By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Great Western Railway Instructions
Author: Grierson, William Wylie
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Great Western Railway Instructions" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.


Transcribed from the June 1922 edition by David Price, email

(1,000—W. 192-7-22).

                          Great Western Railway.

                                * * * * *


                                * * * * *

                        SUPERELEVATION OR “CANT.”

                           EXPANSION OF RAILS.

                      GAUGE AND CHECKING OF CURVES.

                                * * * * *

                                                           W. W. GRIERSON,
                                                         _Chief Engineer_.

         _June_, _1922_.


  _To be given to the Outer Rail in Curves ranging from 6 to 200 Chains

  Offset      Radius       MINIMUM “CANT.”         MAXIMUM “CANT.”
 (Length        of
    of        Curve.
 Cord 66
                          Outer       For a       Outer       For a
                           rail      maximum     rail to     maximum
                          to be      speed of       be       speed of
                         raised.                 raised.
 Inches.     Chains.     Inches.    miles per    Inches.    miles per
                                       hr.                     hr.
       16½           6          3¾          20           6          25
        10          10          3½          25          5⅛          30
        6⅝          15          3⅜          30          4⅝          35
         5          20          3½          35          5¾          45
         4          25          2¾          35          4⅝          45
        3¼          30           3          40          4¾          50
        2¾          35          2⅝          40           4          50
        2½          40          2¼          40          5⅛          60
        2¼          45          2½          45          4½          60
         2          50          2¼          45          5⅝          70
        1⅝          60          1⅞          45          4⅝          70
        1⅜          70          1⅝          45           4          70
        1¼          80          1¾          50          3½          70
        1⅛          90          1½          50          3⅛          70
         1         100          1⅜          50          2¾          70
         ⅞         120          1⅛          50          2⅜          70
         ¾         140           1          50           2          70
         ⅝         160           ⅞          50          1¾          70
         ½         200           ¾          50          1⅜          70

The amount of “cant” to be given to a curve is governed by the speed at
which trains run over it, and in no case must the raising of the outer
rail in Running Lines be less than is given in the column headed “Minimum
Cant,” except where necessary to meet special cases, as at switches,
crossings and junctions.  In curves on falling gradients where high
speeds are run, the outer rail must be kept well up, while on rising
gradients a lesser “cant,” but within the limits of the latter, must be
given.  On gradients on single lines the outer rail of curves must, as a
rule, be raised to suit the speed of descending trains.

The superelevation must be gradually attained at the rate of 1 inch in
each 66 feet length as the curve is approached, maintained uniformly over
the whole length of the curve, and run out after passing the curve in the
same way.

On reverse curves, or curves with very short pieces of straight between
them, the “cant” must be made gradually on the curves commencing at the
middle of the short piece of straight in the latter case.


Stretch a cord measuring exactly a chain (66 feet) across the inner side
of the curve, and measure the distance (C D) between the inner edge of
the rail and the cord, as shewn in sketch below.

Look for this measurement in the column headed “Offset,” opposite to
which, in the column headed “Radius of Curve,” will be found the radius
of the curve in chains; and in the columns headed “Minimum Cant” or
“Maximum Cant” will be found how much the outer rail is to be raised
above the inner one, according to the speed of trains.

         [Picture: Diagram showing the above curve, offset etc.]


Suppose the distance between the inner edge of the rail and the cord at C
D is found to be 2½ inches, the column headed “Radius of Curve,” shews it
to have a curve of 40 chains radius; and those headed “Minimum Cant” or
“Maximum Cant” will shew that the outer rail must be raised 2¼ inches
higher than the inner one for a speed of 40 miles an hour, or 5⅛ inches
for a speed of 60 miles an hour.


In laying the 45 ft., 44 ft. 6 in., 39 ft. 5 in., 32 ft., 29 ft. and 26
ft. lengths of rails, the following spaces must be left at the joints,
according to the temperature for the expansion and contraction of the
metal, viz.:—

      Air            NATURE OF               Length of Rail.
  Temperature.        WEATHER.
                                         45′ 0″            32′ 0″
                                         44′ 6″            29′ 0″
                                         39′ 5″            26′ 0″
       80         In hot Summer          5/32″             3/32″
       60         In moderately            ¼″              3/16″
                  cool weather
       30         In cold Winter         13/32″            9/32″

For laying down new permanent way iron expansion gauges, equal in
thickness to the respective spaces given, to be used.

Wooden gauges must on no account be allowed.

The expansion granges must, as far as possible, be allowed to remain in
the joints until they are properly fished up, and the road slewed into
its proper line and “topped.”


When laying new lines, or relaying in curves of 10 chains radius and
above in plain line work, the gauge of the road must be laid to the
standard width of 4 ft. 8½ in., but in curves of less than 10 chains
radius, worked over by Passenger and Goods Trains, the gauge may be
slightly eased according to the radius of the curve and other

The check rail in plain road is to be second-hand bull-head rail, and all
curves of Passenger lines of 10 chains radius, and under, must be
continuously checked; the check rail in all cases to extend, where
possible, for a length of 50 feet or thereabouts outside the commencing
and terminating points of the curve to be checked.

Continuous check chairs for plain road, are of two patterns, one allowing
a clearance of 1¾ in. to be used in curves of 10 chains radius, and the
other allowing a clearance of 2 in. to be used in curves under 10 chains,
both rails in each, case being level on top.

In sharp reverse or “S” curves in plain line work where a piece of
straight line cannot be given, the junction of the two curves must be
laid with check rails on both sides, each check to be laid to cover the
other for a safe distance.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Great Western Railway Instructions" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.