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Title: Folk Lore Notes. Vol. II—Konkan
Author: Jackson, A. M. T., Enthoven, R. E.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                            FOLK LORE NOTES.

                            Vol. II--KONKAN.

                  COMPILED FROM MATERIALS COLLECTED BY
            The late A. M. T. JACKSON, Indian Civil Service.


                     R. E. ENTHOVEN, C.I.E., I.C.S.


                  BRITISH INDIA PRESS, MAZGAON BOMBAY.
                                  1915



                 REPRINTED FROM THE "INDIAN ANTIQUARY"

       BY B. MILLER, SUPERINTENDENT, BRITISH INDIA PRESS, BOMBAY



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I.

Nature Powers.
                                                                   PAGE.
    Worship of minor local deities. Sun-worship. The Swastika.
    Circumambulation round images and other sacred objects.
    Moon-worship. Days of special importance. Eclipses. Worship
    of planets and stars. The milky way. The rainbow. Worship
    of the earth. Thunder and lightning. Earthquakes. Worship
    of sacred rivers, springs and pools. Water spirits and
    goblins. Ceremonies at digging of wells. Well water as a
    cure for disease. Sacred Lakes. Palaces under the water.
    Sacred mountains. Deities who control the weather. Methods
    of causing or averting rain and of checking storms. Vratas
    or religious vows practised only by women. Rites in which
    women are excluded. Rites in which the worshipper must be
    nude. Superstitions in connection with aerolites and meteors      1


CHAPTER II.

The Heroic Godlings.

    Village deities. Local deities. Installation of deities in
    new settlements. Ghostly godlings. Deities responsible for
    crops and cattle                                                 21


CHAPTER III.

Disease Deities.

    Causes of epidemic diseases and the remedies adopted to
    stop them. Cattle diseases. Remedies practised by the
    village people in connection with them. The methods for
    the exorcism of disease. Methods of expelling evil spirits
    from the body. The village sorcerer. Offerings of rags,
    coins, etc., at sacred trees and wells. The transferring
    of disease from one person to another. Scapegoats                29


CHAPTER IV.

The worship of Ancestors and Saints.

    Shráddhas and other ceremonies performed for the
    propitiation and emancipation of the deceased. Worship
    of the founders of religious sects, of saints, etc.
    Ghosts. Rebirth of ancestors in the same family.
    Miracle-working tombs. Muhammadan saints whose worship
    has been adopted by Hindus. Rural methods for the cure
    of barrenness                                                    40


CHAPTER V.

The Worship of the malevolent dead.

    Popular notions about dreams. Auspicious and inauspicious
    dreams. Temporary abandonment of the body by the soul.
    Character and functions of the bhut or disembodied soul.
    The state of the soul after death. The rebirth of the
    soul. The souls of persons dying a sudden or violent
    death. The ways by which ghosts enter and leave the body.
    Methods of driving away evil spirits from the body. Reliefs
    regarding sneezing and yawning. Rákshasa or the malevolent
    demon. Other malignant spirits. Evil spirits which go about
    headless. The haunts of evil spirits. Ghosts of women dying
    an unnatural death. Spirits of persons killed by tigers and
    other wild beasts. Ghosts of women dying in childbed or
    menses. Precautions taken by parents at the birth of
    children. Beliefs in connection with bats and owls. Spirits
    which haunt ruins, guard buried treasure and occupy valleys      49


CHAPTER VI.

The evil eye and the scaring of ghosts.

    Effects of the evil eye. Objects liable to be influenced by
    the evil eye. Precautions taken to evade the influence of
    the evil eye Opprobrious names. Change of sex. Protection
    against evil spirits. Amulets. Charmed circles. Omens.
    Numbers. Lucky and unlucky days. Rites performed to help the
    soul to the other world. Cremation and burial. The customs
    of shaving the hair. Offerings of food to the dead.
    Manifestation of evil spirits in form. The practice of
    breaking earthen vessels at death. Kites connected with
    mourning. Benevolent spirits. Spirits which haunt trees.
    The guardian spirits of crops and cattle. Spirits invoked
    to frighten children                                             60


CHAPTER VII.

Tree and Serpent worship.

    Trees connected with deities and saints. Legends and
    superstitions connected with them. Marriage of brides
    and bridegrooms to trees. Snake worship. Shrines of snake
    deities. Deified snakes. Snakes guarding treasure. The
    village treatment of snake-bite. The jewel in the head of
    the snake. Guardian snakes                                       71


CHAPTER VIII.

Totemism and Fetishism.

    Devaks. Names derived from animals and plants. Sacred
    animals. Deities associated with animal worship. Worship
    of stocks and stones. Survivals of human sacrifice.
    Disease-curing stones. Respect shown to corn sieves, corn
    pounders, the broom and the plough. Fire worship                 78


CHAPTER IX.

Animal worship.

    Sacred animals and the legends and superstitions connected
    with them                                                        83


CHAPTER X.

Witchcraft.

    Chetaks and Chetakins.                                           85


CHAPTER XI.

General.

    Rural ceremonies connected with agricultural operations.
    Rites performed for the protection of cattle. Rites
    performed for scaring noxious animals and insects. Rites
    performed for ensuring sunshine and favourable weather.
    Rites performed for the protection of crops. Rites in
    which secrecy and silence are observed. The observances
    at the Holi festival. Rites performed when boys and girls
    attain puberty. Vows. The black art                              87


APPENDIX

Glossary of vernacular terms, occurring in
Volumes I and II                                            i to xxxvii



FOLKLORE OF THE KONKAN.


CHAPTER I.

NATURE POWERS.


The worship of minor local deities is connected with such low castes as
Guravas, Bhopis, Marátha Kunbis, Dhangars, Wághes, Murlis, Mahárs and
Mángs in the District of Kolhápur. It is believed by the Bráhmans that
once an image is consecrated and worshipped, it should be worshipped
uninterruptedly every day, and he who neglects to worship such an
image daily incurs the sin of Brahma-hatya or Bráhman-murder. For
this reason Bráhmans generally do not worship minor local deities. In
former times Bráhmans who worshipped these deities were excommunicated
by their caste-men. Such Pujáris were compelled to wear a folded dhotur
or waist cloth, and were forbidden to put on the gandh or sandal paste
mark in straight or cross lines. They were allowed to put on the tila
or circular mark of sandal paste. Another reason why Bráhmans are not
the Pujáris or worshippers of such deities is that Bráhmans cannot
accept or partake of the Naivedya offering of cooked food, fowls,
etc., made to them. Lower class people can partake of such offerings,
and are therefore generally the worshippers or ministrants of minor
local deities.

At Palshet in the Ratnágiri District, there are two grámdevis, viz.,
Jholái and Mhárjái, and the pujáris of these deities are respectively
a Gurav and a Mahár. [1] The pujáris of goddesses are generally men
of the lower castes. The guardian goddesses of the villages of Pule,
Varavade, Nandivade, and Rila have Kunbis as their pujáris; while the
pujáris of the goddesses Mahálakshmi, Bhagvati, Mahákáli, and Jogái
are generally chosen from the Gurav caste. [2] In the Konkan the
Ráuls (Shudras) are the pujáris of the deities Vithoba, Ravalnáth
and Bhaváni; the Ghádis are the pujáris of the deities Sáteri and
Khavaneshwar; while the deities Mahádev and Máruti are worshipped by
pujáris belonging to the Gurav caste. [3] The goddesses Makhajan and
Jakhmáta at Sangameshwar in the Ratnágiri District are worshipped by
pujáris who belong to the Gurav and Bhoi castes respectively. The god
Ganpati at Makhnele has for his pujári a Wáni. The pujáris of the
temple of Shiva at Lánje in the Ratnágiri District are Wánis. [4]
It is said that the pujári of Pundárik at Pandharpur is a Kiráta
(fisherman) by caste. [5]

The pujári of the goddess Narmáta at Sidgad in the Thána District is
a Koli; whilst the pujáris of Kánoba, Khandoba, and Vetál are of the
lower castes. [6] The goddesses Mahálakshmi of Kolvan and Vajreshvari
have their pujáris chosen from the lower castes. [7] The pujáris of
Jari-Mari, Mhasoba, Bahiroba, Cheda and other deities which are said
to prevent contagious diseases, are always men of the lower castes. [8]

The pujáris of the guardian goddesses of the villages Petsai,
Dasgaum and Nizámpur are a Mahár, a Kumbhár or potter, and a
Marátha, respectively. [9] The pujári of the guardian goddesses
of Chaul in the Kolába District belongs to the lower castes. [10]
The goddess Mángái has always a Mahár as her pujári. [11] Everyday
the god Shiva is required to be worshipped first by a pujári of the
Gurav caste. The pujári of Bahiri, a corruption of the word Bhairav,
one of the manifestations of Shiva, is a man belonging to the lower
castes. Similarly the pujáris of Bhagavati, Bhaváni, Ambika, Kálika,
Jákhái, Jholái, Janni, Kolhái, Vadyájái, Shitaládevi, Chandika, etc.,
are persons belonging to lower castes. [12]

It is considered by the Hindus very meritorious and holy to worship the
Sun; and by Bráhmans the Sun is considered to be their chief deity. The
Gáyatri Mantra of the Bráhmans is a prayer to the Sun-god or the Savita
Dev, and the Bráhmans offer arghya or oblations of water to the Sun
thrice a day. Those who want health, wealth and prosperity propitiate
the Sun-god by prayers and ceremonies. The Ratha Saptami is considered
to be the principal day for special worship and festivities in honour
of the Sun-god. On this day, on a low wooden stool, is drawn, in red
sandal paste, a figure of the Sun in human shape seated in a chariot
drawn by seven horses, or by a horse with seven faces. This figure is
then placed in the sun-shine, and it is then worshipped by offering
it arghya or spoonfuls of water, red powder, red flowers mixed with
red sandal paste, camphor, incense and fruits. Some people kneel down
while offering the arghyas to the Sun. These arghyas are either three
or twelve in number. Some persons make a vow not to eat anything unless
they have worshipped the Sun and performed the twelve Namaskaras by
falling prostrate and bowing with folded hands twelve times, and at
each time repeating one of the twelve names of the Sun. [13]

In the Ratnágiri District some people worship the Sun on the Sundays
of the month of Shrávan. A ceremony held on the Rathasaptami day,
i.e., the 7th day of the bright half of Mágh, is deemed a special
festival in honour of the Sun-god. On that day people draw, on a
small wooden stool, an image of the Sun, seated in a chariot drawn
by seven horses, and worship it with great reverence. Milk is then
boiled on a fire made of cow-dung cakes in front of the household
Tulsi plant. If the milk overflows to the east, it is believed that
there will be abundance of crops, but if it flows to the west it is
taken as a sign of the near approach of famine. [14] The Sun-god is
also worshipped on the following occasions, e.g., Trikal, Gajaccháya,
Ardhodaya, Mahodaya, Vyatipát, Makar-Sankránt, Kark-Sankránt and the
Solar eclipse. [15] Though there are few temples dedicated to the Sun,
the village of Parule has the honour of having one called "the temple
of Adi-Náráyan." Non-Bráhmanical classes are not seen worshipping
the Sun in this district, despite the fact that the Sun is said to
be the embodiment of the three principal deities of the Hindus. [16]

The people of the Thána District believe that the Swastika is the
central point of the helmet of the Sun, and a vow called the Swastika
Vrata is held in its honor. A woman who observes this vow, draws
a figure of the Swastika and worships it daily during the Cháturmás
(four months of the rainy season), at the expiration of which she gives
a Bráhman a golden or silver plate with the sign of the Swastika upon
it. [17] Another vow named Dhanurmás, common to all districts in the
Konkan, requires a person to complete his daily rites before sun-rise,
and to offer a preparation of food called Khichadi to the Sun-god. The
observer of this vow then partakes of the food, regarding it as a
gift from that god. This is either done for one day or repeated for
a month till the Dhanu-Sankránt. [18] On the Somavati-Amávásya day
(the 15th day of the dark half of a month falling on Monday), and
the Kapiláshasthi day, the Sun is held in especial reverence. [19]
A curious story is narrated regarding the offering of Arghya to the
Sun. It is said that the Sun rejoices at the birth of a Bráhman,
and gives 1,000,000 cows in charity, believing that the Arghya which
the Bráhman will offer later on will devour his foes, one drop of the
Arghya killing 1,000 of them [20]. The repetition of the Gáyatri-mantra
108 times a day is supposed to release a Bráhman from the debt of
1,000,000 cows owed in this way to the Sun. [21] The Yoga-Sutras of
Pátanjali however prohibit a man from looking at the setting Sun,
though the sin thus incurred is made amends for by the offering of
Arghya to that god. [22] It is interesting to note that women do not
grind corn on the Ratha-Saptami day. [23]

Women bow down to the Sun on the 11th, 12th, 30th or 40th day after
their delivery; but Kunbi women generally worship that god on the
7th day. [24] On this occasion some women show a churning handle [25]
to the Sun-god and offer him some grains of rice. [26]

The Swastika is considered so holy in the Konkan that it is
always drawn on the Antarpat; and at the time of the Punyáha Wachan
ceremony which precedes a Hindu wedding, a Swastika drawn in rice is
worshipped. [27] The principal deities of the Hindus, whenever they
are invoked on special occasions, are seated on the Swastika. [28]
The people of the Ratnágiri District worship the Swastika, regarding
it as the symbol as well as the seat of the Sun-god. [29]

By some the Swastika is regarded as the foundation-stone of the
universe [30] and is held to be the symbol of the god Shiva, and not
of the Sun. [31]

The conception of Kunbi is said to have taken place by the influence
of the rays of the Sun. [32]

The Swastika is considered as an emblem of peace and prosperity, and
for this reason Bráhman women draw a figure of the Swastika in front
of their houses. [33] The custom of moving round such sacred objects
as the Banyan, the Pipal, the Tulsi or sweet basil plant, the Umbar,
the Avala (Phylanthus emblica), etc., is prevalent in the district of
Kolhápur. There are no cases recorded in which women after child-birth
are exposed to the Sun. But on the 12th day after her delivery, the
mother puts on new bangles and new clothes; cocoanuts, betelnuts and
leaves, grains of rice, plantains and grains of wheat are placed in
her lap. She then comes out and bows to the Sun. Wealthy persons on
this occasion perform a homa sacrifice in their houses by kindling
the holy fire and feeding Bráhmans. No one in this district believes
that conception is caused, or is likely to be caused, by exposure to
the rays of the Sun.

The Hindu women of the Konkan walk round Pipal, Tulsi, and Umbar
trees every Saturday and on the Somavati-amávásya day, i.e., the
15th day of the dark half of a month when it falls on Monday. [34]
Sometimes, however, women make a vow to walk round a temple or a
sacred tree one-hundred thousand times; and for the fulfilment of
this vow they walk round the temple or tree for about seven or eight
hours every day. If they find it difficult to make up the number of
rounds themselves, they ask their near relations to assist them in
their undertaking. [35]

The Moon is worshipped by the Hindus on the 2nd of the bright half of
every month. On this day it is considered very lucky to see the moon,
and many people, particularly the lower classes, pull out threads from
the clothes they wear, and offer them to the moon, saying "O! God,
accept these old clothes of ours and be pleased to give us new ones in
their stead." Some people worship the moon on the Sankasti Chaturthi,
4th day of the dark half of every month; and such people will not eat
anything until they have seen and worshipped the moon on that day. The
moon is not worshipped on the Ganesh Chaturthi day that is, the 4th
of the bright half of the month of Bhádrapad, as it is considered
very unlucky to see the moon on that night. It is firmly believed
that any one who sees the moon on the Ganesh Chaturthi day even by
accident will be falsely accused of theft or some other crime. In
order to avoid this, people who have accidently seen the moon, throw
stones at the houses of their neighbours, and if the neighbours abuse
them in return, the mischief makers consider themselves freed by the
abuse from the sin of having looked at the moon on a forbidden night.

The spots on the surface of the moon are believed by some to be the
rath or chariot of the god. Others think that they are lunar mountains;
but many believe that the spots are the visible signs of the stain on
the character of the moon-god due to his having outraged the modesty
of the wife of his guru, the god Brahaspati or Jupiter. In the Puráns
it is stated that on one occasion, a dispute arose between the moon
and Brahaspati or Jupiter about the wife of Brahaspati, each of them
claiming to be the cause of her conception. Subsequently a son was
born who was named Budha (Mercury). Brahaspati's wife, on being asked
who was the father of the child, named the moon. Thereupon Brahaspati
cursed the moon for his adultery. The spots on the surface of the
moon are said to be the effect of this curse.

The moon-god is believed to distribute nectar through his rays, and
therefore this deity is said to have the power of removing diseases
and restoring human beings to health. The moon is the king of herbs,
and all trees, plants, etc., thrive owing to the influence of the
moon. Sometimes people place at night, figs, plantains, sugarcane and
other eatables in the moon-light and eat them early in the morning;
and it is said that those who do so improve in health. The practice of
drinking the moon's rays does not prevail in the Kolhápur district. But
people occasionally dine in the moon light. [36]

On a full moon day people perform the special worship of their
chosen deity. On the full moon of the month of Kártika temples are
illuminated, and on the full moon day of Mágha, raw corn such as
wheat, bájri, etc., is cooked and offered to the household and other
deities. [37] On this day are also performed the special rites and
ceremonies that are required in connection with the Kula-devatás or
family gods or goddesses. On the full moon day of Fálguna the Holi fire
is kindled and worshipped. In certain families the full moon of Chaitra
is considered auspicious for making offerings to family deities. On
the full moon day of Shrávan is observed the feast of Cocoanut day,
and on this day Bráhmans put on new sacred threads. The full moon is
considered by the Sanyásis or ascetics an auspicious day for shaving
their heads.

On the new moon day the Pitras or Manes are worshipped. Lighted lamps
are worshipped on the new moon day, of Ashádha. In the Kolhápur
State this is called Tadali new moon day, and in the Konkan it is
called Divali new moon day. On the new moon day of Ashvin, Lakshmi
the goddess of wealth is worshipped. All special ceremonies for the
propitiation of the Bhutas or evil spirits are usually performed on
the new moon day. The Dwitiya or 2nd day of every month is considered
sacred to the moon, and on this day the moon is worshipped; while
the Chaturthi is considered sacred to the god Ganapati, and on the
Chaturthi of Bhádrapada a special festival is held in honour of the
god Ganpati. [38]

On the 15th day of the bright half of the month of Ashvin people put
milk in the rays of the moon for some time, and then, after offering
it to the moon, they drink it. Drinking milk in this way is called
drinking the rays of the moon. [39] On the Sankránt Chaturthi day
and on that Chaturthi which immediately follows the Dasara holiday,
people draw an image of the moon and worship it. [40] In the Ratnágiri
District several conflicting theories are held regarding the spots
on the surface of the moon. Some believe that the spot observed on
the moon is a tamarind tree in which that god has stationed himself;
others hold that the spot is the reflection of a deer which is yoked
to the chariot of the moon [41]; while many more believe that it has
been occasioned by the hoof of the horse of King Nala. Some say that
the spot on the surface of the moon represents a Pipal tree and a cow
fastened to the roots of the tree; others on the authority of Hindu
mythology suppose that God created Madan (cupid) from the essence
taken from the body of the moon and hence the moon-god has spots on
his body. [42] In the Mahábhárat it is stated that on the surface of
the moon is reflected the island of Sudarshan on this earth, together
with some trees and a great hare, the bright part being nothing but
water. [43] The spot on the surface of the moon is considered by some
a deer which the god has taken on his lap. [44] Some believe that
Yashoda, the mother of Krishna, after waving an earthen dish round
the face of Krishna, threw it at the sky. It struck the moon and
thereby the spots on the surface of the moon were caused. Nectar is
supposed to have been derived from the rays of the moon; and in some
sacred books it is stated that the Chakora bird (Bartavelle Partridge)
drinks the rays of the moon. [45]

The people of the Thána District hold similar notions regarding the
spots on the surface of the moon. It has been said by some that the
portion in question represents mud, while others say that the moon
has been disfigured owing to a curse from a sage. [46] Some people
say that the spots are due to the moon being cursed by his preceptor
Brahaspati with whose wife the moon-god had connection. Being unable
to bear the pain of the spots, the moon, it is said, propitiated his
preceptor, who directed him to bathe in the Bhima river to alleviate
the agony. Accordingly the pain was assuaged, and the part of the river
where the Moon-god bathed thus came to be called Chandra bhága. [47]
Some persons suggest that the spots are a Pipal tree with two deer
feeding upon it from two sides. [48] Others hold that the spots on
the surface of the moon are due to its having been kicked by a deer
which, when pursued by a hunter, was refused shelter. [49] The people
of the Thána District believe that the rays of the moon influence
conception. [50]

In the Kolába District, to sit in an open place on a moon-light night,
is regarded as drinking the rays of the moon. [51] The elongated
part of the orb of the moon pointing towards the north or the south
is supposed to forebode scarcity or abundance, respectively. [52]

It is a common belief that the moon should not be seen on the Ganesh
Chaturthi day, i.e., the 4th day of the bright half of Bhádrapad.

Looking at the moon continuously for a short time on every moon-light
night is said to keep one's sight in good order. [53]

If the Amávásya falls on Monday, Bráhman women of the Thána District
walk round a Tulsi plant or a Pipal tree and make a vow to a
Bráhman. [54]

In the Kolába District a special ceremony is held in honour of minor
goddesses on the 8th day of a month. The following things are avoided
one on each of the fifteen tithis respectively:--

Kohala (pumpkin), dorli (Solanum indicum), salt, sesamum, sour things,
oil, ávale (Emblic myrobalan), cocoanuts, bhopala (gourd), padval
(snake-gourd), pávte (Dolichos Lablah), masur (Lens esculenta),
brinjal, honey, gambling. [55]

The people observe a fast on the 13th (Pradosha) and the 14th day
(Shivarátra) of the dark half of every month. [56] On the 15th
day of the bright half of Chaitra, a fair is held in honour of the
guardian deity of a village, and hens, goats, etc., are offered as
a sacrifice. [57]

The following are days of special importance.

Gudhi-pádva, i.e., the first day of the bright half of Chaitra:--This
being the first day of the year, gudhis and toranas are hoisted in
front of every house and are worshipped. [58]

Bháu-bij:--On the 2nd day of the bright half of Kártik every
sister waves round the face of her brother a lamp, and makes him a
present. [59]

The ceremony on the Bháu-bij day has come into vogue on account of
Subhadra having given a very pleasant bath to her brother Krishna on
that day. The Court of Yama is also said to be closed on that day,
since he goes to his sister; and consequently persons who die on that
day, however sinful they may be, are not supposed to go to Yamaloka,
i.e., hell. [60]

Akshya Tritiya:--On the third day of the bright half of Vaishákh cold
water and winnowing fans are distributed as tokens for appeasing the
Manes of ancestors. On this day is also celebrated the birth of the
god Parashurám. [61]

Ganesh Chaturthi:--On the 4th day of the bright half of Bhádrapad,
an earthen image of Ganpati is worshipped and a great ceremony is held
in his honour. [62] The fourth day of the bright half of every month
is called Vináyaka-Chaturthi; while that of the dark half is called
Sankasti-Chaturthi. On the Vináyaka-Chaturthi day, people fast the
whole day and dine the next day; while on the Sankasti Chaturthi day,
they fast during the day time and dine after moon-rise. [63] That
Sankasti Chaturthi which falls on Tuesday is considered the best. [64]

Nágpanchami:--On the 5th day of the bright half of Shrávan, pictures
of serpents and snake holes are worshipped. [65]

Champá-Shashti:--On the 6th day of the bright half of Márgashirsha,
some ceremony relating to the family-deity is performed. [66]

Ratha-Saptami:--On the 7th day of the bright half of Mágh, the sun
is worshipped and milk is boiled until it overflows. [67]

Gokul-Ashtami:--On the 8th day of the dark half of Shrávan the birth
of the god Krishna is celebrated. [68]

Ráma-Navami:--On the 9th day of the bright half of Chaitra the birth
of the god Ráma is celebrated. [69]

Vijayádashami:--On the 10th day of the bright half of Ashvin people
cross the boundary of their village and distribute sone (leaves of the
Shami and Apta trees). It is a popular belief that a work commenced
on this day is sure to end well. Weapons are also worshipped on this
day. [70]

Ekádashi:--On the 11th day of Ashádh and Kártik a special fast is
observed. People also fast on the 11th day of each month. A man who
dies on this auspicious day is supposed to go to heaven. [71] Sometimes
the Ekádashi falls on two consecutive days; in which case the Smártas
observe the first, while the Bhágvats observe the second. [72]

Wáman-dwádashi:--On the 12th day of the bright half of Bhádrapad
Wáman is worshipped and one or twelve boys are adored, being held
to represent Wáman. The marriage of the Tulsi plant is sometimes
celebrated on this day. [73]

Dhana-Trayodashi:--On the 13th day of the dark half of Ashvin, Lakshmi,
the goddess of wealth is worshipped. [74]

Narak-Chaturdashi:--On the 14th day of the dark half of Ashvin, the
demon Narakásur was killed. In consequence, on this day people take
their bath before sun-rise, break Karinta (a fruit), regarding it as
a demon, and apply its seeds to their heads. [75]

Nárali Paurnima:--On the 15th day of the bright half of Shrávan,
people worship the sea and throw into it a cocoanut. [76]

Wata-Paurnima:--On the 15th day of the bright half of Jyeshtha,
women whose husbands are alive fast the whole day, and worship the
Wata-tree. [77]

On the 15th day of the bright half of Ashvin, people keep themselves
awake the whole night and amuse themselves in a variety of ways. On the
15th day of the bright half of Kártika houses are illuminated. This
day is called Tripuri-Paurnima. On this night people illuminate
with earthen lamps all temples in the village, but particularly the
temple of Shiva. This is done in commemoration of the triumph of
the god Shiva over the demon Tripurásura. The full-moon day of the
month of Mágha is called Chudi Paurnima. On this night people light
chudies torches and with them slightly burn certain flowers, trees
and plants. The full-moon day of the month of Fálguna is called the
Holi or Holi-Paurnima and is the biggest holiday of the lower class
Hindus. On this night the Hindus kindle the Holi-fire and worship
it. [78] On the 15th day of the bright half of Ashvin people eat grain
of the new harvest. On the full-moon day of Shrávan they perform the
Shrávani ceremony and give a lamp in charity. On the full-moon day of
the month of Chaitra, Vaishakha and Márgashirsha, the births of Máruti,
Narasimha and Dattátraya respectively are celebrated. [79] The Kunbis
of the Ratnágiri District believe that on the 15th or full-moon day of
Pausha, the Hindu gods go out hunting and that they return from their
hunting expedition on the full-moon day of the month of Mágha. During
this period the Kunbis abstain from worshipping their gods. [80]

Amávásya:--On the 15th day of the dark half of every month, oblations
are given to the Manes of the dead. [81] The commencement of a good
deed, journey to a distant place, and the ploughing of land are
postponed on the no-moon day of a month. [82] Sanyásis are enjoined
to get their beard shaved on the Paurnima and Amávásya days only. [83]

People do not set out on a journey on the following tithis, regarding
them as rikta (unfruitful or inauspicious):--


Chaturthi, Navami and Chaturdashi. [84]

The Chándráyana Vrata:--Widows fast on the no-moon day of a month. They
are required to regulate their diet in such an increasing proportion
that on the next full moon day they should have a full meal. The
reverse process follows for a fortnight after, so that they observe
an absolute fast on the following no-moon day. [85]

People have various ideas about the cause of the eclipses of the sun
and the moon. Some say that the sun and the moon are superior deities,
and that the demons Ráhu and Ketu who belong to the caste of Mángs
attempt to touch them and to devour them. Others believe that the
planets Ráhu and Ketu stand in the path of the Sun and the Moon and
thereby darkness is caused on the earth. It is believed that about 5
hours before the commencement of the obscuration, in the case of the
Sun and about 4 hours in the case of the Moon, the Vedha or malign
influence of the monsters begins and during the period till the whole
eclipse is over a strict fast is observed. At the commencement of
the eclipse, as well as at its close, people bathe. Some sit on a
low wooden stool with a rosary in their hands repeating the names of
the gods, or the gáyatri or some of the mantras. But those who want
to acquire the art of magic or witch-craft or the power of removing
the evil effects of snake-poison, or scorpion sting, go to a lonely
place on the riverside, and there standing in water repeat the mantras
taught to them by their guru or teacher. People give alms to Mahárs
and Mángs on this occasion, and therefore persons of this class go
about the streets saying loudly "Give us alms and the eclipse will
be over." De dán suté girán.

A strict fast is observed on an eclipse day, but children and pregnant
women who cannot bear the privation are given something to eat under
a sike. The eclipse time is so inauspicious that children and animals
born at that time are considered unlucky. [86] Sometimes an eclipse
cannot be observed owing to the intervention of clouds. On that
occasion the people of the Konkan resort to the following expedient
in order to ascertain whether the luminary is eclipsed or not. They
take a potful of water and hold in it a musal. If it stands in the
pot unsupported it is regarded as indicative of the existence of an
eclipse. Mángs, Mahárs, etc., are supposed to be the descendants of
Ráhu and Ketu; and for this reason gifts are made to them in charity
on an eclipse day. [87]

The people of the Thána District believe that corn grows abundantly
in a year that witnesses many eclipses. [88]

The popular cause of an eclipse in the Kolába District, is the Girha, a
minor deity which is said to wander through the sky and swallow the Sun
and the Moon when they cross his path. [89] Besides the mythological
story regarding the cause of an eclipse, the people of the Ratnágiri
District also believe that the Girha throws his shadow on the sun and
the moon, when he comes to demand his dues from them. [90] The Konkan
villagers, on an eclipse day, strike barren trees with a pestle, [91]
in order that they may bear fruits and flowers. A barren woman is
also beaten with the same motive. Similarly many other superstitious
beliefs are connected with an eclipse. Pregnant women are not allowed
to see the eclipse of the sun or the moon, nor are they to engage
in cutting, sewing, etc. as this is believed to be injurious to the
child in the womb. [92] The eclipse time is supposed to be the most
suitable to learn mantras or incantations. [93] The mantris also
mutter incantations during an eclipse in a naked condition. [94] The
people who believe that the eclipses are caused by the influence of
the planets Ráhu and Ketu offer prayers to Ráhu on the lunar eclipse
day and to Ketu on the solar eclipse day. [95]

The planets and stars are worshipped by the Hindus. It is believed
that a person who is to die within six months cannot see the polar
star. From the movements of the planets past and future events of
one's career are foretold by Bráhman and other astrologers. And as
it is believed that man's good and bad luck are dependant upon the
influence of the planets, offerings of various kinds are made and
sacrifices performed for securing the favour of the Navagrahas or the
nine planets. In order to avert the effect of the evil influence of
certain planets people sometimes wear rings of those precious stones
which are supposed to be the favourites of the planets.

The rain-bow is called Indra dhanushya or the Indra's bow, and it is
believed that if the rain-bow appears in the east, it indicates the
coming of more rain, and if it appears in the west it is a sure sign
of the close of the monsoon.

The milky way is believed to be the heavenly Ganges. Well known
tradition relates how Wáman (the 5th incarnation of Vishnu) went to
Bali the king of the lower regions and asked him to give him land
measuring three feet only. The king consented, whereupon the god
Wáman enlarged his body to such an extent that by his one footstep he
occupied the whole earth and by the second he occupied heaven. Upon
this the god Brahma worshipped the foot of the god Vishnu which was
in heaven, and from that foot sprang the heavenly Ganges which flows
in heaven and is called Dudha Ganga or the milky Ganges.

The worship of stars and planets is in vogue among Konkan Hindu
families of the higher castes. The polar star in particular is seen
and worshipped by the bride and the bridegroom after the ceremony
at the marriage altar is over. [96] A very interesting story is
connected with the polar star. By the great power of his penance
the sage Vishvámitra despatched king Trishanku to Heaven, but the
gods hurled him down. Thereupon Vishvámitra became enraged and began
to create a new heaven. Hindu mythological books say that he thus
created the sages Vashista, Angiras, Pulah, Pulastya, Rutu, Atri, and
Marichi, and stationed Trishanku in the sky. The Nava-grahas or the
nine planets are worshipped before the commencement of all important
ceremonies. [97] A cluster of seven stars called the Sapta-rishis are
worshipped by men at the time of the Shrávani ceremony, while women
worship them on the 5th day of the bright half of Bhádrapada. [98]
These Sapta-rishis are said to have been created by the God Brahma
from his own body; and teaching them the four Vedas, he handed them
over to them and asked them to regulate the affairs of the world. [99]

Some people of the Ratnágiri District believe that the rain-bow is the
bow used by Ráma, the hero of the Rámáyana. Its appearance on the east
is regarded by them as symptomatic of the approach of rain, while its
appearance on the west is equivalent to the departure of rain. [100]

The short duration of the rain-bow is held to indicate an excessive
fall of rain while its long duration forbodes a scarcity of rain. [101]
The appearance of the rain-bow on a river is supposed to indicate
the approach of rain, while its appearance on a mountain means the
departure of rain. [102] Of the two bows of which the rain-bow seems
to be composed, the larger is believed to belong to Ráma, and the
smaller to Lakshman. [103] Since the God Indra is supposed to send
rain, the Indradhanushya (the rain-bow) is regarded as a sign of the
advent of rain. [104]

By some Hindus it is believed that the milky way is a heavenly river
which is a favourite bathing place of the gods. [105] Others suppose
it to be a branch of the celestial Ganges which is said to have been
brought down upon this earth by king Bhagiratha. [106] Some persons,
however, believe that since the great sage Agastya is said to reside
at Rámeshwar in the southern direction, the Ganges (the milky way)
runs through the sky to the south in order to bathe him. Sometimes
the milky way is believed to be a white cloud. [107]

On the authority of the Mahákála Nirván Tantra, some people of the
Thána District believe that a person who cannot get a view of the
polar star will die within six months; while others substitute the
Arundhati star for the polar star and determine the duration of life
of a diseased person by the same process. [108]

The people of the Thána District believe that the rain-bow is caused
by the accumulation of moisture in the air. [109] The rain-bow is said
to consecrate the region over which it appears. [110] The appearance
of the rain-bow in the morning is supposed to forbode the approach
of rain. [111]

Some people of the Kolába District believe that the holy persons such
as Káshyapa, Arundhati and other sages, who lived on this earth in
ancient times are seen shining in the sky by the sacred lustre of
their powers. [112] Hindu women worship the planets Budha and Guru
(Mercury and Jupiter) in the month of Shravan. [113]

The Sapta-rishis are somewhere called Khatale and Bájale (cot). [114]
The rain-bow is held by some to be the symbol of Ráma and Lakshman,
who visit the world in that form with the view of watching its
proceedings. Others, however, believe that it represents God Indra
who assumes that form to see how his orders are executed by his
subordinates. [115] The rain-bow is said to foretell good if it
appears either at the beginning or end of the rainy season, while
its appearance at any other time is supposed to forbode evil. [116]

Hindus regard the earth as one of their important deities and worship
it on various occasions. It is enjoined upon Bráhmans to worship it
daily at the time of their Sandhya rite, as well as while performing
the Shrávani ceremony. [117] The people of the Ratnágiri District pray
to the earth as soon as they leave their bed in the morning. [118]
The earth is required to be worshipped at the time of laying the
foundation-stone of a house, as well as at the time of bringing into
use a newly built house. [119] Since it is held unholy to sleep on
the bare ground, those whose parents die, sleep on a woollen cloth on
the ground till their parents' anniversary is over. [120] Wanprastas,
Sanyásis, and Bráhmans are required to sleep on the ground. [121]
Some pious men sleep on the bare ground during the Cháturmás (the four
months of the rainy season), at the expiry of which they present a
bed to a Bráhman. [122] It is enjoined upon a prince to sleep on the
bare ground on the eve of the coronation day. [123]

Widows and women are required to sleep on the ground during their
monthly courses. Women whose husbands are away are also to do the
same. [124] In the Ratnágiri District Katkaris, on the day on which
they wish to be possessed by a particular deity or spirit, are
required to sleep on the earth. [125] When people are on the point
of death, they are made to lie on blades of darbha grass placed on
the earth. [126] The performer of a sacrifice as well as one who
has observed a vow are to sleep on the ground. [127] The following
articles should not be allowed to touch the earth, viz. pearls,
the Sháligram stone, an image of the god Vishnu, the linga of Shiva,
a conch shell, the sacred thread of a Bráhman, flowers intended for
worship, basil leaves, and Govardhan. [128]

The following lines are repeated in the morning before setting foot
to the ground [129]:--

O Goddess! who is clothed (surrounded) by the sea, whose breasts are
mountains, and who is the wife of Vishnu, I bow down to thee; please
forgive the touch of my feet. O Goddess Earth! who art born by the
power of Vishnu, whose surface is of the colour of a conch shell and
who art the store house of innumerable jewels, I bow down to thee.

Some women of the Thána District worship the earth daily during the
Cháturmás (four months of the rainy season), at the end of which they
give a Bráhman a piece of land or the money equivalent of it. [130]
Persons who perform a particular rite, e.g., the Solásomavár-vrata
(a vow observed on sixteen successive Mondays) are required to sleep
on the bare ground. [131] At the sowing and harvest time, farmers
appease the earth by offering it cocoanuts, fowls, rice mixed with
curd, etc. [132] The blood of a king and the balls of rice given to
the manes of the dead are not allowed to touch the ground. People
convey to a distant place the water of the Ganges, without placing
it on the ground. [133]

The earth is required to be worshipped before taking a portion of
it for sacrificial purposes. [134] A vessel containing water over
which incantations have been repeated is not allowed to touch the
ground. [135] On the 15th day of the bright half of Ashvin every
farmer prepares some sweetmeats in his house, and takes them to his
farm. There he gathers five stones, worships them, and offers the
sweetmeats to the earth. Afterwards he takes a portion of the food
and scatters it over the farm. His family then gather there and take
a hearty meal. In the evening the person who carried the food to the
farm, picks up some grains of barley and puts them into a basket. On
return home the grains are thrown over the house. [136]

Various conflicting notions are entertained regarding thunder and
lightning. The people of the Ratnágiri District believe that the
clouds are animals that roar. When these animals emit water it
bursts forth on account of the circular motion of the winds called
Chanda and Munda. This bursting is supposed to produce thunder
and lightning. [137] Somewhere thunder and lightning are said to
be the signals given by the god Indra, to birds, beasts, etc., of
the setting in of the rainy season. [138] Some people believe that
the god Indra sends rain through his elephants who, being excited,
make a noise like thunder. [139]

Others regard the thunder as the roaring of the elephant of the gods,
while sucking sea-water. The thunder is also believed to be the
roaring of the god Varuna, the king of the clouds. [140] The boys of
the Ratnágiri District believe that thunder is a sign of the wedding
ceremonies performed in the heavenly houses of the gods. [141] Some
Mahomedans believe that an angel called Mekail has control over the
rain. To cause a fall of rain Mekail strikes the clouds with a whip
of lightning. The clouds then utter a cry, and this is the cause of
thunder. [142] Some people of the Thána District believe that there
are big stones in the sky which strike against each other owing to
the force of the wind, and produce thunder. The dashing of these
stones against each other also generates lightning. [143]

In the Kolába District it is believed that thunder is the military band
of the king of clouds and lightning is his banner. [144] Lightning
is said to be produced by the fighting of celestial elephants; while
thunder is heard when they pour out water. [145] Some people think
that thunder is the noise of the feet of the elephants (clouds)
that give rain; lightning is also said to be generated from their
foot fall. [146] The clouds are supposed to be the messengers of gods,
lightning being the manifestation of Divine power. The gods are said to
confine these messengers from the nakshatra of Ardra to the nakshatra
of Hasti, in which latter nakshatra they again begin to roar. [147]

Thunder is supposed to take place when the god Indra draws his bow;
while lightning is said to be produced when the same god strikes his
adamant against a mountain. [148]

In the Ratnágiri District it is believed that earthquake occurs
whenever the thousand headed Shesha shakes its head. [149] It is said
that at one time a demon named Gayásur became very troublesome, and all
the gods held him down by standing on his body. Thereupon the demon
requested all the gods to remain on his body for ever. Occasionally
this Gayásur shakes his body and this causes the earthquake. [150]
Some people believe that the earth trembles of its own accord when
sins accumulate upon it. [151] Others hold that the earthquake takes
place in the hollow parts of the earth. [152] Some people, however,
believe that since the earth floats upon water, it naturally quakes
at times. [153]

The Hindus being element worshippers naturally hold in reverence
certain rivers, ponds, etc. In the Ratnágiri District the spring at
Rájápur, called the Rájápurchi Ganga is considered very sacred. It
flows from the roots of a Banyan tree. There are fifteen Kundas or
ponds, and the principal Kunda always remains filled with water. On
occasions a big játra fair is held and people from distant places
come to bathe and worship at the spring. [154] Some people believe
that many of the lakes, springs, etc., situated in the Kolhápur
State are sacred. [155] A spring or rivulet that flows to the east is
considered specially sacred. It is called a Surya-Vansi spring, and
it is considered meritorious to bathe in it. [156] In the village of
Kunkauli in the Ratnágiri District if a person is bitten by a snake
or other poisonous reptile, no medicine is administered to him, but
holy water brought from the temple of the village goddess is given to
him to drink, and it is said that the patient is thus cured. [157]
The water fall at Maral near Devarkuha, where the river Bán takes
its rise, is held sacred. [158] At Shivam in the Ratnágiri District
the people use the tirtha of a deity as medicine for diseases due
to poison. They say that it is the sole remedy they apply in such
cases. [159] There are ponds at Manora in the Goa State, and Vetore
in the Sávantwádi State, the water of which is used as medicine
for the cure of persons suffering from the poison of snakes, mice,
spiders, and scorpions. [160] When a well is dug, the people call
a Bráhman priest to consecrate it. The Bráhman takes cow's urine,
milk, curds, ghi, sandal paste, flowers, basil leaves, and rice,
and mixes them with water, and after repeating sacred mantras over
the water, throws the mixture into the well. After this ceremony,
the people are at liberty to drink water from the well. [161]

Before a well is dug, an expert is consulted to ascertain the place
where a spring flows. A well is then dug, after offering a sacrifice to
the spirits and deities that happen to dwell at that spot. A dinner
is given to Bráhmans after the well is built. [162] A golden cow
is often thrown into a newly built well as an offering to the water
deities. [163] There is a well at Mandangad, the water of which serves
as medicine to cure the poison of snakes and other reptiles. [164]

It is believed that there is a class of wicked water nymphs called
Asará who generally dwell in wells, ponds, or rivers, far from the
habitation of men. Whenever these nymphs come across a lonely man
or woman entering a well, pond, etc., they carry that person under
water. The village of Mithbáv in the Ratnágiri District is a well-known
resort of these Asarás, and many instances are given by the villagers
of persons being drowned and carried off in the river by these wicked
nymphs. A tank in the village of Hindalem in the same district has a
similar reputation. [165] The people of the Konkan believe that water
nymphs are sometimes seen in the form of women near wells, rivers,
and ponds. [166] Some say that the water nymphs and water spirits
confer objects desired by worshippers if they are propitiated by
prayers. [167]

There are seven kundas, ponds, at Nirmal in the Thána District,
forming a large lake. This lake is said to have been formed from the
blood of the demon Vimalásur. At Sháhápur there is a holy spring of hot
water under a Pipal tree. It is called Ganga. [168] There are kundas,
pools, of hot water in the Vaitarna river in the Thána District, in
which people bathe on the 13th day of the dark half of Chaitra. [169]
There are also springs of hot water on the bank of the Surya river at
Vajreshvari and at Koknere, in the Thána District. [170] A handful
of corn, if thrown into the hot water kundas at Tungar, is said to
be boiled at once. [171] It is held holy to bathe in the kundas of
hot water that are situated in the rivers Tánsa and Bánganga in the
Thána District. [172] The water of a well which is drawn without
touching the earth or without being placed upon the ground is given
as medicine for indigestion. Similarly the water of seven tanks,
or at least of one pond, in which lotuses grow is said to check the
virulence of measles, small-pox, etc. [173] A bath in a certain tank
in the Mahim taluka is said to cure persons suffering from the itch,
and water purified by repeating incantations over it is also said to
be a good remedy for the same disease. [174]

The water of a tank or a well is supposed to be wholesome to a person
of indifferent health, if given to him to drink without placing it upon
the ground. [175] Some people believe that the water of the Ganges is
so holy and powerful that if bows are thrown into it they are instantly
reduced to powder. [176] The repair of lakes, caravanserais, temples,
etc., is held more meritorious than their actual erection. [177]
It is enjoined upon a man to perform a certain rite if he wishes
to relinquish his right of ownership over a well or tank, and after
this rite is performed, it can be utilized for public purposes. But
no ceremony is required to be performed if a well is dug for the
benefit of the public. [178]

The people of the Thána District believe that water nymphs reside in
every reservoir of water. [179] Some people, however, believe that
the water nymphs dwell in those lakes in which lotuses grow. These
nymphs are said to do harm to children and young women, especially
when they set out for a walk accompanied by their brother Gavala. They
are unusually dangerous. [180] The people worship the images of the
following seven water nymphs or apsaras, viz., Machhi, Kurmi, Karkati,
Darduri, Jatupi, Somapa and Makari. [181]

The following places are said to be inhabited by water spirits:--the
channel of Kalamba, the tanks of Sopara and Utaratal and the lake
called Tambra-tirtha at Bassein [182]. Water nymphs are supposed to
drown a person who tries to save another fallen into water. [183]
A species of small men named Uda, otherwise called water-spirits,
are said to dwell in water and subsist on fishes. [184] The spirits
called Khais and Mhashya are supposed to reside in water. [185]

The river Sávitri in the Kolába District takes its rise near
Mahábaleshwar and is considered very sacred. The following traditionary
account is given of its origin. The god Brahma had two wives, Sávitri
and Gáyatri. A dispute having arisen between them, they both jumped
over a precipice. Sávitri assumed the form of a river and fell into the
sea near Bánkot. Gáyatri, on the other hand, concealed herself in the
river Sávitri and manifested herself as a spring near Harihareshwar in
the Janjira State. [186] A man is said to be released from re-birth
if he takes a bath in the kund (pond) named Katkale-tirtha near
Násik. [187] Bows are said to be reduced to powder if thrown into
a certain kund at Uddhar-Rámeshwar in the Sudhagad taluka. [188]
Kupotsarga is defined to be the digging of a well for the benefit of
the public and abandoning one's right of ownership over it. [189]

A pond near Khopoli in the Kolába District is held very sacred. The
following story is related in connection with it. The villagers say
that the water nymphs in the pond used to provide pots for marriage
festivities if a written application were made to them a day previous
to the wedding. The pots were, however, required to be returned
within a limited time. But one man having failed to comply with
this condition, they have ceased to lend pots. Another interesting
story is associated with the same pond. It is as follows. A man had
fallen into the pond and was taken to the abode of the nymphs. He was,
however, returned by them after a few days on the understanding that
he would be recalled if he spoke of what he had seen there. One day
he communicated to the people the good things that he enjoyed there,
and to the surprise of all he was found dead immediately after. [190]
Water nymphs are said to reside in a pond at Varsai in the Kolába
District. Consequently persons that are held unclean, e.g., women in
their monthly course, etc., are not allowed to touch it. The nymphs of
the same lake were once said to lend pots on festive occasions. [191]
It is said that the water nymphs used to provide ornaments for marriage
and other ceremonies, if returned within a prescribed period. But some
people having failed to return them, they ceased to lend them. [192]

A spirit called Girha is supposed to reside in water. It is said to
make mischief with man in a variety of ways by enticing him into deep
water. [193] The Jakrin is said to be a deity residing in water. [194]
Persons drowned in water are believed to become water-spirits, and
to trouble innocent passers-by. [195]

A mountain near the village Pule, in the district of Ratnágiri is
held sacred on account of the residence of the god Ganpati at that
place. For this reason people walk round the mountain and worship
it. Tradition says that Ganpati was at first at Gule in the Ratnágiri
District, but on account of the sanctity of the place being violated
by some wicked persons the god transferred his residence to Pule. At
Gule there is still a very beautiful temple of Ganpati, though it is
now in a dilapidated condition. [196] The cave of the sage Much-kund
near Machal on the Sahyádri mountain is considered sacred. In the
Konkan it is not held sinful to ascend a mountain or a hill, though
to sit upon its summit is considered sinful. [197] The hill of Mirya
near Ratnágiri is considered sacred. This hill is believed to be a
particle (miri) of the mythological mountain Dronagiri. [198]

