "Ha. I will stay [with you]."

After that, having gone for the trial, and put the other thieves in
prison, the man came home with that youth. In that very way, doing the
work which the man told him, the youth remained a considerable time.

One day the man said, "Youth, let us go to cut a [branch for a]
plough."

The youth said, "Ha, let us go," and taking an axe, the man and the
youth went to the forest on the river bank.

Having gone there, the man said to the youth, "Cut thou this tree at
the root." The youth cut the tree at the root. After he had cut it,
the plough of the tree was not good.

Afterwards having gone near another tree, when they looked at it there
was a good plough in [a branch of] the tree. When they cut the plough
it would fall in the river.

The man said, "Having gone up this tree, cut thou that plough which
is to be seen." [He then left him].

Then the youth having gone up the tree, when he was cutting the root
(lower end) of the plough while sitting down [on the branch] at the
top (or outer end) of the plough, a certain Lord (Buddhist monk) came.

When the Lord looked up at the tree, having seen that the youth
sitting at the top of the plough was cutting at the root, he said,
"Foolish youth! Why, while you are at the top, are you cutting at the
root? When it is cut at the root it will fall together with thee also,
will it not, into the river? Sitting at the root [end], chop towards
the top." Having said this the Lord went away.

The youth said, "What does the Lord know about it? I shall cut it
this way." Having said this, as he was chopping and chopping, the
plough being cut at the root, the plough and the youth and the axe
fell into the water of the river.

Then the youth, having got up quickly, walked ashore, taking the
axe and the plough. He put down the plough, and taking the axe, ran
along the path on which the Lord went. Having run there he overtook
the Lord. Having joined him, he said, "Lord, as you said that I should
fall into the river you must tell me the day when I shall die. If not,
I shall chop you with this axe."

The Lord, when he looked, thought that there was no means of saying
otherwise; on that account he said, "On the day when a drop of rain
has fallen on the crown of thy head thou wilt die." The Lord then
went away.

After that, the youth, taking the plough, came with the man to the
man's house. Having come there, when he had been there a long time,
on a certain day a drop of rain fell on the crown of the youth's head,
and on that day he died. (The narrator did not know how he died).

The details of his death are given in the following variant of the
latter part of this story:

The monk said, "In such and such a year, in such and such a month,
on such and such a day, thou wilt die."

From that day until the time when this stated number of years and
number of months and number of days had gone, having been looking
[into the account], on the stated day, when it became light he said,
"To-day, having cooked amply give thou me to eat."

Having eaten and finished, he said, "I shall die to-day"; and having
said, "Don't anybody speak to me," went into the house, and shutting
the door lay down (budiya-gatta).

The men who stayed outside from morning until the time when it became
evening, remained looking out. There was not any sound from this
man. Afterwards they said, "What are we keeping this dead man for? Let
us take him and carry him away," and having placed a bamboo [ready],
they tied [the bier] to it. Having tied it, they go away, taking it.

Between the house and the burial ground there is a hill-rice
chena. Because there is no other path to go on, taking him into the
chena they hurried on (lit., ran).

Then the men who watch the hill-rice chena having been there, said,
"What is this, Bola, that you are taking the corpse through the
hill-rice chena?" and they scolded them.

Then the dead man sat up and said, "Except that I am dead, you should
see [what I would do to you]," he said.

Then the men who took the corpse said, "Ade! This one is speaking!" and
dropped him. Having fallen upon a cut [pointed] stump [it pierced him,
and] the man died.


                                                 North-western Province.



To carry a corpse through a chena is considered to be a very
inauspicious act, which might have an injurious effect upon the
crop. Even to carry through one the tools necessary for digging the
grave would meet with strong remonstrances. In one instance, some of
my labourers were refused a passage along the footpath in a village
because they carried pickaxes and digging hoes, thus appearing,
as the villagers objected, like persons who were going to dig a grave.

In The Orientalist, vol. i, p. 136, Miss S. J. Goonetilleke related
a story about twenty-five idiots, in which the death prediction
occurs. The monk stated that the idiot would die when the third drop
of dew fell on his back while he was sheltering under a gourd. The
drops fell when he was beneath a frame on which a gourd grew, waiting
while some robbers whom he had joined entered a house in order to
commit robbery. He bellowed out, "I am dead, I am dead," and they
all ran away.

In vol. i, p. 121, the editor, the late Mr. W. Goonetilleke, gave
the Sinhalese story of the branch cutting, the monk's prediction of
the man's death when a drop of water fell on his head from the roof,
and his remarks when the bier carriers were scolded by the owner of
a garden through which they were about to pass.

He also added variants. In one found in an Indian work called Bharataka
dva-trinsika (Thirty-two Tales of Mendicant Monks), a stupid monk
called Dandaka went to cut a post, and sat on the branch while
chopping. Some passing travellers pointed out that when the branch
broke he would fall and die; when he fell he therefore believed he
must be dead, and lay still. The other monks came to carry him to
the cremation ground; but on the way the road bifurcated, and they
quarrelled as to which path should be followed. The supposed corpse
then sat up and said that when alive he always went by the left
road. Bystanders intervened and pointed out that as he had spoken
he could not be dead, but Dandaka insisted that he was really dead,
and it was only after a long argument that the monks were convinced
that he was alive.

Mr. Goonetilleke also gave a translation of a similar Turkish story
in Meister Nasr Eddin's Schwänke und Räuber und Richter, in which the
man was told he would die when his ass eructated the second time. He
lay down, believing he was dead. When the bier carriers were doubtful
how they should pass a mudhole, the corpse sat up and said that when
alive he avoided the place.

The editor also added Lithuanian, German, and Saxon variants, as well
as an English one related to him by the Rev. S. Langdon, in which,
however, the man broke his neck in falling from the tree.

In the South Indian account of the Guru Paramarta and his foolish
disciples, annexed to the Abbé Dubois' Pantcha-Tantra, p. 305, one
of the disciples was cutting a branch when a Purohita Brahmana warned
him that he would fall when it broke. After falling he ran after the
Brahmana and inquired when the Guru would die. The answer was that
cold at the hinder-parts is a sign of death, [55] a remark to which
the Guru's death eventually was due.

In Indian Nights' Entertainment (Swynnerton), p. 89, the warning was
given to a weaver by a traveller, who afterwards stated that the man's
death would occur when his mouth bled. Some days afterwards the weaver
saw in a glass a bit of scarlet thread stuck between his front teeth,
concluded that it was blood, and lay down to die, until a customer
showed him what it really was.

In the same work, p. 139, there is a story of a foolish weaver who
went to steal with some thieves. When they told him to look for
a suitable pole for raising the thatch of a house, he woke up the
people who were sleeping outside, and asked them to lend him a pole
for the purpose. An outcry was raised, and the thieves decamped.

In Indian Fairy Tales (M. Stokes), p. 30, the person who warned a
youth who was cutting a branch, said he would die when he found a
scarlet thread on his jacket. When a thread stuck on it in the bazaar,
he went off, dug a grave, and lay in it until he heard a passer-by
offer four pice to anyone who would carry his jar of ghi for him;
he then jumped up and offered to carry it.

In Folk-Tales of Kashmir (Knowles), 2nd ed., p. 199, a stupid boy
who was sent by his mother to sell a piece of cloth for four rupees,
refused six rupees that were offered for it.



NO. 91

THE STORY OF THE SEVEN THIEVES


In a certain country there were seven thieves, it is said. Among them
one was a fool, or one who was learning robbery.

One day when these seven persons were going to break [into] a house,
while on the road they spoke to that robber who was learning,
and said thus: "Only we six persons will go for breaking [into]
the house; you stay outside." Teaching him [this], and having gone
[there], and in that manner having made the man wait outside, those
six persons got inside the house for house-breaking.

Thereupon, while those six persons were delaying a little, a thought
having occurred to this foolish thief, "I also must steal something
from this," having thought [thus], when he was going passing his hand
over the things that were there a large millet [grinding] stone was
caught [by him]. Because he was unable to get it up quite alone,
he spoke to a man who was sleeping on a raised veranda, and said,
"Oyi! Oyi! Get up to lift this stone a little."

Thereupon this man having said, "What is it?" when he cried out the
robber sprang off and ran away. The seven persons having collected
together at one spot, [the other six] having beaten and scolded that
foolish thief, gave him advice.

Again, also, one day having gone calling him for breaking [into] a
house, in the aforesaid very manner having made the man wait outside,
the six persons got inside the house for robbery. While this fool was
staying in the open, shaking and shaking a post under the stick frame
of an ash-pumpkin creeper (on which it grew), an ash-pumpkin fruit
that was at the post having broken off, fell on his head. Thereupon
the fool, having become [frightened], began to cry out, saying, "They
killed me!" Thereafter, the house men having awakened, when there was a
disturbance the whole of the thieves sprang off, and went running away.

When they collected together in one place, they thought thus, "With
this fool we shall not succeed in committing robbery; it is necessary
to send this one for a few robberies alone." Having thought [this],
one day they spoke to the man, "Beginning from to-day, [after]
stealing something for food for us, come back," they said.

And he having gone to a house in which was one old woman, and having
found a little pulse (mun-aeta), thought, "I must fry this little
and carry it away," and put it into a broken pot. When frying it,
when it was coming to be fried to a certain extent, taking a spoon
he put [some] of it in the mouth of the old woman who was sleeping
in the house, to look if it was fried. Thereupon the woman, unable
to bear the burning in her mouth, began to cry out. While the men
who were sleeping, having said, "What is this?" were coming to look,
the thief sprang off and ran away.

Again, also, one day having spoken to the foolish robber, "Catching
two fowls for us from this house, come back," they sent him.

And the robber having gone there, while he was asking, "[Am I] to bring
the black ones [or] to bring the red ones?" the owners, having said,
"Who is this who is taking the fowls?" drove him away. Thereupon the
robber sprang off and ran away.

Again also, one day having seen that there are two clumps of sugar-cane
at a house, they said, "Cutting two from that for food for us, come
away," and sent him.

And this one having gone there and seen that there are equal shares of
black and white sugar-canes, while he was asking, "Which sugar-cane of
these shall I bring?" just as before, the owners having come and said,
"What are you cutting sugar-cane for?" drove him away.

While he was continuing to commit robberies in that manner for not
many days, one day having met with a Gamarala, when he was asking,
"[Where] are you going?" "We are going for a means of livelihood,"
they said.

Having said, "If so, come; there is a niyara chopping [56] in my rice
field," calling them and having gone to the house and handed over
the work to them, the Gamarala set off, and having gone somewhere or
other, in the evening came to the house. Having seen that they also,
having finished with the work and come to the house, were [there],
and having given them food and drink, etc., and given a place to
sleep in, and in the morning also, after it became light, having
given them food, he started them off and sent them away. Thereafter,
the Gamarala having gone to the rice field, and when looking having
seen that all the earthen ridges had been cut and thrown down,
arriving at vexation he came home.

While all the robbers were going away from there, they met with yet
a man, and when he was asking, "Where are you going?" they said,
"We are going for a means of livelihood."

Thereupon the man having spoken to them and said, "If so, come;
there is a thatching at my house," and having gone to the house,
calling them, said, "Here. Cover this large house with straw." Having
ordered it, he went away on a journey.

At that time, having got ready, and seen that a certain old woman was
in that house, they covered her with the whole of the straw. Thereupon
that woman becoming afraid, all at the house came while she was
crying out.

When they asked, "What is this you are doing?" they say, "The man who
was at this house having said, 'Cover this mahage [57] with straw,'
went away. That work we are doing," they said.

Thereupon the house men say, "It is not that old woman. Cover the
roof with straw."

At the time when they said it they did the work in that manner;
and having gone to the lodgings (wadiya) where they were at first,
and made that foolish thief stay there, the six other persons went
for a robbery. Stealing a certain tom-tom beater's box of decorations
they placed it at their lodgings, and went to sleep.

That foolish robber having seen it, after those six persons went to
sleep, this fool putting on all those [things], stayed warming himself
at the fire. At that time, while sleep was going to fall heavily on
him, when the jingling bangles placed on his arms gave the [usual]
sound, one of those who were sleeping awoke and looked.

Having seen that the Yaka of the box of decorations had come and was
[there], he spoke to the other men and bounded off. Thereupon they
also becoming afraid, the whole of them began to run away. Having
heard the noise, this one also got up, and he having gone running
behind them, the whole of them fell into a well and died. [58]


                               Finished.

                                                 North-western Province.



In Indian Nights' Entertainment (Swynnerton), p. 140, a silly weaver
went with three friends who were thieves, to break into a house. They
made a hole through the wall, and telling him to wait outside and
keep watch, the thieves entered. After waiting some time he followed
them, and began to cook some food that he found near the fire. The
owner's wife was sleeping close by on a low bed; on turning over
in her sleep her arm, palm uppermost, was stretched out in front of
the weaver. Thinking she was asking for some of the food, he placed
a spoonful boiling hot in her hand. She shrieked out, the men were
caught, and the King imprisoned the others, but released the weaver.

In Les Avadanas (Julien), No. xcvii, vol. ii, p. 76, a party of
comedians who were benighted on a mountain haunted by men-eating
demons, slept beside a fire. On account of the cold, one who played as
a Rakshasa put on his own costume while the rest were asleep. Several
others on looking up saw a Rakshasa there, and fled; the rest followed,
the man who had alarmed them running close behind them. They left the
mountain, crossed a river, threw themselves into pools, and at last
fell down worn out with fatigue. In the morning they recognised their
comrade. This story is also given in Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues
(Chavannes), vol. ii, p. 203.

In The Orientalist, vol. i, p. 136 ff., in the tale of the
twenty-five idiots referred to in the notes to the last story,
Miss S. J. Goonetilleke gave an account of the attempt to remove
the millet-grinding stone, the scalding of the old woman's mouth,
and the assuming of the dress of the Yaka (said to be the Gara Yaka),
and the subsequent drowning of the party in the well.

In the same work, vol. i, p. 131, the editor gave the incident of
the covering of the Mahage with straw, in a tale termed "The Story of
Hokka." The old woman, who was the Gamarala's mother, was suffocated.



NO. 92

THE KING WHO BECAME A THIEF


In a certain country a Prince went to ask about a marriage, it is
said. As he was going, while on the road he met with a Princess. Having
met with her, the two persons spoke angrily. Having spoken thus, the
Prince said to the Princess, "Some day or other, having called Her
[in marriage], I will punish Her much." [59]

Then the Princess said, "Having borne a Prince to you, Sir, and having
employed the Prince [for it], I will tie you to your horse's leg,
and cause [them] to strike you fifty blows."

Afterwards, the Prince, having come back, built brick walls like a
prison, and placed a drain in it, and caused a house to be prepared
for putting the Princess into when he brought her.

Having prepared it, and having come calling the Princess [in marriage],
he put her in the house; and he puts cooked rice for the Princess
at the corner of the drain. The Princess having eaten it, is [there]
without even going outside.

There were two field rats (waeli miyo) which the Princess had reared
before. The two came to the place where this Princess is. Having come,
they dug a tunnel below the brick wall; having dug it, the Queen got
out by the corner of the tunnel, and came away.

Having come thus, she was in a party of dancing women. While there,
the Princess said to the dancing women, "Take me, and go and dance
at such and such a city." She said this regarding the city to which
the Princess came in diga [marriage]. "While dancing there I shall
faint. Then while I am there [in that state] you come away, having
said, 'We shall come again to call our child.'" She taught the
women thus.

The Princess having taught them it, these women danced near the King,
the father of the Prince who had placed her as though in prison when
she came in diga [marriage]. The Prince also is there.

While dancing thus, the Princess fainted. Afterwards, these women
having said, "Let her stay until the time when we come back to call
our child to go. We cannot now, while she is unconscious," the women
went away. The Princess remained there. That she was that Prince's
Princess he does not know. Having said that the Princess will still
be in that very [prison] house, he places cooked rice [there for her]
by means of the drain.

The women after three or four months came to call this Princess to
go. Then that Prince having married her, she was with child. The women,
notwithstanding that, called her and went away [with her].

Afterwards, when she was there a little time [with them] the Princess
bore a Prince.

The Prince became considerably big. Afterwards he asked at the hand
of the Princess, "Mother, where is my father?"

Then the Princess said, "Son, your father is such and such a King of
such and such a city. The King having wagered that he will take me in
marriage, said that he will inflict on me unimposed punishments. I
said, 'Having borne a Prince to you, I will employ the Prince and
[get him to] tie you to your horse's leg, and cause you to be struck
fifty blows.'"

"In the way the King said, calling me [in marriage], when I came he
punished me like the punishment of the prison. Having come from there
by the help of two rats which I reared before, I was in the dancing
women's party. Being in it, and having gone to that city to dance
with these women, the women came away while I was there. Afterwards
they went back to come with me.

"During the time when I was there, the King marrying me, you were
born when these women were going about. While I was there they came
and called me. It is that King himself who is your father."

After that, the Prince said, "Mother, if so, seek a few things for
food for me, and give me them, for me to go to seek a livelihood
for myself."

Afterwards the Princess found the things, and after she gave them,
the Prince, taking them, went to the house of a widow woman who worked
for hire, and said, "Mother, I, also, came to stay with you."

Then the widow woman said, "It is good; stay. I am alone." Afterwards
the Prince stayed there.

Staying there, this Prince began to steal the things of the city. Then
the King made it public that they are to catch the thief. Afterwards
they try to seize him; no one is able to seize him. That widow woman
also does not know [that he is the thief].

The woman having come [home], tells at the hand of the Prince all
the talk uttered at the royal palace: "A thief of this country is
committing this robbery; they cannot catch the thief." All these
words she said to the Prince.

Afterwards the Prince said, "Mother, cook a few cakes and give me
them." So the woman cooked cakes and gave them.

Thereupon the Prince, taking the cakes, went to the chena jungle,
and strung the cakes on the trees near a pool at the road (mankada)
where a washerman is washing clothes. Having strung them, keeping
still two or three cakes in his hand, and continuing to eat them,
he came to the place where that washerman is washing clothes.

Then the washerman asked at the hand of the Prince, "Whence come you
eating and eating certain cakes?"

The Prince said, "Ando! The cake stems on these trees having fruited,
there are as many as you want (onae haetiye). Go there to look."

Afterwards, the washerman having said, "If so, Chief (nilame), be
good enough to remain near these few clothes," the washerman went to
pluck the cakes.

Then the Prince, taking those few clothes, came to the house of the
widow woman. That washerman [after] plucking the cakes having come
back, when he looked both the Prince was not there and the clothes
were not there. Afterwards the washerman went home empty-handed. [60]

That Prince asked at the hand of the widow woman, "Mother, to-day,
in the direction of that city--isn't it so?--there is a report about
the thief?"

Then the widow woman said, "Ando! Why not, son? To-morrow the King
is going, they say, to catch the thief."

On the following day, taking also a bundle of clothes, he went to a
pool at the road, and having tied a cord to an earthen cooking-pot,
and sent the earthen pot into the water, continuing to tread on
the cord with his foot, [so as to keep the pot below the surface],
he washes the clothes.

Then the King came on horseback, together with the Ministers. This
Prince who is washing clothes asked at the hand of those Ministers,
"Where are you going?"

The Ministers said, "We are going to seize the thief."

Then the Prince says, "Look here; he sprang into this water. Having
seen him coming, the King must be ready to seize him when he comes
to the surface."

Afterwards, the King descended from the back of his horse, and having
taken off the royal ornaments, putting on the bathing cloth [61]
got ready to seize the thief at the time when he rises to the surface.

Then this Prince deceitfully slackened a little the cord on which
he was treading with his feet; then the earthen pot which was in the
water rose to the surface a little. Having said, "Perhaps it is the
head of the thief," those Ministers and the King sprang into the water.

Then this Prince who was washing clothes, putting on those royal
ornaments, mounted on the [King's] horse, and said, "Look there! There
is the thief, seize him!" Then all having come near that King
seized him.

After that this Prince said, "Having tied him to the leg of this horse,
[you are] to strike him fifty blows." Then those Ministers, having
taken the King and tied him to the horse's leg, struck him fifty blows.

Having struck them, when they took him to the city the King's
father says, "That thief is indeed like my son." Having looked in the
direction of that Prince who was wearing the royal ornaments, he said,
"This indeed is not my son. What of that? There is a little like my
son's face."

After that, the Prince who was wearing the royal ornaments, said,
"Ask at your son's hand who I am"; he said it at the hand of the
Prince's grandfather. [62]

When he (the grandfather) asked at the hand of the King who had become
the thief, he said, "I do not know who he is."

Then the Prince said, "If so, am I to tell you?" He said, "Ha."

Then at the hand of that King who had become the thief, this Prince
says, "You brought for yourself the Queen of such and such a city, did
you not? Before bringing her there was an anger-wager, was there not?"

Then the King said, "It is true."

Then the Prince said, "You will give punishment to the Queen, you said,
did you not? Then the Queen said, did she not? 'After I have borne a
Prince to you, having tied you to the leg of the horse I will cause
you to be struck fifty blows.'"

Then the King said, "It is true."

"From there having brought the Queen, while you were giving her the
punishment the Queen had previously reared two field rats. The two
having come, dug [under] the brick wall, and the Queen went away
from there.

"Having gone away, and been in a party of dancing women, while
she was in it one day they came here, the Queen and those women,
to dance. Having come and caused the Queen to stay, those women went
away. After three or four months the women came back, and calling her,
went away with her. While she was here, [63] I was born to you."

Afterwards the grandfather said, "You yourself remain exercising the
sovereignty. My son cannot; a fool."

He having said this, the Prince himself received the sovereignty.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Story of Madana Kama Raja (Natesa Sastri), p. 246, a Prince
told an oilmonger's daughter that he would marry her and imprison
her for life. She retorted that she would bear him a son who should
chastise him after first tying him up in a sack. When they were married
the Prince shut her up in a room, her food being supplied through
a small window. She escaped by a tunnel made by her father for her,
learnt rope-dancing, and in disguise made a display of it before the
court. The Prince fell in love with her, visited her daily, and she
obtained from him his pearl necklace, diamond necklace, and ring. When
the rope-dancers left, the girl rejoined her father, and bore a son,
who learnt robbery and committed such daring thefts that the Prince,
his father, determined to seize him himself at night. By a trick he got
the Prince to enter a sack, dressed himself in the Prince's clothes,
and handed it to the soldiers as containing the thief. In the morning
he opened the sack and struck the Prince gently with the cord. The
robber then explained everything to the King and Prince, his mother
when fetched produced the articles given to her, and all ended happily.

In Indian Fairy Tales (M. Stokes), p. 216, a merchant on leaving
home on a long journey told his wife that on his return he expected
to find that she had built a grand well, and had a son for him. By a
trick she got money and built the well. Disguised as a milk-girl she
met with her husband's boat, and sold milk at the river bank until
he fell in love with her, married her, and took her to live on his
boat. When he left after three months, giving her his cap and portrait,
she returned home. On his arrival there she presented to him his son,
and produced his gifts.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 620, a Brahmana told
his bride, who had played a trick on him, that he would desert her;
she retorted that a son whom she would bear him should bring him
back. He put his ring on her finger while she slept, and went away
to his own city, Ujjayini. She followed, and established herself
as a courtesan, sending away each visitor without seeing her, until
her husband came and, without recognising her, stayed some days with
her. After returning home she bore a son, to whom she told the whole
story. The boy went in search of his father, and by a wager made him
his slave, took him back to his mother, and they were reconciled.

In Folk-Tales of Kashmir (Knowles), 2nd ed., p. 104, a King of Kashmir
and a girl whom he met while hunting made jokes at each other. The King
married her and ignored her presence in his harem, so she returned to
her parents. After three years she visited Kashmir, and stayed at the
palace, where the King, who did not recognise her, fell in love with
her. They exchanged rings, and she got his handkerchief, went home, and
bore a son who became an expert thief, stealing an egg out of a hawk's
nest without disturbing the bird. [64] He committed many impudent
robberies in Kashmir, getting the high officials into ridiculous
positions, and when the King offered his daughter in marriage and half
the country if the thief would come forward, he confessed everything
and restored the stolen money and goods. His mother came, explained
everything and the impossibility of the marriage to his half-sister,
produced the ring and handkerchief, and he became heir to the throne.



NO. 93

THE FEMALE FOWL THIEF


At a village a woman was married to a man. The woman has much fondness
for food consisting of fowls' flesh. The woman having stolen the fowls,
without the man's knowing it eats [them] in the night when the man
has gone to sleep. When she was eating every day in this manner,
the man perceived it one day.

After that, the man through the necessity for catching this theft,
one day said to the woman at night, "Bolan, I cannot [bear] in the
cold. Go to the place where the bundles of firewood are, and bring a
little firewood." Then the woman says, "Ane! Appa! In this darkness
I cannot go through fear." After that, the man, not saying it again,
remained without doing anything.

On the following day, also, the man told her in the very same
manner. On that day, also, this woman said, "Ane! Appa! I cannot go
alone." On both these days he was unable to catch the woman's theft.

In the night of the following day the man lay down, and in the manner
as though asleep the man began to snore. On that day, too, having said
[to herself], "The man has gone to sleep," the woman arose and went
for fowl stealing. The man having allowed the woman to go, and having
arisen also, began to go behind her.

On that day a man of the village having died had been cremated
also. The woman went to a village near the heap of fire-charcoal (the
remains of the funeral pyre), and stealing a fowl from a house, came
near that charcoal fire at the place of cremation (sohon), and having
put the fowl upon the charcoal, roasted it. When she was eating the
meat that man, having been hidden, threw a stone [at her]. When it
struck her the woman says, "What are you throwing stones for?" [65]
Having said, "Here. The demon-offering for ye; take that," she throws
down a fowl bone.

The man gathers the bone which she throws. The man again throws a
stone. Having spoken in that very manner she throws away a bone;
that also the man gathers. The man again throws a stone. In this
very manner, the man having thrown stones, collected seven or eight
bones. [After] collecting them he came home before the woman, and
lay down.

The woman having eaten the flesh and having finished, came back, and
prepared to sleep. Then the man having gone to sleep [apparently],
and as through arising having broken up his bodily reluctance [to
get up], arose, and said, "Bolan, I cannot [bear] in the cold; bring
a bundle of firewood from the place where the bundles of firewood are."

That day, also, the woman said, "Ane! Appa! I cannot go alone."

Then the man scolds her: "Bola, strumpet! During the whole night
thou canst go to steal fowls; why canst thou not go to bring a bundle
of firewood?"

Well then, the woman having said, "It is not so," began to swear
[to it]. Then the man having said, "What are these, Bola?" showed
her the fowl bones. Then the woman's breath was drawn upward [66];
in that very way the woman's life departed.


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 94

GAMPOLAYA AND RAEHIGAMAYA


In a certain country there are a Gampolaya and a Raehigamaya, [67]
it is said.

The person called Gampolaya, having put Iriya [68] fruits in two bags,
and said they were areka-nuts, tied them as a pingo load (one bag
hanging under each end of the stick). Having been in his own country,
he is going away to another country.

The person called Raehigamaya tied up a pingo load of pepper (vine)
leaves. The person called Raehigamaya, having said that the pingo
load of pepper leaves was a pingo load of betel leaves, [69] is also
going away to another country.

At the time when he was going along there was a travellers' shed;
in that travellers' shed he lodged. That person called Gampolaya,
taking that pingo load of Iriya fruits, came there. Well then, those
two persons came in contact [there].

The areka-nut trader (Gampolaya) asked, "What, friend, is your
pingo load?"

The betel trader (Raehigamaya) says, "[Betel leaves]. In our country
areka-nuts are scarce to an inordinate (no-saehena) extent."

"Ane! Friend, [I have brought areka-nuts]. In that very way, for our
country there is difficulty over betel leaves," Gampolaya said.

Having said, "If so, let us change our two pingo loads," the person
possessing areka-nuts took the pingo load of betel leaves; the
person who has the pingo load of betel leaves took the pingo load
of areka-nuts.

Gampolaya [afterwards] says, "I indeed met with a trading at a
profit!" When he asked, "What was it?" "I obtained a pingo load of
betel leaves" [he said]. Who asked it? A man going on the road.

He took the pingo load of betel leaves to his country. Having gone
there and having untied it, when he looked it was a pingo load of
[worthless] pepper leaves. [The other man], taking the pingo load of
areka-nuts, went to his village. Having gone [there] and unfastened
it, when he looked they were [worthless] Iriya fruits.

Well then, those two persons came together at the travellers'
shed on another day. They spoke: "That day our trading did not go
on properly. Now then, friend, we two being thieves at this city,
[after] cooking rice and having eaten [together], at night let us go
for robbery."

Well then, except that those two say, "Let us cook," not even one of
them brings the materials. [70] What is [the reason why] they do not
bring them? They were persons who on former occasions had gone to the
shop and brought things, [and had been cheated by another person's
not bringing any], they said. In that manner it became night.

One person, having said he is going to bathe, [went away, and] having
eaten cooked rice at the shop, came back. The other [thought], "While
he has gone to bathe, that one, going to the shop, will eat rice;"
so this one having gone to another place ate cooked rice [there].

A second time they came to the travellers' shed. [Afterwards] they
broke [into] the palace of the King of that city. Taking the box
containing the gold things, and having gone [off with it], and during
that very night having arrived at a rice field, they went to sleep at
the bottom of a tree. Through dishonesty to one of them, the other,
taking the box of things, bounded off. Having sprung off and gone,
he crept into a mound of straw, and remained there.

That [other] one having arisen, when he looked there was neither the
man nor the box of things. Thereafter he seeks and looks about. When he
was seeking and looking, [he noticed that] there was a threshing-floor
near [the place] where they were sleeping. Having taken a [wooden]
cattle-bell, on the following day, in the evening, he shook and
shook the cattle-bell, and began to gore the corn stacks and mounds
of straw that were at the threshing-floor. [71] Then that man who
had got hid there, having said [to himself], "Perhaps it is a bull,"
spoke [to it, to drive it away]. Having spoken, when he looked it
was the first thief.

[When] they two are talking [about it, he said], "I didn't bring
this box of things through dishonesty to you, but to look at your
cleverness." During all the time each one is thinking of quietly
taking the box of goods, and bounding off [with it].

Well then, those two persons having come back, and having walked to
the sands of the sea, it became night. Placing that box of things in
the midst of the two, when they were lying down the person who stole
it at first went to sleep.

Then the other man, taking the box, hid it at a recognisable place
(ayiruwak) in the sea. Having hidden it and come back, and very
quietly returned near the other one, he went to sleep. The person
who hid the box of things and returned, went to sleep.

Then the other one, having arisen very quietly, when he looks for the
box of things, the box of things is not there. When he sought and
looked about for it, he did not meet with it. [But] when he tasted
[with the tip of his tongue], and looked at the body (skin) of that
person who is sleeping, until the time when he comes [upward] near
the hip there is salt taste.

Now then, that one thought, "He will have hidden it in the water,
waist deep in the sea." Having gone on account of the thought,
when he looked in the water to the extent of a round [of the top] of
the cloth (pili-watak, waist-deep) a tree was near. [The other man]
having placed it near the tree he met with it [there].

As soon as he met with it, taking the box of things and having come
to his village, he says to his wife and children, "Having sought me,
should a man come here, say, 'He died yesternight. There is delay in
going to bury him, until the time when his relatives assemble.'" Well
then, they are lamenting falsely.

Well, Gampolaya [having come there] says, "We, indeed, called Gampolaya
and Raehigamaya, walked about and committed robbery at [each] city in
turn. Now then, don't you be grieved that he died; I am more troubled
in my mind than you. The agreement of us two indeed is that should
I die first, he having come,--that kind of creeper called Habalossa;
it is an extremely bad sort of thorn, [72]--having put [some] of the
creepers on the neck there is a promise to go dragging me until the
time when he goes to the edge of the grave. Should he die first the
promise is [that I should act] in that very manner."

Well then, having brought a Habalossa creeper, and put it round the
neck of the person who was dead, when he prepared (lit., made) to
drag him the person who was dead laughed. Having laughed, he says,
"Friend, I did not bring the box of things on account of stealing it,
[but] to look if you are a clever person."

Well then, these two correctly divided in two the articles in the
box of things. The two persons [afterwards] dwelt in happiness.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Orientalist, vol. i, p. 234, Mr. C. J. R. Le Mesurier gave a
story in which five beggars agreed that each should put a handful of
rice into a pot of boiling water, to make their common meal. When the
time came to eat the meal the pot was found to contain only water, each
one having placed an empty hand inside it, as though depositing rice.

In Folk-Tales of Bengal (L. Behari Day), p. 165, when two thieves
were digging, the younger one came on a jar full of gold muhrs (each
worth about thirty shillings), and at once said it was only a large
stone. While the younger man slept the elder thief returned to the
spot, found there two jars of the coins, buried them in the mud of
an adjoining tank, returned, and fell asleep near the other. When
the younger thief awoke and found that the coins had been removed,
he noticed mud on his comrade's legs, made a search at the tank,
got the two jars, and went off with them, loaded on a cow. At dawn
the other man missed his partner and the money, and went in pursuit,
and by the slipper trick [73] got the cow and its load, and went
home. When the younger man came up they divided the money except
an odd coin, which was to be changed in the morning. In the morning
the elder man who had charge of it pretended to be dead. His friend
affected to pity the wife, made a straw rope, and dragged the body
to the burning ground, but having no fire he climbed up a tree. The
two afterwards frightened some robbers there, and got their booty.

In Indian Nights' Entertainment (Swynnerton), p. 45, some of
the Sinhalese incidents occur in an account of the doings of two
merchants. One of them buried in the mud a brass plate which he
stole from the other's house. The owner found and removed it,
and the thief searched in vain for it. They cheated other people,
and acquired forty thousand rupees with which one of them made off;
the other recovered it by the slipper trick, buried it, pretended
to be dead, and at the cemetery the two men frightened some robbers,
got their booty, and made an equal division of all.

In Folk-Tales of the Telugus (G. R. Subramiah Pantulu), p. 63,
a man set out with a packet containing a quart of sand; a man
of a different village was journeying with a packet containing
a lump of cow-dung. They met in the evening, and halted at the
same rest-house. Each wanted to get the other's packet, thinking
it contained food. The second man said he had a packet of food
(apparently cooked) but was not hungry, and asked the other what he
had brought. The first one replied that he had uncooked rice with him,
and felt very hungry. They exchanged packets, went off at once to
avoid recriminations, and discovered that they were mutually cheated.

In The Indian Antiquary, vol. xxv, p. 21, in a Tamil story by Natesa
Sastri, a man of Tanjore who was carrying a large ball of clay entirely
hidden under cooked rice grains which his wife had stuck on it met with
a man of Trichinopoly who had a brass pot full of sand covered with
raw rice a quarter of an inch deep. Each wanted the other's rice. The
first man stated that not being very well he was afraid to eat the
cold rice he had brought, and would like to cook some raw rice. The
second man made an exchange with him. After discovering that they were
mutually cheated they became friendly, and had other experiences of
each other's roguery (see the variant given after No. 248).

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 109, a foolish man,
in order to avoid sharing with a friend some tasty food which his
wife was cooking, pretended to be dead. The friend lamented loudly,
neighbours came, they made a pyre at the burning ground, put the body
on it and burnt it, the man having determined to die rather than give
a share of the food.

In Folk-Tales of Kashmir (Knowles), 2nd ed., p. 299, when two thieves
had stolen some treasure from a caravan, one of them by means of the
slipper trick got the whole, hurried home, and the pretended death
and adventure with the robbers followed.

In Folk-Tales from Tibet (O'Connor), p. 131, when two thieves by a
fraud had secured a heavy bag of gold, one of them absconded with
it. The other recovered the money by the boot-trick.

In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. ii, p. 316, a
Brahmana who had some peas which were so old that it was impossible
to cook them, took them to the market, and exchanged them for an ass
which would never move when a load was put on its back, each of the
barterers thinking he had got the best of the bargain.

In the Sierra Leone stories, Cunnie Rabbit, etc. (Cronise and Ward),
p. 300, there is a variant of the latter part of the Sinhalese tale
in an account of two greedy men who lived in the east and west. The
eastern man came to the western man's house carrying a box, and would
not leave, intending to share in the rice that had been cooked. The
owner of the house at last lay down, and told his wife to say he had
died. The visitor remained all night, supplied clothes for the corpse,
made a coffin, dug the grave, and had nearly covered the body when
it requested to be taken out. In the end, the visitor got a share of
their food.



NO. 95

THE STORY OF THE TWO LIARS


There are two Liars called the Eastern Liar and the Western Liar,
it is said. The Eastern Liar was minded to go to seek the Western
Liar, it is said. [74] Should you say, "What was that for?" it was
for telling lies in competition (i.e., a lying match), it is said.

Tying up the packet of cooked rice from one and a half amunas [75] of
uncooked rice, and the flesh of twelve goats, and bringing it for the
[mid] day food, he went to the house of the Western Liar. At the time
when he was going there, the Liar was not at home; a daughter of his
was there. He gave her the packet of cooked rice to put away. She
took the packet of cooked rice with the point of the needle with
which she was sewing and sewing, and put it away.

The Eastern Liar [asked] the female child, "Where is thy father? In
the forest?"

Thereupon the child [said], "Our father [in order] to cover up the
thundering went to skin a mosquito, and come back."

Thereupon this very Liar, having become afraid, thinks, "At the time
when this very child told lies to this degree, when her father has
come to what extent will he tell lies?" Thinking it, and asking for
the packet of cooked rice again, he went off back again. Because it
was not yet day [76] [enough] for eating in the daytime, [76] having
hung the bundle of cooked rice on a large Banyan tree he went to sleep.

After that, at the time when the Western Liar, cutting sticks and
creepers for a house and placing them under his armpits, was coming,
the little female child who was at the house having gone in front
[of him], says, "A man came to seek you," she said.

Thereupon the man asked, "Where?"

"Look; he went there," she said.

Thereupon this very person, taking those sticks and creepers, and
turning to the same quarter, went in chase of him. [77]

At that time the Eastern Liar had gone to sleep. Having heard the sound
of the coming of the Western Liar, he arose. That person having become
frightened at the sound of his (the Western Liar's) coming, to take
the packet of cooked rice seized the branch on which is the packet of
cooked rice. Thereupon the tree, being completely uprooted, came into
his hand. Taking also the tree itself, the same person having got in
front ran away. This very person (the Western Liar), for [the purpose
of] looking who it is, began to drive this very person backwards.

Having heard this very sound, and having said, "Something is coming to
happen in the country," an elephant-keeper who looked after a hundred
tusk elephants, having sent off the elephants to their food and having
become afraid, was looking about. Through that very despondency [which
he felt] that some danger was coming to arrive at this very village,
he said, "I must go to some other quarter"; and folding up the cloth
in which he was dragging (= carrying) them, and in which were the
whole hundred tusk elephants, he bolted.

Then having gone to an outer open place, and having unfastened the
cloth, when he looked [inside it], only the two white lice called
Gourd and Ash-pumpkin were [there], having eaten the whole hundred
tusk elephants.


                                                 North-western Province.



Nonsense stories such as this are rather unusual in the East. There is
one in No. 29, vol. i, and an Indian one is quoted after it. No. 130
in this vol. is another Sinhalese variant, and No. 263 in vol. iii,
is also a tale of this type.



NO. 96

THE THREE HETTIYAS


In a certain country there were three persons, Big Hettiya, Middle
Hettiya, and Little Hettiya. During the time while they were there, the
three persons having gone to dig [for] gems, dug [for] gems until the
money of the parties was finished. They did not meet with even one gem.

Because they did not, having come again to the village, certain
acquaintances of those people were there. Taking (that is, borrowing)
a little money from those parties, the whole three persons dug [for]
gems again in partnership until the money was finished. They met with
only one gem.

It was in the mind of Big Hettiya to get it into a big box. It was
in the mind of Middle Hettiya to get it into a middle [sized] box. It
was in the mind of Little Hettiya to get it into a little box.

Well then, the three persons having quarrelled about it, Little Hettiya
made a little box, Middle Hettiya made a box larger than that, Big
Hettiya made a box still larger than that.

Having made them, they placed the gem in the little box of Little
Hettiya, that box they placed inside Middle Hettiya's box, and having
put it in they placed that box inside Big Hettiya's box. [Each one
kept the key of his own box.]

Having put it away in that manner, those three still borrowing a little
money from suitable persons of the neighbourhood, went again to dig
[for] gems.

During the time while they were staying in that way, Little Hettiya,
having made two false keys for Big Hettiya's box and Middle Hettiya's
box, and opened both the boxes, taking out his own box and opening
that box with the key he had, took the gem and hid it. This one,
having thrown away both the false keys, remained like a man who had
not committed theft.

Not a long time after that, the men who lent the money came to ask
for the money. Until the time when the money was finished they dug
[for] gems; from it also they obtained nothing.

After that, these three persons spoke to the creditors, "Having sold
the gem which we have, let us give the money to these people."

Having said so, the whole three having come, Big Hettiya, with the
key that he had, opened the big box; Middle Hettiya, with the key
that he had, opened [his]; Little Hettiya, with the key that he had,
opened [his]. When they looked there was no gem.

After that, the three keys being in the hands of the three persons,
having said, "Who opened [the boxes]?" the three persons struck
each other.

[After] striking, they went near the King for a law suit. Having gone,
the whole three persons said, "O Lord, Your Majesty, we three had a
gem. Having put the gem into a little box, and put that into a still
larger box, and put that into a still larger box, we three persons
kept in our hands the three keys. Thereafter, when we three persons
came together and looked [for it], it was not [there]. Because of it,
Sir, somehow or other you must clear up this for us."

After that, the King made much effort to sift the law suit. He being
unable to explain the case, began to postpone it.

The King's Queen having seen that the three Hettiyas are coming every
day in this manner to the court of justice, one day asked the King,
"O Lord, Your Majesty, three Hettiyas come every day to the court of
justice. Why?" she asked.

The King said, "The three Hettiyas having dug [for] gems, there was
one gem. Little Hettiya having made a box and put it in, locked it and
kept the key near him. Middle Hettiya having made a larger box than
that, and placed that Little Hettiya's little box inside it, locked
it and kept that key. Big Hettiya having made a large box, taking
both those boxes placed them inside that box, and having locked it,
he kept that key. Leaving the keys in the hands of the three persons,
the gem was missing. I have been unable to explain the case. Because
of it I postpone it every day," he said.

After that, the Queen said, "If you will give me the sovereignty I
will clear up the case."

Thereupon he said, "It is good. Until you have heard the action I
will give [you] the sovereignty."

Having said, "It is good," the Queen went away and informed the
Ministers, and told them to bring three bundles of cord and a
whip. These people came bringing them.

After that, the Queen having placed Big Hettiya on a support, told
them to tie him. Having tied him, taking the whip and having said,
"Will you give the gem? Will you give the gem?" she told them to flog
him well. They flogged the Hettiya until blood came. Even after that
he said, "No, indeed (naema)."

Having also tied Middle Hettiya in that manner, they flogged him;
that Hettiya said, "No, indeed."

Having seized and tied up Little Hettiya also, they flogged him in
that very way. When they had been striking four or five blows, he said,
"I will give the gem." After that, she told him to bring the gem.

That Little Hettiya having gone running, when he came [after] taking
it from the dung-hill where he had buried and kept it, she told Big
Hettiya and Middle Hettiya to divide [the value of] it. She gave
nothing to Little Hettiya.

Big Hettiya and Middle Hettiya divided [the value of] it between them.


                                                 North-central Province.



NO. 97

CONCERNING TWO FRIENDS


At a certain time there were two men, friends. Of them, one person
not having [food] to eat, was very poor. The other man had amply
to eat and drink. At that time the man who had not [food] to eat,
in order to get an assistance went near the friend who had [food] to
eat. Then at the time when he went to the friend's house, having amply
given him food and drink, the friend asked, "What have you come for?"

Thereupon the man said, "Ane! Dear friend, not having to eat and to
wear I came near you in order to get an assistance."

Then the man having gone calling him to the bread shop, taking bread
for ten shillings gave it to him, and said, "Here, friend, selling
these things get a living. I am unable to give an assistance for more
than ten shillings."

Thereupon the man having said, "It is good," at the time when he was
bounding about taking the bread box having walked until it was becoming
black, did not sell [anything]. Through anger that he did not sell
it, this man sat down near a tree, and said, "This day on which I got
the evil-looking (musala) bread is not good; I will eat these things."

At that time, the Devatawa who was in the tree, having become afraid,
said, "Ane! O Lord, don't eat me; I will give you a good article,"
and gave him a plate.

The man, taking the plate, asked, "With this plate what shall I do?"

The Devatawa said, "Having taken away the plate, and well polished
it, and spread a white cloth, place it upon the table. Then you will
receive tasty food [from it]." So the man, taking the plate, came to
the Hettiya's shop.

The Hettiya asked, "Appuhami, have you met with anything even to-day?"

The man said, "To-day, indeed, I met with a plate." [He gave the
Hettiya an account of its good properties.]

Thereupon, the Hettiya, having made the man drink arrack (spirit
distilled from palm-juice), and made him drunk, and allowed him to
sleep on the bed, took the plate. Taking it, he put another plate
into the man's bread box.

Then the man having become conscious, and gone home, told the man's
wife, "Don't cook; we shall receive food." Having well polished the
plate, and spread a white cloth, placing it upon the table he waited.

Having ascertained that cooked rice did not descend, the man's wife
came, and taking the plate threw it away, and having cooked, ate.

On the following day, also, the man having walked without selling
bread, came near that tree, and said in the former way, "I will eat. I
will eat." [78]

Thereupon, the Yaka [79] on that day gave him a ring, and said,
"Having sold the ring, when you are going ten fathoms away the ring
will come and place itself again in your hand."

On that day, also, the Hettiya asked [what he had met with]. The man,
just as in the former manner, said, "I obtained a ring," [and told him
its property]. So the Hettiya on that day, also, made the man drunk,
and taking the ring and having caused another ring to be made, put
it on the man's hand.

The man having become conscious, and gone away taking the ring, sold
it. Having sold it, he went ten fathoms, and looked. That, also,
did not come.

Then the man on the following day also came without having sold the
bread, and having come near that tree, said on that day, also, just
as in the former manner.

At that time the Devatawa gave him a cow which drops gold. "Having
taken away this cow, take good care of it, and tie it up and keep it,"
he said.

Thereupon the man, taking also the cow, just as before went away near
that Hettiya's house. The Hettiya that day also asked, "What is it,
Appuhami, that you have obtained to-day?"

The man said, "To-day, indeed, I obtained, Hettirala, a cow which
drops gold."

So the Hettiya, that day also having given the man arrack to drink,
and made him drunk, and allowed him to sleep on the bed, brought the
Hettiya's old cow, and having tied it there the Hettiya took the cow
which drops gold.

Then that man having become conscious, and having gone away taking
that cow also, washed the cow-dung which the cow dropped. Excepting
cow-dung, there was no gold.

Thereupon the man on the following day, also, having gone for
bread-selling did not sell [any]. That day, also, he went near that
tree, and said, "Thou son of a courtesan, when I told thee to provide
me with a living thou cheatedst me. On account of it, to-day I shall
eat thee indeed," and he began to chase the Yaka on the path.

Then the Yaka said, "O Lord, do not chase me on the path." The Devatawa
well knows about the theft of the articles. Having said, "The things
that I give to this man yet [another] man takes," he gave him a cudgel.

The man asked, "With this cudgel what shall I do?"

The Yaka said, "Should anyone ask, 'What is this?' say 'Allan
Bostan.' [80] Having said it, say, 'Stop, Bostan,' [in order to
stop it]."

Then the man, taking the cudgel, went just as before to the Hettiya's
house. At that time the Hettiya, in the very same way as before,
asked [what he had received].

The man said, "To-day I obtained a cudgel."

Then the Hettiya asked, "What is the name of the cudgel?"

The man said, "That, indeed, is Allan Bostan." Then the cudgel went
and began to beat the Hettiya.

Thereupon the Hettiya said, "Lord, don't beat me. I will give you
all the things I took."

So the man said, "Stop, Bostan." Then the cudgel stopped the
beating. After that [the Hettiya] gave him that stolen plate and ring,
and the cow that dropped gold, these very three things. After that,
the man having become wealthy, remained so.


                                                 North-central Province.



In The Story of Madana Kama Raja (Natesa Sastri), p. 130, a Prince
stole the articles left by a dying Sannyasi,--a cup which supplied
food, a bag which yielded everything desired, sandals that transported
their wearer where he wished to go, and a cudgel which thrashed all
enemies but is not mentioned again. By means of the bag he obtained
a palace, but two dancing women cheated him and stole all his magical
articles; he recovered them by the aid of some miraculous fruits.

In Folk-Tales of Bengal (L. Behari Day), p. 53, an indigent Brahmana
received from the goddess Durga an earthen pot out of which food
fell when it was reversed. At an inn it was changed for a common one,
and he was driven away. Durga gave him another pot out of which when
reversed a number of demons issued and beat him, returning to it when
it was set mouth upwards. When he was bathing the innkeeper reversed
the pot, was thrashed by the demons, and the Brahmana regained the
pot formerly stolen.

In Folklore of the Santal Parganas (collected by Dr. Bodding), p. 83,
an indigent Prince received a magic cow that granted everything
desired, from a jackal whose protection he craved. It was afterwards
changed by a man at whose house he lodged for the night, but by the
help of the jackal he recovered it.

In Old Deccan Days (M. Frere), p. 182, a Brahmana who had seven
daughters married the eldest to a jackal who was in reality a Raja
in disguise and a magician. He gave the Brahmana a melon to plant;
the fruits, which were ripe next day, contained precious stones,
but, unaware of it, the man sold some and was cheated out of the
others. The jackal gave him a pot which contained food when required,
a Raja took it, and the man then received from his son-in-law another
pot containing a stick and rope which would tie and beat people when
ordered. When the Raja, hearing he had got a better pot than before,
came to take it, the man caused him and his attendants to be beaten
until he got back the former pot. In the same way he recovered all
the precious stones.

In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. iii, p. 256,
a religious mendicant gave an inexhaustible jar of copper to a poor
man who had presented food to him, and warned him against inviting
the King to his house. The man neglected the advice, and the King took
the jar. He then received from the donor a pot filled with sticks and
stones. When he demanded the copper jar the King ordered him to be
seized, but the men were beaten by the articles which issued from the
second jar, and the King returned the first one. In the same volume,
p. 267, there is an account of a rice measure, a jar of ambrosia,
and a bag of jewels which were all inexhaustible. When a King sent
men to take them a magical stick drove them away.

In Indian Fairy Tales (M. Stokes), p. 32, a foolish youth broke cakes
into five pieces in the jungle, and said, "Now I'll eat this one, then
the second, then the third, then the fourth, and then the fifth." The
fairies who haunted the place thought he was about to devour them,
and gave him a cooking pot out of which any food could be procured;
at a cook's shop it was changed for a common one. When no food issued
from this, he took five more cakes, repeated the words, received
a box which produced any clothes required, and was drugged by the
cook, who substituted a common box for it. He again took five cakes,
and received a rope and stick which would tie and beat men when
ordered. With these he recovered the other articles.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 13, a King called
Putraka persuaded two Asuras to race for the possession of articles
left by their father,--shoes on which one could fly, a staff that
wrote only truth, and a food vessel. The King then put on the shoes,
carried off the other things, and founded the city called Pataliputra
after Patali (his wife) and himself. The translator gave references
to an Indian variant in which the rod is replaced by a purse, and to
European examples.

In vol. ii., p. 3, of the same work four Yakshas presented a poor
man with an inexhaustible food pitcher. When his kinsmen inquired
about it he took it on his shoulder and began to dance, his foot
slipped, the pitcher fell and was broken, and he reverted to his
former poverty. This story is found in Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues
(Chavannes), vol. ii, p. 74. Inexhaustible bowls filled with jewels
are mentioned in vol. ii, p. 220, also.

In Les Avadanas (Julien), vol. ii, p. 8, and Cinq Cents Contes et
Apologues, vol. ii, p. 185, the story of the demons (Pisacas) is
almost the same as that above quoted. In the latter work, vol. iii,
p. 259, two persons were quarrelling over a hat which rendered the
wearer invisible, shoes with which he could walk on water, and a
cudgel that would beat a person to death. When they raced for an
arrow that a man shot he made off with the things.

In Sagas from the Far East, p. 84, in a Kalmuk tale, a man who
frightened away some demons found that they had left an inexhaustible
gold goblet which provided food and drink. He exchanged it for a magic
cudgel, a hammer which when struck on the ground nine times caused a
nine story tower to rise, and a goat-skin bag out of which rain fell
when it was shaken, in each case sending back the cudgel to recover
the articles.

In the Maha Bharata (Vana Parva, iii) Yudhishthira recited a Hymn to
the Sun, on which this deity bestowed on him an inexhaustible copper
pot out of which fruit, roots, meat, and vegetables were produced.

There is a Bamana variant from the interior of Senegambia, given
in Contes Soudanais (C. Monteil), p. 58. A hyæna found a small pot
called The Generous Pot, out of which he obtained rice, kus-kus
(large millet), and other food. His hostess informed the King, who
after testing it, kept it, and attached it to his arm. The hyæna then
found a cutlas which told him its name was Cutlas-who-strikes. The
King heard from his hostess that it was better than the pot. When he
took it the hyæna stood beside his arm on which the pot hung, told
him the name of the cutlas, and while it was striking him snatched
away the pot and absconded.

In Folk Stories from Southern Nigeria (Dayrell), p. 20, a King had
a drum the beating of which caused food to appear, but if the owner
stepped over a stick or tree the food went bad, and men with sticks
beat the guests and owner.



NO. 98

CONCERNING FOUR FRIENDS


In a single country there were four friends. During the time while
they were staying there all four reared a dog. At the time when it
had grown up the dog became extremely large.

After that, the four persons having spoken together: "Let us divide the
[ownership of the] dog [among us]," divided the dog, to one person
the fore-leg, to one person the hind-leg; in this manner the four
persons divided it into four [shares].

[After] dividing it, when no long time had gone, one fore-leg of the
dog was broken. After it was broken, the other three persons having
told the man who owned the fore-leg that the fore-leg was broken,
found fault [with him for not attending to it].

Thereupon the man, taking a medicine and an oil for it, soaked a rag,
and tied it round [the leg]. After he had tied it round, the dog went
near the hearth, and while it was staying there the fire caught that
oiled rag.

The four persons had planted a cotton garden, and having [picked and]
dried the cotton, had heaped it up. This dog's body coming against
the heap of cotton, the fire caught it, and all the cotton burnt away.

After that, the four persons quarrelled [over it], and beat each
other. [After] beating each other, they went near the King of the
country. The whole three persons brought actions against the man
[for the value of their shares of the burnt cotton].

How did they bring them? "Ane! O Lord, Your Majesty, we were rearing
a dog and planting a cotton garden. We four persons divided the
[ownership of the] dog [into shares]. While we were there after
dividing it, the fore-leg belonging to this owner was broken. He
wrapped it in a cloth [soaked in] oil for wounds. The dog, having gone
near the hearth, was sleeping. The fire caught the dog. When it caught
it, the dog having gone, jumped upon the heap of cotton which had been
dried and heaped up. The cotton was burnt up. Because of it, we ask for
[the amount of] the loss from this man." They brought the action thus.

The man says, "I am not a guilty person. I only wrapped the oiled
rag on the fore-leg for the wound to heal. I did not do it in order
to burn the cotton."

Thereupon those other three persons [said], "We don't know that. It
is owing to you indeed that the cotton was burnt. Because of it,
you must pay the [amount of the] loss to us three."

After that the King asked, "Was the dog's broken leg so thoroughly
broken that it could not place the foot on the ground?"

The three persons said, "It could not place the foot on the ground
even a little."

Then the King having considered, said regarding it, "Because it went
by means of the three legs which belonged to you three persons, by
your fault the cotton has been burnt, and [the amount of] his loss
must be given to that one by you three persons."

After that, by those three persons the price of his share of the
cotton was paid to the other man.

                                                 North-central Province.



This is one of the stories related of Mariyada Raman (translation
by Mr. P. Ramachandra Rao, p. 11), in which four dealers in cotton
reared a cat, each one owning one leg. The judgment was that given by
the King in the Sinhalese version. This form of the story is known
in Ceylon, and was related by a Tom-tom Beater of the interior of
the North-western Province.



NO. 99

CONCERNING A HORSE


A man, taking a horse, went on its back. When so going the [skin on
the] horse's back was broken, [a sore being formed which rendered
the horse unserviceable]. After it was broken, the man removing the
few horse cloths, while the horse was [left] there went away.

An oil trader, when coming on that path taking oil, having seen that
[the skin on] this horse's back was broken, smeared a little of that
oil on it, and went away.

Still [another] man having come, when he looked [saw that] a horse
had fallen down. When the man looked at it he saw that the [skin on
the] back was broken, and that man, taking a great many large rags,
bandaged the back well, for it to become strong. Having bandaged it,
and having further poured a little oil on it, he went away.

Near the path on which was the horse a man cut a chena, and set
fire to the chena. When it was blazing some fire-sparks having come
and fallen on the oil-rags on this horse's back, the fire seized the
horse. Having seized it, when [the rags were] burning it was unable to
get up [at first]. The horse having got up, and gone running, jumped
into a citronella (paengiri) garden, and while it was running there
and here, the fire seized the citronella plants, and the citronella
plants burnt completely.

The man who owned that citronella garden went near the King for the
law-suit. Having gone, he said to the King, "O Lord, Your Majesty,
a horse, which having broken [the skin of] its back was wrapped with
oil-rags, having jumped into my citronella garden, the citronella
garden was totally burnt." Having said this he instituted the action.

Regarding it the King said, "It is not the fault of the man who wrapped
the oil-rags round it. It is not the fault of the horse. Because thou
didst not tie the fence [properly] the fault is thine, indeed."

The horse having been burnt in that very fire, died.


                                                 North-central Province.



NO. 100

THE STORY OF THE PEARL NECKLACE


At a certain city there are a King and a Queen, it is said. While they
are there, one day the Queen with the female slave went to bathe at
the pool in the King's garden. Having gone there, the Queen, having
taken off her garments and put them down, placed her necklace upon the
garments; and having told the female slave to stay there the Queen went
into the pool, and is bathing. Then the female slave went to bathe.

A thievish female Grey Monkey (Waendiriyak) that was in the garden,
took the necklace, and having placed it in a hole in a tree remained
silent.

The Queen having bathed and come ashore, when she looked
for the necklace while putting on her garments, there was no
necklace. Afterwards she asked at the hand of the female slave,
"Where, Bola, is the necklace?"

Then the female slave said, "I did not see a person who came here
and went away [with it]."

Then both of them having come to the palace, the Queen told the King
that thieves took the necklace. Thereupon the King caused the Ministers
to be brought, and said, "Go quickly and seek ye the necklace." The
Ministers speedily tying [up their cloths], [81] began to run [in
search of it].

At that time a poor man from a distant place came into the jungle to
seek sticks and creepers. When he was coming, the Ministers watching
there were saying, "Seize him; he bounded away here."

This poor man having heard it thought to himself, "Should I stay here
they will seize me. Because of it, having bounded away from here I
must go to my village."

At the time when the man was running away, the Ministers having gone
and seized the man, and beaten and beaten the man with their hands
and feet, took him near the King.

Thereupon the King asked at the hand of the man, "Didst thou take a
gold [and pearl] necklace in this manner?"

Then the man thought to himself, "Should I say that I did not take
this necklace, the King will behead me. Because of it, I must say
that I took it." Having thought this, he said, "I took it."

Then the King asked, "Where is it now?"

The man said, "I gave it to the Treasurer (sitano) of this city."

Afterwards the King having caused the Treasurer to be brought, asked,
"Did this man give thee a necklace?"

Thereupon the Treasurer thought to himself, "Should I say that he did
not give it to me, he will now behead this poor man. Because of it,
I must say that he gave it to me." Having thought this, he said,
"He gave it."

The King asked, "Where is the necklace now?"

Then the Treasurer said, "I gave it to a courtesan woman."

Afterwards the King caused the courtesan woman to be brought. "Did
this Treasurer give thee a necklace?"

Thereupon the courtesan woman thought to herself, "What will this be
about, that such a Treasurer said he gave me a necklace? Because of it,
it is bad to say he did not give it; I must say he gave it." Having
thought this, she said, "He gave it."

Then the King asked, "Where is it now?"

The courtesan woman says, "I gave it to the man who knows the science
of astrology (ganita saestara), or to the Gandargaya" (sic).

Afterwards the King having caused the Gandargaya to be brought, asked,
"Did this courtesan woman give thee a necklace?"

At that time the Gandargaya thought to himself, "What is this thing
that this woman said? It will be about something regarding which the
woman is unable to save herself. It is because of that [she will have
said] that I took it that day. Because of it, it is not good to say
she did not give me it; I must say she gave it." Having thought this
he said, "She gave it."

Well then, on that day it became night; there was no time to hear
the case. After that, the Ministers said, "Having put all these
four persons in one room, outside we must listen secretly to the
manner in which this party talk." The King gave permission [to act
accordingly]. Afterwards, the Ministers having put the four persons
in one room, and shut the door, stayed outside secretly listening.

Then firstly that Treasurer asked at the hand of that poor man,
"When didst thou give me a necklace? What is this thing thou saidst?"

Then the poor man says, "Ane! O Treasurer, I am a very poor man. Your
Honour is a very wealthy person. Because of it, in order that I
may save myself I said that I gave it to Your Honour. It was for
that. Otherwise, when did I give Your Honour a necklace?"

Afterwards that courtesan woman asked at the hand of the Treasurer,
"O Treasurer, when did you give me a necklace? What is this you said?"

Then the Treasurer says, "Thou, also, art a possessor of much
wealth. I also am a person who has much wealth. On account of it,
because we two can escape from this injury that has occurred [to us],
I said it. Otherwise, when did I give thee a necklace?"

Then the Gandargaya asked the woman, "What, woman, is this thing that
thou saidst? When didst thou give me a necklace?"

The courtesan woman says, "Ane! O Gandarvaya, [82] thou, having said
sooth, art a person who obtains much wealth. Because of it, as we,
having even paid the debt (the value of the necklace), can escape,
I said it. Otherwise, when did I give thee a necklace?"

Well then, the talk of the four persons was heard by the Ministers
who were secretly listening. That day, after it became light, taking
the four persons out, they took them near the King. The Ministers who
had listened in secret said to the King, "These four persons are not
the thieves."

Then the King asked the Ministers, "How did ye ascertain that they
are not thieves?"

The Ministers said, "We stayed listening in secret; by that we
ascertained."

The King said, "If so, who are the thieves who took this necklace?"

Then the Ministers said, "According to the way in which it appears to
us, maybe it is a thievish female Grey Monkey that is in the garden,
who took the necklace." The Ministers said, "You ought to set free
these four persons." After that, the King having released the four
persons sent them away.

Afterwards, the Ministers having gone to the garden, caught a male
Grey Monkey. [After] catching it they came to the palace, and having
sewn the jacket and breeches, and put the jacket on the Monkey,
and put the breeches [on it], and put flower garlands [on it],
and dressed the Monkey, and again sent the Monkey to the garden,
the Ministers remained looking on.

Then that thievish female Grey Monkey who took the necklace, having
seen the Monkey that had been clothed, went to the fork of the tree in
which she placed the necklace, and placing the necklace on her neck,
came outside.

These Ministers having seen it, the Ministers clapped their hands
[to frighten her]. At the time when they were saying "Hu," as that
female Grey Monkey was going jumping and jumping from tree to tree,
the necklace that was on the female Monkey's neck fell to the ground.

After that, the Ministers went, and picking it up, came to the royal
palace and presented it to the King. On account of it, the King having
become much pleased with the Ministers gave them many offices.


                                                 North-western Province.



This is evidently the Jataka story No. 92 (vol. i, p. 224), in which
the man who was first caught declared that he gave the necklace to the
Treasurer, who said that he passed it on to the Chaplain, who stated
that it was given to the Chief Musician, who said he handed it to the
Courtesan. To make the monkey produce and wear it, a number of bead
necklaces were placed on the necks, wrists and ankles of other monkeys
that were caught. In this story the last person charged totally denied
having received the necklace.

In A. von Schiefner's Tibetan Tales (Ralston), p. 181, the Queen
hung the necklace on a tree, whence a monkey stole it. A beggar who
was arrested first charged a merchant with receiving it from him,
and afterwards also, as accomplices, a courtesan, a lute player,
and the son of the Minister. The Minister got the King to release the
prisoners, and to take the Queen to the park wearing a necklace. When
she danced the monkey imitated her, and the necklace fell off its neck.

With reference to the remarks of the prisoners in the Sinhalese
version, that being wealthy persons they could escape by paying the
value of the missing necklace, a statement not found in the Jataka
story, Sirr, who was a Deputy Queen's Advocate in Ceylon, stated
in Ceylon and the Cingalese (1850), vol. ii., p. 231, that "theft
was punished by a fine equal to the value of the stolen property,
by flogging, and by imprisonment; or, if the thief immediately
restored the property, he was only flogged and paraded through the
village where the crime had been committed." According to Dr. Davy,
flogging and imprisonment were not always inflicted, however.

In the middle of the seventeenth century, according to Ribeiro,
"if the thief confessed his crime he was condemned to pay the
highest value of the article which satisfied the other party, and
as a penalty for his offence double its value to the Royal Treasury"
(History of Ceilão, translation by Pieris, 2nd ed., p. 152).



NO. 101

THE WIDOW WOMAN AND LOKU-APPUHAMI


At a village a Siti [83] widow-mother had a son having the name
Appuhami. That Loku-Appuhami, having seen that the men of that district
are gambling, came to his mother, and said, "Mother, the men of this
village are gambling. Having cooked rice during the day time give me
it, and a little money, for me to go to gamble," he said.

Then the woman says, "Ane! Son, whence is there money for us? You be
quiet," [84] she said.

The boy having heard the mother's word, through being unable to
gamble went outside the house. When going, this boy saw that two men
having been at the cattle herd near a tamarind tree, went away. Having
seen them, this boy went there and looked; when he looked two sallis
(half-farthings) had fallen down there.

After that, this boy having taken the two sallis, said to his mother,
"Mother, now then, cook and give me rice, to go to gamble," he said.

Hearing that, the old woman asked, "Whence is there money for you?"

Then the boy said, "There were two sallis for me at the root of the
tamarind tree; they will do for me," he said.

After that, the widow-mother having cooked rice dust, gave it. The boy
having eaten the rice, went to the gambling place. Having gone, he laid
down those two sallis, and told the men to play. The men did not play.

Then a youth of that very sort having been there played for it. Then
for the two sallis yet two sallis came. Next, he wagered (lit., held)
the whole four sallis. On that occasion, for those four sallis yet
four sallis came. In this manner he that day won a large amount.

Having won and gone from there, on the following day, also, he
came. Having come, and when playing that day having lost the money,
he played also on credit. Having played on credit, after he went away,
on the following day those creditors, through ill-feeling for him,
went in order to ask for the debts.

When they were going, this boy they call Loku-Appuhami was colouring a
cudgel in a good manner. Before that, he had said to his mother, [85]
"At first when the men come, when I am asking for betel and areka-nut,
you remain silent, looking on. Then I shall come and beat you [with
this cudgel]; then fall down as though you died. When I am calling you
a second time, do you, having gone into the house and dressed well,
like a good-looking young girl, bring the betel box," he said.

Well then, she did in that manner. When he did it (i.e., struck her)
the woman in that very way fell down. Having fallen, when she was
[there] that one (araya) again called her. Then [getting up and]
dressing well [inside the house] like a young girl, she takes a betel
box. When [she was] coming, those men who came to take the debts asked,
"What did you to your mother?" they asked.

Then he says, "I made her Tirihan," [86] he said. Having said it,
the man went into the house.

After he went into the house these men who came to take the debt,
thinking, "Ade! It is good for us also to make our women Tirihan;
we don't want this debt," and taking that cudgel, bounded off.

When they were bounding off, that Loku-Appuhami having quickly
(wijahata) sprung out and called those persons (arunta) says,
"Ade! You are taking it; that is right. Beat seven persons, and put
them into one house (room), and remain without opening the door until
the time when seven days are going, [for them] to become Tirihan,"
he said. Having heard him the party went.

Having gone, and having beaten seven persons, and put them into one
house, when they were there seven days blue-flies began to go over
the walls of the house. Then this party say, "It is indeed because
they have become Tirihan that the blue-flies are going." Having said
[this] they looked; when they looked all had died.

After that, they came in order to seize Loku-Appuhami. Having come they
seized him; seizing him, and having placed his arms behind his back
and tying him, they went to throw him into the river. Having gone,
there was a travellers' shed near the river; having tied him at the
post of the travellers' shed, those men went outside, and went away
[temporarily].

After they went, a Moorman, taking a drove of laden pack-bulls
(tavalama), went near the travellers' shed. When going, having
seen that man who is tied to the post, this Moorman asks, "Why,
Loku-Appuhami, are you caught and tied to that tree?"

"Ane! Tambi-elder-brother, because I have lumbago I am tied."

Then he says, "Ane! Loku-Appu, I also have lumbago. Because of it,
catch and tie me also to that tree," he says.

Then Loku-Appu said, "If so, unfasten me."

After that, the Tambi having come, unfastened him. After he unfastened
him, Loku-Appuhami having caught him, and placed him at the tree,
and tied him, went away, driving the drove of pack-bulls.

After he went, those men having come, when they looked he was the
Tambi. Then those men say, "Ade! Loku-Appuhami took the appearance
of a Moorman!" Having spoken together, and seized that Moorman,
they put him into the river and went away.

Then Loku-Appuhami, taking that Moorman's drove of pack-bulls, goes
through the midst of those men's houses. When [he was] going, a woman
said to the men, "Look there! Loku Appuhami who went to be thrown
into the river,--On! he is bringing a drove of pack-bulls!" she said.

Then a man, being in the house, said, "Strumpet, don't thou tell
lies." Scolding her in this manner, the man also came out and looked;
when he looked, in very truth (haebaewatama) he is coming! After that,
he asked, "Loku-Appuhami, whence (kohendae) are you bringing that
drove of pack-bulls and the goods?"

Then Loku-Appuhami said, "Having gone to the bottom of the water
in the river, when I looked these were [there]. After that, having
looked out a good one from them (i.e., a good drove of bulls),
[after] selecting it I came away," he said.

Having heard that word, the party, as many as stayed at home, said,
"We also having gone there, put us into the river to bring an excellent
[87] bit of pack-bull drove."

Having said, "It is good," calling the party, Loku-Appuhami put a
person into the water. Then, having gone into the water, when dying
he made a sound, "Boka, Boka," [88] and dust came to the surface.

Then the party who stayed on the bank asked, "What, Loku-Appuhami,
is that?"

Loku-Appuhami says, "That is [because] he is finding excellent droves
of pack-bulls."

Then the other persons, also, who were on the bank, said, "If so,
put us in also, to select good droves of pack-bulls and come."

After that, he put that party in also. In that very way the whole of
the persons went and died in the river.

Loku-Appuhami having returned, taking all the goods that were in
those persons' houses, went to those persons' houses. Having gone,
he became rich to a good degree (honda haetiyata).


                                                 North-western Province.



This story is another version of the tales numbered 9 and 12 in vol. i,
at the end of which the outlines of some variants are given.

There is also a Khassonka story of West Africa extremely like
the later incidents of No. 10, in Contes Soudanais (C. Monteil),
p. 67. When his mother continually interrupted a young thief who was
being questioned by a King, the son stabbed her with his dagger, in
reality merely piercing a bottle of ox's blood which was concealed
under her cloth. She fell down, the blood poured out, and she seemed
to be dead. The son then, uttering spells, three times sprinkled the
deceased's face with a cow's tail dipped in water. She recovered, and
the son sold the cow's tail to the King for two thousand slaves. When
the King cut the throat of his favourite wife and failed to restore
her to life, he ordered the thief to be thrown into the river sewn
up in an ox-hide. While the slaves who carried him left their bundle
on the roadside, the thief, hearing the voices of a pious Muhammadan
priest and his pupils and servants, began to cry out that he preferred
a life on earth to one in Paradise. The priest opened the skin,
and learning that the youth was being forcibly taken to Paradise,
gladly exchanged places with him, and was drowned. The thief then
took some gold that he found in the priest's house, and reported to
the King that the King's father had sent him with it for the King,
adding that there was much more to be got in Paradise. The King gave
him half the gold, and got himself and his relatives sewn up in hides
and thrown into the deepest part of the river. As they did not return
the people made the thief King.



NO. 102

THE DECOCTION OF EIGHT NELLI FRUITS [89]


In a certain country there is a Vedarala. The Vedarala is a person
possessing the knowledge of medical practice, a very clever person
at telling prognostics (nimiti kimen). There is also a child of
the Vedarala's.

During the time while they are thus, the boy one day came running near
the Vedarala, and said, "Ane! Father, you have been learning so much;
you are now dying. Now then, where is your learning that you have
taught me?" and he began to cry.

After that, [the Vedarala] was not [sufficiently] conscious to tell
him anything. While he was about to die, just as he was saying,
"Ane! Son, you will have the decoction of eight Nelli [fruits]----"
the Vedarala died.

