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Title: Education of Women
Author: Thomas, M. Carey
Language: English
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                         DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

                                 FOR THE


                         MONOGRAPHS ON EDUCATION

                                  IN THE

                              UNITED STATES

                                EDITED BY

                          NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER

 _Professor of Philosophy and Education in Columbia University, New York_


                            EDUCATION OF WOMEN


                             M. CAREY THOMAS

        _President of Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania_

                         BY THE STATE OF NEW YORK

[Illustration: Attitude of different sections of the United States
toward coeducation and separate education of men and women]

                         DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

                                 FOR THE


                         MONOGRAPHS ON EDUCATION

                                  IN THE

                              UNITED STATES

                                EDITED BY

                          NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER

 _Professor of Philosophy and Education in Columbia University, New York_


                           EDUCATION OF WOMEN


                            M. CAREY THOMAS

       _President of Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania_

                        BY THE STATE OF NEW YORK

                              COPYRIGHT BY
                           J. B. LYON COMPANY


                           EDUCATION OF WOMEN

The higher education of women in America is taking place before our eyes
on a vast scale and in a variety of ways. Every phase of this great
experiment, if experiment we choose to call it, may be studied almost
simultaneously. Women are taking advantage of all the various kinds of
education offered them in great and ever-increasing numbers, and the
period of thirty years, or thereabouts, that has elapsed since the
beginning of the movement is sufficient to authorize us in drawing
certain definite conclusions. The higher education of women naturally
divides itself into college education designed primarily to train the
mental faculties by means of a liberal education, and only secondarily,
to equip the student for self-support, and professional or special
education, directed primarily toward one of the money-making

                           COLLEGE EDUCATION

Women’s college education is carried on in three different classes of
institutions: coeducational colleges, independent women’s colleges and
women’s colleges connected more or less closely with some one of the
colleges for men.

=1. Coeducation=—Coeducation is the prevailing system of college
education in the United States for both men and women. In the western
states and territories it is almost the only system of education, and it
is rapidly becoming the prevailing system in the south, where the
influence of the state universities is predominant. On the other hand,
in the New England and middle states the great majority of the youth of
both sexes are still receiving a separate college education. Coeducation
was introduced into colleges in the west as a logical consequence of the
so-called American system of free elementary and secondary schools.
During the great school revival of 1830–45 and the ensuing years until
the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, free elementary and secondary
schools were established throughout New England and the middle states
and such western states as existed in those days. It was a fortunate
circumstance for girls that the country was at that time sparsely
settled; in most neighborhoods it was so difficult to establish and
secure pupils for even one grammar school and one high school that girls
were admitted from the first to both[1]. In the reorganization of lower
and higher education that took place between 1865 and 1870 this same
system, bringing with it the complete coeducation of the sexes, was
introduced throughout the south both for whites and negroes, and was
extended to every part of the west. In no part of the country, except in
a few large eastern cities, was any distinction made in elementary or
secondary education between boys and girls[2]. The second fortunate and
in like manner almost accidental factor in the education of American
women was the occurrence of the civil war at the formative period of the
public schools, with the result of placing the elementary and secondary
education of both boys and girls overwhelmingly in the hands of women
teachers. In no other country of the world has this ever been the case,
and its influence upon women’s education has been very great. The five
years of the civil war, which drained all the northern and western
states of men, caused women teachers to be employed in the public and
private schools in large numbers, and in the first reports of the
national bureau of education, organized after the war, we see that there
were already fewer men than women teaching in the public schools of the
United States. This result proved not to be temporary, but permanent,
and from 1865 until the present time not only the elementary teaching of
boys and girls but the secondary education of both has been increasingly
in the hands of women[3]. When most of the state universities of the
west were founded they were in reality scarcely more than secondary
schools supplemented, in most cases, by large preparatory departments.
Girls were already being educated with boys in all the high schools of
the west, and not to admit them to the state universities would have
been to break with tradition. Women were also firmly established as
teachers in the secondary schools and it was patent to all thoughtful
men that they must be given opportunities for higher education, if only
for the sake of the secondary education of the boys of the country.[4]
The development of women’s education in the east has followed a
different course because there were in the east no state universities,
and the private colleges for men had been founded before women were
suffered to become either pupils or teachers in schools. The admission
of women to the existing eastern colleges was, therefore, as much an
innovation as it would have been in Europe. The coeducation of men and
women in colleges, and at the same time the college education of women,
began in Ohio, the earliest settled of the western states. In 1833
Oberlin collegiate institute (not chartered as a college until 1850) was
opened, admitting from the first both men and women. Oberlin was at that
time, and is now, hampered by maintaining a secondary school as large as
its college department, but it was the first institution for collegiate
instruction in the United States where large numbers of men and women
were educated together, and the uniformly favorable testimony of its
faculty had great influence on the side of coeducation. In 1853 Antioch
college, also in Ohio, was opened, and admitted from the beginning men
and women on equal terms. Its first president, Horace Mann, was one of
the most brilliant and energetic educational leaders in the United
States, and his ardent advocacy of coeducation, based on his own
practical experience, had great weight with the public.[5] From this
time on it became a custom, as state universities were opened in the far
west, to admit women. Utah, opened in 1850, Iowa, opened in 1856,
Washington, opened in 1862, Kansas, opened in 1866, Minnesota, opened in
1868, and Nebraska, opened in 1871, were coeducational from the outset.
Indiana, opened as early as 1820, admitted women in 1868. The state
University of Michigan was, at this time, the most important western
university, and the only western university well known in the east
before the war. When, in 1870, it opened its doors to women, they were
for the first time in America admitted to instruction of true college
grade. The step was taken in response to public sentiment, as shown by
two requests of the state legislature, against the will of the faculty
as a whole. The example of the University of Michigan was quickly
followed by all the other state universities of the west. In the same
year women were allowed to enter the state universities of Illinois and
California; in 1873 the only remaining state university closed to women,
that of Ohio, admitted them. Wisconsin which, since 1860, had given some
instruction to women, became in 1874 unreservedly coeducational. All the
state universities of the west, organized since 1871, have admitted
women from the first. In the twenty states which, for convenience, I
shall classify as western, there are now twenty state universities open
to women, and, in four territories, Arizona, Oklahoma, Indiana and New
Mexico, the one university of each territory is open to women. Of the
eleven state universities of the southern states the two most western
admitted women first, as was to be expected. Missouri became
coeducational as early as 1870, and the University of Texas was opened
in 1883 as a coeducational institution. Mississippi admitted women in
1882, Kentucky in 1889, Alabama in 1893, South Carolina in 1894, North
Carolina in 1897, but only to women prepared to enter the junior and
senior years, West Virginia in 1897.[6] The state universities of
Virginia, Georgia and Louisiana are still closed. The one state
university existing outside the west and south, that of Maine, admitted
women in 1872.

The greater part of the college education of the United States, however,
is carried on in private, not in state universities. In 1897 over 70 per
cent of all the college students in the United States were studying in
private colleges, so that for women’s higher education their admission
to private colleges is really a matter of much greater importance. The
part taken by Cornell university in New York state in opening private
colleges to women was as significant as the part taken by Michigan in
opening state universities. Cornell is in a restricted sense a state
university, inasmuch as part of its endowment, like that of the state
universities, is derived from state and national funds. Nevertheless,
there is little reason to suppose that Cornell would have admitted women
had it not been for the generosity of Henry W. Sage, who offered to
build and endow a large hall of residence for women at Cornell
university. After carefully investigating coeducation in all the
institutions where it then existed, and especially in Michigan, the
trustees of the university admitted women in 1872. The example set by
Cornell was followed very slowly by the other private colleges of the
New England and middle states. For the next twenty years the colleges in
this section of the United States admitting women might be counted on
the fingers of one hand. In Massachusetts Boston university opened its
department of arts in 1873, and admitted women to it from the first; but
no college for men followed the example of Boston until 1883, when the
Massachusetts institute of technology, the most important technical and
scientific school in the state, and one of the most important in the
United States, admitted women. This school, like Cornell, is supported
in part from state and national funds. Very recently, in 1892, Tufts
college was opened to women. In the west and south the case is
different, and the list of private colleges that one after another have
become coeducational is too long to be inserted here. Among new
coeducational foundations the most important are, on the Pacific coast,
the Leland Stanford junior university, opened in 1891, and, in the
middle west, Chicago university, opened in 1892. To show the differing
attitude toward coeducation of the different sections of the United
States, I have arranged the 480 coeducational colleges and separate
colleges for men given in the U.S. education report for 1897–98 in a
table on the opposite page. In matters like women’s education, which are
powerfully affected by prejudice and conservative opinion, we find not
only a sharp cleavage in opinion and practice between the west and the
east of the United States, but also distinct phases of differing
opinion, corresponding in the main to the old geographical division of
the states into New England, middle, southern and western.[7]

                I _20 western states and 3 territories_

     STATES     Total Coed.                   Men only
 Ohio              35    29 3 R. C., 1 Luth., 1 P. E., Western reserve.
 Indiana           14     9 2 R. C., 1 Luth., 1 Cong., Wabash college.
 Illinois          31    24 5 R. C., 1 Ger. Ev., Illinois college.
 Michigan          11    10 1 R. C.
 Wisconsin         10     7 1 R. C., 1 Luth., 1 Dutch Reformed.
 Minnesota          9     7 1 R. C., 1 Luth.
 Iowa              22    20 2 Luth.
 North Dakota       3     3
 South Dakota       6     6
 Nebraska          12    11 1 R. C. (professional dept. open)
 Kansas            19    17 2 R. C.
 Montana            3     3
 Wyoming            1     1
 Colorado           4     3 1 R. C.
 Arizona            1     1
 Utah               2     2
 Nevada             1     1
 Idaho              1     1
 Washington         9     7 2 R. C.
 Oregon             8     8
 California        12     9 3 R. C.
 Indian             2     2
 Oklahoma           1     1
                  217   182 22 R. C., 6 Luth., 1 Ger. Ev., 1 Dutch Ref.,
                              1 P. E., 1 Cong.

             II _14 southern and 2 southern middle states_

     STATES     Total Coed.                   Men only
 Delaware           2     1 Delaware college. (The one coeducational
                              college is for negroes.)
 Maryland          11     4 4 R. C., St. John’s, Maryland agric.
                              college, Johns Hopkins.
 District of        6     3 3 R. C.
 Virginia          10     4 2 M. E. So., Univ. of Virginia,
                              Hampden-Sidney, Washington and Lee,
                              William and Mary.
 West Virginia      3     3
 North Carolina    15    10 1 R. C., 2 Presb., 1 Luth., 1 Bapt.
 South Carolina     9     7 1 A. M. E., College of Charleston.
 Georgia           11     6 2 Bapt., 1 A. M. E., 1 M. E. So., Univ. of
 Florida            6     5 1 R. C.
 Kentucky          13     9 1 R. C., 1 Bapt., 1 Presb., Ogden college.
 Tennessee         24    20 1 R. C., 2 Presb., 1 P. E. (Univ. of South.)
 Alabama            9     7 2 R. C.
 Mississippi        4     2 1 Bapt., 1 M. E. So.
 Louisiana          9     3 2 R. C., 1 M. E. So., 1 Cong., Louisiana
                              State univ., Tulane.
 Texas             16    12 3 R. C., 1 Presb.
 Arkansas           8     8
 Missouri          26    21 3 R. C., 1 Bapt., 1 Presb.
                  182   125 21 R. C., 5 M. E. So., 6 Bapt., 7 Presb., 1
                              Luth., 2 A. M. E., 1 P. E., 1 Cong.

