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Title: Spons' Household Manual - A treasury of domestic receipts and a guide for home management
Author: Spon, F. N., Spon, E.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  And Guide for


  [Illustration: (Publisher colophon)]

  E. & F. N. SPON, 125 STRAND.

  New York:



Time was when the foremost aim and ambition of the English housewife
was to gain a full knowledge of her own duties and of the duties of
her servants. In those days, bread was home-baked, butter home-made,
beer home-brewed, gowns home-sewn, to a far greater extent than now.

With the advance of education, there is much reason to fear that the
essentially domestic part of the training of our daughters is being
more and more neglected. Yet what can be more important for the
comfort and welfare of the household than an appreciation of their
needs and an ability to furnish them. Accomplishments, all very good
in their way, must, to the true housewife, be secondary to all that
concerns the health, the feeding, the clothing, the housing of those
under her care.

And what a range of knowledge this implies,--from sanitary
engineering to patching a garment, from bandaging a wound to
keeping the frost out of water pipes. It may safely be said that
the mistress of a family is called upon to exercise an amount of
skill and learning in her daily routine such as is demanded of few
men, and this too without the benefit of any special education or
preparation; for where is the school or college which includes among
its “subjects” the study of such every-day matters as bad drains, or
the gapes in chickens, or the removal of stains from clothes, or the
bandaging of wounds, or the management of a kitchen range? Indeed,
it is worthy of consideration whether our schools of cookery might
not with very great advantage be supplemented by schools of general
household instruction.

Till this suggestion is carried out, the housewife can only refer
to books and papers for information and advice. The editors of the
present volume have been guided by a determination to make it a _book
of reference_ such as no housewife can afford to be without. Much
of the matter is, of course, not altogether new, but it has been
arranged with great care in a systematic manner, and while the use
of obscure scientific terms has been avoided, the teachings of modern
science have been made the basis of those sections in which science
plays a part.

Much of the information herein contained has appeared before in
lectures, pamphlets, and newspapers, foremost among these last
being the _Queen_, _Field_, _Lancet_, _Scientific American_,
_Pharmaceutical Journal_, _Gardener’s Chronicle_, and the _Bazaar_;
but it has lost nothing by repetition, and has this advantage in
being embodied in a substantial volume that it can always be readily
found when wanted, while every one knows the fate of leaflets and
journals. The sources whence information has been drawn have, it is
believed, in every case been acknowledged, and the editors take this
opportunity of again proclaiming their indebtedness to the very large
number of lecturers and writers whose communications have found a
place within these covers.



  =Hints for selecting a good House=, pointing out the essential
  requirements for a good house as to the Site, Soil, Trees, Aspect,
  Construction, and General Arrangement; with instructions for Reducing
  Echoes, Water-proofing Damp Walls, Curing Damp Cellars          Page 1

  =Water Supply.=--Care of Cisterns; Sources of Supply; Pipes;
  Pumps; Purification and Filtration of Water                         12

  =Sanitation.=--What should constitute a good Sanitary Arrangement;
  Examples (with illustrations) of Well- and Ill-drained Houses; How
  to Test Drains; Ventilating Pipes, &c.                              35

  =Ventilation and Warming.=--Methods of Ventilating without causing
  cold draughts, by various means; Principles of Warming; Health
  Questions; Combustion; Open Grates; Open Stoves; Fuel Economisers;
  Varieties of Grates; Close-Fire Stoves; Hot-air Furnaces; Gas
  Heating; Oil Stoves; Steam Heating; Chemical Heaters; Management
  of Flues; and Cure of Smoky Chimneys                                55

  =Lighting.=--The best methods of Lighting; Candles, Oil Lamps, Gas,
  Incandescent Gas, Electric Light; How to Test Gas Pipes; Management
  of Gas                                                              82

  =Furniture and Decoration.=--Hints on the Selection of Furniture;
  on the most approved methods of Modern Decoration; on the best
  methods of arranging Bells and Calls; How to Construct an
  Electric Bell                                                       95

  =Thieves and Fire.=--Precautions against Thieves and Fire; Methods
  of Detection; Domestic Fire Escapes; Fireproofing Clothes, &c.     108

  =The Larder.=--Keeping Food fresh for a limited time; Storing Food
  without change, such as Fruits, Vegetables, Eggs, Honey, &c.       112

  =Curing Foods for lengthened Preservation=, as Smoking, Salting,
  Canning, Potting, Pickling, Bottling Fruits, &c.; Jams, Jellies,
  Marmalade, &c.                                                     123

  =The Dairy.=--The Building and Fitting of Dairies in the most
  approved modern style; Butter-making; Cheese-making and Curing     154

  =The Cellar.=--Building and Fitting; Cleaning Casks and Bottles;
  Corks and Corking; Aërated Drinks; Syrups for Drinks; Beers;
  Bitters; Cordials and Liqueurs; Wines; Miscellaneous Drinks        168

  =The Pantry.=--Bread-making; Ovens and Pyrometers; Yeast; German
  Yeast; Biscuits; Cakes; Fancy Breads; Buns                         207

  =The Kitchen.=--On Fitting Kitchens; a description of the best
  Cooking Ranges, close and open; the Management and Care of Hot
  Plates, Baking Ovens, Dampers, Flues, and Chimneys; Cooking by
  Gas; Cooking by Oil; the Arts of Roasting, Grilling, Boiling,
  Stewing, Braising, Frying                                          221

  =Receipts for Dishes.=--Soups, Fish, Meat, Game, Poultry,
  Vegetables, Salads, Puddings, Pastry, Confectionery, Ices,
  &c., &c.; Foreign Dishes                                           244

  =The Housewife’s Room.=--Testing Air, Water, and Foods; Cleaning
  and Renovating; Destroying Vermin                                  518

  =Housekeeping, Marketing=                                          563

  =The Dining-Room.=--Dietetics; Laying and Waiting at Table;
  Carving; Dinners, Breakfasts, Luncheons, Teas, Suppers, &c.        583

  =The Drawing-Room.=--Etiquette; Dancing; Amateur Theatricals;
  Tricks and Illusions; Games (indoor)                               648

  =The Bedroom and Dressing-Room.=--Sleep; the Toilet; Dress;
  Buying Clothes; Outfits; Fancy Dress                               699

  =The Nursery.=--The Room; Clothing; Washing; Exercise; Sleep;
  Feeding; Teething; Illness; Home Training                          746

  =The Sickroom.=--The Room; the Nurse; the Bed; Sickroom
  Accessories; Feeding Patients; Invalid Dishes and Drinks;
  Administering Physic; Domestic Remedies; Accidents and
  Emergencies; Bandaging; Burns; Carrying Injured Persons;
  Wounds; Drowning; Fits; Frostbites; Poisons and Antidotes;
  Sunstroke; Common Complaints; Disinfection, &c.                    755

  =The Bathroom.=--Bathing in General; Management of Hot-Water
  System.                                                            828

  =The Laundry.=--Small Domestic Washing Machines, and methods of
  getting up linen; Fitting up and Working a Steam Laundry           848

  =The Schoolroom.=--The Room and its Fittings; Teaching, &c.        862

  =The Playground.=--Air and Exercise; Training; Outdoor Games
  and Sports                                                         870

  =The Workroom.=--Darning, Patching, and Mending Garments           890

  =The Library.=--Care of Books                                      903

  =The Farmyard.=--Management of the Horse, Cow, Pig, Poultry,
  Bees, &c.                                                          907

  =The Garden.=--Calendar of Operations for Lawn, Flower Garden,
  and Kitchen Garden                                                 930

  =Domestic Motors=--A description of the various small Engines
  useful for domestic purposes, from 1 man to 1 horse power,
  worked by various methods, such as Electric Engines, Gas Engines,
  Petroleum Engines, Steam Engines, Condensing Engines, Water
  Power, Wind Power, and the various methods of working and
  managing them                                                      936

  =Household Law.=--The Law relating to Landlords and Tenants,
  Lodgers, Servants, Parochial Authorities, Juries, Insurance,
  Nuisance, &c.                                                      955




It is both convenient and rational to commence this volume with a
chapter on the conditions which should guide a man in the choice
of his dwelling. Unfortunately there is scarcely any subject upon
which ordinary people display more ignorance, or to which they
pay so little regard. In the majority of instances a dwelling is
chosen mainly with regard to its cost, accommodation, locality, and
appearance. As to its being healthy or otherwise, no _evidence_ is
volunteered by the owner, and none is demanded by the intending
resident. The consequences of this indifference are a vast amount of
preventible sickness and a corresponding loss of money. The following
remarks are intended to educate the house-seeker in the necessary
subjects, being subdivided under distinct headings for facility of

=Site.=--Of modern scientists who have studied the great health
question, none has more ably treated the essentials of the dwelling
than Dr. Simpson in his lecture for the Manchester and Salford
Sanitary Association. This Association has done wonders in improving
sanitation in the Midlands, and we cannot do better than follow Dr.
Simpson’s teaching.

_Soil._--He insists, first of all, on the great importance of the
soil being _dry_--either dry before artificial means are used to make
it so, or dry from drainage. To this end some elevation above the
surrounding land conduces. A hollow below the general level should,
as a matter of course, be avoided; for to this hollow the water
from all the adjacent higher land will drain, and if the soil be
impervious the water will lodge there. It will thus be damp, and, as
is well known, it will be a colder situation than neighbouring ones
which are a little raised above the general level. Those who live
where they can have gardens will find the advantage of the higher
situation in its being much less subject to spring and early autumn
frosts than the hollow just below. This is due not only to the former
being damper, but to the fact that the heat of the ground on still
nights passes off into space (is “radiated”) more rapidly than from
the higher situation, where there is more movement in the air. The
soil should not be retentive of moisture, as clay is when undrained;
nor should it be damp and moist from the ground water (concerning
which a few words will be said farther on), as is much alluvial
soil, i.e. soil which has been at some former time carried down and
deposited by rivers or floods. On the whole, sand or gravel, if the
site be sufficiently elevated, is probably the best, as it allows
all water to get away rapidly. Then come various rocks, as granite,
limestone, sandstone, and chalk.

Towns often present one specially dangerous, and therefore
specially objectionable soil--that where hollows have been filled
up with refuse of all kinds. This refuse is made up of all kinds
of vegetable, and, more or less, animal matter, often of the most
noxious character, together with cinders, old mortar, and no one
knows what besides. This becomes a foul fermenting mass, which is
often built upon and the houses inhabited before the process of
decomposition is completed, and the noxious gases cease to be given
off. Many outbreaks of disease have been traced most unmistakably
to this criminal act of putting up jerry buildings on pestilential
sites. It is easy for any one to understand how this may be when he
thinks of the way the house acts on the soil it is built upon, or
rather on the moisture and gases contained in the soil. The house is
warmed by the fires and by the people living in it, and the heated
air has a tendency to rise. The pressure on the gases in the soil
is lessened, and they are drawn up into the house, which acts as a
suction pump. This could not happen if the foundation were air-tight;
but this is rarely the case, and too often indeed “cottage property”
is built without any foundation at all. Drs. Parkes and Sanderson
recommended that such soil should not be built upon “for at least
two years,” but it would be well to give it another year. Attention
must also be paid to the “ground water”--the great underground sea
of which we find evidences almost anywhere that we seek for them.
Sometimes it is found even a foot or two only from the surface, in
other places at 15, 20, or 40 ft. This water rises and falls in
some places rapidly, rising after heavy rains, and falling in dry
weather. If it is always near the surface, the place must be damp and
unhealthy; and we should try to find out something about the ground
water before fixing on the site of our house. If possible, do not
live where it is less than 5 or 6 ft. from the surface.

_Trees._--Vegetation assists in rendering the soil healthy. Trees
absorb large quantities of moisture from the soil, and sometimes, as
in the case of the blue gum-tree of Australia, they seem even to do
something more than this. It is said that the common sunflower of
our gardens has a considerable influence in this way. Trees should
not be crowded close to a house, as they keep off much sun, and so
neutralise some of their good effects, but at a reasonable distance
they are beneficial.

_Aspect._--The aspect of a dwelling will necessarily be made to vary
with the climatic conditions of the locality in which it is situated.
In northern latitudes, such as Great Britain occupies, we are rarely
oppressed by sunshine, and need not seek special protection from
it. We should rather be anxious not to be deprived too much of its
genial and life-giving rays. On the other hand, we are often visited
by bleak and bitter winds, and though a free circulation of air is
desirable round a dwelling, there should be some shelter to break
the violence of a cold prevailing wind. In the country, where in
all probability there is no system of drainage for the district,
we should be careful not to place the house so as to receive our
neighbour’s drainage, nor that from our own outbuildings. In a town
the situation should be as open as can be obtained. The wider the
street and the greater the open space at the back the better, and the
back-to-back houses should be avoided altogether. (Simpson.)

As Eassie remarks, in one of the Health Exhibition Handbooks, aspect
and prospect have very much to do with comfort in housebuilding,
since a dwelling may be designed so as to fully command the scenery
while its plan might be very ill-adapted to the prevalent weather,
and the sun’s daily course. A house having a pleasant prospect may
be a decidedly unpleasant dwelling if the rooms have been arranged
without regard to the points of the compass. This will become quite
evident from a careful study of the annexed representation of Prof.
Kerr’s “aspect compass” (Fig. 1), which illustrates most clearly the
direction and character of the prevailing winds of this country, and
the sunny and shady quarters, the imaginary window of the dwelling
occupying the centre of the circle.

Obviously, as Eassie points out, the effects of aspect will not
be the same on the inside and outside of the room. Looking from
a window in the north, the prospect or landscape will be lighted
from behind; to the spectator looking from the south, it will
never be go lighted; looking from the east, the landscape will be
so lighted at sunset; and looking from the west, it will be well
lighted throughout the day. The great thing is to reconcile aspect
and prospect in the choice of a house; but this can seldom be done,
and where it cannot, the question of aspect must be first attended
to, as being of importance to the rooms, and the question of prospect
made secondary. The north is not suitable for a drawing-room, because
the aspect is cold; it is more suitable for a dining-room, as during
the winter the prospect is not seen so much. When the room used for
morning meals looks to the north, a bay window erected to the east
will catch the early sunbeams, and render it pleasant. The northern
aspect is too cold as a rule for bedrooms; but it is quite suitable
for the servants’ day apartments, and admirably adapted to the larder
and dairy. It is especially suited for staircases, as no blinds are
requisite, and the passages can be maintained in a cool state.

[Illustration: 1. Aspect Compass for Great Britain.]

The north-east aspect--next to the north--is best for a dining-room;
it is better for the servants’ offices than even the north; and when
an end window is wanted for a drawing-room, this forms no unpleasant
aspect. Bedrooms which face north-east enjoy the morning sun, and
during the summer range are agreeably cool at night. With regard to
the east, this is also a good aspect for the dining-room, especially
when no distinction is made between the dining-room and the
breakfast-room; and with regard to a sitting-room the more eastward
tendency it has the better. It is not adapted for a drawing-room,
because in the afternoon there is an entire want of sunshine, and on
account of the unhealthy east winds. This point of the compass is
suitable, however, for a library or business-room, because by the
time breakfast is over the sun will fairly have warmed the interior
of the room. It is also a good aspect for the porch, and one side of
a conservatory should always face the east.

The south-east aspect is most suitable for the best rooms of a house,
because it escapes some of the east wind, and part of the scorching
heat and beating rain of the south. It is admirably adapted,
therefore, for a drawing-room or day-room, is the most pleasant
aspect for bedrooms, and is best suited for the nursery or for the
rooms of an invalid. The south-west aspect is the least congenial
of all, because it is so open to a sultry sun and blustering winds.
This aspect should never be chosen for a dining-room; in summer it
is unpleasantly hot for bedrooms; and it is not suitable for a porch
or entrance, on account of the driving rains which prevail during
a portion of the year. The south aspect is not very desirable for
the windows of a dining-room, and is unpleasant for a morning-room,
unless a verandah has been provided. The larder and dairy should
never face the south. The west aspect is not quite agreeable for
a dining-room, on account of the excessive heat prevailing in the
summer afternoons; neither is it desirable for the drawing-room; and
it should never preferably be chosen for bedrooms, although it is
very agreeable for a smoking-room. One side of a conservatory should
always face to the west. The north-west aspect is very good for a
billiard-room, also for a dining-room, if the windows are fitted up
with blinds to shade the sun.

=Construction.= _Foundation._--Bearing in mind what Dr. Simpson
has said as to the house acting as a suction pump, drawing up
moisture and gases, often most noxious, from the soil on which it
is built, it is clear that the foundation ought to be air-tight and
water-tight; for besides the emanations due to the soil, we must
remember that escape from the gas-pipes laid in the street is a very
common occurrence, that sewers are apt to leak, and so the soil in
the neighbourhood of houses may become saturated with filth. Fatal
instances are known where coal gas and other foul vapours have been
drawn, as it were, long distances and poisoned the air of a house
or houses. The only way of guarding against this is to have the
foundations, and some distance outside the foundations, laid in
concrete. There should also be a space between the basement wall
and the surrounding earth. No one, in Eassie’s opinion, would think
of building a dwelling on a patch of ground without first removing
the vegetable mould to some depth below the level of the floor; and
however good the soil, it is very desirable to cover the site with
a layer of concrete to keep out damp and bad exhalations. Rawlinson
even advises a bed of charcoal below the concrete. Simpson insists
that if a cottage floor has to be laid on the bare ground, there
ought at least to be a bed of good concrete below the tiles. Cellars
add to the dryness and healthiness of a house if the walls and floors
are made impervious to air and water, and are properly ventilated.
The walls of the house ought to have a damp-proof course to prevent
the moisture rising in them. To show the importance of this, Simpson
quotes a well-known fact, but one seldom thought of when we look at
the brick walls of our houses. An ordinary well-baked brick, which is
9 in. long, 4½ in. broad, and 2½ in. deep, though apparently solid,
is not really so. It contains innumerable minute spaces through which
air may pass, and into which water may enter; and when it is soaked
in the latter, and all the air is driven out, it will contain nearly
16 oz. (the old pint) of water. If one brick will retain in its pores
so large a quantity, it is easy to see that a large wall may hold
what most people would at first think an incredible amount. As Dr. de
Chaumont says, “A cottage wall only 16 ft. long by 8 ft. high, and
only one brick thick, might hold 46 gallons of water!”

Walls may be made damp not only by water rising in them, but by rain
driving against them, and by water running down from the roof in
consequence of the stoppage of a rain-water pipe. The latter cause
is simple and easily remedied, but the former is far too frequent in
cheaply-built houses. It may be prevented by having cavity walls, as
they are called--that is, a double wall with a space between. There
are several advantages from this. The air space, besides helping to
keep the inner wall dry, is a good non-conductor, and so the house
is all the warmer. There are other methods which may be used in
addition to this, as cementing, plastering, or covering with slates
or boards. There is some difference of opinion as to the advantage
or disadvantage of the walls of a house being porous, as bricks are
when dry; and Prof. de Chaumont seems to think that in our climate
the porosity of the walls is not a point we need trouble ourselves
about maintaining. Still, in Simpson’s opinion, with the ordinary
arrangements of houses as regards supply of air and ventilation,
some porosity of the walls is desirable. Without the freest and
most perfect ventilation, walls absolutely impervious to air, and
therefore to water in a gaseous form, will almost always be more or
less damp on the inside.

[Illustration: 2. Damp Course and Area Wall.]

Another source of dampness in dwellings, as pointed out by Eassie,
is to be found in the practice of building the house walls close
against the earth, without taking the precaution to erect a blind
area-wall between the house wall and the earth excavation. Fig. 2
exhibits both these important improvements--the damp-course and the
area-wall--applied to the same dwelling: _a_ represents the main
wall of the house, and _b_ the area-wall, which is built against
the excavated subsoil, leaving the space _c_ between the two walls;
the thick black line underneath the floor-joist represents the
damp-proof course, which interposes between the subsoil _d_, with
the foundations built upon it, and the main wall of the house. This
damp-proof course usually consists of a layer of pitch or asphalte,
or slates bedded in cement, or specially glazed tiles, known as
Taylor’s or Doulton’s manufactures. By the use of this impervious
course, the upward passage of the ground water is effectually
arrested. The intervening area _c_ it is also well to drain, but
this water should never drain into the soil drain, if avoidable,
and certainly not until it has been thoroughly disconnected. There
should always, also, be a current of air introduced from the outer
air, by way of ventilators put at the top of the blind area _c_, and
an air brick placed above or below the damp-proof course--preferably
above--in order that the space between the ground and the joists or
stone flooring of the basement may be thoroughly ventilated. This
ventilation is shown by the arrows between _e_ and _e_. Such air
currents should always be provided under floors, whether there be
a basement or not, and also always between the joists of the upper
floors, and in the roof, in order to ward off dry-rot and ensure a
constant circulation of air. (Eassie.)

_Roof._--The first detail to be decided on is the “pitch” or slope to
be given to the roof, and this will depend both on the nature of the
covering material and the character of the climate. In the tropics,
where rain falls in torrents, a flat pitch helps to counteract the
rush of water; in colder regions the pitch must be such as to readily
admit of snow sliding off as it accumulates, to prevent injury
to the framework by the increased weight. The pitches ordinarily
observed, stated in “height of roof in parts of the span,” are as
follows:--Lead, 1/40; galvanized iron or zinc, ⅕; slates, ¼; stone,
slate, and plain tiles, 2/7; pantiles, 2/9; thatch, felt, and wooden
shingles, ⅓ to ½.

In country districts the roofs of cottages and outbuildings
are frequently covered with thatch. This consists of layers of
straw--wheaten lasts twice as long as oaten--about 15 in. in
thickness, tied down to laths with withes of straw or with string.
Thatch is an excellent non-conductor of heat, and consequently
buildings thus roofed are both cooler in summer and warmer in winter
than others, and no better roof covering for a dairy can be found.
Thatch is, however, highly combustible, and as it harbours vermin and
is soon damaged, it is not really an economical material, though the
first cost is small. A load of straw will do 1½ “squares” of roofing,
or 150 superficial feet. First class thatching is an art not readily
acquired. While really good thatching will stand for 20 years,
average work will not endure 10.

A convenient roofing material when wood is cheap and abundant
consists of a kind of “wooden slates,” split pieces of wood measuring
about 9 in. long, 5 in. wide, and 1 in. thick at one end but tapering
to a sharp edge at the other. Shingles, or wooden slates, are made
from hard wood, either of oak, larch, or cedar, or any material that
will split easily. Their dimensions are usually 6 in. wide by 12 or
18 in. long, and about ¼ in. thick.

Roofing felt is a substance composed largely of hair saturated with
an asphalte composition, and should be chosen more for closeness of
texture than excessive thickness. It is sold in rolls 2 ft. 8 in.
wide and 25 yd. long, thus containing 200 ft. super in a roll. Before
the felt is laid on the boards (¾ in. close boarding), a coating
composed of 5 lb. ground whiting and 1 gal. coal tar, boiled to expel
the water, is applied, while still slightly warm, on the boards
themselves; the felt is then laid on, taking care to stretch it
smooth and tight, and the outside edge is nailed closely with ⅞ in.
zinc or tinned tacks. The most common application to a felt roof is
simple coal tar brushed on hot and sprinkled with sharp sand. It is
not well adapted to dwellings.

Dachpappe is a kind of asphalte pasteboard much employed in Denmark;
it is laid on close boarding at a very low pitch, and forms a light,
durable covering, having the non-conducting properties of thatch.
It is sold in rolls 2 ft. 9 in. wide and 25 ft. long, having a
superficial content of 7½ sq. yd., at the rate of 1_d._ per sq. ft.
When laid, it requires dressing with an asphalte composition called
“Erichsen’s mastic,” sold at 9_s._ 9_d._ per cwt., 1 cwt. of the
varnish sufficing to cover a surface of 65 sq. yd.

Willesden paper is another extremely light, durable, and waterproof
roofing material, which differs essentially from the 2 preceding
substances in needing to be fixed to rafters or scantling, and
requiring no boarding on the roof. It is a kind of cardboard treated
with cuprammonium solution, and has become a recognized commercial
article. It is made in rolls of continuous length, 54 in. wide,
consequently, when fixing the full width of the card (to avoid
cutting to waste), the rafters should be spaced out 2 ft. 1 in. apart
from centre to centre, so that the edge of one sheet of card laid
vertically from eaves to ridge will overlap the edge of the adjoining
sheet 4 in. on every alternate rafter.

By far the most important and generally used roofing material in
this country is slate. Its splitting or fissile property makes it
eminently useful as a roofing material, as, notwithstanding the
fact that it is one of the hardest and densest of rocks, it can be
obtained in such thin sheets that the weight of a superficial foot is
very small indeed, and consequently, when used for covering roofs, a
heavy supporting framework is not required. Slate absorbs a scarcely
perceptible quantity of water, and it is very hard and close-grained
and smooth on the surface; it can be laid safely at as low a pitch as
22½°. In consequence of this, the general introduction of slate as a
roofing material has had a prejudicial effect upon the architectural
character of buildings. The bold, high-pitched, lichen-covered roofs
of the middle ages--which, with their warm tints, form so picturesque
a feature of many an old-fashioned English country town--have given
place to the flat, dull, slated roofs. The best roofing slate
is obtained from North Wales, chiefly in the neighbourhood of
Llanberis. Non-absorption of water is, of course, the most valuable
characteristic; an easy test of this can be applied by carefully
weighing one or two specimens when dry, and then steeping them in
water for a few hours and weighing them again, when the difference in
weight will of course represent the quantity of water absorbed. The
light-blue coloured slates are generally superior to the blue-black
varieties. (J. Slater.)

Some architects bed the roofing slates in hydraulic cement, instead
of having them nailed on dry in the usual way, which leaves them
subject to be rattled by the wind, and to be broken by any accidental
pressure. The cement soon sets and hardens, so that the roof becomes
like a solid wall. The extra cost is 10 or 15 per cent., and it is
good economy, considering only its permanency, and the saving in
repairs; but, besides this, it affords great safety against fire, for
slate laid in the usual way will not protect the wood underneath from
the heat of a fire at a short distance.

Tiles are much used in some districts, and are often made of a
pleasant tint; but a great objection to all tiles is their porosity,
which causes them to absorb much water, rotting the woodwork and
adding to their own already considerable weight.

Metallic roofing embraces sheet copper, sheet zinc, sheet lead,
“galvanised” iron, and thin plates of “rustless” (Bower-Barff) iron.
These materials are only used on flat or nearly flat spaces.

_Floors._--Tiles or flags are most frequently used for the floors
of kitchens, sculleries, and lobbies. They serve this purpose very
well, as they are easily washed and not likely to be injured, but
the joints should be made impervious to moisture. In some parts of
the country, concrete is used; this answers very well for the same
purpose, but it is not good for bedrooms, as it is so cold to the
feet. Wood makes the most comfortable floor for sitting or bed rooms,
and the best is hard wood capable of bearing a polish. From its
convenience and cheapness, common deal is used very generally, and
too often in a damp and unsound state, so that the boards shrink and
wide gaps are left between. This allows all the foul air from any
space--as a cellar or a cavity between the floor and the soil--to
ascend into the room. The boards ought to be as close together as
possible, and any spaces left between them should be packed tightly
with oakum. If this is done, the floors may be stained and varnished,
when they can be swept and rubbed clean, and do not require such
frequent washing as the ordinary unvarnished floors. This is an
important gain, for there is no doubt that emanations rising with
the damp from newly-washed floors are often most injurious. If a
varnished floor is washed, it dries almost at once. Spaces must be
left under the floors, on the ground level, if they are of wood, or
they will soon decay; and they ought to be well ventilated. Ceilings,
leaving a space between them and the boards of the room above, have
come into use, most likely to deaden sound. They often fail of this,
while affording fine playgrounds to mice, and even rats. Well-laid
boards, of sufficient thickness, and plugged with oakum, would, as
regards health, be preferable. (Dr. Simpson.)

_General Arrangement._--The chief points to be insisted on in a
dwelling are enumerated by Simpson as follows:--Every room should
obtain light and air from the outside, and there should be free
communication from front to back, so that a current of air may
pass through the house. What are called back-to-back houses are
very objectionable, and to be carefully avoided. If there is a
closet attached to the house, it should, as a matter of course,
be ventilated by a window opening both above and below, and, if
possible, should be built in a projecting wing or tower, and have
double doors, with space between them for a window on each side, so
as to have cross ventilation. When there is no closet in the house,
it should be completely detached from it, and all piggeries, middens,
&c., should be as far removed as possible. Speaking even of large
houses, Eassie remarks that they are often very faultily planned in
respect to the position in that portion of the interior which is
usually appropriated to sinks and water-closets. In the basement, for
instance, closets are often placed almost in the middle of the house,
and the same mistake is committed on the floors above, a worse error
by far; because then the closet would be placed on the landing of the
stair opposite the best ground-floor, and chamber-floor rooms--the
only ventilation from the closet-rooms being into the staircase, and
consequently into the house.

Precaution against Snakes entering Dwellings.--There is no regular
system adopted to prevent snakes entering dwelling-houses in Ceylon,
as it is of rare occurrence to find any but rat snakes in European
dwellings, and these are not venomous; but it is usual to clear away
a portion of space about each bungalow and put on sharp gravel, and
also to have coir matting laid down upon the verandahs, as snakes
dislike crossing over rough surfaces such as gravel and coir. Trees
should be at such a distance from the house (or bungalow) as to
prevent the possibility of snakes dropping from the branches on to
the roof.

Reducing Echoes and Reverberations.--The report of a committee of a
Würtemberg association of architects upon the deadening of ceilings,
walls, &c., to sound, gave rise to considerable debate, after which
the following conclusions were reached. The propagation of sound
through the ceiling may be most effectually prevented by insulating
the floor from the beams by means of some porous light substance,
as a layer of felt, a filling of sand, or of stone coal dust, the
latter being particularly effective. It is difficult to prevent the
propagation of sound through thin partitions, but double unconnected
walls filled in with some porous material have been found to answer
the purpose best. Covering the walls and doors with hangings, as of
jute, is also quite serviceable.

To those who carry on any operations requiring much hammering or
pounding, a simple means of deadening the noise of their work is a
great relief. Several methods have been suggested, but the best are
probably these:

1. Rubber cushions under the legs of the work-bench. _Chambers’s
Journal_ describes a factory where the hammering of fifty
coppersmiths was scarcely audible in the room below, their benches
having under each leg a rubber cushion.

2. Kegs of sand or sawdust applied in the same way. A few inches
of sand or sawdust is first poured into each keg; on this is laid
a board or block upon which the leg rests, and round the leg and
block is poured fine dry sand or sawdust. Not only all noise, but
all vibration and shock, is prevented; and an ordinary anvil, so
mounted, may be used in a dwelling-house without annoying the
inhabitants. To amateurs, whose workshops are almost always located
in dwelling-houses, this device affords a cheap and simple relief
from a very great annoyance.

Echoes are broken up by stretching wires across the room at about
4-5 ft. above the heads of the audience. Often there is strong echo
from the windows, which is lessened by the use of curtains, but with
some sacrifice of light. Very thin semi-transparent blinds would
check echo a good deal, but architects should not have large windows
in the same plane; large unbroken surfaces of any kind are very apt
to reflect echoes, yet we constantly see rooms intended for public
meetings so built as to be spoiled by the confusing echoes.

Waterproofing Walls.--In many badly constructed houses with thin
walls there is a tendency for damp to make its way into the interior.
Several remedies for this inconvenience have been published at
various times. The following procedure is described by a German paper
as a reliable means of drying damp walls. The wall, or that part
of it which is damp, is freed from its plaster until the bricks or
stones are laid bare, next further cleaned off with a stiff broom,
and then covered with the mass prepared as below, and dry river-sand
thrown on as a covering. Heat 1 cwt. of tar to boiling-point in a
pot, best in the open air; keep boiling gently, and mix gradually
3½ lb. of lard with it. After some more stirring, 8 lb. of fine
brickdust are successively put into the liquid, and moved about until
thoroughly disintegrated, which has been effected when, on dipping
in and withdrawing a stick, no lumps adhere to it. The fire under
the pot is then reduced, merely keeping the mass hot, which in that
state is applied to the wall. This part of the work, as well as the
throwing on of the river-sand against the tarred surface, must be
done with the trowel quickly and with sufficient force. It must be
continued until the whole wall is covered both with the tar mixture
and the sand. The tar must not be allowed to get cold, nor must the
smallest possible spot be left uncovered, as otherwise damp would
show itself again in such places, and where no sand has been thrown
the following coat of plaster would not stick. When the tar covering
has become cold and hard, the usual or gypsum coating may be applied.
It is asserted that, if this covering has been properly dried, even
in underground rooms, not a sign of dampness will be perceived. About
300 sq. ft. may be covered with the quantities above stated.

An excellent asphalte or mortar for waterproofing damp walls or other
surfaces is the following patented composition:--Coal tar is the
basis, to which clay, asphalte, rosin, litharge, and sand are added.
It is applied cold, and is extremely tenacious and weather-resisting.
The area to be covered is first dried and cleaned, then primed with
hot roofing varnish--chiefly tar. The mortar is then laid on cold
with trowels, leaving a coat ⅜ in. thick. A large area is then
coated with varnish and sprinkled over with rough sand. To frost or
rain this mortar is impervious. The cost is 5_d._ per sq. ft., and
for large quantities 4_d._ In the case of stone walls the following
ingredients, melted and mixed together, and applied hot to the
surface of stone, will prevent all damp from entering, and vegetable
substance from growing upon it. 1½ lb. rosin, 1 lb. Russian tallow, 1
qt. linseed-oil. This simple remedy has been proved upon a piece of
very porous stone made into the form of a basin; two coats of this
liquid, on being applied, caused it to hold water as well as any
earthenware vessel.

For brickwork, the _Builder_ gives the following remedy:--¾ lb. of
mottled soap to 1 gal. of water. This composition to be laid over
the brickwork steadily and carefully with a large flat brush, so as
not to form a froth or lather on the surface. The wash to remain 24
hours to become dry. Mix ½ lb. of alum with 4 gal. of water; leave it
to stand for 24 hours, and then apply it in the same manner over the
coating of soap. Let this be done in dry weather.

Another authority says, coat with venetian red and coal tar, used
hot. This makes a rich brown colour. It can be thinned with boiled

A Devonshire man recommends “slap-dashing,” as is often done in
Devon. The walls are, outside, first coated with hair-plaster by the
mason, and then he takes clean gravel, such as is found at the mouth
of many Devonshire rivers, and throws--or, as it is called locally,
“scats” it--with a wooden trowel, with considerable force, so as to
bed itself into the soft plaster. You can limewash or colour to your
liking, and your walls will not get damp through.

Perhaps no application is cheaper or more efficacious than the
following. Soft paraffin wax is dissolved in benzoline spirit in the
proportion of about one part of the former to four or five parts of
the latter by weight. Into a tin or metallic keg, place 1 gal. of
benzoline spirit, then mix 1½ lb. or 2 lb. wax, and when well hot
pour into the spirit. Apply the solution to the walls whilst warm
with a whitewash brush. To prevent the solution from chilling, it
is best to place the tin in a pail of warm water, but on no account
should the spirit be brought into the house, or near to a light, or a
serious accident might occur. The waterproofed part will be scarcely
distinguishable from the rest of the wall; but if water is thrown
against it, it will run off like it does off a duck’s back. Whilst
it is being applied the smell is very disagreeable, but it all goes
off in a few hours. On a north wall it will retain its effect for
many years, but when exposed much to the sun, it may want renewing
occasionally. Hard paraffin wax is not so good for the purpose, as
the solution requires to be kept much hotter.

Curing a Damp Cellar.--A correspondent inquired of the editor of
the _American Architect_ what remedy he would suggest for curing a
damp cellar. The difficulty to be overcome, presents the questioner,
in a new house is the wet cellar. Conditions present, concrete not
strong enough to resist the hydraulic pressure through a clay soil.
No footings under wall (which are of brick.) No cement on outside
of wall. The water evidently, however, forces its way through the
concrete bottom.

(_a_) Will reconcreting (using Portland cement) resist the pressure
of water and keep it out?

(_b_) If not, will a layer of pure bitumen damp-course between the
old and new concrete do the work?

(_c_) Will it do any good to carefully cement the walls on the inside
with rich Portland cement, say 3 ft. high, to exclude damp caused by
capillary attraction through the brick wall?

In reply to the above queries the editor gave the following hints,
which are equally applicable to builders of new houses as to those
occupying old houses with damp cellars:

It is doubtful whether even Portland cement concrete would keep back
water under sufficient pressure to force it through concrete made
of the ordinary cement. The best material would be rock asphalte,
either Seyssel, Neufebatel, Val de Travers, Yorwohle, or Limmer, any
of which, melted, either with or without the addition of gravel,
according to the character of the asphalte, and spread hot to a depth
of ¾ in. over the floor, will make it perfectly water-tight. The
asphalte coating should be carried without any break 18 or 20 in. up
on the walls and piers, to prevent water from getting over the edge;
and if the hydrostatic pressure of the water should be sufficient to
force the asphalte up, it must be weighted with a pavement of brick
or concrete. This is not likely to be necessary, however, unless the
cellar is actually below the line of standing water around it.

This, although an excellent method of curing the trouble, the
asphalte cutting off ground air from the house, as well as water,
will be expensive, the cost of the asphalte coating being from 20 to
22 cents (10-11_d._) a sq. ft.; and perhaps it may not be necessary
to go to so much trouble. It is very unusual to find water making its
way through ordinary good concrete, unless high tides or inundations
surround the whole cellar with water. If the source of the water
seems to be simply the soakage of rain into the loose material filled
in about the outside of the new wall, we should advise attacking
this point first, and sodding or concreting with coal-tar concrete,
a space 3 or 4 ft. wide around the building. This, if the grade is
first made to slope sharply away from the house, will throw the rain
which drips from the eaves, or runs down the walls, out upon the
firm ground, and in the course of two or three seasons the filling
will generally have compacted itself to a consistency as hard as or
harder than the surrounding soil, so that the tendency of water to
accumulate just outside the walls will disappear; while the concrete,
as it hardens with age, will present more and more resistance to
percolation from below.

For keeping the dampness absorbed by the walls from affecting the air
of the house, a Portland cement coating may be perhaps the best means
now available. It would have been much better, when the walls were
first built, to brush the outside of them with melted coal tar; but
that is probably impracticable now. If the earth stands against the
walls, however, the cement coating should cover the whole inside of
the wall. The situation of the building may perhaps admit of draining
away the water which accumulates about it, by means of stone drains
or lines of drain tile, laid up to the cellar walls, at a point below
the basement floor, and carried to a convenient outfall. This would
be the most desirable of all methods for drying the cellar, and
should be first tried.

Construction for Earthquake Countries.--The conditions will vary
somewhat according to the nature of the climate.

R. H. Brunton, who was for many years resident lighthouse engineer
in Japan, follows the principles enunciated by Mallet and Prof.
Palmieri, giving the buildings weight and great inertia, coupled with
a good bond between their various parts. Prof. Palmieri states that,
although solidity and strength in a building do not afford perfect
protection, still, so long as fracture does not occur, overthrow is
impossible. Dyer states that in his opinion, for dwelling-houses
in Japan, the modifications of external design required, as
compared with those in Britain, arise not so much on account of the
earthquakes as from the heats of summer, the colds of winter, and
the typhoons of autumn. Iron roofs are good from a merely structural
point of view; but in summer it would be impossible to live in the
houses provided with them. If a non-conducting material of the same
strength and durability as iron could be found, it might be used.
“If the houses are so designed as to be comfortable as regards
temperature, and the construction made in good brick, or equally
strong stone and mortar, so that the walls are of nearly a uniform
strength; if no unnecessary top weights are used, and if the various
parts do not vibrate with different periods, they will withstand all
ordinary earthquakes, and other precautions will be unnecessary, as
these generally produce results more serious than those due to the

The city of Arequipa, Peru, is particularly liable to earthquakes,
owing to its proximity to the great volcano, the Misti, 19,000 ft.
in height above sea-level, the city being 7000 ft. above sea-level.
The general construction of the houses is peculiar. A light coloured
volcanic stone is largely used; this, when quarried, is easily
shaped, and it hardens gradually. The roofs are for the most part
strong arches, a very good mortar being used. In the earthquake of
1868, it was not so much those arches which failed as the walls, and
the spandrels between the arches at front and rear. In some parts
of the city, arches extending in one direction stood, while those
at right angles to these were thrown down. Since 1868, a good many
corrugated iron roofs have been introduced; but they are not suitable
to the climate, and are not durable.

Earnshaw, from an experience of 25 years in Manila, where the
earthquakes are sometimes very severe, comes to the conclusion to
build as strongly as possible, and chiefly in wood, tied and bolted
together as in a ship, stone and brickwork only being used in the
lower story and in the foundations, and especial attention ought to
be paid to the quality of the lime and mortar used in construction.
Many materials have been used as roofing, such as the heavy tiles
made in the country and others imported there. When, in 1880, fully
60 per cent. of the buildings in Manila had been ruined, an order
was issued by the municipal authorities to use corrugated iron or
zinc sheeting for that purpose. A diversity of opinion existed as to
which was the best and most suitable, for not only had earthquakes to
be guarded against, but intense heat and disastrous typhoons. With
reference to the latter, in 1881, sheets of iron were flying about in
the air like paper. He thinks, therefore, that a light, strong tile
roofing is preferable to any other.

Prof. C. Clericetti, of Milan, and W. H. Thelwall relate that after
the earthquake in the island of Ischia in 1883, which was of a most
destructive character, and caused an enormous amount of damage in
the island, 2000 persons having lost their lives, and many more
being injured, a commission was appointed by the Italian Government
to obtain information, and to frame rules for the rebuilding of the
structures. It was ascertained that, speaking generally, buildings
founded on hard, solid lava had withstood the shock successfully,
whilst those founded upon looser or lighter materials, such as
tufa or clay, had suffered very much, and therefore in regard to
the re-erection of buildings it was pointed out that the first
thing to do was to select eligible sites, and to build, wherever
possible, upon lava; and, where that was not possible, to dig down
to comparatively solid ground, and then fill in a heavy platform
of masonry or concrete, 3 ft. or 4 ft. thick, extending over the
whole area of the building, and projecting 3 ft. or 4 ft. beyond.
The building of any kind of vaulting above ground was forbidden.
Light arches were only to be allowed over window’s and openings of
that kind. The heavy flat roofs formerly used to a large extent
were condemned. The commission recommended that buildings should
be chiefly constructed with an iron or wooden framework, carefully
put together, joined by diagonal ties, horizontally and vertically,
with spaces between the framework filled in with masonry of a light
character. The joists and the roof trusses were to be firmly
connected together. In plan, buildings should be square, and where
the direction of the last shock could be traced, one diagonal should
be placed in this direction. Not more than two stories above ground
were to be allowed, and there might be one under ground, but it must
be of very moderate height. In no case was the height from the lowest
point of the ground to the top of the walls to exceed 31 ft. Openings
for doors and windows were to be vertically over each other, the
jambs being not less than 5 ft. from the corner of the building. No
openings for flues were allowed in the thickness of the walls, and no
projections from the face of a building, except light balconies of
wood or iron. If solidly built structures, and particularly if there
was only one story above ground, the roofs might be covered with
tiles; but these must be light, and fastened with nails or hooks, so
as not to be displaced even by violent shocks.

=Water Supply and Purification.=--The supply of water to both town
and country houses has been dealt with at length by Eassie and Rogers
Field in essays written for the Health Exhibition Handbooks, and the
following information is mainly condensed and adapted from their

The conditions of supply in the two cases differ in being from a
general and public source in the one and from a special and private
source in the other. In each case, the consumer has to control the
purity and application of the supply after its delivery into the
dwelling; and in the second case he is further responsible for the
character and quantity of the supply before delivery. The second
case, therefore, in a great measure covers the first, and demands
extended treatment.

_Amount required._--The first consideration is the quantity of water
required. The supply to towns from waterworks is usually expressed in
“gallons per head of population per diem,” and varies exceedingly,
much of the variation being due to waste. This is especially the case
in towns where the supply is intermittent. In several towns having
a constant supply, steps have been taken systematically to measure
the water supplied to different streets and districts, and it has
been found that, without restricting the supply in any way, the
consumption of water has been immensely reduced, simply by sending
inspectors to make a house-to-house visitation and search out and
repair leaky pipes and defective taps and ball-cocks. It is by no
means an unusual thing for the consumption to be reduced one-half by
inspections of this kind, showing that at least one-half of the water
which was previously supplied to the houses was simply wasted through
leaky fittings.

Many people are inclined to think that waste of this kind is not a
bad thing, as it must help to keep the drains flushed. Field points
out that this is quite a mistake. A small dribble of water from a
leaky pipe or a leaky tap, though it will waste a great deal of water
in the course of 24 hours, is perfectly useless for flushing the
drains. What is wanted for this is the sudden discharge of a large
quantity of water. The dribble of water from leaky pipes and taps
does no good in any way, but simply wastes what might be usefully
employed, and in many cases causes a supply to run short which would
otherwise be ample for all legitimate uses. Another point that it is
difficult to realise is the large quantity of water which will run
to waste through what is apparently a very small leak. The quantity
leaking looks so small in comparison with the quantity running
when a tap is open, that one is inclined to think it perfectly
insignificant, forgetting that the leakage goes on continuously night
and day, whereas the tap is only open for a few minutes. In country
houses, where it is often difficult to obtain a sufficient supply
of water, it is particularly important to bear in mind the serious
influence that leaky pipes and taps have on the consumption, and
never to allow such leakage to go on for any length of time.

While useless waste should be prevented, it is most important that
the legitimate use of water should be encouraged in every way. As
Dr. Richardson has well pointed out, absolute cleanliness, properly
understood, is the beginning and the end of sanitary design, and
thorough cleanliness, of course, can never be obtained without an
ample water supply. Not only should there be sufficient water for
baths, lavatories, and washing of all kinds, but there should be a
liberal allowance for flushing water-closets and all other sanitary
appliances. Taking these sanitary considerations into account, as
well as giving due weight to the observations which have been made by
engineers and others on the quantity of water actually used in houses
under different circumstances, it may be assumed that, if waste is
efficiently prevented, a supply of 20-25 gallons per head per diem is
sufficient in ordinary cases for houses with baths and water-closets.
If horses are kept, a separate allowance should be made for them,
and for stable purposes (a useful approximate rule being to reckon
a horse as a man); and if water is used for watering gardens or
ornamental purposes, this must also be reckoned separately. If
earth-closets are adopted instead of water-closets, less water will
be required, and 15-20 gallons per head per diem will be sufficient.
In cottages with earth or other dry closets, the quantity of water
required will be still less: 10 gallons per head will be an ample
supply, and even 5-6 gallons may do in cases where it is absolutely
necessary to limit the quantity used.

_Sources of Supply._--Water for country houses is, in the vast
majority of cases, derived from springs or wells. Rain-water
collected from roofs is very frequently used as an auxiliary, and
occasionally as the main supply. There are instances in which the
supply is taken from streams or rivers, and even some in which water
running off the surface of the ground is collected in “impounding
reservoirs” (a mode often adopted for the water supply of towns); but
these cases are exceptional, and attention will here be confined to
springs, wells, and roof-water.

The real source of all fresh water supply is rain. Springs and wells
form no exception to this rule, though in their case the connection
with the rainfall is not so clear at first sight as it is in the
case of streams and open watercourses, because the passages by
which the rain reaches springs or wells are not visible, and heavy
rainfalls often have no apparent effect on their yield. In various
parts of the country occur curious intermittent springs (locally
called “bournes”), which burst out in some years and not in others,
and the connection between which and the rainfall is still more
obscure. Rain-water, before it issues from the ground as springs,
accumulates in the porous strata beneath, and forms, as it were,
large underground reservoirs; it is from these reservoirs that wells,
sunk into the porous strata, derive their supply.

The amount of rain varies enormously in different parts of the
world, some districts being either absolutely rainless, or having
only a very few inches of rain in the year, whereas others have some
hundreds of inches in the year. Even in England itself there is
considerable variation. The average rainfall for the whole country
is about 30 inches a year, but the amount in different parts of the
country varies from about 20 inches to nearly 200 inches a year. The
eastern side of England, as Field remarks, has much less rain than
the western side, and, roughly speaking, if a line be drawn from
Portsmouth to Newcastle-on-Tyne, it will divide the country into a
dry portion and a wet portion. The portion of the country on the east
of this imaginary line will (with the exception of the south coast,
which is wetter) have only 25 inches of rain or less, and the portion
on the west of the line will have from 30 to 50 inches, with much
larger amount in the Cumberland and Welsh mountains, and at Dartmoor.

The rainfall of the wettest year is about double that of the driest
year. This gives a very useful rule for roughly ascertaining the
extreme rainfalls, which are really more useful for the purpose of
water supply than the rainfall for an average year. The fall in the
driest year may be assumed to be one-third less than the average, and
for the wettest one-third more. Thus, with an average rainfall of 30
inches, the fall of the driest year would be 20 inches, and that of
the wettest year 40 inches.

A portion only of the total rain which falls is available for water
supply, as there is always more or less loss. In the case of rain
falling on roofs, the loss is comparatively small, but in the case
of rain falling on the surface of the earth the loss is considerable.
The latter is disposed of in three different ways: part of it runs
directly into open watercourses and streams, part is taken up by
vegetation or lost by evaporation, and part percolates through the
surface ground and accumulates in the water-bearing strata which feed
the springs and wells.

From observations made on the amount of percolation in different
cases, it has been found that the amount of percolation does not
depend so much on the amount of rain as on the conditions under
which it falls. By far the greater portion of the percolation takes
place in winter and comparatively little in summer, the reason
being that in winter the ground is wet, evaporation is small, and
vegetation is inactive, so that a large proportion of the rain sinks
into the ground; whereas in summer the reverse is the case, so that
most of the rain is taken up before it can percolate. So great is
the difference between summer and winter as regards percolation,
that one may generally leave the summer rainfall altogether out
of consideration, and assume that, in this country, it depends on
the amount of rain which falls during the six months from October
to March, whether the underground store of water will be fully
replenished or not.

The height of the accumulated underground water is indicated by
the level at which water stands in wells: and it is found that
this height varies considerably, the variations usually following
a regular course: the water is generally lowest in October and
November, it then rises till it reaches its highest point in February
or March, and after this it falls slowly till the following autumn.

A condition to be studied in selecting a spring as a source of water
supply is its “seasonal” variation. As Field points out, a spring
which will give an ample quantity of water in the winter may give an
insufficient quantity in the autumn, so that the measurement of a
spring in winter should never be depended on for determining whether
it will do as a source of water supply. The only safe way is to wait
till the autumn yield has been ascertained; even then an allowance
must be made for the previous winter, if it has been a very wet one,
the yield of the spring becoming abnormally high.

Wells may be either shallow or deep. The latter are always
preferable, but sometimes the former must be relied on. The great and
serious danger in connection with shallow wells is their liability to
pollution from cesspools and drains, whose liquid contents (fully as
poisonous as the solid) filter through the surrounding soil and go
to swell the volume of water in the well, especially if, as nearly
always happens, the cesspool is much shallower than the well.

In country villages, frequently the cesspools and wells are so
intermixed that the entire bed of water is polluted, and hence
all the wells are unsafe. But in isolated houses, if the well and
cesspool are some distance apart, pollution of the well will depend
chiefly on the direction of the movement of the underground water.
If this movement is from the cesspool towards the well, the polluted
water will flow towards the well; if the movement is in the contrary
direction, the polluted water will flow away from the well. Hence
Field’s caution, that before sinking a shallow well where sources of
contamination are in the neighbourhood, the direction of the flow of
the underground water must first be carefully ascertained, bearing in
mind that it is not safe to assume that this flow is in the direction
of the fall of the land, though it very frequently is so: if there is
the slightest doubt, levels must be taken of the underground water
in different places, and the source of contamination be accurately
localised. Contamination from surface soakage can frequently be
prevented by raising the top of the well above the adjoining ground,
and paving the surface round the well with a slope so that the
rain-water runs away from it. Norton Tube wells, which consist of an
iron tube driven into the ground and surmounted by a pump, are useful
for excluding surface pollution. If the pollution is sufficient
to contaminate the subsoil and reach the underground water, no
precautions that can be taken in constructing the well will keep the
pollution out.

Generally, deep wells are safer from contamination than shallow
wells, but may still, under certain circumstances, be polluted.

On the question whether a well which has been-polluted by a cesspool
will become fit for use after the cesspool has been removed, no
rule can be laid down. If the removal of the sources of pollution
has been thorough, the well will frequently recover its purity; but
under other circumstances the well may remain impure. As to the least
distance between wells and cesspools compatible with safety, while
the Local Government Board of London is content with 20-30 yards, Dr.
Frankland insists on at least 200 yards. It would be more rational to
forbid cesspools of all kinds; at the same time, possible leakages
from drains, through injury or otherwise, must not be omitted from
the estimate of risk of pollution. Again, the effect of increased
demand upon the contents of the well at once extends the danger,
because as the water in the well is lowered so is the area from which
the well draws its supply increased, the ratio varying from 20 to 100
times the depression. Where a whole day’s supply is pumped at once
into an elevated tank, the maximum figure will be reached.

Those who intend sinking wells are advised first to read a little
book by Ernest Spon, on the ‘Present Practice of Sinking and Boring
Wells,’ 2nd edition, 1885.

Rain-water collected from roofs forms a valuable auxiliary supply too
often disregarded. In towns it is rarely pure enough for domestic
use, but in country districts it is generally wholesome.

A country resident thus describes the manner in which he utilises
rain-water, falling upon an ordinary tin roof, covered with some sort
of metallic paint, said to contain no lead, and flowing into a large
cemented brick cistern, whence it is pumped into the kitchen. The
cistern differs from the usual construction in this manner: across
the bottom, about 3 ft. nearer one side than the other, is excavated
a trough or ditch about 2 ft. wide and 2 ft. deep; along the centre
of this depression is built a brick wall from the bottom up to the
top of the cistern, and having a few openings left through it at the
very bottom. The whole cistern, bottom, sides, and canal included,
is cemented as usual, excepting the division wall. Upon each side of
the wall, at its base, 6-12 in. of charcoal is laid, and covered with
well-washed stones to a further height of 6 in., merely to keep the
charcoal from floating. The rain-water running from the roof into the
larger division of the cistern, passes through the stone covering,
the charcoal, the wall, the charcoal upon the other side, lastly, the
stones, and is now ready for the pump placed in this smaller part. It
is much better that the water at first pass into the larger division,
as the filtration will be slower, and the cistern not so likely to
overflow under a very heavy rainfall. He has used this cistern for
many years, and was troubled only once, when some toads made their
entrance at the top, which was just at the surface of the ground,
soon making their presence known by a decided change in the flavour
of the water.

If the house chances to be in a dusty situation, several plans will
suggest themselves whereby a few gallons at the first of each rain
may be prevented from entering the cistern. Should the house be
small, and therefore the supply of water from its roof be limited, do
not lessen the size of the cistern, but rather increase it, for with
one of less capacity some of the supply must occasionally be allowed
to go to waste during a wet time, and you will suffer in a drought,
whereas a cistern that never overflows is the more to be relied upon
in a long season without rain.

Rainfall varies exceedingly in different places, and even in the same
situation it is impossible to foretell the amount to be expected
during any short period of time, but the most careful observations
show that about 4 ft. in depth descends at New York and vicinity
every year, or nearly 1 in. a week. If this amount were to be
furnished uniformly every week, the size of a cistern need only be
sufficient to contain one week’s supply, but we often have periods
of 4 weeks without receiving the average of one, and we must build

The weekly average of 1 in. equals 1 cub. ft. upon every 12 ft. of
surface, or 3630 cub. ft. upon an acre, weighing about 113 tons.
Upon a roof 40 ft. by 40 ft., 1600 sq. ft., it would be 133 cub.
ft., 1037 gal., or about 26 barrels of 40 gal. each. A cistern 8 ft.
across and 10 ft. deep would contain 502 cub. ft.; and one of 10
ft. across and 10 ft. deep, 785 cub. ft., or 6120 gal.--about the
average fall upon a roof of the above size for 6 weeks; while the
smaller cistern would hold 3900 gal., or a little less than 4 weeks’
rainfall. The weekly supply of 1037 gal. is equal to 148 gal. per
day, or nearly 15 gal. to each individual of a family of 10. This is
certainly enough, and more than enough, if used as it should be; but
where water is plentiful it is wasted, and in our capricious climate,
whether we depend upon wells or cisterns, it is wise to waste no
water at all, at least during the warm summer months, and lay by
not for a wet but a dry day. For this country, Field estimates 2-3
gallons of tank capacity for every square foot of roof area.