A hill near Dhárávi in the Thána District is consecrated by the temple
of a goddess upon the top. This goddess is said to preserve ships at
sea, and people are occasionally possessed by her. It is said that
a Roman Catholic priest met instantaneous death on having insulted
her. [199]

The hill of Mahálakshmi in the Dahánu táluka is held sacred. The
villagers consider it dangerous to ascend this hill. [200] On the
hill of the same name is a temple of the goddess Jivadhani, who is
said to preserve children from small-pox. The following story is
told in connection with the goddess. A person in need of money used
to place before her image as large a heap of flowers as he wanted
gold, stating that he would return the gold when he had done with
it. He used then to go home and return on an appointed day for the
gold, which was sure to be found where he had placed the heap of
flowers. Once a man failed to return the gold, and thenceforth the
goddess withheld her bounty. There is no door to the temple of this
goddess. It is only through a hole in a big stone that one can have a
view of her image. Sweet scent is said to be continually emitted from
this hole. The goddess is said to have fastened the door of her temple
for the following reason. One day the goddess was walking at the foot
of the hill at night. A cowherd who happened to be there was bewitched
by her matchless beauty and fell a prey to evil desire. He pursued
her to the top of the hill, when the goddess, divining his motive,
fastened the door of her temple with a prodigious stone. On the same
hill is a cattle shed in which fresh cow-dung is said to be always
found. This place being inaccessible to cows and other quadrupeds,
the people believe that the goddess keeps a cow of her own. [201]

The hill of Tungar is consecrated by the temple of a certain goddess
upon it. There is also a very famous hill near Arnála, called the
hill of Buddha. This hill was once the seat of a king belonging to
the weaver caste. Recently a pond was discovered upon it, in which
was found a stone-box containing a begging-pot and a diamond. A great
fair is held annually on the hill of Motmávali near Bandra in the
Thána district. The devotees of the deity are Hindus, Parsis, and
Christians. It is said this goddess was once worshipped by Hindus
only. A Bráhman is the pujári of the Pir on the hill of Bába Malang
near Kalyán. It is said that the Pir has declared that no Moslem pujári
should worship him. The Hindus and Moslems worship him alike. [202]

Bráhmans do not cross the top of a mountain without stopping for a
short time before ascending the summit. [203]

At a short distance from Chaul in the Kolába District is a hill
dedicated to the god Dattatraya, in whose honour a great fair is
held annually. The following story is told in connection with this
hill. In ancient times a Bráhman used to practise austerities on
this hill near a Tulsi plant (the place on which the present temple
stands). He used to spend the whole day there, but returned home at
nightfall. On his way home fearful scenes were often presented to
him, and in his dreams he was asked not to go there any more. But
the Bráhman was obdurate. He persisted in his resolution to practise
austerities for a number of years, and at last succeeded in obtaining
a personal interview with the god Dattatraya, who commanded him
to bow down to his feet (páduka). From that time pious men live on
this hill and offer their prayers to the god Dattatraya. Nearly four
hundred steps have been constructed for the ascent of this hill,
and additional steps are being built every year. Here also are some
springs of pure water. It is worth while to note that the pujári of
this god is a Shudra by caste. [204] On the north-east side of the
hill dedicated to the god Dattatraya stands the temple of the goddess
Hingláj. To the north of this temple are four caves, while to the
west is a deep den resembling a well, through which a lane appears to
have been dug. This is said to be the road excavated by the Pándavas
to enable them to go to Kási. [205] At a distance of two miles from
Akóla in the Kolába District is a hill called Mallikárjun. This
is said to be a small stone fallen from the mythological mountain
Dronagiri. This hill is said to contain many medical herbs. [206]
The hill at Kankeshwar near Alibág is held sacred, and tradition says
that in ancient times it had golden dust upon it. [207] A cave at
Ambivali near Karjat in the Kolába District consists of seven rooms,
one of which is spacious enough to accommodate five hundred persons. In
the same taluka there is another cave at Kondhavane. [208]

The gods Indra and Varuna are supposed to send rain; but it is believed
that the god Shiva in chief has the power of causing the fall of rain,
and for this reason whenever there is a scarcity of rain people pour
water over the linga of Shiva until the whole linga is submerged. [209]
In order that there should be a fall of rain, some people besmear
the linga of the god Shiva with cooked rice and curds. [210] In the
Ratnágiri District, whenever there is a scarcity of rain, people go
to the place known as Parashurám Kshetra, and there pray to the god
Parashurám to send rain. [211] Sacrifices are also offered to Indra,
the god of rain, in order that there should be plenty of rain. Some
believe that there are certain mantris or enchanters who by the power
of their mantras are able to prevent the fall of rain. [212]

In the Ratnágiri District the following ceremony is performed by the
lower castes such as Kunbis, etc., to avert drought. All the male
villagers assemble together at an appointed place, and there they
select one of them as their Gowala-deva. All of them then go about in
the village from house to house. The owner of every house sprinkles
water over the assembly, and curds and butter-milk over the body of
the Gowala-deva. They are also given some shidha consisting of rice,
pulse, vegetables, etc. After visiting most of the houses in the
village, the assembly headed by the Gowala-deva go to the bank of a
river. Here they cook the food, offer it first to the Gowala-deva and
then partake of the remainder as a prasád from the Gowala-deva. [213]
Some people make an image of the sage Shringarishi for the purpose of
causing the fall of rain. [214] Others make an image of Dhondal-deva
in order that there should be plenty of rain. [215] Sometimes people
repeat mantras addressed to Parjanya (rain) so that rain should
fall. [216] The goddess Navachandika is worshipped in order that
there should be rain. The Kunbis perform a peculiar rite for checking
the fall of rain. They ask a person born in the months of Jyeshtha,
Ashádh, Shrávan or Bhádrapad to fetch some rain-water in an alu leaf,
and this is fastened to the eaves of thatched houses by means of
a string. Note that, if this rite is to be performed in the month
of Jyeshtha, a person born in that month only is required and no
other; and so forth. [217] In order to check an excessive fall of
rain the villagers sometimes ask a boy to take off his clothes and
then to catch rainwater in the leaves of the alu plant. The leaves
containing the water are then tied to the eaves of the house. [218]
The people say that during the rule of the Peshwás there was a class
of mantris who had the power of causing a failure of rain. [219] To
check the fall of rain, some people ask naked boys to throw burning
coals into the rain water. [220] Irale (a protection against rain,
made of the leaves of trees) is kept in the rain upside down, the
goddess Holika is worshipped, the boughs of the Avali tree are conveyed
to a place where four roads meet and stones are heaped over it, and
eaves of thatched houses are beaten by boys who do not wear clothes,
all these being done by the villagers with a view to preventing an
excessive fall of rain. [221]

The people of the Thána District believe that distinct deities preside
over distinct seasons, e.g., Mars presides over the spring (Vasant),
Venus over summer (Grishma), the moon over autumn (Varsha), Mercury
over sharat, Saturn over winter (Hemant and Shishir). [222] When the
people are in need of rain they say to the god of rain "Let us have
plenty of rain to-morrow and we will give thee, Oh! God of rain! rice
mixed with curd." The same offer is made to the god of rain even when
they do not want it. In order that there should be no scarcity of rain,
some people perform the rites of Laghu-rudra and Mahá-rudra. [223]
The following measure if adopted is said to cause rain. The villagers
go from house to house with boughs of the Limb tree on their heads,
and water is then poured upon them by the inmates. [224] The fall
of rain is supposed to cease if a person born in the month of Fálgun
extinguishes burning coals in rainwater when his garments have been
removed. [225]

Some stones are supposed to have influence over rain fall. There is a
big stone at Varasai in the Kolába District on which are drawn certain
images. The people believe that it rains hard if this stone is held
straight, and then swung to and fro. [226] Some people perform the
following rite known as the Dhondilgajya. They ask a person of the
Kaikádi or Vadar caste to remain naked and break the string round
his waist. A small image of black earth is made and placed upon
his head. The boy then conveys the image from house to house in the
village. A woman in each house sprinkles water over the image while
the boy dances saying "Dhondil gajya, Páus gajya." It is believed
that it rains in the direction in which the water sprinkled falls. A
person who accompanies the boy gathers corn at every house. A dinner
is then prepared, and the people of the caste to which the boy belongs,
partake of it heartily. It is also said that making water in a standing
posture causes the fall of rain. [227] The god Rámeshwar at Chaul in
the Kolába District is said to have control over rain. In the temple
of this god there is a parjanya-kund (pond) which is opened after
performing a sacred rite, if there be a scarcity of rain. There are
also other kundas in the temple, viz., Váyu-kund and Agni-kund, but
no occasion has yet arisen to open them. [228] Some people believe
that the god Agni regulates the seasons [229].

Eaves of thatched houses are cleansed with a brush made from the
leaves of cocoanut trees in order that a fall of rain should be
prevented. [230]

The ceremonies of Haritálika, Rishi-Panchami, Vata-Sávitri,
Vaná-Shasthi, Mangalá-Gouri, Shital-Saptami are to be performed
by women alone. [231] Similarly, the ceremonies of Mahálakshmi,
Vasubáras, Shiva-mutha, and a rite on the Makar Sankrant day are
performed by women exclusively. [232]

The rite of Rishi-Panchami is performed on the 5th day of the
bright-half of Bhádrapad to make amends for sins committed without
knowledge. On this day women go to a river, a well, or some other
sacred place, cleanse their teeth with the leaves of the Agháda plant,
and take baths with something on the head. They then take some stones
from that place and worship them as Rishis. On the conclusion of
the worship, they partake of fruits. On the Vrata-Sávitri day women
worship a banyan tree or its boughs. The ceremony falls on the 15th
day of the bright half of Jyeshtha. [233] On the Haritálika day,
i.e., the 3rd day of the bright half of Bhádrapad, women make images
of earth of Párvati and her two friends and worship them and fast
the whole day. The observance of this rite contributes to their good
fortune. Even girls of tender years observe this fast. The worship
of Mangalá-Gauri is a ceremony performed by married girls for five
successive years on every Tuesday of the month of Shrávan. Similarly,
the goddess Mahálakshmi is worshipped on the 8th day of the bright
half of Ashvin. On the Makar Sankránt day women worship a sugad [234]
and present it to a Bráhman. [235] The Shiva-mutha consists of a
handful of corn offered to the god Shiva by married girls on every
Monday in the month of Shrávan. [236]

The worship of Shadananda and the Holika Devi and the ceremonies of
Shrávani, Shráddha and Antyesti are performed by men alone. [237]

In some families of non-Bráhmans on a particular day, especially on
the full-moon day of Ashvin, the host and the hostess put off their
clothes and perform certain family rites. [238]

The women of the Thána District fast the whole day on the 12th day of
the dark half of Ashvin. At night they worship a cow, give in charity
a calf, and then take their meal. It is to be noted that this ceremony
called the Vasu-dwádasi is performed by women who have children. On
the Haritálika day some women live on the leaves of a Rui tree. [239]

On the Somavati-Amávásya day women worship a Pipal tree and offer it a
hundred and eight things of one kind. [240] Women desirous of having
a son perform a certain rite at midnight, without clothing. [241]
If one wishes to have a son, one has to go through a ceremony called
the Hanumán in a naked state. [242]

The god Kálbhairav is worshipped by a naked person on the
Narka-Chathurdasi day (14th day of the dark half of Ashvin). Those
learning the dark lore, e.g., muth márane, are also required to remain
naked while studying it. They learn this lore on an eclipse day on
the bank of a river. [243] The rite called Somaya is performed by
the host when his clothes are off his body. On a certain Monday in
the month of Shrávan a lamp of wheat flour is prepared and burned
by adding ghi. This lamp is regarded as a deity, and is worshipped
solemnly. During the performance of this ceremony as well as the
preparation of the requisite food, the host and the hostess are
required to remain naked. [244]

The Swayambhu (unartificial) linga of the god Shiva is supposed to
have influence over the fall of rain. [245]

The people of the Thána District believe that the following
ceremony causes a fall of rain. Stones are taken out of a pool and
worshipped. They are then carried to every house in the village, and
water is poured upon them by the inmates. [246] There is a temple of
the god of clouds at Viranáth in the Thána District. [247]

The appearance of a comet is regarded by the Hindus as symptomatic
of a coming evil, e.g., a big war, a great famine, or a terrible
contagious disease spreading itself throughout the length and breadth
of a country. [248] Some persons think that comets and shooting stars
bode evil to the king. [249]

Whenever a great person or a very holy man is about to be born, it
is believed that he alights on the earth in the shape of a shooting
star. Sometimes a big star falls on the earth, and thereby a noise like
that of thunder is produced. When this happens, people believe that
a great Rája or a holy saint whose merit has been exhausted is going
to be born on earth. [250] The following verse from the Mrichhakatika
Nátak supports the view in accordance with which orthodox people in
the Konkan avoid looking at shooting stars:--

INDRADHANUSHYA ANI GOPRASUTI | NAKSHATRANCI ADHOGATI SATPURUSHANCI
PRANAVIPATTI || PAHUM NAYE SACARA || i.e.,
The following four things, viz., the rainbow, the fall of shooting
stars, the delivery of a cow, and the death-struggle of saints or
holy men should not be looked at. [251] It is generally believed by
Hindus that a child will immediately be born in the house towards
which shooting stars are directed. [252]



CHAPTER II.

THE HEROIC GODLINGS.


In the Konkan the deities of the Hindus are divided into the following
five classes, viz.:--

(1) The Grámadevatás or Village deities,

(2) The Sthánadevatás or Local deities,

(3) The Kuladevatás or Family deities,

(4) The Ishtadevatás or Chosen deities, and

(5) The Wástudevatás or Grihadevatás, that is, the class of deity
which presides over the house and is established at the time of the
housewarming or Wástu ceremony.

The principal Gráma-devatás are Hanumán or Máruti, Kálika, Amba,
Wághoba, Chedoba, Mhasoba, Bahiroba or Bhairav, Ganesh, Vira, Mhálsa
or Maha Lakshmi, Chámunda, Vetál, Khandoba Malhári Jogái, Bhawáni,
and Wágeshwari and Shiva. In most villages the chief village god
is Máruti or Hanumán, whose temple is situated at the entrance of
the village. Máruti is considered to be an avatár or incarnation of
Shiva, and is held in great reverence by all classes. A festival or
jatra is held in honour of Hanumán on the bright half of the month of
Chaitra. On this occasion the temple is decorated with ever-greens,
and flowers, the stone image of the god is newly painted or covered
with red lead and oil, and garlands of the Rui (Gigantic snake wort)
flowers are placed round the neck of the image, cocoanuts, plantains,
betelnuts and leaves are offered to the god, camphor is lighted and
waved round the image, incense is burnt, cooked food and sweets are
offered, and money presents are made. Every worshipper brings with
him some oil, red-lead or Cendur, a cocoanut, a vidá-supári, i.e.,
two betel leaves, one betelnut and a copper coin, and a garland of Rui
flowers. These are given to the temple ministrant, who offers a part of
the oil and red lead to the deity, places the garland round the deity's
neck, and, breaking the cocoanut into pieces, gives a piece or two
to the devotee as the prasád or favoured gift of the deity. Saturday
is the sacred day of the monkey god Máruti. Every Saturday fresh oil
and red lead are offered to the god by the devotees. The Pujáris in
most of the temples of Máruti are Guravs, Ghádis, Maráthás or Gosávis.

Every Saturday in the month of Shrávan (August), called the Sampat
Shaniwár or the wealth-giving Saturday a special puja or worship
is performed in the temples of Máruti in Bombay as well as in the
Konkan. On this day people fast the whole day and dine in the evening,
after offering the god Hanumán or Máruti a preparation of rice and
pulse called khichadi and cakes made of udid flour called vade. [253]

There is no village in the Konkan which has not the honour of having
a temple of the god Máruti. Máruti is supposed to guard the village
against evils of all kinds. Care is therefore taken to build the
temple of Máruti at the outskirts of the village. [254] There is a
tradition that at the time of leaving the Dandaka forest (the present
Maháráshtra), Ráma asked Máruti to reside therein. It is for this
reason, the people say, that every village in the Konkan and on the
Gháts has a temple of Máruti. [255] The god Máruti is worshipped in the
village of Wásind on Tuesdays and Saturdays. [256] In former days it
was customary to establish an image of the god Máruti in a newly built
castle or fort. [257] Hanumán, the son of Anjani and the wind or Márut,
is known for his loyalty to his master and for his bravery. In days
gone by he utilized his strength for the protection of Saints, Rishis,
Bráhmans and cows, and for this merit he was elevated to the rank of
a Hindu god. Every Hindu village or locality is supposed to possess
at least one temple of the god Máruti, and in Maháráshtra Máruti
is the guardian of every village. He is a Brahmachári, or bachelor
and is one of the seven heroes who are believed to be chiranjívis
or immortals. [258] Máruti is supposed to be the originator of the
Mantra-Shástra, by the study and repetition of which one obtains
strength and superhuman power. Women desirous of getting children go
to the temple of Máruti, and there burn before his image lamps made of
wheat flour and filled with ghi. The image of Hanumán is represented
in temples in two ways, that is (1) Víra Hanumán or Warrior Hanumán,
(2) Dása-Hanumán or servant Hanumán. The former is found in a temple
consecrated to the worship of the god Hanumán alone, whereas the latter
is found in a temple dedicated to the worship of the god Ráma. [259]
Since Máruti is the god of strength, gymnasts tie an image of Máruti
to their wrists, and they also consecrate an image of Máruti in their
gymnasiums. The number eleven is said to be dear and sacred to him
because he is believed to be an incarnation of the eleven Rudras. The
birth day of the god Máruti which falls on the 15th of the bright
half of Chaitra, called the Hanumán Jayanti day, is celebrated in
the Kolhápur District with great reverence. Those who wish to have
a son draw the figure of Máruti on a wall in red-lead, and worship
it daily with sandal paste, flowers and garlands of Rui. Others burn
lamps made of wheat flour before the image of the god. Persons who are
under the evil influence of the planets, and especially of the planet
Saturn, worship the god Hanumán on Saturdays in order to propitiate
the planets. On this day they make wreaths of the leaves and flowers
of the Rui plant and adorn his neck with them. They also offer him
udid (Phaseolus radiatus) and salt. The story told of Máruti is that
Anjani his mother pleased the god Shiva with her penance, and when
the god asked her to claim a boon, she requested that Shiva himself
should be born as her son. Shiva therefore took birth in her womb
and manifested himself as Hanumán or Máruti [260].

The Local deities are generally found in special localities or sacred
places called Kshetras or Punya sthánas. Thus the god Ráma at Násik,
Vithoba at Pandharpur, Krishna at Dwárka, Mahálakshmi at Kolwan,
Wájreshwari at Nirmal (Thána), Mharloba in the Ratnágiri, Shitala
devi at Kelwa Máhim, and Khandoba or Khanderái at Jejuri.

Khanderái is said to be an incarnation of the god Shiva. Khanderái
killed the demon Mani-Malla who was devastating the earth, and he is
therefore called Mallári or Malhári. Kunbis and lower class Hindus
in the Konkan as well as in the Deccan occasionally make a vow to the
god Khandoba that if their desire is fulfilled they will offer their
first born male or female child to the service of the god. The male
child thus dedicated to Khandoba is called Wághya and the female is
called Murali. The Wághya and Murali do not engage in any business,
but maintain themselves by begging in the streets in the name of the
god Khanderái. Though they are not actually married, the Wághyas and
Muralis live as husband and wife, and their progeny are also called
Wághyas and Muralis. They repeat the sacred cry jai khanderáyácha
Elkot, and give to people bel-bhandár of Khanderái consisting of the
sacred Bel leaves and turmeric powder. The god Khanderái is the family
deity of some Deshasth Bráhmans, who perform a family rite called Tali
bharane on every purnima or full moon day. The rite is as follows:--

A tali or plate is filled with cocoanuts, fruits, betel nuts, saffron,
turmeric or bel-bhandár, etc. Then a pot is filled with water, and on
its mouth a cocoanut is placed. This cocoanut, with the pot, is then
worshipped with flowers, sandal paste, etc., a lighted lamp filled
with ghi is put in the same place, and the tali is waved thrice round
the pot, which is supposed to contain the god Khandoba. Five persons
then lift up the cocoanut with the tali and place it three times on the
pot, repeating each time the words Elkot or Khande ráyácha Elkot. The
cocoanut is then broken into pieces, mixed with sugar or jágri, and is
distributed among friends and relations as prasád. On this occasion,
as well as on the occasions of all Kuladharmas, that is, the days fixed
for performing the special worship of the family goddess or family god
of each family, the ceremony called the Gondhal dance is performed. On
the same occasion another ceremony called Bodan is performed by the
Deshasths and by the Chitpávans. It is as follows:-- An image of the
family deity is placed in a pot or plate called támhan, and it is
then bathed in the panchámrit, that is, the five holy things, viz.,
milk, curds, ghi, honey and sugar. Sandalpaste is offered to it as
well as flowers, lighted lamps and some sweets and incense. Five women
whose husbands are alive then prepare five lamps of wheat flour called
Kuranandi and wave them thrice round the face of the goddess or god, as
the case may be. All the limps are then placed in the plate or támhan
in which the deity is kept, and the panchámrita and other materials of
worship and food and sweet cakes are mixed together. Occasionally one
of the five women becomes possessed with the spirit of the kula-devi
or family deity, and confers blessings on the members of the family
for their devotion. It is believed that those families which fail to
perform periodically the Bodan, Tali and Gondhal ceremonies in honour
of their tutelary deity are sure to suffer, from some misfortune or
calamity during the year. [261] The local deities chiefly worshipped at
Chaul, Kolába District, are Hingláj, Jakhmáta, Bhagawati, Champáwati,
Mahikáwati, and Golamba-devi. At the sowing and reaping times,
people of the lower castes offer fowls and goats to these deities,
and Bráhmans offer cocoanuts. [262] The local deity of the village
Wávashi near Pen in the Kolába District is said to possess the power of
averting evil, and is accordingly held in great respect by the people
of many villages in the District. Every third year a great fair is
held, and a buffalo is sacrificed to the goddess on the full moon day
of the month of Chaitra. The Pujári of this goddess is a Gurav. [263]
Another celebrated Sthána-deva in the Kolába District is Bahiri-Somajai
of Khopoli. It is believed that a person suffering from snake-bite
is cured without any medicine if he simply resides for one night in
the temple of this goddess. Sacrifices of goats, fowls and cocoanuts
are made to this goddess at the time of sowing and reaping. The
Pujáris of this deity are known as Shingade Guravs. [264] The worship
of the local deity Bápdev is much in favour among the villages of
Apta and the surrounding places. At the times of sowing and reaping,
offerings of fowls, goats and cocoanuts are made to Bápdev through the
Pujári. [265] The worship of the local deities Kolambái, Bhawáni, and
Giroba is prevalent in the Chauk villages. [266] To the Gráma-devi of
the village of Tale every third year a buffalo is sacrificed, and at
an interval of two years goats are offered. [267] The deities Shiva
and Kálkái are worshipped with great reverence at Bakavali in the
Ratnágiri District. [268] In many villages of the Ratnágiri District
the goddess Pandhar is considered to be the Gaon-devi or the chief
goddess of the village. The Pujári is generally a Gurav or Marátha
Kunbi. On every full moon day cocoanuts are offered, and on the
occasions of sowing and reaping, goats and fowls are sacrificed to
this deity. [269] At Devgad there is a temple of the goddess Gajábái
on the sea shore. The Pujári of this goddess is a man of the Ghádi
caste. On the first day of the bright half of the month of Márgashirsh
(December) special offerings of goats, fowls and cocoanuts are made
by the villagers. [270] The deities Ravalnáth, Máuli, Vetál, Rámeshwar
and Hanumán are usually worshipped in most villages in Ratnágiri. The
villagers in the Ratnágiri District have great faith in their local
deities, and before undertaking any important business they obtain
the consent or take the omen of the deity. This ceremony is known as
kaul ghálne and it is performed as follows:--Two betel nuts or flowers
are taken and one of them is placed on the right side of the deity
and the other on the left side. The worshipper then bows before the
deity and requests her to let the nut on the right side fall first
if the deity is pleased to consent, if not, to let the nut on the
left side fall first. Naturally one of the two nuts falls first,
and they interpret this as either consent or dissent as the case may
be. The villagers have so much faith in this kaul that they make use
of this method of divination to ascertain whether sick or diseased
persons will recover or die. Special sacrifices are offered to these
local deities whenever an epidemic like cholera occurs. [271] In the
Ratnágiri District, at many places, there are Swayambhu or natural
lingas of the god Shiva, and over these places temples are built. The
Pujáris of these temples are generally Jangams or Lingayat Guravs. No
animal sacrifices are made at these shrines. [272] At a short distance
from the village of Makhamle there is a temple of the god Shiva called
Amnáyeshwar. The following legend is narrated in connection with this
temple:--The place where the present temple stands once abounded with
Amani trees and formed a pasture for cattle. The cow of a certain
man of the village daily used to go to graze at this place. The
cow used to give milk twice, but one day she gave milk only once,
and thereafter she continued to give milk only once a day. The owner
therefore asked the Gavali or cowherd to ascertain the cause of this
sudden change. One day the cowherd noticed that the cow allowed her
milk to drop upon a stone. At this the cowherd was so enraged that
he struck the stone with his scythe so hard that it was cloven in
two and blood gushed forth. He hurriedly repaired to the village and
related this wonderful phenomenon to the people. The villagers came
to the spot, and decided to build a temple to the god Shiva over the
stone. One part of the stone is in this temple and the other part
was taken to the village of Kalamburi, where another temple was built
over it. [273] In the Sangameshwar village the Bráhmans also worship
the images of the local goddesses Chandukái, Jholái and Sunkái. In
the Konkan the deities Náráyan, Rawalnáth, Manli, Datta, Vetál and
Shiva are worshipped everywhere. [274] The following legend is told
about the deity Vetál, the leader of the ghosts:--In the Sávantwádi
State there is a temple of Vetál in the village of Ajgaon. [275]
As part of his worship it is considered necessary to offer to this
deity a pair of shoes every month. The people believe that after a
few days the shoes become worn out. The inference drawn from this by
the people is that at night the god Vetál goes out walking in the
new shoes. [276] In the village of Khed in the Ratnágiri District,
a buffalo is offered to the goddess Redjái on the full moon day of
Chaitra every third year. [277] At Náringre offerings of cocoanuts,
etc. are made to the deities Bhávakái, Chala, etc. on the 1st of the
month of Márgashirsha. [278] The Schoolmaster of Ibrámpur states that
one of the following deities is the grámadevata of every village in
the Ratnágiri District viz.: Chandkái, Varadhan, Khem, Bahiri, Kedár,
Vággaya, Antaral, Manaya, Salbaya and Vághámbari. A procession in their
honour takes place in the months of Chaitra and Fálgun. The Pujáris
are generally either Guravs or Marátha Kunbis. A ceremony called
Palejatra is performed in the sowing season, while the Dhal-jatra
is performed at the harvest time. At these fairs fowls, cocoanuts,
goats, fruits, etc. are offered to these deities. [279] At Málwan
on the no-moon day of Shrávan (August) local deities and ghosts are
propitiated by offering to them goats, fowls, etc. [280] At Pálset in
the Ratnágiri District, the god Parashurám is the most important deity
especially for Chitpávans. He exterminated the Kshatriyas twenty-one
times, and having no space for himself and his Bráhmans, he asked
the sea to provide him with new land. On meeting with a refusal,
Parashurám became enraged and was about to push the sea back with his
arrow, when, at the instigation of the sea, a black-bee (bhunga) cut
the string of his bow, and the arrow only went a short distance. The
people say that the space thus recovered from the sea came to be called
Konkan. [281] At Anjarle there are two local goddesses Sawanekarin and
Bahiri. Offerings of goats and fowls are made to them in the months of
Márgashirsha (December) and Fálgun (March). Sometimes liquor and eggs
are also offered. Offerings can be made on any day except Monday and
Ekádashi, Tuesdays and Sundays being considered most suitable. [282]
At Ubhádánda in the Ratnágiri District, Ravalnáth and Bhutanáth
are held in great reverence. They are believed to be incarnations
of the god Shiva. The Pujáris are generally Guravs, Ghádis, Ráuls
and Sutárs. [283] The following goddesses which are popular in the
Ratnágiri District are believed to be incarnations of the goddess
Durga, viz. Navala-devi, Vághur-devi, Jakha-devi and Kálkái. [284]
At Maral in the Ratnágiri District there is a swayambhu or natural
linga of the god Shiva. It is called Maheshwar, and in its honour a
fair is held on the Sankránt day. [285] The chief local deity of the
Dahánu taluka, Thána District, is Mahálakshmi. She has seven sisters
and one brother, two of the sisters being the Pangala-devi at Tárápur
and the Delavadi-devi at Ghivali. Goats and fowls are offered to the
Pangala-devi on the Dasara day. Her Pujári is a Gurav. It is said that
the goddess Delwadi used to receive her garments from the sea, but
now this is no longer the case though it is still believed that the
incense which is burnt before her comes floating from Dwárka. [286]
In the village of Edwan there is a goddess called Ashápuri, who used
to supply her devotees with whatever they wanted. The devotee was
required to besmear with cow-dung a plot of ground in the temple,
and to pray for the things wanted by him. The next day, when he came
to the temple, he found the desired things on the spot besmeared
with cow-dung. [287] At Mángaon the Pujári of the local goddess is
either the Pátil or the Madhavi of the village. [288] In the village
of Dahigaon cocoanuts are offered annually to the village Máruti,
and fowls and goats to the other local deities, in order that the
village may be protected against danger and disease. [289] It is
believed that any Bráhman who acts as the Pujári of the god Shiva
will find his family exterminated, and for this reason Bráhmans do
not act as Pujáris in the temples of Shiva.

In a few temples of goddesses like Jakhái etc. the Pujári is
of the Mahár caste. [290] A great fair is held in honour of the
goddess Vajrá-bái or Vajreshwari near Nirmal in the month of Kártika
(November). The Pujári of the goddess is a Gosávi of the Giri sect. The
worship of Bhimasena is not prevalent in the Konkan, but the hero
Bhima, like Máruti, is held in reverence by the gymnasts. Bhima is
not worshipped, but a work called the Bhima-stavaráj is read at the
bed of a dying man in order that he may obtain salvation. At Ashirgad
there is a gumpha or cave of Ashwattháma, a hero of the Mahábhárata,
and it is said that a noise is heard coming from the cave on the full
moon day. [291]

Wherever a village is founded, it is customary to establish a
village deity as the guardian of the village. The deities chosen are
Máruti, Káli, Chandkái, Varadani, etc. In the Konkan, goddesses are
preferred, and on the Ghats generally Máruti is preferred. Certain
ceremonies are performed for consecrating the place to the deity,
and sometimes the deity is called after the village as Marleshwar
[292] etc. By many lower class people the goddess Pondhar is often
selected as the guardian of a new village. At Shahpur, if the newly
founded village is to be inhabited by high class Hindus, the deities
Máruti and Durga are selected as gráma-devatas, but if it is to be
inhabited by lower class people, then such deities as Mhasoba, Chedoba,
Jákhái, etc. are chosen. [293] In the Bassein and Sálsette tálukas the
following deities viz. Máruti, Chedá, Chandkái, and Shiva, are chosen
as village deities. Cheda is represented by a long piece of wood or
stone besmeared with red-powder, and is placed on the outskirts of the
village. No Bráhman is necessary for establishing a Cheda. The Pujári
is generally a Kunbi or Máli, and he establishes the deity by offering
it a goat or fowls and cocoanuts. [294] Sometimes the guardian deity
of a new settlement is decided upon by a Kaul. Two or three names of
deities are selected, betelnuts or flowers are placed on the sides
of the guardian deity of the neighbouring village and that deity in
whose name the betelnut falls first is chosen as the deity of the new
village. [295] At Chaul, the deity called Bápdev is very popular among
the lower classes. It is represented by a big stone fixed on mortar and
besmeared with red-powder. When it is established for the first time
in a village, a Bráhman is required to make the first púja or worship,
but after this it is worshipped by a Pujári of a lower caste. [296]
The Mahars in the Kolába District select the ghost-deity called Jhaloba
as the guardian deity of a new settlement. [297] In many cases the
deity of their former village or of the neighbouring village [298]
is named by a Bhagat or exorcist, who becomes possessed. [299]

In the Konkan every village farm is supposed to be under the
guardianship of the minor godlings, the majority of which are called
Bhuta-Devatás or ghostly godlings. In some cases the field guardians
are also the Bráhmanic godlings like Máruti and Shiva. [300] To the
Bráhmanic guardians of the field, cocoanuts and flowers are offered
at the sowing and reaping seasons, and to the rest, fowls, cocoanuts,
and sometimes goats, are offered. The higher classes feed one or
two Bráhmans in order to propitiate the deities of the fields; and
for the propitiation of the minor deities of the field the lower
classes perform a rite called Dalap. This rite is performed by a
man of the Gurav, Ghádi, or Rául, caste by sacrificing to the field
deity a goat or fowls and cocoanuts. The pujári repeats prayers
for a good harvest, and then distributes portions of the offerings
among the people assembled there for witnessing the rite. [301] In
the Ratnágiri District on the no-moon day of Jeshta people assemble
in the temple of the village deity and perform a rite called Gárháne
in order that they should have a good crop, that their village may be
free from diseases, and that their cattle may be protected. A similar
rite is performed on the first day of the bright half of the month
of Márgashirsha (December), and on this occasion sometimes a goat or
sheep is sacrificed at the boundary of the village. [302] In order
that there should be a good harvest, the villagers of Kankaoli worship
on certain days from the month of Kártika (November) to the month of
Shimga (March) the minor deities of the field by offering them fowls,
cocoanuts, etc. [303] At Achare (Ratnágiri) some people worship the
god of the clouds on the day on which the Mrigashirsha constellation
begins, and they believe that thereby plenty of rain is ensured for
the season. [304] For good harvests and for the protection of their
cattle, the villagers of Achare pray to the Gráma-devata in the month
of Jeshta (June), and then go in procession from the temple of the
village deity to the boundary of the village, where they sacrifice a
cock and offer some cooked rice with a burning wick upon it, to the
deity that presides over the fields and harvests. [305] In the village
of Palset of the Ratnágiri District the goddess Khema is worshipped by
the villagers to obtain good crops, and for the protection of their
cattle. The Púja or special worship takes place on the full-moon
day of Márgashirsha and on this occasion the sacred Gondhal dance is
also performed. [306] In certain villages of the Ratnágiri District,
for obtaining good harvest, people worship the godling Mahápurush
at the beginning of the sowing and reaping operations, and offer
the deity fowls, cocoanuts and cooked rice. [307] In the village
of Málwan, at the sowing and reaping seasons, the villagers usually
make offerings of fowls and cocoanuts and goats to the guardians of
the fields, but Bráhmans and such Kunbi farmers as do not eat flesh
make offerings of cooked rice mixed with curds. [308] At Ubhádánda
village, in order to secure a good harvest and for the protection
of the cattle, the villagers worship the spirit godlings called
Sambandhas and perform the rite called Devachár. [309] At Kochare,
annual prayers are offered to the godling called Gavatdev for the
protection of the village cattle. [310] In the Devgad taluka people
believe that some deity resides in every farm or in every collection
of fields, and that good or bad harvests are caused as the deity is
pleased or displeased. [311] In order that there should be plenty of
rain and that the cattle should be protected, the villagers of Málgund
assemble in the temple of the village deity and offer prayers on the
full moon day of Fálgun (March) and on the 1st day of the bright half
of Márgashirsh. [312] In the Kolába District, for the protection of
cattle and for good crops, prayers are offered to the god Bahiri and
the ghosts Khavis and Sambandh. [313]

At Chauk in the Kolába District the villagers perform a special púja
or worship of the god Krishna in order that the village cattle may be
protected. [314] At Sasawane a fair called pále jatra is held in the
month of Bhádrapad (September) in order that the villagers may have a
good harvest, and that their cattle may be protected against tigers and
disease. [315] At Akol, on the day which follows the Ganesh-Chaturthi,
people throw parched rice over their fields and houses so that the
rats may not run over them. [316] At Málád in the Thána District,
for the protection of cattle, the god Wághoba is worshipped at
night on the 12th of Ashvin which is called the Wágh-báras. [317]
In some villages of the Thána District the deity Wághoba or Wághya is
worshipped on the 12th day of the dark half of Kártik. On that day the
cowherds collect a quantity of milk and prepare a kind of food known as
Khir by mixing jágri and cooked rice. They then proceed to the stone
image of the deity in the jungle, and besmear it with new red-lead
or shendur. They pour a portion of the sweet milk over the stone, and
offer prayers for the protection of their cattle. They then partake of
the remaining milk. [318] At Agáshi and other neighbouring villages,
before the fields are ploughed, the villagers assemble and collect a
certain sum of money, with which they buy goats, fowls, red-powder,
cocoanuts and parched grain. A goat and some cocks are then sacrificed
to the spirits residing in the cemeteries and at the boundary of the
village. Cocoanuts besmeared with gulál red powder are also offered to
these ghost godlings. A goat decorated with garlands and red powder is
then made to walk round the village three times at night, accompanied
by the villagers, who throw láhya parched rice while passing. This
rite is called Siwa Bándhane or binding the boundary, and is supposed
to protect the village crops and cattle. No farmer dares to sow his
seed unless this rite has been performed. After this rite has been
performed, every farmer appeases his family deity, i.e. Khandoba,
Bahiroba, Kankoba, etc., by performing a ceremony at home called
Deopan or Devaski, which relates to the worship of ancestors. Most of
the farmers regard one of their dead ancestors as their chief deity,
and represent him in their house by a cocoanut. They do not enter on
any new business without first offering prayers to this cocoanut, and
they also believe that they can bring evil upon their enemies by simply
cursing them before the deified cocoanut. The only materials generally
required for the worship of this cocoanut are red powder, incense
and flowers. On rare occasions, goats and fowls are sacrificed. It is
believed that the ancestor in the cocoanut likes to be worshipped by
the wife or husband (as the case may be) of the person represented
by the cocoanut. Some farmers, in addition to the cocoanut, worship
a stick or cap of their ancestor along with the cocoanut, and offer
prayers for the protection of their cattle, for good rain and harvest,
and also for the destruction of their enemies. [319]



CHAPTER III.

DISEASE DEITIES.


At Vengurla, in the Ratnágiri District, when epidemic diseases prevail,
the people of the village assemble and prepare a basket in which are
placed cooked rice, cocoanuts, lemons, wine, red flowers and Udid
(Phaseolus radiatus) grain. The basket is then carried out of the
village along with a cock or a goat, and deposited outside the village
boundary. To carry this basket, a person belonging to the Mahár caste
is generally selected. The people of the next village similarly carry
the basket beyond their village limits; and it is finally thrown
into the sea. It is believed that if the basket of offerings to the
disease-deities is carried from one village to another, it is sure
to bring the disease with it. Great care is therefore taken to throw
the offerings into the sea. In cases of small pox a feast is given to
women whose husbands are alive. In some cases boiled rice is mixed
with the blood of a cock, and on the rice is placed a burning black
cotton wick in a cocoanut shell with a little oil in it. The whole is
then carried beyond the village boundary and thrown away. [320] In
the village of Mithbáv in the Ratnágiri District, epidemic diseases
like cholera, small pox, plague, etc., are supposed to come from
disease deities, and in order to avoid the danger of such diseases
the people of the village go to the temple of the village deity and
pray for protection. The special form of worship on such occasions
is the Kaul, i.e., asking a favour from the deity. When an epidemic
of plague broke out for the first time at Sangameshwar, the people
of the village at once proceeded to worship the village deity; but
a few cases of plague occurred, even after worshipping the village
goddess Jákhmáta. When the people went to the temple and asked the
reason why the plague continued, it was announced by the deity through
the temple ministrant that she was helpless in the case of plague,
and desired the people to worship the god Shiva, thereby signifying
that the village deity has limited powers, and that the power of
averting great evils lies with Shiva the god of destruction. [321] In
the Devgad Taluka of the Ratnágiri District in epidemic diseases like
cholera, etc., the usual ceremony, i.e., the Paradi (disease-scaring
basket) is performed. A basket containing boiled rice, red powder,
red flowers, lemons, betel nuts, betel leaves, etc., is prepared, and
on that rice is kept a burning cotton wick dipped in oil. The basket is
then carried beyond the village boundary along with a goat having a red
flower garland round its neck. The goat is set free at the outskirts of
the village. In cases of small pox, married women whose husbands are
alive are worshipped with turmeric powder, cocoanuts, flowers, etc.,
and incense is kept burning in the house. The deity of small pox is
also specially worshipped for a number of days. It is represented by
a brass or copper lota with a cocoanut placed over it. This process
is called mánd bharane i.e. arranging the materials of worship. The
girls in the house sing songs in praise of the small pox deity. It is
believed that in this way the severity of the disease is reduced. [322]

In the Sangameshwar taluka of the Ratnágiri District, when epidemic
diseases prevail, the people of the village assemble in the temple
of the village deity, offer a cocoanut to the goddess, and ask for
a Kaul (omen). After receiving the Kaul they pray for mercy. It is
believed that if the Kaul is in favour of the people the diseases
will disappear. [323] At Achare in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri
District it is believed that epidemic diseases such as cholera, small
pox, etc., are caused by the anger of the deities Jari and Mari; and
in order to satisfy those deities animal sacrifices are offered at
the time of their worship. There are no other deities who cause such
diseases. [324] At Vijayadurg in the Ratnágiri District, in cases of
small pox, the child suffering from the disease is made to sleep on
a silk garment Sovalen. Flowers are thrown upon the patient's body,
and are given to him to smell. Incense is burnt in the house. On the
seventh day from the beginning of the disease, the child is first
bathed in milk and then in water. Black scented powder called Abir
is thrown on the body. After two or three days an image representing
the deity is made of flour, which is worshipped, and a feast is given
to Bráhmans and unwidowed women. [325]

At Basani in the Ratnágiri District the disease of small pox is
averted by a Bráhman worshipping the goddess Shitala. Bráhmans are
also worshipped, and a feast is given to them. In cases of cholera
and the other epidemic diseases the village deity is worshipped and
sacrifices are made to her. [326]

At Kochare in the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District, a woman
whose husband is alive is made to represent the goddess Jari Mari,
and is worshipped with flowers, red powder Kunku and black ointment
Kájal. She is given a feast of sweet things; and rice and cocoanuts
are put into her lap by another woman whose husband is alive. She is
then carried in procession through the village with beating of drums
and the singing of songs. This is similar to the Paradi procession,
which is also common in that District. [327]

At Navare in the Ratnágiri District, in cases of small pox, the
diseased child and the person into whose body the small pox deities
called Báyás enter, are worshipped with Abir black scented powder,
flower garlands, &c. [328]

At Pendur in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District the wrath
of the female deities or Mátrikás is supposed to be the cause of
epidemic diseases, and these Mátrikás are accordingly worshipped for
their pacification. [329]

At Chaul in the Kolába District the god Shankar is worshipped by
Bráhmans when epidemic diseases prevail in a village. The worship
consists in repeating Vedic hymns. The nine planets are also
propitiated by sacrifices of boiled rice, etc. There is a famous
temple of the goddess Shitala at Chaul where the deity is worshipped
by Bráhmans, who recite Vedic hymns, whenever small pox prevails in
the village. The mantras of the goddess and the Shitala Ashtaka are
also repeated in the Pauránic style. The women walk round the temple
every day as long as the signs of the disease are visible on their
children. The goddess is worshipped with turmeric and red powders,
and clothes and fruits are given to her. The Kaul ceremony is also
practised in this District. It is worth noticing that even Musalmáns
ask for a Kaul from this goddess. The days fixed for Kaul are:--Sunday,
Tuesday, Thursday and Friday. The morning hours are considered
specially auspicious for the Kaul. There is another temple at Chaul,
of the goddess Shri Golába Devi. This goddess is also worshipped when
other epidemic diseases prevail in the village. Saptáha i.e. continuous
worship for seven days is also performed in honour of the deity. The
gardeners (Mális) of the village worship this deity every Tuesday
morning with cocoanuts gathered from every house in the village. This
temple is being repaired at present. [330]

When epidemic diseases prevail in the village of Poladpur of the
Kolába District the god Shiva is worshipped by continuously pouring
water over the deity's head or linga. Sacrifices of fruits and animals
are also offered to the village deity. Where there is a temple of the
deity Mári or Mahámári, the deity is worshipped through a Bráhman,
and sacrifices of cocks and goats are offered to her. The deity named
Shitala is worshipped in cases of small pox. [331]

At Vávashi in the Pen taluka of the Kolába District, in cases of
epidemic diseases, the people of the village invoke the god Shiva, and
holy fires called homa are kindled in honour of that god. Sacrifices
of boiled rice are also offered to the deity. For averting small pox
the deity Shitala is invoked by the mantras called Shitala Ashtaka. For
averting fevers the gods Shankar and Vishnu are also worshipped. [332]

At Medhe in the Rohe taluka of the Kolába District the god Shiva is
worshipped in order to avert an epidemic, and Hanumán is worshipped
to avert fevers. [333]

At Málád in the Salsette taluka of the Thána District, when an epidemic
prevails in a village, the goddess Navachandi is worshipped and the
Homa is kindled in her honour. On the last day of worship a goat is
set free as a sacrifice to the deity. The Bali, i.e., the offering
of boiled rice, and the goat are taken beyond the boundary of the
village, and handed over to the people of the neighbouring village,
who follow the same procedure, and at last both the sacrifices are
thrown into the sea. The goat generally dies, as it does not get
water and food till it reaches the sea. [334]

In the village of Anjur in the Thána District, in cases of long
standing fevers the Bráhmans observe the ceremony called Udak Shanti
or propitiation by water. It is as follows:--An earthen pot filled
with water is placed on the ground. On the top of the pot is placed a
round plate in which the image of the god Brahmadev the son of Vishnu
is consecrated. Four Bráhmans sit on the four sides of the pot and
repeat their Vedic hymns. These four Bráhmans are supposed to be the
four mouths of the god Brahmadev. It is believed by the people that
by performing this ceremony the fever is made to disappear. [335]

At Rái in the Thána District some people believe that malarial fevers
are averted by placing secretly a small stone on the head of the god
Hanumán. [336]

In the Kolhápur District the nine planets are worshipped in the house
to ward off diseases such as cholera, small pox, fevers, etc. The
goddess Laxmi is worshipped in order to avert small pox, the worship
being generally performed in a garden or a grove of mango trees,
when parched rice, cocoanuts and lemons are offered to her. The
people assembled at the spot partake of the food. To avert fever,
the people perform a certain ceremony ordained in the Shástras. If
the sick person is supposed to be under the evil influence of the
planet Saturn, the planet is invoked by repeating the mantras, and
worshipped with the usual offerings. Garments such as a Sári and a
Choli are offered to the goddesses Mári and Kálubái. When an epidemic
disease such as cholera prevails in a village, the people of the
village install the deity Margai at a place where four roads meet,
and worship her for seven or eight days with much ceremony. Every one
brings offerings of cocoanuts, lemons, ambil or conjee, cooked rice
and curds, etc. with the beating of drums to offer to the deity. After
worshipping the goddess in this manner for eight successive days they
sacrifice a Bali of a he-buffalo before her. The deity is then put
upon a bullock cart and carried through the village with the beating
of drums and much ceremony, to be thrown away beyond the village
boundary along with the offerings. [337]

Epidemic diseases are not attributed to witchcraft at Devgad in
the Ratnágiri District. It is believed that they are caused by the
accumulated sins of the people. [338] In the Dápoli taluka of the
Ratnágiri District epidemic diseases are attributed to witchcraft
by low caste people. The power of averting such diseases lies in
the hands of the village deities. They are therefore propitiated by
the sacrifices of cocks, goats, and cocoanuts. [339] At Poládpur in
the Kolába District, epidemic diseases are sometimes attributed to
witchcraft by low caste people. Persons well versed in the mantras
of evil spirits are called Bhagats or exorcists. Some of them keep
evil spirits at their command. The poor people believe that what
these exorcists foretell is sure to occur. It is believed that the
spirit dwells on the tongue of these exorcists. When these spirits
are hungry, they are let loose in the village by the sorcerers for
the destruction of the people, thus causing an epidemic. When a
spirit is to be destroyed, the people of the village assemble in a
mob and attack the sorcerer, a small quantity of blood is taken from
his tongue and water from the earthen pot of a Chámbhár is poured
upon it. It is believed that by so doing the spirit is permanently
destroyed and the sorcerer either forgets all his mantras or they
become ineffective. The spirit is called tond bhut, and it sometimes
troubles even animals. [340]