            III _6 New England and 3 northern middle states_

     STATES     Total Coed.                   Men only
 Maine              4     2 1 Bapt. (Colby, limited coed.), Bowdoin
 New Hampshire      2       1 R. C., 1 Cong. (Dartmouth)
 Vermont            3     2 Norwich university
 Massachusetts      9     2 2 R. C., 2 Cong. (Amherst), Harvard,
                              Williams, Clark
 Rhode Island       1       Brown
 Connecticut        3     1 1 P. E. (Trinity), Yale
 New York          23     5 8 R. C., 2 P. E. (Hobart), 1 Bapt.
                              (Colgate), Polytechnic institute of
                              Brooklyn, Hamilton, College of City of New
                              York (boys’ high school), Columbia, Union,
                              Rochester, New York university
 New Jersey         4       2 R. C., 1 Dutch Ref. (Rutgers), Princeton
 Pennsylvania      32    17 4 R. C, 1 Luth., 1 Moravian, 1 Friends
                              (Haverford), 1 Dutch Ref. (Franklin &
                              Marshall), Pennsylvania military college,
                              Philadelphia central high school (boys’
                              high school), Lehigh university,
                              University of Pennsylvania, 3 Presb.
                              (Lafayette, Washington & Jefferson,
                   81    29 17 R. C., 1 Luth., 3 P. E., 3 Cong., 3
                              Presb., 2 Bapt., 1 Friends, 2 Dutch Ref.,
                              1 Moravian (The Univ. of Penna. admits
                              women to many departments, but not to full
                              undergraduate work leading to the
                              bachelor’s degree)

  In the western states it will be observed there are, excluding Roman
  Catholic colleges and seminaries, out of 195 colleges 182
  coeducational and only 13 colleges for men only. All of these except
  3 are denominational; 6 belong to the Lutheran, 1 to the Dutch
  Reformed, 1 to the German Evangelical, 1 to the Episcopalian, and 1
  to the Congregationalist. The other 3 are, as we might expect, in
  the most eastern and the earliest settled of the western states; one
  in Ohio, Western reserve, which teaches women in a separate women’s
  college; one in Indiana, Wabash college, one of the three most
  important colleges in Indiana; and one in Illinois, Illinois
  college. Roman Catholic institutions apart, in 14 states and all 3
  territories every college for men is open to women (the one
  university of the territory of New Mexico, not included in the U. S.
  education report, is open to women). In the southern states and
  southern middle states there are, excluding Roman Catholic colleges
  and seminaries, out of 161, 125 coeducational and only 36 colleges
  for men only. Among these 36, however, are the most important
  educational institution in Maryland, the Johns Hopkins university;
  the most important in Georgia, the University of Georgia; in
  Louisiana the two most important, the Louisiana state university and
  Tulane university, and in Virginia the very important University of
  Virginia.[8] Roman Catholic institutions apart, all the colleges in
  the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida and West Virginia are
  coeducational. In New England and the northern middle states out of
  64 colleges, excluding Roman Catholic colleges and seminaries, only
  29, or less than half, are coeducational. The colleges for men only
  include (with the exception of Cornell) all the largest
  undergraduate colleges in this section—Harvard, Yale, Columbia,
  Princeton, Pennsylvania. Maine and Vermont are liberal to women, 2
  colleges (3 if we count the limited coeducational college of Colby)
  in Maine and 3 in Vermont being coeducational, but the total number
  of students in college in these states is very small (in Maine only
  843 men and 189 women; in Vermont only 301 men and 99 women). The
  leading colleges of New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New
  Jersey and Pennsylvania are closed, and in Massachusetts only 2 are
  open and 7 closed.[9]

Of the four hundred and eighty colleges for men enumerated by the
commissioner of education 336, or 70 per cent (or, excluding Catholic
colleges, 80 per cent), admit women. It would be misleading, however, to
count among American institutions for higher education, properly
so-called, most of the coeducational colleges and separate colleges for
men included in this list, and it would be equally misleading to compare
the number of women studying in such colleges in the United States with
the number of women engaged in higher studies in England, France and
Germany.[10] In order to obtain a better idea of opportunities for true
collegiate work open to women at the present time in the United States I
have selected from these four hundred and eighty colleges and from the
numerous colleges for women classified elsewhere, a list of fifty-eight
colleges properly so-called, employing for the purpose the four means of
classification most likely to commend themselves to the impartial
student of such things.[11] Of these fifty-eight colleges four are
independent colleges for women and three women’s colleges affiliated to
colleges for men; of the remaining 51, 30, or 58.8 per cent, are
coeducational, and a nearer examination makes a much more favorable
showing for coeducation. Of the 21 colleges closed to women in their
undergraduate departments five have affiliated to them a women’s college
through which women obtain some share in the undergraduate instruction
given, the affiliated colleges in three cases being of enough importance
to appear in the same list. Of these five, four (all but Harvard) admit
women without restriction to their graduate instruction, and in addition
Yale, the University of Pennsylvania and New York university make no
distinction between men and women in graduate instruction. The Johns
Hopkins university maintains a coeducational medical school. In this
list then of fifty-eight, which includes all the most important colleges
in the United States, there are, apart from the two Catholic colleges,
only ten (Dartmouth, Amherst, Williams, Clark, Princeton, Lehigh,
Lafayette, Hamilton, Colgate, Virginia, all situated on the Atlantic
seaboard) to which women are not admitted in some departments. Princeton
is the only one of the large university foundations that excludes women
from any share whatsoever in its advantages. The diagram on the opposite
page shows the steady progress of coeducation from 1870 to 1898.[12]

                         GROWTH OF COEDUCATION

 Coeducational 30·7%               1870               For men only 69·3%

 Coeducational 51·3%               1880               For men only 48·7%

 Coeducational 65·5%               1890               For men only 34·5%

 Coeducational 70·%                1898               For men only 30·%

I have prepared the diagram for 1870 from the U. S. ed. rep. for 1870,
pp. 506–516, and the diagram for 1897–98 from the U. S. ed. rep., pp.
1848–1867, and from the table, opposite page 9 of this monograph. The
diagrams for 1880 and 1890 are copied from the report for 1889–90, p.
764. For assistance in the preparation of this and other diagrams, and
in working out the percentages given here, and elsewhere, in this
monograph I am much indebted to Dr. Isabel Maddison.

If Catholic colleges are excluded, as in the map opposite page 10,
coeducational colleges formed, in 1898, 80 per cent, and colleges for
men only 20 per cent of the whole number—a still more favorable result
for coeducation.

All the arguments against the coeducation of the sexes in colleges have
been met and answered by experience. It was feared at first that
coeducation would lower the standard of scholarship on account of the
supposed inferior quality of women’s minds. The unanimous experience in
coeducational colleges goes to show that the average standing of women
is slightly higher than the average standing of men.[13] Many reasons
for the greater success of women are given, such as absence of the
distraction of athletic sports, greater diligence, higher moral
standards, but the fact, however it may be explained, remains and is as
gratifying as astonishing to those interested in women’s education. The
question of health has also been finally disposed of; thousands of women
have been working side by side with men in coeducational institutions
for the past twenty-five years and undergoing exactly the same tests
without a larger percentage of withdrawals on account of illness than
men. The question of conduct has also been disposed of. None of the
difficulties have arisen that were feared from the association of men
and women of marriageable age. Looking at coeducation as a whole it is
most surprising that it has worked so well.[14] Perhaps the only
objection that may be made from men’s point of view to coeducation in
America is that it has succeeded only too well and that the proportion
of women students is increasing too steadily. Not only is the number of
coeducational colleges increasing but the number of women relatively to
the number of men is increasing also. In 1890 there were studying in
coeducational colleges 16,959 men and 7,929 women; or women, in other
words, formed 31.9 per cent of the whole body of students. In 1898 there
were 28,823 men and 16,284 women studying in coeducational colleges,
women forming 36.1 per cent of the whole body of students. Between 1890
and 1898 men in coeducational colleges have increased 70.0 per cent, but
women in coeducational colleges have increased 105.4 per cent.[15]

There is every reason to suppose that this increase of women will
continue. Already girls form 56.5 per cent of the pupils in all
secondary schools and 13 per cent of the girls enrolled and only 10 per
cent of the boys enrolled graduate from the public high schools. It is
sometimes said that men students, as a rule, dislike the presence of
women, and in especial that they are unwilling to compete for prizes
against women for the very reason that the average standing of women is
higher than their own. If there is any force in this statement, however,
it would seem that men should increase less rapidly in coeducational
colleges than in separate colleges for men. The reverse, however, is the
case. During the eight years from 1890 to 1898 men have increased in
coeducational colleges 70.0 per cent, but in separate colleges for men
only 34.7 per cent.[16] This is all the more remarkable, because in the
separate colleges for men are included the large undergraduate
departments of Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Columbia and the University of
Pennsylvania. It is women who have shown a preference for separate
education; women have increased more rapidly in separate colleges for
women than in coeducational colleges. It will be observed, however, that
the separate colleges for women, like the separate colleges for men
included in my list of fifty-eight, are in the east; it is in the east
only that any preference for separate education is shown by either

Independent colleges for women—Since independent colleges for women of
the same grade as those for men are peculiar to the United States, I
shall treat them somewhat more fully.[18] The independent colleges here
taken into account are the eleven colleges included in division A[19] of
the U. S. education reports.[20] The independent colleges for women fall
readily into three groups: I. The so-called “four great colleges for
women,” Vassar, Smith, Wellesley, Bryn Mawr. It will be seen by
referring to the classification on page 12 that these four colleges are
included among the fifty-eight leading colleges of the United States;
they are all included in the twenty-two colleges admitted to the
Association of collegiate alumnæ; two of them, Bryn Mawr and Wellesley,
are included in the twenty-three colleges belonging to the Federation of
graduate clubs; they are all included in the list of fifty-two leading
colleges of the United States given in the handbook of Minerva; they are
all, except Bryn Mawr, included in the list given by the U. S. education
report for 1897–98[21] of forty-six colleges in the United States having
three hundred students and upward; three of them, Bryn Mawr, Smith and
Vassar, are included among the fifty-two colleges of the United States
possessing invested funds of $500,000 and upward, and two of them,
Vassar and Bryn Mawr, are included among the twenty-nine colleges of the
United States possessing funds of $1,000,000 and upward; three of them,
Smith, Wellesley and Vassar, rank among the twenty-three largest
undergraduate colleges in the United States; one of them, Smith, ranks
as the tenth undergraduate college in the United States.

  =Vassar college, Poughkeepsie, New York=[22]—Founder, Matthew
  Vassar; intention, “to found and equip an institution which should
  accomplish for young women what our colleges are accomplishing for
  young men;” opened, 1865; preparatory department dropped, 1888;
  presidents, three (men); 45 instructors (16 Ph. D.s.)—35 women, 2
  without first degree; 10 men; 584 undergrad. s., 11 grad. s., 24
  special s.; productive funds, $1,050,000; a main building with
  lecture rooms, library and accommodation for 345 students, and two
  other residence halls accommodating 189 students; a science
  building; a lecture building; a museum with art, music and
  laboratory rooms; an observatory; a gymnasium; a plant house; a
  president’s house; five professors’ houses; total cost of buildings,
  $1,044,365; vols. in library, 30,000; laboratory equipment, $33,382;
  acres, 200; music and art depts., but technical work in neither
  counted toward bachelor’s degree; tuition fee, $100; lowest charge,
  tuition, board and residence, including washing, $400.

  =Wellesley college, Wellesley, Massachusetts=—Founder, Henry F.
  Durant; intention, “to found a college for the glory of God by the
  education and culture of women,” opened 1875; preparatory department
  dropped, 1880; requirement from students of one hour daily domestic
  or clerical work dropped, 1896; presidents, five (all women); 69
  instructors (13 Ph. D.s.)—64 women, 16, apart from laboratory
  assistants without first degree; 5 men; 611 undergrad. s., 25 grad.
  s., 21 special s.; productive funds, $7,000;[23] a main building
  with library lecture rooms and accommodation for 250 students; a
  chemical laboratory; an observatory; a chapel; an art building; a
  music building; 8 halls of residence, accommodating 348 students
  (new hall being built); total cost of buildings, $1,106,500; vols,
  in library, 49,970; laboratory equipment, $50,000; acres, 410; music
  and art depts., but technical work in neither counted toward
  bachelor’s degree; tuition fee, $175; lowest charge, tuition, board
  and residence (beds made, rooms dusted by students), $400.