[Illustration: 3. Rain-water Tank.]

In Fig. 3 _a b c d_ show the excavation that must be made for
the cistern, and supposing the diagram to exhibit, as it does, a
section of the cistern, the receptacle for the water will be, when
finished, taking the relative proportions of the different parts into
consideration, just about 9 ft. wide and 4½ ft. deep. Of course,
the excavation must be made greater in breadth and depth than the
dimensions given, to allow for the surrounding walls and the bottom.
The walls may be of brick, cemented within, and backed with concrete
or puddled clay without, or of monolithic concrete; but the bottom,
in any case, should be made of concrete. The trench _e f g h_ running
across the bottom of the cistern is 2 ft. broad and 2 ft. deep. In
the middle of this opening is built up a 9 in. brick wall, or a
party-wall of concrete, _i k_. Along the bottom of the wall openings
_l_ are left at intervals. The party-wall divides the entire space
into the larger outer cistern _m_, and the smaller inner cistern _n_.
Supposing the breadth from _e_ to _f_ to be 2 ft., and the wall 9
in., spaces of 7½ in. will be left on each side of the wall. These
are filled to ¾ the height, or for 18 in., with lumps of charcoal,
smooth pebbles, 1-3 in. in diameter, being laid along the top of the
charcoal till the trench is filled up. The cistern is so constructed
that the water from the roof enters _m_; it passes downwards through
the stones and charcoal, as shown by the arrow at _f_, goes through
the opening and forces its way upwards in the direction of the arrow
at _e_ into the cistern _n_, in which it rises to the level of the
water in _m_, to be drawn thence for use by a small pump.

Various modifications of this form of tank-filter will suggest
themselves to readers possessing any mechanical genius. The great
point is to prevent contamination from the soil by using good
material and making sound work. Further, the overflow pipe of the
tank must not communicate with any drain or sewer.

[Illustration: 4. Rain-water Separator.]

Recently several inventors have introduced apparatus for separating
rain-water from impurities. One of these, bearing the name of
Roberts, is illustrated in Fig. 4. Its principle of action is to
reject the first portion of the rain which falls (as it is this
which chiefly washes the dirt off the roof), and only to collect the
latter portion of the rain. The water from the roof first runs on
to a strainer, that intercepts rubbish; it then passes through one
of two channels in the upper part of the canter, balanced upon a
pivot. At the commencement of a shower, the canter is raised in the
position shown in Fig. 4, “running to waste,” and the bulk of the
water passes through a channel which directs it into the lower or
wastewater outlet. Meanwhile, a very small proportion of the water is
accumulating in the lower part of the canter, very slowly in light
rain but more rapidly in heavy rain, so that it is filled up by the
time the roof has become clean. Then the weight of water causes it
to fall down as shown in Fig. 4A “running to storage,” so that the
clean water may run through the upper storage outlet pipe. This very
useful little apparatus is made and sold by C. G. Roberts, Collards,
Haslemere, Surrey.

[Illustration: 4A. Rain-water Separator.]

Perhaps this affords as good an opportunity as any of drawing
attention to the highly artistic rain-water heads that have lately
been introduced by Thomas Elsley, of 32 Great Portland Street, W.
These are made to suit every style of architecture and every variety
of roof and guttering, and practically without limit as to size.
Their quality is beyond praise.

It is essential to bear in mind that rain-water is liable to exert
considerable solvent action on lead, consequently pipes and cisterns
of this metal must be avoided. The pipes may be of iron, or of
specially lead-encased block-tin, and the cisterns of “galvanised”
iron or slate.

As Eassie has pointed out, there is much to be considered in the
arrangement of rain-water pipes from a sanitary point of view, where
a separator and storage tank are not in use, because the foul air
delivered from them is sucked into the rooms near the roof, on which
the sun’s heat pours. A fire lighted in a room develops the same
danger when the rain-water pipe terminates near the windows of the
room. Another danger accruing from rain-water pipes which connect
directly with the drain is due to the fact that the joints of the
iron rain-water pipes are seldom air-tight, and foul air is therefore
often driven or sucked into the rooms when the windows are open. It
is easy to imagine how dangerous this must be in houses which have
been fitted up with iron (or even lead) rain-water pipes running down
the interior walls, and having their terminations close to a dormer
window, skylight, or staircase ventilator on the roof, with the foot
of the rain-water pipe taken direct into a drain leading to a town
sewer. But the risk is greatly increased when the rain-water pipes
are connected with a closed cesspool, to which the rain-water pipe is
acting as a ventilator.

When rain-water pipes deliver into the drain directly, they are
often made to act as soil pipes from the closets, in which case the
evil is intensified. The soil from the closets is apt to adhere to
the interior of the pipe, generally on the side opposite to that
traversed by the rain-water, and the poisonous smell escapes at any
bad joints and always at the roof orifice.

When the rain-water pipe is of cast iron, other sources of danger are
present if the pipe is used also for conveying soil from a closet.
Unless the rim of the soil pipe from the closet is joined to the
rain-water pipe by a proper cast-iron socketed joint, the connection
must be made by means of a piece of lead pipe which receives the soil
pipe, and the joint between the lead soil pipe and the upper and
lower parts of the cast-iron pipe cannot be properly soldered. Here
sometimes grievous calamity follows cases where the combined pipe is
ventilating the drain and sewer; the pipe joints are frequently open,
and when the windows are unclosed for ventilation the foul air is
whisked into the house. Eassie insists that it is cheaper to owner
and dweller alike to have a separate soil-pipe erected at first.

[Illustration: 5. Outlet of Rain-water Pipes.]

All rain-water pipes should deliver into the open air, and have no
connection with the drains, except when they are disconnected. They
should discharge their contents over a gully grating as at _a_, Fig.
5, or underneath the grating as at _b_, the ends of the pipes in both
cases being in the open air. Every householder should insist upon
this being carried out. But occasionally the rain-water pipes descend
inside the house and there is no open yard where a disconnecting
gully can be fixed. In such a case a separate drain should be laid
to the nearest area or yard, and separation ensured. In laying down
new drains in a house, where the rain-water pipes must descend in the
interior, it will be better to provide a separate or twin drain to
the nearest open-air space.

Provision must be made at the roof for keeping foreign matters out
of the rain-water pipes. Leaves, soot, and dirt will accumulate
round the pipe orifices, and very often will cause the gutter to be
flooded during a storm. The usual way to avert this is to fix over
the opening of the pipe in the bottom of the gutter a galvanised open
wire half-globe, or a raised cap of thick lead pierced with tolerably
large holes. The cost for this is trifling, but the value is great.
Whenever rain-water pipes _must_ run down the inside wall of a house,
lead should be adopted. Sometimes rain-water pipes are taken down in
the interior, when a very little initial study could have brought
them to the exterior face of a wall--where alone they should be
taken, whenever it is possible to do so.

On attic roofs, and where only one side of the house can be used
for the attachment of rain-water pipes, the water from one side is
brought across the roof by means of a “box” gutter of wood, lined at
the bottom and sides with lead or zinc, and covered with a board.
This often emits a very foul smell, owing to the accumulation of
decaying matter. When such guttering cannot be avoided, it should
occasionally--say once a week--be carefully cleaned out. The same
matters will sometimes silt up and stop the gullies, shown at the
foot of the rain-water pipes (Fig. 5), hence it is equally necessary
to see that these traps are cleaned out, say monthly.

Rain-water pipes are often made the waste pipes of lavatories, baths,
sinks, and slop-pails. When properly disconnected at the foot, in the
open air, and when the top of the rain-water pipe does not terminate
under a window of an inhabited room, this does not much matter;
but when the court-yard is limited in area, and there is a window
belonging to a living or sleeping room just overhead, where the rain
from the roof delivers itself into the upright pipe, an offence will
arise from the decomposing fats of soap, which form a slimy mess
adhering to the interior of the pipe, that no amount of rainfall will

_Cisterns._--Cisterns should be in a cistern-room if possible, but,
at all events, placed where they can be got at, covered over with
suitable fittings, and ventilated to the open air. A drinking-water
cistern should never be placed in a water-closet, for no amount of
disconnection in such a case will suffice to counteract its evil
surroundings. Neither should it be placed in a bath-room, which is
liable to a steam-laden atmosphere. Nothing can be said against a
site out of doors, on the flats, or below (if away from dustbins and
ash-heaps); but in such cases the cistern, with its service pipes,
should be well protected from frost. The position of a cistern
should be equally carefully chosen no matter whether the supply
be constant or intermittent, or whether there be a high or a low
pressure cistern. And not only should it be made certain that the
“standing waste” pipe of the cistern delivers in the open air, but
that any “overflow” pipe of the cistern delivers in like cleanly
fashion. It is too common to take these wastes down to the nearest
sink. It might prove expedient to thus disconnect a cistern waste
when time presses, and when the alternative is costly, but the
practice is not to be commended.

Eassie’s strictures with regard to cisterns apply equally to those
feed cisterns which supply hot-water circulating cisterns or boilers
where water is heated for kitchen, scullery, still-room, or bath-room
uses. It is too common to find the feed cistern, which is the small
iron cistern that automatically keeps the kitchen or other basement
boiler full, placed in the darkest corner of the commonest stowaway
cupboard, with its overflow pipe joined to the drain.

The materials of which cisterns are constructed vary much in town and
country. In old houses will be frequently found cisterns formed of
slabs of stone, just as they have been raised from the quarry, and
sometimes of slabs of rough slate, and than these, provided they are
regularly cleaned out and the waste pipes disconnected, probably no
better basement cistern could be found. The same might perhaps be
said of brickwork cemented inside. Cisterns composed of slate possess
a drawback in their weight, which sometimes prevents them from being
adopted upstairs. It has become a frequent practice now to have them
enamelled white inside, so that the slightest discoloration of the
water, or sediment at the bottom, can be instantly detected.

Cisterns composed of metal throughout embrace old cisterns of cast
lead, dated early in the 18th century; these are quite harmless,
on account of their natural silver alloy, and they may be trusted,
all other conditions being satisfactory. Cast-iron cisterns, made
of plates bolted together, if kept full, and not subject to rust,
are unobjectionable. Wrought iron, which has afterwards been
“galvanised,” is a very common form of cistern, and appears to
be the cheapest. Little can be said in its disfavour, although
experiments made in America have proved that some waters attack the
inner coating. The commonest form of cistern is composed of wooden
framing lined inside with sheet lead. This is not the best for
storing drinking-water, and slate would be preferable; but no one
would say that all water drawn from leaden cisterns would injuriously
affect health. The interior of a lead-lined cistern will be found to
acquire a whitish coating, and it is due to this chemical alteration
of its surface that the contained water can be drunk with more
or less impunity. Nevertheless, there are some waters which very
readily attack lead, and care should be exercised in this respect.
In cleaning out a lead cistern the surface should never be scraped,
but simply washed down with a moderately hard brush. Sometimes houses
are provided with zinc-lined wooden cisterns; this metal for several
reasons is one of the worst materials for water storage, and should
never be used for drinking-water. Neither should wooden butts or
barrels be employed for storing water anywhere in a house, as they
speedily become lined with a low vegetable growth detrimental to

A great mistake consists in storing away a great quantity of water in
abnormally large cisterns, in consequence of which the tap is drawing
off for a very long period the water first delivered to it, and which
is not the cleanest water. This does not so much matter in cisterns
which supply closets or baths, but it is reprehensible when the water
is for the bedroom decanter and the nursery.

_Pipes._--Pipes for conveying water are generally of lead, because it
is more easily bent than any other metal; but frequently iron pipes
are substituted when the water main has to be brought from a great
distance. Eassie remarks that the conveyance of some waters in long
lengths of leaden pipe, in which the water must necessarily stand,
and the use of leaden suction pipes in wells, is not a thing to be
looked upon with great favour. Hence it is that galvanised iron pipes
are used by some, and in the case of water conveyance from a long
distance, the cast-iron pipes coated inside with Dr. Angus Smith’s
solution, or subjected to the Bower-Barff system of protection
against rust, are now very largely adopted. Glass-lined pipes of the
American pattern have also been introduced into this country, but
have not yet made much headway, which is a pity, seeing that glass
forms the best of all conduits for water. Much depends upon whether
the water is of such a character as to rapidly decompose lead.

Leaden pipes, of sufficient weight per lineal foot, may fitly
conduct the flushing water for closets and the cold water to baths
and lavatories; but what is called “lead-encased block-tin pipe”
should be used in conveying water from the separate drinking-water
cistern. The cost is some 50 per cent. more than for leaden pipe,
and there is more difficulty in making the joints, but these points
are overbalanced by the certainty of non-pollution of the water.
Water pipes should be fixed in separate wall chases, easy of access.
Service pipes should also be kept separate from each other, and
provided with proper stop-cocks in case of accident.

_Pumps._--It will not be out of place here to offer a few remarks
on the construction, capacity, and working of the 3 kinds of common
pump in everyday use--i.e. (1) the lift-pump; for wells not over
30 ft. deep, (2) the lift and force, for wells under 30 ft. deep,
but forcing the water to the top of the house, and (3) the lift and
force, for wells 30-300 ft. deep.

The working capacity of a pump is governed by the atmospheric
pressure, which roughly averages 15 lb. per sq. in. It is also
necessary to remember that 1 gal. of water weighs 10 lb. The quantity
of water a pump will deliver per hour depends on the size of the
working barrel, the number of strokes, and the length of the stroke.
Thus, if the barrel is 4 in. diam., with a 10 in. stroke, piston
working 30 times a minute, then the rule is--square the diameter of
the barrel and multiply it by the length of stroke, the number of
strokes per minute, and the number of minutes per hour, and divide by
353, thus:--

  42 in. × 10 in. stroke × 30 strokes × 60 minutes

= 815 gal. per hour. About 10 per cent. is deducted for loss. The
horse-power required is the number of lb. of water delivered per
minute, multiplied by the height raised in ft., and divided by
33,000. Thus:--

  815 gal. × 10 lb. × 30 ft. lift
  ------------------------------- = 7·4 H.P.

[Illustration: 6. Lift Pump.]

Fig. 6 shows a vertical section of the simple lift-pump. _a_ is the
working barrel, bored true, to enable the piston or bucket _b_ to
move up and down, air-tight. The usual length of barrel in a common
pump is 10 in. and the diameters are 2, 2½, 3, 3½, 4, 5, and 6 in.;
a 3 in. barrel is called a 3 in. pump. The stroke is the length of
the barrel; but a crank, 5 in. projection from the centre of a shaft,
will give a 10 in. stroke at one revolution; but in the common pump
shown, use is made of a lever pump handle, whose short arm _c d_
is about 6 in. long, and the long arm or handle _d e_ is usually
36 in., making the power as 6 to 1; _f_ is the fulcrum or prop.
Improved pumps have a joint at _f_, which causes the piston to work
in a perpendicular line, instead of grinding against the side of the
barrel. The head _g_ of the pump is made a little larger than the
barrel, to enable the piston to pass freely to the barrel cylinder;
in wrought-iron pumps, the nozzle is riveted to the heads, and unless
the head is larger than the barrel these rivets would prevent the
piston from passing, and injure the leather packing on the bucket.
The nozzle _h_, fixed at the lower part of head, is to run off the
water at each rise of the piston. There is 1 valve _i_ at the bottom
of the barrel, and another in the bucket _b_.

The suction pipe _k_ should be ⅔ the diameter of the pump barrel.
A rose _l_ is fixed at the end of the suction pipe to keep out any
solid matter that might be drawn into the pump and stop the action
of the valves. The suction pipe must be fixed with great care. The
joints must be air-tight: if of cast flange-pipe, which is the most
durable, a packing of hemp, with white and red lead, and screwed up
with 4 nuts and screws, or a washer of vulcanised rubber ⅜ in. thick,
with screw bolts, is best. If the suction pipe is of gas-tube, the
sockets must all be taken off, and a paint of boiled oil and red-lead
be put on the screwed end, then a string of raw hemp bound round and
well screwed up with the gas tongs, making a sure joint for cold
water, steam, or gas.

Many plumbers prefer lead pipe, so that they can make the usual
plumbers’ joint. The tail _m_ of the pump is for fixing the suction
pipe on a plank level with the ground. Stages _n_ are fixed at every
12 ft. in a well; the suction pipe is fixed to these by a strap
staple, or the action of the pump would damage the joints. There are
two plans for fixing the suction pipe; (1) in a well _o_ directly
under the pump; (2) the suction pipe _p_ may be laid in a horizontal
direction, and about 18 in. deep under the ground (to keep the water
from freezing in winter) for almost any distance to a pond, the only
consideration being the extra labour of exhausting so much air. In
the end of such suction pipe _p_ it is usual to fix an extra valve,
called a “tail” valve, to prevent the water from running out of the
pipe when not in use. The action is simply explained. First raise the
handle _e_, which lowers the piston _b_ to _i_; during this movement
the air that was in the barrel _a_ is forced through the valve in
the piston _b_; when the handle is lowered, and the piston begins to
rise, this valve closes and pumps out the air; in the meantime the
air expands in the suction pipe _k_, and rises into the barrel _b_
through the valve _i_; at the second stroke of the piston this valve
closes and prevents the air getting back to the suction pipe, which
is pumped out as before. After a few strokes of the pump handle, the
air in the suction pipe is nearly drawn out, creating what is called
a vacuum, and then as the water is pressed by the outward air equal
to 15 lb. on the sq. in., the water rises into the barrel as fast as
the piston rises: also the water will remain in the suction pipe as
long as the piston and valves are in proper working order.

The following table of dimensions for hand-worked simple lift-pumps
will be found useful:--

  |Height for |             |Water delivered|Diam. of|Thickness of|
  |Water to be|  Diam. of   |  per Hour at  |Suction | Well Rods  |
  |  raised.  |Pump Barrel. |30 Strokes per |  Pipe. |  for Deep  |
  |           |             |      Min.     |        |    Wells.  |
  |    ft.    |    in.      |      gal.     |  in.   |    in.     |
  |    14     |     6       |     1640      |   4    |     1      |
  |    20     |     5       |     1110      |   3    |     1      |
  |    30     |     4       |      732      |   2½   |     ⅞      |
  |    40     |     3½      |      555      |   2½   |     ¾      |
  |    50     |     3       |      412      |   2    |     ¾      |
  |    75     |     2½      |      260      |   2    |     ⅝      |
  |   100     |     2       |      183      |   1½   |     ⅝      |

[Illustration: 7. Lift and Force Pump. 8. Deep-well Pump.]

Fig. 7 shows a lift- and force-pump suitable for raising water from
a well 30 ft. deep, and forcing it to the top of a house. The pump
barrel _a_ is fixed to a strong plank _b_, and fitted with “slings”
at _c_ to enable the piston to work parallel in the barrel, a guide
rod working through a collar guiding the piston in a perpendicular
position, _d_ is the handle. The suction pipe _e_ and rose _f_ are
fixed in the well _g_ as already explained. At the top of the working
barrel is a stuffing-box _h_, filled with hemp and tallow, which
keeps the pump rod water-tight. When the piston is raised to the top
of the barrel, the valve _i_ in the delivery pipe _k_ closes, and
prevents the water descending at the down-stroke of the piston. The
valve in the bucket _l_, also at _m_ in the barrel _a_, is the same
as in the common pump. The pipe _k_ is called the “force” for this
description of pump.

Fig. 8 shows a design for a deep-well pump, consisting of the usual
fittings--viz. a brass barrel _a_, a suction pipe with rose _b_,
rising main pipe _c_, well-rod _d_, wooden or iron stages _e f g_,
and clip and guide pulleys _h_. The well-rod and the rising main must
be well secured to the stages, which are fixed every 12 ft. down the
well. An extra strong stage is fixed at _i_, to carry the pump--if of
wood, beech or ash, 5 ft. × 9 in. × 4 in.; the other stages may be 4
in. sq.

The handle is mounted on a plank _k_ fitted with guide slings, either
at right angles or sideways to the plank. The handle _l_ is weighted
with a solid ball-end at _m_, which will balance the well-rod fixed
to the piston. By fixing the pump barrel down the well about 12 ft.
from the level of the water, the pump will act better than if it were
fixed 30 ft. above the water, because any small wear and tear of the
piston does not so soon affect the action of the pump, and therefore
saves trouble and expense, as the pump will keep in working order
longer. It is usual to fix an air-vessel at _n_. The valves _o_ are
similar to those already described. In the best-constructed pumps,
man-holes are arranged near the valves to enable workmen to clean
or repair the same, without taking up the pump. Every care should
be given to make strong and sound joints for the suction pipe and
delivery pipe, as the pump cannot do its proper duty should the pipes
be leaky or draw air.

To find the total weight or pressure of water to be raised from a
well, reckon from the water level in the well to the delivery in the
house tank or elsewhere. For example, if the well is 27 ft. deep, and
the house tank is 50 ft. above the pump barrel; then you have 77 ft.
pressure, or about 39 lb. pressure per sq. in. That portion of the
pipe which takes a horizontal position may be neglected. The pressure
of water in working a pump is according to the diameter of the pump
barrel. Suppose the barrel to be 3 in. diam., it would contain 7 sq.
in., and say the total height of water raised to be 77 ft., equal
to 39 lb. pressure, multiplied by 7 sq. in., is equal to 539 lb. to
be raised or balanced by a pump handle; then if the leverage of the
pump handle were, the short arm 6 in. and long arm 36 in., or as 6 to
1, you have (539 × 1) ÷ 56 = 90 lb. power on the handle to work the
pump, which would require 2 men to do the work, unless you obtained
extra leverage by wheel work. When the suction or delivery pipe is
too small, it adds enormously to the power required to work a pump,
and the water is then called “wiredrawn.” When pumps are required for
tar or liquid manure, the suction and delivery pipe should be the
same size as the pump barrel, to prevent choking.

The operations of plumbing and making joints in pipes will be found
fully described and illustrated in ‘Spons’ Mechanics’ Own Book’; and
many other methods of raising water for household and agricultural
purposes are explained in ‘Workshop Receipts,’ 4th series.

_Purification._--At a recent meeting of the Institution of Civil
Engineers, Prof. Frankland read a paper dealing with the question of
water purification, in which he remarked that the earliest attempts
to purify water dealt simply with the removal of visible suspended
particles; but later, chemists have turned their attention to the
matters present in solution in water. Since the advance of the
germ theory of disease, and the known fact that living organisms
were the cause of some, and probably of all, zymotic diseases, the
demand for a test which should recognise the absence or presence of
micro-organisms in water had become imperative. It was, however, only
during the last few years that any such test had been set forth, and
this was owing to Dr. Koch, of Berlin. By this means the only great
step which had been made since the last Rivers Pollution Commission
had been achieved. It had been supposed that most filtering materials
offered little or no barrier to micro-organisms; but it was now known
that many substances had this power to a greater or less degree. It
had also been found that, in order to continue their efficiency,
frequent renewal of the filtering material was necessary.

Vegetable carbon employed in the form of charcoal or coke was found
to occupy a high place as a biological filter, although previously,
owing to its chemical inactivity, it had been disregarded. Being
an inexpensive material, and easily renewed, it was destined to be
of great service in the purification of water. Experiments were
also made by the agitation of water with solid particles. It was
found that very porous substances, like coke, animal and vegetable
charcoal, were highly efficient in removing organised matter from
water when the latter came in contact with them in this manner. Also,
it was found that the well-known precipitation process, introduced by
Dr. Clark, for softening water with lime, had a most marked effect in
removing micro-organisms from water. In the case of water softened
by this process, it was found that a reduction of 98 per cent. in
the number of micro-organisms was effected, the chemical improvement
being comparatively insignificant.

Water which had been subjected to an exhaustive process of natural
filtration had been found to be almost free from micro-organisms.
Thus, the deep-well water obtained from the chalk near London
contained as few as eight organisms per cubic centimetre, whereas
samples of river water from the Thames, Lea, and Wey had been known
to contain as many thousands.

The same well-known authority on water published the following
statements in the _Nineteenth Century_. He described the subject of
domestic filtration as one which, in a town with a water supply like
that of London, possesses peculiar interest, and is of no little
importance. Most people imagine that by once going to the expense
of a filter they have secured for themselves a safeguard which will
endure throughout all time without further trouble. No mistake
could be greater, for without preserving constant watchfulness, and
bestowing great care upon domestic filtration, it is probable that
the process will not only entirely fail to purify the water, but will
actually render it more impure than before. For the accumulation of
putrescent organic matter upon and within the filtering material
furnishes a favourable nest for the development of minute worms
and other disgusting organisms, which not unfrequently pervade the
filtered water; whilst the proportion of organic matter in the
effluent water is often considerably greater than that present before

Of the substances in general use for the household filtration of
water, spongy iron and animal charcoal take the first place. Both
these substances possess the property of removing a very large
proportion of the organic matter present in water. They both, in
the first instance, possess this purifying power to about an equal
extent; but whereas the animal charcoal very soon loses its power,
the spongy iron retains its efficacy unimpaired for a much longer
time. Indeed, in spongy iron we possess the most valuable of all
known materials for filtration, inasmuch as, besides removing such a
large proportion of organic matter from water, it has been found to
be absolutely fatal to bacterial life, and thus acts as an invaluable
safeguard against the propagation of disease through drinking-water.

It is satisfactory to learn that in countries where the results of
scientific research more rapidly receive practical application than
is unfortunately the case amongst us, spongy iron is actually being
employed on the large scale for filtration where only a very impure
source of water supply is procurable. This refers to the recent
introduction of spongy-iron filter beds at the Antwerp waterworks.
It would be very desirable that such filter beds should be adopted
by the London water companies until they shall abandon the present
impure source of supply.

Animal charcoal, on the other hand, far from being fatal to the lower
forms of life, is highly favourable to their development and growth;
in fact, in the water drawn from a charcoal filter which has not been
renewed sufficiently often, myriads of minute worms may frequently be

Thus spongy iron enables those who can afford the expense to obtain
pure drinking-water even from an impure source; but this should
not deter those interested in the public health from using their
influence to obtain a water supply which requires no domestic
filtration, and shall be equally bright and healthful for both rich
and poor.

In a publication by Prof. Koch (_Med. Wochenschrift_, 1885, No.
37) on the scope of the bacteriological examination of water, it
is asserted that a large proportion of micro-organisms proves
that the water has received putrescent admixtures, charged with
micro-organisms, impure affluxes, &c., which may convey, along
with many harmless micro-organisms, also pathogenous kinds, i.e.
infectious matters. Further, that as far as present observations
extend, the number of micro-organisms in good waters ranges from 10
to 150 germs capable of development per c.c. As soon as the number
of germs decidedly exceeds this number the water may be suspected of
having received affluents. If the number reaches or exceeds 1000 per
c.c., such water should not be admitted for drinking, at least in
time of a cholera epidemic.

Dr. Link has lately examined a great number of the Dantzig
well-waters chemically and bacterioscopically. The results obtained
agree, however, very ill with the above opinions of Koch. On the
contrary, it appears very plainly that regular relations between
the chemical results and those of the bacterioscopic examination
do not obtain. Many well-waters, chemically good and not directly
or indirectly accessible to animal pollutions, often contained
considerable numbers of microbia, whilst other waters, chemically bad
and evidently contaminated by the influx of sewage, showed very small
numbers of bacteria undergoing development. If we further consider
that, by far the majority, indeed, as a rule the totality of the
bacteria contained in well-water, are indubitably of a harmless
nature, and that when a pollution of the water by pathogenous germs
has actually occurred, such germs will not in general find the
conditions necessary for their increase, especially a temperature
approximating to that of the body and a sufficient concentration
of nutritive matter, but that they will rather perish from the
overgrowth of the other bacteria inhabiting the water, we shall see
that a judgment on the quality of water--according to the results of
a bacterioscopic examination extending merely to a determination of
the number of germs capable of development--must lead to inaccurate
conclusions, which contradict the results of chemical analysis.

The attempt to put forward bacterioscopic examination as a decisive
criterion for the character of a water is therefore devoid of a
satisfactory basis. For the present, Dr. Link thinks the decision
must be left to chemical analysis.

At any rate it is doubtful whether the test of the number of
micro-organisms should determine the question whether a water is or
is not safe to drink. Dr. Koch’s gelatine peptone test has enabled
the analyst to recognise the absence or presence of microphytes;
but, as was stated at a recent meeting of the Society of Medical
Officers of Health, a sample of river water which might be marked
“very good” by this test would develop an enormous number of colonies
if kept for a few days, even in a “sterilised flask” protected from
aerial infection. Prof. G. Bischof says, in fact, that a sample
of New River water kept for six days in the above manner compares
unfavourably as regards the number of “colonies” with a sample taken
from the company’s main and polluted with one per cent. of sewage,
or with a sample of Thames water taken at London Bridge. It seems
certain too that the water stored on board ship must develop an
enormous number of “colonies”; but no special amount of disease is
attributable to them, and it would seem to follow that, unless the
number of microphytes can be shown to indicate, or to be a measure
of, pollution, Koch’s test is of little utility except as a guide
to waterworks’ engineers, by pointing out that the filters want
cleaning. In the laboratory the test is no doubt of considerable
value; but in analysing water it must be applied with discrimination,
and waters of a totally different character should not be compared
by the number of organisms. For instance, the water from Loch
Katrine might contain large numbers of micro-organisms, and yet be
perfectly safe as compared with a water in which few microphytes
could be found, but which had been accidentally polluted by some of
those pathogenous germs which undoubtedly exist, and which produce
disease when they find a suitable environment. Not until we are
able to discriminate between the harmless and the disease-producing
microphytes, shall we be able to test a water supply and declare it
practically pure.

The foregoing paragraphs will suffice to show what a very
unsatisfactory state our present knowledge of water is in. The
only useful fact to be deduced from all the argument is that every
household should filter its own drinking-water and take care that the
filters are always kept clean and in good working order. There is one
simple test for the purity of water, introduced by Dr. Hager in 1871,
consisting of a tannin solution, directions for which will be found
in the Housekeeper’s section. It remains to notice the chief kinds of

Filtration is destined to perform three distinct functions, at least
where the water is required for domestic use; these are (1) to remove
suspended impurities; (2) to remove a portion of the impurities in
solution, and (3) to destroy and remove low organic bodies.

The first step is efficiently performed by nature, in the case of
well and spring water, by subsidence and a long period of filtration
through the earth; in the case of river water supplied by the
various companies, it is carried out in immense settling ponds and
filter beds of sand and gravel. This suffices for water destined
for many purposes. The second and third steps are essential for
all drinking-water, and are the aim of every domestic filter. The
construction of water filters may now be discussed according to the
nature of the filtering medium.

Gravel and Sand.--The usual plan adopted by the water companies is
to build a series of tunnels with bricks without mortar; these are
covered with a layer of fine gravel 2 ft. thick, then a stratum of
fine gravel and coarse sand, and lastly a layer of 2 ft. of fine
sand. The water is first pumped into a reservoir, and after a time,
for the subsidence of the coarser impurities, the water flows through
the filter beds, which are slightly lower. For the benefit of those
desirous of filtering water on a large scale with sand filtering
beds, it may be stated that there should be 1½ yd. of filtering area
for each 1000 gal. per day. For effective work, the descent of the
water should not exceed 6 in. per hour.

This simple means of arresting solid impurities and an appreciable
portion of the matters in solution, may be applied on a domestic
scale, in the following manner.

Procure an ordinary wooden pail and bore a number of ¼ in. holes all
over the bottom. Next prepare a fine muslin bag, a little larger than
the bottom of the pail, and about 1 in. in height. The bag is now
filled with clean, well-washed sand, and placed in the pail. Water
is next poured in, and the edges of the bag are pressed against the
sides of the pail. Such a filter was tested by mixing a dry sienna
colour in a gallon of water, and, passing through, the colour was
so fine as to be an impalpable powder, rendering the water a deep
chocolate colour. On pouring this mixture on to the filter pad and
collecting the water, it was found free of all colouring matter.
This was a very satisfactory test for such a simple appliance, and
the latter cannot be too strongly recommended in cases where a
more complicated arrangement cannot be substituted. The finest and
cleanest sand is desirable, such as that to be purchased at glass

This filter, however, at its best, is but a good strainer, and will
only arrest the suspended particles. In a modern filter more perfect
work is required, and another effect produced, in order that water
containing objectionable matter in solution should be rendered fit
for drinking purposes. Many persons when they see a water quite clear
imagine that it must be in a good state for drinking. They should
remember, however, that many substances which entirely dissolve in
water do not diminish its clearness. Hence a clear, bright water may,
despite its clearness, be charged with a poison or substances more
or less injurious to health; such, for instance, as soluble animal

To make a perfect filter, which should have the double action of
arresting the finest suspended matter and removing the matters held
in solution, and the whole to cost but little and capable of being
made by any housewife, has long been an object of much attention,
and, after many experiments and testing various substances in many
combinations, the following plan is suggested as giving very perfect
results, and costing only about 8_s._

Purchase a common galvanised iron pail, which costs 2_s._ Take it to
a tin-shop and have a hole cut in the centre of the bottom about ¼
in. diameter, and direct the workman to solder around it a piece of
tin about ¾ in. deep, to form a spout to direct the flow of water
downward in a uniform direction. Obtain about 2 qt. of small stones,
and, after a good washing, place about 2 in. of these at bottom of
pail to form a drain.

On this lay a partition of horse-hair cloth or Canton flannel cut
to size of pail. On this spread a layer of animal charcoal, sold by
wholesale chemists as boneblack at about 5_d._ a lb. Select this
about the size of gunpowder grains, and not in powder. This layer
should be 3 or 4 in. A second partition having been placed, add 3
in. of sand, as clean and as fine as possible. Those within reach of
glassmakers should purchase the sand there, as it is only with that
quality of sand that the best results can be obtained. On this place
another partition, and add more fine stones or shingle--say for 2 or
3 in. This serves as a weight to keep the upper partition in place,
and completes the filter. By allowing the filtration to proceed in
an upward instead of a downward direction much better results are

Charcoal, simple.--All kinds of charcoal, but especially animal
charcoal, are useful in the construction of filters, and have
consequently been much used for that purpose. Charcoal, as is
well known, is a powerful decolorising agent, and possesses the
property in a remarkable degree of abstracting organic matter,
organic colouring principles, and gaseous odours from water and
other liquids. It has been shown that it deprives liquids, for
example, of their bitter principles, of alkaloids, of resins, and
even of metallic salts, so that its usefulness as a medium through
which to pass any suspected water is undoubted. The one point to
be observed is that it does not retain its purifying power for any
great length of time, so that any filter depending upon it for its
purifying principle must either be renewed or the power of the
charcoal restored from time to time, and this the more frequently
in proportion to the amount of impurity present in the water. A
combination filter of sand or gravel and granulated charcoal is a
good one; but the physical, or chemico-physical, action of such
compound filters, or of the other well-known filter, composed of
a solid porous carbon mass, differ in no respect from that of the
simple substances composing them; that is to say, such combinations
or arrangements are much more a matter of fancy or convenience than
of increased efficiency.

Experiments on the filtration of water through animal charcoal were
made on the New River Company’s supply in the year 1866, and they
showed that a large proportion of the organic matter was removed
from the water. These experiments were afterwards repeated, in 1870,
with Thames water supplied in London, which contains a much larger
proportion of organic matter, and in this case also the animal
charcoal removed a large proportion of the impurity. In continuing
the use of the filter with Thames water, however, it became evident
that the polluting matter removed from the water was only stored up
in the pores of the charcoal, for, after the lapse of a few months,
it developed vast numbers of animalcula, which passed out of the
filter with the water, rendering the latter more impure than it
was before filtration. Prof. Frankland reported in 1874 on these
experiments as follows:--“Myriads of minute worms were developed
in the animal charcoal, and passed out with the water, when these
filters were used for Thames water, and when the charcoal was not
renewed at sufficiently short intervals. The property which animal
charcoal possesses in a high degree, of favouring the growth of the
low forms of organic life, is a serious drawback to its use as a
filtering medium for potable waters. Animal charcoal can only be used
with safety for waters of considerable initial purity; and even when
so used, it is essential that it should be renovated at frequent
intervals, not by mere washing, but by actual ignition in a close
vessel. Indeed, sufficiently frequent renovation of the filtering
medium is an absolutely essential condition in all filters.”

[Illustration: 9. 10. Atkins’s filters]

Fig. 9 shows Atkins’s filter, in which _a_ is the unfiltered and _b_
the filtered water, _c_ being a block of charcoal formed by mixing
powdered charcoal with pitch or resin, moulding and calcining. The
filter is capable of being taken to pieces and can thus be easily and
frequently cleaned. The block should on such occasions be scraped,
washed, boiled, and baked.

Fig. 10 illustrates another form of Atkins’s, in which powdered
charcoal is used, retained between movable perforated earthenware

[Illustration: 11. 12. Sawyer’s Filters.]

Figs. 11, 12 represent Sawyers filters, in which _a_ is unfiltered
water; _b_, filtered water; _c_, charcoal hollow cone; _d_, filtered
water tap; _e_, sediment tap; _f_, mass of granular charcoal. The
most important feature here is the _upward_ filtration.

Charcoal modified.--Several substances have been proposed for
combination with carbon to improve its filtering capacity or increase
its germ-destroying powers.

[Illustration: 13. Silicated Carbon. 14. Silicated Carbon.]

Silicated Carbon.--This was one of the earliest modifications of the
simple carbon block. Figs. 13, 14 show respectively the forms adopted
for downward and upward filtration. In the former, the stoneware
receptacle is divided into two parts by a diaphragm upon which there
is fixed, by a porcelain stay, a silicated carbon block, which
entirely closes the apertures in the diaphragm. The upper surface
and corners of the filtering block are non-porous, consequently the
water has to enter at the edges and follow the course indicated by
the arrows, before it can reach the clear water compartment below. In
cleaning the filter, it is only necessary to unscrew the nut, when
the block can be lifted out and soaked in boiling water, after which
the surface can be scrubbed.

The ‘Army Medical Report’ says of filters employing carbon in porous
blocks that “These are powerful filters at first, but they are apt to
clog, and require frequent scraping, especially with impure waters.
Water filtered through them and stored, shows signs of the formation
of low forms of life, but in a less degree than with the loose
charcoal. After a time, the purifying power becomes diminished in a
marked degree, and water left in contact with the filtering medium is
apt to take up impurity again, though perhaps in a less degree than
is the case with the loose charcoal.” The advantages of combining
silica with the carbon are not at first sight apparent.

[Illustration: 15. Maignen’s Filter.]

Maignen combines charcoal with lime to produce a compound which
he calls “carbo-calcis.” At the same time he employs an asbestos
filtering cloth. The arrangement of his filter is shown in Fig. 15.
The hollow, conical, perforated frame _a_ is covered with asbestos
cloth _b_; _c_ is a layer of finely powdered carbo-calcis, deposited
automatically by being mixed with the first water poured into the
filter; _d_ is granular carbo-calcis filling up the space between _c_
and the sides of the containing vessel; _e_, unfiltered water; _f_,
filtered water; _g_, tube for admitting air to aërate the water and
correct the usually vapid flavour of filtered water. This filter has
remarkable power; wine passed through it will come out colourless and
tasteless. Moreover the cleansing and renewal of the filtering media
are simple in the extreme.

Prof. Bernays, of St. Thomas’s Hospital, has taken out a patent
for a new filtering material, consisting of charcoal combined with
a reduced manganese oxide. The well-known purifying action of
charcoal (animal and vegetable), which in its ordinary state is
liable to certain difficulties and objections, is in this invention
supplemented and improved by heating it in covered crucibles with
5 to 15 per cent. or more of powdered manganese black oxide (the
mineral pyrolusite), together with a very small quantity of some
fixed oil, resin, or fat. Having ascertained that the simple
admixture of the manganese dioxide with the charcoal without previous
heating had no utility as a filtering medium, and was even injurious
by reason of the diminution of the porosity of the charcoal, Prof.
Bernays devised the above method with the object of oxidising the
hydrogen and other oxidisable impurities of the charcoal, and hence
approximating it to pure carbon in a state similar in efficacy to
platinum black rather than in its ordinary less powerful analogy to
spongy platinum. The heating is of course out of contact with air,
and the temperature sufficiently high to cause the reduction of
the manganese dioxide at least to manganous-manganic oxide, which
afterwards acts as a carrier of oxygen, and thereby much prolongs the
purifying action of the medium. Another method of obtaining charcoal
in combination with manganous-manganic oxide is to saturate charcoal
with manganous chloride (or even manganese residues) and afterwards
subject it to a strong heat in closed crucibles. The charcoal
prepared in the above manner may be employed in the filtration of
water in layers with sand and other filtering material in the usual

A filtering material which has all the properties of animal charcoal,
and is said to give higher results, is magnetic carbide, discovered
by Spencer, many years ago, and consists of iron protoxide in
chemical combination with carbon. It is considered that the purifying
effect is produced by its power of attracting oxygen to its surface
without the latter being acted on, the oxygen thus attracted being
changed to ozone, by which the organic matter in the water is

There can be no doubt of the value of this filtering material. Its
manufacture is very simple, as it is obtained by roasting hematite
iron ore with granulated charcoal for 12 to 16 hours at a dull red
heat, and used in a granular form. Another form for making this
material is to heat the hematite (iron red oxide) with sawdust in a
close vessel. The product is magnetic, and never loses its activity
until the pores are choked up. The Southport Water Company formed
their filtering beds of this material, and after years of use it is
still giving satisfaction.

Iron.--From experiments made by allowing water to filter through
spongy iron on to meat, it has been found that after 6 weeks the meat
remained fresh. Another test was made by preparing a hay infusion,
which was kept till it showed abundance of organic life. The infusion
was filtered through spongy iron with layers of pyrolusite, sand,
and gravel, and then was kept in contact with meat for many weeks.
The meat showed no signs of putrescence. In some of the experiments
filtered air was supplied, which proves conclusively that bacteria
or their germs are not revived when supplied with oxygen after the
filtration; this is a result of importance, as it demonstrates that
by filtration through spongy iron, putrefaction of organic matter
is not only suspended for a time, but that it ceases entirely until
reinstated by some putrefactive agent foreign to the water. The
peculiar action of spongy iron is believed to be thus explained. If a
rod be inserted into a body of spongy iron which has been in contact
with water for some time, gas bubbles are seen to escape. These are
found to contain carbon and hydrogen, and experiments lead to the
conclusion that the carbon is due to the decomposition of organic

The material was introduced for filtration purposes some years ago
by Prof. Bischof. His ordinary portable domestic filter consists
of an inner, or spongy iron, vessel, resting in an outer case. The
latter holds the “prepared sand,” the regulator arrangement, and the
receptacle for filtered water. The unfiltered water is, in this form
of filter, mostly supplied from a bottle, which is inverted into the
upper part of the inner vessel. After passing through the body of
spongy iron, the water ascends through an overflow pipe. The object
of this is to keep the spongy iron, when once wet, constantly under
water, as otherwise, if alternately exposed to air and water, it is
too rapidly oxidised.

On leaving the inner vessel, the water contains a minute trace of
iron in solution, as carbonate or ferrous hydrate, which is separated
by the prepared sand underneath. This consists generally of 3 layers,
namely, commencing from the top, of pyrolusite (manganese black
oxide), sand, and gravel. The former oxidises the protocompounds of
iron, rendering them insoluble, when they are mechanically retained
by the sand underneath. Pyrolusite also has an oxidising action upon
ammonia, converting it more or less into nitric acid.

The regulator arrangement is underneath the perforated bottom, on
which the prepared sand rests. It consists of a tin tube, open at
the inner, and closed by screw caps at its outer end. The tube is
cemented water-tight into the outer case, and a solid partition under
the perforated bottom referred to. It is provided with a perforation
in its side, which forms the only communication between the upper
part of the filter and the receptacle for filtered water. The flow
of water is thus controlled by the size of such perforation. Should
the perforation become choked, a wire brush may be introduced, after
removing the screw cap, and the tube cleaned. Thus, although the user
has no access to the perforation allowing of his tampering with it,
he has free access for cleaning. Another advantage of the regulator
arrangement is that, when first starting a filter, the materials may
be rapidly washed without soiling the receptacle for filtered water.
This is done by unscrewing the screw cap, when the water passes out
through the outer opening of the tube, and not through the lateral

Various modifications had, of course, to be introduced into
the construction of spongy iron filters, to suit a variety of
requirements. Thus, when filters are supplied by a ball-cock from
a constant supply, or from a cistern of sufficient capacity, the
inner vessel is dispensed with, as the ball-cock secures the spongy
iron remaining covered with water. This renders filters simpler and

As the action of spongy iron is dependent upon its remaining covered
with water, whilst the materials which are employed in perhaps all
other filters lose their purifying action very soon, unless they
are run dry from time to time, so as to expose them to the air, the
former is peculiarly suited for cistern filters.

Cistern filters are frequently constructed with a top screwed on to
the filter case, by means of a flange and bolts, a U-shaped pipe
passing down from this top to near the bottom of the cistern. This
tube sometimes supplies the unfiltered water, or in some filters
carries off the filtered water, when upward filtration is employed.
This plan is defective, because it practically gives no access to
the materials; and unless the top is jointed perfectly tight, the
unfiltered water, with upward filtration, may be sucked in through
the joint, without passing at all through the materials. This is
remedied by loosely surrounding the filter case with a cylindrical
mantle of zinc, which is closed at its top and open at the bottom.
Supposing the filter case to be covered with water, and the mantle
placed over the case, an air valve is then opened in the top of the
mantle, when the air escapes, being replaced by water. After screwing
the valve on again, the filter is supplied with water by the siphon
action taking place between the mantle and filter case and the column
of filtered water, which passes down from the bottom of the filter
to the lower parts of the building. These filters are supplied with
a regulator arrangement on the same principle as ordinary domestic
filters. The washing of materials, on starting a filter, is easily
accomplished by reversing 2 stop-cocks, one leading to the regulator,
the other to a waste pipe.

The use of spongy iron has now been applied on a large scale to the
water obtained from the river Nette, for the supply of the city
of Antwerp. Dr. Frankland has visited the Antwerp Waterworks at
Waelheim, about 15 miles above that city, and reported on the result
of his inquiry. He attaches especial value to the fact that spongy
iron filtration “is absolutely fatal to _Bacteria_ and their germs,”
and he considers it would be “an invaluable boon to the Metropolis
if all water supplied from the Thames and Lea were submitted to this
treatment in default of a new supply from unimpeachable sources.”

Many preparations of iron have long been known to possess a purifying
influence on water containing organic impurities. Thus Scherer, years
ago, recommended a solution of iron sulphate where the impurities
were present in large quantity. Later still, iron chloride was
proposed as suitable, the salt being precipitated in the presence of
organic matter as ferric oxide, the oxide thus formed acting also
mechanically on the suspended impurities in course of precipitation,
very much as white of egg acts in clarifying liquids, when it
coagulates and carries impurities with it to the bottom. Other iron
preparations have a similar action, notably dialysed iron, while
several oxidising agents, such as potash permanganate, are also well
known to possess a powerful effect on organic impurities. It will
at once be seen, however, that all such substances are inadmissible
as filtering media, or purifying agents for potable waters, for the
reason, that in the case of some at least of the agents mentioned,
decompositions take place, which in themselves might prove dangerous,
while in the case of all an excess (and it would be almost impossible
to avoid an excess) of the purifying agent would be equally bad, and
would render the water quite unfit for domestic purposes. It has
been found, however, that various kinds of native rock containing
iron protoxide effect the filtration of water very completely, and
Spencer, acting on this idea, after experimenting, found that when
the iron protoxide was isolated as magnetic oxide, it both freed the
water from turbidity and effected decoloration very quickly. Thus
bog-water, as dark as porter, when filtered through it speedily lost
its colour and became clear and sweet, the carbonic acid given off
during the process of decomposition rather tending to improve the
water. The purifying power of the magnetic oxide does not deteriorate
with use. The oxide gets coated with a slimy deposit, owing to the
deposition of decomposed organic matter, but this being removed, it
is as powerful as ever in its purifying action. Unfortunately this
iron rock is not found native to any extent, but the fact of its
action being determined, Spencer continued his experiments with the
result that it can now be produced artificially, and forms one of the
most efficient and useful filters for domestic purposes.

Metallic iron is employed by Jennings & Hinde. The filtering material
consists of fine iron or steel shavings, filings, turnings, or
borings obtained from the swarf or skin of cast iron, wrought iron,
or steel; this material may either be used by itself, or it may be
used with other materials, either mixed with them or in separate
layers. The iron or steel shavings, &c., are obtained from iron or
steel that has been brought to a state of fusion either by melting or
the processes necessary for making cast iron, wrought iron, or steel,
and being separated from many of the impurities contained in the
ore from which it was obtained, will have but a comparatively small
portion of earthy impurities mixed with it, and will be for this
reason superior to iron which is obtained from native ores or oxides
without fusion.

By filtering water through small divided swarf or skin of cast
iron, wrought iron, or steel, free oxygen will be withdrawn from
the water, and consequently any insects or animalculæ contained in
the water will be deprived of life, and any germs contained in the
water will be deprived of the oxygen necessary for their development
and life, and the water will be consequently purified and rendered
wholesome. A convenient way of forming a filter is to use a layer of
the turnings, shavings, &c., together with layers of other filtering
material resting upon a perforated partition placed across a closed
vessel. The materials are cleaned by boiling them in hot water
with a small quantity of ordinary washing soda, to remove any oil
or grease that might accidentally be associated with the materials
above mentioned. Afterwards the iron borings should be well washed
before being put into the filter. The filter vessel may be of any
ordinary construction and shape. If sand is used in conjunction with
the above-mentioned materials, it is preferable to place some of the
sand at the bottom of the filtering vessel, and the iron or steel
materials, or both, over the sand, and then more sand over them.
These materials are disposed so that they may be partially separated
from each other by perforated plates of earthenware, glass, or other
suitable material. But this partial separation, though convenient, is
not essential, as the perforated plates may be dispensed with and the
material placed over and under each other in layers without plates to
separate them.

Porous Pottery.--Chamberland has found that the liquid in which
microbes have been cultivated becomes absolutely pure if passed
through unglazed porcelain. Its purity can be demonstrated by mixing
it with liquids sensitive to the action of microbes, such as veal
broth, milk, and blood, in which it produces no alteration.

[Illustration: 16. Chamberland Filter.]

A tube _a_ (Fig. 16) of unglazed porcelain is enclosed in another
_b_ of metal, and the water to be filtered is admitted to the space
between the two by turning a stop-cock. Thence it slowly filters
through to the inside of the porcelain tube, and flows out at the
bottom. Under a pressure of 2 atmospheres, or 30 lb. to the sq. in.,
a tube 8 in. in length, with a diameter of 1 in., will yield about
5 gal. of water daily. For a larger supply, it is only necessary to
increase the size or the number of the tubes.

In cleansing the filter, the porcelain tube is removed, and the
microbes and other matter that have accumulated on the outer face of
it are brushed off. The tube may also be plunged in boiling water in
order to destroy any germs that may be supposed to have penetrated
beneath its surface; or it may be heated in a gas jet or in a
furnace. In fact, it can be more readily and more thoroughly cleaned
than most of the domestic filters in ordinary use.

It is interesting to remark that some of the earliest filtering
vessels of which we have any knowledge are simply made of porous
earthenware. After all our modern researches after antiseptic
filtering media, we are reverting to the ways of our remotest

Filtering Cisterns.--The following is a description of a filter which
purifies foul water from organic impurities held in solution as well
as from suspended solids. Take any suitable vessel with a perforated
false bottom, and cover it with a layer of animal charcoal, on the
top of that spread a layer of iron filings, borings, or turnings,
the finer the better, mixed with charcoal dust; on the top of the
filings place a layer of fine clean siliceous sand, and you will have
a perfect filter. Allow the foul water to filter slowly through the
above filter, and you will produce a remarkably pure drinking-water.
Before placing the iron filings in the filter, they must be well
washed in a hot solution of soda or potash, to remove oil and other
impurities, then rinse them with clean water; the filings should be
mixed with an equal measure of fine charcoal. If the water is very
foul, it must be allowed to filter very slowly. The deeper the bed of
iron filings is the quicker they will act.

In Bailey-Denton’s cistern filter, the principal novelty is that it
runs intermittently, and thus allows the aëration of the filtering
material, and the oxidation of the impurities detached from the
water. The oxidation is effected by the perfect aëration of the
filtrating material, which may be of any approved kind, through which
every drop of water used in the kitchen, bedrooms, and elsewhere
must pass as it descends from the service cistern for use. As water
is withdrawn from this filter, fresh water comes in automatically by
the action of a ball-tap; and this fresh water immediately passes
through the aërated material into a lower chamber, forming the supply
cistern of filtered water for the whole house. The advantages claimed
for the filter are that it secures pure water for the whole house. It
is attached by pipe to, but is distinct from, the service cistern;
it can be placed in any part of the house, and it cannot get out of
order. Any approved filtering material may be used, and being aërated
between each passage of water through it, oxidation is made certain.

A slate or iron cistern and filter combined may be made by dividing
the cistern with a vertical partition perforated at the bottom, and
placing in the half of the cistern which receives the water, a bed of
filtering material, say 6 in. of gravel at the bottom, 6 in. animal
charcoal in granular form in the middle, and 6 in. clean sharp sand
at the top, covering all by a perforated distributing slab.

[Illustration: 17. Filter Cistern.]

Fig. 17 illustrates a method of preparing an ordinary house cistern
for filtering. The pipe and fittings should be of galvanised iron;
black or plain iron is better as long as it lasts, as it rusts fast;
in either case it is better to waste the water first drawn, for the
water absorbs both the zinc and the iron when standing overnight. The
zinc is not healthy, and the taste of the iron is unpleasant.

The perforations should equal 3 or 4 times the area of the suction
pipe, which in ordinary cisterns may be 1¼ in. pipe, while the
branches may be ¾ in. pipe. The holes, if ⅛ in., should number at
least 200, distributed along the lower half of the pipes. Smaller
holes are preferable; of 1/16 in. holes, 800 will be required.

For the filtering material we recommend a layer of fine gravel or
pebbles for the bottom, 3 or 4 in. in depth, or heaped up over the
perforated pipes; upon this a layer of sharp, clean sand, 9 in. in
depth; upon this a stratum of pulverised charcoal, not dust, but
granulated to size of peas or beans, or any of the material above
mentioned, 4 in. deep; and upon this a stratum of fine, clean sand 6
to 12 in. in depth.

Such a filter should be cleansed at least twice in a year by pumping
out all the water, taking out the mud or settlings, and one-half the
depth of the top layer, and replacing with fresh sand.

The double filter cistern, Fig. 18, has much to recommend it, having
a large receiving basin which in itself is a filter placed in a
position for easy cleaning. The recess at the bottom may be covered
with a perforated plate of galvanised sheet iron, upon which may be
laid a filter bed of gravel, sand, charcoal, spongy iron, and sand in
the proportions as stated above. This enables the frequent cleaning
by removing the top layer of the filter bed without disturbing the
water supply. The cover should fit tight enough to keep out insects
and vermin.

A double-bottomed basin perforated and filled with clear, sharp sand
and charcoal should be attached to the bottom of the pump pipe, as

This enables the small filter to be drawn up and cleaned, without the
necessity of emptying the cistern or interrupting the water supply.

[Illustration: 18. Filter Cistern. 19. Keg Filter.]

The half barrel or keg filter, as illustrated in Fig. 19, is a
convenient form of cistern filter where filtered water is required
from cisterns already filled.

This is also a convenient form for readily cleaning or changing
the filter without the necessity of discharging the water from the

This filter can be made from an oak keg or half barrel, such as is
used for liquors or beer. Take out one of the heads and cut away the
edge, so that it will just drive into the end of the keg, fasten 2
battens of oak across the head with oak pins left long enough to
serve for legs for the filter to rest upon.

Bore this head full of holes ¼ in. diameter. In the other head bore
a hole 1¼ in. diameter, and bolt an iron flange into which the pump
pipe is to be screwed. Let the bolts also fasten upon the inside a
raised disc of galvanised sheet iron, perforated with a sharp point
or chisel. Proceed to charge the filter by turning the top or flanged
head down, and placing next the perforated plate a layer of fine
gravel 3 in. thick, then a layer of sharp, clean sand 3 in. thick,
then a layer of pulverised charcoal free from dust, 3 in. thick,
then a layer of sharp clean sand mixed with spongy iron, pulverised
magnetic iron ore, or blacksmiths’ scales, followed by a layer of
coarse sand, gravel, and broken stone, or hard burnt bricks broken
into chips to fill up. Place the perforated bottom in as far as the
head was originally; bore and drive a half-dozen oak pegs around the
chine to fasten the head. Then turn over the filter, screw the pump
pipe into the flange, and let it down into the cistern.