At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the Kolába District, the people
believe that the devotees of the Mári deity bring on epidemic
diseases by the use of their mantras, and in order to satisfy them,
offerings are made to the deity Mári which are taken by the devotees
or Bhagats. [341] At Váde in the Thána District epidemic diseases are
attributed to witchcraft. There are some women who are supposed to
bring on, or at least foster, the growth of such diseases by their
evil mantras. Such women are threatened or punished by the people,
and sometimes they are even driven out of the village. [342] In
the village of Anjur of the Thána District, if a man vomits blood
accidently and falls ill, or dies, it is believed to be due to the
act of Muth Márane, that is, the throwing of a handful of rice over
which incantations have been repeated. If there be any sorcerer in
the village who has learnt the same incantations, he alone is able to
return the Muth to the sorcerer who first used it. [343] At Shirgaum
in the Umbergaon taluka of the Thána District, when epidemic diseases
prevail in the village, the people of the village take a turn round
the village in a body and kill a buffalo. A Bali or offering of boiled
rice, cocoanuts, cocks and goats is also offered to the deities that
cause epidemic diseases. [344]

When cattle disease breaks out in a village the people of the
Devagad taluka in the Ratnágiri District generally prevent the
healthy cattle from mixing with the diseased, and the people of
the neighbouring villages take precautions against using the milk,
etc. of the diseased cattle. At such times the cattle of the village
in which the disease breaks out are prohibited from entering the
neighbouring villages. [345] At Ubhádánda in the Ratnágiri District,
the deity named Maha Gira is worshipped in connection with cattle
diseases. At some places a feast is given to Bráhmans, and in certain
villages of this District a man is painted like a tiger, carried out
of the village and bathed in a river. It is believed that this is
one of the remedies for averting cattle diseases. [346] At Fonda in
the Ratnágiri District, when cattle disease breaks out, a goat or a
cock is sacrificed at the temple of the village deity. [347] In some
villages of the Málwan taluka the deity Bráhman is worshipped. [348]
At Basani in the Ratnágiri District the gods of the Mahárs as
also the village deity are worshipped in connection with the cattle
diseases. [349] At Vávashi in the Kolába District when cattle disease
prevails in a village, a pig is killed and buried on the border of
the village. A sweet oil lamp in the shell of a crab or a lobster is
kept burning in the cowshed. River or sweet water fishes are boiled
in water, and the water is given to the animals to drink. The owner
also cleans the cowshed and burns sulphur, camphor, dammer and other
disinfectants. [350] At Varsai in the Pen taluka of the Kolába District
a Kaul is taken from the village deity to prevent cattle diseases,
that is, the village deity is consulted through the temple ministrant,
who acts as the spokesman of the oracle. [351] At Medhe in the Rohe
taluka of the Kolába District the village deity Bahiroba is worshipped
in connection with cattle diseases. The diseased animals are minutely
examined, and the affected part of their body is branded with a red
hot iron. [352] In the village of Umela of the Thána District the
village deity is worshipped and sacrifices are offered to her. Milk
from the affected villages is prohibited, and vegetables are not fried
in oil during the prevalence of the disease in the village. [353]
At Kolhápur, the people make vows to the god, and ashes from the
temples are brought and applied to the forehead of the cattle. Cotton
strings are tied to the feet or the neck of the cattle in the name
of the god. They also make vows to the deities Tamjái and Wághjái,
and offer to them eyes made of silver, a new cloth, a fowl or a goat,
when their animals are cured of the disease. [354]

In the Devgad taluka of the Ratnágiri District, in cases of malarial
fevers pieces of certain kinds of herbs are fastened together with
black cotton strings, and tied round the arm or neck of the person
suffering from the disease. Sacred ashes are put in a copper amulet
and the amulet is tied in the manner above described. [355] At Fonda
in the Ratnágiri District, in addition to herbs and copper amulets,
peacock feathers in black cotton strings are tied to the arms of the
persons suffering from malarial fevers, etc. [356] At Vengurla in the
Ratnágiri District, in fevers like malaria, black strings of cotton are
tied round the arm or neck, and certain secret mantras are repeated
at the time. It is believed that the power of the mantras is lost if
they are disclosed to the public. [357] At Murud in the Dápoli taluka
of the Ratnágiri District the mantras of the god Narsinh, the fourth
incarnation of Vishnu, are repeated for the exorcism of diseases. [358]
In the Dápoli taluka people who want to get rid of their diseases
tie a copper amulet to their arms. The mantras that are repeated on
such occasions are kept secret. There are at present some persons in
the Anjarle village who give such amulets and charms. [359] In the
Chiplun taluka of the Ratnágiri District the following articles are
used for averting diseases:--Copper amulets, black cotton strings,
and holy water over which certain mantras have been repeated by the
exorcist. [360] At Poladpur in the Kolába District, black cotton
strings are tied round the arm in cases of malarial fevers. Some
mantras are repeated in cases of pain in the right or left side of
the body. Besides the mantras some signs and figures are drawn on
birch leaves, and tied round the arm or the neck of the patient. Women
who wish to have children wear such black cotton strings and copper
amulets. [361] At Vávashi in the Kolába District mantras are in vogue
for the exorcism of diseases such as liver and spleen affections. For
exorcising eye diseases black cotton thread is tied to the ear. [362]
At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the Kolába District, ashes are applied
to the body of the sick person after repeating certain mantras over
them. [363] At Málád in the Thána District, for exorcising diseases
caused by evil spirits, certain letters of the Nrisinha mantra are
written on a birch leaf, and the leaf is tied round the arm of the
sick man with a copper amulet. In order to drive out the evil spirit
permanently, the god Nrisinha is worshipped, and sacred fire is kindled
to propitiate the deity. For the worship of Nrisinha the ministrant
required must be a regular devotee of Nrisinha, and he must also be a
Panchákshari, i.e., one who knows the mantras of evil spirits. [364]
In the village of Shirgaon in the Máhim taluka of the Thána District,
in addition to copper amulets and black threads of cotton, mantras
of Musalmán saints or pirs are in vogue for exorcising disease. [365]
At Kolhápur, the higher classes perform the religious ceremony called
Anushthán to propitiate Shiva, the god of destruction, in order to
avert disease, and also make vows to the same deity. The lower classes
offer cocoanuts, fowls or a goat. They sometimes go to the exorcist
for ashes in the name of the god, and apply them to the forehead of
the diseased person. Copper amulets and cotton strings given by the
exorcist are also tied round the neck of the sick person. [366]

At Adivare in the Ratnágiri District the following practices are
adopted for driving out evil spirits that cause disease. Incense is
burnt before the exorcist, drums are beaten, and then the exorcist
takes a burning wick in his hand and frightens the diseased person by
striking the ground with a cane or a broom of peacock feathers. He
also cries out loudly. He then draws out the evil spirit from the
body of the diseased person, and puts it in a bottle, which is either
carried out of the village and buried under ground near a big tree
or is thrown into the sea. [367] In the Sangameshwar taluka of the
Ratnágiri District, the process of exorcising is sometimes accompanied
by dancing and loud cries. The person who suffers from evil spirits
is taken to Narsoba's Wádi in the Kolhápur State where patients are
believed to find a cure. [368] In the Devgad taluka of the Ratnágiri
District the exorcist, when possessed, does not dance as at other
places, but freely uses abusive epithets to drive out the evil
spirits; and on such occasions the threats are repeated loudly by
the exorcist. [369] In the Dápoli taluka of the Ratnágiri District,
dancing is used in exorcism. While dancing, the exorcist makes a show
of different kinds of fits. They are similar to those made by a person
suffering from hysteria. He also stands and sways his body to and fro
for some time, then assumes a serene and quiet attitude, and begins
to cry out loudly. [370] There are some sorcerers at Dásgaon in the
Kolába District, who dance and cry out loudly in order to drive out the
evil spirits from the body of the diseased. [371] At Málád in the Thána
District dancing is used in exorcism. The following is a description of
one of these dances. Songs of the deity which is to be summoned on the
occasion are sung along with the music of the Tál (a kind of cymbal)
and the beating of drums called Ghumat. The Ghumat is an earthen jar,
the lower and upper ends of which are covered over with leather. The
man in whose body the deity is to make its appearance takes his bath
and sits by the side of a small prayer carpet called Asan. A small
quantity of rice (about a ser) is put in front of the carpet, and
a copper pot filled with water is placed on the rice. The musicians
begin to strike their instrument with a loud clash, and the exorcist's
body begins to shake. The shaking of the body is a sure indication of
his being spirit-possessed. He then sits upon the carpet and begins
to throw grains of rice into the copper pot containing water, gives
out the name of the particular spirit with which he is possessed, and
the cause for which it has attacked the patient. He then explains the
measures and rites by which the spirit can be driven out. The people
abide by his directions, and the patient is thus cured. [372]

At Padghe in the Thána District, when an evil spirit is to be driven
out from the body of the patient, the latter is asked to hold in
his mouth a betelnut or a lemon. After some time, the betelnut or
the lemon is put into a bottle, the bottle is then tightly corked
and buried underground. A copper pot is filled with water, and the
diseased person is asked to hold the pot upside down. If the water
runs out it is believed that the spirit has disappeared. [373]

In the village of Edwan of the Thána District, dancing is practised
in cases of spirit possession, but it is resorted to among the lower
castes only. While dancing, the sorcerer cries out loudly, and throws
grains of Udid (Phaseolus radiatus) on the body of the diseased person
[374] after repeating certain mantras. This rite is styled Bhárani
or the process of charming.

At Kolhápur, dancing is not used in exorcism, but the people suffering
from evil spirits sometimes dance and cry out loudly. Some of them
loose their hair while dancing, and even strike their heads. Some
quarrel like combatants, and some of them try to make speeches like
orators. There is a temple of the god Shri Dutta at Narsinhwádi in
the Kolhápur State, to which people suffering from evil spirits are
brought for a cure. These people cry out loudly when the palanquin of
the Swámi Maháráj is carried through the village, and spirits usually
quit the bodies of their victims at this time, for it is said that
they cannot bear the proximity of the Swámi Maháráj. Patients are
also cured by residing in the village for a certain period. On this
account the village of Narsobáchiwádi is considered very holy. A big
festival is celebrated in this village annually on the twelfth day of
the dark half of Ashvin (October). Feasts are given to the Bráhmans,
the expenses being borne by the Kolhápur State. [375]

In the Sangameshwar taluka of the Ratnágiri District, the Bhagat or
exorcist is respected by the lower caste people. His duties are to ask
a kaul from the deity on behalf of the people and to alleviate their
sufferings. His appointment is hereditary, the clever member of the
family generally following the profession of his father. [376] In the
Devgad taluka of the Ratnágiri District, low class people are afraid of
sorcerers because they might injure them if they are offended. They
therefore are careful not to cause them displeasure. There, the
profession of a sorcerer or exorcist is not hereditary. Any one
who learns the wicked mantras after attending regularly the burial
and burning grounds for some days becomes an expert, and may follow
the profession. [377] In the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District
the chief function of the village sorcerer is to worship the village
deity. All kinds of gifts and presents intended for the deity are made
through him. His profession is hereditary and he is much respected
by the ignorant people [378]. At Fonda in the Ratnágiri District the
exorcist is not appointed, but one who can satisfactorily interpret or
explain to the village deity the sufferings of the people is generally
selected. [379]

In the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District, the chief function
of the village sorcerer is to find remedies for the cure of persons
suffering from evil spirits. His position among the people of the low
classes is considered high. He follows the hereditary profession of
a sorcerer, and generally the eldest son succeeds his father. [380]

At Chidhran in the Panwel taluka of the Kolába District, Bhutes,
a caste of beggars, are the devotees of a goddess. Some of them are
called Bhagats. Devrishis are very rare. The difference between a
Devrishi and a Bhagat is as follows:--A Devrishi removes the evil
spirits by simply repeating the mantras while the Bhagat removes
them by bringing the evil spirit into his own body and by dancing,
etc. [381]

At Chaul in the Kolába District, Bhutes go begging in the morning every
day for the first nine days of the month of Ashvin (October). On the
tenth day the Bhutya is given a pice from every house. These Bhutes
are devotees of the goddess Shakti. At Sasawane in the Kolába District
the village sorcerer comes to beg every day and is given rice, etc.,
but during the first nine days of the bright half of Ashvin (October)
he is given copper coins. [382] At Anjur in the Thána District the
devotee of a particular god is called Bhagat, and one who knows how to
summon or eject evil spirits is called Bhutya. A Devrishi is a person
who knows the mantras for warding off the great evil spirits such as
Brahma Rákshasa, Brahma Samband, etc. These three classes are respected
only for performing their respective duties, and not otherwise. [383]

At Kolhápur, the sorcerer is never appointed. His functions are to
ask a kaul from the deity, to pray for the welfare of the people, and
explain to them what he sees in his dreams. He holds no position in
higher society, but the poor people who believe in him are afraid of
him. Sorcerers are generally very cunning; they frighten poor people,
and obtain from them presents and gifts for their maintenance. [384]

In the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District red flags are hoisted
on Banyan, Pipal, and Umbar trees, and on certain occasions offerings
of coins and cocoanuts are made. It is believed that when the three
kinds of trees happen to grow together, i.e., close to each other,
near a well or on the bank of a river, the god Datta resides there,
but such cases are very rare. These trees are supposed to be the
haunts of the Munja spirit, and therefore copper coins waved round the
persons suffering from evil spirits are thrown underneath them. There
are no sacred wells in this taluka. [385] In the Dápoli taluka of the
Ratnágiri District, the Banyan and Pipal trees are worshipped. The
former is worshipped by women on the full moon day of the month of
Jestha (June) and on the no moon day when it falls on Monday. On
these occasions a cotton thread is tied round the tree, and offerings
of glass beads, cocoanuts, fruits, etc., are made. These trees are
also worshipped with offerings of copper coins, etc. [386] In the
Dápoli taluka, there is a certain place between the two villages of
Anjarla and Harnai where persons passing by that side throw one or
two stones, causing thereby a heap of stones there. It is believed
that by doing this the person who throws such stones gets rid of his
itch. This place is called Girjoba. Hands and feet made of wood are
also offered by persons who make vows to do so when their hands or
legs are affected by any disease. [387] At Ibrámpur in the Ratnágiri
District offerings of cotton thread, copper coins, and fruit are made
to Banyan and Pipal trees on the full moon day of the month of Jestha
(June) and on every Saturday in the month of Shráwan (August). [388]

At Vavanje in the Panwel taluka of the Kolába District, offerings
of coins, etc., to sacred trees are made at the time of Parwani
(a festival). For instance, when the no moon day falls on Monday,
the women worship the Pipal tree, and on the full moon day of Jestha
(June) they worship the Banyan tree. The custom prevails of the worship
of a well by women after their delivery. A woman, after completing
the period of her confinement or ceremonial impurity, is taken to
a well, from which she has to bring home water, and is required to
worship the well with the following materials, viz.:--cotton thread,
copper coins, cocoanuts and such other fruit as can be had on the
occasion. [389] At Varsai in the Pen taluka of the Kolába District,
offerings of cotton cloth, copper coins, cocoanuts, betelnuts and
plantains are made to the Banyan, Pipal, and Umbar trees, and also to
holy wells. The Pipal, Tulsi, and Umbar trees are worshipped daily
by women in this district, while the Banyan is worshipped on the
full moon day of Jestha (June). The materials of worship are:--rice,
fruits, water, sandalpaste, flowers, mangoes and jack fruits. [390]

At Málád in the Thána District, the Banyan tree is worshipped by
women of the Dwijas, i.e., of the twice born castes, on the full
moon day of the month of Jestha. Copper or silver coins and fruit
are offered to the tree. These offerings are taken by the Bráhman
priest, who explains to them the modes of worship. The Bráhman
priest is also given some money as a gift. This Vrata, i.e., vow,
is observed by women by fasting for three successive days, from
the 13th to the 15th day of the bright half of Jestha (June). The
Pipal tree is worshipped daily by some men and women of the Bráhman
caste. Women walk round this tree for a hundred and eight times or
more daily. Some persons hold a thread ceremony for the Pipal tree in
order to obtain a son, and worship the tree for a certain period. It
is worshipped with fruit and copper coins. Wooden cradles are also
offered to the tree. Wells are worshipped on auspicious days such as
Parwani by women of the upper castes. [391] At Padghe in the Thána
District the Banyan tree is worshipped on the full moon day of Jestha,
and the Pipal is worshipped every Saturday in the month of Shráwan
(August). The Pipal tree is not worshipped before the performance of
its thread ceremony, and its thread ceremony is not performed till
the tree bears at least one thousand leaves. [392]

At Kolhápur, the Banyan and Pipal trees are considered very holy,
and offerings of rags, coins, etc., are made to them. It is a custom
among the Hindu women to worship the Banyan tree on the full moon
day of Jestha. Offerings of cloth and fruit are made to this tree,
and copper or silver coins are given as dakshana. Some women make
a small model in gold, silver, or copper of the Banyan tree or of
its leaf, and present it to the Bráhman priest along with a present
of money. All these rites are required to be strictly performed as
enjoined in the Shástras. [393]

At Nágothane in the Kolába District, it is believed that men who
are well versed in the mantras of witchcraft and sorcery sometimes
transfer diseases from one person to another. [394] Vaccination is
believed to be a method of transferring disease to other persons. [395]

At Málád in the Thána District a method of transferring disease
from one person to another is in practice among the Shudras. It is
as follows:--A woman without a child cuts secretly a little piece
from the garment of a woman who has children. She then burns the
piece, puts the ashes into water, and the mixture is then drunk by
the barren woman. It is believed that, by so doing, the evil spirit
of the disease that is troubling the barren woman is transferred to
the other who has children. The barrenness of the first woman then
disappears, and she begets children. It is said that if the second
woman comes to know of the mischief before using that garment, she
discontinues the use of the same, and no harm is done to her. [396]

In the Umbergaon taluka of the Thána District the methods of
transferring disease are called Muth Márane, i.e., a bewitched lime is
sent to the person to whom the disease is to be transferred. Various
mantras are also secretly repeated with the object of transferring
the disease to an enemy. [397]

At Kolhápur, there are no methods of transferring disease to other
persons, but it is said that the following ceremony is practised in
the case of persons suffering from swollen glands. Rice, Udid grain
etc. are tied in a yellow cloth, and three knots are made in it. This
is then kept for one night under the pillow of the diseased person. It
is taken out the next morning and thrown away at a place where three
roads meet. It is then supposed that the person who steps on the
bundle first is attacked with the disease, and the one for whom the
rite is performed is cured. [398]

At Devgad taluka in the Ratnágiri District it is believed that evil
spirits are fond of things like a cock, cocoanuts, boiled rice, etc.,
and when a person considers himself attacked by evil spirits, these
things are waved round his body and thrown away at some distance from
his residence. This is generally done in the evening, but if necessary
it can be done at any time. The person who goes to throw these things
away is prohibited from looking behind. The things required for a
bali, i.e., oblation, on such occasions are boiled rice, red powder,
and an oil lamp made of black cotton wick. [399]

In the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District, when a person is
suffering from any disease for a long time, and when ordinary medicines
prove to be ineffective, a goat or a cock is waved round the body of
the patient, and are then put beyond the village boundary or taken
away by the sorcerer. While performing this rite, the man must repeat
certain mantras. [400]

At Fonda in the Ratnágiri District, the use of scapegoats is
resorted to in cases of persons supposed to have been attacked by
evil spirits. Curds and boiled rice are waved round the body of the
diseased person and thrown away at a distance from the house. In some
cases it is said that the cock which is waved round the body of the
sick person dies instantaneously. [401]

In the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District the scapegoat (often a
cock) is waved three times round the sick person and thrown into the
street. The man who goes to throw it away is prohibited from looking
behind. Burnt cowdung ashes are thrown out of the door after the man
has left the house, and the door is closed at once. [402]

In the Dápoli taluka, cocoanuts, curds, boiled rice, turmeric powder,
red powder, cocks etc. are waved round the body of the sick person
and taken beyond the village boundary or to a big tree supposed to
be haunted by evil spirits, and in some cases these things are thrown
away where four roads meet. [403]

In the Rájápur taluka of the Ratnágiri District scapegoats are used
by the low caste people, while Bráhmans use cocoanuts, boiled rice
and copper coins. [404] At Kálshe in the Ratnágiri District eggs,
cocks, goats, etc. are used as scapegoats. These things are waved
round the body of the patient, and taken beyond the village limits
or far from the residence of the sick person. For this rite a man
from the Ghádi, Gurav, Rával, or Mahár caste is invited at night,
and he is paid in cash for his services. [405]

At Ibrámpur in the Ratnágiri District, the cocks and goats used for
driving out evil spirits from the body of the patient are not thrown
away, but are eaten by the exorcist. [406]

At Navre in the Ratnágiri District, hens are used to extract the
poison of snake bites from the body of the sufferer. In cases of evil
spirits alone, cocoanuts, cocks and goats are used as scapegoats. [407]

At Dásgaon in the Kolába District, a Paradi (basket) containing
black glass beads, bangles, turmeric and red powders, sweetmeat of
five sorts, flowers, cocoanut, a burning scented stick, and rice,
is waved three times round the body of the patient, and thrown away
outside the village. [408]

At Kolhápur, the use of fowls, goats, limes, cocoanuts, copper coins,
dry chillies and salt is in vogue, not only in cases of sick persons,
but also when a person performs a feat such as bending an iron bar,
or doubling with his hands a silver coin, or winning a victory in
wrestling. The articles are then waved round him and thrown away
in order that he may not suffer from an evil eye. Among the rich
the same rite is performed on ordinary occasions such as leaving a
house, starting on a journey etc. In cases of illness it is specially
performed in the evening, and the articles are thrown away at the
outskirts of the village, or by the side of a well. [409]



CHAPTER IV.

WORSHIP OF ANCESTORS AND SAINTS.


In the Konkan, especially among the lower classes, a strong belief
prevails regarding the mortality of the spirits of the dead and
of their re-appearance or re-birth in their children. And for this
reason, as well as for protection against evil, the dead ancestors
are worshipped.

The custom regarding the worship of ancestors prevailing at Kálshe
in the Ratnágiri District is as follows:--The worship of ancestors is
called Shráddha (anniversary). It is performed on the no moon day of
every month, on the date of the death of the person every year, and
also on the same date of the dark half of the month of Bhádrapada
(September). Among the Bráhmans, Bráhman priests are invited,
worshipped, and are given a feast, after worshipping balls of boiled
rice as representing the dead ancestors. The special materials used
for worship are sesamum and barley grain. The same custom prevails
among non-Bráhmans with the exception that the balls are made of
rice flour and not of boiled rice. To partake of the food on such
occasions, the lower classes invite married persons of their own
caste. The anniversary day of Sádhus and Mahants, i.e., saints,
is called Punya tithi, i.e., the day of merit.

It is commonly believed that spirits are mortal. The life of the
deceased remains in the spirit condition until the sins which
he may have committed are washed away by the good deeds of his
descendants. There is no belief that one spirit dies and another takes
its place, but it is believed that the ancestors are sometimes reborn
in the same family. [410]

At Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District ancestors
are worshipped every year on the same date of the month (according
to the Hindu calendar year) on which the person died, by performing a
Shráddha rite. They are also worshipped on the same date in the second
half of Bhádrapada (September) every year. This is by a rite called
Mahálaya Shráddha. On both these occasions Bráhmans are invited, and
the worshipping ceremony is performed by repeating the mantras. After
the ceremony, all the invited guests men and women partake of food.

Sádhus are worshipped after washing their feet with sandal paste,
flowers, cocoanuts and gifts of money.

It is believed that evil spirits undergo a transformation after a
lapse of twelve years. The practice of giving the names of ancestors
to children is common, and it is due to the belief that the spirits
of the dead are reborn in children in the same family. [411]

At Pendur in the Ratnágiri District the ancestors are worshipped on the
last day of every Hindu calendar month. This monthly worship is called
Darsha Shráddha. The annual anniversary of the manes is celebrated
by the ceremony called the Sámvatsarik Shráddha. If any ancestor
has died after becoming a recluse or Sanyási, his body is buried,
and a tomb called a samádhi is erected over it; and his descendants,
instead of performing the annual Shráddha, worship the tomb of the
recluse every day. It is believed that the spirits take a different
form after the lapse of seven generations. The belief that the spirits
of the dead are reborn in the same family prevails among the people
of this district. The following measures are adopted for the purpose
of identification. When a person dies in a family, a basil or bel
leaf is placed on a certain part of the body, or some familiar sign
is made in sandal paste; and when a child is born in the family,
its body is carefully examined to ascertain whether there are any
signs on the body of the child such as were made on the dead body
of the ancestor. If the same sign appears to the satisfaction of the
members of the family, it is believed that the dead person has been
reborn in the same family. [412]

At Navare in the Ratnágiri District Bráhmans are invited, worshipped
and given a feast in honour of ancestors. Sádhus and Mahants, or
saints, are worshipped by giving them the same honour accorded to
the family deities. [413]

At Basani in the Ratnágiri District the anniversary day of saints is
observed by the performance of a Bhajan, which consists in singing
the good deeds of saints and in offering prayers. It is believed
that spirits are mortal, but they do not die like ordinary human
beings. They cease to exist as spirits as soon as the period of their
release is over. The spirits obtain absolution by visiting certain
holy places. [414]

At Dabhol in the Ratnágiri District the people believe that the souls
of ancestors are reborn in children in the same family if some of
their desires remain unfulfilled at the time of their demise. [415]

At Shiravde in the Ratnágiri District ancestors are worshipped
every year by performing the rites called tarpan, which consist
in offering oblations of holy water, sesamum, barley grains and
repeating prayers. The tarpan is observed on the very date of the
month in which the person died. The procedure of worshipping the
Hindu saints is similar to that of the other deities. Owing to the
belief that the spirits of the dead are reborn in children in the
same family the name of the grandfather is given to the grandson. [416]

At Náringre in the Ratnágiri taluka ancestors are worshipped by
inviting Bráhman priests, and worshipping them with sandal paste
and flowers. These Bráhmans are supposed to represent the father,
grandfather and great grandfather of the worshipper. [417]

At Bándivade in the Ratnágiri District the leaves of the herb called
pudina, (a good medicine for worms) sesamum, and darbha grass are
required for the worship of ancestors. The man who worships the
ancestors has to turn his sacred thread from the right hand to the
left. [418]

At Anjarle in the Ratnágiri District Mahants and Sádhus are worshipped
in their life-time like family deities, and their tombs are worshipped
after their death. [419]

At Fonda in the Ratnágiri District ancestors are worshipped by
making balls of boiled rice on their anniversary day. The balls
are supposed to take the place of the dead parents, and they are
worshipped with sandal paste and flowers, and by burning incense and
lighting a lamp of clarified butter. Betelnuts and leaves, cocoanuts
and Dakshina (presents of money) are given to them. People also bow
before them. Mahants and Sádhus are worshipped by washing their feet,
sandal paste is applied to their body, and they are garlanded with
flowers. Cocoanuts, a piece of cloth and a gift in coins are given
to them according to the means of the giver. It is said that spirits
can remain as spirits for about a thousand years. [420]

At Vijayadurg in the Ratnágiri District the method of worshipping
ancestors is as follows:--In some cases elderly parents as well as
a grandfather and great grandfather are also worshipped, their feet
are washed with water, and the water is accepted as tirth or holy
water. While worshipping the Mahants and Sádhus, or saints, water
is poured on their right hand, and they are worshipped with sandal
paste and flowers, and given a dakshana or gifts of money according
to one's means and will. The pádukas, or foot prints, of saints are
worshipped after their death. [421]

At Mithbáv in the Ratnágiri District holy persons such as Sanyásis
are worshipped after their death by performing their anniversary
ceremony every year. It is believed that spirits are mortal. Evil
spirits such as munjas, etc., undergo a kind of transformation, and
it is believed that this occurs at places like Narsoba's Wádi. [422]

At Devgad in the Ratnágiri District ancestors are worshipped on their
anniversary days, the manes being represented by pieces of Darbha
grass and balls of boiled rice. [423]

At Poladpur in the Kolába District a person whose father is alive
but who has lost his mother's father, has to perform the Shráddha
of that grandfather on the 1st day of the bright half of Ashvin
(October). This Shráddha is called Duhitra. A person who has lost
his wife has to perform the Shráddha for that wife on the 9th day
of the dark half of the month of Bhádrapada. This day is called Ahev
Navami. These different sorts of Shráddhas are observed only by the
high class Hindus. The lower classes worship their ancestors on the
last day of the month of Bhádrapada by preparing a ball of boiled rice
or flour, and putting it out for the crows to eat. It is believed that
spirits are mortal. The ceremony called Narayan Nagabali is performed
when it is believed that the spirit of an ancestor is giving trouble
to the family. When this rite is performed, the spirit is saved and
the ailment ceases. It is believed that the spirits of the dead are
sometimes reborn in children in the same family, and in such cases the
names of the ancestors are given to their children by the people. [424]

At Khopoli in the Karjat taluka of the Kolába District the form
of worship of ancestors is similar to that of the ordinary Hindu
deities. In the case of the worship of the deities the person
performing the worship has to sit with his face towards the east,
while at the worship of the ancestors he has to sit with his face
towards the south. [425]

At Chaul in the Kolába District, the tombs of Sanyásis, i.e.,
ascetics and Sádhus are worshipped on their anniversary days,
and a great fair is held in their honour. The other ancestors are
worshipped by the shráddha rites. The anniversary of the founders
of the different sects is observed by their followers by a bhajan,
i.e., singing songs in their own style and exhibiting the different
insignia and flag of the sect as advised by their founders. [426]

The people of Chidhran in the Kolába District believe that the period
for which the soul has to remain in the spirit state depends upon the
sins of the person, or the wishes which remained unfulfilled during
his life time. It is not that all the spirits of the dead are reborn
in children. The rebirth depends upon the good or bad deeds of the
deceased. However, if the nature of any child suggests the nature of
any dead person in the family, it is assumed that the spirit of the
deceased has returned to the family. [427]

At Nágothane in the Pen taluka of the Kolába District some of the
communities worship small images called tánks on the anniversary of
their ancestors' death; among the Shudras food is given to the crows on
the last day of Bhádrapad. The custom of giving a grandfather's name
to the grandson prevails largely, and is due to the belief that the
spirits of the dead are sometimes reborn in the same family. [428]
It is also said that in some of the Hindu communities, if a child
cries continuously, ashes are applied to its forehead in the name of
one of the ancestors in the family; and if the child sleeps quietly
or stops crying, the name of that ancestor is given to it. [429]

At Shirgaon in the Thána District, the worship of ancestors is
performed on the day of the father's death, every year. On any
auspicious occasion the rite called Nandi shráddha is performed at
the beginning of the ceremony. It is believed that evil spirits or
ghosts have to remain in the ghostly state for about one thousand
years, or at least until one of the descendants in the family goes
to a holy place like Káshi (Benares) and there performs the shráddha
rites of his ancestors. [430]

At Málád in the Thána District, the worship of ancestors is performed
on the day of the father's death every month till the completion of
one year by inviting Bráhmans and giving them a feast. This is done
among Bráhmans only. The other communities worship their ancestors
by performing the rite called Chata Shráddha and by giving Shidha,
i.e., rice, pulse, vegetables and ghi to Bráhman priests. A feast is
then given to their castemen. [431]

At Kolhápur, ancestors, Mahants and Sádhus are worshipped by the rites
known as the Puranic ritual, that is, no Vedic mantras are repeated
while performing these rites. It is a common belief in this province
that the soul of the person who has committed a murder, or has incurred
debt and enmity, is obliged to repay the debt by being born again as
a servant or in some other subordinate capacity of the debtor. [432]

The tombs of the Hindu and Mahomedan saints are considered holy,
but they are not supposed to possess miracular powers. [433] The
following is a list of saints who have been deified and worshipped by
the people of the Ratnágiri District. (1) Mukundráj, (2) Dnyándev,
(3) Tukárám, (4) Eknáth, (5) Námdev, (6) Rámdás, (7) Akkalkotche
Swámi, (8) Ranganáth, (9) Dev Mámlatdár, (10) Kabir, (11) Kamál,
(12) Nipat Niranjan, (13) Tulshidás, (14) Pundalik, (15) Vashistha,
(16) Dattátraya, (17) Sohiroba, (18) Gorakshanath, (19) Purnanáth.

At Shiroda in the Ratnágiri District a practice prevails of making
vows to the tombs of women who burnt themselves as Satvis. Vows
are also made to the Musalman Pirs, and offerings are often made in
fulfilment of such vows. [434]

At the fort of Vishálgad there is a tomb of a Pir (saint). It is usual
to make a vow to worship this Pir with fetters on one's legs, and it
is believed that, at the time of worship, the chains break off. [435]

There is at Dahibáv in the Ratnágiri District a tomb of a Hindu saint
named Shri Anand Murti, to which the people of that locality make
vows when severe calamities befall them, and it is believed that the
saint listens to their prayers. [436]

When a Bráhman assumes the garb of a recluse or Sanyási, he is
considered by the people as sacred as a Hindu god, and is worshipped
with great reverence, provided he abides by the rules contained in
the shástras. [437]

There is a tomb of a Pir at Báwa Málangad in the Panwel taluka of
the Kolába District, where the people make vows to the Pir, and it
is believed that the Pir fulfils their wishes. Hindu saints such
as Rámdás, Dnyáneshwar, Námdev are held in great honour in this
District. [438]

There is a temple of Nágoba at Avas in the Kolába District where
persons suffering from snake-bite, if carried to the temple while
still alive, are said to be cured. [439]

At Kawad in the Bhiwandi taluka of the Thána District there is a tomb
of a Brahmachári named Sakhárám Báva who has been deified by the people
of that District. A great fair is held at the tomb every year. [440]

The following instance is given of a miracle at the tomb of Sakhárám
Báva of Kawad. A man suffering from fits showed an inclination to go
to Kawad to read Guru Charitra for seven successive days. He was taken
to that place accordingly. After his arrival, he continued to suffer
from these fits in the morning and evening at the time of the worship
at the tomb. Once during the fits he said that he would be free from
the disease if Rs. 200 were spent in giving a feast to the Bráhmans
at Páli. The relatives of the sufferer agreed to arrange accordingly,
and instantly the man put his head on the Samádhi (tomb) and threw
himself on his back. He came to his senses after ten minutes, and
from that time he was completely cured. A feast was then given to the
Bráhmans at Páli, and Rs. 200 were spent over it as promised. Another
instance of miracular power is cited, and that is of the priest of
the goddess Mahaluxmi of Kolwan. This priest goes up and hoists the
flag of the goddess on a steep hill which no other person can climb,
and it is believed that he can do this only when the spirit of the
goddess enters his body. [441]

At Umbergaon in the Thána District there is a miracle-working tomb of
a saint called the Dátár "Pir." Sakhárámbáva of Angaon Kawad, a Hindu
saint, is held in high honour in this village. [442] At this place
it is also believed that some of the Pirs walk round the village at
night, and their tombs are said to be seen in motion. The Dátár Pir
is worshipped even by the Hindus of that locality. [443]

At Shirosi in the Murbád Taluka of the Thána District, Sakhárámbáva of
Kawad, Dev Mámlatdár, Chandirámbuva of Khed, Narayanbuva of Nanuri,
the Swámi of Akkalkot, the Swámi of Kumbhar Peth at Kolhápur, and
the Dandekerbuva of Rájápur are the principal saints held in honour
by the people. [444]

At Mánikpur in the Thána District it is said that a bright light or
flames emanate from certain tombs of Musalman saints. [445]

At Umela in the Thána District it is said that flames and smoke are
given out from the tombs of certain Mahomedan saints situated in the
locality. These flames appear and disappear very suddenly. [446]

In the Kolhápur District people believe that the Samádhi of Swámi
Anandmúrti, who was a disciple of Raghunath Swámi of Bhramanál,
shakes on the Shiwarátri day, that is the 13th of the dark half of
Mágha, and on the Rámanawami day i.e. the 9th of the bright half of
Chaitra, at the time of the worship called Bhajan. Among the tombs
held most sacred by the Hindus of the Konkan may be mentioned the
following viz.: Bhujang Swámi of Lokapur, Rámdás Swámi, the Samádhi
of Shri Shankaráchárya at Shirgaon, Chintaman Swámi of Murgud,
and the Samádhi of Mangalmúrti Morya at Chinchwad near Poona. All
these Swámis were Brahmacháris or bachelors, and they spent their
lives in the service of God and preached virtue and morality to the
masses. These Samádhis are of two kinds: (1) of saints after death,
and (2) of saints on the point of death. The third kind is called
Jal Samádhi, i.e., immersion in water, but no tomb of the latter
kind is to be found in this Province. It is said that, if a lime
is placed above the Samádhi of Bhujanga Swámi, it begins to shake
at the time of the Arti ceremony. The present disciple of Bhujanga
Swámi sits in (Samádhi) meditation continuously for four to eight
days. There prevails a belief at Kolhápur that the swámi whose body
is buried in the tomb at Chinchwad is still alive. Some years ago
when the present disciple of the Chinchwad Swámi was anxious to take
Samádh, he had a dream in which the swámi in the tomb told him that
he was still living in that Samádhi, and that therefore there was no
need for his disciple to take Samádh. He was thus obliged to forego
the project. The Peshwas of Poona, who were staunch devotees of the
Chinchwad swámi, and by whose favour they were raised to a position
of social equality among the Deccan Bráhmans, granted an Inam of
some villages for the maintenance of this Samádhi, and the British
Government have allowed the descendants of the swámi to retain the
Inam. The following are the principal Musalman saints who have been
deified in the Kolhapur District:--

(1) Bába Jamál, (2) Ghod Pir, (3) Bara Imám, (4) Avachit Pir, (5)
Buran Sáheb and (5) Mira Sáheb of Miraj. All these Pirs have been
supplied with annual grants of money by the Kolhápur State. [447]

At Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka of the Ratnágiri District some
Hindus have adopted the worship of Mahomedan saints. Mahomedan Pirs
are worshipped in the month of Moharram. On these occasions Hindus
beg in the town in the disguise of Fakirs, and the alms thus obtained
are offered to the Pir. They make offerings of water to the Pirs,
while the tábuts are being carried to the sea for immersion. But this
practice is being slowly discontinued. [448]

At Bándivade in the Ratnágiri District Hindus offer cocoanuts and
khichadi to the Pirs at the time of the Moharram, and at some places
a lamp is kept burning every Monday in honour of a Pir. [449]

At Kálbádevi in the Ratnágiri taluka there is a tomb of a Musalmán
saint who is worshipped by the Hindus. Similarly there is a Pir at
Gaonkhádi in the Rájápur taluka who is held in reverence even by high
caste Hindus. [450]

At Ade in the Dápoli taluka of the Ratnágiri District there is a tomb
of a Musalman saint which is worshipped by the Hindus including the
Bráhmans. The building and also the mosque in that village have been
repaired from contributions obtained from high class Hindus. [451]
Many Hindus of Devagad in the Ratnágiri District worship Musalman
saints. Occasionally they offer cocoanuts to tábuts, and throw red
powder over them. They also make vows to the Pirs. [452]

There are two Pirs at Vijayadurg who are worshipped by the Hindus. The
same practice prevails at Rájápur and Khárepátan. [453]

At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the Kolába District some Hindus
worship Pirs. The members of the Ketkar family of Chauk are the Pujáris
or ministrants of the Musalmán saint known as Báva Málangad. This
shows that even Bráhmans worship Musalmán saints. [454]

The tomb of Báva Málangad situated in the Kolába District is worshipped
first by a Bráhman and then by Musalmáns. The Bráhman worshipper
performs this task more for the pecuniary benefit which he derives
from the worship than from faith in the divinity of the Pir. [455]

At Poladpur in the Mahád taluka of the Kolába District there are no
instances of Musalmán saints being worshipped by Hindus, but persons
wishing to have children make vows to Pirs, and children born by the
favour of such Pirs are required to assume the robe of a Fakir during
the Moharram festivities. [456]

The practice of worshipping such saints exists at Khopoli in the Kolába
District. Persons in trouble, or desirous of getting children, make
vows to the saint Imám Hussein, and when their desires are fulfilled
they dress themselves as Fakirs and beg at certain places during the
Moharram festivities. [457] A certain Lakshman Gangádhar Joshi of
Rewdanda in the Kolába District is the Mujáwar (priest or ministrant)
of a Musalman saint Chánsewalli and he holds an Inám in connection
with his office of Mujáwar of the saint's Darga. [458]

At Akshi in the Kolába District there is a tomb of a Pir which
is worshipped by lower class Hindus such as Kolis, Mális and
Bhandáris. [459]

The Hindus of Bhuwan in the Murbád taluka of the Kolába District
worship the Pir of the locality. It is said that the cultivators
of the village once lost their cattle, and that a Fakir attributed
the loss to the rage of the Pir. Since that time they are careful to
worship the saint, and the result is that there has been no disease
among their cattle. They offer Malinda, i.e., bread and jágri, to
the Pir every Thursday. [460]

The Hindu inhabitants of Málád in the Thána District sprinkle water
over the roads by which the tábuts are to pass, and allow their
children to pass beneath the tábuts. Some throw sweetmeat on the
tábuts, and distribute the same to the poor. [461]

At Shirgaon in the Máhim taluka of the Thána District some Hindus
make vows to the local Pir and take part in the tábut procession. They
pour water over the feet of the tábut bearers, and throw abir (black
scented powder) and flowers on the tábuts. They also distribute to
the fakirs Malinda, or Khichadi. [462]

The Mujáwar (priest) of the saint Walli Amir Shaha of Shahápur in
the Thána District is a Marátha by caste. [463]

In the Kolhápur District Pirs are held in great reverence by
Hindus. They make vows to the Pirs in order to get a son, and when
their object is fulfilled they offer a preparation of Til (sesamum)
and sugar called Rewadi, and other sweets called Chonge, Malinda and
Pedhe at the time of Moharram. They also give Fakiri to their sons
in the tábut season. Some of them even bring a tábut and Nál sáheb
to their houses, and spend much money on them for illuminations,
etc. They dance from one Nálpir to the other saying that the Nálpir
has entered their bodies. While going through the streets they cry
out very loudly the words 'Yalli Dhulla'. The holiday of the Moharram
is observed for ten days. On the tenth day the tábuts and the Nálpirs
are taken to the river for the purpose of immersion. While returning
home from the river with the bundle of the Patka of Nálpir on their
heads they cry out loudly the following words: "Alabidáyo ála bidásha
ya Husan bani alidosháke sultán albida". On the third day after the
immersion of tábuts into the river, the Pirs devotees kill a goat
in the name of their patron Pir and make a preparation of the goat's
flesh called Konduri. [464]

The following rites are in vogue for the cure of barrenness in the
village of Dábhol in the Ratnágiri District.--(1) Walking round the
Pipal tree daily; (2) Observing a fast for sixteen successive Mondays;
(3) Performing the worship of Shiva after observing the aforesaid
fast. [465]

At Kálshe in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District a barren
woman is required to walk round a Pipal tree every day in the morning,
and if the barrenness be attributed to the disfavour of any deity
or the attack of an evil spirit, the same deity or the evil spirit
is invoked and worshipped by the woman herself, or through a medium
who knows the appropriate mode of worship. [466]

To steal an earthen image of the God Ganpati, to make a cross or a
Swástika on the bodies of children with marking nut, and the worship
of the god Máruti or some other powerful deity at midnight in the
no moon by a barren woman, after divesting herself of her clothes,
are rural methods for the cure of barrenness observed at Anjarle and
other places in the Dápoli taluka of the Ratnágiri District. [467]

At Bándivade in the Ratnágiri District copper amulets and black
cotton strings are used to cure barrenness. Some people make vows to
a particular deity, and some perform the rite of Nágabali. [468]

To walk round Pipal and Umbar trees, to circumambulate the temple
of a particular deity, and to make vows to that deity, to recite or
have recited the holy scripture Harivansha, are methods in practice
for cure of barrenness at Achre in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri
District. [469]

At Vijayadurg in the Ratnágiri District, it is believed that beating
a woman at the time of an eclipse is one of the surest methods of
curing barrenness. Some people give charity, observe fasts, worship
certain deities and make vows to them to obtain children. [470]

At Ubhádánda in the Ratnágiri District, stealing the idol of Krishna
when it is being worshipped on the 8th day of the dark half of Shráwan
(August), the birth day of the god Krishna, and putting a cocoanut or
a betelnut in its place is believed to be the best method of curing
barrenness. [471]

At Chauk in the Kolába District, the same plan of stealing the idol
of the god Krishna is observed as a cure for barrenness. But here
the idol is returned with great pomp, and replaced in its original
place after the birth of a child. The godlings Hanumán and Bawan Vir
are also worshipped for the cure of barrenness. [472]

At Poladpur in the Kolába District the favourite method of curing
barrenness is to obtain copper amulets and black or red cotton strings
from a Fakir. [473]

The following are the methods in vogue for the cure of barrenness at
Khopoli in the Kolába District.

(1) To inquire from a sorcerer the cause of barrenness, and then to
perform the rites mentioned by him.

(2) To use copper amulets and cotton strings taken from a Mántrik,
i.e., one well versed in the mantras.

(3) To walk round the Tulsi (basil) plant or the Pipal or Banyan tree
daily in the morning after worshipping it.

(4) To feed another woman's child, or to give milk to a child. [474]

At Náta in the Kolába District, a woman wishing to have a child is
required to strike with a knife the Jack, the Tamarind, and the Chámpa
trees during an eclipse. It is believed that by so doing the woman will
bear a child, and the trees will also bear flowers and fruits. [475]

At Medhe in the Roha taluka of the Kolába District, the following
methods are in vogue for the cure of barrenness:--

(1) To worship the god Shiva and to observe fasts on Mondays.

(2) To worship the god Ganpati and to observe fasts on Sankasthi
chaturthi, i.e., the fourth day of the dark half of every month.

(3) To walk round the temple of Máruti and Pipal and Umbar trees
every day, in the morning. [476]

At Padaghe in the Bhiwandi taluka of the Thána District, images of
Ráma and Krishna are put into the lap of a barren woman on their
respective birthdays i.e., the 9th day of the bright half of Chaitra,
and the 8th day of the dark half of Shráwan. Cocoanuts are also placed
in her lap with these images. [477]

At Mánikpur in the Thána District the goddess Shitala is worshipped
by women to cure barrenness. They observe fasts, and go to the temple
of the goddess bare-footed with their hair loose and throwing milk on
their path. They offer to the goddess wooden cradles and children's
toys in fulfilment of their vows. [478]

At Shirgaon in the Máhim taluka of the Thána District, it is said
that the repetition of the mantra "Santán Gopál jáy" is resorted to
as a cure for barrenness. [479]

At Wáde in the Thána District, women make vows even to minor deities
such as Chedoba to get rid of barrenness. They also use copper amulets
and cotton strings procured from a sorcerer well versed in the use
of mantras. [480]

At Dahigaon in the Thána District the worship of the god Shri Satya
Náráyan is held to cure barrenness. Some women also distribute to
the poor jágri equal to the weight of a child. [481]

At Dehari in the Murbád taluka of the Thána District, the village
deity Dehari Máta is invoked and worshipped by women for the cure of
barrenness. [482] In the Kolhápur District, the help of the family
deities and of the household deities is invoked. Women take turns
round the Banyan, Pipal and Umbar, trees. Some make vows to the
gods, and perform certain propitiatory rites as well as the Náráyan
Nágabali. It is believed that the children do not live long if a
member of the family has killed a snake, or if the funeral rites
of a person in the family have remained unperformed. The following
ceremony is known as Náráyan Nágabali. A snake is made from the flour
of Rála (panie seed), and another made of gold is put into it. It
is then burnt like a dead body. All the ordinary funeral rites are
performed. After performing the eleventh day rites, homa, i.e.,
sacred fire, is kindled at night time, and after keeping vigil for
the whole night, milk and a dakshana are given to Bráhmans. A feast
is given to eleven Bráhmans on that day. On the twelfth day sixteen
Bráhmans are fed, and on the thirteenth, five Bráhmans are given a
feast, after performing the Shráddha rites. On the fourteenth day,
again, a feast is given to about 100 to 500 Bráhmans according to
the means of the host. It is believed that, after the performance of
these rites, the soul of the deceased reaches heaven, and there is
an end to the troubles and misfortunes of the family. [483]



CHAPTER V.