  =Smith college, Northampton, Massachusetts=—Founder, Sophia Smith;
  intention, to provide “means and facilities for education equal to
  those which are afforded in our colleges for young men;” opened,
  1875; no preparatory department ever connected with the college;
  president, one (man); 49 instructors (13 Ph. D.s.)—27 women, 9
  without first degree; 12 men; 1,070 undergrad. s., 4 grad. s.; since
  1891 no special s. admitted; productive funds, $900,000; two lecture
  buildings; a lecture and gymnastic building; a science building; a
  chemical laboratory; an observatory; a gymnasium; a plant house; a
  music building; an art building; 13 halls of residence accommodating
  520 students; a president’s house; total cost of buildings $786,000;
  vols, in library, 8,000 (70,000 vols. in library in Northampton also
  used by the students); laboratory equipment, $22,500; acres, 40;
  music and art depts., technical work in both, amounting to between
  one-sixth and one-seventh of the hours required for a degree, may be
  counted toward bachelor’s degree; tuition fee, $100; lowest charge,
  tuition, board and residence (beds made, rooms dusted by students),

  =Bryn Mawr college, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania=—Founder, Joseph W.
  Taylor; intention, to provide “an institution of learning for the
  advanced education of women which should afford them all the
  advantages of a college education which are so freely offered to
  young men;” opened, 1885; no preparatory department ever connected
  with the college; presidents, two (one man, one woman); 38
  instructors (29 Ph. D.s. 1 D. Sc.)—15 women, 23 men; 269 undergrad,
  s., 61 grad. s., 9 hearers; productive funds, $1,000,000; a lecture
  and library building; a science building; a gymnasium; an infirmary;
  five halls of residence and two cottages, accommodating 323
  students; a president’s house; 6 professors’ houses; total cost,
  $718,810; vols. in library, 32,000; laboratory equipment, $47,998;
  acres, 50; no music department; no technical instruction in art;
  tuition fee, $125; lowest charge, tuition, board and residence,

II. The women’s colleges not included in the list of the fifty-eight
most important colleges in the United States given on page 12, but of
exceedingly good academic standing as compared with the greater number
of the separate colleges for men and the coeducational colleges included
in the four hundred and eighty enumerated by the commissioner of

  =Mt. Holyoke college, South Hadley, Massachusetts=—Founder, Mary
  Lyon; seminary opened, 1837; chartered as seminary and college,
  1888; seminary department dropped and true college organized, 1893;
  presidents, two (both women); 37 instructors (7 Ph. D.s.)—all women;
  5, apart from laboratory assistants, without first degree; 426
  undergrad, s., 3 grad. s., 9 special s., 3 music s.; productive
  funds, $300,000; a lecture building; a science building; a museum
  and art gallery; a library; a gymnasium; a rink; an observatory; an
  infirmary; a plant house; 9 residence halls accommodating 478
  students; total cost of buildings, $625,000; vols. in library,
  17,700; laboratory equipment, $33,000; acres, 160; music and art
  depts., technical work in both, amount limited by faculty, may be
  counted towards bachelor’s degree; tuition fee, $100; lowest charge,
  tuition, board and residence (beds made, rooms dusted, by students,
  and in addition one-half hour of domestic work required), $250.

  =Woman’s college of Baltimore, city of Baltimore, Maryland=—Founded
  and controlled by Methodist Episcopal church; opened, 1888;
  preparatory department dropped, 1893; presidents, two (men); 21
  instructors (10 Ph. D.s.)—11 women, 1 without first degree; 10 men,
  1 without first degree; 259 undergrad. s.; 0 grad. s.; 15 special
  s.; productive funds, $334,994; a lecture building and three houses
  adapted for lecture purposes; a gymnasium; a biological laboratory;
  3 residence halls holding 230; total cost of buildings, $505,703;
  vols. in library, 7,800; laboratory equipment, $47,000; acres (in
  city), 7; music and art depts., but technical work in neither
  counted towards bachelor’s degree; tuition fee, $125; lowest charge,
  tuition, board and residence (beds made, rooms dusted by students),

  =Wells college, Aurora, New York=—Founders, Henry Wells and Edwin B.
  Morgan; seminary opened, 1868; chartered as college, 1870;
  preparatory dept. dropped, 1896; presidents, two (men); 13
  instructors (4 Ph. D.s.)—10 women, 3 without first degree; 3 men; 59
  undergrad. s.; 0 grad. s.; 27 special s.; 4 music s.; productive
  funds, $200,000; a main building with lecture rooms and
  accommodations for 100 students; a science and music building; a
  president’s house; total cost of buildings, $195,000; vols. in
  library, 7,300; laboratory equipment, $20,200; acres, 200; music and
  art depts., technical work in neither counted towards bachelor’s
  degree; tuition fee, $100; lowest charge, tuition, board and
  residence (beds made by students), $400.

III. Elmira college, the Randolph-Macon Woman’s college, Rockford
college and Mills college are here relegated to a third group because of
certain common characteristics. Their endowment is wholly inadequate,
averaging considerably less than $50,000 apiece, reaching $100,000 only
in the case of the Randolph-Macon Woman’s college. In each of them a
disproportionate number of students is studying in the music or art
department; special students form too large a proportion of the whole
number of students; the number of professors is too small to permit
college classes to be conducted by specialists; the college classes are
too small; true college training cannot be obtained in very small
classes, and moreover, in view of the increasing number of women now
going to college, when a college for women does not grow steadily it is
reasonable to assume that there must be some good reason for its lack of

  =Elmira college=, situated at Elmira, New York, has, apart from the
  president, 10 academic instructors (7 women, 2 without first degree;
  3 men); 5 teachers of music, 2 of art. There are studying in the
  college 70 regular college students, 17 specials and 61 special
  students in music.

  =The Randolph-Macon Woman’s college=, situated at Lynchburg,
  Virginia, has, apart from the president, 12 academic instructors (2
  Ph. D.s.)—7 women, 2 without first degree; 5 men; 9 instructors in
  music. Of the 226 students,[24] 55 are regular college students; 44
  registered for degree but spending one-fifth of time in music or
  preparatory work; 16 special students; 6 students of art; 49
  preparatory students; 46 students of music.

  =Rockford college, Rockford, Illinois=—Opened as seminary, 1849;
  chartered as college, 1892; 13 academic instructors (2 Ph. D.s.)—all
  women, 3 without first degree; 4 teachers of music, 1 of art; 35
  college s.; 7 special s.; 70 s. in music only.

  =Mills college, California=—Opened as seminary, 1871; chartered as
  college, 1885; 11 instructors (9 women, 3 without first degree; 2
  men); 8 teachers of music; 22 college s.; 135 pupils in preparatory

In addition to the existing colleges belonging to these groups, a
separate college for women, Trinity, meant to be of true college grade,
will soon be opened in Washington under the control of the Roman
Catholic church.

It is often assumed by the adversaries of coeducation that independent
colleges for women may be trusted to introduce a course of study
modified especially for women, but the experience, both of coeducational
colleges that have devised women’s courses and of women’s colleges,
demonstrates conclusively that women themselves refuse to regard as
satisfactory any modification whatsoever of the usual academic course.
At the opening of Vassar college itself it is clear that the trustees
and faculty made an honest attempt to discover and introduce certain
modifications in the system of intellectual training then in operation
in the best colleges for men. They planned from the start to give much
more time to accomplishments—music, drawing and painting—than was given
in men’s colleges, and the example of Vassar in this respect was
followed ten years later by Wellesley and Smith. These accomplishments
have gradually fallen out of the course of women’s colleges; neither
Vassar nor Wellesley allows time spent in them to be counted toward the
bachelor’s degree. Smith alone of the colleges of group I still permits
nearly one-sixth of the whole college course to be devoted to them. Bryn
Mawr, which opened ten years later than Smith or Wellesley, from the
beginning found it possible to exclude them from its course.

In like manner Vassar, Smith and Wellesley in the beginning found it
necessary to admit special students—students, that is to say, interested
in special subjects, but without sufficient general training to be able
to matriculate as college students; but their admission has been
recognized as disadvantageous, and has gradually been restricted. In
1870 special students, as distinguished from preparatory students,
formed 19.6 per cent of the whole number of the students of Vassar; in
1899 they formed only 3.9 per cent, and only 3.3 per cent of the whole
number of Wellesley students. Smith since 1891 has declined to admit
them at all, and Bryn Mawr never admitted them.[25]

Again, Wellesley and Vassar in the beginning organized preparatory
departments with pupils living in the same halls as the college students
and taught in great part by the same teachers. The presence of these
pupils tended to turn the colleges into boarding schools, and the steady
and rapid development of Vassar as a true college began only after the
closing of its preparatory department in 1888; until this time the
number of students in the college proper had been almost stationary;
Wellesley closed its preparatory department in 1880; Smith never
organized one; Bryn Mawr never organized one; Mt. Holyoke, the Woman’s
college of Baltimore, and Wells college have all closed their
preparatory departments within the last seven years.[26]

It seems to have been at first supposed that the same standards of
scholarship need not be applied in the choice of instructors to teach
women as in that of instructors to teach men, that women were fittest to
teach women, and that the personal character and influence of the woman
instructor in some mysterious way supplied the deficiency on her part of
academic training. For a long time not even an ordinary undergraduate
education was required of her, and there are still teaching in women’s
colleges too many women without even a first degree. But it has been
found on the whole that systematic mental training is best imparted by
those who have themselves received it; the numbers of well-trained women
are increasing; and the prejudice against the appointment of men where
men are better qualified has almost disappeared.[27]

It has been recognized that the work done in women’s colleges is most
satisfactory to women when it is the same in quality and quantity as the
work done in colleges for men, and it has been recognized also that they
need the same time for its performance. Domestic work, therefore, which
by the founder of Wellesley was regarded as a necessary part of women’s
education, is at present, I believe, required nowhere except on the
perfectly plain ground of economy. The hour of domestic service
originally required of every student in Wellesley was abandoned in 1896;
a half-hour is still required at Mt. Holyoke, but tuition, board and
residence are less expensive there. The time given to domestic work is
obviously so much time taken from academic work.

In the matter of discipline the tendency has been toward
ever-diminishing supervision by the college authorities. Vassar and
Wellesley began with the strict regulations of a boarding school; it was
regarded as impossible that young women living away from home should be
in any measure trusted with the control of their own actions. Smith from
the first allowed more liberty, in part because many of her students
lived in boarding houses outside the college. In all three colleges the
restrictions laid upon the students have been gradually lessened, and at
Vassar there is at present a well-developed system of what is known as
“limited self-government,” according to which many matters of discipline
are intrusted to the whole body of students. Bryn Mawr was organized
with a system of self-government by the students perhaps more
far-reaching than was then in operation in any of the colleges for men;
the necessary rules are made by the Students’ association, which
includes all undergraduate and graduate students, and enforced by an
executive committee of students who in the case of a serious offense may
recommend the suspension or expulsion of the offender, and whose
recommendation, when sustained by the whole association, is always
accepted by the college. The perfect success of the system has shown
that there is no risk in relying to the fullest extent on the discretion
of a body of women students.

=Affiliated colleges=[28]—There are five[29] affiliated colleges in the
United States—Radcliffe college, Barnard college, the Women’s college of
Brown university, the College for Women of Western reserve university,
and the H. Sophie Newcomb memorial college for women of Tulane
university.[30] The affiliated college in America is modeled on the
English women’s colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, with such
modifications as are made necessary by the wholly different constitution
of English and American universities. These modifications, however, it
must in fairness be explained, are so essential as to make of it a
wholly different institution.[31]

=Radcliffe college, Cambridge, Massachusetts=[32]—Affiliated to Harvard
university, union dissoluble after due notice; opened by the Society for
the collegiate instruction of women in 1879; incorporated as Radcliffe
college with power to confer degrees in 1894; board of trustees and
financial management separate from Harvard; B. A. and M. A. degrees
conferred by Radcliffe; Ph. D. degree as yet conferred neither by
Radcliffe nor Harvard; degrees, instructors, and academic board of
control, subject to approval of Harvard; no instructors not instructors
at Harvard also; undergraduate instruction at Harvard repeated at
Radcliffe at discretion of instructors; since 1893 women admitted to
graduate and semi-graduate courses given in Harvard, at discretion of
instructor, subject to approval of the Harvard faculty; in 1899, 64 such
courses open to Radcliffe students; 238 undergrad. s.; 54 grad. s.; 129
special s.; productive funds about $430,000; a lecture and library
building; a gymnasium; 4 temporary buildings used for lectures and
laboratories; a students’ club house; no residence hall, but one about
to be built; total cost of buildings about $110,000; vols. in library,
14,138; access to Harvard library and collections; scientific
laboratories of Harvard not available; cost of laboratory equipment not
ascertainable, inadequate; acres (in city) about 3; tuition fee, $200.