Such a filter requires to be taken out and the filtering renewed in 6
to 12 months, depending upon the cleanliness of the water catch. With
the precautions mentioned above in regard to the care of the roof,
such a filter should do good work for one year.

=Sanitation.=--This heading is intended to embrace the removal and
disposal of the various kinds of refuse and waste produced in the
dwelling from day to day. Endless volumes have been written on the
subject, but in plain words the whole art resolves itself into
sound pipes for the conveyance of the fluid portion and efficient
ventilation of the receptacles and conduits.

_House Drains._--It was pointed out by Burton,[1] before the Society
of Arts, that where, as in London, the sewerage system is fairly
good, dangers to health arise not from the sewers direct, but either
from the sewers by means of the house drains, or even more often
from the house drains themselves. It is quite agreed by medical
authorities that diseases may arise from gases evolved from the
drains, or even discharge pipes in a house, entirely apart from any
specific infection such as may be conveyed by means of sewers.

This being the case, it will be seen that the thing which most
behoves us is to make sure that the house system is efficiently
doing its work. It is evident that the objects to be aimed at in
constructing a system of house drainage, are as follows:--

First. All matter placed in any of the sanitary appliances in the
house must be carried, with the greatest possible expedition, clear
of the premises, leaving behind it as little deposit as possible.

Second. All sewer air must be prevented from entering the houses by
the channels which serve to carry away the sewage.

Third. Since it is impossible to have house drains absolutely clean,
that is, devoid of all decomposing matter, all air from house drains,
and even from sink, bath, and other waste pipes must be kept out of
the dwelling-rooms.

To which might be added a fourth, that a constant current of fresh
air must be established along every pipe in which it is possible that
any decomposing matter may remain, so that such matter may be rapidly
oxidised, or rendered innocuous.

The number of houses in which sanitary inspectors find the drainage
arrangements to be thoroughly good, and to be fulfilling these
conditions, is surprisingly small. In fact, in all the houses they
are called upon to examine, except those which have been arranged,
within the last dozen years or so, by some engineer, builder, or
plumber who has made a special study of the matter, are found defects
which interfere with the due fulfilment of one or other of these

Attention is called to Fig. 20, in which the drainage arrangements
are shown to be defective. Here Burton has taken such a state of
affairs as is by no means uncommon in a London house. Alongside it is
a drawing which illustrates a well-drained house (Fig. 21). By their
juxtaposition, the defects exhibited will be made more patent.

[Illustration: 20. Ill-arranged House.]

[Illustration: 21. Well-arranged House.]

The first point demanding attention is the condition of the main
drain. It will be seen that it is little other than an elongated
cesspool. The size is unnecessarily large. As a consequence,
even if it were perfect in all other respects, it would not be
self-cleansing, inasmuch as there can never pass down the drain which
serves for a single house enough water to scour out pipes of the size
illustrated, namely, 9 in. diameter.

It will be seen, however, that the state of affairs is far from
correct, apart from the size of the pipes. In the first place, the
joints are not tight; sewage will soak out into the ground through
them. In the second place, although there is ample allowance between
the two ends of the drain for a good fall, or incline, this fall has
all been confined to a few feet of its length, the part underneath
the house being laid almost level. This is done simply to avoid the
trouble of excavating the ground to a sufficient depth.

Let us now follow the action of a drain of this kind, and see what it
will lead to. Sewage matter finds its way into it. As we all know,
this matter depends on water to carry it forward. It is probable
that, while the drain is new and the ground comparatively solid
around it, sufficient water will remain in it to carry the greater
part of the sewage to the sewer. But this state of affairs will not
last. Before long, some unusually heavy or obstinate matter will get
into the drain. It will be carried only so far, and will then stick.
Any water now coming behind it will “back up,” to a certain extent,
and will very soon find its way into the soil, from one or more
points behind the obstruction--not yet amounting to a stoppage. As a
consequence, sewage now passing into the drain, loses its carrying
power, and gets no farther than a certain distance. Before long, a
complete stoppage takes place, and all the sewage of the house soaks
into the ground under the basement. After this, things go from bad to
worse. The saturated ground no longer properly supports the pipes,
which, as a consequence, will become more and more irregular, and all
hope of the drain clearing itself is lost. It is only a question of
time, with a drain such as that shown, and the inmates of the house
will be living over a cesspool.

As a matter of fact, total obstruction or stoppage has been
discovered in 6 per cent. of the houses which have been inspected.

The next point worthy of attention is the soil pipe; this term being
at present used to signify the vertical portion of the drain only,
although it very often is also used as meaning the almost horizontal
drain under the house.

The soil pipe is of lead. This is an excellent material if the pipe
be properly arranged, but here it is not. The great fault is that
there is no ventilation. As a consequence, the upper part of the
pipe will always be filled with sewer gas, which tends to rise in a
somewhat concentrated state. Now, sewer gas has a powerful action on
lead, and, therefore, a soil pipe arranged without ventilation never
stands many years before it becomes “holed,” that is to say, is worn
through at its upper part. When this occurs, of course, there is
ventilation enough, but it is into the house. The ventilation in this
case will, in fact, be most active, because every house, on account
of the fires in it, acts, especially in winter, as a chimney, and
draws in sewer or other gas from every possible crevice.

At the top of the soil pipe will be found the commonest of all
water-closet arrangements, namely, the pan-closet with D trap. This
arrangement is exceedingly well known: it is a most skilfully devised
piece of apparatus for retaining sewage in the house, and distilling
sewer gas from the same, and it is the cause of probably nine out of
ten of the actual smells perceived in houses, even if it does not (as
some say) give rise to much actual disease.

The soil pipe discharges over a small cesspool at the foot. This is
a very common arrangement. The cesspool is usually dignified by the
name of a dip trap. The percentage of houses showing leaky soil pipes
is 31.

Now, observe that, although our constructor has not ventilated his
soil pipe, he has been careful not to leave the system entirely
without ventilation. On the contrary, by the simple device of leaving
a rain-water pipe untrapped at the foot, he has ventilated the
drains, and also the public sewer, into the back bedroom windows!
This is a quite common arrangement, and frequently results in typhoid

Next, in order, we may take the case of the discharge pipes from
baths, sinks, basins, and all such appliances. It has been laid down
as a rule by the best sanitary authorities that these appliances
must discharge not into the soil drains, but into the open air over
trapped gullies, as it has been found that this is the only way of
being absolutely certain that no sewer air shall enter the rooms by
the discharge pipes. It is quite true that if a trap be fixed on a
discharge pipe of, say, a sink, the greater part of the sewer air may
be kept back from the house; but traps, however excellent they may
be in _assisting_ to keep out sewer air, are not alone sufficient.
There are several reasons for this. In the first place, there is
the fact that a certain amount of sewer gas will pass through the
water of a trap, or, to speak more strictly, will be absorbed by
the water on one side, and afterwards given off on the other side.
It is true that in the case of a well-ventilated drain this amount
will be infinitesimal, and might even be disregarded, but there are
other causes for the uncertainty of a trap. If the appliance, on the
discharge pipe of which it is, be disused for a long time, there is
the possibility that the water in the trap may dry. In this case,
of course, there is no further security. Besides this, however,
there is an action known as siphonage, in which the rush of water
through a pipe carries with it the water which ought to remain in
the trap and form a seal. In Fig. 21 are shown several different
ways of connecting sinks, &c., with drains. The discharge pipe often
carries an apology for a trap, in the form of a little apparatus
called a bell trap. But, as a matter of fact, it is the commonest
thing possible to find the bell trap lying on the sink. It has been
lifted out of its place to let the water run down the waste pipe more
quickly. It is no unusual thing to go into the scullery of a house,
and to find the discharge pipe of the sink quite open, and a blast of
sewer air issuing from it which will extinguish a candle.

In other cases the sink has an arrangement which is called a grease
trap, but is, in reality, nothing more nor less than a particularly
foul cesspool. It calls for little remark. The pipe from the sink
dips into the foul water to make a trap. In many cases, the pipe does
not dip into the water; but there is a bell at the top. Sometimes the
drain is at various places made up with bricks. This is a very common
thing to find in houses. The bricks are used to save the trouble of
getting special junction bends, &c. The other sinks and baths in the
house are shown as discharging into the closet traps. This is a very
common and objectionable arrangement. Sixty-eight per cent. of houses
examined show the defects last mentioned; that is to say, the sinks,
baths, or fixed basins are connected with the drain or soil pipe,
a trap of some kind generally, but not always, forming a partial
security against sewer gas.

As mentioned before, the only ventilation in this case is such as
will permit the issuing sewer gas to find its way into the house. It
is by no means unusual to find no provision at all for ventilation,
or to find the ventilating pipes so small that they are totally
useless. In more cases than one, Burton found the soil pipe carried
up as a rain-water pipe into the attics, where it received rain-water
from two gutters, one from each side of the roof, and discharged all
the sewer gas which escaped by it. Generally, the drinking-water
cisterns are situated in such attics.

It may be noted, in the other drawing (Fig. 21), that a trap is fixed
on the main drain, which will keep back almost all sewer gas, and
that ventilating pipes are so arranged that a constant circulation of
fresh air exists through the whole drainage system, and will carry
away with it any little sewer gas which passes through the trapping

The most perfect water-supply arrangement does not necessitate
the existence of cisterns in the house at all. This is beside the
mark, for the reason that in London, to which Burton confines his
remarks, the supply of water to the greater portion of the town is
intermittent, so that cisterns are a necessity.

Water, even in London, is almost always delivered in a sufficiently
pure state to be drunk, but it is a very common thing for it to be
contaminated in the cisterns. Even if there be no actual disease
germs carried into the water, there is liability of deterioration
from the mere fact of a large quantity of water being stored for a
long time before use. If the cisterns are of so great size as to hold
as much water as is used in, say, three or four days, it follows
that all water drawn has remained in these cisterns for an average
time of several days. This is by no means likely to improve its
quality, but, on the contrary, if it does nothing else, it renders
it flat. There are far more dangerous causes of contamination than
this, however. The commonest of these is to be found in direct
communication between the drains and the cisterns through the
overflow pipes of the latter. This is shown in Fig. 20. It will be
seen that there is a trap on the pipe by way of protection against
the sewer gas. This is a by no means uncommon arrangement; but, as
will be readily understood, such a trap is absolutely of no good.
An overflow pipe to a cistern is merely an appliance to be put in
use in case of an emergency; that is, in case of derangement of the
ball valve through which the water enters. As a matter of fact,
an overflow may not occur from year’s end to year’s end--probably
does not--and, as a consequence, the trap soon becomes dry, and the
temporary security afforded by it is lost. In 37 per cent. of houses
inspected, Burton found direct communication between the drain or
soil pipes and the drinking-water cisterns.

Another means by which the water of cisterns is contaminated is by
their being placed in improper positions. Quite frequently, a cistern
in which drinking-water is stored, is situated in, or even under the
floor of a w.c. Burton has known more than one case in which the drip
tray under a closet actually discharged into a cistern.

It is even possible for contamination of water to occur through the
mere fact that a water-closet is supplied from a certain cistern.
With a water-closet supplied by the modern regulator-valve apparatus,
this is most unlikely; but it will be readily seen how it may occur
with such an arrangement as that shown in Fig. 20, which is common.
Here it will be seen that for each water-closet there is a plug in
the cistern. This plug is so arranged that when it is raised by the
wire which connects it with the water-closet branch, it suddenly
fills what is called a service box, this being a subsidiary cistern
fixed under the body of the main cistern, and in direct communication
with the water-closet. After the water has run out of the service
box, this is free to fill itself with foul gas from the water-closet
by the service pipe, and the next time the plug is lifted this same
foul gas passes into the water, which absorbs a part of it.

There are many other points in the drainage arrangements of a house
which may possibly become causes of danger, such as surface traps
in areas, &c. In speaking of the drain of a house, it has been
considered as a single length of pipe; but it must be remembered that
in any drainage system, except the most simple, there are branch
drains, often many of them, and that these are liable to the same
evils as the main drains, and require the same attention. In fact,
seeing that less water is likely to pour down them, they require more

Burton concludes his paper with a brief description of the methods in
use for discovering defects in house sanitation.

One thing that is absolutely necessary for such inspection, and
without which it would be quite incomplete, is to open down to the
drain. This should be done at the nearest point to that at which it
leaves the premises. There is no absolute guide to tell where this
point is, but after some experience it is generally possible to hit
upon the spot with very little searching. In the house illustrated in
Figs. 20, 21, it would be under the front area or cellar. The ground
should be entirely removed from the drain for at least two lengths of
pipe. It is also very desirable that a portion of the ground over the
top of the drain should be removed.

We may next take the point of trapping of the main drain and
ventilation of the system. It will be seen that, in the case of the
drawing of the imperfect arrangements, the drain is shown to be in
direct communication with the sewer. The consequence is that any
leakage which may exist in the house drain permits gas not only from
the drain itself, but from the sewer also, to find its way into the

The engineer will now be able to tell much of the state of affairs.
He will see of what size the drain is; he will be able to tell of
what material the joints are made, taking those exposed as samples;
he will, in all probability, find the ground under the pipes soaked
with sewage, and be able at once to say that the drain is in a leaky
and bad condition; he will find whether it is properly supported
on concrete, or has been “tumbled” into the soil; he will be able
readily to discover what is the total fall in the drain from back
to front. At this stage of the proceedings, the drain itself should
not be opened; but, on the contrary, if the taking up of the ground
should have exposed any joints which are evidently leaking, these
should be made temporarily good with clay. The reason is, that it is
desirable, before anything has been disturbed, to test the system for
the purpose of discovering what amount of leakage there is into the

There are various ways of doing this, but the two commonest, which
Burton describes and illustrates, are those known as the “peppermint
test,” and the “smoke test.”

The smell of peppermint is well known, possibly to some of us
unpleasantly well known, but probably its excessive pungency when
in the form of the oil, and when brought into contact with hot
water, is not generally understood. It will readily be believed
that if such an excessively pungent mixture as this be introduced
into the drainage system of a house, even the smallest leakage will
become evident. Suppose the least possible defect to exist in any
joint of any of the pipes, a strong smell of peppermint will be
evident near the defect. The only difficulty is in finding a place
to introduce the peppermint. It will be quite evident that it is no
use to pour it into any of the appliances in the house, as, were
such done, this smell would so rapidly permeate the whole of the
premises, by way of the staircase, passages, &c., that time would
not be allowed to detect the leakages. Some means must be discovered
of getting the peppermint in from the outside. This is not always
possible, but generally it is. In the case illustrated, there would
be no difficulty. The rain-water pipe at the back admirably suits
the purpose. One person gets out on the flat roof, near the top of
the pipe, and provides himself with peppermint, and 4 or 5 gallons
of water, as nearly boiling as possible. Meantime, all doors and
windows are closely shut, and persons are stationed about the house
to observe if the smell expected becomes evident, and to locate, as
far as possible, the point from which it issues. The man on the roof
pours about ½ oz. of the oil down the pipe, and follows it with the
hot water. He need then retreat from the place a little, for the
peppermint-laden steam which will come from the pipe is blinding in
its pungency. As soon as possible, he plugs up the top of the pipe
with a towel, or some such thing, to prevent the occurrence of the
vacuum which would otherwise be in the pipes, and which would tend
to draw air from the house into the pipes instead of from the pipes
into the house at any leakage. It would probably not be a minute
before the people in the house would perceive the smell at various
places. The manipulator of the peppermint must remain perched on the
roof until those inside have had time to make their observations,
otherwise he will infallibly bring the smell with him.

The test described is an excellent one. It is searching, and is
simple in application, but it has one drawback. It is impossible by
means of it exactly to localise a leakage. This drawback does not
apply to the smoke test. A smoke machine is nothing more nor less
than a centrifugal pump attached to a vessel for generating smoke.
The pump pumps smoke out by a pipe, which may be inserted in any pipe
in direct communication with the drain or in an aperture made for the
purpose. The test is, in all respects, similar to the peppermint one,
except that the leakage is not smelt but seen.

After the test has been performed the drain may be opened. This may
be done by breaking into a pipe in front, by breaking off a collar,
or by punching a round hole in the pipe. In any case it will be
possible to judge much of the condition of the drain by the manner
in which water runs through the pipes. If we have discovered that
there is sufficient total fall, we can now see whether or not it
is uniform. We shall, as remarked before, find in six cases out of
every hundred examined that there is total stoppage, that no sewage
whatever leaves the premises, and that consequently it must all be
depositing under the basement.

If the drain, after all tests so far applied, and from what can be
seen of it, appear to be in good condition, it may be further tested
by filling, or attempting to fill it with water. There is probably
not an average of one drain in a thousand in London which would
remain full of water for an hour. For the rest it is necessary to
examine all appliances, to trace the pipes from them, and sometimes
to test these pipes.

The engineer has now completed his inspection, and has but to
consider how he will make the best of a bad job, and put things to
rights. At the beginning of his paper Burton expressed his intention
of confining himself to a description of defects, and said he should
not describe what he considered a perfect system; he, however, points
out one or two of the chief features of the arrangements in the house
which he calls well drained.

[Illustration: 22. Disconnecting Chamber.]

Most notable, probably, is the small size and sharp fall of the
drain pipes. Further than this, it will be seen that the drain is
disconnected from the sewer by a trap, and that it is accessible for
inspection throughout, simply by lifting certain iron covers (Fig.
22). A close examination would show that every foot of drain pipe
and discharge pipe is so ventilated, that there will be a current of
air through it; that no appliance discharges into the drain direct,
but that there is an atmospheric disconnection in every case; that
air from discharge pipes of sinks, &c., is all trapped from the
house; that there is separate water supply for closets, and for other
purposes; and that no cistern has any connection with the drains.
Further will be noticed, the difference in construction of the
closets, &c.

The foregoing abstract of Burton’s paper is replete with valuable
information. One obvious inference to be drawn from it is that where
the occupant of a dwelling has serious doubts as to its sanitary
conditions and cannot rely on his own observation for ascertaining
the facts, he should forthwith engage the services of a specialist
like the author of the paper to aid him in coming to a decision.

One of the most instructive lectures on house sanitation was
that delivered by Prof. Corfield at the Parkes Museum in 1883.
He considers that the best plan in the examination of a house is
to begin at the top of it, proceeding downwards, and noting the
different mistakes that are likely to be made in the sanitary
arrangements in various parts of the house. Following out this idea,
we will deal with each item in descending order.

_Rain-water._--The first thing which we must consider is that we have
to get rid of the water that falls on the roof. The water from the
gutter in front of the house may be disposed of in one of several
ways. It may be conducted by a pipe outside of the house down the
front into the area; or it may be conducted by a gutter through the
roof, or, perhaps, through one of the rooms in the upper story into
a gutter, over the middle of the house, between two parts of the
roof, and down the middle of the house by a pipe into the drain; or
it may be conducted direct from the gutter by a pipe, not outside the
house, but inside the house, passing down through one or two stories,
inside the rooms, perhaps through the best bedroom in front of the
house, through the drawing-room, carefully hidden by some casing
made to look like an ornament, through the dining-room and kitchen
into the drain in the basement. Smells having been perceived in
different parts of the rooms, especially in the bedrooms, various
sanitary arrangements may be improved, and even made as perfect
as they can be, by a kind of amateur tinkering prevalent nowadays
in sanitary matters; and yet this defect which is so exceedingly
serious, which is known to give rise to serious disease, is entirely
overlooked--perhaps for years. The same is the case when the
rain-water is carried in a gutter through the roof into a gutter
between the two roofs in the middle of the house, and down by a
rain-water pipe inside the house. In such cases similar disasters may

But there is an additional danger from the fact that these inside
gutters are in themselves most pernicious things. Soot and rotten
leaves collect in them, and air blows through them into the house;
and especially when these gutters are under the floors of bedrooms,
this foul air is often the cause of illnesses which occur in these
rooms. Even gutters which are not themselves directly connected with
the drains, and which are open at both ends, but in which decayed
leaves and soot accumulate and give off foul air into the rooms, may
be the cause of sore throats.

Another plan to dispose of the rain-water is to carry it in a gutter
right through the house to the back (the gutter may pass through the
roof or the garrets), and the same remark applies to this method of
construction as to those just described, except that it does not
imply necessarily a defective pipe running down to the drain.

Well, then, the rain-water from the roof should be conducted by pipes
placed outside the house; and there is no reason why this should
not be always the case. If these pipes are not disconnected from
the drains below, but are connected with them either directly, or
even indirectly (with a bend in the pipe to hold water), in either
instance cases of disease will arise in the rooms, the windows of
which are near the rain-water pipes.

It is exceedingly difficult to persuade people upon this point; but
such is the case. When the rain-water pipes starting from the top of
the house below the bedroom windows, and frequently behind parapets,
so that any air that comes out at the top comes out exactly close to
the bedroom windows, and when these pipes come down straight into the
drains and so ventilate the drains, foul air from the drains gets
into the house, and disease is the result. But it is more difficult
to make people understand that even when these rain-water pipes are
trapped at the foot they are almost as dangerous as the untrapped
ones, because foul air from the drains will pass gradually through
the water in the traps into the pipes, so that these pipes are always
filled with foul air and contain gases that have come from the drains.

As soon as it rains, water passes down, and the air of these pipes is
displaced, comes out at the top, and so if these tops are near the
windows of rooms, cases of disease will happen in those rooms.

The rain-water pipes ought to discharge on to the surface of the
areas, where there ought to be siphon gullies connected with the

_Ventilating Pipes._--While on the roof we can look around and
observe the ventilating pipes: 1st, whether there are any or not;
2nd, of what size; 3rd, whether they have cowls or not; and 4th, in
what positions they are. If we observe that they end at the top, near
to chimneys, we shall see that there is liability, on account of the
down draught, of the foul air from these ventilating pipes passing
down the chimneys.

Chimneys often have down draughts, and if ventilating pipes are
placed near them, the foul air may pass down into the rooms. If, on
the other hand, although not ending near the tops of the chimneys,
they are placed close to the chimneys or to walls so that their tops
are sheltered, they will not act properly, and they ought to _be
carried above the ridge_ of the roof, and end away from walls or
chimneys. The same rule applies to chimney tops, they should not be
sheltered by higher buildings.

_Cistern._--The first thing we come to inside or just below the roof
(or perhaps on the roof), is the cistern.

The first point to observe is the material of which it is made. Lead
cisterns (and so, too, galvanised iron cisterns) are affected by
certain kinds of water; and it is important, in certain places, that
cisterns should be used which are not capable of being affected by
the water. Galvanised iron cisterns cause certain forms of poisoning
with some waters. However, as a matter of fact, both lead and
galvanised iron cisterns are used enormously, without any serious
results following from their use.

A cistern is provided with an overflow and waste pipe. If the cistern
is on the roof you would think it the natural thing that the overflow
pipe should discharge on to the roof or leads, or into an open head;
but, as a matter of fact, it is generally not the case. (By an
“overflow” pipe is meant a pipe from the top, and by a “waste” pipe
a pipe starting above the level of the water and passing through the
bottom of the cistern.)

Overflow pipes were not in fashion at all until recently. The fashion
was to have a waste pipe, and the most convenient place to take
that into was some pipe passing down the house, which might be a
rain-water pipe, but more frequently it was the pipe into which the
water-closets discharged, which is called the “soil” pipe.

When this is the case the waste pipe of the drinking-water cistern
becomes the ventilator of the pipe into which the water-closets
discharge; and so in nine cases out of ten the ventilator of the
house drain and of the sewer under the street, and, indeed, one of
the ventilators of the main sewer. So foul air passes continually
by means of this ventilator into the drinking-water cistern at
the top of the house. Now foul air in sewers and drains contains
matters in suspension, and often the poisons of certain diseases,
such as typhoid fever; it gains access to the water in the cistern
and contaminates it, and the main cause of typhoid fever in London
and many other large towns is the connection of the drinking-water
cisterns with the drains by means of the waste pipes.

Of course the remedy for this--the first remedy--is to put a trap on
the waste pipe, as, for instance, connecting it with the trap in one
of the closets or sinks. This, of course, is only a palliative, it
is not the true remedy. The true remedy is to disconnect this pipe
and make it discharge by itself, no matter where, in the open air.
Sometimes this pipe is made to discharge into the same pipe that the
sink waste-pipe discharges into. It is the practice in London to have
a separate pipe for the various wastes and sinks not discharging
directly into the drain, and usually carried outside the house. It is
also the practice to make the waste pipes of cisterns to discharge
into the same pipe. This is entirely wrong. Because, although
disconnected at the foot, it is to be regarded as a foul-water pipe,
and foul air passes through it up the waste pipe into the cistern. So
this practice is to be condemned.

Now from the cistern, besides the waste pipe, there are pipes which
supply the water to different parts of the house; there are pipes
from the cistern to supply water to the taps, which are called
“draw-off” pipes; and pipes from the cistern to supply water to the
closets; and, as a rule, the same cistern is used for the supply of
water to the closets direct and the taps at the upper part of the
house. This plan may or may not be very dangerous.

There are two ways of supplying the water-closets in the upper part
of the house with water. The one is to have what is called a spindle
valve in the cistern, which fits a hole in the bottom of the cistern,
and which is raised by a ball lever being pulled by a wire, which
arrangement necessitates a contrivance called a valve box, which has
a small air pipe, and with this arrangement there is liability for
foul water to be jerked in the cistern. Moreover, the pipe from this
valve box passes into the pan of the water-closet and becomes full of
air, which air is liable to get into the valve box in the cistern.
This arrangement, therefore, is decidedly bad. But there is another,
in which the valve which supplies the water-closets is under the
seat, and the pipe from the cistern is full of water; and that is now
becoming the more usual plan. With that plan there is nothing like
so much danger as with the other method; in fact, so little, that
many people hesitate to condemn this arrangement.

However, to put it on no other grounds, it is clearly desirable not
to have cisterns supplying drinking-water and the water-closets
direct. It is better to lay down a right principle, and abide by it,
than to see how you can avoid it. The best rule is that water-closets
should not, for the reasons stated, under any circumstances be
supplied direct from the cistern supplying the taps; Prof. Corfield
lays down the rule that _every tap is a drinking-water tap, because
any one may draw water at it_.

_Housemaid’s Sink._--The housemaid’s sink is often placed in a small
closet just under the stairs, without any window or any sort of
ventilation whatever (and we know what kind of things are kept in the
sink!), so that in such a position it has not by any means a very
savoury odour. The housemaid’s sink should under no circumstances
be in such a position. It should be against an outside wall, and
have a window. As a rule, the material used for the sink itself is
lead, wood lined with lead. Now lead is not a good material. Grease,
soap, and so on, have a tendency to adhere to lead, and it is very
difficult to keep such sinks clean, and it would be better to have
the sink of glazed stoneware.

The waste pipe of the housemaid’s sink, as a rule, is connected
directly with the trap of the nearest w.c. There is a grating in
the sink, and there is no trap in or under the sink, but the waste
pipe is connected with the trap of the nearest water-closet. This is
a bad arrangement. A worse arrangement is for the waste pipe to be
connected with the soil pipe of the water-closet, in which case some
kind of trap is generally placed on the waste pipe of the sink. This
trap is frequently what is called a “bell” trap, and is placed in the
sink. The disadvantage of the bell trap is, that when you take the
top of it off you take the bell with it. The bell is the arrangement
which is supposed to form the trap by the edges of it dipping in the
water in the iron box; and you see at once, when the bell is removed,
the trap is removed and the waste pipe, wherever it goes, is left
wide open, and, if connected with the soil pipe of the water-closet,
the foul air comes up into the house. Very frequently also the waste
pipe of the sink has underneath it what is called a D trap. A D
trap is a trap which the water passing through it can never clean;
so it retains foul water; and therefore, even under sinks, such
traps ought not to be allowed on account of the foul matters which
accumulate in them.

The waste pipe of the housemaid’s sink should not be connected with
the water-closet or soil pipe; neither with any pipe that goes
directly into the drain. Its own pipe should not go directly to
the drain, which is very frequently the case, but through the wall
of the house into an open head or a gully outside. Very frequently
the housemaid’s sink is supplied with water, not from the cistern
on the roof, but from the cistern not only supplying the nearest
water-closet, _but actually inside the nearest water-closet_, in
which case, no matter what valves you have, you are supplying your
sink with water which is kept in a cistern inside the water-closet,
and that is far worse than supplying a sink with water from a cistern
which also supplies the water-closet, with a reasonably protecting

Close to the housemaid’s sink, and very frequently over it, is the
feed cistern to the hot-water apparatus, which has also an overflow
pipe, and the same remarks refer to this overflow pipe, except that
it is a thing much more liable to be overlooked, as to the overflow
pipe of the drinking-water cistern.

_Water-closets._--In the great majority of instances, the apparatus
of this closet is what is known as the “pan” closet, that is, a
closet apparatus which has a conical basin with a tinned copper bowl,
called the “pan,” from which the closet gets its name. In order that
this “pan” which holds water, may be moved, there is a contrivance
underneath called a “container,” which is generally made of iron, and
allows room for the pan to be moved. On pulling the handle the water
is discharged into the pipe below. The container being generally
made of iron it is liable to rust. Now the disadvantage of this
apparatus consists in this large iron box, which is under the seat of
the closet, being generally full of foul air. The contents of the pan
are splashed into it, and it becomes coated with foul matters which
decompose and continually give off foul air. Every time the handle of
the closet is pulled some foul air is forced up into the house. That
foul air is kept in this box between the trap which is below it and
the pan which contains the water above it. In order to allow of the
escape of this foul air it is not uncommon to have a hole bored in
the top of the container. You would suppose that hole was intended to
fix a ventilating pipe to, but nothing of the kind; the hole has been
made merely to allow the escape of foul air into the house. Sometimes
a ventilating pipe is attached to this hole and taken out through the
wall, but that is the exception. This form of closet is the worst
form of closet apparatus yet devised, and is very generally in use.

An attempt has been made to improve it by having a stoneware
container, with a place for ventilation at the side, only it is
an attempt to improve a radically bad arrangement, and not worth
further consideration. Underneath this closet apparatus you will, as
a rule, find, if you take the woodwork down, a tray of lead, called
the “safe” tray. But there is no other word in the language that
would not be a better description of it than this word! This tray is
intended to catch any water that may escape from leaky pipes, or any
slops that may be thrown over; and so it is necessary that this tray
should have a waste pipe. The waste pipe in nine out of ten cases,
probably in much greater proportion, goes into the trap immediately
underneath the closet, and so it forms a communication for foul air
from this trap to get into the house.

In some instances it goes directly into the soil pipe, and forms a
means of ventilation of the soil pipe into the house. Sometimes a
trap is put on this waste pipe, and it is then connected with the
soil pipe, which goes on well so long as there is any water in the
trap; but as soon as the water becomes evaporated, foul air gets into
the house again.

Sometimes (to show the ingenuity which people often expend upon bad
things) this waste pipe has a trap, and a little pipe from the water
supply fixed to feed the trap; but all these ingenious plans have
been devised in order to improve upon a principle radically wrong.
The pipe should be carried through the wall and end outside the house
as a warning pipe.

Scarcely any water ever comes out at all; if any does come out, it
shows there is something wrong, so that this pipe should pass through
the wall, and be made to discharge outside the house.

In order to prevent wind blowing up the pipe, it is usual to put a
small brass flapper on the end. Its weight keeps it shut, and the
pressure of water opens it.

Underneath the safe-tray you will find as a rule a trap of some kind,
and generally the trap that is found is a D trap, a trap whose name
indicates its shape, and which cannot be washed out by the water
that passes through it. The pipe from the closet passes so far in it
that it dips below the level of the out-going pipe, and thus forms a
sort of dip-trap. The pipe which is the inlet from the closet is not
placed close to the edge, but a little way in, to form a receptacle
for all kinds of filth!

You will see it is impossible for the water that passes through
it to clear the contents out, so that the trap is simply a small
cesspool, nothing more nor less. Into that trap various waste pipes
are frequently connected.

There is another form of D trap in which there are two waste pipes
going into the water near the bottom of the trap (probably the waste
pipe of the safe and the waste pipe of the cistern).

The D trap, then, is a bad form of trap, because it is not
self-cleansing. The water cannot possibly keep it clear of sediment.
So that some trap should be used which is self-cleansing, and the
water which passes through it is capable of keeping it clean. Now
that trap is a mere ∾-shaped bend in the pipe, to which we give the
name of siphon, not because we want it to act as a siphon--for if it
acts as a siphon it is of no use!

A curious thing about siphon traps and pan closets is, that the
form of trap which was used first in connection with water-closets
was the siphon trap, which we now praise; and the form of trap
which supplanted it was the D trap, which we are now condemning
and taking out wherever we can. A still more curious thing is that
the form of water-closet which we now condemn (the pan closet) was
the form of closet which supplanted the closet we are now using
(the valve closet). The valve closet was invented long before the
pan closet. Bramah valve closets fixed forty years ago often act
tolerably well now, and at the present day they are only taken out
because they are really actually worn out.

The valve closet, which we often find upstairs in old houses instead
of the pan closet, has no large iron container under the seat,
but it has a water-tight valve under the basin, and so requires a
small valve-box; so that there is no great collection of foul air
immediately under the basin of the closet. The valve closet, however,
has a disadvantage in that it requires an overflow pipe; because the
valve is water-tight, and if servants throw slops into it, or the
supply pipe to it leaks, the water goes on running and the basin
fills, and, if there were no overflow pipe, it would overflow on to
the floor; so that probably the pan closet ousted the valve closet
because it was found that people could go on throwing in any amount
of slops and using it in the roughest manner without getting their
ceilings damaged. However, the valve closets, as they were originally
made, generally had overflow pipes which went into part of the
apparatus below. Occasionally these overflow pipes are connected with
soil pipes or the trap of the closet below, but these are exceptional

One of the water-closets in the basement is very frequently in an
exceedingly improper position--either in the scullery or actually in
the kitchen. These w.c.’s ought all to be outside the house.

If closets are in the middle of the house they ought to be done
away with, and should be put against an outside wall. This might be
done by sacrificing a bit of some room which can be spared, or by
converting some small bedroom into a bath-room and closet, or still
better, by making a sort of tower outside the house.

The merits and demerits of the various kinds of water-closet were
discussed in a paper by Emptage before the Congress of the Sanitary
Institute at Glasgow. To be rightly considered wholesome and adapted
for general use, a closet should, in Emptage’s opinion, possess the
following qualifications:--

1st. The water seal of its trap should be in sight, should stand up
in the basin, and be quite safe from either momentum or siphonage.

2nd. It should be so thoroughly flushed that at each discharge every
part of the basin and trap would be properly cleansed.

3rd. It should be as well adapted for the discharge of slops as for a

A closet possessing these advantages is perfectly safe to use
anywhere, and the only kind which, in his opinion, comes up to this
standard, is that known as the “direct action.” Within the last
few years several inventors have turned their attention to the
manufacture of this kind of closet, and there are now several in the
market to choose from, each of which has some advantage peculiar to

Emptage has found:

1st. That these closets, when properly trapped, flushed, and
ventilated, are perfectly safe and wholesome, and are free from the
evils and annoyances attendant upon most other forms.

2nd. That to ensure a thorough flush out, the water must fall with
an avalanche-like action direct upon the surface of the water in the

3rd. That those basins which show an O G section are more readily
flushed than those which have sides in the form of inclined planes.

4th. That with a suitably shaped basin 2 gal. of water, delivered in
5 seconds, will thoroughly cleanse the closet.

5th. That the ordinary round P or half S trap should never be used
beneath these closets, because no reliance can be placed upon the
safety of its seal.

6th. Care is required in fixing these closets to ensure adequate
ventilation to the trap, because, owing to the exposed position
of its seal, it is liable, unless so guarded, to be destroyed at
any moment by the discharge of a pail of slops: but if properly
protected, it is quite safe from this action.

Where the position is such that this necessary protection cannot be
given, on no account should a “direct-action” closet be used. It is
better, under such circumstances, of the two evils to choose the
lesser, and fix a good “Bramah” pattern valve closet and D trap.

One word with respect to closet seats. It is the prevailing fashion
to have them fit as closely as possible, and to keep the lid shut.
Emptage thinks this is a mistake. If there are any gases to escape,
they should be allowed to do so at once, rather than be kept boxed
in, ready to belch forth into the face of the next visitor. For this
reason, he would discard lids altogether, and, provided a suitably
finished apparatus could be introduced, the riser also, and allow the
floorcloth to run right under the seat, leaving no space in the room
where bad air could be detained.

Eassie recommends one of the various kinds of “wash-out” closet, and
specifies Jennings’s as being good in every respect, especially for
nurseries. For general household use he favours the valve closet on
the Bramah pattern. In other details he directly opposes Emptage,
warning the householder above all “not to fix a D trap under the
apparatus, but only a P trap or S trap of cast lead.” Care should
also be taken to make sure that the waste pipe from the leaden tray,
or “safe”--which is usually placed under a closet in order to avoid
any damage to the ceiling below should the basin overflow--is not
led into the trap underneath the closet, but taken direct through
the outer wall, and with a small copper flap at the end of the 1
in. pipe, in order to keep out the cold air. A sufficient supply of
flushing water is indispensable, and many houses can be much improved
in this respect by simply enlarging the service pipe which conveys
water to the basin. See also p. 991.

In country dwellings, where earth-closets can be used, the following
system works well. The refuse to be disposed of embraces rain and
surface water, wash-waters, ashes, and excreta. The water is partly
stored and partly run into the nearest brook. The ashes and excreta
(no closet being fitted inside the dwelling) are carried to the
garden. The wash-waters are emptied into a sink, which communicates
directly with either a small trap, through a grating (the pipe being
disconnected with the trap), or, if there be a sufficient fall, to a
garden, by an open gutter, or open tile drain. The ashes and excreta
are mixed together, and removed by the agency of one or other form of
“earth-closet,” taking that term generally for an apparatus which is
not a cesspool, which has to be frequently emptied of its contents in
a more or less dry state, and which is wholly above ground.

The contents of the water-closet are discharged, as a rule, into a
separate pipe, called the soil pipe; but sometimes into a rain-water
pipe with an open head near the windows, or even _inside_ the house.
The soil pipe is usually inside the house--probably because it ought
to be outside! Even where water-closets are against an external
wall, the pipe is often carried down inside the house. The closets
themselves, like sinks, ought not to be placed in the middle of the
house. They are very frequently under the stairs, close to bedrooms,
or in the middle of the house, sometimes ventilating into a shaft.
It is of course inevitable in these cases that the pipe must either
be carried inside throughout the whole length of the house, or must
run nearly horizontally under the floors of bedrooms, &c. Under
such circumstances it is often not properly ventilated; and if not
ventilated at all, the foul air makes its way out through holes,
which it is capable of perforating in lead pipes.

The soil pipes are then frequently inside the house, and they are as
a rule made of lead. They are very frequently not ventilated at the
top, and the pieces are jointed together by merely being slipped into
one another, with perhaps a little putty or red-lead. Of course these
joints are not sound joints. The soil pipe goes down into the drain,
and so the foul air gets into the house. The soil pipe, whether
inside or outside the house, ought to have sound joints. If a lead
pipe, soldered joints; if an iron pipe, the joints ought to be made
secure in a proper way.

If any part of the soil pipe must pass inside the house, it should be
of lead, and it can be made sound so long as it will last (and is not
damaged by driving nails into it).

Iron pipes should not be allowed to be inside the house. It is so
very likely that the joints will not be made perfectly tight, so that
it is more undesirable to have iron pipes inside the house than it is
to have lead pipes.

Of course it is practicable to plug the pipe at the bottom and to
fill it with water to ascertain if it is water-tight; but all that is
only a device to retain a thing which ought to be altered.

Soil pipes ought always to be ventilated by a pipe as large as the
soil pipe carried up above the roof.

The soil pipes ought to be outside the house, and connected with the
drain by plain stoneware bends, or, under certain circumstances,
disconnected from the drains themselves by a trap with an open
grating. Such a trap is called a disconnecting trap.

_Bath-room._--The first thing to mention in connection with the
bath-room is that the inlet and outlet openings for the water should
not be the same. Very frequently in a bath the water goes out by
the same apertures as it comes in. This is a bad plan, for some of
the dirty water comes back with the clean. The waste pipe should be
treated in the same way as the waste pipe of a sink.

Frequently on the best bedroom floor there is a water-closet actually
in one of the bedrooms, or opening directly out of it by a door. This
ought not to be countenanced under any circumstances whatever.

On the drawing-room floor there is generally a balcony, the pipes
from which go very frequently straight down to the drain, or they
are connected with rain-water pipes from the top of the house, which
_themselves_ discharge into the drain; so that these pipes from
balconies and lead flats are not at all infrequently connected with
the drains.

_Bell-wire Pipes._--There is sometimes an unaccountable smell in the
drawing-room, and people puzzle themselves in all kinds of ways to
account for it. It is generally noticed when people are sitting in
a particular chair--which particular chair is a chair possibly most
frequently sat in--one near to the fireplace. The smell noticed is
a smell which comes up the tube that the bell-wire goes down. The
bell-wire goes down into the basement. It may go into some part of
the basement which is not very savoury, and foul air may be, and
frequently is, taken up into the drawing-room or best bed-room. Or
the wire may be in the basement passage close to the gas-light, and
the products of combustion of the gas may pass up the wire-tube into
the drawing-room or bedroom.

_Kitchen Waste._--Accumulation of waste animal and vegetable matter
should be strictly forbidden; what cannot be used as food, even for
domestic animals, ought to be burned daily. Where there is a large
garden, refuse may be buried. The objection frequently raised to
burning is the unpleasant smell which is caused by it; this may, with
a little care, always be avoided. Where a close range is used, choose
a time when the fire is bright but low; draw out all the dampers and
put everything into the fire, close the door in front, and a very
large amount of rubbish can be got rid of in a quarter of an hour.
In open fireplaces this is a little more difficult, but may still be
accomplished. Put all vegetable matter under the grate to dry, then
put it on the fire. The oven dampers must be drawn out; the strong
draught up the oven flue will carry off the smell. Fish-bones and
other scraps may thus be burned. The habit prevalent in many country
places of keeping a swill-tub cannot be too strongly condemned. A day
or two of damp summer weather is enough to cause a most offensive
smell to be given off. Dwellings in large towns become dangerous in
warm weather from their close proximity to ashpits, which are made
the receptacle of all kinds of decaying animal and vegetable matter.
Much sickness might be prevented during the summer months if it could
be made compulsory to have ashpits, &c., well sprinkled with chloride
of lime or some similar disinfectant at least twice a week.

_Sinks._--The stoppage of drains by grease may be partially prevented
by the use of soap-powder, which combines with the grease; but at
least twice a week there should be poured down kitchen sinks one
or two bucketfuls of boiling water, in which common soda has been
dissolved. A much better plan is to use potash instead of soda, as
potash makes a _soft_ soap with fats. The application of one or
two doses of potash lye in hot water will almost always effect a
clearance in stopped drains, which at first appear to be irremediably
choked, and at the same time no injury whatever results to the pipes.

[Illustration: 23. Kitchen Sink.]

The proper arrangement and disconnection of a kitchen sink is shown
in Fig. 23; _a_, stoneware trough; _b_, 2 in. stoneware waste pipe;
_c_, stoneware gully or trap; _d_, iron grating; _e_, house wall;
_f_, pipe leading to sewer.

The sinks in the basement have their waste pipes very frequently
either directly connected with the drains or connected with the
drains by bell traps. Of course this is a most dangerous state of
things. For when the top of the bell trap is taken off, an opening
into the drain is directly made. If the bell trap gets broken, no one
is told of it, and the drain is ventilated into the house for months.
On the other hand, if the top is left on and the bell trap is in a
place where water does not get into it continually, or at all, the
trap will get dry, and so become a ventilator of the drains into the
house; so that this plan of having ventilating pipes in the sinks, or
of having bell traps in the floor of basements, is most dangerous,
still more dangerous if the sinks are not used. Some think in this
way:--Oh! this sink is not used, there cannot be any harm in it! But
there is, and much more harm too. For the water in the trap dries up,
and so foul air comes into the house.

The sinks, then, ought not to be directly connected with the drains,
but should discharge through trapped gullies in the area; and not
only so, but the waste pipes of the sinks, whether upstairs or
downstairs, ought to have siphon traps, with traps and screws fixed
immediately under the sinks. These waste pipes are foul pipes even
when not connected with the drains, and if you do not have siphon
traps immediately under the sinks, foul air will come in, especially
during the night, and you will have a very serious nuisance caused in
the house in this way. The same remarks about cisterns upstairs apply
to cisterns in the basement. The water-closets in the basement are
simpler forms of closets, and they are very frequently supplied from
water cisterns by means of pipes which have merely a tap which you
may turn off or on. This is a most mischievous plan, as the cistern
may be emptied and foul air enter it. The closets in the basement,
therefore, ought to be supplied by means of water-waste preventers,
the best kind being the siphon-action water-waste preventers, which
discharge two gallons of water as soon as you pull the chain. These
“preventers” are not only to prevent the water being wasted by the
handle of the closet being fastened up, but also cut off the direct
supply of the closet from the drinking-cistern water.

_Grease Traps._--A much-discussed subject is the grease trap. In
small houses it is not needed; but in large houses, unless some
provision is made for catching the grease sent down the scullery
sink, the drains will soon be choked. Eassie gives a caution against
having the grease trap too large for its work, and as to the
importance of cleaning it out regularly, say once a week.

_Disconnection Traps._--Whether the house drains into a sewer, a
stream, a cesspool, or upon a piece of irrigation ground, one thing
which must never be omitted is a disconnection trap or chamber
between the house drain and the outfall. These traps--which should be
placed close to the house--prevent any smell from the outfall passing
into the house, and inasmuch as they have an inlet for the taking
in of fresh air between the siphon and the house, this fresh air
will course along the underground drains, and be discharged at the
ventilating continuations of the soil pipes, or at the tops.

[Illustration: 24. Disconnection Chamber. 25. Disconnection Chamber.]

Where the house is so large that the air inlet of these siphons would
not suffice, the latter are replaced by a chamber as shown in Fig.
24. The sewage flows into the air chamber formed by the half-open
pipe _a_, being ventilated through the grating _b_; thence it passes
through the siphon _c_ to the sewer in the direction of the arrow.
There is a raking entry into the sewer side of the siphon at _d_,
closed by a plug, thus preventing any smell from the sewer or drain
beyond the siphon entering the air chamber _a_. If the sewers are at
a great depth, the walls of the air chamber are made thicker, and a
manhole is built the length of the open channel, an arch being turned
over when the siphon is fixed, as in Fig. 25. The sewage passes from
_a_ through the siphon _b_ to the drain _c_, _d_ being the air inlet.

[Illustration: 26. Houghton’s Trap.]

One of the best modern traps is that introduced by Houghton (Fig.
26), in which the outlet _a_ at the bottom of the gully can be
pointed in any direction, and the inlet _b_ to the basin _c_ of the
gully, forming a movable half, can be turned round to accommodate the
entering waste pipe _b_; _d_ is the open grating which covers the

_Drains._--Tho drain itself is got at by opening down to it in the
front area. It may be found to be an old brick-drain, in which case
it ought to be taken out. Brick drains are pervious, they allow the
escape of foul air, and with contaminated air rats also get in the
house. Wherever rats can get, foul air can go; and rats coming in
through these holes may carry with them the poison of disease, such
as typhoid fever. Rats generally go to the larder, and carry with
them often the poison of such diseases, which are very largely
spread by their poisons being taken in this way by rats into the milk
and other foods, and also into the water in the cisterns.

Whether a brick drain or a pipe drain, it should be trapped before
it is connected with the main sewer or cesspool. This trap, in the
case of a brick drain called a “dipstone” trap, is a brick pit with a
stone across it from one side to another, and dipped into the water
which remains in the pit. The object of this stone is to prevent foul
air coming into the house. As a matter of fact, the pit holds a large
collection of foul matter and becomes a small cesspool, indeed, there
is no difference between them.

A drain may be made of glazed stoneware pipes, which may be joined
together in one of several ways. They may be laid “dry,” i.e. without
any jointing material between the ends, in which case they are, of
course, not water-tight; or they may have clay in the joints, in
which case you cannot fill them with water--that is to say, they
will not hold water under pressure. (If you fill them with water, by
plugging at the lower end, the water will come out at the joints.)
Or they may be laid with the pipes the wrong way. When the joints
are made with clay they will very soon become leaky; and when that
happens, the water oozes through the joints, filth collects in the
trap, and it gradually plugs up the whole drain from one end to the
other. This may go on for years without being found out, and so cause
the ground under the house to gradually become a large cesspool.
This is an extreme case. Or they may be jointed with cement, and
there are some other ways. They may be perfectly well jointed with
cement, so as to be water-tight. The drains, then, should answer to
this test, i.e. you should be able to plug them at the lower end,
and fill them with water. They should not be under the house, if
possible. In London we cannot help it as a rule. If under the house,
the straighter the course of the drain the better. Do not let it wind
about in order to get away from different rooms. The best thing is
to have a straight course through and to see that it is water-tight.
It should hold water like a teacup. The drain must not be directly
connected with the main sewer or merely separated by a siphon trap;
but there should be an air inlet into the drain between the siphon
trap and the house. This opening may be of different kinds. The best
kind is that of a manhole for access to the drain and trap (so that
the trap can be examined and cleared out at any time); the air inlet
should be a grating either over the manhole or in the nearest wall
opening into a pipe leading into the manhole.

People who are afraid of foul air coming out of these inlets put on
a valve with mica flaps, so that the air can blow in, but foul air
cannot go out. But, if there are no D traps under the water-closets
and sinks, if the pipes are straight and sufficiently large
ventilators are used, if the ventilating pipes go up above the roof
and are not protected from the action of the wind, you will never
find foul air coming out at the air inlet though you will find that
fresh air is drawn in. There can be no accumulation of foul air,
and the air that may be occasionally forced out is the last fresh
air that has entered. Should you, however, find foul air coming out
you will know that there is something wrong with the drain, that
the drain or siphon is plugged, so that this air inlet becomes most
valuable in pointing out when anything is going wrong.

Brick drains, says Eassie, are variously shaped. The worst sections
are those upon which two upright sides of brick have been built
upon flat stones, so as to form a bottom, and then covered over
with other flat stones, because the bricks can never joint tightly
with the stone, and there is always a leakage going on into the
surrounding subsoil. One great objection to brick drains is due to
the fact that they cannot be constructed sufficiently small to meet
the requirements of a house, and consequently are seldom found less
than 9 inches in diameter, which is far too large a sectional area to
properly drain a house.

However compactly and well-burnt the clay has been made into bricks,
a brick drain has only a certain life, so to speak, before its
decadence begins with the usual attendant danger. Its lifetime is
longer or shorter according to the subsoil in which it is placed,
the material used as mortar, the gradient at which it is laid, the
sewage which it removes, and the quantity of water, and especially
of heated water, which passes through it, but the consensus of
opinion in their disfavour for use in the interior of a house is
overwhelming, and a universal preference is accorded to drains
formed of earthenware pipes. A second objection to brick drains,
however well they may have been built, is their want of smoothness,
especially at the bottom, whereby the effete matters are not carried
easily away; and this want of smoothness is aggravated by the
roughness due to the unequal perishing of the bricks.

One of the first proofs of the perishing of a brick drain, making it
past redemption, is the appearance of rats. Rats will go always to
that place which affords them most food; and it is the brick barrel
drain which receives the washings from meat plates, and the grease
from the scullery pots, which rats most commonly frequent. They
will leave a drain, and nest themselves in the thatched roof of a
farmhouse, and they will form whole villages under the floors of a
town house. Rats generally find their way into houses by means of
holes which have been formed in brick drains by the falling down of
perished bricks from the arch, or owing to their having contrived
to make a passage through the brick drain above the usual wetted
perimeter. These rats, in the case of country houses, may come from
the stables, the barns, or the brooks; but in town houses they
chiefly emanate from the sewer. No matter whence originally derived,
they soon become habituated to a house and its dainty scraps, and
having once engineered their way thither, are seldom effectually
dislodged, especially in country residences. As fast as a hole is
discovered and stopped up, another is made by these persistent
vermin, until the foul air evolved from the house drain becomes so
distressful, and the rats so multiply, that some further steps are
necessary in dealing with them. Where the evil has not yet grown
formidable, traps are made use of, or poison; but this last is a
dangerous resource, as the rats are apt to die underground and emit
during decomposition, which lasts for months, the most horrible

It may be added that rats are remarkably clean animals, and will
never allow their fur to come in contact with anything that cannot
easily be immediately cleaned from it; hence, very often a dairy,
larder, or granary is surrounded by a trench outside the brick
walling to a certain depth, by broken glass and gravel, well grouted
with tar. Never rely upon a siphon trap in the drain, as a means of
keeping out these voracious and fast-breeding animals. They will eat
even through lead pipes ⅛ inch in thickness.

Having shown the necessity for discarding brick drains underneath
a house, Eassie next considers alternative clay-derived materials,
such as pipes formed of baked clay, after the latter has been worked
to a consistency which would not naturally allow of an escape of
their contents. There are, however, two or three subdivisions of this
class. First of all come those kinds whose ends are merely abutted
together, and not, as at the present day, socketed at the joints.
These are almost equally faulty with brick drains, because when
once they are poisoned and become the habitat of life-destroying
germs, their normal tone cannot possibly be recovered. The only kind
of earthenware drains which ought to be permitted inside a house
are glazed socketed pipes, well formed, well kilned, and properly
laid down, the whole of the pipes having been set on a concrete
bed, and afterwards covered over with properly made concrete, so
as to prevent any possibility of sewage reaching the subsoil, and
especially water-tanks. It is not every glazed socketed drain-pipe
that is fit for laying down, for the most abominably shaped pipes
are often met with. There are many makers beyond reproach, and
there are scores of pipes showing patent methods of jointing more
or less complicated. The majority of the improvements refer to the
fast seating of the ends of the pipes in cradles, well covered in
cement, and one especially much in use, Stanford’s, provides a ring
of material fitting truly upon a ring of similar material in the
socket of the pipe, so that when the two ends are put together, with
a little grease or resin between them, the pipes fit closely in every
direction, and require but little other luting. These pipes are
generally adopted for use under a house, and ordinary socketed pipes
for outside.

Cast-iron drains are now very often used in place of earthenware
pipes, and there is a great deal to be said in their favour,
especially since the invention of several processes whereby the
interior is prevented from rusting and scaling. Pipes of this
material are useful underground in rows of houses, and wherever
straight lines of delivery are obtainable, and compared with drain
pipes of earthenware, with their necessary surrounding of concrete,
they would prove not more expensive. Unfortunately, however, this
system cannot always be adopted, unless the house has been planned
with a view to this method of drainage; and in most houses it will
be observed that the pipes would have to run in front of fireplaces
and across doorways if above ground. When iron piping is used, great
care should be taken with the jointing, to see that it is properly
packed, and with material calculated to last as long as the pipe
itself. Iron pipes with merely leaded joints are subject to galvanic
action, whereby the iron, sooner or later, thins out by corrosion,
the iron perishing by “abnormal local oxidation,” as has been very
forcibly stated by B. H. Thwaite. When iron is contiguous with lead,
a galvanic action is set up, and, the latter being electro-negative
to the iron, the iron suffers. There ought, therefore, always to be
an assistant packing in the pipe, and the majority of engineers make
use of this. Eassie advises in addition, a luting of Portland cement
with the other materials, which may include a previous stuffing of
fibrous packing material together with the old-fashioned iron filings
and acids.

Given the best kind of drain to lay down, there is still the question
as to where to lay it, and here lamentable errors are frequently
made. The chief fault perpetrated in this particular is the laying
of drains inside a house, when they might just as easily have been
laid outside. When a drain is laid down, care is exercised to get the
pipes as much as possible in straight lines; and at each departure
from a straight line a manhole is formed, enabling any one to
inspect the drain at any time, by lifting the manhole cover. If a
lighted candle is placed at the bottom of the drain in the manholes,
the freedom of the drain from obstructions can be ascertained by
looking from manhole to manhole. These inspection chambers should be
placed at every departure from a straight line, and where several
drains junction together; thus each drain delivery is open to
sight, and rods can easily be introduced up the drain pipe should
any obstruction occur. These inspection chambers are always best
protected by an iron manhole cover, fitting down perfectly into their
iron frames, which are sunk into the stone floor.

Most houses in connection with a large brick sewer have a
“flap-trap,” just where the house drain enters into the sewer; this
flap opens to allow the house sewage to enter the sewer, whereupon
it should immediately close again to exclude foul air and rats from
invading the house. They sometimes, however, do not shut closely, and
in that case their action for good is almost at an end. A householder
can have an occasional inspection made of the trap by the sewer men,
by paying a small fee to the vestry.