He having died, after a little time went by, a man's yoke of buffaloes
were lost. After that, the man (minissa) speaks, "Ane! What shall
I do? If the Vedarala were [here], he would look at the prognostics
[to ascertain] on which hand the yoke of buffaloes went, and he would
tell me. It is indeed to our loss that the Vedarala is lost." In that
manner he spoke a word.

Then one man who was present said, "Why are you saying thus? That
Vedarala's son is [there]. Go and look for him, and ask it of him."

After that, the man, having gone to the tree and plucked betel leaves,
came in the manner in which they came before near the big Vedarala
also, and having given betel leaves and money, asked that boy, "How,
Vedarala, have my yoke of buffaloes been lost? On account of it you
must look at the prognostics."

Then the boy said regarding it, "Taking eight Nelli fruits, beat them
and pour water [over them]; and having made a decoction, and made rock
salt into powder, and put it in, and poured castor-oil in, drink it,
and go and seek the yoke of buffaloes. Then they will be found,"
he said.

Afterwards the man came home, and taking eight Nelli fruits, and having
beaten them, and poured water [on them], made a decoction; and having
made rock salt into powder, and put it in, and poured castor-oil in,
drank it in the morning, and went to seek the lost cattle.

When going a little far the man began to [experience the purgative
effect of the medicine in a severe manner]. As he was going in the
chena jungle he met with a pool. The man, washing his hands and feet
at the pool, and sitting at noon near a tree at the pool because of
the severity of the treatment, remained looking about.

While he was looking about for a little time, the yoke of buffaloes,
having stayed in that chena jungle and being thirsty, came there
and drank water from that pool. While they were drinking, the man
went to them, and catching the yoke of buffaloes, took them to the
village. Having gone [there] he ate rice, and the [action of the
medicine] ceased. On the following day, the man, tying up a pingo
(carrying-stick) load and going with it, gave many presents to the
Vedarala's boy.

When a little time had passed, war having been made on the King of
that country, and as still [another] King was coming to seize the
country, because there were not people [left] to fight the King was
in much fear.

While he was thus, that man whose cattle having been lost were found,
went and said, "O Lord, Your Majesty, the Vedarala's son, a small
Vedarala indeed, somehow or other having made a stratagem on account
of that, will do something so that they will not fight."

After that, the King having sent men, asked for a device for it. On
account of it, he said that everybody who was in the city should
drink the decoction of eight Nellis.

Thereupon, all in the city having made the decoction, and put in the
rock salt and castor-oil, drank it that very night. Having drunk it,
the whole of the people having entered the city, while they were
sleeping all became [obliged] to go out. The men who stayed in the
city would be about a hundred.

At the city there is a small window at the back, called "the dark
window" (aendiri kawla). From that window each one began to go out
ten or twelve times to the open ground.

The King who was coming to the city for the war, had sent spies to
the city to look if [many] people are there. While the spies stayed
looking at this, it was like a wonder. If there was not one, there
was another went out until the time when it became light.

Having said, "Leaving [out of consideration] the multitude who went
out, how many people are there not in the city still! This war does
not matter to us; because of it let us go away," all the men whom
the King sent went away. After that, having said, "There are too many
people at this city," through fear he did not come for the war.

After that, the King of this city having given to the Vedarala's son
many villages, fields, silver and gold, established him in the post
of Minister. Thereafter, having been a soothsayer who bore a name
just like that one's father, he was a very wealthy person.


                                                 North-central Province.



The "rock salt" (sahida-lunu) would be salt in crystals, this being
the state in which the salt is collected in Ceylon after the water
has evaporated.



NO. 103.

THE PRINCE AND PRINCESS AND TWO DEVATAWAS


At a certain time, in the [Sun] Rising world, [90] a Prince was
born. In the [Sun] Setting world [91] a Princess was born. When in
the Rising world a Devatawa, and in the Setting world a Devatawi were
coming to hear Bana (the Buddhist sacred writings), the Devatawa
saw the Prince and the Devatawi saw the Princess. On that day, the
Devatawa and the Devatawi, both of them, came later than on other days.

The Devatawa asked the Devatawi, "Thou not having come [92] at the time
when thou camest on other days, why hast thou delayed so much to-day?"

Thereupon the Devatawi said, "I saw a Princess. As there is not in
this world a beautiful Princess who is equal to the Princess, having
stayed looking at the Princess I was delayed."

Then the Devatawa [said], "Not like the Princess whom thou sawest,
I saw a Prince possessing beauty to the degree which is not in this
world. Because of it, having stayed looking at the Prince, I delayed
so much." Well then, the Devatawa says, "The Prince whom I saw is
more beautiful than the Princess whom thou sawest." The Devatawi says,
"The Princess whom I saw is more beautiful than the Prince whom thou
sawest." Having said [this], the two had a quarrel there.

The Devatawa said, "When it is the time the Princess whom thou sawest
is sleeping, for the purpose of looking if the Princess's beauty is
more or the Prince's beauty is more, taking her together with even her
bed while she is asleep, come thou to the place where this Prince is."

Accepting the word, the Devatawi having brought the Princess, deposited
her together with even the bed, near the place where the Prince has
gone to sleep.

After that, the Devatawa and Devatawi say, "We will now test the
beauty of these two thus," that is, it was [settled] that when they
have awakened these two from sleep, the beauty is the less of the
person who first salutes, honours, and pays respects [to the other].

Well then, by the Devatawa the Prince was awakened. But the Prince
[having seen the Princess] thinks, "It will be a thing that these
parents of mine have done for the purpose of getting to know my motives
in not marrying." Having put on the Princess's finger the jewelled ring
that was on the Prince's hand, and putting the jewelled ring that was
on the Princess's hand on the Prince's finger, not looking on that
side, having looked on the other side (i.e., in another direction)
he went to sleep.

Thereafter awaking the Princess, she saluted and paid honours and
respects to the Prince. Still the quarrel of the Devatawi and Devatawa
not being allayed, for the purpose of looking which of their two
words is right and which wrong, they summoned another Devatawa.

The Devatawa having come, says, "Do not ye allow this quarrel to occur;
the two persons are of equal beauty."

Afterwards the Devatawa tells the Devatawi, "Please bring the Princess
to her city, and place her [as before]," he said. The Devatawi did so.

Afterwards, in the morning the Prince having arisen, not knowing
this wonder that had happened, with the thought that it was done by
his father the King, not eating, not drinking, he began to beg his
father the King, and the Ministers, to give him the Princess.

Thereupon, his father the King and the other persons, having thought,
"Whence did we [bring and] place [there] this Princess of whom we are
told! Through a malady's causing this to this Prince, he is babbling,"
began to apply medical treatment.

The Princess, just like that, not eating, not drinking, began to beg
for the Prince whom the Princess saw. Therefore her parents, just
like that, to her also began to apply medical treatment. Vedaralas
(doctors) having come, say, "We are unable to cure this malady." But
one Vedarala said, "I can cure this malady."

When he asked the Prince about the malady, the Prince [said], "I have
no malady at all; but not obtaining the Princess whom I saw on the
night of such and such a day is my malady."

When he asked, "What mark of it have you, Sir?" the Prince said,
"The ring that was on her hand,--look here, it is on my hand; the
ring that was on my hand is on her hand."

Well then, the Veda says, "In whatever country the Princess is I will
bring her. You, Sir, without troubling [yourself], eat and drink,
and be good enough to remain in pleasure." Thereupon a very great
delight was produced for the Prince; the malady disappeared.

Afterwards the Veda, taking the ring that was on the Prince's hand,
and having gone from city to city successively, entered into the very
city at which she alighted. At that time, the inhabitants of the city
[said], "Our King's daughter has a malady."

The Vedarala having heard it, when he asked, "What manner of illness
is that malady?" the inhabitants say, "'Should I not obtain the Prince
who was seen at night by me, my life will be lost,' the Princess says."

Thereupon the Vedarala says, "I am able to cure the malady." [They
informed the King accordingly.]

Thereupon the King having given (promised) him several great offices,
went summoning the Vedarala to the palace. Then the Vedarala asks
the Princess, "What is the malady which has come to you?"

When he said it, "Not obtaining the Prince whom I saw at night,
indeed, is my malady," she replied. Then when the Vedatema (doctor)
showed the ring that he took, with the quickness with which she saw
the ring the malady became cured.

Afterwards the Vedatema says [to the King], "Even should this malady
be [apparently] cured in this manner, yet afterwards she may behave
arrogantly. Because of it, there is my Preceptor [whom I must call
in]. Having come with him, I must still apply medical treatment for
this malady."

After that, the King having said, "It is good," and having given him
presents and distinctions, allowed him to go. The Vedarala having
returned, went [back] with that Prince. After that, the two persons
saw and married each other.

When they had been [there] a little time, the two persons having
come away for the purpose of seeing the Prince's two parents, when
they were coming on the road, while she was sleeping near a river,
suffering from weariness, the mouth of the Princess's box of ornaments
having been opened by the Prince, he remained looking in it. A talisman
[93] of the Princess's was there. A bird having carried the talisman
aloft, began to go away with it. Thereupon the Prince began to go
after the bird; after he had gone on a very distant unfrequented
road, it became jungly (walmat), and being unable to find the path
[on which he had come], he went to another city.

As the Princess was afraid to go to seek the quarter to which the
Prince went, putting on the Prince's clothes she went to another
city. Having gone to the city, when she went near the King, the
King asked what was the work she could do. This Princess says,
"I can teach the arts and sciences."

Thereupon the King appointed the [apparent] Prince to teach the
Princesses, and when ships came from foreign countries to take charge
of them [and examine their cargoes],--all these things. And the King,
thinking this person is a Prince, married [to her] and gave her a
Princess of the King's. Afterwards, not concealing from the Princess
that she is a Princess, and the manner in which she is seeking her
husband the Prince, she told her not to make it known; and she also
concealed it in that very way.

The Prince, on the journey on which he went to seek the ornament,
having joined a man of another city, remained doing work for
wages. While he was in that condition, when two birds were fighting,
one having split open the stomach of the other threw it down. When
the Prince looked at it, the ornament that he sought having been
[in it], he met with it.

From the country in which is the Prince, ships go to the country in
which is the Princess. The gardener [under whom he worked] having
obtained and given goods to the Prince, the Prince, taking the
Princess's talisman and having put it in a box, [94] was about to go
[in a ship] for the sale of the goods. But a little before he was
coming away, they sent word that an illness had befallen the gardener,
and when he went to look [at him] the ships went away.

At that time the ships went to the other city. Afterwards, at the
time when [the Princess] was examining the goods of the ships she
met with this ornament. When she asked, "Whose are these goods?" on
their saying they were those of such and such a gardener's labourer,
she confiscated the goods until they brought him.

Afterwards the sailors, having gone back, brought him. After that,
having caused him to bathe in scented sandal water, and [the King]
having appointed him to the sovereignty, marrying both the Princesses
he remained [there].


                 P B. Madahapola, Ratemahatmaya, North-western Province.



This story is evidently that found in the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's
ed., vol. 2, p. 307), and termed there "Tale of Kamar al-Zaman,"
although in some details it adheres more closely to a story given in
the Katha Sarit Sagara. In the Arabian Nights, the father of the Prince
was King of the Khalidan Islands--(stated to be the Canaries)--and
the Princess's father was the King of "the Islands of the Inland Sea
in the parts of China." A Jinn Princess saw and admired the Prince,
who had been imprisoned for refusing to marry; and an Ifrit saw the
Princess, and by the order of the Jinn Princess brought her while
asleep (without the bed) and laid her beside the sleeping Prince. At
the suggestion of an Ifrit whom they summoned to decide their dispute
as to which was the more beautiful, they awoke first the Prince and
then, when he was asleep, the Princess, each of whom took the other's
finger ring. The Princess was then carried back. Next day the two were
thought to be insane, and they were kept in prison for three years. The
Princess's foster-brother found the Prince, cured him by telling him
about the Princess, and returned with him. He visited the Princess
disguised as an astrologer; she at once recovered, and her father
gave her in marriage to the Prince, as well as the rule over half the
kingdom. The rest of the story agrees closely with that given above.

The Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 209, contains a
story which seems to be the Indian original of the first part of
the tale. The second part relating to the loss and recovery of the
talisman, appears to be an evident addition, since the first part is
a complete tale by itself. The Indian story is as follows:--

At the orders of the God Ganesa, the Ganas his attendants transported
Prince Sridarsana of Malava (without his bed), while asleep, to
Hansadwipa, an island in the Western Sea, and placed him on the bed
on which the King's daughter lay asleep. He awoke, thought it a dream,
nudged her shoulder, and she awoke. When they had exchanged ornaments,
the Ganas stupefied them and carried back the Prince. Next day the
Prince's father, after hearing his story, issued a proclamation,
but could not discover where Hansadwipa was. The Princess's father
ascertained the facts by means of the power of contemplation possessed
by an ascetic, who went "in a moment" by his mystical power to Malava,
cured a madman by the touch of his hand, and was requested to restore
the Prince to happiness. He carried him back to Hansadwipa, and after
the two lovers were married conveyed them both to Malava, where the
Prince eventually succeeded to the throne.

In The Story of Madana Kama Raja (Natesa Sastri), p. 29, a Prince by
means of a magic ring caused a Princess to be transported to him while
asleep on her bed. They agreed to be married, and he then sent her
back to her own room in the same way. On the following day she told
her father that she had dreamt of this Prince and had determined to
marry him. A few days afterwards the Prince's Ministers arrived to ask
her hand in marriage, and when the Prince went there they were married.

In Folklore of the Santal Parganas (Rev. Dr. Bodding), p. 299,
a Prince who refused to marry was imprisoned by his father. Three
Bongas (deities) saw him, the wife of the Bonga chief proposed to
give him a bride, and during the next night he found a Bonga maiden
sitting beside him when he awoke. They exchanged rings, were seen by
the warders, who informed the Raja, and they were married.



NO. 104

CONCERNING THE PRINCE AND THE PRINCESS WHO WAS SOLD


In a certain country there was the son of a King. He gave charge of him
to a teacher, and told him to teach the son. On the day on which he
was handed over he was not there. On the following day, only, having
gone to the school, after that having said he was going to school he
went to the high road, and during the whole day-time [95] having been
eating and eating kaju [nuts] in the evening he comes home and says
that he went to school. A single person does not know of this deceit.

In this manner, while two or three years are going he did thus. The
teacher also did not give information to the King about this matter.

He not giving it, one day the King to look into this Prince's learning
wrote a letter and placed it on the table. After that lying Prince
came, having said that he went to school, [the King], with the view
that "If he was learning it is good for me to ascertain easily by
[means of] letters," said, "Son, on that table there is a letter. I
omitted (baeri-wuna) to look at it. Break it [open] and look what
the letter is."

Thereupon the Prince, having broken [open] the letter and looked at it,
said, "Ane! Father, except that in this there are a sort of strokes
and strokes, and a sort of drops, I indeed cannot perceive anything."

Then the King having become angry at the teacher sent him a letter. The
teacher having looked at the King's letter, sent a letter thus:
"Ane! O King, except that you, Sir, handed over your son, I have not
even yet seen the Prince after that."

Thereupon the King having said, "We do not want the disobedient son,"
caused the executioners to be brought, and having said, "Having taken
him and gone into the midst of the forest, you must behead him,"
gave him [to them].

At that time the Prince's Mother-Queen said to the executioners,
"Don't kill him"; and having spoken to them and given a hundred
thousand masuran to the Prince, and said, "Without having come
bounding into this country again, go you to another country and get
your livelihood," sent him away.

As the Prince was going away to another country, he saw that four
persons, holding a man who is dead, are dragging him to the four sides,
and he asked, "Ane! You are tormenting that dead man! Why?"

Then the men [said], "We four men are to get four hundred masuran
from this man. [For us] to let him go, will you give the four hundred
masuran?" they asked.

Thereupon this Prince, having seen the torment they were causing to the
dead body, said, "It is good"; and having given four hundred masuran
to the four men, and further having given five hundred masuran, and
caused the corpse to be buried, the Prince went away. That dead man
having gone, was [re]born, and became a fish in the sea.

When this Prince went from that city to another city, he saw that
on account of a want of money the King was selling a Princess and
two Princes of the King of the city; and this Prince having become
inclined to take that Princess asked the price for the Princess. The
King said, "It is a thousand masuran." Then when the Prince looked
at the account of the masuran which he had, except that there were a
thousand masuran by account, there was not even one in excess. [96]
After that, having been considering and considering it, he gave the
thousand masuran, and taking the Princess, went away. That this Prince
is a royal Prince no one knows.

Then this Prince, calling the Princess also, went to a house at which
washermen stayed. The washermen asked, "Where are ye going?"

Thereupon the Princess and Prince said, "We are going to a place
where they give to eat and to wear."

Then the washermen, in order to take [them for] work for them, said,
"It is good. If so, remain ye here." Thereupon the two persons
stayed there.

When they were [there] not much time, the washermen, thinking,
"What are we giving to eat to these two for?" said, "Go ye to any
quarter ye want."

At that time, the young Prince and Princess [97] having gone to yet
[another] garden, building a stick house [there], this Prince having
told that Princess to be in the house went and plucked coconuts
during the whole day-time (dawal tisse). Taking the coconuts given
as his hire (baelagedi), and having given them at the shop, in the
evening procuring two gills of rice and the requisite things for it
he comes back.

When he brought them, what does that Princess do? Each day she put
away at the rate of half a gill from the rice, and cooked the other
things; and having given to the Prince also, and the Princess also
having eaten, in this manner, when three or four days had gone, the
rice that she put away was collected [sufficient] for eating at still
a meal or two.

Then the Princess said to the Prince, "Elder brother, [in exchange]
for the things you obtain to-day not getting anything [else], bring a
cubit of cloth, and thread, and a needle." Thereupon, having given the
coconuts obtained that day he brought a cubit of cloth, and thread,
and a needle.

After he brought them, having eaten and drunk in the evening, and
spread and given the mat for the Prince to sleep on, what does this
Princess do? Having cut the cubit of cloth, and put sewing on it worth
millions (koti ganan) of masuran, she sewed a handkerchief. Having
sewn it, and finished as it became light, she said to that Prince,
"Elder brother, give this, and not stating a price, asking for only
what the shopkeeper gave [for such an article] bring that."

Thereupon the Prince, taking the handkerchief, went to three or four
shops. The shopkeepers said, "We have no words [to say] regarding
taking that handkerchief."

At that time there was still a great shop; to it he took it. The
shopkeepers, taking the handkerchief, having seen the marvel of it,
asked, "For this handkerchief how much?"

Then this Prince said, "I cannot state a price for that. Please give
the price that you give."

Thereupon the shopkeepers having said, "Take as much rice and
vegetables as you can," after he got them gave also a hundred thousand
masuran.

This Prince taking them and having returned, those two persons remained
eating and drinking.

In those days the King who sold the Princess made a proclamation by
beat of tom-toms, [98] that is, "If there should be a person who came
[after] finding my Princess, having married the Princess to him I
will decorate him with the royal crown."

Thereupon the King's Minister having said, "I can come [after]
finding her; I want time for three months, and a handkerchief that
the Princess sewed," asked for [the handkerchief]. The King gave it.

Then the Minister also having come by sea, landed at the city at
which this Princess and Prince stay. Having come there, he showed
and showed that handkerchief at the shops, while asking, "Are there
handkerchiefs of this kind?"

The shopkeepers who got that handkerchief said, "Here; we have one,"
and showed it.

Thereupon the Minister asked at the hand of the shopkeepers, "Who
gave this handkerchief?"

The shopkeepers said, "Behold. The man who stays at the house in the
lower part of that garden brought and gave it."

So having gone near the house, when he looked only the Princess was
[there], not the Prince. Having said at the hand of the Princess,
"Your father the King said to you [that you are] to go with me,"
he showed the handkerchief.

Thereupon the Princess said, "No. It is not father who provided
subsistence for me for so much time. There is a person who provided
my livelihood. Because of it, unless I ask from him and go, without
[doing so] I will not go." At that time the Prince came.

After he came this Princess said to the Prince, "Elder brother,
my father the King having said that I am to go, has sent this
Minister. What do you say about it?" she asked.

The Prince said, "If you will go, go; if you will be [here], stay. It
is [according to] any wish of yours."

Then the Princess spoke, "Don't say so, elder brother. Except that
if you told me to stay I will stay, and if you told me to go I will
go, for the word of my father the King I will not go. Because of it,
let the whole three of us go."

Thereupon the Prince also having said, "It is good," the whole three
having embarked began to go. While going thus, except that the Princess
and Prince remain on one side, and that Minister on one side, they do
not allow him to approach them. The Minister is much annoyed about it.

They went six days on the sea. On the whole six days, having said that
the Minister will put into peril and kill the Prince, the Princess
without sleeping remains simply looking on when the Prince has gone
to sleep. In that way, on the seventh day after they embarked, the
Princess being sleepy could not bear up, and said to the Prince,
"Elder brother, during the time while I sleep a little you remain
awake." Having said [this], the Princess went to sleep.

The Prince having been awake a little time, through the manner of
his reclining went to sleep. Thereupon this Minister having awoke,
when he looked having perceived that both were asleep, quickly rolled
the Prince into the sea.

Just as he was thus rolling him over, that dead man having become
a fish and having been [there], came and seized him behind. Having
thus seized him, placing him on its back the fish asked at the hand
of the Prince, "What will you give me to put you ashore?"

Then the Prince said, "I have not a thing to give now. From the [first]
things that I obtain afterwards I will give you a half part." Thereupon
the fish brought him and put him ashore. Afterwards the Prince went
to the Princess's city.

[Having landed], that Minister said to the Princess, "Let us go to
the palace."

Thereupon the Princess said, "I will not go with thee. Tell thou my
father to come." So the Minister having gone, told the King to come.

Thereupon the King came. At that time that Prince also stayed near,
so that he should be visible to the Princess.

The Princess, having seen the Prince, asked, "Father, in this country
how are the laws now regarding journeys?"

The King said, "What, daughter, are you saying that for? They are
just like [they were] when you were [here]."

Thereupon the Princess said, "At the time when you were sending
letters to me, my elder brother who gave me food and clothing, and
I, and the Minister, having embarked came away. My elder brother who
provided subsistence for me was lost. You must make inquiry about it
in a thorough manner."

Then the King having made inquiry and looked [into the matter], getting
to know that the Minister threw him into the sea, [found that] unless
he beheads the Minister there was nothing else [to do]. Because of it,
he commanded them to behead the Minister. After that they beheaded him.

Then, this Princess first marrying the Prince himself, he appointed
the Prince to the sovereignty.

Well then, when they are there no long time, the two persons went
to the sea to bathe. At that time that fish having come, seizing
the Prince's leg asked, "Where is the charge you undertook for me
that day?"

This Princess having heard it, asked, "What does it say?"

Thereupon the Prince said, "When I was falling into the sea that day,
this fish, taking me on its back, asked at my hand, 'What will you
give [me] to put you on shore?' Then I said, 'From the things that I
obtain first I will give a [half] share.' That share it now asks for."

At that time the Princess having given into the Prince's hand the sword
that was on the shore, said, "It is I whom you obtained first. Because
of it, having split a [half] share off me give it to the fish."

Then the fish said, "No need of it for me. This Prince one day
has expended one thousand (sic) four hundred masuran over a dead
body. Please say you do not want that debt. [I was that dead body]."

Thereupon the Prince said, "I do not want the debt."

After that, the fish having completely let go went away. The
Prince-King and the Princess-Queen, both of them, [after] bathing
came to the palace.


                               Finished.

                                                 North-western Province.



In the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed., vol. v, p. 304), Princess
Miriam, daughter of the King of France, who had been in a vessel that
was captured, was offered for sale in Alexandria, and was bought
by a youth for a thousand gold dinars (about £500), all the money
he had. Each night she knitted a silk girdle, which he sold in the
morning for twenty gold dinars. While he was wearing on his head a
beautiful silk handkerchief worked by her, the work was recognised
by a Minister sent by the French King in search of her. He bought it
for a thousand dinars, and gave a feast at which he made the youth
drunk and induced him to sell the Princess for ten thousand dinars;
she was carried back to France, and married to the Minister. After
some adventures while the youth was endeavouring to carry her off,
the two lovers escaped to Baghdad, and were formally married by the
Khalif. With her own hand she killed the Minister when he came to
demand her return to France.

Sir R. F. Burton agreed with Dr. Bacher that this story is based on
a legend of Charlemagne's daughter Emma and his secretary Eginhardt
(vol. vi, p. 290). Notwithstanding its resemblance to this tale, the
Sinhalese story may be an independent one. The account of the Princess
who works a jacket or scarf occurs in Nos. 8 and 248, in which, also,
the sale led to her abduction. In a variant, robbers carried her off
and sold her for a thousand masu.



NO. 105

THE PRINCESS HETTIRALA


In a certain country there are a King and a Queen, it is said. There is
also a Prince (son) of those two persons. Having given seven thousand
masuran, a Princess was brought, and given to the Prince by the King
and Queen.

The Prince that night having spoken to the Princess, told her to warm
a little water and give him it. To that having said, "I will not,"
the Princess went to sleep. On that account, next morning the Prince
went and sent away the Princess.

After that, again having given seven thousand masuran, and brought
yet [another] Princess, they gave [her to him]. In that very way
having told that Princess to warm water, because she did not warm
it he went and sent her away. Thus in that manner having brought six
Princesses, because they did not warm water in the night he sent away
the whole six.

After that, having given ten thousand masuran, and come summoning
yet a Princess, they gave [her to him]. That Princess at the time
when the Prince told her, having warmed water gave it.

Well then, while he is causing the days to pass with much affection
for the Princess, the whole of the men of that country became ready
to go to Puttalam. This Prince also having thought of going, when
he asked [permission] at the hand of the King, the King and Queen,
both of them, said, "Don't go. If you eat the things that are here and
stop [here], it will be sufficient for you. They go to Puttalam near
the city of the courtesan woman. When they are going away from there
the courtesan woman catches and takes them, having said, 'Don't even
go.'" They said many things.

But the Prince without hearkening to it went away to Puttalam with the
men. Having gone, he went to the city of the courtesan woman. Then
certain men having been there, said, "Here, indeed, is the tavalam
place [99]; throw down the sacks." Well then, this party threw down
the sacks.

Having thrown down the sacks, when they were becoming ready to cook,
the courtesan woman having come, said, "Don't you cook; I am preparing
food for all." The woman, however many persons should come, gives
food to the whole of them.

That night, also, having prepared food for these people, and called
them to the house, and apportioned the cooked rice and given it, she
said, "Having eaten this cooked rice and eaten betel, should my cat
be holding the light at the time when it is becoming finished, this
multitude, the cattle, and the sacks are mine. Should it be unable
[to do] thus, my city, people, cattle, sacks, and all my goods are
yours," she wagered and promised.

This multitude having become pleased at it, began to eat the cooked
rice. When they began, the cat came, and sitting down in the midst
of the multitude remained holding the light. Having eaten both
the cooked rice and the betel, because at the time when they were
finishing it remained holding the light, the multitude, the cattle,
the sacks, became attached [100] to the courtesan woman (i.e., became
her property).

This multitude being unable to go away, a number of years went by. The
Princess's parents having ascertained that that Prince's Princess is
living alone, without the Prince, the two came to go away with the
Princess. That King and Queen (the Prince's parents), having said
that on the top of the sorrow at the loss of the Prince they cannot
send away the Princess also, were much agitated. But the Princess's
parents without listening to it, joining with the Princess went to
the Princess's country.

Well then, the Princess, for the purpose of bringing the Prince,
spoke to the men of the Princess's country: "Let us go to Puttalam."

The men said, "Having gone away to Puttalam, so many persons were
caught at the courtesan woman's city so many years ago; if, again,
we also go and should be caught, how shall we come back? We will not."

Thereupon the Princess said, "Without your becoming caught, I will
save you; without fear do you become ready to go with me." After that,
many persons got ready.

The Princess having cut a long bamboo stick, and cleaned it inside,
caught seven mice and put them in it; and having caught a few frogs
and put them in it for food for the mice, closed both ends and put a
little polish on the outside. The Princess having dressed in Hetti
dress, taking that staff made the name [for it], having said that
the name was "tavalam staff."

Well then, this Hettirala (the Princess) went away to Puttalam with
those many persons. Having gone, when they came to the city of the
courtesan woman, certain men having been [there] said, "Here, indeed,
is the tavalama place; throw down the sacks."

Well then, having thrown down the sacks, when they were becoming ready
to cook, the courtesan woman came and said, "I am preparing food for
you also; don't cook;" and in the very manner [in which she behaved]
to that first party, gave rice and made the promise.

When this party were eating cooked rice, the cat, sitting in the midst
of this party, is holding the lamp. [101] This Princess who was the
Hettirala, having opened one side (end) of the tavalama staff, sent two
mice to go near the cat's head. The cat, not having even opened its
eyes, did not look [at them]. This Princess sent still two mice. At
that also it did not awake and look; silently it remained holding
the light. Then she sent the other three mice. Instantly the cat,
having let go the lamp, sprang to catch the mice.

Well then, the city, the multitude of the city, the cattle, the sacks,
and the whole of the goods became the property of the Princess. Well
then, the Princess having told about this to the Princess's Prince
also, and having started off that party [who accompanied her] to the
Princess's country, the Prince and Princess went with the party from
the Prince's country.

When they were coming along to the Prince's country, the Prince's
mother and the King too, remained weeping and weeping under a tree
in the rice field, wearing a sort of ugly clothes, the hair of the
head unfastened and hanging down, and mucus trickling down, filthy
to the extent that they could not look at them.

The Prince and Princess having seen from very far that these two
are [there], dressed themselves. But the two persons were unable to
recognise the Prince and Princess. Having come very near they asked
the King and Queen, "What are you weeping there for?"

Thereupon, the two say, "There was only a single son of ours. There
is news that that son, having gone away to Puttalam, has been caught
at the courtesan woman's city. Now then, we have nobody; because of
it we are weeping."

Thereupon these two persons said, "Well then, what shall we do about
that? Will you give us a resting-place in your kingdom?" they asked.

Then these two persons having said, "We can," and having gone summoning
them to the palace, gave them the resting-place. This Princess,
taking off the Hetti clothes, and the Prince, having put on other
clothes in such a manner that they can recognise them, and having
summoned the King and Queen, the Princess told all this account from
the top to the root, and having said, "Behold! Your Prince is [here],"
she handed him over to them.

Thereupon, this King and Queen having prepared sandal milk, [102]
and caused the Prince and Princess to bathe in it, gave charge of
the King's kingdom to the Princess; and in that very palace these
four persons passed the time in a good manner.


                                                 North-western Province.



In Folk-Tales of Kashmir (Knowles), 2nd ed., p. 149, a woman who kept
a gambling house was accustomed to win from everyone by the aid of
her cat, which brushed against the lamp and extinguished it when the
play was going against her. A young woman whose husband had in this
way lost everything he possessed, and who had lost his liberty also,
went in search of him, bribed the servants to tell her the secret of
the gambling woman's success, and then went to play disguised as a
man, having a mouse concealed in her sleeve. When the cat approached
the lamp she released the mouse, which was chased by the cat. In the
meantime she won back all that her husband lost.

In Folklore of the Santal Parganas (collected by Dr. Bodding), p. 115,
a Prince while travelling was robbed of all his belongings by a Raja,
and became a labourer. His wife, hearing of it, went to the same place,
and it was settled that the person towards whom the Raja's cat jumped
should possess the wealth taken from the Prince. The Princess had
taken a mouse with her, and kept partly uncovering it and covering
it again with her shawl. When the cat was released it sprang towards
her to seize the mouse, so she regained the property.

In Folk-Tales of Tibet (O'Connor), p. 39, a young man bet a person at
whose house he halted that when it became night a cat would not carry
a lantern into the room. Each person wagered all his property. The
landlord's cat being trained to bring in the lantern, he won the
wager, and the man became his servant. His wife came in search of him
disguised as a man. She made the usual bet, got her husband to conceal
in his bosom a box containing three mice, and to release these in turn
when the cat approached. The cat allowed the first two to run off,
but dropped the lantern and chased the last one. The man and his wife
returned home with all the landlord's goods as well as their own.



NO. 106

THE MAEHIYALLE-GAMA PRINCESS


In a certain city there are seven elder brothers and younger brothers,
it is said. Younger than the whole seven there is a young younger
brother. Those seven elder brothers said to the younger brother,
"Younger brother, you must bring a wife for yourself. In that way
having eaten a meal from that house and a meal from this house,
you cannot end [your] existence."

Then the younger brother said, "I indeed at any time whatever will
not bring a wife."

Thereupon the elder brother said to the younger brother, pushing
him, "If so, remain looking out in order to call [in marriage] the
Maehiyalle-gama Princess."

After that, the younger brother, having said, "It is so indeed,"
tied a ladder in order to go to Maehiyalle-gama. When he had gone
along the ladder a considerable distance, having fallen from the
ladder to the ground the Prince went into dust (kuduwela giya).

After that, having come from the city Awulpura, they picked up the
bits into which the Prince was smashed; having come from the great
city Handi they joined them together; having come from Upadda city
they caused the Prince to be [re]-born. [103]

After that, the Prince went to Maehiyalle-gama. When he went there,
the Princess having gone to bathe, only the servants were at the
palace. The servants having gone, said to the Princess, "Some one or
other has come to our palace." Then the Princess told them to give
him a mat at the calf-house. The servants having given him a mat at
the calf-house, he did not sit down.

Again the servants went and said at the hand of the Princess, "He
did not sit down." After that, the Princess told them to give him a
mat at the manduwa (open shed). The servants gave a mat at the shed.

The Prince did not sit down.

Again the servants went and said at the hand of the Princess, "He
did not sit down." Then the Princess told them to spread a mat inside
the palace and give it. The servants spread a mat inside the palace,
and gave it.

The Prince did not sit down.

The servants again having gone, said at the hand of the Princess,
"He did not sit down." Then the Princess told them to give him a
chair. Afterwards the servants gave a chair.

The Prince did not sit down.

The servants again went and said at the hand of the Princess, "He did
not sit down." The Princess told them to give him a couch. Afterwards
the servants gave a couch.

The Prince did not sit down.

The servants went and said at the hand of the Princess, "Then, also,
he did not sit down."

Afterwards the Princess said, "Give the couch on which I recline,
if so." The servants gave the couch on which the Princess reclines.

After that, the Prince sat down.

Then the Princess, also, [after] bathing came to the palace. Having
come, the Princess said at the hand of the servants, "To that person
who has come give food."

Then the servants asked at the hand of the Princess, "In what shall
we give the cooked rice?" Then the Princess told them to give pieces
of leaf. Afterwards the servants having put the cooked rice on pieces
of leaf gave him it.

The Prince did not eat.

After that, the servants said at the hand of the Princess, "He does
not eat." Then the Princess told them to put it on a plate and give
it. The servants having put it on a plate gave it.

He did not eat.

The servants said at the hand of the Princess, "He did not
eat." Afterwards the Princess said, "If so, put the plate upon the
betel tray and give it." The servants having put the plate upon the
betel tray, gave it.

The Prince did not eat.

Again the servants said at the hand of the Princess, "Then, also,
he did not eat." Afterwards the Princess said, "Put it on my golden
dish and give it." The servants, having put it on the Princess's
golden dish, gave it.

The Prince ate.

After that, the Princess having come near the Prince, asked, "What
is He? [104] A Yaka, or a Deity?"

Then the Prince said, "I am neither a Yaka nor a Deity; a man."

Then the Princess asked, "For what matter has He Himself come here?"

The Prince said, "To marry the Princess; I for no other business
whatever have come."

The Princess said, "If so, stay."

After that, the Princess marrying the Prince, when he was there for
a considerable time the Prince said, "I must go to our city and come
back." Then the Princess said, "I also must come."

The Prince having said, "Ha, it is good; let us go," the two went to
the Prince's city. Near the city there is a well; near the well there
is a tree. Having caused the Princess to stay in the tree, the Prince
went into the city to bring a horse for the Princess to go to the city.

After he went there, a woman of the smiths' caste (aciri gaeni) came
to the well for water. Having come, when the smith woman looked in
the direction of the well, the reflection of the Princess who was in
the tree appears in the well. She saw the figure, the smith woman.

Having seen it, the woman thought it was the woman's [own] figure,
and having seen the beauty of it, thought, "Ade! I am such a good
looking woman as this! Why came I for water?"

When she looked up the tree she saw that the Princess is [there],
and the smith woman says, "Ane! Having descended, please bathe with
a little water [that I will draw for you]. Why are you there?" The
Princess remained there without descending.

The smith woman once more said, "Please descend." Afterwards, the
Princess having descended, and taken off her clothes, while she was
bathing the smith woman said, "Please bend down for me to rub your
back." The Princess bent down. Then the smith woman raised her and
threw her into the well.

The Princess was unable to come to the ground. The smith woman,
putting on the clothes of the Princess, climbed up the tree.

Then the Prince having come there bringing a horse, the Prince stopped,
and thinking that the smith woman was the Princess, told the smith
woman to descend; and the Prince and the smith woman went to the city
on the horse.

Then a blind man came near the well for water. The Princess, being
in the well, said, "Having torn the cloth of the person who came for
water, and knotted the pieces together, put it into the well."

Afterwards, having torn the blind man's cloth, he put it into the
well. Seizing it, the Princess came to the ground; and making clear
the two eyes of the blind man, she went with the blind man [? to
her palace].


                                                 North-western Province.



In Indian Fairy Tales (M. Stokes), p. 3, while a King and Queen were
travelling, a shoemaker's wife pushed the Queen into a well when
she was going to drink, and then took her place, and held the King's
head on her lap. Evidently she was accepted by the King as his wife,
since she accompanied him when he proceeded on his journey.

In the same work, p. 143, while a Prince was sleeping, his Princess,
who was sitting at his side, was induced by a woman who came up,
to exchange clothes and hand over her jewellery. Afterwards the two
strolled about, went, at the woman's suggestion, to look at themselves
in the water of a well, and the woman then pushed her in, and took
her place beside the Prince. When he awoke, the woman attributed the
change in her appearance to the bad air of the country, and he went
off with her, and married her.



NO. 107

THE WICKED PRINCESS


In a country there was a King; the King had a Prince (son). He sent
the Prince to a school to learn the arts, and the Prince quickly
learnt the arts. The teacher, having become pleased with the Prince,
gave his daughter in marriage to the Prince. When they were thus for
no long time the Prince's father, the King, died.

At that time he set out to go back with the Princess to his own
country. When going, they were obliged to go through the middle of
a forest on the path on which they were going.

In the midst of the forest there was a Vaedda King. The Vaedda King
having seen this Princess and Prince, asked, "Who are you? To go where,
came you?"

Thereupon the Prince says, "I indeed am the Prince called Manam,
of the King here; this is my Princess," he said.

"It is good. Who gave you permission to go through the middle of this
forest of mine? Owing to your coming without permission, I shall now
kill you," he said. "Otherwise, if you wish to go to your kingdom,
having now made this Princess remain here, you may go."

The Prince says, "I will not go, leaving here my Princess whom I
married in my youth. If you will not let us go, it will be better
that we two should die."

When he had said this, the Vaedda King, although he spoke about it
again and again, did not listen to him. Afterwards, having caused
his army to be brought, "Look now at this army of mine," he said;
"they will kill you. Then you will not have your kingdom, nor your
Princess. Obtaining your kingdom will be better than that, having
caused your Princess to remain here, and having gone, saving your
life," he said.

Then the Prince said, "My kingdom does not matter to me if there be
not my Princess."

"It is good. If so, look, now, in a little [time], at the way I shall
kill you."

"No matter for that."

"My army! Come. Kill this Prince."

Then the Vaeddas came running, bringing bows and arrows. The Prince
having said to the Princess, "You sit down. Look at what I do to these
Vaeddas. Don't cry. The favour of the Gods is for us," taking his bow,
fights with the army of the Vaedda King. Having said, "Shoot! Kill
the Prince!" all came, and sprang [forward], and began to shoot. The
Prince having given his sword into the hand of his very Princess,
taking the bow began to shoot at them.

Well then, all having fallen, a few persons, only, being left over,
they bounded off and went away.

At that time the Vaedda King said, "Is He [105] a great clever one!
What of my army's inability! I will not allow Him [105] to take the
Princess and go. Come to fight,--we two persons;" and he called him.

Thereupon the Prince, after he (the Vaedda King) took his bow, says,
"Not in that way. We two having wrestled, must cut off the head of
the person who should fall," he said.

"It is good. I am satisfied."

"If so, come. Princess, take this sword of mine," he said.

At that time, the Vaedda having looked in the direction of the
Princess, and having spoken [to her] without the Prince's knowing, the
Princess was mentally bound to the Vaedda King. He had no beauty,--a
very black colour. The Prince was a very beautiful person.

Well then, while they were wrestling, the Vaedda King having got
underneath, fell. Then the Prince asked the Princess for the sword. The
Princess quickly having given the sheath of the sword to the Prince,
gave the sword blade to the Vaedda King. Well then, the Vaedda King
cut the Prince's neck with the sword blade. The Prince died.

The Princess says, "Good work! That indeed was in my mind. Now then,
there is no fear; we can remain," she said.

The Vaedda King says, "You are very good. If you were not [here]
to-day, no life for me. Owing to your faithfulness, indeed, I
survive. Having taken off your clothes, and the tied things (belt,
bracelets, necklace, etc.) and ornaments, give them into my hand,
in order to place them on the [other] bank of that river, and come
back," he said.

Seizing them, and having taken them and placed them somewhere, and
returned [he said], "Let us go; we have not any fear."

Taking her to the middle of the river, he said, "Throughout this world
there is not an evil bad woman like you." Having said, "It is bad
[even] to remain in the country in which is the woman who gave the
sword sheath, in order to kill outright the Prince whom you married
while young,--having tied your mind on me whom you saw to-day [only],"
having said this, he bounded off and went away.

Her ornaments and her clothes having been lost, without even a place
to go to for food or clothing, while she was on the bank of the river
in the midst of the forest, a Jackal came running to the place where
the Princess was staying, holding in his mouth a piece of meat.

Having come there [and seen the reflection of the meat in the water],
he placed the piece of meat on the ground, and sprang to seize a
piece of meat that was inside the river.

Then a kite that was flying above, having come, flew away, taking
the piece of meat.

The Princess having been looking on at it, says, "Bola! Foolish
Jackal! Putting aside the piece of meat that was in thy mouth, thou
wentest to eat meat in the river! Was that good?"

After she had scolded him, the Jackal says, "Not like my foolishness
was yours. Having been staying married to the King here, having
indeed gone to be married to the Vaedda King seen [by you] at that
very instant, now you are staying in that way, without even to eat
or to wear, or even a place to go to. It is thou thyself hast done
foolishness more than I." Having said this, and scolded her well,
he went away.

Afterwards the God Sakra having come, taking a Jackal's disguise,
because of the wickedness which the Princess did, bit her and tore
her to pieces.

(According to a variant related by a Washerman she joined a poor man
and went about with him, getting a living by begging, until she died.)


                P. B. Madahapola, Ratemahatmaya, North-western Province.



In The Orientalist, vol. i, p. 184, this story was given by Mr.
H. A. Pieris, extracted from a dramatic work called Kolan-kavi-pota.
A King named Maname and his Queen while on a hunting excursion lost
their way in the forest. The Vaedda King stopped them, but offered
to release the King if he would hand over the Queen. The King refused,
they fought, and the Vaedda King got him down. Maname asked the Queen
for his sword; but as she had fallen in love with the handsome Vaedda
she held out the sheath, and when the King seized it drew out the
sword and gave it to the Vaedda, who cut off the King's head.
Afterwards the Vaedda made off with her jewels and clothes at
the river. While she sat there, Sakra appeared in the form of a fox
(jackal), holding a piece of meat, Matali as a hawk, and another deva
[Pañcasikka] as a fish. The jackal dropped its meat on the bank, and
plunged into the water to seize the fish as it swam by; the hawk then
carried off the piece of meat. The Queen remarked on the stupidity
of the jackal, which replied that her folly was greater than his;
and she died of a broken heart when she realised it. This story is
simply the Jataka tale No. 374 (vol. iii, p. 145), except that in
the Jataka the woman is not described as dying or being killed.

In the Aventures de Paramarta of the Abbé Dubois, a dog which had
stolen a leg of mutton in a village, while crossing a river with
it observed its reflection in the water, let go its own mutton,
and sprang to seize that of the other dog, of course losing both.

In the Tota Kahani (Small), p. 81, a young married woman eloped with a
stranger one night, and while near a pond he stole her jewels when she
was asleep. In the morning a jackal came up, carrying a bone. Seeing
a fish that had fallen on the bank, it dropped the bone and rushed to
catch the fish, which floundered into the water. In the meantime the
bone was carried off by a dog. The woman laughed, quoted a proverb, "He
who leaves the half to run after the whole, gets neither the whole nor
the half," and told the jackal her story. It recommended her to return
home shamming insanity; she did this, and allayed suspicion by it.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 76, a fool who went
to drink water at a tank saw in it the reflection of a golden-crested
bird that was sitting on a tree. Thinking it was real gold, he entered
the water several times to get it, but the movement of the surface
caused it to disappear each time. In Julien's Les Avadanas this story
is No. XLVI, vol. i, p. 171; in this tale the man saw the reflection
of a piece of gold which the bird had placed in the tree.

In the Preface to The Kathakoça, p. xvii, Mr. Tawney quoted from
Professor Jacobi's introduction to the Parisishta Parvan the Jain form
of the story, in which the robber left the Queen without clothing on
the river bank. The Vyantara god, in order to save her soul, took
the form of a jackal carrying a piece of flesh. When he dropped it
and rushed to seize a fish that sprang on the bank, a bird carried
off the meat. The Queen laughed, the jackal retorted, exhorted her
to take refuge in the Jina, and she became a nun.

In Les Avadanas (Julien), No. LXXV, vol. ii, p. 11, a woman eloped with
her lover, who carried her gold, silver, and clothes across a river
and abandoned her. A fox which had caught a sparrow-hawk came up,
let go the hawk in order to spring at a fish in the river, and lost
both. When the woman remarked on his stupidity, the fox admitted it,
and retorted that hers was still greater. This is the form in which the
story occurs in Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. i,
p. 381; but in vol. ii, p. 367, there is a variant which agrees with
the following Tibetan tale.

In A. von Schiefner's Tibetan Tales (Ralston), p. 232, a robber
chief for whom a woman abandoned a blind man, sent her first into the
river and then made off with her things. A jackal which came with a
piece of flesh dropped it in order to seize a fish on the bank; this
sprang into the water, and a vulture carried away the meat. After the
usual retorts, the jackal agreed to assist her on her promising it
meat daily, told her to stand in the water immersed to the neck, and
persuaded the King whose wife she had been to pardon her on account
of this penance.



NO. 108

HOLMAN PISSA


A certain King had a very beautiful Princess (daughter). With much
affection he sent the Princess to school. Having sent her, during the
time while she was learning, the teacher who was instructing her asked
this Princess, "Princess, wilt thou come to marry me?" Thereupon,
the Princess because he was her teacher did not scold him, and did
not say, "It is good"; from that day she stopped going to school.

At that time the Princess arrived at maturity. Because that teacher was
also the astrologer (naekatrala), the King went near him to ask about
the naekata (prognostics depending on the positions of the planets)
for her arriving at maturity.

When he went, the teacher, in order to marry the Princess to himself,
said on account of the manner in which she arrived at maturity,
"Should you keep this Princess in this city, this city will become
desolate throughout."

At that time, the King, the father of this Princess, having heard
that word, becoming afraid, prepared a little ship; and having put
food inside the ship, and put in the Princess, and spread the sails,
and gone down to the mouth of the river, sent her away. [106]

Thereupon, that ship having gone, descended near yet a city. At that
time, the ship was visible to the King of that city. Having been
seen by him, he told the Minister to look at it and return. Then the
Minister having gone, when he looked a Princess of beauty such as
could not be seen [elsewhere] was inside the ship.

In order that the Minister might marry the Princess, he went to the
King, and said, "O Lord, Your Majesty, a leopardess is coming in
the ship."

Thereupon the King having said, "It is good. If so, let us go to look
at the leopardess," set off.

Then the Minister, because the Minister's lie is coming to light,
having gone to the road, said at the hand of the King, "O Lord, Your
Majesty, I did not say it in the midst of your multitude. What though
I said leopardess! It is a Princess who is wonderful to look at."

The King taking that speech for the truth, having gone, when he looked
it was a good-looking Princess. Then the King having asked the Princess
regarding the circumstances, came back, summoning her to the palace,
and married her.

When she was there a little time a Prince was born. Having been born,
during the time while he was there, that teacher who had imposed
[on the King], in much grief wrote false letters to the whole of
the various cities that her father the King was very unwell, and
that having seen the letter she was to come speedily; and he sent
the letters.

The King who had married this Princess having received the letter and
looked at the letter, told the Princess. Because a King does not go
to yet [another] city, he told the Princess to go with the army and
Minister, and come back, and started off the Princess-Queen to go to
the city at which is her father the King.

Thereupon, at the time when the Queen, carrying that Prince, was going
with the Minister on the sea, the Minister said thus to the Queen,
"O Queen, now then, that King does not matter to us. Because of it,
let us go to another city."

Then the Queen, at the time when they were going ashore, said thus,
"Why do you speak in that manner in the company of that crowd? We
are now going ashore; when we have gone ashore let us go somewhere
or other," she said.

The Minister said, "It is good." Having come ashore and said, "Let
us go to another city," and gone a little far, the Queen gave into
the Minister's hand the Prince, and having said, "I will go aside and
return," went and hid herself. Having hidden herself, and gone into a
tree on which are many leaves, she remained looking in the direction of
this Minister. When he had been looking out for a considerable time,
she remained there looking on, and said, "When I am not [there],
he will put down the Prince and go; then having gone there I will go
away, carrying the Prince."

While she was looking, the Minister, having called the Queen, because
she was lost took the Prince by both legs, and having split him, and
thrown him into the sea, he sought the Queen. He could not find her.

After that, this Minister went away. Having gone, he said to the King
of the city, "The Queen got hid, and went off with another man."

This Queen thinking, "What is it that he has killed that Prince! My
womb has not become barren," descended from the tree, and having
gone through the chena jungle to a cemetery at another city, came
out into the open ground. Having come out, when she looked about a
daughter of a Moorman (a resident of Arab descent) having died, he
came near the grave in which she was buried, and saying and saying,
"Arise, daughter; arise, daughter," the man was weeping and weeping.

This Queen trickishly having stayed looking at it, and thinking,
"It is good. This Moorman will come to-morrow also, and will weep
here. Then, having been lying at the grave, when he is calling I will
get up," remained hidden there. After the man went away, she scraped
away a little earth on the grave, and at the time when the man was
coming she remained lying there.

The man having come, when he was calling, "Arise, daughter," she said,
"What is it, father?" and arose. Thereupon, the man having put on the
face cloth, [107] closing her to the extent that [her face] should
not be visible to anyone whatever, took her to the man's house,
and placed her on the floor of the upper story.

That Minister having gone back, and said that the Queen went off,
at the very time when he was saying it, it caused the young younger
brother of the King to seek the Queen, and he came away [for the
purpose].

Having come away, and come seeking her through the whole of the
various cities, and come also to the city at which is this Queen,
while he was walking [through it] this Queen, who was on the floor of
the upper story, saw him, and waved her hand to the Prince, and causing
him to be brought, wrote a letter and threw it below from upstairs.

The Prince taking the letter, when he looked at it she said [in it]
that the danger which had occurred to her was thus. [It continued],
"Because of it, to-day night having brought a horse to such and such
a place, and put on it two saddles, and made ready for both you and
me to go off, come and speak to me." So the Prince having made ready
in that very manner, came at night, and [leaving the horse went near,
and] spoke to the Queen.

Then the Queen, having descended from the floor of the upper room,
and come running by another path, a man of the city who walks about
at night, called Holman Pissa, was [there]. The man met her first.

After that, having gone holding the man's hand, sitting on the back
of the horse she gave him the whip, and told him to drive it along
a good path. At that time, that Holman Pissa, owing to his insanity,
[108] turned down a bye-path without speaking at all, and driving the
horse they began to go away. As he was going driving it, it became
light. There when the Queen looked the man was a madman.

In order to come away and save herself from the man, she said,
"It is good. Now then, we two must get a living. Because of it, go
and bring water for cooking." The madman having said, "It is good,"
went for water.

Thereupon this Queen having bounded off, went along in the chena
jungle, and came out (eli-baessa) at another city.

Then this Holman Pissa having come bringing water, when he looked
the Queen was not [there]. Because of it, he said, "Ane! If there
is not my piece of gold what should I stay for?" and began to seek
her. At that time, the teacher, and the King, and the Minister,
and the King's son, and the Moorman, and Holman Pissa were seeking her.

After that, this Queen having got hid in the chena jungle of the city
to which she went, while she remained there looking out, she saw that
an Arab having died they are bringing him to bury.

Having buried the Arab, after they went away this Queen broke open
the grave, and taking all the few Arab clothes, dressed in the Arab
trousers and put on the Arab jacket. Tying on the turban,--there was
an axe--hanging it on her shoulder, she went to the Arab shops at
the city, and practising the means of livelihood which that party
were practising, she stayed [there] a little time.

The younger brother of that King having gone to his village, while he
was there the King of the city died, and there being no one for the
sovereignty, they decorated the tusk elephant and sent it [in search
of a King]. At that time, the tusk elephant having gone, kneeled down
near that Arab Queen. After that, they appointed the Arab Queen to
the sovereignty, and she remained there. She issued commands in such
a way that to either the place where she bathes or the place where
she sleeps, no one whatever could come.

When she was there in that manner no long time, the city King who
had first married her, having shot (with an arrow) a deer, when he
was coming bounding along was unable to catch the deer. The Queen's
father, the King, taking dogs and having gone hunting, while he
was there this King's dogs having seen the deer, they also began to
chase the deer along the path. While they were coming chasing it,
they came to the city at which this Arab Queen is staying. At that
time, the people of the city having shot the deer, killed it.

After it died, the three parties began to institute law-suits. The
King who had married the Arab Queen says, "If I had not shot it,
how would your dogs chase it?"

The King, the Arab Queen's father, says, "If there had not been my
dogs, how would you catch the deer?"

The men of this city say, "If we had not killed it, how would you
kill the deer?"

After that, as they were unable to settle it, they came for the
law-suit, near the Arab King (Queen). That King having explained
the law-suit, and said that it belonged to the whole three parties,
ended the law-suit.

None whatever of those parties was able to recognise this Queen yet;
the Queen recognised all. Recognising them, she said, "Nobody of you
can go away; I must give you an eating (kaemak)." Having said [this]
she caused all to remain.

Having stopped them, the Queen went away and dressed in woman's
clothes, and having returned, asked, "Can you recognise me?"

Then all the party asked her about the matters. The Queen having told
them the manner in which all had occurred, caused that Moorman to be
brought, and gave him presents. In addition, having caused Holman
Pissa to be brought, she gave him to eat and drink. To the teacher
because he taught her letters she did nothing. To the King's younger
brother she gave very great presents and wealth.

Because that Minister, having seized both the legs of the [baby]
Prince, had split him in two, having taken the Minister to the place
where there are two Palmira trees, and brought the [tops of the]
trees together at one place, and tied an arm and leg, and an arm and
leg to each of the two trees, they let go the two trees. At that time,
in the very way he split that Prince he was split in two.

After that, just as before, she remained exercising the sovereignty
in a thorough manner.


                                                 North-central Province.



The "Arab" mentioned in the tale might be an Afghan.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 606, a young Brahmana
who had arranged to elope with a girl, sent a servant to her house at
night with a mule. When she mounted it the man took her away a long
distance and came to another city, telling her that he intended to
marry her himself. She acquiesced; and when he went to buy the articles
for their wedding she fled, and took refuge with an old man who made
garlands. After some time the young Brahmana came to the same town,
was seen by her, and married her.



NO. 109

CONCERNING A VAEDDA AND A BRIDE


In the midst of a forest a Vaedda stayed. When the Vaedda's wife went
to bring water, taking the large water-pot, the Vaedda, taking his bow
and having gone in front of the woman, as she is coming shoots [his
arrows] to go by the woman's ear. Every day he shoots in that manner.

One day when the woman went to bring water she met with the woman's
elder brother; he asked, "What is it, younger sister, that you are
so thin for?"

Then the woman said, "Ane, elder brother, when I have taken water and
am going home, the Vaedda shoots [his arrows] to go by my ear. Through
that trouble I am becoming thin."

After that, the Vaedda [her brother] says, "Younger sister, for that
I will tell you a clever trick. To-day also when he has shot as you
are going, say, 'There will be better shooters than that.'"

That day when he was shooting the woman said this word. Then the
Vaedda asked, "What, Adiye! didst thou say?"

Afterwards the woman says, "There will be better shooters than that
in this country."

Then the Vaedda says, "Where, Adin! are they? I must seek them and
look at them. Tie up a bundle of cooked rice and bring it." So having
cooked a bundle of cooked rice she gave it.

Taking it, the Vaedda began to go through the forest jungle
(himalaye). At the time when he was going he saw that a man is staying
looking upwards. The Vaedda having gone near asked, "What are you
staying looking upward for?"

"It is now eight days since I shot at a bird. I am waiting until it
falls." When a little time had gone, the bird's flesh, having become
decomposed, fell down.

At that time the Vaedda thought, "A better shooter than I is this one."

In order to inquire further, the two persons, having joined together,
began to go through the midst of the forest. At the time when they
were going they saw yet a man who is looking upward. These two having
gone near asked, "What are you staying looking upward for?"

The man said, "I see the celestial nymphs [109] dancing in the
divine world."

The two persons spoke together: "In sight this person is more dexterous
than we." Thereupon these three having joined together, at the time
when they were going [they saw that] at the bottom of a Jak tree a
bride was staying, leaning against the tree. A cobra was preparing
to strike the woman.

Then the shooter said, "I do not see far. You aim the arrow and show me
[the direction]; then I will shoot." Then he shot at the cobra. The
arrow having entered the cobra in the quarter of the cobra's tail,
came out near the bride's head.

The three Vaeddas went to the place where the bride is. That they
had shot the cobra no one in the bride's party knows. Thereupon,
when they tried to call the bride and go away, the Vaeddas did not
allow them to call her and go. [They said], "If this cobra having
bitten her she had died, where would there be a bride for you?"

Both the parties instituted law-suits. Both the parties having gone
near the King told him to decide the law-suit. The King having heard
the law-suit, after he had looked [into the matter] was also unable
to decide it. At that time he asked the Vaeddas, "To whom must this
woman belong?"

Thereupon the Vaeddas said, "To both parties she cannot belong. She
must belong to our teacher."

Should you say, "Did they say who that was?" it was indeed that woman
who at first took the water.


                                                 North-western Province.



In Folk-Tales of Hindustan (Shaik Chilli), p. 83, a Prince while
travelling met with an archer who had shot an arrow at a star fourteen
years before and was awaiting its fall. He saw its approach when it
was still a thousand miles away, and warned the Prince to avoid it.

In Old Deccan Days (M. Frere), p. 297, the chief amusement of a
rich man was shooting his arrow every morning through one of the
pearls of his wife's nose-ring. When her brother came to take her to
visit her parents, he found her thin and miserable, as she feared the
arrow might some day strike her face. Each day the husband asked her,
"Was there ever a man as clever as I am?" and she replied that there
never was one. Her brother advised her to say next time that there
were many men in the world cleverer than he was. When she said this
her husband left her in order to find one of them. He met a clever
wrestler and a clever pandit, who joined him, and who frightened some
demons that were going to eat them.



NO. 110

A STORY ABOUT A VAEDDA [110]


At a certain time, in a city, a danaya [111] was given at the royal
palace. On the next day the surplus rice was deposited for animals
to eat, and dogs, cats, pigs, fowls, and crows came and began to
devour it.

Then a Vaedi youth who had gone to kill some game and was hungry, came
and saw the fowls and pigs eating some cold cooked rice, whereupon
he went to the heap of rice, and pushing aside the upper part of it
took a little from the bottom and ate it.

At that time the royal Princess was at the open upper story of the
palace. She saw this action of the Vaedda, and said to her mother,
"Ane! Amme! However poor a man may be he does not do that disgusting
work."

The Queen admonished the Princess, and said to her, "Appa! My daughter,
do not say so of any man whatever; you do not know what may happen to
you" (meaning that it might be her fate to be married to such a man).

Then the Princess, speaking in ridicule of the Vaedda's want of good
looks, replied, "If so, why should I wear this costume? [I may as
well begin to dress like my future husband's people]."

The Vaedda, after stopping and hearing this conversation, went away.

As a lion used to come to that city [and carry off the inhabitants]
the King subsequently caused the following proclamation to be made
by beat of tom-toms: "I will give my daughter to any person whatever
who kills the lion which comes to this city." On hearing this, the
Vaedi youth having dug a hole in the path by which the lion came,
and having got hid in it, when the animal approached shot it with
his bow and arrow and killed it.

When the King learnt that somebody had killed the lion he gave public
notice that its destroyer should be sought for. The Vaedi youth
then came forward, and after he had [proved that he was the person
who killed it] the King gave that royal Princess to him in marriage
[and he went away with her].

While she was living with him another good-looking Vaedi youth
accompanied him one day. On seeing him the Princess trickishly
drove away the Vaedda who was her husband, and married that handsome
Vaedi youth.

It was not long before this Vaedda one night killed a buffalo, and
[taking some of the flesh] said to the Princess, "Cook this, and give
it to me."

The Princess replied, "It would be disgusting work for me to do;
it is no business of mine. [She added] "What does it matter if my
first husband is not good-looking? He was good to me." Saying this,
she drove this Vaedda away, and seeking the place where the first
Vaedda whom she had married was stopping, went to him and said,
"Let us go [off together]." But the Vaedda said, "I will not."

After that, she put on her Princess's robes as before, and came away.

In a little while afterwards that very Vaedda was appointed to the
kingship, and everybody subsequently lived prosperously and in health.


                                                 North-central Province.



NO. 111

THE STORY OF THE FOUR GIANTS [112]


In a certain country there were seven giants. The youngest giant of
the seven of them without any means of subsistence remained on the
ash-heap itself, near the hearth. At that time the other six persons
scolded him: "How wilt thou eat and dress?" Then when this youngest
giant was preparing to take a digging hoe with a broken corner the
other persons scolded him regarding it [also].

Thereupon, having put down the digging hoe and gone, not bringing any
tool, into the midst of a forest which had Wira, Palu, and such-like
trees, and having looked for a place suitable for a rice-field, with
his hand he loosened and uprooted and threw them all down. Having made
the rice-field, and made the ridges in it, he came home and said,
"I have made a little rice-field plot (liyadda); to sow it give me
a little paddy," he asked his brothers. When he said it they did not
give it.

Thereafter, having gone near his uncle [113] he spoke thus, "I have
made a rice-field plot; let us go to look at this rice-field plot. How
about a little paddy for it?" he asked.

Thereupon his uncle said, "Having looked at the rice-field I will
give you paddy."

The two together went to the rice-field. While there his uncle
ascertained the size of the rice-field and the quantity of paddy
that was necessary for it, and having come home told him to take a
round corn store (bissak) in which sixty amunas (about 350 bushels)
of paddy were tied up. Thereupon the giant who was on the ash-heap,
placing the corn store of sixty amunas on his shoulder, brought it
home; and having made [the paddy] sprout, sowed the rice-field.

After the [paddy in the] rice-field ripened he cut it and trampled it
[by means of buffaloes], and having collected and placed the paddy
in a heap, came home. Having returned summoning his brothers, he
told them to climb upon the heap of paddy, and look if the spires
[of the dagabas] at Anuradhapura are visible. Having looked in that
way, and having seen them, though they were visible they said they
were not. Thereupon anger having come to the giant of the ash-heap,
he kicked the paddy heap, and having come home, taking his sword
began to go away somewhere.

While going thus, he saw that yet [another] giant, having uprooted
a Banyan-tree, is polishing his teeth [with it], and he went quite
near. Thereupon, the giant asked the giant of the ash-heap, "Where
are you going?"

"I am going to seek a means of subsistence," he gave answer.

The two persons having conversed in this manner, while the two were
going away together they saw that yet a giant, having threaded an
elephant on a fish-hook, had cast it in a river, [114] and they
asked him, "What are you doing? Why have you thrown an elephant into
the water?"

The giant says, "I am trying to catch and take a sand fish. Where
are you two going?" he asked these two persons.

"We are going in order to seek a means of subsistence," these two said.

Having said, "If so, I will come with you," and having abandoned
his work, and cast away the elephant, he also set off with them,
and the three persons began to go away.

While they were going thus they met with a river. They saw that in the
river yet [another] giant having placed his foot across the river,
from this bank to the far bank, is causing the water to stop. The
giant asked, "Where are you three persons going?"

The three persons said, "We are going to seek a means of subsistence."

"It is good. I also will come with you," the giant said.

Well then, while these three are going, having met with yet a river,
when the giant who was on the ash-heap told the other giants to hang
on his body, the other giants hung on it. After that, having descended
into the river, the giant began to swim in the river. At that time a
fish came to swallow them. Having chopped the fish with his sword,
the giant who stayed on the ash-heap, taking the fish and taking
these giants, swam to the far bank.

Thereafter, a giant having gone up a tree, they told him to look for
a place where there is fire. He said that a fire smoke is rising. Then
they told him to mark [the direction] and bring fire.

The giant having gone, when he looked about saw that a woman, [after]
placing a large pot of paddy on the hearth, was pouring water over
(that is, bathing) a child. At the time when he asked for a little
fire, she said, "I am pouring water over the child. You come and
take it."

The giant having gone, at the time when he was bending to take the
fire the woman arose and came, and having lifted up and cast the giant
on the heap of fire-charcoal, and killed him, put him in the house.

Thereafter, to look for him yet [another] giant went. When that giant
also in that way was bending down, the woman having arisen and come,
and put him on the fire-heap, and killed him, put him into the house.

When [the ash-heap giant] told that [other] giant to look for the
two giants, he went, and asked, "Didn't our men come here?"

Thereupon the woman said, "Those men I saw not." After that, like the
giants who first got the fire, at the time when he was bending down
to take the fire, the woman having arisen and killed him also in the
way in which she killed the first giants, put him into the house.

Thereafter, the giant who at first did cultivation work having gone,
taking his sword also, asked, "Didn't my three men come here?"

At that time the woman said, "I did not see them."

Thereupon, at the time when the giant prepared to cut the woman
with his sword, she said, "Ane! Don't cut me. I will give your
men." Having said it, and restored the three men to consciousness,
she gave them. [115]

Taking the giants also who had brought the fire, and having come again
near the last river, and roasted the fish, the four persons divided
it, and ate. He put the [back] bone of the fish into the river. The
four persons again began to go away.

After that, having gone to the city, when they asked for a rest-house
[the people] said, "The rest-house indeed we can give. A bone having
become fixed across in this river, water has become scarce [on account
of it]." They told them to remove the bone: "We will give a Princess
of our King's for removing it. That also (et) anyone is unable to
do." This speech the men of that country said to these giants.

After that, these giants having said, "It is becoming night
for us; we cannot go," stayed in the resting-place at that very
spot. [Afterwards], that giant of the ash-heap having gone and thrown
aside the bone, brought a pot of water.

Yet [another] man, breaking the bone, took a piece near the King. And
the King was ready to give the Princess to the man. Then the giant
who was on the ash-heap having gone near the King (raju), taking the
bone, said, "It was not that man; it was I who took and cast away
the bone." Thereafter the King beheaded the man who said it falsely.

He was ready to give the [Princess] to the giant who was on the
ash-heap. But the giant gave the Princess to the giant who uprooted the
Banyan-tree; and having planted a Lime-tree and put a Blue-lotus flower
into a small copper pot full of water, and said, "Should any harm occur
to me the Lime-tree will blanch, [116] or will become like dying; the
Blue-lotus flower will fade. At that time thou must come seeking me,"
the giant of the ash-heap began to go away [with the other two giants].

Having gone to yet [another] city he asked for a
resting-place. Thereupon they said, "Ane! We can give a resting-place
indeed. A lion having come eats the city people. There is not a means
of getting firewood [for cooking]. Also it is said that the King will
give our King's Princess to a person who has killed the lion."

After that, the giant of the ash-heap, getting a resting-place there,
took an axe, and having gone into the jungle, at the time when he
was walking about the lion was sleeping in the jungle. This giant
having chopped with the axe at the head of the lion and killed it,
came back [after] cutting off his ear.

Yet [another] man having come [after] cutting off the lion's head, gave
it to the King. Well then, the King became ready to give the Princess
to the man. At that time this giant having gone near the King, said,
"It is not that one who cut off the head; it is I [who killed it],"
and he gave him the lion's ear.

Thereafter, the King having beheaded the man who told him falsely, was
ready to give [the Princess] to the giant of the ash-heap. The giant
of the ash-heap gave the Princess to the giant who was stringing the
elephant on the fish-hook; and in the very manner as at first having
planted a Lime-tree and put a Blue-lotus flower in a small copper
pot of water and given him it, he said, "Should any harm occur to me
the Lime-tree will die, the Blue-lotus flower will fade. At that time
you must come seeking me;" and those two giants began to go away.

Having gone to a city they asked for a resting-place. Thereupon the men
said, "In our country we cannot give resting-places. A leopard having
come eats the men. There is a Princess of our King's. To a person who
has killed the leopard he will give the Princess, he said. That also
anyone is unable to do."

Notwithstanding, these two giants got the resting-place there. The
giant of the ash-heap taking also the axe, went into the jungle,
and when he looked the leopard was sleeping. The giant having chopped
at the leopard with the axe and killed it, came back [after] cutting
off the ear.

Another man having seen it, came [after] cutting off the head of the
leopard, and gave it to the King. When the King was becoming ready to
give the Princess to the man, the giant of the ash-heap went near the
King, and said, "It is not that man who killed the leopard; it is I,"
and he gave him the leopard's ear.

Thereafter, the King having beheaded the man who said it falsely,
made ready to give the Princess to the giant of the ash-heap. The
giant having given the Princess to the giant who stopped the water
with his foot, and in the first manner having planted a Lime-tree and
put a Blue-lotus flower into a small copper pot of water, and said,
"If there be any harm to me the Lime-tree will die, the Blue-lotus
flower will fade. At that time come seeking me," the giant of the
ash-heap began to go away alone.

Having gone to a city that had become abandoned, at the time when he
is looking at the houses in a street, a Princess having been in an
upper story says, "Our father having become insane, and having eaten
all the city people, now this city is desolate. Why have you come?"

Thereupon this giant said, "I came because of [the want of] a means of
subsistence." Having halted there, and that day having eaten cooked
rice from there, he asked at the hand of the Princess, "Are there
meneri [seeds] [117] and dried areka-nuts?" Thereupon the Princess
having said, "There are," sought and gave them.

The giant of the ash-heap put down the meneri from inside the open
ground in front of the house up to the house. The dried areka-nuts he
put above it. Having put them down, taking the sword also and half
shutting the door he remained [there]. At that time the King having
come, sprang towards the doorway [and slipped upon the loose seeds
and nuts]. Thereupon he of the ash-heap chopped at him with the sword,
and killed the King. [118] Having killed him, taking the Princess he
began to go away. Having thus gone, and having built a house near a
river, they remained there.

One day, when the Princess was bathing at the river, she uprooted
a hair [119] of the Princess's, and it fell into the water. The
hair having gone along the river, and having caught on a fish (malu
kuriyekuta), the fish swallowed it. The fish fell into the net of
the fisherman of the King of that country. Having cut open the fish,
at the time when he looked [inside it] a hair had been made into
a ball. When he unrolled the hair and looked at it, its length was
seven fathoms seven hands.

The fisherman gave it to the King. Thereupon the King said, "To a
person who should find and give me the woman who owns this hair,
I will give a fourth share from my city."

A widow woman said, "I can, if you will give me a ship." Thereupon
the King gave her a ship.

The widow woman having taken the ship, found the Princess. Having
been there a few days, she asked at the hand of the Princess, "Has
your husband confidence in you?"

The Princess said, "Yes, he has confidence in me."

Thereupon the old woman said, "It is good. If he has confidence in
you ask where his life is."

The Princess asked at the hand of the Prince (giant), "Where is
your life?"

At that time the Prince (giant) said, "My life is in the sword."

One day, the giant of the ash-heap, having placed the sword in the
house, went on a journey. This Princess had previously (kalin, betimes)
told at the hand of the widow woman that the giant's life is in the
sword. That day the Princess said to the widow woman, "Look at my head"
(to search for insects). After that, when the widow woman was looking
and looking the Princess went to sleep.

The widow woman having taken the sword that was on the ground [in the
house], and put it into the fire on the hearth, [120] lifted up the
Princess, and having put her in the ship, and crossed over to that
bank, handed over the Princess to the King. The King gave the widow
woman many presents and distinctions.

The giant of the ash-heap having become unconscious, fell down. In
the very way he told the three giants whom he caused to stay at first,
the Lime-trees died, the Blue-lotus flowers faded.

The three giants came seeking him. When they came he was dead. The
three persons having dug the ash-heap, when they looked the sword
was even yet there. Taking it, at the time when they were polishing
it the giant of the ash-heap became conscious. His three friendly
giants asked, "What is this that happened?"