=Barnard college, New York city=—Affiliated to Columbia university,
union dissoluble by either party after year’s notice; opened in 1889;
status very much that of Radcliffe until January, 1900, when women
graduates were admitted without restriction to the graduate school of
Columbia, registering in Columbia, not as heretofore in Barnard, and
Barnard was incorporated as an undergraduate women’s college of the
university, its dean voting in the university council, and the president
of Columbia becoming its president and a member of its board of
trustees; Barnard’s faculty consists of the president of the university,
the dean of Barnard, and instructors, either men or women, nominated by
the dean, approved by Barnard trustees and president of Columbia and
appointed by Columbia; courses for A. B. degree and all examinations
determined and conducted by Barnard faculty, subject to provisions of
university council for maintaining integrity of degree; all degrees
conferred by Columbia; after July 1, 1904, no undergraduate courses in
Columbia, except in the Teachers’ college, will be open to Barnard
seniors as heretofore, complete undergraduate work will be given
separately at Barnard, not necessarily by same instructors; 131
undergrad. s.; 76 grad. s.; 73 special s.; productive funds, $150,000;
one large building containing lecture rooms, laboratories and
accommodation for 65 students, cost, $525,000; vols. in reading room,
1,000; access to Columbia, library; scientific laboratories of Columbia
not available; cost of laboratory equipment $9,250; land (in city), 200
× 160 feet; tuition fee, $150.

=Women’s college of Brown university, Providence, Rhode
Island=—Affiliated to Brown university; university degrees and
examinations opened to women, and their undergraduate instruction
informally begun in 1892; women’s college established by Brown
university as a regular department of the university in 1897 under
control of the university trustees; advisory council of five women
appointed by trustees to advise with president of university and dean of
women’s college; funds of the women’s college held and administered
separately by trustees; all degrees conferred by Brown; women and men
examined together; required courses given in Brown repeated to women by
same instructors; all instruction given by Brown instructors; all
graduate work in Brown open to graduate women without restriction since
1892; women recite with men in many of the smaller elective
undergraduate courses; 140 undergrad. s.; 38 grad. s.; 25 special s.; a
lecture hall costing $38,000; no residence hall; access to Brown
library; scientific laboratories of Brown not available; very inadequate
laboratory equipment; no productive funds; tuition fee, $105.

=College for women of Western reserve university, Cleveland,
Ohio=—Affiliated to Western reserve university; established by Western
reserve in 1888; degrees conferred by Western reserve; graduate
department of Western reserve open to graduate women without
restriction; separate financial management; separate faculty 21 (9 Ph.
D.s.)—14 men, 7 women; 165 undergrad. s.; 18 special s.; productive
funds, about $250,000; a lecture hall, a residence hall accommodating 40
students; total cost of buildings, including land, about $200,000; 3
laboratories of men’s college available at certain times; access to
Western reserve library; tuition, $85; lowest charge, board, room rent
and tuition (beds made by students), $335.

=H. Sophie Newcomb memorial college for women, New Orleans,
Louisiana=—Affiliated with Tulane university, but situated in another
part of the city; founder, Mrs. Josephine Louise Newcomb; opened 1886;
under control of board of trustees of Tulane; graduate department of
Tulane university open to graduate women without restriction since 1890;
separate financial management; separate president and faculty; 8
instructors (1 Ph. D.)—5 women, 2 without first degrees; 3 men, 1
without first degree; 51 undergrad. s.; 34 special s. (10 in
gymnastics); 54 s. of art; 80 pupils in preparatory dept.; art dept.;
productive funds, $400,000; a lecture building, a chapel, an art
building, a pottery building, two residence halls accommodating 75
students, a high school building; total cost of buildings about
$225,000; vols. in library about 6,000; tuition, $100; lowest charge,
board, room rent (two in one room, beds made by students) and tuition,

In the smaller group, which includes the College for women of Western
reserve university and the H. Sophie Newcomb memorial college, the
affiliated college tends to become an entirely separate institution; in
its instructors and instruction it differs widely from the institution
to which it is affiliated; it is, in fact, a different college called
into existence by the same authorities. In the larger group, which
includes the Women’s college of Brown, Barnard and Radcliffe, the
affiliated college tends to blend itself with the institution to which
it is affiliated in a new coeducational institution. The ideal in view
is a complete identity of instructors and instruction and the law of
economy of force forbids attaining this ideal by the duplication of the
whole instruction given. It is less wasteful to double the number of
hearers in any lecture room than to repeat the lecture. It is in the
Women’s college of Brown that we find the closest affiliation and,
accordingly, the nearest approach to coeducation. The corporation of
Brown furnished the land on which Pembroke hall, the academic building
of the Women’s college, was erected, and accepted the gift of the
building when it was completed; Brown has from first to last openly
assumed responsibility for its affiliated college in fact as well as
name. In the graduate department of Brown there is, as has been said,
unrestricted coeducation; and in many of the smaller undergraduate
elective courses women are reciting with men. In the graduate department
of Columbia there is now unrestricted coeducation. It is in the case of
Radcliffe that there is least approach to coeducation. What has made
possible the policy pursued at Radcliffe has been the self-sacrificing
zeal of many eminent Harvard professors, willing at any cost of
inconvenience to give to women what could seemingly on no other terms be
given; but the sacrifice is too great, and in the modern world too
unnecessary; it is at present almost everywhere possible for the
professor interested in educating women to lighten his own labors by
admitting them to the same classes with men. Only the affiliated
colleges of the second group present in their internal organization a
type essentially different from that of the independent college—a type
intermediate between the independent and the coeducational.

                         PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

=Graduate instruction in the faculty of philosophy=—True university
instruction begins after the completion of the college course, and very
little such instruction is given by any American university[33] except
in the so-called graduate schools belonging to the twenty-three colleges
in the United States included in the Federation of graduate clubs.[34]
In the following 16 of these 23 graduate schools women are admitted
without restriction and compete with men for many of the scholarships
and honors: Yale, Brown, Cornell, Columbia, New York university,
Pennsylvania, Columbian, Vanderbilt, Missouri, Western reserve, Chicago,
Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, California, Leland Stanford Junior; Bryn
Mawr and Wellesley admit women only; Harvard admits them to certain
courses through the mediation of Radcliffe. There remain, apart from the
Catholic university, only 3 graduate schools excluding women: Clark,
Princeton and the Johns Hopkins university; and in the Johns Hopkins
they are admitted to at least one university department—that of the
medical school.[35]

In 1898–99 there were studying in these 23 graduate schools 1,021 women,
forming 26.8 per cent of the whole number of graduate students.[36] In
1889–90 the U. S. education report estimates that there were 271 women
graduate students out of a total of 2,041 graduate students, or women
formed 13.27 per cent of all graduate students; in 1897–98 the report
for that year estimates that there were 1,398 women out of a total of
5,816 graduate students, or women formed 24.04 per cent of all
students—a remarkable increase as compared to the increase of men
graduate students in 8 years.

=Graduate fellowships and scholarships=—In 1899 there were open to women
319 scholarships varying in value from $100 to $400 (50 of these
exclusively for women) and 2 foreign scholarships (1 exclusively for
women); 81 residence fellowships of the value of $400 or over (18 of
these exclusively for women); 24 foreign fellowships of the value of
$500 and upwards (12 of these exclusively for women).[37]

 _Comparative table of the progress of coeducation and increase of women
     students from 1890 to 1898 and 1899 in theology, law, medicine,
       dentistry, pharmacy, schools of technology and agriculture._

                                       │            1890[38]
                                       │Number of │Number of │Percentage
                                       │ colleges │  coed.   │ of coed.
                                       │ for men  │ colleges │ colleges
                                       │   only   │          │
 Theology                              │       No women reported
 Law                                   │       No women reported
 Medicine (regular and irregular)[41]  │        67│        46│      40.7
 Dentistry                             │        14│        13│      48.1
 Pharmacy                              │        13│        16│      55.2
 Schools of technology and agriculture │        14│        12│      46.2
   endowed with national land grant[42]│          │          │

                                       │            1899[39]
                                       │Number of │Number of │Percentage
                                       │ colleges │  coed.   │ of coed.
                                       │ for men  │ colleges │ colleges
                                       │   only   │          │
 Theology                              │        97│        68│      41.2
 Law                                   │        22│        64│      74.4
 Medicine (regular and irregular)[41]  │        69│        80│      53.7
 Dentistry                             │        12│        44│      78.6
 Pharmacy                              │         4│        48│      92.3
 Schools of technology and agriculture │        16│        48│       75.
   endowed with national land grant[42]│          │          │

                                       │      1890[38]
                                       │Number of │Percentage
                                       │  women   │ women of
                                       │ students │   all
                                       │          │ students
 Theology                              │  No women reported
 Law                                   │  No women reported
 Medicine (regular and irregular)[41]  │       854│       5.5
 Dentistry                             │        53│       2.0
 Pharmacy                              │        60│       2.1
 Schools of technology and agriculture │       774│      12.5
   endowed with national land grant[42]│          │

                                       │      1898[40]
                                       │Number of │Percentage
                                       │  women   │ women of
                                       │ students │   all
                                       │          │ students
 Theology                              │       198│       2.4
 Law                                   │       147│       1.3
 Medicine (regular and irregular)[41]  │      1397│       6.0
 Dentistry                             │        62│       2.4
 Pharmacy                              │       174│       4.7
 Schools of technology and agriculture │      2281│      16.1
   endowed with national land grant[42]│          │
Footnote 38:

  The numbers of coeducational and other professional schools are
  estimated from the U. S. ed. rep. for 1889–90.

Footnote 39:

  Through the kindness of Mr. James Russell Parsons, Jr., author of the
  monograph on professional education in the United States, published as
  one of this series, I am able to insert the figures for 1899, see p.
  21. By personal inquiry I have been able to add four to his list of
  coeducational schools of theology.

Footnote 40:

  The number of professional students for the year 1898 is taken from
  the U. S. ed. rep. for 1897–98.

Footnote 41:

  For the sake of clearness I have omitted from the above table the 7
  separate medical schools for women, although I have counted their
  students in the total number of women medical students, both in 1890
  and 1898. In 1890 there were studying in the 6 regular medical women’s
  colleges 425 women, as against 648 women in coeducational regular
  medical colleges; in 1898 there were studying in them 411 women, as
  against 1045 in coeducational colleges, a decrease of 3.3 per cent,
  whereas women students in coeducational medical colleges have
  increased 16.3 per cent. I limit the comparison to regular medical
  schools because women have increased relatively more rapidly in
  irregular medical schools and there is only one separate irregular
  medical school for women. It is sometimes said that women prefer
  medical sects because the proportion of women studying in irregular
  schools is relatively greater than the proportion studying in regular
  schools; but in 1898, 85.7 per cent of the irregular schools were
  coeducational and only 46.6 per cent of regular schools, a fact which
  undoubtedly increases the proportion of students studying in irregular

Footnote 42:

  The statistics for the schools of technology and agriculture are taken
  from the U. S. education report for 1889–90, pp. 1053–1054, and from
  the report for 1897–98, pp. 1985–1988. I have excluded schools of
  technology not endowed with the national land grant. In 1890 there
  were 27 of such schools (5 of them coeducational); in 1898 their
  number had fallen to 17 (3 of them coeducational). Very few women are
  studying in these schools; in 1898 women formed only 0.2 per cent of
  all students studying in them.