_Precautions after Floods._--Dwellings which have been invaded by
the waters should receive special care, so that those whom the flood
has expelled should not occupy them before they have been made
sufficiently healthy for habitation. They should first be cleaned out
as quickly and thoroughly as possible, and freed from all dirt and
debris deposited in different parts by the water. Continuous aëration
and the most active ventilation are the best and most energetic
agents. To increase these as much as possible, where it can be done,
a large fire should be maintained on the hearth, and the doors and
windows opened, so that the light and heat of the sun may contribute
their part to purifying the air. At the same time care must be taken
to dig a ditch 10-15 in. deep around each house, whose interior is in
many cases below the level of the ground. It will also be well, after
having torn down all plastering, which will be in a bad condition,
to scrape to their bottom all joints in the walls, and to replaster
them in the parts of the house most injured, and where bad deposits
have principally accumulated. The floors, where such exist, should
be carefully attended to, and the soil under them covered with a
disinfecting substance, such as pounded charcoal, or sand, or else
with an impermeable material, such as flagging, paving blocks,
cement, &c. Where the house is several stories high, the top stories
should be the first occupied.

Great precautions should also be followed in the treatment of certain
articles of furniture, such as beds and mattresses, which must be
renovated or replaced, and which should never on any account be
used until thoroughly dried. Sanitary treatment, such as adopted
for houses, should be applied with no less vigilance to stables and
barns. One peculiar feature it is important to note, though it can
only be accidentally produced: it is the possible alteration of the
water of wells and springs of potable water, in whose neighbourhood
matter in a state of decomposition may have been deposited, or piles
of excrementitious and organic debris, or sources of water supply
which may have been contaminated by the contents of privy vaults.
Attention should be directed to this danger. To disinfect cellars
into which, by agency of the inundations, the contents of privy
vaults may have penetrated, commercial zinc sulphate may be used,
either by sprinkling it in powder in the cellar, or by watering the
ground when the water has gone down with a concentrated solution of
this salt. Concentrated solution of iron sulphate does well, but
the disinfection is not so complete as with salts of zinc; it is,
however, cheaper.

=Ventilation.=--The objects of ventilation are twofold--first to get
rid of the poisonous gas (carbonic acid) exhaled from our lungs, and
second to furnish a supply of life-supporting gas (oxygen, as it
exists in fresh air) to our lungs. For healthy living, every adult
individual requires at least 1000 cub. ft. of space, or a room 10 ft.
square and 10 ft. high; into this room should pass 3000 cub. ft. of
air every hour.

In dwelling-rooms, and especially in bedrooms, the fireplace should
always be left unclosed, and the flue or damper open for ventilation.
The windows should pull down from the top, and a piece of wire gauze
should be fixed along the open space at the top; or a pane of glass
should be perforated with holes capable of being closed in stormy
weather. All rooms, and especially sleeping apartments, should be
well aired during the day.

A good and simple test for impure air is to take a clear glass bottle
with a glass stopper, holding about 10 oz., and wipe it carefully
inside and out. On entering a room, the air of which you wish to
test, stuff a linen cloth into the bottle and rapidly withdraw it, so
as to allow the air of the room to enter the bottle. Then carefully
place a tablespoonful of clear lime water in the bottle, and replace
the stopper. Shake it for a few minutes; then, if the air is pure,
the lime water will remain clear. If bad, and loaded with carbonic
acid, the lime water will become turbid, or even milky. This is
because lime and carbonic acid together form chalk, which gives
the milky appearance. It must be remembered that this test has no
reference to the ammonia which often exists abnormally in the bad
air of towns, nor does it indicate the presence of disease germs or
poisons due to paint, wall-paper, &c.

A fire in an open fireplace is a good ventilator in a way. We may
ventilate a room easily by raising the lower window sash, and by
placing inside the frame a piece of wood 3-4 in. high, and 1 in. in
thickness, and reaching from one side of the frame to the other.
When the inside sash is brought down to rest on this piece of wood,
it is thus raised 3-4 in. A current of fresh air moves inwards and
upwards to the ceiling between the sashes, and if a piece of wood or
glass, sloping upwards, be attached to the top of the lower sash, the
current of air will be sent upwards to the ceiling, whence it will
diffuse itself through the room.

Draughts must be avoided; and it is wonderful how easily they may be
prevented. Pettenkofer has shown that if air at ordinary temperatures
does not move at a greater rapidity than 1½ ft. per second, its
movement is not felt. What is needed, therefore, is some kind of
screen that will not prevent the entrance of air, but that will break
its force, divide its currents, and make it flow unfelt into the room.

Perhaps the simplest plan of effecting this is the following: Open
your window at the top to whatever degree is necessary to prevent
closeness in the room, but if there is a draught open it wider still;
place a little loosely-packed cotton-wool between the upper and
lower sash, and in the open space above the upper sash place a strip
of perforated zinc, with its lower edge turned upwards, so as to
direct the draught towards the ceiling. If there is still too much
draught, open it still wider, but fasten in front of the perforated
zinc a screen of gauze containing loosely-packed cotton-wool. It is
noteworthy that there must be a sufficient current to carry the air
upwards along the slanting piece of zinc, and towards the ceiling,
otherwise, as Corbett has pointed out, the cold air will trickle over
the edge and cool the feet of the inmates of the room.

In the hot months it is worth while to bear in mind the plan adopted
by Martin in order to keep the rooms of the sick in a state of
freshness. This consists in opening the windows wide, and then
hanging wet cloths before them. The water, as it vaporises, absorbs
the heat, and lowers the temperature of the apartment by several
degrees, while the humidity which is diffused renders the heat much
more supportable. By adopting this plan, the inmates find themselves,
even in the height of summer, in a freshened atmosphere, analogous
to that which prevails after a storm. This fact is well known to
and utilised by the natives of India. Another plan is to close all
windows facing the sun and cover them with blinds or curtains, to
exclude the sun’s rays and the heated external air. Carpets may be
replaced by matting, and the latter may be sprinkled with plain or
perfumed water.

In very cold weather it is equally desirable to close all cracks
and chinks against the influx of draughts. Cracks in floors, around
the skirting board, or other parts of a room, may be neatly and
permanently filled by thoroughly soaking newspapers in paste made
of 1 lb. flour, 3 quarts of water, and a tablespoonful of alum,
thoroughly boiled and mixed. The mixture will be about as thick as
putty, and may be forced into the cracks with a case knife. It will
harden like papier-maché. Old windows that do not close tightly may
be remedied by smearing the edge on which they close with putty,
and that of the sash with chalk, and then closing them as firmly as
possible. The putty will fill up the crevices, and the excess pressed
out at the sides may be removed with a knife, whilst the chalk
prevents adhesion to the sash.

A system in very general use is Moore’s patent glass louvre
ventilator, consisting of a number of louvres (or slips of glass),
which can be opened to any angle up to about 45°, thus always
directing the incoming current of air upwards. They are easily
regulated and secured by a cord, which when released allows the
louvres to close practically air-tight. Moore’s circular glass
ventilator, which consists of (usually five) pear-shaped openings,
neatly cut in the window square, and fitted with a circular glass
cover with corresponding holes working on a centre pivot, are also
very effective for admission or extraction of air. Moore’s sliding
ventilator consists of oblong vertical holes, with the cover sliding
between guides horizontally, the principle being the same as in
the circular ventilator, but it is more suited for the top of shop
fronts or shallow fanlights. These are all made by J. Moore and Sons,
Sekforde Works, St. James’s Walk, Clerkenwell Green, E.C.

Another simple method of admitting fresh air to a room consists in
leaving an aperture in the external wall, at a level between the
ceiling of one apartment and the floor of the room immediately above,
then to convey the fresh air through a channel from the external
wall to the centre of the ceiling of the apartment below, where the
air can be admitted by an opening, and dispersed by having a flat
board or disc to impinge against, suspended 4 in. or 6 in. below the
opening of the ceiling, and so scattered over the room. The cold air,
however, thus admitted, plunges on the heads of the occupants of the
room and mixes with the hot air which has risen near the ceiling.
A top window-sash lowered a little to admit fresh air has the same
disagreeable effect, the cold air being drawn towards the floor by
the chimney draught, and leaving the hot air to stagnate near the
ceiling. In any siphon system placed vertically the current of air
will enter by the short arm, and take its exit by the long arm, and
thus the chimney flue acts as the long arm of a siphon, drawing the
fresh air from the nearest opening. Fresh air may be introduced
through perforations made in the woodwork of the bottom rail of the
door to the room, or through apertures in the outer wall, admitting
the fresh air to spaces behind the skirting board, and making the
latter perforated. The only objection to this plan is the liability
for vermin to lodge between the skirting board and the wall. This may
be prevented by covering the outside apertures with perforated zinc,
but such covering also helps to keep out the full supply of fresh air.

Butler recommends, while admitting the cold air through side
walls near the floor level, and allowing the foul air to escape
at the ceiling, that the fire draught should be maintained quite
independent of the air inlet to the room, the requisite amount of
air for combustion being supplied by a separate pipe led through the
hearthstone with its face towards the fire, the latter acting as a
pump, which is sure to procure its own allowance from the nearest
source; thus the draught which would otherwise be felt by the fire
drawing its supply from the inlet across the room is considerably
reduced. The foul air may enter the ceiling in the centre, and be
conducted by an air-flue either to the outside or to the chimney.
The chimney is the best extractor, as its heated condition greatly
favours the ventilating power.

Dr. Arnott was one of the first to draw attention to the value of a
chimney as a means of drawing off the foul air from the interior of
an apartment. He invented a ventilator consisting of a well-balanced
metallic valve, intended by its instantaneous action to close
against down draught and so prevent the escape of smoke into a room
during the use of fires. If the fire is not alight, what is known
as the register of the stove should be closed, or a tight-fitting
board placed in front of the fireplace, with the adoption of all
chimney-ventilators fixed near the ceiling.

[Illustration: 27. Harding’s Ventilator.]

Harding’s ventilators are better known in the north of England than
the south. They are recommended by Pridgin Teale, surgeon to the
General Infirmary at Leeds, as a means of securing freshness of
atmosphere without draught, and free from all mixture of dust, soot,
or fog. The outside air is conducted through a grate and aperture in
the wall about 7 ft. 6 in. above the floor level, where it is made
to pass through a series of small tubes fixed at an angle of about
30° with the wall. The currents of air are said to be compressed
while passing through the tubes, but to expand and diffuse in all
directions as soon as they are liberated into the apartment. In all
filtering arrangements it must be remembered that if air is to pass
through a screen or filter without retarding the current entering
the room through a tube, the area of the screen must be greater than
the area of section of the tube. This can be effected by placing
the screen diagonally within the tube which admits the air. In some
buildings the filter is dispensed with, and the apparatus is used
simply to diffuse the air as it enters the room. An outlet for the
vitiated air is provided by the chimney flue, either through the
fireplace or by a mica valve placed in the flue near the ceiling.
In rooms where flues do not exist an air extractor is provided,
consisting of two perforated cones and a central tube. The external
air impinging upon the perforated cones is deflected, creating an
induced current up the vertical tube, drawing the foul air from the
interior of the room, and expelling it through the perforations.
In fixing the extractor, a wooden base or frame is placed on the
ridge and covered with lead to make it watertight; the extractor
is then placed over this and fixed in the ordinary manner. A small
inner cone is provided simply to prevent rain from getting into the
tube. Harding’s extractors are so designed that they may be easily
fixed inside an ornamental turret without in any way affecting their
action. They can be obtained in London from Strode & Co., at prices
varying from 15_s._ to 6_l._ and upwards. Their action is illustrated
in Fig. 27: _a_, wall; _b_, grating outside; _c_, filter.

Another system for admitting fresh air into a room, free from fog and
other impurities, is that recommended by the Sanitary Engineering
and Ventilating Co., 115, Victoria Street, Westminster. They provide
for the introduction of fresh air in vertical currents by means of a
suitable number and disposition of vertical tubes, varying in size,
section, and weight according to each special case. The current can
be regulated in amount by throttle valves, and the heated or vitiated
air is removed by means of exhaust ventilators, placed directly over
the roof or in connection with air flues and shafts. The exhaust
ventilator is thus described by the makers: There are no working
parts to get out of order, and no attention is required to ensure
its constant action. In this respect, a great improvement is claimed
over the numerous forms of revolving cowls, which require occasional
lubrication, otherwise the working parts become corroded and the cowl
ceases to act. They are made of circular or rectangular section,
or other shapes to suit special circumstances. One great merit of
the system is the element of length which is introduced by means
of the tube arrangement, and thus a current is continually passing
which diffuses itself over the room. The system admits of a patent
air-cleansing box being built into the wall at the foot of the tube,
fitted with special deflector plates and a tray to hold water or,
when necessary, disinfectants. When the arrangements of furniture
or fittings in a room preclude the use of vertical tubes fixed near
the ground, they recommend the substitution of a ventilating bracket
fixed at 6-7 ft. above the floor. This bracket may contain an air
purifying or cleansing box; if required, a valve is provided for
regulating the admission of fresh air, and a 9 in. by 6 in. hinged
air grating to cover the opening outside. The air-cleansing box is
illustrated in Fig. 28: _a_, inside of room; _b_, floor; _c_, trough
or tray for holding water or disinfectant fluid; _d_, tube.

[Illustration: 28. Sanitary Ventilating Company’s Ventilator.]

Boyle’s patent self-acting air-pump ventilators are well known,
and are found to answer well in their continuous action under all
varieties of wind pressure; they are often adopted without any
inquiry being made as to the scientific principles on which they are
constructed. They consist of 4 sections, each acting independently of
the other. The exterior curve baffle-plate prevents the wind blowing
through the slits formed in the immediate interior plates, and
tends to concentrate the current. These interior plates are curved
outwards, so as to take the pressure off the vertical slits, which
form a communication with the internal chambers, through which the
air impinges on inner deflecting plates, and is further directed by
the radial plates. The external air impinging on the radial plates
is deflected on to the side plates, and creates an induced current.
In its passage it draws the air from the central vertical chambers,
expelling it at the opposite opening. The vitiated air immediately
rushes up the shaft connecting the ventilator with the apartment to
be ventilated, extracting the air and producing a continuous upward
current without the possibility of down draught. The partitions
separating the chambers prevent the external air being drawn through
the slits upon which the wind is not directly acting. The whole
arrangement being a fixture, with no mechanical movement, it is never
liable to get out of order, and the apparatus can be easily fixed
over a wood base or frame covered with zinc or lead to secure a good
water-tight connection. Where Boyle’s ventilators are used the air is
renewed imperceptibly, the vitiated air being extracted as rapidly as
it is generated.

A somewhat similar arrangement to Boyle’s ventilator is patented by
Arnold W. Kershaw, of Lancaster, and consists of 3 rims of deflectors
or plates with openings in each, so arranged that the openings in
one rim are opposite the deflectors in the next inner or outer rim,
the effect being that whatever the direction of the wind, it passes
through the ventilator without being able to enter the central shaft,
and in passing creates a partial vacuum, which induces an upward
current in the upcast shaft without the possibility of down draughts.
Both Boyle’s and Kershaw’s roof ventilators are suitable for fixing
in ventilating towers or turrets. While Kershaw’s is somewhat simpler
in construction, Boyle’s is said to possess the additional advantage
of preventing the entrance of snow by the curve in which the inner
plates are fixed. In the case of chimney flues where there is any
obstruction that breaks the wind and produces a swirl, such as would
be caused by close proximity to higher buildings or raised gables, a
down draught may be prevented by the use of a properly-constructed
chimney cowl. Kershaw’s chimney cowl is a modification of his
pneumatic ventilator, and consists of deflecting plates so arranged
that there is no possibility of a down draught. Boyle’s chimney cowl
is better known than Kershaw’s, and is very effective. It consists
of deflecting plates so fixed that if a body of air is forced in at
the false top, instead of passing down the vent, it is split up by
an inner diaphragm, deflected over the real top, and passed over at
the side openings, thus checking the blow down and assisting the up
draught. Kershaw’s patent inlet and air diffuser consists of a tube
connection between the outside and inside of an apartment rising
vertically on the inside, the upper extremity having radiating
plates, which diffuse the incoming current. Generally speaking, a
sufficient amount of fresh air enters under the door to a room or
between the window sashes or frames; but in apartments where doors
and windows fit tightly, some arrangement for the admission of fresh
air becomes indispensable. In this climate, during 7 months of the
year, the external air is usually too cold to be admitted directly
into the room.

The plan of admitting fresh air to a space behind the grates, leading
up the air through channels on each side of the fireplace, and
ultimately passing it through perforated gratings within the wall
or through perforations in the skirting board on each side of the
fireplace cannot be commended, as the passages are apt to get choked
up with dust, and the temperature of the air cannot be well regulated
in its passage into the room. The true object of a fire and chimney
flue should not be to supply fresh air, but to extract it after it
has done its work.

[Illustration: 29. Boyle’s Air-cooler.]

Fig. 29 illustrates Boyle’s arrangement for cooling the air entering
a room in hot weather. It consists of an air-inlet tube of bracket
form, made of iron. The part which penetrates the hole in the wall
has an outer casing, so that a space of about ½ in. is left between,
which is packed with a non-conducting substance, for the purpose of
preventing the heat from the wall penetrating into the interior of
the opening and acting upon the blocks of ice, which are placed in a
movable drawer, and kept in position by means of open galvanised iron
or copper-wire netting. The front of the drawer is also double, and
packed same as casing. The outer air entering through the grating is
deflected by a metal shield on to the suspended blocks of ice, and
from thence on to the ice at the bottom of the drawer, and thence
up the tube into the room. The air is not only cooled, but purified
thoroughly from dust. See also p. 991.

=Warming.=--In connection with warming an apartment, it is obviously
a necessary condition that the warmth shall be conserved as much as
possible. Hence there is an evil in having too much glass, as it
cools the room too fast in the winter season: 1 sq. ft. of window
glass will cool 1½ cub. ft. of warm air in the room to the external
temperature per second; that is, if the room be warmed to 60° F., and
the thermometer stands at 30° F. outside, there will be a loss of
90 cub. ft. of warm air at 60° per second from a window containing
a surface of glass of 60 sq. ft. In colder climates than that of
England, this subject is of much greater importance. In America, for
instance, during the cold weather, there will always be found, no
matter how tightly or closely the sashes are fitted and protected
with weather-strips, a draught of cold air falling downward. This
arises from the contact of the heated air with the cold glass, which
renders the air cooler and heavier, and causes it to fall. The
air, at the same time, parts with a considerable proportion of its
moisture by condensation upon the glass. The cold air thus formed
falls to the floor, forming a layer of cold air, which surrounds
the feet and legs, while the upper part of the body is enveloped in
overheated air. The layers of cold and warm air in an apartment will
not mix. The warm air will not descend, and the cold air cannot go
upward, except the one is deprived of its heat by radiation, and the
other receives its heat by actual contact with a heated surface. This
radical difference in the upper and lower strata of atmosphere of the
rooms, in which people live during the cold season, is the prolific
cause of most of the throat and lung diseases with which they are
afflicted. Double windows to the houses, therefore, would not only be
a great economy as to fuel, but highly conductive to human longevity.

There are only two ways in which dwelling-houses can be heated,
namely, by radiant heat and by hot air. The former is produced by the
open fire, and by it alone. The latter is obtained in various ways.
The question whether we shall use hot air or radiant heat in our
rooms is by no means one to be lightly passed over. Instinct tells us
to select radiant heat, and instinct is quite right; it is so because
radiant heat operates in a very peculiar way. It is known that as
a matter of health it is best to breathe air considerably below
the natural temperature of the body--98° F.; in air heated to this
temperature most persons would in a short time feel stifled. But it
is also known that the body likes, as far as sensation is concerned,
to be kept at a temperature as near 98° F. as may be, and that very
much higher temperatures can be enjoyed; as, for example, when we
sit before a fire, or bask in the sun. Now radiant heat will not
warm air as it passes through it, and so, at one and the same time,
we can enjoy the warmth of a fire and breathe that cool air which
is best suited to the wants of our system. Herein lies the secret
of the popularity of the open fireplace. But in order that the open
fireplace may succeed, it must be worked within the proper limits of
temperature. If air falls much below 40° F. it becomes unpleasant to
breathe; and it is also very difficult to keep the body warm enough
when at rest by any quantity of clothes. In Russia and Canada the
temperature of the air outside the houses often falls far below zero,
and in the houses it cannot be much above the freezing-point. Here
the open fire fails; it can only warm air by first heating the walls,
furniture, and other materials in a room, and these, in turn, heat
the air with which they come in contact. But this will not do for
North American winters; and accordingly in Canada and the United
States the stove or some other expedient for warming air by direct
contact with heated metal or earthenware is imperatively required.
But this is the misfortune of those who live in cold climates, and
when they ask us to follow their example and take to close stoves
and steam-pipes, and such like, they strongly remind us of the fable
of the fox who had lost his tail. How accurately instinct works in
the selection of the two systems is demonstrated by the fact that a
succession of mild winters is always followed in the United States by
an extended use of open grates; that is to say, the English system
becomes, or tends to become fashionable, while, on the other hand,
a succession of severe winters in this country brings at once into
favour with builders and others a whole host of close stoves and
similar devices which would not be looked at under more favourable
conditions of the weather. While English winters remain moderately
temperate, the open fireplace will enjoy the favour it deserves,
as not only the most attractive, but the most scientific apparatus
available for warming houses. (_Engineer._)

Heat radiated from a fire passes through the air without increasing
its temperature, in the same manner that the sun’s rays in warming
the earth pass through and leave the atmosphere at the higher
altitudes so bitterly cold that water and even mercury will freeze:
it is for this reason that open fires should be lighted some time
before the apartment is required for use, so that firstly a glowing
fire be obtained (flames do not radiate any material quantity of
heat, and practically heat by contact only), and secondly the
surrounding objects, walls, &c., be heated by radiation, and these in
their turn warm the air.

In discussing the various methods of warming, it will be convenient
to classify them under general heads.

To put the reader upon a more familiar basis with this subject, a
short explanation of the cause of heat will be here given. Combustion
is the chemical union of oxygen (contained in the air) with some
other substance for which it has an affinity; as applied to coal, it
is the combining of oxygen and carbon producing carbonic acid gas,
and it is known to every one that all chemical combinations evolve

Combustion may be said to be complete when coke, wood charcoal, or
anthracite coal is burnt, as there is no smoke, the up current is
colourless, and these fuels burn quite away, leaving nothing except a
little ash, &c., which originally consisted of earthy impurities in
the fuel. Ordinary coal contains bitumen (pitch) in its composition,
which at a temperature of about 500° to 600° F., distils off as a
smoky gas (carbon and hydrogen), but at a higher temperature this
is ignited, forming flame by the union of oxygen with the smoke
(carbon); the main principles of underfed, smoke-consuming grates are
based upon this, with the object of causing all gaseous products from
the fuel to pass through the incandescent portion of the fire and so
render the consumption of the fuel complete, as will be explained
later on.

A good authority says that “the correct method of warming is to
obtain everywhere, at will, the warmth most congenial to the
constitution with air as pure as blows at the mountain top,” and it
might have been added “without an unreasonable consumption of fuel.”

_Open Grate._--The ordinary open grate is too familiar to need any
description, but it is wasteful of fuel to a degree that could only
be tolerated in a mild climate where fuel was cheap. As a matter of
fact, only some 10-12 per cent. of the heat generated in an open
grate is utilised, the remainder going up the chimney. But this very
fault is in one sense a virtue, in that it performs the ventilation
of the apartment in an eminently satisfactory manner. By the addition
of a contrivance for regulating the combustion in au open grate, the
fuel consumption is much reduced, the combustion is rendered more
perfect (diminishing or preventing smoke), the radiated heat is much
increased, while the appearance of an open grate is retained, though
it is in reality converted into an open stove.

It would not be out of place to explain the cause of draught. After
a chimney has been used, the brickwork surrounding and forming it
becomes warmed and retains its heat for a very considerable period
even if no fire is lighted; this heat is slowly radiated, and warms
the air contained in the chimney, rendering it lighter and causing
it to rise and flow out at the top; this is immediately replaced by
cold air from below, which is warmed and rises as before, and so
continues, causing an up current of air to be passing through the
flue, its swiftness varying with the heat. The more intense the heat
produced by the fire, and the greater the height of the chimney, the
more swift is the current of air known as the “draught”; and when
once the draught is established it will remain for a very long time
without any fire being lighted. A good draught is not to be despised,
as can be certified by those who have suffered from the annoyance
of a smoky chimney; yet too strong a draught is a disadvantage, as
consuming the fuel too rapidly, robbing the fire and apartment of
its heat, and causing draughts of another kind, which materially
cool the room and tend to cause discomfort; this only applies to the
old form of grate, as all or nearly all modern grates have a means
of regulating the draught; even the common and old form of grate is
provided with a “register” or flap at the back, immediately over the
fire (certainly not an economical position for it), through which the
smoke passes into the chimney. This flap is provided with the view of
having it full open to assist combustion when fire is first ignited,
and afterwards partially closing it when fire is established, and so
prevent undue loss of heat, but although this “register” is provided
with every stove of its kind, _it has not, nor never has had, any
means of regulating it_. If the reader has one of these stoves in his
residence, as most probably he has, for they are still used in the
upper rooms of nearly every building, he can by a simple experiment
experience the benefit of regulating this flap. By placing a piece
of coal, or stone, or metal, with the tongs, after the fire is
established, at the joint or hinge of the register, and then drawing
the register forward and letting it rest, so that it is closed all
but about 1½ in., it will be immediately found that one-fourth or
one-third more heat is thrown into the room, for a similar result
is brought about as with the modern projecting or overhanging brick
backs, which cause the heat to be deflected forwards which would
otherwise have passed directly up the chimney. If an existing stove
of this description be fitted with a rack adjustment for the register
flap and with an “economiser,” an advance of 30 to 40 per cent. in
economy and comfort will be experienced, for in the ordinary manner
in which these stoves are fitted and used, it can be taken that
one-half the heat passes directly up the chimney; a good proportion
of the heat radiated is drawn back by the current of air proceeding
from the room towards and up the chimney; a proportion is lost by
conduction, the heat being passed away to the walls and surrounding
parts, and a fair proportion is lost by the smoke, which is really
unconsumed fuel; but this form of stove is improving rapidly in
various ways, as will be described hereafter.

_Open Stove._--This subject has been most ably discussed by Dr.
Pridgin Teale, in connection with the economising of fuel in house
fires. His remarks will well bear repeating.

“It is hardly possible to separate the two questions of economy of
fuel and abatement of smoke. None who, in their own person, or as
the companion or nurse of friends and relatives, have gone through
the miseries of bronchitis or asthma in a dense London fog, can fail
to perceive that this is a serious medical, not less than a great
economical, question. Nine million tons of coal--one-fourth of the
domestic fuel consumption in this kingdom--is what I estimate as
a possible reward to the public if they will have the sense, the
energy, and the determination to adopt the principles here advocated,
and which can be applied for a very small outlay. Much has been said
by scientific men about waste of fuel, and strong arguments have
been advanced which make it probable that the most economical and
smokeless method of using coal is to convert it first of all into gas
and coke, and then to deliver it for consumption in this form instead
of coal. Theoretically, no doubt, this is the most scientific and
most perfect use of fuel, and the day may come when its universal
adoption may be possible. But before that time arrives many things
must happen. The mode of manufacture, the apparatus on a mighty
scale, and the mode of distribution must be developed, nay, almost
created, and a revolution must be effected in nearly every fireplace
in the kingdom. At present its realisation seems to be in a very
remote future. Meantime I ask the public to adopt a method which is
the same in principle, and in perfection not so very far short of it.
It is nothing, more nor less, than that every fireplace should make
its own gas and burn it, and make its own coke and burn it, and this
can be done approximately at comparatively little cost, and without
falling foul of any patent, or causing serious disturbances of
existing fireplaces. We must, first of all, do away with the fallacy
that fires won’t burn unless air passes through the bottom or front
of the fire. The draught under the fire is what people swear by (aye,
and many practical and scientific men too), and most difficult it is
to sweep this cobweb away from people’s brains. They provide 2 or 3
times as much air as is needed for combustion, ⅓, perhaps, being the
necessary supply of oxygen, the remainder serving to make a draught
to blow the fire into a white heat, and to carry no end of waste heat
rapidly up the chimney; ⅔ of cold air chilling the fire, ⅔ more than
needful of cold air coming into the room to chill it; and much of the
smoke and combustible gases hurried unburnt up the chimney. The two
views which I am anxious to enforce upon the attention of the public,
of builders, of ironmongers, and of inventors, are these: that the
open grating under the fire is wrong in principle, defective in
heating power, and wasteful of fuel, and that the right principle of
burning coal is that no current of air should pass through the bottom
of the fire, and that the bottom of the fire should be kept hot. This
principle is violated by the plan of closing the slits in the grate
by an iron plate resting on the grate, which cuts off the draught,
but allows the chamber beneath the fire to become cold, and when
cinders reach the plate they become chilled, cease to burn, and the
fire becomes dead. The right principle is acted upon by the various
grates with fire-brick bottoms, and the English public owes much
to the inventor of this principle as carried out in the Abbotsford
grates, which have done much to educate the British public in the
appreciation of the fact that a fire will burn well with a current of
air passing over it, and not through it. But there is a better thing
than the solid fire-brick bottom, and that is a chamber underneath
the grating, shut in from the outer air by a shield resting on the
hearth and rising to the level of the bottom bar of the range. This
hot-air chamber, into which fine ash can fall, produces on the
whole a brighter and cleaner fire, and one which is more readily
revived when low, than the solid fire-brick. There is another mighty
advantage in the principle of the ‘economiser’--an unspeakable
advantage, it is applicable to almost every existing fireplace, and
it need not cost more than 3-4._s_ This idea has now been long on
its trial. It has been applied in hundreds of houses. It has been
submitted to the very severe test of being applied to an infinite
variety of grates, under a great variety of circumstances, and tried
with coke, anthracite, and coal, good, bad, and indifferent. The
effect has been, in an enormous number of instances, a marked success
in saving coal and labour, and in more comfortable uniform warmth
to the room. The failures have been very few indeed. I have drawn
up 7 rules for the construction of a fireplace, all of which are
pronounced to be sound:--

“1. As much fire-brick, and as little iron as possible.

“2. The back and sides of the fireplace should be fire-brick.

“3. The back of the fireplace should lean or arch over the fire, so
as to become heated by the rising flame.

“4. The bottom of the fire or grating should be deep from before
backwards, probably not less than 9 in. for a small room nor more
than 11 in. for a large room.

“5. The slits in the grating should be narrow, perhaps ¼ in. wide,
for a sitting-room grate, ⅜ in. for a kitchen grate.

“6. The bars in front should be narrow.

“7. The chamber beneath the fire should be closed in front by a
shield or economiser.

“There is one caution which should be given. There is no doubt about
the fact that immediately beneath the fire the hearthstone is hotter,
and the ashes remain much hotter when the ‘economiser’ is used.
This may increase the risk of fire whenever wooden beams lie under
the fireplace. In any case of doubt, the best plan would be to take
up the hearthstone and examine, and relay with safe materials; but
should this be impossible, safety may be secured by covering the
hearthstone with a sufficient thickness of fire-brick, just within
the space enclosed by the ‘economiser’--leaving a space of 2 or more
in. between the fire-brick hearth and the bottom of the fire. In
lighting the fire, if there be no cinders on which to build the fire,
it is well to draw away the ‘economiser’ for a short time until the
fire has got hold; but, if there be cinders left from the previous
day, on the top of which the paper and wood can be placed, then the
fire may be lighted with the ‘economizer’ in its place. There is a
great art in mending a fire. It is wasteful to throw lumps of coal
higgledy-piggledy on the fire. The red embers should be first broken
up so as to make a level surface, then pieces of coal should be laid
flat on the fire and fitted in almost like pavement; lastly, if the
fire is intended to burn slowly and last very long, small coal should
be laid on the top. An ‘economised’ fire so made will, in a short
time, heat the coal through, and give off gases, which will ignite
and burn brightly on the surface of the black mass, and when the
gases are burnt off there is a large surface of red-hot coke.”

[Illustration: 30. Kitchen Economiser. 31. Bedroom Economiser.]

The annexed illustrations show the application of the economiser.
Fig. 30 is a kitchen range, _a_ being the economiser and _b_ the
front damper. The latter should always be used in warm weather,
unless the front of the fire is needed for roasting and should be
put on at night. Fig. 31 is a bedroom fireplace having fire-brick
sides _a_, fire-brick back _b_ leaning over the fire, narrow front
bars _c_ movable, grating _d_ with narrow slits, chamber under the
fire closed by economiser _e_, and front damper _f_ which can close
the lower ⅔ of the front of the fire at night or when a slow fire is

The “economiser” is a shield of sheet iron which stands on the
hearth, and rises as high as the lowest bar of the grate, against
which it should fit accurately, so as to shut in the space or chamber
under the fire. If the front of the range be curved or angular, as
in most register stoves, the economiser will stand, owing to its
shape--but if the front be straight, the economiser needs supports
such as are shown. “Ordinary economisers” are made of 16-gauge
charcoal iron plate, with ⅜ in. bright steel moulding at the top, ½
in. moulding at the bottom, and 1 or 2 knobs as required. “Kitchen
economisers” are made of 16-gauge iron, with ½ in. semicircle iron at
the top edge; and with supports in scroll form of ½ in. semicircle
iron. Some makers use rather thinner iron plate and give strength
by the mouldings. Some have used too thin plates, little better
than tin, which have warped and so become more or less useless.
Great care should be spent in taking the dimensions--as every grate
has to be measured--as a foot for a boot. This renders it almost
impossible to send orders to a maker by post. Some skilled person
must take the measure, and take it accurately. The dimensions to be
taken are: firstly, the outline of the bottom bar of the grate. If
it be curved, or angular, the outline can be well taken by a piece
of leaden gas-pipe, which, moulded to the outline can then be traced
upon paper or carried carefully away to the makers; secondly, the
height must be measured from the hearthstone to the bottom bar. This
is the “economiser” in its simplest and cheapest form, as applicable
to nearly every ordinary range.

Ornament can be added to taste. It is obvious that the adaptation
of the economiser need not displace the old-fashioned ash-pan, and
that the two can be combined, or that the economiser may be made like
a drawer and catch the ashes. All such variations will work well,
provided that the main principles be adhered to of “cutting off the
under current,” and “keeping the chamber under the fire hot.” But the
simplest form is the best.

[Illustration: 32. Some Modern Open Grates.]

Fig. 32 illustrates a few typical specimens of modern improved open
grates devised to increase the radiation of heat and perfect the
combustion of the fuel: A is a combination of Parson’s grate and
economiser with a Milner back; B is Nelson and Sons’ “rifle” back; C
is a Galton back; D, Jaffrey’s grate.

“The Manchester Warming and Ventilating Grate” (E. H. Shorland,
St. Gabriel’s Works, Manchester) is somewhat similar in principle
to Captain Galton’s grate, i.e. the warm fresh-air inlet is at the
ceiling, and the vitiated air is carried off by the chimney, or in
some instances ventilation at a lower part of the room is provided.
Fig. 33 will acquaint the reader with the details: _a_, fireplace;
_b_, outer wall; _c_, inner wall; _d_, smoke flue; _e_, _f_, cold-air
inlets; _g_, _h_, warm-air passages; _i_, inlet for cold or warm air
into room.

[Illustration: 33. Shorland’s Manchester Warm-air Grate Back.]

The shape of the back brick advocated by Dr. Teale (first invented by
the celebrated Count Romford, to whom much is owing for the various
means undertaken by him to promote the consideration of the question
of improving our fire-grates and to abate the smoke nuisance) has
since its discovery met with universal favour, and is coming into
general use by all makers, as the expense of the stove is scarcely
increased and its result in use is a most decided improvement. The
actual shape or section of this brick varies with the different
stove makers, but the result is the same; the brick is made to
slope forward from the bottom up to about 15 or 16 in. high; at
that height the top of the brick overhangs the bottom by about 5 to
6 in.; its section is appropriately defined by a maker, who likens
it to a “dog’s hind leg.” Some makers shape the brick like a curved
scallop-shell, inclining forward at the top; the effect is that as
the heat ascends from the fire, it strikes or comes in contact with
the projecting part, and rebounds or is deflected into the room;
it is a similar action to that which takes place if an object, say
a ball, is thrown upon a wall and comes in contact with a similar
projection--it would bound off or be deflected.

It would be impossible to describe all the existing improvements upon
the ordinary or old form of open-fire stove (commonly known as a
“register grate”), but the following are some that are tolerably well
known and have a good share of favour.

“The Abbotsford Slow-combustion Grate” (Mappin and Webb, Cheapside,
London), which has now been used some years, was about the first
recognised form of stove that had the bottom closed, so that the
supply of air for combustion is carried through the front only.
This is a great improvement (as explained by the economiser), by
lessening the consumption of fuel without decreasing the efficiency
or its heat-giving properties. The bottom of the fireplace is a solid
fire-brick slab, and the chief property of this stove is truly named
“slow combustion.” Many people have tried to apply this advantage
to existing stoves by having a piece of iron cut to lie _upon_ the
bottom grate; but iron is too rapid a conductor, and failure is
experienced by having the lower part of the fire dull and dead. It
cannot, however, be said that a solid bottom is the best, for it
permits of accumulation of ash, and it is slow lighting.

[Illustration: 34. Wharncliffe Grate.]

“The Wharncliffe Patent Warming and Ventilating Grate” (Steel and
Garland, 18 Charterhouse Street, London, E.C.) Fig. 34, is an
excellent form of grate, and is fixed back against the wall, wholly
projecting into the room, an air-chamber surrounding the fire-box;
this air-chamber is, whenever convenient, connected with the outer
air by means of a pipe, and within the chamber gills or ribs are
provided, attached to the fire-box (the principle and advantages of
these gills or ribs, which are to increase the heat-giving surface
and to prevent over-heating of air, will be explained under Gill

When the fire is established, the metal of the fire-box becomes
heated, which then heats the air contained in the air-chamber,
rendering it lighter, whereupon it rises and flows out into the
room through the perforations provided in the pattern of the
ironwork; cold air immediately flows in to take its place, which is
then heated, and passes out, so that as its name implies it is a
ventilating as well as warming grate, and has the further advantage
of the cheerful open radiating fire; but it must be remembered that
with ventilating stoves there must be provision made for the removal
of vitiated air, which in this case is taken up the chimney along
with the products of combustion.

Another improved form of warming and ventilating grate is that
invented by and named after Captain Douglas Galton (makers, Yates,
Hayward & Co., Upper Thames Street, London). The principle advocated
in this instance is contrary to that generally adopted, insomuch that
the warmed fresh air is admitted into the room near the ceiling, and
the abstraction of vitiated air is performed through the grate by the
chimney draught. This is an open-fire grate fitted within a mantel in
the usual way, and is provided with an air-chamber at the back, and
which is connected with the outer air as before explained. From this
air-chamber a perpendicular shaft or flue is carried, terminating by
being turned into the room with an inlet grating or louvre. As before
explained, the air within the air-chamber is warmed, and rises and
passes into the room close to the ceiling; from there it is drawn
down towards the fire, and eventually passes up the chimney, so
that there is always a current of warm fresh air from the ceiling
downwards. There are as many advocates for this down-current system
as for the up current, as in the Wharncliffe and others. The Captain
Galton has had about 14 years’ trial, and is still largely used. A
rather peculiar and advantageous action takes place, by the fact that
the apartment becomes fully charged with fresh air and the supply
for combustion and draught is not drawn from the crevices beneath
doors, &c., so that when a door is opened no inrush of cold air is
experienced. This and the Manchester grate can most conveniently be
used for warming another apartment also from the same fire.

[Illustration: 35. Nautilus Grate. 36. Nautilus Grate.]

“The Nautilus Grate” (Jas. B. Petter & Co., Yeovil), Figs. 35 and 36,
is, as the name signifies, shell-shaped. The products of combustion
rise from the fire, and after revolving within the centre or axis
pass off by two concealed flues at the back of the grate to a flue
prepared in the back of the fireplace; the ashes fall through a
small grating into a closed ash pan. The warmth radiated direct
from the cheerful open fire and indirectly from the outer case is
considerable, and the results are very satisfactory, as no heat is
lost by conduction. This grate is also cleanly, economical, and
portable. The back, cheeks, and hearth should be tiled; the extra
expense is fully compensated for by the handsome appearance.

[Illustration: 37. Eagle Convertible Grate.]

The “Ingle Nook,” Wright’s Patent (GEORGE WRIGHT & SONS, 113 Queen
Victoria Street, E.C.), Fig. 38, is a combination of all the most
recent improvements, with two new features never before introduced
into this class of grate, viz. the regulation of draught by means
of an ordinary damper, and the complete independence of the actual
working part of the stove, so that it may be removed at any time for
repairs without disturbing the outer casing or brickwork.

_Special features and advantages_.


Radiation and complete utilisation of the heat generated from all
parts of the grate, as not only the heat given off from front of
fire, but also all heat radiated from sides and back of grate, which
is usually absorbed in brickwork, is here passed into warm-air
chambers and thence into the room. Economy of fuel, with increase of
heating power. Prevention of down-draught, and partial consumption
of smoke. Simplicity of construction and fixing, so that easy access
is afforded to all parts of the grate, more especially those likely
to want renewing. Pleasing appearance of the ordinary open fire,
with heating power of a warm-air stove. This stove being complete
in itself can be fixed by any ordinary workman without removing the
mantel-piece or in any way interfering with the decorations of the
room. The whole construction and principle of the grate are so simple
that they can be readily understood by reference to the plan and
section annexed. The interior portion of fire-box is of fire-brick,
and can readily be removed from the front without disturbing any
other portion of the grate. The back leans forward, deflecting the
radiant heat into the room, and contracts the throat of the flue
so as to quicken the draught directly the fire is lighted, which
flue then expands and is again contracted at the top by means of
the damper. Less than half the quantity of fuel is required to warm
any given space, and more than double the quantity of heat is given
off than from an ordinary grate with the usual supply of fuel. By
introducing a fresh-air flue where practicable the perfection of
ventilation may be obtained. The cost does not greatly exceed that
of an ordinary grate, and is very much below that of any other grate
of this description at present in the market. _See advertisement in
front of title page._

“The Rumford-Teale Grate” (made by Verity Bros., 98 High Holborn,
London), is made nearly wholly of fire-brick, upon strictly
scientific principles, as the name indicates. There is very little
iron in its construction, the front being a steel wire trellis
instead of bars; this permits free radiation from the front and
reduces loss by conduction. This front, apparently fragile, lasts for
a considerable time (4 or 5 years), and is easily replaced by any one
at an extremely small cost.

An improvement upon the Rumford-Teale grate is the “Eclat,” by
the same makers, shown in elevation and section in Fig. 39. Its
distinguishing features are a double flue (one for quick and the
other for slow draught), and the projection of the fire in advance
of the chimney breast. The figure shows: A, damper for regulating
combustion; B, perforated fire-clay back; C, tiles to taste; D,
economiser; E, ashpit; F, chimney breast; G, frieze; H, removable
bottom grate with fine mesh; J, valve for regulating combustion.

There are several forms of combined open- and close-fire stoves,
which stand independent of any brickwork, and are generally known as
“American stoves.” These stoves are good heat givers, ornamental,
and have several advantages, and can be obtained at almost any
hardware stores; they do not work upon strictly hygienic principles,
as they are apt to get overheated when closed, and render the air
unpleasantly dry; but this can be remedied to some extent by using a
vaporising pan, as will be explained later on.

[Illustration: 39. Éclat Grate. Éclat Grate.]

There is another form of open-fire grate that should be mentioned,
viz. those that have the fire replenished by placing the fresh fuel
underneath, and are known as underfed smokeless grates. This idea,
which deserves high commendation, has been rendered practical, but
cannot be said to be perfected yet. It originated in Dr. Arnott’s
stove, which was made with the usual set of front bars fixed about
12 in. high from the hearth, and the space under the bars closed in
front. The bottom of the fire, which is movable, is lowered down to
the hearth and the space filled with coal: the fire is laid, and
ignited on the top of this store of fuel. As the fire burns down,
the bottom grating is raised by means of a lever bringing fresh fuel
within the fire-basket, and this bottom is raised as often as the
fire burns down; it will be seen that the gaseous products given
off by the fresh fuel must pass through the incandescent fire, and
so be perfectly consumed, and the space below the front bars is
sufficiently large to hold fuel for one day’s consumption.

“The Kensington Smoke-consuming Grate” (Brown and Green, Finsbury
Pavement, London) is an underfed grate, and has received high
commendation from good authorities; it has not the complication of
Dr. Arnott’s, and is of good appearance, being fixed in a similar
manner to any ordinary grate.

“Hollands’ Patent Underfed Grate” (Hollands & Co., Stoke Newington)
is a still further improvement, and, except for a little complication
in construction, may be considered the best in action and results.
The advantages of underfed grates are, firstly, an abatement of the
smoke nuisance, full utilisation of the fuel, and more powerful
radiation from the top of fire, which is always incandescent. There
is commonly no provision made for the supply of air for combustion,
nor to replace that which is taken from the apartment by the draught
in the chimney--the cracks and fissures around doors and windows
sufficing for this purpose, is the too commonly general idea; but
for perfection in warming upon hygienic principles, there must be
a proper supply from external sources; but this will be more fully
treated under Ventilation; it will, however, be noticed that some of
the ventilating stoves make provision for this in themselves; this
particularly applies to Captain Galton’s principle.

_Close-Fire stoves._--The old form of close-fire warming and
ventilating stove is that known as the “Cockle.” It consists of a
closed circular fire-box with a dome top and a similar shaped outer
casing; between the fire-box and the casing is a space of a few
inches all round, known as the air-chamber, which by means of a pipe
is connected with the outer air. The action is similar to a flue; the
air within the air-chamber, being in contact with the heated surface
of the fire-box is warmed, and rises and flows out at the top through
an aperture provided at the top (as explained with the Wharncliffe
grate), or it is made with a nozzle at top to attach a pipe and carry
the warm air wherever required, so making it a hot-air furnace, in
which case it would be fixed in a basement or cellar as at the best
it is not ornamental, but this primitive form of stove has gone
somewhat into disuse.

[Illustration: 40. Thames Bank Iron Co.’s Stove.]

Where a continual genial warmth is required at little cost in an
apartment, the slow-combustion stove, such as that made by the Thames
Bank Iron Company, London, (Fig. 40), may be employed. The external
air is drawn in by a smoke-pipe channel and impelled through orifices
in the stove. The smoke can be made to pass out at any level in the
stove that may be found most convenient, but unless there is a high
chimney shaft 25 to 30 ft., an underground flue connection is not
recommended. The fuel, consisting of coke or cinders broken small,
is supplied at the top, the ashes or cinders being removed through
a sliding door at the base; a special soot-door is provided for
clearing the flue before lighting the fire.

This appears an appropriate moment to mention that additional results
can be obtained from close-fire stoves, by carrying the smoke flue
down, and just below the floor level, in a properly made channel, and
covered by a grating, as with hot-water pipes. It is known that a
good proportion of the heat must be carried away by the flue, so that
by this means nearly the whole of the heat evolved by combustion can
be utilised; but it is necessary to bear in mind that the Building
Act prescribes that no hot-air or smoke-pipe shall be nearer than 9
in. from any woodwork or inflammable material, and it is necessary
that the main flue be high, as a good draught is needed to withdraw
this nearly cold smoke or vapour, and in many instances where the
under-floor horizontal flue is of good length, a pilot stove or
rarifier is necessary at the foot of the main up-flue to keep up
the draught, but in most cases the rarifier is only needed at first
lighting. This arrangement is rarely applicable in dwelling-houses.

Improved forms of close-fire stoves are as multitudinous as
improvements in open-fire grates; they are made either wholly closed,
generally called “slow-combustion stoves,” and are arranged to burn
many hours without feeding; or, as convertible open and closed; the
latter have the advantage of the cheerful radiating fire when open.

“The Tortoise Slow-combustion Stove” (makers, Portway and Son,
Halstead, Essex) is finding a ready sale and considerable favour,
as maybe judged by the fact of its being obtainable at nearly any
ironmonger’s. This stove, as with the majority of slow-combustion
stoves, consists of an ornamental outer casing (cylindrical, square,
or hexagonal), the height being about 2½ times the diameter; this
casing is lined with fire-brick, and constitutes the fire-box; there
is an ash-box and door below, in which is fitted a ventilator or
damper to regulate the draught and speed of combustion. The fuel is
supplied through a door provided at the top, and the smoke outlet is
also placed near the top. In use, the fire-box is filled with coke
and cinders, and the draught is regulated by the ventilator; it will
then burn, and heat an apartment for many hours without attention.
It is a very useful form of stove for greenhouses (in which case it
would be fitted with a vaporising pan), halls, offices, &c., but
hardly suited for living-rooms; the fire-brick lining tempers the
heat, but if in use where children or dresses would come in contact,
a guard must be provided. Slow-combustion stoves are made in a
variety of forms, and the effect is very pleasing when externally
fitted with tiled panels, &c.

For slow-combustion stoves that are required to burn for a longer
than usual period without attention a chamber or hopper is fitted on
top to take a further charge of fuel; it is taper-sided and open at
the bottom, very much like an inverted pail, but about 2½ ft. high.
It will be readily understood that as the coke is consumed, the upper
supply gradually sinks down until the whole is consumed; this would
utterly fail with a fuel that cakes, such as soft or bituminous coal.

[Illustration: 41. Musgrave’s Stove.]

“Musgrave’s Patent Warming and Ventilating Stove,” Fig. 41 (Musgrave
& Co., Limited, 97 New Bond Street, London), is made upon the
slow-combustion principle, to burn from 8 to 24 hours, but is much
more highly finished than the last named, and is constructed in so
many patterns and sizes as to be suitable for almost every purpose,
from small dwellings to the largest buildings. The stove consists
of an outer casing, within which is contained the fire-box and an
air-chamber. The latter is provided with gills to increase the
heating surface (see Gill stoves). The smoke and heat when leaving
the top of the fire-box is carried down a flue-way to the bottom of
the stove, and then up to the top again into the smoke-pipe; this
flue-way is within the air-chamber, and so utilises the major portion
of the heat passed into the flue; the fuel to be used is coke, which
is the most suitable fuel for all slow-combustion stoves.

For conservatories or where the air requires moistening these
stoves are very neatly and effectually fitted with vaporising pans;
and these stoves are also made to act as hot-air furnaces, and in
combination with hot-water-pipe heating apparatus.

Roberts’ patent terra-cotta stoves operate also by slow combustion
and are self-acting, but possess the additional advantage of
purifying and radiating the heat by the terra-cotta, which is
contained between 2 concentric cylinders of sheet iron united at
the base and top, the outer cylinder being perforated to allow of
direct radiation of heat from the terra-cotta. The stove consists
of 4 separate parts, namely, the stove body, its top or cover, the
fire-box, which can be lifted in and out, and the stand, with draw
and damper. The fire is lighted at the top and burns downwards, the
air sustaining it being drawn upwards through the bottom of the
fire-box and thence through the fuel. The stove can be placed in any
position on an iron or stone base and connected with the nearest
chimney flue by an iron pipe provided with soot-door elbows, care
being taken to form a complete connection by abandoning any other
open fire-grate in the room and screening it off by an iron or zinc
plate. They emit no effluvium, as the terra-cotta gradually and
completely absorbs all the caloric in its permeation through the
shell before it is communicated to the outer air, which is thus
warmed and diffused in a healthy condition over the room. The top
of the stove is movable, so that the fire-box can be removed to be
cleaned and recharged without moving the stove body, and a sand
groove is inserted at the top where the cover rests, which is filled
with fine dry sand to prevent any escape of smoke.

Close-fire stoves, consisting of a strong iron fire-box, on to the
outside of which is cast a series of vertical, parallel plates or
ribs, are known as “Gill” stoves, as the plates or ribs referred to
somewhat resemble the gills of a fish. These stoves are provided
with a door for replenishing the fire, with ash-pan and ventilator
below, and the iron base upon which the stove stands is made hollow,
and has a series of holes or perforations opening between the gills,
and provision is made for connecting the base with the outer air
whenever convenient. It must now be explained that the object of
the gills is to extend the heat-giving surface of the stove. It is
known that iron is a very rapid conductor of heat, and consequently
when the iron of the fire-box becomes heated, the heat is as quickly
transferred to and felt at the extremities of the gills. It will
be readily understood that only a certain amount of heat is given
off by the fire, and the greater amount of metal it is transferred
to, the lower must be its temperature; this is the chief and real
advantage, as instead of a small volume of air being heated to a
very high temperature, off a plane surface that would possibly get
red hot, there is a larger volume of air at a lower temperature, and
this has the further decided advantage that the air does not become
unpleasantly dry, and the particles of dust, &c., in the air do not
get scorched and burnt, and cause the unpleasantness commonly known
as “burning the air.”

A further advantage possessed by these stoves is that they are not so
much a source of danger, as the size of the gills is so proportioned
to the size of the fire-box, that in ordinary use they cannot become
excessively hot, and this is especially desirable where children or
ladies’ dresses, &c., might come in contact.

These stoves can be obtained at any ironmonger’s or stove maker’s.
A good form is that made by the London Warming and Ventilating Co.,
14 Great Winchester Street, London, and is called the “Gurney”
stove (Fig. 42). This is circular or cylindrical in form, with a
dome top, and the gills, which are perpendicular, extend around the
stove. A novel feature with this stove is that it is provided with a
water-pan or trough carried round the base of the gills; when this
pan is charged, the lower ends of the gills are immersed, and the
heat that is conducted there causes the water to slowly evaporate.
The advantage of a vaporising pan is this: before being warmed by
an ordinary stove, fresh air holds a certain and proper amount of
moisture, but as it becomes heated by such a stove the temperature is
raised without proportionately increasing the moisture, and this is
apt to make it unpleasantly dry, particularly to those suffering from
asthma or any bronchial affection. The reverse is the case when the
air becomes heated naturally (except when the wind is in the east);
the proper proportion of moisture increases as the temperature rises;
for instance, the atmosphere at 80° F. would contain about four times
as much moisture as when at 32° F. The principle of the Gurney stove
is such that the _natural_ degree of moisture is always maintained in
the heated air. The greater proportion of modern close fire-stoves
and furnaces have gills applied in some form or other.

It might be mentioned that 13 Gurney stoves have effectually coped
with the problem “How to heat St. Paul’s.”

[Illustration: 42. Gurney Stove. 43. Convoluted Stove.]

Another good form is “Constantine’s Convoluted Stove” (J. Constantine
and Son, 23 Oxford Street, Manchester), Fig. 43. Instead of solid
gills, there are a series of perpendicular convolutions which double
the heating surface, and the makers’ claim to greater efficiency is
no doubt correct. This stove, however, should be classed with hot-air
furnaces, as it is not made in small sizes for direct heating; but
for warming large buildings, churches, &c., for heating laundry
drying-rooms, Turkish baths, &c., it is to be highly recommended.

The German principle, which might advantageously be adopted to a
greater extent in England, is to build a fire-brick structure with
the furnace at the base and the flue winding from side to side 3 or
4 times, and terminating at the top into an ordinary brick chimney;
this structure projects into the apartment and is covered with
porcelain ware, and the appearance often exhibits great taste and
skill, as it will be understood that the structure is not rigidly
square, but is often very beautiful from an architectural point of
view. The good effect experienced is that after 3 or 4 hours’ firing,
the mass of brickwork becomes thoroughly heated and the fire is
permitted to go out; communication with the chimney is stopped by
means of a damper, and every confidence can then be placed in the
stove giving out abundance of warmth for the remainder of the day, as
the brickwork takes hours to become moderately cool, and the whole
of the heat it contains must be diffused into the apartment. It
will be noticed that a minimum of heat is lost by this arrangement,
and the result is very satisfactory from an economical standing; but
it has not the cheerful appearance of our open fires, and efficient
ventilation is required. This plan can, however, be satisfactorily
adopted for halls or cold situations; in the former it has the
further advantage in most instances of warming the stairways and
landings in the upper part of the house by the ascension of the
heated air. Fire-brick stoves are made by Doulton & Co., Lambeth,
London, and are finished in their majolica and Doulton ware; it
is needless to add, these wares give the stoves a very handsome

_Hot-air Furnace._--The close stove is really a hot-air furnace,
but it is restricted to heating the air in the room. Other hot-air
furnaces are designed to obtain a supply of fresh air and heat it
before passing it into the room. The heated air from a fireplace is
available to the apartment for only about 12 per cent. of the total
amount of heat produced; all the rest passes up the chimney. The
close stove, on the contrary, utilises 85-90 per cent. of the heat
produced, and loses through the smoke-pipe only about as much as the
open fireplace saves--10-15 per cent. And herein lies the striking
difference between the relative healthiness of the atmosphere heated
by a close stove and an open fireplace. The amount of air which
hourly passes through a close stove, heated with a brisk fire, is, on
an average, equal to only about 1/10 the capacity of the room warmed,
and consequently such stove requires, if unaided, 10 hours to effect
a change of the atmosphere in every such apartment. Thus stagnant and
heated, the air becomes filled with the impurities of respiration and
cutaneous transpiration.