Thereupon the giant of the ash-heap said, "A widow woman stayed near
us. It is that woman, indeed, who did this work."

Thereupon the giants asked, "Whence came the woman?"

"She came from the sea," he said.

Well then, these very four giants having gone on the sea, and having
gone to the city at which is the Princess, at the time when they
looked saw that the Princess is bound [in marriage] to the King.

Having cut down the King and the widow woman, the giant of the ash-heap
exercised the sovereignty of that country; and the other giants went
back to the very places where each of them stayed. [121]


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Indian Antiquary, vol. xvii, p. 50, in a Salsette story by
Mr. G. Fr. D'Penha, a Prince to avoid marrying his sister went away
with a hunter and a carpenter. At a deserted city at which they stayed
a Rakshasa came daily when one was left to cook, and ate the rice. On
the third day the Prince was the cook, and he killed the Rakshasa. The
Prince's life was in his sword; if it rusted he fell sick, if it broke
he would die. He made the carpenter King of the city and the hunter
King of another, giving them life-index plants. The Prince then went
away, killed another Rakshasa, and got from his waist a diamond which
showed a passage through the water of a tank to a palace where he
married a Princess and became King. He then forgot his sword, and it
rusted. His friends learnt by the fading plants that he was ill, and
found him just alive. He recovered when they cleaned and repolished
the sword, after which they became his Chief Officers of State.

In Folk-Tales of Hindustan (Shaik Chilli), p. 45, a Prince,
accompanied by the sons of a goldsmith, a pandit, and a carpenter,
went to kill a giant. While they halted, a giant took the food that
each in turn cooked. When the Prince cooked he vanquished the giant,
who offered him his daughter in marriage, and joined his party. The
Prince married her to the goldsmith's son, and went to another city
where the Prince's giant killed a giant who ate the people. The
King's daughter was married to the pandit's son. At a third city the
giant killed a lion, and a Princess was married to the carpenter's
son. When they arrived at the city of the giant they had come to
kill, the Prince and giant found he was the one already killed at the
second city. These giants could take any shape, and thus evidently
were Rakshasas. The Prince married a Princess at the fourth city
and lived there with his giant. One day his wife lost her shoe while
bathing in a stream, and a Raja's son found it floating down. A witch
undertook to find the owner, dived into the water, came to the fort,
became the Princess's servant, and learnt that the Prince's life lay
in the brightness of his sword; if it became rusty he would die. One
night the witch burnt the sword in a furnace, the Prince died, and
she took his wife through the water to her admirer's palace, where
she demanded a year's delay before marrying him. The Prince's giant
found and repolished the sword, and the Prince revived. They summoned
the other friends, went in search of the Princess, killed the Raja,
his son, and the witch, and returned home.

In Tales of the Punjab (Mrs. Steele), p. 42, when a Prince was
travelling accompanied by a knife-grinder, a blacksmith, and a
carpenter, a demon in the form of a mannikin ate the food which
the last three cooked in turn, but was killed by the Prince when he
cooked. The Prince married the knife-grinder to the King's daughter,
the blacksmith to the daughter of a King at another city at which the
Prince killed a ghost (Churel), and the carpenter to a Princess at a
third city. To each of the friends the Prince gave a barley plant as
his life index; if it drooped he would be in trouble and needing their
help. He went on, killed a Jinn who had carried off a Princess with
golden hair, married her, and lived at the Jinn's palace. When bathing
she set one or two hairs afloat in a Bo-leaf cup, which was secured by
a King lower down the river. A wise woman sent to find their owner,
discovered her, ascertained that the Prince's life was in his sword,
at night put it in a fire, and when the hilt rolled off the Prince
died. She then carried off the Princess to the King. As the barley
plants snapped in two, the three friends came with armies, found the
body of the Prince and his sword, repaired and repolished the latter,
and thus restored the Prince's life. The carpenter discovered the
Princess, made a flying palankin, into which she, together with the
King's sister and the wise woman, mounted with him, and he sailed
back to the Prince, throwing down the other two women on the way.

In Sagas from the Far East, p. 39, four companions took possession
of a house on a hill. They cooked in turn, the other three going
to hunt. On each day a demoness in the form of a woman a span high
begged a taste of the food, and she and the food and cooking-pot then
disappeared. The fourth man killed her.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 386, the sword incident
varies. A Prince's wife, wishing to deprive him of the magic power
conferred by the sword, put the weapon in a fire while he slept. He
became unconscious when the sword was dimmed, but recovered when the
Goddess Durga restored its brightness.

In the same work, vol. ii, p. 487, an Asura's vital point was his
left hand; he died when a King shot him through it.

In the Maha Bharata (Vana Parva, cccxi) four of the Pandava Princes
were killed in turn by a Yaksha as soon as they drank at a pool. When
the eldest brother answered his questions satisfactorily he revived
them.



NO. 112

THE STORY ABOUT A GIANT


In a certain country two men spoke together: "Let us two persons go
to seek the kingdom gored [by] the Sky Buffalo," [122] they said,
it is said.

After that the two went, it is said. Procuring provisions, they began
to go. At the time when they are going thus for not much time, one
man was struck by inability [to proceed]. The man said, it is said,
"Don't you go here alone," he said.

"Without going alone what shall I do?" he said. After that, that
man died.

This man having gone, contracted (lit., tied) a marriage. Putting
[out of consideration] the displeasure of the woman's two parents,
he contracted the marriage. The mother-in-law and father-in-law,
both of them, having said, "Don't you two remain in my house," told
them to go. After that, the son-in-law having caused thieves to be
brought, took the goods in the house that he had not brought; the best
(honda honda) goods the man took, a few things those men got.

The man, taking the woman, went to another city. At the time when they
were at the city no long time, a child was born to the woman. The
child, at the time when he was seven years of age, catching the
remaining Hares and Mouse-deer dashes them to the ground. A long time
after twelve years were fulfilled, having run after Sambhar deer and
caught them he dashes them to the ground; [123] having caught Boars
also he dashes them to the ground.

That he is doing thus was known to everybody. Having perceived it
they told the matter to the King of that city. The King, causing the
young man to be brought, and having given him many offices, made him
remain near the King; he is stopping there.

Then a hostile army having come to the city and laid [siege] to the
city, [124] after the Ministers told the King, causing the giant
to be brought he asked, "A hostile army having come is surrounding
my city. On account of it, art thou able to drive off and send away
the army?"

The giant said, "I am not unable to do it."

After that, the King said, "What are the things thou wantest for
it?" he asked.

When he asked, he said, "Should I receive a tusk elephant and the
sword, it will do." Afterwards he gave the tusk elephant and sword.

Having waited until the time when he gives them, he went for the
battle. Having gone, and having cut down that army, he came to the
royal palace. Having come, he made obeisance [125] to the King [and
related an account of his victory]. After that, the King having given
half the kingdom to the giant, he remained [there].

Well then, beginning from that day, he remained exercising the
sovereignty [over the half of the kingdom] until the time when he dies.


                                                 North-western Province.



I was informed that in the allusion to the Sky Buffalo which gored
the earth, reference is made to the country in which the sky pierces
(that is, touches) the earth (see vol. i, p. 284). The Sky Buffalo
is not mentioned elsewhere in these stories.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 6, the God Siva is
represented as saying, "Moreover, this world resembling a skull,
rests in my hand; for the two skull-shaped halves of the [Mundane]
egg before mentioned are called heaven and earth." It is evident that
here also the two halves of the egg, that is, the sky and the earth,
are supposed to be in contact, the sky resting on the earth. In the
Rigveda they are termed two bowls; the sun travelled in the hollow
space between them (i, clx, 2), and the upper one was supported
by pillars.

The feats of the youthful giant in chasing and seizing wild animals
are borrowed from the Mahavansa, chapter xxiii (p. 161 of Professor
Geiger's translation), where it is stated of Khañjadeva, one of the
ten leading chiefs under King Duttha-Gamani in the second century B.C.,
that "when he went a-hunting with the village folk he chased at these
times great buffaloes, as many as rose up, and grasped them by the
leg with his hand, and when he had whirled them round his head the
young man dashed them to the ground, breaking their bones."



NO. 113

HITIHAMI THE GIANT


In the Wanni country, in the north-western quarter of the Island of
Lanka (Ceylon), there is a village called Andara-waewa. In that village
a giant was born. His parents, cherishing him, reared the child.

While the child is at the age for playing seated, he eats about two
quarts of cooked rice [daily]. At the walking age he eats about three
quarts of cooked rice. While seven years of age he eats about four
quarts of cooked rice.

Having gone with children who walked about for amusement, having caught
hares and mouse-deer, and struck them on the ground, killing them, he
brings them [home]. After he has brought them, his two parents ask,
"Whence, son, are these?" Then the child says, "Mother, having gone
running I seized them."

Thus, having been living in that manner, at the age of about twelve
years he said to his mother, "Mother, give me food [to enable me]
to go to cut a chena." So his mother gave him food.

The child having eaten the food, and gone to the jungle taking two
bill-hooks, cut the chena that very day. Having cut it, and come home,
he said to his mother, "Mother, I cut a chena. I don't know the time
for setting fire to it. Because of it, tell father to set fire to
the chena."

After that, his mother said, "Our son cut a chena. Set fire to it;
son does not know the time for setting fire [to it]." After that,
the man went and set fire to the chena.

This giant-child having gone, cut the fence [sticks] for the chena
in one day; on the next day he went, and sowed it till he finished
it. The sowing account was a paela (a quarter of an amuna of 5.7
bushels) of millet. [126]

On the next day he said to his mother, "Mother, I cut a chena indeed;
for the purpose of going and doing the work at a tawalla [127] also,
give me food." Afterwards his mother gave him food. Having eaten
the food, the child went to the tawalla, and put up earthen ridges
over the ground for [making a field large enough for sowing in it]
one and a half amunas (8.55 bushels) of paddy. [128] Having put them
up he came home.

Having gone on the following day, he made [the soil into] mud [129] [by
causing cattle to trample it]. Having made [it into] mud he came home.

Having come, he said to his mother, "Mother, place one and a half
amunas of paddy in water [to cause it to sprout] for sowing in the
tawalla." Afterwards his mother made the paddy sprout. This child took
the one and a half amunas of paddy, and sowed it that very day. In
the evening he came home.

On the following day he said to his mother, "Mother, give me food. I
indeed sowed the tawalla; there is still to build the watch-hut in
it." Afterwards his mother gave him food. The child ate the food,
and went to the tawalla. Having gone there, and that very day having
made the fence, and that very day having built the watch-hut, he came
home. Having eaten food, he went back to the watch-hut, and with his
own foot he sprinkles water over the amuna and a half of paddy. [130]

At that time the King caused a Mallawa [131] giant to be brought to
Kandy. Many men wrestled with the Mallawa giant and fell. After that,
the King said to the Ministers, "Go and find a thoroughly strong
giant, and come back." Afterwards the Ministers spread the news:
"Is there a giant able to wrestle with the Mallawa giant?"

Then certain men said, "At the village called Andara-waewa there is
a man called Hitihami, who eats the cooked rice from seven [quarts]
of rice. That man is good for wrestling with the Mallawa giant."

After they said it, the Ministers went to Andara-waewa to seek the
giant Hitihami. When they went there, the boy Hitihami was not at
home; only the giant's mother was there. They asked at the hand of
his mother, "Where is now Hitihami?" Then his mother said, "My son
went to the watch-hut at the tawalla."

After that, the Ministers went to the tawalla to seek him. As they
were going there they saw Hitihami sprinkling water for the tawalla
with his foot. Thereupon the Ministers went to the place where
Hitihami was sprinkling water. Having gone, the Ministers asked,
"Is it you they call Hitihami of Andara-waewa?"

Then Hitihami said, "Yes, it is I myself. What matter have you come
about?" he asked.

Then the Ministers said, "It has been arranged by the King [that you
are] to go for the Mallawa wrestling. Because of it, get ready [132]
for you to go."

After that, Hitihami having come home with the Ministers, asked at
the hand of his mother, "Mother, haven't you cooked yet?"

His mother said, "Son, I have not yet cooked. I have only boiled five
quarts of meneri."

Then Hitihami having [drunk] the milk taken from seven buffalo cows
in the large cooking-pot, and having eaten those five quarts of
boiled meneri, [after] washing his [right] hand and taking his betel
bag also, said to the Ministers, "Let us go;" and Hitihami and the
Ministers went.

At the time when they are going, there are a great many pumpkins at a
chena on the path. Having seen them, Hitihami, plucking four pumpkins
also and continuing to eat them, went to Kandy.

The Ministers who went with him said to the King, "Hitihami of
Andara-waewa has come."

The King told Hitihami to come near, and said, "Can you wrestle with
the Mallawa one?"

Then Hitihami replied, "Putting one Mallawa person [out of
consideration], should seven come I am not afraid." After that,
the King told him to go for the wrestling with the Mallawa one.

As soon as Hitihami went, he seized the Mallawa one. Then the
bones of the Mallawa one were broken. The King said, "A! Kill not
my Mallawa one!" So Hitihami let go. The Mallawa one having died,
fell on the ground.

After that, the King was displeased with Hitihami. Having become
displeased he said to the Ministers, "You must put Hitihami on the
other bank of the river (Mahawaeli-ganga)." The Ministers put Hitihami
on the other bank.

As Hitihami was coming away to his village, sixty persons having come
together for a paddy kayiya, [133] were at the foot of a tree. Hitihami
having gone there, asked, "What are you come together there for?"

Then the men said, "We have come together to cut a paddy kayiya."

Hitihami said, "Are you willing for me also to cut the paddy plants
for a breath (husmak)?"

The men said, "It is very good; let us cut."

Afterwards, asking for the sickles from each one of the men, and having
broken them, and thrown them down, and drawn out the betel-cutter that
was in Hitihami's betel wallet (bulat-payiya), taking it he began to
cut the paddy plants. Only the paddy plants of two amunas of paddy
(about four and a half acres) were ripe; there were no more.

He finished the two amunas of paddy plants, and because there were no
[more] ripe paddy plants, cutting the fence of the upper field and
having gone [there], he began to cut the green paddy plants.

Then the men who owned the field said and said, "Don't cut [those]." He
does not stop. Afterwards the men tied a ball. [134]

Afterwards, the giant having come to the high ground [outside the
field], when he came to the place where the men were near the tree,
the men said, "Let us go to eat the kayiya."

Then Hitihami said, "You go and eat the kayiya; I am going to my
village."

As he was coming on and on, having met with a wild buffalo it began
to gore him. So Hitihami seized the two horns of the buffalo, and
loosening the two horns, went to his village [with them].

Having gone [there], and given into his mother's hand the two horns,
he said, "Mother, having conquered in the Mallawa wrestling, at the
time when I was coming back about sixty men had come together to cut
the paddy plants in a rice field. At the hand of the men I asked,
'What are you many men joined together there for?' Then the men said,
'We are [here] to cut a paddy kayiya.'

"Afterwards, asking for the men's sickles, I broke them and threw them
down, and taking the betel-cutter [135] that was in my betel wallet,
descended to the field, and having cut the paddy plants, there also
I got the victory.

"As I was coming away, a wild buffalo came to gore me. Afterwards,
loosening the buffalo's two horns [I brought them away]. These indeed
are the two horns." He told her all the matters.

Then his mother said, "Son, except that you have said that word to
me, do not say it for anyone else to hear;" and having cooked several
kinds of cakes, and milk-rice, gave them to Hitihami the Giant to eat.


                                                 North-western Province.



This story differs from nearly all the others in being almost
certainly based on a considerable statum of fact. Apparently, it
is the exaggerated tradition about a very strong man who defeated a
celebrated Indian wrestler at Kandy. The story also gives more details
concerning the village cultivations than any others I have met with.

Perhaps it is not the only record of this Hitihami. Among the names
of the deified chiefs of ancient times, termed Bandara, there is one
called Hiti Bandara, who is said to have lived at a village called
Gokaraella, twelve miles north-east of Kurunaegala. It is possible
that he is the hero of this story; but as the names of the villages
are different there is considerable doubt regarding it. There was a
village called Andara-waewa (in the Wanni Hat-pattu district of the
North-western Province) which was abandoned some centuries ago, the
field and village tank having become overgrown with jungle and forest.

As Kandy was founded early in the fourteenth century, according to
the manuscript Pradhana nuwarawal, the story may record events of
the fourteenth, fifteenth, or possibly the sixteenth century, A.D.



NO. 114

THE NEW SPEECH [136]


A certain Gamarala had a daughter, it is said. Many persons having
come, ask to marry the daughter. After they have asked it, this [137]
Gamarala asks those people who come, "Do you know the New Speech?" At
that time those people say, "Ane! There is not a New Speech that
we know." "If so, go you away," the [138] Gamarala says to those
parties. Well then, those people go.

Then still a party come. He asks that party, also, in that very
manner, "Do you know the New Speech?" Thereupon that party say,
"Ane! There is not a New Speech that we know." Then the man says,
"If so, I will not give my girl. I will give her [only] to the man
who knows the New Speech."

In this manner, many persons having asked and asked, went away. Because
even one person is not learning the New Speech, even one person does
not obtain her.

A young man at yet [another] village said thus: "Ane! Father, I know
[139] a New Speech. Because of it, marry and give that Gamarala's
daughter to me," he said.

Thereupon, he having gone asks the Gamarala, "My son knows a New
Speech. Because of it, can you marry your daughter to my son?" he
asked.

Then the Gamarala, having become pleased, said, "It is very good."

On the following day after that the marriage took place. When not
much time had gone, one day when the father-in-law and the son-in-law
were getting ready to go and plough the rice field, they said at the
hand of the girl's mother, "Bring cooked rice to the rice field,"
and went to plough.

While ploughing, the father-in-law's goad having broken he went to the
jungle below the rice field to cut a goad. Then that girl's mother,
bringing the cooked rice and coming to the field, asked the son-in-law,
"Where, son-in-law, is your father-in-law now?"

Then the son-in-law said, "Ando! Mother-in-law, is there any stopping
in the field for him! There, On! A woman was beckoning with her
hands; he will have gone on that account;" and leaving aside the
quarter to which that man went, he stretched out his hand in another
direction. "He went there, On! You go, too," he said. Afterwards the
mother-in-law went there.

Then that father-in-law having come to the rice field [after] cutting
a goad, asked at the hand of that son-in-law, "Son-in-law, where is
your mother-in-law?"

Then the son-in-law said, "Ando! Father-in-law, is there any staying
here for her! Having brought and placed here the [mat] box of cooked
rice, there, On! A man was beckoning with his hand. She will have
gone on that account;" and leaving the quarter to which she went,
he stretched out his hand in another direction. "She went there,
On! You go too," he said.

The Gamarala, taking the goad, went there to seek the woman. That
woman is seeking the man; the man is seeking the woman. While seeking
him in that manner that woman came to the rice field, and asked,
"Son-in-law, hasn't he come yet, your father-in-law?"

Then the son-in-law said, "Not he, mother-in-law; he hasn't come yet."

While she was there, the father-in-law came up and beat the woman
until the goad was broken to pieces. Afterwards the woman came home.

While the two men, having eaten the cooked rice, were ploughing, the
son-in-law asked at the hand of the father-in-law, "Father-in-law,
she is a slut whom you have called [in marriage], isn't she?"

The father-in-law asked, "What is [the meaning of] that, son-in-law?"

The son-in-law replied, "Ando! You have been married such a long time,
too! Don't you know about it? When you are sleeping, having come every
day she licks your body. Sleep to-day, also; while you are sleeping
she will lick your body, On!"

Afterwards, having ploughed, when it became night the son-in-law,
going in front, came home, and says at the hand of the mother-in-law,
"Ando! Mother-in-law, he is a salt leaf-cutter whom you have married,
isn't he?"

Then the mother-in-law asked, "What is [the meaning of] that,
son-in-law?"

The son-in-law said, "Ando! You have been such a long time married,
too! Don't you know about it? To-day, after father-in-law has gone
to sleep lick his body. There is salt taste, On!"

Afterwards, in the night when the father-in-law had gone to sleep,
the mother-in-law went and licked his body. Then the father-in-law,
having awoke, said, "Ci! Ci [140]! Slut!"

The mother-in-law said, "Ci! Ci! Salt Leaf-cutter!" and the two
quarrelled.

When not much time had gone by, the [141] Gamarala said a speech to
the son-in-law in this manner. His elder daughter had been given [in
marriage] to a person at a distant village. "Son-in-law, as I have got
news that my daughter's illness is severe, I am going because of it,
and having gone there am returning."

Saying, "Sow one and a half amunas of paddy (eight and a half bushels),
and block up [the gaps in] the fence, and tie the fence of the garden,
and heat water, and place it [ready] for me to bathe when I come,"
he went.

Thereupon the man, getting the whole of these into his mind, said,
"It is good."

After the Gamarala went away, he lowered out of the corn-store one
and a half amunas of paddy, and having taken them placed them in the
rice field; and having come back, and gone [again] taking the yoke of
cattle and the plough, and driven two or three furrows for the whole
length of the field, and sown over the field the amuna and a half, and
tied the cattle at a tree [in the jungle], and cut the fence that was
round the field, and come home, and also cut the fence of the garden,
and heated a pot of water, also, until it was thoroughly boiling,
while he was placing it [ready] the Gamarala came, at the time when
the ground is being stricken dark.

Having come, he asked, "Did you do all these services?" That son-in-law
said, "Yes."

After he said it, he asked, "Did you warm water for me to bathe?"

At that time he said, "Father-in-law, I heated the water, and the
chill has been taken off. Come to bathe." He brought that pot of
boiling water, and called him.

Then the Gamarala said, "I can bathe [myself]. You go."

Thereupon he says, "When do you bathe (that is, pour water over
yourself) by your own hand? Please bathe by my hand."

Having said, "It is good," the father-in-law tying on the bathing cloth
(ambuda baendaganda), told him to bathe him.

Thereupon the son-in-law poured on his back, from the pot, that water
which was boiling. Then the Gamarala, as it was burning his back,
cried, "What, son-in-law, did you do here?"

Then the son-in-law says, "Don't shout in that way, father-in-law;
that indeed is a piece of the New Speech."

Because his back had been scalded, the hot water having been thrown on
it, the relatives were dismissed from his mind. The Gamarala's back was
scalded to the extent that he was unable to rise for two or three days.

After two or three days had gone by, when he looked at the fence of
the garden, the fence had been cut. Thereupon the Gamarala asked at the
hand of the son-in-law, "Son-in-law, who cut the fence of the garden?"

Then he says, "Father-in-law, that indeed is a part of the New Speech,"
he said. At that time, also, the Gamarala was angry.

[After] looking at it, he went to the rice field, and when he looked,
the fence of the rice field also had been cut, and paddy had been sown
in the [unploughed] rice field. When he asked also at the hand of the
son-in-law, "What is [the meaning of] that?" "A part of the New Speech,
indeed, is that," he said. The Gamarala at that also became angry.

Afterwards he asked the son-in-law thus, "Where is even my yoke
of cattle?"

Thereupon the son-in-law said, "They are tied in the chena jungle." He
was angry also concerning that [the cattle being then dead or
nearly so].

For many a day afterwards he remained without talking with the
son-in-law. During the time while he is thus, that daughter who had
been given [in marriage] to an out-village, sent word that [her]
father and brother-in-law, both of them, must come.

Next day that father-in-law having cooked cakes, tied them in a bag,
and having cooked a bundle of rice, tied that also in a bag, in order
to go to the place where the Gamarala's elder daughter was given in
marriage. Then he called the son-in-law, saying, "Let us go."

The son-in-law, taking the cake bag, asked, "Father-in-law, what sort
is this?"

The father-in-law replied, [jokingly,] "There are cobras in it."

Then the son-in-law, taking the bag of cooked rice, asked,
"Father-in-law, what sort is this?"

The father-in-law said, "That is for the road."

Afterwards the son-in-law, taking the cake bag, went in front; the
father-in-law taking the bundle of cooked rice, went behind. The
father-in-law was unable to go quickly.

The son-in-law while going on and on ate those cakes. At the place
where the cakes were finished he broke open the mouth of the bag,
and setting it on an ant-hill stopped there looking at it.

Then the father-in-law having come up, asked, "What, son-in-law,
is that?"

The son-in-law said, "I don't know, father-in-law. As you said those
were cobras I placed it on the ant-hill for them to creep out."

Afterwards taking the rice bag, also, that was in the hand of the
father-in-law, he again went a long way in front, opened the rice bag,
and ate the cooked rice, and having thrown away the bag, stopped there,
sitting down.

The Gamarala having come up, said, "Let us eat the bundle of cooked
rice. Where, son-in-law, is the rice bag?"

Then the son-in-law said, "I don't know, father-in-law. As you said
that was for the road, I put it on the road and came away."

They were near a [road-side] shop. At that time, having given the
son-in-law a panama, [142] the Gamarala said, "Go to that shop and
bring plantains."

Then having gone to the shop, taking sixteen plantains for the
panama he thought thus:--"Should I take these sixteen plantains near
father-in-law, I shall receive eight plantains [as my share]. Because
of that, I must eat the eight plantains here and go." Thereupon he
ate eight plantains.

Having eaten them, he thinks again, "Should I take these eight
plantains father-in-law will not eat them without having given me
four plantains. Because of it, I must eat the four plantains in this
very place." So he ate the four plantains.

Having eaten them, still he thinks, "Should I go taking these four,
father-in-law will never eat without giving me two. Because of it,
after eating the two in this very place I must go." So from the four
he ate two.

Having eaten these, still he thinks, "Should I take these two near
father-in-law [143], he will never eat without giving me one. Because
of it, I must go after eating one in this very place." So from the
two he ate one.

Having eaten it, still he thinks, "Should I take this near
father-in-law [143] he will never eat without giving me a piece.
Because of it, I must go after eating the piece here." So breaking
the plantain in two he ate a piece.

Having eaten it, he brought the remaining piece, and gave it to his
father-in-law. Thereupon the Gamarala asks, "Is there [only] so much
plantain, son-in-law?" he asked.

Then the son-in-law said thus, "Father-in-law, I ate my portion;
your portion is that much," he said.

The village at which was the father-in-law's daughter, was very
near. Afterwards the son-in-law said, "Father-in-law, isn't there
scarcity of food now everywhere in the country? On that account it
is wrong for us both to go there at the same time. You come behind;
I will go in front."

Having gone to the place where the daughter was, he said,
"Father-in-law is coming there. It is bad for him to eat anything;
he has eaten a medicine. On account of the medicine he is only eating
[paddy] dust porridge; it is bad to eat anything else. On that account
cook quickly a little porridge from paddy dust, and place it [ready]
for him," he said.

After that, having amply cooked rice and curry for the son-in-law,
she gave him to eat; and for the daughter's father, taking some of
the paddy dust that was in the store-room, she cooked porridge. While
she was looking for him the Gamarala came; afterwards she gave him
the porridge.

The man, thinking, "Ane! Our daughter must be without anything to eat,"
having eaten a very little of the porridge went to sleep.

In the night that daughter's girl was crying. Saying, "I want to
go and sleep near grandfather," she went to the place where the man
was. Having gone there the girl was crying in the same way.

Then the son-in-law, hearing her, asked at the man's hand, "What,
father-in-law, is that girl crying for?"

The father-in-law, being very sleepy, said, "I don't know, son-in-law;
we must split her belly, [144] maybe."

Afterwards the son-in-law, having got up, came to the place where
the girl was, taking a knife, and split the girl's belly.

Next day, having buried the girl, the father-in-law and the son-in-law
came to their village.

After they went, the son-in-law, having become desirous to eat cakes,
told [his wife] to cook cakes. Thereupon the Gamarala's wife said
there was no palm sugar. On account of it, the son-in-law, having
become hostile, was minded to go once again to the village at which
the Gamarala's elder daughter was given [in marriage].

Having gone there, he said to the Gamarala's daughter,
"Ane! Mother-in-law having died, I came here to tell you of the
pinkama. [145] The pinkama is on the day after to-morrow. Because of
it, cooking a few cakes and the like, come," he said. Thereupon the
Gamarala's daughter wept.

Then this son-in-law says, "What are you crying for? As for the
name 'crying,' we also cried. Through crying you will not meet
with her. Because of it, plucking and setting to ripen a spike of
plantains and the like, and cooking a few cakes, come on the day
after to-morrow." Having said this he came back.

Having come there, he said to the Gamarala and the whole of the other
persons who were listening, "Father-in-law, your daughter having died,
the pinkama is on the day after to-morrow. Because of it, they said
to the whole of you that you are to go [after] plucking and setting
to ripen spikes of plantains, and cooking cakes."

Afterwards the Gamarala, the Gamarala's wife, the son-in-law,
the son-in-law's wife, all having wept and wept, cooked cakes and
milk-rice; and taking ripe plantains, and tying pingo (carrying-stick)
loads of cakes and spikes of plantains, the two parties went until
the time when they came face to face.

When they are coming in contact the Gamarala's wife goes weeping,
"Ane! Daughter, he said you died."

Thereupon the daughter comes weeping, "Ane! Mother, it is for your
pinkama we came here."

While both parties, having made lamentation in this manner, are
weeping, the son-in-law who knows the Gamarala's New Speech, said,
"To-day also you cannot cook cakes! Eat ye," and began to eat the
cakes.

After that, their troubles being allayed, when they asked from this
one, "What is this you said?" he said, "This indeed, father-in-law,
is a little of the New Speech. For the purpose of your getting to
know it I did it."

After that all were consoled.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Orientalist, vol. i, p. 131, Mr. W. Goonetilleke gives
the incident of the plantain eating as part of a tale called "The
Story of Hokka." The hero of it was a servant of the Gamarala's. He
bought sixteen plantains, and ate his half share, on his way back
repeating the process until only one was left, which he offered to the
Gamarala. His master complained of his stupidity in getting only one
plantain for the money. Hokka replied that he received sixteen, but
had eaten the rest. "How did you [dare to] eat them, you dog?" asked
the Gamarala. Hokka held up the plantain, peeled it, and put it in
his mouth, saying, "This is the way I ate the plantains, your honour."

In Indian Nights' Entertainment (Swynnerton), p. 92, a foolish man who
was taking money to the local treasury, put it in some flour which
he handed to a baker's wife to be made into cakes. In the morning,
when he remembered and asked for it, she refused to return it unless
he told her two stories this way and two that way, and as he could
think of none he went off without it. When his clever brother heard
of it, he put some brass finger-rings into flour, handed it to the
same woman, and in reply to her remarks stated that there were many
rings at the bush where he picked these. When she went to pick some,
thinking them gold, the man told her husband that she had followed
a man who beckoned to her, the husband took a bamboo and gave her a
sound beating. The clever brother, learning that the baker's daughter
was betrothed to a lad at another village, told a person whom he met
to inform the boy's parents that the girl had died from snake-bite;
he himself told the girl's mother that wolves had attacked and killed
the lad. The two mothers met on the way, quarrelled and fought, and
became reconciled on finding the reports false. The brother told the
baker's wife that he had now told her two stories this way, and she was
glad to give him his brother's money before he told her two that way.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 289, a barber whose
wife was visited by a King pretended to be sick, and informed the
King that his wife was a witch who extracted and sucked his entrails
while he slept, and then replaced them. When the barber went home
he told his wife that his razor had broken on some abnormal and very
sharp teeth of the King's. When the King came, and the barber's wife
stretched out her hand to find the teeth, the King cried, "A witch! A
witch!" and escaped.

In the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed., vol. i, p. 355) a negro
slave related how when his master sent him home for some article, he
informed his wife and daughters that his master had been killed by the
fall of an old wall. They rent their robes, overturned the furniture,
and broke the windows and crockery, the slave assisting them. Then,
led by him, they and the neighbours went lamenting to bring the body
home. The Governor also took labourers with spades and baskets. The
slave got ahead, told the master that his house had fallen and killed
his wife, daughters, and everything else. While his master and his
friends were lamenting and tearing their robes the procession of
mourners arrived and the hoax was discovered. The Governor made the
slave "eat stick" till he fainted.

In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. ii, p. 211, a man
who was sent by his master to buy mangoes, only sweet and fine ones,
tasted each one to ascertain if it was of the requisite quality.



NO. 115

THE MASTER AND SERVANT


While a certain Master and Servant were going on a journey, they
having become hungry the Master said, "Ada! Bring plantain flowers,"
[146] and gave money to the Servant.

The Servant having brought plantain flowers, for the purpose of eating
them they sat down at a place. The Master spoke to the Servant,
"Ada! Don't throw away their rinds (potu); having given money also
[for them] what are you throwing them away for?" he said.

"If so, you must eat them," the Servant said.

Thereupon, while the Master first was eating the peel (leli) of the
plantain fruits, his stomach having filled he became unable to eat
the core [of the peeled fruit].

After that, the Servant ate the small quantity of the core.


                                                           Uva Province.



NO. 116

HOW THE SON-IN-LAW CUT THE CHENA


In a certain country there are a woman and a man, it is said. There
is a daughter of those two persons. Having brought a man to the house
for the girl, he stayed there.

One day the father-in-law said to the son-in-law, "[After] asking for
a Naekata (a lucky hour, depending on the positions of the planets),
and returning, prepare to cut a little jungle [for making a chena]."

After that, the son-in-law went near the Naekatrala (astrologer) and
asked for a naekata. Then the Naekatrala said, "The naekata will be
on Thursday" (Burahaspotinda, sic).

Afterwards the son-in-law, saying, "Burahas, burahas," comes away. The
path on which to come is along the [front of the] Gamarala's house;
except that, there is no other path. When he is coming away along the
[front of the] Gamarala's house, the Gamarala's dog comes growling
(burana) in front of him. Well then, the son-in-law forgets the
naekata.

Well then, having gone back again near the Naekatrala, he said,
"Ane! Naekatrala, not having remembered the day I have come here
again." Then the Naekatrala says, "Why do you forget; didn't I say
Thursday?"

When the son-in-law, again saying and saying, "Burahas, burahas,"
is coming away along the [front of the] Gamarala's house, the dog
comes growling. Well then, again this man forgets the naekat day.

Again having gone near the Naekatrala, he asks him. Thus, in that
manner, that day until it becomes night he walks there and here.

Afterwards the Naekatrala said, "What has happened to you that you
are forgetting in that way?"

Then this son-in-law says, "What is it, Naekatrala? Isn't it because
of the Gamarala's dog? What else?"

Then the Naekatrala said, "Why do you become unable [to remember]
because of the dog?"

This son-in-law replies, "When I am going from here saying and saying,
'Burahas, burahas,' along the [front of the] Gamarala's house, that
dog comes in front of me growling. Well then, I forget it."

The Naekatrala having given into the man's hand a cudgel, said,
"Should the dog come, beat it with this;" and saying, "The day is
Thursday," sent him away.

After that, the man came home in the manner the Naekatrala said. That
day was Wednesday; the next day, indeed, was the naekata. On that
day he said to the man's wife, "To-morrow, indeed, is the naekata,
Thursday. Early in the morning you must make ready a bundle of
cooked rice."

On the following day the woman cooked a bundle of rice and gave him
it. The man, having taken the bundle of cooked rice and hung it on a
tree, clearing at the tree only [sufficient] for the man to lie down,
slept there until the time when it becomes noon. At noon, bathing in
water and returning, he ate the bundle of cooked rice; and having
been sleeping there again until the time when it becomes night, he
came home in the evening. Thus, in that way, until the time comes
for setting fire to the jungle, he ate the bundles of cooked rice.

Then when men told the son-in-law they were going to set fire to the
jungle [at their chenas] he said, "Father-in-law, I must set fire to
my jungle. I cannot quite alone. If you go too it will be good."

Afterwards the father-in-law said, "Ha, if so, let us go," and taking a
blind (smouldering) torch, and taking also a bundle of [unlit] torches,
the father-in-law quite loaded, the son-in-law empty-handed in front,
they go on and on, without end.

The father-in-law said, "Where, son-in-law, are we going still?"

The son-in-law says, "Still a little further. Come along." Having
said this, and gone near the tree where he ate the rice, a buffalo
was asleep in the place which he had cleared and had been sleeping
at. The son-in-law, cutting a stick, came and struck the buffalo, and
drove it away, saying, "What did you come to sleep in my chena for?"

Then the father-in-law asked, "Where, son-in-law, is the chena?"

The son-in-law says, "Ando! Father-in-law, this Candala [147] buffalo
was sleeping in one part that I had cut. The others men stole and
went off with, maybe."

After that, the father-in-law, having become angry, came home.


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 117

A GIRL AND A STEP-MOTHER


At a certain time, at a village there was a certain Gamarala. There
was a daughter of the Gamarala's. The daughter's mother died. After
she died, for the Gamarala they brought another [woman in] marriage. Of
the previous diga (marriage) of that woman there is a girl. The woman
and the girl are not good to the Gamarala's daughter.

At the time when the Gamarala is not [there], she tells the two girls
to clean cotton. She told that step-mother's daughter to remain at the
corner of the house, and clean the cotton. She told the daughter of
the Gamarala's previous marriage to clean cotton in the lower part
of the garden, under the lime tree. Having told her to clean it,
the step-mother says, "Should a roll of cotton go away through the
wind I will split thy head," she said.

When with fear on account of it, the [Gamarala's] girl is cleaning
the cotton, a great wind having struck her, all the small quantity
of cotton went away owing to the wind. The step-mother saw that
the cotton is going. Having seen it, she went and said to the girl,
"Why did'st thou send away the cotton in the wind? Thou canst not
remain here. Thou having gone near the female Bear, [after] begging
for the golden spindle (ran idda), the golden bow for cleaning cotton
(ran rodda), the golden spindle (ran wawnna), the golden spinning-wheel
(ran yantare), feed the seven mouths of the Seven-mouthed Prince and
get a living. Unless [thou dost] that, thou canst not obtain a living
here." Having said [this], she beat her.

The girl, hearing the word which her step-mother said, went near the
female Bear, and asking for [and obtaining] the female Bear's golden
spindle, golden cotton-bow, golden spindle, golden spinning-wheel,
went to the place where the Seven-mouthed Prince is. The Seven-mouthed
Prince is a human-flesh-eating man; there are seven mouths for
that man.

At the time when the girl was arriving there, the Seven-mouthed Prince
had not come back since he went [148] to eat human flesh. This girl
having hastened, having cooked seven quarts of rice and seven curries,
and covered those things and placed [them ready], remained hidden
when the Seven-mouthed Prince was coming.

The Seven-mouthed Prince having come, when he looked some rice and
curry had been cooked. The Seven-mouthed Prince asks, "Who has cooked
these?" The girl does not speak about it. After that, the Seven-mouthed
Prince having prepared himself, ate the whole of the cooked rice and
curry. Having eaten, and having been sleeping, on the following day,
in the morning, he went for human-flesh food.

Having waited until the time when he goes, the girl that day having
cooked six quarts of rice, and having cooked six curries, cleaned and
swept the house, and that day also got hid. That day also, having
come, he asked in that manner [who had done it]. That day, also,
she did not speak. That day he obliterated one mouth.

In this order, until the time when it became one quart, she cooked
and gave him to eat. Out of the seven mouths he obliterated six; one
remained over. On that day, having cooked in the day a half [quart]
of rice, and cooked two curries, and having warmed and placed water
for the Seven-mouthed Prince to bathe, and taken another sort of cloth
[for him], she placed those things [ready] for him. Having expressed
oil, she placed it [ready for him]. That day the Seven-mouthed Prince
having come, says, "Come down, person who is assisting me." Having
said it, he called her. After that, the girl came. After she came,
he asked, "What is the reason of your assisting me in this way?"

Then the girl tells him. The girl says, "I have no mother; father
has brought a step-mother. That step-mother having beaten me said,
'Thou canst not be here and obtain a living. Thou having gone
near the female Bear, [after] begging for the female Bear's golden
spindle, golden cotton bow, golden spinning-wheel, golden spindle,
go near the Seven-mouthed Prince, and feeding the seven mouths
obtain a living. Except that, thou canst not get a living here,'
she said. Owing to that I came," she said.

Afterwards he became much pleased about it. Having become pleased he
told her to stay [as his wife]. Afterwards having called the Prince,
and caused him to bathe in warm water, and caused him to put on good
cloths, and rubbed oil [on his hair], and combed his head, that day
the two sitting down ate cooked rice.

From that time, the party became rich there to a good degree. The
girl's father, and step-mother, and step-mother's girl, having gone
to the place where she is, obtained a subsistence from there.


                                                 North-western Province.



Messrs. H. B. Andris and Co., of Kandy, have been good enough to
inform me that the wawnna is a kind of spindle or yarn-holder, two and
a half feet long, on which the thread is wound after spinning. It is
narrow in the middle part and wider at each end. The rodda is eighteen
inches long.



NO. 118

THE WICKED ELDER BROTHER


In a certain country there are a woman and a man, it is said. There
is a younger sister of the man. The elder brother's wife is very dear
to the younger sister; the younger sister is a very good girl.

One day the elder brother said at the hand of the woman, "It is in
my mind to call my younger sister [to be my wife]."

The woman says, "Well, what is it to me, if it be good to you?"

While she was there, the woman having placed paddy on the hearth, and
waited until the time when it is boiling, said to that sister-in-law,
"Sister-in-law, having gone rubbing castor-oil on your two legs take
out the paddy that is on the hearth."

The woman combed the man's head. She said it to the girl unnoticed
by the man, to save the girl.

That girl having gone rubbing her two legs, when she was taking out
the paddy the heat of the fire on the hearth struck her two legs, and
the castor-oil, having become warm, descends down her two legs. Then
that woman, having been combing and combing the man's head, says at
the hand of the man, "There! You say it is in your mind to call your
younger sister [to be your wife]. Look there, at the matter from her
legs; her legs are ulcerated." [149]

Then the man says, "It is unnecessary to keep that one; you take
that one, and having taken this bill-hook cut that one's neck, and
come back."

After that, the woman, calling her sister-in-law and having gone,
handed her over to a widow woman, and having secretly taken that
man's money also, gave it to the widow woman for her expenses on
account of the girl.

While returning, she cut a dog on the path, and smearing the blood
on the bill-hook, came back and showed it to the man, "Look here
(Menna). The blood that has been cut from your younger sister." Well
then, to the man's mind it is good.

At the time when the man is not at home, having cut a tunnel from the
woman's house to the widow woman's house, and from the woman's house to
the widow woman's house having drawn a silver chain and an iron chain,
she said at the hand of the widow woman, "If there be a sorrow shake
the iron chain; if there be a pleasure shake the silver chain." [150]
Having said it the woman came home.

On a certain day the girl arrived at marriageable age. The widow
woman shook the silver chain. Afterwards, this girl having gone
[there], when she looked the girl had arrived at a marriageable age;
and having distributed the present given to the washerman on the
occasion, and the like, she again said at the hand of the widow woman,
"If there be a pleasure, shake the silver chain; if a sorrow, shake
the iron chain," and came home again.

Again one day she shook the silver chain. This woman having gone again,
when she looked [she found that] to give the girl [in marriage] the
name [of the man] had been decided. Afterwards, having distributed the
[food of the] wedding [feast] and the like, the woman came home.

The girl having been [married] a little time, bore a boy. Afterwards
the girl said to the girl's man, "Tying pingo (carrying-stick)
loads, let us go to our village." The man also having said "Ha,"
cooking cakes, and carrying the little one also, they came to the
widow woman's house.

Then the widow woman shook the silver chain. The girl's sister-in-law
came. Having come, when she looked the girl's little one is there also.

Having given from the cakes to the widow woman, she took the others,
and calling the girl, calling the girl's husband also, and carrying
the little one, she returned home [with them]. Having gone home,
the girl's sister-in-law caused the little one to lie in the waist
pocket of the girl's elder brother, and said, "There. Your younger
sister's little one!" [and told him how she had been saved].

After that, the elder brother having wept, took the little one in
his arms.


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 119

NAHAKOTA'S WEDDING FEAST


In a certain country there are a woman and a man, it is said. While
they were there the woman bore two girls and a boy. When they were
there a long time the man died.

After that, the big girl having grown up, they gave her in diga
(marriage). The boy cannot speak well; his nose is short. The
other girl has become considerably big. That boy is older than the
girl. It is Nahakota's [151] endeavour to call that younger sister
[in marriage]. That woman (their mother) having perceived that, went
with the daughter to the place where the other big daughter was given;
and having conducted her [there], came back.

After that, a day or two having passed, Nahakota went, in order to
call the girl back [to be his wife]. Having gone [he said] at the
girl's hand, "Younger sister, mother told me to go back with thee;
on that account I came here."

While coming with that girl, having met with villages on the road
that girl says, "Elder brother, is our village still far away?"

Then Nahakota says, "Why do you say, 'Elder brother, elder
brother?' Would it be bad if you said, 'Husband, husband' (Wahe)?"

Then that girl being frightened, comes without speaking. Again, when
coming a little further, she asks, "Elder brother, is our village
still far away?"

Then Nahakota says, "Why do you say, 'Elder brother, elder
brother?' Would it be bad if you said, 'Husband, husband?'"

Then the girl being frightened comes without speaking. Thus, in that
way they came quite home. Having come, Nahakota said to Nahakota's
mother, "Mother, pound flour and cook cakes. I am going to spread
nets to catch [animals] for my [wedding] feast." Having said it,
Nahakota went to spread nets, joining with a man.

After that, the girl says, "Mother, when elder brother and I were
coming, I asked at elder brother's hand, 'Elder brother, is our
village still further on?' Then elder brother said, 'Why do you say,
"Elder brother, elder brother?" If you said, "Husband, husband,"
would it be bad?'"

Afterwards the woman says, "Daughter, let us two go somewhere or
other before that one comes." Having said it, and cut the throat
(lit., neck) of a cock, and hung it above the hearth, and placed
a cooking-pot on the hearth, and blown the fire, and shut the house
door, the woman and the girl went somewhere or other.

Nahakota, having spread nets, came home. While he was in the veranda,
as the blood of the fowl [hanging] in that house was falling into the
cooking-pot, the pot having become heated, for three watches (each
of four hours) when each drop of blood was falling it makes a noise,
"Cos, cos," [152] like cooking cakes.

Nahakota thought, "Our mother, etc., cooking cakes, indeed, that
is." [153] Having sprung into the open space in front of the house,
and beaten and beaten tom-toms on his rear, he began to dance, singing
and singing, "Ade! Tude! They are cooking cakes for my Nahakota feast."

Having danced, after it became night, on account of their not opening
the door Nahakota knocked at the door and told them to open the
door. They did not open it.

Afterwards, having opened the door, when he looked there was nobody. A
cock, only, was hung near the hearth, a cooking-pot placed on the
hearth, only the fire is blazing on the hearth.

Afterwards, Nahakota having wept, remained there quietly. [154]


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 120

HOW A MAN CHARMED A THREAD


In a certain country there are a woman and a man, it is said. The woman
having falsely said that she had the Kadawara disease, [155] taking
on false illness lay down. The man every day goes to the watch-hut
[in the chena].

One day when he was going to the watch-hut, he asked for thread at
the hand of the woman, in order to bring it on the morrow morning,
[after] charming it for the Kadawara. After that, the woman gave him
thread, having become pleased at it.

The man knows about the woman's trickery. Knowing it, that day evening
having gone to the watch-hut the man charmed the thread. How did he
charm it? The woman's father's name was Palinguwa.

At the very time when the man was going to sleep, holding the thread,
the very manner in which he charmed it [was this]: having made
[nine] knots [on it], he charmed it [by] saying and saying [only],
"Palinguwa's woman, Palinguwa's woman."

On the following day morning he came back, and tied it on the woman's
arm. At the very instant, the woman, quickly having arisen, does her
work. While she was thus, the woman says, "Having hastened quickly,
you must distribute [betel]." [156]

Afterwards, the man also having said, "It is good," he gave betel
to Kadawara Vedas [157] who dance well, and said, "Come on such
and such a day." He collected for it the articles to be expended,
and caused arrack (spirit distilled from palm-juice) to be brought,
and prepared all.

On the Kadawara day the men came, and having eaten and drunk, and
dressed themselves [in their dancing costume and ornaments], as
they were descending [from the raised veranda] into the open space
in front of the house, this woman quickly took out the mat also,
and stretching out her two feet at the doorway, sat down on it,
(ready for the ceremony, which would be performed in front of her).

Then this man having come speedily, bringing the rice pestle,
beat that woman with the pestle and put her in the house. Having
shut the door and locked it, and come outside, as he was coming out
the Kadawara Vedas, becoming afraid, prepared to run away, saying,
"Perhaps this man is a mad-man."

Then this man said, "Don't you run away. Dance well. There is arrack;
drink as much as you want."

Afterwards, they having drunk and drunk and danced until it became
light, in the morning the man cooked abundantly, and gave the Kadawara
Vedas to eat, and having given them presents sent them away.


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 121

HOW THE RICE AND CURRY BECAME RAW


At a certain time there were a woman and her husband, two
persons. During the time while they were [there], one day the husband
said to the woman, "I am going to-day to the watch-hut. Having gone
there, I shall not come back to-morrow morning; I shall be delayed,
ploughing the field below that field. Because of it, you must bring
me cooked rice to-morrow morning."

Then the woman during the whole night [158] having abundantly given
food and the like to her paramours, without sleeping, it became
light. After that, the woman went to sleep.

[After] going to sleep, being without the means of bringing cooked rice
[through want of time to cook it], she washed rice, putting it in a
cooking-pot, and cut up dried fish and brinjal, [159] putting them raw
into a large cooking-pot, and took them to the rice field [uncooked].

After she went, that man said, "Bola! Strumpet! Didst thou stay
with thy paramours until so much time has gone?" and scolded her
[for being late].

Thereupon, this woman, saying, "Apoyi! Because you said such a vile
word to me may the cooked rice and curry which I brought for you
become raw," put them down on the ground.

When the man looked, the woman's speech was true; the cooked rice and
curry had become raw. After that, the man, having said to the woman
that she was a good woman, thoroughly respected her.

                                                 North-central Province.



NO. 122

HOW A WOMAN ATE COOKED RICE BY STEALTH


In a certain country there are a woman and a man, it is said. There is
also a little one of the woman's; the little one cannot talk well yet.

Having waited until the time when the man goes to the watch-hut
[at night], this woman every day while he is in the chena having
cooked raw-rice [160] eats small beans (maekaral) [with it] in the
house. Every day having cooked fry of them (the beans), and given to
the little one, they eat it every day at night [without his knowledge].

One day, at the time when the man comes, the little one says, "Father,
having cooked maekittan fry, and having cooked raw-rice, let us eat
her, eh?"

Then that man says at the hand of the woman, "What, Bolan, does this
one say?"

The woman says, "I don't know. He eats in dreams, [161] maybe. Cause
thread to be charmed for it and come back."

Afterwards the man, causing the thread to be charmed, came and tied
it on the arm of the little one.


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 123

HOW A WOMAN OFFERED CAKES


In a certain country there are a man and a woman, it is said. The
woman has been brought from another country (district). A paramour
has become associated with the woman.

She said to the woman's husband, "In our country there is a custom. In
the lower part of the garden we must offer cakes to the Yaka who is in
the lower part of the garden; if not, the Yaka causes sickness. When
I was living at my village, too, I offered them every day. Because
of it, we must offer them now also."

Afterwards the man said, "Ha, it is good. Continue to offer them. For
it, what else do you want, etc.?"

After that, the woman said, "We don't want anything else. Having
set up two sticks, cleft into four at the top (aewari kanu), we must
offer on one twenty cakes, on one thirty cakes. That is all."

Having cooked the cakes, on the day on which she offers them she
cannot cook more [food]. At the house no one can eat [afterwards on
that day]; should they eat they will die.

After that, the man having prepared the two cleft sticks in the lower
part of the garden, gave her them. From that day, the woman having
cooked fifty cakes, at one cleft stick offers twenty, at one cleft
stick thirty. [162]

When it is becoming dark, the paramour having come is in the lower
part of the garden. The woman having offered the cakes says, "Leaving
the twenty, taking the thirty, go, O Yaka." Having said [this] the
woman comes home.

The paramour having come, leaving the twenty, eats the thirty, and
goes away. Afterwards the woman having come [there], eats the twenty,
and goes back.

In that very manner, the woman every day having given cakes to that
paramour, the woman also eats. That man was unable to find out the
roguery.


                                                 North-western Province.



In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. iii, p. 118, a
man who wished to have meat to eat, induced his sons to kill a sheep
and offer the flesh to the deity of a tree which stood in their field,
telling them that their prosperity was due to this god.



NO. 124

THE MANNER IN WHICH A WOMAN PREPARED A FLOUR FIGURE


In a certain country there are a woman and a man, it is said; the
woman is associated with a paramour. The woman has been brought from
another country.

One day (dawasakda) the woman said, "In our country there is a
custom. Having constructed a flour figure, and having made it sit
upon a chair near the hearth, we must cook cakes and offer them
[before it]." After that, the man having sought for the articles for
cooking cakes gave her them.

After that, the woman, having pounded flour and made [enough] for two
cooking pots, having increased the syrup for one pot, and diminished
the syrup for one, and having been there until the time when the man
goes somewhere or other (kohedo), told the paramour to come. After
having put and smeared flour over the whole body [163] of the man,
having brought a chair near the hearth and made him sit upon the chair,
the woman sitting down near the hearth cooks the cakes.

That man having come home, when he looked there is the flour
figure. While the man in silence is looking on in the raised veranda,
having seen that the woman puts the well-cooked cakes separately
into a pot and the badly cooked cakes into another pot, and getting
to know about the flour figure paramour, to make the woman get up of
necessity,--a calf had been brought from the woman's village--the
calf had been tied up,--the man having gone very quietly (himimma)
unfastened the calf. Very quietly having come again to the veranda
he said, "On (there)! The calf that was brought from your village is
loose; tie it and come back."

The woman says, "I am unable to go; [164] you go and tie it, and
come." The man said, "I will not."

Afterwards the woman having arisen went to tie the calf. [Then] this
man, having arisen from the veranda, struck the oil cooking-pot that
was on the hearth on the top of the head (ismundune) of the flour
figure paramour. The flour figure, crying out, is wriggling about.

That woman having tied up the calf and come, says, "I had prepared
the flour figure. Having thrown it away that one will have come and
sat there [in its place]. What shall I do? [When] he escaped from you
even so much [time], am I indeed going to eat that one's liver? [165]
Why didn't you split that one's head?" Having said [this] she caused
the man to be deceived.


                               Finished.

                                                 North-western Province.



The woman's remark regarding the liver is an instance of the survival
of a very old expression, perhaps connected with magical practices. In
the translations from the Chinese Tripitaka published by M. Chavannes
in Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues, vol. i, p. 120, a girl cried, "May
I become a demoniacal and maleficent being to devour the liver of the
elder brother." In Folk-lore of the Santal Parganas (Rev. Dr. Bodding),
p. 419, it is stated that witches are believed to cause people's deaths
by eating their livers. The Sinhalese text is, "Umbawaen occarawat
beruwa mama nan okage kaewtu kanawa nae?" The final word is merely a
colloquial expletive which adds emphasis to the question. It occurs
also in No. 197, vol. iii, footnote No. 1, and elsewhere. Perhaps
this is the original form of the curious syllable sometimes heard at
the end of questions put to acquaintances by Burghers of the lower
class in Ceylon, as in the query, "I say, man, what are you doing, no?"



NO. 125

HOW A WOMAN BECAME A LAPWING [166]


At a certain village there were an elder sister and a younger brother,
it is said. He gave the elder sister [167] in diga [marriage] to a
[man of another] country. For the younger brother they brought a wife
to the house.

When no long time had gone after the elder sister was given in diga,
the elder sister's husband died; and being without [anything] to eat
or drink, the elder sister came to the younger brother's house in
order to beg for something.

At that time, the man said, "Ade! Give our elder sister amply to eat
and drink, and having tied up and given a bag of paddy amounting to
a load, send her on her journey;" and in order to look at his wife's
trustworthiness or untrustworthiness he stayed in a tree behind the
house, looking out, near the path on which the elder sister goes.

Thereupon, the man's wife, having given the man's elder sister a piece
of stale cake to eat, put in a [mat] box a little worthless paddy
chaff that had been blown away when she fanned paddy, and gave her it.

After that, when this elder sister, being grieved, was going on the
path, she went saying and saying, "Ane! If my younger brother were
there she would not do thus. Sister-in-law gave me only paddy chaff
and a few stale cakes; but [even] should my sister-in-law do magic
against me, may a shower of flowers rain at my younger brother's
doorway." Then, weeping and weeping she came home.

Then the younger brother who stayed in the tree having been hearing
that word, came home, and asked his wife, "Ade! Didst thou give my
elder sister amply to eat and drink?"

The woman said, "Andoma! When she had eaten I tied up a bag of paddy
equal to a load, and gave it. What else will you tell me to give?"

Thereupon the man having said, "It is good," and having been keeping
it in his mind, after two or three days had gone, said, "Ade! Thy
mother is ill. Prepare something and give me it [as a present for
her, to enable me] to look at her and return," he said. The man said
it falsely.

The woman saying, "Perhaps it is true," cooked a packet of rice, and
taking thirty ridis, [168] put them at the bottom of the packet of
cooked rice, and tied and gave him it, for him to go to her parents'
house and return. Unknown to the man [169] she did this dishonesty
(i.e., put his money in the bag).

Thereupon the man, taking the packet of cooked rice, went to the
house of the man's elder sister. That day he remained there without
coming back.

That elder sister having unfastened the bag, when she looked [saw that]
at the bottom of the rice there were thirty ridis. Afterwards the
elder sister called the younger brother and asked, "Younger brother,
whence are these thirty ridis at the bottom of the rice in this bag?"

The younger brother said, "I told her of our house (ape gedara eki
[170]) to cook and give me a packet of rice, in order to go to her
village. She will have put in the thirty ridis."

At that time a washerwoman who stayed in that village brought clothes
to the younger brother's house. Thereupon this woman (his wife) asked
at the hand of the washerwoman (radawi atin), "Washerwoman-aunt,
our house man went to go to [my] village and return. Didn't you meet
him on the way?"

The washerwoman said, "Ane! Madam (mahattine), on the road indeed I
did not meet with him; he is staying at the gentleman's (rahamille)
elder sister's house. Except that it seemed that he is [171] at the
house itself, he did not [otherwise] go to your quarter."

Thereupon, at that instant [172] a disturbance (internal)
having come to her, while this woman was saying, "Is it true,
washerwoman? Is it true, washerwoman? Saw you him, washerwoman? Saw
you him, washerwoman? Gave he them, washerwoman? Got she them,
washerwoman? There are thirty ridis, there are thirty, there are
thirty," [173] except that she got her breath upwards, she did not
hold it down. Having gone in that very manner, when she said there
were thirty ridis she became a female Red-wattled Lapwing, [174]
and flew away. Now also the Red-wattled Lapwings say, "Hotae tikiri,
hotae tikiri." [175] From that time, indeed, the Red-wattled Lapwings
increased.

Then the man having come back, not contracting another marriage he
remained providing subsistence for his elder sister.

Well then, we came here. [176]


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 126

THE STORY OF THE SEVEN WICKED WOMEN [177]


In a certain country, when seven elder sisters and younger sisters,
fastening on bangles (at-wael) are going along, a woman having been
near the well asked, "Where are they [178] going?"

Then the seven elder sisters and younger sisters said, "We are going
to seek for ourselves seven elder brothers and younger brothers."

Then this woman said, "There are seven elder brothers and younger
brothers of mine." Having said, "Let us go, if so, to our house," and
having gone calling the seven persons and sent them to seven houses
(rooms), she lowered [from the corn store] seven [mat] boxes of paddy,
and gave them.

The seven persons having boiled the paddy, and said, "Sister-in-law,
look after this," [179] and spread it out to dry, the seven went for
firewood. Having gone there they spoke, "Let us find a means [180]
of killing sister-in-law."

There was a Brown Monkey (rilawa); catching the monkey they brought
it home.

This younger sister having gone to sleep and a great rain having
rained, all the paddy was washed away. [181] When those seven persons
having come looked, all the paddy had been washed away.

After that, the seven persons again having lowered paddy [from the
corn-store], when they were pounding the paddy raw (lit., hard)
that younger sister awoke. Having awoke thus, she asked at the hand
of those seven, "Sister-in-law, is there cooked rice?"

Then the women said, "Is there cooked rice in our hand? It is in the
cooking pot, isn't it?" The women having previously (lit., betimes)
broken up bits of potsherds, and put them in the drinking kettle,
and put it away, are pounding paddy.

Afterwards that sister-in-law having gone and eaten the cooked rice,
and said, "Sister-in-law, give me water," these women said, "Is it
in our hand? It is in the house, in the drinking kettle; take it
and drink."

Afterwards the sister-in-law having taken the drinking kettle, when
she was drinking the water the pieces of potsherds stuck in her throat.

These seven persons spoke, "Should that one's elder brothers come,
indeed, we shall be unable to kill her. Before they come let us kill
her." Having spoken thus, and having put the sister-in-law and that
monkey into a bag and tied it, they hung it at the ridge pole. Having
hung it, after the seven persons were pounding paddy the seven strike
seven blows with the rice pestles at the bag. At the number they are
striking, that monkey, jumping and jumping, scratches that woman who
is in the bag. He having scratched her, afterwards blood descends from
the bag. Then the seven persons having said, "Now then, it is bad
[for her] to be [thus]; having released her let us put her down,"
having unfastened the bag, put down the sister-in-law at the veranda.

Then the sister-in-law's elder brothers came home. Having come there
the eldest brother asked, "Where is our younger sister?"

Then these seven women said, "We don't know. Having gone behind
Rodiyas, and her caste having [thus] fallen, there! she is weeping
and weeping in the direction of the veranda."

Afterwards the eldest elder brother having gone, "What, younger sister,
happened to you?" he asked at the hand of the younger sister.

The younger sister cannot speak, because a sharp piece of potsherd has
stuck in her throat. The whole seven elder brothers having gone, spoke
[to her]. Because she did not speak, the eldest elder brother said,
"Who can cut [and kill] this younger sister?" The whole five other
elder brothers said they could not; the young elder brother said,
"I indeed can."

Having said it, causing them to cook a bundle of rice, calling the
younger sister also, and taking the sword, and taking the bundle of
cooked rice, he went [with her] to a forest jungle (himalekata). Having
gone there he said to the younger sister, "Younger sister, [for me]
to look for lice on your head lie down." Afterwards the younger sister
lay down; well then, the elder brother began to smash the lice. Then
sleep went to the younger sister.

Afterwards the elder brother having placed the younger sister's head
very softly on the ground, and having cut a Rat-snake on the path he
was coming on, [after] smearing the blood on the sword he showed the
sword to the people who were at home.

Afterwards that younger sister having awoke, when she looked her
elder brother was not [there], in the midst of the forest. Well then,
weeping and weeping, taking also the bundle of cooked rice, having
bounded to a path she began to go.

Having gone thus,--there is a city called "The City the Rakshasa
eats"; there is an alms-hall at that city,--having gone, she arrived
there. There, having eaten that bundle of cooked rice, and having
joined herself to the people who are giving alms, she began to
give alms.

The eyes of the whole of these seven elder brothers and seven women
became blind. After that, news reached those persons that there is
an alms-hall of the city the Rakshasa eats. After that, they very
fourteen persons went near the alms-hall.

That sister-in-law also having gone in a diga [marriage], has
borne a child also. She having given food to this party, when that
sister-in-law and the sister-in-law's child were preparing (lit.,
making) to sleep, the child said to the sister-in-law, "Mother,
for me to hear it tell me a story."

Then the sister-in-law [said], "Son, what do I know? I will tell you
the things indeed that happened to me." So the son said, "It is good,
tell them."

Afterwards she told him all the matters that occurred to this
sister-in-law. Those seven elder brothers having heard the things she
says, and having said, "Ane! Our younger sister to-day is relating
our grandeur!" as soon as they gave the salutation "Sadhu!" the eyes
of the whole seven elder brothers became clear.

The eyes of the seven women did not become clear. The seven elder
brothers also stayed at the very city at which is the younger
sister. The seven women having been in much hunger they went and died.


                               Finished.

                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 127

THE STORY OF THE OLD MAN [182]


In a certain country an old man ground gunpowder. Having ground it
until the time when it became night, he dried it in the sun. In the
evening, at the time when he was preparing (lit., making) to put it in
the powder-horn, the old gentleman's [183] grandson having come said,
"Grandmother, let us burn (pussamu) gunpowder, to look at it."

Then, having scolded the child she said, "Bring a fire-brand." Having
brought it, "Grandmother, give me a little powder," he said. After
that, she put gunpowder into a potsherd. Having put it in she told
him to burn it. When he was placing the fire-brand [to it] the little
powder that was in the potsherd all burnt.

Because the old gentleman was near the potsherd the old gentleman's
beard and body were burnt. On account of the difficulty of his body
he said to his wife, "Warm and give me a little water," he said.

The woman having warmed the water called him to bathe; at that time the
old gentleman came there. After that, while the woman for the purpose
of cooling the water went to bring cold water, the man, taking a piece
of coconut shell, poured [the hot water] over his body. Because there
was too much heat in the water his body began to burn.

While he was crying out on his body's burning, a man having come said
for that burning, "Cowdung (ela-goma) indeed is good." [184]

Afterwards the man having gone running, bringing excrement deposited
by a child called Goma, from the place where they tie the cattle,
smeared it on the burning places. The [old] man perceiving the stench,
at the time when he said to his wife, "What is this stench? Is this
cowdung or what? Look," the woman brought a lamp. When she looked,
perceiving that it was ordure, she said, "The things this foolish
stubborn fellow is doing to himself!" Spitting, having brought water
and bathed him she went with him into the house. Afterwards in many
days she made him well.


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 128

THE MAGIC LUTE PLAYER [185]


In a country a Prince [after] constructing a Lute plays [186]
it. Throughout the extent through which the sound was heard, not a
female elephant nor tusk elephant stays away; it comes to look. In
that manner he caused many elephants to be brought [up to him] in
the jungles.

A Princess of another city was minded to look at this Prince. Because
it was so she said, "I will (would) give five hundred masuran to
a person who brought and gave him; having given them I will marry
that person."

Yet [another] Prince asked, "I will bring and give him; will you
marry me?" When he asked, the Princess says, "Cause him to be brought;
I will [then] marry you."

Thereupon this Prince having also taken a great quantity of white
cloths, proceeded to that city. Having gone there, and having halted
(natara-wela) in a jungle, cutting sticks he constructed a white tusk
elephant with [them and] the white cloths; having made it this Prince
is under the tusk elephant.

Certain men (minissu wagayak) having seen this white tusk elephant,
say to the Prince who having played the Lute causes the tusk elephant
to be brought, "O Prince, there is a good white tusk elephant in that
forest," they said.

Afterwards this Prince took the Lute and played it as on other
days; this tusk elephant did not come. Having said [to himself],
"What is [the reason of] it, Bola? To-day this tusk elephant did not
come!" and having gone a considerable distance he played it. Then
this tusk elephant went a little further off (epitata). The Prince at
that time went near and played it; then this elephant went still a
little further. In that manner this Prince having placed and placed
the Lute at the end (asse) of the tusk elephant's tail, plays it;
still also this tusk elephant goes on. In that way these very two
went to this Princess's city.

Thereupon this Princess became much pleased, and having given five
hundred masuran to this Prince got married to this Prince. The Prince
who played the Lute she caused to remain as the Minister.


                                                 North-western Province.



Although there appears to be no Indian folk-tale of a musician who
could attract the wild animals like the Finnish hero, the notion is
found in that country, and one of the reliefs at the Ramaswami temple
in Kumbakonam represents various wild animals listening to Krishna's
flute playing. Colossal figures of animals are sometimes taken in
processions; they are formed on a framework of bamboos or sticks;
in one figure of an elephant the spaces in the frame were filled with
leafy twigs.



NO. 129

THE LAD WHO SANG SONGS


At a certain time there was a man; the man had a girl and a boy. At
the time when they were thus, the man went alone to the sea to catch
fish (mas). Having gone, when he was catching fish a very large wave
having knocked him into the sea, the man on account of the water
(current) drifted away.

At that time the men of the ferry-boat near there were laying
nets. This man having gone was entangled (lit., tied) in the nets. Then
the ferry-boat men drew out the nets. When they looked a man was
entangled in a net. Then, taking the man ashore they laid him on
his face, and while they were pressing on his belly with the feet,
without the man's life going he breathed. [187] Then without having
caused hurt to this man when they were treading on his belly for the
water to go, the man became conscious.

Then the men having said, "Of what country are you?" having spread
the news around, and given him cooked rice which had been taken for
the party to eat, they told him to choose [some] fishes. He having
selected them, in the evening they went to the village, taking the
man. Having gone [there], as this man who fell into the sea does
not know the road to go to his village, doing work for hire for the
ferry-boat men and continuing to eat [thus], he stayed [there].

The elder female child and the younger lad whom there were of the man
who fell into the sea, went to the Hettiya's shop to bring salt. At
the time when they went, the Hettiyas put the girl in the house,
and shut the door. Having beaten the boy, they drove him away.

At that time, the King of that city having made ready a very great
eating (kaema), sent letters to the Kings of other cities to come
for the eating. After that, those Kings all came to the city. In the
royal party, the King of the city at which was the man who fell into
the sea and went ashore, also came.

Having come, all the party having assembled in that day night, after
they ate the food this lad who had lost his father and elder sister
had come [there]. Having given food to this lad, while he was [there]
the royal party, having eaten and drunk, conversed together regarding
the happiness and sorrow in the various cities.

Then this lad who was without father and elder sister, thought of
telling the matters which the party omitted, by way of a verse. Having
thought of it he says,


        Apucci mude waetuna.      Father fell into the sea.
        Akka Hettiya              In his quarter the Chetti
        Padeta damala             Elder sister has set; he
        Dora wahagatta.           The door has shut on me.
        Ayinan! Ayinan!           Alas! Alas!


Thereupon, having met with this lad, hearing the words that ought to be
known at the city at which they are, they spoke, "Hahak! Hahak! [188]
don't speak." Having stopped the talk, they said, "Who is that lad
who said the verse? Say that verse again for us to hear."

Then the boy said again,


        Father fell into the sea.
        In his quarter the Chetti
        Elder sister has set; he
        The door has shut on me.
        Alas! Alas!


Then the royal party, calling the boy near, and after that having
heard of the matters that occurred, gave food to the lad from the
royal house, and made him stay at the royal house.

When he was [there] in that way for a little time, the King of that
city having died, because a King was necessary to burn [the corpse]
[189] they decorated the tusk elephant, and taking it they walk
through the whole city. Then the tusk elephant keeps coming towards
the palace itself.

Because of it, men came out on the path on which the tusk elephant
is coming. At that time, the tusk elephant having come, kneeling down
made obeisance to that lad.

Then those men, having made the lad bathe in sandal water (water
perfumed with sandal), and placed him on the tusk elephant's back,
went in procession round the city, and having come back they burnt
that King, and made a funeral mound [over the ashes].

While exercising the sovereignty over the men of the city, when a
little time had gone the King went to that place called the Hettiya
quarter, and having beheaded all the Hettiyas, came back calling his
elder sister [to accompany him], and gave her in marriage.

There was a daughter of the dead King. After marrying that Princess,
in a little time there was a child.

After that, he went to that city in which his father is, and calling
his father also, he returned. Having come back, he remained exercising
the sovereignty in a good manner.

                                                 North-central Province.



NO. 130

THE HUNCHBACK TALE


In a certain city, at one house there was a Hunchback. One day, at
the time when this Hunchback went to the rice field, his wife, having
cooked rice, called him, saying, "Hunchback! Hunchback!" Thereupon
anger having come to him he went home and thrashed his wife; thereupon
the woman died.

Having buried the woman, at the grave he planted tampala. [190] When
the tampala had become large a cow having approached there ate the
tampala with the sound [191] that goes "Kuda caw caw." [192] At that
time, also, anger having come to the man he struck and killed the cow.

Having buried the cow, upon the grave he planted a foreign yam
plant. [When it had grown], cutting up the foreign yam plant [after
digging it up], and having gone and put it in a cooking-pot (haeliya),
when he had placed it on the [fire on the] hearth, at the time when
it boils [193] with the sound [191] that goes "Kuda goda goda, Kuda
goda goda," [194] the man having become angry carried [the pot] also
away, and struck it on the stone [and broke it].

After a few days, at the time when he was sleeping, with the sound that
goes Kuda run [195] flies alighted on his body. Thereupon he having
arisen, with the intention of killing the flies set fire to the house.

After the fire became alight, having seen that it burns with the
sound that goes "Kuda busu busu, Kuda busu busu," [196] he, also,
sprang into the midst of the fire and was killed.


                                                           Uva Province.



The story is a variant of No. 29, vol. i, "The Pied Robin."



NO. 131

THE POOR MAN AND THE JEWELS


At a certain village attached to a seaport there was a poor man. The
man tried to borrow twenty thousand pounds from rich men who were in
the village. As there was not a thing to take from him [as security]
any one was unwilling to give the money.

While he was walking about asking for the money, a certain nobleman
[197] having called him, said, "I will give you the money; I shall
not take it again from you." Having said thus, he counted the money
and gave it to him.