=Theology, law, medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, veterinary science,
schools of technology and agriculture=—Ten years ago there were very few
women studying in any of these schools. The wonderful increase both in
facilities for professional study and in the number of women students
during the last eight years may be seen by referring to the comparative
table on the opposite page.

It is evident to the impartial observer that coeducation is to be the
method in professional schools. Except in medicine, where women were at
first excluded from coeducational study by the strongest prejudice that
has ever been conquered in any movement, no important separate
professional schools, indeed none whatever, except one unimportant
school of pharmacy have been founded for women only.[43] It is evident
also that the number of women entering upon professional study is
increasing rapidly. If we compare the relative increase of men and of
women from 1890 to 1898 we obtain the following percentages: increase of
students in medicine, men, 51.1 per cent, women, 64.2 per cent; in
dentistry, men, 150.2 per cent, women, 205.7 per cent; in pharmacy, men,
25.9 per cent, women, 190 per cent; in technology and agriculture, men,
119.3 per cent, women, 194.7 per cent.

                         GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

There are many questions connected with the college education of
American women which possess great interest for the student of social

=Number of college women=—In the year 1897–98[44] there were studying in
the undergraduate and graduate departments of coeducational colleges and
universities 17,338 women, and in the undergraduate and graduate
departments of independent and affiliated women’s colleges, division A,
4,959 women, women forming thus 27.4 per cent of the total number of
graduate and undergraduate students. The 22 colleges belonging to the
Association of collegiate alumnæ, which are, on the whole, the most
important colleges in the United States admitting women, have conferred
the bachelor’s degree on 12,804 women. If we add to these the graduates
of the Women’s college of Brown university, 102 in number, and the
graduates of the 14 additional coeducational colleges included in my
list of the 58 most important colleges in the United States, we obtain,
including those graduating in June, 1899, a total of 14,824 women
holding the bachelor’s degree.[45] There is thus formed, even leaving
out of account the graduates of the minor colleges, a larger body of
educated women than is to be found in any other country in the world.
These graduates have received the most strenuous college training
obtainable by women in the United States, which does not differ
materially from the best college training obtainable by American men
(indeed, women graduates of coeducational colleges have received
precisely the same training as men), and may fairly be compared with the
women who have received college and university training abroad. In other
countries women university graduates, or even women who have studied at
universities, are very few;[46] in America, on the other hand, the
higher education of women has assumed the proportions of a national
movement still in progress. We may perhaps be able to guide in some
degree its future development, but it has passed the experimental stage
and can no longer be opposed with any hope of success. Its results are
to be reckoned with as facts.

=Health of college women=[47]—Those who have come into contact with some
of the many thousands of healthy normal women studying in college at the
present time, or who have had an opportunity to know something of the
after-lives of even a small number of college women, believe that
experience has proved them to be, both in college, and after leaving
college, on the whole, in better physical condition than other women of
the same age and social condition. Since, however, people who have not
the opportunity of knowledge at first hand continue to regard the health
of college women as a subject open for discussion, a new health
investigation, based on questions sent to the 12,804 graduates of the 22
colleges belonging to the Association of collegiate alumnæ, is now in
progress. The statistical tables will be collated a second time by the
Massachusetts bureau of statistics of labor and sent to the Paris
exposition as part of the educational exhibit of the Association of
collegiate alumnæ.[48]

=Marriage rate of college women=—Here again no positive conclusions can
be reached until we know what is the usual marriage rate of women
belonging to the social class of women graduates. Everything indicates
that the time of marriage is becoming later in the professional classes
and that the marriage rate as a whole is decreasing. An investigation
undertaken simultaneously with the new health investigation by the
Association of collegiate alumnæ will enable us to speak with certainty
in regard to the marriage rate of a large number of college women and
their sisters.[49] It must be borne in mind that the element of time is
very important, and in the case of women the later and therefore younger
classes are all larger than the earlier ones, see table on opposite

                    _Marriage rate of college women_

                                        │Opened in │   Percentage of
                                        │          │ graduates married
 Vassar                                 │   1865   │                35.1
 Kansas                                 │   1866   │                31.3
 Minnesota                              │   1868   │                24.5
 Cornell                                │}         │}
 Syracuse                               │}  1870   │}               31.0
 Wesleyan                               │}         │}
 Nebraska                               │   1871   │                24.3
 Boston                                 │   1873   │                22.2
 Wellesley                              │}  1875   │}               18.4
 Smith                                  │}         │}
 Radcliffe                              │   1879   │                16.5
 Bryn Mawr                              │   1885   │                15.2
 Barnard                                │   1889   │                10.4
 Leland Stanford Junior                 │   1891   │                 9.7
 Chicago                                │   1892   │                 9.4

It will be seen that independent, affiliated and coeducational colleges
fall into their proper place in the series, thus showing conclusively
that the method of obtaining a college education exercises scarcely any
appreciable influence on the marriage rate.

The marriage rate of Bryn Mawr college, calculated in January, 1900,
will also serve as an illustration of the importance of time in every
consideration of the marriage rate: graduates of the class of 1889,
married, 40.7 per cent; graduates of the first two classes, 1889–1890,
married, 40.0 per cent; graduates of the first three classes, 1889–1891,
married, 33.3 per cent; graduates of the first four classes, 1889–1892,
married, 32.9 per cent; graduates of the first five classes, 1889–1893,
married, 31.0 per cent; graduates of the first six classes, 1889–1894,
married, 30.0 per cent; graduates of the first seven classes, 1889–1895,
married, 25.2 per cent; graduates of the first eight classes, 1889–1896,
married, 22.8 per cent; graduates of the first nine classes, 1889–1897,
married, 20.9 per cent; graduates of the first ten classes, 1889–1898,
married, 17.2 per cent; graduates of the first eleven classes,
1889–1899, married, 15.2 per cent.

=Occupations of college women=—It is probable that about 50 per cent of
women graduates teach for at least a certain number of years. Of the 705
women graduates whose occupations were reported in the Association of
collegiate alumnæ investigation of 1883 50.2 percent were then teaching.
In 1895 of 1,082 graduates of Vassar 37.7 per cent were teaching; 2.0
per cent were engaged in graduate study and 3.0 per cent were physicians
or studying medicine. In 1898 of 171 graduates (all living) of Radcliffe
college, including the class of 1898, 49.7 per cent were teaching; 8.7
per cent were engaged in graduate study; .6 per cent were studying
medicine; 17.5 per cent were unmarried and without professional
occupation. In 1899 of 316 living graduates of Bryn Mawr college,
including the class of 1899, 39.0 percent were teaching; 11.4 were
engaged in graduate study; 6 per cent were engaged in executive work
(including 4 deans of colleges, 3 mistresses of college halls of
residence); 1.6 per cent were studying or practising medicine, and 26.6
per cent were unmarried and without professional occupation.[50]

=Coeducation vs. separate education=—It is clear that coeducation is the
prevailing method in the United States; it is the most economical
method; indeed it is the only possible method in most parts of the
country. Now that it has been determined in America to send girls as
well as boys to college, it becomes impossible to duplicate colleges for
women in every part of this vast country. If, as is shown by the
statistics given in the successive reports of the commissioner of
education, men students in college are increasing faster far than the
ratio of the population, and women college students are increasing
faster still than men,[51] it will tax all our resources to make
adequate provision for men and women in common. Only in thickly-settled
parts of the country, where public sentiment is conservative enough to
justify the initial outlay, have separate colleges for women been
established, and these colleges, without exception, have been private
foundations. Public opinion in the United States almost universally
demands that universities supported by public taxation should provide
for the college education of the women of the state in which they are
situated. The separate colleges for women speaking generally are to be
found almost exclusively in the narrow strip of colonial states lying
along the Atlantic seaboard. The question is often asked, whether women
prefer coeducation or separate education. It seems that in the east they
as yet prefer separate education, and this preference is natural.[52]
College life as it is organized in a woman’s college seems to
conservative parents less exposed, more in accordance with inherited
traditions. Consequently, girls who in their own homes lead guarded
lives, are to be found rather in women’s colleges than in coeducational
colleges. From the point of view of conservative parents, there is
undoubtedly serious objection to intimate association at the most
impressionable period of a girl’s life with many young men from all
parts of the country and of every possible social class. From every
point of view it is undesirable to have the problems of love and
marriage presented for decision to a young girl during the four years
when she ought to devote her energies to profiting by the only
systematic intellectual training she is likely to receive during her
life. Then, too, for the present, much of the culture and many of the
priceless associations of college life are to be obtained, whether for
men or women, only by residence in college halls, and no coeducational,
or even affiliated, colleges have as yet organized for their students
such a complete college life as the independent woman’s college. So long
as this preference, and the grounds for it, exist, we must see to it
that separate colleges for women are no less good than colleges for men.
In professional schools, including the graduate school of the faculty of
philosophy, coeducation is even at present almost the only method. There
are in the United States only 4 true graduate schools for men closed to
women, and only 1 independent graduate school maintained for women
offering three years’ consecutive work leading to the degree of Ph. D.
There is every reason to believe that as soon as large numbers of women
wish to enter upon the study of theology, law and medicine, all the
professional schools now existing will become coeducational.

=A modified vs. an unmodified curriculum=—The progress of women’s
education, as we have traced it briefly from its beginning in the
coeducational college of Oberlin in 1833, and the independent woman’s
college of Vassar in 1865, has been a progress in accordance with the
best academic traditions of men’s education. In 1870 we could not have
predicted the course to be taken by the higher education of women; the
separate colleges for women might have developed into something wholly
different from what we had been familiar with so long in the separate
colleges for men. A female course in coeducational colleges in which
music and art were substituted for mathematics and Greek might have met
the needs of the women students. After thirty years of experience,
however, we are prepared to say that whatever changes may be made in
future in the college curriculum will be made for men and women alike.
After all, women themselves must be permitted to be the judges of what
kind of intellectual discipline they find most truly serviceable. They
seem to have made up their minds, and hereafter may be trusted to see to
it that an inferior education shall not be offered to them in women’s
colleges, or elsewhere, under the name of a modified curriculum.


                         DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
                                 FOR THE

                     HOWARD J. ROGERS, Albany, N. Y.

                      EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

                                EDITED BY
                          NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER
 _Professor of Philosophy and Education in Columbia University, New York_

    _President of the University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois_


    Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C._

    in the University of California, Berkeley, California_

    Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey_

    Greek in Columbia University, New York_

  7 EDUCATION OF WOMEN—M. CAREY THOMAS, _President of Bryn Mawr
    College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania_

  8 TRAINING OF TEACHERS—B. A. HINSDALE, _Professor of the Science and
    Art of Teaching in the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,

    the Manual Training High School, Kansas City, Missouri_

    College and High School Departments, University of the State of
    New York, Albany, New York_

    _President of the Technological Institute, Worcester,

    University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee_

    Administration in the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois_

    Education, Washington, D. C._

    Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind,
    Overbrook, Pennsylvania_

    _Professor of American and Institutional History in the Johns
    Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland_

    _Professor of Psychology in Columbia University, New York_

    Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama_

    Schools, Dayton, Ohio_


Footnote 1:

  That their admission was due in large part to the stress of
  circumstances is shown by the fact that in the very states in which
  these coeducational schools had been established there was manifested
  on other occasions a most illiberal attitude toward girls’ education.
  In the few cities of the Atlantic seaboard, where European
  conservatism was too strong to allow girls to be taught with boys in
  the new high schools, and where there were boys enough to fill the
  schools, girls had to wait much longer before their needs were
  provided for at all, and then most inadequately. In Boston, where the
  boys’ and girls’ high schools were separated, it was impossible until
  1878 for a Boston girl to be prepared for college in a city high
  school, whereas, in the country towns of Massachusetts, where boys and
  girls were taught together in the high schools, the girl had had the
  same opportunities as the boy for twenty-five or thirty years. Indeed,
  it was not until 1852 that Boston girls obtained, and then only in
  connection with the normal school, a public high-school education of
  any kind whatsoever. In Philadelphia, where boys and girls are taught
  separately in the high schools, no girl could be prepared for college
  before 1893, neither Latin, French, nor German being taught in the
  girls’ high school, whereas, for many years the boys’ high school had
  prepared boys for college. In Baltimore the two girls’ high schools
  are still, in 1900, unable to prepare girls for college, whereas the
  boys’ high school has for years prepared boys to enter the Johns
  Hopkins university. The impossibility of preparing girls for college
  is only another way of stating that the instruction given is very