Moisture, too, is an important consideration. The atmosphere, whether
within doors or without, can only contain a certain proportion of
moisture to each cub. ft., and no more, according to temperature.
At 80° F. it is capable of containing 5 times as much as at 32°
F. Hence, an atmosphere at 32° F., with its requisite supply of
moisture, introduced into a confined space and heated up to 80°
F., has its capacity for moisture so increased as to dry and
wither everything with which it comes in contact; furniture cracks
and warps, seams open in the moulding, wainscoting, and doors;
plants die; ophthalmia, catarrh, and bronchitis are common family
complaints, and consumption is not infrequent. But this condition
of house air is not peculiar to stove-heat. It is equally true of
any overheated and confined atmosphere. The chief difference is,
that warming the air by means of a close stove is more quickly
accomplished and more easily kept up than by any other means.
Sometimes, by the scorching of dust afloat in the atmosphere, an
unpleasant odour is evolved which is erroneously supposed to be a
special indication of impurity, caused by the burning air. It is an
indication of excessive heat of the stove. But the air cannot be said
to burn in any true sense of the word, for it continues to possess
its due proportion of elementary constituents. Such is the close
stove and its dangers, under the most unfavourable circumstances.

The essentials for healthy stove-heat are brick-lined fire-chamber,
ventilating or exhaust-flue for foul air, means for supplying
moisture, and provision for fresh-air supply. A brick lining is
requisite for the double purpose of preventing overheating, and for
retaining heat in the stove. For the supply of moisture the means
are simple and easy of control, but often inadequate. An efficient
foul-air shaft may be fitted to the commonest of close stoves by
simply enclosing the smoke-pipe in a jacket--that is, in a pipe
of 2 or 3 in. greater diameter. This should be braced round the
smoke-pipe, and left open at the end next the stove. At its entry
into the chimney, or in its passage through the roof of a car, as
the case may be, a perforated collar should separate it from the
smoke-pipe. For stoves with a short horizontal smoke-pipe, passing
through a fire-board, the latter should always be raised about 3 in.
from the floor. A smoke-pipe thus jacketed, or fire-board so raised
at the bottom, affords ample provision for the escape of foul air.

Hot-air furnaces are simply enclosed stoves placed outside the
apartments to be warmed, and usually in cellars or basements of the
buildings in which they are used. The manner of warming is virtually
the same as by indirect steam heat--by the passage of air over the
surface of the heated furnace or steam-heated pipes, as the case
may be, through flues or pipes provided with registers. The most
essential condition of satisfactory warming by a hot-air furnace is
a good chimney-draught, which should always be stronger than that of
the hot-air pipes through which the warmed air is conveyed into the
rooms, and this can be measured by the force with which it passes
through the registers. A chimney-draught thus regulated effectively
removes all emanations; for, if the chimney-draught exceeds that of
the hot-air pipes, all the gaseous emanations from the inside of the
furnace, and if it have crevices, or is of cast iron and overheated,
all around it on the outside will be drawn into the chimney. Closely
connected with this requirement for the chimney-draught is the
regulating apparatus for governing the combustion of fuel--the
draught of the furnace. This should all be below the grate; there
should be no dampers in the smoke-pipe or chimney, and all joints
below and about the grate should be air-tight. The fire-pot should be
lined with brick and entirely within the surface, but separate from
it, so that the fresh air to be warmed cannot come in contact with
the fuel-chamber.

An excellent plan for economising a good portion of the waste heat
from a kitchen range is to have (previous to the range being fixed,
or after, in some instances) a sheet-iron box or chamber made to fit
at the back of the oven flues or wherever the most intense heat is
felt. This box, which we may call an air-chamber, should be connected
with the outer air, and a pipe for the warm air carried from the top
of the box to the part where warmth is required; the heat from the
range warms the air in the box and it ascends in exactly the same
manner and upon the same principle as a hot-air furnace, but great
care must be exercised to see that this box and all connections are
made air-tight, or this plan will prove an unusually speedy means of
indicating what is being cooked for dinner.

The Americans adopt what is called the “drum” principle of heating
by means of a furnace; they not only encase the stove with an
air-chamber, but the smoke-pipe is surrounded with a larger pipe
encasing it all the way up; the space between the smoke-pipe and the
outer pipe is thus an air-chamber and has free connection with the
furnace air-chamber, but of course is closed at top; from the chamber
surrounding the smoke-pipe, branch pipes are taken to the apartments,
terminating in perforated cylindrical “drums,” from which the heated
air is emitted.

It should go without saying that the air which passes from furnaces
into living-rooms should always be taken from out of doors, and be
conveyed in perfectly clean air-tight shafts to and around the base
of the furnace. Preferably, the inlet of the shaft, or cold-air box,
should be carried down and curved at a level (of its upper surface)
with the bottom, and full width of the furnace. Thus applied, the
air is equally distributed for warming and ascent through the
hot-air pipes to the apartments to be warmed. On the outside the
cold-air shaft should be turned up several feet from the surface of
the ground, and its mouth protected from dust by an air-strainer. A
simple but effectual way is to cover the mouth with wire cloth, and
over this to lay a piece of loose cotton wadding. This may be kept
in place with a weight made of a few crossings of heavy wire, and it
should be changed every few months. And here, too, outside the house,
should be placed the diaphragm for regulating the amount of cold-air
supply, and not, as commonly, in the cellar.

As the best means of regulating the temperature and purity of
the atmosphere from hot-air furnaces, it is necessary to provide
sufficiently large channels for both the inlet of fresh air and its
distribution through the hot-air pipes. The area of the smallest
part of the inlet (or inlets, for it is sometimes better to have
more than one) should be about ⅙ sq. ft. for every lb. of coal
estimated to be burnt hourly in cold weather; and to prevent, in a
measure, the inconvenience of one hot-air pipe drawing from another,
the collective area of the hot-air pipes should not be more than ⅙
greater than the area of the cold-air inlet. These proportions will
admit the hot air at a temperature of about 120° F. when at zero
outside, and the velocity through the register will not exceed 5 ft.
per second.

A large heating surface of the furnace is a well-recognised condition
of both economy and efficiency. As a rule, there should be 10 sq.
ft. of heating surface to every lb. of coal consumed per hour, when
in active combustion; and the grate area should be about 1/50 of
that of the heating surface. For the deficiency of heat, or the
failure of some of the hot-air pipes of hot-air furnaces in certain
winds and weathers in large houses or specially exposed rooms,
the best addendum is an open fire-grate. With this provision in
northerly rooms, to be used occasionally, hot-air furnaces may be
made to produce all the advantages of steam heat in even the largest

[Illustration: 44. Boyle’s Warm-air Stove.]

Boyle’s system of warming fresh air is suitable where hot air,
water, or steam pipes are not available. The arrangement (Fig. 44)
consists of a copper or iron pipe _a_ about 1½ in. diam. placed in
an inlet tube _b_, preferably of the form of a bracket. This pipe
is not vertical, as in the so-called Tobin’s shafts, but of zigzag
shape, crossing and recrossing the tube from top to bottom, and so
causing the incoming air to repeatedly impinge in its passage through
the tube. At the bottom of the tube an air-tight chamber, so far as
the interior of the tube is concerned, is fixed, in which a Bunsen
gas-burner _c_ is placed, the flame of which plays up into one of
the lower ends of the pipe, the upper portion being about 5 ft. 9
in. from the floor. The other lower end of the pipe either dips into
a condensation box _d_ in the bottom of the tube or is continued
into an existing flue or extraction shaft. If the pipe terminates
in a box, the vapour is condensed there and carried off through the
outside wall by means of a small pipe. At the bottom of the box is
placed some loose charcoal, which needs renewing at intervals. This
charcoal absorbs any products of combustion which have a tendency to
rise. The heat thus passes through the entire length of the pipe, and
warms the air as it travels through the tube to the room or hall as

Heating by gas is now growing in favour, and under favourable
circumstances is to be recommended. There are two general methods
adopted; firstly, by gas fires, which are asbestos or metal made
incandescent by gas heat; these are made either portable, or by
fitting a specially made burner to an existing fireplace, and filling
the grate with Lumb asbestos (which is made for the purpose, and
when heated has the appearance of glowing coals); and secondly, by
gas stoves acting upon a similar principle to a hot-air coal stove.
The former are now made in great variety; they chiefly take the form
of an ornamental iron frame, in the centre of which is fitted a
fire-brick thickly imbedded in front with asbestos fibre; the burner
beneath comes immediately under the front of the fire-brick, and
when the gas is ignited, the asbestos at once becomes incandescent,
making it of cheerful and fire-like appearance, and the fire-brick in
a few minutes becomes highly heated, radiating its warmth into the
room. This description of stove and also the burner for existing
fireplaces can be obtained at any ironmongers or gas-fitters.

In nearly all gas fires and stoves the gas is burnt with an admixture
of air (atmospheric gas, 1 of gas and 2 of air), by means of an
atmospheric burner; this is not only a source of economy, but
atmospheric gas has the very great advantage of being smokeless; but
for this, a gas fire would be an impossibility; it must, however, be
borne in mind that although smokeless this gas gives off products
of combustion (carbonic acid, watery vapour, &c.), which must be
carried away by a flue or other means. The portable stoves are
always provided with a nozzle for attaching a smoke-pipe. There is
still a doubt as to which is most economical, coal or gas: we cannot
do better than quote the words of a well-known gas-stove maker,
Chas. Wilson, of Leeds. He says, speaking of heating by gas: “It is
not cheaper than coal, taking fuel for fuel and continually used,
unless, as in the case of offices where labour has to be employed
to light fires, clean grates, &c.; but it is cheaper than coal if
occasionally used, as in the case of bedrooms, or sitting-rooms used
by visitors, or rooms used by children for music, &c.; for bedrooms
it is especially adapted for use for an hour or two at night or
in the morning or for giving an unvarying heat all night. It is
preferable in the matter of cleanliness, and a true solution of the
smoke-abatement problem” (probably a coal-stove manufacturer would
speak as much in favour of fire-grates).

It should be seen when purchasing gas fires that they have silent
burners, as some make an objectionable hissing noise when in use.

[Illustration: 45. Calorigen Stove.]

“The Calorigen” Gas Hot-air Stove, Fig. 45 (Farwig & Co., 36 Queen
Street, Cheapside, London), consists of an outer sheet-iron casing
with a burner at the base inside, and proper accommodation for exit
of products of combustion. A coil of good-sized sheet-iron pipe is
affixed within the stove; the lower end of the coil is connected
with the outer air and the upper end opens into the apartment, thus
producing a free inflow of fresh air at any temperature desired, from
60° to 200° F. or higher at will. The chief advantage of a gas stove
is the immediate lighting and extinguishing, and needing no attention.

Another modern and very useful application of gas as a heating
medium is the “Geyser” or rapid water heater for the supply of hot
or boiling water to baths, lavatories, &c., or for business purposes
where it is not convenient or desirable to fit up a circulating
boiler (see hot-water apparatus). These heaters can be obtained from
any ironmonger’s or gasfitter’s. The principle is somewhat different
in the various makes, but it all results in the same thing, which
is to bring a small volume of water in contact with a large heating
surface. The apparatus is generally cylindrical in form. A cock is
at one side for attaching the cold supply, and the heated water
flows out from a spout at the other side; there is also a cock for
attaching the gas supply; they are made in various sizes to supply
and fill a bath three parts full of water at 100° F. in 5, 10 or 15
minutes, or to boil water at the rate of ½, 1 or 2 gal. per minute.
These are extremely useful appliances where gas is available, being
ready for use at a moment’s notice, and the water can be had at any
temperature at will; with a modern and properly constructed “Geyser”
the water is quite suitable for drinking purposes.

The Marsh-Greenall Gas Heating Stove, Fig. 46 (makers, Greenall and
Company, 120 Portland Street, Manchester), is both regenerative and
radiating, the heat developed and utilised per foot of gas by this
system being far greater than by the ordinary atmospheric stoves.
Ordinary luminous flames are used, these being fed by superheated
air. There is no smell and no danger “of lighting back.” The great
heat obtained by this system is radiated from a polished reflector.
The consumption of gas is only 12 ft. per hour. See Gas Heating also,
p. 994.

[Illustration: 46. Marsh-Greenall Gas Stove. 47. Eureka Oil Stove.]

_Oil Stoves._--Warming stoves which burn oil fuel are to be commended
for many purposes, but are not generally considered suitable for
living rooms--bedrooms, for instance--unless the air is continually
changed by open doors, &c., as there is a noticeable odour from
the burning oil. Rippengille’s are considered the best, and are
obtainable at almost any oil, lamp, or ironmonger’s store, or at the
chief retail agents, the Holborn Lamp Co., 118 Holborn, London. Fig.
47 is their “Eureka” cheerful reflector stove, suitable for office
or shop use. These stoves are adapted for warming conservatories
where a high temperature is not required, as a very small stove will
suffice to keep the frost out; they are also suitable for servants’
bedrooms and attics where no fireplaces exist. They are made with
metal (unbreakable) oil containers, which slide out for lighting,
trimming, &c., and they burn the ordinary petroleum oil; it naturally
follows that the better and more refined oils give the best results
with these stoves, with less liability of smell.

_Flues._--It will not be out of place to give a short treatise upon
flues, as the flues in a residence govern the efficiency of the
stoves and the comfort of the whole household.

There is a common error in blaming the flue for all faults. It can
be asserted that half the smoky chimneys are in no way the fault of
the flue at all, and when a smoky chimney does exist, nearly every
one flies to the chimney top with some device to govern the wind, and
this in very many cases is a total failure.

Flues are now generally constructed of two sizes, 9 in. and 14 in. A
7 in. flue would be sufficient for most warming stoves, but it has
to be borne in mind that the accumulation of soot quickly diminishes
the size internally, so that they are now never built less than 9
in. internal diameter. In building a residence, the following plan
is often adopted when cheapness is not the primary object, that is,
to build the usual square brick chimney, and within this to carry up
a 9 in. flue of glazed earthenware pipe (drain pipe), and the space
outside this pipe filled with concrete: this pipe flue is so easily
cleaned and is much less quickly fouled, and improves the draught.

The very general cause of smoky chimneys is that the chimney top is
below the level of some adjacent building, tree, or other object
that obstructs the free passage of the wind. In this instance the
trouble is only experienced when the wind is in certain quarters, and
sometimes this can be cured by a wind-guard or cowl (no particular
make can be recommended, as their efficiency differs under different
circumstances); but the only reliable remedy is to raise the chimney
either by pipe or brickwork to the required height. The manner in
which the annoyance is brought about is, that when the wind passes
over the chimney top its progress is arrested by the higher object,
and it may be said to rebound (the action is rarely quite alike in
any two instances), causing either a portion of the gust to pass a
short way down the chimney or to momentarily stop the up draught;
this will be noticed by the gusts of smoke that come from the stove
into the room.

When the smoke slowly oozes into the room, it is caused by sluggish
draught, or often by the construction of the grate. If the grate
has considerable distance between the fire-bars and the opening
into the chimney above, it permits the heavy cold air to accumulate
and obstruct the heated up-flow from the fire; this generally is
only noticeable when the fire is first lighted or heavily fed. It
is exactly the same result as is experienced with the old-fashioned
open kitchen ranges, which nearly always require a sheet of
metal or “blower” across the opening to prevent their smoking.
The above-mentioned grates require a strong draught to work them
perfectly; or if a strong draught does not exist, a small piece of
sheet-metal should be provided to fit over the open space above the
front bars when necessary to establish the fire, as explained with
the “Eagle” grate.

Sluggish draughts are from a variety of causes, among which might be
named, insufficient height of chimney; chimneys which by any cause
may become damp or cold, or lose their heat rapidly; leakages, holes
or fissures, and a variety of causes too numerous to mention here.
The interior surface of a chimney should be as smooth as possible,
and should be swept at regular and moderately frequent intervals,
otherwise the draught will be reduced.

Every fireplace should have a distinct and separate flue; sometimes
two fireplaces can be successfully worked into one chimney, but
provision must be made for tightly closing off either one when not in

_Hot Water._--Heating by means of the circulation of hot water has
been in vogue many years, but has not found favour for warming
living-rooms and apartments, owing chiefly to the want of the air of
comfort, and the warmth is not quite so agreeable as that radiated
from an open fire; but this mode of heating is especially well
adapted for conservatories, cold halls, public buildings, &c., as the
heat-giving surface can be extended wherever desired, and so heat
the place equally throughout; and upon the low-pressure system there
is no danger, as the water cannot heat higher than boiling-point,
212° F., an advantage that the hot-air system does not possess. The
principle and cause of hot-water circulation will be found fully
described under hot-water apparatus; but in this arrangement there
are no draw-off taps, the services being for circulating only. For
small purposes the apparatus can be attached to the ordinary bath
boiler of the kitchen range; but there is a serious disadvantage
in this when the heat is for conservatories or where warmth is
particularly required at night, as that is the time when the kitchen
fire is not in use. For larger purposes, independent boilers are
used, varying in size according to the requirements. Portable boilers
with fire-box, &c., complete, can be obtained almost anywhere, and
most slow-combustion stoves (the “Tortoise,” for instance) can be
fitted with boilers for this purpose. It will be understood that
these boilers do not require cleaning out like kitchen-range boilers,
as there is no appreciable deposit, the same water being heated day
after day and only losing say a quart per month by evaporation.

The arrangement for a hall with an independent boiler is to have
several horizontal pipes suitably fixed one above the other and
known as a “coil,” from which the heat is radiated, and this coil
is connected by a “flow” and “return” pipe with the boiler: a small
cistern of about 2 gallons capacity is connected with, and fixed
a little above the level of the highest part of the coil in some
convenient place. The apparatus is charged through this cistern,
and a small quantity of water is added thereto periodically to make
good loss by evaporation and to keep the coil full; these coils are
usually covered with an iron grated casing, with a metal, slate, or
marble top, which is both a useful and ornamental adjunct to the hall.

For conservatories the coil is not used, the radiating pipes being
run along the wall near the ground; a portion of the pipe has a
shallow open trough cast upon it, and this is filled with water.
As the apparatus becomes heated, evaporation takes place, and this
saturates the air, moisture being essential for this purpose.

For public buildings, &c., coils are sometimes used; but more often
the pipes are run in grated-topped channels just beneath the floor,
the grating being level with the floor-boards; they are taken around
or across the building, as is most desirable to obtain an equable

The radiating pipes, whether single or forming coils, are generally
4 in. diameter, of cast iron (cast iron being a better conductor or
dissipator than wrought), and at the highest point m the apparatus
a hole is drilled and a small cock is inserted; this cock is opened
when charging, to allow of the free escape of the air in the pipes,
and it is sometimes of service to discharge any steam that is
generated. The pipes are made with a socket at one end, into which
the plain end of the next pipe is inserted and packed with yarn, &c.;
but a modern and rapid method of joining the pipes is that patented
and manufactured by Jones and Attwood, of Stourbridge; this joint
consists of two flanges with indiarubber packing between, which makes
a perfectly secure joint by tightening the flanges together; in this
method the ends of the pipes are of equal size.

As explained, the principle of circulation is exactly the same
in this as in a domestic hot-water supply apparatus. The most
popular form is that known as the Desideratum. The makers have also
introduced a singularly useful tool for cutting all pipes from 2 to
13 in. diameter.

_High-pressure Heating_, or which might be correctly termed steam
heating, consists of piping wholly, the pipe is smaller and of
wrought iron unusually strong, and a coil of it placed within the
fire-box fulfils the duty of a boiler (no boiler or large container
can be used on account of high pressure); from the furnace coil the
pipe is carried wherever required, a small quantity of water is put
within the apparatus and the air is driven out, after which the
apparatus is sealed or closed air and steam tight. When the heat is
applied, the water quickly forms steam, which at once finds its way
throughout the apparatus and heats it to a much higher temperature
than boiling water; and there is comparatively no danger whatever
pressure is exerted, as at the worst the pipe only splits, and no
disastrous explosion can occur; but this mode of heating cannot
be recommended, as it rarely works for any length of time without
requiring attention or repairs.

Bacon’s system of heating by water under pressure (J. L. Bacon &
Co., 34 Upper Gloucester Place, London, N.W.) is very good, as the
pressure is regulated by a valve, and the temperature and pressure
never become excessive. This system is worked by small, strong
wrought-iron pipes, and the apparatus is wholly filled with water.
The great convenience of the small-pipe system recommends it for
all purposes, as it can be carried into almost inaccessible places,
and can be utilised for warming air, as it passes through inlet
ventilators, and for small drying and airing closets, towel dryers,
and for numberless small but exceedingly convenient purposes which
large cast-iron pipes would be very unsuited for; and the advocates
of this system contend that as much heat is radiated from their small
pipes as from the ordinary large ones, as the former are heated to
a much higher temperature than the latter: in Bacon’s system the
highest limit is about 300° F.

The subject of a supply of hot water for baths and other purposes
will be discussed in the chapter dealing with the Bath-room. See also
p. 995.

_Steam Heat._--Steam heat may well be compared with stove and furnace
heat. Stove heat corresponds to direct radiation by steam, and
furnace heat to indirect. The supply of fresh air from the outside to
and over the hot-air furnace, and through hot-air flue into the rooms
through registers, is virtually the same as when it is conveyed by
means of steam-heated flues in the walls. Exhaust flues, for getting
rid of foul air, are equally essential. The stove, as representing
direct radiation in the same manner as the steam coil, or plate, in
the room, has the advantage over the latter of some exhaust of foul
air, however little, even when the smoke-pipe is not jacketed, for
the steam heat has none. In comparison with open-stove heat, steam
heat is at still greater disadvantage; for open stoves supply all the
qualities of complete radiation--the introduction of fresh air and
the escape of foul--to a degree wholly unattainable by steam heat,
whether direct or indirect, or by hot-air furnaces, which always
require special provision for the escape of foul air.

The advantage of stove and furnace heat over steam may be summed up
thus:--It is more economical, more uniform, more easy of management,
more suitable for small areas to be warmed, and is free from the
noises and dangers of steam. Irregularities of the fire in steam
heating are a constant source of inconvenience, and sometimes of
danger. The going down of the fire during the night-time, or its
neglect for a few hours at any time, is followed by condensation of
the steam. On the addition of fuel and increase of heat, steam again
flows quickly into the pipes where a partial vacuum has formed,
and here, on coming in contact with the condensed water, it drives
the water violently, and creates such shocks as sometimes occasion
explosions; or, at least, produces very disagreeable noises and
general uneasiness, and frequently causes cracks and leaks. Hence
direct steam heat, which for warming purposes alone is altogether
superior to indirect, has been well-nigh abandoned. Indirect steam
heat places the leaks out of sight, but they commonly lead to
mischief, and require special and expensive provision for access and

_Chemical Heaters._--Many salts in solution are capable of absorbing
a considerable amount of heat and slowly giving it off as they resume
a crystalline state. That most generally used is soda acetate, but
an improvement consists in mixing 1 lb. of soda acetate with 10 lb.
of soda hyposulphite, the latter assisting the melting of the mass
and retarding crystallisation. The mode of applying this principle
is to nearly fill a sheet copper or other metallic vessel, such as
a foot-warmer, with the solution, and seal it up. When required for
warming purposes, the vessel is placed in boiling or hot water till
the contents are quite fluid, after which it may be used as a source
of heat for 12-15 hours. Obviously the vessel may be placed in an
ornamental structure resembling a stove, or used as a foot-warmer, or
a muff-warmer, and in many other ways where fire is inadmissible.

_Hints on Fuel, &c._--Suggestions for materials which may be used to
eke out a scanty supply of coal cannot fail to be useful. One plan
consists in well bedding lumps of chalk under small coal. This gives
a long-lasting fire, but is apt to emit an unpleasant odour. Another
plan is to make clay fire-balls, using common clay, coal dust and
cinders with sand, in about the following proportions:--1 cwt. coal
dust, 2 cwt. sand, 1½ cwt. clay, well mixing the ingredients, shaping
into fist-like lumps, and drying over night before the fire; to be
put on when the surface of the fire is clear.

Some further hints for reviving fires will be found under the

=Lighting.=--The illumination of a dwelling is a most important
consideration, as regards comfort and health.

_Daylight._--Natural lighting is provided for by windows. The window
area of a room should be well proportioned. In dwelling-rooms, it
may amount to half the area of the external wall containing the
windows; in churches, &c., ⅓ will suffice. Too great a window area is
objectionable, as it considerably lowers the interior temperature in
winter, unless very thick glass and double windows are provided. When
windows become steamed or covered with condensed moisture in frosty
weather, this can be cured by applying a very thin coat of glycerine
on both sides of the glass. When direct daylight cannot be got, great
advantage may be derived from using polished metallic reflectors.

_Luminous Paints._--Several bodies possess the property of absorbing
a certain amount of light and emitting it slowly. The most important
of these is calcium sulphide. This property has been utilised by
mixing the mineral with paint as a covering for surfaces where the
light is required. The illumination, however, is very feeble.

_Candles._--Candles will long retain a place in domestic lighting
from their safety and convenience for carrying about. At the same
time they are an expensive source of light, and not very powerful.
It may here be mentioned that there is a right and a wrong way of
blowing out a candle. If the candle is held on a level with the
blower’s mouth, or blown down upon, as usual, as it stands on a
shelf or table, the wick will smoulder and smoke till the room is
filled with its disagreeable smell, and the wick burned away so
that it can be lit next time with difficulty. If the candlestick
is held well above the blower’s head, and the flame blown out from
below, the ignited wick will almost immediately be extinguished,
and no trouble will be found in re-lighting the candle. Avoid cheap
candles; they burn rapidly to waste and play havoc with clothes and
furniture by “dropping.” The best form of candlestick yet introduced
is the “silver torch,” made by Wm. Nunn & Co., 204 St. George
Street, London, E. By this the candle is converted into a lamp, with
or without a globe as desired; the candle is completely consumed,
leaving no ends, and guttering and dropping are quite prevented.
Nightlights should always be burned under a glass shade, such as

_Oil Lamps._--All lamps intended for burning animal, vegetable, or
mineral oils as illuminants should have the following objects in
view:--To supply oil regularly to the wick; to apportion the supply
of air to the description and quantity of oil to be burnt; to provide
simple means for regulating the height of the wick, and consequently,
the flame; and finally, to place the burning portion of the lamp in
such a position as not to be obscured by the reservoir and other
portions. The oldest lamps, as the antique Etruscan, and the cruisie
of Scotland, were on the suction principle, and the wick depended
for its supply upon its own capillary action. As the level of the
oil was constantly varying, so the light varied also, and the first
attempts of inventors were directed to maintaining an equal level of
oil. The bird-fountain and hydrostatic reservoirs partly attained
this end, and the Carcel and Moderator systems were perfect of their
class, mechanical or pressure lamps. It is evident that suction lamps
depend for their efficacy upon the gravity of the combustible. A
spirit lamp, with a good wick, will burn very well, though the wick
be several inches above the liquid. With liquids volatilising at low
temperatures, there is always a danger of the formation of explosive

In the Silber lamp the burner is a simple aggregation of concentric
tubes. The use of these, especially of the innermost, bell-mouthed
pipes, becomes very apparent in the lighted lamp. Remove the interior
tube, and immediately the flame lengthens and darkens, wavers and
smokes. The current of air which is, by this internal conduit,
directed into the interior flame surface, is the essential principle
of Silber’s invention. The wick is contained in a metal case,
surrounded by an air-jacket, which passes down the entire length of
the lamp, leaving a small aperture at the base, through which the
oil flows from the outer reservoir to the wick chamber. Thus, by
the interposition of an atmospheric medium, the bulk of the oil is
maintained throughout at a low temperature; 2 concentric bell-mouthed
tubes pass down the interior of the wick case, and communicate
with the air at the base of the lamp, which is perforated for the
purpose; 2 cones, perforated, the inner and smaller throughout,
the largest only at the base, surround the wick, and heat the air
in its passage through the holes to the flame. The effect of these
appliances is, firstly, by the insulation of the outer reservoir,
to avoid all danger of vaporisation of the oil, till actually in
contact with the wick. As it is drawn nearer and nearer the seat of
combustion, the hot metal wick-holder heats, and ultimately vaporises
the luminant, so that at the opening of the wick tube concentrically
with the air conduits--all of which are exceedingly hot--a perfect
mixture of vapour and hot air is formed, and burned. An all-important
feature is the shape and position of the chimney, which influences
the flame to the extent of quadrupling its brilliancy if properly
adjusted. (Field, Cantor Lecture.)

[Illustration: 48. Hinks’s Safety Lamp.]

The many fires and fatal accidents arising from explosions of mineral
oil lamps has drawn official attention to the subject of rendering
them safe. Sir F. Abel has stated that all channels of communication
between the burner and the reservoir of mineral oil lamps should be
protected on the principle of the miners’ safety lamp; he added that
a simple arrangement which effected the desired object “with perfect
safety” was to attach to the bottom of the burner a cylinder of wire
gauze of the requisite fineness, which prevented the transmission
of fire from the lamp flame to the air-space of the reservoir.
Acting upon this suggestion, Hinks and Son, 60 Holborn Viaduct, have
introduced a wire-gauze cylinder for use with their duplex lamps,
which renders them absolutely safe. Another advantage with their
lamps is the ease with which they are lit and extinguished, as shown
in Fig. 48: for lighting, a turn of the thumb-key _a_ gently raises
the cone, globe, and chimney, giving free access to the wicks; to
extinguish them, it is only necessary to press the lever _b_.

The Defries safety lamp (Defries Safety Lamp and Oil Co., 43 Holborn
Viaduct) is attracting much notice, on account of economy, safety,
and illuminating power. The construction of the lamp is such that
neither ignition of the vapour, nor outflow of the oil in the event
of the lamp being overturned, can occur. Moreover, the oil reservoir,
being of metal, is not liable to fracture. It therefore follows that
the risks attaching to the employment of mineral oils as illuminating
agents in lamps of the ordinary description are non-existent in this
lamp. The light emitted is remarkably white, the flame is perfectly
steady, and the combustion is effected without the production of
the slightest odour or smoke. Results of photometric tests by Prof.
Boverton Redwood were more favourable than any he had hitherto
obtained with mineral oil lamps of other forms. The illuminating
power is, for the size of the burner, in each case very high, while
the consumption of oil per candle light per hour is remarkably small.
The products of combustion are odourless, even when the normal size
of the flame is much reduced by lowering the wick. Any mineral oil,
as well as the Defries safety oil, can be used in these lamps. This
is quite odourless when spilled or heated, requires a temperature
of 308° F. (or 96° F. above the boiling point of water) for its
ignition, and does not vaporise below 270° F. Such oil is no more
inflammable than colza oil, and is moreover free from the risk
of spontaneous combustion. Its price is 1_s._ 6_d._ per gal. The
absolute necessity for using, in any and every lamp, the most refined
and safest grades of mineral oil cannot be too seriously insisted
upon, Cheap low oils mean personal risk.

_Gas._--Though gas is long since established as one of the most
successful and general illuminants, it is surprising what ignorance
exists as to the simple rules which should govern its use.

This section is not intended for the guidance of the professional
gasfitter, yet some of the points to be noticed are really within
his province, and are mentioned because the householder should be
in possession of such knowledge as will enable him to discover or
prevent faulty work.

Coal gas, being much lighter than air, flows with greatest velocity
in the upper floors of houses; hence the supply pipe may diminish in
size as it rises, say from 1¼ in. at the basement to ¾ in. on the
3rd floor. At a point near the commencement of the supply pipe it
should be provided with a “siphon,” which is simply a short length of
pipe joined at right angles in a perpendicular position and closed
at the lower end by a plug screwed in. As all gas-tubes should be
fixed with a small rise, this siphon will collect the condensed
liquids, which may be drawn off occasionally by unscrewing the plug
end. When the lights flicker, it shows there is water in the pipes:
the siphon prevents this. The number of gas-burners requisite for
lighting a church or other large building may be computed thus. Take
the area of the floor in ft. and divide by 40, will give the number
of fish-tail burners to be distributed according to circumstances.
Example: a church 120 ft. long by 60 ft. wide, contains 7200 ft.
area; divided by 40, gives 180 burners required for the same. Burning
gas without a ventilator or pipe to carry off the effluvia, is as
barbarous as making a fire in a room without a chimney to carry off
the smoke. If a pipe of 2 in. diameter were fixed between the joists,
with a funnel elbow over the gaselier, and the other end carried
into the chimney, it would be a general ventilator. Of course, an
open ornamental rosette covers the mouth of the tube; or an Arnott
valve ventilator over the mantelpiece would answer the same purpose.
In turning off the gas-lights at night, it is usual, first, to turn
off all the lights, except one, and then turn off the meter main
cock, and allow the one light to burn itself out, and then turn it
off. The evil of this system is this,--by allowing the one light to
burn itself out, you exhaust the pipes and make a vacuum, and of
course the atmospheric air will rush in. The proper way is to turn
off all lights first, and finally the meter, thus leaving the pipes
full of gas and ready for re-lighting. These few remarks have been
derived from Eldridge’s ‘Gas-Fitter’s Guide,’ an eminently useful and
practical handbook.

It was formerly the practice to make all gas-burners of metal; the
openings, whether slits or holes, from which the gas issued to be
burned being small, in order to check the rate of flow. This was an
error, for heat and light go together, and the metal, being a good
conductor of heat, kept the lower part of the flame cold. The part
of burners actually in contact with the flame is now invariably of
some non-conducting material, such as steatite; and the effect of
this simple improvement is most noteworthy. Bad burners show a great
proportion of blue at the lower part of the flame, and the upper or
luminous portion is small and irregular in shape, and dull in colour.
These effects are due to gas issuing at too great velocity from small
holes in burners, as well as to improper material in the latter. The
illuminating power of coal gas depends upon the incandescence, at the
greatest possible heat, of infinitesimal particles of carbon which
it contains, invisible until heated. In the lower, or blue portion
of the flame, the heat is not sufficient to render these particles
incandescent; and it is necessary that this effect should be secured
at the nearest point to the burner. Unless this is done, the light
is not only lessened, but the unconsumed carbon passes off and is
deposited as soot on ceilings and furniture. Blackened ceilings are
a measure of the badness of the burners. It will now be seen why
a material which cools the flame should not be used for a burner,
for the hotter the flame, the more perfect is the incandescence of
the carbon for which in reality the consumer pays, and the less
danger there is of blackened ceilings. But in addition to the better
material, the construction of even the cheapest modern burners is
very greatly improved; although even a good burner may be subjected
to such conditions--e.g. allowing gas to be driven through it at
a high velocity, a condition usually accompanied by a hissing or
roaring sound--as to give a bad result. The capacity of burners
should moreover bear a reasonable proportion to the quality of the
gas for which they are required to be used. Thus with rich Scotch
gas, burners with very small holes, consuming only about 1½ cub. ft.
hourly, are sometimes adopted for economical reasons. Occasionally
these burners find their way South, but their use for the ordinary
qualities of English gas is the worst possible economy. It is
difficult to lay down hard and fast rules for the sizes of burners,
the purposes for which gas-light is required being so various. For an
ordinary apartment, however, wherein distributed lights are adopted,
5 ft. burners with 14 or 15 candle gas, 4 ft. burners with 16 or 17
candle gas, 3 or 3½ ft. burners with 18 or 20 candle gas, and 2½ ft.
burners with richer gas will be found to give satisfactory results.
It may be remarked that these figures apply to burners regulated in
some way to the given rates of consumption, and not to those merely
reputed to be of the stated sizes. Various means are adopted for
checking the flow of gas, not at the point of ignition, but at some
prior point of its course; because it has been found that the slower
the rate of flow at the commencement of combustion, the better the
result obtained.

Clustering of gas-lights is bad. All parts of a room should be as
nearly as possible equally lighted, the only noteworthy exception to
this rule being in the case of a dining-room, where concentration of
light upon the table is not only permissible but is even demanded.
Hence in most cases wall brackets give the best effect, and such
masses of light as are afforded by pendants of many arms are to be
avoided, or are only required in very large rooms where portions of
the floor area would otherwise be insufficiently lighted. When it is
desired to light a drawing-room with wax candles--than which nothing
is more beautiful--they are distributed wherever support can be found
for them. As every gas flame may be considered equal to 12 or 15
candles, with all their wicks together, the inadvisability of further
concentration is evident. In fact, gas is if anything too brilliant
for living-rooms, and if it were always properly distributed, many
a dimly-lighted apartment would be perfectly illumined with the
same number of burners which, when massed, appear insufficient.
Where concentrated ceiling lights are needed for dining-rooms,
many-armed pendants are seldom satisfactory, owing to the shadows
which most of them cast. In these cases a single powerful argand
light in a suitable reflecting pendant, or a cluster of flat flames
similarly provided, will give a better result than the usual branched
chandelier, and with a material saving in gas. For it is a curious
and valuable property of gas, that large burners can be rendered
much more economical in proportion than smaller ones. Thus, if the
4 burners of a branched chandelier give altogether the light of
(say) 50 candles, the same illuminating power may be obtained from a
greatly reduced quantity of gas when concentrated in a single burner
of the most improved kind.

With regard to the smaller flat flames, which are the most general
for ordinary lighting, the selection of glass globes is a very
important matter. It may be said at once that all the old-fashioned
style of glasses, with holes in the bottom about 2½ in. diam., for
fitting into the brass galleries of the older pattern pendants and
brackets, are objectionable. The reasons for this condemnation are
few and simple. It seems never to have occurred to the makers of
these things that the gas flames inside the globes are always wider
than the openings beneath them, through which the air required for
combustion passes; and that, as a rule, the light of the flame is
required to be cast downward. Gas flames always flicker in these
old-fashioned glasses, because the sharp current of entering air
blows them about. And the light cannot come downward because of the
metal ring and its arms, and the glass, which is always thicker and
generally dingier at this part of the globe. Perfectly plain and
clean glass absorbs at least 1/10 of the light that passes through
it; ground glass absorbs ⅓; and the ordinary opal obstructs at least
½, and generally more. Only those globes should be chosen therefore
which have a very large opening at the bottom, at least 4 in. wide,
through which the air can pass without disturbing the flame. The
glass then fulfils its proper duty, screening the flame from side
draughts, and not causing mischief by a perpetual up-current of its
own. Good opal or figured globes of this pattern may be used without
disadvantage, because the light is reflected down through the bottom
opening more brightly than if there were no globe, while the flame is
shaded and the light diffused over other parts of the room.

The degree to which the luminosity of gas is utilised depends very
largely upon the burner, people too often setting down as the fault
of the gas, defects which should really be ascribed to the burner. In
1871, the Commission appointed by the Board of Trade to watch over
the London gas supply, and whose prescriptions in these matters are
more or less recognised by the whole country, made an examination
of a collection of gas-burners from a large number of sources, and
including those in general use. The greater portion of these gave
only ½, some even only ¼ of the light that the gas was actually
capable of affording. Two points very often neglected are: (1) that
the size of the burner should be proportionate to the quantity of
gas required to be consumed by it, and (2) that the gas should issue
at a very low velocity. In good argands, the pressure at the point
of ignition is almost nil; and in flat-flame burners, the pressure
should be only just sufficient to blow the flame out into the form of
a fan. It is also very necessary that the body of the chamber below
the point of ignition should be of material with low heat-conducting
power, so that the gas may undergo no increase in volume which
would occasion a proportionate increase of velocity, and that the
heat may not be conducted away from the flame. To establish this,
Evans had 2 argand burners made, differing only in that one had the
combustion chamber of brass, and the other of steatite. The latter
gave more light than the former in the proportion of 15 to 13 for the
same quantity of gas. As another example a No. 8 metal flat-flame
burner, consuming 5 cub. ft. of gas per hour, gave a light equal to
11·5 candles, while a steatite burner of corresponding size, with
non-conducting combustion chamber, gave 14·6 candles. Another metal
burner of a description somewhat generally used, gave about ⅜ of the
light that the gas was capable of yielding. Worn-out metal burners
generally give the best results, as the velocity of the issuing gas
is lower than when the burners are new. A much better result is
obtained by burning, say 20 cub. ft. of gas from one burner, than by
using 5 burners, each of which consumes 4 cub. ft. This is the reason
why the modern argands give so much more light than the older ones,
which were drilled with a very large number of holes, and were more
suitable for boiling water than for illuminating. If the air which
is to support the combustion be heated before it reaches the flame,
especially in the case of flat-flame burners, better results are
produced, as was pointed out by Prof. Frankland more than 10 years
ago, and this principle is now being carried out by some Continental
burner makers. Of modern argands there are many excellent varieties,
which can evolve 15-30 per cent. more light for the same quantity
of gas than the best flat-flame burners. One kind consisting of 3
concentric rings of flame with steatite gas chambers was first used
in the public lighting of Waterloo Road in 1879. In another the
products of combustion are brought down in a flue fastened round the
burner, so as to heat the air which supports the combustion as it
passes in pipes through the flue above mentioned to the flame; while
a third kind has an arrangement for admitting separate currents of
cold air to keep the chimney cool. There seems little doubt that
the argand lamp will play a leading part in the gas lighting of the
future. An important point connected with the use of gas is that
the heat generated by combustion, may be made to do the work of
ventilation, as in the fish-gill ventilator invented by the late
Goldsworthy Gurney. In this strips of calico are nailed, by the two
upper corners, across an opening in the wall, in such a way that each
strip laps over the strip next below it. This contrivance, opening
and closing like the gills of a fish, is self-acting, as the heated
air passes away through the porous material, and cold air is admitted
without draught.

Gas is often accused of heating the rooms; but if persons, when
burning candles would increase the number of the candles so as to
equal the light of the gas-flame, the heat given out would be found
to be less when burning gas than when burning lamps or candles.

[Illustration: 49. Stott’s Governor.]

It is very beneficial to regulate the pressure at which gas reaches
the burners, and many complaints of impurity of the air of a room,
caused by gas, arise from this want of regulation of pressure.
It can be attained by the use of a governor, placed either at
the meter or in proximity to the light itself. These are of many
forms. Those adapted for placing near the meter are Stott’s, Fig.
49 (174 Fleet Street, E.C.), Parkinson’s, Fig. 50 (Cottage Lane
Works, City Road), Strode’s, Fig. 51 (67 St. Paul’s Churchyard),
Hargreaves and Bardsley’s (Hobson Street, Oldham), Hulett’s, Fig.
52 (55 High Holborn), Peebles’ (Tay Works, Edinburgh), and Smith’s
(130 Fleet Street). Self-regulating burners are the “Christianson,”
made by Sugg (Grand Hotel Buildings, Charing Cross), and those made
by Bolding--Heran’s patent--(South Molton Street, Oxford Street),
Milne, Sons, and Macfie (2 King Edward Street, E.C.), Parkinson
(Fig. 53), Peebles, and Kinnear (91 Finsbury Pavement). A little
steel blade, costing only a penny, is made by W. H. Howorth,
Cleckheaton, Yorkshire, for use on 2-holed burners, which has the
effect of silencing a roaring flame and increasing the luminosity.
Another contrivance having some of the effects of a regulator,
augmenting the light and consuming the smoke (therefore lessening the
contamination of the air), is the Spencer Corona, Fig. 54 (3 Hyde
Street, New Oxford Street), fitting closely on the top of ordinary
gas globes.

[Illustration: 50. Parkinson’s Governor.]

[Illustration: 51. Strode’s Governor.]

[Illustration: 52. Hulett’s Governor. 53. Parkinson’s Burner.]

[Illustration: 54. Spencer Corona.]

The most practical methods which have been devised for combining the
purity of air in a room with artificial light produced from ordinary
coal gas, may be classed under four heads:--

(1) The sun burner, in which the products of combustion are removed
rapidly from contact with the air of the room.

(2) The globe light, in which the fresh air is supplied and the
products of combustion are removed to the outside without any contact
with the air of the room.

(3) The regenerative gas light.

(4) The incandescent gas light.

Their several merits are thus discussed in one of the Health
Exhibition Handbooks.

The sun burner is practically a powerful ventilator, which, by
means of the great heat generated, draws a large volume of air away
with the fumes of the gas; it thus relieves the air of the room of
the impurities caused by combustion, and at the same time removes
impurities generated from other causes. This burner is indeed a
sufficiently powerful ventilator to continue acting even in the
face of the counteracting draught of an open fireplace; and is
consequently much used for crowded rooms. For this dual purpose, it
requires to have its fumes carried up through a straight vertical
tube direct to the open air. This burner is made by Strode & Co., 67
St. Paul’s Churchyard, and shown in Fig. 55.

[Illustration: 55. The Sun Burner.]

The globe light has been designed to prevent the products of
combustion from mingling at all with the air of a room, but it does
not provide for the ventilation of the room at the same time. The
principle of the best form is that it should be burned in a glass
globe separated from the air of the room; that is to say, the air
required for supporting combustion is brought into the globe from the
outer air, and the products of combustion are carried away into the
outer air without mixing with the air of the room. This light, like
the sunlight, is limited in its application. It can be placed near an
outside wall, or in a room directly under a roof. If fed with fresh
air from the room itself, and if a fire-proof flue be constructed in
the ceiling leading into a vertical flue, this light can be put in
any part of a room; but the draught from the open fire would be very
likely to draw the products of combustion back into the room. This is
also made by Strode & Co.

The Grimston regenerative burner looks like an inverted argand
burner. The gas is brought down a central tube, and the products of
combustion are carried away through a tube which lies round it, and
the air required to feed the burner is brought through passages in
this latter tube which are heated by the products of combustion in
their course. The light is enclosed in a half globe, and the products
may be carried away into the outer air, so that the light need not
injure the air of the room in which it is burned. A very remarkable
feature about these regenerative arrangements is that the temperature
of the outflowing products of combustion at the top of the tube is
so low that the hand can be held over the top of the tube without
any unpleasant sensation of heat; and the combustion appears to be
so perfect that even if the products are not removed from the room,
there is much less unpleasantness than with ordinary gas-burners.
Other very important regenerative burners are that bearing the name
of F. Siemens, the Fourness (S. Gratrix, jun., and Bro., Alport Town,
Manchester), and the well-known Wenham (Wenham Co., 12 Rathbone
Place, W., and Milne, Sons, and Macfie, 2 King Edward Street, E.C.),
two forms of which are shown in Figs. 56 and 57. Sugg’s “London
Argand” and “Cromartie” burners are sufficiently familiar to need
no description, and are made in a great variety of designs. The
“Osborne” pattern is shown in Fig. 58.

[Illustration: 56. Wenham Pendant Light. 57. Wenham Standard Light.]

Incandescent gas lamps, even if burned in contact with the air of
a room, present certain hygienic advantages. In the first place,
the air required for combustion is brought into the room from the
outside, in the proportion of six volumes of air to one of gas,
and therefore the oxygen in the air of the room is not consumed
for combustion. In the second place, the gas is consumed in a very
perfect manner, so that the injury to the air of a room produced by
the combustion is reduced to a minimum. These lights can be placed
wherever ordinary gas-lights can, and it is probable that from the
hygienic and photometric value of this class of light it is destined
at no distant date to replace ordinary gas-burners. The principle of
construction is as follows. In the flame of a Bunsen burner is placed
a hood of cotton webbing, previously steeped in a solution containing
oxides of zirconium, lanthanum, &c. The average consumption in
each burner is 2 ft. gas per hour at 9/10 in. pressure, with an
illuminating power of 17 candles.

The Albo-carbon light, Fig. 59, (74 James Street, Westminster),
consists in superheating ordinary gas and carburetting it by
admixture of the vapour generated from the albo-carbon material,
which is stored in a reservoir that can be attached to any existing
fittings. By its means, the light is very much intensified, steadied,
and purified, at very small cost for albo-carbon with a reduced
consumption of gas.

[Illustration: 58. Sugg’s “Osborne” Burner. 59. Albo-carbon Light.]

When gas has been laid on to a house, and the main connected with
the meter or even before the latter has been done, it is extremely
important to have all the gas-pipes tested, in order to ascertain
whether any leakage exists. A very good method is as follows:--All
the brackets and pendants, with one exception, are first stopped
up with plugs or screwed caps, and the meter is turned off or
disconnected. Upon the one outlet not stopped up a force-pump is
attached, into the interstices of which have been poured a few drops
of sulphuric ether. The force-pump is then connected with a gauge,
and is worked until a high pressure has been registered upon it, in
order that should the pipes have any latent weaknesses, the pressure
exerted will develop and discover them. When the gauge indicates
a certain figure, the pumping is stopped, and if the mercury is
noticed to fall, it is evident that there are palpable leaks, which
are at once searched for. The escaped ether will guide the operator
to the whereabouts of these leaks, and the defaulting pipes are at
once replaced by others. The pumping is then continued, and the same
routine recommences. If the mercury still descends in the gauge
glass, and the sense of smell cannot detect where the leak exists,
the joints and portions of the pipes are lathered over with soap,
whereupon the weak places will be found indicated by bubbles. These
parts where the bubbles escape are then marked, heated by means of
a portable spirit lamp made for the purpose, and covered over with
a durable cement. After a short time, the pump is once more set in
action, and if the pipes are tight, and the column of mercury in the
gauge maintains itself at the same figure, the soundness of the pipes
is assured.

An excellent portable gas-making apparatus is made by H. L. Müller,
22 Mary Ann Street, Birmingham. See also p. 998.

_Matches._--An American writer, speaking of the defacement of paint
by the inadvertent or heedless scratching of matches, says that he
has observed that when one mark has been made others follow rapidly.
To effectually prevent this, rub the spot with flannel saturated with
any liquid vaseline. “After that, people may try to strike their
matches there as much as they like, they will neither get a light
nor injure the paint,” and, most singular, the petroleum causes the
existing mark to soon disappear, at least when it occurs on dark
paint. Matches should always be kept in metallic boxes, and out of
the way of children and mice.

Countless accidents, as every one knows, arise from the use of
matches. To obtain light without employing them, and so without the
danger of setting things on fire, an ingenious contrivance is now
used by the watchmen of Paris in all magazines where explosive or
inflammable materials are kept. Any one may easily make trial of it.
Take an oblong vial of the whitest and clearest glass, and put into
it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea. Pour some olive
oil heated to the boiling point upon the phosphorus; fill the vial
about one-third full, and then cork it tightly. To use this novel
light, remove the cork, allow the air to enter the vial, and then
re-cork it. The empty space in the vial will become luminous, and the
light obtained will be equal to that of a lamp. When the light grows
dim, its power can be increased by taking out the cork and allowing
a fresh supply of air to enter the vial. In winter it is sometimes
necessary to heat the vial between the hands in order to increase
the fluidity of the oil. The apparatus thus made may be used for six
months. (_Chicago Times._)

_Electric Lighting._--This must not be undertaken without due
knowledge or the assistance of skilled workmen. The subject is
altogether too large for discussion here with any chance of making it
clear and simple. The reader should refer to the works of Hospitalier
and others who have made it a study. Allusion may here be made,
however, to an essentially domestic system recently introduced by
Hospitalier. His object is to provide 10 volt and 1½ ampère lamps
operating 3 or 4 hours daily. The result aimed at is that the
pile shall daily furnish a quantity of electric energy equal to
that expended, and keep the accumulators continually charged. The
accumulators form a reservoir, and compensate for the differences
between the daily production (which is sensibly continuous) and the
irregular production according to needs. This demands a continuous
pile of slow discharge, in which the products consumed can be easily
renewed, while repairs and supervision are minimised. The choice is a
potash bichromate battery.

In a single liquid potash bichromate pile, the elements to be renewed
are the zinc and the liquid which contains at once the excitant
(sulphuric acid) and the depolariser (potash or soda bichromate). In
order to obtain an easy renewal of the zinc, Hospitalier employs the
metal in the form of a rod 18 in. in length that dips for about 3
in. only into the liquid, and that is placed in a perforated porous
vessel which supports it and prevents all contact with the carbon. A
certain mobility is secured to it by means of flexible attachments,
so that as it wears away it descends into the liquid. Its lower
extremity dips into a mass of mercury, and this keeps it amalgamated.
When one rod is used up, another may be substituted for it in a few
seconds. The remaining portion of the old zinc is thrown into the
porous vessel. The mercury suffices to set up a perfect electric
communication with the new rod that has just been introduced. The
zincs are thus entirely utilised. The flow secures the continuous
renewal of the exciting and depolarising liquid. The precaution to
be taken is to cause the liquid to enter at the upper part, and to
remove it from the lower. This prevents the elements from getting
choked up, and so they may remain mounted several months, operating
day and night, without any attention having to be paid to them.

The positive pole consists of three or four carbon plates which
surround the porous vessel that contains the zinc, and which are
connected with each other by a strip of copper and screw clamps.
The connection of a zinc with the following carbon is made by means
of flexible wires, in order to permit the zinc to descend into the
liquid as it wears away, as has already been seen.

The four elements are mounted one above another. The liquid enters
them from an earthenware reservoir of 5-6 gal. capacity, through a
rubber tube. The discharge is regulated by means of a pinch-cock.

Practice has shown that it is useless to make the solution of
bichromate. It is only necessary to throw some crystals into the
upper reservoir and to pour into the latter some water, acidulated
with a tenth of its volume of sulphuric acid. A sufficient quantity
of the salt dissolves every time to assure depolarisation. The same
liquid may serve 10-12 times before renewal.

There are no precise directions to be given as to the velocity
of the discharge, since this must vary according to the needs of
consumption. A good average is 1-1½ gal. per day. When the liquid
is nearly exhausted, it is well to cause it to circulate a little
more quickly. The regulation of the velocity of the flow by the Mohr
pinch-cock is one of the simplest operations. After traversing the
four pile elements in succession, the liquid enters glass bottles of
2 gal. capacity provided beneath with a pipe to which is affixed a
rubber tube.

It is only necessary to take a full bottle, place it over the
reservoir, and put the pipe into the reservoir, in order to empty it
in a few minutes.

An inspection of the piles is advisable every two days. Were a larger
reservoir employed and the velocity of flow moderated, the interval
might be still longer.

The four elements in tension alternately charge two series of
accumulators each containing three elements. This arrangement allows
the use of two kinds of lamps, 6 volt ones in the cellar and small
rooms, and 10 volt ones in the dining-room and office.

The cellar lamp is so arranged that it is lighted by opening the
door, and extinguished by closing it. Aside from the lamps just
mentioned, another is arranged for lighting a dark ante-room, and
which lights up for three minutes, only, whenever a button near the
door is pressed.

The use of accumulators and flowing piles presents the following
advantages: (1) Convenience, the apparatus being always ready to
furnish light upon turning a tap; (2) Ease of keeping in repair
and of supervision, the flow and the dimensions being capable of
regulation so that the consumer need look after the piles only at
irregular intervals. (3) Better utilisation of the products as a
result of the use of a pencil of zinc instead of wide plates. The
surface attacked is reduced to the dimensions that are strictly
necessary for the production of a current, and local action is thus
diminished. On the other hand, the active liquor is not thrown
away until completely exhausted. (4) Quality of the light. This
remains steady during the entire time of the lighting, without any
manipulation of the pile or any special appliance.

A few hints may be culled from Preece’s lecture on Domestic Electric
Lighting, read before the Society of Arts last session.

Makers of lamps seem to consider that there is great credit in
securing long life. Unfortunately, glow lamps deteriorate sadly
with age. The carbon wastes imperceptibly away, and we are scarcely
conscious of the fact that, after 200 or 300 hours, the lamp gives
only half the light it did at first. The fact is lamps last too long.
The price of a lamp should be such that we could afford to give them
a short and merry life. Long life is therefore an objection.

Lamps fail in giving their light occasionally from having an
imperfect vacuum. This is very easily detected by feeling the globe.
If the vacuum is bad it gets quite hot. Occasionally, but very
rarely, lamps explode with a loud report when the current is first
put on. This is, perhaps, due to a slight leakage of air making an
explosive mixture with the residual gas.

At the present moment, both the nomenclature and the efficiency of
glow lamps are in a very unsatisfactory state, and we are buying pigs
in a poke at a very high price.

Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the character of the
globe enveloping the carbon filament. Some like them clear, some like
them ground; others envelope them in shades, or make the globe of
a beautiful opal glass. It is very objectionable to have the optic
nerve irritated by a brilliant glowing filament; but it is equally
absurd to produce a good thing and then strangle it. Grounding
and shading mean loss of light. Lamps can be placed so high that
they need not affect the eye, and if they do, the light can be so
reflected as to be useful elsewhere. The art of lighting a room is to
flood it with light without the delicate eye being offended with the
direct rays from the source of light.

Switches to turn the lamps on and off are a source of great trouble
in a house. As a rule, they are cheap and nasty. When fixed away from
the lamps, they introduce into the circuit additional resistance, and
therefore waste energy, but they are distinctly serviceable when they
are fixed outside the door of a room, so that you can light it before
you enter it.

In many cases the lamp is its own switch, but it is objectionable to
handle a lamp, and attempts have been made to utilise the weight of
the lamp itself when suspended from the ceiling to maintain contact,
and to break that contact when the weight is released.

Cuts-out or safety-valves are essential to the security of a house.
Short circuiting ought not to occur, but it does, and generally when
showing off. It may occur when cleaning. The cut-out is so cheap and
so effective that there is no excuse for its neglect. They should be
fixed on every circuit.

No one must imagine that electric lighting is absolutely safe from
fire. It certainly possesses elements of danger, but elements that
are perfectly under control. It is very simple to secure safety if
the rules and regulations to avoid fire risks be carefully followed.
The simplest rule is to use nothing but the best insulated wire, and
to employ none but experienced men to put it up. All accidents that
have occurred have arisen from careless wiring and ignorant handling.

The design of the circuits of a house, the dimensions of conductors,
the quality of the materials used, the provision against fire risks,
the testing of the work done, the adaptability of means to an end,
should come within the province of the professional adviser, and not
be left to the successful competing contractor, however eminent the
firm may be.

Estimates for furnishing electric light installations, ranging from
about 3_l._ upwards, can be had from Messrs. Woodhouse and Rawson
United, Limited, 88 Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C., and of
Messrs. Appleton, Burbey, and Williamson, of 91 Queen Victoria
Street, London, E.C. See also p. 1001.

=Furniture and Decoration.=--Obviously half the benefit to be derived
from good sanitary arrangement of the house itself will be lost if
the internal fittings are not arranged with similar regard to healthy
conditions. Good drainage and ventilation are thrown away if every
corner is to be a receptacle for accumulated dirt and every carpet
and curtain a resting-place for dust. Yet that is just the condition
of ninety-nine houses out of every hundred. Existing systems of
furnishing and decorating are faulty to a degree in this respect, and
have called down the strictures of many sanitary reformers. Foremost
among them is Edis, who has made this branch of sanitary science a
special study. His suggestions for improvements in furnishing and
decorating our homes are worthy the attention of every housewife.
The following remarks are mainly culled from his paper in one of the
Health Exhibition handbooks, and deserves to be more generally known.

_Kitchen Walls._--Commencing at the bottom of the house, Edis advises
lining the whole of the scullery walls, and, as far as possible,
those of the kitchen also, with glazed tiles, so that there be no
absorption and retention of the smells, which must necessarily
accrue with the ordinary work of this portion of the house. For a
large house, he strongly advocates finishing all the walls in a
London basement, so far as the working portion of it, together with
the passages, are concerned, with glazed tiles; they are cleanly,
absolutely non-absorbent, reflect and give light, are easily washed,
and tend to make the house sweet and healthy. The pantries and
larders should be so arranged that they have continual ingress of
fresh air, and should in all cases be lined with glazed tiles or
bricks, so that the smells arising from the contents should not be
allowed to be absorbed in the distempered walls, and to render them
stuffy and unhealthy. The shelves should be of slate, or better
still, of polished marble, so as to be absolutely non-absorbent and
easily cleaned.

In every basement a comfortable room for servants should be provided:
some small sitting-room fitted up with book-shelves and cupboards,
and, if possible, facing the street, so that the workers of the house
may have some sort of spare room, in which they may be at rest from
their ordinary duties; for, if we want good servants, we must treat
them as ordinary beings like ourselves.

_Floors._--It is particularly desirable to counteract as far as
possible the deleterious influences which are brought about by the
absorption of offensive odours in the common deal floors of the
various rooms, by having all the joints carefully stopped in, and
the whole surface painted over with three or four coats, so that
the pores of the wood may be effectually closed, and the crevices,
through which dirt and filth of all kinds can enter, and lodge in
the spaces between floor and ceiling, practically sealed up. Or the
floors may be stained and varnished all over, for varnish of the
cheapest kind, whether made with resin in place of hard gums, or
petroleum in place of turps, is not only healthy in its application,
but cleanly and economical, as it can be readily cleaned of all
impurities by a wet cloth, and lasts longer than a mere painted
surface, if done properly at the onset, and every coat left to dry
and become thoroughly hard before a second coat is put on. Good
varnish will dry and be free from all stickiness in one or two days,
if the general atmosphere is free from damp. (Edis.)

Boarded floors are at present much more fashionable than carpeted.
Whether they are stained or not is a secondary consideration. In
hospital wards it is, no doubt, desirable that the boards should be
as closely laid as possible, and well waxed, to obviate the necessity
of scrubbing, and the possibility of any organic matter sinking into
the floor. But in private houses, so long as the carpets are loose
and can be taken up, and the boards either scrubbed, dry rubbed, or
waxed, we have all that health demands. Were it practised by some
Continental nation, and not by ourselves, we should be horrified
at the custom of keeping carpets nailed down for a year or more to
collect all the dirt that falls throughout that time. Of course, a
stained floor looks better than plain deal boards, and oak parquet
looks better than either. But in a bedroom the appearance is of
secondary importance, and staining, however it is put on, does not
last long in a room where there are children or schoolboys. A strip
of carpet by the side of the bed, and a square of matting or linoleum
before the washing-stand, is sufficient for health. All carpets, of
whatever kind, wear better if the boards are perfectly even, and
if they are laid down over “carpet lining,” brown paper, or coarse
canvas; but this plan is not feasible unless the carpet is fastened
down, and a much better plan than nailing is to have loops on the
carpet and nails in grooves on the floor, when it can so easily be
unhooked, that there is no excuse for not taking it up frequently.
Very often carpets and heavy furniture are left untouched because of
the difficulty of getting a man in to help where a man-servant is
not kept. Of the different sorts of carpeting, those that cost most
to start with are certainly not the dearest in the end. Compare, for
instance, a good Brussels with a tapestry of about half the first
cost, and probably not a sixth part of the durability. The only
rooms where tapestry carpets are admissible are where there is little
or no traffic, and where the mistress desires much appearance for
little money. Inferior floor coverings of whatever kind are dear. A
small pattern cuts to greater advantage, usually looks better, and
always shows dirt less than a large one,--looks better because the
floor is not the part of the room where we wish all eyes to be at
first directed; and, therefore, though a light ground often wears
better than a dark, we cannot venture to recommend it. Kidderminster
is now fashionable; it wears well and can be turned. Small patterns
in Kidderminster, as in all double wool fabrics, wear best, because
the threads decussate more frequently. Felt carpets wear much better
if the colour runs through; if it is only stamped on the top, white
patches appear long before the carpet is in holes, which, however,
are not long in coming with even a moderate amount of wear. The
cheapest carpets have cotton or jute woven in them, and very quickly
fade. As to matting, it, too, is of many kinds. The coconut matting,
with a coloured pattern or border, looks well on dark wood stairs,
and wears better than any other, but it is too rough for most
sitting-rooms, even if we do not experience its rapid fraying of
skirts and wearing out of thin house shoes that walk over it. India
matting of good quality wears a long time, especially if it is kept
damp. It is made of grass fibre, and if it gets too dry it quickly
splits. In hot weather it must be washed over with water once or
twice a week and left wet, and the fibre will absorb enough moisture
to keep it fairly tough. Oilcloth, kamptulicon, linoleum, and similar
floor coverings, are made of canvas with layers of oil paint. It
must be kept for some time after it is made, to harden the paint; if
this is not done it splits, and soon wears out. The quality can be
judged by the weight, and the heaviest is generally the best. It can
be scrubbed with soap and water, and then polished with a dry cloth
and a little oil; as little water as possible should be used, or it
runs underneath, and causes the cloth to rot. In the country it is a
good plan to wash oilcloth with a little skim milk, thus cleaning and
polishing it at the same time. (E. A. B., in the _Queen_.)

_Furniture._--It must be evident to common-sense people, that all
furniture which collects and holds dust and dirt, which cannot be
easily detected and cleaned; that all window valances and heavy stuff
curtains with heavy fringes, which cannot be constantly shaken; and
that all floor coverings which are fastened down, so that it is
impossible to clear away the dust, that gradually, but surely, finds
its way under them, and prevents the coverings themselves from being
constantly shaken, are objectionable and unhealthy. Such people will
therefore avoid all wall coverings which offer resting-places for
dirt--such as the high-relief flock patterns, which, however good
artistically, are certainly to be avoided on sanitary grounds; will
not cover the whole of the floor surfaces with thick carpets, which
absorb and retain dust and disease germs, and which cannot be easily
removed and cleaned, or shaken, at least once a month; will do away
with all heavy window-curtains and valances, which, in small rooms,
add so materially to their stuffiness and unhealthiness; and will, as
far as practicable, avoid filling their rooms with heavy lumbering
furniture, which cannot easily be moved for cleaning purposes, and
under and above which dust and other impurities may collect and
remain. (Edis.)

Second-hand furniture is often preferable to new. The warps and
started joints are plainly visible if bad wood has been some time in
use; no more warping will take place, and the price, in comparison
with that of new, is often much less than the amount of wear and tear
would indicate. There are circumstances that give to old furniture a
distinct excellence, quite apart from the existence of a fashion for
buying it. It was made by hand; generally the same man worked on each
piece throughout, acquiring a special interest in every detail, and
thinking no trouble too great to make it more perfect. (E. A. B.)

In choosing chairs and tables for the drawing-room, the more varied
they are in size and shape the better. Let the wood be all fairly
similar, but the materials may be as widely different as possible,
and a judicious blending of several colours is the one thing aimed at
by those who have good taste. Let me warn my readers against cheap
cretonnes; they wear atrociously, and only look well for the first
few months. Plush and Utrecht velvet last for ever, but, as they are
rather expensive, less costly material can be used for the sofa and
a few of the chairs. Do not get one of those dreadful curved sofas
that only admit of being sat on, for the primary object of a sofa is
to allow of your reclining at full length when fatigued or ill. In a
good-sized drawing-room a centre ottoman is allowable, but never in
a small room, as it would take up too much space; it is a good plan
to have the ottoman made to come to pieces, it will then form several
small couches in the event of a large “at home” or dance being given.

With regard to dining-room furniture, get a suite of some light
wood--ash or oak--and leather seats to the chairs, or American
leather. Sideboards of the present day are very handsome and
rather elaborate. You can sometimes pick up very good second-hand
dining-room suites, upholstered in the best style, for half their
original price. If you intend to have a mirror over your dining-room
mantelpiece, see that it is framed in wood similar to your chairs and
table, and eschew gilt mirrors in any form, as they are the very acme
of bad taste and vulgarity. In choosing the dining-room curtains,
bear in mind the colour of the wall paper, or they may clash most
inharmoniously. The cheapest way of getting these curtains would be
to buy some tapestry stuff by the yard, and make them up at home.
Everything in a dining-room should match, see therefore that the
curtain pole, bell handles, and coal scuttle are all of the same wood
as the rest of the furniture.

If the drawing-room is on the first floor, with a small landing
outside, cover the latter entirely with carpet, do not simply
continue the stair carpet across it, it will look as well again
covered. Should it be a good sized landing, put a square carpet down
and stain the edges of the floor. By way of keeping out draughts,
and making the hall and staircase look less bare than is usually the
case, get some curtains and hang them outside the dining-room and
drawing-room doors. Indian dhurries are useful, as they are so cheap,
but the objection to them is that there are none made between 6 ft. 6
in. and 11 ft. in length.

There are no special rules to be laid down about furnishing a morning
room or boudoir: the remarks made on drawing-rooms would apply to
a great extent; the furniture should be suitably small, and only
very cosy and comfortable chairs and couches allowed, and no great
expense should be incurred. If the lady of the house cannot afford
to have more than one bedroom handsomely furnished, it should be the
one occupied by herself. Many advocate most strongly a “half tester”
bedstead, as in the event of sickness, the hangings and curtains
keep away draughts and shade the eyes from any strong light. Brass
and black bedsteads look best, with some pretty coloured dimity
hangings, and of course a spring mattress. Be particular about the
stuffing of the pillows, and if you decide on feathers, have them of
the very best, as the inferior ones are apt to have a slight smell,
besides being hard and uncomfortable to sleep on. Choose a suite of
some light wood, consisting of a wardrobe with a plate-glass door, a
washstand with tiled back, and a toilet table with a fixed glass and
with plenty of small drawers, the latter being invaluable for keeping
light easily crushed articles, such as feathers, flowers, &c., which
otherwise are apt to litter about the room in cardboard boxes. For
the windows, Syrian curtains are the cheapest, and have the extra
advantages of being fashionable and pretty, but coloured dimity to
match the bed look the nicest, though of course they would never do
in London. Buy (second-hand) a comfortable, old-fashioned armchair,
covering it with some serviceable material; and a small table, the
height of the bed. It is a good thing to have a small cupboard
under lock and key, to hold medicine bottles, &c. You can get very
artistic-looking oak ones, quite small, with a shelf above for books,
and they form a handsome ornament to the walls.

The spare room or rooms need never necessarily have the “half tester”
bedsteads, and so you are saved the expense of buying a quantity
of bedhangings and what follows in their train--a heavy washing or
cleaning bill. In the event of your not wanting to spend much money
on the furnishing of your spare bedroom, remember that at sales very
often good things can be picked up at a low price. If you will have
a charming bedroom suite at a low rate, be on the look-out for some
common deal furniture--never mind its being second-hand and the paint
dirty, so long as the wood is whole. Perhaps a friend has an old
toilet table or a chest of drawers that she wants to get rid of, or
you come across a cheap lot at a broker’s; do not be dismayed at the
paint being gaudy, perhaps, or dirty, for this is the secret--have
them all painted some uniform neutral colour (grey, picked out with
dark mouldings, looks well), and then varnished, and you will be
delighted with the result. In conclusion, a good substitute for a
wardrobe may be made in this way. If there is a small recess in
the room (there very often is one by the chimney), put across it a
deal board, stained or painted, and varnished, about 6 ft. from the
ground, with an ornamental moulding depending from the front edge,
and hang curtains in front, putting up underneath as many dress pegs
as the width of the recess will allow. (C. H. D., in the _Queen_.)

_Ceilings._--If the cornices of the rooms be deeply recessed and
filled with heavy plaster ornaments, they must of necessity hold
dust and other impurities, which are increased by the action of damp
air causing decomposition, and by mixing with the air in the room,
when stirred or blown away from their resting places by draught
from opened door or window, must render it impure and unhealthy. In
addition to this, they are more or less choked up by every coat of
so-called distemper decoration, and this again, by absorbing damp and
obnoxious exhalations, adds materially to the sense of stuffiness
and foulness which can be appreciably felt on first opening up the
room after it has been closed for some hours. It is better, if
possible, to paint all ceilings and cornices than to distemper them,
so as to render them as non-absorbent as possible; by painting, the
plaster-work is covered with a non-absorbent coating, on which if
desired a coat of distemper may afterwards be added.

_Walls._--As a rule it is desirable as far as possible not to
disturb the general flatness of wall surfaces, and to avoid
all patterns which obtrude themselves too prominently upon the
eye, or cause the space, whether covered with paper or painted
decoration, to be broken into groups of ornament, or into distinct
lines cutting it transversely or horizontally. The wall surface
may be divided either by a chair or frieze rail and be treated in
different shades of colour with good effect; or the upper portion
may be covered with good artistic painting, which will add to the
beauty and picturesqueness of the room. Where the upper space is
covered with paper or distemper, the pattern or colouring should
offer no startling contrasts, and the lower portion may be painted
and varnished, so as to be readily cleaned. The colour of the
wall surfaces of the different rooms must naturally depend upon
the purposes for which the rooms are used, as the apparent warmth
and pleasurable appearance of the room is materially enhanced or
detracted from by the treatment of the wall-colouring; and while
it is necessary to treat the surface of one room as a background
for pictures, it may be desired to have another brighter and more
decorative; but wherever possible, in passages, halls and staircases,
it is desirable to varnish as much of the wall surface as possible,
so as to render it non-absorbent and readily cleaned.

In the selection of paper or other hangings, and in the arrangement
of all ornament in wall or panel decoration, it becomes a matter of
importance to select none which shall have distinct and strongly
marked patterns, in which the ornament stands out and repeats itself
in endless multiplication and monotony. All staring patterns should
be avoided. Almost all papers may now be considered practically free
from arsenic; the largest printers of machine-printed papers now
use little or no arsenical colours; the principal manufacturers of
block-printed papers allow on colours with a known trace of arsenic
to enter their factories; and, as the colours of this class of
paper-hangings are more thoroughly bound with size than those which
are machine-made, they are to be recommended for house decoration in
preference to the cheaper kinds, as being to a certain extent more

Paper-hangings must enter largely into the decoration of all the
wall surfaces of our houses; but, on sanitary grounds, all flock
papers, however beautiful in design, are especially to be avoided,
for, from the very nature of their design and treatment, they are
detrimental to the healthy condition of the room. The patterns stand
out in relief, and offer innumerable spaces for dust and dirt, while
the generally fluffy nature of the material, practically powdered
wool, renders it more absorbent and therefore more unhealthy; and the
surface holds dust and dirt to a much larger degree than the ordinary
printed papers, thus tending to a stuffy and unwholesome feeling,
which is essentially at variance with all laws of health and comfort.

Stamped papers, in which the pattern is raised in relief, offer the
same objections in a minor degree, as the surface is smooth and can
be readily cleansed; and in the case of the imitation leather papers,
the surface is varnished, and can be readily gone over with a damp
cloth without injury. These papers can be well used for the dados of
rooms or frieze decoration, and as such are exceedingly effective,
although, of course, from the very nature of the manufacture, much
more expensive than plain painting and varnishing. A good deal of
illness often arises from the bad nature of the size and paste with
which the ordinary wall-papers are hung, and great care should be
taken that no such inferior, and practically stinking materials are

_Cupboards._--In most houses it is common to have the store places
for clothes and other household goods, practically self-contained in
every room, and therefore we put therein furniture sufficient for
our requirements; but we all know how soon our drawers and wardrobes
get overcrowded, and the nuisance and annoyance it often is to have
to take out coat after coat, or dress after dress, until we reach
the particular one we want, which may be stowed away at the bottom
of the drawers or chest, and it surely must appeal to ordinary
common sense, to utilise in every way, with constructional fittings
as far as possible, all spaces which, as a rule, are practically
useless. If the cupboards are taken up to the ceiling line, that
is to say an extra tier added to the ordinary wardrobe fitting,
increased storeroom would be provided for clothing not immediately
required. There would be less crowding up of the existing cupboards
and drawers, and the ills of the flat exposed tops of the ordinary
fittings, to which Edis before referred, would be done away with. Why
not, in the window recesses of every bedroom, provide fixed ottoman
boxes which can be used as seats, as well as store places, and if
covered with stuffed tops, may thus not only be made useful, but
comfortable; while in the sitting-rooms they might be used for store
places for papers and magazines until bound up, and thus help to do
away with the littering of our rooms, or the storing away of all such
things in inaccessible places, where they are seldom dusted, and only
help to breed dirt and disease.

_Windows._--If instead of the usual heavy and ugly valances, which
so many people still insist upon placing over their windows, as
a top-finish to the curtains, we were to provide framed recesses
constructed with the architraves, or mouldings, which run round
the window-openings, with slightly arched heads, leaving room for
a slight iron rod to be fixed behind and out of sight, with space
for the proper and easy running of the curtain, we should have not
only a much more artistic, but certainly a much more healthy and
less expensive arrangement; and these arched heads would form part
of the constructive finishing, at no more cost than the framed and
panelled window linings and architraves, and if carried up to the
ceiling, with the cornice returned round, would leave no spaces for
the accumulation of dirt and dust, such as are now provided by the
projecting boxed linings and the heavy valances, fringes, and poles,
which the modern upholsterer provides.

_Bedrooms._--The wall surfaces of bedrooms should be hung with some
small and simple decorative paper of one general tone, but with no
particularly emphasised design, so that we are annoyed at night with
flights of birds, or symmetrical patterns of conventional primroses,
daisies, or fruits, which might in any way suggest a countless and
never-ending procession along the walls. Any pattern or design which
shows prominently any set pattern, or spots which suggest a sum
of multiplication, or which, in the half-light of night or early
morning, might be likely to fix themselves upon the tired brain,
suggesting all kinds of weird forms, are especially to be avoided.
The design should be of such a description that, saving as regards
colour, it should offer no specially marked pattern.

The general wall surfaces should be varnished if possible, so that
they may be easily cleaned down and be made practically non-absorbent.

The general woodwork of the doors, windows, and skirtings should be
painted in some plain colour to harmonise or contrast with the wall
decoration, and the whole varnished; woodwork finished in this way
can be easily washed or cleaned, and the extra expense of varnishing
will be saved in a few years. The bedstead should be of brass or
iron, the furniture of light wood, varnished or polished; and, now
that good painted tiles can be obtained at small expense, they may
be used in washing-stands with good effect, or the wall above may be
lined entirely with them to a height of 2 or 3 ft.

As regards the general floor surfaces, let them be entirely painted,
or stained and varnished, so as to present non-absorbent and easily
cleaned surfaces, or better still, finished with parquet flooring,
which is almost entirely non-absorbing, and which can be cleaned by a
damp cloth every day; with rugs or simple homespun carpets laid down
beside the bed, and elsewhere, where required, so as to be easily
taken up and shaken every day without trouble. There is one objection
to square carpets in a bedroom, and that is, if you are lightly
shod, or, as is often the case, barefoot, the polished floor is very
unpleasantly cold; and also, as it is not every one who can indulge
in the luxury of a bedroom fire, a wholly carpeted floor tends to
keep out draughts and make the room generally warmer.

If you do away with all resting-places for dirt and dust on the tops
of wardrobes and hanging closets, and behind and under chests of
drawers and other heavy furniture, there will naturally be much less
labour required in cleaning and purifying the rooms. Heavy curtains
should be avoided, indeed it is difficult to see why curtains are
needed at all in bedrooms, if the window-blinds be of some dark-toned
stuff sufficient to hide light, and to keep out the glare of the
morning sun.

_Nurseries._--In all the upper rooms of a house, which may be used as
nurseries, Edis would, where practicable, construct semi-octagonal
projecting bays, so as to provide for the greatest possible light and
sunshine; and if this cannot be arranged, the windows should be as
widely splayed inside as possible, and no light or sunshine shut out
by heavy curtains or venetian blinds; and here, too, as in the best
rooms of the house, should be thick plate, instead of the miserably
thin glass, which is considered sufficient in the upper portions of
so many houses; the thick glass gives truer light, is less penetrated
by sound, and helps to retain the warmth of the room after the fires
have gone out, and the house is left to cool in the long night hours.

The walls of the nurseries should be hung with some bright and
cheerful pattern paper, varnished for health’s sake, while the upper
portion should be distempered; the upper space or frieze should
be divided from the general wall surface by a small deal painted
picture rail, but the ceilings and frieze should be cleaned off and
re-distempered every autumn, as nothing tends so much to sweeten the
rooms as this annual cleaning off and re-doing of the ceilings, which
naturally are more impregnated with the impurities of the shut-up
rooms than any other portion of them. Paint or varnished papers are
always more healthy than distemper, as they can be readily washed,
and do not absorb and hold dirt and other impurities.

The walls of the night nurseries should be hung with a soft,
general toned paper, varnished, so as to be sponged every week, or
distempered all over, so as to be re-done at small cost at frequent
intervals, for it is essential in the ordinary low-pitched upper
rooms of town houses, generally devoted to nurseries, to wash out as
often as possible, the peculiar stuffy bedroom atmosphere, which must
be absorbed in the walls and ceilings of all low rooms. The tone of
colouring or pattern on the walls should above all not be spotty or
glaring, with strongly defined forms presenting nightmare effects to
drive away sleep, or disturb our little ones in the hours of feverish
unrest or sickness. But in the rooms they live in there is no reason
why the “writing on the walls” should not be the earliest teaching
of all that is beautiful in nature, art, or science, and by good
illustrations of fairy lore and natural forms incline the thoughts
of our children to all that is graceful and beautiful in nature or
imaginative faculties.

=Bells and Calls.=--No house can now be considered complete without
it is fitted with call-tubes or bells, especially the latter.
Call-tubes are more general in places of business, but they might
often replace bells in a house with advantage to all concerned.
The wires for bells are carried in tubes and boxes concealed by
the finishing of the walls and skirting. These tubes are often of
tinned iron or zinc, but they ought to be either of brass or strong
galvanised iron. Zinc cannot be depended on: in some places it will
moulder away; if not soldered, it opens, and the wires work into the
joinings of the tube, which stops their movement. The old-fashioned
system of bells is being largely supplanted by electric bells.

_Electric Bells._--An ordinary electric bell is merely a vibrating
contact breaker carrying a small hammer on its spring, which hammer
strikes a bell placed within its reach as long as the vibration of
the spring continues. The necessary apparatus comprises a battery to
supply the force, wires to conduct it, circuit-closers to apply it,
and bells to give it expression.

[Illustration: 60. Battery.]

The Leclanché battery (Fig. 60) is the best for all electric bell
systems, its great recommendation being that, once charged, it
retains its power without attention for several years. Two jars are
employed in its construction: the outer one is of glass, contains
a zinc rod, and is charged with a solution of ammonium chloride
(sal-ammoniac). The inner jar is of porous earthenware, contains
a carbon plate, and is filled up with a mixture of manganese
peroxide and broken gas carbon. When the carbon plate and the zinc
rod are connected, a steady current of electricity is set up, the
chemical reaction which takes place being as follows:--The zinc
becomes oxidised by the oxygen from the manganese peroxide, and
is subsequently converted into zinc chloride by the action of the
sal-ammoniac. After the battery has been in continuous use for some
hours, the manganese becomes exhausted of oxygen, and the force of
the electrical current is greatly diminished; but if the battery be
allowed to rest for a short time the manganese obtains a fresh supply
of oxygen from the atmosphere, and is again fit for use. After about
18 months’ work, the glass cell will probably require recharging with
sal-ammoniac, and the zinc rod may also need renewing; but should the
porous cell get out of order, it is better to get a new one entirely,
than to attempt to recharge it.

On short circuits, 2 cells may suffice, increasing up to 4 or 6 as
required. It is false economy to use a battery too weak to do its
work properly. The battery should be placed where it will not be
subject to changes of temperature, e.g. in an underground cellar.

The circuit wire used in England for indoor situations is “No.
20” copper wire, covered with guttapercha and cotton. In America,
“No. 18, first-class, braided, cotton-covered, office wire” is
recommended, though smaller and cheaper kinds are often used. The
wire should be laid with great regard to keeping it from damp, and
ensuring its perfect insulation. Out of doors, for carrying long
distances overhead, ordinary galvanised iron wire is well adapted,
the gauge running from “No. 4” to “No. 14,” according to conditions.
Proper insulators on poles must be provided, avoiding all contact
with foreign bodies; or a rubber-covered wire encased in lead may be
run underground.

The circuit-closer, or means of instantaneously completing and
interrupting the circuit, is generally a simple press-button. This
consists of a little cylindrical box, provided in the centre with an
ivory button, which is either (1) attached to a brass spring that is
brought into contact with a brass plate at the back of the box on
pressing the button, or (2) is capable of pressing together 2 springs
in the box. A wire from the battery is attached to the spring of
the press-button, and another from the bell is secured to the brass
plate. Platinum points should be provided on the spring and plate
where the contact takes place. While the button is at rest, or out,
the electric circuit is broken; but on being pressed in, it completes
the circuit, and the bell rings.

[Illustration: 61. Bell.]

The relative arrangement and connection of the several parts is shown
in Fig. 61. _a_, Leclanché cell; _b_, wire; _c_, press-button; _d_,
bell. When the distance traversed is great, say ½ mile, the return
wire _e_ may be dispensed with, and replaced by what is known as the
“earth circuit,” established by attaching the terminals at _f_ and
_g_ to copper plates sunk in the ground.

The bells used are generally vibrating ones, and those intended
for internal house use need not have a higher resistance than 2
or 3 ohms. At other times, single-stroke and continuous-ringer
bells have to be provided, the latter being arranged to continue
ringing until specially stopped. The bell may or may not be fitted
with an annunciator system; the latter is almost a necessity when
many bells have to ring to the same place, as then 1 bell only is
requisite. A single-stroke bell is simply a gong fixed to a board
or frame, an electro-magnet, and an armature with a hammer at the
end, arranged to strike the gong when the armature is attracted by
the magnet. A vibrating bell has its armature fixed to a spring
which presses against a contact-screw; the wire forming the circuit,
entering at one binding-screw, goes to the magnet, which in turn is
connected with the armature; thence the circuit continues through the
contact-screw to the other binding-screw, and out. When set in motion
by electricity, the magnet attracts the armature, and the hammer
strikes the bell; but in its forward motion, the spring leaves the
contact-screw, and thus the circuit is broken; the hammer then falls
back, closing the circuit again, and so the action is continued _ad
libitum_, and a rapid vibratory motion is produced, which makes a
ringing by the action of the successive blows of the hammer on the

The following useful hints on electric bell systems are condensed
from Lockwood’s handy little volume on telephones.

With regard to the battery, he advises to keep the sal-ammoniac
solution strong, yet not to put so much in that it cannot dissolve.
Be extremely careful to have all battery connections clean, bright,
and mechanically tight, and to have no leak or short circuit. The
batteries should last a year without further attention, and the glass
jars never ought to be filled more than ¾ full.

(_a_) 1 Bell and 1 Press-button.--The simplest system is 1 bell
operated by 1 press-button. The arrangement of this is the same
whether the line be long or short. Set up the bell in the required
place, with the gong down or up as may be chosen; fix press-button
where wanted, taking all advantages offered by the plan of the house;
e.g. a wall behind which is a closet is an excellent place to attach
electrical fixtures, because then it is easy to run all the wires
in the closets, and out of sight. Set up the battery in a convenient
place, and, if possible, in an air-tight box. Calculate how much
wire will be requisite, and measure it off, giving a liberal supply;
joints in inside work are very objectionable, and only admissible
where absolutely necessary. Cut off insulation from ends of wire
where contact is to be made to a screw. Only 3 wires are necessary,
i.e. (1) from 1 spring of the press-button to 1 pole of the battery,
say the carbon, (2) from the other spring of the button to 1
binding-screw of the bell, (3) from the other pole of the battery
to the other binding-screw of the bell. In stripping wires, leave
no ragged threads hanging; they get caught in the binding-screw,
and interfere with the connection of the parts. After stripping the
wire sufficiently, make the ends not only clean but bright. Never
run 2 wires under 1 staple. A button-switch should be placed in the
battery-circuit, and close to the battery, so that, to avoid leakage
and accidental short circuiting when the bells are not used for some
time, it may be opened.

(_b_) 1 Bell and 2 Press-buttons.--The next system is an arrangement
of 2 press-buttons in different places to ring the same bell. Having
fixed the bell and battery, and decided upon the position of the
2 buttons, run the wires as follows:--1 long covered wire is run
from 1 pole of the battery to 1 of the springs of the most distant
press-button, and where this long wire approaches nearest to the
other press-button it is stripped for about 1 in. and scraped clean;
another wire, also stripped at its end, is wound carefully around the
bared place, and the joint is covered with kerite tape; the other end
of the piece of wire thus branched on is carried over and fastened
to the spring of the second press-button. This constitutes a battery
wire branching to 1 spring of each press-button. Then run a second
wire from 1 of the bell binding-screws to the other spring of the
most distant press-button, branching it in the same manner as the
battery-wire to the other spring of the second button; connect the
other pole of the battery to the second binding-screw of the bell,
and the arrangement is complete--a continuous battery-circuit through
the bell when either of the buttons is pressed. Before covering the
joints with tape, it is well to solder them, using rosin as a flux.

(_c_) 2 Bells and 1 Press-button.--When it is required to have 2
bells in different places, to ring from 1 press-button at the same
time, after erecting the bells, button, and battery, run a wire from
the carbon pole of the battery and branch it in the manner described
to 1 binding-screw of each bell; run a second wire from the zinc pole
of the battery to 1 spring of the button, and a third wire from the
other spring, branching it to the remaining binding-screw of both
bells. It will not answer to connect 2 or more vibrating bells in
circuit one after another, as the 2 circuit-breakers will not work in
unison; they must always be branched, i.e. a portion of the main wire
must be stripped, and another piece spliced to it, so as to make 2

(_d_) There are other methods, one of which is, if more than 1 bell
is designed to ring steadily when the button is pressed, to let only
1 of the series be a vibrating bell, and the other single-strokes;
these, if properly set up and adjusted, will continuously ring,
because they are controlled by the rapid make and break of the 1

(_e_) Annunciator system.--To connect an indicating annunciator
of any number of drops with a common bell, to be operated by
press-buttons in different parts of a house, is a handy arrangement,
as one drop may be operated from the front door, another from
the drawing-room, a third from the dining-room, and so on.
The annunciator is fastened up with the bell near it. All the
electro-magnets in the annunciator are connected by 1 wire with
1 binding-screw of the bell, and the other binding-screw of the
bell is connected with the zinc of the battery. It is a good plan
to run a wire through the building from top to bottom, at one end
connecting it with the carbon pole of the battery. It ought to be
covered with a different coloured cotton from any other, so as to be
readily identified as the wire from the carbon. Supposing there are
6 press-buttons, 1 in each room, run a wire from 1 of the springs of
each of the press-buttons to the main wire from the carbon pole, and
at the point of meeting strip the covering from both the main wire
and the ends of the branch wires from the press-buttons, and fasten
each branch wire to the main wire, virtually bringing the carbon
pole of the battery into every press-button. Next, lead a second
wire from the other spring of each press-button to the annunciator
screw-post belonging to the special drop desired. This will complete
the circuit when any of the press-buttons is pushed; for, as each
annunciator magnet is connected on 1 side to its own press-button,
and on the other side to the common bell, it follows that when any
button is pressed, the line of the current is from the carbon pole
of the battery, through the points of the press-button, back to
the annunciator, thence through the bell to the zinc pole of the
battery; and that, therefore, the right annunciator must drop and the
bell must ring. In handsome houses, run the wires under the floor
as much as possible, and adopt such colours for wire covering as
may be harmonious with the paper and paintings. Also test each wire
separately, as soon as the connection is made.

(_f_) Double system.--A system of bells in which the signalling is
done both ways, that is, in addition to the annunciator and bell
located at one point, to be signalled by pressing the button in
each room, a bell is likewise placed in each room, or in a certain
room, whereon a return signal may be received--transmitted from a
press-button near the annunciator. This is a double system, and
involves additional wires. One battery may furnish all the current.
Run the main carbon wire through the house, as before, in such a
manner as to admit of branch wires being easily attached to it. Run
a branch wire from it to the spring of one of the press-buttons,
a second wire from the other spring of the same button to the
screw-post of the bell in room No. 2, and from the other screw-post
of the said bell to the zinc pole of the battery. This completes
one circuit. The other is then arranged as follows:--The main
carbon, besides being led, as already described, to the spring
of the press-button in room No. 1, is continued to one of the
binding-screws of the bell in the same room; the other terminal of
that bell is carried to one spring of the press-button in room No.
2; the complementary spring of that press-button is then connected
by a special and separate wire with the zinc of the battery, and the
second circuit is then also completed.

An alternative method is to run branches from the main carbon wire
to all the press-buttons, and from the main zinc wire to all the
bells, connecting by separate wires the remaining bell terminals with
the remaining press-button springs. In the latter plan, more wires
are necessary. Although the connections of but one bell either way
have been described, every addition must be carried out on the same

When 2 points at some distance from one another, e.g. the house and
a stable 100 yd. distant, are to be connected, it is easy to run 1
wire, and use an earth return. If gas or water pipes are in use at
both points, no difficulty will be found in accomplishing this. A
strap-key will in this case be found advantageous as a substitute
for a press-button. The connecting wire at each end is fastened to
the stem of the key; the back contact or bridge of the key, against
which when at rest the key presses, is connected at each end with one
terminal of the bell, the other terminal of each bell being connected
by wire with the ground. A sufficient amount of battery is placed at
each point, and 1 pole of each battery is connected with the earth,
the other pole being attached to the front contact of the strap-key.
If impossible to get a ground, the second terminal of both bell and
battery at each end must be connected by a return wire.

(_g_) Bell and Telephone.--It is a very easy matter to add telephones
to bell-signalling appliances, when constructed as here described.
The only additions necessary are a branch or return circuit for the
telephones, and a switch operated by hand, whereby the main wire is
switched from the bell return wire to the telephone return wire. A
very simple plan for a bell-call and telephone line from one room
to another, can be made as follows: Apparatus required--2 bells, 2
telephones, 2 3-point switches, 2 strap-keys with back and front
contacts, and 1 battery. Run 1 wire from the stem of the key in room
No. 1 to the stem of the key in room No. 2. This is the main wire.
Fix the bell and 3-point switch below it in each room. Connect the
back contact of each key by wire to the lever of the 3-point switch,
attach 1 of the points of the switch to 1 of the bell terminals,
and the other bell terminal to a return wire. The return wire will
now connect the second bell terminal in one room with the second
bell in the other room. The other point of the switch in each room
is now connected by a wire with 1 binding-screw of a telephone, and
the other telephone screw is attached by another wire to the bell
return. Connecting 1 pole of the battery also to the return wire, and
the other pole to each of the front contacts of the keys, the system
is complete. When at rest, each switch is turned on to the bell. To
ring the bell in the other room, the key is pressed. The battery
circuit is then from battery, front contact of the pressed key, stem
of key, main wire, stem of distant key, switch, bell, and through
return wire to the other pole of the battery. After bell signals are
interchanged, the 3-point switches are transferred to the telephone
joint, and conversation can be maintained. (Lockwood.)

_Making an Electric Bell._--The following description applies to 3
sizes--viz. for a 2 in. bell, hereafter called No. 1; 2¾ in., or No.
2; 4 in., or No. 3, which sizes are sufficient for most amateurs’
purposes, and, if properly made, a No. 3 Leclanché cell will ring the
largest 2 through over 100 yd. No. 24 (B. W. G.) wire.

The Backboard and Cover.--This may be of any hard wood, by preference
teak, oak, or mahogany, and if polished, so much the better; the size
required will be--

  No. 1,  5½ in. long, 3¾ in. wide, ½ in. thick.
  No. 2,  7  in.   ”   3¾ in.   ”   ¾ in.   ”
  No. 3,  8½ in.   ”   5  in.   ”   ¾ in.   ”

The cover must be deep enough to cover all the work, and reach to
within about ¼ in. of the top and sides of back, and allow ⅜ in. to ¾
in. between the edge of bell and cover; the making of this had better
be deferred until the bell is nearly complete.

[Illustration: 62. Electro-Magnet.]

The Electro-Magnet.--This should be of good round iron, and bent
into a horse-shoe shape (Fig. 62). The part _a b_ must be quite
straight, and not damaged by the forging; the bend should be as flat
as possible, so as to make the magnet as short as may be (to save
space). When made, the magnet is put into a clear fire, and when red
hot, taken out and laid in the ashes to slowly cool; care must be
taken not to burn it. Lastly, 2 small holes are drilled in the centre
of the ends at _c_, about 1/16 in. deep; drive a piece of brass wire
tightly into the holes, and allow the wire to project sufficiently to
allow a piece of thin paper between the iron and the table when the
iron is standing upon it; this is to prevent the armature adhering
to the magnet from residuary magnetism, which always exists more or
less. The measurements are--

  No. 1 size iron    ¼ in.,  _d_ to _e_  ⅝ in.,  _a_ to _b_  1¼ in.
  No. 2     ”     5/16 in.,       ”      ¾ in.,       ”      1⅜ in.
  No. 3     ”     7/16 in.,       ”      ¾ in.,       ”      1½ in.

The Bobbins or Coils.--These are made by bending thin sheet copper
round the part _a b_ of the magnet; the edges at _a_ (Fig. 63) must
not quite meet. The thickness of this copper must be such that 4
pieces just equal in thickness the edge of a new threepenny-piece
(this is rather an original gauge, but then all can get at the
thickness this way). The hole in the brass end _b_ must be just large
enough to push on firmly over the copper when on the iron; they must
then be set true, and soldered on. The brass for the ends may be
about as thick as a sixpence; a 1/16 in. hole must be drilled at _c_,
close to the copper. The other measurements are as follows:--

  No. 1,  diameter ⅜ in.,  length over all  1⅛ in.
  No. 2,     ”     ¾ in.,          ”        1¼ in.
  No. 3,     ”     1 in.,          ”        1⅜ in.

The brass ends should be neatly turned true and lacquered.

[Illustration: 63. Bobbin. 64. Winding Bobbin.]

To fill the Bobbins with Wire.--For this purpose, No 28 wire should
be used, which is better if varnished or paraffined. The bobbins
should be neatly covered with paper over the copper tube and inside
of ends, to prevent any possibility of the wire touching the bobbin
itself; the bobbin is best filled by chucking it on a mandrel in the
lathe, or a primitive winding apparatus may be made by boring a hole
through the sides of a small box, fit a wire crank and wooden axle to
this, and push the bobbin on the projecting end--thus (Fig. 64): _a_,
crank; _b_, box; _c_, bobbin; _d_, axle. The box may be loaded to
keep it steady; on any account do not attempt to wind the wire on by
hand--the bobbin must revolve. Leave about 1½ in. of wire projecting
outside the hole _d_, in end of bobbin, and wind the wire on
carefully and quite evenly, the number of layers being respectively
6, 8, and 10; the last layer must finish at the same end as the first
began, and is best fastened off by a silk or thread binding, leaving
about a 3 in. piece projecting. Both bobbins must be wound in the
same direction, turning the crank from you, and commencing at the end
nearest the box. The bobbins must now be firmly pushed on the part _a
b_ of the magnet, and the two pieces of wire projecting through the
hole _c_ soldered together.

To put the Bell together.--First screw on the bell. This should be
supported underneath by a piece of ¼ in. iron tube, long enough to
keep the edge of the bell ⅜ to ⅝ in. above the backboard. Cut off the
hammer-rod, so that when the head is on it will come nearly as low as
the bell screw, and in a line with it. Make a hole in the backboard,
and drive the armature post in tightly--it must be driven in so far
that when the magnet is laid upon the backboard, the centre of the
magnet iron and the armature are the same height. Place the magnet
so that when the armature is pressed against it, the hammer-head all
but touches the bell; screw it into its place by a wooden bridge
across the screw passing between the bobbins. By afterwards easing
this screw, any little adjustment can be made. The armature spring
should tend to throw the hammer-head about ⅝ in. from the bell. The
contact-post should be so placed that when the armature touches the
magnet, there is a slight space between the platinum point on the
screw and the platinum on the spring. In putting in the posts, a
piece of copper wire must be driven in with them to attach the wire
to. One post can be moved round a little either way to alter the
tension of the spring; the screw in the other post can be turned in
or out, to just allow the proper break to take place. By screwing it
in and out, the ear will soon judge where the bell rings best. (Volk.)

Those desiring further information on batteries, telephones, and all
electrical matters, are referred to the Third Series of ‘Workshop
Receipts,’ where diffuse instructions are given.

=Thieves and Fire.=--It would be difficult to name two subjects
demanding more attention and forethought from the housewife than the
means to be adopted for protecting her household from the incursions
of thieves and the horrors of fire. Some years ago, the well-known
inventor of Chubb’s locks published a little book on these topics,
from which we have taken the liberty of condensing a few paragraphs
which are full of import to the safety of the dwelling and its

First with regard to thieves. Chubb remarks that most of the
house-robberies so common in all large towns are effected through
the common street-door latches in ordinary use being opened by
false keys. It is a notorious fact that thousands are made year
after year, but which do not afford the least security, as they
are all so made that any one key will open the whole. Burglars are
sometimes assisted by dishonest servants, but are more often unaided
in this way. Frequently some coal-cellar window is left conveniently
unbarred, although all other windows and doors are barred and bolted;
or perhaps all the windows have safety-fasteners but one, which, of
course, will be the one used by the burglars. Beggars or hawkers are
often in the pay of thieves, endeavouring to get information--that
may not be used perhaps for a long time; and such visitors should
never be allowed inside one’s house, though their visits are too
often encouraged by the weakness of the domestics.

The remedies best adapted to prevent robbery in these various ways
are:--(1) Be careful to have trustworthy servants, or all other
precautions are unavailing. (2) Have plate-glass to all windows in
the house, for this cannot be broken, as common sheet-glass can,
without noise. (3) As shutters are really no protection at all, and
frequently are not fastened at night, let all windows and openings
that can be reached easily from the ground have strong bars built
into the stone or brickwork, not more than 5 in. apart, where this
can be done without disfigurement; and let the windows on every upper
floor have either Hopkinson’s or Dawes’s patent window fasteners,
which cannot be opened from the outside, and are simple and strong
in construction and cheap in price. (4) Keep a dog, however small,
_inside_ the house; this is a wonderful safeguard, and extremely
disliked by burglars. (5) Have any number of bells on shutters,
electric wires, or other gimcracks that you please, and place no
reliance on any of them. (6) Never allow a stranger to wait inside
the door. (7) Leave as little property as possible, certainly no
silver plate or jewellery, lying about, so that if a thief should
overcome all obstacles to entrance, he may not find much ready to

Precautions against fire are of still greater importance. A few of
the commonest causes of fire are guarded against by observing the
following simple rules:--(1) Keep all matches in metal boxes, and out
of the reach of children; wax matches are particularly dangerous,
and should be kept out of the way of rats and mice. (2) Be careful
in making fires with shavings and other light kindling. (3) Do not
deposit coal or wood ashes in a wooden vessel, and be sure burning
cinders are extinguished before they are deposited. (4) Never put
firewood upon the stove to dry, and never put ashes or a light under
a staircase. (5) Fill fluid or spirit lamps only by daylight, and
never near a fire or light. (6) Do not leave a candle burning on a
bureau or a chest. (7) Always be cautious in extinguishing matches
and other lighters before throwing them away. (8) Never throw a
cigar-stump upon the floor or spitbox containing sawdust or trash
without being certain that it contains no fire. (9) After blowing out
a candle never put it away on a shelf, or anywhere else, until sure
that the snuff has gone entirely out. (10) A lighted candle ought
not to be stuck up against a frame-wall, or placed upon any portion
of the woodwork in a stable, manufactory, shop, or any other place.
(11) Never enter a barn or stable at night with an uncovered light.
(12) Never take an open light to examine a gas-meter. (13) Do not
put gas or other lights near curtains. (14) Never take a light into
a closet. (15) Do not read in bed, either by candle or lamp light.
(16) The principal register of a furnace should always be fastened
open. (17) Stove-pipes should be at least 4 in. from woodwork, and
well guarded by tin or zinc. (18) Rags ought never to be stuffed into
stove-pipe holes. (19) Openings in chimney-flues for stove-pipes
which are not used ought always to be securely protected by metallic
coverings. (20) Never close up a place of business in the evening
without looking well to the extinguishing of lights, and the proper
security of the fires. (21) When retiring to bed at night always see
that there is no danger from your fires.

A few other unsuspected causes of fire may be mentioned. A common
habit with some people, when ironing, is to rub the hot iron clean
with a piece of stuff, paper, or “anything” at hand, and then
throw the same aside without further thought. The small piece of
stuff, usually more or less scorched, may lie smouldering for hours
unsuspected in some corner, especially if shut up in a cupboard or
drawer. The danger here alluded to applies equally to the careless
throwing aside of anything likely to smoulder, such as cloths caught
up at random for holding hot baking tins, kitchener handles, &c. No
room ought ever to be left unoccupied without a guard being placed on
the fire. Most of us have had experience of sudden small explosions
of the coals, and holes being burnt in the hearthrug, even when there
is some one at hand to stamp out the fire at once; and we can imagine
what the consequences would be if the hearthrug had been left to
smoulder. In the case of steam-pipes, after wood has remained a long
time in contact with steam, hot-water, or hot-air pipes, the surface
becomes carbonised. During the warm season, the charcoal absorbs
moisture. When again heated, the moisture is driven off, leaving a
vacuum, into which the fresh air current circulating around the pipes
rapidly penetrates, and imparts its oxygen to the charcoal, causing a
gradual heating and eventually combustion. The rusting of the pipes
contributes also to this result, inasmuch as the rust formed during
the hot season may be reduced by the heat of the pipes to a condition
in which it will absorb oxygen to the point of red heat.

With respect to the detection of fires there is very little to say;
but every one should acquaint themselves with the best means of
getting from the house in case of fire cutting off the usual exit.
At such a critical moment, when, perhaps aroused from a sound sleep,
one finds oneself in a house on fire, presence of mind is the first
thing required, yet a few simple suggestions that will start to the
memory may be of value. If, on the first discovery of the fire, it
is found to be confined to one room, and to have made but little
progress, it is of the utmost importance to shut, and keep shut, all
doors and windows. If the fire appears at all serious, and there are
fire-engines at a reasonable distance, it is best to await their
arrival, as many buildings have been lost from opening the doors and
attempting to extinguish fires with inadequate means. If no engines
are within reach, and you have not a hand-pump or an extincteur, the
next best thing is to collect as many buckets outside the room on
fire as can be obtained, keeping the door shut while more water is
being collected. A rough-and-ready protection from breathing smoke
may be had by thoroughly wetting a towel and fastening it firmly
round the face over the mouth and nostrils. But if the flames have
too great a hold to allow of escape by the staircase or roof, and the
window of the room is the only means of egress, the situation becomes
serious, unless its possibility has been foreseen and guarded against.

Only as _the last_ resource should a person run the risk of jumping
to the ground; either endeavour by tying the bedclothes together
to make some sort of rope, fastening one end to a heavy piece
of furniture, and going down the rope hand-over-hand--a rather
difficult thing to do without practice--or, if within reach of
one, wait as long as possible for the arrival of a fire-escape
or ladder. Some people always keep a stout knotted rope in their
room, and have an iron hook fixed inside the window, to which it
may be attached. Merryweather and Sons, 63 Long Acre, London, make
domestic fire-escapes which admit of even women and children lowering
themselves from windows. As to means of escape available from the
outside for high houses, there are many obvious plans which might be
adopted, but among these there are two which appear to be specially
easy of attainment, and within the reach of all concerned, at a
moderate cost. The first is to fix on buildings external ladders of
wrought iron or some other material able to resist the effects of
fire at its commencement, and extending from the roof to within 40
ft. of the ground; the other, to provide on every story continuous
balconies of wrought iron or any other material proof against
immediate destruction by heat; and if the balconies on the several
stories were made to communicate with each other by means of external
stairs, great additional safety would be attained.

The Royal Society for the Protection of Life from Fire has published
the following directions for saving life at fires. See also p. 1002.

_For Bystanders._--1. Immediately on the fire being discovered give
an alarm to the nearest fire-escape station, not delaying an instant;
do not wait to see if it is wanted. Life is more precious than
property, and events have too often proved how fatal even a moment’s
hesitation is in sending for the fire-escape. It is the fire-escape
man’s duty to proceed to the place of alarm immediately.

2. In the absence of a fire-escape, or pending its arrival, ladders
and ropes should be sought for. Two constables or other qualified
persons should ascend to the roof through the adjoining houses. The
most efficient assistance can sometimes be rendered by an entrance
to the upper part of the house on fire, either by the attic windows,
the loft-door, or by removing the tiles; or sometimes the aid of one
end of a rope (knotted) might be afforded from the adjoining window,
which, being passed by the person in danger round some article in the
room, he could lower himself or others into the street, and the other
end of the rope being controlled of course by those rendering the aid
from the adjoining house. A short ladder can often be made available
at the second or perhaps the third, floor of houses built with a
balcony or portico, by the constable or other person first ascending
to the balcony, and then placing the ladder thereon, reach the rooms

3. In a narrow street or court assistance may be given from the
windows of the opposite house, particularly by a ladder placed across
the street from window to window.

4. When no other means present themselves the bystanders had better
collect bedding at hand, in case the inmates throw themselves from
the windows. A blanket or carpet held stretched out by several
persons will serve the purpose. The Metropolitan Fire Escape Brigade
carry jumping-sheets with them for use upon emergency.

5. Do not give vent to the fire by breaking into the house
unnecessarily from without, or, if an inmate, by opening doors or
windows. Make a point of shutting every door after you as you go
through the house.

_For Inmates._--1. Every householder should make each person in his
house acquainted with the best means of escape, whether the fire
breaks out at the top or the bottom. Provide fire-guards for use
in every room where there is a fire, and let it be a rule of the
household not to rake out a fire before retiring for the night,
but to leave the guard on. In securing the street-door and lower
windows for the night, avoid complicated fastenings or impediments
to immediate outlets in case of fire. Descriptions and drawings
of fire-escapes for keeping in dwelling-houses may be seen upon
application at the offices of the Royal Society for the Protection of
Life from Fire.

2. Inmates at the first alarm should endeavour calmly to reflect what
means of escape there are in the house. If in bed at the time, wrap
themselves in a blanket or bed-side carpet; open neither windows nor
doors more than necessary; shut every door after them (this is most
important to observe).

3. In the midst of smoke it is comparatively clear towards the
ground; consequently progress through smoke can be made on the hands
and knees. A silk handkerchief, worsted stockings, or other flannel
substance, wetted and drawn over the face, permits free breathing,
and excludes to a great extent the smoke from the lungs. A wet sponge
is alike efficacious.

4. In the event of being unable to escape either by the street-door
or roof, the persons in danger should immediately make their way
to a front-room window, taking care to close the door after them;
and those who have the charge of the household should ascertain that
every individual is there assembled.

5. Persons thus circumstanced are entreated not to precipitate
themselves from the window while there remains the least probability
of assistance; and even in the last extremity a plain rope is
invaluable, or recourse may be had to joining sheets or blankets
together, fastening one end round a bedpost or other furniture. This
will enable one person to lower all the others separately, and the
last may let himself down with comparatively little risk. Select a
window over the doorway rather than over the area.

6. Do not give vent to the fire by breaking into the house
unnecessarily from without, or, if an inmate, by opening doors or
windows. Make a point of shutting every door after you as you go
through the house. For this purpose, doors enclosing the staircase
are very useful.

_Accidents to Persons._--1. Upon discovering yourself on fire reflect
that your greatest danger arises from draught to the flames, and from
their rising upwards. Throw yourself on the ground, and roll over on
the flame, if possible, on the rug or loose drugget, which drag under
you; the table-cover, a man’s coat, anything of the kind at hand,
will serve your purpose. Scream for assistance, ring the bell, but do
not run out of the room or remain in an upright position.

2. Persons especially exposed to a risk of their dresses taking fire
should adopt the precaution of having all linen and cotton fabrics
washed in a weak solution of chloride of zinc, alum, or tungstate of

3. As a means for the prevention of accidents, especially where there
are women and children, the provision of a fire-guard is urgently
recommended. These are now made at such a reasonable price that it is
incumbent upon even the poorest to obtain them.

It may be added that Merryweather’s system of periodical visitation
by a staff of fire inspectors is now extensively adopted by the
nobility and gentry.

For the various methods of rendering wood, clothes, &c., fire-proof,
the reader is referred to ‘Workshop Receipts,’ Second Series, pp.