And the man taking it, and having gone near the landing-place and
expended two thousand pounds, caused a house to be built, and having
expended sixteen thousand pounds caused the house to be filled with
cow-dung, chaff, etc.

After that, he set fire to the house, and having collected and put
into sacks the whole of the ashes, he gave a thousand pounds, and
bringing a ship for hire loaded the sacks into it. Having gone to a
country in which cold, etc., proceed from serpents, [198] and heaped
up the sacks, and told him to come in three months more, he sent away
the shipmaster (naew-potiya).

The man having unfastened the whole of the sacks of ashes, placed
[the ashes] thinly [on the ground]. The whole of the serpents having
come to the ashes, owing to their having slept there eject jewels.

After three months he again put the ashes into the sacks. And the ship
having arrived that day, he loaded the whole of the sacks [in it],
and having gone to his own country and heaped up the sacks, and for
the remaining cash taking a house for hire, he placed the sacks of
ashes [in it], and dwelt there.

One day having washed a little of the ashes from a bag, there was
a quantity (rasiyak) of very valuable gems there. Having shown that
to the nobleman who gave the money, he told him to take a part from
the bags, but he said he did not want them. And the poor man having
much importuned him, and given him a portion from the bags, the two
persons lived in friendship.


                               Finished.

                                                           Uva Province.



NO. 132

THE LEARNED POOR MAN


In a certain country a poor man, having nothing to eat, went to
another country. Having gone there, and gone to a travellers' shed,
he remained lying down.

During the time while he was there, still [another] man of the city
who was without food and clothing came to the travellers' shed. Then
the man who came first asked the man who came afterwards, "Where art
thou going?"

The man said, "Being without [food] to eat, I am going to this city
to beg something."

Then the man who came first says, "I, indeed, being without [food] to
eat have come here. Now then, because we two are men without [food]
to eat, I will tell you a device," said the man who came first to
the man who came afterwards.

Then the man who came afterwards asked, "What is it?"

The man says, "Thou having gone to the royal palace and made obeisance,
say at the hand of the King, 'From the exalted royal palace I ought to
receive a salary.' Then the King will ask, 'On what account should
I give pay to thee?' Then say thou, 'In this your kingdom, Sir,
either for any needed fight, or any needed thing, when I have come
into the midst of it I can manage the affair. I can [also] beat the
notification tom-toms. Because of that, indeed, I am asking pay.'"

Then the man having gone near the royal palace, asked in that
manner. The King asked, "For what shall I give pay to thee?" The man
replied in the very way which that man told him.

Then the King having heard the words and being pleased, appointed a
salary for that man, and said, "From to-day thou must look after the
troubles of this city."

The man having said, "It is good," said at the hand of the King,
"I have nothing to eat," asking for the pay also, [and he received
a sum in advance].

Having gone near that man who gave him the instructions, and told him
this talk which occurred at the royal palace, and given the teacher a
half share from that pay which was given, taking the other half share
the man went to his village. That man who gave the instructions,
not going anywhere else, remained cooking and eating at that very
travellers' shed.

Thereafter, for the man who received the pay the King established the
name Beri-Nadaya. [199] Well then, when that Beri-Nadaya was coming
and going to [and from] the palace, he was providing assistance for
that teacher.

At that time, on a road of the city a lion having lain in wait began to
kill people. In those days, Beri-Nadaya, having come to his village,
stayed [there]. Without telling Beri-Nadaya, because he was a new
man, having sent the old accustomed Ministers and other multitudes
for killing the lion, [the King] told them to return [after] killing
the lion.

Thereupon, the party having been sent to go, after they went, when
Beri-Nadaya was going to the royal palace he went to the place where
the teacher was staying.

At that time, the news regarding this lion having reached the teacher,
he said, "In this manner, a lion which eats men is staying at this
city. I have news that men went from the royal palace to kill the
lion. Because of it, as soon as you go, 'You must seize the lion,'
the King will say. Thereupon, say 'I can,' and asking for a piece
of cord, and placing it [coiled] round your neck, go. Then the men
will come [after] killing the lion. Then say, 'There! People, the
work you have done is good! (sarcastically). Asking for a cord I came
from the palace [in order] to go [back after] seizing it [alive], so
as to place it as a present [200] [for the King]. Concerning this,
blame will fall on you from the King.' Having said this, frighten
them. Thereupon the party will say, 'Ane! Beri-Nadaya, don't say that
we killed it.' Then say thou, 'It is good. If so, let no one speak
[about it]. Having placed [the deed] upon my own back, I will say it
myself.' Then the men will say, 'It is good.'"

When Beri-Nadaya was doing this, it happened in this very manner. [The
King] gave Beri-Nadaya at the rate of a thousand masuran a month. Then
Beri-Nadaya, taking the pay, as on other days continued to give little
by little [only] to that teacher, so that his regard [for him] became
lost, and remained so.

At that time, to seize that city seven Kings and seven armies came,
and surrounded the city. On account of it, this King having said,
"To this Mara [201] army what shall I do?" was in fear.

Then the King having waited until the time when Beri-Nadaya came,
says, "It is not like you killed the lion. Seven Kings and seven
armies having come, are near the city gates. Go and fight."

That Beri-Nadaya went near that teacher, and told him this. The teacher
said, "[After] asking for the King's festival tusk elephant and sword,
come thou."

After that, Beri-Nadaya having gone near the King, when he came
[after] asking for the festival tusk elephant and the sword, both of
them went for the fight. Having gone, Beri-Nadaya, being on the tusk
elephant, when he peeped and looked having seen those monarchs [202]
and the multitude, fell unconscious under the tusk elephant.

Thereupon, that teacher, having dragged Beri-Nadaya aside, and cast
him away, wrote a letter and shot it [attached to an arrow] to the
place where those seven Kings were. The royal party said, "What is
this that is fallen from the sky?" When they looked there was written,
"It is I myself whom they call Danuddara Panditayo. [203] If you can,
be pleased to come to fight." The royal party becoming afraid regarding
it, all ran off to the quarters to which each one went.

The Panditayo came to the palace on the tusk elephant. After he came,
the Panditayo was placed by the King in the post of Prime Minister.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Jataka, No. 80 (vol. i, p. 204) there is a story which closely
agrees with this. The clever man was a dwarfish Brahmana who, aware
that he would not be employed on account of his small size, joined with
a huge ignorant weaver, who received an appointment as archer to the
King at Benares. By following the Brahmana's instructions the weaver
obtained all the credit of killing a tiger and buffalo as in this tale,
but becoming proud, he treated his adviser with scorn. Afterwards,
when ordered to attack a hostile force he was so overcome with fear
that the Brahmana made him descend from the elephant on which they
were riding, and he himself then attacked the enemy's camp, captured
the King, and was loaded with honours.

The despatch of the message attached to the arrow is not mentioned in
this story; but in the Jataka tale No. 181 (vol. ii, p. 62) Prince
Asadisa, son of a King of Benares, is represented as scratching a
message on an arrow, firing it into the camp of some hostile forces
headed by seven Kings who were besieging the city, and thereby
scaring these enemies away. A footnote states that in the Mahavastu
the message was wrapped round the arrow.

In two instances in the Maha Bharata (Drona Parva, xcix, and cci)
the senders' names were engraved on arrows.

In the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed., vol. 4, p. 103), a Prince
wrote a letter, set it on the point of an arrow, and shot it into a
garden in which a lady was walking.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 519, a young Brahmana
suggested to a Prince that he should receive a daily salary of one
hundred gold pieces; this was paid to him. In the same work, vol. ii,
p. 251, an unknown man demanded and received five hundred dinars
(about £250) as his daily wage. In the Hitopadesa an unknown Rajput
was granted four hundred gold pieces as his daily pay.

While the Sinhalese were besieging the Portuguese in Colombo in
A.D. 1588, the Sinhalese King shot into the fort a letter containing
a demand for the safe conduct of officials who were to arrange a truce
(Pieris, Ceylon, vol. i, p. 243).



NO. 133

A POOR MAN AND A WOMAN


At a certain city there were a poor woman and a man. Because the
two persons had not [anything] to eat and to wear, the woman having
pounded and pounded [paddy] obtained a livelihood.

When not much time had gone in this manner, being unable to pound
and eat, her strength and ability [to work] went. Thereupon she one
day having beaten the man with the broom, [204] and having said,
"Strumpet's son, bring thou from somewhere or other things for food,"
seized him by the hair-knot, and cast him out of the door-way.

Then the man, through shame at what the woman had done, having gone
along a road and sat down at a tree, when the time for eating rice
came, wept.

Thereupon, the Devatawa who stayed in that tree came and asked at
the hand of the man, "Bola, what art thou crying for?"

Then this man says, "O Lord, my wife having become without strength
or ability [to work], because we two were unable to obtain [anything]
having beaten me with the broom, seized me by the hair-knot and put
me outside. Having come [here] owing to it, because I cannot bear my
hunger I wept."

The Devatawa asked, "What dost thou want?"

The man said, "I want goods."

Thereupon the Devatawa, having given the man three pills, says,
"Taking these three pills, having thought of the thing thou wantest
cast them down. The things thou wantest will be created."

Then the man, taking the pills, for one said, "May my house be created
a palace, together with the possession of wealth," and threw away
one pill. In that manner this occurred.

For the next one he said, "On each side of the door-way of my house,
may a horse of silver and a tusk elephant of gold be created," and
threw away a pill. In that manner they were created.

For the other one he said, "A road to my house having been created, let
a carriage for me to go in, and many things come into existence," and
threw away the other pill. In that very way they were created. After
that, having come home he remained in happiness.

After that, a woman of another house came to this house for
fire. Having come and seen these matters, she asked this woman,
"Sister-in-law, how did you obtain these things?"

Thereupon this woman says, "Having beaten my husband with the broom,
I caught him by the hair-knot, and put him out at the door-way,
to seek goods and come back. After that, he went, and having been
near a tree came back [after] receiving them." Having said [this],
she told the woman about these matters [and that her husband received
the things he thought of].

Afterwards the woman, having gone home and beaten the woman's husband
with the broom, caught him by the hair-knot, and put him out at the
door-way. The man having gone also, stayed near the tree, weeping
and weeping.

At that time, by the Devatawa three pills were given (lit., gave) to
[this] man also. The man, taking them, came home.

Thereupon the woman having warmed water, and made him bathe, and
given him to eat, and given him betel to eat, asked the man, "What
have you brought?" The man showed her the three pills.

The woman, taking the three pills in her hand, and having looked at
them, said, "Are these ani that you have brought?" and threw them
away. Then in every place on the woman's body ani were created.

Then for three years having striven, finding the three pills she said,
"Leaving the anus which was there, may the others be obliterated,"
and having picked up the three pills she threw them away. Thereupon
she became as at first.

                                                 North-central Province.



The plight of the woman is nearly similar to that of Indra after he
had been cursed by Gautama for visiting Ahalya, as related in the
Katha Sarit Sagara, vol. i, p. 123.

In Folklore in Southern India (Natesa Sastri), p. 208, while an
indigent Brahmana was asleep in a forest, the God Siva and his wife
Parvati ate his cooked rice, leaving in its place five magic cups
of gold out of each of which an Apsaras came and served him with
delicious food. After he had returned home and given a feast to the
villagers, a rich landholder went off to obtain similar prizes,
the God and Goddess ate his rice, and left five cups for him. As
soon as he returned home he summoned the whole village to a feast;
but when the cups were opened out several barbers issued from each,
and held and shaved all the guests clean.

In the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed., vol. iv, p. 114) a man heard
in the Night of Power that three prayers would be granted to him. After
consulting his wife, he prayed that his nose might be magnified, as a
sign of his nobility, and it became so large that he could not move. He
then prayed to be rid of it, and his nose disappeared altogether;
his last prayer caused it to be restored to its first state.



NO. 134

THE STORY OF THE RAKSHASA AND THE PRINCESS [205]


In a certain country there are a King and a Queen, it is said. The
Queen bore a Princess. In that very country there are a Rakshasa and a
Rakshasi. The Rakshasi, too, bore a son. In that Princess's horoscope
there was [found] that she will contract marriage with a Rakshasa;
in that Rakshasa's horoscope there was [found] that he will marry
a Princess.

After both had become considerably big the King and Queen died;
only that Princess is in the palace.

The Rakshasa can create anything [he has] thought of. The Rakshasa
thought, "The palace and royal goods that are in the palace all are
to disappear." In that very manner they disappeared.

There not being a place for the Princess to stay in, when she is
weeping and weeping the Rakshasa having come there asked at the hand
of the Princess, "What are you weeping for?"

Then the Princess said, "I weep as there is not a place for me to be
in, and not a thing to eat,--because of that."

After that the Rakshasa said, "I will give food and clothing; can
you come to our house?" Then the Princess said, "I can."

After that, the Rakshasa and the Princess came to the Rakshasa's
house. Then at the hand of the Rakshasa asked the Rakshasa's mother,
"Who, son, is that?"

Then he said, "Mother, I have come summoning such and such a King's
Princess, for you to get [some] ease." [206]

After that, the Rakshasi having said, "Yes, it is good," while,
having employed the Princess, she was making her do all the work,
the Princess being like a servant of the Rakshasi's, the Rakshasi
had the thought, "[How] if I eat the Princess?"

Having thought it, one day when the Rakshasi was preparing to go to
eat human bodies she said at the hand of the Princess, "[By the time]
when I am coming, having brought and placed [ready] seven large pots of
water, and brought and placed [ready] seven bundles of firewood, and
boiled and pounded seven paelas of paddy (each about three-eighths of
a bushel), and plastered cow-dung on [the floors of] seven houses, and
cooked, warm water for me to bathe and place thou it [ready]. If not, I
will eat thee." Having said this the Rakshasi went to eat human bodies.

After that, the Princess remained weeping and weeping. So the Rakshasa
asked, "What art thou crying for?"

The Princess said, "Mother, telling me so many works, went away. How
shall I do them?"

Then the Rakshasa said, "Don't thou be doubtful about it. When mother,
having come back, has asked, say thou that thou didst all the works."

After that, the Princess, having remained silent in the very manner
the Rakshasa said, told at the hand of the Rakshasi [on her return]
that she did the works. When the Rakshasi looked to see if the works
were right, all were right. Well then, to eat the Princess there was
no means for the Rakshasi.

After that, she sent word to the Rakshasi's younger sister, "There
is a girl of the palace [here]; I have no means of eating that girl;
whatever work I told her that work has been quite rightly done. Now
then, how shall I eat [her]? I will send this girl near you; then
you eat her."

The Rakshasi said at the hand of the Princess, "Go to the house of
our younger sister's people; a box of mine is there. If thou dost
not bring it I will eat thee."

After that, the Princess having come near the stile, while she was
weeping and weeping the Rakshasa came there and asked, "What art thou
weeping for?"

Then the Princess said, "Mother told me that there is a box at the
house of little-mother's people. [207] Having said [I am] to bring it,
if not she will eat me, when I have gone for the box little-mother
will eat me. To-day indeed I cannot escape."

After that, the Rakshasa [said], "Little-mother is blowing and blowing
[the fire] at the hearth; the box is near the door. Thou having gone
running, taking the box come away."

Afterwards, having gone running, at the time when the Princess looked
the Rakshasi is blowing and blowing at the hearth; the box was near
the door. The Princess having gone into the house, taking the box
came running. The Rakshasi chased after her; she was unable to eat
her. For that Rakshasi [who sent her] there, also there was not a
way to eat her.

When she was there in that way for a considerable time they asked for
a marriage for the Rakshasa. Having asked it, the Rakshasi also having
become ready to go for the marriage, said at the hand of the Princess,
"When we come summoning the bride, having well prepared the house,
and set the tables and chairs, and boiled and cooked for the marriage
party, place [the food ready]." Saying [this] the Rakshasi went for
the marriage.

The Rakshasa having been behind said at the hand of the Princess,
"Thou having remained without speaking, say thou didst all the works
that mother told thee." Having said it the Rakshasa, too, went for
the marriage.

Afterwards the Princess having been [there] without speaking, after
the wedding-party, summoning the bride, returned, the Rakshasi asked
at the hand of the Princess, "Didst thou do all the works I told
thee? Didst thou do them?"

The Princess said, "Yes." When the Rakshasi looked all the works were
right; there also there was no way to eat her.

Afterwards she taught the bride, "Daughter, there! Eat that girl if
you can; I tried to eat her in [every] possible manner." After that,
the girl tried if she could eat her; [208] she was unable to eat
the Princess.

When she was there in that manner a considerable time, the Rakshasa
and the Princess having got hid went away. Having thus gone, and having
created the Princess's royal palace in the very manner in which it was
[before], the two remained at the palace.


                               Finished.

                                                 North-western Province.



In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 215, a Brahmana married
a Rakshasi Princess, and there is an account of a similar union in
the story No. 135 which follows.



NO. 135

THE WAY THE RAKSHASI DIED


In a certain city there is a Rakshasi, it is said. The Rakshasi
seizing each man who is going along, eats him. While a Brahmana was
going along, she seized the Brahmana, but because the Brahmana had
a good beautiful figure, putting him in her rock-house (cave) and
shutting the door, she remained without eating him.

During the time while he was there a child was borne to the Brahmana
by the Rakshasi; the child was like the Brahmana. Having sought food
she continued to give it to the Brahmana and the little one. While
the Rakshasi was there in that way the youngster (paetiya) became big.

One day having waited until the time when the Rakshasi goes to seek
food, the youngster asked at the hand of the Brahmana, "Father, what is
[the reason why] you have one form and mother a [different] form?"

Then the Brahmana says, "Son, your mother is a Rakshasi. Seizing each
man who is going past this place, she eats him. I also came to go
this way. Then seizing me she put me in the rock cave. She has not
done any harm to me yet."

The youngster said, "Father, we cannot remain in this way. Rakshasis
and men cannot be in one place."

Then the Rakshasi came, bringing food. So the youngster said, "Mother,
when you are not here how will it be for us? Tell us the limits
[of the power] of these persons" (that is, those who lived there).

The Rakshasi said, "In width they are five gawwas (twenty miles);
in length they are ten gawwas (forty miles)."

On the following day, during the time when the Rakshasi went to seek
food, the Brahmana and the youngster having taken a large quantity
of excellent (honda honda) goods, the two persons bounded off to
go by the quarter that was ten gawwas long, and went away. Then the
Rakshasi having come [after] seeking food, when she looked neither
Brahmana nor youngster [was there].

After that, while the Rakshasi was going along continuing to cry aloud,
these two persons had not yet succeeded in bounding through the forest
that was ten gawwas in length. The Rakshasi, weeping and weeping,
having said, "What was this need for you to abandon me?" came back,
summoning these two [to accompany her].

On the following day, after the Rakshasi went to seek food, these
two persons having bounded through the quarter that was five gawwas
in width, reached the far bank of a river.

Then the Rakshasi having come [after] seeking food, when she looked
these two were not [there]. After that, as the Rakshasi was coming
continuing to cry aloud, these two came to this bank of the river;
the Rakshasi, sitting down on the bank on that [other] side, remained
crying aloud.

While she was there the Rakshasi said, "Son, there is a spell of mine;
[after] learning it go."

Thereupon the youngster said, "I will not [return to learn it];
say it while sitting there."

Afterwards the Rakshasi, sitting on the bank on that side, said the
spell. The youngster, sitting on the bank on this side, learnt the
spell. "When you have uttered that spell, on this side of twelve
years you will meet with any lost thing," the Rakshasi said.

After that, the Brahmana and the youngster came away to the Brahmana's
village. That Rakshasi having been looking while a trace of the heads
of these two was visible, through the affection there was for the two
persons, when those two were hidden [from her view] the Rakshasi's
bosom was rent, and she died.

While that Brahmana and the youngster, having gone to the village,
were staying there, certain goods of the King's having been lost,
the King published a proclamation by beat of tom-toms that to a
person who found and gave the goods he will give wealth [amounting]
to a tusk elephant's load, and a district from the kingdom.

Then the Brahmana's youngster having said, "I can," and having
uttered the spell taught by that Rakshasi, obtained the goods and
gave them to the King. He having given them, the King gave to the
Brahmana's youngster wealth [amounting] to a tusk elephant's load,
and a district from the kingdom.


                                                 North-western Province.



This is the first part of the Jataka story No. 432 (vol. iii, p. 298),
in which the King and family priest hid some valuable jewels taken
by them out of the treasury, in order to test a youngster's power. He
discovered them, but the King insisted on his declaring also who was
the thief. He endeavoured to avoid doing this, and when at last he
made it known, the people rose, killed the King and priest, and set
the youngster (who was the Bodhisatta) on the throne.

In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. ii, p. 360, a
similar story is also given. The Brahmana was seized by a Kinnari,
who is afterwards termed a Yakshi. When the son and father escaped
she did not die, but sent the boy a guitar by playing on which he
would preserve his life. If, however, he touched the first string
with his finger he would experience misfortune; of course he did this.



NO. 136

HOW A RAKSHASA TURNED MEN AND BULLS INTO STONE


In a certain country there are seven elder brothers and younger
brothers. In a certain [other] country there are seven elder sisters
and younger sisters. At the time when they are there the whole of
the seven elder brothers and younger brothers are without wives;
the seven elder sisters and younger sisters are without men (husbands).

At the time when the seven elder brothers and younger brothers are
doing work in the rice field, the seven elder sisters and younger
sisters are going by the place where they are working. "Where are
you going?" they asked (haehuwwa).

At the time when they asked they said, "Seven elder sisters and
younger sisters are going to seek for themselves seven elder brothers
and younger brothers."

"We indeed are seven elder brothers and younger brothers."

With the eldest elder brother the eldest elder sister contracted
(lit., tied) marriage; with those [other] six persons these six
[other] persons contracted marriage. To the seven houses they took
the seven persons (their wives).

A Rakshasa came for religious donations (samadame). Having come, at
the very first he got donations from the eldest elder sister. When
he begged from the other six, five persons gave donations abundantly
(hondatama). When he begged for donations from the youngest younger
sister, she tried to give them [while] sitting in the house.

"We do not take them in that way," [he said].

When, having come to the doorway, she tried to give them [there, the
Rakshasa] placed a walking-stick in his hand, and when he extended
[it towards her] he began to go in front; the woman, weeping and
weeping, began to go behind the Rakshasa [holding the other end of
the magic stick].

Having gone on and on, at the time when he stopped there were seven
stone posts. When the walking-stick that was in his hand prodded the
ground she became stone [like them].

The young younger sister's seven elder brothers and younger brothers
went [on a trading journey?] taking seven yokes of bulls. At the time
when they were taking them, the seven yokes of bulls and the seven
men he made into stone. [209]

He restored that woman to consciousness again; having restored her to
consciousness the Rakshasa went with her [to his] home. After he went,
when the son of the elder sister of the younger sister who went with
[the Rakshasa] proceeded there (etenta gihama) [to seek] the seven
yokes of bulls and the men who went [with them], his seven fathers
[210] and the seven yokes of bulls were there [turned into stone].

(Apparently this is only a portion of a longer story, but the narrator
was unacquainted with the rest of it.)


                                                 North-western Province.



In Folklore of the Santal Parganas (Rev. Dr. Bodding), p. 222,
a Jogi turned into stone seven brothers who had followed him in
order to recover the wife of one of them whom he had carried off
by getting her arm-tassel and going away with it. She was compelled
to follow him while it was in his possession. When her son who was
left behind proceeded in search of her, he came to the place where
his petrified uncles were. As he was eating his food there he saw the
stones weeping, recognised them, and placed a little food on each for
them to eat. Afterwards, when he had killed the Jogi and was returning
with his mother, he bathed, and then spread a cloth over the stones,
on which they recovered their human shape, became alive, and thought
they had merely slept.

In the Story of Madana Kama Raja (Natesa Sastri), p. 85, a Prince who
had stolen the garments of Indra's daughter while she was bathing,
was turned by her spells into stone when he looked back at her. He
was revived by an old woman with whom he lived; she sprinkled water
on the stone and uttered spells.

In the same work, p. 149, the Turtle Prince was informed that if he
looked back after stealing the garments of a divine maid or Apsaras
while she was bathing, he would be turned into stone. See the first
note after No. 151 in this volume.

See the notes after No. 155.



NO. 137

THE RAKSHASA-EATING PRAKSHASA [211]


In a certain country there is an islet; on the islet there are a few
houses. On the islet a Rakshasa dwells. This Rakshasa having seized
them eats [the men] from each house at the rate of one man every day.

When the Rakshasa is coming seizing and eating the men in that way for
a great number of years, the men of the islet having become finished,
at one house, only, men have remained over. In that family there are
two parents and four children. The names of the four are One-cubit,
Two-cubits, Three-cubits, Four-cubits.

While these children are there, the Rakshasa seized even both the
parents of these children. Out of the children, the child called
Four-cubits is a female child. The female child for grief at the loss
of her mother is weeping and weeping. While these three elder brothers
are unable to pacify her, one day at night, One-cubit having spoken
says, "Two-cubits, Three-cubits, being now without our mother and
father, there is not a thing for us to eat. Our younger sister having
remembered mother at all times, is weeping and weeping. Because of
it, I and Two-cubits having gone to a country, will come back [after]
seeking something for you to eat. Three-cubits, you stay [at home],
looking after and soothing younger sister."

One-cubit and Two-cubits having crossed over from the island,
and having gone on and on, arrived at a country. Having arrived,
while they are going thus, they met with a youth who is looking
after cattle. Having met with him, he asked these two, "Where are
you two going?"

"We two are going seeking any sort of livelihood," they said.

"Can you two stay to look after cattle?" he asked. "We can," they said.

Having said, "Come. Our Gamarala has many cattle. For looking after
them he still wants people," this youth who looks after cattle,
calling these two, went to the Gamarala's house.

When they went, the Gamarala asked this youth who looks after
the cattle, "Who are these two youths?" "These two came seeking a
livelihood," he said.

Then the Gamarala asks these youths, "What can ye do for a living?" "We
can graze cattle," they said.

Then the Gamarala asked the big youth, "What name?" "One-cubit," he
said. He asked the younger youth, "What is thy name?" "Two-cubits,"
he said.

Thereupon the Gamarala, having given charge of one hundred cattle
to One-cubit, and one hundred cattle to Two-cubits, said, "Having
thoroughly caused the cattle given to you to eat and drink, and having
looked after them, not giving the cattle to jungle quadrupeds, ye
must bring them in the evening, and completely put them in the folds,"
the Gamarala said.

After many days, the Gamarala thought, "I must go to look at the cattle
[that are] with One-cubit and Two-cubits." One day in the evening,
at the time when they were putting them in the folds, he went and
remained looking on. The cattle are thoroughly healthy. When the
Gamarala looked [at the numbers] those of both persons are correct.

The Gamarala, having become much pleased, having gone home, says, "The
cattle of One-cubit and Two-cubits are in very good [condition]. Please
give food amply to both youths," the Gamarala ordered at the
house. Thereupon, they give food amply to both persons. For [many]
days besides, the two are thoroughly taking care of the cattle.

While Three-cubits is looking after the younger sister, one day
the younger sister, having called to remembrance her mother, began
to weep. Thereupon he said, "Four-cubits, younger sister, don't
cry. Our big elder brother and little elder brother [after] seeking
food for us two will now bring it. Then I will give you a great deal
to eat." While he was speaking in order to pacify her, she began to
weep still still more. Three-cubits endeavoured much to pacify her;
he was unable to pacify her.

Then Three-cubits says, "Younger sister, don't you cry; I will go on
the island, and bring a Kirala [212] fruit, and give you it. You remain
[here] without going to bathe, or going anywhere. I will go quickly,
and bring Kirala." Having said [this], Three-cubits went to the edge
of the island.

Just as he is going there, the Rakshasa having landed on the island
to seize and eat human bodies, when he is coming looking and looking
at the whole of the houses, he saw this Four-cubits, the little lass,
[213] and having sprung into the house, lifted her up and ran away.

On the other bank of the island, sitting in a boat a man is killing
fish. Then, having seen this Rakshasa lifting up this child and
going away, the man who is killing fish, having become afraid of the
Rakshasa, sprang from the boat into the water, and remained under water
(lit., swallowed up). After the Rakshasa, not seeing him, went away,
the man who is killing fish mounted into the boat.

Well then, Three-cubits, [after] plucking Kirala quickly having
gone taking them to give to his younger sister, when he looked his
younger sister was not [there]. Thereupon, when Three-cubits, saying
and saying, "Four cubits! Younger sister, younger sister!" was going
weeping and weeping, seeking her, through not seeing her he sought
and sought still still further, and went to the edge of the island.

While he was there weeping and weeping, saying and saying,
"Four-cubits! Younger sister!" that man who was rowing the boat heard
it, and came to see what this youth is lamenting for.

Having come, "What is it, boy, thou art lamenting for?" the boatman
asked.

Then he says, "Ane! Our younger sister was weeping and weeping
at home. Then, having come on the island to pluck a Kirala fruit,
I went back [after] plucking a Kirala fruit, to give it to younger
sister. Having gone home, when I looked for younger sister, younger
sister was not [there]," the youth, weeping and weeping, said to the
boatman, saying and saying [also], "When elder brothers have come now,
and have asked, 'Where is younger sister?' what shall I say?"

Then the boatman says, "Thou having now wept, what [good] will
it do? Why didst thou come away, leaving thy younger sister quite
alone? It would be thy younger sister whom, a little time before now,
when I was fishing and fishing sitting in the boat, I saw the Rakshasa
carrying, and going away with, after crossing to the other shore. I
also sank in the water through fear, and got hid."

Then this youth, Three-cubits, saying and saying, "Ayiyo! My younger
sister! My younger sister!" and again having wept and wept, rolling
on the ground, the boatman says to him, "Thou having now lamented,
what [good] will it do? Be off home!"

Well then, while Three-cubits is at home, weeping and weeping,
One-cubit having said, "Two-cubits! Younger brother," says [also],
"Now then, it is enough. We have stayed here. We don't know now what
our Three-cubits and Four-cubits our younger sister are doing at this
time. Let us go to look."

One-cubit and Two-cubits spoke together, and said, "Let us tell the
Gamarala to-day, and to-morrow go to the village, and return. To go
to look at either little younger brother or younger sister is good."

One-cubit and Two-cubits, the cattle having gone [home] in the evening,
put them in the folds; and having gone to the house told the Gamarala,
"We must go to our village, and [after] looking at our younger brother
and younger sister, come back," they said to the Gamarala.

Then the Gamarala said, "It is good. Go and come back again." When
he said, "What do ye want to take?" they said, "Should you tie up
and give us a few cakes to take to the village, it would be good."

Then the Gama-gaeni (wife of the Gamarala) quickly having tied up two
packets of cakes in sufficient quantity for both of them, gave them to
them to take. Both of them, taking them, set off to go to the village,
and went away.

Having gone, and crossed over to that shore, when they went home
only Three-cubits, their younger brother, was at home. "Where, little
younger brother, is younger sister?" asked One-cubit and Two-cubits.

Then Three-cubits said, "Elder brothers, after you went younger sister
began to cry. Then I said, 'Don't cry; I will go on the island and
pluck a Kirala fruit, and bring it.' Having gone, when coming [after]
plucking a Kirala fruit, a man who was in the boat at the island saw
that the Rakshasa went away taking younger sister," he said.

Then both the elder brothers asked, "Where did he bring her?"

"To that side of the island she was brought," he said.

The whole three having been [there] a few days, the three spoke
together: "Let us go to seek our younger sister."

Having said, "It is good," while the whole three are going along
eating and eating the two packets of cakes that they brought, the
two elder ones, having seen that the two packets of cakes are coming
to be finished, said to the younger brother, "Our cakes are coming
to be finished. You go along this path, and return [after] seeking
something for us to eat," they said.

Three-cubits went; he went to seek some food, and return. When
going, he went to the house of the Kudu Hettirala [214] of that
village. Having gone he said, "Ane! Hettiralahami, the food we brought
became finished. You must give something for us to eat for the present
on the road."

When he said it, there was much paddy dust at the house of the
Hettirala's people. The Hettirala told them to give a little of
it. Then he made a large bag (olaguwak), and putting in it paddy
powder to the extent it holds, when he was coming he saw (dituwaya)
a large tree in the midst of the jungle. When coming near the tree he
saw a bats' place. When he looked there, having seen that many bats'
skins had fallen down, those also in a sufficient quantity he put
into the bag.

When he was coming [after] putting them in, he saw that both One-cubit
and Two-cubits, being without food, were sitting at the root of a
tree. When he asked, "What are you doing here?" "Until you came we
were looking out at the road," they said.

When they asked, "What is there for us to eat?" "Only paddy dust and
bats' skins," he said.

"What are we to do? Let us go, eating and eating even those,"
they said.

When they were going very far in that manner, having seen that a man
is bringing an ass to sell, said Three-cubits, "One-cubit, Two-cubits,
you must take that ass and give it to me," he said; "if not, I will
not come to look for younger sister," he said. Then, taking the ass
they gave him it.

When going still further having seen that a man is bringing two
flat winnowing trays, "One-cubit, Two-cubits, having taken those two
winnowing trays, you must give them to me," he said. Taking also the
two winnowing trays they gave him them.

When going still a little further, having seen that they are bringing
two bundles of creepers, he told them to take them also, and give him
them. Taking them also, when going on having seen that yet [another]
man was bringing a tom-tom, he told them to take that also, and give
him it. Taking that also, they gave him it.

Having seen that still a man was bringing two elephant's tusks,
he told them to take them also, and give him them. Taking them also
they gave him them.

When going still a little further, having seen that a man was taking
porcupine quills, he told them to ask for and give him a few of those
also. They asked for and gave them.

When going still a little further, having seen that there were two
red ants' nests in a tree, "Please break and give these also to me,"
he said. Those also they broke off and gave.

When they gave them, having made two wallets, and put the things in the
two wallets, tying them well and loading all on the back of the ass,
as they were going very far they met with an old mother. Having met
with her she asked, "Ane! where are you going on this path? This path
is a path going to the house of the Rakshasa. Should you go [on it]
the Rakshasa will kill and eat you," she said.

Then they say, "It is on this path itself that our younger sister
will be. Let us go on. If the Rakshasa kill us let him kill."

Having said [this], the three persons having gone on and on, when
they were going met with a great big house. The three spoke together:
"It has now become night. Having stayed at a resting-place at this
house, let us go on in the morning to-morrow," they said.

Having said, "It is good," when they went near the house the Rakshasa's
wife asked, "Who are you? Where are you going? What came you here for?"

"We are One-cubit, Two-cubits, Three-cubits. Our younger sister,
Four-cubits, having been in the island, a Rakshasa brought her away. We
are going seeking her," they said.

"Ane! My elder brothers, (ayiyandila)! Did you come seeking me?" Having
said, "It is I myself," holding her elder brothers she smelt [215]
them, and said, "Apoyi! When the Rakshasa has come now he will eat
you." Having quickly called them into the house, she told the whole of
them (seramanta) to ascend to the upper room (uda geta), and remain
[there]. Even the ass they took up. "When the Rakshasa has gone in
the morning we can talk together," she said.

Having said [this], the younger sister, having gone outside, and made
fast and tied up the stile, and come back quickly, and given her elder
brothers to eat, became as though not knowing anything [about them].

While she was there, when the Rakshasa is coming saying "Hu" three
times, the three elder brothers were frightened. The ass was more
frightened than that; it began to move about.

Then the younger sister says, "Elder brother, there! The Rakshasa is
coming! Remain without moving about until it becomes light to-morrow."

"It is good, younger sister," Three-cubits, the youngest elder
brother, said.

There! When that little time was going the Rakshasa came. Washing his
face and mouth, he sat down to eat food. Having sat down, eating and
eating food, he says, "There is a smell of human flesh; there is a
smell of human flesh."

Then the Rakshasi says, "If you eat human flesh, and in your mouth
there is human flesh, and in your hand there is human flesh, is there
not a smell of human flesh?"

"No, it is a smell of fresh human flesh."

When the Rakshasi said, "If so, it is to eat me you say that," the
Rakshasa, having eaten without speaking, rolled over at that very
place and went to sleep.

All One-cubit's party (Ekriyanala), through the fatigue of the journey,
the whole of them (seramantama) went fast asleep. When a little time
is going by, a red ant (dimiya) having come out of a red ants' nest,
and as it was going along having climbed up the ass's leg, the red
ant bit it. Then the ass, making a sound "Tok, tok," began to kick
the boards [of the floor].

Then One-cubit opened his eyes. When he was looking what was the noise,
it was the noise of the ass kicking. Then One-cubit held the legs of
the ass, for it not to make the noise.

Then the ass, becoming afraid, got up, making a sound, "Didi-bidi."

The Rakshasa having become afraid, and having jumped up, when he
was saying, "What, Bola, is this one? I am going to eat this one,"
Three-cubits says, "Come here, thou! To eat thee is insufficient for
me!" he said.

Then the Rakshasa, having been frightened, said, "Who art thou,
Clever One, to eat me?"

"I am the Rakshasa [216]-eating Prakshasa," he said.

The Rakshasa, becoming thoroughly frightened, called out, "Get down,
and come here."

"Thou come here," Three-cubits called out.

"Who art thou?" he asked again.

"It is I indeed, the Rakshasa-eating Prakshasa," he said.

"If so, throw down thy two Jak trees," [217] he said. Then he lifted
up and threw down the two bundles of creepers.

"Throw down thy two tusks," he said. He lifted up and threw down the
two [elephant's] tusks.

"Throw down thy two ears," he said. He lifted up and threw down the
two winnowing trays.

"Show me one eye," he said. Then having put down the tom-tom at the
corner of a plank on which there was plaster he showed him it.

He told him to tap on his belly, and show him it. Then, pressing
one hand on one side (end) of the tom-tom, at the other side (end)
he made a noise, "Bahak, bahak."

Then the Rakshasa having become [more] frightened, standing up holding
the Rakshasi's hand, and looking for the road so as to run off,
told him to cry out.

Then Three-cubits thinks, "When he is running away now, he will run
off taking with him younger sister." Having become afraid of it,
taking a red ants' nest softly to the end of the boards, he broke
and threw down the red ants' nest on the Rakshasa's head. Then the
Rakshasa having let go the hand of the Rakshasi, began to scratch
his head and body in all places.

At that very time having put the other red ants' nest into the two ears
of the ass, the three persons began to prick it with the porcupine
quills. Then when it began to give hundreds of brays (buruwe beri),
the Rakshasa having become thoroughly frightened, said, "I don't want
you below"; and having abandoned even the Rakshasi, crying "Hu,"
and breaking through the fence also and upsetting the village, on
account of the noise of the ass and the cunning of the three persons
and the power of the red ants, he ran away.

Then the elder brother, and the younger brothers, the three persons,
taking their younger sister, went to their village.


                                            Kumbukkan, Eastern Province.



In a variant (a) of the North-western Province the persons were a youth
termed One-span (Ek-wiyata), his two elder brothers, and his elder
and younger sisters. A quarrel having arisen among them, One-span and
his younger sister went off alone. While they were in the midst of a
forest a Rakshasi carried off the girl during her brother's temporary
absence, so he returned home, informed the others, and he and his two
brothers set off in search of her. The elder sister having been angry
with him, gave One-span some cold boiled rice to take with him, and
to the others warm rice. When the two opened their bag of warm rice
they heard worms or grubs (panuwo) that were in it making a sound,
"Mini, mini," as they gnawed at it, so they begged their brother to
share his cold rice with them. He did so, and afterwards when they
objected to take and carry along with them a coconut tree, a palmira
tree, an elephant calf (aet-wassek), and two or three large black
ants (kadiyo), on each occasion he demanded the return of the rice
and curry they had eaten. They found their younger sister at "a very
large tiled house," and she hid them and the young elephant and the
other things in the loft. The Rakshasi returned, said, "There is a
smell of fresh human flesh," and afterwards was frightened as in the
story given above, and ran away.

If the names in this tale and variant indicate the heights of the
persons, as appears probable, this is the only instance in which
dwarfs are mentioned in the Sinhalese folk-tales that I have collected.

In the Saddharma Pundarika (Kern, S.B.E., vol. xxi, p. 83), mention
is made of a form of dwarf demons, "malign urchins, some of them
measuring one span, others one cubit or two cubits, all nimble in
their movements."

In Tales of the Punjab (Mrs. Steel), p. 3 (Wide-Awake Stories, p. 7),
there is an account of a dwarf who was only one cubit high; he had
magical powers. In Sagas from the Far East, p. 39, a demoness in the
form of a woman one span high is mentioned (see p. 171). In Folklore
of the Santal Parganas (Rev. Dr. Bodding), p. 189, there is an account
of a man who was only a span high.

In the last mentioned work, p. 81, two men who were in a tree
frightened a Raja and his attendants by dropping a tiger's paunch
and beating a drum out of which flew a number of bees that they
had placed in it. These attacked and drove away the people below,
and the men got their goods.

In The Indian Antiquary, vol. xiv, p. 135 (Folklore in Southern India,
p. 116), in a Tamil story by Pandit Natesa Sastri, a tiger which knew
magic took the form of a youth, married a girl who went off with
him, and had a son who was a tiger. The girl sent a message to her
three brothers, and they went to rescue her, taking an ass, an ant,
a palmira tree, and a washerman's iron tub that they found. They were
put in the loft by her. When the tiger told them to speak, one put
the ant in the ear of the ass, to make it bray. He then told them to
show him their legs and bellies; they held out the palmira tree and
the tub, on seeing which he ran off, and they escaped with her.

In Old Deccan Days (M. Frere), p. 229, a blind man and a deaf man
when going for a walk found and took with them a washerman's ass,
and the large pot in which he boiled clothes, and also put some
large black ants into a snuff-box. They took shelter from a storm in
the house of a Rakshasa, and fastened the door. When the ogre tried
to enter, saying "I'm a Rakshas," the blind man replied, "Well, if
you're Rakshas I'm Bakshas, and Bakshas is as good as Rakshas." The
Rakshasa asked to see his face and was shown the donkey's; he asked
to see his head and was shown the pot; he told him to scream, and the
ants were put in the ears of the ass, the braying of which frightened
the Rakshasa away. When they went off next day with his treasure,
he came with six friends to kill them. They climbed up a tree (as
in the next variant), the ogres stood on each other's shoulders to
reach them, the blind man lost his balance, fell on the uppermost one,
and all tumbled down together. When the deaf man shouted, "Well done;
hold on tight, I'm coming to help you," all the Rakshasas ran away.



THE RAKSHASIS-EATING PRAKSHASA. [218] (Variant b.)


At a certain village there were a Gamarala and a Tom-tom Beater. For
the Tom-tom Beater there was nothing to eat. Because of it, having gone
to the Gamarala's house he got a large basket of paddy on loan. While
he was eating it the two persons having joined together worked the
Gamarala's two rice fields.

Out of them, the [rice in the] Gamarala's field being of very good
quality was well developed; [that in] the Tom-tom Beater's field was
undeveloped. Because of it, the arrangement which the Tom-tom Beater
made was thus: "Because I am to give a debt to you, you take my rice
field, please, and give me your rice field, please," the Tom-tom
Beater said to the Gamarala. So the Gamarala having told him to take
it, the Gamarala took the Tom-tom Beater's field.

The Tom-tom Beater having cut the growing rice in the field and
trampled it [with buffaloes], got the paddy. The Gamarala obtained
hardly anything (tikapitika). So not much time was occupied in
eating it.

After that, a daughter of the Gamarala's was taken away by a
Rakshasa. Then the Gamarala having come near the Tom-tom Beater,
and said, "Let us go on a search for my daughter," both persons
went together.

At that time the Gamarala took a bag of money. The Tom-tom Beater,
not showing it to the Gamarala, took a bag of fragments of broken
plates. The Gamarala tied up a bag of cooked rice; the Tom-tom Beater
tied up a bag of rice-dust porridge.

At the time when they were going, being hungry they stopped at the
bottom of a tree and made ready to eat the cooked rice. Having made
ready, the Tom-tom Beater, taking a small quantity of rice from the
Gamarala's leaf [plate] of cooked rice, ate it.

Having eaten it, the Tom-tom Beater says, "Don't you eat the cooked
rice which I have polluted by eating; be good enough to eat my bag
of cooked rice." Having said it, he gave him the bag of rice-dust
porridge. Then when the Gamarala unfastened the bag there was only
porridge.

Having said, "Well then, what [else] shall I do?" the Gamarala ate the
rice-dust porridge. The Tom-tom Beater ate the package of good cooked
rice which the Gamarala brought. Thereupon the Gamarala said at the
hand of the Tom-tom Beater, "I ate the rice-dust porridge; don't tell
anyone whatever," he said. The Tom-tom Beater said, "It is good."

At the time when they were going away, yet [another] Tom-tom Beater,
taking a drum to sell, came up. So this Tom-tom Beater, thinking of
taking the drum, spoke to the Gamarala [about it]. Then the Gamarala
said, "If there is money in thy hand give it, and take it."

The Tom-tom Beater, having shaken the package of plate fragments said,
"There is money by me; I cannot unfasten it. If you have money be
good enough to give it." The Gamarala said, "I will not." [219]

Then the Tom-tom Beater said, "If so, I will say that you ate the
rice-dust porridge." Then the Gamarala said, "Here is money," and
gave it. So the Tom-tom Beater got the drum.

Taking it, at the time when they were going along the path again,
a man came taking a deer-hide rope. That, also, the Tom-tom Beater
having thought of taking, in the very same way as at first he asked
the Gamarala for money. The Gamarala said, "I will not give it."

So the Tom-tom Beater said, "I will say that you ate the rice-dust
porridge." Then having said, "Don't say it," the Gamarala gave
the money.

After that, the Tom-tom Beater taking the deer-hide rope, at the time
when they were going along the road, a man came bringing a pair of
elephant tusks.

Then the Tom-tom Beater in the very same way as at first asked the
Gamarala for money. The Gamarala said, "I will not [give it]."

So the Tom-tom Beater said, "If so, I will say that you ate the
rice-dust porridge." Then the Gamarala, having said, "Don't say it,"
gave the money.

The Tom-tom Beater taking the pair of elephant tusks, they went to
the Rakshasa's house. When they went, the Rakshasa having gone for
human flesh food, only the Gamarala's daughter was [there]. The girl
quickly having given food to the two persons, the Gamarala's daughter
told them to go to the upper story floor. [220] Afterwards the Gamarala
and the Tom-tom Beater went to the upper story floor.

In the evening, the Rakshasa having come said, "Smell of fresh
human flesh!"

Then the Gamarala's daughter said, "Having come [after] eating fresh
human flesh, what smell of human flesh!" After that the Rakshasa
without speaking lay down.

Then at the time of dawn the Tom-tom Beater was minded to chant
verses, so he spoke to the Gamarala [about it]. The Gamarala said,
"Don't speak." Without listening to it he chanted verses softly,
softly (hemin hemin).

Thereupon the Rakshasa having arisen, asked, "Who art thou?"

The Tom-tom Beater said, "I myself am the Rakshasis-eating Prakshasa."

Then the Rakshasa said, "If so, show me thy teeth." The Tom-tom Beater
showed him the pair of elephant tusks.

Then the Rakshasa, becoming afraid, said, "Show me the hair of thy
head." The Tom-tom Beater showed him the deer-hide rope.

Then the Rakshasa said, "If that be so, let us roar." Then having
said, "It is good," the Tom-tom Beater began to beat on the drum. The
Rakshasa becoming [more] frightened, said that he was going near his
preceptor, and ran away. Then the Tom-tom Beater and the Gamarala,
in order to get hidden, went into the midst of the forest of Palmira
trees.

Then the Rakshasa, placing his preceptor in front, came up to go
through the middle of the forest of Palmira trees. At that time,
having seen the two Rakshasas, these two persons being afraid prepared
to climb two trees. Thereupon the Tom-tom Beater, taking the drum,
went up the tree. The Gamarala being unable to go up the tree, having
gone to the middle of the tree, slid down [with a] siri siri [noise]
to the ground.

Thereupon the two Rakshasas came near the Gamarala. Then the Tom-tom
Beater, from the top of the tree, having shaken the leaves and beaten
the drum first, said, "After I descend leave the big one for me, and
do thou eat the little one." Then the two Rakshasas becoming afraid,
ran off.

Then the Tom-tom Beater descended from the tree, and again having
gone with the Gamarala to the Rakshasa's house, taking the Gamarala's
daughter and the goods that were in the Rakshasa's house they came
to their village.

While at the village the Gamarala said, "Take thou the goods; after
the girl was there it is sufficient for me." Then the Tom-tom Beater
having brought [home] the goods became very wealthy.

After a little time had gone by since that, the Gamarala came to the
Tom-tom Beater's house to take the debt of paddy. Then what does the
Tom-tom Beater do? Before the Gamarala's coming, a very large basket
was tied up [by him], shells and chaff having been put in it.

After the Gamarala went, the Tom-tom Beater said, "Because of you,
indeed, I have tied up that basket. If you want it, be good enough to
take it and go." Then the Gamarala having gone and opened the mouth
of the basket, when he looked there were only shells and chaff.

Thereupon, at the time when the Gamarala was asking, "What is
this chaff?" the Tom-tom Beater said, "Apoyi! What has happened
here? Through your bad luck there were other things, indeed! In
that way, indeed, you came down from the Palmira tree that day,"
the Tom-tom Beater said.

Then the Gamarala, without speaking, went home without the paddy.


                                                 North-central Province.



In The Indian Antiquary, vol. xiv, p. 77, in a Tamil story related
by Pandit S. M. Natesa Sastri, two men who had previously frightened
some bhutas, or evil spirits, were belated at night in a wood they
haunted, so they climbed up a tree for safety. The bhutas afterwards
came there with torches in search of animals for food, and this so
terrified one of the men that he fell down among them. The other man
then shouted to him to catch the stoutest of them if he must eat one,
on which the bhutas all ran away.

In Indian Fairy Tales (M. Stokes), p. 38, when a barber and fakir
had climbed up a tree in order to overhear the talk of a number of
tigers who came there at night, and also to collect valuables left by
the tigers, the fakir became so alarmed when he heard the tiger King
using threatening language against them, that he lost his hold and fell
into the midst of the tigers. The barber instantly cried out loudly,
"Now cut off their ears," on hearing which the tigers ran away. The
fakir, however, received such injuries that he died.

I have omitted two nocturnal incidents due to the Tom-tom Beater's
inability to control his bodily functions.



THE RICE-DUST PORRIDGE. (Variant c.)


In a certain country there are a Gamarala and a Tom-tom Beater,
it is said. The Gamarala having become very poor had not a thing to
eat. That Tom-tom Beater was a very rich man.

While they were thus, one day the two persons having spoken about going
on a journey and said, "Let us go to-morrow," made ready. There being
not a thing for the Gamarala to eat before going, and being without
a thing to take for the road, [after] stirring with a spoon a little
rice-dust porridge and taking the porridge to the road, he was ready
to go.

The Tom-tom Beater, having amply cooked rice and curry, and eaten,
tying up a packet of cooked rice for the road also, went to the
Gamarala's house. Having gone there, the two persons went on the
journey. The Gamarala took the rice-dust porridge, the Tom-tom Beater
took the packet of cooked rice.

Having gone on and on, after it became late in the morning the Tom-tom
Beater said, "Ha. Now then, Gamarahami, let us eat the packet of
cooked rice."

Afterwards, the Gamarala having said "Ha," and both of them having
unfastened the two bags, the Tom-tom Beater, taking the packet of
cooked rice, eats it. When the Gamarala was taking the rice-dust
porridge the Tom-tom Beater asked, "What, Gamarahami, are those?"

Then the Gamarala said, "In order to cook rice for myself quickly,
I came [after] cooking porridge. Don't tell it at the hand of anyone."

The Tom-tom Beater says, "Ane! Gamarahami, I shall not tell it. The
gentleman (Rahami) will be good enough to eat it."

The two persons having eaten and finished, when they are going on
again, a man is going taking a rice pestle to sell. Then this Tom-tom
Beater says to the Gamarala, "Ane! Gamarahami, be good enough to take
and give me that rice pestle."

The Gamarala says, "Where, Bolat, [221] have I the money [for it]?"

Then the Tom-tom Beater says, "If so, I will say that the Gamarahami
ate rice-dust porridge."

Afterwards the Gamarala,--there is a little money in his hand,--having
given from it, taking the rice pestle, gave it to the Tom-tom Beater.

Again, when they had gone a great distance, a man is coming taking
a [wooden] rice mortar to sell. So the Tom-tom Beater again says,
"Gamarahami, Gamarahami, take that rice mortar, and be good enough
to give me it."

Then the Gamarala says, "Ane! Bolat, come thou on without speaking
there. Where have I money to that extent, to take and give you those
things?"

Thereupon the Tom-tom Beater says, "If so, I will say that the
Gamarahami ate rice-dust porridge." Afterwards the Gamarala took and
gave him the rice mortar also.

Again, when they had gone a great distance, a man is going taking a
millet stone (quern) to sell. The Tom-tom Beater says, "Gamaralahami,
you must indeed take and give me that millet stone."

Afterwards, anger having come to the Gamarala, he says, "O
Vishnu! [222] Bolat, where have I money to that extent?"

Then the Tom-tom Beater says, "If so, I will say that the Gamarahami
ate rice-dust porridge."

Afterwards, the Gamarala having given money to the man who owned the
millet stone, taking the millet stone gave it to the Tom-tom Beater.

Taking that also, again when they are going a great distance a Tom-tom
Beater is coming, taking a tom-tom. Again that Tom-tom Beater says
to the Gamarala, "Gamarahami, be good enough to take and give me
that tom-tom."

Then the Gamarala says, "Ando! I having come with this Tom-tom Beater
lump, [223] [see] what is happening to me! Where is the money to take
and give these things in this way?"

Having said [this], and given money to the man who owned the tom-tom,
taking the tom-tom and having given it to the Tom-tom Beater, again
they go on.

When the Tom-tom Beater, taking the rice pestle, and the rice mortar,
and the millet stone, and the tom-tom, all of them, was going with
the Gamarala it became night. After that, they went to a house to ask
for a resting-place. The house was a Rakshasa's house. The Rakshasa
was not at home; only the Rakshasa's wife was at home. This Gamarala
and Tom-tom Beater asked at the hand of the woman for a resting-place.

Then the woman says, "Ane! What have you come here for? This indeed
is a Rakshasa's house. The Rakshasa having come and eaten you also,
will eat me. Before he comes go away quickly."

Afterwards these two persons say, "Ane! Don't say so. There is
no place for us to go to now. Somehow or other you must give us
a resting-place."

After that, this woman said, "If so, remain without speaking, having
gone to that upper story floor." Thereupon these two persons ascended
to the upper floor, and stayed [there].

Then the Rakshasa having come, asked at the hand of the woman, "What,
Bola, is this smell of a human body that came, a human body that came?"

The woman says, "What is this thing that you are saying! Every day
you are eating fresh human flesh indeed; how should there not be a
corpse smell?" After that, the Rakshasa without speaking lay down.

Then to the Gamarala says the Tom-tom Beater, "Gamarahami, I must
go out."

The Gamarala says, "Remain without speaking. Now then, after the
Rakshasa has come he will eat us both."

Then this Tom-tom Beater says, "If so, I will say you ate rice-dust
porridge."

Thereupon the Gamarala says, "Owing to this one, indeed, I shall not
be allowed to save my life and go."

The Rakshasa having heard the talk, said, "What, Bola, is that I hear?"

The woman says, "On the upper story floor the coconut leaves are
shaking." At that, also, the Rakshasa remained without speaking.

Again that Tom-tom Beater says, "Gamarahami, I must go out."

Then the Gamarala says, "The Gods be witnesses! Endless times, having
heard the talk, the Rakshasa asked at the hand of the woman, 'What is
that I hear?' Now then, having come on this journey indeed, he will
eat us. What shall I do? Let him eat, on account of my foolishness
in coming."

Then the Tom-tom Beater says, "If so, I will say you ate rice-dust
porridge."

The Rakshasa, having heard that talk also, again asked at the hand
of the woman, "What, Bola, is that I hear?"

Then the woman says, "What is it, Ane! Appa! that you are making
happen to-day? There is very much wind; owing to it will the coconut
leaves stay without waving about?" At that time also, having said,
"Aha," the Rakshasa remained without speaking.

Then the Tom-tom Beater again says, "Gamarahami, I have the mind to
beat a tom-tom verse."

The Gamarala said, "What is the reason why you (ombaheta) have such
a mind to die?"

The Tom-tom Beater says, "So indeed! I will say that you ate rice-dust
porridge."

Then the Gamarala said, "Beat very slightly and slowly, so that
[the sound] will not come even to the ear."

The Tom-tom Beater having said "Ha," very loudly beat, "Dombitan,
Dombitan."

Then when the Rakshasa, without asking the woman [about this noise]
was ascending a great distance along the ladder, in order to go to
the upper floor, the Tom-tom Beater dropped the rice pestle on the
Rakshasa, and dropped the rice mortar. When he dropped the millet
stone the Rakshasa died.

The Tom-tom Beater, taking the tom-tom, went to his village. The
Gamarala calling the Rakshasa's wife [in marriage] remained at the
Rakshasa's village.


                                                 North-western Province.



THE EVIDENCE THAT THE APPUHAMI ATE PADDY DUST. (Variant d.)


In a certain country a Padu [224] man, and an Appuhami [225] having
joined together, went away on a journey, it is said. Of the two
persons, the Padu man tied up for himself a packet of cooked rice,
the Appuhami tied up for himself a packet of paddy dust, it is said.

Those two persons having gone taking the two packets, when the time
for eating cooked rice in the daytime arrived they halted at one spot,
and having become ready to eat cooked rice, unfastened the two packets,
it is said. At the time when they unfastened the two packets, the two
persons mutually saw the Padu man's cooked rice and curry, and the
Appuhami's paddy dust. Having seen them, without having spoken they
ate the food in their own packets, and having stayed a little time,
set off and went away.

When they are going a considerable distance, a man came, bringing a
tom-tom (berayak) to sell.

The Padda having asked the price of the tom-tom from the man who
brings the tom-tom to sell, said to the Appuhami, "Please take and
give me this tom-tom."

Then anger having gone to the Appuhami [he said], "Be off, dolt! [226]
That I should come with thee being insufficient, thou toldest me to
take and give thee this tom-tom!"

"It is good, Appuhami. If so, I will mention the evidence that you
ate paddy dust," he said.

The Appuhami having become afraid, and having said, "Ane! Bola,
I will take and give thee the tom-tom. Don't tell any one about the
matter of the dust eating," took and gave the tom-tom to the Padda.

Taking the tom-tom, when they are going a considerable distance,
still [another] man brought a devil-dancer's mask (wes-muhuna) to
sell. The Padda having asked the price of the mask, said, "Appuhami,
please take and give me this mask."

Having said, "Be off, dolt! Having taken and given thee a tom-tom,
am I to take and give thee a mask too?" the Appuhami scolded the Padda.

"If so, I will mention the matter of the dust eating," he
said. Thereupon the Appuhami having become afraid, took and gave
the mask.

Taking also the mask, when they are going a considerable distance,
yet [another] man brought a pair of devil-dancer's hawk's bells
to sell. The Padda having asked the price of the bells also, and
having said, "Appuhami, take and give me this pair of bells," when
the Appuhami said he would not, "If so, I shall mention the evidence
that you ate the dust," he said.

Thereupon, the Appuhami having become afraid, and having said, "Now
then, having taken and given thee anything thou art telling and telling
[me to give], my money is done, too," took and gave the pair of bells.

After that, again having gone a considerable distance they descended to
a great abandoned village. When they were going a considerable distance
in the village they saw that there is a house. These two persons at
the time when it was becoming evening went to that house. The house
was a Rakshasi's house.

The Rakshasi's daughter having been [there] and having wept says,
"Ane! Brothers, [227] our mother is a Rakshasi. She is not at home
now; at this time she will be coming. As soon as mother comes, [228]
seizing you two she will eat you. Having gone to any possible place,
escape," she said.

The Appuhami through fear began to tremble. The Padda says, "Why,
younger sister? This night where are we to go? By any possible method
get us inside the house," he said.

"If so, you two, not talking, having ascended to this store-loft
(atuwa) sit down," she said.

The Appuhami and the Padda having climbed up to the store-loft, stayed
[there].

After a little time the Rakshasi came. When she asked, "What is the
smell of human flesh?" the daughter says, "Why, mother? Night and
day continually having eaten and eaten human flesh and having come,
why do you ask me what is the smell of human flesh?" she said.

Thereupon the Rakshasi, not speaking, went to sleep, together with
the daughter.

The Padda sitting above in the store-loft says to the Appuhami,
"Ane! Appuhami, it was in my mind to dance a little."

Thereupon the Appuhami says, "Cah, Bola! Dolt! You are preparing
to dance; I am hiding in fear. Shouldst thou go for thy dancing,
the Rakshasi having killed us both will seize and eat us," he said.

"If so, I will mention the fact that the Appuhami ate the dust,"
he said.

The Appuhami then says, "If so, having taken and placed the tom-tom
aside, do thou imagine that thou hast beaten the tom-tom; bringing the
devil-dancer's mask near thy face, imagine that thou hast tied it on;
and imagining that thou hast tied the pair of bells on thy two legs,
having taken and taken all, put them on one side," he said.

And the Padda, having said, "It is good," tying on well the
devil-dancer's mask and having made it tight, and tying the pair of
bells on his two legs, and tying the tom-tom at his waist, saying
"Hu" with great strength, sprang down from the store-loft to the
place where the Rakshasi was sleeping; and began to dance.

The Rakshasi having become afraid, asked her daughter, "What is this?"

"Why, mother, isn't that the Rakshasas-eating Prakshasa?" [229]
she said.

Then the Rakshasi, having become afraid and having gone running,
being unable to escape sprang into a well. The Padda having also gone
running just behind her, and having rolled into the well some great
stones, killed the Rakshasi.

After that, he took in marriage even the Rakshasi's daughter. The
Appuhami went away to his village.


                                                       Western Province.



NO. 138

THE STORY OF THE CAKE TREE


In a certain country there are a woman, and a youngster, and a girl,
it is said. The woman is a Yaksani.

One day the youngster said, "Mother, let us cook cakes."

Then the Yaksani said, "Son, for us to cook cakes, whence [can we get]
the things for them?"

After that, this youngster having gone to the place where they were
pounding flour, and having come back [after] placing a little flour
under the corner of his finger nail, said, "Mother, mother, hold a
pot," he said.

The Yaksani held a pot. Then he struck down the finger nail; then
the pot having filled, overflowed.

Again, having gone to a place where they were expressing [oil from]
coconuts, and having come [after] placing a little oil under the
corner of his finger nail, "Mother, mother, hold a pot," he said.

The Yaksani held a pot. Then the youngster struck down the finger nail;
then the pot having filled, overflowed.

After that, the youngster having gone to a place where they were
warming [palm] syrup, and having come [after] placing a little syrup
under the corner of his finger nail, "Mother, mother, hold a pot,"
he said.

The Yaksani held a pot. The youngster struck down the finger nail;
then the pot having filled, overflowed. [230]

After that, the youngster said, "Mother, now then, cook cakes." Having
said it, the youngster went to school.

During the time while he was going and was there, the Yaksani and the
girl having cooked cakes, and the Yaksani and the girl having eaten all
the cakes, placed for the youngster a cake that fell on the ash-heap
while they were cooking; and both of them remained without speaking.

Then the youngster having been at school, came home. Having come,
he asked that Yaksani, "Mother, where are the cakes?"

Then the Yaksani said, "Ane! Son, the cooked cakes the flour
people took away, the oil people took away, the syrup people took
away. The cake which fell on the ash-heap while [we were] cooking is
there. There; eat even that."

After that, when the youngster looked on the ash-heap there was a
cake on it. Having taken it, and planted it in the chena jungle,
he said, "When I come to-morrow, may the Cake tree (kæwun gaha),
having sprouted, be [here]." Having said it he came home.

Having gone on the following day, when he looked a Cake tree had
sprouted. Afterwards the youngster said, "When I come to-morrow,
may flowers having blossomed be [on it]." Having said it he came home.

Afterwards having gone, when he looked flowers had blossomed. After
that, the youngster said, "When I come to-morrow, may cakes having
fruited be [on it]." Having said it he came home.

Having gone on the following day, when he looked there were
cakes. After that, the youngster having ascended the tree, ate
the cakes.

Then the Yaksani having gone [there], sitting at the bottom of the
tree said, "Son, a cake for me also." The woman having taken a sack
also, put it [there].

Afterwards the youngster threw down a cake. Then the Yaksani falsely
said, "Ane! Son, it fell into the spittle heap." The youngster again
threw one down. Then the Yaksani said, "Ane! Son, it fell into the
mucus heap." Afterwards the youngster again threw one down. Then also
the Yaksani said, "Ane! Son, it fell into the cow-dung heap."

Having said, "Not so; holding them with your hand and mouth jump
into the sack," she held the sack, through wanting to eat the
youngster. Then the youngster, holding them with the hand and mouth,
jumped into the sack.

After that, the Yaksani, tying the sack, came away. In a rice field
certain men were ploughing. Having placed the sack very near there,
the Yaksani went seven gawwas (twenty-eight miles) away [for necessary
reasons].

Thereupon that youngster says, "Ane! Unfasten this sack, some one who
is in this rice field." Then the men who were very near having heard
it, unfastened the sack. After that, the youngster having come out,
put a great many ploughed-up clods from a plot of the field into the
sack, and again having tied the sack in the very way in which it was
[before], and placed it there, the youngster again went to the Cake
tree and ate.

Then the Yaksani having come, and taken the sack, and gone home,
and placed it [there], said to the girl, "Daughter, this one is in
the sack. Unfasten this, and having cut up this one, and placed the
bowl of [his] blood beneath the stile, place the flesh on the hearth
[to cook]." Having said it the Yaksani went away.

After that, the girl having unfastened the sack, when she looked
the youngster was not in it; there were a great many ploughed-up
clods. Afterwards the girl having thrown aside the ploughed-up clods,
put the sack in the house.

The Yaksani came back. Having come, when she looked beneath the stile
there was no bowl of blood. Having gone near the hearth, when she
looked there was no flesh. After that, she asked at the hand of the
girl, "Daughter, why didn't you cut up that one?"

The girl [said], "Mother, there was a sort of ploughed-up clods in
the sack; having thrown them aside I put the sack in the house."

Then the Yaksani said, "If so, daughter, give me the sack;" and
asking for the sack, and having gone near the Cake tree, when she
looked the youngster was eating cakes in the tree.

Sitting down near the tree she said, "Son, a cake for me
also." Afterwards the youngster threw down a cake. Then the Yaksani
said, "Son, it fell here, into the spittle heap." The youngster again
threw one down. Then the Yaksani [said], "Son, it fell into the mucus
heap." The youngster again threw one down. Then the Yaksani said,
"Ane, Son, it fell into the cow-dung heap. Not so, son. Holding them
with the hand and mouth jump into the sack." After that, the youngster,
holding them with the hand and mouth, jumped into the sack.

Thereupon, the Yaksani, in that very manner tying the sack and taking
it, went away; and again having placed it in that rice field, went
to the very quarter to which she went at first.

Then the youngster said, "Unfasten this sack, some one who is in this
rice field." Having heard it, those men unfastened the sack. Then the
youngster having come out, caught a great number of rat snakes; and
having put them in the sack, and tied it in that very way, and placed
it there, the youngster again went to the Cake tree and ate cakes.

Then the Yaksani having come, and taken the bag also, and gone home,
told the girl, "Daughter, cut up this one, and having placed the bowl
of [his] blood beneath the stile, put the flesh on the hearth." Having
said it she went away.

After that, the girl having unfastened the sack, when she looked
there were a great many rat snakes [in it]. The girl having waited
until the time when the rat snakes went off, put the sack in the house.

Then the Yaksani having come, when she looked if the bowl of blood
was beneath the stile, it was not [there]; when she looked if the
flesh was on the hearth, that also was not [there]. After that she
asked at the hand of the girl, "Daughter, didn't you cut up that one?"

Then the girl says, "Mother, in it there were a great many rat
snakes. Having waited there until the time when they went off, I put
the sack in the house."

After that, the Yaksani [said], "If so, daughter, give me that sack;"
and asking for the sack, and having gone near the Cake tree, when
she looked this youngster was eating cakes.

Afterwards the Yaksani, sitting down, said, "Son, a cake for me
also." The youngster threw down a cake. Then the Yaksani said,
"Ane! Son, it fell into the spittle heap." Afterwards the youngster
again threw one down. Then the Yaksani said, "Ane! Son, it fell into
the mucus heap." The youngster again threw one down. Then the Yaksani
[said], "Ane! Son, it fell into the cow-dung heap. Not so, son. Holding
them with the hand and mouth jump into the sack." Afterwards the
youngster, holding them with the hand and mouth, jumped into the sack.

After that, the Yaksani tied the sack, and placing it on her head and
having come quite home, and placed the sack in the veranda, said to
the girl, "Daughter, to-day indeed that one is [here]. Cut up that
one, and having placed the bowl of [his] blood beneath the stile,
place the flesh on the hearth." Having said it she went away.

Afterwards this girl having unfastened the sack, when she looked the
youngster was [in it]. Having brought the bill-hook, when she was
about (lit., making) to cut up the youngster, the youngster said,
"Elder sister, don't cut me up just now. Lie down here for me to comb
your head." After that, the girl lay down.

As he was combing and combing the head, this girl went to
sleep. Afterwards, this youngster having cut the girl's throat (lit.,
neck), placed the bowl of [her] blood beneath the stile, and having
put the flesh on the hearth, the youngster, taking a rice mortar,
and a pestle, and a millet [grinding] stone,--at the doorway there
was a Palmira [palm] tree--ascended the Palmira tree.

While he was there the Yaksani came, and having drunk the bowl of
blood that was beneath the stile, and come near the hearth and taken
the flesh that was on the hearth, began to eat.

While she was eating it, the youngster, being in the Palmira tree,
says thus:--


       "They themselves eat their own children.
        The Palmira tree [is] at the doorway;
        Jen kitak kita." [231]


The Yaksani having heard it and said, "Ade! Where is this one?" and
having looked around, again eats that flesh.

Then that youngster again says,


       "They themselves eat their own children.
        The Palmira tree [is] at the doorway;
        Jen kitak kita."


Then the Yaksani having come into the open ground in front of the
house, when she looked up the tree the youngster was there. Afterwards
the Yaksani said, "Ade! Stop there. [I am going] to eat this one."

As she was setting off to go up the tree that youngster let go the
pestle. The Yaksani, saying and saying, "Thou art unable to kill me,"
goes upward.

After that, that youngster let go the rice mortar; then the Yaksani
fell to the ground. Then that youngster let go the millet stone;
then the Yaksani died. Only the youngster remained.


                                                 North-western Province.



In the Kolhan tales (Bompas) appended to Folklore of the Santal
Parganas (Rev. Dr. Bodding), p. 464, occurs an Indian version of
this peculiar story. A boy whose mother gave him two pieces of bread
daily, one day left one on a rock and found next morning that a tree
which bore bread as fruit had grown from it. When he was in the tree
eating the fruit one day, a woman who was really a Rakshasi came up
and asked for a loaf, and saying that if it fell on the ground it
would become dirty, induced him to descend with it. She then put him
in her bag and went off. While she was getting a drink at a pool some
travellers let the boy out. He filled the bag with stones. On reaching
her home the woman told her daughter she had brought a fine dinner,
but the daughter found only stones in the bag. Next day the woman
returned to the tree, secured the boy in the same way, brought him
to her daughter, and went to collect firewood. In reply to the boy,
the girl said he was to be killed by being pounded in a mortar; while
she showed him how it was to be done he killed her with the pestle,
put on her clothes, and cut her up. The ogress returned, cooked and
ate her, and went to sleep, on which the boy struck her on the head
with a large stone, killed her, and took all her property.



THE LAD AND THE RAKSHASI. (Variant a.)


In a certain country there are a female Crow and a male Crow. While
they were thus, the female Crow having thought of eating cakes,
went with the male Crow to break firewood. Having gone, [after]
breaking firewood the male Crow took a bundle of firewood [and came
away with it].

When the female Crow was there unable to lift up her bundle of
firewood, she saw that a lad who looks after cattle was going by,
and having called to him, when she said, "Son, lift up the bundle
of firewood and go; I will give you cakes," the lad lifted it up and
gave her it, and went away.

After that, the lad having come to eat cakes, when he asked for cakes
the female Crow gave him cakes.

The lad, having gone away taking the cakes, and ascended a tree, when
he was eating them a Rakshasi came. When she looked up the tree,
having seen a lad eating cakes, she said, "Ane! Son, throw down
cakes for me also." So the lad threw down a cake. Having said, "It
is in the dung-heap," she told him to throw down one more. Thereupon
the lad threw down one more. "That also is in the dung-heap," she
said. After all were finished in that way, the Rakshasi says to the
lad, "Now then, son, tying both legs and both hands jump into this
bag," she said. Then the lad jumped.

The Rakshasi having put the lad in the bag, and [after] tying it
having gone home, gave it to the Rakshasi's daughter, and said,
"Fry this, and put it away until the time when I come." Having said
[this], the Rakshasi went away somewhere or other.