Footnote 2:

  The magnitude of this fact will be apparent if we reflect that here
  for the first time the girls of a great nation, especially of the
  poorer classes, have from their earliest infancy to the age of
  eighteen or nineteen received the same education as the boys, and that
  the ladder leading, in Huxley’s words, from the gutter to the
  university may be climbed as easily by a girl as by a boy. Although
  college education has affected as yet only a very few out of the great
  number of adult women in the United States, the free opportunities for
  secondary education have influenced the whole American people for
  nearly two-thirds of a century. The men of the poorer classes have
  had, as a rule, mothers as well educated as their fathers, indeed,
  better educated; to this, more than to any other single cause, I
  think, may be attributed what by other nations is regarded as the
  phenomenal industrial progress of the United States. Our commercial
  rivals could probably take no one step that would so tend to place
  them on a level with American competition as to open to girls without
  distinction all their elementary and secondary schools for boys. In
  1892, girls formed 55.9 per cent, and in 1898, 56.5 per cent of all
  pupils in the public and private secondary schools of the United

Footnote 3:

  In 1870 women formed 59.0 per cent; in 1880, 57.2 per cent; in 1890,
  65.5 per cent; and in 1898, 67.8 per cent (in the North Atlantic
  Division 80.8 per cent) of all teachers in the public elementary and
  secondary schools of the United States (U. S. ed. rep. for 1897–98,
  pp. xiii, lxxv). It has been frequently remarked that the feminine
  pronouns “she” and “her” are instinctively used in America in common
  speech with reference to a teacher. Moreover more women than men are
  teaching in the public and private secondary schools of the United
  States (in 1898, women formed 53.8 per cent of the total number of
  secondary teachers, see U. S. ed. rep. for 1897–98, pp. 2053, 2069);
  whereas in all other countries the secondary teaching of boys is
  wholly in the hands of men.

Footnote 4:

  In many cases in the west women made their way into the universities
  through the normal department of the university, being admitted to
  that first of all. The summer schools of western colleges, chiefly
  attended by teachers, among whom women were in the majority, served
  also as an entering wedge. (See Woman’s work in America, Holt & Co.,
  1891, pp. 71–75.)

Footnote 5:

  Antioch college opened, however, with only 8 students in its college
  department, all the rest, 142, belonging to its secondary school.

Footnote 6:

  In every case I give the date when full coeducation was introduced;
  West Virginia, for example, admitted women to limited privileges in

Footnote 7:

  In discussing coeducation I shall, therefore, disregard the divisions
  into north Atlantic, south Atlantic, north central, south central and
  western, employed by the U. S. census and the U. S. bureau of
  education. The New England, middle and southern states are all, of
  course, eastern, and, with the exception of Vermont, West Virginia,
  Kentucky, Tennessee and Missouri, are all seaboard states,
  Pennsylvania being counted as a seaboard state on account of its close
  river connection with the sea. It will be noted that the inland
  southern states are rather western than eastern in their
  characteristics. The northern middle states belong on the whole by
  their sympathies to New England, the southern middle to the southern
  states. Missouri, having been a slave state and settled largely by
  southerners, is still southern in feeling. The District of Columbia
  also may conveniently be counted with the southern states.

Footnote 8:

  Two of the three next largest colleges in Virginia—Richmond and
  Roanoke—admit women, but the advance in women’s education in that
  state has been very recent. Until the establishment of the State
  normal school in 1883 there was not a scientific laboratory in the
  state accessible to women; in 1893 the Randolph-Macon Woman’s college
  opened with several laboratories, see Prof. Celestia Parrish,
  Proceedings 2d Capon Springs conference for education in the south,
  1899, p. 68. I am much indebted to the author of this paper for
  valuable data in regard to coeducation in the south.

Footnote 9:

  The Massachusetts institute of technology is classified by the U. S.
  ed. reps. among technical schools.

Footnote 10:

  The commissioner of education does not feel himself at liberty to
  discriminate among the colleges chartered by the different states, but
  it is well known that in most states the name of college, or
  preferably that of university, and the power to confer degrees are
  granted to any institution whatsoever without regard to endowment,
  scientific equipment, scholarly qualifications of the faculty or
  adequate preparation of the students. The majority of the so-called
  colleges and universities of the south and west are really secondary
  schools. In most of them not only are the greater part of the students
  really pupils in the preparatory or high school department, but most
  of the students in the collegiate departments are at graduation barely
  able to enter upon the sophomore or second year work of the best
  eastern colleges. Throughout this monograph I have used the word
  college in speaking of institutions for undergraduate education,
  except when quoting their official titles, and this whether the
  college in question is, or is not, included in a larger institution
  providing also three years of graduate instruction. The terms college
  and university are used in America without any definite understanding,
  even among colleges and universities themselves, as to how they shall
  be differentiated. Probably the most commonly accepted usage is to
  call an institution a university if it has attached to it various
  departments, or schools, without regard to the standing of these
  departments, the preparation of the students entering them, or the
  work done in them. In this sense all the state universities of the
  west are called universities because, although many of them are really
  high schools, they have attached to them schools of pharmacy,
  veterinary science, agriculture, and sometimes medicine or law. It is
  in this sense that many institutions for negroes are called
  universities, because they include various departments of industrial
  art as well as a high school department. Until very recently the
  requirements for admission to the departments of law, medicine,
  dentistry, etc., have been so low that it has been a positive
  disadvantage to have such schools attached to the college department,
  and when lately the graduates of Harvard college decided not to allow
  the graduates of its affiliated schools to vote with them for
  representatives on the board of trustees, they claimed with justice
  that the illiberal education of the majority of these graduates would
  tend to lower the standard of Harvard college. The use of the word
  university should be strictly limited to institutions offering at
  least three years of graduate instruction in one or more schools.

Footnote 11:

  In this list of fifty-eight colleges I have included: first, the
  twenty-four colleges (indicated in the list by “a”) whose graduates
  are admitted to the Association of collegiate alumnæ; second, the
  twenty-three colleges (24 are included in the Federation, but Barnard
  has ceased to be a graduate school, see page 28) included in the
  Federation of graduate clubs (indicated by “b”); third, the fifty-two
  colleges (indicated by “c”) included in the 1899–1900 edition of
  Minerva, the well-known handbook of colleges and universities of the
  world published each year by Truebner & Co.; and fourth, the colleges
  which, according to the U. S. education report for 1897–98, have at
  least $500,000 worth of productive funds (indicated by “d”), and also
  three hundred or more students (indicated by “e”). In the case of
  state universities the money they receive annually from national and
  state appropriations may reasonably be regarded as a sort of
  supplementary endowment; I have, therefore, included the state
  universities of Maine, Iowa and West Virginia, whose productive funds
  do not amount to $500,000. This list of fifty-eight colleges, arranged
  according to the different sections of the country, and as far as
  possible in the order of the numbers in their undergraduate
  departments, is as follows: _New England and 3 northern middle
  states_: Harvard (bcde), Yale (bcde), Cornell (abcde-coed.),
  Massachusetts institute of technology (acde-coed.), Smith
  (acde-woman’s college), Princeton (bcde), Pennsylvania (bcde),
  Columbia (bcde), Brown (bcde), Wellesley (abce-woman’s college),
  Vassar (acde-woman’s college), Syracuse (acde-coed.), Dartmouth (cde),
  Boston (acde-coed.), Amherst (cde), Radcliffe (abce-affiliated),
  Williams (cde), Lehigh (cde), Maine (e-coed.), Wesleyan (acde-coed.),
  Vermont (c-coed.), Lafayette (c), Bryn Mawr (abed-woman’s college),
  New York University (cd), Barnard (a-affiliated), Hamilton (c),
  Colgate (cd), Clark (bcd-no undergrad. department). _Southern and 2
  southern middle states_: Missouri (bcde-coed.), Texas (cde-coed.),
  Columbian (bce-coed.), West Virginia (e-coed.), Tulane (cd),
  Vanderbilt (bcd-coed.), Virginia (c), Johns Hopkins (bcd), Washington
  (St. Louis) (cd-coed.), Georgetown (c-Catholic), Catholic university
  (cd-no undergrad. department). _Western states_: Minnesota
  (abcde-coed.), Michigan (abcde-coed.), California (abcde-coed.),
  Wisconsin (abcde-coed.), Chicago (abcde-coed.), Leland Stanford
  (abcde-coed.), Nebraska (ace-coed.), Ohio state university (de-coed.),
  Indiana (cde-coed.), Illinois (ce-coed.), Kansas (ace-coed.), Ohio
  Wesleyan (cde-coed.), Iowa (e-coed.), Northwestern (acde-coed.),
  Oberlin (acde-coed.), Cincinnati (cd-coed.), Colorado (c-coed.),
  Western reserve (bcd), College for Women of western reserve

  The only attempt hitherto made in America to discriminate between
  colleges of true college grade and others has been made by the
  Association of collegiate alumnæ. This association was organized in
  1882 for the purpose of uniting women graduates of the foremost
  coeducational colleges and colleges for women only into an association
  for work connected with the higher education of women. In the early
  years of the association there was appointed a committee on
  admissions, and the admission of each successive college in the
  association has been carefully considered, both with regard to its
  entrance requirements, the training of its faculty and its curriculum.
  The Association of collegiate alumnæ concerns itself, of course, only
  with colleges admitting women, but there is no doubt that the fifteen
  coeducational colleges and seven colleges for women only admitted to
  the association would, in the estimation of every one familiar with
  the subject, rank among the first fifty-eight colleges of the United

  The Federation of graduate clubs is an association of graduate
  students of those colleges whose graduate schools are important enough
  to entitle them to admission to the federation. The colleges in the
  Federation of graduate clubs are the only colleges in the United
  States that do true university work.

Footnote 12:

  In only two instances, so far as I know, has coeducation once
  introduced been abandoned or restricted in any way. The private
  college of Adelbert of Western reserve, coeducational from 1873,
  opened a separate woman’s college and excluded women in 1888. As the
  college department was very small and the state of Ohio in which the
  college was situated the most eastern in feeling of all western
  states, the change was seemingly to be attributed to a bid for
  students through undergraduate novelty. The Baptist college of Colby,
  in Maine, coeducational from 1871, has taught women in separate
  classes in required work since 1890. Women are not allowed to compete
  with men for college prizes or for membership in the students’
  society, which elects its members on account of scholarship. Complete
  separation, which was at first planned, has proved impracticable and
  from the beginning of the sophomore year women and men recite together
  in all elective work.

Footnote 13:

  In an investigation made several years ago in the University of
  Wisconsin, which has been open to women since 1874, it was found that
  the women ranked in scholarship very considerably beyond the men. In
  the University of Michigan, where women have been educated with men
  since 1870, President Angell has repeatedly laid stress on their
  excellent scholarship. When in 1893–94 a committee of the faculty of
  the University of Virginia asked the officers of a large number of
  coeducational colleges especially in regard to this point the
  testimony received was very remarkable. In England it should be noted
  that the question of the success of women in collegiate studies has
  been put beyond a doubt by the published class lists of the
  competitive honor examinations of Oxford and Cambridge. In the
  discussions in regard to granting women degrees at Cambridge, it was
  freely admitted that women’s minds were “splendid for examination

Footnote 14:

  For a discussion of coeducation in schools and colleges in 1892, see
  U. S. education report for 1891–92, pp. 783–862.

Footnote 15:

  U. S. education report 1889–90, pp. 761, 1582–1599, and 1897–98, p.
  1823; account is taken of students of true college grade only in the
  college proper. Throughout this monograph I have corrected the figures
  of the U. S. ed. reps. which are affected by the erroneous assumption
  that the undergraduate departments of Brown, Yale, Rochester, New York
  Univ., Pennsylvania, Tulane and Western Reserve are coeducational. In
  the University of Chicago women formed, in 1898, 54.5 per cent of all
  regular, and 70 per cent of all unclassified, students; in Boston
  university in the regular college course there were, in 1899, 299
  women as against 192 men.