THE WORSHIP OF THE MALEVOLENT DEAD.


At Ubhádánda in the Ratnágiri District the following dreams are
believed to be lucky and propitious. To swim through the river or sea,
to rise to the sky, to see the Sun, the Moon and the other planets,
to eat meat, to bathe in blood, and to eat rice and curds. It is
also believed that the sight of white objects in dreams foretells
success in any work or undertaking that may be in view. A deity,
a Bráhman, a king, a married woman decked with ornaments, a bullock,
a mountain, trees full of fruits, climbing the Umber tree, a looking
glass, meat and flowers, if seen in dreams, are good omens. Climbing
the Palas tree, Warul, i.e., an ant heap, the bitter lime tree, to
marry, to use red clothes or red flower garlands, to eat cooked meat,
to see the sun and the moon without lustre, and to see shooting stars
during dreams, are said to be bad omens. [484]

At Mithbáv in the Devgad taluka of the Ratnágiri District dreams are
believed to be caused by indigestion and restlessness. To embrace
a dead body in a dream, to see troubled waters, to dine heartily,
are said to be bad omens. Feasting friends and receiving gifts from
them are said to be good omens. [485]

At Fonda in the Ratnágiri District dreams are said to indicate things
that have happened, or are about to happen in the near future. All
white substances other than cotton, salt, and bones, are considered
auspicious, and all black substances excepting a lotus, a horse,
an elephant, and a deity are considered inauspicious. [486]

At Ibrámpur in the Chiplun taluka, horrible dreams are good omens,
while pleasing dreams indicate approaching calamities. [487]

At Pendur in the Ratnágiri District it is believed that dreams foretell
future events. It is believed that the dream will prove correct
and effective if the person dreaming has asked three questions and
received three answers in his dream. Those dreams which are caused
through cold are called Jalap. They are generally false dreams,
and no good omens are derived therefrom. [488]

At Basani in the Ratnágiri District it is believed that the ancestors
who take interest in the welfare of their descendants appear in dreams
and foretell future events, so that the dreaming person may take the
needful precautions for the prevention of future calamities. [489]

At Kálshe in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District it is believed
that dreams in the last part of the night, i.e., just before daybreak,
and in which great men are seen, generally prove effective. If anybody
sees himself married in a dream it is supposed that he will hear of
the death of some relative. [490]

At Chauk in the Kolába District it is believed that, when calamities
are threatened, the guardian deity of the family as well as the
dead ancestors appear in dreams and give warnings of the coming
calamities. [491]

The people of Poladpur in the Kolába District believe in dreams;
and when some of their deities appear in dreams and give them
advice or directions, they are careful to follow them. Sometimes
even evil spirits appear in dreams, and advise the people to do
certain things to avert calamities. People who have faith in such
spirits act according to their wishes, and if they fail to do so,
trouble is sure to follow. [492]

The people of Khopoli in the Kolába District believe that if a person
sees in a dream, the dead body of a near relative, it indicates that
the person whose corpse was seen in the dream will live long. [493]

At Birwadi in the Kolába District it is believed that if a person sees
a snake in a dream, a son will be born to him; if he sees a hell, he
is sure to get wealth. If he sees gold, it is a sure sign of losing
wealth. Again, if a person sees himself taking his meals in a dream,
it indicates that his death is nigh at hand. [494]

At Málád in the Thána District, omens are derived from dreams. In case
of bad dreams the god Vishnu is remembered, and the gods Shankar and
Máruti are also worshipped. [495]

At Belápur, wood, cowdung cakes and turbid water, if seen in dreams,
foretell calamities. White clothes, beautiful flowers, and food
containing sweetmeat are considered auspicious. [496]

At Murbád in the Thána District it is believed that all black things,
and white things such as ashes, are inauspicious when seen in dreams,
but a black cow, white flowers, and pearls are auspicious. Considering
the four parts of the night, the dreams that occur in the first part
prove effective within one year, that of the second part within six
months, that of the third within three months, and of the fourth within
one month, and those caused at daybreak are realized immediately. [497]

At Kolhápur, dreams are believed to be caused through some mental
derangement or bodily disorder. It is customary to derive omens from
dreams, but their nature greatly depends upon the different times
at which these dreams occur. The dreams caused in the latter part of
the night, i.e. just before daybreak, are believed to come true. [498]

At Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka it is believed that the soul of a
person leaves the body temporarily during his sleep; hence it is said
that no changes or marks of colour, etc. should be made on the body of
a person during sleep, because it is believed that, while returning,
the soul identifies the body, and if it is satisfied with the marks
of the body it enters it; otherwise it might not return. [499]

At Adivare it is believed that only Hindu saints and ascetics, after
deep and devout meditation, are capable of removing the soul from
the body. It is believed that their souls go to heaven during that
period and return at pleasure. At present there are no such sádhus
in the district. [500]

Many Hindus in the Ratnágiri District believe that the soul goes to
drink water at night, and therefore keep a pot filled with water at
their sleeping place. [501]

The people of Chaul in the Kolába District do not consider it possible
ordinarily for the soul to leave the body, but they state that the
Swámi of Alandi, who died in or about the year 1886, used to remove
his soul from the body by means of Yoga. [502]

At Kolhápur, it is believed that the soul leaves the body temporarily
at night when a person is asleep. [503]

At Bankavali in the Dápoli taluka, it is believed that ghosts or evil
spirits have the form of a human being, but their feet are turned
backwards. They can assume any form they choose. Their character is
ordinarily to trouble the people, but when satisfied they are said
to prove friendly. The following story is narrated of a person who
went to reside in one of the villages of the Konkan. His wife was
first attacked by a ghost called Girha. The Girha troubled him much
by playing mischief in his house, viz.: by taking away eatables or
by mixing dirt in his food. At night he used to divest the couple of
their clothes, and on one occasion an ornament was removed by the
spirit from the person of the wife. Tired of these annoyances, the
man left the village and went to reside at a distance, when, to the
astonishment of the public, it happened that the ornament which was
lost at the old village was restored to the man's wife while she was
asleep in the new village, and nobody knew who brought it there. All
this was believed to be the work of the Girha. [504]

At Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka people believe that a Bhut
is fierce in aspect and very troublesome, but when its wishes are
complied with, it becomes harmless. The Bhuts reside in jungles,
burial or cremation grounds, old trees, sacred groves and deserted
houses. They assume all sorts of shapes and forms. Sometimes they
appear very tall, and they can instantly assume the shape of a dog,
a cat, a tiger, or any other animal. Some ghosts are even seen fishing
on the banks of rivers. [505]

At Mithbáv in the Devgad taluka it is believed that the souls of those
who die with their wishes unfulfilled take the form of a Bhut. They
enter the bodies of people. Any woman who is attacked by the Bhut
of a Pir becomes able to speak in the Hindi language although it
may not be her mother tongue. When a child or a person is suffering
from the attacks of a spirit, incense is burnt, and it at once begins
to tell the whereabouts of the spirit and the reason why the person
has been attacked. He is then asked to state what he wants, and when
the things which the spirit wants are offered, it goes away. [506]
Spirits are generally invisible.

The spirits that belong to the class of malignant Bhuts are of a
ferocious appearance; but those that belong to the class of friendly
Bhuts possess bodies like human beings. [507]

At Náringre in the Devgad taluka, it is believed that spirits are
cruel by nature and have no shadow, that they are capable of taking
any form they like, and can perform miracles. [508] At Pendur it is
believed that Bhuts eat chillies, and that they do not speak with
human beings. Spirits are said to remove and conceal their victims for
a certain period of time. [509] At Vijayadurg, a Bhut is considered
to be of mean character. People perform certain rites to bring it
under subjection. Their actions are always contrary to nature. When a
person begins to cry, dance, to eat forbidden things etc. he is said
to be attacked by a Bhut. When there is enmity between two persons,
the one who dies first becomes a sambandh and troubles his living
enemy. [510] At Basani, there is a belief that there are two kinds
of spirits. Some aim at the welfare of the people, and others are
always troublesome. As they have no regular form they cannot easily
be recognised. They can change their forms at any time. [511]

The character of a Bhut is to trouble people and to take revenge on
an old enemy. A person attacked by a spirit speaks incoherently and
acts like a mad man. In such cases the leaves of the herb satáp are
used. The leaves are pounded and put under the patient's nose. In
a few minutes, the person who is possessed by the spirit begins to
speak. [512]

The people of Chauk in the Kolába District believe that the main
function of a Bhut is to frighten people, to beat them, and to
make them perform unpleasant tasks and thereby to obtain food from
them. [513] At Poládpur it is believed that if a person is able to
bring a Bhut under his control he can make it do every kind of work for
himself. [514] The people of Akshi believe that kindling fire without
any reason and throwing stones at certain houses are the main functions
of Bhuts. [515] At Vávashi in the Pen taluka, it is believed that
Bhuts, while walking, never touch the earth but always move through
the air, and that they have no shadow. [516] The old men of Shirgaum
in the Máhim taluka advise young children not to respond to the call
of anybody at night unless the person calling is an acquaintance. For
such calls are sometimes those of an evil spirit. [517]

In the Kolhápur District, it is believed that the character of a Bhut
is like that of a human being. When a person is attacked by a spirit,
a great change is observed in his language and actions. He begins
to speak in the language of the Bhut by which he is attacked. If
the ghost is of the female sex, the person speaks the language
of females. It is believed that the souls of those who have been
murdered or tortured assume the form of a spirit known as Sambandh,
and trouble the murderer or the torturer, by entering his body. It
is said that in some cases the spirit does not leave the body of
such a person till he dies, thus exacting revenge for his past
misdeeds. [518] In Khopoli in Ratnágiri it is said that the cow
which is given to a Bráhman while performing the funeral rites of
a dead person helps him to reach heaven. He gets there by catching
hold of her tail. There are three paths to the other world. They are
Bhaktimárga, Karmamárga, and Yogamárga. The Karmamárga is believed to
be superior to all. [519] At Málád, a belief prevails that the path
to the other world is through the Himálayas. While going through the
mountains of the Himálayas, souls find happiness or sorrow according
to their actions in life-time. The people also believe that the soul
returns every month on the date of the man's death to accept Kágvás,
i.e., cooked food given to the manes, and reaches heaven at the end
of one year. [520] At Dahigaon in the Murbád taluka, it is customary
among the Hindus to smear with cow dung the place from which a dead
body has been removed to the burning ground. The place is then covered
with rice flour, and is hidden under a basket, an oil-lamp being kept,
burning near by. The persons who accompany the corpse return home to
look at the lamp, and it is believed that the soul of the deceased
will pass to any creature or species of which footprints are seen on
the rice flour. [521]

At Kolhápur it is believed that the soul of a person after death
attains that state to which he aspires at the last moment before his
death. Virtuous persons who die without any desire reach heaven and
remain there in the form of the stars, where they are believed to enjoy
the happiness of heaven. Some of them are sent to this world when they
wish to return. Sinners are said to reach hell in consequence of their
misdeeds, but some remain in this world in the form of Bhuts. [522]

The people of Achare in the Málwan taluka believe that the souls of
persons who die by accident return to the same caste, and have to
remain there till the expiry of an appointed period. [523]

The people of Chauk believe that persons dying a sudden or violent
death leave wishes unfulfilled, and are therefore compelled to remain
in this world in the form of Bhuts. [524]

At Rái in the Sálsette taluka it is believed that the souls of those
dying a sudden or violent death attain salvation according to their
deeds in lifetime, but it is a current belief that those committing
suicide take the form of a ghost, and those who die on battlefields
attain eternal salvation. [525]

At Kolhápur, it is believed that the souls of those who die violent
deaths do not attain salvation, but are turned into ghosts. [526]

The people of Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka believe that Bhuts
do not possess visible human forms. They can assume any shapes they
like, but there is a common belief that the hands and feet of Bhuts
are always turned backwards. [527]

The most favourable times for spirits to enter human bodies are midday,
midnight and twilight. [528] Women in delivery as well as those in
their menses are most liable to be attacked by spirits. [529] It is
generally believed that persons adorned with ornaments are attacked by
spirits, especially in cases of women and children. Again, a common
belief prevails in the Konkan that persons, and particularly ladies,
decked with flowers and ornaments are more liable to be attacked by
spirits than others. [530] The people of Fonda are of opinion that
spirits generally enter and leave human bodies through the organ
of hearing, while the people of Náringre hold that the hair is the
best way for spirits to enter. [531] The residents of Ibrámpur state
that the mouth and the nose are the favourite channels for spirits
entering human bodies. [532] At Mithbáv it is believed that spirits
attack people in the throat, and generally only those persons who
are uncleanly in their habits are liable to be attacked. There are
no special ways for entering human bodies. [533] At Chaul a belief
prevails that spirits enter the body when a person is suffering from
any disease or when he is frightened. [534]

In the Konkan, people attempt to find good or bad omens in sneezing. It
depends upon the time and the position or standing of the person who
sneezes. If a sick person sneezes it is presumed that he will recover
from his illness within a very short period, but if the sneezing
is caused by the use of tobacco or snuff, no good or bad omens are
drawn. [535] Sneezing at the time of conversation or when contemplating
any particular task or business is held to be inauspicious. Hence if
anybody sneezes at the beginning of a task, or at the time of starting
out on any such task, the time is unfavourable. Yawning is said to be
caused by a relative or friend remembering the person who yawns. [536]
In ancient times happiness and calamities were foretold by a voice
from the sky, and in modern days they are expressed by sneezing. People
have much faith in sneezing, and often inquire whether it is a good or
bad omen to sneeze at the beginning of any work or undertaking. [537]

If a man sneezes with his face towards the west, it is considered
auspicious. If a man sneezes while contemplating any task or business,
the sneezing is considered inauspicious. Sneezing at the time of
taking food i.e. while at meals, while sleeping, and while sitting
on a praying carpet is considered auspicious. Sneezing with one's
face turned towards the north, the south, and the east is also
unlucky. [538]

In the case of Bhagats and exorcists yawning is considered to indicate
that the disease will disappear. [539]

In the Konkan it is believed that sneezing and yawning indicate the
call of death, and therefore it is customary among the Hindus to
snap the thumb and the middle finger at the time of yawning, and to
repeat the words Shatanjiva i.e. Live for hundred years, at the time
of sneezing. [540] Sneezing on a threshold is believed to forebode
evil. [541]

At Kolhápur, people believe that sneezing and yawning forebode evil,
and the practice is to repeat the following words at the time of
sneezing and yawning, viz, Shatanjiva i.e. Live a hundred years, and
also to repeat the name of Rám, while snapping the thumb and finger
(chutaki). In the case of a person suffering from a serious illness,
sneezing is supposed to indicate a cure. If a woman sneezes while
a man speaks, it is lucky, and if a man sneezes it is unlucky. The
reverse is the case in respect of females. [542]

In the Konkan, Rákshasas, or malevolent spirits, are believed to be
very cruel. These evil spirits are held in great fear, and people
try to avoid giving them offence. It is supposed that to cause
displeasure to these demons may bring about death. With a view
to propitiate them, offerings of cocks and goats are made to them
every year regularly on fixed days. [543] If a woman gives birth to
a child which is extraordinary or horrible in size and appearance,
it is believed to be a demon reborn. Such a child is supposed to
bring bad luck to the family. [544] The Konkan people believe that
in former days Rákshasas, or malevolent demons, used to be tall,
ugly, black, with long and loose hair, big teeth, and with their
foreheads painted with red lead, or shendur. They could assume any
form they liked, were powerful, and could fly in the air. They were
fond of human flesh. [545] The people of Khopoli believe that Khavis
is the ghost of an African Sidhi. This spirit is very malevolent,
and exorcists find it very difficult to bring it under control. A
strong belief prevails in the Konkan districts that those attacked
by the spirits of non-Hindus are beyond cure. [546]

According to the belief of the people in the Kolhápur District,
Brahma Rákshasa is one of the most powerful spirits. It takes up
its abode in the sacred Pipal tree, and when it attacks a person,
little hope is entertained of his delivery from its grasp. [547]

The following are the principal malignant spirits of the Konkan.

(1) Vetál, (2) Brahmagraha, (3) Sambandhas, (4) Devachár, (5) Munja,
(6) Khavis, (7) Girha, (8) Chetak, (9) Zoting, (10) Vir, (11) Cheda,
(12) Mhasoba, (13) Jákhin or Alwant, (14) Lávsant, and (15) Hadal.

(1) Vetál is believed to be the King of Spirits. [548] Vetál is
considered to be a deity and not an evil spirit. It enters into
the body of an exorcist and helps him to drive away other evil
spirits. [549]

(2) Brahmagraha is the ghost of a Bráhman well versed in the Vedas,
but who is over proud of his education. [550]

(3) Sambandha is the spirit of a person who dies without an heir,
and whose funeral rites have not been performed by any member of his
family. It troubles the members of the family, but when invoked through
a Bhagat it becomes harmless, and even favourable to the family. [551]
It is the spirit of a covetous person or a sanyási who dies with his
desires unfulfilled. [552] It does not allow anybody to enjoy his
wealth, and takes revenge on an enemy till death ensues. It haunts
trees, wells and unoccupied houses. [553]

(4) Devachár is the spirit of a Shudra who dies after his
marriage. [554] These (Devachár) spirits are said to reside on the four
sides of a village. The spirits which reside in burial or cremation
grounds, on river banks, and in old trees are said to be subordinate
to these. Cocoanuts, plantains, sugar, cocks and goats must be given
annually to gain their favour. [555]

(5) Munja is the spirit of a Bráhman boy who dies immediately after
his thread ceremony, but before the final ceremony called Sod-munj
is complete. It does not greatly affect its victim but simply
frightens. When it attacks, it is difficult to drive out. It is cast
out only when the patient makes a pilgrimage to a holy shrine. [556]
It resides in a Pipal tree or in a well.

(6) Khavis is the spirit of a Musalmán or a non-Hindu. [557] It is
also the spirit of a Mahár or a Máng. [558]

(7) Girha is the ghost of a person who dies by drowning, or of a
murdered person. [559] Girha is not very powerful, and obeys the
orders of the exorcists. It only frightens and troubles people. [560]
It lives by the water side, and deceives persons at night by calling
them by their names and leading them into false paths. It often
troubles people while crossing rivers or creeks at night, and leads
them to places where the water is very deep. It is said that the spirit
Girha becomes the regular slave of a person who takes possession of
the hair of its head, and gives him anything that he requires. It
requests the person to return its hair, but this should not be given
under any circumstances. For, if the Girha gets back its hair all
sorts of misfortunes will befall the man. [561]

(8) Chetak is the ghost of a person of the Kunbi or Shudra caste. [562]
This spirit is also known as Dáv.

(9) Zoting is the ghost of a man belonging to the Khárvi or Koli
caste. [563] It is also said to be the ghost of a Musalmán. [564]

(10) Vir is the ghost of an unmarried person belonging to the Kshatriya
community. [565] It is also said to be the ghost of a Rajput or a
Purbhaya (Pardeshi.)

(11) Cheda is the ghost of an unmarried Mahár. It resides on
mountains, in jungles, and the outskirts of the village. [566] Cheda
attacks domestic animals. It haunts fields and farms, and resides at
public places where the Holi fires are annually kindled. To avoid
being troubled by it, people offer annual sacrifices of fowls and
goats. [567]

(12) Mhasoba is the lord of the ghosts, and is equal in might to
Vetál. [568]

(13) Jákhin or Alwant. Jákhin is the ghost of a woman who has a
husband alive. Alwant is believed to be the spirit of a woman dying
at childbirth or during her menses. It resides at burial or cremation
grounds. Persons attacked by this spirit are taken to Narsoba's Wádi or
Gángápur, which are celebrated as shrines for the removal of malignant
spirits. [569]

(14) Lávsat is the ghost of a widow. It generally resides in burial
and burning grounds, and attacks domestic animals and their calves. It
is also said to tear clothes and eat corpses. [570]

(15) Hadal or Hedali is the ghost of a woman who dies within ten
days of childbirth or during her menses. It is supposed to be an evil
spirit, but it can be kept in check by the use of a cane. It attacks
all sorts of persons, but leaves them as soon as it is beaten. [571]

This spirit is also known as Dákan in the Kolhápur district. [572]
Satavi is the ghost of a woman. It troubles women in childbirth, and
kills their children on the 5th or 6th day after their birth. [573]
Shákini is the ghost of an unmarried girl. Talkhámba is the ghost
of an unmarried Shudra or a person from the low castes. [574] The
people of Vijayadurg believe that one who hates and troubles the
Bráhmans and speaks ill of their religious duties becomes a Brahma
Sambandha after death. [575] At Poládpur in the Kolába District the
ghost Bápa is represented by a stone painted with red lead and oil
and placed at the boundary of a field. It is the guardian of the
field, and protects the owners' interests. Offerings are made to
it annually. If the annual offerings are neglected, it troubles the
owner of the field. It also troubles others when disturbed. [576]

The spirits known as Kálkáiche Bhut and Bahirobáche Bhut are not
troublesome. When they favour any person, he enjoys health and
happiness for a period of twelve years. But after that period he
is ruined. [577] In addition to the varieties of malignant spirits
already described, the following spirits are known at Shirgaon in
the Máhim taluka of the Thána District. They are--Hirwa, Wághoba,
Asarás, Gángud, Saitán and Chaitannadya. The spirit known as Hirwa
requires the offerings of a bow and an arrow, bháng, bájri bread, and
a chatni of garlic. The Wághoba haunts jungles and troubles domestic
animals. Cocoanuts and lamps of ghi are offered to it. Asarás are
the deities that dwell in water. They infest the wells and ponds, and
attack women and children at noon time and in the evening. Red lead,
cocoanuts, flowers, parched rice (láhya) and nádápudi are given to
them. [578]

At Ibrámpur in the Ratnágiri District it is said that the evil spirit
Zoting goes about headless. [579]

The people of Medhe in the Rohe taluka believe that the spirit known
as Girha, which resides in water, goes about headless. [580]

At Shirgaon in the Máhim taluka it is believed that the spirit Hirwa
goes about headless. It troubles human beings and animals. The sea
and the jungle are its places of abode. To avoid being troubled by it,
bháng, cocoanuts, fowls are given to it. [581]

The people of Dahigaon in the Murbád taluka believe that the Bhut
known as Peesa goes about headless. [582]

Some evil spirits haunt trees such as the Pipal, Bábhul and
Adulsa. Some have their haunts on a public road where three streets
meet, or in a dirty place, some haunt old houses, and the rest prefer
to reside in burial and burning grounds. [583]

Many spirits dwell in burial or cremation grounds. Among them are
Vetál, Jákhin, Khavis, Kháprya, Zoting, Dáv, Girha, Alavat and
Lávsat. [584]

The spirits Munja and Sambandh are said to reside near houses and
old trees that produce sweet smelling flowers. The spirits Devchár
and Chálegat are said to reside at the four corners or the boundary
of a village. [585]

It is believed that all kinds of spirits assemble at night at the
funeral ground when a body is burnt or buried. [586]

The evil spirits known as Khavis, Zoting and Kafri are said to dwell
on mountains and in jungles; while the others named Sambandha, Jákhin,
Hadal and Lávsat are said to reside on trees. [587]

Munja resides in the Pipal tree. Sambandha dwells in the Banyan,
Pipal and Umbar trees. It is supposed to be a guardian of buried
treasure. [588]

At Murbád in the Thána District, it is believed that an evil spirit
known as Hadal infests the tamarind trees. [589]

In the Kolhápur District it is believed that the ghosts of persons
dying on battlefields infest mountains and jungles, and the evil
spirit known as Sambandh infests trees. [590]

Generally in the Konkan, and specially in the Ratnágiri District,
young mothers and their children are supposed to be liable to the
attacks of the spirits Satávi, Avagat, Alavant, Jákhin, Devchár and
Chálegat. [591]

At Khopoli in the Kolába District it is believed that a young mother
and her child are generally attacked by the spirit of the dead wife
of her husband, or by a Hadal or Lávsat. The spirit that attacks a
woman during her childbirth is difficult to drive out. The spirits
are always afraid of cleanliness, and therefore, where there is
cleanliness, there is very little fear of their attacks. [592]

The people of Shirgaon believe that the fiend known as Hedli
attacks a young mother and her child. The Bhutya, or the sorcerer,
makes use of his cane and of the dirty incense known as Nurkya Uda,
and compels her to speak and to ask for what she wants. Sometimes
she speaks and asks for the things required. Boiled rice and curds,
and oil with red lead are given to her. When she leaves the body,
the person becomes insensible for a short time. [593]

The fiend known as Hadal, and other evil spirits of the female sex,
generally attack a young mother and her child. They are generally
attacked by these fiends on a public cross road where three roads meet,
or under a Bábhul tree, and also at wells. [594]

At Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka it is believed that those who
are killed by tigers or other wild beasts are born as kings in the
next generation. [595] On the other hand the people of Bankavli are
of opinion that those who suffer death at the hands of tigers and
other wild beasts are turned into spirits. The spirit of a person
killed by a tiger is called Vághvir. [596]

At Achare it is believed that persons killed by lions and tigers attain
salvation, while those killed by inferior beasts go to hell. [597]

The people of Ibrámpur believe that unmarried persons killed by tigers
or other wild beasts take the form of a ghost. Males become Girhas
and females become Jákhins and Lávsats. [598]

At Pendur it is believed that persons killed by tigers and other wild
beasts become Brahma Rákshasa. The same form is assumed by those who
die by accident. A murdered man becomes a Devachár. [599]

In the District of Kolhápur a belief prevails that the spirits of those
killed by tigers or other wild beasts assume the form of ghosts. It
is also believed that persons who die before they are married do
not attain salvation, and therefore it is considered inauspicious
among the Hindus to remain unmarried. This is the real reason why
the majority of the Hindus marry their children at an early age. [600]

The ghost of a woman dying in childbirth or during her menses assumes
the form of Alwant. For the purpose of preventing the dead woman
turning into a ghost the following device is adopted. The corpse,
instead of being burnt as usual, is buried underground, and four iron
nails are fixed at the four corners of the spot on which the body is
buried, and plants bearing red flowers are planted thereon. [601]

At Bankavli it is believed that the ghost of a woman dying in
childbirth or during her menses assumes the form of Jákhin, while the
people of the Kolhápur District believe that it assumes the form of
Hadal. [602]

The special precautions that a father has to take at the birth of a
child are:--

To arrange for a suitable place or a room provided with the materials
required for the occasion, and to ensure the correct moment for the
birth of the child. No person other than a midwife is allowed to enter
the room for the first ten days. A pot is kept filled with water and
a twig of the nim tree in the entrance of the house, and all persons
entering the house have to wash their feet with this water.

A knife or some other sharp weapon is kept under the bed of the
woman in order that the mother and her child may not be attacked by
a spirit. [603]

The chief reason for ensuring the correct moment for the birth is
that, if the birth takes place at an unlucky hour, special rites are
necessary for averting the evil effects. These rites consist in the
recitation of certain holy mantras and in giving presents of money,
sessamum, jágri, clarified butter, etc., to the Bráhmans and alms to
the poor. [604]

At Medhe in the Rohe taluka, it is customary for the father to throw
a stone in a well, a pond, or a river at the birth of his son, and
then to look at the face of the child. [605]

An owl is considered to be a bird of such evil repute that, in
all parts of the Konkan, it is considered necessary to perform
expiatory rites when an owl perches on the roof. If these rites are
not performed, it is firmly believed that some evil will befall the
members of the family. Various omens are drawn from the cries of the
bird Pingla, and these cries are known as Kilbil, Chilbil and Khit
Khit. [606]

If an owl sits on the roof of a house, it is a sure sign of coming
death to a member of the family. [607]

At Devgad in the Ratnágiri District the sound of a bat or an owl is
considered inauspicious, and indicates the death of a sick person in
the house. [608]

At Chauk an owl is said to have some connection with spirits. Its
sound at night indicates the approaching death of a sick person in the
house. One variety of the owl called the pingla is supposed to foretell
future events by its movements and cries, while the bat is considered
an inauspicious bird, and its appearance forebodes coming evil. [609]

At Umbergaon people do not throw stones at an owl. For it is considered
that the owl might sit and rub the stone, and that the person throwing
it will become weak and wasted as the stone wears away. [610]

The people of Kolhápur do not believe that there is any connection
between the bat or owl and the spirits of the dead, but they believe
that, if an owl cries out in the evening or at night, it indicates the
death of a sick person in the family. This applies also to the sound
of a single pingla, but the sound of a pair of pinglas is considered
auspicious. [611]

It is generally believed that old unoccupied houses are haunted by
evil spirits. Persons who wish to inhabit such houses first perform
the Vástu shánti ceremony, and give a feast to Bráhmans. In former
times, in the districts that were ruled by the Portuguese, religious
persecution prevailed. To escape from these persecutions, people
were compelled to leave their houses unprotected. Before leaving
their houses, they used to bury their treasure in the ground, and on
that spot a human being or an animal was sacrificed in order that
the spirit of the dead should hover about the place, and prevent
strangers from coming. [612]

The evil spirits which haunt ruins and guard buried treasures and
old forts are known as Mahápurush, Khavis, Brahma Rákshasa and
Sambandh. [613]

If there be any buried treasure in an old unoccupied house, the
owner of the treasure remains there in the form of a ghost. If the
treasure be near the temple of a deity, it is supposed to be under
the guardianship of that deity. [614]

At Vijayadurg it is believed that a person who builds a house in the
days of his prosperity and does not survive to enjoy it, becomes
a Sambandh. He remains in that house in the form of a ghost, and
troubles every one who comes to stay there, excepting the members
of his family. A man who buries his treasure underground becomes a
ghost after death, comes back to watch his treasure, and troubles
those who try to remove it. [615]

Unoccupied houses are generally haunted by evil spirits. At certain
forts in the Konkan where battles were fought, the souls of those
slain in the battles are said to have assumed the forms of spirits,
and to keep a watch over the forts. [616]

In the Kolhápur District there is a village Nigve beyond the river
Panch Ganga at a distance of three miles from Kolhápur, where the soul
of a person named Appáji Kulkarni has assumed the form of a Sambandh
and guards the buried treasures in his house. When anybody tries to dig
up the buried money, the ghost enters the body of his daughter-in-law
and begins to dance and cry out loudly, and does not allow any one to
touch his treasure. It is also said that he strikes the ground with
his stick at night. Another similar instance is cited in the case of
the village of Latvade in the Shirol Peta, where Bápujipant Kulkarni
continues to guard his house after death. He does not allow anybody
to live in the house, and if any one is bold enough to sleep there
at night, the spirit of Bápuji appears and throws him out of the
house. The house is therefore uninhabited at present. His wife has
adopted a son, but he has to live in another village, Vadange. [617]



CHAPTER VI.

THE EVIL EYE AND THE SCARING OF GHOSTS.


Hindus generally believe in the effects of the evil eye. If an accident
befall any thing of value, or it undergoes any sudden change, it is
said to be due to the effects of an evil eye. In order to escape from
the influence of an evil eye, people begin the use of incantations
and charms on a Sunday, Wednesday, or Thursday and finish them on
the third or the fifth day. Small children, domestic animals, and
beautiful objects are generally liable to be affected by an evil eye.

The following are some of the methods of evading the effects of an
evil eye.



1st.--Dry chillies are waved round the body of the affected person and
thrown into the fire, and if they do not thereupon make a loud noise,
it is said that the effects of an evil eye are averted.

2nd.--Mustard seed and salt are waved round the face of a child and
then thrown into the fire.

3rd.--Alum is waved round the child and then thrown into fire. The
piece of alum thus thrown is sometimes believed to be changed into
the form of a man or a woman. From this, conjectures are made as to
the sex of the person by whose evil eye the patient is affected. The
form or the figure is then broken by a toe of the left foot of the
patient, and dry chillies, garlic, hair, rubbish from the house and
salt are mixed in the alum powder. The mixture is waved round the
patient three times and then thrown into fire. Meanwhile the sorcerer
repeats the names of all persons, things and evil spirits suspected
by him. After this performance has been repeated three times, the
fire is deposited in a public place where three roads meet.

4th.--If the evil eye is believed to be that of a ghost, the sorcerer
mutters some words to himself, waves ashes round the affected child,
and blows them in the air.

5th.--The evil eye of a tiger is removed from an affected animal in
the following manner. An oil lamp is burnt in the eye of a dead tiger
and the lamp is waved round the animal by a Mahár. The Mahár is given
a loaf prepared from eight kinds of grain.

6th.--Copper amulets and black cotton strings charmed by a sorcerer
are also tied round the neck or arms of the patient. [618]



When a child is to be removed from one village to another, rice is
scattered at the boundary of the village, at the bridges, rivers,
creeks, etc, that are crossed during the journey. Cocoanuts are waved
round the child and thrown away at the boundary of the village and at
places supposed to be haunted by ghosts. Before entering a house in
a new village, a small quantity of boiled rice, bread, or grains of
rice are waved round the child and thrown away. It is believed that,
when black ointment is applied to the eyes, cheeks, or forehead of
a child, there is no fear of its being affected by an evil eye. This
also depends on the position of the stars at the birth of a child. If
anybody sees a beautiful thing and praises it, there is a chance of its
being affected by an evil eye. It is believed that children, animals,
trees, and even wood and stones, are apt to be affected by an evil
eye. In order to avoid injury from an evil eye, cocoanut shells or
a shoe are tied on a conspicuous part of a tree or a creeping plant,
black beads known as Vajrabuttu are tied round the necks of children,
and cowries and black beads are tied round the necks of animals. Even
grown up persons are affected by an evil eye. When a man is very ill
or frequently becomes unconscious, cocoanuts, fowls and boiled rice
are waved round him and thrown away. [619]

When the effects of an evil eye cannot be removed by ordinary methods,
the evil influence is said to have entered through the bones, 'Hádi
drusta padali.' In order to remove it people bring the bone of an
animal in the evening, and after besmearing it with oil and turmeric
powder, wash it in hot water. It is dressed in a yellow cloth, and
black and red ointments are applied to it. It is then waved round
the affected person, and thrown away in some public place where three
roads meet. [620]

For evading the effects of an evil eye, salt, mustard seed, hair,
garlic, dry leaves of onions, dry chillies, and seven small stones
from the road are put on the fire. The fire is then waved round the
body of the affected person and thrown away. Charmed black cotton
strings are turned over the burning incense and tied round the arm
or the neck. Charmed ashes from the temples of certain deities are
also applied to the forehead of the affected person. [621]

At Ibrámpur in the Ratnágiri District, it is believed that a person
whose eyes have come under the influence of evil stars possesses the
power of the evil eye. Ashes are taken on a mango leaf, and charmed
with the mantras or incantations for an evil eye, and then they are
applied to the forehead of the affected person. [622]

The people of Poladpur in the Kolába District believe the effects
of an evil eye to be as follows. A healthy child becomes sickly and
cries, a man may suffer from indigestion or loss of appetite, a cow
or a she-buffalo yielding plenty of milk suddenly ceases to give milk
or gives blood in place of it, a good image is disfigured or broken,
and even stones are shattered to pieces by the effects of an evil eye.

The following devices are used to ward off such evil effects. A
black mark is made on the forehead of children. Black beads called
Drustamani, and Vajrabuttu are tied round their necks. Marking nuts
and cowries tied with a black thread are fastened round the necks of
animals. A little black spot is marked on an image. A worn out shoe or
a sandal is tied to the fruit-yielding trees. Salt and mustard seed
are waved thrice round the face of a child repeating "Ishta mishta
konyá pápinichi drushta" and thrown into the fire. Some people roll
a cotton thread round a curry stone, wave it three times round the
patient, and then put it into the fire; if the thread burns, the evil
eye is held to have been removed. If the evil eye be on the food,
three morsels of food are first raised to the mouth, and then thrown
into the fire. Sacred ashes are applied to trees and creeping plants
to remove the effects of an evil eye. [623]

The people of Khopoli in the Kolába District believe that the evil
eye can be diverted from living creatures only, and not from inanimate
things such as a stone or an earthen image. Sacred ashes are applied
to the forehead of the suffering child by repeating the Rám raksha
stotra, i.e., the protecting praises of Ráma, the seventh incarnation
of Vishnu. Among Bráhmans, rice grains are waved thrice round the face
of a child and put into water. The water is then thrown away. Even
flowers are waved round the faces of small children in the evening
and thrown away. [624]

At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the Kolába District, some people
wave the left shoe thrice round the body of the affected person for
the purpose of evading the effects of an evil eye. A red hot iron
bar is also cooled in water mixed with turmeric powder. [625]

At Shirgáon in the Máhim taluka of the Thána District water is drawn
in a brass or a copper pot in the evening, and turmeric powder, rice,
and any other edible articles on which the evil eye has fallen are
put into it. Twentyone date leaves, each of them with a knot, are
then waved round the body of the affected person and thrown into the
water pot, burning coals being dropped into the mixture. The pot is
then waved thrice round the body of the affected person, and kept in
a corner of the bedroom for one night, with a basket, a broom, and
a sandal or an old shoe placed on the top. It is then thrown away in
the morning in some public place where three roads meet. If the water
becomes red, it is supposed that the evil eye has been removed. [626]

The effects of an evil eye are sometimes visible on the face of
a child in the form of small red pustules. The appearance of such
pustules is called Chák padane. [627]

If a person is affected by an evil eye at the time of taking his
meals, he loses his appetite. He also becomes weaker day by day. One
of the modes of removing these evils is to wave fresh date leaves
three times round the face of the affected person, and to throw them
into water. Some people take water in a copper plate and extinguish
in it burning sticks of the tamarind tree, after waving them round
the body of the affected person. [628]

At Khárbáv in the Bassein taluka of the Thána District, five pieces
of broken tiles are made red hot and put into water in which a little
quantity of all the cooked food in the house has been mixed. Turmeric
powder is also put into it. A pen knife or some other iron instrument
is then turned five times in the water. A winnowing basket and a
broom are waved thrice round the face of the affected person, and
placed over the water pot. [629]

At Dahánu in the Thána District, two big stones, of which one has
been waved round the face of a person affected by an evil eye, are
struck one against the other. If the stone breaks, it is believed
that the evil effect has been removed. Cowdung is mixed with water
in a brass or a copper plate, and dust from a public road, hair, and
burning black cotton cloth are put into another small vessel. This
vessel is then waved round the person, and placed upside down over
the mixture of cowdung. If it sticks to the brass plate, this is
supposed to be due to the evil eye. [630]

The people of Kolhápur believe in the effects of an evil eye. A
child suffering from an evil eye turns pale and thin, and suffers
from headache. To avoid these effects, elderly women make a mark
with lamp black on the face or brow of the child. Boiled rice and
curds, and bread and oil are also passed round the face of a child,
and thrown into a public road. [631]

Generally, in the Konkan districts, opprobrious names are given
to children when they are sickly, always crying, and weak, or when
they are short lived. These names are Marya, Rodya, Kerya, etc. It
is believed that children improve in health when called by such
opprobrious names. [632]

Opprobrious names such as Dhondu, Kondu, Keru, are given to children
in families in which the first children are shortlived. But their
real names are different. The names of the wellknown arithmetician
Keru Nána Chhatre and his son Kondopant Chhatre are examples of
opprobrious names. [633]

Among high class Hindus, the first son is not generally called by
his real name, but by one of the opprobrious names given above. [634]

Children are sometimes weighed with shoes or sandals, and also with
cowdung. In some cases, their nostrils are bored, especially the
right one. [635]

Hindus generally call their children by the names of their deities and
ancestors, and they attribute the premature death of their children
to their own misbehaviour towards such ancestors, or to their having
abused them; they fear that such abuse or misbehaviour has offended
the ancestors. To avoid their displeasure and the consequent death of
their children, the people give opprobrious names to their next born
such as Dagadya, Dhondya, Gundya, Dandya, Kerya, Ukirdya, Kondya,
Lobhya, etc. The custom of tattooing one side of the body of females
also prevails in the Kolhápur District, especially in cases where
the children in a family are shortlived. [636]

In the Puránas there are instances of males being transformed into
females, and females into males. For example, the female Amba was
transformed into a male called Shikhandi and the male Nárad was
transformed into a female. Arjuna, the third brother of the Pándavas
is said to have changed his sex, and turned into Bruhannada. [637]

In the Shivlilamruta, a book pertaining to the god Shiva, in the
chapter of Simantini, it has been described how a man was turned into
a woman. [638]

At Kolhápur, there are no instances known of a change of sex. The
goddess Yallamma has a high reputation in this district for making a
change in the habits and deportments of men and women, especially among
low caste people. It is believed that the curse of this goddess has
the power of destroying the virility of males, whereupon they behave
like females. Many instances of this type can be seen at the fair
of the goddess Yallamma, which is held in Márgashirsha (December);
men dressed in women's clothes and vice versa are often seen at this
fair. [639]

In Western India, iron nails are generally used when any spirit is
to be buried in the ground. Other metals, such as gold, silver, and
copper, are sometimes offered to the ghosts. The blood of fowls and
goats is also offered to them. When incense is burnt before a sorcerer,
the spirit enters into his body. Water is charmed and sprinkled over
the body of a person attacked by an evil spirit. Rice and udid grains
are required for exorcising spirits. Red powder Pinjar, turmeric
powder, black ointment kájal, lemons, Narakya Wuda a kind of incense,
betel-leaves, betelnuts, cocoanuts, mango leaves, Nirgudi leaves,
and pieces of cloth are also used for the same purpose. [640]

Cane sticks are used by people as a protection against evil
spirits. A stick cut from the tree known as Pándhri is also used as
protection. Charmed black cotton strings are tied to the wrist, arm
or neck. If a man is very much afraid of a ghost, he repeats the name
of the monkey god Máruti or any other deity that may be favourable
to his family. [641]

The blood of fowls and goats is used as a protection against ghosts
and Devachárs, and also against witchcraft. Charmed water is waved
round the person affected by an evil spirit, and thrown away. Rings,
amulets, and anklets made of metals of five kinds are put on the hands
and legs of children to ward off the effects of evil spirits. [642]

It is customary among certain people to apply spittle to the
sandalpaste mark on the forehead of a man, and to the red Kunku
mark on the forehead of an unwidowed woman. It is considered to be
a protection against evil spirits. [643]

The beak of an eagle, a stick cut from a tree known as Pándhri, a cane
having three joints, and the root of a shrub called Shrávad, which
has white leaves, are used as protection against evil spirits. [644]

At Pendur in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District it is
believed that an iron stick held in the hand is a protection against
evil spirits. [645]

At Chauk in the Karjat taluka of the Kolába District, pictures of
certain deities are tattooed on the body for the purpose of protection
against evil spirits. It is also believed that evil spirits run away
when salt and garlic are thrown into fire as they cannot bear the
smoke of burning garlic. [646]

At Medhe in the Rohe taluka, when the dead body of a woman dying
within ten days of her delivery is taken out of the house for burial,
an iron horseshoe is driven into the threshold of the house, and
grains of Náchani are scattered in the street while the corpse is
being carried to the burial ground. [647]

At Bhuwan in the Murbád taluka some people tie a square piece of
leather to the necks of their children as protection against evil
spirits. [648]

At Rái, a custom prevails of putting coral necklaces on children as
a protective against evil spirits. [649]

Iron nails and horseshoes are driven into the threshold or on to
the door of a house on the full moon day or the last day of the
Hindu calendar month at evening time, to prevent the entrance of
evil spirits. Dirty localities being considered to be haunts of evil
spirits, people living in such localities burn incense in their houses
every day. While exorcising evil spirits the sorcerers throw charmed
Udid grains and Rále panic seeds on the body of the diseased, or place
these things below his bed. Rings made of metals of five kinds,--iron,
copper, brass, silver and gold--are charmed on an eclipse day, and
worn by people. Red lead and cowries are tied to the necks or feet of
animals as protection against evil spirits. The spirits that haunt
buried treasures are pacified by the blood of fowls and goats when
digging up such treasures. [650]

Certain mantras are written on a paper, and the paper is tied to a
black cotton string, or the paper is put into a copper amulet, and
then tied to a black cotton string. The black cotton string with the
amulet is then tied round the arm or the neck of a person attacked
by evil spirits, or suffering from malarial fevers. These mantras
are never disclosed to anybody. [651]

Nádádora is a black cotton thread having seven or nine knots with a
charmed paper in one of these knots. The thread is first held over
burning incense, and then tied round the neck or the arm of the
diseased. Sunday is generally chosen for attaching these threads. [652]

At Poladpur in the Kolába District, there lived a sorcerer who used to
give such amulets and charmed threads. He placed about ten or twelve
copper rings or amulets in a copper plate kept in the sun. While thus
exposed to the sun, these amulets were continuously watched by the
sorcerer for some two hours, repeating certain mantras. [653]

At Málád in the Thána District, copper amulets and charmed black cotton
threads in the name of Kál Bhairav, an incarnation of the god Shiva,
are used as protective against evil spirits. They are tied to the arms
or the neck of the diseased on an eclipse day, on the last day of the
Hindu calendar month, or on a Tuesday, Wednesday and Saturday. [654]

At Kolhápur, the use of amulets is generally resorted to by people
suffering from the attacks of evil spirits or from malarial fevers. The
sorcerer who exorcises the evil spirits writes certain mantras on a
paper, or draws certain symbols and repeats the mantras over them. The
paper is then wrapped in an amulet made of copper or silver, and
fastened to a cotton thread. This amulet is tied round the arm or
the neck of the diseased. Before tying it to the arm or the neck,
it is once held over burning incense. [655]

A sacred circle is frequently used as a protection from spirits. The
sorcerer draws a circle on the ground, with his stick, and the
following articles are put inside it. Cocoanuts, lemons, red lead, and
a Kohala gourd. Fowls are also sacrificed to this circle. The filling
in of this circle is called mánda bharane by the exorcists. [656]

Rice or Udid grain, and ashes charmed by mantras, are scattered
round a certain area of land, or are given to a person supposed to be
affected by evil spirits. The spirits cannot enter a place charmed
in this manner. They are also scattered round the place supposed to
be haunted by evil spirits in the belief that neither evil spirits
nor snakes can transgress the boundary thus marked by a sorcerer. [657]

Formerly sages and saints used to make such sacred circles round
their residence, repeating certain mantras, for their protection
from evil spirits. It is believed that the spirits cannot enter or
leave these enchanted circles. They used to bury bottles containing
such spirits at the boundaries of these circles. There are many such
places in the Kolhápur District, such as Buránsáheb of Brahmapuri,
the Sádhubuwa of Panhála, and Bábu Jámál at Kolhápur. [658]

It is a general belief among all classes of Hindus in the Bombay
Presidency that Saturday is an unlucky day, and in some places Friday
and Tuesday are also considered inauspicious.

Sunday is considered as an ordinary day.

Monday, Wednesday and Thursday are believed to be auspicious or
lucky days.

It is said that a thing suggested or thought of on Friday cannot be
carried out successfully. [659]

Sowing seed and watering trees is strictly forbidden on Sunday. It
is believed that trees do not bear well if watered on Sundays. [660]

Tuesday and Friday are considered unlucky days for beginning a new
task. Wednesday and Saturday are said to be inauspicious for visiting
another village. [661]

The numbers 2, 6, 11 and zero are believed to be lucky, 4, 5, 10 and 8
are unlucky, and 1, 3, 7 and 9 are considered as middling or moderate.