After that, the Rakshasi's daughter opened the bag, and taking out
the lad, told the lad to blow up the fire on the hearth. Thereupon
the lad says, "I don't know [how]," he said.

Then when the Rakshasi's daughter descends to the hearth to show him,
the lad pushed the Rakshasi's daughter into the oil cooking-pot that
was on the hearth.

After she was fried, having taken it off and put it away, taking the
chillies [grinding] stone he climbed up the Palmira tree which was
at the doorway.

While he is [there] the Rakshasi, having come back, says, "Wherever
went my daughter? Can she have gone for firewood? Can she have gone
for water?" [232]

Having said and said it, when she is eating, the lad sitting in the
tree says,


       "Of the heifer's flesh               "Naembige malu
        The heifer herself [is] the eater.   Naembima kanna.
        The Palmira tree at the doorway.     Dorakada tal gaha.
        Dan, dun."                           Dan, dun."


While he is saying it, when the Rakshasi had looked up and seen that
the lad is in the tree, as she is going to climb the tree the lad threw
down the chillies [grinding] stone on the Rakshasi's body. Thereupon
the Rakshasi died.

After that, the lad having descended from the tree, put the Rakshasi
into a well, and went away.


                                                Bintaenna, Uva Province.



THE CAKE TREE. (Variant b.)


In a certain country there was a house of a Gamarala, it is said. At
that house there were seven children. Out of the seven, the elder
six persons having arisen on all days just at daybreak, go to do work
in the rice field. The young person for the purpose of learning goes
to school.

Having joined with yet [other] children (lamo), the party of children
began to go near a house at which a certain Rakshasi dwells at that
village. During the time when they are going thus, the Rakshasi who
saw these children, from the day on which she saw the children made
ready to seize and eat them.

Although she made ready in that manner, through fear because men
dwelt in the neighbourhood she did not seize the children. But the
Rakshasi being unable to remain without eating the children, thought,
"Seizing the children by a certain device, I must employ my daughter,
and [after] boiling I must eat them." Having broken off all the leaves
of a tree that was on the road on which the children go to school,
and having wrapped strips of white cloth at all places on the tree,
and hung cakes and plantains, etc., at all places on the tree, the
Rakshasi got into the jungle and waited.

At the time when she is staying thus, the party of children who are
going to school, when they approached the root of that tree having
seen the tree on which the cakes and plantains had been hung, said,
"Look here, Bola; a Cake Tree;" and the whole of them having ascended
the tree, plucked the cakes and plantains to the extent to which they
had been hung on the tree, and ate them.

That day, except that the Rakshasi had gone into the jungle, she did
not come to the place where the children are eating the cakes and
plantains. Why? It was through fear that many children having come
to the place where she is, at the time when she is seizing them the
children having become afraid, and run to that and this hand, when
they have told the men they will kill her.

Having thought thus, that day after the whole of the children,
plucking the cakes and plantains, went away, the Rakshasi having
come from the jungle into the open, arrived at her house, and stayed
[there]. On the following day also, as on the former day, at daybreak
having gone taking cakes and plantains, and hung them on the tree,
she got hid, and remained looking out.

That day, when she is thus, out of that troop of children going to
school, the Gamarala's child having arisen more towards daybreak
than on other days, and hurried, and eaten food, and drunk, and gone
in front of the other boys, with the thought that he must pluck the
cakes very quickly went that day quite alone. Having gone in that way,
he ascended the Cake Tree and began to pluck them. At the time when
he is thus plucking them, the Rakshasi having sprung out, quickly
taking the bag also, and having come to the bottom of the tree,
spoke to the Gamarala's boy, and says, "Ade! Son, pluck and give me
one cake," she said.

When the Rakshasi said thus, he plucked one and gave it. The Rakshasi
having thrown on the ground that bit of cake says, "Ane! Son, the cake
fell on the ground. Sand being rubbed on it, I cannot eat it. Give
me still one," she said.

At the time when she said thus, he plucked one more and gave it. Having
dropped that also on the ground, she says, "Ane! Having struck my
hand that also fell on the ground. I cannot catch the cakes that you
are plucking and giving me. I will tell you a very easy work; you
do it. Plucking as many cakes as you can, jump into my bag. Jumping
in that way is easier than descending [by climbing down] the tree,"
she said.

When the Rakshasi told him in that manner, this foolish child,
thinking, "It is an easy work the Rakshasi is telling me," and plucking
as many as possible for both hands and waist-pocket, jumped into the
Rakshasi's bag.

The Rakshasi, tying the mouth of the bag and having gone taking him
without being visible to the men, arrived at her house, and having
spoken to the Rakshasi's daughter, says, "Daughter, to-day I must eat
a good flavour. In the bag that I brought, placing it on my shoulder,
there is a tasty meat. Boil the meat for me and give me it." Having
given it to her daughter, the Rakshasi went about another thing that
should be done.

When the Rakshasi's daughter is unfastening the bag to prepare the
meat, there is a boy [in it]. When the Rakshasi's daughter having
unfastened the bag is going to take the child out, having spoken he
says, "Ane! Elder sister, there are lice on your head."

Thereupon the Rakshasi's daughter says, "Ane! Younger brother, if so,
catch them." Having said [this] she sat down.

The Gamarala's son, having been for a little time turning and turning
over the hairs of her head to that and this side in the manner when
looking at the head, taking the axe that had been brought to kill the
boy, and at once having struck the head of the Rakshasi's daughter
and killed her, and having put her in the cauldron of water which
was there, and placed her on the hearth, and boiled her, and made her
ready and placed her to eat when the Rakshasi is coming, collecting
the rice mortar, pestle, and a great many knives that were at the
house, and having gone and placed them in a Palmira tree that is at
the doorway,--at the time when the Rakshasi comes this one having
also ascended the tree stayed [there]. [233]

When the Rakshasi came [after] bathing, at the time when she is coming
she says, "Daughter, even to-day has tasty food been prepared? Don't
do that work for the men of the village to get news of it; if so, the
men of the village will kill us." Saying this, she came into the house.

Well then, except that having boiled the meat it is there to eat,
the daughter is not to be seen. While calling her on that and this
hand, at the time when she is seeking her that youth, sitting on the
Palmira tree, says, "Their own flesh they themselves will eat. On
the Palmira tree at the doorway; tan, tun." Saying [this] he began
to beat a tom-tom (rambana).

Then the Rakshasi having looked up when coming running to seize this
one, this one threw at the Rakshasi the rice mortar and pestle that
he had taken to the top of the tree, and struck her. The Rakshasi
died at the bottom of the tree.

This one having descended from the tree, and gone home, and given
information to the other brothers of this circumstance, came with them,
and took away the goods of the Rakshasi's that there were. Having
gone away they lived in happiness.


                                                       Western Province.



In Kaffir Folk-Lore (Theal), p. 120, a cannibal placed in a bag a girl
whom he intended to eat. When he went for water her brother took her
out and put a swarm of bees in her place. These stung the cannibal
when he opened the bag, and he fell into a pool, where he became a
block of wood.



NO. 139

THE GIRL, THE MONK, AND THE LEOPARD


In a certain country there were a Gamarala and a Gama-Mahage (his
wife). There was a female child of the Gamarala's.

After the child became suitable [for marriage] he went near the Lord or
monk of the pansala [234] to look at her naekata. [235] The Gamarala
said to the monk, "Ane! Lord, there is a female child of mine; the
child became suitable [for marriage]. You must look at the naekata,"
he said to the Lord.

Thereafter, when the monk looked at the naekata, besides that it
is very good for both the parents, it was said in the naekata that
the man who calls her [in marriage] on that very day is to obtain a
kingdom. Because of it, the monk after having placed the Gamarala in
subjection (i.e., made him promise obedience), said, "The naekata
is very angry. For the two parents, and for the man who calls her
[in marriage], there is anger to the degree [that they are] to die,"
he said to the Gamarala. This lie the monk said to the Gamarala in
order for the monk to call the female [in marriage] for himself.

At that time the Gamarala, having become much troubled, asked the Lord,
"What shall I do for this?"

The monk said, "Don't kill the child outright, [236] and don't [merely]
turn her out of the house. You go home and make a box. After having
made it, and made ready for the box [various] sorts of food and drink,
put this child in the box, and having put into it the kinds of food
and drink, after having closed it go to the river, and put it in."

Thereupon, the Gamarala having done in the manner the monk said,
and having informed the monk that on such and such a day he will put
the box in the river, went to the river and put the box in it. [237]

The monk told the pupils who were at the pansala to wait [for it]. He
said, "You go and wait near the river. At the time when you are
there a box will come floating down. Taking it ashore, bring it to
the pansala;" the pupils went on the journey. The monk that day, for
the purpose of eating the [wedding] feast amply preparing [various]
sorts of food and drink, remained ready.

Two boys of that country, or two young men, had set a trap at the bank
[of the river]. At the time when these two persons went to look at
it, a leopard was caught in the trap. These two having become afraid,
having said, "What shall we do about this?" at the time when they were
talking and talking on the river bank, they saw that a box is coming
floating [down the river], and the two persons spoke together [about
it]. Both having agreed that the things inside the box [should be]
for one person, and the box for one person, they got the box ashore.

Having opened the mouth of the box, when they looked [in it] there were
a woman, and [various] kinds of food and drink. Taking them aside,
they seized the leopard, and having put it in the box and shut it,
they took it to the river and put it in.

Out of the two persons, one took the woman, the effects one took. The
person who took the woman that very day obtained the kingdom, it has
been said.

Thereafter, that box floated down to the place where the monk's pupils
stayed. Getting the box ashore, and tying [it as] a load (tadak) for a
carrying pole, they took it to the pansala. The monk, taking the box,
quickly placed it inside the house. The monk told the pupils to stay:
"To-day I must say Bana [238] from a different treatise (sutra);
to-day you must respond, 'Sadhu,' loudly."

After it became night the monk told the pupils, "You also lie down,"
and having lit the lamp in the house, [after] shutting the door he
opened the mouth of the box. Just as he was opening it, the leopard
having sprung out, began to bite (lit., eat) the monk. Thereupon the
monk cried out, "Apoyi! The leopard is biting me!"

The pupils began to respond, "Sadhu!" louder than on other days. At
the time when the monk is shouting and shouting, the pupils loudly,
loudly, began to respond, "Sadhu!" When he had been crying and crying
out no long time, the monk died.

In the morning, having cooked rice gruel for the obligatory donation
(hil daneta), when they were waiting, looking out for the time when
the monk arose, he did not get up. Until the time when it became well
into the day (bohoma dawal), they remained looking out. Still he did
not [come out].

An upasaka (lay devotee) of that village comes every day to the wihara
to offer flowers. He, too, remained looking out near the wihara until
the time when the monk comes. Thereafter the upasakarala having gone
to the pansala, asked at the hand of the pupils, "What is the reason
the Lord has not yet arisen?"

Then the pupils said, "During last night it was not the Bana which he
says on other days that he said; from another sutra he said Bana. He
told us, also, to respond 'Sadhu' more loudly than on other days."

At that time the upasakarala tapped at the door to awake the monk;
he did not speak. Having struck the door loudly [the upasakarala]
spoke to him. At that also there was not any sound.

Thereafter, the upasakarala having mounted on the roof and put
aside the tiles, when he looked [down] the leopard sprang at him,
growling. The upasakarala having become afraid, fell from the roof
and died.

Thereafter, many men having joined together and broken down the
door, and killed the leopard, when they looked for the monk he was
killed. So having put the leopard and the monk into one grave, they
covered [them with] earth.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Orientalist, vol. ii, p. 145, Mr. N. Visuvanathapillai,
Mudaliyar, relates this as a Tamil story. The girl was Princess
Devalli; to save the country she was condemned to death, but her
mother bribed the executioners to set her afloat in the river, in a
box. A hunter who had trapped a tiger on the river bank secured the
box, released the Princess, and put in the tiger. The Guru (teacher)
had heard of the Queen's stratagem, and sent a dozen of his pupils in
a boat in search of the box. They brought it into a room in a deserted
building, and remained in an adjoining one, being instructed to clap
their hands and shout, "Hail! Long life to our Master!" when they heard
the box opened. Amid this applause of the boys the tiger killed the
Guru. (In The Orientalist, vol. iii, p. 269, Mr. J. P. Lewis noted
that this story is from the Katha sintamani).

In Old Deccan Days (M. Frere), p. 280, a Brahmana foretold that unless
a baby Princess should be sent out of the country she would destroy
it utterly. The Raja her father caused her to be placed in a box,
which was launched on a river, and floated down. A merchant saw it,
and got a fisherman to bring it ashore, the box to go to him and the
contents to belong to the merchant. He got the Princess, reared her,
and married her to his son. The rest of the tale is the legend of
the Goddess Pattini, who caused Madura to be burnt in revenge for
the execution of her husband on a false charge of stealing the
Queen's bangle.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 102, an ascetic told a
merchant that when his daughter got married all the family would die,
and he advised him to set her adrift in a basket on the Ganges. Her
father having promised to do this, the ascetic ordered his pupils
to intercept the basket and bring it secretly to his monastery. A
Prince who had gone to bathe found and opened the basket, married the
girl by the Gandharva rite (in which a garland of flowers is thrown
round the neck), put a fierce monkey in her place, and set the basket
afloat again. The boys brought it, and the ascetic placed it in a
room to perform incantations alone, he said. When he opened it the
monkey flew at him and tore off his nose and ears, and he became the
laughing-stock of the place.

In the Kathakoça (Tawney), p. 132, an ascetic informed a merchant that
the bad luck of his two daughters would bring about his destruction,
and advised him to set them afloat in the Ganges in a wooden box,
and cause a ceremony to be performed for averting calamity. The
ascetic performed the ceremony for him, and sent his pupils to bring
the box. The King of that city got the box ashore, took the girls,
and put two apes in their place. When the ascetic opened the box at
his monastery he was killed by the apes and became a Rakshasa.

In Folk-Tales of Kashmir (Knowles), 2nd ed., pp. 398, 399, 410,
the incident occurs of newly-born infants being placed in boxes,
set afloat in a river, and rescued by a person lower down. [239]
At p. 445, a girl who had been married to a King was set afloat in
a box, and rescued by a washerman.

In Sagas from the Far East, p. 120, there is a Kalmuk variant in
which a man who desired to take the wealth of an old couple, got
inside a statue of Buddha, and instructed them to give their daughter
to the man who knocked at their gate in the morning. The man himself
came and knocked, and married her, and he and his new wife left with
all their gold and precious stones. A Khan's son who was out hunting,
taking a tiger with him, fired an arrow into a mound of sand; it struck
something hard which proved to be a box which the man had placed there,
containing the girl and jewels. The tiger was put in her place, and
when the man carried off and opened the box in an inner room of his
house it killed and ate him, and walked away next morning when the
door was opened. The Prince married the girl.

In the Sinhalese history, the Mahavansa, p. 147 (Dr. Geiger's
translation), it is stated that in order to appease the sea-gods who
had caused the sea to overflow the land on the western coast of Ceylon
in the first half of the second century B.C., the King of Kaelaniya
"with all speed caused his pious and beautiful daughter named Devi to
be placed in a golden vessel whereon was written 'a king's daughter,'
and to be launched upon that same sea." She was brought ashore at
the extreme south-east of Ceylon, and married by the King of Ruhuna
or Southern Ceylon.

The original Indian story of the child who was consigned to the
water in a basket or box appears to be that which is given in the
Maha Bharata (Vana Parva). According to it, an unmarried Princess,
Kunti, who bore a supernatural son to the deity Suriya, the Sun,
placed the infant in a water-tight wicker basket, and set it afloat
in the adjoining river, from which it passed down to the Ganges, and
then drifted down that river until it arrived near Campa, the capital
of the Anga kingdom. The basket was brought ashore and opened by a
car-driver who had gone to the river bank with his wife. These two,
being childless, adopted the infant, who afterwards became famous
as Karna, the leading Kuru warrior in the great battle against the
Pandava Princes and their allies.

The story extends backward to the legend or history of Sargon I,
of Akkad (about 2,650 B.C. according to the revised chronology),
who stated in an inscription that his mother, a Princess, launched
him on the Euphrates in a basket of rushes made water-tight with
bitumen. He was rescued and reared by a cultivator, who placed him
in charge of his garden. Through the affection of the Goddess Istar
he acquired the sovereignty.



NO. 140

THE WASHERMAN AND THE LEOPARD


On a certain day, a man having gone to a chena which he had cut,
and in which he had sown grain, as he was walking along at the edge
of the fence, on this side of the corner of the stick fence a tail
was visible, it is said.

Having gone near very quietly, when he looked, a leopard lying at
the edge of the fence, having let its tail come inside the chena,
was asleep, it is said.

Thereupon, this man on this side of the fence seized the leopard's
tail which it had put there. After he seized it he cannot kill it,
he cannot let go; should he let go, the leopard will kill the man.

When the man was staying [there] thinking, "How is the expedient for
this?" he saw a Washerman going along, taking a bundle of clothes. So
this man called him, saying, "Washerman-uncle, come here."

Then the Washerman having come, asked, "What is it?"

He said, "Kill the leopard."

Then the Washerman said thus, "Ane! His face is like our
uncle's. Ane! I indeed cannot kill him."

The man who was holding the leopard, said, "If so, I will kill him;
you hold the tail."

Then the Washerman having said, "It is good," took hold of the tail. At
the time when he was holding it, this man said, "[You] who have become
uncle and have become nephew, stay there," and came home.

Thereafter, at the time when that Washerman was letting go the
leopard's tail, the leopard killed and ate that Washerman, and
went away.

Subsequently, the man who owned this chena having gone [there], taking
the bundle of clothes which that Washerman had taken and thrown down,
came home.


                                                 North-central Province.



In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. ii, p. 226, an
old woman who was attacked by a bear, turned round a tree to avoid
it. When the bear stretched its paws round the tree in trying to reach
her, she seized and held them. A man who came up was requested by her
to assist her to kill the animal and share the flesh. He accordingly
also seized the paws; when he had got well hold the old woman let go
and escaped, the man being afterwards mauled by the bear.



NO. 141

THE FRIGHTENED YAKA


In a certain country there are a woman and a man, it is said; there
is also a boy of those two persons. In front of the house there is
also a Murunga tree. A Yaka having come, remained seven years in the
Murunga tree in order to "possess" the woman.

While they were in that manner, one day the man and the boy went on
a journey somewhere or other. The woman that day having [previously]
put away the bill-hook, brought it to the doorway, and while preparing
to cut a vegetable, said, "This bill-hook is indeed good [enough]
to cut a Yaka."

The Yaka who stayed in the Murunga tree at the doorway, having heard
what the woman said, became afraid, and having waited until the time
when the woman goes into the house [after] cutting the vegetable,
the Yaka slowly descended from the Murunga tree.

When he was going away, the woman's husband and boy, having gone on
the journey, are coming back. The Yaka met them. Then the Yaka asked
at the hand of those two, "Where did you go? I stayed seven years
in the Murunga tree at the doorway of your house, to 'possess' your
wife. To-day your wife, sharpening a bill-hook, came to the doorway,
and looking in my direction said, 'This bill-hook is indeed good for
cutting a Yaka.' Because of it, I am here, going away. Don't you go;
that wicked woman will cut you. Come, and go with me; I will give you
a means of subsistence. I, having now gone in front, will 'possess'
such and such a woman of such and such a village. You two having said
that you are Yaksa Vedaralas, [240] and having come [there], when you
have told me to go I will go. Then the men having said that you are
[really] Yaksa Vedaralas, will give you many things. When you have
driven me from that woman, again I will 'possess' still [another]
woman. Thus, in that manner, until the time when the articles are
sufficient for you, I will 'possess' women. When they have become
sufficient do not come [to drive me out]."

Having said [this], the Yaka went in front and "possessed" the
woman. After that, the man and the boy went and drove out the
Yaka. From that day, news spread in the villages that the two persons
were Yaksa Vedaralas. From that place the two persons obtained
articles.

The Yaka having gone, "possessed" yet a woman also. Having driven him
from there, too, these two persons got articles. The Yaka "possessed"
still [another] woman also. Thus, in that manner, until the very
time when the things were sufficient for the two persons, the Yaka
"possessed" women.

After the articles became sufficient for the two persons, one day the
Yaka said to the two, "The articles are sufficient for you, are they
not?" The two persons said, "They are sufficient."

Then the Yaka said, "If so, I shall 'possess' the Queen of such and
such a King. From there I shall not go. Don't you come to drive me
away." Having said it, the Yaka went to that city, and "possessed"
the Queen.

The two Yaksa Vedaralas came to their village, taking the articles
they had obtained. Then a message came from the King for the Yaksa
Vedaralas to go. The two persons not having gone, remained [at home],
because of the Yaka's having said that he would not go.

After that, the King sent a message that if they did not come he would
behead the Yaksa Vedaralas. After that, the two persons, being unable
to escape, went to drive out the Yaka.

Having gone there, they utter and utter spells for the Yaka to go. The
Yaka does not go. Anger came to the Yaka. In anger that, putting [out
of consideration] his saying, "Don't," the two persons went and uttered
spells, the Queen whom the Yaka has "possessed," taking a rice pestle,
came turning round the house after him in three circles to kill the
Vedarala. [241] When she was raising the rice pestle to strike the
Vedarala, the man's boy said, "Look there, Yaka! Our mother!"

Then, because he had been afraid [of her] formerly, when the boy said
it, the Yaka, saying, "Where, Bola?" and also rolling the Queen over
on the path, face upwards, and saying "Hu," went away. The Queen came
to her senses.

The King gave the two persons many articles. The Yaka did not again
come to "possess" women. That man and boy having come to their village,
and become very wealthy, remained without a deficiency of anything.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Indian Antiquary, vol. xvi, p. 217 (Folklore in Southern India,
p. 214), in a Tamil story related by Natesa Sastri, a Brahmana was
turned by Siva into a Brahma-Rakshasa for refusing to impart his
knowledge of music to others, and he resided in a Pipal or Bo tree. A
poor Brahmana of Sengalinirpattu (Chingleput, land of the blue lotus)
assisted him to escape from the wretched music of a piper by removing
into another tree, and out of gratitude the demon "possessed" the
Princess of Maisur, in order that the Brahmana might obtain wealth by
driving him out. Afterwards, when the demon "possessed" the Princess
of Travancore, intending to remain, the Brahmana frightened him away
by a threat that he would bring back the piper.

In Folk-Tales of Hindustan (Shaik Chilli), p. 6, a beggar's wife beat
him with a stick for coming home foodless, threw his turban into a tree
and struck at it time after time, hitting the tree at each blow. The
blows and her abuse frightened away from the tree the ghost or Bhut
of a Brahmana of the family who had committed suicide. The ghost and
the man travelled along together as friends in misfortune. By their
arrangement the man drove the ghost from the Minister's daughter,
but refused to officiate when it "possessed" the Sultan's daughter,
until ordered to be executed. When the ghost threatened to kill him
he told it he had terrible news, his wife would be there in a few
minutes. The ghost left at once, and the man married the Princess
and succeeded to the throne.

In Indian Nights' Entertainment (Swynnerton), p. 298, a man's termagant
wife was thrown into a well, and there married a demon, but in fear
of her he soon hid as a man, in a mosque. Becoming friendly with
the former husband, who recognised him, he promised to marry the man
to the King's daughter, whom he thereupon "possessed." When the man
drove him out she was given in marriage to him, together with half
the kingdom. The demon, after warning him not to interfere, then
"possessed" the Minister's daughter. After at first refusing to act,
the man frightened him away by saying his former wife was coming.

In The Enchanted Parrot (Rev. B. H. Wortham), a variant is given
in the stories XLVI and XLVII. The woman terrified everyone around,
and a goblin who lived in a tree near her house ran away. The husband
also left, became friendly with him, and was advised to go and cure
the King's daughter. He cured her, married her, and received half the
kingdom. Then the goblin carried off this Princess. The man went in
search of her, and frightened away the goblin by whispering that his
wife was coming.



NO. 142

THE STORY OF THE SEVEN YAKAS


In a certain country there are a woman and a man, it is said. One day
the man went to plough. The woman placed a ripe pine-apple underneath
the bed.

On the very day she put it [there], seven Yakas having joined together
and taken a hidden treasure, while six Yakas were dividing the articles
one Yaka having come to the house of that man who went to plough, the
Yaka remained sitting down under the bed at which is the pine-apple,
in order to "possess" the woman.

Then that man having ploughed came home. Having come there, sitting
down on the bed he said to the woman, "Haven't you cooked yet? I have
hunger [enough] to eat the Yaka."

Then the woman said, "I am still cooking. If you cannot wait until
the time [when I finish] there is [something] under the bed."

The woman said it regarding the pine-apple. What of that! Because
she did not explain and say [so] the Yaka thought, "It is regarding
me, indeed, she said that;" and the Yaka having become afraid, very
quickly having arisen said to the man, "Ane! Don't eat me. Come along
(lit., come, to go), for me to show you a place where there is a good
hidden treasure."

After that, the man having got up from the bed and called the man's
younger brother, the two persons went with the Yaka. Having gone,
they went to the place where those six Yakas are dividing the articles.

Then the Yaka said to the two men, "Until the time when I bring and
give you the articles, there (onna), go to that tree." After that,
the two men went into the tree to which the Yaka told them to go.

Having gone there, while they are looking, six Yakas who had great
beards and the Yaka who came summoning the men are apportioning the
articles. Then, having seen the bearded youngsters (pollo), the elder
became unconscious, and fell from the tree to the ground.

Then the younger brother, being in the tree, said, "Elder brother,
after you [have] jumped down seize the great-bearded youngster
himself."

Then because there are beards of the whole six, having said to each
other, "It is for me, indeed, he said this; it is for me, indeed,
he said this," one by one, in the very order (lit., manner) in which
they sprang up and went, the whole six Yakas, having thrown down the
articles, ran off. [Because] having been in the tree that man said thus
after the man's elder brother fell down, those Yakas having said, "He
will come and kill us," it was for that indeed the Yakas became afraid.

Well then, [the Yaka] calling the men,--the elder brother and younger
brother,--and together with the men the Yaka, the very three persons,
having drawn (carried) all the articles--both the Yaka's portion and
the six portions of those six who ran off--to that man's house, after
they finished the Yaka went away. Those two men shared the articles.


                               Finished.

                                                 North-western Province.



The first part of this story is a variant of part of the tale numbered
17 in vol. i. For the latter part, compare variant (b) of the story
No. 137, and the notes after it.



NO. 143

THE YAKA AND THE TOM-TOM BEATER


In a country, at the time when a Tom-tom Beater was going to a
devil-dance (kankariya), it became dark. While he was going along
to the village in the dark, when he was near the village having the
devil-dance, to the extent of two miles (haetaepma) from it, he met
with [an adventure] in this manner.

In the adjoining village, a man having died they took his dead body
to the burning ground; and having raised a heap of firewood, and upon
it having placed the corpse and set fire to it, at the time when his
relatives went away in the evening Maha Son Yakshaya [242] came, and
remained upon the burning funeral pyre. He said thus to the Tom-tom
Beater, it is said, "Where art thou going?"

When he asked it [he replied], "I am going to a devil-dance."

At the time when [the Yaka] said, "Standing there, beat the [airs
of] devil-dances, and the new ones that thou knowest," he unfastened
the tom-tom, and tying it (i.e., slinging it from his neck), he beat
various dances.

The Yakshaya being pleased at it, said thus, "Do thou look every day
in the house in which are the looms. [243] Don't tell anyone [about]
the things that I give," he said.

Beginning from that day, having gone into the house in which are
the looms, at the time when he looked, raw-rice, and pulse (mun),
and ash-plantains, and betel, and areka-nuts, and various things were
there. Every day those said things were there.

At the time when he is bringing them, his wife said, "Whence are
these?" Every day she plagued him, and being unable to escape from
it he told the woman.

On the following day after the day on which he told her, at the time
when he looked he had filled the looms with excrement.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Indian Antiquary, vol. i, p. 143, Mr. W. C. Benett gave an
Oudh story in which Bhawan Misr, a wrestler who had obtained gifts
from a demon, lost them by revealing the secret to his wife.



NO. 144

HOW A TOM-TOM BEATER GOT A MARRIAGE FROM A GAMARALA


At a certain time there was a Gamarala. The Gamarala had a
daughter. In the same country there was a very rich Tom-tom Beater
(Naekatiyek). There was a son of the Tom-tom Beater's. In order to make
search for a marriage for him he tramped through many countries. From
those countries he did not obtain one.

After that, he went to yet a country on the other side of a
river. Having gone there, when he looked about there was a Gamarala
at a village [who had a marriageable daughter]. When he asked for the
daughter [in marriage], he said he would not give her. Thereupon,
thinking and thinking of a scheme he acted accordingly, that is,
in this manner.

He caught an egret. He made a bundle of lights, and taking these
he went again to the village at which the Gamarala stayed. Having
gone [there], at the time when he looked about [he saw that] there
was a large betel creeper on a tree in front of the doorway of the
Gamarala's house.

After that, having come at night and gone up the tree, and hidden
himself so that he would not be seen, [after] lighting the bundle of
lights he called the Gamarala: "Village Headman! Village Headman!"

Then the Gamarala having come running, looked upward, and seeing that
the bundle of lights were burning the Gamarala became afraid.

Thereupon the Tom-tom Beater says, "I, indeed, the Devatawa of this
village, am speaking. Wilt thou hearken to what I am saying?" he asked.

The Gamarala, being afraid, said, "I will hearken."

Then the Tom-tom Beater called the Devatawa, [said],

"They say that thou wilt not give thy daughter to the boy of the
Tom-tom Beater of such and such a village. Why?"

The Gamarala said, "Because our pollution rules (indul) are different
I said I cannot give her," he said.

Then the Tom-tom Beater Devatawa who was in the tree [said],
"Give thou thy daughter to him. On the seventh day from now he will
obtain the sovereignty. If thou shouldst not give [her] I will kill
thee." Tying the bundle of lights to the leg of the egret, he said,
"I am going," and let the egret go.

Thereupon, having seen that the lights were burning on the leg of
the egret [as it flew away], the Gamarala thought that the Devatawa
said it.

Then the Tom-tom Beater, being invisible to everybody, descended from
the tree, and went to his village.

Two or three days afterwards, he came with the wedding party
to the Gamarala's house, for the purpose of taking away the
daughter. Thereupon, having eaten the [wedding] feast, on the morning
of the following day, because the giving of the Gamarala's daughter
was demeaning he put her in a sack, and having tied it as a bundle
for carrying under a pole, [the Gamarala] gave her, placing [the pole]
on the shoulders of two persons, and telling them to go. Then, lifting
up the load, the party went away. Having gone thus, it having become
night they stayed near a tree.

At yet [another] city, the King of the city, having seized a bear
that ate human flesh, and put it in a sack, and tied it as a bundle
for carrying under a pole, gave it to two persons, and told them to
take it and throw it into the river.

At that time that party also came to the place where that [other]
party were staying. Thereupon, without speaking they placed the two
bundles in one spot. In the very same way again, without speaking
they were sleeping in one place.

On the morning of the following day, at dawn, the wedding party
having arisen went to the village, taking the bundle in which the
bear was tied.

The people who remained here unfastened the bag in order to put the
bear into the river. At that time [they saw that] a Princess was
there. So the party having gone taking the Princess gave her to the
King. Then the King married that Queen.

The wedding party who went taking the bear bundle having gone to the
house, that very day, in order that the faults (dosa) of the bride
and bridegroom might go, drove away any evil influence of the planets
(baliyak).

At that time, having put the sack and the bridegroom into a house
they shut and tied the door. Having tied it they conducted the service
[against the evil influence of the planets] in the open.

Thereupon the bridegroom who was inside the house unfastened the
sack in order to take out the bride. Then the bear having come out
began to bite the man. The bridegroom said, "Don't bite me! Don't
bite me!" When he was saying it, the men who were sending away the
evil planetary influences said, "Ayibo! Ayibo!" [244] The two who
were in the house remained without speaking any words [after that].

Thereupon it became light. These people having gone [there] opened
the door. Then the bear that ate men having sprung outside and bitten
the [would-be] mother-in-law, went into the midst of the forest. The
bridegroom, the bear having bitten him, died.

                                                 North-central Province.



In a variant of No. 59 in vol. i., the Gamarala inquired regarding the
naekata at his daughter's reaching marriageable age. The man replied,
"Through this little lass (paenci) seven men will die. Ane! O
Gamarahami, because of this little lass don't make this country
desolate," and advised killing her. When this man was carrying her
away tied in a sack, intending in reality to marry her to his son,
some people who had a savage bear in a similar sack found the bundle
left on the roadside temporarily, and made an exchange. The son was
killed by the bear while the father danced outside, beating a tom-tom
(udaekkiya).



NO. 145

THE GEM YAKSANI


There were a King and a Queen of a single city. The two one day
went for sport in the gardens. Then, sitting on a branch there was
a little bird.

At that time the Queen asked the King, "Is that little bird which is
there the male or the female?" The King said, "The male."

Then the Queen, having said, "It is not male; it is female," made a
wager. What was the wager, indeed? "Let us catch it and look. Should
it be the cock I will not stay with you; I will go away somewhere
or other. Should it be the hen you must give me the sovereignty,"
she said. Thereupon the King said, "It is good."

Having caught the bird they looked; when they looked the animal was
the male.

Then the Queen said, "I am going now," and she set off.

The King said, "We said it for fun, didn't we? Are you going in that
way for that little matter?"

The Queen would not [stay], "I must really go," she said.

Thereupon the King having said, "Are you going for that? We made
monkey fun. [245] Owing to it where are you to go?" said much in
the way of advice. Without hearkening to it the Queen went. What was
[the real reason of] it? [It was] because the royal talk was Large.

When the Queen was going, the [completion of the] ten months of
her pregnancy was near; as she was going in a forest she bore a
child. Carrying the infant, as she was going along a path there was
a river in which the water had dried up. While she was going along
the river the Prince began to cry. For the sake of stopping the
crying she picked up a stone which was on the ground in the river;
and having said, "Look here, son," she stopped the crying, and taking
that little stone [with her] came to another city.

Having come [there] and walked to all places, and looked about,
and come to a house in which was a widow woman, she asked, "Mother,
keeping this Prince for me, will you give me a little space to stay
in, until the time when the Prince becomes big?"

Thereupon the old woman said, "It is good, daughter. I also am alone;
because of it remain here."

The Queen, having said, "It is good," lived there, pounding paddy [at
houses] throughout the streets; and up to the time when the Prince
became big stayed there getting a living. By that time, seven years
of the Prince's age had passed.

While remaining [there] in this manner, one day the Prince said,
"Mother, I am hungry," and cried. When he was crying, the stone which
his mother had brought that day from the river in order to stop the
Prince's [crying], had been thrown away into the open ground in front
of the house (midula).

This woman, having shown him the stone, said falsely, "Look there. Take
that stone which is there, and having given it at the bazaar, and
eaten rice cakes, come back."

Then the Prince, having gone running, taking that stone, begged
throughout the whole of the bazaar, "Ane! Take this stone and give
me rice cakes."

The men said to that Prince, "Who gives rice cakes for quartz stones,
Bola?" and scolded him at each place to which he went.

After that, the Prince, having asked at every place without [obtaining
any cakes], went to the King's palace also, at the time when the King
was walking at the Audience Hall, and said, "Ane! Take this stone,
and give me rice cakes; I am hungry."

Thereupon the King, having heard the sweet speech of this young Prince,
becoming pleased, said, "Where, Bola, is the stone? Bring it here
for me to look at it."

The Prince took the stone, and gave it into the King's hand. The
King taking the stone in his hand, when he looked at it, it was
a gem-stone. Then the King asked, "Bola, whence [came] this stone
to thee?"

"This stone was in the open ground at the front of the house. Mother
said to me, 'Take it, and having eaten rice cakes, come back.'"

Then the King said, "I will give thee rice cakes. Go and tell thy
mother to come."

The Prince having gone running home, said, "Mother, a man said that
you are to come, [so that he may] give rice cakes to me. The man,
taking the stone, too, put it away."

The Queen, walking with the Prince, said, "Which is the house?"

Having said, "There, that house," the Prince stretched out his hand
towards the royal palace.

With the thoughts, "I shall be worn away with fear, I shall be worn
away. Ane! The thing that this foolish boy has done! Having said
that he gave him a quartz stone, the King, in order to appoint [the
punishment for] his fault, told me to come here," she reached the
royal palace.

Thereupon the King having seen her, becoming much pleased, asked,
"Whence didst thou obtain this stone?"

Then the Queen began to tell him everything,--the way in which she
made the bet with that King, the way in which she came away, the way
in which she bore [a child], the way in which while coming, she stopped
the [crying of the] Prince by picking up this stone from the river.

Then the King said, "This is a gem-stone. Putting me [out of
consideration], having appointed any person you like, he cannot
state the value of this. I have not got even wealth [sufficient] to
give for this. Because of it, having given to thee the wealth, too,
thou hast not a place to put it in. Therefore stay ye in my palace
itself until the Prince, having become big, marries a Princess."

Having made ready and given them a good room, and given them the
royal victuals, he made the two remain there.

While they are staying there, having prepared two bracelets for the
King's Queen, because there was not a stone more to [match] that stone
for fixing in the two bracelets, he asked the Queen who gave the stone,
"Canst thou find and bring a stone more, like this stone?"

The Queen said, "I cannot go. If there be still [any] in the river,
or what, I do not know."

Then the Queen's Prince said to the King, "I can."

The King asked, "Do you know the path to go on?"

The Prince said, "I will ask mother, and go."

Then the King said, "What is necessary for you?"

The Prince [said], "From those that are in your stable be good enough
to give me a horse which goes on hard journeys."

Then the King gave the Prince the horse with the best qualities of
all, a sword, and a bundle of cooked rice. The Prince would be about
fifteen years of age.

The Prince, having mounted on the horse, asked his mother, "Mother,
on which hand is the river in which you picked up the stone?"

The Queen said, "It is this hand," and stretched out her hand. Then
driving the horse to that hand he began to go.

Having gone away, and stopped at a river near that [gem] river, when
he looked about, at a great rough tree [what was] like a large fire was
visible. Then this Prince, in order to look at the conflagration, went
near the tree. Having gone [there], when he looked a Devata-daughter
endowed with much beauty [246] was there.

Then this Prince asked the Devata-daughter, "Who art thou?"

The woman said, "I am a Yaksani." Then the Yaksani asked the Prince,
"Who art thou?"

The Prince said, "I am a royal Prince."

Then this Prince became mentally inclined towards the very beautiful
Yaksani; the Yaksani also became mentally inclined towards the Prince.

The Yaksani asked the Prince, "Where are you going, Sir?"

The Prince said, "I came to seek a gem-stone."

Then the Yaksani said, "We indeed remain in charge of this gem
river. Should the Devatawa Unnaehae come he will kill you. It is I
indeed they call the Gem Goddess. I can give gems. [After] marrying
me and placing me on the horse, if you should not go twelve yojanas
[247] before half a paeya (of twenty-four minutes) has gone, the Gem
Devata Unnaehae [248] will come and behead both of us, and burn us."

The Prince being pleased at it (that is, her proposal), said, "It
is good", and placing the Princess on the back of the horse, asked,
"Where are the gems?"

The Devata-daughter said, "I will give them; I have them."

Then he drove away the horse twelve yojanas before half a paeya [had
passed]. Having driven it, when he went to the city the King asked
the Prince, "Have you brought the gems?"

That Yaksani had previously [249] said at the hand of the Prince
that when the King asks, "Have you brought the gems?" he is to say,
"I have brought [them]." Because of it, the Prince said, "I have
brought the gems."

Then the King said, "Where? Let me look at them."

At that time the Devata-daughter said, "They will be outside," and
threw down in the open space in front of the palace a gobbet [250]
of saliva. When the King looked it was as though a rain of gems
had rained.

After that, the King, picking up the gems, went to the palace, and
remained lying down without eating and drinking. The Minister having
come, asked, "O Lord, what is the matter?"

Then the King said, "The Prince who gave the gem has brought the Gem
Princess. If I haven't the Princess what are these Gods for? What is
this sovereignty for?"

The Minister said, "Don't you, Sir, be troubled about it; I will tell
you a stratagem for it."

The King asked, "What is the stratagem?"

The Minister said, "The stratagem indeed is in this manner:--You, Sir,
be good enough to say to the Prince, 'Dear Prince, our mother and
father died. Those persons are staying in the God-world. Canst thou
[go there and after] looking [at their condition] come back?' Then
the Prince through not understanding will say, 'I can.' Then, having
summoned all them of the city and having cut an underground tunnel
about a mile (haetaekma) deep (that is, in length), when you have
told him to go by that way to the God-world, he will go. Then having
put a stone on [the entrance to] it, and brought tusk elephants,
and made them trample on it, you can take the Gem Princess."

The King having become pleased at the word, caused the Prince to be
brought, and asked, "Dear Prince, canst thou go to the God-world in
three weeks' [time, to inquire after our father and mother], and come
back?" The Prince said, "I can."

Then the King having collected together the men of the city, and said
falsely that he is cutting a path to go to the God-world, began to
cause a tunnel to be cut, in order to kill the Prince.

Thereupon the Prince said to the Gem Princess, "In this manner the
King asked me: 'Can you go to the God-world and come back?' I said,
'I can.'"

Then, owing to the wisdom of the Gem Princess she perceived that he
is making the plan (suttare) to kill this Prince, and said, "Why,
through foolishness did you, Sir, say you can? Since you said you can,
[you must do as follows]:--Under the gem river an elder sister of
ours is rearing rats. Having gone, and given her this ring of mine,
be good enough to say, 'In such and such a city your younger sister
is living. She said [you are] to send there two or three thousand
rats.' Then she will send the rats. You [then] be good enough to come
back, Sir."

The Prince went, and having given her the ring, and told her in
that very manner, the elder sister of the Gem Princess then said,
"It is good; I will send them. You, Sir, be good enough to go." Then
he came back.

That day night, having started them off, she sent three thousand
rats. The rats having come before the light fell, went to the room
in which was the Gem Princess. At the time when they went, she gave
food and drink to the rats, and said, "Before a week has gone they
will cut the tunnel which the King is cutting, a mile deep. Because
of it, you must cut [a path from here leading] into that tunnel at
a mile from this room in which we are staying."

So they cut and finished both tunnels on one day. Regarding the
tunnel which the rats cut, the King was unable to learn even a little
bit. Without making the tunnel which the rats cut break into and
become part of [251] the King's tunnel, they turned it a little across
[towards it at the end].

After that, having cut the [other] tunnel and finished it, and given
the Prince a horse, and given him a sword, the King said, "Look
here. We have cleared the path to go to the God-world. Having gone,
come back."

Then the Prince said, "It is good." Having said it, and gone near the
Gem Princess, at the time when he was saying, "I will go, and come,"
[252] the Princess said, "Say to the King that you will come in a week;
and go," she said.

Then the Prince having told the King, "I shall come in a week,"
went. Having driven the horse into that tunnel which the King cut,
and gone along the tunnel, and come to the other tunnel [excavated
by the rats], during the daytime he stays in the tunnel. At night,
having come near the Gem Princess, and eaten rice, and been sleeping,
again as the light falls he goes to the tunnel and remains [there].

At the time when the Prince sprang into that tunnel, men threw stones
into the tunnel, and heaped them up. They do not know the fact that
that Prince is staying in the tunnel which the rats cut.

After that, the King came, and spoke to the Princess, "Now then,
let us two be married."

Then the Princess said, "I will not. My husband has said that he will
come in a week. Because of it, until he comes I will not marry any
one whatever. If he come not I will marry," she said.

The King having heard that word [said], "It is good. After a week has
gone I will marry [you]." Thinking, "The Prince having been put into
the tunnel, and stones trampled down [over it], when will he come
again? That Princess, the Prince not [being here], in perplexity at
his death is talking nonsense," he went away.

What does the Princess do? Having taken gem-stones to the extent of
many millions (in value), she caused to be sewn a diadem-wreath (otunu
malawak), and a dress. Having sewn them, at early dawn (rae pandara)
of the day following the week, having dressed this Prince, she said,
"As the light is falling, having waited behind the King's palace be
good enough to come as though returning," and sent him [there].

Thereupon, the Prince in that manner at the time when the King
arises in the morning, presented himself for the King's cognizance
(indiriyata). Then the King,--after becoming afraid concerning the
return of the Prince whom he had put in the tunnel in which he had
placed stones, and having employed tusk elephants had trampled them
down,--asked, "Prince, whence camest thou?"

Thereupon the Prince said, "O Lord, Your Majesty, your father the
King and mother the Queen, also, are staying in happiness in the
God-world. I went there. Having said my dress was bad (nakayi) they
gave me, for wearing, a dress which, those persons having worn it,
had become old," he said.

When the King looked in the direction of his dress [he thought that]
except that in the God-world [there might be] such a dress, it is of
the kind which is not in this world. Because of it, it seemed to the
King to be true.

The Prince said, "The party said that you also, Sir, are to go. They
tried not to permit me, also, to come back. Having said, 'I will come
back,' for the purpose of what I am saying to you I returned.

"When I went in the tunnel and looked about yet [another] path
[leading] there had been cleared. Having gone on that path, when I
looked the God-world was quite near."

After that, the King, having collected the citizens, began to remove
the earth at that tunnel which he cut to kill the Prince.

Having heard of it, that Prince in order that the tunnel which the
rats had cut should be closed, told the rats, and again made them
push back the earth.

Having pushed it back, while he is staying [there], on the following
day the King alone went, and having said, "[After] looking [at the
God-world] I shall return," went off.

When he is descending into the hole to go, what does this Prince
do? Having thrown down those stones that had been taken out, and
blocked up the tunnel so as not to allow the King to return, the King
died in the tunnel.

After that, this Prince, having seized and beheaded the Minister who
had told [the King] the stratagem for the purpose of killing him,
summoned the whole of the citizens, and said to the people, "For the
offence which the King committed against me I put the King into the
tunnel, and killed him. From to-day the King of this city is I myself."

[Thereafter] exercising the sovereignty, marrying the Gem Princess, and
establishing that King's Queen as a female servant, he remained there.


                             Siwurala (ex-monk). North-central Province.



In Sagas from the Far East, p. 97, in a Kalmuk story a painter who
was jealous of a wood-carver presented to the Khan a pretended note
from his dead father, requesting that the carver might be sent to
the kingdom of the Gods, and stating that the painter would show
the way. The painter explained that the carver must be burnt in a
pyre, with much drum beating, and rise to heaven on a horse through
the clouds of smoke. The carver escaped by a tunnel which his wife
excavated to the centre of the pyre, getting into it while the timber
by which he was surrounded was burning. After a month he gave the
Khan a letter from his father in heaven, ordering him to reward the
carver richly, and to send the painter to decorate the temple which
had been built. The painter was thus killed in the way he designed
for the carver's death.

There is a variant in the Sierra Leone country, given in Cunnie Rabbit,
etc. (Cronise and Ward), p. 254. As advised by a messenger, a King who
wished to kill his son told him that he should be King, and that in
order to be crowned he must be tied in a mat, thrown into a deep pool,
and left there three days. When the party halted on the way and left
the bundle on the path for a time, the youth got a child to unfasten
the package, and inserted a large stone which was afterwards duly
thrown into the water. After three days the youth made his appearance
wearing a crown and riding a horse. He was acclaimed as King, and he
stated that he had been ordered to send his father's messenger to be
crowned in the same way. He was seized, tied up, and drowned.



NO. 146

THE NA, MI, AND BLUE-LOTUS FLOWERS' PRINCESSES


In a certain country there is a King, and the King has three children,
males. On the second poya day (the full-moon day), at the time when
the moon has risen, having caused these three Princes to be brought,
he asked, "Son, what is this moon good for?"

The big son said, "This moon is good for [enabling] poor people to
go on journeys; it is good for trampling stacks (threshing by means
of buffaloes)." The King accepted this word.

He asked at the hand of the next (ekkama) son; that son replied in
that very manner.

He asked at the hand of the next son. That son said, "It is good for
[enabling] the Mi-flower [253] Princess, and the Na-flower [254]
Princess, and the Blue-Lotus-flower Princess to perambulate on the
carriage which they keep."

Thereupon anger went to the King. Having caused the executioner
to be brought, he started off the youngest Prince and the two elder
Princes and the executioner, these four persons. He told him to behead
the Prince.

At the time when these four were going in the midst of the jungle,
there was a Banyan-tree; the four persons sat down in the shade
under the Banyan-tree. The youngest Prince having collected a heap
of sand and having been [hidden] [255] in it, both the elder Princes
and the executioner, these three persons, [not seeing him], set out
to come away. Having come a considerable distance [the executioner],
killing a lizard (katussa) and smearing the blood on the sword, came
and told the King, "I beheaded him." The King took it for the fact.

The Prince having arisen, when he looked about, his two elder brothers
were not [there], and the executioner was not [there]. Because
there was not a place to go to he went to sleep again under that
very Banyan-tree.

Having arisen in the morning, when he looked there was no water, no
food. Having climbed up the tree, he saw that water was pouring down
at the margin of a rocky hill. He descended from the Banyan-tree, and
went along looking constantly at the hill. Taking a little water [at
it], and washing his face, at the time when he was going up the hill
a bee came, and turned (flew) round his head; then he struck at the
bee. A second time having come it turned round his head; a second time
he struck at it. Having come even the third time, when it was turning
round his head he thought, "I must look for [the hive of] this."

On the hill there were rocks. Having come [and found the hive],
sitting down at them he drew out the comb. Having drawn it out, when
he looked in the hive (miya) there was an ash-pumpkin [flower]. He
took out the ash-pumpkin [flower], and when he looked in it there
was a Princess. [256] Having gone away, taking the Princess also,
after sitting down under a Na-tree and looking and looking around,
eating and eating the honey he gave to the Princess also. This Princess
in a day or two became big.

Beneath that very Na-tree they stayed for three days. While one
day sitting below the same Na-tree, when he looked upward in the
Na-tree there was a large flower, a kind of ash-pumpkin [flower], in
the Na-tree. He went up the tree for that flower also, and plucking
the flower descended. After having thrown away the petals, when he
looked [inside] there was a Princess. He gave honey to the Princess,
and they remained under the same Na-tree.

After four days they set out from beneath the Na-tree. In a day or
two these two Princesses were [as big as though their age was] twelve
years. Having gone along in the jungle, they came out at a certain
country, and went to the house of a widow-Mahage (an old woman of good
connections), and stayed there. The widow-Mahage eats by pounding
paddy at the King's house and being given the rice-dust. She gave
[some] to these three persons also; the two Princesses and the Prince
were unable to eat it, they said.

At that time the widow-Mahage having gone near the King says, "O King,
Your Majesty, at the place where I live, two Princesses and a Prince
having come thus, are staying."

Thereupon the King says, "Widow-Mahage, wilt thou tell the Prince to
come to my palace?" he said. The Mahage having come, told him.

At the time when she is telling him, the Princesses say, "Should he
tell you any work, don't say, 'Ha' (yes), and don't say, 'I cannot,'
[257] and don't say, 'I can.' Having said, 'After having considered
I will tell you,' come back," the Princesses say.

To the Mi-flower Princess the chariot of the Gods is visible beyond
a kalpa; to the Na-flower Princess the chariot of the Gods is visible
beyond two kalpas.

[When he went to the palace], "Prince," the King says to the Prince,
"in the morning and in the evening I want seven handkerchiefs of
Blue-lotus flowers."

He did not say "Ha"; he did not say "I cannot." After having said,
"I will consider and tell you," he came back to the place where he
is living at the widow's house.

This Prince having come, says to the two Princesses, "The King says
to me, 'In the morning and in the evening I want seven and seven
handkerchiefs of [Blue-lotus] flowers. Can you [bring them]?' Thereupon
I said, 'After having considered I will tell you.'"

The Princesses say, "Prince, when you have gone to pluck the flowers
you would die while in the pool, [but we will save you]. In the pool
there is a great Crocodile. Because the King is not clever [enough]
to kill you and write (that is, contract) a marriage to us two,
it is good to do thus," they said.

Thereupon, the Prince having gone the second time near the King,
this Prince says, "I can."

After he came home taking seven handkerchiefs, both the Princesses,
having called the Prince and having combed and tied up his hair (lit.,
head), uttered spells on his right over a handful of sand, and after
giving it, say, "Having gone near the pool, throw down the handful
of sand on the right. At that time the human-flesh-eating Crocodile
having come will go ashore." Having given [the spells over] a handful
on the left also, they said, "Plucking seven handkerchiefs of flowers,
come out, and quickly on the left throw down this handful of sand,
[or] the Crocodile will come." [He acted accordingly.]

At the time when he was coming [after] plucking the flowers, a large
Blue-lotus flower having been there he plucked that flower, and having
come back, gave it [to the Princesses] at the house. Then having gone
to the royal palace, taking also the seven handkerchiefs of flowers,
[he gave them to the King].

Quickly having come back, taking the [Blue-lotus] flower at the house
into his hand, and having cast away the petals, when he looked there
was a Princess.

At that time the widow-Mahage having gone to the royal house, says,
"I don't know if this Prince is a magician; [258] I don't know if
he is a person possessed of supernatural powers; [259] I cannot find
out what he is. Now he is there, and three Princesses are there."

Then the King thinks, "How [am I] to take these very three beautiful
Princesses?" he thinks. Again he thinks, "Should I send this Prince
to the Naga world I can take them; without it, indeed, I cannot."

At that time the King says to the widow-Mahage, "Say thou to the
Prince that I say he is to come." She accepted that word; having come
she told the Prince.

At the time when she is saying it, the Blue-lotus-flower Princess
says to the Prince, "Prince, should he tell you any work, don't say,
'Ha'; don't say, 'I cannot'; don't say, 'I can.' Having gone to the
royal palace, when he has said it come back, saying, 'After I have
considered I will tell you.'"

Having gone and returned, he says to these three Princesses, "The King
says thus to me, 'How is it? Canst thou go to the Naga world?' he
says. Thereupon I said, 'Having considered I will tell you.' Having
said [this] I came back."

Then these three Princesses say, "Prince, when [he thinks] you
have died the King will come summoning us three to go [to become
his wives]." These Princesses say to the Prince, "You go [to the
King]. Having gone, say, 'I can.'"

He having gone, and having returned after saying it, they thereupon
summoned the Prince. Sitting near him, the Mi-flower Princess, taking
a palmful of oil, after having uttered spells over it rubbed it on
his head. The Na-flower Princess also having uttered spells over oil
rubbed [it on his head]. The Blue-lotus-flower Princess also having
uttered spells over oil rubbed [it on his head].

The Mi-flower Princess next having uttered spells over a handful
of sand, gave it into his hand. The Na-flower Princess also having
uttered spells [over sand] gave it into his hand, and told him to tie
it himself at his waist. The Blue-lotus-flower Princess also having
uttered spells over a handful of sand, said, "Having gone near the
tunnel [leading to the Naga world], when just going into the hole
throw down the sand of the Mi-flower Princess. At the time when you
are descending and going down the hole, when going to the middle of
the hole throw down the sand of the Na-flower Princess. When going to
the foot of the tunnel, throw down the sand of the Blue-lotus-flower
Princess."

Having stayed at the house of the widow-Mahage, they cut a tunnel
[which met the tunnel opened by the King, so that the Prince might
escape by it]. The Prince does not go; the widow-Mahage does not know
[about it]. Anyone you like [260] [sees it] not; they do not know
[about it].

[On the appointed day] having gone into the tunnel at the King's
midula (the open space in front of the palace), at the time when
he is coming to this tunnel, the King, having blocked up the King's
tunnel and having employed elephants and trampled [the earth down],
and having come, says to the three Princesses, "Princesses, go ye to
the royal palace."

At that time these three say, "When our Prince has gone three months,
and three poyas (at the quarters of the moon), and three days,
and three half days, should he not return we will come. You, Sir,
be good enough to go." Thereupon the King went back to the palace.

[While he was there, the Prince, who had escaped by the secret tunnel,
proceeded to the palace to see him.] Having [stated that he had]
gone to the Naga world and come back, the Prince says to the King,
"O King, Your Majesty's father, the [late] King, has arrived at old
age; he says to you that you also are to go."

At that time, [as he believed this], having removed the stones and
earth [that he had placed] in the tunnel down which the Prince went,
the King also began to go. Having handed over the sovereignty to the
Crown and the Sword [of State], and gone near the tunnel, and summoned
everybody (serotoma), he says, "Having handed over the sovereignty to
the Crown and the Sword, I am going. When I have gone for the space
(taena) of three months and three poyas, I shall come back. Until
the time when I come be careful."

At the very time when he is descending into the tunnel, they brought
elephants, and having put stones and earth in it, when they trampled
them down the King died.

Three poyas and three days and three months went by. He came not ever.

As the sovereignty was going to be lost, loading on the tusk
elephant's back the robes and the Crown and the Sword, and having
made notification by tom-toms, at the time when it is walking in
the street the Mi-flower Princess, and Na-flower Princess, and
Blue-lotus-flower Princess say to the Prince, "To-day you, Sir,
will obtain the sovereignty. Do not go anywhere."

Thereupon the Prince says, "How do you know?"

These three say, "Now, now, you will obtain it."

The tusk elephant having come, when it was making obeisance by kneeling
he mounted on the tusk elephant, and putting on the Crown and taking
the Sword in his hand, he went to the palace.

For the dead King there were five hundred Princesses. Having
separated them in a different house, he allowed the five hundred to be
[there]. Thereafter, after building separate houses for the Mi-flower
Princess, and for the Na-flower Princess, and for the Blue-lotus-flower
Princess, he sent them to them.

At the time when he was exercising the sovereignty in that manner,
the country of his parents who told [the executioner] to behead
this one, became abandoned. When this King was on the floor of the
upper story, while this one's elder elder brother, taking a bundle
of firewood [for sale], was going through the midst of the city,
the King saw him. Having called him, and after he had thrown down the
bundle of firewood having summoned him to come here, this King says,
"There is not permission for yourself to come again to this city,"
and he sent away this one.

At the next occasion, on the second day, at the time when the younger
elder brother was coming, taking a pingo (carrying-stick) load of
Jak [fruit], the King tells this one also. Calling him near he says,
"Why hast thou brought Jak? Has thy city become waste, or what? Why
is it?" he asks at the hand of this man who brought Jak.

At that time this one says, "Our country having become waste, there
is much scarcity of food to eat, for our King and people."

Thereupon this King says, "Canst thou come here with the three persons
(his parents and other brother)?"

This one says, "Ane! O Lord; send us two, for us to come with those
two." Thereupon the King, having been troubled [at the news], sent
the two persons.

These two having gone, say to this one's two parents,
"Ane! Father-King, that King says that we four persons--between that
city and this city there is a river--having come to the river he
says we are to remain [there]." Thereupon, because there was no food
for the four persons, and because they could not endure the hunger,
on the second poya day, at the time when the moon had risen they came
to the river, and stayed there.

Thereupon the King, and the Mi-flower Princess, and the Na-flower
Princess, and the Blue-lotus-flower Princess, sitting on the chariot,
went near the river. Having seen these four persons, and descended from
the chariot, he told that party of four persons to ascend the chariot.

Then the four persons say, "Ane! We cannot mount on this. Whether you,
Sir, [are going] to behead [261] us, or chop us [in pieces], [262]
or kill us [in some other way], we do not know. We cannot mount on it."

Making them mount by harassing them and combating [their objections],
[263] they came to the palace. Having come to the palace, after having
given them a separate house to live in, and given them expenses for
food, he said, "Don't you be afraid; you remain [here]," this King
says to these four persons.

At the time when a long period had gone by in this manner, the
King thought that with the four persons he must eat food at one
table. Having thought so, after three or four months he sent four
men to the four persons, and having caused them to bathe, and [then]
caused them to bathe in coconut milk scented with sandal-wood, [264]
and given to all the four persons four pairs of vestments that day,
[265] he told [the servants] to send food [for all] to eat at one
table.

They having sent the food [and] table, and the four persons sitting
down together with the Mi-flower, the Na-flower, the Blue-lotus-flower
Princesses, at the time when he tells them to eat the cooked rice the
four say, "Ane! We cannot eat at one table with you, Sir. How can you,
Sir, a King, and we, eat [together]?" these four persons say.

The King says, "Nothing will happen through your eating at one table
with me."

At the time when, through [his] harassing them and combating [their
objections], [266] they are eating [after] having sat down at one
table, the King asks, "Can you, or cannot you recognise me?" the
King asks.

Thereupon the four persons say, "Ane! We cannot recognise you."

At the time when they have said and said [this], three drops of
milk having come from the breast of his mother fell on the King's
face. [267] When they fell she began to weep.

Thereupon the King says, "Don't cry. The thing I said became correct."

At that time the King [his father] becoming afraid and terrified,
he said, "Father-King, here, behold! the Mi-flower Princess. Here,
behold! the Na-flower Princess. Here, behold! the Blue-lotus-flower
Princess," and showed them.

Then the King says, "Are you willing to take the sovereignty of the
city?" he asked at the hand of the King's father. "I can," he said.

To his father he gave the sovereignty. To the elder brother he gave
the Ministership (aemaetkoma); he appointed the [second] Ministership
for the younger elder brother. "Now then," he said, "when we have
gone you will not give us a little betel!"

In this story is [related] the manner in which a foolish King, taking
the sovereignty, without considering exercised the sovereignty.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Indian Antiquary, vol. xviii, p. 120, in a South Indian (Tamil)
story by Pandit S. M. Natesa Sastri, a Brahmana who had seven sons
asked them one night what they would like to do. The elders expressed
good wishes, but the youngest stated that he would like to spend the
fine moonlight in a beautiful house with lovely girls. The father
turned him out for saying this, and he had various adventures unlike
those of this Sinhalese story.

In the same work, vol. xxvi, p. 109, in a Telugu story by
G. R. Subramiah Pantulu, Divijakirtti, King of Cholamandala, had
three sons, of each one of whom he inquired what he most desired. The
first wished to be surrounded by learned men and to study the great
Indian Epics and sacred books, the second wished to obtain wealth
and visit sacred shrines, the third wanted to acquire a kingdom and
gain a good reputation by making it prosperous. The King made over
the sovereignty to the third one, giving the first one villages and
the second one money to go on a pilgrimage.

In The Jataka, No. 96 (vol. i, p. 234), the Bodhisatta received
a charmed thread and some charmed sand from Pacceka Buddhas as
safe-guards on a journey. These preserved him, the sand placed on his
head and the thread twisted round his brow, from an Ogress (Rakshasi)
who, with others, devoured all in the palace.

In The Jataka, No. 380 (vol. iii, p. 161) a "being of perfect merit"
fell from Sakra's heaven, and was re-born as a girl inside a lotus
flower. "When the other lotuses grew old and fell, that one grew great
and stood." An ascetic opened it, found the girl inside, and reared
her. Sakra created a crystal palace for her, provided her with divine
clothing and food, and in the end the King of Benares married her.

In The Story of Madana Kama Raja (Natesa Sastri), p. 81, when a King
of Udayagiri one moonlight night asked his seven sons what they
would like to be doing, the first suggested leading an army into
an enemy's country, the second wished to be irrigating some land,
the third wished to be ploughing, the fourth to be walking from
one village to another, the fifth to be hunting, the sixth to be a
cooly. The seventh son wished to be the sole Emperor of the world,
reclining on a couch, attended by four wives, the daughters of Indra,
Agni, Varuna, and Adisesha (the serpent-king). His mother, hearing
that he was to be executed for this wish, sent him away secretly with
a bag of money. Next morning the executioners showed the blood of
an animal as that of the Prince. The Prince acquired the wished-for
wives, induced a King who tried to kill him, to jump into a fire from
which he himself had come successfully by Agni's aid, and became King
of a magic city. In the meantime his father had been driven out of
Udayagiri, and with his wife and other sons got a living by selling
firewood. The young King recognised them, gave the sovereignty to
his father, and himself took the post of Minister. He had further
adventures afterwards.

There are several Indian accounts of girls who made their appearance
out of fruits or flowers, and one of a Prince, in addition to the
deity in the tale numbered 153, and the sons of King Sagara, mentioned
in the note after it. In one old legend the Goddess Pattini in one
incarnation was produced from a Mango fruit, and in another from a
Blue-lotus flower.

In Old Deccan Days (M. Frere), p. 96, a girl was found inside a
Mango fruit.

In Indian Fairy Tales (M. Stokes), p. 11, a Prince and Princess who
had been killed came to life afresh inside two fruits produced on a
tree which grew at the spot where their livers had been thrown. At
p. 81 a Princess reappeared full-grown inside a fruit in a King's
garden. At p. 138, there is an account of a Princess who issued
full-grown from a Bel fruit (Ægle marmelos). After being drowned she
became a Pink-lotus flower, and when this was destroyed she reappeared
as an infant inside a Bel fruit.

In the Kolhan tales (Bompas) appended to Folklore of the Santal
Parganas, p. 461, there is a story of this type regarding a Princess
who was in a Bel fruit.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 142, a tear of joy
fell from the eye of a Vidyadhara maiden on a Jambu flower, and a
fruit was produced; when it fell and broke open a heavenly maiden
came out of it, and was reared by a hermit.

In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. iii, p. 327,
a Buddhist nun, Amrapali, related an account of her previous births
during ninety-one kalpas, from mango flowers. The details of her last
birth are given; she became the mother of the celebrated physician
Jivaka, the son of King Bimbisara, and afterwards took the religious
vows. Professor Chavannes states that the work in which this story
occurs was translated into Chinese between A.D. 148 and 170.

In the same volume, p. 337, there is a story of the birth of two
other girls from flowers, one from a Sumana flower and the other from
a Blue lotus.

In Korean Tales (Dr. H. N. Allen), p. 164, a girl who had drowned
herself to appease an evil spirit who refused to allow the passage
of some boats, was sent back to life in a large flower on a plant
floating on the sea. A King who preserved the flower saw her when
she emerged at night, and married her.

In the Maha Bharata (Vana Parva, cxlvi ff.) Bhimasena, one of the
Pandava Princes, went in search of golden lotus flowers, and found
them in a lake at the Gandhamadana mountain, belonging to Kuvera,
the God of Wealth.

In Reynard the Fox in Southern Africa (Dr. Bleek), p. 55, a girl
appeared out of a calabash in which a woman had placed her daughter's
heart after it had been recovered from the body of a lion that had
eaten her. The woman put with it the first milk of the cows which
calved.



THE STORY OF THE SHE-GOAT. (Variant a.)


In a certain country there are a King and a Queen, it is said. There
is an only Prince of the Queen's.

The King was stricken by a very great scarcity (sayak). Well then,
the Queen and the King and the Prince devoured (plundered) all the
things and pansalas (monks' residences) that were in the city. Having
devoured them, on the day when they were finished the King said at
the hand of the Queen, "To-morrow I must behead our Prince." So the
Queen, having tied a little cooked rice in a packet and given it into
the hand of the Prince, said, "Go thou away to any place thou wantest."

After that, the Prince taking the packet of cooked rice and having
gone on and on, and eaten the packet of cooked rice sitting upon a
rock, looked about, saying, "Where is a smoke rising?" When he looked
a smoke was visible.

After that, having descended from the rock, as he was going away he met
with some goats; in the party of goats there was a large she-goat. When
the Prince was going near the she-goat, the she-goat expectorated.

The Prince, taking the piece of spittle and wrapping it in his
handkerchief, went to the house of a widow woman. Having gone there and
given the handkerchief into the hand of the widow-mother, he said,
"Mother, having placed this handkerchief in the very bottommost
pot, [268] put it away." After that, the woman having placed the
handkerchief in the very bottommost pot, put it away.

After seven days went by, having taken out the handkerchief, at the
time when he looked [in the pot] three Princesses and four young rats
were there, and filled the pot. Afterwards he took the three Princesses
out of the pot. Having taken them out, placing the three Princesses
in that very house, the Prince, marrying them, remained there.

While he was living in that very way, news reached the King, the
Prince's father, that this Prince is living with (lit., near) the
widow-mother. Afterwards the King came there on horse-back, together
with the army. Having come, he said to the Prince, "Can you pluck
and give me the Blue-lotus flower which is in the Great Sea?" Then
the Prince said, "I can."

Owing to it, the widow woman was weeping at the Prince's saying he
can. The three Princesses asked, "What, mother, are you weeping for?"

Then the widow-mother says, "Ane! Now then, my son will die when he
has gone into the Great Sea."

Then the three Princesses say, "Ane! What do you weep at that
for? Bring a little sand from an untrodden place." The widow woman
brought a little sand from an untrodden place.

Afterwards, the youngest Princess, having uttered spells over the sand,
and given it into the Prince's hand, said, "Having gone into the Sea,
when you put down this little sand, firm sand will become clear (i.e.,
will appear above the water). Having gone a little distance again, when
you again put down a little sand, firm sand will become clear. Having
come quite close [to the flower], when you have held the hands in a
cup shape the Blue-lotus flower will come into the hands."

Afterwards, the Prince, in that very manner having gone upon the
hard sand, held his hands in a cup shape; then it came into his
hands. Having taken it, when he comes back the King is still at
the widow woman's house. Afterwards the Prince gave the Blue-lotus
flower into the King's hand. Thereupon the King thought to himself,
"Ah, Bola! by this also I was unable to kill this one." [269]

There is a Bee-hive in a forest; no one can draw out [the honey
combs]. The bees come further than two gawwas [270] (each of four
miles) [to attack would-be plunderers of the hive]. To draw out that
Bee-hive the King told this Prince. The Prince said, "I can."

Afterwards that widow-mother is weeping. Then the three Princesses
asked, "What is it, mother, you are weeping for?"

Then the widow-mother said, "When my son has gone to draw out [the
honey-combs at] the Bee-hive, the bees having stung (lit., eaten)
him he will die."

Then the Princesses said, "What are you crying for on that
account? Come back [after] breaking a branch without disease or
former disease." [271] Afterwards the woman, breaking a branch without
disease or former disease, came back and gave it.

After that, the youngest Princess, having uttered spells for the
branch, and given it into the Prince's hand, said, "Strike at the
Bee-hive with this branch; then the bees will go. Well then, you will
be able to draw the Bee-hive."

The Prince, having taken the branch, and gone to the place where
the Bee-hive is, struck the Bee-hive with the branch. The bees went
away. The Prince, drawing out [the honey-comb of] the Bee-hive,
[272] came back and gave it to the King.

The King thought to himself, "Ah, Bola! after I was unable to kill
this one by this also, what shall I do?"

Thinking [thus], he cut a well. Having cut it, and at the very
bottom [273] having left a little earth, he said to the Prince,
"Having descended down this, you must take out this earth to-morrow."

Afterwards the Prince told it at the hand of the widow-mother; then
the widow-mother wept. The young rats asked, "What is it, mother,
that you are weeping for?"

The widow-mother said, "When our son has gone into that well he
will die."

Then the four young rats said, "What are you weeping for at that?" From
the house to the well they cut a tunnel. Having cut it, they said at
the Prince's hand, "We have cut the tunnel from this house until the
time when it goes to the well. When you have gone into the well, should
the King close it with earth [274] come along this tunnel." Having said
[this], they showed the tunnel to the Prince.

On the following day, the King having told the Prince to descend
into the well, the King remained on the surface. The Prince having
descended into the well, when he is about (lit., making) to try to
take a little earth the King closed it with earth.

Then this Prince having come along that tunnel to the house of the
widow-mother, remained [there].


                                 Tom-tom Beater. North-western Province.



In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 549, it is stated that
in a country in which the deficiency of rain had caused a famine,
"the King began to play the bandit, leaving the right path, and taking
wealth from his subjects unlawfully."

In the same work, vol. ii, p. 569, a great sandbank is described as
suddenly rising up in the midst of the sea, near Ceylon.



THE STORY OF A NOBLEMAN'S SON. [275] (Variant b.)


In a certain country there were three Princes, [the sons] of a
nobleman. Having called the eldest Prince of the same three Princes
he asks from the same Prince, "Son, what is the work thou canst
do?" he asked.

Thereupon the big Prince says, "Father, having gone to a
threshing-floor on the [full moon] poya day, on the fifteenth of
the light half [of the lunar month], it would be good to spread
[and thresh] the stacks, if the moon be shining and shining," he
said. Thereupon he told the same Prince to go aside.

Having called the next Prince he asked, "Son, on the second poya day,
on the fifteenth of this bright half [of the lunar month], what is
the best work to do? What the best journey to go on?"

The Prince says, "Father, according to me, on the second poya day,
on the fifteenth of the bright half, when they have put packs on
seven or eight pairs of bulls, if they drive them [on a trading
journey] when the moon is shining and shining, it would be good,"
he said. Thereupon the father told the Prince to go aside.

Having called the young Prince he asked, "Son, on this second poya
day, on the fifteenth of the bright half [of the lunar month], what
is the best work to do? What are the best journeys to go on?"

Thereupon the young Prince says, "Father, according to me, if I should
have placed the head on the Goat Queen's waist pocket, my shoulder
on the Blue-Lotus Queen's waist pocket, my two feet on the Mi-flower
Queen's waist pocket, it would be good," he said.

Thereupon the father says to the above-mentioned two Princes, "Cut
down this wicked Prince with the sword," he said.