Footnote 16:

  In 1889–90 there were 19,245 men studying in 146 colleges for men
  only; in 1898–99 there were 25,915 men studying in 143 colleges for
  men only, an increase of only 34.7 per cent. (In enumerating students
  I have regarded the limited coeducational college of Colby as
  coeducational.) Women, however, have increased in women’s colleges
  138.4 per cent.

Footnote 17:

  The objection of men students in the east to coeducation seems to be
  mainly in the apprehension that the presence of women may interfere
  with the free social life which has become so prominent a feature of
  private colleges for men in the east. These colleges are, for the most
  part, situated either in small country towns, or in the suburbs of a
  city, in communities which have grown up about the college, and their
  students live largely in college dormitories; the conditions,
  therefore, are exceedingly unlike those prevailing in non-residential
  colleges and also unlike those prevailing in the world at large. These
  exceptional conditions are a source of pleasure and, in many respects,
  of advantage to the student. Undoubtedly there is in coeducational
  colleges less unrestraint; young men undoubtedly care much for the
  impression that they make on young women of the same age, and there is
  more decorum and perhaps more diligence in classrooms where women are
  present. The objection to coeducation on the part of women students
  is, to some extent, the same; separate colleges for women in like
  manner are, as a rule, academic communities living according to
  regulations and customs all their own; women also feel themselves more
  unrestrained when they are studying in women’s colleges. Then, too,
  coeducation in the east is still regarded as in some measure an
  experiment, to the success of which the conduct of each individual
  woman may, or may not, contribute, and the knowledge of this tends to
  increase the self-consciousness of student life.

Footnote 18:

  In the case of the colleges in groups I and II these statistics have
  been obtained through the kindness of the presidents of the colleges
  concerned; they are for the year 1900, except the numbers of
  instructors and students which are obtained from the catalogues for
  the year 1898–99; in enumerating the instructors, presidents, teachers
  of gymnastics, elocution, music and art have been omitted. Instructors
  away on leave of absence are not counted among instructors for the
  current year.

Footnote 19:

  Women’s colleges were first classified in division A and division B in
  1887. In these reports there appeared sporadically in division A
  Ingham university, at Leroy, New York, and Rutgers female college in
  New York city. Neither of these had any adequate endowment and neither
  ever obtained more than 35 students. Ingham university closed in 1893,
  Rutgers female college in 1895.

Footnote 20:

  The women’s colleges, so called, included in division B of these
  reports, are in reality church and private enterprise schools, as a
  rule of the most superficial character, without endowment, or fixed
  curriculum, or any standard whatsoever of scholarship in teachers or
  pupils. What money there is to spend is for the most part used to
  provide teachers of music, drawing and other accomplishments, and the
  school instruction proper is shamefully inadequate. Few if any of
  these schools are able to teach the subjects required for entrance to
  a college properly so called; the really good girls’ schools are, as a
  rule, excluded from this list by their honesty in not assuming the
  name of college. The U. S. education report for 1886–87 gives 152 of
  these colleges in division B, the report for 1897–98, 135. When it is
  said that separate colleges for women are decreasing, the statement is
  based on this list of colleges in division B, which are not really
  colleges at all; and when it is said that women students are not
  increasing so rapidly in separate colleges for women as in
  coeducational colleges, it is the students in these miscalled colleges
  who are referred to; for precisely the reverse is true of students in
  genuine colleges for women. It is happily true that since better
  college education has been obtainable, women have been refusing to
  attend the institutions included in class B. Between 1890 and 1898
  women have increased only 4.9 per cent in the college departments of
  such institutions, whereas, in these same eight years, they have
  increased 138.4 per cent in women’s colleges in division A. The value
  of statistics of women college students is often vitiated by the fact
  that women studying in institutions included in division B are counted
  among college students. Many of the colleges for men only and of the
  coeducational colleges included in the lists of the commissioner of
  education are very low in grade, but few of them are so scandalously
  inefficient as the majority of the girls’ schools included in division
  B. I have, therefore, in my statistics taken no account whatever of
  women studying in institutions classified in division B.

Footnote 21:

  See pp. 1821, 1822, 1888, 1889. Bryn Mawr had not 300 undergraduate
  students in 1897–98, but the next year, 1898–99, passed the limit. I
  have excluded Western reserve as it is not coeducational in its
  undergraduate department, and, in 1899, had only 182 men in its men’s
  college and 183 women in its women’s college.

Footnote 22:

    To any one familiar with the circumstances it does not admit of
    discussion that in Vassar we have the legitimate parent of all
    future colleges for women which were to be founded in such rapid
    succession in the next period. It is true that in 1855 the
    Presbyterian synod opened Elmira college in Elmira, New York, but
    it had practically no endowment and scarcely any college students.
    Even before 1855 two famous female seminaries were founded which
    did much to create a standard for the education of girls. In 1821
    Mrs. Emma Willard opened at Troy a seminary for girls, known as
    the Troy female seminary, still existing under the name of the
    Emma Willard school. In 1837 Mary Lyon opened in the beautiful
    valley of the Connecticut Mt. Holyoke seminary, where girls were
    educated so cheaply that it was almost a free school. This
    institution has had a great influence in the higher education of
    women; it became in 1893 Mt. Holyoke college. These seminaries are
    often claimed as the first women’s colleges, but their curriculum
    of study proves conclusively that they had no thought whatever of
    giving women a collegiate education, whereas, the deliberations of
    the board of trustees whom Mr. Vassar associated with himself show
    clearly that it was expressly realized that here for the first
    time was being created a woman’s college as distinct from the
    seminary or academy. In 1861 the movement for the higher education
    of women had scarcely begun. It was not until eight years later
    that the first of the women’s colleges at Cambridge, England,

Footnote 23:

    The founder of Wellesley expected to leave the college a large
    endowment, but his fortune was dissipated in unfortunate
    investments. The splendid grounds and many halls of residence of
    the college constitute a form of endowment, otherwise its lack of
    productive funds would have excluded it from class I.

Footnote 24:

    The numbers of students are for the year 1899–1900.

Footnote 25:

  To the women’s colleges of group III they are admitted still in large
  numbers, and they still form 35.1 per cent of all the undergraduate
  students in the affiliated college of Radcliffe, and 35.7 per cent of
  all the undergraduate students in the affiliated college of Barnard;
  in part, perhaps, because these colleges are largely dependent upon
  their tuition fees, and in part too, no doubt, because the presence of
  special students is less disadvantageous where there is no dormitory

Footnote 26:

  Colleges for women draw their students from private schools to a much
  greater extent than do coeducational colleges; and it was the very
  great inefficiency of these schools that induced the earlier colleges
  for women to organize preparatory departments of their own. The
  entrance examinations of the women’s colleges are the only influence
  for good that has ever been brought to bear upon the feeble teaching
  of these schools. In 1874, before the numbers of women wishing to
  prepare for college were great enough to influence the private
  schools, a plan for raising their standard was devised by the Woman’s
  education association of Boston, at whose request Harvard university
  for 7 years conducted a series of examinations modeled on the Oxford
  and Cambridge higher local examinations which have been such an
  efficient agency in England. Committees of women were organized in
  different cities, and an attempt was made to induce girls’ schools to
  send up candidates for these examinations. In 7 years, however, only
  106 candidates offered themselves for the preliminary examination, and
  only 36 received a complete certificate. In 1881 the entrance
  examinations of Harvard college were substituted for these special
  women’s examinations, in the hope that the interest in reaching the
  standard set by Harvard for its entering class of men might add to the
  number of candidates; but even after this change was made
  comparatively few candidates took the examinations, and in 1896 the
  effort was discontinued; the Harvard examinations have been used from
  that time onward simply as the ordinary entrance examinations of
  Radcliffe college. In Great Britain the Cambridge higher local
  examinations are taken annually by about 900 women. There was needed
  some such pressure as is brought to bear by pupils determined to go to
  college to induce private schools to add college graduates to their
  staff of teachers. The requirements for admission to Bryn Mawr college
  have to my personal knowledge been a most important factor in
  introducing college-bred women as teachers into all the more important
  private girls’ schools of Philadelphia and in many private schools
  elsewhere; and every college for women drawing students from private
  schools has the same experience. On the other hand, every relaxation
  in the requirements for admission, such as the practice of admitting
  on certificate adopted by Vassar, Wellesley and Smith, tends to
  deprive girls’ schools of a much needed stimulus. Radcliffe and
  Barnard, like Bryn Mawr, insist upon examination for admission and
  decline to accept certificates.

Footnote 27:

  Until Bryn Mawr opened in 1885 with a large staff of young unmarried
  men, it had been regarded as almost out of the question to appoint
  unmarried men in a women’s college; now they are teaching in all
  colleges for women. The same instructors pass from colleges for men to
  colleges for women and from colleges for women to colleges for men,
  employing in each the same methods of instruction. Some years since
  one of the professors at Smith college received at the same time
  offers of a post at the Johns Hopkins, at Columbia, and at Bryn Mawr;
  and among the professors the most successful in their teaching at
  Princeton, Chicago and Columbia are men whose whole experience had
  been gained in teaching women at Bryn Mawr.

Footnote 28:

  The following data have been furnished me by the courtesy of the
  presidents or deans of the colleges concerned, except the data of the
  H. Sophie Newcomb memorial college, for which I am indebted to
  Professor Evelyn Ordway. These data are for the year 1900; the numbers
  of instructors and students have been obtained from the catalogues for

Footnote 29:

  In one instance only—that of Evelyn college in New Jersey—has an
  affiliated college, once established, been compelled to close its
  doors. Evelyn, however, partook of the nature of a private enterprise
  school, and was begun on an unacademic basis in 1887. A certain number
  of Princeton professors consented to serve on the board of trustees
  and give instruction there, but it was, in reality, a young ladies’
  finishing school with a few students (in 1891, 22; in 1894, 18; in
  1897, 14) pursuing collegiate courses. Music and accomplishments were
  made much of, and in 1897 the college came to a well-merited end.

Footnote 30:

  Radcliffe and Barnard are the only two of the affiliated colleges that
  appear in the U. S. education reports in division A of women’s
  colleges. The students of the other three are reported under Brown,
  Western reserve and Tulane respectively, thus giving these colleges a
  false air of being coeducational in their undergraduate departments.
  The endowment and equipment of these three affiliated colleges,
  although entirely independent of the colleges to which they are
  affiliated, are given nowhere separately.

Footnote 31:

  It is difficult for those interested in women’s education in England
  to understand the existence in America of independent colleges for
  women, and if American education were organized like English education
  they would, indeed, have no reason to exist. In an English university,
  consisting, as it does, of many separate colleges whose students live
  in their separate halls of residence, are taught by their own
  teachers, hear in common with the students of other colleges the
  lectures offered by the central university organization, and compete
  against each other in honor examinations conducted by a common board
  of university examiners, the colleges for women—at Cambridge, Girton
  and Newnham, and at Oxford, Somerville hall, Lady Margaret hall and
  St. Hugh’s hall—are organized in precisely the same way as colleges
  for men. They may, or may not, be as well equipped as the best men’s
  colleges, but the difference is a matter of endowment, not of
  university organization; there are differences also between the
  various colleges for men. Examinations, again, play a far more
  important part in English than in American education. There are in
  Great Britain only a few examining and degree-giving bodies, for whose
  examinations all the various colleges prepare their students. The
  degrees mean that certain examinations have been passed, and have a
  definite and universally acknowledged value. A degree given by an
  American college means that the person receiving it has lived for some
  time in a community of a certain kind, enjoying certain opportunities
  of which he has conscientiously availed himself. For this reason no
  one of the 491 colleges of the United States enumerated in the U. S.
  education report for 1897–98 bestows its degree in recognition of
  examinations passed in any other college. For this reason Harvard
  college has had logic on its side in declining to confer upon the
  students completing their undergraduate course in Radcliffe college
  the Harvard B. A. They have not lived in the same community, nor yet
  had all the opportunities of the Harvard student. The certificate
  received by the student of Girton or Newnham represents exactly the
  same thing as the Cambridge degree; the B. A. of Radcliffe does not
  represent the same thing as the Harvard B. A. What is represented by
  the degrees of different colleges in the United States may, or may
  not, be equal, but never is the same. Nevertheless Columbia, Brown,
  Tulane and Western reserve confer their degrees upon the women
  graduates of their affiliated colleges for women.