The figure zero is by some considered inauspicious. [662]

The numbers 5, 7, 9 are said by some to be auspicious, and 1, 3,
11 and 13 inauspicious. [663]

Odd numbers are auspicious, and even numbers are said to be
inauspicious. [664]

The following are generally held to be auspicious omens:--

While going on any business, to come across an unwidowed woman,
a cow, Bráhmans, a five-petaled flower, or a pot filled with water;
[665] the throbbing of the right eyelid and of the right arm of a man,
and of the left eyelid of a woman; a Bráhman coming in front with a cup
and a spoon in his hand after taking his bath; [666] the appearance of
a peacock, the Bháradwáj or the blue jay, and the mongoose, especially
when they pass on the left side of the person going on business. [667]

The following are considered to be auspicious when seen within a
hundred paces of a person starting on business:--

Bráhmans, unwidowed women, boiled food, meat, fishes, milk, any kind
of corn, the bird Chásha or the blue jay, passing by the left side,
the appearance of the moon in front, a person coming across one's path
with vessels filled with water, and a married couple, a cow with its
calf, images of god, cocoanuts and other fruits, the mother, white
clothes, the sound of a musical instrument, a horse, an elephant,
curds, flowers, a lighted lamp, a jackal, a spiritual preceptor,
a public woman, a Mahár, a washerman coming with a bundle of washed
clothes, and a marriage procession. [668]

The following objects and persons are generally believed to be
inauspicious:--

Oil, buttermilk, a couple of snakes, a monkey, pig, and an ass,
firewood, ashes and cotton, a person with a disfigured nose, a man
dressing his hair in the shape of a crown, red garlands, wet clothes,
a woman wearing red cloth, an empty earthen vessel, a Bráhman widow,
a Brahmachári and an unmarried Bráhman, [669] a widow, a bare-headed
Bráhman, a cat going across the path, a dog flapping his ears,
meeting a barber with his bag, a beggar, sneezing, or the asking of
a question at the time of departure, waiting, meeting a person with
an empty vessel, [670] howling of dogs and jackals, a pair of crows
playing on the ground, and a lighted lamp extinguished by its fall
on the ground. [671]

While plans or proposals are being made, it is considered inauspicious
if any one sneezes or the sound of a lizard is heard. [672] Meeting
a person of the depressed classes whose touch is pollution, or a
Bráhman who accepts funeral gifts, is considered inauspicious. [673]
Meeting a woman who is in her menses, a mourner, a buffalo, a snake
and a diwad are considered inauspicious. [674] An iron vessel or
an iron bar, cow dung cakes, salt, grass, a broom, a vulture, and a
washerman bringing with him dirty clothes are also considered to be
inauspicious omens. [675]

Among the Hindus in Western India, for the purpose of helping
the spirit to go to heaven safely, and for securing its goodwill
towards the survivors, after death ceremonies called the Shráddhas
are generally performed. Some perform these ceremonies once a year
in the month of Bhádrapada, and others perform them twice or thrice,
i.e., on the anniversary day of the deceased as well as in the dark
half of Bhádrapada, which is generally known as the manes' fortnight
(pitru paksha). [676]

The funeral solemnities performed from the 1st to the 14th day from
the death of the deceased are as described below:--

On the first day, at the time of burning the dead body, a plot of
ground is purified by repeating certain mantras, and the corpse is
then placed on it. Before setting the funeral pile on fire, balls
of boiled rice or wheat flour are put on the face, the forehead,
arms and the chest of the corpse. Such balls are placed on the body
of the deceased only when death has taken place on an unlucky day,
or when there is an unlucky conjunction of stars. The son, or some
other near relative, of the deceased generally performs these rites
with the help of a Bráhman priest. On the third day he goes to the
burning place, collects the ashes of the deceased, and throws them
into the sea. On this occasion he is accompanied by the relatives of
the deceased. Rich persons who are able to go to Benares keep the
bones of their deceased parents and throw them into the Ganges at
Prayága near Benares after performing certain Shráddhas there. The
giving of oblations continues daily till the tenth day. The oblations
of the tenth day are called Das Pinda. The rites of the eleventh
day are called Ekotistha. On the eleventh day the person performing
the rites has to change his sacred thread, after sipping a little
cow's urine. Cooked food is prepared at the place where the rites
of the eleventh day are performed, and Bráhmans are fed there, or at
least thirty-two mouthfuls of cooked food are offered to the sacred
fire. A big ball of boiled rice is put before the sacred fire or near
the Bráhmans taking their meals. This ball is then thrown into the
sea. A male calf is branded, worshipped and let loose. This calf is
called Vasu, and is considered sacred by the villagers. On the 11th
day, special ceremonies for propitiating the eight Vasus and the
eleven Rudras are performed, and gifts of a plot of ground, a cow,
cooking vessels, various kinds of corn, golden images, silver and
copper coins, clothes, shoes, umbrellas, bedding, etc. are given to
the Bráhmans collected there. On the 13th day after death a feast
is given to 13 or more Bráhmans and the other relatives. Navakádán,
i.e., the gift of a ship and Gopradán, i.e., of a cow and a calf,
are also given to the Bráhmans on the understanding that they will
help the soul of the dead while crossing the river Vaitarna. [677]

Water mixed with til or sesamum seed, sandalpaste, and oblations of
boiled rice are given daily to the manes to secure their goodwill
towards the survivors. [678]

At Bankavli in the Dápoli taluka of the Ratnágiri District, in
order to prevent the soul from assuming the form of a ghost, there
is a custom of tying a piece of Gulvel, a species of moonseed, or
the seed of a vegetable known as Máthbháji, round the neck of the
corpse before burning it. It is also believed that, by doing this,
the soul is prevented from troubling the survivors. [679]

At Poladpur in the Kolába District, some villagers drive an iron
nail into the head of the corpse before it is taken to the funeral
ground. They believe that, in consequence, the soul of the deceased
will not turn into an evil spirit. Some people scatter grain on the
road while the corpse is being carried to the cremation ground. [680]

Among the Hindus in the Konkan, as well as in the Deccan, dead
bodies are generally burnt, but under the following circumstances
they are buried.

Persons dying of small pox, women dying in childbirth or during
their menses, children dying within six months from their birth,
and Sanyásis are buried. The bodies of persons suffering from leprosy
are necessarily buried. [681] Among Lingáyats the bodies are always
buried. Certain mantras are repeated while burying or burning the
dead body. While burying, cocoanuts and certain kinds of grain are
thrown into the grave, and after covering the dead body with salt,
the grave is filled up with earth and stones. [682] While burning,
the dead body is placed on the funeral pile with its head to the north
and feet towards the south. Tulsi wood, sandal-wood, and Bel wood are
kept on the pile before placing the dead body over it. Cocoanuts and
camphor cakes are placed on the body, and it is set on fire. Among
the Lingáyats and Gosávis the dead are buried. Before burying, the
Lingáyats have to take a written order from their priest, the Ayya or
Jangam. The paper is then tied to the neck of the deceased, and the
body is placed in a bag made of new cloth, the head being allowed to
remain out of the bag. Bhasma or ashes, salt and camphor are also
put into the bag along with the corpse, which is then buried. The
Jangam repeats mantras when the body is in the grave. No such written
order is necessary for the burial of Gosávis. A cocoanut is broken
on the head of the corpse at the time of burying it. Among high class
Hindus the corpse is carried to the funeral ground in a bier made of
bamboos. Among the Lingáyats a gaily dressed frame called Makhar is
prepared on the bier, and the body is dressed with clothes and head
dress and seated in the Makhar. Some of them carry the dead body in a
bag made of blanket. There is a custom of keeping foot-prints on the
spot where a Sanyási is buried, and they are daily worshipped by the
people. [683] Among the Káthawatis of Thána and Kolába Districts the
dead body is first buried, and after a few days the skeleton is taken
out of the grave and then burnt as usual. [684] Among the high class
Hindus the moustaches are shaved at the death of parents, paternal
uncle and elder brother. Among the Shudras it is not necessary to
shave. [685] Persons who have lost their parents have to perform
certain funeral rites or Shráddhas when they visit holy places
such as Benáres, Prayág, Ayodhya and Násik, and they have to shave
their moustaches at all these places before performing the funeral
rites. [686] Moustaches are also shaved as a penance for certain
sins. The Agnihotri, i.e., one who preserves perpetual fire in his
house for worship, has to get himself shaved every fortnight. [687]

Among high class Hindus boiled rice is daily offered to the dead after
a portion has been thrown into the fire, the remainder being given
to the crows. The portion thrown in the fire is called Vaishvadev,
and that which is given to the crows is called Kágwás. Among other
Hindus it is given on the last day of Bhádrapada and on the date of
the father's death, annually. [688] Oblations of boiled rice are given
to the dead every day, on the last day of the Hindu calendar month,
on the date of a person's death every month, on the same date of the
dark half of Bhádrapada every year. These oblations are put out of
the house before taking the meals. It is believed that the ancestors
come down in the form of crows to partake of these offerings. [689]
Oblations of cooked food are also offered to a cow, and considered
thus to be received by the dead. They are especially given to the crows
annually in the dark half of Bhádrapada on the date of the deceased's
death. [690] After the corpse has been carried to the funeral ground,
an oil lamp containing one cotton wick is kept on the spot where the
deceased expired. The flame of the lamp is directed towards the south
as it is believed that the soul goes to heaven by the south. A ball
of boiled rice and a little quantity of water or milk is kept daily
for the first ten days near the lamp while repeating the name of the
deceased and of the gotra to which it belonged. The lamp is taken
out of the house on the 11th day. [691]

Hindus believe that impurity attaches to all the things in the house
in consequence of the death of a person in that house. All those
things which can be purified by washing are washed and taken back,
while things like earthen pots, cooked food, etc. are thrown away,
special care being taken to break these pots, so that they may not
be used again. Even the walls of the house are white washed. [692]
The earthen pots that are required for the funeral rites of the dead
are all broken. One which is required for boiling water to bathe the
corpse is broken when the body is carried to the funeral ground. Of
the rest, one is broken at the funeral pile after the son has passed
thrice round the pile with an earthen vessel filled with water. It is
believed that birds and animals drinking water out of these vessels
would be infected by disease, and this is the reason why these pots
are broken. The mourners who use earthen vessels during the mourning
break them at the end of the mourning period. [693] Among the Agris
of Chaul in the Kolába District, all earthen vessels in the house are
broken on the eleventh day after a death in the family, the chief
reason assigned for this act being that the wishes and desires of
the deceased might lurk in the earthen vessels and cause trouble to
the inmates of the house. [694]

All the members of the family of the dead have to observe mourning for
ten days. They are purified on the eleventh day after taking a bath
and sipping Panchgavya, or the five products of the cow. The son of
the dead person, or one who performs the funeral rites of the dead is
purified on the twelfth day after completing the rites of Sapindi. A
man in mourning does not touch those who are not in mourning. If
anybody touches him, both of them have to take a bath. The son of the
deceased or, in the absence of a son, any male member belonging to
the family is entitled to perform the funeral rites of the dead. These
rites are performed during the first twelve days, beginning from the
first day or from the 3rd, 5th, 7th or the 9th. One who performs these
rites has to sleep on the ground during these twelve days. A person
hearing of the death of a member of his family within the first ten
days from the date of the death, becomes free from that mourning on the
eleventh day. If he happens to hear it within one month of the death,
he has to observe it for three days and after one month he has to
observe it for one day only. [695] The son, or one who performs the
funeral rites of the deceased has to sleep on the ground, and has
to take his meals only once a day till the end of the 13th day. He
takes his bath in cold water. Sweet things are not prepared in the
house during the days of mourning. During the period of mourning,
every morning, a Bráhman comes to the mourner's house and recites
some passages from the Garud Purána, which relates to the state of
the soul after death. On the eleventh day the house is besmeared with
cowdung, and cow's urine is sprinkled in the house. All the clothes are
washed. Mourning is not observed in the case of a death of a Sanyási,
and the Lingáyats do not observe any kind of mourning. [696]

The brother of the deceased, his son, grandson and all the members
belonging to the family, have to observe the mourning for ten days. The
married daughter of the deceased has to observe it for three days. From
the fifth or sixth generation in the same family, it is observed for
three or one day only. [697] In case of the death of a wife's parents,
the husband has to observe mourning for three days. During the mourning
days people do not worship the gods or go to the temples. Milk is
also prohibited during the mourning period. The mourners are not to
touch anybody except the members of their family. [698]

On the thirteenth day the sons and other members of the family are
taken out to visit the temple of any deity by the people assembled
for the purpose. It is believed that after going to the temple on
the 13th day, the sons and the other members of the family are at
liberty to go out of the house. [699]

At Kolhápur it is believed that the deities Etalái and Kálkái of the
Konkan districts keep with them evil spirits as their servants. These
servant spirits obey the orders of these deities. Some people in
this district go to the temples of these deities and request them
to lend them the services of these spirit servants. It is considered
very lucky to secure the help of these spirits. The temple ministrant
then requests the deity to give a Kaul or omen. For this purpose, the
temple ministrant calls on the deity to enter his body, and when he is
possessed by the spirit of the deity, he allows the applicant to take
with him one of the deity's servants for a fixed period. The Gurav,
or the ministrant, then explains to the person the period for which
the spirit servant is given, and the amount of the annual tribute
required to be given to the deity for the use of her servant. He also
gives him a cocoanut and sacred ashes. The applicant then returns home,
believing that the spirit servant will follow him, and from that time
he prospers. This spirit servant is called Chetuk, and it can be seen
only by the person in whose charge it is given by the Gurav. [700]

At Achare in the Ratnágiri District, the spirit of a Bráhman well
versed in the Vedas is called Mahápurusha and it is said to be
benevolent. It haunts Pipal and Umbar trees. [701]

At Murbád in the Thána District, the spirit known as Vetál, the king
of evil spirits, is considered to be benevolent. [702]

The spirit known as Mahápurush haunts the Pipal and Umbar
trees. Avagat the ghost of a widow haunts the Avali (Phyllanthus
emblica) tree. Alavant, the ghost of a woman dying at childbirth
or during her menses, lives in the Nágchámpa, Surang and the Kájra
trees. Devachár, Sambandh, Munja, Zoting, Khavis and Khápra reside
in trees and plants. [703]

The people of Kolhápur believe that the spirits known as
Brahmasambandh, Brahma Rákshasa, and Khavis reside in trees. [704]

The spirits known as Devchár and Chálegat are considered to be the
special protectors of crops and cattle. [705]

The people of Ubhádánda in the Ratnágiri District believe that the
village deities and the Devachárs are the special protectors of
crops and cattle. Offerings of fowls and cocoanuts are made to them
annually. [706]

At Kochare in the Ratnágiri District, the spirit known as Viswáti is
believed to be the special protector of crops and cattle. [707]

The people of the Kolába District consider that the spirits known
as Mhashya, Khavis, and Bándav are the protectors of crops and
cattle. [708]

At Dahánu in the Thána District, the spirit Cheda is believed to be
the guardian of crops and cattle. [709]

The people of Kolhápur believe that the deities of the fields protect
the crops and cattle. Those who are in possession of the Chetuk, or
the servant spirit, are sure to find their crops and cattle protected
by this servant spirit. [710]

Evil spirits are not usually invoked to frighten children, but
occasionally the names of goblins such as Bágulbáwa, Bowáji, Gosávi
etc. are mentioned to scare them. [711]



CHAPTER VII.

TREE AND SERPENT WORSHIP.


Groves of mango trees are considered to be sacred as they have a
pleasing appearance, and afford grateful shelter against the heat of
the day. It is a general belief among Hindus that trees from which such
pleasure and protection are derived must naturally be the abode of the
gods. There are many such groves in Satára. During the spring season
people go to these groves and worship the trees. The Hindus have a
general prejudice against cutting living trees which yield fruits, and
it is considered specially inauspicious to cut the following trees:--

Umbar, Vad or Banian tree, Pipal, Saundad or Shami, Palus, Bel, Rui,
Avali and the Tulsi plant, for it is believed that these trees are the
abode of deities, e.g. the god Dattátraya resides under the Umbar tree,
the goddess Párvati on the Banian tree, and the god Vishnu resides
near the Tulsi plant. The god Brahma, the creator of the world, is
found in the Pipal tree. The plantain tree is also considered to be
sacred. While gathering a bunch of plantains, the tree is first cut
before the bunch. It is considered inauspicious to gather the bunch
without so doing. [712]

There are certain groves at Ubhádánda in the Vengurla taluka of the
Ratnágiri District which are supposed to be haunted by Devachárs,
and are therefore not cut by the people. [713]

The people of Ibrámpur in the Chiplun taluka consider it inauspicious
to cut the Vad and Pipal trees of which the thread ceremonies have
been performed. After the thread ceremony of these trees is over,
a stone platform is raised around them. [714]

At Fonda in the Devgad taluka, it is considered inauspicious to cut
the trees and the groves that surround the temple of a village deity,
for they are believed to belong to that deity. [715]

At Padghe in the Thána District, the trees which are supposed to
have been haunted by evil spirits such as Sambandh, Munja, Devachár,
etc. are not generally cut by the people through fear of these
spirits. When any tree is cut down, the custom is to keep a stone at
the root of the tree in order that the place may no longer be affected
or haunted by the spirit in the tree. [716] There are certain families
who do not burn Pipal, Khair, or Shiwani wood. They believe that the
burning of these trees causes harm to their families. It is said that
the burning of the Apta tree causes the breeding of the insect known
as Gochadi, i.e., the cattle or dog louse. [717]

There is an Awdumbar tree of the god Dattátraya at Bhillawadi, and
a big Banian tree near the math of the Lingáyat swámi named Kadappa
near Kolhápur, which are worshipped by the people of the neighbouring
villages. The Saundad tree, better known as Shami, is worshipped
once a year on the Dasara, the 10th day of the bright half of Ashvin
(October). It is said that Ráma, the seventh incarnation of Vishnu,
kept his arms on the Shami tree during his fourteen years' exile,
and took them back again when he marched upon Lanka or Ceylon to
kill Ráwan, the demon king of Ceylon. While going to Lanka he bowed
to the Shami tree, and as he was successful in his undertaking,
the Maráthás used to start for a campaign on the Dasara day after
worshipping the Shami tree, and distributing its leaves among their
friends calling it Suwarn or gold. This is said to be the origin of
the festival of Dasara. A species of the tamarind tree called Gorakh
Chinch is said to be connected with the Hindu saint Gorakhnáth. For
this reason this tree is worshipped by the people. A great fair is
held every year at Battis Shirále in the Satára District, which is
situated at a distance of about ten miles from Kolhápur. [718]

The Pipal, the Umbar, the Vad or Banian tree, and the Tulsi plant
are worshipped by Hindus in general. The Apta tree is worshipped by
Hindus on the Dasara day, and its leaves are distributed under the
name of sone, or gold, among their friends and relatives. [719]

At Medhe in the Roha taluka of the Kolába District, there is a tree
Vehala (Beleric myrobalan) which is believed to be connected with
the local deity Mhasoba. It is considered to be a sacred tree, and
nobody dares to cut it or to touch it with the feet. [720]

At Shirgáon in the Máhim taluka of the Thána District there is a
Ránjani tree on the bank of a tank called Khambále, which is said to be
connected with the deity Brahma; and therefore no branch of that tree
is cut by the people. It is considered harmful to cut the tree. [721]

At Gángápur in the Kolhápur District, there is a Vad tree connected
with the saint Kabir. It is called Kabirvad. There is also an Awdumbar
tree connected with the god Dattátraya, and known as Dattátraya
Awdumbar. [722]

The Umbar, Pipal, Vad, and the Tulsi plant are considered to be sacred,
and are respected by Hindus. The following are some of the legends
about their sacredness.

Umbar--When the god Vishnu in his fourth incarnation, called Narsinh,
i.e., half man and half lion, tore into pieces the body of the demon
named Hiranyakashipu with his claws, he felt a burning sensation
of the poison from the body of that demon, which was assuaged by
thrusting his hands into the trunk of the Umbar or Awdumbar tree. [723]

In order that they may get the auspicious sight of a deity early
in the morning, Hindus generally plant the Umbar and Tulsi trees
in front of their houses, and worship them daily. The juice of the
root of the Umbar has a cooling effect, and hence it is freely used
in cases of measles or itch. Its sap is also used as medicine for
swellings. It is very pleasant to sit under the shade of this tree,
and as it is believed that the god Dattátraya resides beneath this
tree, it is held very sacred by the Hindus. [724]

Pipal--The Pipal tree is considered very sacred because it is believed
that the god Brahma resides in the roots, the god Vishnu in the
trunk, and the god Shiva on the top of this tree. Persons who make a
particular vow or have any objects to be fulfilled worship the Pipal
tree, and walk round it several times every day. [725] The evil spirits
Sambandh, Devachár, Munja, and Vetál haunt the Pipal tree. These
spirits are considered to be the servants of the god Shiva. It is also
believed that persons who worship and walk round this tree daily are
not affected by those spirits. The Pipal tree is specially worshipped
at dawn on Saturday as it is considered that the gods Brahma, Vishnu,
and Mahesh or Shiva happen to be there at that time. [726]

Vad or the Banian tree--A prince named Satyawán died of snakebite under
the Vad tree. His wife named Sávitri, who was very chaste and dutiful,
requested Yama, the god of death, and succeeded in securing from him
the life of her husband Satyawán. As the prince Satyawán returned
from the jaws of death under the Vad tree, this tree was specially
worshipped by her, and it is therefore believed that Sávitri has
ever since then been responsible for the practice of worshipping the
Vad tree by women for the purpose of securing a long life to their
husbands. [727] It is also believed that the god Vishnu takes shelter
under the Vad at the time of the general destruction of the world. The
worship of this tree is similar to that of the other deities, and
women take turns around it at the close of the worship or puja. [728]

The Tulsi plant is worshipped daily by the Hindus in general, and
women in particular, by keeping the plant near their houses. The
god Vishnu is worshipped particularly by the leaf of this plant.[#2]
The Tulsi plant is considered by the people to represent the goddess
Luxmi, the wife of Vishnu. Hindu women will not take their meals before
worshipping the Tulsi plant daily in the morning. It is also said that
the god Vishnu, in his eighth incarnation called Krishna, had loved
Vrunda, the wife of a demon. After her death she was burnt, but on her
burning ground there grew the Tulsi plant. As Krishna loved Vrunda very
dearly, he began to love this plant also, and hence the image of Bál
Krishna, or the god Vishnu, is married to this plant every year on the
12th day of the bright half of Kártik (November). [729] As it is also
believed that the god Vishnu resides in the Tulsi plant, the worship
of this plant is equivalent to the worship of the god Vishnu. [730]

Besides the above mentioned trees, the Palus (Butea frondosa), the
Bel, a tree sacred to god Shiva, and the Shami (Prosopis spicigera),
a tree sacred to god Ganpati the son of Shiva, are considered to be
holy by the Hindus. [731]

A common custom among Hindus is for a person who has lost his two
wives and wishes to marry a third, to be first married to a Rui plant,
and then to the actual bride. His marriage with the Rui plant is
considered as a third marriage. After the marriage, the Rui plant is
cut down and buried, and thus the marriage with the third bride is
considered to be a fourth marriage. The marriage with the Rui plant
has been adopted in the belief that the third wife is sure to die
unless the spirit of the deceased is made to enter the Rui plant. [732]

When a girl is born under the influence of inauspicious planets which
may be harmful to her husband, she is first married to a tree or an
earthen pot, and then to the bridegroom. The marriage with the earthen
pot is called Kumbhaviváha, or the pot-wedding. It is believed that,
by observing this practice, the danger to her husband is avoided. The
danger passes to the tree to which she is first married. [733]

Among the lower classes in the Thána District [734] a poor man unable
to marry owing to his poverty is first married to a Rui plant and
then to a widow. This marriage with a widow is called pát lávane. This
remarriage of a widow among the lower classes is generally performed
at night, and under an old mango tree. It is never performed in the
house. A widow who has remarried cannot take part in any auspicious
ceremony such as a marriage, etc.[#8]

At Vankavli in the Ratnágiri District there is a custom among the
low class Hindus of a woman who has lost her second husband and
wishes to marry for the third time, first marrying a cock, i.e.,
she takes the cock in her arms at the time of her marriage with the
third husband. [735]

Persons who have no children make a vow to Khandoba at Jejuri that
the firstborn, male or female, shall be offered to him. The females,
offered in fulfilment of such vows are called Muralis. They are
married to the god Khandoba, and have to earn their livelihood by
begging in villages. A male child thus offered to the god is called
a Vághya. [736]

There is a custom of offering children to the deities Yallamma and
Khandoba in fulfilment of vows made in order to get a child. The child
is taken to the temple of these deities, accompanied with music. The
temple ministrant asks the child to stand on a wooden board on a heap
of rice in front of the deity, and puts into its hands a paradi--a
flat basket of bamboo, tying to its neck the darshana of the deity. A
female child is married to the dagger--Katyár--of the deity. When once
this ceremony has been performed, parents abandon their rights to such
children. When these children come of age, the males can marry but
the females cannot. The latter earns her livelihood begging jogava
in the name of the goddess Amba with a paradi in her hand. A male
child offered to the goddess Yallamma is called jogata, and a female,
jogatin. Children dedicated to the goddess Máyáka are called Jogi
and Jogin. Children offered to Firangái and Ambábái are called Bhutya
(male) and Bhutin (female). [737]

In the Konkan districts there is a class of women known as Bhávinis
who are said to be married to Khanjir, i.e., a dagger belonging
to the god. They are also called deva yoshita, i.e., prostitutes
offered to the god. They have no caste of their own. They retain the
name of the caste to which they originally belonged, such as Maráthe
Bhávini, Bhandári Bhávini, Sutár Bhávini, etc. The following account
is given of the origin of the sect of Bhávinis. A woman wishing to
abandon her husband goes to the temple of a village deity at night,
and in presence of the people assembled in that temple she takes oil
from the lamp burning in the temple, and pours it upon her head. This
process is called Deval righane, i.e., to enter into the service of the
temple. After she has poured sweet oil from the lamp upon her head,
she has no further connection with her husband. She becomes the maid
servant of the temple, and is free to behave as she likes. Daughters
of such Bhávinis who do not wish to marry, undergo the process of
shesa bharane, and follow the occupation of their mothers. The sons
of the Bhávinis have an equal right to the property of their mother,
but any daughter who marries a lawful husband loses her share in the
property of her mother. A Devali follows the occupation of blowing the
horn or cornet, and is entitled to hold the torches in the marriage
ceremonies of the people in the village. Many of them learn the art of
playing upon the tabour--mrudunga--and are useful to Kathekaris, i.e.,
those who recite legends of the gods with music and singing. Some of
them become farmers while others are unoccupied.

Bhávinis follow the occupation of a maid-servant in the temple, but
their real occupation is that of public women. They are not scorned
by the public. On the contrary, they are required to be present at
the time of a marriage to tie the marriage-string--Mangalsutra--of a
bride, for they are supposed to enjoy perpetual unwidowhood--'Janma
suwásini.' Some of the houses of Bhávinis become the favourite resorts
of gamblers and vagabonds. In the absence of a daughter, a Bhávini
purchases a girl from a harlot, and adopts her as her daughter to
carry on her profession. [738]

Snakes are believed to be the step-brothers of the gods. They reside
under the earth and are very powerful. The snake is considered to be
very beautiful among creeping animals, and is one of the ornaments of
the god Shiva. An image of a snake made of brass is kept in the temple
of the god Shiva, and worshipped daily along with the god. There is
a custom among the Hindus of worshipping Nága, i.e., the cobra, once
a year on the Nága panchami day, i.e., the fifth day of the bright
half of Shráwan (August). Images of snakes are drawn with sandalpaste
on a wooden board or on the walls of houses, and worshipped by Hindu
women on this day. Durva grass, sacred to Ganpati, parched rice láhya,
legumes kadadan, and milk are offered to this image. Some people go
to the snake's abode Várul--an ant-hill--on this day to worship the
snake itself, if they happen to catch sight of it. [739]

It is said that at Battisa Shirále in the Belgáum District the
real Nága comes out of its abode below the earth on this day, and
is worshipped by the people. Milk and láhya, parched rice, are put
outside the house at night on this day with the intention that they
may be consumed by a snake. Hindus do not dig or plough the earth on
Nága panchami day. Even vegetables are not cut and fried on this day
by some people. [740]

Earthen images of snakes are worshipped by some people in the Konkan
districts on the Nága panchami day. The Nága is considered to be a
Bráhman by caste, and it is believed that the family of the person who
kills a snake becomes extinct. The cobra being considered a Bráhman,
its dead body is adorned with the jánawe, and then burnt as that of a
human being. A copper coin is also thrown into its funeral pile. [741]

At certain villages in the Deccan a big earthen image of a snake
is consecrated in a public place on the Nága panchami day, and
worshipped by Hindus in general. Women sing their songs in circles
before this image while men perform tamáshás by its side. In fact,
the day is enjoyed by the people as a holiday. The snake is removed
next day, and an idol in the form of a man made of mud is seated in
its place. This idol is called Shirálshet, who is said once to have
been a king and to have ruled over this earth for one and one-fourths
of a ghataka, i.e., for half an hour only. This day, is observed as
a day of rejoicing by the people. [742]

The names of the snake deities are Takshaka, Vásuki and Shesha. Their
shrines are at Kolhápur, Nágothane, Prayaga, Nágadeváchi Wádi and
Subramhanya. A great fair is held every year at Battisa Shirále on
the Nága panchami day.[#4]

There is a shrine of a snake deity at Sávantwádi. The management of
the shrine is in the hands of the State officials. It is believed
that a real snake resides therein. [743]

There is a shrine of a snake deity at Awás in the Alibág taluka of
the Kolába District, where a great fair is held every year on the
14th day of the bright half of Kártik (November). It is said that
persons suffering from snakebites recover when taken in time to this
temple. [744]

It is said that a covetous person who acquires great wealth during his
life-time and dies without enjoying it, or without issue, becomes a
snake after death, and guards his buried treasures. At Kolhápur there
was a Sáwkár--money-lender--named Kodulkar who is said to have become
a snake, and to guard his treasures. In the village of Kailava in the
Panhála petha of the Kolhápur District there is a snake in the house
of a Kulkarni, who scares away those who try to enter the storehouse
of the Kulkarni. [745]

It is a general belief among the Hindus that snakes guard treasures. It
is said that there are certain places guarded by snakes in Goa
territory. Persons who were compelled to abandon Portuguese territory
owing to religious persecutions at the hands of the Portuguese buried
their treasures beneath the ground. Those who died during exile are
said to have become bhuts or ghosts, and it is believed that they
guard their buried treasures in the form of snakes. [746]

The Hindus generally believe that the snakes who guard buried treasures
do not allow any one to go near them. The snake frightens those who
try to approach, but when he wishes to hand over the treasure to
anybody he goes to that person at night, and tells him in a dream
that the treasure buried at such and such a place belongs to him, and
requests him to take it over. After the person has taken possession
of the treasure as requested, the snake disappears from the spot. [747]

It is said that a snake which guards treasure is generally very old,
white in complexion, and has long hair on its body. [748]

Hindus worship the image of a snake made of Darbha grass or of silk
thread on the Anant Chaturdashi day, i.e., the 14th day of the bright
half of Ashvin (October), and observe that day as a holiday. Legends
of the exploits of the god are related with music and singing on this
day. [749]

A snake festival is observed in the Nágeshwar temple at Awás in the
Kolába District on the night of the 14th day of the bright half of
Kártika (November). Nearly four hundred devotees of the god Shankar
assemble in the temple, holding in their hands vetra-sarpa long
cane sticks with snake images at their ends. They advance dancing
and repeating certain words, and take turns round the temple till
midnight. After getting the permission of the chief devotee, they
scatter throughout the neighbouring villages with small axes in
their hands, and cut down, and bring from the gardens, cocoanuts,
plantains, and other edible things that are seen on their way. They
return to the temple after two hours, the last man being the chief
devotee called Kuwarkándya. The fruits are then distributed among
the people assembled at the temple. Nobody interferes with them on
this day in taking away cocoanuts and other fruits from the village
gardens. On the next day they go dancing in the same manner to the
Kanakeshwar hill with the snake sticks in their hands. [750]

In the Deccan no special snake festivals like those described above
are celebrated. But in the temples devoted to snake deities, on
the full moon day of Kártik, which is sacred to the snake deity,
the deity is worshipped with special pomp, and the crests of the
temples are illuminated on that night. [751]

The village cures for snakebite are:--

1. The use of charmed water and the repetition of mantras by a
sorcerer.

2. The use of certain roots and herbs as medicines.

3. The removal of the sufferer to the neighbouring temple.

4. Branding the wound with fire.

5. The drinking of soapnut juice, or of water in which copper coins
have been boiled by the patient, who is thus made to vomit the snake
poison. [752]

In the Deccan a person suffering from snakebite is taken to a
village temple, and the ministrant is requested to give him holy
water. The deity is also invoked. Thus keeping the person for one
night in the temple, he is carried to his house the following day if
cured. The vows made to the deity for the recovery of the person are
then fulfilled. There is one turabat, a tomb of Avalia a Mahomedan
saint, at Panhála where persons suffering from snakebite are made
to sit near the tomb, and it is said that they are cured. In some
villages there are enchanted trees of Kadulimb where persons placed
under the shade of such trees are cured of snakebites. Some people
tie a stone round the neck of the sufferer as soon as he is better,
repeating the words Adi Gudi Imám the name of a Mahomedan saint. After
recovery from snakebite the person is taken to the mosque of the
Adi Gudi Imám Sáheb, where the stone is untied before the tomb,
and jágri equal to the weight of the stone is offered. A feast is
also given to the Mujáwar or ministrant of the mosque. There is at
present a famous enchanter--Mántrika--at Satára who cures persons
suffering from snakebite. It is said that he throws charmed water
on the body of the sufferer, and in a few minutes the snake begins
to speak through the victim. The sorcerer enquires what the snake
wants. The snake gives reasons for biting the person. When any thing
thus asked for by the snake is offered, the victim comes to his senses,
and is cured. There are many witnesses to the above fact. [753]

At Mithbáv in the Ratnágiri District chickens numbering from twenty
to twenty-five are applied to the wound caused by the snakebite. A
chicken has the power of drawing out the poison from the body through
the wound, but this causes the death of the chicken. The remedy above
described is sure to be successful if it is tried within three hours
of the person being bitten. There are several other medicines which
act on the snakebite, but they must be given very promptly. There
are some men in this village who give charmed water for snake or any
other bites. Many persons suffering from snakebite have been cured
by the use of mantras and charmed water. [754]

Water from the tanks of Vetávare in the Sávantwádi State and Mánjare
in Goa territory is generally used as medicine for snakebite. It
is believed that by the power of mantras a snake can be prevented
from entering or leaving a particular area. This process is called
'sarpa bándhane'. There are some sorcerers who can draw snakes out of
their holes by the use of their mantras, and carry them away without
touching them with their hands. [755]

At Adivare, in the Rájápur taluka, roots of certain herbs are mixed
in water and applied to the wound caused by the snakebite, and given
to the sufferer to drink. [756]

At Náringre in the Ratnágiri District, persons suffering from snakebite
are given the juice of Kadulimb leaves, and are kept in the temple
of Hanumán. The feet of the deity are washed with holy water, and
the water is given to the victim to drink. [757]

A snake is believed to have a white jewel or mani in its head, and
it loses its life when this jewel is removed. This jewel has the
power of drawing out the poison of snakebite. When it is applied to
the wound, it becomes green, but when kept in milk for sometime, it
loses its greenness and reverts to its usual white colour. It gives
out to the milk all the poison that has been absorbed from the wound,
and the milk becomes green. This jewel can be used several times as
an absorbent of the poison of snakebite. The green milk must be buried
under ground, so that it may not be used again by any one else. [758]

It is believed that an old snake having long hair on its body has
a jewel in its head. This jewel is compared with the colours of
a rainbow. The snake can take this jewel from its head at night,
and search for food in its lustre. Such snakes never come near the
habitation of human beings, but always reside in the depth of the
jungle. This species of snake is called Deva Sarpa, i.e., a snake
belonging to a deity. It is related that a snake was born of a woman
in the Kinkar's house at Tardál in the Sángli State, and another one
in the Gabale's house at Kolhápur. [759]



CHAPTER VIII.

TOTEMISM AND FETISHISM.


The worship of totems, or Devaks, prevails among Hindus in Western
India. The term Devak is applied to the deity or deities worshipped
at the beginning of a thread or a marriage ceremony. The ceremony is
as follows: A small quantity of rice is put into a winnowing fan, and
with it six small sticks of the Umbar tree, each covered with mango
leaves and cotton thread. These are worshipped as deities. Near the
winnowing fan is kept an earthen or copper vessel filled with rice,
turmeric, red powder, betelnuts, sweet balls made of wheat flour, ghi
and sugar; and on the top of the vessel is a small sprig of mango and
a cocoanut covered with cotton thread. This vessel is also worshipped
as a deity, and offerings of sweet eatables are made to it. After
the worship of this vessel, the regular ceremony of Punyáhavachana
is performed. Twenty-seven Mátrikás, or village and local deities,
represented by betelnuts are consecrated in a new winnowing fan or a
bamboo basket. Seven Mátrikás are made of mango leaves, six of which
contain durva grass, and the seventh darbha grass. Each of them is
bound with a raw cotton thread separately. They are worshipped along
with a Kalasha or a copper lota as mentioned above. This copper lota
is filled with rice, betelnuts, turmeric, etc., a sprig of mango
leaves is placed on the lota, and a cocoanut is put over it. The lota
is also bound with a cotton thread. Sandalpaste, rice, flowers, and
durva grass are required for its worship. An oil lamp called Arati
is waved round the devak, the parents, and the boy or the girl whose
thread or marriage ceremony is to be performed. A Suwásini is called
and requested to wave this Arati, and the silver coin which is put
into the Arati by the parents is taken by her. The father takes the
winnowing fan and the mother takes the Kalasha, and they are carried
from the mandap to the devak consecrated in the house. A lighted lamp
is kept continually burning near this devak till the completion of
the ceremony. After completion of the thread or marriage ceremony
the devak is again worshipped, and the ceremony comes to an end. The
deity in the devak is requested to depart on the second or the fourth
day from the date of its consecration. No mourning is observed during
the period the devak remains installed in the house.

Among Maráthás and many of the lower classes in the Ratnágiri District
the branch of a Vad, Kadamba, mango, or an Apta tree is worshipped
as their devak or kul. [760]

Some Maráthás have a sword or a dagger as their devak, which is
worshipped by them before commencing the ritual of the marriage
ceremony. [761]

The family known as Ráne at Náringre in the Davagad taluka of the
Ratnágiri District, and the families known as Gadakari and Jádhava
at Málwan, consider the Vad or Banian tree as their devak, and do not
make use of its leaves. In the same manner, some people consider the
Kadamba tree sacred to their family. [762]

There are some people among the Hindus in Western India whose surnames
are derived from the names of animals and plants, such as Boke,
Lándage, Wágh, Dukre, Káwale, Garud, More, Mhase, Rede, Keer, Popat,
Ghode, Shelár, Gáyatonde, Wághmáre, Shálunke, Bhende, Padwal, Wálke,
Apte, Ambekar, Pimpalkhare, Kelkar and Kálke.

The Hindus believe that a cow, a horse, and an elephant are sacred
animals. The cow is treated with special respect by the Hindus in
general, and the bull by the Lingáyats and oilmen. The milk, the urine,
and the dung of a cow are used as medicines, and they are also given
as offerings to the god in sacrifices.

The Shelár family considers the sheep as their devak, and they do not
eat the flesh of a sheep. The Shálunke family respects the Shálunki
or sparrow. People belonging to the More family do not eat the flesh
of a peacock as they consider it to be their devak. [763]

The Bhandáris whose surname is Padwal do not eat the vegetable of a
snake-gourd or Padwal. [764]

Hindus do not eat the flesh of the animal respected by them, and those
who offer any fruit to their guru as a token of respect do not eat
that fruit in future. Some Hindus do not eat onions, garlic and the
fruit of a palm tree. The fruit of a tree believed to be the devak
of a family is not eaten by the members of that family.

The families of Ráva and Ráne do not take their food on the leaf of
a Vad or Banian tree as they consider it to be their devak. [765]

There are some Hindu families in the Kolába District who believe that
their kul or totem consists of the tortoise and the goat, and they do
not eat the flesh of such animals. A certain community of the Vaishyas
or traders known as Swár believe that a jack tree or Phanas is their
kul, and they do not use the leaves of that tree. [766]

It is believed among the Hindus that the deity Satwái protects children
for the first three months from their birth. The deity is worshipped
on the fifth day from the birth of a child, and if there occurs any
omission or error in the worship of that deity, the child begins to
cry, or does not keep good health. On such occasions the parents of
the child make certain vows to the deity, and if the child recovers,
the parents go to a jungle, and collect seven small stones. They then
besmear the stones with red lead and oil, and worship them along
with a she-goat in the manner in which the vow was promised to be
fulfilled. [767]

The horse is connected with the worship of the god Khandoba because
this animal is sacred to that deity, being his favourite vehicle. For
this reason all the devotees or Bhaktas of Khandoba take care to
worship the horse in order that its master, the god Khandoba, may be
pleased with them.

It is well known that the cow is considered as most sacred of all
the animals by the Hindus, and the reason assigned for this special
veneration is that all the deities dwell in the cow.

The Nandi, or a bullock made of stone, consecrated in front of the
temple of Shiva, the Vágh or a tiger at the temple of a goddess and
cows and dogs in the temple of Dattátraya are worshipped by the Hindus.

The mouse, being the vehicle of Ganpati the god of wisdom, is
worshipped by the people along with that god.

In the Konkan cattle are worshipped by the Hindus on the first day
of Kártika, and they are made to pass over fire.

The mountains having caves and temples of deities are generally
worshipped by the Hindus. The Abucha Pahád, the Girnár, the Panchmadhi,
the Brahmagiri, the Sahyádri, the Tungár, the Jivadancha dongar, the
Munja dongar at Junnar, the Tugábáicha dongar, the Ganesh Lene, and
the Shivabai are the principal holy mountains in the Bombay Presidency.

Mount Abu, known as the Abucha Pahád, is believed to be very sacred,
and many Hindus go on a pilgrimage to that mountain.

Hills are worshipped at Ganpati Pule and Chaul. At Pule there is
a temple of the god Ganpati, the son of Shiva, and at Chaul in the
Kolába District there is a temple of the god Dattátraya.

The place which produces sound when water is poured over it is
considered to be holy, and is worshipped by the people.

In the Deccan, hills are worshipped by the people on the Narak
chaturdashi day in Dipawáli, 14th day of the dark half of Ashvin
(October). The legend of this worship is that the god Shri Krishna
lifted the Govardhan mountain on this day, and protected the people
of this world. A hill made of cowdung is worshipped at every house
on the Narak chaturdashi day. [768]

Stones of certain kinds are first considered as one of the deities,
or as one of the chief heroes in the family, and then worshipped by
the people. Many such stones are found worshipped in the vicinity of
any temple.

A stone coming out of the earth with a phallus or lingam of Shiva is
worshipped by the Hindus. If such a lingam lies in a deep jungle, it
is worshipped by them at least once a year, and daily, if practicable,
in the month of Adhikamás, an intercalary month which comes every
third year. [769]

The red stones found in the Narmada river represent the god Ganpati,
and are worshipped by the people.

A big stone at Phutaka Tembha near Murud in the Ratnágiri District is
worshipped by the people, who believe it to be the monkey god Hanumán
or Máruti. All the stone images of gods that are called Swayambhu or
self-existent are nothing but rough stones of peculiar shapes. There
are such swayambhu--natural-images--at Kelshi and Kolthare in the
Ratnágiri District. [770]

There is a big stone at Palshet in the Ratnágiri District which is
worshipped as Kálikádevi. [771]

Stones are sometimes worshipped by the people in the belief that they
are haunted by evil spirits. We have for example a stone called Mora
Dhonda lying by the seashore at Málwan in the Ratnágiri District. It
is supposed to be haunted by Devachár. [772]

The stones which are once consecrated and worshipped as deities have
to be continually worshipped, even when perforated. The small, round,
white stone slab known as Vishnu pada, which is naturally perforated,
is considered to be holy, and is worshipped daily by the Hindus along
with the other images of gods. The holes in this slab do not extend
right through. [773]

It is considered inauspicious to worship the fractured images of gods,
but the perforated black stone called Sháligrám, taken from the Gandaki
river, is considered very holy, and worshipped by the people. For it
is believed to be perforated from its very beginning. Every Sháligrám
has a hole in it, even when it is in the river. [774]

Broken stones are not worshipped by the people. But the household
gods of the Bráhmans and other higher classes which are called the
Pancháyatan--a collection of five gods--generally consist of five
stones with holes in them. [775]

No instances of human sacrifices occur in India in these days, but
there are many practices and customs which appear to be the survivals
of human sacrifices. These survivals are visible in the offerings
of fowls, goats, buffaloes, and fruits like cocoanuts, brinjals,
the Kohále or pumpkin gourd and others.

Human sacrifices are not practised in these days, but among the
Karháda Bráhmans there is a practice of giving poison to animals in
order to satisfy their family deity. It is said that they used to
kill a Bráhman by giving him poisoned food.

It is believed that the people belonging to the caste of Karháda
Bráhmans used to offer human sacrifices to their deity, and therefore
nobody relies on a Karháda Bráhman in these days. There is a proverb
in Maráthi which means that a man can trust even a Kasái or a butcher
but not a Karháda.

As they cannot offer human sacrifices in these days, it is said
that during the Navarátra holidays, i.e., the first nine days of the
bright half of Ashvin (October), they offer poisoned food to crows,
dogs and other animals. [776]

At Kálshe in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District, the servants
of gods, i.e., the ministrants or the Bhopis of the temple prick
their breast with a knife on the Dasara day, and cry out loudly the
words 'Koya' 'Koya'. No blood comes from the breast as the wound is
slight. This appears to be a survival of human sacrifice. [777]

In the Bombay Presidency, and more especially in the Konkan districts,
fetish stones are generally worshipped for the purpose of averting
evil and curing diseases. In every village stones are found sacred
to spirit deities like Bahiroba, Chedoba, Khandoba, Mhasoba, Zoting,
Vetál, Jakhái, Kokái, Kalkái and others. The low class people such as
Mahárs, Mángs, etc., apply red lead and oil to stones, and call them
by one of the above names, and ignorant people are very much afraid
of such deities. They believe that such deities have control over all
the evil spirits or ghosts. It is said that the spirit Vetál starts
to take a round in a village on the night of the no-moon day of every
month, accompanied by all the ghosts. When any epidemic prevails in
a village, people offer to these fetish stones offerings of eatables,
cocoanuts, fowls and goats.

There is a stone deity named Bhávai at Kokisare in the Bávada State,
to whom vows are made by the people to cure diseases. As the deity
is in the burning ground, it is naturally believed that this is the
abode of spirits. [778]

At Achare, in the Málwan taluka of the Ratnágiri District, the round
stones known as Kshetrapál are supposed to possess the power of curing
diseases, and are also believed to be the abode of spirits. [779]

At Adivare, in the Ratnágiri District, there is a stone named
Mahár Purukha which is worshipped by the people when cattle disease
prevails, especially the disease of a large tick or the cattle or
dog louse. [780]

At Ubhádánda, in the Ratnágiri District, there are some stones which
are believed to be haunted by Vetál, Bhutnáth, Rawalnáth and such
other servants of the god Shiva, and it is supposed that they have
the power of curing epidemic diseases. People make vows to these
stones when any disease prevails in the locality. [781]

The Hindus generally consider as sacred all objects that are
the means of their livelihood, and, for this reason, the oilmen
worship their oil-mill, the Bráhmans hold in veneration the sacred
thread--Yadnopavit,--and religious books, the goldsmiths consider
their firepots as sacred, and do not touch them with their feet. In
case any one accidently happens to touch them with his foot, he
apologises and bows to them.

It is believed by the Hindus that the broom, the winnowing fan,
the páyali--a measure of four shers--the Samai or sweet-oil lamp,
a metal vessel, fire and Sahán or the levigating slab should not be
touched with foot.

The metals gold, silver, and copper, the King's coins, jewels and
pearls, corns, the Sháligrám stone, the Ganpati stone from the Narmada
river, conch-shell, sacred ashes, elephant tusks, the horns of a wild
ox (Gava), tiger skin, deer skin, milk, curds, ghi, cow's urine,
Bel, basil leaves or Tulsi, cocoanuts, betelnuts, and flowers are
considered as sacred by the Hindus, and no one will dare to touch
them with his foot.

Hindus worship annually on the Dasara day the arms and all the
instruments or implements by which they earn their livelihood. The corn
sieve, the winnowing basket, the broom, the rice-pounder, the plough,
the Awuta or wood bill, and other such implements are worshipped on
this day. The agriculturists respect their winnowing fans and corn
sieves, and do not touch them with their feet.

In the Kolhápur District all the instruments and implements are
worshipped by the people one day previous to the Dasara holiday. This
worship is called Khándepujan. They also worship all agricultural
instruments, and tie to them leaves of Pipal and mango trees. [782]

A new winnowing fan is considered to be holy by the Hindus. It is
filled with rice, fruits, cocoanuts and betelnuts, and a Khana--a
piece of bodicecloth--is spread over it. It is then worshipped and
given to a Bráhman lady in fulfilment of certain vows, or on the
occasion of the worship of a Bráhman Dampatya or married pair.