At that time, because they could not kill the young Prince, the
above-mentioned two Princes did not speak. Then their mother, having
called the above-mentioned two Princes, says, "Having fulfilled the
hopes of seven kalpas, [276] [after] being hidden in the womb of one
mother you [three] were born. Because of it, do not cut down your
younger brother at your father's word," she said.

Having said [to their father], "We are going away to cut him down,"
they abandoned him in the midst of a very great forest; and having
killed a lizard (katussa) and said they killed the Prince, smearing
the blood on the sword they came back, and said, "Father, we killed
the Prince," and gave him the sword. Thereupon he became [filled]
with happiness or great satisfaction.

At the time when the Prince who was left in the midst of the forest
was going along in the forest wilderness for seven days, as he was
going along eating and eating sugar-canes, pine-apples, sweet oranges,
various ripe fruits, he saw a great mountain. Having seen an aerial
root of a Banyan which swung there, seizing the aerial root he went
[climbing up it] to the rock, and when he looked about he saw a rock
cave, and not a country furnished with villages (gama ratak).

Thereupon, holding the aerial root of the Banyan he descended to
the ground at the rock, and went away in the direction of the rock
cave. Having seen a house near the rock the Prince went to the house.

A woman, called the Mal-kara Amma (garland-making mother), who takes
messages to the King of that country, saw that the Prince was going. At
the time when she asked, "Where are you going?" a flock of goats
which were there saw him, and a large female goat coughed. Thereupon
a piece of mucus fell down. Taking the piece of mucus, he tied it up
in his waist-pocket.

Thereafter, to the garland-making mother he says, "I am going to a
place where they give food and clothing."

Then the garland-making mother says, "I have no child; come, for me
to rear you," she said. The Prince said, "It is good," [and went to
live with her].

Thereupon, having put [for him] outside [her room] cooked rice and
curry, the flower mother went to inform the King. She having thus gone,
the things that were in the waist-pocket of the above-mentioned Prince
who came to the house, came to their time. [277]

After three days, the Prince having arisen, on seeing the
garland-making mother says, "Mother, I will take these flowers and
give them to the King," he said.

Thereupon the garland-making mother said, "Don't go." Thereafter,
the garland-making mother went to the city [to present the
flower-garlands], and came back.

On the following day, when the above-mentioned Prince said that he must
go to another place, the garland-making mother says, "Son, beginning
from your young age, I reared you until the time when you are becoming
as big as this. Now, to what place are you to go?" she said.

"It is so, indeed. Give me the thing that I gave you that day to put
away," he said.

Thereupon, the garland-making mother, having gone to take the thing
which she had put in the lowest earthen pot that was at the bottom
of three or four earthen pots, when she looked saw that a Princess
was in it, and being pleased took her out. Then the garland-making
mother says, "This Princess is good for my son," and she gave her in
marriage to him.

Not much time afterwards, at the time when he was sleeping in that
manner [which he mentioned to his father], placing his head on the
waist-pocket of the above-mentioned Princess, the Ministers of the
King of that country having seen it, told the tale to the King.

On the following day, on seeing the garland-making mother he said,
"Your son is a very great clever person. In the midst of the Great Sea
there will be a great Blue-Lotus flower. Because of [his cleverness]
tell him to bring and give me it," he said.

The garland-making mother having come away weeping and weeping,
came home. Thereupon, the Goat Queen asks, "What, mother, (maeniyan
wahansa), are you crying for?" she asked.

The mother says, "He said that he is to bring the Blue-Lotus flower
that is in the midst of the Great Sea."

"Without fear on that account, eat cooked rice," she said. Having
waited a little time, she asked, "Can you bring and give [me] three
handfuls of sand from a place they are not trampling on?"

Having said "I can," she brought and gave them.

The daughter-in-law, taking the three handfuls of sand, and having
given them into the hand of her husband, says, "Having gone, taking
those three handfuls of sand, throw down a handful; white sand will
open out. Having gone upon that white sand, throw down the next
handful; [the sand will then be extended]. Having thrown down the
other handful of sand [the sand-bank will extend to the flower]; then
taking the Queen of the Blue-Lotus flower, and plucking the flower,
come back," she said.

Having gone in the manner stated by his Queen, taking the Queen and
the Blue-Lotus flower he came back. Marrying the Queen, he gave the
Blue-Lotus flower into the mother's hand. The garland-making mother
having gone to the royal house, and given the Blue-Lotus flower to
the King, came back.

Thereupon, the Ministers having come, for the above-mentioned Prince
there was one Queen before; at the time when they looked now there
are two. "Now then, indeed, the King will not succeed in exercising
the sovereignty," they said.

On the following day, the garland-making mother having waited [at
the palace] until the time for going, [the King] says, "Your son is
a great clever person. Because of it, tell him to break [into] the
Royal Bee-hive [278] (Raja-miya) that is in the jungle, and come back
[with the honey-combs]," he said.

The garland-making mother having come back, when she was weeping and
weeping, the above-mentioned Blue-Lotus-flower Queen asked, "What,
mother, are you weeping and weeping for?"

Thereupon the garland-making mother says, "Having brought [the
honey-combs of] the Royal Bee-hive that is in the jungle, [the
Prince] is to give him them, the King said. Because of it, indeed,
I am weeping," she said.

"Without fear on that account, come and eat cooked rice," she
said. Then when the garland-making mother is eating cooked rice, the
Blue-Lotus Queen says, "Can you bring and give me three handfuls of
stones from a place they are not trampling on?" she said.

Having said "I can," she brought and gave them.

Thereupon the Blue-Lotus Queen, having given the three handfuls of
stones into the hand of her husband, says, "From these three handfuls
of stones taking one handful, go and throw it into the jungle. The
bees will stop while you go three gawuwas (twelve miles). Having gone
there, throw down the other handful; [they will then not attack you
until you go to the bee-hive]. Having gone to the bee-hive they will
assemble [to attack you]. Throw the other handful at the bee-hive,
the head part of the bee-hive; the bees will go to the head part (the
upper part). Then, breaking [into] the bee-hive, come back [with the
honey-combs], calling the Queen who is in the bee-hive," she said.

Thereupon, the Prince went, and breaking [into] the bee-hive and
calling the Queen, came back, and gave [the honey-combs] into the
hand of the garland-making mother. Then the garland-making mother,
taking the honey and having gone to the city, gave it to the King.

At that time the King says, "Because your son is a very great clever
person he does the things I am saying and saying. Because of it,
tell your son to come to the city to-morrow," he said.

Thereupon, the garland-making mother having come weeping and weeping
says, "To-morrow, indeed, he is really to kill my son. He says he is
to go to the city."

Then the Queen who was in the Royal Bee-hive says, "Without fear on
that account, come and eat cooked rice." Thereafter she says [to the
Prince], "The King's message indeed I know. Having told them to cut a
well, and caused you to descend into the well, it is indeed to kill
you he told you to go. For it, I will inform you of a stratagem,"
she said. When he asked "What is the stratagem?" she said, "Having
gone near the well, without crookedness drawing a line from it, go
a considerable distance. From there having gone cutting a tunnel,
do thou cut it to the well, and come back," she said.

He did in the manner his wife said. Having done the work, and gone
to the city, he saw the King, and remained there.

Then the King says, "The well has been [partly] filled up. Because
of it, let us go to draw out the small quantity of earth." Having
said this, that man and yet more people went.

Having gone there, and put [a ladder of] bamboos into the well,
he caused that man to descend. Having waited until the time when
he descended to the foot of the well, he [drew up the ladder, and]
began to throw down earth. Thereupon the man, ascertaining that he is
throwing down earth, breaking down that little that remained at the
tunnel that had been cut [by him], went into the tunnel, and having
come along it, came to his house.

Well then, the King, having filled the well, and said, "This one will
be killed," with pleasure came to the city.

This above-mentioned man having thought, "This King I must kill," made
a stratagem. What was that stratagem, indeed? Cooking a box of cakes,
and having gone to the city and given them to the King, he says,
"Your Majesty (Devayan wahanse), having remained there at the time
when you were putting me into the well, when you were closing it with
earth I went to that [other] world. Having been there, I brought a
box as a present (penum pettiyak) for Your Majesty."

Thereupon the King says, "We also must go to that world. Because of
it, put me down a well," he said. Then having put the King into the
well they closed it with earth.

In not many days, perceiving that the King was lost, and ascertaining
that there was no one for the sovereignty, they decorated the
tusk elephant, and went seeking a person for the sovereignty. The
tusk elephant went and kneeled to the man whom they put in the
well. Thereupon, they having come [to the palace] with that man and
with those three Queens, he exercised the sovereignty.


                                 Tom-tom Beater. North-western Province.



In the tale numbered 243, in vol. iii, a Prince was induced to go
for a lotus flower which grew in a pool guarded by a great crocodile.

In The Story of Madana Kama Raja (Natesa Sastri), p. 73, when a Prince
was going to fetch a Golden Lotus flower that was on the far side
of the Seven Seas, his wife, who understood magical arts, gave him
seven pebbles, and told him that when he threw one into each ocean
in turn, and said, "May the sea dry before and swell behind," a dry
path would appear, along which he could proceed in safety. When he
had crossed the Seven Seas in this manner, a Rakshasa in charge of a
sacred pool beyond them sent on a note which the Prince had brought,
to the Crocodile King, who forwarded the lotus to the Prince and
ordered a crocodile to carry him back to his own country.

In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. iii, p. 227, a
King of Sravasti, who wished to get possession of the beautiful wife
of an upasaka, sent him, by the advice of his Ministers, to bring lotus
flowers of five colours from a distant pool. All who were sent on this
errand were killed by venomous snakes or demons or savage animals,
but a demon whom he encountered saved the upasaka on learning of his
piety, and fetched the flowers for him. When the King heard of this
he begged his forgiveness.



NO. 147

THE LOSS THAT OCCURRED TO THE NOBLEMAN'S DAUGHTER


In a certain country there is a nobleman (Sitano), it is said. There
is a Princess of the nobleman's, it is said. The Princess having
become associated with the servant at the house, in secret they went
to another country, it is said.

At the time when the two persons had been there a long time, the
Princess became pregnant. [279] When the ten months were coming to
be fulfilled she said to the Princess's husband, "Dear (sondura),
let us go to seek our two parents." At that word her husband was
displeased. Afterwards, in not many days the child was born.

When they had been some time thus, a fresh child was conceived. At
the time when the ten months were coming to be fulfilled for that
child, she said, "Dear, it is very difficult for me. Because of it,
let us go to seek our two parents," she said.

After that procuring all [necessary] provisions, afterwards they began
to go. Having gone thus, that day it became night. They stayed near a
tree in the midst of the forest. Because rain was coming, having said
he must construct a leaf [parturition] house (kolasun geyak) he went
to cut sticks, creepers, etc. Having gone, at the time when he was
cutting them sitting upon an ant-hill, the Naga King who stayed in the
ant-hill bit (datta kala) her husband in the leg; the man died there.

At the time when that woman, placing the child near her, was staying
[there], pain in the body having seized the woman she bore [a
child]. Then rain began to rain. That night, until it became light,
how much was her trouble for sleep! After it became light in the
morning she went to seek her husband. Having gone, at the time when
she was going walking she saw that the man is dead.

From there, weeping and weeping, having walked [back] to the place
where the children were, and having descended to the road carrying
the two children, while she was going away to the very city of her two
parents there was water in the river [that she must cross] on the road.

After that, having gone to that [far] bank carrying the elder child,
and having made the child stay there, she came to the middle of the
river [in order] to return to this bank. Then, having seen that an
eagle striking the child she bore yester-night was taking it, she
clapped her hands and shouted. Then the child who was on that [far]
bank said, "Mother is calling," and sprang into the river. Then,
of both children, one the eagle took away, one having fallen in the
water died. The two children were lost, and the man was lost.

Well then, having said, "I myself must still go to seek my two
parents," at the time when she was going she met with a man of that
city whom she knew. From the man this woman asked, "Is the affliction
of my two parents light, or what?" she asked.

The man said, "Thy two parents' mansion (prasada) having broken down
and fallen last night on account of the rain, and the two having died,
it is the smoke, indeed, of the funeral pyre which burns the two,
that is visible there," he said.

After that, the woman lost her senses, and being without goods she
began to go on still, quite like a mad person. The Devatawa taking as
his dwelling-place the Banyan-tree near the road, thought, "Should
this woman go on this path, through that depression of spirits she
will jump into the fire that burns those two persons. I must show
this woman a different path." Having said [this], he showed [her it].

The woman went on that path. Having gone, she went to a pansala. Having
gone to it and become a nun she remained there until she died.

(A variant agrees closely with this.)


                                                 North-western Province.



This is part of the story of the misfortunes of Krisa Gautami, one of
the chief Buddhist nuns, as they are related in the Tibetan Kah-gyur
(A. von Schiefner's Tibetan Tales, Ralston, p. 216). Her father was
a rich householder of Benares, by whom she was married to a young
merchant. For her first confinement she returned home, afterwards
rejoining her husband. For the second, she and her husband went off
in a waggon in which she was confined when they had gone about half
way. Her husband sat down under a tree to await the event, fell asleep,
a snake bit him, and he died on the spot. When the woman got down she
found he was dead. In the meantime a thief stole the oxen. She then
walked on with the children till she came to a river, flooded by a
sudden rain. She carried the infant across, and while returning in
the water for the other saw a jackal carry off the baby. When she
waved her hands to frighten the animal, the elder child, thinking
she was calling him, sprang down a high bank into the river, and was
killed. The mother pursued the jackal, which dropped the infant,
but it was then dead. At about the same time her parents and all
their household but one man were destroyed by a hurricane. She met
the survivor and heard his sad story, after which she wandered to a
hill village, and lived with an old woman, spinning cotton yarn. After
other unfortunate experiences she became a Buddhist nun.



NO. 148

THE RATEMAHATMAYA'S PRESENTS


A certain cultivator having gone to his Kaekiri garden, and having
seen, when he looked [through it], that a very beautiful long Kaekiri
fruit was ripe, presented it to the Chief of that country.

The Ratemahatmaya, being pleased regarding it, presented to him a
very valuable young bull.

A man who lives in that country, ascertaining this, thought, "Should
I also bring some present I shall receive a present [in return] in
this manner" (that is, one of much higher value); and he presented
to him a valuable heifer from his herd.

Thereupon the Ratemahatmaya, this time being acquainted with the
stratagem, presented to the man the Kaekiri fruit which the cultivator
gave.


                                                 North-western Province.



My friend Mr. C. Tucker, of Harrogate, has been good enough to show
me a variant of this story in a work called Lessons of Thrift, by
a member of the Save-all Club, published in 1820. It is related of
King Louis XI. of France.

A peasant who had ingratiated himself by his services, when the King
succeeded to the throne brought him a turnip of extraordinary size
as the only present within his power. The King gave him one thousand
livres in return. His landlord, a country squire, hearing of it,
thought he must profit by this weakness of the King's, and said to
himself, "If this madman give a thousand livres for a turnip, what
will he give me for that beautiful horse in my best stable!" He
took the horse to the Court. The King was delighted, and said,
"Your noble disinterested present shall be richly rewarded." Then
the King produced the turnip, with this sarcasm, "This, you know,
cost me a thousand livres, and I give it you in return for your horse."

In Keightley's Tales and Popular Fictions, pp. 253 ff., there are two
Italian variants in which a cat was bestowed by a King as a gift in
return for presents of great value.



NO. 149

THE PRINCE AND THE MINISTER


At a certain city there were a King and a Queen; the Queen had a
Prince and a Princess. While they were thus, the King and Queen
reached a very great age. Afterwards the King says to the Minister,
"When the Prince has become big give him the kingship;" having said
it, he gave the [temporary] kingship to the Minister. After that,
the King and Queen died.

After that, while the Minister and Prince and Princess, these three
persons, are living thus, the Minister becomes changed towards the
Prince. The men of that country perceived it. After that, men say
to the Prince, "Should you, Sir, stay, the Minister will behead you;
you go to another country," they said.

After that, the Prince, taking the painting (portrait) of the Princess,
said, "Don't you descend from the floor of the upper story until
the time when I come back." Saying it, the Prince went to another
city. The Prince went near a widow woman of that city.

The widow woman asks, "Of what village are you?" she asked.

The Prince says, "I don't know either my village or country," he said.

After that, the widow woman says, "You stay near me." When she said it,
the Prince having said, "It is good, mother," remained no long time.

Afterwards, when the King of the city, having been at the palace,
is going near the widow woman's house, the King having seen that the
Prince is in the open space in front of the house, the King came back
to the palace laughing with pleasure, and called the Minister. After
the Minister came running, the King says, "To-day a pleasure has gone
to me," he said.

The Minister says, "Who is the man whom you, Sir, saw to-day in the
morning? If you, Sir, see that man every day in the morning it will
be good," he said.

After that, the King says to the Minister, "Calling the widow woman
and the boy, come back," he said. Afterwards the Minister, summoning
them, came.

The King says to the widow woman, "Give me the boy; I will give him
food, drink, and clothing," he said. The widow woman gave him the boy.

After that, the King having built a house for the boy, and given him
food, drink, and clothing, said, "Show yourself to me in the morning at
six," he said. The Prince on the following day went at six, and stayed
[there]. After that, the Prince on the following day came at seven.

Then the King says, "Why are you such a time?" he asked. The Prince
says, "I went to sleep," he said. After that, the Prince on the
following day at eight went near the King.

Afterwards the King says to the Prince, "Should you not come at six
to-morrow I shall behead you," and scolded him. On the day after that
the Prince did not go at all.

After that, the King, having called the servants, says, "Look ye for
what [reason] that Prince did not come."

The servants having gone, when they are peeping through the door,
the Prince lying down and taking a painting, kisses it, weeps, places
it on the ground, takes it again. These servants having seen it, told
the King. "If so, seizing the Prince come [with him]," he said. The
Minister, seizing him, came.

The King asks, "Why did you not come?" Then the Prince said, "I went
to sleep." Then the King said, "Give me your painting."

Afterwards the Prince brought and gave it. As soon as the King looked
at the painting he asked, "What [relative] of yours [280] is this
Princess?" The Prince said, "My younger sister." Then the King says,
"Bring the Princess for me to marry her."

Then the Minister says, "Having been keeping that woman three months,
because she is a courtesan I sent her away," he says.

The Prince said, "This Minister neither saw my younger sister, and
nor was keeping her. If you were keeping her, mention the Princess's
marks."

The Minister says to the King, "Please put this Prince in prison
until the time when I come," he said to the King. He put the Prince
in prison.

Afterwards, the Minister, asking the King for the Princess's
portrait, and taking a good entertainment, having embarked, went to
the city in which is the Princess. Having gone [there] he exhibits
the entertainment.

The old woman who is with (lit., near) the Princess having seen it,
[said] to the Princess, "There is an entertainment which was never
at our city. Let us go to look at it," she said.

After that, the Princess says, "Elder brother said, 'Until the time
when I come don't descend from the floor of the upper story.' Because
of it I will not. You look and come back," she said.

Afterwards, having seen the old woman the Minister asks, "Is there
a Princess [here] like this picture?" Then the old woman said,
"There is," she said. The Minister said to the old woman, "[After]
calling her come back," he said.

After that, the old woman says, "The Princess's elder brother said,
'Until the time when I come back don't descend from the floor of the
upper story,' he said; because of it she will not descend," she said.

Then the Minister says, "Tell me a mark of the Princess's."

Then the old woman said, "There is not another mark of the Princess's
to tell you; on the right thigh there is the birth-mark (upan-lakuna),"
she said to the Minister.

After the Minister went back to the palace he said to the King,
"Please tell that Prince to come," he said. The King caused the
Prince to be brought. Afterwards the Minister said to the Prince,
"On the right thigh of your younger sister there is the birth-mark
only; no other mark," he said. The Prince said, "Yes, [it is so]."

After that, the King commanded them to hang this Prince. The
Prince says to the King, "I must [first] look at younger sister,
and come." After that, the King sent the Prince with two men. The
Prince having gone to the floor of the upper story, and beaten the
Princess [and told her what the Minister said], the Prince came again
to the city in which is the King. The Princess having been weeping
and weeping went to sleep.

Afterwards the King, [in order] to hang the Prince, took him upon the
scaffold. That Princess learnt that he is hanging the Prince. After
that, the Princess having mounted on a horse, the King saw her come
driving it along. The King [said], "Don't hang the Prince just now."

Afterwards, the Princess having come, and descended from the back
of the horse, and tied the horse at a tree, the Princess sat on
a chair near the King. The Princess asks at the hand of the King,
"Why are these people [here] in this manner?"

The King says, "To-day I am hanging a Prince; because of it the people
have come."

After that, the Princess says to the King, "The Minister having been
keeping me three months, taking my slipper came away. Be good enough
to ask for it, and give me it."

The King said, "Minister, if you brought it give her it."

The Minister says, "That Princess I neither kept nor know," the
Minister said.

Afterwards, having caused the Prince to descend from the scaffold,
the King [said], "Who is this of yours?" The Prince said, "My younger
sister."

Afterwards the King having caused the Minister to be brought, [told
him who she was, and asked], "Why did you tell lies?"

After that the Minister says, "You, Sir, will marry the Princess;
you will give the Minister's work to the Prince. Because of that."

After that, the King ordered them to hang the Minister.

The King married that Princess. [The Prince] having gone to the
Prince's [own] palace, took the kingship from the Minister [who had
been ruling temporarily]. To the Minister he gave the Minister's work
[again].


                               Finished.

                                                 North-western Province.



With regard to the order to hang the Prince, and the subsequent
hanging of the Minister, there is a reference to this punishment in
the next story, in which a Minister recommends that a turtle which
had frightened some Princesses should be hanged. In vol. i, p. 368,
a jackal remarked that a leopard which had been caught in a noose had
been "hanged," as though this were a well-known punishment. I think
there is no other clear instance in these stories; but in vol. i,
p. 189, a Prince found a Yaksani trying to eat a dead body which was
hanging in a tree; if this had been a case of suicide the relatives
might have removed the body. Hanging the body at the four gates of the
city after quartering it is mentioned in two of these tales (vol. i,
pp. 86 and 89, and in No. 80, p. 20 of the present volume). Hanging
is not referred to in the stories of the Low-Country Sinhalese,
where one might expect to meet with it.

In the Wevaelkaetiya Inscription (Epigraphia Zeylanica, vol. i,
p. 250), King Mahinda IV. (A.D. 1026-1042) ordered that persons
convicted of robbery with violence should be hanged. Mr. Wickremasinghe
in giving a translation of this inscription added a note to the
effect that he had not found this punishment mentioned elsewhere in
Sinhalese literature; but in the Mahavansa, ii, lxxv, vv. 166 and 196,
and in the Rajavaliya (translation), p. 66, there are accounts of
the hanging of people. In Marshall's Ceylon, p. 39, it is stated that
"the punishment of death was usually carried into effect by hanging,
or being killed by elephants." In Davy's work also, p. 182, it is
said that "the sentence of death, in cases of murder, was carried
into effect by hanging."

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 185, a young man who
was in love with a Princess received her portrait from a painter,
and "spent his time in gazing on, coaxing and touching, and adorning
her picture; ... he seemed to see her, though she was only a painted
figure, talking to him and kissing him, ... and he was contented,
because the whole world was for him contained in that piece of
painted canvas."

In the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed., vol. i, p. 183), when
a Wazir showed his young son to a Sultan, the latter was so much
pleased with him that he said, "O Wazir, thou must needs bring him
daily to my presence."



NO. 150

THE STORY OF KING BAMBA


In a certain country there is a King. There are seven Princesses
(daughters) of the King. He does not allow the seven Princesses to go
anywhere outside [the palace precincts], and having caused a pool to be
dug in the very palace for bathing, also, the Princesses bathe [in it].

When they have bathed, there is a drain for letting out the water. A
Turtle came along the drain, and having entered the pool, when it
was there, one day the water having filled the pool the Princesses
went. While they were having water-games, one Princess struck against
the Turtle, and while she was crying out [in alarm], the other six
having become afraid sprang ashore. Having sprung there and gone
running, they told their father the King.

Afterwards the King and Ministers having come and opened the drain,
when they looked after the water lowered there was a Turtle. The
Ministers took away the Turtle. Thereupon the King said, "For the fault
that it frightened my Princesses, what is the suitable punishment to
inflict on this one?"

Then a Minister said, "Having fixed a noose to its neck and hung it
up for thirty paeyas (twelve hours), let it go."

Thereupon another Minister said, "The punishment is not good
enough. Not in that way. Having prepared a bon-fire you ought to put
this Turtle into the bon-fire." Thereupon the Turtle laughed.

Then yet [another] Minister said, "That punishment is not good enough;
I will tell you one. In the Atirawati [281] river the water is very
swift; the water goes and falls into the Naga residence. [282] Having
taken that one you ought to put it into that."

Then the Turtle, after having shrugged its shoulders, said, "O Lord,
Your Majesty, though you should inflict all other punishments don't
inflict that punishment on me."

Just as it was saying it, the King said, "Ade! Take that to that very
one and put it in." After that, the Ministers having taken the Turtle
put it into the Atirawati river.

When it was put in, the Turtle, having gone turning and turning round,
fell into the Naga residence. Well then, the shore is not a suitable
place. Now then, the Turtle thinks, "Should I stay thus the Nagayas,
seizing me, will eat me. Because of it, I must go near the great Naga
King, Mahakela [283] by name."

The great Naga King, Mahakela by name, having seen this Turtle, asked,
"Whence camest thou? Who art thou?"

Then the Turtle gave answer, "O Lord, Your Majesty, they call me,
indeed, the Minister, Purnaka by name, of King Bamba of Bamba
City. Because there was no other man to come [to make] appearance
(daekuma) before Your Honour (numba-wahanse), His Majesty our King
sent me."

Then the Naga King asked, "What is the business for which he sent
thee?"

Then the Turtle says, "There are seven Princesses of His Majesty
our King. Out of them, His Majesty our King is willing to give any
Princess you want, for the Naga residence. Because of it he sent me."

Thereupon the Naga King says, "It is good. If he is thus willing I
will cause two persons to make the journey with thee."

Then the Turtle says, "O Lord, Your Majesty, permission has been
given to me for [only] seven days' [absence]; because of it, I must
go this very day."

Afterwards the great Naga King, Mahakela by name, having despatched
two Nagayas, said, "Ye having gone to the world of men (nara-lowa),
looking into matters there, until ye come back do no injury to anyone."

Well then, when these two Nagayas and the Turtle are coming along the
Turtle says, "I am unable to go like Your Honours go; having lifted
me up carry me a little." After that, the two Nagayas, lifting up
the Turtle, came [with him] to this world.

Having come near the city, the Turtle said, "Now then, place me on
the ground; I cannot go thus. When I have gone to the palace, the
Princesses having come and said, 'Our Minister has come,' will ask
at my hand certain articles. Because of it, I will go to that pool;
until the time when I come [after] plucking a handful of flowers,
you stay here."

Having said [this], the Turtle went to the pool; after it descended
[into it] those two Nagayas are looking [out for it]. The Turtle
having gone to the pool, got hid.

The two Nagayas having gone to Bamba City, after they went near the
King, the King asked, "From what country came ye?"

Then the Nagayas said, "What is [the meaning of] that speech that
Your Honour is saying? Your Honour must understand. By Your Honour a
Minister [was] sent to our Naga dwelling-place--was he not?--thereafter
to tell us to come. That there are Your Honour's seven Princesses, Your
Honour's Minister, Purnaka by name, went and told our King. Afterwards
our King sent us two, with Your Honour's Minister, Purnaka by name."

Then King Bamba says, "Is it true that a King like me gives [in]
marriage to frog-eating beasts like you?" Having said it, he scolded
them with many low words.

Afterwards the two Nagayas having gone again to the Naga residence
told the Naga King, "King Bamba scolded us much;" having said it the
two wept.

Afterwards collecting as many Nagayas as were [there], the Naga King
having come to Bamba City, the Naga King called Mahakela and yet
[another] Naga King twined [themselves] from the King's head down to
the two feet, and raising their heads above [him] asked at the hand
of King Bamba, "Wilt thou give thy Princess or not?"

King Bamba said, "To thy taking any Princess thou wantest to thy
country, there is not any impediment by me."

Afterwards the Naga King [284] having taken a good [looking] Princess,
[a daughter of the King], and gone to the Naga residence, married
the Princess to a Nagaya.

During the time when she was [there] a child [was] conceived in
her womb. After it was conceived, ten months having become complete
she bore a Nagaya. That Nagaya in not much time having become big,
asked at the hand of his mother, "Mother, what is [the reason] why
you alone are unable to take the appearance you want?"

Then the Princess said, "Son, how can I take the appearance I want? I
am a human being (manussayek)."

The Nagaya asks, "How, mother, was the manner in which you came to
this country?"

Then his mother says, "In this manner: As many Nagayas as were in
this Naga residence having gone and fought with our father the King,
taking me came away."

Afterwards the Naga Prince says, "Mother, I cannot stay in
this country; I must go to the world of men. For it, give me
permission." Afterwards his mother gave the Naga Prince permission.

Well then (etin), the Nagaya having come to the world of men began
to practise asceticism in a rock cave. When no long time had gone
in that manner, a Vaedda having seen that the Nagaya is in that rock
cave, said to a snake charmer (ahi-kantayek), "I have seen a Nagaya
thus. Canst thou catch him?"

The snake charmer (ahi-kantakaya) having said "I can," and having
gone with the Vaedda, as soon as he saw the Nagaya the snake charmer
[by magic spells] put on it inability to move. [285] Having put it
on, and caught the Nagaya, and at city by city successively [286]
having made the Cobra dance, the snake charmer obtained many presents;
the snake charmer became very wealthy.

After that, the Nagaya's mother bore a Nagaya again. After that Nagaya
also became big, just like the first Nagaya asked, he asked at the
hand of his mother [regarding her appearance]. Then his mother, too,
told him just like she told that first Nagaya.

Afterwards, the Nagaya also asking permission at the hand of his
mother to come to the world of men, on the very day when he came to the
world of men, at the time when the snake charmer was making that first
Cobra dance at the palace of King Bamba, creating a thousand hoods,
the Nagaya who was born afterwards saw him. The dancing Nagaya also
saw that that Nagaya is coming. At his very coming he sent a poisonous
smoke to the snake charmer. The poisonous smoke having struck him,
the snake charmer died at that very place.

Afterwards, when the two Nagayas were conversing, the elder Nagaya
said, "Our grandfather's palace, indeed, is this. Because of it,
indeed, to-day I danced, creating a thousand hoods. From to-day I
shall not dance again."

Well then, the two, creating divine bodies, having gone to the midst
of the forest, practised asceticism.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Jataka, No. 543 (vol. vi, p. 83) there is an account of a
tortoise (turtle) that frightened the semi-Naga sons of Brahmadatta,
King of Benares, by raising its head out of the water of the royal
pool when they were playing there. When it was netted the attendants
suggested pounding it to powder in a mortar, or cooking and eating it,
or baking it; and at last a Minister recommended that it should be
thrown into the whirlpool of the Yamuna river. The turtle begged to
be spared this last fate,--the one it desired,--but the King ordered
it to be thrown into the river, in which a current led it to the
dwelling of the Nagas. When the sons of the Naga King Dhatarattha
found it, the turtle invented the story of its being a messenger
called Cittacula, sent by the King of Benares to offer his daughter
to the Naga King. Four Naga youths returned with the turtle to fix the
wedding day, the turtle concealing itself in a pool on the way, on the
plea of collecting lotus flowers. When the Nagas were treated with
scorn, the Naga King and his forces compelled the King to surrender
his daughter Samuddaja, who was married to the Naga King.

Her second semi-Naga son out of four with only his Naga wife's
knowledge went to fast on the earth, with a view to being re-born
among the Gods. Lying as a cobra on an ant-hill he was pointed out
by an outcast Brahmana, captured by means of a magical spell, taken
to dance in villages, and at last brought to the King of Benares. The
Naga's eldest brother disguised as an ascetic, with his Naga sister,
disguised as a young frog that was hidden in his hair, rescued him. The
heat from three drops of poison emitted by the frog turned the snake
charmer into a leper; their virulence, had it not been magically
quenched, would have caused a seven years' drought.

Snake doctors in Ceylon classify the frog as a very poisonous form
of serpent. In Sagas from the Far East, p. 213, a gold frog was the
daughter of the Serpent King, who may have been a Naga.

In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. i, p. 188, the
story resembles that given in the Jataka tale. The King's name was
Angada; he had a son and a daughter Añjana. When the turtle was caught
the Ministers advised beheading it, burning it alive, or chopping it
up and making it into soup; another said these deaths were not cruel
enough, and recommended casting it into the sea; it was thrown into
a river. The Naga's parents, sister, and brother sought for it in
the form of birds, and the snake charmer was sent away by Angada,
with presents.

In the same work, vol. iii, p. 346, a Queen bore a human son after
being visited by a great serpent while half asleep. Professor Chavannes
referred to other early instances of such supposed births.

In the Kolhan folk-tales (Bompas) appended to Folklore of the Santal
Parganas, p. 452, there is an account of a woman who was married to
a water-snake and lived with him under the water, where she bore four
snake sons.

In Kaffir Folk-Lore (Theal), p. 155, a girl became the wife of Long
Snake; after she ran away her sister married him. When he visited their
father the house was set on fire and he was killed. On p. 55 a girl
married a five-headed snake who became a man. (See p. 401 below, also).



NO. 151

CONCERNING A ROYAL PRINCESS AND A TURTLE


At a certain period, at the time when a King and a Minister are passing
the time with great trust [in each other], the King and the Minister
had a talk in this manner. The talk, indeed, was thus: To the Minister
the King says, "Minister, let us two at one time contract marriage;
having contracted it, and your Queen (Devi) having borne a daughter,
should my Queen bear a son let us accomplish the wedding festival of
the two children who are born first." [This] was his speech.

Thereupon the Minister said thus, "It is good, O King; your Queen
having borne a Princess, should my Queen bear a Prince, [or]
my Queen having borne a Princess should your Queen bear a Prince,
let us accomplish the wedding festival," he said. At that the King
having been much pleased, the two persons contracted marriage and
remained passing the time in friendship.

During the time when they are [thus], the royal Queen bore a Princess
endowed with much beauty. On that very day [287] the Minister's Queen
also bore a Turtle. Concerning the circumstance that the Minister's
Queen bore the Turtle, the King and the Minister also remained in
much grief. During the time when they were thus, the royal Queen bore
yet six Princesses. At the time when she had borne [the last of them]
ten years were fulfilled for the Princess whom she bore first.

Thereupon this Minister asked the King thus, "O Lord, Your Majesty,
for your Princess and my Turtle, for both of them, the age has now
become equal. Because of it, now then, let us accomplish the wedding
festival;" [thus] he spoke.

At that time, getting into his mind the notion (lit., word) that,
breaking the word the King has said at first, should he subsequently
say a word otherwise he will go into hostility, the King unwillingly
said thus: "You go and ask my Princess about it," he said.

Thereupon the Minister having gone near the Princess asked her.

The Princess said thus, "Ane! Appa! I cannot accomplish the festival
of the marriage to that Turtle," she said.

Thereupon the Minister, not even speaking anything about it, came
out of the palace. Having come, while still a long time is going he
remained without coming back.

Having so remained, after no long time went by they were ready to
accomplish the wedding festival for the other six Princesses of the
King's, also. At that time the Minister having gone still [another]
time, asked the King; the King told him in the very manner he said
before that. Thereupon the Minister having gone asked the Princess.

Thereupon the Princess said thus: "If I am to marry the Turtle, tell
the Turtle to bring a Suriya-kanta flower; should he bring it I will
marry him," she said.

The Minister having returned [home], it having come [to him] he told
it to the Turtle. "Father, I can bring and give it," the Turtle said.

Then the Minister would say a word thus [doubtingly] to the Turtle,
"Turtle, when would you bring it indeed?"

Thereupon the Turtle, feeling (lit., bringing) shame at it in its
mind, having descended into a river, went away; and having gone to the
place where the Sun [God, Suriya], having risen, his chariot comes,
and presented its head to [be crushed by] the chariot wheel, remained
[there].

At that time the Sun asks thus, "O Turtle, why didst thou place thy
head at this chariot wheel?" he asked.

The Turtle says thus, "Ane! O Sun [God], you, Sir, must give me a fifth
part from your rays (that is, one-fifth of their brilliancy). If not,
unless I die here I will not go," it said.

Thereupon the Sun having given power to the Turtle for the manner of
its coming out into the light from its turtle shell, told it to come
outside. Then by the authority of the Sun, the Turtle, abandoning the
turtle shell, came into the light. After it came out it was created
a man. Thereupon he gave him a fifth part from the Sun's rays. After
he gave it, "What do you want still?" he asked. He said he wanted a
Suriya-kanta flower also.

Then the Sun, having shown the path to the house of the Devatawa
who sleeps three months [at a time], and having said, "Thou having
gone, when he arises while thou art displaying games then ask thou
[regarding it]," the Sun rose on this side.

Thereupon the Prince who was fettered by the disguise of the turtle,
having gone near the Devatawa who sleeps three months, when he was
displaying games the Devatawa awoke, and asked, "Because of what came
you here?"

The Prince said, "We came regarding the want of a Suriya-kanta flower
for me."

At that time the Devatawa showed him the path [leading] near the
Devatawa who sleeps two months. Having gone there also, he awoke
him. Having awakened, he asked the Prince thus, "Regarding what
matter did you awake me?" he asked. There, also, the Prince said he
came about the want of a Suriya-kanta flower.

Thereupon the Devatawa showed him the path to the house of the
Devatawa who sleeps one month. [288] Having gone there also, when he
was displaying games that Devatawa also awoke. At that time he too
asked regarding what want [he had come]. Thereupon he told him in
the very manner he formerly said.

After that, the Devatawa said thus, "Look there. When you have gone
along that path there will be a pool in which the Virgin Women
(Kanniya-Striyo [289]) bathe. Having gone there and been hidden,
as soon as the Virgin Women have descended into the pool to bathe
take even those persons' wearing apparel. There will be a dewalaya
(temple) just there; having gone into the dewale shut the door
yourself. Then the Virgin Women having come and told you to open
the door, will make games, a disturbance, and the like. Do you,
without opening the door through their saying those things, say thus:
'Except that should you bring and give me a Suri-kanta flower I will
open the door and give you these ornaments, I will not otherwise give
them.' Say [this]." While saying it he showed the Prince the path.

The Prince having gone in that very manner, and got hid, while he
was there, in the very way the Devatawa said, the Virgin Women came
and descended into the pool to bathe.

Thereupon this Prince, taking the wearing apparel of the Virgin
Women, went into the dewalaya which was near there, and shut the
door himself. At that time the Virgin Women having come played games
[outside]. This Prince, not having looked in their direction even, in
the very manner the Devatawa told him before asked for a Suriya-kanta
flower.

The Virgin Women said, "We will give a Suri-kanta flower; [be pleased]
to give us our clothes."

Thereupon the Prince while giving only [some] clothes for them to put
on until the time when they give the Suriya-kanta flower, kept back
the other wearing apparel. After that, the Virgin Women, having given
oaths, begged for and got the other wearing apparel, too. [After]
begging for them, they brought and gave him a Suriya-kanta flower.

After they gave it, the Prince came near the Devatawa who told him the
path. As soon as he came the Devatawa asked, "What else do you want?"

"You must give me a power to beat men, even millions in number,"
he said.

Thereupon the Devatawa having given him a cudgel, said, "However many
[there may be], even to [the extent of] an army, place this cudgel
in the road, and tell it [after] beating them to come back. [After]
beating however many persons [there may be] it will come."

Taking that also, the Prince went near the other Devatawa. When he
went, that Devatawa also asked, "What else do you want?"

Thereupon the Prince said, "You must still give me a [magic] lute
(venawa), and a power to display the hidden things thought of."

After that, having given him a bag called Kokka, [290] he said thus,
"Having placed this bag called Kokka [hanging from your shoulder],
think that anything you want is to make its appearance; anything you
want will appear." Having said this he gave him it. He gave him a lute:
"Being at any place you like, play (lit., rub) it; any person He
[291] wants will hear and come," he said.

Taking these and having come here from there, because the Virgin Women
are possessors of the power of flight through the air, in order for
them to come from the sky he remembered the party, and played the lute.

Thereupon, the party came with the speed with which he played it. After
they came, he gave that cudgel and the bag called Kokka, both of them,
into the hand of the Virgin Women, saying, "When I want these, as soon
as I play the lute you must very speedily bring and give me them;"
and taking also the lute he crept into the turtle shell again, and
came to his own city. What of his coming! Because he is inside the
turtle shell he is still the Turtle.

Well then, having given food and drink to the Turtle, "Did you bring
a Suriya-kanta flower?" his father the Minister joked.

Thereupon the Turtle said, "I have brought a Suriya-kanta flower."

After that, "If so, bring it," the Turtle's father said.

After that, having gone outside the city gate, when he was playing
the lute the Virgin Women brought and gave him the Suri-kanta
flower. After they gave it, having brought it he gave it into his
father's hand. Having so given it, when he presented it to the Princess
they accomplished the wedding festival of [the marriages of] six other
Princes to the six younger Princesses who still remained to the King,
and of the Turtle to the eldest Princess.

Having accomplished it, during the time when they are thus those
six Princes went hunting. Because they married and gave the eldest
daughter to the Turtle, having built a house outside the palace and
given it to these two, they separated [them from the others].

When this party are going near that house they ask at the hand of that
eldest daughter, "Where [is he], Bola? Isn't thy Turtle going hunting?"

Thereupon the Princess remains grieved at it. The Turtle, who had
heard it, having called the Princess (devi), said, "Go to the royal
palace, and asking for a horse and a sword for me bring them." At that
speech the Princess went and asked for them at the King's hand. At
that time the King having said, "For the Turtle what horses! what
swords!" became angry at the Princess. The Princess having become
grieved, told the Turtle that her father the King will not give them.

After that, having said, "Asking for an old mare and a short sword,
come [with them]," he sent her yet [another] time. After that, he
gave her an old mare and a short sword. Having given them, after she
brought them to the Turtle's house, to the Princess the Turtle says,
"Pull creepers, and having placed me on the back of the mare, twine
them [round me and the mare]."

Thereupon the Princess having pulled creepers, wrapped [them round him
on the mare]. Having wrapped them, making [the mare] bound he went
somewhat far; and having come out of the turtle-shell, the Prince
(as he now was), taking the lute, played the lute for the Virgin
Women to come. Then the Virgin Women came.

After they came, because those Princes went in white clothes on the
backs of white horses, this Prince said, "You must bring and give
me very speedily an excellent [292] horse, and a white dress, and
an excellent [292] sword." Thereupon with that speed they brought
and gave them.

After they gave them, the Prince, having tied the old mare at a tree,
putting on the [dress and] ornaments they brought, mounted on the
back of the white horse. Having gone to a very large open place,
and placed (that is, hung from his shoulder) the bag called Kokka,
he thought, "A great number of all quadrupeds must assemble together
in my presence." After that, all the quadrupeds that were in the
midst of that forest, the whole having come, collected together.

Without those six Princes meeting with any animal whatever,
they approached near the Prince who had collected these quadrupeds
together. Having arrived and said, "O Lord, where is Your Majesty going
in the midst of this forest?" [the Princes], having paid reverence
to him, made obeisance.

Thereupon the Prince says, indeed, "I am the person who exercises
sovereignty over the whole of the wild animals in the midst of this
forest. Where are ye fellows going?" he asked falsely.

At that time these six Princes said thus regarding it, "O Lord, we
six persons came hunting; we did not meet with any animal whatever,"
they said.

Thereupon this Prince says thus, "To you six persons I will give six
deer should you cut off and give [me] six [pieces] of your cloths,"
he said.

Thereupon having cut and given six pieces from the six cloths which
the six Princes had been wearing, killing six deer they came away.

Having allowed the party to come, this Prince descended from the back
of the horse, and catching a rat and having killed it, brought it
home; having come and having crept into the turtle-shell, he says thus
[to his wife], "Give a half from this rat to your father the King,
and cook the other piece for us two," he said.

At that time the Princess doing thus, went and gave a half to the
King. Thereupon the King having become angry at it, put her also
outside the [palace] gate. The Princess, feeling (lit., bringing)
vexation at it, having come weeping and weeping, the two cooked and
ate the other half.

In this way, six days they went hunting. On the whole of the six days
the Turtle also having gone, gave hunting-meat to those six Princes,
taking the jewelled rings from their fingers, ears, and the hairs of
the head; all these when the seventh day was coming were finished.

What of this Prince's acting with so much ability! That he is a Prince
even yet any person you like has no knowledge.

At the time when he is thus, having gone hunting and finished,
on the seventh day making ready an eating like a very great feast
they remained at the royal palace with the Kings [who had come for
it]. Thereupon, on that day this Turtle was minded to bathe. Having
become so minded, he told [his wife] to warm and give him water;
having told her to give it, he told her to tie and give him mats also,
round about [as a screen].

That day the Princess had boiled and boiled paddy at the hearth in the
open space in front of the house. Having warmed water and tied the
mats, she gave [it to him] to bathe. Having given it, this Princess
went to light the fire [afresh] at the paddy hearth. When she was
going, this Prince having gone to bathe, and having come out of the
turtle-shell [within the screen], went outside from the place where
the mats were tied, for the purpose of lowering water over his body.

When he was going, this Princess having seen that he was a Prince,
went running, and taking the turtle shell put it on the hearth at
which she boiled that paddy. Thereupon the Prince having gone crying
out, got only the lute that was in the turtle shell. The turtle shell
burnt away.

At that time the Prince, decorating himself, went to the royal
palace. After he went he began to relate the manner in which he
gave hunting-meat to the six Princes. While telling it he showed the
[rings from the] fingers, ears, and hair, and the pieces of cloth of
the six Princes.

After he showed them, [the King], having given the sovereignty to
the Prince, made the other Princes servants of the Prince. He married
those six Princesses also to that very Prince.


                               Finished.

                                                 North-western Province.



In The Story of Madana Kama Raja (Natesa Sastri), p. 141, a tortoise
(turtle) Prince went to the Sun in search of divine Parijata flowers;
see vol. i, p. 71. The Queen bore the turtle and the Minister's wife
the girl. The Minister refused to agree to their marriage, but the
girl told him that she had vowed to marry whoever brought the divine
flowers. The Apsaras who gave him the flowers also presented him with
a vina, or lute, playing on which would summon her. From the first
sage who showed him the way and who opened his eyes at each watch
he got a magic cudgel in exchange for it, from the second sage who
opened his eyes after two watches a purse which supplied everything
required, from the third sage who opened his eyes after three watches
he received magic sandals which would transport their wearer wherever
desired. After exchanging the lute for each of these articles he
recovered it each time by the aid of the cudgel. Afterwards he left
the articles with the Apsaras, returned as a turtle with the flowers,
and was married to the Minister's daughter. After his marriage the
husbands of his sisters-in-law went hunting, the turtle followed tied
on the back of a horse, got his club from a banyan tree where he had
hidden it, went to the hunt on the magic sandals, and got from his
brothers-in-law (who thought him Siva) the tips of their little fingers
and their rings. On regaining his Prince's form he produced these,
but the brothers-in-law were not punished. His wife broke the turtle
shell when he was bathing, and in the end he succeeded to the throne.

In The Indian Antiquary, vol. iv, p. 54, in a Bengal story by
Mr. G. H. Damant, a Prince went in search of a beautiful woman seen in
a dream by his father. An ascetic told him of five heavenly nymphs who
came to bathe in a pool at the full moon, and instructed him to take
their clothes and remain concealed. After being cursed and turned to
ashes he was revived by the ascetic, again carried off their clothes,
and sat in Siva's temple. They cursed him ineffectively and then
agreed that he should marry one of them. He selected the ugliest,
who was the disguised beauty; she gave him a flute by means of which
he could summon her at any time. The rest of the story is unlike the
Sinhalese one.

In Mr. Thornhill's Indian Fairy Tales, p. 15, a Prince went in search
of his wife, an Apsaras who had left him, to a sage who slept six
months at a time, and after attending on him for three months was
accompanied by him to the pool in which the Apsarases bathed on
the full moon night. After being once turned to ashes and revived
by the sage, he again stole his wife's shawl and escaped with it
to the sage's hut, where he was safe. The Apsarases then agreed to
give up his wife if he could select her. He picked out the ugliest,
and Indra afterwards turned her into a mortal.

In Indian Nights' Entertainment (Swynnerton), p. 343, a Prince
secreted the feather dress of one of four fairies who, in the form
of white doves, came to bathe at a pool in a palace garden. She was
then unable to fly away, and he married her.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 452, a person who was
in search of his master, a Prince, was advised by a hermit to carry
off the clothes of one of the heavenly nymphs who came to bathe in a
river. He did so, was followed by her, and the hermit agreed to return
her garments on her giving information of the Prince's whereabouts;
she afterwards became the ascetic's wife. She is termed a Vidyadhari.

In the same work, vol. ii, p. 576, a gambler by order of the God
Mahakala (Bhairava) similarly obtained a daughter of Alambusha,
the Apsaras, as his wife.

In A. von Schiefner's Tibetan Tales (Ralston), p. 54, by the advice
of a sage a hunter threw a magic unerring chain received from Nagas,
over a Kinnara Princess when she bathed at a pool at the full moon; and
she was unable to escape. She could fly only when wearing a head-jewel.

The female Jinn who in the form of birds visited pools in order to
bathe in them, and could not fly without their feather dresses, have
been mentioned in vol. i, p. 311. See the Arabian Nights, vol. iii,
p. 417, and vol. v, p. 68. In the second story the hero obtained in
the Wak Islands a cap of invisibility, and a copper rod which gave
power over seven tribes of Jinn, and by their aid recovered his wife
and sons. He got the articles by inducing two sons of a magician to
race for a stone which he threw; while they were absent he put on the
cap and disappeared. On his return journey he presented the articles
to the two magicians who had helped him.

In the same work, vol. iv, p. 161, a man from Cairo obtained for a
magician three magical articles, and received from him as a reward
a pair of inexhaustible saddle-bags which provided any foods.

In Folk-Tales of Hindustan (Shaik Chilli), p. 72, a Prince who was
wandering in search of his fairy wife received from an ascetic,
a musician, and a youth respectively, an iron rod which could beat
anyone, a guitar that entranced all, and a cap of invisibility;
from a Yogi he obtained balsam for healing burns, and slippers that
transported him where desired.

In Les Avadanas (Julien), No. lxxiv, vol. ii, p. 8, each one of two
demons (Pisacas) had a box which supplied everything desired, a stick
that rendered him invincible, and a shoe that enabled the bearer
to fly, and each one wanted to possess those of the other demon. A
man who offered to divide them put on both the shoes and flew off,
taking the other articles.

In Chinese Nights' Entertainment (A. M. Fielde), p. 10, a pious man who
was wrecked and cast on an island obtained food and clothing from the
inhabitants, and an apparent outcast gave him a hat of invisibility,
a cloak of flight, and a basket that when tapped filled with gems. He
left them to his three sons, and the power of the articles gradually
declined.

At p. 58, a woman had a son encased in a chank shell, which he could
leave at will. His bride one night hid the shell, and he remained
with her for some years, until her grandmother put it out to dry. He
got into it, crawled into the sea, and disappeared.

In Sagas from the Far East, p. 148, in a Kalmuk story, an inexhaustible
bag was stolen from Dakinis (female evil spirits) by a man. When his
brother went to get one the spirits seized him, drew out his nose to
a length of five ells, and made nine knots on it.

In Folk-Tales of Kashmir (Knowles), 2nd ed., p. 365, a Prince who
worked as an under-gardener was selected by a Princess and married
to her. The King's sons and sons-in-law through jealousy arranged
a hunting expedition, and left him only a mare that no one could
ride. He reached the jungle first, shot a jackal, bear, and leopard,
cut off the tail, nose, and ear respectively, and when the others,
who found no game, took back these animals and showed them as their
own game, he produced his trophies. It was settled that he should
succeed to the throne.

In Indian Fairy Tales (M. Stokes), p. 41, the son of the youngest
Queen, who was born with a removable monkey skin, three times performed
the task of hitting a Princess with an iron ball in his Prince's form,
and was married to her. After saving his life when the sons of the
other six Queens threw him out of a boat into the water, his wife
burnt his monkey skin, and he retained his human shape.

At p. 130, the hunting incident is given, six Princes taking part in
it and meeting with the Prince who, while disguised as a labourer,
had been selected and married by the youngest daughter of their
father-in-law. The others found no game, begged a meal from him,
and were burnt with a red-hot pice on their backs, "the mark of a
thief." The Prince rode home in his own form, and afterwards exposed
the six Princes who had mocked him on account of his low origin.

At p. 156, a Prince found four fakirs quarrelling over four articles,
a flying bed, an inexhaustible bag, a bowl which yielded as much
water as was required, a stick and rope that would beat and tie up
everyone. While they raced for arrows that he shot, he got on the
bed and went off with the other things.

In Kaffir Folk-Lore (Theal), p. 170, a boy got a pair of inexhaustible
horns which when spoken to supplied everything desired. They even
provided him with a fine house.



NO. 152

THE STORY OF A KING AND A PRINCE


This is partly a variant of the story No. 22, in vol. i, called
there "The Kule-Baka Flowers." The first part is a repetition of the
narrative given in that one, up to the point where the King's sons
were imprisoned at the gambling house. It then continues as follows:--

The Prince who also went afterwards having gone near a widow-mother
of that very city [after] filling a bag with bits of plates, when
he said, "Mother, a son of yours was lost before, is it not so?" the
widow woman said "Yes." Then the Prince while weeping falsely said,
"It is I myself."

After that, she said, weeping, "Ane! Son, where did you go all this
time?" [293] Having gone inviting him into the house, and given him
to eat, after he finished she asked, "What is there in this bag, son?"

The Prince says falsely, "In that bag are masuran, mother," he said.

The woman says, "What are masuran to me, son! Look at that: the heap
of masuran which the King has given for my having worked."

After that, the Prince asks, "Whose house is that, mother?"

Then the woman says, "Ane! Son, at that house an extremely wicked
[294] woman gambles. Should anyone go to gamble she gives him golden
chairs into which she puts [magical] life, to sit upon. She has put
[magical] life into the lamp also. [When gambling], the woman is
sitting upon the silver chair," she said.

After that, after the woman went to sleep, the Prince having emptied
the pieces of plate in the house, went to gamble [after] filling the
bag with the [woman's] masuran.

Afterwards, that gambling woman just as on other days having brought a
golden chair, placed it for the Prince. Then the Prince says, "I am not
accustomed to sit on golden chairs. Give me the silver chair," he said.

The woman says, "It is not a fault to sit [on the golden chair]."

The Prince says, "Having given me that silver chair here, and put
aside this lamp also, come to gamble, bringing a good lamp," he said.

Then the woman being unable [to effect] the punishment of the Prince,
gave him the silver chair, and bringing a different lamp sat down
to gamble. After that the Prince won. After he won he caused those
aforesaid six Princes to be brought from the place where they were
put in prison, and having burnt [their] names on their haunches,
[295] sent them away.

After that, this Prince said he must contract marriage with that
woman who gambled. The woman says, "If you are to marry me please
bring the Surangana flowers." [296]

Then the Prince says, "That is not a journey for which I came here. The
two eyes of my father the King have become blind. On account of it I
am going to seek the Kule-Baka flowers. [After] finding them, on the
return journey I will bring the Surangana flowers," he said.

Having said this, he went to ask the path going to the Kule-Baka
garden. When he was going near the Yakas who were on guard on it,
a Princess whom the Yakas had seized and carried off came up, and
said to the Prince, "What came you here for?"

"Through news that you are here I came to marry you," [he replied].

Then the Princess says, "Should the Yakas come they will eat you up,"
she said.

The Prince then says, "By any possible contrivance save me," he said.

The Princess then opened the door of a rock house (cave), and having
taken the Prince and put him in it, shut the door.

After that, the Yakas having come, ask, "Who came here?"

The Princess says, "Amme! I cannot be here [to be questioned] in this
way. Seek and give me a husband."

Then the Yakshani says, "There is no seeking and giving [297] for
me. If you can, seek and take one," she said.

The Princess says, "I will find one if you will not do any harm
[to him]."

The Yakshani said, "We will do no harm to him."

"If you swear by the censure of your deity, I will show you my
husband," she said. Afterwards she swore.

After she took the Prince into the light, she asks the Prince,
"What do you eat?" The Yakshani asks.

The Prince said, "I eat ripe Jak, Waraka (a kind of Jak fruit),
Sugar-cane, Pine-apples." The Yakshani went and brought and gave
him them. Afterwards, after the Prince ate, she said, "Where are
you going?"

Then the Prince says, "Tell me the path [by which] to go to the
Kule-Baka garden."

Having informed him of the path, and given him also a robe [endowed]
with the power of flying through the air, she told him to go. He went
to the Kule-Baka garden, and [after] plucking the Kule-Baka flower
that was in the pool, having come, calling the Princess, to the place
where he gambled, he caused her to remain there.

The Prince, taking the Kule-Baka flower, was going near his father the
King. At the time when he was going across a river those six Princes
were [there], cooking and cooking rice. Also at that very place a rich
man without his two eyes was saying and saying, "To a man who should
cure my two eyes I will give goods [amounting] to a tusk elephant's
load, and also a tusk elephant." He was saying and saying [this].

This Prince having heard it, said, "I will give you them. [Please]
bring the presents you mentioned." After he brought them he rubbed
[298] his eyes with the Kule-Baka flower; after that, he succeeded
in seeing the light.

Those six Princes having seen it, spoke together: "Let us beat him,
and snatch away the flower."

The Prince having heard that speech, said, "Taking this flower for
yourselves, give me a little cooked rice." Afterwards, taking the
flower they gave him cooked rice. Having eaten the cooked rice the
Prince came back to the place where he gambled.

After that, while through hunger for them he was going to seek the
Surangana flowers, three Princes who were coming mounted on horse-back
asked this Prince, "Where are you going?"

Then the Prince says falsely, "I am going in hunger in the midst of
this forest." Then a Prince having unfastened a packet of cooked rice
and given the Prince to eat, they went away.

As they were going, this Prince went after them very softly. Having
gone, when he looked he saw that those three Princes, having descended
from horse-back, three times turned round the dewala (temple), and
jumped into a vessel of boiling oil [and disappeared].

Having seen it, this Prince also having turned round the dewala three
times, jumped into the oil vessel. After he jumped in, the deity,
bringing that Prince out of the oil vessel, covered him with a white
cloth when he had struck [him] three blows with a white wand. After
he arose, when he asked, "What is the matter for which thou camest
here?" [the Prince replied], "I came in order to seek and take
Surangana flowers."

Then the deity told him the path:--"Look there. When you are going
along that path [you will meet with a pool. When she has put her cloth
on the bank and is bathing], take the cloth of the woman who comes
after three others to bathe in the pool, and come back [with it],"
he said.

After that, he took the cloth, and came. Afterwards that Princess
having come running, gave him a chank shell into which she had put
[magical] life, and taking the cloth went away.

When he was coming taking the chank shell, an ascetic begged for the
chank shell. The Prince says, "If you will give me presents I will
give you the chank shell," he said.

After that, he gave him a wallet (olo-payiya), assuring him that the
things thought of will come into existence [in it]. After he gave it,
the Prince, thinking of the things he wanted (the celestial flowers),
put his hand into it, and when he looked they were inside the wallet.

After that, the Prince, having become satisfied, with pleasure went
away [and rejoined his two wives].


                                                 North-western Province.



See the Notes appended to the previous story.

In The Indian Antiquary, vol. iii, p. 150, in a legend of the origin
of Patna, by Mr. Basanta Kumar Ningi, two Rakshasas came to a boy with
three articles left by their father, out of which he cheated them. One
was a bag from which all kinds of jewels could be extracted when the
hand was inserted. The story is stated to be from the Brihat Katha. In
the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 13, they were the sons of
the Asura Maya, and were wrestling for the things. The boy suggested
that they should race for them and while they were doing so he put
on the magic shoes which were included in them, and disappeared with
the staff and the vessel which supplied any required food.

In Folk-Tales of Kashmir (Knowles), 2nd ed., p. 378, a shipwrecked
Prince arrived at a cave which was the residence of a Rakshasa who
had carried off a Princess, and who kept her there. She received
him well, and hid him in a strong box. When the Rakshasa returned
he smelt the man, and insisted on being shown him; but the brave
behaviour of the Prince pleased him, and he permitted him to live
in the cave, and brought presents for the two when he returned from
his expeditions in search of prey. As they still feared he might eat
them, the Princess managed to ascertain from him that his life was in
a queen-bee in a honey-comb which could be reached by anyone who sat
on a magic stool that was in the cave, which transported the sitter
where he wished. Next day, when the Rakshasa was absent, the Prince
wrapped himself up, smashed the comb, crushed and killed the bee,
the Rakshasa died, and they escaped on the stool.



NO. 153

THE STORY OF THE GOURD


The Queen of the King of Maeda Maha-Nuwara being without children,
seven years went by. To obtain children she gave alms-halls
(dan-sael). Having given them she obtained a child.

It was [necessary] for the King to go for a war. In sorrow for it,
having called together women who assist [at child-birth], and many
people, he gave them [to the Queen]. On his return journey she had
not borne a child. On the very day on which he came, pains having
seized her she gave birth [to a Gourd].

The women who were there, having taken the Gourd which this Queen bore,
in order to throw it away at another city took the Gourd to a flower
garden at the city, and put it there.

When the garland-making mother (mal-kara amma) went to pluck flowers,
"May I also pluck flowers?" the Gourd asked.

"How will you, Gourd, pluck flowers?" she said.

"That does not matter to you; I will pluck flowers. I must go to the
garland-making mother's house," it said.

Having gone [there], "I will plait flower chaplets (malwadan)," it
said. To plait the chaplets it asked for the thread and needle. Better
than the plaiting of the flower chaplets on other days it plaited
the flower chaplets, and gave them.

Having seen [the beauty of] the flower chaplets [when the flower mother
took them to the palace], the Princess asked, "Who plaited the flower
chaplets to-day?" she asked; [she was informed that the Gourd did it].

The Gourd was minded to contract marriage with the young Queen
(Princess). It asked the King of the city [to give his consent]. "If
the Queen (Princess) [299] is willing I am willing," he said.

[When it asked the Princess, she said], "Having carried upstairs
gold from the house of the garland-making mother, should you tie up
[as a decoration] cloths [worked] with gold, in the morning I will
celebrate the wedding festival."

In the morning the Gourd went upstairs. It having gone [with the gold
and hung up the cloths], the wedding festival was celebrated.

The Gourd laughs at its contracting (lit., tying) the marriage with the
young Queen. Through shame at it, grief was produced in her. When she
asked for a medicine for [the illness caused by] the grief, they said,
"Should you eat the flesh of the Fish (mastaya) in the midst of the
sea, and the fat, you will be cured."

[The King] having constructed six ships for the six Princes [the
brothers of the Princess], told them to go to bring the Fish. The
Gourd also at that time said [to the Princess], "Ask [for permission]
for me also to go." [She asked her father accordingly].

Regarding that the King said, "The Gourd itself will apply medical
treatment!" Having said it he gave it a broken-legged horse and a
piece of broken sword.

Taking them, it went near a Bo tree, and having tied the horse at
the tree, [and assumed a human shape], put on clothes [taken] from
a hollow in the Bo tree, and went away from the palace. The Gourd,
[now a Prince], says, "The God Sakra (Indra) is I myself."

The six persons for whom the ships were constructed and given, went
away [on the sea, in search of the Fish]. When [the Gourd Prince]
told those six persons [to catch the Fish], the whole six on one side
tried to take it, [but failed].

They having said, "We cannot take it," he asked, "For me to take
and give you it, what mark am I to make on you?" [They came to
terms, and he caught the Fish]. Having stretched out the tongues
of the six persons he cut them, and they gave him their jewelled
finger-rings. When they brought from the Gourd [Prince] and gave
[the Princess] the flesh and fat [of the Fish] the illness was cured.

[As the six Princes claimed to have caught the Fish themselves,
the Prince, who had left his clothes at the Bo tree and had again
taken the form of the Gourd], caused many persons to be brought,
and told them to stretch out and look at the tongues of these six
persons. [It also produced their finger-rings as proof that it was
the Gourd who had caught the Fish]. Having shown that the tongues of
the six persons were cut, the Gourd, having employed the servants,
[made them] cut open the Gourd.

[The God Sakra then rose out of it in his Prince's form, and said,]
"I am not [of] the things conceived in a womb. Because for the
god Sakra that is impure, having created the Gourd I was born [in
it]. As there was deficiency of merit for our father the King, I
[thus] caused it to be cast away."

(Probably he then returned to Indraloka, his divine world, but the
narrator omitted to state this. There were many other omissions at
which it will be seen that I have endeavoured to supply the necessary
words).


                                                 North-western Province.



In the Maha Bharata (Vana Parva, cvi), a wife of King Sagara bore
a gourd. The King was about to throw it away, but a celestial voice
ordered him to preserve the seeds carefully, and each became a son;
these were sixty thousand in number.

In Korean Tales (Dr. H. N. Allen), p. 98 ff., a number of people
made their appearance out of gourds which grew on plants obtained
from seeds brought by swallows.



NO. 154

THE STORY OF THE SHELL SNAIL


In a certain country there are a Gamarala and a Gama-mahange (his
wife), it is said. The children of those two are two sons and a
daughter. The big son one day having worked a rice field, at noon
came home for food. The Gama-mahange was a little late in giving the
food. The son quarrelled [with her] over it. That day at night the
Gama-mahange spoke to the Gamarala that he must bring and give an
assistant (a wife) to the son.

On the next day the Gamarala having gone to seek a girl, while he
was going asking and asking from village to village, in even a single
place he did not meet with a girl.

Afterwards the Gamarala having come to the village, when he was there
a considerable time, again the son of the Gamarala quarrelled with
the Gama-mahange. While he was quarrelling, the Gamarala and the
Gama-mahange, both of them, said, "Don't thou stay making and making
quarrels here. Go to any place thou wantest." Afterwards the son went
somewhere or other. The other younger son is going for rice-field work.

For that elder brother who went away the younger sister had much
affection. Because of it, from the day on which the elder brother
went away this younger sister through grief does not eat. Having said,
"Without seeing our elder brother I cannot remain," she is weeping.

Then the younger elder brother says, "Why, younger sister? I am
[here]; is that insufficient for you?"

Then the younger sister says, "Why, elder brother, are you saying
thus? If two persons give me more assistance than the assistance of
one person, how good it is for me!"

Afterwards, that elder brother one day having gone to the rice field,
at the time when he was chopping the earthen ridges (niyara) met
with a Shell Snail (golu-bellek). Having brought the Snail home, and
given it into the hand of the younger sister, he said, "There, younger
sister! I brought for you a small round-backed elder brother. Because
of it, don't you be sorrowful now."

Afterwards, that younger sister, taking the Snail, having wrapped it
in a cloth and placed it in a box, put it away. Having put it away,
three times a day having taken the Snail and looked at it, she says,
"Our two parents having quarrelled with our elder brother drove him
away. On account of it our little elder brother brought you and gave
you to me. Owing to it [also], little round-backed elder brother,
there is grief in my mind." She having said and said [this], and
every day having said thus when putting it away, one day the Gamarala
stayed listening.

Having been listening he says at the hand of the Gama-mahange,
"What, Bolan, is this thing that our girl is saying? You also come and
listen." Then the Gama-mahange having come and been listening, the two
persons spoke together, "It is through grief, indeed, that her elder
brother is not [here]. There is no need to say anything about it."

Well then, while the girl in that manner for a considerable time is
saying and saying thus to the Shell Snail, one day when the girl is
saying so again, the snail shell having burst open a Prince was born
looking like a sun or a moon.

After that, the girl having thrown away the bits of shell into which
the snail shell burst, bathed the Prince, and took him. Having sent
milk into a finger for the Prince, he continued to drink milk from
her finger. When he was there no long time a tale-bearer told the
King that there was a very good [looking] Prince at the Gamarala's
house. Afterwards the King having sent Ministers caused them to
look. The Ministers having looked and having gone, told the King,
"The Prince, indeed, is the royal Prince sort."

Afterwards the King gave permission [300] for summoning the Prince and
the mother who was rearing the Prince to come to the palace. After
that, the Ministers having gone to the Gamarala's house brought the
Prince and the Gamarala's girl to the palace.

Afterwards, the King taking charge of the Gamarala's girl and the
Prince, when for the Prince the age of about twelve years was filled
up, the King died. Having appointed the Prince to the sovereignty he
remained ruling the kingdom with the ten kingly virtues.


                                                 North-western Province.



The feeding of a Prince from the finger is found in the Maha Bharata
(Drona Parva, lxii), in which Indra is represented as thus feeding
Prince Mandhatri, who made his appearance in the world out of his
father's left side, as a consequence of the latter's having drunk
some sacrificial butter or ghi, which had the magic property of
causing the birth of a son. The food thus provided was so nourishing
that the infant grew to twelve cubits in as many days. In A. von
Schiefner's Tibetan Tales (Ralston), this Prince was not fed thus,
but was suckled by the eighty thousand wives of his father, having
been born from a tumour on the crown of the King's head; his boyhood
occupied twenty-one million (and a few hundred thousand) years.

In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. iii, p. 216,
in a legend of the founding of the Vaisali kingdom, two children
are described as being reared by a religious mendicant by means of
a supply of milk which issued from his thumbs.



NO. 155

THE QUEEN OF THE ROCK HOUSE [301]


A certain Gamarala had two daughters and two sons. During the time
when they were [there], the elder sister and the younger sister go
to the pansala to make flower offerings. Having gone, the younger
sister when making the flower offering wishes, "May I receive wealth,"
she says. The elder sister when making the flower offering wished,
"May I succeed in eating the bodies of the relatives whom there are
of mine." The younger sister does not mention the form in which she
wishes this wish.

When there is a little time [gone] in this manner, having spoken about
a marriage for the big daughter, the wedding was [made] ready. It
having taken place, they went calling her to another village. Having
gone, after a little time had gone the woman began to eat the men of
that city. Having eaten and eaten them, after the men of the city were
finished she ate also the husband who married [302] her. Belonging
to him a female child was born. Keeping the child, without anyone of
the city being with the woman she was alone.

Then her father came. That day night, having given him amply to eat
and drink,--there was a house [303] adjoining the house [303] in which
she is; in the direction of the house in which she is, between that
house and this house the wall was closed with coconut leaves,--in
the house she allowed her father who came, to sleep at night. Having
given it she said, "Father, at this village is much small-pox. The men
of this village and my husband were lost [by it]. Having been lost,
[while] so much time was passing you did not remember me. It happened
that you did not want me; you have wanted only younger sister. It is
good. What am I to do?" Having said [this] she wept a weeping. [304]

Thereupon the old man says, "No, daughter, I have been ill. Because
of it, indeed, I did not succeed in coming," he said.

In that manner having said false words, having been weeping and
weeping, she told him to sleep in the house beyond the house in which
she is, and having spread mats gave them. Having given them she said,
"Father, don't you be afraid; I also, so long a time, remained alone,
indeed, with this child," she said.

This woman also, having come away, lay down. [305] Having been lying
down, after her father went to sleep this woman brought a stick,
and having beaten and killed him, during that night ate that man also.

Owing to that man's being missing, his son came. Him, also, in that
very way she ate. His younger brother also came; him, also, she ate
in that manner.

Owing to the three persons, the persons who went, not coming, both
[the father's] wife and younger daughter went. When they went, says
this woman, "Ane! Mother, the men of this city, and father who came
from there also, and both younger brothers and all, died. Keeping
this girl, I am alone in this village. From anyone of you, at any time
whatever, there will not be assistance [for me]. I said you will come;
since yesterday I have been expecting you," and weeping she went in
front of her mother and younger sister.

Having gone and talked, she allowed the two persons to sit in another
house. Having allowed them to sit in it, she made ready and gave
food and drink, and having allowed those two persons to lie down,
she told them to go to sleep. She also having gone lay down.

What though she allowed this mother and daughter to sleep! In the mind
of that younger sister of hers is that formerly wished word when making
the flower offering. Owing to that circumstance she remained during
that day and night without sleep. Her mother, snoring and snoring,
was sleeping well.

Having heard the snoring, this human-flesh-eating woman, taking
also the men-killing party, came in order to kill and eat these
two persons. When [they were] coming there, that girl cried out,
"Elder sister, a dog came," she cried.

Then this girl having gone into the house, and having been in the
house, at the time of her coming half closing the door, said, "Ci,
Ci, dog!" and came crying out. In this way [the elder sister] came two
or three times. What of her coming! She was unable to eat them. [306]

In this manner the girl having been awake, at the watch when it becomes
light came calling her mother, and they began to run away. At the time
when they were going this human-flesh-eating Rakshasi awoke. Having
awoke, when she looked she got to know that these two persons have
gone. Ascertaining it, that woman, learning that they had done this
very trick, began to run [after them]. At the time when she was going
running she met with these two persons. When meeting with them that
girl cried out. While [she was] coming, when the big woman looked
[back], having seen that this one is running [after them] she became
stone there.