Ernest Turner: ‘Hints to Househunters and Householders.’ London,
1884. 2_s._ 6_d._

Eardley F. Bailey Denton: ‘Handbook of House Sanitation, for the use
of all persons seeking a healthy home.’ London, 1882. 8_s._ 6_d._

H. Percy Boulnois: ‘Practical Hints on taking a House.’ London, 1885.
1_s._ 6_d._

C. J. Richardson: ‘The Englishman’s House; a practical guide
for selecting or building a house, with full estimates of cost,
quantities, &c.’ London, 1882. 7_s._ 6_d._

Ernest Spon: ‘The Modern Practice of Sinking and Boring Wells, with
geological considerations and examples.’ London, 1885. 10_s._ 6_d._

Charles Hood; ‘A Practical Treatise on Warming Buildings by Hot
Water, Steam, and Hot Air; &c.’ London, 1885. 12_s._ 6_d._

William Richards: ‘The Gas Consumer’s Handy Book.’ London, 1877. 6_d._

E. Hospitalier: ‘Domestic Electricity for Amateurs.’ London, 1885.

Clarence Cook: ‘The House Beautiful; Essays on Beds and Tables,
Stools and Candlesticks.’ New York, 1881. 1_l._

Lewis Foreman Day: ‘Everyday Art; Short Essays on the Arts not Fine.’
London, 1882. 7_s._ 6_d._

M. E. James: ‘How to Decorate our Ceilings, Walls, and Floors.’
London, 1883. 4_s._

Rhoda and Agnes Garrett: ‘Suggestions for House Decoration in
Painting, Woodwork, and Furniture.’ London, 1876. 2_s._ 6_d._


Much attention has been given in recent years to the art of
conserving foods. The subject really divides itself into 3 distinct
branches, viz.: (_a_) Keeping foods _fresh_ for a limited time, (_b_)
_storing_ them without changing their character, and (_c_) submitting
them to a _curing_ process which will preserve them for an unlimited

(_a_) _Keeping foods fresh for a limited time._

Some very useful remarks on this point were published by Miss
Ascham in the _Exchange and Mart_ a short time since, and will bear

A housewife’s duty is to prevent waste. She must therefore know what
is likely to go to waste and why, or perhaps she will do just what is
wanted to spoil things which would have kept a little longer if they
had been left alone. Most things in the larder are perishable, but
not all alike.

Meat will keep three weeks in dry, frosty weather, and more than a
week in cold dry weather, but not one week in damp, and hardly a day
in very hot weather. If it has been frozen, it must lie in a rather
warm place 3-4 hours before it is cooked. Meat should be taken down
from the hooks every day, well looked over and wiped dry, and the
hooks scalded and dried before the meat is put up again. Do not
flour it. In very hot weather it is sometimes necessary to rub salt
over the outside of a joint which is not to be cooked that day; but
putting into a pan of treacle is much better, only it requires care,
so as not to leave bits of fat, &c., in the pan when you take out the
meat, and plenty of cold water to wash off what sticks to the joint
when it comes out. It must, however, be carefully looked over when it
comes from the butcher, and any doubtful bits pared off and burnt. If
meat shows signs of “turning,” it must at once be put into a very hot
oven for ½ hour, so as to be partly cooked. If it has really spoilt,
nothing will save it, because the inside of the joint is then bad;
but if it is browned, not just scorched, in time, the inside will be
found perfectly nice. Of course, in a doubtful case, it may all be
sliced up and fried; but then, as a joint, it is spoilt.

The dripping from a half-spoilt joint is useless for food, and the
bone will certainly spoil soup. Some cooks will plunge the meat into
boiling water to save it, but this additional wetting is much more
likely to hasten the catastrophe. In hot weather every bone must be
baked, whether it is to make stock that day or not. Soup is just as
good from baked bones as from raw ones. Every bone that has been
boiled must be placed in a sharp heat and quite dried, and “scraps”
which would help to make stock must be burnt if the cook has no time
or room to make it. For one little bone is enough to spoil all the
milk and cream, and will cause all perishable things in the larder to
be just ready to decay.

The microscope helps us to understand the amazing rapidity with which
germs multiply and diffuse themselves, but no one is yet able to say
where their venom stops; probably they do harm to the entire house
at the least. If bones are thoroughly dried, they will do no harm.
All fat and suet should be cooked as soon as possible after it comes
into the house; it should be wiped, sliced thin, and boiled for 2-3
hours, then strained, and the skin, which seems like leather, burnt
in the middle of a hot fire. As soon as the fat is hard, it should be
removed from the gravy, soup, or stock, wiped dry, and folded in thin
paper. In very hot weather, sometimes it will not cake. Then a plate
must be spared for it. The superfluous fat from a joint reduced to
mince should be treated in the same way.

Fish must be cooked as soon as possible after it is caught. If,
however, there is more than can be eaten in one day, the superfluous
part should be boiled for 5 minutes, even if it is to be fried
afterwards--it can be dried: but nearly all fish is very nice stewed
like eels, with the same sauce; parboiled fish is as good this way as
if it were quite fresh.

It is said that Condy’s fluid will perfectly cleanse meat or fish
just beginning to taint on the outside; but prevention is much better
than cure. Never allow any meat or fish to lie if you can hang it up.

Game and poultry should be drawn, but not plucked or skinned, dried
inside, and hung head upward.

Milk is the most troublesome article in the larder, and really wants
a little safe to itself. It “takes up” the slightest suspicion of
taint, and becomes most objectionable without turning sour. City
people, at any rate, should boil the milk as soon as it comes in,
from April to December. Then it should be strained into a clean
flat pan, which must be scalded and rinsed with, first, a little
soda, and then clean water, every time it is used. It is a help to
mistress and maid to have two pans--one brown, one white--to use on
alternate days, so as to ensure time for purification. Country milk a
little sour may be used for a pudding, or to make scones (½ pint to
1 lb. of oatmeal or brown meal, into which you have mixed ¼ oz. soda
carbonate); but the milk which has been rattled about from 2 A.M.
to 8 or 9 generally seems good for nothing when stale. In case of
serious illness in hot weather, or when a young child’s nourishment
is in question, ice is necessary. In default of “professional”
apparatus, tie up as much ice as half a yard of flannel will hold,
pass a stout lath through the string, and lay it across a metal tub;
oval is more convenient than round. The ice will hang down and drip
in the middle of the tub, and jugs of milk, bottles of soda water, or
anything else will stand at the ends. Cover the tub, stick and all,
with a thick board, and that with a damp, almost wet cloth. The milk
may be boiled first, but must, of course, be cold before it is put
with the ice. A damp cloth, without ice, keeps things much cooler
than they are when uncovered.

Cheese, uncut, only needs to be kept dry. After it is cut, it should
be wrapped in a buttered paper scraped almost dry. Butter may be
rendered less troublesome in summer by being covered with a huge
flower-pot large enough to enclose the plate and rest in a tray in
which there is some cold water. Leaving butter in water spoils it.
Bread should be covered closely from the air. The pans want wiping
once or twice a week, and then heating very hot; the bread must not
be put in again until the pan is cold, nor warm bread ever covered
up. Baker’s bread often acquires a most disagreeable smell and taste
if these precautions are neglected.

All vegetables, when cut, may be kept fresh by putting the stalks
into water. Servants generally insist on immersing them, which
favours decomposition. Parsley in particular can seldom be guarded
from a watery grave. Carrots, turnips, and the like, if placed in
layers in a box of sand, will keep for many weeks, if not months.
Clean new-laid eggs will keep quite fresh for months if buried in
dried salt well closed. Boiled potatoes ought to be laid out on a
plate, and are then as good for frying or mashing as if they were
freshly cooked. Servants have an unaccountable fancy for throwing
them away, or, if desired to fry them, chopping and mashing them
first, which entirely spoils them. If left heaped up, they will often
spoil in one night, and must be burnt. No vegetables should be put
into soup until the day that it is to be used. If any soup, complete,
is left, it must be sharply boiled the next morning, and put into a
fresh, clean pan. The grey earthenware jars made for salt are most
valuable for such purposes and for keeping viands hot or stewing
things. Chopped spinach can be warmed in one of them, and, as it
takes time to prepare, may be boiled, &c., the day before, and thus
served in perfection at the early dinner or luncheon. Cabbage, French
beans, and vegetable marrows are better dressed as salad if they have
cooled, and in hot weather are almost as treacherous for keeping as

Fruit, like vegetables, will keep very fresh if you can manage to put
the stalk into water, only it must not be in a close or dark place.
When apples, oranges, pears, lemons, &c., are to be stored, they must
not touch each other, and must be protected from heat, cold, and damp
as much as possible; sunshine is not desirable. It would be easy,
if an amateur carpenter was at hand, to make a frame of laths, like
a Venetian blind, which would contain a very large quantity of such
fruit, and take up hardly any room. Flour and meal, sago, macaroni,
semolina, and all like substances, are sometimes attacked by mites.
They are so small as to be invisible singly, but a peculiar fine
powder is to be seen at the top of the farina, and is not motionless.
There is also a smell something like honey or fermentation. They
never appear in a dry storeroom, though they are sometimes brought
from the grocer’s. The only thing to be done is to burn the infected
store, and heat the jar almost red hot before using it again.
(_Exchange and Mart._)

Every one is familiar with the beneficial influence of ice in
preserving foods in hot weather. It is the active medium in the
various kinds of refrigerating safes now in use. But the first matter
is to secure a supply of ice for summer use, unless it is to be
bought of the ice merchant at enhanced prices. Various contrivances
may be adopted with success, as enumerated below:--

(1) Build round a brick well, with a small grating for drain at
bottom for the escape of water from melted ice. Cover the bottom with
a thick layer of good wheat straw. Pack the ice in layers of ice and
straw. Fix a wooden cover to the well.

(2) Fire-brick, from its feeble conducting power, is the best
material to line an ice-house with. The house is generally made
circular, and larger at the top than at the bottom, where a drain
should be provided to run off any water that may accumulate. As small
a surface of ice as possible should be exposed to the atmosphere,
therefore each piece of ice should be dipped in water before stowing
away, which, by the subsequent freezing of the pieces into one mass,
will remain unmelted for a long time.

(3) Make a frame-house the requisite size, with its floor at least
the thickness of the bottom scantling from the ground, thus leaving
space for drainage and a roof to shed off the water. The boards of
the wall should be closely joined to exclude air. Then build up the
blocks of ice, cut in the coldest weather, as solid as possible,
leaving 6 in. all round between them and the board walls; fill up all
interstices between the blocks with broken ice, and in a very cold
day or night pour water over the whole, so that it may freeze into a
solid block; shut it up till wanted, only leaving a few small holes
for ventilation under the roof, which should be 6 in. above the top
of the ice. It is not dry heat or sunshine that is the worst enemy of
ice, but water and damp air. If all the drainage is carried promptly
off below, and the damp vapour generated by the ice is allowed to
escape above, the column of cold air between the sides of the close
ice-house and the cube of ice will protect it much better than it is
protected in underground ice-houses, which can neither be drained
nor ventilated; sawdust also will get damp, in which case it is much
worse than nothing.

[Illustration: 65. Ice-house.]

(4) An improved sort of ice-house, recommended by Bailey, gardener at
Nuneham Park, Oxford, is shown in plan and section in Fig. 65, where
the dotted line indicates the ground level. The well or receptacle
for the ice _a_ is 10 ft. 6 in. wide at the base, and 3 ft. wider
near the top; the walls are hollow, the outer portion being built
of dry rough stone, and the inner wall and dome _f_ of brick. The
outer wall _e_ might be replaced by a puddling of clay, carried up
as the work proceeds. Over the top is a mound of clay and soil _g_,
planted with shrubs to keep the surface cool in summer. The drain _i_
carries off the water formed by the melted ice, and is provided with
a trap _h_ to prevent the ingress of air through the drain. There
is a porch or lobby _b_ provided with outer and inner doors _c_;
and apertures at _d_, to get rid of the condensed moisture, which,
if not removed, would waste the ice. These ventilating doors should
be opened every night, and closed again early in the morning. The
most important conditions to be secured are dryness of the soil and
enclosed atmosphere, compactness in the body of ice, which should be
broken fine and closely rammed, and exclusion as far as possible of
air. (_Gard. Mag. Bot._)

(5) A very cheap way of storing ice has been described by Pearson of
Kinlet. The ice-stack is made on sloping ground close to the pond
whence the ice is derived. The ice is beaten small, well rammed, and
gradually worked up into a cone or mound 15 ft. high, with a base of
27 ft., and protected by a compact covering of fern 3 ft. thick. A
dry situation and sloping surface are essential with this plan, and a
small ditch should surround the heap, to carry rapidly away any water
that may come from melted ice or other sources. (_Gard. Jl._)

(6) The following is an economical method of making small ice-houses
indoors:--Dig a hole in a cool cellar, and make it of a size
corresponding to the quantity of ice to be kept. At the bottom of
this hole dig another of smaller diameter, the edge of which goes
down with a gentle slope. This kind of small pit, the depth of which
should be greater in proportion as the soil is less absorbent, must
be filled with pebbles and sand. The whole circumference of the large
hole is to be fitted up with planks, kept up along the sides with
hoops, to prevent the earth from falling in. Then the bottom and
all the circumference of this sort of reservoir must be lined with
rye straw, placed upright with the ear downwards, and kept up along
the planks by a sufficient number of wooden hoops. The ice is to be
heaped up in this ice-house, which must be covered over with a great
quantity of hay and packing cloth, on which should be placed a wooden
cover and some light straw. (_Les Mondes._)

(_b_) _Storing Foods without change._--This embraces the keeping of
fruits, roots, eggs, &c.

To have a fruit room in a garden does not always argue that the fruit
stored in it will be well preserved. Such a store-house is of the
first importance; but, unless care is observed, and some special
attention given to the different kinds of fruit it may contain, much
loss is likely to be the consequence. As to the structure itself,
it is sufficient to say here that it should be perfectly dry, and
so constructed as to maintain an equable temperature at all times.
An ice house, if dry, makes a good fruit room--without the ice, of
course--for a fruit room, once the fruit is placed in it, does not
require much ventilation, unless it can be given without altering the
temperature. Heats and cools, alternately producing condensation and
evaporation, soon produce decay and rottenness, and should be guarded
against as much as possible; the fruit should always feel dry to the
touch. Possibly, the very best position that an apple or pear, for
example, could be placed in, to preserve it, would be to suspend it
by the footstalk in the air, and free from contact with any other
object. Onions done up in strings in the old-fashioned way invariably
keep much better than those laid on shelves or on a floor, and it is
the same with fruit. Fruit rooms which are above ground should be
double-walled, and ceiled; but when sunk or partially sunk in the
ground this is not so important, if damp is otherwise excluded.
Hardy fruits and grapes are often kept long and well in a fruit room
that is more like a cellar (only dry) than anything else.

The shelves and tables for holding the fruit should be sparred, and
before the fruit is stored they should be covered with a layer of
clean wheat straw, but so thinly that one can see through between
the spars of the shelves, which will allow a free circulation of air
amongst the fruit. When the room is empty during the summer-time, it
should be thoroughly ventilated, washed and dried, and made sweet and
clean, and, when the fruit is stored, shut up and kept in darkness.

A writer in the _Field_ expresses himself thus:--The easiest and best
method of keeping fruit, and one practised for years, is simply to
take ordinary wine cases, halves and quarters, as different sizes
are handy, line the bottoms well with short sweet hay, and take them
on a hand-barrow to the orchard. There the fruit should be laid
carefully in them, taken at once to the fruit room, and placed on
close-bottomed shelves. Under such circumstances it will keep until
April, and even until June in sand. The greatest care is used in
the picking and handling of the fruit. It may be thought that, when
in single layers, fruit is more easily examined, and decaying fruit
cleared away; but from many years’ experience in storing fruit in
barrels and boxes, only a small quantity is lost by decay or wilting.
Nor is such vigilance required in the way of periodical gleanings as
some would believe. The very act of searching for such is inimical to
the good keeping of the rest, as we cannot see the side farthest from
us; consequently the fruits have to be handled, and the oftener this
is done the sooner will the bloom--the best safeguard to keeping--get
rubbed off. In boxes this is avoided. Simply commence using from the
top, and go on until the bottom is reached; and not only does the
fruit come out clear and clean-skinned, but as sound and firm as when
put away. (J. K.)

Apples and Pears.--(_a_) When the fruit room cannot hold all the
crop, it should only be used for the best sample, which should be
gathered without bruising, and spread out on the shelves in a single
layer, and barely touching each other. In plentiful seasons the
different varieties are often piled up in hillocks, on the shelves
and floors, to the destruction of large quantities of the fruit;
for it is not possible to keep fruit long in that condition, and it
soon becomes rotten and useless. In most establishments the wants of
the kitchen and dessert can be judged very nearly; and such being
the case, it is far better to dispose of the fruit which cannot be
used at home, and keep and care for a supply of the better dessert
and kitchen fruit only. In many establishments it is the custom,
in plentiful seasons, to store all the crop in a house that was
never intended to accommodate it, and throughout the autumn and
winter preservation consists principally in picking out the rotten
fruit periodically, and wheeling it to the pigsty or the rubbish
heap. It would be better to have given it away for nothing at the
beginning. Such waste is simply disgraceful; but it is what happens
in many large private gardens. Apples and pears soon decay and rot
if they are carelessly stored, but it is surprising how long even
the so-called worst-keeping varieties can be preserved with a little
care. Apples of the Codling and Lord Suffield class, and pears like
the Jargonelle and Hessel, or “hogel,” as it is called in the north,
are not supposed to keep many days; but they will keep nevertheless
for a considerable time if they are not piled up in heaps like
potatoes. Codling apples, indeed, will keep till they become insipid
and flavourless without showing signs of decay. In some cases it
is necessary to keep the fruit in store till it can be disposed of
advantageously; and when that is so, and it cannot be accommodated in
the fruit room proper, it should be stored in a dry loft or shed, and
covered over with dry straw to protect from the vicissitudes of the
weather. Common fruit laid up in heaps in this way soon ripens and
turns yellow, but does not keep.

(_b_) Where there is no room for storing apples in the usual way,
they may be treated as follows: All the later keeping sorts, after
being picked and laid out thinly in a room, may be stored in a pit,
the same as potatoes. Mark out the pit 3 ft. wide and 9 in. in depth;
put a layer of clean straw in the bottom. Commence at one end with
the latest keeping sorts, and make them into a ridge about 2 ft. high
in the centre; put a layer of straw between the sorts to keep them
from getting mixed; then take the next sort, and so continue with the
latest until the whole is finished. A covering of dry turves or straw
must then be put over the whole, and this must be covered with soil,
the same as is generally done with potato pits. Blenheims keep in
this way in very fine condition till the middle of January, and later
keeping sorts according to their times of ripening. When pitting the
fruit, great care must be taken to pick out all that are bruised or
damaged. Faults of this kind will be readily seen after 9-12 days
from the time when the fruits are gathered. Bruised apples soon rot,
and cause others to do the same; but, if carefully stored, scarcely
one will be found decayed when taken from the pits, if taken out
about the time they are generally ripe. (W. C.)

Artichokes.--Boil as many artichokes as you intend to keep, only
just enough to be able to pull off all the leaves and choke: lay the
bottoms on a tin plate, and put them in the oven. When thoroughly
dry, and quite hard, put them in a paper bag, and hang them in a dry
place. Before using they must be soaked in warm water for 3-4 hours,
changing the water very often. Let the last water be boiling hot, the
bottoms will then be very tender, and eat as well as fresh ones.

Asparagus.--Boil fresh-gathered, well-scraped asparagus for 5 minutes
in salted water. Strain off the water, dip them in cold water and
drain on a cloth; put them in tins with the points all one way.
Have an ironmonger ready to solder on the lids immediately; when
the solder is cold put the tins in a cauldron of water and boil for
1½ hour. Keep them with the points of the asparagus upwards. It is
better to mark the top of the tin to prevent their being reversed.

Cherries.--These can only be successfully preserved on the tree, and
then only when the trees are grown against walls or as espaliers.
On standards it is almost impossible to keep them from the birds,
except by much trouble and expense. Early cherries can be preserved
a month or more after they are ripe by covering the trees with mats,
and keeping them quite dark. The trees do not suffer so much by
this practice as one would imagine, although the leaves fall off
prematurely, owing no doubt to the wood being pretty well matured
before the fruit is ripe; but it is not advisable to cover the same
trees every year in succession. Morello cherries of course keep best
when grown on a north wall, and it is hardly necessary to mat them;
but they must be netted to keep off vermin.

Currants.--Take when ripe, separate from the stem, put in glass jars,
set them in a kettle of cold water, then put them over the fire, and
boil 15-20 minutes; cork tight, and set away where the frost will not
get to them.

Eggs.--(_a_) Most of the recipes given for preserving eggs direct
that the egg should be coated with something to stop up the pores.
Many seem equally efficacious if the covering is complete, with one
exception--fat, which becomes rancid, and imparts its own flavour
through the pores of the shell. Gum, the white of an egg, collodion,
or gelatine have all been used with success, but paraffin wax has
often failed. Anything that the eggs are packed in gives its own
flavour to their contents; therefore bran, chaff, and straw are to
be avoided as being likely to become musty. It is far better to set
the eggs on end, the larger ends upwards, in a wire or wooden rack,
and to allow free passage of air between. The eggs need not then be
turned, for the yolks are tethered to each end by a membranous cord,
and if they settle, it is always to one side, which would here be
impossible, nor to either extremity. One writer has used and approved
the following method: To 1 teaspoonful salicylic acid add about 1
pint boiling water. Let it cool, dip the eggs in one by one, dry
them, and store them on racks in an airy cupboard. Again some people
dip each egg into boiling water, and so make an impervious lining of
its own white; but this requires more care to prevent cracking, and
does not preserve the eggs for so long a time as the recipes given
above. Eggs are also packed in boxes in lime, and turned frequently.
The advantage of this plan is the small space that a number of eggs
occupy; its great disadvantage is that the lime acts upon the shell
and thins it down to exceeding brittleness. Much better is it to make
a tub of lime water, by pouring cold water over ordinary unslaked
lime, and when it has settled and is clear, pour off the water into
a deep vessel. Put the eggs in this and cover it over. The air is
here effectually kept away from the eggs, and the difficulty of wire
racks is avoided. For cooking purposes lime packing is all that can
be desired, though for the breakfast table some much prefer the
salicylic acid. Whatever plan is chosen the eggs should be put by at
once, not after they are a week or two old.

(_b_) When you collect your eggs in a morning, sort them into sizes,
and put 10-12 into a net; have ready a large saucepan of water at
the full boil. Take the net with the eggs and hold it in exactly
2 seconds; this kills the germ of the egg and closes the pores of
the shell. It is necessary, as the eggs always differ much in size,
to take one of each size, immerse them separately, and time them
exactly, as the white must on no account be in the least degree set.
When they are finished, pack all away in tin boxes until required for

(_c_) Get a brick of salt, pound it fine and dry it, then place
the eggs freshly gathered, and not cracked, with the pointed ends
downwards in the salt, and pack them firmly in a box or jar; then
keep them in a dry place. Most of them will be quite fit for the
table when kept not more than 3 months; after that they still poach
well, and are good for culinary purposes. The same salt used for
several years is better than new. One great convenience of this plan
is that on opening a box, or 4 lb. biscuit tin containing about
60, you are not compelled to use them all quickly, for each egg
is isolated in salt and remains fresh till wanted. The weight of
testimony on all sides is much in favour of salt over all other plans.

(_d_) To 1 gal. water put 1 lb. quicklime; pour the water, when
boiling, on the lime, and let it stand till the next day. Procure a
large brown earthenware pan, well glazed inside, and large enough to
hold about 100 eggs; put them in carefully, that they do not get in
the least cracked, pour in the lime water, cover over the vessel with
a slate, and put it in the cellar, but do not let it touch the floor.
A little salt in the lime keeps the water from freezing. Eggs thus
treated will keep good for many months.

Figs.--These should not be gathered from the tree until they are
ripe and tender in the skin, after which they will keep in the fruit
room for a few days without growing mouldy, but no longer; on ice,
however, they will keep for 2-3 weeks.

Filberts.--Get some stone jars, such as are used for pickles, about
2 ft. in height and 1 ft. in diameter; fill them with filberts, and
then cork them down very tightly with a bung. Bury them about 1 ft.
in the earth, or place them in a damp wine-cellar.

French Beans.--(_a_) Cut the beans up as usual, boil for 10 minutes
in water without salt, put into a colander. Fill tins with them
almost to the top, leaving only a little room for enough boiling
water to cover them; then solder the tins down, after which boil them
for an hour; take the tins out, and keep them in a dry place.

(_b_) Gather the beans when young, and in dry weather. Have ready a
brown earthenware pan or crock holding about ½ basket, and when the
beans have been gathered string and cut them as if for immediate
use; cover the bottom of the crock well with salt--the coarse kind
used for pickling pork--add a layer of French beans, well cover them
with salt, then add layers of beans and of salt alternately until
the crock is full; tie it down with thick brown paper, keep it in a
cool cellar where it is not too dry, and by Christmas the beans will
be ready for use. It is not necessary to have sufficient beans at
one time to fill the crock, provided care is taken to cover the last
layer with plenty of salt. To prepare them for use during the winter,
take out of the crock as many as are wanted for immediate use, put
them in a pan, and pour enough hot (but not boiling) water over them
to cover them (the salt will then fall to the bottom), lift out the
beans, and put them into fresh hot water 3 or 4 times, allowing them
to remain in each water ¾-1 hour, then boil them in the ordinary way.
A pinch of soda carbonate in the water they are boiled in gives them
the bright green colour they have when fresh gathered. Towards the
end of the winter they require ¼-½ hour’s extra boiling, as the salt
is apt to make them hard. Keep the crock tied down between the times
of using the beans. By attention to these rules they will remain good
till the following May or June.

Gooseberries and Currants.--Bushes of both these in the open quarter
may be matted up when the fruit is ripe, and it will keep, under
ordinarily favourable conditions, till November; but by far the best
plan is to grow the trees against a north wall, where they may be
kept till late in the season with little trouble.

Grapes.--(_a_) Many people are deterred from adopting the very useful
plan of keeping late grapes in bottles of water, from the idea that
some elaborately fitted up or air-tight compartment is necessary;
but this is by no means the case, as, with a little contrivance, a
good grape room may be extemporised in any compartment enclosed with
4 brick walls. The principal point is to get a steady temperature,
that would not be liable to sudden fluctuations: and for this reason
a room with a northern aspect is desirable, or, what is better still,
an apartment that does not communicate directly with the outside air.
The advantage of having the grapes thus securely bottled, when severe
frosts and sunshine render it impossible to maintain the houses in
which they were grown at anything like an equable temperature after
the beginning of the year, can only be fully realised by those who
have had to keep them on the vines until late in spring, besides the
benefit which the vines derive by being released of their crop and
pruned, cleaned, &c., at the most favourable period.

(_b_) Cut them with about 6 in. of wood below the bunch, and 2 in.
or 3 in. of wood above. Place the bunches in bottles filled with
water and a bit of charcoal in each. The grapes must hang quite free,
without touching the bottles. A slip of wood placed between the stalk
and the bottle ensures this. Grapes keep in this way for many months.
They must be stored in a dry place.

Green Peas.--(_a_) The Russian method is to shell the peas, put them
into a saucepan of boiling water, let them remain but a short time,
and put them to drain in a colander; when thoroughly drained, spread
them out on a cloth on the kitchen table to dry; next put them in the
oven (which must be cool) in flat tin dishes just for a few minutes
to harden; keep them in paper bags hung up in the kitchen or other
warm, dry place. When wanted for use, soak in soft water 1 hour, then
place them in a saucepan of cold water with a small piece of butter,
and boil them until they are fit to serve.

(_b_) The peas must be quite fully grown, but not old. They must be
gathered on a fine day and be perfectly dry. After shelling, put
them into wide-mouthed bottles. These, too, must be quite dry; any
dampness would cause the peas to turn mouldy. When in the bottles,
shake them a little to make them lie as close as possible, cork the
bottles, and tie moistened bladder tightly over them to exclude the
air. Set the bottles side by side in a large fish-kettle, with hay
at the bottom and round the sides, as well as around each bottle.
Pour in cold water up to the necks of the bottles, put the pan on the
fire, and after the water boils let it continue boiling for 2 hours;
then take the pan off, and leave the bottles standing in it until the
water is perfectly cold. When cold, take them out, wipe them dry,
apply melted rosin over the tops, and put them away to keep in a
cool, dry place.

Honey.--Honey, if required to be kept in the comb, should be left
undisturbed in the supers, and cut out as required; that which is
sealed over will keep a long time without alteration. One very good
way of preserving honey, when it is white comb and perfectly free
from bee-bread, as that of all good bee-keepers should be, is to
melt the whole by placing it in an earthen vessel, and standing it
in a saucepan of boiling water. When the wax has melted and risen to
the top, tie the jar down tightly with bladders, and the whole will
keep, if undisturbed, for many months without alteration or loss of

Lemons.--(_a_) Wrap each in common tissue paper, and lay them out
on a shelf so that they do not touch each other. The shelf should
be in a dry, dark cupboard, free from draughts. (_b_) Lemons will
keep good for months by simply putting them in a jug of butter-milk,
changing the butter-milk about every 3 weeks. When the lemons are
required for use, they should be well dried with a cloth. (_c_) They
will keep some time in a jar with fresh dry earth mould covering each
separately. (_d_) Put them in a basin of water, which latter should
be changed twice or thrice weekly, taking care not to bruise the

Lemon Juice.--To preserve this, squeeze a number of fine lemons,
taking care that they are all quite fresh. Strain the juice through
muslin, and pour it into bottles with just enough of the best olive
oil to cover the surface. Cork well, and keep in a dry place. Or it
may be done with sugar, allowing ½ lb. powdered sugar to ½ pint lemon
juice. They must be stirred together with a silver spoon until the
sugar is quite dissolved. Pour it into small bottles, corking them
well, and tying bladder tightly over the corks.

Melons.--Some varieties of the melon keep much better than others,
and are all the more valuable on that account. It is a pity that
raisers of new varieties do not give a little more attention to this
point. By selecting from those kinds which are coconut-shaped and
firm of rind, particularly at the end, we should no doubt have melons
of excellent keeping qualities, as well as of good flavour. As it is,
at present none of the recent new sorts is superior to, if as good,
as those which were cultivated 20-30 years ago. All the varieties
should be cut when just ripe, and kept in a cool, dry room.

(_b_) _Eingemacht melonen_, the German way of preparing which is the
following: Remove the outer part and the seeds of the melon; cut it
into convenient pieces, and lay it for 24 hours in some good white
wine vinegar, with a few pieces of cinnamon and of ginger, and the
thin rind of 1 or 2 lemons. Then make a sweet syrup with lump sugar
and some of the vinegar; boil and skim it, and when cold lay the
pieces of melon in it; after 2 days take them out, boil up the syrup,
and replace them in it when it is cold. Repeat this operation once
more, taking care to boil down the liquor to a very thick syrup; then
put by the preserve in jars in the usual way. (The G. C.)

(_c_) Put them in a strong brine of salt and water in a wide-mouthed
jar; cover them with cabbage leaves, cap the jar with paper, and set
it in the chimney corner till the leaves become yellowish, when the
melons must be put in fresh salt and water with fresh cabbage leaves,
covered close, and put on a very slow fire to warm gently but not to
boil; then take them out, clean the pan, and put them in fresh cold
water to stand 2 days, changing the water thrice daily (to take the
saltness off); prick them with a fork, and cut all the large ones
into convenient pieces, removing all the seeds; lay them in more cold
water, while you make a syrup thus: boil 1 lb. loaf sugar in 1 full
gill water, taking off the scum, and add afterwards 1 oz. bruised
brown ginger to each lb., and the very thin rind of a lemon. When the
syrup is thick, set it by till cold; then put in the pieces of fruit.
Take the fruit out again, and boil up the syrup 3 times a week for 3
weeks, and never put the fruit in again till cold. At the end of 3
weeks tie papers over the jars, and put them by. (C. E.)

Mushrooms.--(_a_) Pick and cut off the stalks, wipe them clean, from
the large ones remove the brown part, peel off the skin, and lay them
on paper in a cool oven. When dry put them into paper bags, and keep
them in a dry place. When required for use, simmer them in gravy, and
they will swell to their original size.

(_b_) Allow to each qt. of mushrooms 3 oz. butter, pepper and salt
to taste, and the juice of 1 lemon. Peel the mushrooms, and put them
into cold water, with a little lemon juice; take them out and dry
them very carefully in a cloth. Put the butter into a stewpan capable
of holding the mushrooms. When melted, add the mushrooms, lemon
juice, pepper, and salt. Let them remain over a slow fire until their
liquor is boiled away, and they have become quite dry. Be careful
not to allow them to stick to the bottom of the pan. When done, put
them into pots, and pour over the top clarified butter. If required
for immediate use, they will keep good a few days without being
covered over. To re-warm them, put the mushrooms into a stewpan,
strain the butter from them, and they will be ready for use.

Peaches and Nectarines.--These, like the plums, vary in their keeping
qualities; and certainly to be a good keeper is not the least merit
a peach or nectarine can possess, for, owing to the crop frequently
coming in suddenly during a spell of warm weather, the gardener is
forced to gather large quantities of fruit, and keep it the best
way he can. Every one does not possess an ice-house, otherwise most
varieties keep on for ice 4-6 weeks; but they must be used as soon
as taken out, and almost before they have cooled. In the fruit room,
placed on a cool airy shelf, the Royal George peach, Belle-garde,
Grosse Mignonne, Borrington, and Late Admiral will keep a fortnight
or longer, according to the weather; and the Malta is said to keep
even longer. But much depends, of course, how the fruit is gathered.
Nectarines are better keepers than peaches, and the Victoria is one
of the best. Most of the kinds will keep a fortnight at least without
deteriorating in flavour if they are pulled at the right time, which
is just before they are quite ripe to the base.

Pineapples.--By far the best keepers of these are the smooth Cayenne,
Charlotte Rothschild, and Queen. The first two will keep 6 weeks
after they are ripe if the plants are moved into a cool structure
and kept dry at the root, but if they are cut off the plant they do
not keep so long. Queens keep 4-5 weeks on the plants under the same
conditions. Some recommend the fruit, whether cut or on the plants,
to be removed before it gets quite ripe; but when good flavour is an
object this practice is not advisable, as the fruit will keep nearly
as well if it is allowed to get quite ripe before taking it out of
the pinery.

Plums and Apricots.--Both plums and apricots are difficult to
keep long, though some varieties keep much better than others,
particularly of plums. Apricots perish on the tree if they are not
gathered in time, generally rotting on the ripe side, particularly
if the weather be wet, or if the fruit has been injured by wasps or
other vermin. The only plan is to gather the fruit before it is quite
ripe on the shady side, and lay it on a sieve in the fruit room,
or in a cool cellar. In this way it will keep for a week perfectly
perhaps, but scarcely longer.

Plums keep tolerably well, and some sorts, like that excellent
variety, Coe’s Golden Drop, keep an astonishingly long period under
certain favourable conditions. The best-preserved samples we ever
saw of this variety were suspended to footstalks on lines stretched
across a dry room; and if we remember rightly, they have been kept
in that condition for 2 months. Some wrap the fruit in dry paper,
and, if we are not mistaken, Reeves has somewhere stated that he has
eaten them in good condition 12 months after they were gathered when
preserved in that way. Considering what an excellent dessert variety
Coe’s Golden Drop is, it is a wonder it has not long ago became the
subject of special culture, under glass if necessary, just like the
peach and nectarine--it is well worth a house to itself. Another
excellent keeping plum of the same breed as Coe’s Golden Drop is the
Ickworth Impératrice, which hangs on the tree till it shrivels, and
keeps for a long while in the fruit room. Knight, who raised it,
states in the Transactions of the Horticultural Society that he has
kept fruit of it, wrapped in blotting-paper and kept in a dry room,
till the end of March. Blue Impératrice is also said to be a good
keeper; and the old damson, so useful for tarts and preserving, is
not one of the worst, as it will keep for several weeks if the fruit
is spread out thinly on the shelves as soon as gathered. None of the
plums keep well after they have been basketed and stored, even for a
short time. They get bruised, and, no matter how carefully they are
kept afterwards, they soon rot. Everything depends on gathering them
before they get dead ripe, and storing properly at once.

Roots.--The action of frost is not thoroughly understood by farmers
generally. This is shown by the way clamps are covered with manure
on the top and half-way down the sides. The singular fact, however,
is, that the top of a clamp is never injured--that is, unless the
frost is so severe and prolonged that the whole mass is frozen--if
the clamp be fairly covered with straw and earth at starting. The
severity of an attack of frost begins and continues from the outer
soil at the base of a clamp or brick store, as a barn or other
building. Whether this is because a gentle fermentation of the roots
or potatoes goes on, the warmth thus caused rising to the top, or
whether it is because the lowest temperature is nearest the immediate
surface of the earth, has not been decided; but the result invariably
is that, if a body of roots or potatoes be partly injured, the
rotten ones will be found at the bottom. If the clamp be broadside
to the north or east wind, the rotten ones will be found in the form
of a triangle on the side where the wind has blown, the base of
the triangle being at the bottom; if, however, the clamp had been
situated with the end to the wind, the rotten roots will be found
at that end in the form of an inverted M, that is, there will be a
decayed triangle on each side. The length and depth to which this
decay would extend along the clamp would of course depend on the
severity and length of the frost.

The required precaution is therefore shown. In the case of clamps
after several days of severe frost, with a prospect of its
continuing, long manure, straw, hedge-trimming, or whatever may be
at hand, should be packed 1 ft. or more thick, and 1 yd. or so wide
on the surface soil at the base of the clamp, at the side on which
the blast is impinging. It is the same with a brick building. If a
bed or heap of potatoes or mangold be stored in a barn, either all
over a bay or in one or more corners, and the same be well covered
with straw, there will be no fear of the top or outer side of the
heap being frozen. But the part of the heaps which are near to the
wall will be found to have been frozen in the form of a triangle,
as mentioned. The fact is the frost rises, so to express it, from
the foundation of the brickwork being communicated with from the
surface soil outside. This shows the importance of packing a body of
long manure or a quantity of straw on the surface soil outside the

Rowan Berries.--(_a_) Fill a large earthenware jar with strong salt
and water. Put in the berries; tie it down. They will keep in this
way till Christmas, (_b_) Gum them well all over so as to make them
adhere to their stalks, and sealing-wax the ends where cut from the
tree, and keep them in a tin box till required for use.

Tomatoes.--(_a_) Cut up a number of tomatoes, and let them simmer
gently in a stewpan over a slow fire until reduced to a pulp. From
this squeeze all the juice by pressing it through a fine hair sieve;
boil it until it thickens, and then pour it into small bottles. Stand
these in a large fish-kettle or boiler, filling it with cold water,
and putting some hay between the bottles and against the sides of
the boiler, to prevent them from touching it or each other. Set the
boiler on the fire, and let all boil for ¼ hour after the water comes
to the boil. Let the bottles get cold in the water after taking the
boiler off the fire. Then cork and seal them, and keep them in a dry
place. Take care that none of the water gets into the bottles while

(_b_) If these are not to be packed for travelling, stone jars are
better for their preservation than tins. Gather the tomatoes when
perfectly ripe, and discard all that have blemishes. Pack them
lightly till the jar is full, then entirely cover with strong vinegar
and water in equal parts; add a few whole cloves and a sprinkling
of sugar. Cover with a piece of flannel, letting it sink into the
vinegar, then tie over with thick paper or bladder.

Truffles.--To keep truffles till required for use choose the
blackest, let them be fresh gathered; when thoroughly washed and
brushed, peel them carefully with a sharp knife, and reject all that
are not perfectly sound; put them into bottles as close as they will
lie, cork them tightly, and boil them for an hour in the bain-marie.

Vegetable Marrows.--(_a_) To preserve these for winter use, choose
such as are fully ripe--turned yellow. When cut, arrange them in a
dry place, resting on the flower end, with the stalk end upwards.
They will then keep good the whole winter. (_b_) Cut them when fully
grown, lay them on the pantry floor, and turn them twice a week, or
put 2 pieces of tape or listing round them, and suspend them from a
ceiling. The marrow improves in flavour, becoming quite nutty; they
will keep in this way far into spring.

Walnuts.--(_a_) Walnuts intended for keeping should be suffered
to fall of themselves from the trees, and be afterwards laid in a
dry, open, and airy place, till they become thoroughly dried. Then
pack them in jars, boxes, or casks, in alternate layers with fine
clear sand, which has previously been well dried in the sun, in an
oven, or before the fire; set them in a dry place, but not where it
is too hot, and they will keep good till the latter end of April.
Before they are sent to table wipe the sand off, and if they have
become shrivelled steep them in milk and water for 6-8 hours; this
will make them plump and fine, as well as cause them to peel easily.
(_b_) Place them, fresh gathered and unwashed, in earthen jars, tied
down with stiff glazed brown paper, and keep them on the floor of
the wine-cellar. They are perfectly good until the new ones come in
again, (_c_) Put the new walnuts in earthen jars with salt; cover
them close, and leave them in a damp cellar. When you want to use
them, wash them in cold water. At Christmas they will peel and eat
like fresh fruit.

(_c_) _Curing foods for lengthened preservation._

This branch of the subject may be conveniently divided into several
sections, according to the means employed for rendering the foods
less susceptible to change under the influence of the air. The most
important agents are smoke and salt in the case of flesh, sugar for
fruits, and vinegar for vegetables.

[Illustration: 66. Smoking Apparatus.]

_Smoking._--Professor W. R. Brooks, in _Rural New Yorker_, gives
the following simple but very effective smoking arrangement for all
kinds of meats, especially hams, shoulders, and bacon. The smoking
is effected in a very thorough manner and in a short time, about six
hours sufficing for breakfast ham. The arrangement can be made by
any one without the least trouble, and it is sure to “work” every
time. The sketch almost explains itself. The device consists of the
barrel _a_ (Fig. 66) of any suitable size. An ordinary flour or apple
barrel will smoke four or five moderate sized hams or shoulders. Both
heads are removed and a movable cover is provided for the top. This
may be of boards, or an old oil-cloth or tight blanket will answer.
A short trench is dug, in which is laid a length of old stove pipe
_b_. A larger excavation _c_ is then made, in which a pan of burning
corn cobs or chips can be placed. This is covered by a tightly
fitting plank _d_. One end of the stove pipe communicates with this
excavation; over the other end the barrel is placed, the earth banked
up around the bottom of the barrel and over the stove pipe, to keep
all tight, as plainly shown in Fig. 66. The meat may be suspended
from a stick laid across the top of the barrel, and then all covered
tight with an oil-cloth or blanket. On placing a pan of smoking cobs
or chips in the place provided, the smoke passes through the stove
pipe into the barrel, filling it with a dense, cool smoke. Should
the support of the hams, &c., break, the latter cannot be hurt by
coming in contact with the fire or ashes, as sometimes happens in the
regular smoke-house.

The ordinary smoking-chimney is described by Robinson as
follows:--“It should be placed in some outhouse or shed, or even in
a yard, so that no annoyance may be caused to the inmates of the
dwelling, by even the smallest escape of smoke. It should be built of
brick, and carried up to the height of 8 ft. at least from a brick
or stone floor, 1 yd. wide and 2 ft. deep inside measure, and at the
height of 3 ft. from the floor there should be a door frame reaching
to the top of the chimney, or nearly so, on which a door, well
jointed and fitted, must be hung. A small door of 1½ ft. square, of
sheet iron, must also be made on the floor, through which the embers
from the fire may be raked, and fuel or sawdust added from time to
time, as the process of smoking goes on. A false floor, of sheet
iron, perforated all over with holes, ¾ in. in diameter and 4 in.
apart, must be placed (not fixed) inside the brickwork, on a level
with the bottom of the wooden door-frame, viz. 3 ft. from the floor;
this will serve to scatter the smoke equally in its ascent--be a
preventive to danger from flame, if any should arise--and receive any
small fish that may fall off the frames on which they are suspended.
Four strong iron rods, with movable hooks on them, must be inserted
in the brickwork near the top of the chimney, from which may be
suspended sides of bacon, hams, heavy salmon, &c. &c. An outlet for
the smoke must be made at or near the top, and a wooden pipe, 4 in.
square, with a slide or valve in it (to confine or dismiss the smoke
at pleasure), will completely rid the premises of any unpleasant
odour. On each side of the chimney inside, and above the false floor,
a framework of inch-square scantling must be fixed, with bars of wood
of the same size nailed across to rest the rods and frames on; the
bars must be fixed 11 in. above each other, and be continued until
they come to the iron rods.

“The wooden rods or spits on which herrings are to be hung should be
perfectly round, 3 ft. in length, ½-¾ in. in diameter, and pointed a
little at one end that they may more easily be run through the gills
of the fish. They may be of deal or any other tough wood, and 16
herrings will smoke conveniently on each rod.

“Frames for sprats and other small fish must be made thus:--The
rims or outsides may be of deal, ¾ in. thick, and 2 in. wide: the
whole frame must be 3 ft. high, and 2 ft. 9 in. wide, that it may
fit into the chimney without trouble; and on each end of the top bar
must be screwed a small plate of thin iron, projecting beyond the
side of the frame 1 in., which will serve to hang the frames upon
with the bars that are fixed up the sides of the chimney. Then take
small deal rods ½ in. square, and with a bradawl or sprig-bit insert
32 sprigs, at equal distances from each other, in each rod, which,
of course, will be 2 ft. 9 in. long; and if the sprigs be driven
through on each side, it will be seen that each rod will carry at
this rate 64 fish. These must be nailed on to the outside frame at
the distance of 4½ in. from each other, and consequently each frame,
when completed, will have 8 bars holding 64 fish each, or 512 on each
frame. Wrought-iron sprigs may be used, which (being more than an
inch long, and driven up to the head) will project ½ in. on the other
side, and thus serve to hang small fish on; but this is left to the
choice of the party making the frames; and if they are driven in with
the points directed upwards, it will be easy to loosen the fish, when
smoked, from the nails by turning the frames upside down, and shaking
them over a sheet laid on the floor.

“A horse or frame of wood of 2 in. square scantling, with ribs 1 in.
square nailed across the sides, and 11 in. apart, will be requisite
to hang the herring rods on, along with the frames, when they are
drawn from the chimney; and for the purpose of cooling the fish, it
should be placed in a draught of air. Mackerel, or any other fish
that will not suit the frames so well, may easily be suspended from
the herring rods by small wire hooks made to run on them.

“The draught of smoke in the chimney may be increased or diminished
at any time by opening more widely the iron door at the bottom; and
if you want to inspect the articles while they are smoking, you may
smother the smoke entirely for a few minutes by scattering sufficient
sawdust over the embers: only take care that the sawdust is perfectly
dry before attempting to use it.

“In putting the rods and frames into the chimney, be careful that
the fish do not touch each other, but rather place them so that a
free current of smoke may ascend between them; for instance, 3 in.
apart. As to fuel, the fire may be lighted with shavings and chips of
deal; but oak sawdust should be used generally, mixed sometimes with
beech, birch, and other woods. I decidedly prefer the small branches
of the oak, such as charcoal is made from, after it has been peeled
for the tanners’ bark: for these emit a much milder smoke than the
sawdust of adult wood. They should be procured in the proper season,
and stored in a dry room or shed. Never use old oak or other slabs
(which are often little more than sap), nor old barrels, not knowing
what their contents have been. As a general rule I would direct that,
when delicate articles are to be smoked, you should make use of the
milder woods, and dust mixed with oak; but for hams, bloaters, &c.,
the stronger flavour is the best. The embers must never be disturbed
while any goods are smoking, as dust would ascend and spoil their
appearance.” (‘Art of Curing.’)

_Salting._ Bacon.--(1) Lay a middle of pork (a side with the hand
and ham removed), with the ribs in, in a trough with salt for 12-14
hours; wipe dry, wash out the trough, and replace the side; boil for
10 minutes 1 gal. soft water, 2 lb. each common and bay salt, 2 oz.
saltpetre, 2 lb. sugar, and a handful of chopped bay leaves; skim,
pour on cold, rub in twice daily, and turn often for a fortnight;
wipe dry, hang in the air for 24 hours, and smoke at least 3 weeks.

(2) Spiced. Remove all bones from a middle or side and soak for 12
hours in renewed pans of water to extract all blood; pickle for
16 days in 1 gal. water, 1 lb. each salt and sugar, and ¼ lb. sal
prunelle; wipe dry, and strew one side with powdered sage, bay leaves
and white pepper; roll tightly and tie at every 3 inches; smoke for
14 days.

Bath Chaps.--Select cheeks from pigs not exceeding 8 score; split,
and remove all offal; for each stone of meat mix 1 lb. each of coarse
sugar and bay or rock salt and 1 oz. each of pepper and saltpetre;
rub well daily for a week; turn in the pickle for another fortnight;
wipe dry, coat with warmed coarse oatmeal, and hang dry for a week;
smoke for a month, preferably with oak and turf.

Beef, Collared.--Take 14-16 lb. of the flank of a well-fed beast;
cut square or oblong and take off the inner skin; make a brine of
bay salt and water to float an egg, and let the meat lie covered in
it for one week; take out, dry well, and rub all over with finely
powdered saltpetre; let remain for a week longer in the former
pickle, then wipe it completely dry, and beat 1 oz. powdered white
pepper, 1½ oz. grated nutmeg, 1 oz. mace, 1 oz. cloves, and four
shallots, shredded fine, into a paste (in a mortar); spread evenly
and completely over the inner side of the meat; roll up the beef as
closely as possible, tie tightly round with tape, and hang up to
smoke for a fortnight.

Beef, Corned.--The following is a very old and excellent recipe for
corning beef, called “Pocock pickle”; 4 gal. fresh water, 1½ lb.
coarse brown sugar, 2 oz. saltpetre, 7 lb. common salt; put all into
a boiler, take off the scum as it rises, and when well boiled let it
remain to get cold. Have sufficient to cover the meat, lay a cloth
over it, and keep the meat pressed down by means of bricks or any
weight. The same pickle may be used again by re-boiling and adding a
small quantity of each ingredient fresh.

Beef Hams.--Take the leg of a prime young heifer, rub well with
common salt, and let lie a day and night to extract the blood; wipe
dry, and put under a press to flatten; cut in the shape of a common
ham. For every 12 lb. of beef, allow 1 lb. each coarse sugar, common
salt, and bay salt, and 1 oz. saltpetre; rub this mixture in well, in
all parts, for a month, turning the meat every day, at least; take
out of pickle, rub dry, and give a good coat of coarse oatmeal and
bran mixed, which will adhere by friction with the hand; smoke as
hams, not less than a month.

Beef, Potted.--2 lb. lean beef, 6 oz. butter, 1 teaspoonful each
pepper, salt, and mace. Free the beef from all skin and gristle, and
put it into an earthenware jar with 1 gill water; cover, and place
it in a deep stewpan full of boiling water, and simmer slowly for 5
hours. Take out the beef, mince it very finely, and pound it in a
mortar with the above-named seasoning; when smooth, add the butter.
Press the mixture into small pots, pour clarified butter over the top
when cool, tie down, and keep in a cool place.

Beef, Spiced.-½ lb. common salt, 1 oz. saltpetre, 2 oz. bay salt,
3 oz. moist sugar, ¼ oz. whole pepper, ¼ oz. long pepper, 2 blades
mace, ¼ oz. whole allspice, 2 bay leaves, 5 or 6 sprigs of thyme,
ditto marjoram, 2 stalks basil, 4 or 5 of white savoury. The whole
to be boiled in 3 pints water for ½ hour, the saltpetre and bay salt
to be pounded. The beef to be rubbed all over with a little salt
previous to its being put in the pickle, when that is cold; 14-15
days to remain in pickle, turned often. This quantity of pickle is
for a piece or hand of beef of 8 lb.

Bloaters, Potted.--Put 8 or 10 large bloaters (soft-roed ones are
best) into a dish or tin, and cook them in an oven about 15-20
minutes; then, if thoroughly cooked, remove all the bones and skin,
and put the fish into a mortar with a piece of butter (about 2
oz.), some cayenne pepper, a very little mixed spice, and salt if
necessary. Pound all together till the paste may be spread, then put
into pots and cover the top of each pot of the paste with mutton suet
melted or good salt butter.

Boar’s Head.--Take head of large bacon pig; open, and remove gullet,
tongue, eyes, small bones, brain, &c., and cleanse out thoroughly
with salt and water; wipe dry, rub with salt, and drain for 24 hours;
boil together for ¼ hour 1 gal. water, 2 lb. each treacle and bay
salt, 3 oz. sal prunelle, 2 oz. each juniper berries and pepper, 1
oz. shallots, and ½ oz. chopped garlic; skim, and pour cold over the
head and tongue lying in deep stoneware vessel; turn on alternate
days for a month; at end of first 2 weeks remove the tongue, boil up
the pickle with 1 lb. more salt, and pour on again cold; on removing
from pickle, wipe dry, and score lines 2 in. apart in the skin
running from nose to base of head; cut off any superfluous fat, and
rub all over with dried oatmeal, skin the tongue and place it in the
mouth, holding it with a skewer; close the sides with twine and smoke
for 3 weeks in brown paper, using 3 parts birch and beech chips, 2
parts oak sawdust, and 1 part grass or fern; store in malt coomb and
bake for table.

Brawn.--The head, feet, tongue, and ears of a pig, having been
salted, are boiled with the outside skin of a loin, also salted for
a few days. Boil very gently for a long time, till the bones will
easily slip out. Take great care that every one is carefully picked
out. Keep the skin of the loin whole, but cut the rest into pieces
about 2 in. square. Line the brawn mould with the skin, then roll
each piece lightly in mixed spice and powdered herbs, flavoured to
taste. Pack them tightly in the brawn tin, put on the top, and press
it with a heavy weight 24 hours. It is then ready for turning out.
Keep it in the following pickle: Take a sufficient quantity of water
(more than will be enough to cover your brawn); add to every gallon
of water 2 handfuls whole malt, and salt enough to give it a strong
relish. Let the mixture boil for 1 hour; then strain it into a clean
vessel. When quite cold, pour it off into another vessel, keeping
back the white sediment; then put in your brawn. A little vinegar
maybe added, if liked. Fresh pickle should be made about once in
8 days, if the brawn is to be kept long. A common brawn tin is a
cylinder of tin without top or bottom, but with 2 round pieces of tin
which fit loosely inside it. The tin is about 5 in. diameter and 1
ft. in height. A heavy weight must fit inside it. Slack’s fruit or
meat press answers admirably.

Char, Potted.--The following is an old family recipe: When in high
season choose a dozen fine fish; clean and scale them; wash them
twice, drying with a fresh cloth each time. Rub into them 1 oz.
Jamaica pepper, 1 oz. saltpetre, 1 oz. common salt, all in the finest
powder; lay the fish on a board, raised at one side, and let them
drain for 12 hours. Then carefully wipe off the spice and salt, and
season again with 48 cloves, 14 blades mace, 2 large nutmegs, ¼ oz.
pepper, and 1 oz. common salt, all finely powdered. As each fish is
seasoned, lay it carefully into the pan, which should be just large
enough to hold the 12 fish; lay butter over them, cover with one
white and several brown papers, tie down close, and bake 4-5 hours in
a moderately quick oven. When a little cooled, drain the liquor from
the fish, and lay them round a potting or char pan, backs upwards, as
close as they will lie without breaking, and finish packing them in
the centre. Smooth the surface with the bowl of a large spoon, that
there be no cavities to absorb the butter, which must not be put on
till the next day; then let it be ½ in. thick. The gravy, in small
proportions, is an excellent addition to soups or made dishes.

Hamburgh Beef.--Take a piece of meat from the bed, or other fleshy
part; scatter common salt under and over it, and let lie 24 hours
to void the blood; then put into a pickle made with 1 gal. water
that has been boiled, 1 lb. common salt, 1½ lb. coarse sugar, 2 oz.
saltpetre, ½ pint vinegar; simmer until all are melted, and pour the
liquor over the meat placed in a deep narrow pan, so that it may be
covered completely; it will be ready for smoking in 3 weeks; well dry
with a cloth, and rub pea meal all over it until you have got a coat
on it; if well smoked, it will come out bright yellow, and will keep
any length of time. (Robinson.)

Hams.--(1) Four days after being killed, rub them all over with
common rough salt, particularly about the hip-bone and knuckle
joints. Having brushed off the salt (which should remain on for a day
and night), and dried the hams with a coarse cloth, rub thoroughly
and equally into each, 1 oz. finely powdered saltpetre, and let it
lie for 24 hours, then take 1 oz. saltpetre, ½ lb. common salt, ¼
lb. bay salt, 1 lb. coarse sugar. Make them hot in a pan--but be
careful not to melt them--and rub them well in, while hot, all over
the fleshy and rind sides, and finish with ½ lb. more of common salt.
Let them lie thus until a brine appears, and then with plenty of bay
leaves, strewed both under and over, turn them every day, and rub
and baste them well with the brine for the space of 3 weeks; then
take them out of pickle and immerse them in cold spring water for 24
hours; let them drip; wipe them well with a cloth; rub hog’s blood,
that has coagulated, all over them, and put them to smoke for a week,
well smothered. (Robinson.)