The broom is considered to be holy by the Hindus. Red powder--Kunku--is
applied to a new broom before it is taken into use. It should not be
touched with the feet.

At Rewadanda, in the Kolába District, some people worship a wood-bill
or Koyata on the 6th day from the birth of a child. The rice-pounder,
or Musal, is worshipped by them as a devak at the time of thread and
marriage ceremonies. [783]

Fire is considered to be holy among the high class Hindus. It is
considered as an angel that conveys the sacrificial offerings from
this earth to the gods in heaven. It is considered as one of the
Hindu deities, and worshipped daily by high class Hindus. A Bráhman
has to worship the fire every day in connection with the ceremony
Vaishwadeva--oblations of boiled rice and ghi given to the fire. It
is also worshipped by the Hindus on special religious occasions.

Fire is worshipped at the time of Yadnas or Sacrifices. Sacrifices
are of five kinds. They are:--

Devayadna, Bhutayadna or Brahmayadna, Rishiyadna or Atithiyadna,
Pitruyadna and Manushyayadna. The offerings of rice, ghi, firewood,
Til or sesamum, Java or barley, etc. are made in these yadnas. It is
also worshipped at the time of Shrávani or Upákarma--the ceremony of
renewing the sacred thread annually in the month of Shrávan. [784]

Among the lower classes fire is worshipped on the Mahálaya or Shráddha
day. They throw oblations of food into the fire on that day.

The fire produced by rubbing sticks of the Pipal or Shevari tree is
considered sacred, and it is essentially necessary that the sacred
fire required for the Agnihotra rites should be produced in the manner
described above.

Agnihotra is a perpetual sacred fire preserved in Agnikunda,--a hole in
the ground for receiving and preserving consecrated fire. A Bráhman,
who has to accept the Agnihotra, has to preserve in his house the
sacred fire day and night after his thread ceremony, and to worship
it three times a day after taking his bath. When an Agnihotri dies,
his body is burnt by the people who prepare fire by rubbing sticks
of Pipal wood together. [785]

There are some Bráhmans who keep the fire continuously burning in their
houses only for Cháturmás or four months of the year. The fire which is
preserved and worshipped for four months is called "Smárta Agni." [786]



CHAPTER IX.

ANIMAL WORSHIP.


The following animals, birds and insects are respected by the
Hindus:--The cow, bullock, she-buffalo, horse, elephant, tiger, deer,
mouse, goat, ants and alligators; and among the birds the following
are held sacred:--Peacock, swan, eagle and kokil or cuckoo.

Of all the animals the cow is considered to be the most sacred by
Hindus. It is generally worshipped daily in the morning for the whole
year, or at least for the Cháturmás or four months beginning from the
11th day of the bright half of Ashádha to the 11th day of the bright
half of the month of Kártika; and a special worship is offered to it
in the evening on the 12th day of the dark half of Ashvin (October).

The cow is believed to be the abode of all the deities and rishis. It
is compared with the earth in its sacredness, and it is considered
that when it is pleased it is capable of giving everything required
for the maintenance of mankind, and for this reason it is styled the
Káma Dhenu or the giver of desired objects. It is said that a person
who walks round the cow at the time of its delivery obtains the punya
or merit of going round the whole earth. The cow is even worshipped
by the god Vishnu.

The cow is considered next to a mother, as little children and the
people in general are fed by the milk of a cow. Some women among high
class Hindus take a vow not to take their meals before worshipping
the cow, and when the cow is not available for worship, they draw in
turmeric, white or red powder the cow's foot-prints and worship the
same. At the completion of the vow it is worshipped, and then given
as a gift to a Bráhman. It is considered very meritorious to give a
Gopradán--a gift of a cow along with its calf--to a Bráhman. The sight
of a cow in the morning is believed by all Hindus to be auspicious.

The bullock is respected by the people as it is the favourite vehicle
of the god Shiva, and is very useful for agricultural purposes. The
Nandi or bull is worshipped by Hindus. The bullock is specially
worshipped on the 12th day of the bright half of Kártika. When
performing the funeral rites of the dead, a bull is worshipped and set
free. The bull thus set free is considered sacred by the people, and
is never used again for agricultural or any other domestic purposes.

In order to avoid calamities arising from the influence of inauspicious
planets, Hindus worship the she-buffalo, and offer it as a gift
to a Bráhman. The she-buffalo is compared with the Kál Purusha or
the god of Death, the reason being that Yama is believed to ride a
buffalo. The Bráhman who accepts this gift has to shave his moustaches
and to undergo a certain penance. The cowherds sometimes worship the
she-buffalo. As it is the vehicle of Yama, the buffalo is specially
worshipped by people when an epidemic occurs in a village. In
certain villages in the Konkan districts the buffalo is worshipped
and sacrificed on the same day.

The horse is the vehicle of the deity Khandoba of Jejuri. It is
worshipped on the Vijaya Dashami or the Dasara holiday as in former
days, on the occasion of the horse sacrifice or Ashwamedha.

The elephant is the vehicle of the god Indra and is specially
worshipped on the Dasara day. It is also believed that there are
eight sacred elephants posted at the eight directions. These are
called Ashtadik-Pálas, i.e., the protectors of the eight different
directions, and they are worshipped along with other deities on
auspicious ceremonial occasions, like weddings, thread-girding, etc.

The deer and the tiger are considered to be holy by Hindus, and
their skins are used by Bráhmans and ascetics while performing
their austerities. The deer skin is used on the occasion of thread
girding. A small piece of the deer skin is tied to the neck of the
boy along with the new sacred thread.

The mouse, being the vehicle of the god Ganpati, is worshipped along
with that deity on the Ganesh Chaturthi day, the fourth day of the
bright half of Bhádrapada.

The goat is believed to be holy for sacrificial purposes. It is
worshipped at the time of its sacrifice, which is performed to gain
the favour of certain deities.

The ass is generally considered as unholy by the Hindus, and its mere
touch is held to cause pollution. But certain lower class Hindus like
the Lonáris consider it sacred, and worship it on the Gokul Ashtami
day (8th day of the dark half of Shráwan).

The dog is believed to be an incarnation of the deity Khandoba, and
it is respected as the favourite animal of the god Dattátraya. But
it is not touched by high class Hindus.

It is considered a great sin to kill a cat.

All domestic animals are worshipped by the Hindus on the morning of
the first day of Márgashirsha (December).

On this day the horns of these animals are washed with warm water,
painted with red colours, and a lighted lamp is passed round their
faces. They are feasted on this day as it is considered to be the
gala day (Diváli holiday) of the animals.

Hindus consider it meritorious to feed ants and fish, and to throw
grain to the birds. Ants are fed by the people scattering sugar and
flour on the ant-hills. It is believed that, by feeding the ants with
sugar or flour, a person obtains the Punya or merit of sahasrabhojan,
i.e., of giving a feast to a thousand Bráhmans.

Alligators are worshipped as water deities by the Hindus.

The peacock is the favourite vehicle of Saraswati, the Goddess of
Learning, and it is therefore respected by the people.

The swan is the vehicle of Brahma, the god of creation.

The eagle is the vehicle of the god Vishnu, and is a favourite devotee
of that deity. It is therefore held sacred by Hindus.

The cuckoo or Kokil is believed to be an incarnation of the goddess
Párwati. This bird is specially worshipped by high caste Hindu women
for the period of one month on the occasion of a special festival
called the festival of the cuckoos, or Kokila vrata, which is held
in the month of Ashádha at intervals of twenty years.

The crow is generally held inauspicious by Hindus, but as the manes or
pitras are said to assume the form of crows, these birds are respected
in order that they may be able to partake of the food offered to the
dead ancestors in the dark half of Bhádrapada called Pitrupaksha.

It is necessary that the oblations given in performance of the funeral
rites on the tenth day after the death of a person should be eaten
by the crow. But if the crow refuses to touch these oblations, it is
believed that the soul of the dead has not obtained salvation; and
hence it is conjectured that certain wishes of the dead have remained
unfulfilled. The son or the relatives of the dead then take water in
the cavity of their right hand, and solemnly promise to fulfil the
wishes of the dead. When this is done, the crow begins to eat the food.

The harsh sound of a crow is taken as a sure sign of an impending
mishap.

The dog, cat, pig, ass, buffalo, rat, bhálu, an old female jackal,
lizard, and the birds cock, crow, kite, vulture, owl, bat, and pingla
are considered as unholy and inauspicious by Hindus.



CHAPTER X.

WITCHCRAFT.


Chetak is an art secretly learnt by women. It is a form of the
black art. A woman well versed in the mantras of chetak can do any
mischief she chooses. She can kill a child or turn any person into
a dog or other animal by the power of her incantations. The Chetakin
can remove all the hair from the head of a woman, or scatter filth,
etc. in a person's house, make marks of crosses with marking nuts on
all the clothes, or play many other such tricks without betraying
a trace of the author of the mischief. The chetakins are able to
mesmerize a man and order him to do anything they want. A Chetakin
or witch cannot herself appear in the form of an animal.

They follow revolting forms of ceremonies. All witches who have learnt
the black art meet at night once a month on the Amávásya day or no
moon day of every month, at a burning ground outside the village. On
such occasions they go quite naked, and apply turmeric and red powders
to the body and forehead. While coming to the cremation ground they
bring on their heads burning coals in an earthen pot called Kondi. At
this meeting they repeat their mantras, and take care that none are
forgotten. After completing the repetition of the mantras, they go
round the village and return to their respective houses. They have
no special haunts or seasons.

In the Kolhápur District the woman who is in possession of a chetak
is called chetakin. The chetak is said to abide by her orders. It is
believed to bring corn and other things from houses or harvesting
grounds. It is seen only by its mistress the chetakin. The belief
that the chetakins can turn a person into the form of an animal does
not prevail in this district. They do not wander from one place to
another. The chetakin has to go once a year to the temple of the
deity from whom the chetak has been brought, and to pay the annual
tribute for the use of that chetak or servant spirit. [787]

There are no witches in the Ratnágiri District. It is said that there
are some at Kolwan in the Thána District. They are generally found
among Thákars. Some of them come to the Ratnágiri District, but though
no one can tell anything about their powers, ignorant people are very
much afraid of them. [788] It is believed that they can turn persons
into animals by means of their incantations. The person once charmed
by their mantras is said to blindly abide by their orders. It is also
believed that they can ruin anybody by their magic.

There are no witches at Rái in the Thána District. The woman who can
influence evil spirits to do harm to others is called a Bhutáli. It
is said that the Bhutális assemble at the funeral ground in a naked
state on the full-moon day and on the Amávásya, or the last day of
every month, to refresh their knowledge of the black art. [789]

A witch has dirty habits and observances. The chief sign for detecting
a witch or chetakin is a foam or froth that appears on the lips of
her mouth when she is asleep. The only means to guard against her
witchcraft is to remain on friendly terms with her, and not to hurt
her feelings on any occasion. People generally keep a watch over
the actions of a woman who is suspected to be a witch, and if she is
found practising her black art, and is caught red-handed, people then
pour into her mouth water brought from the shoe-maker's earthen pot
or kundi. It is believed that, when she is compelled to drink such
water, her black art becomes ineffective. [790]

In the Thána District it is believed that the skin round the eyes of
a witch is always black, her eyes have an intoxicated appearance, her
nails are generally parched and have a darkish colour, and the lower
portions of her feet seem to be scraped. When any sorcerer gives out
the name of such a Bhutáli, she is threatened by the people that,
should she continue to give trouble in the village, her own black
art or another spirit would be set against her; and she then ceases
to give trouble. [791]

There are some sorcerers in the Thána District who can move a small
brass cup or váti by the power of their magic. They can detect a witch
by the movement of this vessel. When the brass vessel or váti reaches
the house of a witch, it at once settles upon the witch's head. She
is then threatened by the people that she will be driven out of the
village if found practising her black art. [792]

In the Kolhápur District, when the people come to know of the existence
of a witch in their village, they take special precautions at the time
of harvest. They arrange to harvest a different kind of grain to the
one selected for harvesting by the witch. After some time they go
to the field of the witch, and discover whether there is a mixture
of grain in her field. If they are convinced of the fact, they take
further precautions. In order to avoid being troubled by the chetak,
they keep an old, worn out shoe or sandal and a charmed copper amulet
under the eaves at the main door of their houses, or make crosses with
marking nut on both sides of a door. At some places chunam spots or
circles are marked on the front of a house, the object being to guard
against the evil effects of the chetak's tricks. [793]



CHAPTER XI.

GENERAL.


Offerings of cocoanuts, fowls or goats are annually made to the
spirits that guard the fields. They are generally made at the time
of beginning a plantation or the harvesting of a crop. When making
these offerings, the farmers pray to the god to give prosperous crops
every year. They prepare their cooked food in the field on the first
harvesting day and offer it as naivedya (god's meal) along with the
above mentioned offerings. [794]

At Bándivade in the Ratnágiri District, while commencing the sowing
of crops the farmers worship a certain number of bullocks made of
rice flour and then throw them into the pond or river adjoining the
fields. On other occasions, offerings of cocoanuts and fowls are
sacrificed to the deities that protect the fields. Some people give
a feast to the Bráhmans at the end of the harvesting season. [795]

Ceremonies in connection with ploughing, etc., are not observed for
all the lands. But fields which are supposed to be haunted by evil
spirits are worshipped at the time of ploughing, and the evil spirits
are propitiated, cocoanuts, sugar, fowls or goats are offered to the
local deities or devachárs. There is a custom of worshipping in the
fields the heaps of new corn at the time of harvest, and this custom
generally prevails in almost all the Konkan districts. [796]

At Fonda in the Ratnágiri District the Shiwar generally composed of
boiled rice mixed with curds is kept at the corner of a field at the
time of reaping the crops. The Shiwar is sometimes composed of the
offerings of fowls and goats. [797] This ritual is also known by the
name Chorawa. [798]

At Dásgáv in the Kolába District, there is a custom of carrying one
onion in the corn taken to the fields for sowing and placing five
handfuls of corn on a piece of cloth before beginning to sow the
corn. At the time of Láwani or plantation of crops a fair called
Palejatra is held by the people, and every farmer breaks a cocoanut
in the field at the time of plantation or lávani of crops. At the
time of harvesting it is customary with many of the cultivators in
the Konkan to place a cocoanut in the field and to thrash it by the
first bundle of crop several times before the regular operation of
thrashing is begun. At the close of the harvest the peasants offer
cocoanuts, fowls or a goat to the guardian deity of the field. [799]

At Váda in the Thána District the ploughs are worshipped by the
farmers on Saturday and then carried to the fields for ploughing. At
the time of harvesting, the wooden post to which the bullocks are
tied is worshipped by them and at the close of the harvest the heap
of new corn is worshipped and cocoanuts are broken over it. [800]

In the Kolhápur District the farmers worship the plough before
beginning to plough the land. At the time of sowing the corn they
worship the Kuri an implement for sowing corn. At the time of Ropani
or transplanting the crops they split a cocoanut, and worship the
stone consecrated by the side of the field after besmearing it with
red powders, and make a vow of sacrificing a goat for the prosperity
of their crops. At the time of harvesting they also worship the heap
of new corn and after giving to the deity offerings of cocoanuts,
fowls or goats they carry the corn to their houses. [801]

In the Konkan districts the village deity is invoked to protect
the cattle. People offer fowls and cocoanuts in the annual fair of a
village deity, and request her to protect their cattle and crops. They
have to offer a goat or buffalo to the deity every third year, and
to hold annual fairs in her honour. The procession of bali is one of
the measures adopted for averting cattle diseases. [802]

When there was scarcity of rain the Hindus formerly invoked Indra, the
god of rain, by means of Yadnyas or sacrifices, but such sacrifices
are now rarely performed as they are very costly. The general method
of ensuring rainfall in these days is to drown the Lingam of the god
Shiva in water and to offer prayers to that deity. [803]

The following rural rites are intended to ensure sunshine and to check
excessive rain. A man born in the month of Fálgun (March) is requested
to collect rain water in the leaf of the Alu plant, and the leaf is
then tied to a stick and kept on the roof of a house. Burning coals
are also thrown into rainwater after passing them between the legs
of a person born in the month of Fálgun. [804]

In order to protect the crops from wild pig the people of Umbergáon
in the Thána District post in their fields twigs of Ayan tree on
the Ganesh Chaturthi (fourth day of the bright half of Bhádrapada or
September) day every year. [805]

In the Kolhápur District the deities Tamjái, Tungái, and Wághái are
invoked by the villagers for the protection of cattle. When the cattle
disease has disappeared the people offer cocoanuts and other offerings
to these deities. The potters and the Chudbude Joshis observe the
following ceremony for causing rainfall. A lingam or phallus of Shiva
made of mud is consecrated on a wooden board or pát, and a naked boy
is asked to hold it over his head. The boy carries it from house to
house and the inmates of the houses pour water over the phallus. The
Bráhmans and the high class Hindus pour water on the lingam at the
temple of the god Shiva continuously for several days. This is called
Rudrábhisheka. It is a religious rite in which eleven Bráhmans are
seated in a temple to repeat the prayers of the god Shiva.

In order to scare noxious animals or insects from the fields, the
owners of the fields throw charmed rice round the boundaries of
their fields. The figure of a tiger made of dry leaves of sugarcane
is posted at a conspicuous place in the fields for protecting the
crops of sugarcane. [806]

Great secrecy is required to be observed on the occasion of the
special puja of Shiva which is performed on the first day of the
bright half of the month of Bhádrapada (September). This rite is
called Maunya vrata or silent worship, and should be performed only
by the male members of the family. On this day all the members of
the family have to remain silent while taking their meals. Women do
not speak while cooking, as the food which is to be offered to the
god must be cooked in silence. [807]

Newly married girls have to perform the worship of Mangala Gauri
successively for the first five years on every Tuesday in the month
of Shráwan (August), and it is enjoined that they should not speak
while taking their meals on that day. Some people do not speak while
taking their meals on every Monday of Shráwan, and others make a vow
of observing silence and secrecy at their meals every day. All Bráhmans
have to remain silent when going to the closet and making water. [808]

Certain persons observe silence at their meals during the period of
four months (Cháturmás) commencing from the 11th day of the bright
half of Ashádha (July) to the 11th day of the bright half of Kártik
(November). Certain classes of Hindus observe the penance of secrecy
in the additional month that occurs at the lapse of every third
year. [809]

Silence is essential at the time of performing certain austerities
such as Sandhya, worshipping the gods, and the repetition of the
Brahma Gáyatri mantra and other such mantras. Secrecy is specially
observed when a disciple is initiated by his Guru or spiritual guide
with the sacred mantras or incantations. [810]

Secrecy and silence are essential when learning the mantras on
snakebite, on evil eye and the evil spirit of Vetál. All followers of
the Shákta sect must worship the goddess (Durga) very secretly. Silence
is also observed by people in welcoming to their homes and worshipping
the goddess Párvati or Gauri in the bright half of Bhádrapada every
year. [811]

At Váde in the Thána District, one day previous to the planting of
rice crops the farmer has to go to his field even before day break
with five balls of boiled rice, cocoanuts and other things. There
he worships the guardian deity of the field and buries the balls of
rice underground. He has to do it secretly and has to remain silent
during the whole period. He is also forbidden to look behind while
going to the field for the purpose. [812]

Secrecy and silence are observed when performing the rites of
Chetuks and evil spirits or ghosts. Widow remarriages among the lower
classes are performed secretly. The pair wishing to be remarried is
accompanied by a Bráhman priest and the marriage is performed apart
from the house. The priest applies red lead (Kunku) to the forehead
of the bride and throws grains of rice over their heads and a stone
mortar or páta is touched to the backbone of the bride. The priest
then turns his face and walks away silently. [813]

The Holi is a religious festival. It is annually celebrated in
memory of the death of Kámdev the God of Love who was destroyed by
the god Shankar on the full moon day of Fálgun (March). The object of
this festival appears to have been a desire to abstain from lust by
burning in the Holi fire all vicious thoughts and desires. As a rule,
females do not take any part in this festival.

In the Konkan districts the annual festival of Holi begins from
the fifth day of the bright half of Fálgun (March). Boys from all
the localities of a village assemble at a place appointed for the
Holi. The place appointed for kindling the Holi is not generally
changed. The boys then go from house to house asking for firewood,
and bring it to the Holi spot. They arrange the firewood and other
combustible articles around the branch of a mango, betelnut or a
Sáwar tree in the pit dug out for the purpose and then set it on
fire. After kindling the sacred fire they take five turns round the
Holi accompanied with the beating of drums and raise loud cries of
obscene words. After this they play the Indian games of Atyápátya and
Khokho and occasionally rob the neighbouring people of their firewood
and other combustible articles. At the close of these games they daub
their foreheads with sacred ashes gathered from the Holi fire. They
consider these ashes especially auspicious and carry them home for the
use of the other members of their families. This process is continued
every night till the close of the fullmoon day. Elderly persons take
part in this festival only during the last few days.

On the fullmoon day all the males of the village, including old men,
start after sunset for the Holi spot, collecting on their way pieces
of firewood from all the houses in the locality and arrange them
in the manner described above. After having arranged the Holi, the
officiating priest recites sacred verses and the puja is performed by
the mánkari of the village. This mánkari or pátil is either the headman
or some other leading person of the village and to him belongs the
right of kindling the Holi fire first. Some persons kindle a small
Holi in front of their houses and worship it individually, but they
can take part in the public Holi. In the towns the Holis of different
localities are kindled separately while in small villages there is
only one for every village.

At Vijaydurg in the Ratnágiri District a hen is tied to the top of
a tree or a bamboo placed in the pit dug out for kindling the Holi
fire. The fowl tied to the top of the bamboo is called Shit. A small
quantity of dry grass is first burnt at the bottom of this tree
when the Mahárs beat their drums. The Shit (fowl) is then removed
from the tree after it is half burnt and taken by the Mahárs. The
Holi fire is then worshipped and kindled by the Gurav. Worshipping
and kindling the Holi and taking the Shit (fowl) are considered as
high honours. Occasionally quarrels and differences arise over this
privilege and they are decided by the village Panch. [814]

After the kindling of the Holi the people assembled there offer to
the Holi a Naivedya (god's meal) of poli--a sweet cake made of Jagri,
wheat flour and gram pulse. Cocoanuts from all the houses in the
village are thrown into this sacred fire. Some of these cocoanuts
are afterwards taken out of the sacred fire, cut into pieces, mixed
with sugar and are distributed among the people assembled as prasád or
favoured gift. Lower classes of Hindus offer a live goat to the Holi,
take it out when it is half burnt and feast thereon.

On the night of the fullmoon day and the first day of the dark half
of Fálgun, the people assembled at the Holi fire wander about the
village, enter gardens and steal plantains, cocoanuts and other
garden produce. Robbery of such things committed during these days
is considered to be pardonable. Some people take advantage of this
opportunity for taking revenge on their enemies in this respect.

The fire kindled at the Holi on the fullmoon day is kept constantly
burning till the Rangpanchami day i.e., fifth day of the dark half of
Fálgun. Next morning i.e., on the first day of the dark half of Fálgun,
the people boil water over that fire and use it for the purpose of
bathing. It is believed that water boiled on the sacred fire has
the power of dispelling all the diseases from the body. People go on
dancing in the village and sing songs for the next five days. They
generally sing Lávanis, a kind of ballad, during this festival. Among
these dancers a boy is dressed like a girl and is called Rádha. This
Rádha has to dance at every house while the others repeat Lávanis.

The second day of the dark half of Fálgun is called Dhulvad or dust
day when people start in procession through the village, and compel
the males of every house to join the party. They thus go to the Holi
fire and raise loud cries of obscene words throwing mud and ashes
upon each other. They afterwards go to the river or a pond to take
their bath at noon time and then return to their houses. The third
day of the dark half is also spent like the previous one with a slight
difference which is that cow dung is used instead of mud. This day is
called Shenwad day. On the fourth day the Dhunda Rákshahasin (a demon
goddess) is worshipped by the people, and the day is spent in making
merry and singing obscene songs called Lávanis. The fifth day of the
dark half is known as Rangpanchami day and is observed by the people
in throwing coloured water upon each other. Water in which Kusumba and
other colours are mixed is carried in large quantity on bullock carts
through the streets of a city and sprinkled on the people passing
through these streets. On this day the sacred fire of the Holi is
extinguished by throwing coloured water over it. This water is also
thrown upon the persons assembled at the Holi. The money collected
as post during this period is utilised in feasting and drinking.

At Ibrámpur in the Ratnágiri District the image of cupid is seated
in a palanquin and carried with music from the temple to the Holi
ground. The palanquin is then placed on a certain spot. The place
for thus depositing the image of the god is called Sáhán. [815] At
Náringre there is a big stone called Holdev which is worshipped by the
people before kindling the Holi fire. [816] After the kindling of the
sacred fire the palanquin is lifted from the Sáhán, and turned round
the Holi fire with great rejoicings. The palanquin is then carried
through the village and is first taken to the house of a Mánkari,
and then from house to house during the next five days. The inmates
of the houses worship the deity in the palanquin and offer cocoanuts
and other fruits and make certain vows. The palanquin is taken back
to the temple on the fifth day of the dark half of Fálgun when on its
way gulál or red powder is thrown over the image and on the people
who accompany it. [817]

Among high class Hindus the thread girding ceremony of a boy is
performed when he attains puberty. The girls are generally married at
an early age, and when a girl attains puberty, sugar is distributed
among the friends and relatives of her husband. She is then seated
in a Makhar--a gaily dressed frame. Dishes of sweets which are
brought by the girl's parents and the relatives of her husband are
given to her for the first three days. She takes her bath on the
fourth day accompanied by the playing of music and the beating of
drums. Sweetmeats in dishes are brought by the relatives till the day
of Rutushanti (the first bridal night). The Garbhádán or Rutushánti
ceremony is one of the sixteen ceremonies that are required to be
performed during the life of every Hindu. This ceremony is performed
within the first sixteen days from the girl's attaining her puberty,
the 4th, 7th, 9th, 11th and the 13th being considered inauspicious for
this purpose. While performing this ceremony the following three rites
are required to be observed. They are Ganpatipujan or the worship of
the god Ganpati, Punhyáhavachan or the special ceremony for invoking
divine blessings and Navagrahashánti the ceremony for propitiating
the nine planets. The ritual of this ceremony is as follows:--

The husband and the wife are seated side by side on wooden boards
to perform the above three rites. The Kadali pujan or plantain
tree worship is performed by the pair. The sacred fire or Homa
is required to be kindled. The juice of the Durwa grass is then
poured into the right nostril of the bride by her husband. This is
intended to expel all diseases from the body of the girl and to secure
safe conception. They are then seated in a Makhar, and presents of
clothes, ornaments etc., are made by the parents of the girl and
other relatives. After this the husband fills the lap of the girl
with rice, a cocoanut, five betelnuts, five dry dates, five almonds,
five plantains and five pieces of turmeric. The girl is then carried
to a temple accompanied by the playing of music. A grand feast is
given to the friends and relatives at the close of this ceremony.

The Hindus generally make various kinds of vows in order to procure
offspring or with some other such object, and fulfil them when they
succeed in getting their desire. The following are the different
kinds of vows made. They offer cocoanuts, sugar, plantains and
other fruits, costly new dresses and ornaments to the deities,
and give feasts to Bráhmans. Special ceremonies called Laghurudra
and Mahárudra in honour of Shiva the god of destruction are also
performed. Sweetmeats such as pedhas etc. are offered to the gods
in fulfilment of vows. Some people make vows to observe fasts,
to feed Bráhmans, and to distribute coins and clothes to the poor;
while others hang torana-wreaths of flowers and mango leaves--on the
entrance of the temple, and hoist flags over it. Rich people erect new
temples to different Hindu deities. Some observe fasts to propitiate
the goddess Chandika and worship her during Navarátra the first nine
days of the bright half of Ashvin (October) and others offer fowls
and goats to their favourite deities. Women make it a vow to walk
round the Audumbar or Pipal tree, and to distribute cocoanuts, sugar,
jagri, copper or silver equal to the weight of their children.

Vows are made by people with the object of securing health, wealth
and children and other desired objects such as education etc. They
are as follows:--

Performing the worship of Shri Satya Náráyan, offering clothes and
ornaments to the temple deities, hanging bells, constructing a foot
path or steps leading to the temple of the special deity. [818]
Vows are also made to obtain freedom from disease or such other
calamities. When any person in the family becomes ill or when a
sudden calamity befalls a family an elderly member of the family
goes to the temple of a deity and makes certain vows according to
his means, fulfilling them as soon as the calamity or disease has
disappeared. [819]

Vows are usually to perform acts of benevolence. These consist
in distributing cocoanut mixed in sugar, giving feasts to Bráhman
priests, observing fasts on Saturday, Tuesday and Sunday, offering
clothes and ornaments to deities, building new temples and guest houses
(dharmshálás), digging out new wells and in distributing clothes and
food to the poor. [820]

At Khopoli in the Kolába District, people who have no children or
whose children die shortly after birth make a vow to the Satwái deity
whose temple is at a short distance from Khopoli. The vow is generally
to bring the child to the darshana (sight) of the deity and to feed
five or more (married) Bráhman pairs. Such vows are fulfilled after
the birth of a child. Some worship the god Satya Náráyan on a grand
scale and others propitiate the god Shiva by the ceremony of Abhisheka
(water sprinkling). [821] Some offer nails made of gold or silver
to the goddess Shitala after the recovery of a child suffering from
small pox. Eyes and other parts of the body made of gold and silver
are also occasionally offered in fulfilment of vows. People abstain
from eating certain things till the vows are fulfilled. [822]

Vows are made in times of difficulties and sorrow. The person afflicted
with sorrow or misfortune prays to his favourite deity and promises to
offer particular things or to perform special ceremonies, and fulfils
his vows when his desired objects are attained. The ceremonies commonly
observed for these purposes are the special pujás of Satya Náráyan
and Satya Vináyak. Native Christians make their vows to their saints
and Mot-Mávali (Mother Mary) in the taluka of Salsette. [823]

There is a shrine of the god Shankar at Kanakeshwar a village on the
sea side two miles from Mithbáv in the Ratnágiri District. Many years
ago it so happened that a rich Mahomedan merchant was carrying his
merchandise in a ship. The ship foundered in a storm at a distance of
about two or three miles from Kanakeshwar. When the vessel, seemed
to be on the point of sinking the merchant despairing of his life
and goods, made a vow to erect a nice temple for the Hindu shrine of
Kanakeshwar if he, his vessel and its cargo were saved. By the grace
of God the vessel weathered the storm and he arrived safely in his
country with the merchandise. In fulfilment of this vow he erected
a good temple over the shrine of Shri Shankar at Kanakeshwar, which
cost him about rupees six thousand. This temple is in good condition
to the present day. Many such vows are made to special deities. When
the people get their desired objects they attribute the success to
the favour of the deity invoked, but when their expectations are not
fulfilled they blame their fate and not the deity. [824]

In the Konkan districts there are some persons who practise black art
of several kinds such as Chetak, Járan, Máran and Uchátan. Chetak is a
kind of evil spirit brought from the temple of the goddess Italái of
the Konkan districts. It is brought for a fixed or limited period,
and an annual tribute is required to be paid to the goddess for
the services.

Another kind of black art widely practised in the Konkan districts is
known by the name of Muth márane. In this art the sorcerer prepares
an image of wheat flour, and worships it with flowers, incense,
etc. A lemon pierced with a number of pins is then placed before the
image. The sorcerer begins to pour spoonfuls of water mixed with Jagri
on the face of the image, and repeats certain mantras. Meanwhile, the
lemon gradually disappears and goes to the person whose death it is
intended to secure. The person aimed at receives a heavy blow in the
chest and at once falls to the ground vomitting blood. Sometimes he is
known to expire instantaneously. The charmed lemon, after completing
its task returns to the sorcerer, who anxiously awaits its return,
for it is believed that if the lemon fails to return some calamity
or misfortune is sure to occur to him. For this reason the beginner
desiring to be initiated into the mystery of this black art has to
make the first trial of his mantras on a tree or a fowl.

Females are also initiated into the mysteries of Jádu or black
art. Such women are required to go to the burning ground at midnight
in a naked state, holding in their hands hearths containing burning
coals. While on their way they untie their hair, and then begin the
recital of their mantras. There they dig out the bones of buried
corpses, bring them home, and preserve them for practising black art.

There is a sect of Hindus known as Sháktas who practise the black
art. The Sháktas worship their goddess at night, make offerings of
wine and flesh, and then feast thereon.



APPENDIX.

GLOSSARY OF VERNACULAR TERMS OCCURRING IN VOLUMES I AND II. [825]


A.

ABIL: A kind of incense.

ABIR: White scented powder.

ADÁCHH: Red cotton yarn.

ADÁD: Lentils.

ADAGHO BADAGHO: A ceremony performed to drive away insects.

ADHÁSUR: Name of a demon.

ADHIKAMÁS: Intercalary month.

ADI-NÁRÁYAN: A name of Vishnu.

ADO: Useless.

ADULSA: Name of a medicinal plant.

AGÁR: Excreta.

AGASTYA: Name of a sage; name of a constellation.

AGATHI: A tree, Sesbania Grandiflora.

AGATHIO: See Agathi.

AGHÁDA: Name of a plant.

AGHORI: A sect of Hindus.

AGIÁRI: Fire temple of the Pársis.

AGNI: Fire; the deity presiding over fire.

AGNICHAR: An order of evil spirits living in fire.

AGNIHOTRA: A perpetual sacred fire preserved in a hole in the ground
for receiving and preserving consecrated fire.

AGNIHOTRI: One who keeps an Agnihotra.

AGNIKUNDA: A hole in the ground, or an enclosed space, on the surface,
or a metal square-mouthed vessel, for receiving and preserving
consecrated fire.

AGNI-SANSKÁR: The rite of setting fire to a corpse.

AGRI: Name of a caste or an individual of it.

AHALYA: The wife of the sage Gautam.

AHEVA NAVAMI: The ninth day of the dark half of Bhádrapad.

AHI: Name of a demon.

AHIR: A caste of shepherds.

AHUTI: A handful of rice, ghi, sesamum, etc., cast into fire, water,
upon the ground etc., as an offering to the deities.

AIRÁVAT: Name of the elephant of Indra; the elephant presiding over
the east.

AJA: A goat.

AJAMO: Lingusticum ajwaen.

AKÁSH: The sky.

AKÁSH-GANGA: The milky way.

AKHAND SAUBHÁGYA: Perpetual unwidowhood.

AKIK: A kind of stone.

AKHÁ TRIJ: The third day of the bright half of Vaishákh.

AKSHAYA TRITIYA: See Akhá Trij.

ALAWÁNA: A sort of shawl.

ALWANT: A spirit of a woman dying in childbirth or during menses.

ALU: An esculent vegetable.

ALUNDA: Name of a vow.

AMANI: A kind of tree.

AMAR: Immortal.

AMATHO: Useless.

AMATHO MÁMO: An order of ghosts.

AMÁVÁSYA: The last day of a month.

AMBA: Name of a goddess.

AMBIL: Conjee.

AMBO: Mango.

AMNÁYESHWAR: A name of the god Mahádev.

ANAGH: Name of a vow.

ANAGODHA: See Anagh.

ANANT CHATURDASHI: The fourteenth day of the dark half of Bhádrapad
sacred to Vishnu.

ANDHÁRIO: An order of ghosts.

ANGIRAS: Name of a sage.

ANJALI: Palmful.

ANJAN: Soot used as collyrium.

ANJANI: Mother of Máruti.

ÁNJANI: A sore or mole on the eye-lid.

ANKADA: Name of a poisonous plant.

ANNADEVA: The god presiding over food.

ANNAKUTA: The eighth or tenth day of the bright half of Ashvin or
the second day of the bright half of Kártik when sweets are offered
to gods.

ANNAPURNA: The goddess presiding over food.

ANTARAL: Name of a deity.

ANTARAPAT: The piece of cloth which is held between the bride and
bridegroom at the time of a Hindu wedding.

ANTYESHTI: Funeral rites.

ANURÁDHA: Name of a constellation.

ANUSHTHÁN: Performance of certain ceremonies and works in propitiation
of a god.

APASMÁR: Epilepsy.

APSARA: Certain female divinities who reside in the sky and are the
wives of the Gandharvas. They are sometimes represented as the common
women of the gods.

APTA: Name of a tree.

ARANI: Elaeodendron glaucum.

ARATI: The ceremony of waving (around an idol, a guru, etc.,) a
platter containing a burning lamp.

ARDHODAYA: Half-risen state of a heavenly body.

ARDRA: Name of a constellation.

ARGHYA: A respectful offering to a god or a venerable person consisting
of various ingredients or of water only.

ARJUNA: The third of the five Pándava brothers.

ARUNDHATI: Wife of Vasishtha; name of a star.

ASARA: A water nymph.

ASAN: A prayer carpet.

ASHÁDH: The fourth month of the Deccani Hindu and the ninth month of
the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

ASHÁPURI: Name of a goddess.

ASHLESHA: Name of a constellation.

ASHO: A corrupted form of Ashvin.

ASHAPATI: Name of a mythological king.

ASHTABHÁRO: An order of ghosts.

ASHTADALA: Eight-cornered.

ASHTA-DIK-PÁLA: Protectors of the eight different directions.

ASHTAKA: A hymn consisting of eight verses.

ASHTAMAHÁDÁN: A gift consisting of eight kinds of articles.

ASHTÁVASU: A class of divine beings eight in number.

ASHVIN: The seventh month of the Deccani Hindu and the twelfth month
of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

ASHVINI: Name of a constellation.

ASHVINI KUMÁR: The twin sons of the sun by his wife Sanjnya in the
form of a mare. They are famous as heavenly physicians.

ASHWAMEDHA: Horse sacrifice.

ASHWATTHÁMA: The only son of Drona, the military preceptor of the
Kauravas and Pándavas.

ASMÁNI: An order of ghosts.

ASO: A corrupted form of Ashvin.

ASOPALAVA: Name of a tree.

ASUR GATI: The path of the demons.

ATIT: A class of religious beggars.

ATLAS: A kind of cloth.

ATRI: Name of a sage.

ATYÁPÁTYA: Name of an out-door game played in the Deccan.

AVAD-MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

AVAGAT: An order of ghosts.

AVAGATI: Fallen condition.

AVALIA: A Muhammadan saint.

AVALA: Name of a tree.

AVATÁR: An incarnation of Vishnu.

AVI: An order of ghosts.

AVLI: Name of a tree.

AWDUMBAR: A tree, Ficus glomerata.

AWUTA: Wood bill.

AYAN: Name of a tree.



B.

BÁBARO: An order of ghosts.

BÁBHUL: Acacia arabica.

BÁBRIO: See Bábaro.

BÁBRO: See Bábaro.

BABRUVÁHAN: Name of a demon; a son of Arjuna.

BÁBUL: Acacia arabica.

BÁDHA: Impending evil.

BÁGHADA: Name of an evil spirit.

BÁGULBÁWA: Name of a goblin.

BAHIRI: Name of a goddess.

BAHIRI-SOMJAI: Name of a goddess.

BAHIROBA: Name of a minor deity.

BAHIROBÁCHE BHUT: An order of ghosts.

BÁJA: Dish.

BÁJALE: A wooden cot.

BÁJAT: A wooden stool.

BAJÁNIA: A cast of tumblers or an individual of it.

BAKA: Name of a demon; name of a sage.

BÁKLA: A small round flat cake of dry boiled beans.

BÁKLÁN: See Bákla.

BAKOR: Noise.

BÁLÁ TERASH: The 13th day of the dark half of Bhádrapad.

BALAD: An ox.

BALADI: An order of ghosts.

BALDEV: Name of the brother of Krishna, the eighth incarnation
of Vishnu.

BALEV: The full moon day of Shrávana.

BALEVA: See Balev.

BALEVIÁN: A kind of worship.

BALI: Name of a mighty demon, the lord of the nether world or pátál;
an oblation; a victim offered to any deity; name of a procession.

BALIDÁN: Offering of a victim.

BALLA: An order of ghosts.

BÁNÁSUR: Name of a demon.

BANDHÁI-JAVAN: Name of a cattle disease.

BANIA: A trader.

BÁPA: Name of a guardian spirit of fields.

BÁPDEV: See Bápa.

BARANESHWAR MAHÁDEV: A name of Mahádev.

BÁRAS: The twelfth day of the bright or dark half of a month.

BÁRVATIA: An outlaw.

BATÁSA: A kind of sweetmeat.

BATRISA: A man possessed of thirty-two accomplishments.

BATUK: Name of a minor deity.

BÁU: A word used to frighten children; a goblin.

BÁVA: A term of respectful compellation or mention for an ascetic or
religious teacher.

BÁVAL: See Bábul.

BÁVO: See Báva.

BAYA: Name of a deity presiding over small-pox.

BÁWAN VIR: Name of a minor deity.

BECHRA MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

BEDA: Name of a tree.

BEL: Aegle Marmelos.

BEL-BHANDÁR: Leaves of the Aegle Marmelos and the turmeric powder
that are kept on an idol.

BER: Jujube tree.

BERO: Deaf.

BETHI: An order of ghosts.

BHÁBHO: Worthless.

BHÁDARWA: See Bhádrapad.

BHÁDRAPAD: The sixth month of the Deccani Hindu and the eleventh
month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

BHAGAT: An exorcist.

BHAGIRATH: Name of an ancient king of the solar dynasty who is said
to have brought down the Ganges from heaven to the earth.

BHÁGVAT: Name of one of the eighteen puránas.

BHAGVATI: Name of a goddess.

BHAGWÁN: An epithet of Vishnu; of Shiva.

BHAGWATI: See Bhagvati.

BHAIRAV: A name of an inferior manifestation of Shiva.

BHAJAN: Repeating the name of a god as an act of worship; hymns or
pieces or verses sung to a god.

BHAKTIMÁRGA: Path of devotion.

BHÁLU: An old female jackal.

BHANDÁRI: A caste of Hindus.

BHÁNG: Hemp water.

BHANGI: A scavenger; name of the caste of scavengers.

BHANGRA: A kind of tree.

BHARANAI: Name of a goddess.

BHARANI: Name of a constellation.

BHÁRANI: The process of charming.

BHARATA: Name of a brother of Ráma the seventh incarnation of Vishnu.

BHARVÁD: A caste of shepherds.

BHÁSIKA: An order of ghosts.

BHASMA: Holy ashes.

BHASMÁSUR: Name of a demon.

BHÁUBIJ: The second day of the bright half of Kártik.

BHAVÁI: Name of a stone deity.

BHÁVAKÁI: Name of a goddess.

BHAVÁNI: A name of the goddess Párvati.

BHÁVIN: A caste of female temple servants who are prostitutes by
profession.

BHAWÁNI: See Bhaváni.

BHENSA: A he-buffalo.

BHENSÁSUR: A demon in the form of a he-buffalo.

BHIKHÁRI: A beggar.

BHIKHO: A beggar.

BHIL: A partly Hindu, partly animistic tribe.

BHIMA: The second of the five Pándava brothers.

BHIMA-AGIÁRAS: The eleventh day of the bright half of Jyeshtha.

BHIMASENA: See Bhima.

BHIMNÁTH MAHÁDEV: A name of Shiva.

BHIMNÁTH SHANKAR: A name of Shiva.

BHISHMA: Son of Shántanu and the river Ganges and grand-uncle of the
Pándavas and Kauravas.

BHOGAVA: Village boundary.

BHOI: A caste of fishermen and palanquin-bearers.

BHOJAPATRA: A palm-leaf.

BHOLÁNÁTH: A name of Shiva.

BHONG RINGDI: Name of a poisonous plant.

BHOPALA: Gourd.

BHOPI: The person that officiates in the temples of village deities.

BHUCHAR: An order of ghosts hovering over the earth.

BHUNGA: A black bee.

BHUSHUNDAKÁK: Name of a sage.

BHUT: An evil spirit.

BHUTA: See Bhut.

BHUTA-DEVATA: A ghostly godling.

BHUTÁLI: A woman who can influence evil spirits to do harm to others.

BHUTE: Plural of Bhutya: See Bhutya.

BHUTIN: A female member of an order of devotees of the goddess Bhaváni.

BHUTNÁTH: Name of an evil spirit.

BHUTYA: A male member of an order of devotees of the goddess Bhaváni.

BHUVA: A male exorcist.

BHUVI: A female exorcist.

BIBHISHANA: Brother of Rávana, the demon king of Lanka or Ceylon.

BIJ: The second day of the bright or dark half of a month.

BIJAVRIKSHANYÁYA: The maxim of seed and shoot. The maxim takes its
origin from the mutual relation of causation that exists between seed
and shoot, and is applied to cases in which two objects stand to each
other in the relation of both cause and effect.

BILÁDO: A cat.

BILI: See Bel.

BINDU: A drop.

BOCHO: A coward.

BODAN: A ceremony in which curds, milk, boiled rice, fried cakes,
etc., are mixed up together and presented in oblation to the goddess
Mahálakshmi by a company of at least five married women and one virgin.

BODO: Bald-headed.

BOL CHOTH: The fourth day of the dark half of Shrávan.

BORÁDI: The Jujube tree.

BOTERUN: A complete cessation of rain for seventy-two days.

BOWÁJI: See Báva.

BOW: See Báu.

BRAHMA GRAHA: Ghost of a Bráhman.

BRAHMA: The first god of the Hindu Trinity.

BRAHMABHOJ: A feast to Bráhmans.

BRAHMACHARYA: Celibacy.

BRAHMACHÁRI: One who has taken a vow to lead a celibate life.

BRAHMAHATYA: The murder of a Bráhman.

BRÁHMAN: The sacerdotal caste of Hindus or an individual of it.

BRÁHMANA-VARUNA: The appointment of duly authorised Bráhmans to
perform religious ceremonies.

BRAHMARANDHRA: The aperture supposed to be at the crown of the head,
through which the soul takes its flight on death.

BRAHMA RÁKSHASA: See Brahma Sambandh.

BRAHMA SAMBANDH: The ghost of a Bráhman that in his life time possessed
high attainments, and a haughty spirit.

BRIHASPATI: Name of the preceptor of the gods.

BRUHANNADA: The name assumed by Arjuna when residing at the palace
of Viráta.

BUDHA: Mercury.

BUDDHI: Name of a wife of Ganpati.



C.

CENDUR: Red lead.

CHÁDA: Rent.

CHAITANNADYA: An order of ghosts.

CHAITRA: The first month of the Deccani Hindu and the sixth month of
the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

CHAKLI: A sparrow.

CHÁK PADANE: Appearance of red pustules on the face supposed to be
caused by the influence of an evil eye.

CHAKORA: A bird, Bartavelle Partridge.

CHÁLA: Name of a deity.

CHÁLEGHAT: An order of ghosts.

CHAMÁR: A caste of tanners.

CHAMPA: Michelia champaca.

CHAMPÁ-SHASHTI: The sixth day of the bright half of Márgashirsha.

CHAMPÁVATI: Name of a goddess.

CHANA: Gram.

CHANDA: Name of a kind of wind.

CHAND CHANI: An order of ghosts.

CHANDAN: Sandal wood.

CHANDIKA: Name of a goddess.

CHANDI KAVACH: A hymn in honour of the goddess Chandi or Durga.

CHANDIPÁTH: Recitation of a hymn in honour of the goddess Chandi
or Durga.

CHANDKÁI: Name of a Goddess.

CHANDRA: The moon.

CHANDRAMANDAL: The disk of the moon; the lunar sphere.

CHÁNDRÁYAN VRAT: Name of a vow.

CHARAK: Excreta.

CHÁRAN: A caste of genealogists and bards.

CHARANÁMRIT: Water in which the feet of a spiritual guide have
been washed.

CHARMARIA: Name of a snake deity.

CHARONTHI: A kind of flour.

CHASHA: The Blue jay.

CHAT: An image of darbha grass at Shráddha when the required Bráhman
is not present.

CHATA SHRÁDDHA: A shráddha in which a chat represents a Bráhman.

CHÁTURMÁS: The period of four months commencing from the tenth day
of the bright half of Ashádh and ending with the tenth day of the
bright half of Kártik.

CHATURTHI: The fourth day of the bright or dark half of a month.

CHAURÁR: An order of ghosts.

CHEDA: Ghost of a person of the Kunbi or Shudra caste or an unmarried
Mahár.

CHEDOBA: Name of a spirit deity.