That girl began to run [off alone]. That Rakshasi having eaten the
point of the stone which her mother had become, when she looked that
girl was running off. Because she was unable to eat the stone she
bounded on the girl's path. When she was going bounding [on it], at the
root of an Indi (wild date) tree the door of a rock house opened. After
that, this Princess crept into the rock house [and the door closed
again]. After that, the Rakshasi who became a demon went away.

Then, when a King, the Ministers, and gentlemen (mahattayo) came
walking, [the King] said a four-line verse. When he was saying it,
this Princess who was in the rock house at the root of the Indi tree
also said a four-line verse. Then anger having come to the King, he
said, "There! Who is the person who said that four-line verse? Look
and seek," he said.

Thereupon, when the party sought and looked, anyone you like was not
there. The party having gone back, and come to the King, told him,
"O Lord, Your Majesty, we sought and looked everywhere; we indeed
are unable to find her," they said.

After that, the King said yet a four-line verse. To that also the
Princess, being in the rock, said a four-line verse. At that time,
also, he told the Ministers to seek; on that occasion, too, they
could not find her. On that occasion, also, having come to the King,
they said, "O Lord, Your Majesty, we this time also looked; we indeed
are unable to find her," they said.

After that, the King having gone near the spot where she said the
four-line verse, said yet also a four-line verse. When [he was]
saying it, having been very near under the ground she said a four-line
verse. Then the King asks, "Did a Yaka, or a Yaksani, or a Deity,
or a Devatawa (Godling) say that four-line verse? You must inform me
to-day," the King said.

Then the Princess who is in the rock house at the root of the Indi
tree, said, "I am not a Yaka, and not a Deity, and not a Devatawa; I
am a human being. Who speaks outside there I cannot ascertain. Because
of it you must tell me who it is," the Princess who is in the rock
house at the root of the Indi tree said.

Then the King says, "I am not a Yaka. Me indeed they call the King
of this city," the King said.

"If so, is the truth the contrary, is the truth the contrary?" three
times she asked.

The King also assured her of his kingly state. After that the stone
door of the rock house at the root of the Indi tree opened. After it
opened, having seen that the Queen was there, possessing a figure
endowed with much beauty, to the degree that he was unable to look
[at her], the King was minded to marry her. Having been so minded,
placing her on the back of the tusk elephant he went to the city at
which he stayed.

Having gone [there, and married her], when a little time was going
a child was conceived (uppannaya) in the Queen's womb. When it was
conceived, because the city in which she stayed was a solitary city
(tani nuwara) in that country there was no midwife-mother. Because of
it, when going through the middle of the jungle in order to proceed
to yet [another] city, [she and the King arrived at an abandoned city].

Having arrived, this King walked around the city, and when he looked
about, from one house, only, he saw that smoke goes. Having seen
it he went to the house, and when he looked a woman and the woman's
little girl were [there]. After that, this woman saw that the King
is going. Having seen him she asked at the King's hand, "Lord, where
is Your Majesty going?" she asked.

Then the King said, "The Queen of the rock house at the root of the
Indi tree having married me, she is with a child. For it there being
no midwife, I came to seek one," the King said.

Then the Rakshasa-goblin [307] got into her mind, "What of my
younger sister's being hidden that day indeed! To-day I shall eat
her." Thinking [this], this woman-Rakshasi said, "Maharaja, I well
know midwifery. Regarding that indeed, why will you go to another
place and become wearied?" she said.

The King having said, "It is good," on hearing her word went summoning
her.

On the very day she went, in the night pains seized the Queen of
the rock house at the root of the Indi tree. She went to the place
where they were seizing her. When she went that Queen got to know
that she came in order to eat her. Although ascertaining it she did
not mention it to the King.

Well then, [the Rakshasi] having come, during the night she bore
[a child]. After she bore [the child] that Rakshasi ate all the
after-birth (waedu-mas) that was there. The Queen did not tell that
also to the King.

Well then, having finished (nimadu wela) at the parturition house
(waedu-ge[yi]n), during that night [the Queen] went to sleep. After
she went to sleep, lifting up the child and the Queen with the bed
on which they were sleeping, this Rakshasi during the night began to
go away. When going this Queen awoke. Having awoke, when going under
trees she broke and broke dead sticks, and put them into the bed for
weight to be caused (bara-gaehenda). On her placing them [there],
when the bed is being made heavy the Rakshasi says, "It is good;
make it heavy. What of my being unable to eat you, you having crept
into the rock house at the root of the Indi tree!" Saying and saying,
"To-day indeed I shall eat you," disputing and disputing with her
she went along.

When she was going thus, a banyan branch had bent down to the path;
on the banyan branch this Queen hung. This Rakshasi went on, carrying
simply the bed. Having gone, having put the bed on the ground, when
she looked the Queen was not on the bed.

Afterwards she came bounding again very near this banyan tree. This
one ascertained that unless [the Queen] goes near the banyan tree,
she is unable to go by another place. Ascertaining it, and having
gone on and on among the branches and among the leaves in the tree,
saying and saying, "I will eat thee, I will eat thee," she began to
walk about. Although she is walking about that Queen is not visible
through the power of the resolution of the Gods.

Then, on the morning of the following day, when [the King] looked
this Queen is not [present]. Afterwards the King, together with the
Ministers, for the purpose of seeking the Queen having entered the
jungle forest wilderness, when going away to seek her, in the midst
of the forest, near a leafy banyan tree they heard a sound of a human
voice, "I will eat thee, I will eat thee."

When they look what affair this is, the King's Queen and the child
are in the tree. That Rakshasi having said [to herself] that this
King will cut her down, ran off through fear.

The King asked the royal Queen, "By what means came you here?" he
asked.

Then the Queen said, "The midwife-mother came lifting my child and
me with the bed, in order to eat me."

After that, the King having taken the Queen and gone, and having
sent her to the palace, made a bonfire (lit., fire-heap) in the
midst of the wilderness, and set fire to it. Having set fire to it,
when the smoke was going that Rakshasi having walked [there] asked,
"Regarding what circumstance is [this done]?" she asked.

When she was asking the King said, "The Queen of the rock house at
the root of the Indi tree having died, we are making the tomb for
her relics (da sohon)," he said.

As soon as he says it, [308] having said, "Ane! If I did not eat a
little flesh from my younger sister to-day, what am I living for?" she
sprang into the blazing heap; having sprung [into it] she died. The
King after that, together with the Queen, remained in happiness.

Because through fear on the day when the stone door at the root of
the Indi tree opened, she sprang into the house, and having been
there was married to the King, she kept the name, "The Queen of the
Rock House at the root of the Indi tree."


                                                 North-western Province.



This story contains references to several notions that are still
preserved in the villages, such as the fulfilment of wishes, either
silent or expressed aloud, when presenting offerings at the wiharas,
the protection of human beings by the personal intervention of guardian
deities, and the existence of internal apartments in certain rock
masses. A high rounded hill of gneiss is pointed out at Nirammulla,
in the North-western Province, [309] inside which King Vira-Bahu
is stated to have constructed a palace; and many flat rocks which
emit a hollow sound when trodden on are supposed to contain such an
apartment or "house" as that mentioned in this tale. The belief that a
human being may become a demon before death is, I think, not now held;
but in the Jataka story No. 321 (vol. iii, p. 48) a wicked boy became
a preta "while still alive."

Examples of the wishes made on presenting religious offerings are
to be seen in the Jataka stories Nos. 514, 527, and 531. In Cinq
Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. ii, p. 137, it is stated,
"Thus, when one pronounces a wish in the name of acts productive of
goodness that one has effected, the realisation depends solely on
the heart and good fortune; whatever may be the mark at which one
aims there is no one who does not attain it."

In Tales of the Sun (Mrs. H. Kingscote and Pandit Natesa Sastri),
p. 220, a girl who was being carried off by robbers while on her cot,
escaped like the Queen in this story.

In Tales of the Punjab (Mrs. F. A. Steel), p. 227, the same incident
is found, the person who escaped being the wife of a barber, whom
thieves were carrying off. In this case she did not first increase
the load on the bed by branches or fruits. (See also vol. i, p. 357.)

In Indian Fairy Tales (M. Stokes), p. 140, a Prince who was going in
search of a magic Bel fruit was instructed by a fakir how to take it,
and was warned that if he looked back while returning, he and his horse
would be turned into stone. This occurred, and nothing was then done
to them by the fairies and demons who were chasing them. Afterwards
the fakir found them, cut his little finger from the tip to the palm,
smeared the blood from it on the Prince's forehead and on the horse,
prayed to God, and they became alive again.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 210, the son of a
Brahmana smashed with a lighted piece of wood the skull of a person who
was being burnt in a funeral pyre in a cemetery. Some of the brain flew
out and entered his open mouth, and he immediately became a Rakshasa.

In the same work, vol. ii, p. 578, an Apsaras who was the wife of a
gambler was by a curse of Indra's turned into an image (apparently a
wooden or stone relief) on a pillar in a temple. The Jewish legend of
Lot's wife shows that the notion of such transformations, especially
when a person disobeyed an injunction not to look back, was of very
ancient date.

In Folk-Tales of Kashmir (Knowles), 2nd ed., pp. 191 ff., four Princes
were changed into stones by a Jogi, or Hindu ascetic. In a footnote,
p. 192, Mr. Knowles gives references to such metamorphoses elsewhere,
among them being the turning of a hunter into stone [310] owing to a
curse by Damayanti. Mr. Knowles states that many stones in Kashmir are
believed to be the petrified bodies of men who have been cursed. I do
not remember seeing or hearing of any instances of such petrifaction in
Ceylon, but we may gather from the story just given and that numbered
136 that such a belief is held there.

In the same work, pp. 401-403, there is an account of two Princes who
went in search of a wonderful bird, and were changed into stone when
they turned back in alarm. Their younger brother was more successful,
and got a pot of magic water, which when sprinkled on his brothers
and on many other stones lying on the ground, caused them to resume
their human state.

In Folk-Tales from an Eastern Forest (W. Skeat), p. 67, it is remarked
that the Malays believe that there were once numerous gigantic spirits
who could transform people whom they addressed by name into wood
or stone.

In the Preface to The Kathakoça, p. xiii, Mr. Tawney quoted
Dr. Bühler's words regarding the Jain belief in animism,--that souls
are to be found "in apparently lifeless masses, in stone, in clods of
earth, in drops of water, in fire and in wind"--and mentions that as
far as he knew, the Jains stand alone in this belief. Nevertheless,
in the cases of Ahalya and Rambha, and the Apsaras of the Katha
Sarit Sagara,--who, while she was in the form of an image or relief,
shed tears on seeing her husband,--as well as in the examples in
the other folk-tales, [311] the notion appears to be that the soul
or spirit continued to exist in the petrified body, which was ready
to return to its original state as soon as some necessary occurrence
took place, whether a sprinkling of charmed water which neutralised
the former spell, or the termination of a period fixed by a curse,
or otherwise. We can perhaps see further evidence of the existence of
the same belief in India and Ceylon in the stone statues of guardian
deities, such as Bhairava, Nagas, Yakshas, and Rakshasas, carved at
religious edifices; they, as well as the figures in the Euphrates
Valley and Egypt, appear to have been thought to act as protectors
because, although formed of stone, a soul existed in them, that is,
so far as evil spirits were concerned they were living stones, and
not mere scarecrows.

In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. iii, p. 219,
there is an account of the death and burial of a Prince aged fifteen,
whose soul remained in his body afterwards. When a pine tree which had
been planted over the grave sent down a root that reached his heart,
the soul became alarmed, climbed up the root, and lodged among the
leaves of the tree. It had other adventures.

In the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed., vol. i, p. 145), a lady
described her arrival at a city in which the King and Queen and all
the inhabitants had been transformed by Allah into black stones,
with the sole exception of the King's only son, a devout Muhammadan.

In vol. vi of the same work, p. 121, a man arrived at a great city in
which all the inhabitants, with the exception of the royal Princess,
had been changed into stone at the prayer of a Muhammadan Prophet. In
both these instances the petrified persons were not revived.

See also the Notes after the last story in vol. iii.

In Kaffir Folk-Lore (Theal), p. 36, a rock opened at a boy's request,
and he and his sister lived in it, leaving and returning at will. At
p. 83, some boys when chased by cannibals took refuge in a rock which
"a little man" turned into a hut; to the cannibals it was still a rock.

With regard to the remarks on the last page, two Sinhalese histories,
the Rajavaliya and Pujavaliya, give a legend which indicates a belief
that even the statues of guardian animals possessed souls. It is
recorded of King Mitta-Sena (A.D. 435-436) that on one occasion when
the state elephant was not ready for him when he had been worshipping
the Tooth-relic of Buddha, "the King became angry and asked whether
the great elephant image could not take him on its back. The elephant,
made of tile [brick] and mortar, approached the King, made him to
sit on his back, took the King to the city, placed him in the palace,
and went away" (Raj., Gunasekara's translation, p. 54).

It is probable that the figures of guardian animals or deities carved
only in relief, or even represented in paintings, may have been
thought to possess souls of their own--that is, to act protectively
as sentient beings.

It is merely a step forward to the idea in the Quatrain of wise old
Omar Khayyam:--


   "I saw a busy potter by the way
    Kneading with might and main a lump of clay;
    And lo! the clay cried, 'Use me tenderly,
    I was a man myself but yesterday!'"



NO. 155A

THE STORY OF THE ELDER SISTER AND YOUNGER BROTHER


At a certain village there was a Gamarala. While a woman contracting
(lit., tying) marriage with him was [there], a female child and a
male child were born. After they two were born the woman died.

After that, for the man they again brought a woman. Because the woman
[312] did not take notice of the children, the children think, "There
is no advantage to us in staying here; let us leave the country and
go." Having said [this] they began to go.

While they were thus going they entered a forest jungle, and at the
time when they were proceeding in it the flowers of a Kina tree [313]
having blossomed and faded, the elder sister picked up flowers that
had fallen, and took them and smelt them.

Having said, "These flowers are not good," the younger brother went
up the tree and plucked flowers. At the time when he was descending
the younger brother disappeared (naeti-wuna). The elder sister through
grief at it remained at the bottom of the tree.

While a King of the city was going hunting, having seen that the
woman is staying under the tree, the King came near and spoke [to
her]. Thereupon the woman did not speak; but the King, holding her
by the hand, [314] went summoning her to the city [and married her].

While staying at the city, the woman having become pregnant a child
was born. The King told her to fix a name for the child. Then also
(et) the woman did not speak.

While the two persons were staying thus for a little time, again a
child was born. The King told the woman to fix a name for that child
also. Then also this woman did not speak. "Why don't you speak?" the
King asked. Then also she did not speak.

On yet a day, the King went hunting with the Ministers, and having
gone walking and come near the city, told the Ministers to go. The
Ministers having gone there, say at the hand of that woman, "A bear
bit (lit., ate) the King to-day."

When they are saying it falsely, the Queen, taking the two children,
and having descended from the palace to the path, and fallen on the
ground, sitting down says to the two Princes, "Sun-rays Prince,
Moon-rays Prince, weep ye for your father; I am weeping for my
younger brother."

The King having secretly come again near the palace, remained
listening. Having seen it, the Queen, taking the two Princes, got
into (etul-wunaya) the palace. The King having come to the palace
and entered it, said, "Why did you not speak for so much time?"

Then the Queen says, "After our mother was summoned and came to our
father, after I and a younger brother were born our mother died. Then
they brought a step-mother. Because that mother disregards [315]
younger brother and me, younger brother and I left the country,
and having entered a forest jungle, when we were coming the flowers
of a Kina tree had blossomed and fallen. Taking the faded flowers I
smelt them. Thereupon younger brother said, 'Don't smell the faded
flowers; I will pluck and give [you] flowers.' Having said [this]
and gone up the tree, at the time when [after] plucking the flowers
he was descending, younger brother disappeared. Owing to grief at
that I remained unable to speak."

Afterwards the King, taking axe and saw and calling people, having
gone near the Kina tree, and cut and sawn the tree, when he looked
[inside it] the younger brother who was lost was [there]. Then the
King, calling the younger brother, came to the city, and showed him
to the elder sister. The elder sister arrived at happiness again.


                                                 North-western Province.



The story provides no explanation of the cause of the brother's
imprisonment inside the trunk of the tree. Apparently the
deity--presumably a Yaka--who resided in the tree punished him in
this manner for plucking the flowers, yet the King cut down the tree
with impunity. At the present day, the Sinhalese villagers would
not venture to injure or pluck flowers from a tree infested by a
Yaka. Many years ago all refused to fell a Kumbuk tree of this kind
which it was necessary to remove from an embankment I was restoring;
but some of my Tamil coolies had not the same scruples when encouraged
by extra pay, to counterbalance the risk. Probably they would have
been less venturesome in their own country.

The notion that a person may exist inside a tree trunk in a state of
suspended animation is found in other folk-tales. In No. 47, vol. i,
a Naga Princess became a tree; in an Indian variant on p. 269, the
tree was a girl imprisoned thus by Rakshasas. (See the notes after
No. 155, and also p. 245 of this volume.)



NO. 156

THE QUEEN AND THE BEGGAR


At a city there exists a Beggar, begging, and continuing to eat
[thus]. There is a travellers' shed near the pool at which the Queen of
that city bathes. The Beggar having come [after] begging and begging,
eats at that travellers' shed.

When the Queen was coming [after] bathing in the water, the Beggar
went in front of her. Having said, "Why did a Beggar like thee come,
and come in contact with me?" [316] she spat three times.

He having felt (lit., thought) much shame, went to the house of the
washerman who cleans the cloths of the city. He remained doing work for
him for wages. The washerman asked, "Why are you working for wages?"

"[In order] one day to get the crown and [royal] suit of clothes
[317] I am working for wages,--at the time when the King (raju)
is coming to the chamber," [he said].

At the time when [the King] was coming to the chamber in which is
the Queen, he stopped, investigating [matters]. Before the King came,
[the Beggar], putting on the royal ornaments [and clothes], went. The
guards finished the auspicious wish; [318] after that he went into
the chamber.

The Queen having come and given the auspicious wish, he forbade the
adjuration. [319] When forbidding it, having said, "What [sort of]
woman art thou also!" he spat in her face. This one having spat
went away.

After that the King came. The guards thought, "To-day the King went
here; what came he again for?" After he went to the chamber the
Queen did not give him the auspicious wish. The King inquired why
she did that.

Having said, "Now, on one occasion (gamanaka), as I am bad you spat
in my face; have I now become good?" she asked.

After that, the King [on hearing her account] sitting down there,
wrote two bars of a four-line stanza (siwpada de padayak):--


   "The angry tone displayed, the King is desolating;
    The courier bold who charmed my love, long bound, is flying.
    Speak not so harshly, here with frowns me eyeing;
    He will not long rejoice, I pride that day abating." [320]


Having given these two bars of a four-line stanza to the Ministers,
[321] he said he will give many offices to persons who explain
them. [322]


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 157

THE FROG IN THE QUEEN'S NOSE


In a certain country there are a woman and a man, it is said. The
woman has also a paramour. One day the man went to a rice field to
plough. At that time, this woman having quickly cooked milk-rice,
made it ready to give to her paramour to eat.

While that man (her husband) was ploughing, the yoke broke; after
that, the man came home. Having seen that the man was coming, she
quickly put the pot of milk-rice under the bed in the maduwa (open
shed). That man as soon as he came sat upon the bed; then the man
was burnt [by the hot rice under him]. Thereupon the man looked under
the bed. When he was looking he saw the pot of milk-rice. Afterwards,
having taken the milk-rice the man ate it.

At that time, when the Queen of the King of the country was smelling
a flower, a little young frog that was in the flower had gone into
her nose, seven days before. Up to that very time, six men came,
saying that they can take out the frog; they came at the rate of a
man a day. Having come there, when he is unable to take it out they
cut the man's neck. At that rate they beheaded the six men who came.

That day the King caused the proclamation tom-toms to be beaten:--"To
the person who should take out the young frog that is in the Queen's
nose, I will give a district from the kingdom, and goods [amounting]
to a tusk elephant's load."

Then this woman having heard it, went running, and said, "My husband
can," and stopped the proclamation tom-toms. [323] She stopped them
because the man of the house ate the milk-rice without her succeeding
in giving it to the paramour, with the motive that having killed this
man she should take the paramour to live [there].

Having stopped the proclamation tom-toms, and come near her husband,
she said, "I stopped the proclamation tom-toms now. You go, and having
taken out that young frog which is in the Queen's nose, come back."

Then this man through fear of death lamented, and said, "Now six men
have been beheaded, men who thoroughly know medical treatment. I not
knowing anything of this, when I have gone there they will seize me
at once and behead me. What is this you did?"

Thereupon, through anger about the milk-rice she said, "There is
no staying talking and talking in that way. Go quickly." As she was
saying the words, the messenger whom the King sent arrived there to
take the man to the palace.

Well then, having [thus] quickly driven away the man, the woman
speedily cooked milk-rice again, and having sent to the paramour to
come, and given him to eat, made the man stop at that very house.

Then the woman says to the paramour, "Thus, in that manner the
gallows-bird [324] of our house by this time will be killed. Now
then, you remain [here] without fear." The paramour having said,
"It is good," stayed there.

Well then, when the messenger brought that man to the palace, he said
to the King: "Maharaja, Your Majesty, this man can take out the frog."

While he was there, having become ready for death, the King, having
been sitting at the place where the Queen is, says to this man,
"Ha, it is good. Now then, don't stop [there] looking. If thou canst,
apply medical treatment for this and take thou out the young frog. If
thou canst not, be ready for death."

Thereupon that man, having become more afraid also than he was,
began to relate the things that happened to the man:--


  "When to plough I went away,      snapped the wooden yoke in twain;
   When the yoke in pieces broke,   slowly home I come again;
   When I to the house returned,    I upon the bed remain;
   When upon the bed I lay,         felt my rear a burning pain;
   When my hinder part I burned,    'neath the bed I search amain;
   When beneath the bed I look,     hidden milk-rice there had lain.
   As I ate that rice, I ween       these afflictions on me rain.
   Having this affliction seen,     jump out, O Froggy-pawn!" [325]


Having said [this] he ended. The Queen, from the time when he began
to tell this story being without a place for passing down the breath,
when this story was becoming ended, because that breath had been shut
back gave a snort [326] (huh gala), and when she was sending the breath
from her nose, the young frog quite of itself fell to the ground.

Well then, having given this man a district from the kingdom, and
goods [amounting] to a tusk elephant's load, they made him stay at
the palace itself. That woman became bound to that paramour.


                                                 North-western Province.



In the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed., vol. iii, p. 360), an Arab
doctor was taken before a King, who ordered him to cure his sick
daughter. He was told by the attendants that all who failed were
put to death. He discovered that her malady was a religious one,
and cured her.



NO. 158

CONCERNING A BEAR AND THE QUEEN


At a certain city there were a sister and two brothers. These three
one day went to eat Damba [fruits]. Having gone thus, the two brothers
went up the Damba tree, [327] the sister remained on the ground.

At that time a Bear having come, went off, taking the woman. Having
thus gone, placing her in a rock cave he provided subsistence for
her. Thereupon the two brothers, being unable to find her, went home.

During the time while the Princess was in the rock cave she was rearing
a cock. On yet [another] day the two Princes in order to make search
for the Princess went into the midst of the forest. Then having heard
the crowing of the cock which the Princess was rearing, they went to
that place. At that time the Bear was not there; on account of food
it went into the midst of the forest.

Then [the brothers] having met with the sister, they spoke to her. The
Princess said, "The time when the Bear comes is near. Because of that
return to the village, and come to-morrow morning to go with me." So
both of them went to the village.

After that, the Bear having come, at the words which he had heard
walked away growling and growling with anger. Thereafter the two
brothers came, and returned with the Princess to the village. Two
children had been born to the Bear; with those two also they went.

Thereupon the Bear having come to the rock cave, and perceived when
he looked that the Princess and children were not [there], came
[after them] of his own accord. When he came, he saw by the light
the Queen and two children. Those two sprang off and went away.

The Bear asked the Queen, "What are you going for?"

"A cleverer Bear than you told me to come. Because of that I am going,"
she said.

The Bear having said, "Where is there a cleverer Bear than I? Show
me him," went [with her].

Then the Queen, having gone near a well, showed the reflection of
the Bear that was at the bottom of the water. At that time the Bear
which was on the ground sprang into the well in order to bite the
Bear that was in the well. Having sprung in he died.

Then the two brothers, and the Princess, and the two children went
home and stayed there.

                                                 North-central Province.



In Le Pantcha-Tantra of the Abbé Dubois, the animals had made an
agreement with a savage lion that one of them should be given to
it each day. When the jackal's turn came he determined to find some
way of destroying their enemy. Seeing his own reflection in a well,
he went to the lion and informed him that another lion was concealed
in a well, and waiting for an opportunity to kill him. When the lion
demanded to be shown him, the jackal led him to the well; showed
him his own reflection, and the lion sprang at it. The jackal then
summoned the other animals, which rolled large stones into the well
and killed the lion.

In the Hitopadesa there is a similar story, the two animals being a
lion and a stag which said another lion had delayed it.

In Indian Fables (Ramaswami Raju), p. 82, the animals were a tiger
and hare.

In Folk-lore of the Telugus (G. R. Subramiah Pantulu), p. 15, they
were a lion and fox (jackal) which stated that another lion had
carried off a fox that it was bringing as the lion's food.

In Indian Nights' Entertainment (Swynnerton), p. 4, they were a tiger
and a hare which laid the blame on another tiger for his being late,
saying it claimed the country.

In Old Deccan Days (M. Frere), p. 172, they were a lion and a jackal
and his wife who stated that they had been delayed by another lion.

In The Enchanted Parrot (Rev. B. H. Wortham) this story is
No. XXXI. The animals were a lion and a hare which said he had been
kept a prisoner by a rival lion. This is the form of the tale in the
Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 32.

In Folk-Tales from Tibet (O'Connor), p. 51, they were also a lion and
a hare which recommended the lion to eat a large and fierce animal
that lived in a pond, in place of itself.

In Fables and Folk-Tales from an Eastern Forest (W. Skeat), p. 28,
they were a tiger and a mouse-deer which said it had been stopped by
an old tiger with a flying-squirrel sitting on its muzzle, and so
had been unable to bring it an animal for food. The squirrel which
accompanied the mouse-deer sat on the tiger's muzzle and the deer
on its hind-quarters when it went to drive the other away. The tiger
then sprang at its reflection in the river, and was drowned.



NO. 159

THE LEOPARD AND THE PRINCESS


In a certain country there are seven Princes, it is said. Younger
than all seven there is their younger sister. For the seven Princes
seven Princesses have been brought; a Prince having been brought for
the younger sister, is settled there.

While they are thus, the younger sister has pregnancy longings
(doladuk). One day, while the younger sister and her elder brothers
were going to their houses, having seen the whole seven Princesses
eating Damba [fruits] the younger sister also stayed there to eat them,
and asked at the hand of the eldest sister-in-law, "Sister-in-law,
a Damba fruit for me also."

Then the sister-in-law said, "There will not be Damba here to give."

She asked at the hand of the next sister-in-law. That sister-in-law
also replied in the same way. Thus, in that manner having asked at
the hand of the whole seven, not even one person gave it.

Afterwards, the younger sister having cooked and eaten, went alone
to pluck Damba, and having ascended the Damba tree, while she was
eating Damba it became night.

A Leopard having come near the Damba tree [said], "[How] if you should
throw down a Damba branch with your golden little hand?"

After that, the Princess threw down a Damba branch. The Leopard having
eaten [the fruit on] it, said again, "[How] if you should throw down
a Damba branch with your golden little hand?"

Again she threw one down. Then the Leopard said, "Holding fast, fast,
[how] if you should slowly slowly descend?"

Then through fear the Princess is there without descending.

The Leopard another time said, "Holding fast, fast, [how] if you
should slowly slowly descend?"

The Princess descended. Then the Leopard, placing the Princess on
his back, went to his rock cave. While living in that manner the
Princess bore a child. The Leopard and Princess stayed there very
trustfully. The Leopard had much goods. The paddy store-rooms had been
filled, the millet store-rooms had been filled, the meneri store-rooms
had been filled, there are many cattle.

When they had been living there many days, the Leopard said, "I am
about to go on a journey to-morrow; I shall be unable to return for
two or three days. You, shutting the rock cave, must be [here]. Until
the time when I come do not go outside." On the following day the
Leopard went away.

Well then, while the Princess was alone in the rock cave, the elder
brothers of the Princess having come hunting, a great rain rained. The
Princes having been [sheltering] near a tree, when they were walking
along in the rain they met with the rock cave, and saw also their
younger sister.

"What art thou here for? We sought and sought so much time, and could
not find thee. Here thou art! What was the manner in which thou camest
here?" they asked at the hand of their younger sister.

Then the younger sister said, "I asked for Damba at the hand of
sisters-in-law. The whole seven did not give it. On account of that
I came to eat Damba, and while I was alone in the Damba tree the
Leopard came.

"Afterwards he told me to throw down a Damba branch; I threw down
two Damba branches. Saying and saying [it was only] until the time
when the Leopard was going, I stayed in the tree.

"While I was there it became night. Then the Leopard told me to
descend. I stayed [there] without descending. The Leopard told me
twice to descend. Afterwards I descended. The Leopard, putting me on
his back, came here. From that day I am living here."

Then the Princes asked, "Where is the Leopard?"

The Princess said, "This morning he went somewhere or other; he said
he will not come for a day or two."

After that, the Princes said, "No matter for that one; let us go away
home. We will take the things that are here."

The Princess said, "I will not." What of her saying, "I will not!" The
Princes, having taken all the [household] things that were there,
said to the Princess, "Let us go."

Afterwards the Princess through anger cut that child, and hung it
aloft, near the hearth. She placed the small pot on the hearth, and
taking a [piece of] muslin, all along the path tore and tore and threw
down pieces, until the time when they went to the house. Having gone
there, without eating she is crying and crying.

Then the Leopard came near the rock cave, and saw that the child
having been cut had been hung up; and having seen, also, that the
Princess was not there, came away.

Having come all along the path on which the muslin has been torn
and thrown down, and having come up to the house [in a human form];
he saw that the Princess is there. While the Leopard is in the open
space in front of the house, the Princess saw that the Leopard is
[there]; and having come laughing, and given water to the Leopard
to wash his face, and given sitting accommodation, and betel to eat,
she is cooking in order to give the Leopard to eat.

Then the Princes placed an earthen pot of water on the hearth, to
become heated. After it became heated, they cut a hole very deeply,
and put sticks on it, and above that leaves, and above that earth;
and having taken the pot of water and placed it there, they came near
the Leopard, and said to the Leopard, "Let us go, brother-in-law,
to bathe."

The Leopard said, "I cannot bathe, brother-in-law. As I was coming
I bathed; I cannot bathe another time."

While the Leopard was saying he could not, having gone calling the
Leopard they told him to place his feet at the place where those sticks
and leaves and earth have been put; and having told him to bend, they
poured that pot of boiling water on the Leopard's body. That one having
fallen into the hole that was cut deep, died. Those seven Princes
having thrown in earth and filled it up, came away and ate cooked rice.

That younger sister, having cooked and finished, seeks the
Leopard. While she is seeking him the sisters-in-law say,
"Sister-in-law, you eat that cooked rice. Elder brother is eating
cooked rice here."

The Princess is [there] without eating. While she is there the
sisters-in-law say again, "Sister-in-law, eat; elder brother is eating
cooked rice here. He will not come there, having become angry that
you have come [away]."

After that, the Princess came to look [for him]. Having looked at the
whole seven houses without finding the Leopard, she went to the place
where he bathed, and when she looked [saw that] earth was [newly]
cut and placed there.

Having seen it, thinking, "Here indeed having murdered him, this
earth has been cut and placed [over him]," she went into the house,
and did not eat; and having been weeping and weeping, and been two
or three days without food, the Princess died through very grief at
the loss of the Leopard.

The eight Princes and the seven Princesses, taking the Leopard's
goods and the Princess's goods, remained there.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Indian Antiquary, vol. xiv, p. 135 ff. (Folklore in Southern
India, p. 116), in a Tamil story by Natesa Sastri, a girl who had
married and gone off with a tiger disguised in the form of a Brahmana
youth, escaped when her three brothers, in response to her request
sent by a crow, came to rescue her. She first tore in two the tiger
cub she had borne, and hung the pieces to roast over the fire. The
tiger followed in the form of a youth, was well received, and food
was cooked. On the pretext of giving him the customary oil bath
(of Southern India) before dining, the brothers put sticks across
the well, and laid mats over them. When the tiger-youth sat there
for the bath he fell into the well, which they filled with stones,
etc. The girl raised a pillar (apparently of mud) over the well,
with a tulasi (basil) plant at the top; and during the rest of her
life she smeared the pillar in the morning and evening with cow-dung,
and watered the plant.

In the Kolhan folk-tales (Bompas), appended to Folklore of the Santal
Parganas, p. 454, a tiger which assisted a Raja by carrying a load
of grass for him, received in marriage one of the Raja's daughters
as a recompense. He ate her, and when he went to ask for another in
her place, saying she had died, boiling water was poured over him
while he was asleep, and he was killed. At p. 470, a Raja married a
she-bear which took the place of his bride in her palankin; apparently
the bear had a human form.

In Folk-Tales of Kashmir (Knowles), 2nd ed., p. 57, the concealed
pit-fall into which people fell is found. It was dug in one of the
rooms of a merchant's house. A King, his son, and his wife the Queen
were entrapped; but the King's daughter-in-law suspected some trick,
refused to enter the house, and rescued them.

There is a variant in the coast districts on the north bank of the
River Congo, in West Africa. In Notes on the Folklore of the Fjort
(Dennett), p. 49, a girl who had run away from home on account of
her sisters' bad treatment of her, was married to a man who was a
murderer. She wanted to return to her mother, made a flying basket,
and escaped in it, carrying off his ornaments and slaves. Her husband
saw the basket going through the air, and followed it. The girl's
relations received him well, dug a deep hole and covered it with sticks
and a mat, and prepared a great quantity of boiling water. Then they
called the girl and her husband to sit there, placing the man over
the hole. He fell into it, the water and burning wood were thrown
over him, and he died.

This Sinhalese story contains the only instance I have met with in
Ceylon of a belief in power of the lower animals to take the form
of men, with the exception of tales in which they have a removable
skin or shell which hides a human form. In China the fox is thought
to have the power of taking a human shape at will, and in Cinq Cents
Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. i, p. 76, one of these animals
became a man in order to obtain a bag of roasted grain to present to
an aged Brahmana. In Folklore of the Santal Parganas (collected by
Rev. Dr. Bodding), p. 442, a man who had learnt witchcraft turned
himself into a tiger in order to eat a calf. He gave his wife a
piece of root first, and told her that when she applied it to his
nose he would become a man again. Such changes as that occur in the
Indian story numbered 266 in vol. iii, and its Sinhalese variants,
in which the animals can then resume their human form.

It is a common belief in Africa that some animals have this power
(having the souls of men in them), and also that human beings can
transform themselves into the lower animals, usually dangerous ones. In
Reynard the Fox in Southern Africa (Dr. Bleek), p. 57, in a Hottentot
story a woman became a lion at her husband's request, in order to catch
a zebra for their food. In The Fetish Folk of West Africa (Milligan),
p. 226, it is stated that "there is a man in the Gaboon of whom the
whole community believes that he frequently changes himself into a
leopard in order to steal sheep and to devour a whole sheep at a meal."



NO. 160

THE STORY OF THE FOOLISH LEOPARD


In a certain country, at the season when a Gamarala and his son are
causing cattle to graze, having constructed a fold in a good manner
the Gamarala encloses the cattle in the fold.

One day, the Gamarala's son having driven in the cattle, while he
was blocking up the gap (entrance) of the fold the Gamarala said,
it is said, "Ade! Close the gap well; leopards and other animals
(kotiyo-botiyo [328]) will come."

When he was there, a big Leopard which was near having heard this
speech that he is making, thinks, "The Leopard indeed is I; what is
the Botiya?" In fear, with various ideas [about it], he got inside
the fold; but having thought that the Botiya will come now, he went
into the midst of the calves, and in the middle of them, his happiness
being ended, he remained.

In the meantime, a thief having got inside the fold, came
lifting and lifting up the calves [to ascertain which was the
heaviest]. Having come near the Leopard, when he lifted it up he
placed the Leopard on his shoulder [in order to carry it away],
because it was very heavy. The Leopard thinks, "This one, indeed,
is the Botiya." Having thought, "Should I [try to] escape he will
kill me," it was motionless. And the thief because he went quickly in
the night [with it], for that reason thought that the calf was very
good. At the time when he turned and looked at it he perceived that
it was a Leopard, and he considered in what manner he could escape.

Having seen a hill near there, near an abandoned pansala (the
residence of a Buddhist monk), the man threw it down from the hill,
and got inside the pansala. When he shut the door, anger having come
to the Leopard by reason of the harm done to him [owing to his fall],
at the time when he was near the door [trying to enter in order to
kill the man], a Jackal asked the Leopard, "Why is this?"

When he told the Jackal the reason, the Jackal thought he would like
to eat the Leopard's flesh, [and therefore said], "I will tell you,
Sir, a stratagem for opening the door. Should you put that tail of
yours, Sir, through that hole the door will open."

At the time when he said [this], the Leopard having thought that by
this skilful act the door will open, put his tail through. Thereupon
the thief twisted the tail round the post that was near the door.

At the time when he was holding it, the Jackal went to the rice field
near there in which men were working. While the Jackal was crying
and crying out to the men, "Please come near, please come near,"
they went near the pansala. Having seen the Leopard, and beaten and
killed the Leopard, they took away the skin, it is said.

Then the Jackal with much delight ate the Leopard's flesh, it is said.


                                                 North-western Province.



This story is a variant of No. 70 in vol. i.

In The Orientalist, vol. iv, p. 30, Mr. W. Goonetilleke gave a
nearly similar story. The fold was one in which goats and sheep were
enclosed. The man carried off the leopard which was concealed among
them, and on discovering his mistake threw it down into a stream as
he was crossing an edanda, or foot-bridge made of a tree trunk. He
then ran off and got hid in a corn-store, where the jackal told him
to twist the tail round a post, as related in vol. i, p. 368.

In The Indian Antiquary, vol. xiv, p. 77 (Tales of the Sun, p. 93),
in a Tamil story given by Natesa Sastri, a shepherd, when he left his
flock temporarily, fixed his stick at the place with his rug over it,
and told it to keep watch, or some thief or bhuta or kuta might try to
steal one. A bhuta, or evil spirit, which had come for this purpose,
overheard this, and being afraid of the unknown animal called a kuta,
lay down amid the flock. Two men who came to steal a goat selected the
bhuta, and carried it off as being the fattest. Thinking these were
the kutas, the bhuta tried to escape, and eventually melted away. The
later incidents do not resemble those of this Sinhalese story.



NO. 161

THE STORY OF THE DABUKKA [329]


In a certain country there were a man's eight asses. One of them having
been lost one day, while he was going seeking and looking for it [he
saw] in the night that there was a house near a great jungle. In the
house he heard a talk. After that he halted, and when he is listening
to ascertain what is this talk which he hears, a woman says, "Ane! O
Gods, during this night I indeed am not afraid of either an elephant,
or a bear, or a leopard, or a Yaka; I am only afraid of the Dabukka,"
she said.

The Leopard listening very near there said [to himself], "What is the
Dabukka of which she is afraid, which is greater than the elephant,
and the bear, and the leopard, and the Yaka?" Having become afraid
in his mind he stood on one side, and remained looking [out for it].

Then the man who being without that ass sought for it, saw the
Leopard [in the semi-darkness], and having said, "Is it the ass?" went
running and mounted on the back of the Leopard. Saying, "O ass of the
strumpet's son, why were you hidden last night?" he began to beat the
Leopard. Having thought "Ade! It is this indeed they call the Dabukka,"
through fear it began to run away.

As it was becoming light, that man, perceiving that it was the Leopard,
jumped off its back, and having gone running crept inside a hollow
in a tree.

The Leopard having gone running on and fallen, a Jackal, seeing that
it was panting, asked, "Friend, what are you staying there for as
though you have been frightened?"

"Friend, during the whole of yester-night the Dabukka, having mounted
on my back, drove me about, beating and beating me enough to kill me."

Then the Jackal says, "Though you were afraid of it I indeed am not
afraid. Show me it. Let us go for me to eat up that one," he said.

The Leopard says, "I will not go first," he said.

The Jackal said, "Pull out a creeper, and tying it at your waist tie
[the other end] on my neck," he said.

When they had tied the creeper, after the Jackal went in front near
the tree in which that man stayed, the Leopard said, "There. It is
in the hollow in that tree, indeed," he said.

The Jackal snarled. Then when the man struck the Jackal in the midst
of the mouth his teeth were broken. After that, [both of them],
the Jackal howling and howling, having run off and gone away, when
they were out of breath a Bear came and asked "Friends, what are you
panting for to that extent?"

The Leopard says, "Yester-night the Dabukka killed me. The Jackal
having gone to eat it, when he howled and snarled it broke two [of his]
teeth," he said.

Then the Bear said, "What of your being unable [to kill it]! Let us
go, for me to eat up that one."

The whole three went, the Bear being in front and close to it the
Jackal; the Leopard went behind them. Having gone, they showed the
Bear the place where the man was. The Bear having put its head inside
the hollow in the tree, roared. Then the man seized the hair of its
head fast with his hand. When it was drawing its head back the hair
came out. Then the whole three, speaking and speaking, ran away,
with their teeth chattering and their tails between their legs.

Afterwards the man having descended from the tree to the ground,
came to his village with a party of men.


                                                 North-western Province.



In Indian Fairy Tales (Thornhill), p. 227, a tiger heard an old woman
say, "I do not fear the tiger; what I fear is the dripping; when the
rain falls the dripping comes through the thatch and troubles me." The
tiger lay still, dreading the coming of the terrible Dripping. A
washerman whose ass had strayed came there, and thinking he had
found it struck it with his stick and drove it to the village pound,
where he fastened it by the leg, the tiger believing he must be the
Dripping. In the morning it begged for mercy, and was allowed to go
on promising to leave the district and not eat men.

In Old Deccan Days (M. Frere), p. 206, the same story is repeated,
the ass being one belonging to a potter who seized the tiger, beat
and kicked it, rode it home, tied it to a post, and went to bed. Next
day everyone came to see it, and the Raja gave the man great rewards,
and made him a General.

In Indian Nights' Entertainment (Swynnerton), p. 211, when a weaver
who had been ordered to kill a tiger was entering his house he
saw it outside. Saying loudly that he was going to kill the tiger,
he added that he did not care for the wet or the tiger, but only
for the dripping of the rain from the roof. The tiger was afraid,
and slunk into an outhouse, the door of which the weaver immediately
shut and locked. Next morning he reported that he had captured it
with his hands, without the use of weapons.

In a Malinka story of Senegambia in Contes Soudanais (C. Monteil),
p. 137, a hare, while its partner, a hyæna, collected firewood, hid
the flesh of a cow that they had killed, in a hollow baobab tree,
the entrance being too small to admit the hyæna. The latter returned
with an ostrich and saw the hare there. The ostrich came forward to
seize it, but when its head was inside the hare slipped a noose over
it and half-choked it. In its struggles the ostrich laid an egg,
which the hyæna immediately devoured. The hare then induced it to
believe that when they were half choked in the same way hyænas laid
much better eggs. The hyæna accordingly inserted its head, and was
noosed and strangled.



NO. 162

THE LEOPARD AND THE CALF


In a certain country, while cattle are coming along eating and eating
food, a Leopard having been hidden and been there looking out seized
a small Calf out of them, and at first ate an ear.

Then the Calf says, "I am insufficient for food for you. When I
have become big you can eat me, therefore let me go," he said to
the Leopard. At that time the Leopard having said, "It is good,"
allowed the Calf to go.

In a little time, having seen that the Calf has become big the
Leopard came to eat him. Thereupon the Bull (the grown-up calf) says
to the Leopard, "You cannot eat me in that way. Go to the jungle,
and breaking a large creeper [330] come [back with it]," he said.

Then when the Leopard brought a creeper the Bull said to the Leopard,
"Tie an end round your waist [331] and the other end tie on my neck,"
he said.

The Bull having dropped heated dung while the Leopard was doing thus,
began to run in all directions [after they were tied together]. When he
is running thus the Leopard says to the Bull [as he was jolted about],


     Bale--di--no--kae--kota   While young--not--having--eaten thee
     Ma--ata--modakan--kota    On my--part--I--did--foolishly.
     Gassa--gassa--no--duwa    Jolting,--jolting--me,--don't--run,
     Periya--kan--kota         O thou--great--short--earèd--one.


The Leopard having been much wounded in this way, died.

The Bull went near his master's son; he unfastened the Bull.


                                                 North-western Province.



In Tales of the Punjab (Mrs. F. A. Steel), p. 70, a lamb escaped from
several animals that wanted to eat it by telling them to wait until
it grew fatter. In the end it was eaten by a jackal.

In Folk-Tales from Tibet (O'Connor), p. 43, a wolf that was about to
eat a young wild ass was persuaded by it to wait a few months until
it became fatter. When the time came for meeting it, the wolf was
joined by a fox and a hare, to which it promised to give a share of
the meat. The hare's suggestion that to avoid the loss of the blood
the ass should be strangled was adopted, the fox borrowed a rope
from a shepherd, the hare put slip-knots over the necks of each of
the animals, and holding the end of the rope itself gave the word
for all to pull. When they did so the wolf and fox were strangled,
and the ass escaped.



NO. 163

THE ASH-PUMPKIN FRUIT PRINCE


At a certain time at a certain village there were a husband and a
wife. During the time when they were [there] the two together went
to a chena. Having gone, [after] plucking an Ash-pumpkin they brought
it and placed it in a large pot under seven earthen cooking pots.

When not much time had gone, the seven earthen cooking pots were
shaken. Then this party having opened the mouths of the cooking pots,
when they looked a Python had filled up the large pot.

After that, the party plaited seven beds. [332] Having plaited them,
they caused the Python to sleep on the seven beds.

Next, having gone to a place where seven daughters were, they asked
for an assistant (a wife) for that Python. Having asked, they brought
the eldest sister. Having brought her, when they opened the house door
the woman having seen this Python and being afraid, said, "Ane! The
way in which fathers have sought and given me in marriage!" and just
as it became light the girl went home.

In that manner they brought the six women. All six being afraid of
this Python went away.

They brought the youngest girl of the seven. [She] having come there,
when two or three months had gone they opened the house door. After
that, the girl having seen the Python and being afraid, said in
distress, "Ane! The danger that my parents have made for me, having
given me in diga [marriage] to a Python! There is no place for me to
lie down."

Thereupon the Python having made room on one out of the seven beds,
remained on six.

On the following day she spoke in the same manner. Then the Python,
having made room on two out of the seven beds, remained on five. On
the following day in the evening she spoke in the same manner; then
the Python, having made room on three out of the seven beds, was
on four. On the following day in the evening she spoke in the same
manner; then the Python, having made room on four out of the seven
beds, was on three. On the following day evening she said the same;
then the Python, having made room on five out of the seven beds,
was on two. On the following day evening she said the same; then the
Python, having made room on six out of the seven beds, was on one.

On the seventh day morning the Python came to the veranda. At that
time, the mother-in-law of the woman who had come in diga [marriage]
to the Python, said to the woman, "Daughter, lower a little paddy
from the corn store, [333] and having winnowed, boil it."

Then the woman (girl), for the sake of causing the Python to speak,
applied (dunna, presented) the forked pole [for raising the conical
roof] on the outer side of the eaves. [334]

Then the Python says, "In our country our mother said that on the
other side (lit., hand) is the way."

Thereupon the woman, having applied the forked pole on the inner side,
and raised the (conical) roof, and lowered paddy, put it on the outer
side of the winnowing tray, and began to winnow it.

Then the Python says, "It is not in that way. In our country our
mother said on the other side is the way." So the woman put it on
the inner side of the winnowing tray, and winnowed the paddy.

Having winnowed it, still for the sake of causing the Python to
speak she put the paddy on the outer side of the large cooking pot,
and prepared (lit., made) to boil it.

Thereupon the Python says, "It is not in that way. In our country
our mother said on the other side is the way." So the woman, having
put it inside the large cooking pot, boiled the paddy.

Still for the sake of causing the Python to speak having [taken out
the paddy, and] placed it on the outer side of the mat, she prepared
to spread out the paddy to dry.

Thereupon the Python says, "It is not in that way. In our country
our mother said on the other side is the way." So the woman, having
put it on the inner side of the mat, spread out the paddy to dry.

The woman, also for the sake of causing the Python to speak, having
[taken it up after it was dried, and] placed it on the outer side
(end) of the paddy mortar, prepared to pound the paddy.

Thereupon the Python says, "It is not in that way. In our country our
mother said at the other side (end) is the way." So having put it on
the inside, and pounded the paddy [to remove the skin], she winnowed
it. (It was now cleaned rice, ready for cooking.)

Then a Bana (reading of the Buddhist Scriptures) having been appointed
at the pansala near that village, all are going to the Bana. This
woman says, "Owing to the fate which my parents have made for me
there is also no hearing Bana [for me]."

Thereupon the Python says, "Haven't you bracelets and rings to put
on as ornaments? Haven't you dresses? Wearing them and adorning
[yourself] in a good manner, go with our parents," he said.

Then the woman says, "Other good caste (rate) women go, sending the
men first. [335] It does not matter that I must go alone!"

Thereupon, still the Python says, "I am staying at home. Go with my
parents," he said.

Then while the woman was going with her mother-in-law's party to hear
Bana, the Python, having got hid, remained at the road on which she
intended to go. At that time the Python having taken off his Python
jacket and having placed it on the clothes-line in the enclosure
(malu ane), went to hear the Bana [in the form of a Prince].

Thereupon, this woman having seen her husband who was going to the
pansala, came home, and having taken the Python jacket which was
placed on the clothes-line in the enclosure and put it [in the fire]
on the hearth, the woman, too, went back to hear the Bana. Thereafter,
the Python Prince having returned, when he looked for the Python jacket
it had been put on the hearth [and burnt]. Thereupon he remained as
a husband for that woman.

After that, when not much time had gone, telling her, and
having prepared, they went to the house of his mother-in-law and
father-in-law. Thereupon the six women who were brought at first for
the Python, having said, "Ane! Our husband is coming," came in front
[of him].

Then this younger woman, having said, "At first having said ye do
not want him, how does the Prince who has come become yours now? He
belongs only to me," began to quarrel [with them].

Then of those six women the eldest woman having longed for this Python
Prince, said, "Father, seek for a Python for me, and give me it,"
and remained without eating and without drinking.

Thereupon, the man being unable to get rid [of the importunity] of
that eldest daughter, calling men and having gone, and having set
nets, when they were driving (elawana-kota) the middle of the forest
a Python was caught in the net.

Having brought the Python, the father of the woman, having asked her
and said he brought it as her husband, put it in the house (room)
of the woman, and said, "There. Take charge of it."

Thereupon the woman having gone into the house, [after] shutting the
door unfastened the sack in which was the Python. Then the Python
seized the woman, and twisting around her, making fold after fold,
began to eat her.

At that time, the father of the woman [hearing sounds] like throwing
down coconuts in the corn store, like pouring water into the water
jar, said two or three times, "Don't kill my daughter, Ade!" Then the
Python, having completely swallowed the woman, remained [as though]
unconscious.

On the following day, in the morning, the woman's parents having
come and said, "Daughter, open the door," called her two or three
times. Having called her, when they looked [for a reply] she did
not speak.

Because of that, having broken [through] the wall near the door bolt,
and opened the door, when they looked, the Python, having swallowed
the woman, [336] remained [as though] unconscious. Thereupon, they
drove away and sent off the Python.


                                                 North-central Province.



In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 595, a dependant
of King Vikramaditya became a python on eating a gourd which he
found in a garden. He was restored to his former shape by means of
a sternutatory which was made from the extract obtained from a plant.

In Chinese Nights' Entertainment (A. M. Fielde), p. 45, a man promised
to give one of his three daughters in marriage to a serpent that seized
him. The two elder ones refused; the youngest agreed to marry it. She
lived with the snake in a palace. On her return one day with water
from a distant spring after the well dried up she found the serpent
dying of thirst, and plunged it in the water. The spell which bound
it being thus neutralised it became a handsome man, with whom she
continued to dwell happily.

In Folklore of the Santal Parganas (collected by Rev. Dr. Bodding),
p. 255, a herd-boy who saw a girl throw off a dog skin that she wore,
and bathe, afterwards insisted on marrying this dog. Each night she
removed the skin and went out, until on one occasion he threw the
skin into the fire, after which she retained her human form. A friend
of his determined to imitate him, and married a bitch with the usual
ceremonies; but on the way home she was so savage that he let her go,
and he was laughed at so much that he hanged himself.

At p. 227 there is an account of a caterpillar boy who at night took
off his outer skin and went to dance. The Princess who had selected
and married him burnt his skin one night, and he retained his Prince's
form afterwards.



NO. 164

THE KABARAGOYA AND THE WIDOW


In a certain country, to the house of a widow woman a Kabaragoya [337]
continually comes. While time is going, the Kabaragoya, trusting the
old woman, having come to the house dwells there.

After much time went by, the Kabaragoya being like a son told the
widow woman to find and give him a woman (wife).

At that time, "Son, look at the manner of our house; besides that,
to a Kabaragoya who will give a Kabaragoyi (female Kabaragoya)?" the
widow asked.

And the Kabaragoya having heard that speech, that very day night
entreated that his house should be like a royal palace. On the
following day morning, at the time when he looked the house was
particoloured (wisituruwa) like a royal palace.

The Kabaragoya that day also told her to seek and give him a
woman. And the widow after that went to seek a woman in marriage for
the Kabaragoya.

There were seven Princesses of the King of that country who had come
of age. The widow having gone near (kara) the King (raju), when she
told him the matter he told her to take a person who was willing. And
the widow having gone near the royal daughters, asked, "There is an
only Kabaragoya of mine; is anyone willing to be married to it?"

Six out of the seven royal daughters having said, "Are we also
female Kabaragoyas to go with Kabaragoyas?" scolded and struck her;
the young royal Princess who was the last, said, "Mother, I will go."

At that time having come summoning the royal Princess, she married
and gave her to the Kabaragoya.

After a little time went thus, for the purpose of the occasion of a
certain feast the King [338] sent a letter to the Kabaragoya and his
royal daughter, [inviting them to it]. Thereupon the royal Princess
having said, "Ane! How shall I go with this Kabaragoya, without
shame?" While she is grieving, the Kabaragoya went to a certain rock
cave, and having taken off and put there the Kabaragoya jacket, and
decorated himself [in the form of a Prince], with royal ornaments,
returned. At that time the royal daughter also, much pleased, went
to the royal palace.

After that, this Prince, wearing royal ornaments, remained in the
appearance of a Prince.


                                                           Uva Province.



In Kaffir Folk-Tales (Theal), p. 38, a girl chose a crocodile as
her husband. When at his request she licked his face he cast off the
crocodile skin, and became a man. In a note (p. 209) the author states
that he had been bewitched by his enemies.



NO. 165

THE FROG JACKET


In a certain country, at a house there was a very wealthy nobleman
(sitana), but he had no children. Having seen that the men of the
country are giving their children in diga [marriage] he was much
grieved.

While he is thus, one day at the time when he went to the rice field,
having said, "Father," a certain female Frog fell weeping at the edge
of his foot; and the nobleman having brought this female Frog home,
nourished it.

One day, having started on a journey, and tied up a bundle of cooked
rice, and in the midst of it having put several rings, at the time
when he was going along the path taking the bundle of cooked rice
it became night while [he was] near a house, and he went there for
the resting-place.

At that house there was a young man. In the evening having unfastened
the bundle of cooked rice, at the time when he was eating the rice
he met with the rings, and having said, "Ane! My daughter's rings
have fallen into the bundle of cooked rice," he showed them to the
house people.

Thereupon the house persons asked, "Is there a daughter?"

"Yes, an only daughter of mine," he said.

"There is an only male child of mine, also. Will you give your daughter
to him?" the house-wife asked.

The nobleman having said, "It is good," [after] fixing a day came away.

On the appointed day, to look at the young woman the young man and
his two parents came. At the time when they asked the nobleman, "Where
is the daughter?" he said, "To-day she went with her grandfather."

Having said, "If so, on such and such a day we will come to summon
her to go," they went away.

On that day, at the time when the young man and his two parents
came he showed them his female Frog. After that, the young man's
two parents were not satisfied, but the young man being satisfied,
summoning the female Frog they went away.

After a little time went by, they were to go to a [wedding] festival
house. While the young man was in sorrow thinking of it, this
female Frog took off her frog jacket [and thereupon became a young
woman]. After that they went to the festival house. During the time
afterwards, these two according to the usual custom dwelt excellently
[together].


                                                           Uva Province.



NO. 166

THE FOUR-FACED KING AND THE TURTLE


At a certain city there was a King with four faces. The King thought
he must take the city called Ibbawa. [339] For ten million lakhs
(a billion) of turtles who are in that Ibbawa city, the Chief is the
Turtle King.

To kill the Turtle King and seize the city this Four-faced King went,
taking many troops, and taking his sword. Having gone there, after
having surrounded Ibbawa city, and set guards (raekala), he sent a
letter to the Turtle King: "What is it? Wilt thou give thy city to
us? If not, wilt thou fight?"

Thereupon the Turtle King says, "For thy having thy four faces we are
not afraid. What of thy four faces! We are dwelling with iron dishes
both above and below us. Shouldst thou shoot at us and strike us,
no harm will befall us."

Afterwards the Four-faced King, having said, "Ha! If so, let us fight,"
began to fight.

The Turtle King says to the other turtles, "Do ye decorate yourselves
to go to battle." He gave notice to the whole of the turtles.

The Four-faced King having ascertained that the turtles were being
decorated for the battle, the King became afraid, and thought of
going back. Because the King at first had not seen the turtles,
although the Turtle King was about a yojana (perhaps sixteen miles)
high and broad, and since it was the royal city, he says, "We did
not come for the war, O Turtle King. I came to ask to marry Your
Majesty's daughter to my son, Prince Kimbiya."

After that, the Turtle King thinks, "At no time were men able to be
tied [in marriage] to us. Because of it, we must give our daughter
Gal-ibbi (Tortoise)." Having said [this] he was satisfied. So the
Four-faced King and the King's army entered Ibbawa city.

Well then, the Turtle King having given quarters to the army and the
Four-faced King, made ready food. Because before that the turtles were
not accustomed to give food and drink to men, having brought putrid
birds (kunu sakunu) that turtles eat and drink, they gave them to all.

After that, the Four-faced King says, "We do not eat this food."

Then the turtles ask, "If so, O Four-faced King, what do you eat?"

Thereupon the Four-faced King said, "We eat rice and curry."

Then because the Turtle King receives the thing he wished for,
having created very suitable food he gave it to the Four-faced King
and the army.

After that, the Turtle King and the Four-faced King having spoken
[about it], appointed the [wedding] festival for the seventh day
from to-day.

The Four-faced King and the army having come to [their own] city, say,
"We will not summon a [bride in] marriage from those turtles." Having
said it, they remained without going to Ibbawa city.

This Turtle King, after seven days passed, says to the other turtles,
"Having said that they will take a [bride in] marriage from us, they
treated us with contempt. Because of it, let us go to fight with the
Four-faced King."

Well then, the Turtle King, having come with the ten million lakhs
of turtles, [after] setting guards round the city of the Four-faced
King, says to the Four-faced King, "Will you fight with us, or take
the marriage that was first spoken of?"

After that, the Four-faced King began to fight with the Turtle
King. Having fought for seven days, the Four-faced King having been
defeated, and the city people also being killed, the Turtle King
got the sovereignty of the city. Having spared only the son of the
Four-faced King, Prince Kimbiya, to that Prince he gave Gal-Ibbi,
the daughter of the Turtle King. Beginning from that time, the Turtle
King exercised the sovereignty over both cities.

Having summoned Gal-Ibbi [in marriage] seven Princes were begotten
by Prince Kimbiya. The seven persons after they became big and great
ascertaining that they were born from the womb of the tortoise, the
mother of each of them, through shame ripping open (lit., splitting)
each other, the whole seven died.


                                                 North-western Province.



NO. 167

THE STORY OF THE COBRA AND THE PRINCE


In a country, during the time when a Prince is causing cattle to graze,
the cattle having borne [calves] he goes to take milk in the morning
every day, it is said.

While he was going one day, at the time when he was bringing milk
having met with a Nagaya and a female Cobra, [340] the Nagaya said,
"Will you bring and give me every day, morning by morning, one leaf-cup
of milk?" [341] he asked. The Prince said, "I will bring and give it."

When he was bringing and giving it no long time, one day when he was
taking the milk on that day the Nagaya was not [there]; the female
Cobra and a Rat-snake were [there]. Well then, at his hand the female
Cobra asked for the leaf-cup of milk. The Prince did not give it;
he poured the milk into an ant-hill.

At the time when the Nagaya came from the journey on which he went,
the female Cobra says, "The Prince having come, not giving the milk
went away." When she said this, the Nagaya having become angry went
to the house at which the Prince stays, and remained at the corner
of the mat on which the Prince sleeps.

While it is [there] the Prince says [aloud to himself], "Now for
a long time I was going and giving milk to a Nagaya and a female
Cobra. To-day I went, taking the milk. When I was going the Nagaya
was not [there]. Because the female Cobra and a Rat-snake were on
the ant-hill, the female Cobra asked me for the milk. Not giving it
I came home, having poured it into an ant-hill."

The Nagaya having become angry regarding it, came back, and having
bitten and killed the female Cobra, heaped her up. On the following
morning, at the time when the Prince took the milk only the Nagaya was
[there]; the female Cobra was killed.

Further, the Nagaya says to the Prince, "Lie down there."

The Prince without lying down began to run away. At the time when
the Nagaya was going chasing after him the Prince fell. The Cobra
having mounted on his breast, [said], "Do you without fear extend
your tongue."

The Prince afterwards in fear stretched out his tongue. On his tongue
the Nagaya with the Nagaya's tongue wrote letters. "Having heard all
kinds of creatures talk you will understand them. Do not tell it to
anyone," [he said]. Afterwards the Nagaya died. He burnt up the Nagaya.

The Prince having come home, while he is [there], when the Prince's
wife is coming out from the house small red ants (kumbiyo) say,
"A woman like the boards of this door, having trampled [on us] on
going and coming, kills us," they said. The Prince having understood
it, laughed.

When his wife in various ways was asking, "Why did you laugh?" anger
having come to him [he determined to burn himself on a funeral pyre,
so] he said, "You in the morning having cooked food and apportioned
it to me too, eat you also."

Having eaten it, at the time when they are going, taking an axe, and a
[water] gourd, and fire, two pigs having been digging and digging at
a tank a pig says, "That Prince to-day will die."

The [other] pig says, "The Prince will not die. Having constructed
a funeral pyre (saeyak), the Prince will mount on it. Water-thirst
having come, he will tell his wife to bring water," it said. "She
having gone, when she is bringing the water she will slip and fall
and will die," it said.

He having constructed the funeral pyre, when the Prince mounted on
it a water-thirst came. He told his wife to bring water. She went
[to the tank for it], and having gone slipping through the amount of
the weight, she fell in the water and died. Having put his wife on
the pyre and burnt her, afterwards he went home.


                                                 North-western Province.



This story affords an illustration of a common belief in Ceylon,
that cobras sometimes pair with rat-snakes. The Prince is evidently
thought to have acted in a becoming manner in refusing to give the
milk to the female cobra when she was improperly associating with
the rat-snake during the absence of her mate.

Regarding the drinking of milk by cobras, mention is made in the Jataka
story No. 146 (vol. i, p. 311) of an offering of milk, among other
things, made to Nagas. Dr. Chalmers Mitchell, F.R.S., the Secretary
to the Zoological Society, has been good enough to reply as follows
to my inquiry regarding the drinking of milk by cobras:--"I have not
myself seen Cobras drinking milk, but I am sure that they will do so,
and I see no reason to doubt it, as certainly many other snakes will
drink milk."

In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. i, p. 382, there
is a story the first part of which is a variant of this one, the
latter part being a variant of the tale which follows. The daughter
of a Naga King was beaten by a cow-herd, and complained to her father
that the King of the country had done it. The Naga went at night as a
snake, and while under the King's bed heard him tell the Queen that
he had saved the girl from the cow-herd. Next day the Naga appeared
before the King, offered to fulfil any wish of the King's, and at his
request gave him the power of understanding the speech of all animals,
informing him that he must be careful to let no one know of it (or,
as the translator added in a note, the penalty would be death).

When the King afterwards laughed on hearing the talk of some
butterflies about their food, the Queen vainly asked the reason. After
this occurred three times the Queen threatened to kill herself. The
Naga, to save the King, by its magic power caused hundreds of sheep to
cross a river in his presence. When the ram refused to return for a ewe
she threatened to commit suicide, and reminded him that the King was
about to lose his life because of his wife. The ram replied that the
King was a fool to perish for the sake of his wife, and that the ewe
might die, he had others. The King reflected that he had less wisdom
than the ram, and when his wife again threatened to kill herself told
her that she was free to do so; he had many wives and did not need her.

In Folklore of the Santal Parganas (collected by Rev. Dr. Bodding),
p. 394, a cow-herd who had relieved a Bonga (deity) of a heavy stone
which had been placed on him, received from him the power to understand
the language of ants. To give him this knowledge the Bonga merely blew
into his ear. One day, when the man laughed heartily on hearing two
ants abuse each other over a grain of rice, his wife insisted on being
told the cause. On his telling her he lost the power conferred on him.



NO. 168

THE ANT STORY


At a city there is a King who knows the Ant language. At the time when
the King and his Queen, both of them, are continuing to eat sugar-cane,
a male Red Ant (kumbiya) and the Ant's wife having said, "Let us go to
eat sugar-cane," went to the place where the two persons are eating it.

Thereupon, the male Ant says, "Ane! Bolan, the things that women eat
I cannot eat. Do you eat them. I will eat the things that the King
is eating," the male Ant said to the Ant-wife. She having said, "It
is good," out of the refuse which the King and Queen having eaten and
eaten throw down, the male Ant eats the refuse which the King throws
down, and the female Ant eats the refuse which the Queen throws down.

Then the male Ant's belly being filled, he spoke to the Ant-wife,
and said, "Now then, let us go." Then she says, "It is insufficient
for me yet." Thereupon the male Ant says, "In any case women would
be gluttonous; their bellies are large," he said.

The King, understanding it, laughed. These two filling their bellies
went away. Thereupon the Queen asks the King, "What did you laugh
at? Please tell me," she asks. The King does not tell her. Well then,
every day she asks.

The King, being unable to get rid of it, went away into the midst of a
forest. Having gone [there], while he was walking and walking in the
forest, Sakra, having seen that this King is walking about hungry,
creates five hundred Grey Monkeys (Semnopithecus) in the forest,
plucking and plucking Mora [342] [fruit]. The party are eating
[the fruits].

A female Monkey having said, "I don't want those things," quarrelled
with the male Monkey. "If so, what shall I give thee?" the male
Monkey asked.

Having seen that there is a large Mora fruit at the end of the branch,
she says, "Pluck that and give me it (dinan)."

"One cannot go there to pluck that; eat thou these," the male Monkey
said. The female Monkey said, "I will not."

Thereupon the male Monkey says, "If five hundred are able to eat these,
why canst thou not eat them?" Having said it, the male Monkey, taking
a stick, beats her well. Then the female Monkey, weeping and weeping,
was saying, "I will eat these."

The King having been looking on at this quarrel, thinks, "These
irrational animals are not afraid of their wives." Thinking, "Why am
I in this fear?" he came to the King's palace [after] breaking a stick.

At the very time when he was coming, the Queen said, "Tell me what
it was you laughed at that day."

Thereupon, at the time when the King, holding the Queen's hair-knot,
was beating her, saying and saying, "Will you ask me again?" the
Queen began to cry, saying and saying, "Ane! Lord, I will not ask
again." Thereupon the King remained [there] quietly.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Jataka, No. 386 (vol. iii, p. 175), a Naga King gave a King of
Benares a spell which enabled him to understand all sounds. One day he
heard ants conversing regarding the food that had fallen on the ground;
on another occasion he heard flies talking; on a third he overheard
more ant talk. As he laughed each time, the Queen pestered him about
it and wanted to know the spell, to give which the Naga had warned him
would ensure his instant death. When he was about to yield, Sakra saved
him by advising him to beat his wife as the usual preliminary before
repeating the spell to her; this effectually checked her curiosity.



NO. 169

THE GAMARALA AND THE COCK


In a certain country a Gamarala was continually quarrelling with his
wife. In the Gamarala a disposition was manifested for ascertaining
the motives of others.

At the Gamarala's house there were twelve hens for one cock. One day,
the two old people quarrelling while the Gamarala is on the raised
veranda, the cock says to the hens, "Ane! What a fool this Gamarala
is! I am keeping in order twelve wives; my master is unable to keep
in order one wife. Should my wives make a disturbance I will beat
the whole of them well," he said.

The Gamarala having understood the motive for which the cock said it,
and shame having been produced, went into the house and beat his wife
well. After that, the woman and the Gamarala without a quarrel dwelt
excellently [together].

Although this Gamarala can ascertain the motive in the minds of others,
he does not tell it at any time to anybody. One day, the Gamarala and
his wife having gone to the cattle shed (gawa maduwa), while they were
[there] an ass asked a bull that having ploughed from morning was
brought and tied [there], "Friend, is that work very difficult?" The
friend to that remark says, "At present I have not strength to walk,"
he said.

The Gamarala having understood that talk laughed. His wife teased
him much and asked the reason why he laughed. Because of the woman's
plaguing him the Gamarala said, "I laughed because this bull grinned
at the cow."


                                                           Uva Province.



In the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed., vol. i, p. 13), a merchant
heard an ass advise a bull to feign sickness and refuse to draw the
plough or to eat, so as to get a holiday. He made the ass pull the
plough all day in its place. The ass then said to the bull that
their master had ordered the bull to be killed if it refused to
plough again, and the merchant laughed until he fell on his back. His
wife pestered him for the reason, which he could not give on pain of
instant death. As he was about to tell her, the dog rebuked a cock
for crowing and flapping its wings when their master was going to
die. The cock replied that if their master would give his wife a good
beating with mulberry twigs he might enjoy life in peace. The merchant
accordingly beat her until she was nearly senseless, and she became
"submissive as a wife should be."



NO. 170

CONCERNING THE GOLDEN PEACOCK


In a certain country there is a King, it is said. Near the city
there is also a mountain; on the mountain a [golden-coloured] Peacock
lodges. A Vaedda of that country saw that the Peacock lodges on the
mountain; having seen it the Vaedda for a long time made efforts to
seize the Peacock.

At that time the Peacock, getting to know that this Vaedda is saying,
"I will seize it," went to another mountain. Having gone, during
the time while it was at the mountain this Vaedda got to know of
it. Learning about it, the Vaedda went near that mountain also,
and made efforts to seize the Peacock. Age having gone to the Vaedda
while he was trying to catch [it], when he was about (lit., making)
to die he told the Vaedda's son about the matter of the Peacock. While
saying it the Vaedda died.

After the Vaedda's son became big he went near the mountain on which
the Peacock lodged. Having gone there, owing to its freedom from danger
(abiyata) he was unable to seize this Peacock. "I at least must seize
this Peacock," he thought.

After that, taking a pair of noose-posts (mala-kanu), and catching also
a peahen, he went there as the first light came, and having fixed the
pair of noose-posts he made the peahen cry out. When it was crying out
the Peacock came and perched (waehaewwa) near the peahen. Thereupon it
was fastened at the pair of noose-posts, and while it was fastened
the Vaedda went and seized the Peacock. The Vaedda, seizing it,
released the Peacock from the pair of noose-posts. Having released it
and said [to himself] that the Peacock is dead, he placed it on one
side. Having put it aside he opened the noose of the noose-posts. In
the twinkling of an eye the Peacock, having been as though dead,
flew away. The Vaedda sorrowed more than his first sorrow [at being
unable to catch it].

The Peacock having flown away, without staying in that country went
to another country. In that country it began to lodge on a mountain
of that country also. At the time when a Vaedda of that country was
going hunting he met with the Peacock alone, and told the King of that
country, "There is a gold-coloured Peacock at such and such a cave."

When he said it the King caused the notification tom-toms to be beaten,
and told all the Vaeddas of that country to come. Then all the Vaeddas
came. After they came the King said, "On such and such a mountain a
Peacock lodges. Catching the Peacock come back."

Then the Vaeddas having gone tried to catch it; the Vaeddas were unable
to catch it, so the Vaeddas told the King, "We cannot catch it." Then
the King having become angry with the Vaeddas said, "Without staying
in my country go ye to another country." So the Vaeddas went away.

Out of them one Vaedda stopped and said to the King, "O Lord, Your
Majesty, I will go quite alone and come back [after] catching it."

Then having said, "It is good," the King asked, "To catch the Peacock
what are the things you want?"

The Vaedda said, "I want, for five days, food-expenses and a pair of
noose-posts." So the King gave them.