Footnote 32:

  The first American affiliated college was the so-called Harvard annex,
  which was brought into existence by the devoted efforts of a small
  number of influential professors of Harvard college, who voluntarily
  formed themselves into a “Society for the collegiate instruction of
  women,” and repeated each week to classes of women the lectures and
  class work they gave to men in Harvard college. The idea first
  occurred to Mr. Arthur Gilman in 1878. Girton college, Cambridge,
  England, after which the annex was modeled, had then been in
  successful operation for nine years. Mrs. Louis Agassiz, the widow of
  the famous naturalist, agreed to become the official head of the
  undertaking, and she associated with herself other influential Boston
  and Cambridge women. Mr. Arthur Gilman became the secretary of the
  society. The president of Harvard college declared that, so far as the
  university was concerned, the professors were free to teach women in
  their leisure hours if they chose. The annex was opened for students
  in 1879 in a rented house near the Harvard campus with 25 students.

Footnote 33:

  The medical school of the Johns Hopkins university is a true
  university school, admitting only holders of the bachelor’s degree;
  the law school of Harvard university is practically a university
  school, although seniors in Harvard college are received as students.

Footnote 34:

  Out of the 58 most important American colleges enumerated on page 12
  only 23, it will be remembered, appear in the lists of the Federation
  of graduate clubs. Unfortunately it must not be inferred that all
  these 23 colleges are doing true professional work and offering
  graduate students a three years’ course leading to the degree of Ph.
  D. In some of them there are provided only courses leading to the
  degree of A. M., which, like the degree of A. B., indicating general
  culture. The affiliated college of Radcliffe appears in the list of
  graduate clubs, although it can scarcely be said to exist
  independently as a separate graduate school, being virtually the
  portal by which women are admitted to a limited amount of graduate
  work at Harvard. In 1899–1900 only 12 graduate lecture courses and 3
  research courses were repeated at Radcliffe.

Footnote 35:

  The graduate courses of Clark (which has no undergraduate department)
  are few in number and attended by only 48 men; the exclusion of women
  is, therefore, very surprising especially as the principal subjects of
  instruction, pedagogy, experimental psychology and the like, are of
  peculiar interest to women. The exclusion of women from all but the
  medical department of the Johns Hopkins university is really of
  serious import, because the Johns Hopkins university, judged not by
  numbers but by scholarly research and publication, the number of Ph.
  D. degrees conferred, and the important college and university
  positions filled by its graduates, has long been, and perhaps is
  still, the most important graduate school in the United States. Its
  attitude toward women is to be accounted for in part by its location,
  and in part by the fact that its management is in the hands of a
  self-perpetuating board of twelve trustees appointed originally by the
  founder, and without exception Baltimoreans, so that no pressure can
  be brought to bear upon the corporation from more progressive sections
  of the country.

Footnote 36:

  These figures are taken from the Graduate handbook for 1899, published
  by the Federation of graduate clubs. Of these the greatest number
  studying in any one institution in the west was to be found in the
  University of Chicago, and the next greatest in the University of
  California; the greatest number studying in any one institution in the
  east was to be found at Barnard-Columbia, and the next greatest at
  Bryn Mawr. There were studying in the graduate departments of the
  University of Chicago (including summer students) 276 women; in the
  University of California, 90; in Barnard-Columbia, 82; in Bryn Mawr,
  61; in Radcliffe-Harvard, 58; in Yale, 42; in Cornell, 36; in the
  University of Pennsylvania, 34. The position of Bryn Mawr in this
  series seems to show conclusively that an independent woman’s college
  maintaining a sufficiently high standard of instruction may compete
  successfully for students with much larger and older coeducational

Footnote 37:

  See Fellowships and graduate scholarships, published by the
  Association of collegiate alumnæ, Richmond Hill, N. Y., III Series,
  No. 2, July, 1899.

Footnote 43:

  A private law school for women existed for some years in the city of
  New York, founded by Madame Kempin, a graduate of the University of
  Zurich. At the request of the Women’s legal education society it was
  incorporated with the New York University law school.

Footnote 44:

  See U. S. ed. rep. 1897–98, p. 1825, corrected according to note 1,
  page 15 of this monograph.

Footnote 45:

  The number of women graduates has been obtained in every case
  through the courtesy of the presidents of the colleges concerned.
  In some cases the women graduates have had to be selected from the
  total number of graduates and counted separately for the purpose.
  As the figures have never been printed before, I give them below:
  _22 colleges belonging to the Association of collegiate
  alumnæ_:—coeducational colleges: Boston, 522 graduates;
  California, 440; Chicago, 267; Cornell, 517; Kansas, 259; Leland
  Stanford, Jr., 289, Massachusetts institute technology, 45;
  Michigan, 940; Minnesota, 458; Nebraska, 263; Northwestern, 317;
  Oberlin, 1,486; Syracuse, 508; Wesleyan, 118; Wisconsin, 620.
  Independent colleges: Vassar, 1,509; Wellesley, 1,727; Smith,
  1,679; Bryn Mawr, 321. Affiliated colleges: Radcliffe, 278;
  Barnard, 106; College for women of Western reserve, 135.
  _Additional colleges_, 15 in number: Women’s college of Brown,
  102; Cincinnati, 99; Columbian, 60; Colorado, about 70; Illinois,
  131; Indiana, 282; Iowa, 340; Maine, 28; Missouri, no record; Ohio
  State university, 150; Ohio Wesleyan, 615; Texas, 60 Vanderbilt,
  11; Washington (St. Louis), 55; West Virginia, 17. Total, 14,824
  women graduates.

Footnote 46:

  The number of women studying in universities in Germany in 1898–99 was
  approximately 471, probably mainly foreigners (statistics given in the
  Hochschul Nachrichten, Minerva, etc.); in France in 1896–97,
  approximately 410, of whom 83 were foreigners (Les Universités
  françaises, by M. Louis Liard; vol. 2 of Special Reports on
  Educational Subjects, Education department, London, 1898); in England
  and Wales in 1897–98, approximately 2,348. (See catalogues of
  different colleges.) The total number of women graduates in England
  and Wales who have received degrees, or their equivalent, from English
  and Welsh universities is about 2,180.

Footnote 47:

  Two statistical investigations of the health of college women have
  been undertaken; one in America in 1882, which tabulated various data
  connected with the health, occupation, marriage, birth rate, etc., of
  705 graduates of the 12 American colleges belonging at that time to
  the Association of collegiate alumnæ (Health statistics of women
  college graduates; report of a special committee of the Association of
  collegiate alumnæ, Annie G. Howes, chairman; together with statistical
  tables collated by the Massachusetts bureau of statistics of labor.
  Boston: Wright and Potter Printing Co., 18 Post Office Square. 1885),
  and one in England in 1887 (Health statistics of women students of
  Cambridge and Oxford and of their sisters, by Mrs. Henry Sidgwick,
  Cambridge university press, 1890). The English statistics dealt with
  566 women students (honor students who had taken tripos examinations
  and final honors, and women who had been in residence three, two and
  one year) of Newnham and Girton colleges, Cambridge, and of Lady
  Margaret and Somerville halls at Oxford. It was found that in England
  75 per cent of the honor students were at the time of the
  investigation in excellent or good health. It was found that in
  America 78 per cent of the graduates were at the time of the
  investigation in good health and 5 per cent in fair health. In
  estimating the result of this investigation it is difficult to find a
  standard of comparison. There is no way of knowing what percentage of
  good health is to be expected in the case of the average woman who has
  not been to college. It is stated in the American health
  investigation, page 10, that Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi, while obtaining
  data for her monograph on the question of rest for women, found that
  of 246 women only 56+ per cent were in good health. The American
  statistics were compared with the results obtained in an investigation
  of the condition of 1,032 working women of Boston, made by the
  Massachusetts bureau of statistics of labor; the comparison showed
  that the health of college women was more satisfactory than the health
  of working women. The English statistics were compared with the health
  statistics of 450 sisters or first cousins who had not received a
  college education, and it was found that, at all periods, about 5 per
  cent less of honor graduates were in bad health than of sisters and
  cousins. The comparative tables showed that the married graduates were
  healthier than their married sisters, that there were fewer childless
  marriages among them, that they had a larger proportion of children
  per year of married life, and that their children were healthier.

Footnote 48:

  The health, marriage rate, birth rate, etc., of woman graduates will
  be compared in every case with the corresponding statistics for the
  women relatives nearest in age who have not received a college
  education; an attempt will also be made to obtain corresponding
  statistics for the nearest men relatives who are college graduates.

Footnote 49:

  The health investigation of English women students showed that the
  average age of marriage for students was 26.70 as against 25.53 for
  sisters, and that 10.25 per cent of the students were married and
  19.33 per cent of the sisters, or, omitting the students who had just
  left college when the returns were sent in, about 12 per cent of
  students. The rate of marriage of students after their college course
  was completed and of their sisters seemed to be the same, the
  difference in the total number of marriages being apparently accounted
  for by causes existing before the termination of the college course,
  “possibly the desire to go to college, or to remain in college may be
  among them, but having been in college is not one of them.” (See
  summary of results by Mrs. Sidgwick, page 59.) Mrs. Sidgwick concludes
  as a result of the investigation that not more than one-half of
  English women of the social class of women students or their sisters
  marry. The American investigation of 1883 showed that 27.8 per cent of
  the American college graduates, their average age being 28½ years,
  were at that time married, and that, judging by the indications of the
  marriage percentages among older graduates, about 50 per cent were
  likely sooner or later to be married. In an investigation of the
  marriage of Vassar graduates made in 1895, and not including the
  graduates of that year, it was found that rather under 38 per cent of
  the whole number of students, and about 63 per cent of the first four
  classes, were married, see Frances M. Abbott: A Generation of college
  women, The Forum, vol. XX, p. 378. Out of the total number of 8,956
  graduates, including those graduating in June, 1899, of the 16
  colleges belonging to the Association of collegiate alumnæ that have
  kept accurate marriage statistics, 2,059 are married, or 23.0 per

Footnote 50:

  Mrs. Sidgwick’s investigation showed that 77 per cent of all English
  students reporting, and 83 per cent of honor students, had engaged in
  educational work.

Footnote 51:

  Between 1890 and 1898 women undergraduate students have increased
  111.8 per cent, and men undergraduate students have increased 51.2 per

Footnote 52:

  In the college departments of coeducational colleges the average
  number of women studying is 48.4, whereas in the college departments
  of independent women’s colleges the average number of women studying
  is 331.91, and in affiliated colleges 192.8. In 1897–98 11.4 per cent
  of all the women studying in coeducational colleges obtained the
  bachelor’s degree, whereas 13.4 per cent of all the women studying in
  independent women’s colleges obtained the bachelor’s degree, which
  indicates probably that women prefer women’s colleges for four years
  of residence. In the same year 13.3 per cent of all men undergraduate
  students obtained the bachelor’s degree. The average number of
  graduates of the 4 women’s colleges belonging to the Association of
  collegiate alumnæ is 1,309 per college, the average age of the
  colleges being 23 years; the average number of graduates of the 15
  coeducational colleges belonging to the Association of college alumnæ
  is only 469.9, although the average age of the colleges is 27.7 years.
  During the 8 years from 1890 to 1898, women undergraduate students
  have increased in coeducational colleges 105.4 per cent, whereas they
  have increased in women’s colleges, division A, 138.4 per cent.
  Precisely the reverse is true of men students (see pp. 14 and 15,
  including foot notes).


                          TRANSCRIBER’S NOTES

 1. Moved the advertising section from the second page to the end.
 2. Changed “re ite” to “recite” on p. 13.
 3. Silently corrected typographical errors.
 4. Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.
 5. Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.
 6. Enclosed bold font in =equals=.

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