CHELA: A disciple.

CHELAN: An oblation to a Máta or goddess.

CHETAK: A kind of black art.

CHETAKIN: A witch.

CHETUK: A spirit servant.

CHHAMACHHARI: Death anniversary.

CHHIPA: A caste of calico-printers.

CHHOGALA: Celebrated. Great.

CHHOGALO: With a tail.

CHILBIL: Notes of the Pingala bird.

CHILUM: A clay pipe.

CHINDHARO: Ragged.

CHIRANJIVA: Immortal.

CHITHI: A piece of paper on which mystic signs are drawn; an amulet.

CHITHARIA: Ragged.

CHITI: See Chithi.

CHITPÁVAN: A caste of Bráhmans also known as Konkanasth.

CHITRA: Name of a constellation.

CHOK: A square.

CHOLA: Dolichos Sinensio.

CHOLI: A bodice.

CHONGE: A kind of sweet.

CHORÁSI KÁNTINI: An order of ghosts.

CHORÁSI VIRU: An order of ghosts.

CHORAWA: A ceremony performed at the time of reaping.

CHOTH: The fourth day of the bright or dark half of a month.

CHUDBUDE JOSHI: A caste of fortune-tellers.

CHUDEL: An order of female ghosts.

CHUDELA: See Chudel.

CHUDI: A torch.

CHUDI PAURNIMA: The full-moon day of the month of Mágh.

CHUNADI: A kind of cloth worn by females.

CHUNTHO: Ragged.

CHUNVÁLIA KOLI: A tribe of Kolis.

CHURAMA: Sweet balls of wheat flour fried and soaked in ghi.

CHUTAKI: Snapping the thumb and finger.

COHAMPALO: Meddlesome.



D.

DÁDAMO: An order of ghosts.

DÁDAMOKHODIÁR: Name of a field deity.

DÁDH: A molar tooth.

DÁDH BÁNDHAVI: To deprive of the power of eating by a charm or spell.

DÁDO: An order of ghosts.

DÁKAN: A witch; an order of ghosts.

DÁKINI: See Dákan.

DÁKLA: A spirit instrument in the form of a small kettle-drum.

DAKSHA: A celebrated Prajápati born from the thumb of Brahma.

DAKSHA PRAJÁPATI: See Daksha.

DAKSHANA: A gift of money made to Bráhmans.

DÁL: Name of a sect of Hindus.

DALAP: A ceremony performed for the propitiation of the minor deities
of the fields.

DÁLIA: Baked split gram.

DÁMANA: An amulet tied to the horns of a pet animal.

DAMPATYA: A married pair.

DÁNA: Corn seed.

DÁNDA: The bat at the game of trap-stick.

DÁNKLA: See Dákla.

DÁNKLA BESWÁN: The installation of a dánkla.

DÁNKLÁN: See Dákla.

DARBHA: A sacred grass; Cynodon Dactylon.

DARDURI: Name of a water nymph.

DARGA: A Muhammadan place of worship.

DARJI: A caste of tailors.

DASHA: Influence.

DARSHA SHRÁDDHA: A shráddha to the manes on every new moon day.

DASARA: The tenth day of the bright half of Kártik.

DASHARATHA: Son of Aja and father of Ráma.

DAS PINDA: The oblations collectively to the manes of a deceased
ancestor which are offered daily from the first day of his decease
until the tenth, or which are offered together on the tenth: also
the rite.

DÁTAN: Wooden sticks for brushing the teeth.

DATTA: Name of a god.

DATTÁTRAYA: See Datta.

DÁV: An order of ghosts.

DEDAKO: A frog.

DEHARI MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

DELAVADI DEVI: Name of a goddess.

DENDO: The croaking of a frog.

DEOPAN: Ceremonies and observances in propitiation of a god.

DESHASTHA: A caste of Bráhmans found in the Deccan.

DEVA: A god.

DEVACHÁR: Spirit of a Shudra who dies after his marriage.

DEVAHUTI: Name of the mother of the sage Kapil.

DEVAK: A term for the deity or deities worshipped at marriages,
thread investitures etc.; a totem.

DEVAKI: Mother of Krishna.

DEVAL: A temple.

DEVAL RIGHANE: Entering into the service of the temple.

DEVALI: The male offspring of a Bhávin.

DEVALO: Not loved.

DEVARSHI: A dealer with gods and devils: one that summons, exorcises
them, etc.

DEVA SARPA: A snake belonging to a deity.

DEVASKI: The annual ceremonies in honour of the tutelar divinity of
a village.

DEVA YOSHITA: A woman offered to a god.

DEV DIVÁLI: The eleventh day of the bright half of Kártik.

DEVI: A goddess.

DEVIPANTH: A sect of the worshippers of the goddess Durga.

DHÁGA: An amulet made of a piece of cloth.

DHAL-JATRA: A ceremony performed at the time of harvest.

DHAMA: A name of Hanumán.

DHANA: Coriander.

DHANANJAYA: Name of a snake.

DHANA-TRAYODASHI: The thirteenth day of the dark half of Ashvin.

DHANGAR: A caste of shepherds.

DHANISHTHA: Name of a constellation.

DHANU: Sagittarius.

DHANURMÁS: The period during which the sun is in Sagittarius.

DHANU-SANKRÁNT: Transit or passage of the sun through Sagittarius.

DHÁRÁVÁDI: A stream of milk.

DHARMARÁJA: The god of death.

DHARMASHÁLA: A rest house.

DHARMASHÁSTRA: The code of body of Hindu law.

DHARMASINDHU: Name of a work treating of Hindu law.

DHED: An impure caste of Hindus.

DHEDVÁDA: The ward or place occupied by the Dhed caste.

DHINGO: Fat.

DHOBI: A caste of washermen.

DHOL: A drum.

DHOLIO: An order of ghosts.

DHONDILGAJYA: Name of a rite performed for securing rainfall.

DHORI: White.

DHOTAR: Waist cloth.

DHUL PÁDAVO: The first day of the dark half of Fálgun.

DHRUVA: The son of Uttánapáda. He was a great devotee of the god
Vishnu. The solar star.

DHULETI: See Dhul Pádavo.

DHULWAD: See Dhul Pádavo. The day of throwing dust after the burning
of the Holi.

DHUNDA: Name of a demon goddess.

DHUNDA RÁKSHASIN: See Dhunda.

DHUNDHUMARI: Name of a mythological personage.

DHUNI: The smoke-fire of an ascetic over which he sits inhaling
the smoke.

DHUPA: Frankincense.

DIGAMBARA: Name of a goddess.

DIPO: Panther.

DISHA-SHUL: Pain caused by directions.

DIVÁLI: A festival with nocturnal illuminations, feastings, gambling,
etc. held during the concluding day of Ashvin and the first and second
day of Kártik.

DIVÁSA: The fifteenth day of the dark half of Ashádh.

DIWAD: A serpent of a large but harmless species.

DODKA: One hundredth part of a rupee.

DOKADO: A ball of molasses and sesamum seed cooked together.

DORA: Piece of a string; a magic thread.

DORLI: Solanum indicum.

DOSO: Old.

DRO: A kind of sacred grass.

DRONA: Son of Bháradvája, by birth a Bráhman but acquainted with
military science which he received as a gift from Parashurám. He
instructed the Kauravas and Pándavas in the use of arms.

DRUSTAMANI: A kind of black beads.

DUDHA: Milk.

DUDHPÁK: Rice cooked in milk and sweetened with sugar.

DUG-DUDIOON: See Dákla.

DUHITRA: Shráddha performed by a grandson to propitiate his maternal
grandfather.

DUKÁL: Famine.

DUNDUBHI: A kettle-drum.

DUNGAR: A hill.

DURBÁR: The court of an Indian Chief.

DURGA: Name of a goddess.

DURGATI: Fallen condition.

DURVA: A kind of sacred grass.

DURYODHANA: The eldest of the Kaurava brothers.

DWIJA: A twice-born. A Bráhman, a Kshatriya or a Vaishya, whose
investiture with the sacred thread constitutes, religiously and
metaphorically a second birth.

DWITIYA: The second day of the bright or dark half of a month.



E.

EKÁDASHI: The eleventh day of the bright and dark halves of a month.

EKAL PER: Zizyphus jujuba.

EKÁNTARIO: Intermittent fever.

EKOTISHTA: The rites performed on the eleventh day after death.

ETALÁI: Name of a goddess.



F.

FÁG: A vulgar song.

FÁGAN: A corrupted form of Fálgun. See Fálgun.

FAKIR: A Muhammadan mendicant.

FAKIRI: Alms given to Fakirs in the Muharram.

FAKIRO: A beggar.

FÁLGUN: The twelfth month of the Deccani Hindu and the fifth month
of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

FÁVADI: Name of a bird.

FIRANGÁI: Name of a goddess.

FUL: A flower.

FUL DOL: A festival in which coloured water is thrown.



G.

GADHEDA: A donkey.

GADHEDO: See Gadheda.

GADHERIMÁTA: Name of a goddess installed to protect a fortress or
a street.

GAFAL: Stupid.

GAGANACHAR: An order of ghosts moving in the etherial regions.

GAGARBEDIUN: A piece of leather thong or a piece of black wood on
which mystic spells have been cast.

GAJÁBÁI: Name of a goddess.

GAJACHHAYA: A festival--the day of the new moon of Bhádrapad the moon
being in the Hasta constellation.

GALÁL: Red powder.

GANA: A troop of demigods considered as Shiva's attendants.

GANAGOR: Name of a vow.

GANDHARVA: A celestial musician; a class of demigods who are considered
to be the singers of gods.

GÁNDIVA: Name of the bow of Arjuna.

GÁNDU: Name of a tree.

GANDH: Sandal paste.

GANESH CHATURTHI: The fourth day of the bright half of Bhádrapad
celebrated as the birthday of Ganesh.

GANESHIO: A hook-shaped instrument used by thieves in boring holes
through walls.

GANGA: The river Ganges.

GANGÁJAL: Water of the Ganges.

GANGIGOR: Name of a vow.

GÁNGLO: Stony.

GÁNGUD: An order of ghosts.

GÁNJA: Hemp flower.

GANPATI: The son of Shiva and Párvati. He is the deity of wisdom and
the remover of difficulties and obstacles.

GANPATIPUJAN: The worship of Ganpati.

GÁNTHIA: A preparation of gram flour.

GAON-DEVI: Village goddess.

GARABI: A song in propitiation of a goddess.

GARBHÁDÁN: The marriage consummation ceremony.

GÁRHÁNE: Supplication to an idol.

GARUD: The eagle.

GARUD PURÁN: Name of a purán.

GÁTRÁD: Name of a goddess.

GAU: A measure of distance equal to 1 1/3 miles.

GAUTAM: Name of a sage.

GAVA: A wild ox.

GAVALI: A caste of herdsmen.

GAVATDEV: Name of a godling.

GAVATI: An order of ghosts.

GAYÁSUR: Name of a demon.

GÁYATRI: Name of a daughter of Brahma.

GÁYATRI MANTRA: A sacred verse from the Vedas held specially sacred
and repeated by every Bráhman at his morning and evening devotion. The
verse is in honour of the sun.

GÁYATRI PURASCHARAN: A form of devotion requiring the recitation of
the Gáyatri mantra a hundred thousand times with certain symbolic
ceremonies.

GÁYATRIPURASCHAVACHAN: See Gáyatripurascharan.

GEDI: A bat.

GEDI-DÁNDA: An outdoor game played by boys.

GERIA: A boy who takes an active part in the Holi festival.

GHÁDI: An exorcist. A caste of temple ministrants or an individual
of it.

GHADI: A measure of time equal to twenty-four minutes.

GHADULO: A process for removing the effects of the evil eye.

GHÁNCHINI: An order of ghosts.

GHÁNDHARAVI: An order of ghosts.

GHÁNI: That quantity of oil seeds which is put in at one time to be
crushed in an oil mill.

GHÁT: Steps on the side of a river or tank leading to the water.

GHATOTKACHA: Name of a demon.

GHELI: Mad.

GHELO: Mad.

GHELUN: Mad.

GHERÁYALA: Eclipsed.

GHETA: A sheep.

GHODO: A horse.

GHUGARI: Grain boiled whole, i.e., unsplit and unhusked.

GHUMAT: A sort of musical instrument--an earthen vessel, pitcher-form,
covered over at the larger mouth with leather.

GHUNA: A mysterious watery pit.

GIDOTÁN: Name of a creeper.

GILLI-DÁNDA: A play amongst boys, trapstick.

GIRÁSIA: A Rajput landholder.

GIRHA: A water demon. Applied to Ráhu or to an eclipse in general,
solar or lunar.

GIRI: An order or individual of it among Gosávis.

GOCHADI: Cattle or dog louse.

GODHO: A bull.

GOKARN: Name of a mythological king.

GOKHALO: A niche in the wall.

GOKUL: The name of the village at which Krishna was brought up.

GOKHARU: A species of thorns.

GOKUL-ASHTAMI: The eighth day of the dark half of Bhádrapad celebrated
as the birthday of Krishna.

GOL: Molasses.

GOLÁBA: Name of a goddess.

GOLAMBÁDEVI: Name of a goddess.

GOMUKH: Mouth of a cow.

GONDARO: Place where the village cattle rest.

GONDHAL: A kind of religious dance.

GOOLVEL: A kind of creeper.

GOPÁLSANTÁN: Name of an incantation.

GOPRADÁN: Gift of a cow with its calf to a Bráhman.

GOR: A priest.

GORA: A black earthen vessel filled with curds.

GORADIA: A name of Hanumán.

GORÁIN: A married unwidowed woman.

GORAKHA: Name of a saint.

GORAKH CHINCH: A kind of tree.

GORJI: A preceptor.

GORAKHRÁJ: Name of a saint.

GOSÁVI: An ascetic.

GOTRA: A section of a caste having a common ancestor.

GOURI-PUJAN: The worship of the goddess Gouri, a festival observed
only by women.

GOUTRAD: A vow in honour of the cow lasting from the eleventh day to
the fifteenth day of the bright half of Bhádrapad.

GOUTRÁL: Name of a vow.

GOVARDHAN: A celebrated hill near Mathura. A large heap of cow dung
or of rice, vegetables, etc. made on the first day of the bright half
of Kártik in imitation of the mountain.

GOWALÁ-DEVA: Name of a deity connected with rain-fall.

GRAHA: A planet.

GRAHANA: An eclipse.

GRAHAN-PUJAN: The worship of the plough on the full-moon day of
Shrávan.

GRAHA-SHÁNTI: A ceremony in propitiation of the planets.

GRÁMADEVATA: A village goddess.

GRÁMA-DEVI: A village goddess.

GRIHADEVATA: The deity which presides over the house.

GRISHMA-RITU: The summer.

GRIVA: Name of a deity.

GUDHI: A pole, wrapped around with a cloth, a mango sprig, etc.,
erected on the first day of the year before the house-door.

GUDHI-PÁDVA: The first day of the bright half of Chaitra, the new
year's day of the Deccani Hindus.

GUHYAK: An order of semi-divine beings.

GULÁB: A rose.

GUGAL: Balsamodendron.

GUJAKALPA: Name of a medicinal preparation.

GULÁL: Red powder.

GUMPHA: A cave.

GUNDAR: Gum arabic.

GURAV: A caste of temple ministrants or an individual of it.

GURU: A religious preceptor; Jupiter.

GURU CHARITRA: Name of a sacred book.



H.

HADAL: Ghost of a woman who dies within ten days of childbirth or
during menses.

HADALI: See Hadal.

HÁJ: A pilgrim.

HAJÁM: A caste of barbers or an individual of it.

HALÁHAL: A sort of deadly poison produced at the churning of the ocean.

HANSA: A goose.

HANUMÁN: Name of a deity in the form of a monkey. He was a great
devotee of Ráma.

HANUMÁN-JAYANTI: The full-moon-day of chaitra celebrated as the
birthday of Hanumán.

HAR: A name of Shiva.

HARDA: A garland of balls made of sugar.

HARDÁS: One who performs Kathás that is relates stories of Hindu
deities to the accompaniment of music.

HARDE: Myrobalan.

HARI: A name of Vishnu.

HARISCHANDRA: Name of a mythological king.

HARITÁLIKA: The third day of the bright half of Bhádrapad on which
images of Párvati made of earth are worshipped by women.

HARIVANSHA: Name of a purán.

HASTA: Name of a constellation.

HATHADI: An order of ghosts.

HÁTHI: An elephant.

HAVAN: A sacrificial offering.

HEDAMATIO: A name of Hanumán.

HEDAMBA: Name of a giantess.

HEDLI: An order of ghosts.

HEMANT-RITU: Winter.

HIDIMBA: Name of a giantess.

HIJADA: A eunuch.

HINGLÁJ: Name of a goddess.

HIRANYAKASHIPU: Name of a demon.

HIRANYAKASHYAPU: Name of a demon.

HIRANYÁKSHA: Name of a demon.

HIRWA: An order of ghosts.

HOL: Name of a goddess.

HOLI: A festival held at the approach of the vernal equinox. The pile
arranged to be kindled at the festival.

HOLIA: A boy who takes an active part in the Holi celebrations.

HOLIKA: Name of a goddess.

HOLO: A species of birds.

HOMA: A sacrifice.

HOMAHAVAN: A formation expressing comprehensively or collectively,
the several acts and points appertaining to oblation by fire: also
any one indefinely of these acts and points.

HOW: Name of a demon.

HUMBAD: A caste of Vániás or an individual of it.

HUTÁSHANI: The pile arranged to be kindled at the festival of Holi.



I.

INA: An egg.

INÁM: A gift.

INDA: An egg-shaped vessel.

INDRA-DHANUSHYA: A rain-bow.

INDRAJIT: Name of a demon.

INDRAMAHOTSAVA: A festival celebrated in honour of the god Indra.

IRALE: A protection against rain made of the leaves of trees.

ISHTADEVATA: A chosen deity.

ITIDIO: A species of insects.



J.

JÁDI: Fat.

JADO: Fastened.

JÁDU: The black art.

JÁGRAN: The fifteenth day of the bright half of Ashádh.

JÁGRITI: Wakefulness.

JAIKHA: An order of ghosts.

JÁKHÁI: Name of a minor goddess.

JAKHANI: An order of semi-divine beings.

JAKHÁI-DEVI: Name of a minor goddess.

JAKHARA: Name of a minor goddess.

JAKHARO: An order of ghosts.

JÁKHIN: Spirit of a woman whose husband is alive.

JAKHMÁTA: Name of a minor goddess.

JAKRIN: Name of a deity residing in water.

JÁL: An order of ghosts; name of a tree.

JALACHAR: An order of evil spirits living in water.

JALADEVI: Water-goddess.

JALAJ: An order of ghosts.

JALA-JATRA: The ceremony of submerging the image of Shiva.

JALANDHAR: Name of a demon.

JALAP: A dream caused by cold.

JALDEVKI: Water-goddess.

JALOTSAVA: A water festival.

JAMBUVANT: One of the generals of Rama's army at the siege of Lanka
or Ceylon.

JAMBUVANTI: The daughter of Jambuvant.

JAMI: An order of ghosts.

JÁN: An order of ghosts.

JANAK: A king of Mahila, the foster-father of Sita.

JÁNAWE: A sacred thread.

JANGAM: A Lingáyat priest.

JANHU: Name of a mythological king.

JANJIRO: A black cotton thread with seven knots.

JANMÁSHTAMI: The eighth day of the dark half of Shrávan celebrated
as the birth-day of Krishna.

JANMA-SUWÁSINI: A woman who is perpetually unwidowed.

JANNI: Name of a minor goddess.

JANTRA: A mystical arrangement of words.

JAP: Repeating prayers in a muttering manner.

JAP-MÁL: A rosary.

JÁRAN: A kind of black art.

JARÁSANDH: Name of a demon.

JARI: Name of a goddess.

JARI-MARI: A goddess presiding over an epidemic or pestilential
disease.

JATA: Matted hair.

JATRA: A fair.

JATUPI: Name of a sage.

JAVA: Barley.

JAVÁLA: Tender wheat plants.

JETHA: The eighth month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

JHAPAT: A sudden encounter.

JHOLÁI: Name of a goddess.

JIMP: An order of ghosts.

JINNI: An order of ghosts.

JINO: Small.

JINTHRO: Rugged.

JIREN: Cumin-seed.

JIVADHANI: Name of a goddess.

JIVI: Live.

JIVO: Live.

JOGÁI: Name of a goddess.

JOGANI: A female harpie.

JOGATA: A male child offered to the goddess Yallamma.

JOGATIN: A female child offered to the goddess Yallamma.

JOGAVA: Begging in the name of the goddess Amba.

JOGI: A male child offered to the goddess Máyáka.

JOGIN: A female child offered to the goddess Máyáka.

JUÁRI: A kind of corn.

JULEBI: A kind of sweet.

JUTHI: False.

JUVÁRI: A kind of corn.

JYESHTHA: The third month of the Deccani Hindu and the eighth month
of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year. Name of a constellation.

JYOTISH-SHÁSTRA: The science of astronomy.



K.

KABAR: A tomb raised over the grave of a Muhammadan saint.

KABIR: Name of a celebrated saint.

KACHA: The son of Brihaspati, the preceptor of gods.

KACHAKADA: A kind of bead.

KACHARO: Refuse.

KACHBI: Rainbow.

KÁCHHIA: A caste of vegetable sellers.

KADADAN: Legumes.

KADALIPUJAN: Plantain tree worship.

KADAMB: Anthocephalus cadamba.

KADVI: Bitter.

KADAVO: Bitter.

KADULIMB: Melia Azadirachta.

KÁFRI: An order of ghosts.

KÁGDO: A crow.

KÁGRÁSHIA: An expounder of the utterances of crows.

KÁGVA: Cooked food offered to the manes.

KAITABHA: Name of a demon.

KÁJAL: Collyrium.

KÁJRA: A kind of tree.

KAKADI: A cucumber.

KÁKBHUSHUNDI: Name of a sage.

KALASH: A jar.

KALASHI: A weight of corn.

KÁLANEMI: Name of a demon.

KALASIO: A bowl.

KÁLI: Name of a goddess.

KÁLIKA: Name of a goddess.

KÁLKÁICHE BHUT: An order of ghosts.

KÁLI CHAUDAS: The fourteenth day of the dark half of Ashvin.

KALINGI: Daughter of the king of the Kalingas.

KÁLI PARAJ: A name applied collectively to the aboriginal tribes
of Gujarát.

KÁLIYA NÁG: Name of a mythological snake.

KÁLI YUGA: The fourth age of the world according to the Hindu
scriptures.

KÁLO: Black.

KÁLO VA: Name of a cattle disease.

KALPAVRIKSHA: A fabulous tree granting all desires.

KÁL BHAIRAV: A name of Mahádev.

KÁL PURUSHA: The god of death.

KÁLUBÁI: Name of a minor goddess.

KALYÁN: Welfare.

KÁMA DHENU: A heavenly cow granting all desires.

KAMALA HOLI: The fourteenth day of the bright half of Fálgun.

KÁMAN: A kind of black art of bewitching a person.

KAMANDALU: A gourd.

KÁMDEV MAHÁDEV: A name of Mahádev.

KAMOD: A kind of rice.

KANAKNÁTH: A name of Mahádev.

KANKOTRI: Red powder.

KÁNOBA: Name of a minor deity.

KANSA: King of Mathura, maternal uncle of Krishna.

KANSÁR: Coarse wheat flour cooked in water or ghi and sweetened with
molasses or sugar.

KANYA: A girl; Virgo.

KAPHAN: The cloth in which a corpse is wrapped.

KAPIL: Name of a sage.

KAPILÁSHASTHI: A day on which synchronize six particulars--the
day, Tuesday; the month, Bhádrapad; the date, the sixth of the dark
fortnight; the Nakshatra, Rohini; the Yog, Vyatipát; the Mahánakshatra,
Hasti.

KAPILASHETE: See Kapiláshasthi.

KARAN: A kind of tree.

KARHÁDA: A caste of Bráhmans found in the Deccan.

KARKA: Cancer.

KARKATA: Name of a water nymph.

KARKATI: See Karkata.

KARKOTAK: Name of a snake.

KARMAMÁRGA: The path of action.

KÁRTIK: The eighth month of the Deccani Hindu and the first month of
the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

KÁRTIKEY: Son of Shiva, the commander of the army of the gods.

KÁSADA: A kind of sacred grass.

KASÁI: A butcher.

KASATIA: Name of a god.

KASATIA-GÁNTH: Tying the knot of Kasatia, a vow observed in the name
of the god Kasatia.

KÁSHI: Benares.

KÁTHAWATI: Name of a tribe.

KATHEKARI: A narrator of the legends of the gods.

KÁTHI: Name of a tribe.

KÁTKARI: Name of a tribe.

KÁTLÁN: A kind of medicinal preparation.

KATYÁR: A dagger.

KAUL: The rice, betelnuts, etc., stuck upon an idol when it is
consulted.

KAUL GHÁLNE: To consult a deity by kaul.

KAURAVA: The patronymic of the descendants of Kuru, but usually
applied to the sons of Dhritaráshtra.

KAUSTUBHA: Name of a celebrated gem obtained at the churning of the
ocean and worn by Vishnu.

KAVANESHWAR: A name of Mahádev.

KÁYA: Body.

KEDÁR: Name of a deity.

KERÁDO: A kind of tree.

KESHAR: Saffron.

KESHAVA: A name of Krishna.

KETU: In astronomy, the ninth of the planets; in mythology, a demon.

KHABITH: An order of ghosts.

KHAD-KHADYA-BESÁDVI: A ceremony performed by exorcists to propitiate
their favourite goddesses.

KHADI: Red or green earth.

KHAGACHAR: An order of ghosts roaming in the sky.

KHAIR: Acacia catechu.

KHAIS: A species of water spirits.

KHAJÁDA PANTH: A sect of Hindus.

KHÁKHARA: A kind of tree.

KHÁKHI: A sect of Hindus.

KHAL: The passage in the Shivalinga (phallus of Shiva).

KHANA: A bodice cloth.

KHÁNDE PUJAN: Worship of arms.

KHANDERÁI: A name of the deity Khandoba.

KHANDOBA: Name of a deity.

KHANJIR: A dagger.

KHÁPARI: A kind of cattle disease.

KHÁPRYA: An order of ghosts.

KHÁRAVA: A disease of cattle in which the hoofs are affected.

KHÁRVA: A caste of fishermen and sailors or an individual of it.

KHÁRVI: See Khárva.

KHÁTALE: A cot.

KHATRI: A caste of weavers.

KHAVÁS: A caste of Hindus.

KHAVIS: An order of ghosts.

KHETALO: Name of a snake deity.

KHETRVA: A field.

KHEM: An order of ghosts.

KHICHADI: A preparation of rice and pulse cooked together.

KHIJADIO: The Shami tree, Prosopis spicigera.

KHIJADO: See Khijadio.

KHIJADO MÁMO: An order of ghosts.

KHILI: A peg.

KHIR: Rice cooked in milk and sweetened with sugar.

KHIT KHIT: Notes of the Pingla bird.

KHODIÁR MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

KHODO: Lame.

KHODO MÁMO: Name of a minor deity.

KHOJA: A class of Musalmáns.

KHOKHO: An outdoor game played in the Deccan.

KHUNTINI: An order of ghosts.

KIDI: An ant.

KILBIL: Notes of the Pingla bird.

KINKHÁB: Silk worked with gold and silver flowers, brocade.

KINNARI: An order of semi-divine beings.

KIRÁTA: A fisherman.

KISHORDÁS: A name of Hanumán.

KODRA: Punctured millet.

KOHALA: Pumpkin.

KOKÁI: Name of a goddess.

KOKIL: A cuckoo.

KOKILA VRATA: The festival of cuckoos which is held in the month of
Ashádh after a lapse of twenty years.

KOLAMBÁI: Name of a goddess.

KOLHÁI: Name of a goddess.

KOLI: A primitive tribe of Hindus common in the Bombay Presidency.

KOLO: A jackal.

KOLKÁI: Name of a goddess.

KOLU: Cucurbita maxima.

KONDI: A kind of earthen pot.

KONDURI: A preparation of mutton.

KORI: A new garment; an unused earthen jar; a small silver coin.

KOTHALI: Reticule.

KOTWÁL: Name of an untouchable caste of Hindus.

KOYATA: A wood bill.

KRISHNA: The eighth incarnation of Vishnu.

KRITIKA: Name of a constellation.

KRIYA BHAUDÁI: Name of a deity.

KSHATRIYA: The warrior class, the second of the fourfold divisions
of Manu.

KSHETRA: A holy place.

KSHETRAPÁL: The guardian spirit of fields; a kind of stone.

KUBER: The lord of wealth, the regent of the north and the king of
the Yakshas and Kinnaras.

KUKAD VEL: A kind of creeper.

KUL: A totem; a clan.

KULA-DEVATA: Family deity.

KULA-DEVI: Family goddess.

KULADHARMA: A special worship of the family god or goddess of each
family.

KULATHI: A kind of corn.

KULERA: A mixture of wheat, oat or rice flour, clarified butter and
sugar or molasses.

KULKARNI: A village accountant.

KUMBHA: Aquarius.

KUMBHAKARN: Name of a demon.

KUMBHÁR: A caste of potters.

KUMBHÁRAN: A woman of the Kumbhár caste.

KUMBHAVA: Name of a cattle disease.

KUMBHAVIVÁHA: Marriage with an earthen jar.

KUNBI: A cultivator.

KUND: A pond; a pit; a sacred pool.

KUNDALAN: A kind of magic circle.

KUNDALI: An astrological diagram of the position of planets at any
particular time.

KUNDALIA: A name of Hanumán.

KUNDI: A shoe-maker's earthen pot.

KUNKU: Red powder.

KUNTI: The first wife of Pandu.

KUPOTSARGA: Digging a well for the benefit of the public--and
abandoning one's right of ownership over it.

KURANANDI: Wheat flour lumps used in the ceremony of the Bodan.

KURI: An implement for sowing corn.

KURMI: Name of a water nymph.

KURUKSHETRA: The extensive plain near Delhi, the scene of the great
battle between the Kauravas and Pándavas.

KUSHMÁND: An order of demi-gods.

KUSUMBA: The dye prepared from the dried flowers of the Kusumba
(Carthamus tinctorius).

KUTRO: A dog.



L.

LÁDU: A sweet ball.

LAGHURUDRA: A rite in honour of the god Shiva.

LÁHYA: Parched rice.

LAKSHACHANDI: A recitation in honour of the goddess Párvati.

LAKSHAMANA: Brother of Ráma.

LAKSHMI: The goddess of wealth.

LÁLA HARDEV: Name of a minor local deity.

LÁLO: Name of a field deity.

LÁLO BHAGAT: Name of a saint.

LÁMANDIVO: An iron lamp.

LAMLAN: A branch of black magic.

LANKA: Ceylon.

LÁPSI: Coarse wheat flour fried in ghi and sweetened with molasses
or sugar.

LAVENG: Clove.

LÁVANI: A kind of ballad: plantation.

LÁWANI: Plantation.

LÁVO: A Parasite.

LÁVSANT: A ghost of a widow.

LIMDO: A tree, Alantas excelsa.

LIMBO: Poisonous.

LINGA: Phallus.

LINGAM: See Linga.

LINGÁYAT: An individual of the Lingáyat religion whose chief object
of worship is Shiva.

LOBÁN: Olibanum.

LOBHÁN: Incense powder.

LOTA: A water pot.

LUVÁNA: A caste of traders.

LUXMI: See Lakshmi.



M.

MACHCHENDRA NÁTH: Name of a saint.

MACHHI: Name of a water nymph.

MÁCHHO: Name of a goddess.

MACHHU: See Máchho.

MADALIUN: A hollow bracelet.

MADAN: Cupid.

MADHAVI: A village headman.

MADHU: Name of a demon.

MADHU PAVANTI: An order of ghosts.

MADHWÁCHÁRYA: Name of a great saint who founded a sect of Vaishnavism.

MAFAT: Useless.

MAFATIO: Useless.

MAG: A grain, Phaseolus mungo.

MÁGH: The eleventh month of the Deccani Hindu and the fourth month
of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

MAGHA: Name of a constellation.

MAGHALO: A lamp of mud covered with leaves to represent the god
of rain.

MAHÁBHÁRAT: Name of an epic of the Hindus.

MAHÁDEVA: A name of Shiva.

MAHA GIRA: Name of a minor deity.

MAHÁKÁLI: Name of a goddess.

MAHÁKÁLI NIRVÁN TANTRA: Name of a work on Tantric philosophy.

MAHÁLAKSHMI: Name of a goddess; Name of a ceremony in which the
goddess is worshipped on the eighth day of the bright half of Ashvin.

MAHÁLAYA SHRÁDDHA: A shráddha performed in the dark half of Bhádrapad
in propitiation of ancestors.

MAHÁMÁRI: Cholera goddess.

MAHANT: A saint.

MAHÁPURUSH: An order of civil spirits.

MAHÁR: An unclean caste of Hindus.

MAHÁR PURUSHA: A kind of stone.

MAHÁRÁJA: A term of respectful compellation applied to kings, religious
heads, saints, etc.

MAHÁRÁKSHASA: A class of demons.

MAHÁRUDRA: A sacrifice in honour of Shiva.

MAHÁRAURAVA: A kind of hell.

MAHÁSHIVARÁTRI: The fourteenth day of the dark half of Mágh, a fast
day in honour of Shiva.

MAHÁTMA: A saint.

MAHÁTMYA: Greatness.

MAHESHA: A name of Shiva.

MAHESHVAR: A name of Shiva.

MAHI: Name of a demon.

MAHIKÁWATI: Name of a goddess.

MAHODAYA: Name of a festival.

MAIDAN: A plain.

MAKARA: Capricornus.

MAKARI: Name of a water nymph.

MAKHAR: A gaily dressed up wooden frame.

MAKI: Maize.

MÁLÁR: A musical mode.

MALHÁRI: A name of Kandoba.

MALI: Red lead.

MÁLI: A caste of gardeners or an individual of it.

MALINDA: A sweet preparation of wheat flour fried in ghi.

MALIN: Unclean.

MALLÁRI: A name of Khandoba.

MÁLO: A bower.

MAMIKULA: An order of ghosts.

MÁMO: An order of ghosts; a maternal uncle.

MANAYA: Name of a deity.

MANDAL: A group.

MANDALU: A circle.

MANDAN MISHRA: Name of an ancient scholar.

MANDAP: A bower.

MÁNDA BHARANE: Filling in a magic circle as a protection from spirits.

MÁNEK-STAMBHA: The auspicious post of the marriage bower.

MÁNG: An unclean caste of the Hindus.

MÁNGÁI: Name of a goddess.

MANGAL: Mars.

MANGALÁ-GOURI: A ceremony performed by married girls for five
successive years on every Tuesday of the month of Shrávan.

MANGALÁRATI: Moving a lighted lamp round an idol.

MANGALSUTRA: The lucky thread worn by married women.

MANI: A jewel; name of a deity.

MANIDHAR: A snake.

MANI MALLA: Name of a demon.

MÁNKARI: The person entitled to certain honours and presents at
village assemblies.

MANKODA: A black ant.

MÁNSA KHAVANTI: An order of ghosts.

MANTRA: An incantation; a magic spell.

MANTRA-SHÁSTRA: The science of incantations.

MANTRI: An exorcist.

MÁNTRIK: An exorcist.

MANUSHYACHAR: An order of ghosts moving among men.

MÁRAN: A branch of black magic.

MÁRGA: A path; course.

MARGÁI: Name of a goddess.

MÁRGASHIRSHA: The ninth month of the Deccani Hindu and the second
month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

MARGI: A sect of Hindus.

MARGI PANTHI: A follower of the Margi sect.

MARI: Name of a goddess.

MARICHI: Name of a sage.

MARIYUN: A ceremony for driving away insects.

MARVO: Marjoram.

MASUR: Lentil.

MASIDA: An order of ghosts.

MÁTA: A goddess.

MÁTÁJI: See Máta.

MÁTA ASHTAMI: The eighth day of the navarátra.

MÁTARI: Name of a goddess.

MATH: A monastery.

MÁTHBHÁJI: A kind of green vegetable.

MÁTI: Earth.

MÁTRIKA: A mother; an order of semi-divine beings.

MÁULI: Name of a goddess.

MAUNYA VRATA: A vow of silence.

MÁVADI: Ghost of a woman dying with certain desires unfulfilled.

MÁYA: Illusion.

MÁYÁKA: Name of a goddess.

MEDA: Marrow.

MEDINI: The earth.

MEGH: A cloud.

MEGHARÁJA: The god of rains.

MEGHLADDU: A sweet ball of wheat flour fried in ghi.

MEHULO: See Maghalo.

MEKAIL: Name of an angel.

MELADI: An order of ghosts.

MELDI: See Meladi.

MELI VIDYA: Sacrilegious art.

MENA: A kind of bird.

MERU: Name of a mythological mountain.

MESHA: Aries.

MHÁLSA: Name of a goddess.

MHÁRJÁI: Name of a goddess.

MHARLOBA: Name of a deity.

MHASHYA: A species of water spirits.

MHASOBA: Name of a village deity; lord of ghosts.

MIANA: A class of Musalmáns.

MINA: Pisces.

MINDHAL: A kind of fruit.

MIRI: Particle.

MITHUN: Gemini.

MIYALI: An order of ghosts.

MOBHARA: A hollow stone used for threshing corn.

MOCHI: A caste of shoe-makers.

MOCHINI: An order of ghosts.

MOGRI: Rat-tailed raddish.

MOHAN: A branch of black magic.

MOHINI: A fascinating woman.

MOHARO: The stone found in the head of the snake.

MOHOR: See Moharo.

MOKSHA: Salvation.

MOLANI: An order of ghosts.

MOTÁKAT: Name of a vow.

MOR: A peacock.

MORIA: An earthen bowl.

MOT MÁVALI: Mother Mary.

MOTUDUKH: A kind of cattle disease.

MOVA KHARAVA: Name of a cattle disease.

MRIG: A deer; name of a constellation.

MRIGÁNKA: The moon.

MRIGA TONCHANA: The moon.

MRITYUNJAYA: Name of an incantation.

MUCHKUND: Name of a sage.

MUJÁVAR: A sweeper of a mosque devoutly or piously fixed to it.

MUKTI: Salvation.

MUL: Name of a star.

MULO: Raddish.

MUNDA: A kind of wind.

MUNGESHWAR MAHÁDEV: A name of Shiva.

MUNGI MÁTA: Name of a goddess; dumb mother.

MUNJA: Spirit of Bráhman boy who dies immediately after his thread
ceremony.

MURALI: A flute.

MURDUNGA: Tabour.

MURLI: See Murali.

MUSAL: A rice pounder.

MUTH: The fist.

MUTH MÁRANE: Throwing of a handful of rice over which incantations
have been repeated; sending a bewitched lemon to a person to whom a
disease is to be transferred or who is to be killed.

MUVA-KESHIBI: A kind of cattle disease.



N.

NÁCHANI: A kind of grain.

NÁDÁPUDI: A coloured cord with a small parcel containing incense,
red powder, etc.

NÁDÁSÁDI: A cord and a robe.

NÁG: A snake; a species of semi-divine beings half men half serpents
in form.

NÁGA: See Nág.

NÁGABALI: A propitiatory offering to snakes.

NÁGAR: A caste of Bráhmans found in Gujarát.

NÁGCHÁMFA: A flower tree, Alpinia mutans.

NÁGDEV: The snake god.

NÁGKANYA: A snake girl.

NÁG KESAR: Messua Ferrea.

NÁGMAGA: A class of beggars who worship the snake.

NÁGNÁTH: Name of a snake deity.

NÁG PANCHAMI: The fifth day of the bright half Shrávan, a holiday in
honour of the snake deity.

NÁGO: Shameless.

NÁGOBA: The snake deity.

NÁGVEL: A kind of creeper.

NAIVEDYA: An offering of some eatable to an idol.

NAKSHATRA: A star; a constellation.

NALA: Name of a mythological king.

NÁLPIR: Name of a pir or Mahomedan saint.

NÁL SÁHEB: A familiar name for the bearer, in the Muharam, of the
Tabut-pole which terminates at the top in a nál or horse-shoe member.

NAMAN: Oil poured over the image of Hanumán.

NAMASKÁR: Reverential or respectful address or salutation.

NANDA: the adoptive father of Krishna.

NANDARÁJ: Name of a mythological king.

NANDI: A bull.

NÁNDI SHRÁDDHA: A Shráddha to the manes, preliminary to any joyous
occasion.

NÁNO: Small.

NAO NARASING: An order of ghosts.

NARA: Name of a sage.

NÁRAD MUNI: Name of a divine sage.

NARAK: Hell.

NARAK-CHATURDASHI: The fourteenth day of the dark half of Ashvin.

NÁRALI PAURNIMA: The cocoanut holiday, the fifteenth day of the bright
half of Shrávan.

NARASIMHA: An incarnation of Vishnu in the form of half lion half man.

NÁRÁYAN: Name of a sage.

NÁRÁYANA BALI: A sacrifice in propitiation of evil spirits.

NÁRÁYAN KAVACH: A hymn in honour of Vishnu.

NÁRÁYAN NÁGABALI: A kind of offering.

NÁREL-PURNIMA: See Nárali Paurnima.

NARGUDIKALPA: A kind of medicinal preparation.

NARKYA UDA: A kind of incense.

NARSINHA: See Narasimha.

NARSINHA MEHTA: a celebrated saint of Gujarát.

NÁTAK: A drama.

NATHU: Tied.

NAVACHANDI: Name of a sacrifice.

NAVAGRAHA: The nine planets.

NAVAGRAHASHÁNTI: A ceremony in propitiation of the nine planets.

NAVAKÁDÁN: Gift of a ship.

NAVALÁ-DEVI: Name of a goddess.

NAVAMUTHIUM: A preparation of nine handfuls of wheat.

NAVARÁTRA: The first nine days of the month of Ashvin held sacred
to Durga.

NAVATERI: A game of nine and thirteen.

NEHADO: A hamlet of Bharváds or shepherds.

NIAR: A kind of rice grown without ploughing.

NILOTSARGA: A kind of Shráddha.

NILOTSAVA: See Nilparván.

NILPARVÁN: A ceremony in propitiation of the spirits of deceased
ancestors.

NIRGUDI: A kind of plant.

NIRMALA: Name of a goddess.

NOL VEL: A kind of creeper.

NRISINHA MANTRA: An incantation in honour of Nrisinha.

NYÁSA: Gesture.



O.

OGHAD: A fool.

OKARINU: Vomitting; a kind of sheep disease.

OLO: A species of birds.

OMKÁR MANDHÁTA: Name of a god.



P.

PÁDO: A he-buffalo.

PÁDUKA: Impressions of feet on stones.

PADVAL: Snake-gourd.

PADWAL: See Padval.

PAJUSAN: A holiday of Jains.

PALAS: A tree, Butea frondosa.

PALEJATRA: A ceremony performed at the sowing season.

PALE MARAD: An order of ghosts.

PÁLIO: A pillar. A tomb erected on the grave of a person who dies on
a field of battle.

PALUS: See palas.

PÁN: A betel leaf.

PANCHAK: Grouping of constellations lasting for five days.

PANCHÁKSHARI: An exorcist.

PANCHÁMRITA: A mixture of milk, curds, sugar, ghi and honey.

PANCHARATNA: Five kinds of precious things, viz., gold, silver,
copper, coral and pearls.

PANCHÁYATAN: The five deities, Shiva, Vishnu, Surya, Ganpati and Devi.

PANCH-DEVA: See Pancháyatan.

PANCHGAVYA: A mixture of the five products of the cow.

PANCHOPACHÁR: The presenting in oblation to an idol of five articles.

PÁNDAVA: A term applied to the five sons of Pandu.

PANDHAR: Name of a goddess.

PANDIT: A scholar.

PÁNDHRI: A kind of tree.

PÁNGALÁ-DEVI: Name of a goddess.

PANOTI: Certain peculiar conjunctions of planets; name of a goddess.

PÁPAD: Wafer biscuits.

PARADI: A disease-scaring basket; a basket.

PARAKÁYÁPRAVESH: Entering the body of another.

PARASHU: An axe.

PARDESHI: A term applied to men from Upper India, usually low caste.

PARJANYA: Rain.

PARJANYA-SHÁNTI: A ceremony performed to secure rainfall.

PARMÁR: A clan of Rajputs.

PÁRO: A kind of stone.

PÁRSHAD VAIKUNTHA: Name of a heavenly region.

PÁRTHISHWAR: Lord of the earth; a god.

PÁRVATI: The consort of Shiva.

PARWANI: A festival.

PASHUCHAR: An order of ghosts moving among beasts.

PASHUPATÁKA: A weapon of Shiva.

PASTANA: The being disposed for use--vessels, etc. for idol worship.

PÁT: A low wooden stool; marriage with a widow.

PÁTÁL: The nether world.

PÁTHA: Recitation.

PÁTIL: A village headman.

PATIT-PÁVAN: Purifier of the fallen.

PATKA: A head scarf.

PÁTLA: A low wooden stool.

PÁT LÁVANE: To marry a widow.

PAURÁNIC: As prescribed in the puránas.

PAUSH: The tenth month of the Deccani Hindu and the third month of
the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

PÁVAIYA: A sect of goddess worshippers.

PÁVTE: A kind of grain.

PEDHE: A kind of sweets.

PEDI: A small heap or lápsi.

PEESA: An order of ghosts.

PENDA: A kind of sweets.

PETTOD: A kind of cattle disease.

PHÁLGUN: The twelfth month of the Deccani Hindu and the fifth month
of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

PHANAS: The jack fruit.

PIDHÁN ÁRATI: The ceremony of substituting night ornaments on an idol
for the costly ornaments of the day.

PILUDI: A kind of tree.

PIND: A rice ball.

PINDA: See Pind.

PINGLA: A species of birds.

PINJAR: Red powder.

PIPAL: A tree, Ficus religiosa.

PIPALESHWAR MAHÁDEV: A name of Shiva.

PIR: A Muhammadan name for a saint.

PIRAS PIPALO: Thespesia populwa.

PISHÁCHA: An evil spirit.

PITAR: A spirit of a deceased ancestor.

PITHI: Turmeric powder.

PITPÁPDO: Glossocardi Boswellia.

PITRA: Manes.

PITRI: An ancestral spirit.

PITRI SHRÁDDHA: A Shráddha in propitiation of the ancestral spirits.

PITRRIYA: A deceased ancestor.

PITRU PAKSHA: Manes' fortnight, the dark half of the month of
Bhádrapad.

POHOR: A measure of time equal to three hours.

POLIO: Hollow.

POLO: Hollow.

PONDHAR: Name of a goddess.

POPAT: A parrot.

POSHI: A class of chudels, an order of ghosts.

POTHIA: An exorcist; the bull of Shiva.

POTHIO: A bull.

PRÁCHETAS: A patronymic of Manu.

PRADAKSHINA: Circumambulation.

PRADOSHA: The thirteenth day of the dark half of a month.

PRALHÁD: The son of the demon Hiranyakashipu. He was a great devotee
of Vishnu.

PRALAMBÁSUR: Name of a demon.

PRÁNA: Life.

PRÁNA-POKA: Death wail.

PRASÁD: Consecrated food.

PRASTHÁNA: See Pastana.

PRATÁB: An order of ghosts.

PRÁYASCHITTA: Penance.

PRAYOGA: Performance; experiment.

PRETA: A goblin; spirit of a person dying a sudden or accidental death.

PUDINA: Mentha Sativa.

PUJA: Worship.

PUJÁRI: A worshipper.

PUJYA: Deserving to be worshipped.

PULAP: Name of a sage.

PULASTYA: Name of a sage.

PUNARVASU: Name of a constellation.

PUNDARIK: Name of a mythological snake.

PUNEMA: The full moon day of a month.

PUNJI: Refuse.

PUNJO: Refuse.

PUNYÁHA WACHAN: A particular ceremony performed on festive occasions.

PUNYA STHÁNA: A holy place.

PUNYA TITHI: The death anniversary of a Sanyási or saint.

PURÁN: The name of a certain class of sacred books ascribed to Vyása
and containing the whole body of Hindu mythology.

PURBHAYA: A term applied to persons from Upper India.

PURNÁHUTI: An offering into the fire of a handful of rice, ghi,
cocoanuts and some other articles.

PURNIMA: See Paurnima.

PURNA TITHI: A complete day.