Then the Vaedda, taking the articles also, went near the
mountain. Having gone there, he stayed for three or four days to get to
know the time when the Peacock comes and goes for food; he learnt the
times when the Peacock comes and goes. [After] learning them having
fixed the pair of noose-posts in the morning before it became light,
he made the peahen [which he had caught and brought with him] call in
the very same manner as at first. Then the Peacock came and perched
on the pair of noose-posts [and was caught]. Thereupon the Vaedda,
taking the Peacock, came near the King. The King took the Peacock,
and gave the Vaedda many presents and distinctions. Having given them
he kept the Peacock.

When it had been there in that way a considerable time, a King of
another country, taking his army also, came to seize that city. At
the time when he came, this King having prepared to go to the war and
having come carrying the Peacock, said, "Should I win in this war I
will free thee; if not, I will kill thee."

Then the Peacock said, "Taking my feather, and placing it on your
head, and tying it there, should you go you will win." So the King
having gone in that manner conquered in that war.

Having conquered he came to the palace, and having come near
the Peacock, he says, "By thy power, indeed, I conquered in this
war." Having said, "Because of it, half the kingdom is for thee,
the other half for me," dividing the kingdom he remained there.


                                                 North-western Province.



In The Jataka, No. 159 (vol. ii, p. 23), and also No. 491 (vol. iv,
p. 210), there is a story of a Golden Peacock. "The egg which contained
him had a shell as yellow as a kanikara bud; and when he broke the
shell, he became a Golden Peacock, fair and lovely, with beautiful
red lines under his wings." We learn that "when day dawned, as he
sat upon the hill [at Dandaka], watching the sun rise, he composed a
Brahma spell to preserve himself safe in his own feeding-ground." It
was as follows:--


                 There he rises, king all-seeing,
            Making all things bright with his golden light.
                 Thee I worship, glorious being,
            Making all things bright with thy golden light.
                 Keep me safe, I pray
                 Through the coming day. [343]


During the reign of six Kings it could not be captured on account
of the spell, but at last a hunter with the assistance of a tame
peahen owing to whose presence the bird forgot to utter the spell,
succeeded in catching it in a spring net. [344] The Peacock proved
to the satisfaction of the King that he had been a devout monarch
himself in a former life, keeping the five Precepts, and after being
rewarded with an existence in the heaven of Sakra had been re-born
on earth as a Golden Peacock. After this he was allowed to return to
"the golden hill of Dandaka." The bird admitted that "all who eat of
me become immortal and have eternal youth." In the second story the
Peacock was released by the hunter, whom he converted to Buddhism.

In all the earlier part of this Jataka tale there is no trace of
Buddhism; the Peacock was a sun worshipper, pure and simple. It is
evident that the latter part has been tacked on to it in order to
give it a Buddhist complexion.

It is possible, therefore, that the Sinhalese form of the tale
preserves an early version which the composer of the Jataka story
modified to suit his purpose. See my note in vol. i, p. 240, on the
story of the Jackal and the Turtle.



NO. 171

THE STORY OF THE BRAHMANA'S KITTEN


In a certain country a Brahmana reared a kitten, it is said. He said
that he reared the kitten in order to give it [in marriage] to the
greatest person of all in this world.

After the kitten became big he took it to give to the Sun, the
Divine King. [345] Having taken it there he gave it to the Sun,
the Divine King.

The Sun, the Divine King, asked, "What is the reason why you brought
this kitten?"

Then the Brahmana said, "Rearing this kitten since the day when it
was little, [346] I have brought it to give to the greatest person
of all in this world."

Then the Sun, the Divine King, said, "Although I fall as sun-heat
(awwa) like fire, into the world, there is a greater person than
I. Mr. Rain-cloud [347] having come, when he has spread his car for
himself I am unable to do anything. The gentleman is greater than
I. Because of it, having taken it give it to the gentleman."

After that, the Brahmana having taken the kitten gave it to the
Rain-cloud.

Then the Rain-cloud asked, "What is the reason why you brought this
kitten?"

Then the Brahmana said, "I reared this kitten since the day when it
was little, to give it [in marriage] to the Sun, the Divine King. When
I brought and gave it to the Sun, the Divine King, he said, 'There is
a greater person than I. Give it to Mr. Rain-cloud.' Because of it,
I brought this kitten to give it to you to marry."

Then the Rain-cloud says, "I, the Rain-cloud, having come, what of
my car's spreading out and remaining! The Wind-cloud having come,
and smashed and torn me into bits, throws me down. He is greater than
I. Because of it give it to him."

After that, the Brahmana having taken the kitten gave it to the
Wind-cloud. Then the Wind-cloud asked, "What did you bring this
kitten for?"

Then the Brahmana said, "I reared this kitten since the day when it was
little, to give it [in marriage] to [His Majesty of] the Sun race. The
Sun, the Divine King, told me to give it to the Rain-cloud. The
Rain-cloud told me to give it to the Wind-cloud. Because of it,
I brought it to give it to you to marry."

Then the Wind-cloud says, "I, the Wind-cloud, having gone, what of my
going throwing down the Rain-cloud and smashing the trees! I am unable
to do anything to the Ground [348] Ant-hill. However much wind blows,
the Ant-hill does not even shake. Because of it he is greater than
I. Take it and give it to him."

After that, the Brahmana having taken the kitten gave it to the Ground
Ant-hill. Then the Ground Ant-hill asked, "What have you brought this
kitten for?"

Then the Brahmana says, "I reared this kitten to give it [in marriage]
to His Majesty the Sun. When I brought it near the Sun, the Divine
King, he told me to give it to the Rain-cloud. The Rain-cloud told
me to give it to the Wind-cloud. The Wind-cloud said, 'There is a
greater than I, the Ground Ant-hill. Give it to him.' Because of it
I brought it to give it to you."

Then the Ground Ant-hill said, "The Sun, the Divine King, can do
nothing to me, the Rain-cloud can do nothing to me, the Wind-cloud
can do nothing to me, but there is a greater person than I, the Bull
(gon-madaya). He having come and gored me, smashes me and throws me
down. Because of that give it to the Bull."

After that, the Brahmana having taken the kitten gave it to the
Bull. Then the Bull asked, "What did you bring this kitten for?"

The Brahmana says, "To give this kitten [in marriage] to His
Majesty the Sun, I reared it since the day when it was little. When
I brought it there, the Sun, the Divine King, told me to give it
to the Rain-cloud. When I brought it near the Rain-cloud he told
me to give it to the Wind-cloud. When I brought it there he told me
to give it to the Ground Ant-hill. When I brought it there he said,
'The Bull is greater than I; give it to him.' Because of it I brought
it to give it to you."

Then the Bull says, "There is a greater person than I, the Leopard. It
is true that I trample on the Ant-hill, and gore it and throw it
down; but the Leopard chases me, and tears me, and eats my flesh,
therefore he is greater than I. Because of it give it to him."

After that, the Brahmana having taken the kitten gave it to the
Leopard. Then the Leopard asked, "What did you bring this kitten for?"

The Brahmana says, "This kitten reared I to give [in marriage] to
His Majesty the Sun. Well then, having walked from there in this and
this manner, the Bull told me to give it to you. On account of that
I brought it to give it to you."

Then the Leopard says, "The Cat is greater than I; my Preceptor is
the Cat. He taught me to climb up trees, but I have not yet learnt
how to descend. [349] Because of it give it to the Cat."

After that, the Brahmana having taken the kitten gave it to the
Cat. Then the Cat asked, "What did you bring this kitten for?"

The Brahmana says, "For you I did not rear this kitten. Having reared
it to give [it in marriage] to the most powerful person of all in
the world, I took it to give to the Sun, the Divine King. Then he
told me to give it to the Rain-cloud. When I took it near him he told
me to give it to the Wind-cloud. When I took it near him he told me
to give it to the Ground Ant-hill. When I took it near him he said,
'There is a greater person than I, the Bull.' When I took it near
him he told me to give it to the Leopard. When I took it near him
the Leopard said, 'Because the Cat is my Preceptor give it to the
Cat.' Therefore I brought this kitten to give it to you."

After that, the Cat having said, "It is good," marrying the kitten
it remained there.


                                                 North-western Province.



In the Literary Supplement to The Examiner of Ceylon for 1875, it was
stated that the cheetah (leopard) applied to the cat to teach him the
art of climbing, but the cat forgot to show him how to descend. From
that time the cheetah never spares the cat if he can catch him, but out
of veneration for his old teacher he places the body on some elevation
and worships it [that is, makes obeisance to it], instead of eating
it. (Quoted by Mr. J. P. Lewis in The Orientalist, vol. ii, p. 149).

In the short tales at the end of The Adventures of Raja Rasalu,
(Panjab, Swynnerton), p. 179, the tiger was taught by the cat. When
he thought he had learnt everything the cat knew, the tiger sprang
at it, intending to eat it; but the cat climbed up a tree, and the
tiger was unable to follow it. The story is repeated in Indian Nights'
Entertainment, p. 350.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 56, an ambitious
Candala girl who determined to marry a universal monarch saw the
supreme King bow down to a hermit. She followed the latter, but when
he prostrated himself at a temple of Siva she attached herself to that
God. A dog behaved in such a manner at the shrine that she followed
the dog, which entered a Candala's house and rolled at the feet of
a young Candala; the girl therefore was married to him.

In the same work, vol. ii, p. 72, a hermit transformed a young mouse
into a girl, and reared her. When she had grown up he offered her to
the Sun, saying he wished to marry her to some mighty one. He was
referred in turn to the Cloud and the Mountains, but the Himalaya
said that the Mice were stronger than he and dug holes in him. She
was then transformed into a mouse once more, and married a forest
mouse. This latter form of the tale is given in The Fables of Pilpay,
in which it was the girl who wished to be married to a powerful and
invincible husband.

In Folklore of the Santal Parganas (collected by Rev. Dr. Bodding),
p. 168, the parents of a beautiful girl of a semi-aboriginal caste
determined to marry her to the greatest person in the world. They took
her in turn to the Sun, the Cloud, the Wind, the Mountain, and the
Ground Rat. When they applied to the rat it informed them that their
own people were more powerful than the rats, as they dug out and ate
them; so in the end the girl was married to a man of their own caste.



NO. 172

THE STORY OF THE MANGO BIRD


In a certain country a hen bird is eating the mangoes at a Wild Mango
tree, it is said.

While a man was chopping the earthen ridges in the field at which is
the Wild Mango tree, having seen the Mango Bird [350] the man went up
the tree, and having caught the Mango Bird and descended from the tree
to the ground, struck the Mango Bird on the root of the tree. Having
struck it he asked the Mango Bird, "Mango Bird, was that day good
[or] is to-day good?" [351]

Then the bird says,


       "Both that day was good and to-day is good
        Through eating the mangoes of a Mango tree,
        And looking if hardness in Mango root there be."


After that, the man having placed the Mango Bird in a gap in the
earthen ridge in the rice field, in which there was water, asks the
bird, "Mango Bird, was that day good, [or] is to-day good?"

Then the bird says,


       "Both that day was good and to-day is good
        Through eating the mangoes of a Mango tree,
        Looking if hardness in Mango root there be,
        And 'mid the lower lands the frolic watery."


After that, as the man was coming home taking the bird, there was
a grass field by the path. Having struck the bird [on the ground]
in the field, the man asked, "Mango Bird, was that day good, [or]
is to-day good?"

Then the bird says,


       "Both that day was good and to-day is good
        Through eating the mangoes of a Mango tree,
        Looking if hardness in Mango root there be,
        'Mid the lower lands the frolic watery,
        Keeping up old customs on the grassy lea."


After that, the man having taken the bird, as he was going home struck
the bird on the road stile, and asked, "Mango Bird, was that day good,
[or] is to-day good?"

Then the bird says,


       "Both that day was good and to-day is good
        Through eating the mangoes of a Mango tree,
        Looking if hardness in Mango root there be,
        'Mid the lower lands the frolic watery,
        Keeping up old customs on the grassy lea,
        Finding that the road stile would be crossed by me."


After that, the man having taken the bird, as he was going to go
(sic) into the house struck it on the door-frame, and asked the bird,
"Mango Bird, was that day good, [or] is to-day good?"

Then the bird says,


       "Both that day was good and to-day is good
        Through eating the mangoes of a Mango tree,
        Looking if hardness in Mango root there be,
        'Mid the lower lands the frolic watery,
        Keeping up old customs on the grassy lea,
        Finding that the road stile would be crossed by me,
        Learning the defects of the door-frame's carpentry."


After that, the man, having [broken the ligature round the end of
a torch, and] lighted the torch, and set the bird upon [the flame,
to singe off the feathers], asked, "Mango Bird, was that day good,
[or] is to-day good?"

Then the bird says,


       "Both that day was good and to-day is good
        Through eating the mangoes of a Mango tree,
        Looking if hardness in Mango root there be,
        'Mid the lower lands the frolic watery,
        Keeping up old customs on the grassy lea,
        Finding that the road stile would be crossed by me,
        Learning the defects of the door-frame's carpentry,
        Fracture of the tying of the torch by thee."


After that, the man cut up the bird with the bill-hook, and says,
"Mango Bird, was that day good, [or] is to-day good?"

Then the bird says,


       "Both that day was good and to-day is good
        Through eating the mangoes of a Mango tree,
        Looking if hardness in Mango root there be,
        'Mid the lower lands the frolic watery,
        Keeping up old customs on the grassy lea,
        Finding that the road stile would be crossed by me.
        Learning the defects of the door-frame's carpentry,
        Fracture of the tying of the torch by thee,
        Looking the smith's bill-hook's cutting to see."


After that, the man put the bird in the cooking vessel, and having
placed it on the hearth [to cook], asked, "Mango Bird, was that day
good, [or] is to-day good?"

Then the bird says,


       "Both that day was good and to-day is good
        Through eating the mangoes of a Mango tree,
        Looking if hardness in Mango root there be,
        'Mid the lower lands the frolic watery,
        Keeping up old customs on the grassy lea,
        Finding that the road stile would be crossed by me,
        Learning the defects of the door-frame's carpentry,
        Fracture of the tying of the torch by thee,
        Looking the smith's bill-hook's cutting to see,
        Looking at the sittings in the potter's pottery."


After that, this man, having apportioned the cooked rice on the plate,
and having apportioned the flesh of the bird, while he was eating
[it] asked, "Mango Bird, was that day good, [or] is to-day good?"

Then the bird says,


       "Both that day was good and to-day is good
        Through eating the mangoes of a Mango tree,
        Looking if hardness in Mango root there be,
        'Mid the lower lands the frolic watery,
        Keeping up old customs on the grassy lea,
        Finding that the road stile would be crossed by me,
        Learning the defects of the door-frame's carpentry,
        Fracture of the tying of the torch by thee,
        Looking the smith's bill-hook's cutting to see,
        Looking at the sittings in the potter's pottery.


Sir, behold! Be good enough to remain looking out."

Having said [this], the Mango Bird flew out of the man's nose. The
man died just as the bird was flying away.


                                                 North-western Province.



The Sinhalese query and rhyme are:--


            Ætamba kirilliye, edada honda adada honda?
            "Edat hondayi, adat hondayi,
            Ætamba gahaka aetamba kaen,
            Ætamba mule hayiya baelin,
            Owiti maenda paen keliyen,
            Pitiye sameyan keruwen,
            Man-kadulle yana eññan deggatten,
            Uluwasse wadu-hadukan iganagatin,
            Hulu-atte baemma kaedin,
            Aciriye kaette kaepun baeluwen,
            Badahaelaye walande indun baeluwen.
        Ralahami, On! Bala-inda hondayi."


There is a variant in the Sierra Leone district, given in Cunnie
Rabbit, Mr. Spider, and the Other Beef (Cronise and Ward), p. 160. A
devil who lived near a town had forbidden traps to be set in the
"bush" [forest and bushes] there. A stranger set a trap, and caught
a pigeon. The pigeon then told him to carry it to his house. When
he had done this, it told him to kill it; then to pluck off its
feathers; then to clean it; to put the pot on the fire; to cut it up;
to cook it immediately; to put in salt; to put in pepper; to taste
the food; and lastly it told him to eat it up. He complied with all
the instructions. In the evening he went to the "bush" again. When
he opened his mouth to speak, the bird flew out, the man died, and
his body was carried off by the devil.

In a Soninka story of Senegambia in Contes Soudanais (C. Monteil),
p. 145, there are incidents of the same type. A hunter met with a
female gazelle, which recommended him to look for a larger animal. He
fired at it, but it did not fall. Then he killed it with a charmed
bullet, saying, "Eh! Who is the stronger?" The animal replied, "Oh,
oh! It is not finished!" It made the same remark when he cut its
throat, when he skinned it, and also when he carried it home and learnt
that his wife and son had died of colic. The man said no more words,
but cut it up and placed it in a pot on the fire, on which it repeated
the words. After cooking it for some hours he found the meat as hard as
at first, and it murmured, "It is not finished." Neighbours seeing him
cooking all day inquired what was in the pot. A voice came from it,
"An antelope that won't be cooked. It is not finished." At last the
man threw a magical powder into the pot, and the meat then became
cooked, and he ate it without any ill result.



NO. 173

HOW THE PARROT EXPLAINED THE LAW-SUIT


In a certain country there is a King, it is said. For the King there
is not a Queen. Near the royal palace there is a widow woman; the
King is associating with that widow woman. The King gives the woman
at the rate of five hundred masuran a day.

While they were living in that way, another man thought of conversing
much with that woman. Having thought it, one day the man having come
near the woman, says, "Ane! Every day in a dream I am conversing much
with you regarding the doubt in my mind."

Then the woman said, "If so, seeking five hundred masuran come and
converse much with me."

After that, the man, seeking five hundred masuran, came on the
following day. Having come there he gave the five hundred masuran
into the hand of the woman. After that, the woman, taking the masuran
and having placed them in the house, says to the man, "Ha; now then,
should we converse much in the dream it is so much, should we converse
in reality it is so much (that is, they are equal). Now then, our
talk is finished; go you away." Having said it she neither gave the
masuran nor conversed much with the man; she drove the man away.

After she drove him away the man instituted a law-suit before the
King who associates with the woman. After he instituted it, when
hearing the action the King, because he is associating with the woman,
declared judgment for the woman to win, and the man's [claim] came to
be rejected. While the Parrot which had been reared in the palace was
[there], this man's [claim] comes to be rejected.

On account of it, the Parrot having gone there said to the King,
"How was the way the woman won that law-suit? Is it not as though one
saw a reflection below the water, what one says in a dream?" Having
said [this], the Parrot explained the law-suit, and the five hundred
masuran became the property of the man.

Owing to it, the woman, through enmity against the Parrot, catching
the Parrot and having given the Parrot into the hand of her girl
(daughter), said, "Pluck this Parrot and cook it, and place it [for
me to eat] when I come." Having said [this] the woman again went to
the palace.

The girl, having plucked the Parrot and finished it and placed the
Parrot there, went into the house for the bill-hook in order to cut
up the Parrot. At the place where the Parrot was put there was a
covered drain. The Parrot having gone rolling and rolling over fell
into that drain. When that girl, taking the bill-hook to cut up the
Parrot, came there, the Parrot was not [there]. After that, the girl
through fear of that woman having killed a chicken which was there,
cooked it, and placed [it ready].

That woman having come and said, "Where is it? Quickly give me the
Parrot's flesh," asked for it. Then that girl brought the fowl's
flesh and gave it.

Well then, that woman while eating the fowl's flesh, says, "Is it the
Parrot's flesh! This I am eating is indeed the mouth that cleared up
the law-suit! This I am eating is indeed the Parrot which said that
he ought to give the masuran to that man!" Saying and saying it, she
ate all the flesh of the chicken. When she was saying these things
that Parrot stayed at the end of the drain; keeping them in his mind
he remained silent.

When cooking at the house, having washed the cooking pots they throw
down the water at the end of the drain in which is the Parrot. Having
squeezed coconut [in water, to make coconut milk], they also throw the
coconut refuse there. When the Parrot, continuing to eat these things,
was there a considerable time the Parrot's feathers came [again].

The woman thoroughly performed meritorious acts. The woman, having
told a carpenter, causing a statue of Buddha to be made and placing the
statue in the house, makes flower offerings evening and morning to it.

After that, the Parrot having gone near a Barbet, said, "Ane! Friend,
you must render an assistance to me."

The Barbet asked, "What is the other assistance?"

Then the Parrot said, "In the house of such and such a woman there is
a statue of Buddha made of wood. You go and prepare a house (chamber)
in it of the kind that I may be inside it. When I have gone inside
it block it up."

Afterwards the Barbet having said "Ha" and come with the Parrot, the
Barbet dug out a house in the statue of the size that the Parrot can
be in it. At the time when the Parrot crept into it, having blocked
it up from the outer side so that they were unable to know the place
where it was dug, the Barbet went away.

After that, when the Parrot was there a considerable time, that woman
every day in the morning and evening having come near the statue,
and said stanzas, and made flower offerings, goes away. The Parrot
every day remains listening.

One day the woman having come and said stanzas, when she was making the
flower offerings the Parrot being inside the statue said, "Now then,
indeed! You are near going to the God-world. Still you have been
unable to do one [really] meritorious act. Just as you are doing
that meritorious act they will take you to the God-world while you
are alive."

Then the woman thought, "After the speaking of the statue, I am indeed
near going to the God-world." Thinking it, she asked, "What is that
meritorious act?"

Then the Parrot said, "Having taken only this statue of Buddha half
a mile (haetaekma) away and placed it there, and put all the other
things in this house, and locked the house up, and sat outside,
and set fire to this house, that indeed is the meritorious act."

After that, the woman having taken the statue of Buddha and placed
it half a mile away, and come back, and put all the other things into
the house, and shut the door of the house, and locked it, the woman,
sitting outside, set fire to the house. While the house is burning the
woman is looking on, having said, "To take me to the God-world they
will come at this very instant, they will come at this very instant."

Then the Parrot, having been inside the statue of Buddha, came out,
and having come flying says to this woman, "Haven't you gone yet to the
God-world? There! Look! It is indeed in the God-world that that fire
is blazing. Thou atest my mouth? For thy eating the mouth of the Parrot
which explained the law-suit, this is what the Parrot did. There!"

Having said [this] the Parrot flew away and went to the flock of
Parrots.


                                                 North-western Province.



In Old Deccan Days (M. Frere), p. 118, a woodcutter dreamt that
he married a dancing-girl and gave her a thousand gold muhrs. A
dancing-girl who heard him say this determined to try to get the money
from him, so she claimed him as her husband, demanded it from him,
and took the matter before the Raja. Her friends having supported
her statements the Raja could not decide the case, but a merchant's
clever parrot (Vikrama Maharaja in disguise) gave judgment in favour
of the woodcutter. When the girl afterwards obtained the parrot as a
reward for her dancing, she ordered her maid to cook it. While the
servant went for water after plucking it, the parrot got into the
drain for kitchen refuse, the servant substituted a chicken for it,
and the dancing-girl ate this, jeering meanwhile at the parrot. After
its feathers grew again, it flew off and perched behind the statue
of the deity in a temple. When the girl prayed to be transported
to heaven, the parrot replied, "Your prayer is heard," and told
her to sell everything, give away the money, break down her house,
and return in seven days. She obeyed, and was accompanied by a crowd
when she returned. Then the parrot flew over her head, told her it
was a chicken she ate, and jeered at her. She fell down, dashed her
head on a stone, and died.

In Folk-Tales of the Telugus (G. R. Subramiah Pantulu), p. 17,
a courtesan demanded one hundred pagodas from a Brahmana who had
seen her in a dream. He appealed to the King, who promised to give
her payment. He caused the money to be hung from the top of a post,
and told her to take it out of a mirror placed beneath.

In the Tota Kahani (Small), p. 14, a merchant who had left his parrot
in charge of his house heard on his return from a journey that his
wife had misconducted herself. Thinking the parrot had informed him
she plucked out its feathers and threw it out, pretending the cat had
run off with it. The parrot lived in a tomb at a cemetery on fragments
of food left by travellers. When the merchant drove his wife away she
went to the cemetery, and heard a voice--the parrot's--from a tomb
telling her she should be reconciled to her husband after shaving her
head and fasting for forty days. She did this; the parrot then told
its master the wife's story was true regarding its being eaten by a
cat, and that God had sent it to reconcile the husband and wife. The
husband then brought her home again.

In A. von Schiefner's Tibetan Tales (Ralston), p. 163, when a merchant
who had made a bet of five horses that a courtesan could not induce
him to visit her, stated that he had been with her in a dream,
she claimed the horses. The King was unable to give a decision,
but the Minister's wife settled the matter by allowing her to see
the reflection of the horses at the edge of a sheet of water.

In the same work, p. 172, after the King of Videha had married the
daughter of the King of Pañcala, the latter induced his daughter to
send him a clever parrot that was assisting the former King against
him. He plucked it bare, threw it out of the window, a falcon caught
it, and being promised daily food placed it in a temple, where it got
hid and ordered offerings to be made daily by the King, who thought
this was the deity's voice. When its feathers had grown, it induced the
King, Queen, Prince, and Ministers to come with shaven heads to receive
forgiveness of their sins, and then it flew aloft jeering at them.



NO. 174

THE PARROT AND THE CROW


A crow beginning to roost at the house at which a Parrot roosts,
when much time had gone, as those two were talking together the Crow
asked the Parrot, "Friend, what do you eat?"

Then the Parrot said, "I eat fruits possessing a good flavour."

Having said, "If so, I also must eat the [same] kinds of fruits,"
the Crow went with the Parrot to the midst of the forest. When it was
eating fruits for many days, as the Crow was unaccustomed to that food,
not having eaten the food [before], it arrived at great privation.

Thereafter, at the time when the Parrot asked at its hand [regarding
it], the Crow says, "This food, indeed, not being customary for me,
from somewhere or other having found flesh you must give me it. If not,
I shall now eat the flesh of your body," it said.

The Parrot said, "If so, stay there a little until I have sought
for flesh and returned," and went to seek flesh. Having gone, and
walked and walked, being unable to find and take a little flesh from
anywhere, it came to the royal house, and when it looked a piece of
meat had been hung up in the cooking house.

Having seen it, the Parrot went near the Crow and said, "Friend, there
was not flesh anywhere, only inside the [cooking] house at the royal
house a piece of meat has been hung. I will go on the wall and cut the
string of the piece of meat. When I cut it you, taking it, fly away."

The Parrot having gone, cut the string that was tied to the piece of
meat. When it was falling on the ground, the Crow, taking the piece
of meat, flew away. Having gone it ate it with pleasure.

That day the cooking man, being without meat to cook for the King,
went to the King and said, "There is no meat to cook for you, Sir,
to-day. In this manner a Crow took it away." Thereupon he told him
to seek the Crow and shoot it.

Thereupon this Crow having said, "This Parrot is better than I for
walking and seeking food," frightened it, and said that it was better
for seeking and bringing meat; and it employed the Parrot, and making
it seek meat began to eat [in that way].

Then this Parrot for the purpose of causing this Crow to be killed
having settled upon the roof of the house of the man whom [the King]
told to shoot and kill that Crow, spoke to him.

The man saying, "A Parrot that speaks well!" went to catch it. The
Parrot having stayed looking, without going away, until the time when
it is caught, said at the hand of the man, "Should you come with me,
I will show and give you the Crow which ate that King's meat."

Having said "It is good," the man went on the ground. The Parrot
having gone [through the air] above, remained talking and talking
with the Crow. Thereupon the man shot the Crow; the Parrot flew off
and went away.

The King asked, "How did you shoot to-day the Crow that you were
unable to shoot for so many days?"

The man said, "A Parrot settled on the roof of my house. Having
remained there while I went to catch the Parrot, the Parrot said
to me, 'I will show you the place where the Crow is.' Afterwards,
having gone with the Parrot I shot the Crow."

Thereupon the King, in order to ask the Parrot about these matters,
told him to seek the Parrot, and come back. He was unable to find
the Parrot.


                                                       Central Province.



NO. 175

THE CROW AND THE DARTER


In a country, at the time when a Crow is walking about and seeking
food, having seen a Darter [352] eating small fishes, [353] and gone
near the Darter, he said, "Friend, because there is no food for me
assist me."

Thereupon the Darter having said, "It is good; I will give you food,"
and having constructed the nest on the high ground at the side of the
tank at which the Darter stays, and told the Crow to be in the nest,
the Darter brought small fishes, and gave [them to him] near the nest.

When he was [there] a long time eating the fishes, the Crow, having
thought of going to his country in which he stayed [before], said to
the Darter, "Friend, I must go to my village," he said.

The Darter says, "Why are you going?" When he asked, "Can't you remain
and eat the small fishes I give?" to say otherwise, because there was
not a fault of the Darter's the Crow says, "Friend, because there is
one fault at your hand I must go," he said.

[As an excuse] for the Crow to go, because there was no fault he says
to the Darter, "Friend, every day at the time when you go to seek fish,
drawing up your anus to me you go to the bottom of the water. Because
it is so I cannot endure it."

"If so, go you away," the Darter said.


                                                 North-western Province.



The latter part of the story reminds one of the rude-mannered peacock
of the Jataka story No. 32, and also of one which lost its election as
King of the birds owing to its indecent behaviour. Cinq Cents Contes
et Apologues (Chavannes) vol. ii, p. 332.



NO. 176

CONCERNING THE CROWS AND THE OWLS


In a rock cave Crows and Owls made their dwelling. At night (rae
dawasata) the eyes of the Owls see; the Crows' do not see. Night after
night having fallen, when the Crows and Owls had eaten, [the Owls]
seized and seized the Crows, and began to pluck off the feathers
[and eat them]. By that act the Crows began to be destroyed.

Thereafter the Crows spoke together: "Should we [continue to] make
our dwelling with this party we shall all be destroyed. Because of
it let us go to another country."

Out of that set one Crow said, "You must make me stay [in order] to
come [after] having killed the Owls. You all go." He said further,
"Having plucked off my feathers [until I am] like a pine-apple fruit,
go ye." Afterwards those Crows having seized that Crow and plucked
off his feathers [until he was] like a pine-apple fruit, went away.

The Owls having come, when they looked there was not a single
Crow. They asked that Crow, "What is it, friend, that has happened
to you?"

Then the Crow says, "Ane! Friend, they said to me also, 'Let us
go.' Because I said, 'I will not,' they seized me and plucked off my
feathers, and the whole of them went away."

Afterwards the Owls said, "Friend, can you show us the country in
which the Crows are?"

Then the Crow says, "If you will assist me a little I can show you
it. Until the time when my feathers come you must bring and give
me food."

The Owls, having said, "It is good," nourished the Crow until the time
when its feathers came. It having said, "Ane! Friend, as it becomes
evening a chill strikes me. At the time when you are coming you must
bring and give me a very little firewood to warm me on account of the
cold," the Owls one by one brought and gave the firewood. It heaped up
on both sides of the doorway all this firewood that they are bringing.

At the time when all the Owls were inside the rock cave, after
they were there, the Crow, having heaped all that firewood in the
doorway, stealing a fire-stick and having come [with it], set fire
to the firewood at the doors. All the Owls having been burnt, became
ashes. The Crow went to the party of Crows.


                                                 North-western Province.



In Le Pantcha-Tantra of the Abbé Dubois, the owls lived in a cave,
the crows in a great tree some distance away. The Chief of the owls
intended to cause himself to be elected King of the Birds. The crows
foresaw the dangers to which this would expose them, and one of their
Ministers offered to endeavour to save them, and going as a humble
suppliant became an intimate friend of the owls. He afterwards went
to the crows, returned with them at noon, each carrying firewood,
blocked up the entrance to the cave while the owls were asleep,
and then set fire to the wood and suffocated them.

In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. ii, p. 64, the crows lived
in a great banyan tree; at night the owls killed many on account of
their preventing the owl-King's election as King of the Birds. By his
own advice the feathers of a crow-Minister were plucked out, and he
was left under the tree. When the owls found him he told them that
this was his punishment for recommending the crows to conciliate the
owls; he was taken to their cave and fed well until his feathers grew
afresh. He then offered to bring the crows back to their tree where the
owls could kill them, and at his recommendation the crows blocked the
entrance to their cave with grass and leaves. The crow then fetched
all the crows, each one carrying a stick and he himself a firebrand,
the grass and sticks were set on fire, and all the owls were destroyed.

In Les Avadanas (Julien), No. V, vol. i, p. 31, the story is
similar. It is also given in a contracted form in Cinq Cents Contes
et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. iii, p. 144.



NO. 177

THE FEMALE LARK


In a certain country a female Lark [354] having laid two eggs on the
path on which they go and come at a rock, remained sitting on the
two with affection.

One day, when a tusk elephant was going along the path the elephant
placed its foot on the two eggs; so the two eggs were broken to pieces.

Owing to it the female Lark became at enmity with the tusk elephant,
thinking that she must kill it; and one day having gone near the Frog
the bird said, "Friend, laying two eggs on the path on which all go
and come at such and such a rock, I remained sitting on the two with
affection. [Although] so many persons went by there, nothing happened
to those two eggs. One day the tusk elephant having come, trampled on
my two eggs, and having broken them to pieces went away. On account
of it, of what assistance will you be to me?"

Then the Frog says, "Ane! Friend, I will be of any assistance you
tell me."

After that, the female Lark, having said, "It is good," and having
gone from there, went near the Crow. Having gone there, she says to
the Crow, "Ane! Friend, having laid two eggs on the path on which
all go and come at such and such a rock, I remained sitting on the
two with affection. [Although] so many persons went along the path,
nothing happened to my two eggs. One day the tusk elephant having
come, trampled on the two eggs, and having broken them to pieces went
away. On account of it, of what assistance will you be to me?"

Then the Crow says, "Ane! Friend, I will be of any assistance you
tell me."

After that, the female Lark said, "It is good."

At that time, there not being water in the water-holes there was much
drought. One day the tusk elephant, being without water, is walking
about seeking it.

The bird having seen it,--in the garden where the tusk elephant was
walking there was a very deep pool like a tunnel,--the bird having
gone near the Frog, said, "Friend, to-day the tusk elephant being
without water is walking about seeking it. In the garden in which
the tusk elephant is walking there is a pool like a tunnel. You
go to the pool and cry out. Then the tusk elephant having said,
'There is water indeed,' will come there."

After that, the Frog came and cried out in the pool. Then the tusk
elephant thought, "At the place where that Frog is crying out there
will indeed be water." Thinking "At places where there is nothing Frogs
do not cry out," it went there. When it was listening and looking,
the tusk elephant fell into that pool which was like a tunnel. Well
then, the tusk elephant cannot come ashore from there.

The Frog, having come ashore, says to the female Lark, "Look
there. Friend, I was of another assistance [to you]. Now then, you look
[after it yourself]." Having said it the Frog went to a tank.

After that, the female Lark having gone near the Crow, says to the
Crow, "Ane! Friend, that tusk elephant which broke into bits my two
eggs has fallen into the pool in such and such a garden. You go and
pluck out its eyes, and pierce and pierce its face in two or three
places with your bill, and come back."

After that, the Crow having come, plucked out the tusk elephant's two
eyes and ate them; and having pierced and pierced the face in two or
three places with its bill, came ashore, and said to the female Lark,
"Look there. Friend, I was of another assistance [to you]. Now then,
you look [after it yourself]." Having said it the Crow went away.

After that, the female Lark having gone near the Bee says to the
Bee, "Friend, the Frog was of assistance to me, the Crow also was
of assistance to me; only you have not yet been. The tusk elephant
that broke to pieces my two eggs has fallen into the pool at such and
such a garden, and his eyes have been plucked out. You go and beat
[and sting] his head."

After that, the Bee having come and beaten the tusk elephant's head,
the tusk elephant died in that very pool. Afterwards the Bee also
went away.

On account of it, they still say in the form of verse:--


        Being a handful merely, the Bush Lark Hen
        Got a tusker killed. Was it right, O Hen? [355]


                                                 North-western Province.



According to a variant from Uva, the nest of the bird, containing its
two young ones, fell on the path on which the elephants passed. The
bird begged them to be careful, and not to tread on them, but the king
of the elephants deliberately trampled on the young birds. With the
help of the crow, the blue-fly, and the frog, the elephant was killed,
and the bird then strutted about on its dead body.

With regard to the elephant's falling into the pool and being unable
to get out, the very thing occurred during a severe drought in the
North-western Province in 1877. At a small pool in the upper part of a
low rock in the forest, a few miles from Maha-Uswaewa, my station at
that time, a female elephant and her young one fell into the water,
and were unable to escape because of the steep smooth sides. When
I heard of it I sent an overseer with some men, to feed them and
release them by throwing in a quantity of branches. This succeeded
better than we anticipated; by mounting on the heap of branches they
managed to escape during the night, so that we did not capture them as
we intended. When the narrator of the folk-story described the pool as
being "like a tunnel," he doubtless meant a vertical tunnel or shaft,
having steep sides up which the elephant could not ascend.

In The Jataka, No. 357 (vol. iii, p. 115), this folk-tale is given,
with an evident addition at the beginning, so as to adapt it for
service as illustrating the goodness of the Bodhisatta, and the
wickedness of Devadatta, his rival. The Bodhisatta, as the leader
of a vast herd of elephants, sheltered a quail's young ones under
his body until his herd had passed. Then came a "rogue" elephant
(Devadatta) and wilfully trampled on them. The quail got a crow,
a blue-fly, and a frog to mislead and destroy the animal. The crow
pecked its eyes out, the fly laid its eggs in the sockets, and the
frog induced the blinded animal to fall over a precipice below which
it croaked. This story being illustrated in the carvings at Bharahat
must be of earlier date than 250 B.C.

In Le Pantcha-Tantra of the Abbé Dubois, a South Indian version, the
same story is given, the bird being a kind of large lark, according
to the Abbé's note. When the bird's eggs were broken, the jackal
summoned a crow, a gadfly, and a frog, and went with them in search
of the elephant. The crow pecked its eyes, the gadfly entered one
of its ears, the frog sprang into an adjoining well and croaked as
loudly as possible. The elephant, rushing in search of water in which
it might escape from its tormentors, jumped or fell into the well.

In the Tota Kahani (Small), p. 204, a pair of
birds--"Sugar-eaters"--made a nest in a tree against which an elephant
rubbed its back, the shaking thus caused making the eggs fall out
of the nest. One of the birds, determined to be revenged, consulted
a bird which had a long bill, a bee, and a frog, and obtained their
assistance. The bee intoxicated the elephant by its "ravishing hum,"
the bird pecked out its eyes, and the frog enticed it to a deep pit
into which it fell.



NOTES


[1] The Sinhalese title is, "The Jackal and the Basket-mender,"--at
least this is what I take to be the meaning of Kulupotta, a word I
do not know, deriving potta from the Tamil pottu, to mend; compare
Kuluyara, a basket-maker.

[2] A large monkey of two species (Semnopithecus).

[3] Deriving Sen from sema. Kandy appears to have been founded at
the beginning of the fourteenth century (Ancient Ceylon, p. 354, note).

[4] The title of a Gamarala's wife.

[5] In Sinhalese this expression includes the toe-nails, the toes
being termed "fingers of the foot."

[6] This query is addressed to the King himself, it being more
respectful to use the third person than the second. In the story
numbered 106 a Princess addresses a Prince in the third person,
and there are several other examples. Compare the first couplet of
the conversation of the King and goose in the Jataka story No. 502
(vol. iv, p. 266). In the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed., vol. iv,
p. 121) a Wazir employs the third person while speaking to his
sovereign.

[7] In the next story, and in the Story of Madana Kama Raja (Natesa
Sastri), p. 246, are given a Prince's question regarding sesame,
and a smart village girl's reply.

[8] Lit. "Your age is insufficient." This is a not unusual form of
village repartee.

[9] Tindu kalakanni modaya.

[10] Manikka-ratne, the jewel of a Cakravarti sovereign or universal
monarch. It casts a light for a distance of four miles (Clough).

[11] Kaemati dawasaka, on any day you like.

[12] So, also, in the Maha Bharata, it was an old woman who, when
others were unable to do it, undertook to bring to Lomapada, King of
Anga, the horned son of an ascetic whose presence was declared to be
indispensable for causing rains to fall. She effected it by the aid
of her pretty daughter, who decoyed him.

[13] Dandu monara yantrayak.

[14] Ahomat-wela.

[15] Kalasan = kalya + a + san.

[16] Rae-wenda, rae-wenda.

[17] Upaharana.

[18] According to the text, nawala, bathed, probably intended for
namala.

[19] The text of this story is given at the end of vol. iii.

[20] The gawuwa is usually four miles, but in this instance it is
evidently the fourth part of a yojana of about eight miles; the boys
would still have a walk of sixteen miles each day.

[21] Giya taena.

[22] Tisse de wele, lit., the thirty of both times--that is, the thirty
paeyas into which each day or each night is divided, the paeya being
twenty-four minutes.

[23] In Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues (Chavannes), vol. ii, p. 350,
the bird was a pheasant, and the fire avoided a space eight feet in
radius around the bird.

[24] The room or "house" in the midst of seven, occurs in vol. i,
p. 83.

[25] Sitano. Except in a few instances in which a Treasurer appears to
be referred to (as in No. 100), I have followed Clough in translating
this word as "nobleman." In Mr. Gunasekara's excellent Sinhalese
Grammar it is translated "Chief"; in the northern Kandian districts
I have never heard it so used, the usual expression for a Chief being
Nilame, a word, however, which occurs only once in these stories. The
adjectival forms are Siti and Situ. Sitano is the honorific (pl.) form
of Sitana.

[26] Pana upaddan-eka.

[27] Baelewwaen misa.

[28] A large river and tank fish (Ophiocephalus striatus) which is
usually caught with a line and live fish bait. At the present day,
Kandian Sinhalese of the better castes consider it improper to fish
with a hook, but this is done by some members of low castes. The
story was related by a Tom-tom Beater. See Ancient Ceylon, p. 52.

[29] The spelling of this word is according to the text.

[30] They anticipated the usual death sentence or exile allotted to
disobedient Princes in these tales.

[31] The word which is used indicates one who shot with a gun.

[32] Such a remark is a form of refusal, as in the Arabian Nights
(Lady Burton's ed., vol. i, p. 174), in which a man, asking a friend
for assistance, was answered, "Bismillah! I will do all that thou
requirest, but come to-morrow." The other replied in this verse:

       "When he who is asked a favour saith 'To-morrow,'
        The wise man wots 'tis vain to beg or borrow."

In the Kaele-basa or Jungle language, "no" is expressed by saying
Passe puluwani, "Afterwards [I] can."

[33] Sattak kiriya-karala, lit., performed a Truth.

[34] Panuwo.

[35] The immense extent.

[36] In the few instances in which their nature is mentioned,
these stories agree with Clough's Dictionary in describing the five
instruments of music (pañca-turya) as tom-toms. I presume that these
are (1) the drum (dawula), (2) the ordinary hand tom-tom (beraya), (3)
the double kettle-drum (tammaettama), (4) the small, narrow-waisted
hand tom-tom (udakkiya or udikkiya, the Tamil udikkei), (5) the
low hand-drum (rabana), unless a single-ended drum called daekke,
the Tamil dakkei, be included. In Winslow's Tamil Dictionary the
five musical instruments are defined as (1) skin instruments, (2)
wind instruments, (3) stringed instruments, (4) metal instruments,
(5) the throats of animals. In The Indian Antiquary, vol. v, p. 354,
they are termed (1) tantri or sitara, (2) tal, (3) jhanjh, (4) nakara,
(5) the trumpet or other wind instrument.

Since this was in print, Messrs. H. B. Andris and Co., of Kandy,
have informed me that the Sinhalese Pañca-turya are considered to
be, (1) singarama, the drum, (2) bere, the ordinary tom-tom, (3)
horanaewa, the horn trumpet, (4) tammattama, the double kettle-drum,
(5) kayitalama, the cymbal.

[37] A species of fig tree, Ficus glomerata.

[38] Dilala, perhaps a mistake for dilalla, pl. hon. form.

[39] Wenda tiyana de wuna. There is a strong belief in the action
of Fate. When a person is accidentally killed a common remark is,
"His day had come."

[40] Muladaeni baehae dakinawa.

[41] Like the people in the travellers' shed all alike were under
the shelter of the King's authority, he meant.

[42] That is, all, from the highest to the lowest, have duties which
they should perform.

[43] Probably a mat laid on the veranda.

[44] As a possible derivation, I suggest that the first part of
the word may be derived from sam + bhañj, meaning "shatter, smash,"
referring to his toes that were struck by the stone. The rest may
consist of adi, foot, the whole word thus being sambhañjadi. In a
variant the exclamation is Hottaeripancan.

[45] Mariyek, probably intended for mariyek, from the Tamil root maru,
in compounds mari, to exchange or barter.

[46] Another title is, "Concerning a Foolish King."

[47] Magul, auspicious or festival.

[48] Shorea robusta.

[49] As though using a shuttle.

[50] Honorific, instead of "your."

[51] Rajabarana, which usually refers to the ornaments and insignia;
in No. 156, para. 5, and on p. 84, abarana includes the royal clothes.

[52] A name of Ceylon.

[53] Formerly this would be one shilling. The panama is one anna,
sixteen being equal to a rupee.

[54] Eight panams were thirty-two tuttu.

[55] Asanam sitam jivana nasam.

[56] Trimming of the earthen ridges which surround the plots of
the field.

[57] Maha ge is "large house"; mahage is an old or well-connected
woman, such as the wife of a Gamarala.

[58] A variant of the last incident is given in No. 57, vol. i.

[59] See footnote, p. 5, on this use of the third person in place of
the second. In this instance its employment is sarcastic.

[60] This episode is also given in No. 254, vol. iii.

[61] Ambuda gasagana.

[62] That is, his own grandfather. It will have been noticed that
the words his and her are avoided by these story-tellers. When they
appear in the translation they are nearly always inserted by me;
the same remark applies to the pronouns he, him, and she.

[63] That is, with them, after they left. The first statement was
that he was born after his mother went away.

[64] This incident occurs in the Sinhalese story numbered 82 in
this volume.

[65] It is a general belief of village Sinhalese and Vaeddas that
evil spirits or Yakas throw sand or stones at people during either
the day or night.

[66] It is said that death always occurs in this way; the breath is
drawn upward to the head.

[67] The names indicate that they were men of villages called Gampola
and Raehigama.

[68] A forest tree (Myristica iriya).

[69] Betel leaves are packed in a special manner for carrying, enclosed
above and below by circular plaited frames which everyone recognises.

[70] Viyadama, expenses, but also employed with the meaning, "articles
of food for which expenditure would be incurred"--that is, the results
of it.

[71] A favourite amusement of the little black humped bulls if they
can get at them.

[72] See the Jataka story, No. 486 (vol. iv, p. 184), for a parenthesis
like this in the middle of a sentence. There are many instances in
these Folk-tales.

[73] Two valuable slippers or shoes are laid on a road at some distance
apart. An approaching traveller passes the first one, which would
be useless alone, but on seeing the second leaves his load at it and
returns for the first one. The thief, who is hidden near the second
one, then goes off with the load.

[74] Compare the beginning of the last variant at the end of the
previous story.

[75] Eight and a half bushels.

[76] Dawal.

[77] Pannagana giya.

[78] In Sinhalese this might mean, "I will eat [you]."

[79] In the Jataka story No. 527 (vol. v, p. 112) a supposed tree-deity
is termed a Yakkha (the Pali word for Yaka).

[80] "Seize [him], Walking-stick" (bastama).

[81] When a man is about to run quickly he pulls up his cloth to the
upper part of the thighs, passes the loose portion between his legs,
draws it tightly behind, and tucks the end through his belt.

[82] Gandarvayini.

[83] Feminine adjective of Sitana, a nobleman, or in some cases
a Treasurer.

[84] Nikan indin.

[85] Maeniyaendaeta.

[86] Tirisana is "one of the lower animals." In a variant of the
Western Province he terms the stick a Tirihan cudgel.

[87] Honda honda.

[88] This resembles the cry, "Mok, Mok," made when driving cattle
especially cart-bulls and pack-bulls.

[89] Phyllanthus emblica.

[90] Payana loke.

[91] Bahina loke.

[92] Naewit.

[93] In the text it is termed yantraya, a machine, implement,
contrivance; but maturapu yantraya is a talisman, a charmed
implement. In the story given in the Arabian Nights it is termed a
talisman, and it was on the Princess's neck.

[94] In the Arabian Nights it was placed at the bottom of a jar
of olives.

[95] Dawal tisse, in the thirty [paeyas] of the day-time.

[96] Some years appear to have elapsed since he went into exile. This
is the case in other stories, although not mentioned by the narrators.

[97] Ladaru kumarayo denna, the two young Princes. Kumarayo, Princes,
is sometimes used when both a Prince and Princess are referred to.

[98] Literally, made public a proclamation tom-tom.

[99] A tavalama is a caravan or drove of pack cattle or buffaloes,
loaded with sacks of goods. It was the old means of transport along
paths that were impassable by carts, and is still employed in some
jungle districts.

[100] Hayi-wuna, lit., became fast. The words have a similar meaning
in the last sentence of No. 157, a story by a different person.

[101] Apparently the well-trained cat was sitting on its hams,
holding the lamp between its fore-paws.

[102] Handun kiri-paen, coconut milk, scented with a little
sandal-wood.

[103] The names of the three cities are verbal jokes. Awulpura
is derived from awulanawa, to collect or pick up; Handi, from
handi-karanawa, to join together; Upadda, from upaddanawa, to cause
to be born.

[104] See footnote, p. 5, regarding the use of the third person in
addressing a person very respectfully.

[105] The third person used as a sarcastic honorific in place of
the second.

[106] The account of the girl who was set afloat by the advice of an
astrologer who wanted to marry her is also found in No. 139, where
other references are appended.

[107] Mukkaduwa. I have not seen this yashmak or veil worn in Ceylon;
it is the top and back of the head which are covered in public by
a cloth, which reaches to the waist or lower. The edge of this is
sometimes drawn and held across the lower part of the face when
strangers are passing.

[108] Pissi gateta, probably intended for pissi gahatata, owing to
[his] insane affliction. Holman Pissa means "the madman of uncanny
noises."

[109] Suranganawo, the Apsarases.

[110] This story appeared in Ancient Ceylon, p. 93.

[111] A free gift of food to the poor; see vol. iii, Nos. 212 and 241.

[112] The Sinhalese title, is "The Story of the Seven Giants."

[113] Mama, mother's brother.

[114] This reminds one of the lines:

           "His hook he baited with a dragon's tail,
            And sat upon a rock and bobbed for whale."

[115] This episode, and the Lotus-flower and Lime-tree as life indexes,
are given in No. 20, vol. i, and the life indexes also in vol. iii,
Nos. 187, 237, and 260.

[116] He yayi, lit., will go white, that is, lose colour.

[117] An edible grass, Panicum sp.

[118] This episode occurs in vol. i, No. 20, and vol. iii, No. 260.

[119] Isake gahak, lit., a head-hair tree. A similar episode occurs
in vol. iii, No. 208.

[120] The episode of the life in the sword which was burnt occurs in
vol. i, No. 20, and vol. iii, Nos. 187, 237, 260.

[121] Hitapu hitapu taenwalatama.

[122] Asamima aenicci rajjaye.

[123] Bima-gahanawa.

[124] Nuwarata laewa.

[125] Baehae daekka.

[126] Kurahan, the Tamil kurakkan, the Indian ragi (Eleusine coracana).

[127] A temporary rice-field made inside a village tank, at the edge
of the water, after it has lowered considerably and left a tract
of rich land exposed. Heavy crops are obtained from such fields,
but they involve much labour, as the water for irrigating them must
be raised from the level of that in the tank.

[128] This would be a field of about three and a half acres.

[129] Maendaewwa.

[130] This is often done in such fields. The water is splashed sideways
with one foot, out of the shallow channels in which it stands; the
man balances himself on the other leg with the aid of a staff.

[131] Probably Malwa in India; in the Jataka story No. 183 (vol. ii,
p. 65), it is the Mallians who are referred to as well-known wrestlers.

[132] Umbata yanda dodu-weyanin.

[133] See vol. i, p. 52, foot-note. It is the Eastern form of the
American "Bee."

[134] Bolak baenda. I have no explanation of this expression. Probably
it refers to a magical spell and charm for preventing anyone from
unlawfully interfering with the crop. An instance of the employment of
such a form of charm for this purpose occurred in 1901 in the Puttalam
district; evidence regarding this was given in the Police Court there,
and fines were inflicted on the placers of it, and were confirmed by
the Supreme Court.

[135] Puruk dae-kaetta.

[136] Alut Kathawa.

[137] Lit., by this.

[138] Lit., by the.

[139] Lit., "I am able for." The infinitive is often omitted: the
villager says, Eka mata puluwani--"I am able [to do] it." Compare
also No. 93.

[140] C is pronounced as ch in English.

[141] Lit., by the.

[142] A sixteenth part of a rupee.

[143] Mandi.

[144] A village saying, perhaps intended to frighten the child and
make her behave better.

[145] The funeral feast given to Buddhist monks on such occasions.

[146] He meant the fruits, as mentioned lower down.

[147] The collective name of some of the lowest castes.

[148] Giya haetiye awe nae.

[149] Severe cases of ulceration of the lower part of the legs were
formerly numerous in the jungle villages, and were due to a complaint
termed the "Parangi disease." It is gradually dying out, now that
people have more wholesome food and water.

[150] Compare also vol. i, p. 131.

[151] Short-nosed one.

[152] In transliterations the letter c is pronounced as ch. The noise
was a splutter.

[153] This incident occurs in Folklore of the Santal Parganas
(collected by Rev. Dr. Bodding), p. 154. A girl married to a tiger ran
off after killing a cat and hanging it over the pan on the fire. When
the tiger returned he thought she was cooking.

[154] Nikan hitiya. The expression here implies, I think, that he
did not again attempt to marry his sister.

[155] Illness caused by one of the demons called Kadawara Devatawa.

[156] Betel is presented to devil-dancers when inviting them to come
for a demon ceremony.

[157] A Veda (low caste) or Vedarala (good caste) is either a medical
practitioner, or a soothsayer, or person who expels demons.

[158] Rae tisse, during the thirty [paeyas, each being twenty-four
minutes] of night.

[159] Egg-plant, or aubergine (Solanum sp.).

[160] Rice from which the skin has been removed without first softening
it in hot water. After the cooking the grains adhere together.

[161] This is considered to be a bad omen, hence the tying of the
thread to put an end to such dreams; see vol. i, p. 15. I have been
assured by those who have worn such threads that tying one on the arm
has the desired effect in checking evil dreams. To dream of eating
food is a prognostic of a future deficiency of food.

[162] A leaf cup, a reversed cone, would be set point downwards in
each cleft, and the cakes be heaped upon it.

[163] Ænga purama.

[164] Mata yanda nae, lit., "There is not [an opportunity] for me
to go."

[165] The meaning is, "If you did not notice and punish him for so
long, was it likely that I should?"

[166] Another title is, "The Story of Thirty Ridis."

[167] In a variant she is his younger sister.

[168] Lit., "silvers." In the Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed.,
vol. i, p. 234) there is a similar expression denoting silver coins:
"I gave the servant a few silvers." The ridi or larin is the silver
wire "hook-money," at first imported from the Persian Gulf, where
it was coined in Laristan, but afterwards made in Ceylon. Captain
Robert Knox says of it, "There is another sort, which all People by
the King's Permission may and do make. The shape is like a fish-hook,
they stamp what mark or impression on it they please" (Hist. Relation
of Ceylon, 1681, p. 97). Baldaeus remarked, "The most current coin here
are the silver Laryns each whereof is worth about tenpence ... as well
in Ceylon as Malabar two golden Fanams, at five-pence a piece, make
a Laryn" (A Description of ye East India Coasts, etc., translation,
1672, p. 727). As a later value I was informed that three ridis were
equal to one rupee. Further information regarding this money will be
found in the Additional Notes at the end of vol. iii.

[169] E minihata himin. Himin, hemin, or semin commonly means slowly,
gently; hence in village talk, secretly, unperceived, unknown to.

[170] See footnote on the first page of No. 201, vol. iii.

[171] Innawa pewuni.

[172] E parama, lit., at the very stroke.

[173] The words are an imitation of the rapidly-uttered alarm notes
of the common Lapwing of Ceylon:--Haebaeda ridiye, haebaeda ridiye,
daekkada ridiye, dutuwada ridiye, dunnada ridiye, gattada ridiye,
ridi tihayi, tihayi, tihayi.

[174] Kirali (Lobivanellus indicus).

[175] Perhaps this means, "[Our] bills are small."

[176] The narrator is supposed to have been a spectator.

[177] The text is given at the end of vol. iii, as an illustration
of the usual conversational style in the villages.

[178] Third person for second, in an honorific sense; she was speaking
to the women.

[179] Lit., "these," the word for paddy being plural, like that
for rice.

[180] Upaharana in the text, apparently intended for upakarana.

[181] Agare giya; agaraya is a drainage area. The meaning is that
the flow of the flood water over the ground carried away the paddy,
which would be spread on mats laid on the ground.

[182] Naki mahallae katantare.

[183] Nakiralage.

[184] From my own experience in the case of a severe burn, I can
say that a paste of cow-dung smeared completely over a burnt place
entirely removes all pain, and the wound soon heals under it. The
paste dries immediately owing to the heat of the skin, and after that
no unpleasant smell remains.

[185] The Sinhalese title is, "The Story that tells the manner in
which he played on the Lute for the Representation of the Tusk Elephant
(Ætaerinba)."

[186] The verb used throughout the story is ganawa, to rub.

[187] Husma elunaya.

[188] I do not know if this word is intended for an exclamation (=
haha), or a noun, hasak, a sorrow.

[189] See the variant from Tibetan Tales at the end of No. 190,
vol. iii.

[190] A vegetable cultivated in village gardens and chenas, Nothosærua
brachiate.

[191] Ana-karanayen; the verb ana-karanawa is usually "to order."

[192] Apparently understood by him to be intended for Kuda chawa
chawa. "Hunchback, [you are] vile, vile."

[193] Idena, which ordinarily would mean "ripens."

[194] He appears to have understood this to mean, "Hunchback, [you are]
clownish, clownish," godaya being "clown."

[195] Perhaps to be taken as one word, Kudarun, = Kudo + arun,
"Hunchbacks [are] fellows."

[196] Busa means chaff, cow-dung; he thought the meaning was,
"Hunchback, [you are] chaff, chaff."

[197] Sitana kenek.

[198] Sarpayingen gahana sitadika ratakata gos. The meaning is not
clear; apparently, as the bodies of snakes are always cold, they
were in such numbers that they chilled the air. Like pariah dogs,
they enjoyed the warmth and comfort afforded by the soft ashes,
and on departing left the gems out of gratitude.

[199] Tom-tom-voiced one (Bheri + nada + ya).

[200] Daekun = dakshina.

[201] Death personified.

[202] Diviyan, for deviyan, literally, deities.

[203] Many-bows-carrying Panditaya (Dhanu + ut + dara); it is a plural
honorific form.

[204] See foot-note, vol. i, p. 50.

[205] The text of this story is given at the end of vol. iii.

[206] Lehuwak.

[207] Pinci ammalae gedara. Pinci or punci amma is the mother's
younger sister.

[208] Lit., tried can she eat her. This is the usual form of
expression. It is common in Ireland also:--"A man came forward and
asked me would I buy a stone with Irish letters on it" (Prehistoric
Faith and Worship, p. 150). "He got into a bad rage entirely, and
asked her was Manis asleep again" (Donegal Fairy Stories, p. 83).

[209] Gal keruwa. He appears to have lain in wait for them.

[210] Abuccala; the brothers of a man's father are termed his fathers.

[211] In this tale the title is perhaps wrongly written Yakshayin kana
Prakshaya, the Yakshas-eating Prakshaya. In variants of the latter
part of the story the name is Rakshayan kana Prakshaya, Raksaya kana
Praksaya, and Raksin kana Praksaya.

[212] A species of cork-tree (Clough).

[213] Gaenu kollawa, lit., the female lad or youth.

[214] Perhaps a shopkeeper who sold rice, and who employed women to
clean the husk (kudu) off paddy.

[215] The only expression found in the stories, with one exception
where a Prince kisses his sister's portrait; elsewhere "kiss" does not
appear in them. It is the crown of the head which is smelt, or sniffed
at with a strong inhalation; the effect seems to be quite satisfactory.

[216] Yakshayin, in this story.

[217] Sic, probably a euphemism.

[218] Raksin kana Praksaya.

[219] Mata bae, lit., "I cannot," but commonly used with the meaning
"I will not."

[220] Udu-mahal talawa.

[221] The form of Bola used when addressing a person of low caste.

[222] Vis unnahanse.

[223] Gediya.

[224] Padda is the Low-country name for a Duraya, a man of the Porter
caste, Padu being the adjectival form.

[225] Appuhami is a title applied to the son of a Chief, usually in
the Low-country, Bastda or Bastdara being the Kandian equivalent.

[226] Jadaya.

[227] Sahodarayine.

[228] A haetiye.

[229] Rakshayan kana Prakshaya.

[230] These incidents are given in vol. i, p. 101.

[231] This is an instance of Peraeli-basa or Transposition, and the
meaning is, "Go a little little [further]." Jen may be derived from
ned; the other words are tika tikak.

[232] Mage duwa kohe giyado? Darata giyado? Waturata giyado?

[233] I have left this sentence as it was written, as a specimen of
the village mode of expression.

[234] Monk's residence.

[235] Prognostics depending on the position of the planets at the
time when she reached marriageable age. These are ascertained in the
case of all girls.

[236] Mara damanda epa.

[237] Compare No. 108.

[238] Buddhist sacred writings. To say Bana, is to recite or chant
portions of these works.

[239] This form of the story is found also in Cinq Cents Contes et
Apologues, vol. iii, p. 215.

[240] Persons, often village doctors or soothsayers, who possess a
knowledge of the incantations and procedure by means of which demons
are driven away.

[241] It is stated in the Maha Bharata (Vana Parva, ccxxix) that when
a Yaksha enters a person he becomes insane.

[242] A demon who frequents cemeteries.

[243] The tom-tom beaters were formerly weavers also.

[244] May life be long! This is the usual response made at
incantations during ceremonies for removing sickness caused by demons
or planets. The words are addressed to the power invoked, and must
be uttered very loudly.

[245] Kapi kawatakan, silly jokes.

[246] The light that he saw was caused by her brilliance. See the end
of No. 204, vol. iii. In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i,
p. 16, a beautiful girl is described as having "a face like a full
moon, and eyes like a blue lotus; she had arms graceful as the stalk
of a lotus, and a lovely full bosom; she had a neck marked with three
lines like a shell, and magnificent coral lips; in short she was a
second Lakshmi" (the Goddess of Prosperity).

[247] In these stories the yojana may usually be taken to represent
four gawu of four miles--that is, it would be sixteen miles.

[248] Unnaehae is nearly equivalent to Mr., and is used in names in
the same way.

[249] Literally, betimes (kalin).

[250] Katak, a mouth.

[251] Kada watta-wanne naetuwa. Watta appears to be derived from the
Sanskrit and Sinhalese vant, part, share.

[252] The common form of adieu among Sinhalese and Tamils.

[253] Bee-hive flower.

[254] Ironwood, Mesua ferrea.

[255] The story is difficult to understand in several places; I have
tried to express the apparent meaning.

[256] It is clear that she got her name from a flower found in the
hive, which might thus be termed a Mi-mala (Mi-flower), and not from
the flower of the Mi-tree (Bassia longifolia).

[257] Mata bae, which often is used with the meaning, "I will not."

[258] Wijja-karayek.

[259] Bhutiyan-karayek.

[260] Kaemaeti kenek, a common expression meaning anyone whatever.

[261] Kapantada.

[262] Kotantada.

[263] Waden poren.

[264] Handun kiri-paen.

[265] Eda dawasa.

[266] Waden poren.

[267] This incident is given in Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues
(Chavannes), vol. i, p. 83. The hundred sons of a Queen attacked
their father's capital. The Queen mounted on a tower, pointed out
their wickedness, and pressing her breasts milk was projected into
their mouths, and they recognised her. In vol. iii, p. 12, she was
on a white elephant, and had five hundred sons.

[268] Yatama yata taliyata.

[269] The narrator has omitted to state the reason why the King was so
anxious to kill the Prince--that is, in order to marry the Princesses.

[270] De gawwak tiya mi-maesso ewidinawa.

[271] Poroga, perhaps for pura-roga.

[272] This is the Raja-miya, or Royal Bee-hive, of the Wanniyas;
it has this name in the next variant.

[273] Pallem pallem. Pallem may be palla, bottom + im, pl. of ima,
boundary, limit.

[274] Pas waehaewwotin.

[275] The Sinhalese title is, The Story of a Nobleman (Sitana
kenekunge kathawa).

[276] A kalpa is a day and night of Brahma, or 1,000 Yugas, and
therefore 432 million years (see vol. i, p. 49).

[277] Warata awaya, that is, become mature.

[278] For an account of the Royal Bee-hive, see Ancient Ceylon, p. 170.

[279] Daru garbayek upanna.

[280] Umbe kawuda, your who? a common form of expression.

[281] Aciravati, now the Rapti.

[282] Nanga bawanata; throughout the text Nagaya is spelt Nangaya.

[283] In the Mahavansa, chap, xxxi, the name of the Naga King is
Mahakala, but in the Sin. Thupavansaya, p. 87, it is Mahakela.

[284] Nanga rajayo.

[285] This power over snakes by means of spells (mantras) is mentioned
in the Maha Bharata (Adi Parva, cxcii). There are spells which are
believed to render any animal incapable of movement. See also vol. iii,
Nos. 245 and 252. On one occasion, when I went after a "rogue" elephant
I had with me an old tracker who claimed to know an infallible spell
of this kind. After we had been charged by the animal, however, I
discovered him in the upper part of an adjoining tree, his excuse being
that the elephant was deaf and could not hear the words of the spell.

[286] Nuwarak nuwarak pasa.

[287] Eda dawasema, on that day's very day.

[288] Two months, according to the MS.

[289] Sun-maidens or women (Suriya-kantawo).

[290] A mendicant's wallet.

[291] Tamunta, hon. pl. of tama, he.

[292] White, if the word written su was intended for sudu.

[293] Metuwak kal.

[294] Wasa napuru.

[295] Gatawala nam pussa.

[296] The flowers of the Celestial Nymphs, the Apsarases.

[297] Soyanta diyak.

[298] Pissa. In the story No. 22 the word is wrongly translated
"burnt," owing to my confounding the Sinhalese word with pussa and
pissuwa, the colloquial expressions for "burnt."

[299] Devin-wahanse.

[300] The "permission" of a King is a command.

[301] The Sinhalese title is, "Concerning a Woman's becoming a Rakshi
(Rakshasi)."

[302] Lit., tied the marriage. The little fingers or thumbs of
the bride and bridegroom were tied together by a thread during the
ceremony.

[303] A room. The word meaning "room" is rarely used in these stories,
the usual expression, kamara, being a Portuguese word.

[304] In The Arabian Nights (Lady Burton's ed., vol. ii, p. 140),
it is stated of a man that he "fell to weeping a weeping."

[305] Budiya gatta. In village talk, the same expression is used for
sleeping and lying down, the context alone showing which meaning is
intended. The villagers rarely lie down except when about to sleep,
or when ill. On p. 415, line 5, the same expression occurs.

[306] In the Katha Sarit Sagara (Tawney), vol. i, p. 43, it is stated
of Rakshasas, Yakshas, and Pisacas, "They never attack chaste men,
heroes, and men awake."

[307] Raksappreti.

[308] Kiyana wahama.

[309] The hill on the left side in Fig. 46, Ancient Ceylon.

[310] Ashes, according to the Katha Sarit Sagara, vol. i, p. 564. To
this may be added the transformation of Ahalya into stone by her
husband, the hermit Gautama, for her intimacy with Indra, and the
Rishi Visvamitra's turning the Apsaras Rambha into stone for disturbing
his devotions (Maha Bharata, Anusasana Parva).

[311] See especially the note to No. 136 of this vol.

[312] Lit., by the woman.

[313] Calophyllum sp., a tall forest tree.

[314] Lit., near the hand, ata langin; in other cases the expression
is sometimes ata gawin, with the same meaning.

[315] Alessan-karana = alissam-k., with dat.

[316] That is, meet me face to face; this would be an unfavourable
omen.

[317] Ændun kuttama. Kuttama being a pair, the reference appears to
be to the jacket and cloth.

[318] Some formal auspicious wish, such as, "May you be victorious,
O King," or more simply, "Victory, O Great King." The word in the
text is asiriwada, the Tamil asirvatam, and Skt. asirvada.

[319] Anata ana-dunna.

[320]  "Koda nada pana e tibi huro nata denu we
        Madara dapana kal baedi wiri duta yanu we.
        Me tada bada kata no karan me mata raewanu we
        Mama oda eda baessa mu dura no pinu we."

I offer the translation of these lines with considerable doubt. I
have assumed that huro = suro, hon. pl. of sura; madara = ma adara;
duta = duta; and pinu = pinu. The courier or messenger would be Kama,
the god of love. Perhaps oda and eda ought to be transposed; the line
would then end, "I that day's pride abating."

[321] Æmaeta-inda.

[322] Harigas kenakunda, lit., to persons who fit them (to the facts).

[323] In The Kathakoça (Tawney), p. 29, when a king sent a crier
with a drum to invite assistance in a certain affair of difficulty,
a man stopped the proclamation by touching the drum.

[324] Kadappuliya, apparently derived from the Tamil words
kadam, grave-yard, and pilei, to escape. The Tamil word would be
kadappileiyar, he (hon) who escaped from the grave-yard. Compare
vedippulaya (for vedippileiyar), one who escaped from shooting (The
Veddas, by Dr. and Mrs. C. G. Seligmann, p. 196).

            Handa giya kala        wiya-gaha [324a] kaedune,
            Wiya-gaha kaedu kala   gedarata emine, [324b]
            Gedarata a kala        aenda uda sitine,
            Ænda uda siti kala     konda-pita daewe,
            Konda-pita dae kala    aenda yata balane,
            Ænda yata baelu kala   kiri-bata tibune.
            Kiri-bata kalayi       me duka waedune.
            Me duka balala         paenapan Gembiritto!

[324a] Lit., Yoke-tree, like our "axle-tree."

[324b] ? Hemin en[n]e.

[326] In trying to laugh at the man's doggerel, according to the
narrator.

[327] Jambu, the Rose-apple, Jambosa vulgaris.

[328] There is not a word botiya, pl. botiyo, in Sinhalese, except
when thus added to kotiya with the meaning given by me; compare
praksaya in No. 137.

[329] The meaning of the word dabukka is said to be waehi-poda,
drop of rain, or drizzle.

[330] In a variant it is termed a Kaburussa creeper, perhaps the same
as the Habalossa creeper in No. 94.

[331] In the variant both ends were tied on the animals' necks.

[332] Beds are often made by a number of split canes laid
longitudinally and fastened at the ends of the frame, with transverse
canes interlaced through them. Coir strings (of coconut fibre) are
also used. A grass mat is laid over the canes or strings.

[333] See the description of the circular corn store, opened by
raising the roof, in the Introduction, vol. i, p. 10.

[334] Waru hantiya, end of the stack-like roof.

[335] That is, they all go together, the men preceding the women.

[336] I never heard of an instance of a python's swallowing a human
being in Ceylon. Cases are known of their seizing dogs and deer;
one which was brought to me had just killed the largest he-goat of
a flock; it was eighteen feet long. In the story No. 72 in vol. i,
a python is stated to have seized a boy who had rescued a jackal
which it had caught.

[337] A large amphibious lizard (Hydrosaurus salvator).

[338] Lit., by the King.

[339] Ibba is a fresh-water turtle; Ibbawa would be Turtle City.

[340] Spelt by the narrator both haepinna and haepinni.

[341] Udeta udeta eka eka kiri gotuwa.

[342] A plum-like fruit, of pleasant flavour, but astringent, which
grows on a tall forest tree, Nephelium longanum.

[343] Similarly, in the Maha Bharata (Vana Parva, iii) it is declared
that the repetition of the Hymn to the Sun recited by Yudhishthira
grants any boon, and that its reading in the morning and evening
twilight frees a man or woman from danger.

[344] In the second story it was a spring noose, which held the
Peacock dangling in the air, caught by the leg. Apparently this is
what the Sinhalese narrator meant.

[345] Suriya Diwa Rajaya.

[346] Punci-da hita.

[347] Waehi-megaya unnaehae.

[348] This word is evidently inserted to distinguish it from the tree
ant-hill, made of earth by a species of black ant.

[349] The leopard often climbs up trees, but cannot descend more than
a few feet down the trunk; from any considerable height it always
jumps down. My tame leopard would climb down backwards for about six
feet only.

[350] Æt-amba kirilli.

[351] A form of comparison, meaning, "Which was the better, that day
or to-day?"

[352] Plotus melanogaster, diya-kawa (Sin.).

[353] Kudamassan.

[354] Kaeta kirilli, probably a Bush Lark (Mirafra affinis). One or
two other species have this name in Sinhalese, but not the Quail.

[355]   Mitak witara aeti e kaeta kirilli
        Ætek maerewwa. Harida kirilli?





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, Volume 2 (of 3)" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home