PURUSHOTTAM: Intercalary month.

PURVÁBHÁDRAPADA: Name of a constellation.

PURVÁ-FÁLGUNI: Name of a constellation.

PURVAJA: An ancestor.

PURVÁSHÁDHA: Name of a constellation.

PUSHKAR: Name of a snake.

PUSHYA: Name of a constellation.



R.

RABÁRI: A caste of shepherds.

RÁDHA: A man dressed in woman's clothes as a dancer; name of a
sweetheart of Krishna.

RADIO: Crying.

RÁFDA: A kind of jujube tree.

RAGATIO: An order of ghosts.

RÁHU: A demon with the tail of a dragon whose head was severed from his
body by Vishnu. The head and tail, retaining their separate existence,
were transferred to the planetary heavens, and became, the first,
the eighth planet, and the second (Ketu) the ninth.

RAINÁDEVI: Name of a goddess.

RÁJÁH: A king.

RÁJAYAJNA: A kind of sacrifice.

RÁJBÁI MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

RÁJBHOG ARATI: The ceremony of offering dainties and cooked food to
the gods.

RAJPUTÁNI: Wife of a Rajput; a Rajput woman.

RÁKHADI: A piece of silk thread.

RAKHEVÁLIO: An order of ghosts.

RÁKSHASA: A demon.

RÁLA: Panic seed.

RÁLE: Panic seed.

RAMALASHÁSTRA: The science of divining by means of figures or lines
and dice.

RÁMANAVAMI: The ninth day of the bright half of Chaitra celebrated
as the birth day of Ráma.

RÁMÁNUJA: Name of a great saint and philosopher who founded a sect
of Vaishnavism.

RÁMÁYANA: An epic poem by Válmiki describing the exploits and
adventures of Ráma.

RÁMCHANDRA: A name of Ráma.

RÁMESHWAR: A name of Shiva.

RÁMNÁTH: Name of a deity.

RÁNDAL: Name of a goddess who presides over child-birth.

RÁNDHAN CHHETHA: The cooking sixth, the sixth day of the dark half
of Shráwan.

RANGPANCHAMI: The fifth day of the dark half of Phálgun on which
coloured water is thrown.

RÁNJANI: A kind of tree.

RANNA DEVI: Name of a goddess who presides over child-birth.

RÁNO: A Lord.

RÁSHI: Signs of the Zodiac.

RATANVO PÁRO: A kind of stone.

RATANWA: A kind of skin disease.

RATH: A charriot.

RATHA SAPTAMI: The seventh day of the bright half of Mágh.

RATNA: A jewel.

RATNESHWAR MAHÁDEVA: A name of Shiva.

RÁUL: A caste of Hindus or an individual of it.

RÁVAL: See Rául.

RAVALNÁTH: Name of a spirit; name of a village deity.

RÁVAN: Name of the demon king of Lanka or Ceylon.

RAVI: The sun.

RAWALNÁTH: See Ravalnáth.

RÁYAN: A tree, Mimusops hexandra.

REKHA: A line.

RELA: A stream.

REVATI: Name of a constellation.

REWADI: A preparation of sesamum and sugar.

RIKTA: Unfruitful, inauspicious.

RISHI PUNCHAMI: The fifth day of the bright half of Bhádrapad.

RITU: A season.

ROHINI: Name of a constellation.

ROPANI: Transplanting.

ROT: A loaf prepared from eight kinds of grain.

ROTAL: Womanish.

RUDRA: An order of semi-divine beings.

RUDRÁBHISHEKA: The ceremony of pouring water in a constant stream
over the image of Shiva for eleven consecutive days and nights.

RUDRÁKSHA: A tree sacred to Shiva. Eleocarpus ganitrus.

RUDRÁKSHA MÁLA: A rosary of 108 beads of the rudráksha wood.

RUDRAYÁG: A sacrifice in honour of the god Shiva.

RUI: A tree, calotropis gigantea.

RUPO: Handsome.

RUTU: Name of a sage.

RUTUSHÁNTI: The marriage consummation ceremony.



S.

SABHA: A meeting.

SÁDÁSÁTI PANOTI: A panoti extending over seven years and a half.

SÁDHAN: Accomplishment.

SÁDHU: A saint.

SAGAR: A king of the Solar race, an ancestor of Ráma.

SAHÁN: A levigating slab.

SAHASRABHOJAN: Feeding a thousand Bráhmans.

SAITÁN: An order of ghosts.

SAIYED: A name for Musalmáns directly descended from the Prophet.

SAKHARADO: A kind of disease.

SAKHOTIA: Name of a tree.

SAKINI: An order of ghosts.

SÁKSHI: Witness.

SALÁM: The word used in salutation by and to Muhammadans and other
people not Hindu.

SALBAYA: Name of a deity.

SAMÁCHARI: The death anniversary.

SAMÁDH: The edifice which is erected over the burial-place of a
Sanyási or saint; deep and devout meditation.

SAMÁDHI: See Samádh.

SAMAI: A brass lamp.

SÁMÁNYA PUJA: Ordinary worship.

SAMBANDHA: Spirit of a Bráhman who dies without an heir and whose
funeral rites have not been performed.

SÁMELU: A log of wood.

SÁMISHYA: Entering the divine order.

SAMPAT SHANIWÁR: Wealth-giving Shaniwár, a Saturday in the month
of Shrávan.

SAMUDRA: The sea.

SAMVAT: A year.

SAMVATSAR: A year; A period of three cycles of twenty years each,
that is sixty years.

SAMVATSARI: Death anniversary.

SÁMVATSARIK SHRÁDDHA: The yearly Shráddha.

SANATKUMAR: One of the four sons of Brahma.

SANCHAL: A kind of salt.

SANDHYA: The morning, noon or evening prayers of a Bráhman.

SANDHYA ÁRATI: Offerings of Milk, sugar and cakes to the gods in
the evening.

SANIPÁT: Delirium.

SÁNKAL: A chain.

SANKAR: A stone.

SANKASTI CHATURTHI: The fourth lunar day of every dark fortnight.

SANKRÁNT: Transit or passage of the sun or a planet from one sign of
the zodiac into another.

SANKRÁNTI: See Sankránt.

SANYÁSI: The Bráhman of the fourth order, the religious mendicant.

SAPINDI: The offering of a ball of rice, etc., to the spirit of a
deceased relative, commonly on the twelfth day after his decease.

SAPTÁHA: A perusal or reading through of a purán or other sacred book
in seven consecutive days.

SAPTÁHA-PÁRÁYAN: See Saptáha.

SAPTA-RISHI: Ursa Major (the seven stars of which are supposed to
be the seven great saints Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya. Pulaha,
Kratu and Vasishtha.)

SAPTA SANI: Name of an incarnation.

SÁRANGDHA: A kind of fruit.

SARASVATI: The goddess of learning.

SÁRI: A robe.

SARPA BÁNDHANE: A process by which a snake can be prevented from
entering or leaving a particular area.

SARVASÁKSHI: The observer of all things.

SATÁP: A kind of tree.

SATARSINGO: Name of a goblin.

SÁTEM: The seventh day of the bright or dark half of a month.

SÁTERI: Name of a goddess.

SÁTHARA: The place in the house where a corpse is placed.

SATHIA: An auspicious figure drawn on the floor.

SATSANG: Contract with the righteous.

SATVÁI: Name of a goddess; the ghost of a woman.

SATYA NÁRÁYAN: Name of a deity; a vow of that name.

SATYAWÁN: Name of a mythological king.

SAUDÁMINI: The lightning.

SAUNDAD: The Shami tree, Prosopis spicigera.

SÁVAJ: A wild animal.

SAVAPÁTI: Weighing about six pounds and a quarter.

SAVITA: The sun.

SÁVITRI: A mythological woman celebrated for her devotion to her
husband.

SAWANEKARIN: Name of a goddess.

SÁWAR: A kind of tree.

SÁWKÁR: A money-lender.

SÁVO: Sewed.

SÁYUJJA: Merging into the divine form.

SER: A measure of weight.

SERAJA: A kind of gift.

SEVA: Vermicelli.

SEVAK: A disciple, a follower.

SEVAKA: See Sevak.

SHADÁNADA: Name of a goddess.

SHAKARIO: Name of a cattle disease.

SHÁKINI: An order of ghosts.

SHÁKTA MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

SHAKTI: The energy or active power of a deity personified as his wife;
as Párvati of Shiva.

SHAKTIMÁTA: Name of a goddess.

SHAKTI-PANTHI: A follower of the Shakti or Shákta sect that is those
who worship a divine energy under its feminine personification.

SHAKTIYÁG: A sacrifice in honour of Shakti.

SHÁLIGRÁM: A sacred stone supposed to represent Vishnu.

SHÁLUNKI: A species of singing birds.

SHANI: Saturn.

SHANGÁR ARATI: The ceremony of taking off the idols night garments
and putting on others for the day.

SHANKARÁCHÁRYA: The designation of the celebrated teacher of the
Vedánt philosophy.

SHANKÁSUR: Name of a demon.

SHANKHÁSUR: Name of a demon.

SHANKHINI: An order of ghosts.

SHÁNTANU: A king of the lunar race who married Ganga and Satyavati.

SHARÁDIAN: The dark half of the month of Bhádrapad.

SHÁRANG: The bow of Vishnu.

SHARAD PUNEMA: The full-moon day of Ashvin.

SHARAD-RITU: The Autumn.

SHÁSTRA: Scripture.

SHATACHANDI: An incantation in honour of the goddess.

SHATANJIVA: Live for a hundred years.

SHATATÁRAKA: Name of a constellation.

SHATCHANDI: An incantation in honour of the goddess Chandi.

SHES BHARANE: Name of a ceremony.

SHENDUR: Red lead.

SHESH NÁG: The snake of one thousand hoods who supports the earth.

SHEVARI: A kind of tree.

SHIKHANDI: Amba born as the daughter of Drupada. She was given out
to be, and brought up as, a male child.

SHIKHAR: Top.

SHIKOTAR: Name of a goddess.

SHILI: Stale.

SHILI SÁTEM: The stale seventh, the seventh day of the dark half
of Shrávan.

SHIRÁLSHET: Name of an ancient Váni or trader who became a king,
and reigned three and a half ghatika (a measure of time).

SHISHIR-RITU: The cold season.

SHIT: The fowl tied to the top of the bamboo planted in the pit of
the Holi fire.

SHITALA ASHTAKA: A hymn in praise of the goddess Shitala.

SHITALÁI-PUJAN: A holiday observed by women.

SHITALÁDEVI: The small-pox goddess.

SHITALA MÁTA: See Shitaládevi.

SHITAL-SAPTAMI: See Shili Sátem.

SHIVA: The third god of the Hindu Trinity.

SHIVALANGI: Name of a plant.

SHIVÁ-MUTHA: A vow in which handfuls of corn are offered by married
girls to the god Vishnu on every Monday in the month of Shrávan.

SHIVARÁTRA: The fourteenth day of the dark half of every month sacred
for the worship of Shiva.

SHIVARÁTRI: See Shivarátra.

SHIWANI: A kind of tree.

SHIWAR: An offering of boiled rice mixed with curds; an offering of
a goat or fowl.

SHLOKA: A stanza, a verse.

SHODASHOPACHÁR: The sixteen ways of doing homage.

SHOKA-PAGLÁN: Morning foot prints.

SHRÁVAD: A kind of shrub.

SHRÁVAK: A term applied to the members of the Jain religion.

SHRÁVAN: The fifth month of the Deccani and the tenth month of the
Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

SHRÁVANI: The ceremony of renewing the sacred thread.

SHRAWANA: Name of a constellation.

SHRI DUTTA: Name of a deity.

SHRINGÁR ÁRATI: See Shangár árati.

SHRINGHI: Name of a sage.

SHRI SATYA NÁRÁYAN: Name of a deity.

SHUDDHA: Pure; the bright half of a month.

SHUDRA: The last of the four-fold divisions of Manu.

SHUKAMUNI: Name of a sage.

SHUKRA: Venus.

SIDDHA: An order of semi-divine beings.

SIDDHA PURUSHA: A magician.

SIDDHI: Accomplishment; the acquisition of supernatural powers;
name of a wife of Ganpati.

SIDDHI KARAN: Name of a book in which Dharmarája keeps an account of
the good and bad actions of men.

SIDHA: Uncooked articles of food.

SIDIO: Nigro-like.

SIKAN: A sling.

SIKE: A sling.

SIKOTARU: See Sikoturu.

SIKOTURU: Ghost of a woman dying with certain desires unfulfilled.

SIMÁNT: The first pregnancy ceremony.

SINDHÁVÁR: Name of a goddess.

SINDUR: Red lead.

SINHA: A lion; Leo.

SINHIKA: The mother of Ráhu.

SITA: The consort of Ráma.

SIWA BÁNDHANE: Binding the boundary-name of a ceremony.

SIWO: Sewn.

SMÁRTA AGNI: The fire which is kept constantly burning and worshipped
during the Cháturmás.

SOD-MUNJ: The ceremony of loosening the munja (string) from the loins
of a Bráhman.

SOLANKI: Name of a clan of Rajputs.

SOLA SOMVÁR-VRATA: A vow observed on sixteen successive Mondays.

SOMAPA: Name of a water nymph.

SOMAVATI-AMÁVÁSYA: The fifteenth day of the dark half of a month
falling on Monday.

SOMAGA: Name of a religious ceremony.

SONI: A caste of goldsmiths or an individual of it.

SORRO: Sulphuret of antimony.

SOSHI: Name of a class of chudels.

SOVALEN: A silk garment.

SPHATIKA MANI: A crystal stone.

STAMBHAN: A branch of black magic.

STHÁNA: Locality.

STHÁNA-DEVA: A local deity.

STHÁNADEVATA: See Sthána-deva.

STHÁPAN: Installation.

SUD: The bright half of a month.

SUDARSHAN: See Sudarshan chakra.

SUDARSHAN CHAKRA: The discus of Vishnu.

SUDHA: Nectar.

SUDHÁKAR: The moon.

SUDYAMAN: Name of a mythological king.

SUGAD: A little earthen vessel.

SUKÁL: A plentiful harvest.

SULIO: An order of ghosts.

SULEIMÁNI PÁRO: A kind of stone.

SUMARIA GANESH: A name of Ganpati.

SUNA: Unoccupied.

SUNAKU: A kind of cattle disease.

SUNKÁI: Name of a goddess.

SUNTH: Dry ginger.

SUPADUN: A winnowing fan.

SURA: Liquor.

SURAKANO: Twisted iron wire.

SURAN: A morphophallus campalatus (elephant foot).

SURANG: A kind of tree.

SURDHAN: Ghost of a male member dying with certain of his desires
unfulfilled.

SURMO: See Sorro.

SUROPURO: A spirit of one who meets death on a field of battle.

SURYA: The sun.

SURYA KAVACH: A hymn in honour of the Sun.

SURYA-VRAT: A vow in honour of the Sun.

SUTAKI: One ceremonially impure on account of the death of a relative.

SUTÁR: A caste of carpenters or an individual of it.

SUTI: An order of ghosts.

SUTTEE: A woman who burns herself on the funeral pyre of her husband.

SUVA: An ingredient used in preparing spices.

SUWARN: Gold.

SUWÁSINI: An unwidowed woman.

SWÁMI: A lord, a term applied to saints.

SWÁMI MAHÁRÁJ: An epithet of Dattátraya or Shri Dutta.

SWÁMINÁRÁYAN: A sect of Hindus.

SWAPNA: A dream.

SWARGA: Heaven.

SWASTIKA: A kind of mystical figure.

SWÁTI: Name of constellation.

SWAYAMBHU: Self-existent.

SWAYAMVAR: A maiden's choice marriage.



T.

TÁDIA: A fruit of the fan-palm.

TADULI: The full moon day of Ashádh.

TAKSHAK: Name of a snake.

TÁL: A kind of cymbal.

TALABDIA KOLI: A sub-division of the Koli tribe.

TALKHÁMBA: A ghost of an unmarried Shudra.

TÁLI: A plate.

TALI BHARANE: A rite performed in honour of the god Khandoba.

TALO BHAGAT: Name of a great saint.

TAMÁSHA: A diverting exhibition; a show, play, farce, mock-fight, etc.

TÁMHAN: A flat saucer-like metal plate.

TAMJÁI: Name of a goddess.

TANYATUN: Lightning.

TAPAKESHWAR: A name of Mahádev.

TÁRÁ-BÁRAS: The star twelfth, the twelfth day after the death of
a person.

TARIA TÁV: Periodical fever.

TARPAN: An offering of water.

TÁV: A sheet of paper.

TAVA: A cake fried in oil in a pan.

TAVO: Flat unleavened loaves.

TAXAMI: The ghost of a woman dying in child-bed or menses.

THÁKORJI: A name for the Deity.

THÁL: A dish.

THÁNA: A station.

THÁNAK: Locality.

THOR: A tree. Euphoria nerifolia.

TID: A locust.

TIL: Sesamum.

TILA: The sectarial mark made with coloured earths or unguents upon
the forehead.

TILAD: A singing sparrow.

TINDOTÁN: A kind of creeper.

TIRTHA: Water used in bathing an idol; a holy place.

TOLA: A weight amounting to 210 grains.

TOND BHUT: An order of evil spirits.

TOSHI: A class of chudels.

TRAVENI: A confluence of three rivers.

TRETÁYUGA: The second yuga or age according to the Hindu scriptures.

TRIJ: The third day of the bright or dark half of a month.

TRIPINDI: A kind of Shráddha.

TRIPURÁSUR: Name of a demon.

TRIPURI-PAURNIMA: The full moon-day of Kártik.

TRISHANKU: Name of a king of the Solar race.

TRISHUL: A trident.

TUCHAKA: A mystical method.

TULA: Libra.

TULSI-VRAT: A vow in honour of the Tulsi or sweet basil plant.

TULSI: The sweet basil.

TUNGJÁI: Name of a goddess.

TURABAT: A tomb.



U.

UBHI: Standing; an order of ghosts.

UCHÁTAN: A branch of black magic.

UCHCHÁTAN: See Uchátan.

UDA: A species of water spirits.

UDAK SHÁNTI: Propitiation by water.

UJANI: A ceremony in propitiation of the village gods.

UJJANI; A festival in honour of the god Indra.

UKARDI: Earth with which the marriage altar is built.

UKO: A dung-hill.

UMA MAHESH: The god Mahádev and his wife Párvati; name of a vow in
honour of them.

UMBAR: The Indian fig tree.

UMPI: Name of a Nág girl.

UNÁI MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

UNDAR: A mouse.

UNT: A camel.

UPADEVA: A demi-god.

UPÁKARMA: The ceremony of renewing the sacred thread.

URAS: A fair held in honour of a Mahomedan saint.

UTÁR: A sacrificial offering.

UTTÁNAPÁD: Name of a mythological king.

UTTARÁ-BHÁDRAPADA: Name of a constellation.

UTTARÁ-FÁLGUNI: Name of a constellation.

UTTARÁSHÁDHA: Name of a constellation.



V.

VÁCCHADO: The spirit supposed to cure hydrophobia.

VÁCCHARO: See Vácchado.

VACHO: Even.

VAD: The banyan tree; the dark half of a month.

VADÁN: Fried cakes.

VADHÁVO: Odd.

VADYÁJÁI: Name of a goddess.

VAGÁDNAR: One who beats musical instruments like drums.

VAGGAYA: Name of a deity.

VÁGH: A tiger.

VÁGHÁMBARI: Name of a goddess.

VÁGHARAN: A woman of the Vághri caste.

VÁGHESHWARI MÁTA: Name of a goddess.

VÁGHRI: A caste of Hindus.

VÁGHUR DEVI: Name of a goddess.

VÁGHVIR: The spirit of a person killed by a tiger.

VÁGHYA: A male child offered to the god Khandoba.

VAIRÁGI: A recluse.

VAISHÁKHA: The second month of the Deccani Hindu and the seventh
month of the Gujarát Hindu calendar year.

VAISHNAVA: The sect of Hindus devoted to Vishnu.

VAISHVADEV: An oblation of boiled rice into the fire.

VAISHYA: A trader, the third of the four-fold divisions of Manu.

VAITÁL: An order of demi-gods.

VAITÁLIKA: An attendant of the god Shiva.

VAIVASWAT MANU: Name of the seventh Manu now reigning.

VAJRA: Adamant.

VAJRÁBÁI: Name of a goddess.

VAJRABATTU: A kind of bead.

VAJRAMAYA: Adamantine.

VAJRESHWARI: Name of a goddess.

VAJRESWARI: See Vajreshvari.

VALAM: A mock bridegroom in the Holi festival.

VALAMA VALAMI: A procession of a mock marriage in the Holi festival.

VALAMI: A mock bride in the Holi festival.

VÁLAND: A caste of barbers or an individual of it.

VALGO SAMACHARI: Death anniversary.

VALLABHÁCHÁRYA: A great saint and scholar who founded a sect of
Vaishnavism.

VALO: A kind of cattle disease.

VALU: Eccentric.

VÁMA-MÁRGI: A follower of the Váma-márga that is a mode of worship in
which the idol is worshipped by the left hand, liquor drunk, etc., etc.

VÁMAN: A dwarf; name of the fifth incarnation of Vishnu.

VANA-SHASTHI: Name of a Holiday.

VANTRI: An order of ghosts.

VÁNZIÁPANA: Barrenness.

VARADANI: Name of a goddess.

VARADHAN: Name of a deity.

VARÁH: A boar.

VARÁHA-SANHITA: Name of a book.

VARSHÁ-RITU: The rainy season.

VÁRUL: The white ant-hill.

VÁSANA: Desire.

VASANTAPANCHAMI: The fifth day of the bright half of Mágh.

VASANT-RITU: The spring.

VÁSH: An oblation of rice and sweets offered to crows.

VASHIKARAN: A branch of black magic.

VASHISHTHA: Name of a sage.

VÁSTU: A religious rite performed on entering a new house.

VÁSTDEVATA: The guardian spirit of dwelling places.

VÁSTUN: See Vástu.

VÁSTUPUJAN: See Vástu.

VASU: A bull-calf or bull branded and set at liberty.

VASUBÁRAS: The twelfth day of the bright half of Ashvin.

VASUDEVA: Name of the father of Krishna.

VASU-DWÁDASI: See Vasubáras.

VÁSUKI: Name of a snake.

VÁSTU SHÁNTI: See Vástu.

VATA-SÁVITRI VRAT: Name of a vow observed by women on the full moon
day of Jyeshtha.

VÁTI: A small metal cup.

VÁTKI: See Váti.

VÁV: A reservoir of water; a tank.

VÁYALI: Eccentric.

VÁYU: Wind; the deity presiding over the wind.

VÁYUSUTA: A name of Máruti.

VEDA: Name of the scriptures of the Hindus.

VEDATRAYI: The three vedas, Rik, Yajus and Sáma.

VEDHA: Malign influence.

VEDIC: Relating to the Vedas; as enjoined in the Vedas.

VEHALA: A tree, Beleric Myrobalan.

VELAN: A stick.

VELO: A creeper.

VETÁL: The lord of ghosts; name of a village deity.

VETRASARPA: A cane stick with an image of a snake at its end.

VIDÁ-SUPÁRI: Betel nut and leaves.

VIDYUT: Lightning.

VAJAYÁDASHAMI: The tenth day of the bright half of Ashvin.

VIJLI: Lightning.

VIKRAM: Name of a king.

VIMÁN: A celestial car.

VINÁYAK-CHATURTHI: The fourth day of the bright half of every month.

VINCHI: A female scorpion.

VIR: A male fiend; ghost of an unmarried Kshatriya.

VIRA: An order of ghosts; name of a village deity.

VISHA: Poison.

VISHÁKHA: Name of a constellation

VISHESHA PUJA: Special worship.

VISHI: A cycle of twenty years.

VISHNU: The second god of the Hindu Trinity.

VISHNUSAHASRANÁMA: A book containing the thousand names of Vishnu.

VISHNUYÁGA: A sacrifice in honour of Vishnu.

VISHOTAK: Name of a disease.

VISHVÁMITRA: Name of a sage.

VISHWARUPA: That exists in all forms, an epithet of Vishnu.

VISHWESHWAR: A name of Shiva.

VISWÁTI: An order of ghosts.

VITHOBA: Name of a god.

VISUCHIKA: Name of a cholera goddess.

VIVÁNCHARA: An order of ghosts.

VRAT: A vow.

VRIKODARA: Wolf-bellied, an epithet of Bhima.

VRINDA: Name of the wife of Jalendhar, a demon.

VRISCHIKA: Scorpion.

VRISHABHA: Taurus.

VRITRASÁR: Name of a demon.

VRUNDA: See Vrinda.

VYATIPÁT: The seventeenth of the Astrological Yoga (the twenty-seventh
part of a circle measured on the plane of the Ecliptic).



W.

WAD: The banyan tree.

WÁDI: An enclosed piece of meadow-field or garden ground.

WÁGH-BÁRAS: The twelfth day of Ashvin.

WÁGHE: Male children offered to the god Khandoba.

WÁGHESHWARI: Name of a village goddess.

WÁGHJÁI: Name of a deity.

WÁGHOBA: An order of ghosts.

WÁJRESHWARI: Name of a village goddess.

WÁGHYA: Name of a deity; a male child offered to the god Khandoba.

WÁMAN-DWÁDASHI: The twelfth day of the bright half of Bhádrapad.

WÁNI: A trader; a, general name for all castes of traders i.e., banyas.

WÁNPRASTA: A Bráhman in the third order of his life; a hermit in
general.

WÁRUL: An ant-hill.

WATA: The Banyan tree.

WATA-PAURNIMA: The fall moon day of Jyeshtha.

WUDA: Incense.



Y.

YADNA: See Yajna.

YADNOPAVIT: The sacred thread worn by Bráhmans.

YADNYA: See Yajna.

YAJAMÁN: A host; a person performing a sacrifice.

YAJNA: A sacrifice.

YAKSHA: A class of demi-gods, attendant on Kubera and employed in
guarding his treasures.

YAKSHINI: A female Yaksha; a fairy.

YALLAMMA: Name of a goddess.

YAMA: The God of death.

YAMADUTA: A messenger of the god of death.

YAMAGHANTA: A Yog or conjunction of times, viz., a Sunday falling
upon the second day of the bright or dark half of a month; a Friday
falling upon the third lunar day, etc., etc.

YAMALOKA: The region of Yama.

YAMAPURI: The city of the god of death.

YANTRA: A mystical formula or diagram.

YOGA: Religious and abstract meditation.

YOGA MÁRGA: The path of meditation.

YOGA-SUTRA: Name of a work by Pátanjali containing aphorisms of the
science of Yoga.

YOGAVÁSHISTHA: Name of a work on philosophy.

YOJAN: A measure of distance equal to eight miles.

YUDHISHTHIR: An epithet of Dharma, the eldest of the Pándava brothers.



Z.

ZÁMHÁDI: A female spirit guarding the village gates.

ZAMPAHADI: An order of ghosts.

ZANZARKA: Name of a goddess.

ZANZIRA: A kind of magic incantation.

ZÁR: Fever.

ZARMÁN ZARVÁN: A ceremony in which a woman fetches water for the
first time after delivery.

ZILAKESHWAR: A name of Mahádeva.

ZINI: Small.

ZOD: An order of ghosts.



NOTES


[1] School Master, Palshet, Ratnágiri.

[2] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[3] School Master, Parule, Ratnágiri.

[4] School Master, Makhnele, Ratnágiri.

[5] School Master, Rájápur, Ratnágiri.

[6] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[7] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[8] School Master, Shahápur, Thána.

[9] School Master, Dasgaum, Kolába.

[10] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[11] School Master, Akola, Kolába.

[12] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[13] These twelve names are:--1 Mitra, 2 Ravi, 3 Surya, 4 Bhanu,
5 Khaga, 6 Pushne, 7 Hiranyagarbha, 8 Marichi, 9 Aditya, 10 Savita,
11 Arka, 12 Bhasker.

[14] School Master, Phonde.

[15] School Master, Devarukh.

[16] School Master, Parule.

[17] School Master, Anjur.

[18] School Master, Vasind.

[19] School Master, Málád.

[20] 33,000,0000 demons are said to be born every day to impede the
journey of the Sun.

[21] School Master, Málád.

[22] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála.

[23] School Master, Padaghe.

[24] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[25] The churning handle or rod is called in Maráthi Ravi, which is
one of the names of the Sun.

[26] School Master, Nevare, Ratnágiri.

[27] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[28] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[29] School Master, Pendhur, Málvan, Ratnágiri.

[30] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála.

[31] School Masters, Chauk, Karjat, Kolába.

[32] School Masters, Chauk, Karjat, Kolába.

[33] Ráo Sáheb Shelke.

[34] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[35] School Master, Phonde, Ratnágiri.

[36] Ráo Sáhib Shelke.

[37] In the Konkan the Navánna Purnima or full moon day of new food
is observed in the month of Ashvina. This is, no doubt, due to the
difference in the season of the harvest.

[38] Ráo Sáheb Shelke.

[39] School Master, Ibrámpur.

[40] School Master, Gaumkhadi, Rájápur.

[41] School Master, Adivare, Rájápur.

[42] School Master, Dábhol, Ratnágiri.

[43] School Master, Ratnágiri.

[44] School Master, Ubhádánda, Vengurla.

[45] School Master, Ratnágiri.

[46] School Master, Murbád.

[47] School Master, Vásind, Sáhápur.

[48] School Master, Wáda.

[49] School Master, Edwan, Máhim.

[50] School Master, Kalyán, No. 1 and School Master, Padaghe, Bhiwandi.

[51] School Master, Chidhran, Kolába.

[52] School Master, Poládpur.

[53] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[54] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[55] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[56] School Master, Poládpur.

[57] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[58] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[59] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[60] School Master, Pendur, Málvan, Ratnágiri.

[61] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[62] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[63] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[64] School Master, Ubhádánda, Vengurla.

[65] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[66] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[67] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[68] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[69] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[70] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[71] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[72] School Master, Málgund, Ratnágiri.

[73] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[74] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[75] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[76] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[77] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[78] School Master, Bándivade, Budruk, Ratnágiri.

[79] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[80] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[81] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[82] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[83] School Master, Rájápur, Ratnágiri.

[84] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[85] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[86] School Master, Khetwadi, A.V. School, Bombay.

[87] School Master, Khetwadi, A.V. School, Bombay.

[88] School Master, Padaghe, Thána.

[89] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[90] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[91] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[92] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[93] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[94] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[95] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[96] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[97] School Master, Devarukh, Ratnágiri.

[98] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[99] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[100] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[101] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[102] School Master, Navare, Ratnágiri.

[103] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[104] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[105] School Master, Kankavli, Ratnágiri.

[106] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[107] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[108] School Master, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[109] School Master, Rai, Thána.

[110] School Master, Badlapur, Thána.

[111] School Master, Mokhada, Thána.

[112] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[113] School Master, Kasu, Kolába.

[114] School Master, Vavasi, Kolába.

[115] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[116] School Master, Vavanje, Kolába.

[117] School Master, Nevare, Ratnágiri.

[118] School Master, Kasba, Sangameshwar, Ratnágiri.

[119] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[120] School Master, Pendhur, Ratnágiri.

[121] School Master, Devarukh, Ratnágiri.

[122] School Master, Málgund, Ratnágiri.

[123] School Master, Ratnágiri.

[124] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[125] School Master, Chiplun, Ratnágiri.

[126] School Master, Kankava, Ratnágiri.

[127] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[128] School Master, Chiplun, Ratnágiri.

[129] School Master, Khetwadi, A.V.S., Bombay.

[130] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[131] School Master, Rai, Thána.

[132] School Master, Shahápur, Thána.

[133] School Master, Bhuvan, Thána.

[134] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[135] School Master, Vavanje, Kolába.

[136] School Master, Akol, Kolába.

[137] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[138] School Master, Kasba, Sangameshwar, Ratnágiri.

[139] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[140] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[141] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[142] School Master, Chiplun, Ratnágiri.

[143] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[144] School Master, Varsai, Kolába.

[145] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[146] School Master, Varsai, Kolába.

[147] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[148] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[149] School Master, Chiplun, Ratnágiri.

[150] School Master, Palspot, Ratnágiri.

[151] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[152] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[153] School Master, Bhuvan, Thána.

[154] School Master, Ratnágiri.

[155] School Master, Phonde, Ratnágiri.

[156] School Master, Wanhavli, Ratnágiri.

[157] School Master, Bándivade, Budruk, Ratnágiri.

[158] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[159] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[160] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[161] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[162] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[163] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[164] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[165] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[166] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[167] School Master, Devarukh, Ratnágiri.

[168] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[169] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[170] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[171] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[172] School Master, Wáda, Thána.

[173] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[174] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[175] School Master, Saloli, Thána.

[176] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[177] School Master, Kinhavali, Thána.

[178] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[179] School Master, Khativali, Thána.

[180] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[181] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[182] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[183] School Master, Bhuvan, Thána.

[184] School Masters, Wáda, Thána.

[185] School Master, Sháhápur, Thána.

[186] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[187] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[188] School Master, Wavasi, Kolába.

[189] School Master, Varsai, Kolába.

[190] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[191] School Master, Wavasi, Kolába.

[192] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[193] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[194] School Master, Akol, Kolába.

[195] School Master, Vavasi, Kolába.

[196] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[197] School Master, Bándivade, Budruk, Ratnágiri.

[198] School Master, Málgund, Ratnágiri.

[199] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[200] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[201] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[202] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[203] School Master, Umbargaum, Thána.

[204] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[205] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[206] School Master, Akol, Kolába.

[207] School Master, Sasawane, Kolába.

[208] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[209] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[210] School Master, Málvan, Ratnágiri.

[211] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[212] School Master, Kankavli, Ratnágiri.

[213] School Master, Phonde, Ratnágiri.

[214] School Master, Chiplun, Ratnágiri.

[215] School Master, Nevare, Ratnágiri.

[216] School Master, Ratnágiri.

[217] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[218] School Master, Bándivade, Budruk, Ratnágiri.

[219] School Master, Málvan, Ratnágiri.

[220] School Master, Dábhol, Ratnágiri.

[221] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[222] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[223] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[224] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[225] School Master, Padaghe, Thána.

[226] School Master, Nágothane, Kolába.

[227] School Master, Akol, Kolába.

[228] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[229] School Master, Apte, Kolába.

[230] School Master, Khetwadi, A.V.S., Bombay.

[231] School Master, Málvan, Ratnágiri.

[232] School Master, Málgund, Ratnágiri.

[233] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[234] Two earthen pots tied face to face, one of which containing
some corn and red and yellow powders.

[235] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[236] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[237] School Master, Málvan, Ratnágiri.

[238] School Master, Makhanele, Ratnágiri.

[239] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[240] School Master, Badlapur, Kalyán.

[241] School Master, Bhuvan, Thána.

[242] School Master, Bhuvan, Thána.

[243] School Master, Tale, School No. I, Kolába.

[244] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[245] School Master, Devarukh, Ratnágiri.

[246] School Master, Badlapur, Thána.

[247] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[248] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[249] School Master, Nevare, Ratnágiri.

[250] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[251] School Master, Thána.

[252] School Master, Kolába.

[253] School Master, Khetwadi, Bombay.

[254] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[255] School Master, Kamathipura, Bombay.

[256] School Master, Wásind, Thána.

[257] School Master, Umela, Thána.

[258] The Hindus believe that there are seven heroes who can never
die, i.e., 1 Ashwattháma, 2 Bali, 3 Vyása, 4 Hanumán, 5 Bibhíshana,
6 Kripáchárya and 7 Parashurám. The Sanskrit text is:--

ASHVATTHAMA BALIRVYASO HANUMANTO BIBHISHANAH | KRIPACARYAH
PARASHURAMASSAPTAITE CIRAJIVINAH ||

[259] School Masters, Agáshi and Arnála, Thána.

[260] School Master, Samangad, Kolhápur.

[261] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[262] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[263] School Master, Wávashi, Kolába.

[264] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[265] School Master, Apta, Kolába.

[266] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[267] School Master, Tale, Kolába.

[268] School Master, Bakavali, Ratnágiri.

[269] School Master, Ratnágiri.

[270] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[271] School Master, Parule, Ratnágiri.

[272] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[273] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[274] School Master, Makhamle, Ratnágiri.

[275] School Master, Sangameshwar, Ratnágiri.

[276] School Master, Kámáthipura, Bombay.

[277] School Master, Dábhol, Ratnágiri.

[278] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[279] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[280] School Master, Málwan, Ratnágiri.

[281] School Master, Palset, Ratnágiri.

[282] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[283] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[284] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[285] School Master, Sákharpe, Ratnágiri.

[286] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[287] School Master, Edwan, Thána.

[288] School Master, Mángaon, Thána.

[289] School Master, Dahigaon.

[290] School Master, Bhiwandi, Thána.

[291] School Master, Agáshi, Arnála, Thána.

[292] School Master, Agáshi, Thána.

[293] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[294] School Master, Shahápur, Thána.

[295] School Master, Agáshi, Thána.

[296] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[297] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[298] School Master, Akol, Kolába.

[299] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[300] School Master, Shirosi, Thána District.

[301] School Master, Parule, Ratnágiri.

[302] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[303] School Master, Kankaoli, Ratnágiri.

[304] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[305] School Master, Masure, Ratnágiri.

[306] School Master, Palset, Ratnágiri.

[307] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[308] School Master, Málwan, Ratnágiri.

[309] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[310] School Master, Kochare, Ratnágiri.

[311] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[312] School Master, Malgund, Ratnágiri.

[313] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[314] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[315] School Master, Sasawane, Kolába.

[316] School Master, Akol, Kolába.

[317] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[318] School Master, Bhuwan, Thána.

[319] School Master, Agáshi, Thána District.

[320] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[321] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[322] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[323] School Master, Sangameshwar, Ratnágiri.

[324] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[325] School Master, Vijaydurg, Ratnágiri.

[326] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[327] School Master, Kochare, Ratnágiri.

[328] School Master, Navare, Ratnágiri.

[329] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[330] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[331] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[332] School Master, Vávashi, Kolába.

[333] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[334] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[335] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[336] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[337] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[338] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[339] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[340] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[341] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[342] School Master, Váde, Thána.

[343] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[344] School Master, Umbergaon, Thána.

[345] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[346] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[347] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[348] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[349] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[350] School Master, Vávashi, Kolába.

[351] School Master, Varsai, Kolába.

[352] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[353] School Master, Umela, Thána.

[354] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[355] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[356] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[357] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[358] School Master, Murud, Ratnágiri.

[359] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[360] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[361] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[362] School Master, Vávashi, Kolába.

[363] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[364] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[365] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[366] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[367] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[368] School Master, Sangameshwar, Ratnágiri.

[369] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[370] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[371] Schoolmaster, Dásgaon, Kolába.

[372] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[373] School Master, Padghe, Thána.

[374] School Master, Edwan, Thána.

[375] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[376] School Master, Sangameshwar, Ratnágiri.

[377] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[378] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[379] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[380] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[381] School Master, Chidhran, Kolába.

[382] School Master, Sasawane, Kolába.

[383] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[384] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[385] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[386] School Master, Bankavli, Ratnágiri.

[387] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[388] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[389] School Master, Vavanje, Kolába.

[390] School Master, Varsai, Kolába.

[391] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[392] School Master, Padghe, Thána.

[393] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[394] School Master, Nágothane, Kolába.

[395] School Master, Navare, Ratnágiri.

[396] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[397] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[398] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[399] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[400] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[401] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[402] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[403] School Master, Anjarla, Ratnágiri.

[404] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[405] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[406] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[407] School Master, Navre, Ratnágiri.

[408] School Master, Dásgaon, Kolába.

[409] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[410] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[411] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[412] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[413] School Master, Navare, Ratnágiri.

[414] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[415] School Master, Dabhol, Ratnágiri.

[416] School Master, Shiravde, Ratnágiri.

[417] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[418] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[419] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[420] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[421] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[422] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[423] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[424] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[425] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[426] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[427] School Master, Chidhran, Kolába.

[428] School Master, Nágothane, Kolába.

[429] School Master, Vavanje, Kolába.

[430] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[431] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[432] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[433] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[434] School Master, Shiroda, Ratnágiri.

[435] School Master, Sakharane, Ratnágiri.

[436] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[437] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[438] School Master, Chauk, Ratnágiri.

[439] School Master, Akshi, Kolába.

[440] School Master, Váda, Thána.

[441] School Master, Padghe, Thána.

[442] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[443] School Master, Umbergaon, Thána.

[444] School Master, Shirosi, Thána.

[445] School Master, Mánikpur, Thána.

[446] School Master, Umela, Thána.

[447] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[448] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[449] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[450] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[451] School Master, Murud, Ratnágiri.

[452] School Master, Devagad, Ratnágiri.

[453] School Master, Vijaydurg, Ratnágir.

[454] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[455] School Master, Chidhran, Kolába.

[456] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[457] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[458] School Master, Chowl, Kolába.

[459] School Master, Akshi, Kolába.

[460] School Master, Bhuwan, Thána.

[461] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[462] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[463] School Master, Shirosi, Thána.

[464] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[465] School Master, Dábhol, Ratnágiri.

[466] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[467] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[468] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[469] School Master, Achre, Ratnágiri.

[470] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[471] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri:

[472] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[473] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[474] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[475] School Master, Náta, Kolába.

[476] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[477] School Master, Padaghe, Thána.

[478] School Master, Mánikpur, Thána.

[479] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[480] School Master, Wáde, Thána.

[481] School Master, Dahigaon, Thána.

[482] School Master, Dehari, Thána.

[483] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[484] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[485] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[486] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[487] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[488] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[489] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[490] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[491] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[492] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[493] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[494] School Master, Birwadi, Kolába.

[495] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[496] School Master, Belápur, Thána.

[497] School Master, Bhuwan, Murbád, Thána.

[498] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[499] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[500] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[501] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[502] School Master, Chaul, Kolába.

[503] Ráo Sáheb Shelke.

[504] School Master, Bankavali, Ratnágiri.

[505] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[506] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[507] School Master Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[508] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[509] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[510] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[511] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[512] School Master, Chawl, Kolába,

[513] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[514] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[515] School Master, Akshi, Kolába.

[516] School Master, Vávashi, Kolába.

[517] School Master, Shirgaum, Thána.

[518] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[519] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[520] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[521] School Master, Dahigaon, Thána.

[522] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[523] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[524] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[525] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[526] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[527] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[528] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[529] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[530] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[531] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[532] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[533] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[534] School Master, Chawl, Kolába.

[535] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[536] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[537] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[538] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[539] School Master, Chawl, Kolába.

[540] School Master, Vavanje, Kolába.

[541] School Master, Umbergaon, Thána.

[542] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[543] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[544] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[545] School Master, Adivan, Ratnágiri.

[546] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[547] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[548] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[549] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[550] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[551] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[552] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[553] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[554] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[555] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[556] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[557] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[558] School Master, Chowl, Kolába.

[559] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[560] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[561] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[562] School Master, Bankavli, Ratnágiri.

[563] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[564] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[565] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[566] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[567] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[568] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[569] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[570] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[571] School Master, Khopol, Kolába.

[572] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[573] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[574] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[575] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[576] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[577] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[578] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[579] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[580] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[581] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[582] School Master, Dahigaon, Thána.

[583] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[584] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[585] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[586] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[587] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[588] School Mister, Chauk, Kolába.

[589] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[590] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[591] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[592] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[593] School Mister, Shirgaon, Thána.

[594] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[595] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[596] School Master, Bankavli, Ratnágiri.

[597] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[598] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[599] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[600] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[601] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[602] School Master, Bankavli, Ratnágiri.

[603] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[604] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[605] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[606] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[607] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[608] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[609] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[610] School Master, Umbergaon, Thána.

[611] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[612] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[613] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[614] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[615] School Master, Vijayadurg, Ratnágiri.

[616] School Master, Poládpur, Kolába.

[617] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[618] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[619] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[620] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[621] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[622] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[623] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[624] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[625] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[626] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[627] School Master, Padghe, Thána.

[628] School Master, Malád, Thána.

[629] School Master, Khárbáv, Thána.

[630] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[631] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[632] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[633] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[634] School Master, Bhayándár, Thána.

[635] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[636] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[637] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[638] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[639] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[640] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[641] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[642] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[643] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[644] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[645] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[646] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[647] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[648] School Master, Bhuwan, Thána.

[649] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[650] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[651] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[652] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[653] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[654] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[655] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[656] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[657] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[658] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[659] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[660] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[661] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[662] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[663] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[664] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[665] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[666] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[667] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[668] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[669] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[670] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[671] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[672] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[673] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[674] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[675] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[676] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[677] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[678] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[679] School Master, Bankavli, Ratnágiri.

[680] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[681] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[682] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[683] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[684] School Master, Mokhade, Thána.

[685] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[686] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[687] School Master, Khed, Ratnágiri.

[688] School Master, Kelwá-Máhim, Thána.

[689] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[690] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[691] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[692] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[693] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[694] School Master, Chowl, Kolába.

[695] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[696] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[697] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[698] School Master, Vavanje, Kolába.

[699] School Master, Málád, Thána.

[700] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[701] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[702] School Master, Murbád, Thána.

[703] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[704] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[705] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[706] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[707] School Master, Kochare, Ratnágiri.

[708] School Master, Varsai, Kolába.

[709] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[710] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[711] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[712] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[713] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[714] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[715] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[716] School Master, Padghe, Thána.

[717] School Master, Dahigaon, Thána.

[718] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[719] School Master, Shiravde, Ratnágiri.

[720] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[721] School Master, Shirgaon, Thána.

[722] School Master, Umela, Thána.

[723] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[724] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[725] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[726] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[727] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[728] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[729] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[730] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[731] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[732] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[733] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[734] School Master, Edwan, Thána.

[735] School Master, Vankavli, Ratnágiri.

[736] School Master, Palshet, Ratnágiri.

[737] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[738] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[739] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[740] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[741] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[742] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[743] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[744] School Master, Apte, Panwel, Kolába.

[745] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[746] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[747] School Master, Chawk, Kolába.

[748] School Master, Basani, Ratnágiri.

[749] School Master, Pendur, Ratnágiri.

[750] School Master, Chawl, Kolába.

[751] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[752] School Master, Jambivali, Kolába.

[753] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[754] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[755] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[756] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[757] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[758] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[759] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[760] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[761] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[762] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[763] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[764] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[765] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[766] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[767] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[768] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[769] School Master, Medhe, Kolába.

[770] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[771] School Master, Palshet, Ratnágiri.

[772] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[773] School Master, Mokháde, Thána.

[774] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[775] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[776] School Master, Chawk, Kolába.

[777] School Master, Kálshe, Ratnágiri.

[778] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[779] School Master, Achare, Ratnágiri.

[780] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[781] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[782] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[783] School Master, Rewadanda, Kolába.

[784] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[785] School Master, Adivare, Ratnágiri.

[786] School Master, Anjur, Thána.

[787] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[788] School Master, Anjarle, Ratnágiri.

[789] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[790] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[791] School Master, Rái, Thána.

[792] School Master, Padghe, Thána.

[793] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[794] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[795] School Master, Bándivade, Ratnágiri.

[796] School Master, Devgad, Ratnágiri.

[797] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[798] School Master, Ubhádánda, Ratnágiri.

[799] School Master, Dásgáv, Kolába.

[800] School Master, Váda, Thána.

[801] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[802] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[803] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[804] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[805] School Master, Umbergáon, Thána.

[806] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[807] School Master, Chinchani, Thána.

[808] School Master, Dahánu, Thána.

[809] School Master, Dábhol, Ratnágiri.

[810] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[811] School Master, Chauk, Kolába.

[812] School Master, Váde, Thána.

[813] Ráo Sáheb Shelke, Kolhápur.

[814] School Master, Poladpur and Vijaydurg.

[815] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[816] School Master, Náringre, Ratnágiri.

[817] School Master, Ibrámpur, Ratnágiri.

[818] School Master, Fonda, Ratnágiri.

[819] School Master, Bankavli, Ratnágiri.

[820] School Master, Vijaydurg, Ratnágiri.

[821] School Master, Khopoli, Kolába.

[822] School Master, Poladpur, Kolába.

[823] School Master, Bassein, Thána.

[824] School Master, Mithbáv, Ratnágiri.

[825] The terms given below are as they are used by the common people
in popular parlance in which form they are given in the text. They will
therefore not be found to be grammatically correct in all cases. Again,
only such meanings of the terms are given as apply in the context.





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