(2) Three days after killing rub well with 1 oz. saltpetre, ½ lb.
bay salt, 1 lb. treacle, and a handful each of bay leaves, marjoram,
and thyme, chopped fine; keep on rubbing and basting for a week,
turning over each day; next strew salt on an inch thick, and let
remain till the salt and brine are well mixed; boil the pickle, and
pour it hot (not scalding) over the meat; let lie for 14 days; smoke,
without wiping, for a week in gentle heat for the first 6 hours and
afterwards cool.

(3) Take a leg of pork about 20 lb. and rub all over with 3 oz.
saltpetre; let lie 14 hours; then boil 2 qt. stale beer or porter, 2
lb. salt, 2 lb. coarse sugar, 1 lb. pounded bay salt, skim well, and
pour hot over the meat; let lie a month, rubbing and turning every
alternate day; take out, rub dry, and roll for ½ hour in malt-dust or
oatmeal; when well covered, smoke for 3 weeks; and immediately wash
over with a hot paste of quicklime and water; leave for a week, and
hang in cool dry place.

(4) Take a leg of pork 16-18 lb.; rub in 1 oz. sal prunelle and
leave for 24 hours; boil 12 oz. bay salt, 10 oz. common salt, 1½
oz. saltpetre, 2 lb. treacle, 2 qt. vinegar, 3 heads garlic, and a
handful of chopped sage; skim, pour hot over the meat, and well rub
in daily for 10 days; let lie 10 days with frequent turning; dry, and
smoke for 3 weeks.

Herrings.--The fish are spread on a floor, and sprinkled with
salt; when sufficiently salted, they are thrown into large vats,
and washed. Each fish is then threaded through the gills, on long
thin spits holding 25 each. These are hung upon trestles in the
smoking-room, where fires of oak-boughs are kept smouldering. For
“bloaters,” to be consumed in England, the smoking lasts about 24
hours; “red-herrings” for export are salted more, and are smoked for
3 or 4 to 40 days, usually about 14 days. “Kippers” are taken while
fresh, and split up. They are then washed, and thrown into vats with
plenty of salt for a few minutes; finally they are spread out on
tenter-hooks, on racks, and hung up for 8 hours’ smoking.

Herring Paste.--1 doz. herrings put in a pan, cover with hot water;
when pretty soft, pull them to pieces, take out all the bones (use
only white part of fish and soft roes), pound in a mortar, with ½ lb.
butter, cayenne to taste, ¼ pint anchovy sauce; when well pounded,
put into small pots with lard over. Will keep good for months, and
will be found delicious.

Hungarian Beef.--Take about 10 lb. of fine fat short rib or sirloin
of beef that has been killed 4 or 5 days; rub thoroughly with ½ lb.
coarse sugar or treacle until none can be seen; after lying 2 days
take 2 oz. juniper berries, ½ lb. bay salt, 2 oz. saltpetre, 1 oz.
sal prunelle, 1 lb. common salt, all finely beaten to powder, and
some bay leaves and thyme chopped small; rub in for an hour, and let
lie for 3 weeks in an earthen pan, rubbing well every day with the
brine; take out, wipe well, and plunge into cold water for 12 hours;
rub perfectly dry, and colour with bullocks’ blood; hang up in gentle
smoke for 3 days, after which smoke until nearly black.

Mackerel.--Take the mackerel as soon as caught (for they quickly
become dark and lose flavour), and with a light knife split open the
back from head to tail; take out the guts, roes, livers, and gills,
and be particular you do not burst the gall; wipe each fish well
inside and out, and put into the following pickle:--1 gal. cold pure
water, 1 oz. saltpetre, 2 lb. common salt, 1 lb. coarse sugar; if the
fish be large and thick, let them lie in this state 6 hours; then
take out and put two stretch laths across the back of each, extending
them as much as possible; wash through the pickle once, and hang to
dry for 2 hours; after which place in a hot smoke for 1 hour, and
afterwards in a cool one for 20 hours, or until they become of a dark
chestnut colour. When cold, pack them one on the other in bundles of
6, and keep them rather in a dry than in a damp room.

Mutton Hams.--Select a short, thick, round leg of wether mutton about
14 lb. weight; rub thoroughly for 20-30 minutes with coarse sugar,
and let lie 12 hours, turning 3 times; plunge into the following
pickle, with what sugar you have on the dish;-½ lb. bay salt, 1 lb.
common salt, 1 oz. saltpetre, 2 oz. juniper berries, 1 handful each
of thyme and bay leaves, 2 qt. soft water; simmer together one hour,
and use lukewarm; let remain in this pickle 3 weeks; take out, but
do not wipe; then smoke, but insist on its being turned frequently,
sometimes shank upwards, and _vice versâ_, for a fortnight, in a
strong regular fume; when cold, put into a calico bag, and hang up in
the kitchen until you want to dress it; then bury it in the bag in a
dry garden soil for 20 hours or so; and take care, when it is boiled,
to put plenty of bay leaves, thyme, and marjoram into the pot along
with it. (Robinson.)

Norfolk Chine.--Select the chine of a 10-score pig; remove rind and
superfluous fat, and rub and turn daily for a week in 1 lb. each
salt and treacle, and 1 oz. each bay and laurel leaves; then boil 3
qt. water with 1 lb. salt, 1 oz. each crushed juniper berries and
shredded bay and laurel leaves, and a handful each of thyme and
marjoram; skim, and pour cold over the meat so that it mingles with
the first pickle; turn for 3 weeks, wipe dry, and coat with bran and
then pea flour; smoke for 14 days with equal proportions dried fern,
oak lops, and birch or beech chips; bake and eat cold.

Oysters.--A method of preserving oysters is adopted by the Chinese.
The fish are taken from the shells, plunged into boiling water for
an instant, and then exposed to the sun till all the moisture is
removed. They remain fresh for a long time, and retain their full
flavour. Only the fattest can be so treated. Oysters are also largely
“canned,” much in the same way as salmon.

Pickled Pork.--Cut into convenient sized pieces and remove principal
bones; rub well with saltpetre and then with a mixture of 2 parts bay
salt and 1 part common salt; pack in a clean vessel with plenty of
salt around the sides and covering the top.

Porker’s Head.--Choose a dairy-fed porker of 7 score; open the head,
and remove gullet, tongue, eyes, &c.; wash 5 minutes in salt and
water; rub well all over with coarse sugar and sliced onions; let
remain in a deep dish 48 hours; boil ½ oz. powdered bay leaves, ¾
oz. saltpetre, 1 lb. bay salt or rock salt, 2 oz. ground allspice,
1 qt. water; skim well, and when cold, pour it over the head in a
deep straight-sided earthen vessel; let lie 3 weeks, turning and
basting with the pickle every other day; wipe dry, place the tongue
in (having meantime cured it as neats’ tongue) and stuff all cavities
with onions fried in olive oil or sweet lard, and powdered dried
sage; bind the cheeks close together with tape, and smoke 3 weeks
with 2 parts beech chips, 2 parts fern, 1 part peat, 1 part oak
sawdust; keep in same packing as hams, tongues, &c., for 2 months;
bake and eat cold.

Salmon.--The fish are beheaded and cleaned, and cut by a series of
knives into the right lengths to fill 1 lb. cans. When these have
been filled to within ¼ in. of the top, the covers are put on and
soldered. In an air-tight condition, the full cans are passed to
the boilers, vats measuring 5 ft. × 4 ft. × 4 ft., where they are
steamed for 1 hour. They are then taken out and cooled. A small hole
in the centre of each lid, hitherto remaining soldered up, is opened
by applying a hot iron, and the air and cooking-gases are allowed to
escape. The cans are then instantaneously made air-tight again, and
are boiled for two hours in a bath of salted water, the salt being
added to raise the boiling-point. They are then left to stand till
quite cool.

Salmon, Kippered.--Lay the fish on a board with the tail towards you,
and the back to the right hand; insert the knife at the point of the
nose, and split down the backbone, or as near to it as possible. Take
out the inside and the roe, and scale and wipe the fish perfectly
clean; remove the backbone and every particle of blood. When clean,
rub in a mixture of equal parts salt, brown sugar, and ground black
pepper, about 4 large spoonfuls of each ingredient to a 10 lb. fish.
Let the fish remain in the pickle 2-3 days, according to size,
turning it every day. Afterwards press it between 2 flat stones in a
cool place for 2-3 days more, then sprinkle it with ground pepper,
and hang it out in the sun against a wall until dry, with wooden
skewers to keep it flat, or it may be hung above the fireplace in the
kitchen when it is warm, but not hot. After that it may be smoked for
2 days and nights in the smoke of dried seaweed and oak sawdust, or
painted over with pyroligneous acid, or with Smith’s Cambrian essence.

Salmon, Pickled.--Take a good salmon; cut it across in 2 or 3 pieces
without splitting it; wash carefully and boil in pickle made with
coarse salt and spring water strong enough to float an egg. The fish
must be put down in cold pickle, and allowed very slowly to boil till
it begins to separate from the bone, keeping it well skimmed all the
while. Put the fish on a table to drain, and when cold pack it in
a crock or keg as closely as possible without breaking the pieces,
sprinkling a small quantity of powdered saltpetre, a little salt, and
some bay leaves on each layer. Then cover with a pickle made thus: 1
qt. vinegar, 3 pints spring water, ¼ lb. lump sugar, 16 drops oil of
cloves. This pickle will preserve any kind of fish fit for pickling,
and is particularly good for oysters. These should be boiled slowly
before put in it.

Sardines.--The beheaded and cleaned fish are spread upon sieves,
and plunged for 1 or 2 minutes beneath the surface of boiling oil
in coppers. After draining a little, the fish are packed closely in
tin boxes, which are filled up with pure cold oil, and soldered.
The quality deteriorates with every immersion, owing to the matters
disengaged by the boiling oil, and the coppers need frequent
replenishing with oil.

Sausages.--(_a_) Take a quantity of pig’s meat, remove all nerves
and skin with great care; then chop it as finely as possible. Put
it in an earthenware pan, add to it garlic, parsley, mint, thyme,
marjoram, and burnet finely minced; pepper and cloves powdered; and
salt, all in such proportions as taste may suggest. Work the whole
with a wooden spoon for some time, so as to get all the ingredients
well mixed; then add a tumblerful of white wine for every 2 lb. meat,
and work it for some time longer. Have some skins perfectly cleaned,
rub them well all over with lemon juice, and put them in water with
plenty of lemon juice squeezed into it. Take them out one at a time,
dry them, fill them with the meat, and tie them in lengths of about 3
in. The sausages should then be hung up to dry in a strong current of
air for some days. These sausages are best eaten boiled with cabbages
or greens. (The G. C.)

(_b_) Beef sausages are prepared in exactly the same manner as pork.
The best part to use is beef steak. To 1 lb. of this use ¼ lb.
beef suet or other good fat, ¼ pint stock, or water, 1½ oz. sifted
breadcrumbs, 1 large teaspoonful salt, ½ teaspoonful dried and
sifted parsley mixed with a similar quantity of thyme, and 1 small
teaspoonful salt. If these sausages are properly made and cooked,
they will, when cut, give plenty of gravy; they are considered
somewhat less rich than those made of pork.

(_c_) 1½ lb. pigmeat cut from the griskin, without any skin, 1½
lb. veal, 1½ lb. beef suet, the yolks and whites of 5 eggs, 1
dessertspoonful sifted sage (after being well dried), pepper and
salt to taste. Chop the meat into small pieces, pound it together
in a marble mortar till it is soft and tender, chop the suet very
fine, and when the eggs are well beaten together (after the specks
are taken out) pour the liquid over the pounded meat and chopped
suet, kneading it well together with a clean hand, throwing in the
sifted sage and pepper and salt from a coarse pepper-box during the
operation, so as to let them impregnate the whole mass without being
predominant in any part of it. Press the whole, when well mixed
together, into a wide-mouthed jar, and keep it from the air in a cold
place; roll the sausages on a floured board, and use very little
grease in frying them, as they will be almost fat enough to fry
themselves, with the aid of a frying-pan. They should be made into
small flat cakes, about the size of a five-shilling piece. Lovelock’s
sausage-making machine is very useful.

(_d_) To each lb. veal put ½ lb. ham, in equal quantities of fat and
lean. Season with ½ teaspoonful salt, a whole one of pepper, a pinch
of nutmeg and sweet herbs; mix with 1 oz. sifted breadcrumbs, and
moisten with 4 tablespoonfuls stock made from trimmings of the veal
and ham. Proceed as for pork sausages.

Shrimps.--To preserve shrimps in a dried state, they are boiled for
½ hour with frequent sprinkling of salt; then spread out on hard dry
ground, with frequent turning, to dry and bleach for 3 or 4 days.
They are then trampled to remove the shells, and are winnowed and

Shrimps, Potted.--Take some freshly boiled shrimps and half their
weight of butter, pick out the meat from the tails, and chop it up
fine; take the rest of the shrimps and pound them up with a little of
the butter until reduced to a smooth paste, then add the meat from
the tails and pound all together, seasoning well with pounded mace,
grated nutmeg, and cayenne pepper; put it into pots, and cover with
clarified butter.

Smoked Geese.--When geese are cheap, take as many as you please, only
seeing that they are fresh, and not in the least damp or muggy; then
cleanly draw, pick from pen-feathers, and wipe well out with a cloth
dipped in strong salt and water; after which immerse in the following
(quantities for 6 geese):--2 lb. coarse sugar, 1 lb. bay salt, 3
oz. saltpetre, 1 handful finely beaten sage, 3 shallots, 2 handfuls
crushed bay leaves; boil together 10 minutes, and afterwards simmer
½ hour; when cold, pour over the geese, which must be turned often,
and, if possible, kept covered with the pickle; let remain 48 hours;
take out and let them drip (do not wipe), and rub cayenne pepper
plentifully inside each until it adheres; smoke 3 days and nights in
a cool smoke, and hang each up in a calico bag in the kitchen; when
wanted for table, dissect them, and broil over a clear fire.

Smoked Neats’ Tongues.--Take 6 tongues and rub well with sugar for 2
days; then rub well with common salt and saltpetre for 2 days more,
apart from the sugar; then take 1 qt. each of water and porter, ¼
lb. saltpetre, 2 lb. bay salt, 2 lb. common salt, and with the sugar
first used make a hot pickle, which skim well, and pour over the
tongues laid in a deep narrow tin pan completely covered; let lie
for 8 days more, and they will be fit for use in any way; if to be
smoked, wipe them well, and turn in the chimney 4 or 5 times for 5

Sprats.--Pick out the largest, and then the second size, rejecting
the remainder, or refuse, which, however, may be useful to pot. Put
into baskets, and well wash in salt and water; then set to drain an
hour, and afterwards plunge into a pickle that will float an egg:
the smaller ones may be taken out of pickle in 4 hours, and the
large ones in 6 hours, and be set to drain; which done, proceed to
stick them on frames, the eye being pierced by each nail, and then,
with a steady hand, put into the chimney. Set on a gentle heat for ½
hour, and let it be succeeded by a strong smoke for 12 hours longer;
when cold, they will be fit for immediate consumption; but if you
want them to keep a month or so, you must continue the smoke on them
for 30 hours, or until they become a dark brown colour; and if for
packing, they should be placed as bloaters, keeping the same-sized
ones together in a dry room, and after a few hours they will have
sweated in the packages, and will be very mellow and fine flavoured.

Sprats, Pickled.--For this purpose the sprats must be quite fresh
and unsalted. Clean, take off the heads, and thoroughly wash them.
Drain, and put in layers and rows, heads and tails, into china-lined
earthen pie-dishes, wide, well glazed, or stoneware crocks, with
whole pepper, allspice, chili-pods, and bay leaves; of the latter
sparingly. Dissolve 1 spoonful salt in hot water, pour it over the
fish, and add vinegar to cover them completely. Cover and bake slowly
for 1-2 hours, according to quantity, till all the fish are well
cooked through. Take off the cover and let them cool before putting
away for use. Add a little more vinegar if too dry. A few shallots
or slices of silverskin onions can be added if approved of. Sprats
pickled thus should come to the table in the vessel they are cooked
in, and removed in layers. In cold weather, if kept for a week or
two, the bones will be found to be quite dissolved by the action of
the vinegar. Fresh herrings, trout, salmon peal, eels, and a variety
of fresh-water fish can be thus prepared.

Sprats, Potted.--Pour some boiling (slightly salted) water on the
sprats, cleaned as above-mentioned, in a deep pan. After a few
minutes the meat can easily be removed from the bones. When this is
done, mash it up finely and carefully with a silver fork. Add red and
white pepper and a little more salt to taste. Grease 1 lb. jam-pots
with clarified butter. Pack the fish closely into these, and bake for
½-1 hour in slow heat. When cold, pour some of the clarified butter
or some American tinned marrow fat to the depth of 1 in. on the top
of each pot, and allow to harden before tying down for use. These
will keep well 1-3 weeks.

Tongues.--(_a_) Sprinkle the tongue well all over with common salt,
and let it stand 2 days. If it appear slimy, remove the salt with
the slime, then mix 1 lb. saltpetre and 1 tablespoonful coarse brown
sugar together, with which rub the tongue well, and let it be in
pickle 3-7 weeks, taking care to turn and baste it well every day
during that time. If it be allowed to remain in pickle as long as 7
weeks, it should be taken out, rubbed dry, and hung up to keep for
five days before using it. It is better, however, not to keep them
in so long, as tongues are always best used straight out of the
pickle. Like all other boiled meats, tongues require great care in
cooking. The fact is they never should boil; they should be soaked
for 2 hours or more after they are taken out of the pickle, according
to the number of weeks they have been in it, and should then be put
into a large saucepan or stewpan in cold water. As soon as this shows
symptoms of boiling, and before it begins regularly to boil, the pan
should be drawn sufficiently to the side of the fire to keep up a
constant simmering, to be kept up until it is done. In this way the
tongue will be as tender as possible, and, cured with saltpetre as
described, it should have a nice red colour.

(_b_) ½ oz. saltpetre, ½ oz. salprunella, 1 lb. salt, ½ lb. very
coarse sugar, 4 bay leaves, 10 juniper berries, 1 tablespoonful
vinegar, and 3 pints water. Let all boil for ½ hour, skim off the
scum, and pour the liquid into a pickling dish, when it is quite cold
put the tongue in, and turn it every day for 3 weeks, if you wish to
cook it green, but if you intend to hang it, let it stop for a month
in pickle. This pickle will keep good for months if reboiled and
skimmed. Every tongue put in should be well rubbed with salt, left to
drain for 3 days, and wiped dry before being put in.

Trout, Potted.--(_a_) Pour boiling water on the fish, and let them
steep ½ hour; bone and skin them, and pound them in a mortar with
½ lb. butter to double the quantity of fish; add by degrees, salt,
cayenne, and spices to taste; when reduced to a smooth paste, put it
into pots and cover with clarified fat or butter.

(_b_) Mix together the following quantity of spices, all finely
pounded. 1 oz. cloves, ½ oz. Jamaica pepper, ¼ oz. black pepper, ¼
oz. cayenne, 2 nutmegs, a little mace, and 2 teaspoonfuls ginger;
add the weight of the spices and half as much again of salt, and mix
all thoroughly. Clean the fish, and cut off the heads, fins, and
tails; put 1 teaspoonful of the mixed spices into each fish, and lay
them in a deep earthen jar with the backs downwards; cover them with
clarified butter, tie a paper over the mouth of the jar, and bake
them slowly for 8 hours. When the backbone is tender the fish are
done enough. Take them out of the jar and put them in a pan with the
backs upwards; cover them with a board, and place a heavy weight upon
it. When perfectly cold remove the fish into fresh jars, smooth them
with a knife, and cover them with clarified butter.

_Pickling._--The chief agent in pickling is hot vinegar, and the best
way to prepare it is as follows:--Bruise ¼ lb. each of black pepper,
ginger, cloves, pimento, and mace, with some garlic, horse-radish,
capsicums, and shallots, in 1 qt. of the strongest and best vinegar
in a stoneware jar; cork tightly, cover with a bladder soaked in the
pickle, and place on a trivet near the fire for 3 days, shaking it up
3 or 4 times a day. Gherkins and similar articles should be pricked
before immersion, to admit the pickle better. The addition of a
little alkali (such as soda bicarbonate) heightens the green colour
of the pickles. Glazed or block-tin vessels should alone be used for
making pickles in. Glass or earthenware jars are best for strong
pickles; they must be tightly corked and tied down with bladder
soaked in the pickling liquor. A damp store cupboard is fatal to them.

Cabbage.--Choose a fine closely-grown red cabbage, strip the outside
leaves off, cut it across in rather thin slices, and lay on a dish,
scattering salt over; cover with a cloth, and let lie 20 hours; drain
the cabbage on a sieve, and put it in a clean jar with allspice,
whole pepper, and a little ginger sliced; pour cold white wine
vinegar over it to cover it well, and tie closely from the air.

Chutney.--(_a_) Cayenne pepper, ¼ oz.; mustard seed, 2 oz.; brown
sugar, ½ lb.; ground ginger, 1 oz.; vinegar, 1½ pint; stoned raisins,
¼ lb.; garlic, 2 oz.; onions, ¼ lb.; salt, 2 oz.; apples, 1½ lb. Boil
until soft enough to mash through a colander. (C. G. J.)

(_b_) Peel 4 lb. green mangoes, take out the stones, and cut them
into quarters lengthwise; boil them slightly in 1 bottle vinegar, and
put it aside in a jar till cold. Take another bottle of vinegar, to
which add 2 lb. sugar, and boil it till it becomes a thin syrup; put
aside till cold. Take 1 oz. salt, 2 lb. picked and dried raisins, 1
oz. yellow mustard seed, 1 oz. garlic, 2 oz. dried chillies, 1 lb.
green ginger sliced. Pound the garlic, chillies, and ginger finely
in a mortar; mix all the ingredients together, bottle and expose to
the sun for 3-4 days, or place it in a cool oven. Apples can be used
instead of mangoes; they should be finely cut up.

(_c_) Apple.--6 large sharp apples, 3 large onions, 6 oz. sultana
raisins, 1 teaspoonful ground ginger, 1 saltspoonful red pepper, 1
dessertspoonful salt, 2 tablespoonfuls tomato sauce or the pulp of 2
or 3 tomatoes, 1 dessertspoonful anchovy essence, 1 dessertspoonful
Indian soy, 1 tablespoonful salad oil, ½ vinegar. Chop very finely
the apples and onions, and chop the raisins roughly. Now put all
the ingredients, with the exception of the vinegar, into a mortar,
and pound together, and by degrees add the vinegar. When all the
ingredients are well blended together, put into wide-mouthed bottles,
and cork tightly.

(_d_) Elder.--The berries that remain from elder ketchup, an onion
finely minced, ¼ oz. ginger, and a blade of mace and 6 cloves; pound
the spice together, and put all the ingredients into an enamelled
stewpan, with 3 oz. sultana raisins, 2 oz. Demerara sugar, ½ pint
vinegar, 1 saltspoonful cayenne pepper, and 1 teaspoonful salt, and,
if convenient, a few mulberries; boil all together 5 minutes, take
from the fire, and, when cold, put into wide-mouthed bottles, and
cork tightly. This makes a very good chutney for cold meat; it can be
made hotter if liked.

(_e_) Green Gooseberry.--4 pints green gooseberries boiled in 1½ pint
brown vinegar, 2 lb. brown sugar made into a syrup, 1½ pint vinegar;
1½ lb. raisins, stoned and chopped; 6 oz. garlic, pounded and dried;
6 oz. mustard seed, gently dried and bruised; 2 oz. dried chillies,
pounded. Mix all together, put in a cool oven for some hours on
several different occasions; and after, if too dry, add a little
vinegar, as may be required, at the end of a month or two.

(_f_) Tomato.--Take 4-5 lb. ripe tomatoes, pick out the stalks, wipe
the fruit with a dry piece of flannel, place them in a jar with a
lid, add a breakfastcupful of salt, the same of vinegar, close the
jar by placing a stiff paste of flour and water round the edge of
the lid so as to make it air-tight, place the jar in a large pan of
boiling water, let the fruit simmer slowly for 6 hours, then pulp
through a colander to get quit of the skins and cores. Shred 2 oz.
red chillies, the same of garlic, make a syrup of 2 pints vinegar and
2 lb. loaf sugar, cut small 2 oz. ginger, mix all with the tomatoes,
place on a slow fire, simmer gently; when it comes to the boil take
off the chutney, bottle when cold, cork tight, keep in a warm, dry

Cucumbers.--Cut them small and unripe; make an incision at the side,
and, taking out a piece of the fruit, save it entire, and extract the
seeds thoroughly; put the cucumbers, with the pieces which have been
cut from them, into a strong pickle of salt and water, and leave in
it for 10 days, or until they become yellow; place in a pan, with
thick layers of fresh vine leaves between them; dissolve a little
powdered alum in the brine from which they have been taken, pour it
on, and set the pan over a moderate fire; keep the cucumbers at a
scalding heat for 4 hours at least, without on any account allowing
them to boil; by that time they will be of a fine green colour;
drain on a sieve, and when cold put a stick of horse-radish, some
mustard seed, 4 cloves of garlic, and ¼ oz. of peppercorns into each
cucumber; fit in the piece that was taken out, and stitch with a
needle and green silk; boil 2 oz. each of black peppercorns, long
pepper, and sliced ginger, 4 oz. mustard seed, 1 oz. each of garlic,
mace, and cloves, and 1 gal. best white wine vinegar, together for 8
minutes; lay the cucumbers in a deep jar, and when the pickle is cold
pour it on; tie first bladder, and then leather, closely over.

Gherkins.--Soak 250 gherkins in a pickle of 2½ lb. common salt to 1
gal. water; let lie 3 hours; drain on a sieve, wipe separately, and
place in a jar; boil 1 gal. best white wine vinegar, 6 oz. common
salt, 1 oz. each of allspice and mustard seed, ½ oz. each of cloves
and mace, 1 sliced nutmeg, and 1 stick of horse-radish, sliced, for
12 minutes; skim well, and pour when cold over the gherkins; let
stand 20 hours covered up close; put altogether into a pan over the
fire, and let simmer only until they attain a nice green colour;
place in jars, pour the liquor and spices over them, and tie closely
with bladder and leather.

Grapes.--The grapes must be carefully cut from the stalk before they
are ripe, and care must be taken not to bruise the skin, or they
will become soft instead of crisp. Boil 4 pints vinegar, 2 oz. whole
ginger, 1 oz. peppercorns, 2 doz. cloves, and a very small piece
of mace. When cold pour it over the grapes, and let them be well
covered, and remain 3 days; then boil the vinegar again, and pour it
cold on the grapes. Bottle and cork securely.

Grape Leaves.--A writer in the _Country Gentleman_ recommends the
use of fresh green grape-leaves to place on top of pickles in jars
in place of flannel or other cloth usually employed. He claims the
leaves will preserve the vinegar sharp and clear and impart a nice
flavour. The leaves should be rinsed in pure water and left to
drain before use, and occasionally changed. They exclude the air,
and besides imparting a delightful flavour to the pickle cause less
trouble to the housewife.

Ketchup.--(_a_) Elder.--Put into a jar 3 pints elderberries, picked
from the stalks, 2 large blades of mace, 2 oz. ginger, 6 oz.
anchovies, ½ oz. whole pepper, 1½ pint vinegar; set it in a rather
cool oven, and let it remain there all night. Next morning strain
the liquor from the berries, and put into an enamelled stewpan, with
the ginger, mace, anchovies, pepper and salt; let it boil till the
anchovies are dissolved. Strain off, and, when cold, put into small
bottles, cork and seal. This is a nice ketchup for broiled fish. The
berries will make a chutney.

(_b_) Mushroom.--The mushrooms should be gathered in the morning
before the sun is on them. Break them in small bits, put them in a
large dish, and sprinkle a good deal of salt upon them; let them
lie for 4 days, turning them daily, and adding a little salt. Lay
the pieces upon a sieve, or put them in a thin bag. Let them run
all night until the juice is all run from them; put the juice in a
stewpan, beat up the whites of 2 eggs, add them to the ketchup, with
plenty of mixed spices. Let it boil for one minute, run it through a
piece of muslin into a basin, and when cold bottle it up, cork, and
seal it; keep it in a dry place.

(_c_) Ditto.--Break up the mushrooms, and add ¼ lb. salt to every 3½
lb. mushrooms; let them stand for 2 days, and drain all the juice you
can procure from them by pressure; then boil it slowly for an hour,
with 2 oz. of salt, a few cloves, and ¼ oz. peppercorns and whole
ginger, to each qt.; then strain, and when cold bottle, using new
corks, and sealing them down.

(_d_) Ditto.--Take for this full-grown flap mushrooms, crush them
with the hands, and put a handful of salt to every peck; let them
stand all night, then put into broad-mouthed jars, and set them for
12 hours in a quick oven, then strain through a hair sieve. To every
qt. of liquor put ¼ oz. cloves, black pepper, and ginger; boil till
half is wasted; when cold bottle for use.

(_e_) Walnut.--Take 6 half-sieves of green walnut shells, put them
into a tub, mix up well with 2-3 lb. common salt; let them stand for
6 days, frequently beating and mashing them, till the shells become
soft and pulpy, then, by banking it up on one side the tub, at the
same time raising the tub on that side, the liquor will drain clear
off to the other; then take that liquor out. The mashing may be
repeated as often as liquor is found. The quantity will be about 6
qt. When done, let it be simmered in an iron boiler as long as any
scum rises; then bruise ¼ lb. ginger, ¼ lb. allspice, 2 oz. long
pepper, 2 oz. cloves; let it slowly boil ½ hour. When bottled, let an
equal quantity of spice go into each bottle, cork them tight, seal
them over, and put them into a cool, dry place for one year before
they are used. (C. G. J.)

Lemon.--Grate the rind from 1½ doz. lemons, taking care only to
remove the extreme outer coating, leaving the white well covered
with a tinge of yellow. Cut them in quarters, but do not let the
knife go quite through them, leaving just enough at the bottom to
hold the quarters together; rub ¾ lb. bay salt equally over them,
and spread them out on a dish. Place this in a cool oven, and let
them remain there until the juice has dried into the peels. This,
if preferred, may be done in front of the fire, but it must be done
very gradually. When the juice is so absorbed, put the lemons in a
large jar, with somewhat less than 1 oz. mace, the same of grated
nutmeg, half the quantity of pounded cloves, 3 oz. peeled garlic, and
¾ breakfastcupful mustard seed bruised a little and tied in a muslin
bag. Over all this pour 3 pints boiling vinegar, close the jar well,
and stand it near the fire for 4-5 days, shaking it up every day.
Then tie it up and let it remain for 3 months to take off the bitter
taste of the peels. At the end of this time turn the whole out on to
a hair sieve, moving it about to get out the liquor; let it stand a
day, and then pour off the fine part and bottle it. The other part
must stand for 3 days more, and it will refine itself. Pour it off
and bottle it, let it stand again and bottle it, till the whole is
refined. It may be put in any sauce, and will not spoil the colour.
If for white sauce, 1 teaspoonful is enough, or 2 for brown sauce.
Should cream be used in the sauce, the pickle must be put in before
the cream or other thickening is added, or it will probably cause it
to curdle.

Mixed Pickles.--1 gal. vinegar, sixpennyworth turmeric, 2 oz. black
pepper ground, 2 oz. long ditto pounded, 1 oz. cloves pounded, 4 oz.
flour of mustard, 3 oz. mustard seed, whole cayenne to your taste,
2 oz. ginger pounded fine, white cabbage cut in slices, quantities
of horseradish scraped, ½ pint garlic, 1 pint shallots, 2 doz. large
onions cut in quarters, a cucumber, a cauliflower, a few French
beans, and a few radish pods, plenty of capsicums. Lay them in a red
pan. You cannot put too much salt about them. Let the vegetables
remain 3 days in salt, then strain them out and shake them. Lay them
on a linen cloth in the sun to dry, then put them into your jar near
the fire. Then boil all your spice with the vinegar, and pour it on
boiling off the fire. They will be fit to use in 2 months. For an
ordinary family ¼ of the above, with half the vegetables, will be
found sufficient to make at a time.

Mushrooms.--Take the smallest and roundest button mushrooms, throw
into cold water, and rub each separately with a piece of flannel
dipped in salt to clean them thoroughly; put them again, as you
proceed, into fresh cold water, and finally into a pan with a handful
of table salt scattered over them on a moderate fire, covering them
close that the steam may not escape, for 10 minutes, or until they
are thoroughly hot and the water is drawn well out of them; pour them
on a sieve, and quickly dry them well between the cloths; let remain
covered up from the air till they are cold; place in clean dry glass
bottles with a little mace, and fill up with distilled or white wine
vinegar, adding to each bottle a teaspoonful of salad oil; cork and
seal them up so as to exclude air.

Nasturtiums.--Gather within a week after the blossoms have fallen
off; take a gallon of them, and throw into a pail of salt and water,
cold, in which to keep them, changing the water 3 times at least,
3 days and nights; lay in a sieve to drain, and rub perfectly dry
between cloths; boil for ten minutes 1 gal. white wine vinegar, 1 oz.
each of mace and nutmeg, 2 oz. white peppercorns, 4 sliced shallots,
and 4 oz. common salt; skim well, and when nearly cold, pour the
whole over the fruit placed in jars, and tie close.

Onions.--Take the smallest clear silver onions; after peeling,
immerse in cold salt and water, and let lie for 10 days, changing
the pickle daily; drain on a sieve, put into a jar, pour newly-made
brine of salt and water boiling hot over them, and let stand closely
covered, until cold; repeat the scalding with new pickle, and, when
cold and well drained, put in bottles or jars, with a slice or two
of the best ginger, a blade of mace, and a bay leaf; fill up with
distilled vinegar, and be sure to add salad oil to float on the top;
tie close, and seal down.

Piccalilli.--Slice up a closely-grown, sound-hearted white cabbage
and a sound white beetroot, with a cauliflower divided into several
small branches, a few clear gherkins, some radish-pods, and kidney
beans; lay in a sieve with two or three handfuls of common salt
scattered over, and expose to the sun or fire for 4 days; when you
think all the water is extracted from them, put them into a large
stoneware pan, mixing well, and scattering plenty of good sound
mustard seed amongst them as you go on; to each gallon of best
vinegar, add 3 oz. peeled and sliced garlic, and 1½ oz. turmeric;
boil, skim well, and pour the liquor while hot over the vegetables;
let them lie 10 days, at least, with strong paper tied over, near a
fire, until they have become a fine yellow colour, and have imbibed
a fair quantity of the vinegar; then boil 3 qt. best white wine
vinegar, 1½ oz. each of white pepper and mace, and ½ oz. each of long
pepper, nutmegs, and cloves, for 10 minutes; skim well, and pour all
over the pickles; tie the jar with bladder and leather.

Samphire.--By persons living near the sea it is usually preserved,
when freshly gathered, in equal parts vinegar and sea water, or
even sometimes in the water only; but when brought inland it should
be steeped 2 days in brine, then drained, and put into a stone jar,
covered with vinegar, and having a lid, over which put a thick paste
of flour and water, and set it in a very cool oven all night, or in a
warmer oven till it nearly but not quite boils. Then let it stand on
a warm hob for ½ hour, and allow it to become quite cold before the
paste is removed; then add cold vinegar if any more is required, and
secure as other pickles.

Tomato.--(_a_) Gather 4 doz. tomatoes when turned, but not too ripe.
Lay them in salt and water for 2 days, changing them twice; drain
them, and dry them in a coarse cloth; put them in a pickling jar. To
1 gal. vinegar add 1 oz. ginger, shred, 1 oz. whole pepper, ½ oz.
cloves, 1 pint mustard seeds, and 2 tablespoonfuls mustard flour,
curry powder, turmeric, 2 oz. garlic, 2 oz. shallots, shred, 1 oz.
bay salt, and a little common salt. Half of the spice to be strewed
in the jar, and the other half to be boiled in the vinegar, and to
be poured hot over the tomatoes; then let them be covered close
with a flannel, and a weight at the top to keep in the steam, and
let them stand in the chimney corner for 2 days, but not too near
the fire. The vinegar must be boiled up twice more, and poured over
the tomatoes as before. When quite cold fill up with more vinegar
previously boiled, so that the tomatoes are covered and tied up with

(_b_) Cut some green tomatoes in slices, sprinkle them with salt, and
let them stand 12-15 hours, drain, and put them in a saucepan over
the fire with fresh water, changing it until all the salt is washed
out. When thoroughly scalded and partially cooked, drain them again
and put them into a boiling hot syrup, made with 1 pint vinegar, 3
lb. sugar, ½ oz. cinnamon, ¼ oz. cloves, simmer them in this until
tender, then carefully lift them out and put them into jars, reduce
the syrup and pour it over them. After a day or two boil up the syrup
again, pour it afresh over the tomatoes, and when cold tie them down

Vinegar.--(_a_) To every gal. water put 2 lb. coarsest West India
sugar; boil and skim this. Pour the mixture into a common clean
washing mug, and, when sufficiently cool, take 4 pints from it into a
basin, and stir well into it ½_d._ worth good fresh yeast if 3 gal.
vinegar are to be made, or in that proportion, and set the basin,
near a fire, covered with a cloth, to get it to work. When this end
is obtained, put it back to the larger quantity from which it came,
and which ought to be still lukewarm; stir well round with a wooden
preserving spoon, and cover the mug with a cloth, and in a few hours,
or by next morning (if made in an evening) the mixture will be found
in full work. Let it stand one week from the day it was made, then
carefully skim the barm off it, and put it into a barrel or mug in
a warm place in winter, or in the sun in summer. It will be fit for
use in 4-6 months, and then bottle off for use. As soon as you have
bottled off a making of vinegar, immediately begin again, as the
jelly-like “mother,” called the vinegar plant, formed on the surface
by the time it is ready for bottling, helps the making of the next
vinegar. Add it on pouring the mixture into the barrel or closed mug.

(_b_) Make vinegar from a vinegar plant by mixing ½ lb. coarse
brown sugar and ½ lb. treacle with 5 pints water, stirring it until
all the sugar is dissolved; then laying the fungus on the top, and
covering it with thick brown paper tied down. In 6 weeks (or a little
longer in cold weather), the liquid is turned to vinegar, and must
then be strained off and bottled, and a fresh mixture made for the
plant. It must be put in a white ware vessel--a washstand basin is
very suitable, as the vinegar corrodes the yellow glazed ware, and
is injurious. The plant does not get useless if kept “going,” but
improves by growing thicker.

(_c_) Best of all, buy Beaufoy’s vinegar, and run no risk of
subsequent fermentations.

Vinegar, Primrose.--To 18 qt. water add 6 lb. moist sugar; boil and
stir it very well. Let it stand until it is just warm, then add 1
peck primroses with their stalks, and a little yeast. Let it stand
all night, then put it into a cask, bung it up, and allow it to
remain for 2 months. Then give it a little air, and let it stand 2-3
months longer. Then taste, and, if not sour, let it stand till it is.
It must be placed in a warm situation: a great deal depends on where
it is kept.

Vinegar, Raspberry.--Put 1 lb. very fine raspberries in a bowl,
bruise them well, and pour upon them 1 qt. best cider vinegar; next
day strain the liquor on 1 lb. fresh ripe raspberries, bruise them
also, and on the following day do the same, but do not squeeze the
fruit, or it will make it ferment, only drain the liquor as dry as
you can from the fruit. The last time pass it through a canvas bag,
previously wetted with vinegar to prevent waste. Put the juice into
a stone jar with 1 lb. sugar to every pint of juice; the sugar must
be broken into lumps, stir it, and when melted, put the jars into a
saucepan of water, let it simmer a little, skim and remove from the
fire. When cool, bottle off.

Vinegar, Tarragon.--Gather full-grown shoots of tarragon the day
before they are wanted. Fill a ½ gal. jar with as many as it will
hold without pressing them down; add 3 cloves and the thin rind of
1 lemon, and fill up the jar with white wine vinegar; leave it,
tightly corked, exposed to the sun for 2-3 weeks, then strain off the
vinegar, wringing the tarragon in a cloth, filter it through paper,
and bottle it.

Walnuts.--Take 50 large walnuts gathered before the shell is hard;
folding them separately in vine leaves, place them in a jar amidst
plenty more leaves, so that they do not touch each other; fill up
so as to cover them with best pale vinegar, and tie down closely
that the air may be excluded; let stand 20 days; then pour off the
vinegar and wrap the fruit again in fresh leaves, and fill up the jar
again with fresh pale vinegar, standing 14 days longer; take off the
leaves, put them in a jar, and make a pickle of white wine vinegar
and salt that will float an egg, in which simmer for ¼ hour ¼ oz.
mace, ½ oz. each of cloves and nutmeg, and 2 heads of garlic, peeled
and sliced; pour hot over the walnuts; tie close with bladder and

_Preserving with Sugar._--This embraces the whole range of jams and
jellies, which closely resemble each other. In all cases the fruit
must be fully ripe, gathered quite dry, and freed of stems, &c., but
stone fruits should not be stoned. The chief differences consist in
the proportion of sugar required and the duration of the boiling,
which latter should always be done in a copper pan. The scum must
be removed as it rises in boiling. For the most popular jams the
quantities and times are as follow:--

  Black currant      1 of fruit to 1 of sugar; 10 minutes
  Raspberry          1      ”   ”  1      ”     ½ hour
  Strawberry         1      ”   ”  1      ”    20 minutes
  Gooseberry         6      ”   ”  4      ”     2 hours
  Red currant        1      ”   ”  1      ”    10 minutes
  Blackberry         1      ”   ”  ½      ”     1 hour
  Cherry (stoned)    2      ”   ”  1      ”    till stiff

Keeping Jams.--A not unfrequent cause for their becoming mouldy is
that the jars in which jams are kept are sometimes not perfectly dry
when the jam is put into them. The jam-pots put away from last year
will necessarily be dusty, and require washing; and with thoughtless
servants it but too often happens that they will wash the jars the
same day the jam is made. They may imagine they have dried them
with a cloth, but probably a slight dampness still remains which
would be quite sufficient to cause the best-boiled preserve to turn
mouldy, even if afterwards kept in a dry place. Have jars washed
the day before they are used, have them washed in very hot water,
and, after drying with a cloth, have them put down in trayfuls
before the kitchen fire, to do away with the possibility of damp.
The jars should then be set aside in the kitchen until the next day,
covering them with cloths to keep out the dust. For making common
jams, such as red and black currants, raspberries, gooseberries
(and strawberries when not to be preserved whole), allow ¾ lb. loaf
preserving-sugar to every lb. of fruit after it has been picked from
the stalk. The fruit must be picked on a dry day, and should be ripe,
but not bruised or injured. Set the fruit on the hot plate or fire in
a large copper preserving pan, which must, of course, be as bright
and clean as possible; let it cook gently, until it is hot through
and the juice begins to run out, then add the sugar gradually (this
must have been previously crushed, but need not be pounded); keep
stirring with a long-handled wooden spoon, when it comes to the boil
let it remain boiling for ¾ hour, then try if it will set by putting
a few drops on a cold plate, and when this condition is arrived at,
pour it off into jars prepared as described. Some jams do not take so
long to boil as others, so it is as well to begin to try whether they
will set after they have been boiling ½ hour. Many people carefully
take off all the scum as it rises, but it is quite unnecessary; if
properly boiled, and constantly stirred, it will all disappear before
the jam is ready to be poured off, preventing the great waste caused
when it is skimmed. Care must be taken to stir constantly during the
whole process. After filling the jars, let them stand till next day,
when they must be tied down and set in a dry, cool place to keep.

Bottling Fruit.--Have ready some wide-necked glass bottles, with
good-fitting corks and some wax to cover the corks with, in order to
prevent any air from entering. The wax is prepared thus: 1 lb. common
rosin, ¼ lb. beeswax, ¼ lb. tallow; pound the rosin fine, and cut
the beeswax into shreds; put the rosin, wax, and tallow into an old
tin, and melt the mixture gradually over the fire; boil it gently for
5 minutes, stirring it well with a smooth, flat stick. It must be
kept hot enough to run easily while being put on the corks. Fill the
bottles with fruit, and set them in a boiler of warm water (not hot)
up to their necks, without letting any water enter the bottles; have
some warm syrup ready, made in the proportion of ¼ lb. loaf sugar
to 1 pint water, boiled 10 minutes, and then allowed to cool until
lukewarm; fill the bottles with this syrup, and let it cover the
fruit, just leaving enough space for the cork to fit in. The bottles
must not be corked. Set the boiler on the fire; a little straw should
be placed on the bottom of the boiler to prevent the bottles from
cracking. When the water has boiled for 10 minutes, take one bottle
out at a time, cork it at once, and run the wax all over the cork,
spreading it evenly with the flat stick, being careful to cover every
part, lest the air should enter, and so peril the safe keeping.
Gooseberries will require 10 minutes’ boiling; and raspberries,
strawberries, and currants about 5 minutes. Plums must have ¼ hour if
large. Whatever fruit is done in this way must be thoroughly heated
through, and then rendered air-tight. Should there be a flaw in the
glass bottle, it will probably crack while in the boiling water;
but these unpleasant accidents have to be put up with. This mode of
bottling fruit is very good when the fruit is required to be kept as
whole as possible. Another method is to allow ¼ lb. sugar to each
lb. of fruit. Put the sugar in a preserving pan, with sufficient hot
water to moisten the bottom well and help the sugar to melt. When
all the sugar is melted, put in the fruit, and let it boil rapidly
for 10 minutes; if raspberries or small fruit, 5 minutes is enough.
It does not need skimming. Have some hot jars or bottles ready, and
pour the boiling fruit into the hot bottles; cork directly each one
is filled, and wax it over, or paste 3 layers good paper over each
bottle. When dry, these 3 layers of paper will be equal to parchment,
and are sure to exclude the air. The reason why the fruit must be
put into the bottles boiling hot is because the heat expels the air
contained in the bottles, which must be secured immediately they are
filled, else the air will rush in directly they begin to cool. Having
the bottles in a bath of hot water before filling them with the hot
fruit prevents the glass cracking. The bottles need not be dried, but
a good shake must be given to free them as much as possible from the
water. For green gooseberries or rhubarb, it is better to use ½ lb.
sugar to 1 lb. fruit.

Apple Ginger.--2 lb. Ribstone or other hard apples, pare, core, and
cut them into 8 pieces, put them into cold water whilst doing this
to preserve their colour; make the syrup of 3 lb. white sugar, a
little water, and 4 oz. tincture of ginger (not Oxley’s). Put in the
apples and simmer very slowly until transparent. The pieces of apple
should be kept whole. It will keep for a year.

Apple Jam.--Select good baking apples, which cut in round slices into
a brown milk-pan, taking out the cores; to every 1 lb. apples add 1
lb. brown sugar; to the panful add the juice and peel of 4 lemons,
½ lb. whole young ginger, and 1 oz. cloves. Let all stand till next
day, when boil. The slices become of an amber colour, and perfectly
clear when sufficiently boiled.

Apple Jelly.--Choose apples with red skins, wipe, and cut into
quarters, do not peel them. To each lb. fruit put 3 pints cold water,
bring to a boil, then boil rapidly for 30 minutes. Strain, and to
every pint juice allow 1 lb. loaf sugar, return to the pan, and again
boil rapidly for 30 minutes.

Apple Marmalade.--(_a_) Peel, core, and thinly slice, good cooking
apples (apples that cook to a smooth pulp easily); allow ¾ lb. loaf
sugar to 1 lb. apples; put the sugar in a preserving pan (a tin or
iron saucepan will turn them black), with ½ teacupful water to 6 lb.
sugar; let it gradually melt, and boil it for 10 minutes. Then put
in the sliced apple, and a few cloves, cinnamon, or lemon peel, to
flavour if liked. Boil rapidly for an hour, skim well, and put in
jam-pots. It should be quite a smooth pulp, clear, and a bright amber
colour. Will keep good for 12 months. (_b_) Another way, to look
like orange marmalade: Choose hard apples that do not cook to a soft
pulp, such as russets; core, but do not peel them; make a syrup of 3
lb. loaf sugar to 1 pint water, and boil it rapidly for 20 minutes
to make it syrup. Put in the apple thinly sliced, and boil quickly
for an hour; flavour as preferred. This marmalade bears a great
resemblance to orange marmalade in appearance, if the right kind of
apples are chosen. Sufficient syrup should be made to ¾ cover the
apples. Stir frequently.

Barberries, Preserved.--(_a_) Put them into a jar in layers, a good
sprinkling of salt between each layer. (_b_) Take some bunches of
barberries and tie several together; make a syrup with ¾ pint water
to every lb. sugar, clarify it with white of egg. When quite clear
throw in the bunches of fruit, and boil quickly until the fruit looks
quite clear. Put them into jars, pour the syrup over them, and when
cold tie them down.

Beetroot, Preserved.--Peel, trim, and slice in rather thick slices,
some beetroots, fill some wide-mouthed jars about ¾ full with them,
then add ½ oz. pounded sugar, 3 or 4 cloves, and either ¼ oz.
coriander seeds or ½ oz. carraway seeds to every 1 lb. beetroot; fill
up the jars with boiled vinegar, fasten them down with bladder.

Blackberry Jam.--For this it is necessary that the fruit should be
quite ripe and perfectly dry when gathered. After picking from the
stalks, weigh it, and allow ¾ lb. crushed white preserving sugar to
every lb. of fruit. Set them together over a slow fire, stirring with
a wooden or silver spoon to prevent burning at first, before the
juice begins to run from the berries. The stirring must be almost
constant during the whole process, as for any other sort of jam.
After coming to the boil, it will be about ½ hour before it jellies,
which must be ascertained by putting a very little from time to
time on a cool plate. Some people very carefully take off the scum
as it rises, but it is not really necessary; if constantly stirred,
it will all disappear in the process of boiling, avoiding the waste
caused by skimming, while the jam itself keeps equally well. When
done, pour it off into jars, taking care that they are quite dry; let
them stand till next day, cover the jars with paper, and put them by
to keep in a cool, dry place. Another way is to mix ¼ lb. any good
cooking apples, weighed after paring and cutting up, to every lb.
blackberries; the sharper the kind of apple the better, but they
must be ripe. More sugar is required when done in this way, 1¾ lb.
sugar to every 2 lb. fruit. The grated rind and strained juice of
lemons are also used with blackberries instead of apples, the larger
proportion of sugar being allowed, and one lemon (small) to every 2
lb. berries. Some people object very much to the small seeds in this
jam. These may be avoided by rubbing the fruit through a sieve as
soon as it is sufficiently cooked to admit of it; it must then be
put back into the preserving pan to boil till it sets. In this way,
supposing the jam to be made of blackberries alone, half its own
weight of sugar will be enough when weighing the uncooked fruit, as
so much is afterwards lost by removing the seeds.

Blackberry Jelly.--(_a_) Put the fruit in the oven, and press it
through canvas when tender. Allow rather more than ¾ lb. lump sugar
to 1 lb. fruit syrup, and boil ¾ hour. This jelly is much improved by
using equal quantities of bullaces and blackberries. The acid flavour
of the bullace takes away the flatness of the blackberry. Put the
jelly into moulds and cover with papers in the usual way. It is more
likely to turn out well after being kept a month or two than at first.

(_b_) Boil together a quantity of apples cut small and blackberries
that are thoroughly ripe, in the proportion of 1 lb. blackberries to
½ lb. apples. When boiled quite soft and pulpy, strain through a hair
sieve and reboil, with ½ lb. loaf sugar to each pint juice, about
½ hour. ¼ pint water to every 4 lb. fruit may be boiled with it to

Black Currants, Bottled.--Fill some bottles as full as you can with
the currants, add as much cold water as they will hold; then put them
in a boiler filled with cold water, and let them boil until the fruit
sinks in the bottles. Then take them up, cork them while hot, and
paste thick brown paper over them.

Black Currant Jelly.--To 1 lb. picked and washed black currants add 1
gill water. Set this in a preserving pan, which should be of copper.
Bruise the fruit well with a wooden spoon; afterwards take off the
preserve and strain through a hair sieve. To each 1 lb. fruit allow 1
lb. white sugar. Boil 10 minutes.

Carrot Jam.--Well wash and scrape all black bits off some carrots;
cut only the red part outside into pieces; put in a pan, with water
to cover, and boil till it will rub through a hair sieve. To 4 lb.
pulp allow 4 lb. loaf sugar, ¼ lb. bitter almonds blanched and
chopped fine, the rind grated and the juice strained of 4 lemons, and
6 tablespoonfuls brandy to make the jam keep. Let the sugar and pulp
boil up thoroughly, and then simmer for 15 minutes; skim and stir all
the time. When cold, add the other ingredients, and stir all well
together 2 or 3 times; then pot and cover with gummed paper.

Cherries, Bottled.--Gather the cherries on a dry day; be careful that
they are not over-ripe or cracked at all. Fill the bottles or jars
quite full with the cherries, and put them to stand in a boiler or
large saucepan of cold water, and keep the jars covered closely; boil
slowly until the fruit has sunk in the jars and the skins begin to
crack; then lift one by one off the fire, and immediately fill quite
full each jar with boiling water. Tie down twice with bladders, and
put them in a dry place until required. Put them where they will not
be disturbed, as if moved they ferment. If glass bottles are used
care must be taken when filling with boiling water that they do not
crack. Be particular to have all you need before taking the jars out
of the water, and the kettle of water boiling fast, as the great
secret in bottling fruit is in filling up the bottles and tying them
down as quickly as possible.

Cherries, Dried.--Stone large sweet cherries with a small pointed
skewer no larger than a quill toothpick, breaking them as little as
possible; throw them into a boiling hot syrup, made with 1 small
teacupful water to 1 lb sugar. Scald them in this syrup for 10
minutes, but do not allow them to boil, or they will break; remove
them from the fire, pour them into a pan, and cover them till next
day. Then draw off the syrup, boil it up, skim it, and pour it back
upon the cherries. Do this for 3 days successively. On the fourth day
drain the cherries on a cane sieve till entirely free from excess of
moisture; then lay them on wire sieves, and dry them by slow heat for
several hours until, when touched, they do not stick to the fingers.
When cold, sprinkle sugar over them, and pack in layers between white
paper. If too much heat is used in drying them, they will be dark and

Cherries, Preserved.--Take equal quantities sugar and cherries, cut
off the stalks from the cherries, wipe them clean with a soft cloth,
and strew over them a little finely-powdered sugar; boil the sugar
with 1 pint water to every 3 lb. sugar, clarify it with whites of
egg, strain it, and then boil it to candy height. The next day boil
up the cherries with the syrup for 5 minutes, and let them remain in
the syrup for 24 hours; strain off the syrup, boil it again to the
second degree, and pour this over the cherries. The next day boil
up the sugar to the third degree, dip each cherry separately in the
syrup, and put them on a sieve in a warm place to dry.

Cherry Jam.--For this use ripe fruit, but carefully reject any which
is bruised or over-ripe. The Kentish is the best for this purpose,
having a pleasant acid taste; other kinds are too sweet for the
quantity of sugar necessary in preserving fruit. To every lb. stoned
fruit add ¾ lb. loaf sugar well broken; it will require stirring
occasionally from the first, and continuously after it once comes to
the boil, after which it must continue boiling for ¾ hour; then try
a little on a cold plate to see if it sets or jellies; if it does,
pour it off into jars, and set in a cool dry place till the following
day, when it should be covered down for keeping, if not, continue
boiling until it will so set. It will not require skimming during the
process of boiling, the scum will all boil away. The easiest way of
stoning cherries is to tie a little loop of iron wire about the shape
of a hairpin, on to a stick the length of a pencil; bind the two ends
firmly to the stick, leaving the loop standing up about 1 in. long,
and slightly bent forward. With this the stones are easily extracted.

Citrons, Preserved.--Put them in strong salt and water in a jar, with
a cabbage leaf to keep them down; tie a paper over them, set them in
a warm place till they are yellow, take them out, and set them over
the fire in fresh water, with a little salt and a fresh cabbage leaf;
take care they do not boil; if they are not a good green change the
water (and even fresh leaves will help to green them), and make hot
and cover them as before; when they are a good green take them off
the fire, let them stand till they are cold, then cut them in two or
make a hole at the end, to take out the seeds and soft part, and put
them in cold water. Let them stand 2 days, but change the water twice
each day to take out the salt, then make a syrup, and put it cold to
them; boil it once in 2 days for 3 weeks. For the syrup: 1 lb. loaf
sugar, ½ pint water; set over the fire; when well boiled and looking
clear, take it up; when cold, throw it over the citron.

Crab-Apple Jam.--To every lb. of fruit put the same quantity of
preserving sugar. Having melted it with a little light wine, put it
on the fire and let it boil well; when it has been skimmed clear
and is boiling, put in the fruit with a few cloves; let all simmer
together till the fruit begins to break, when it is done. The fruit
should be rubbed dry and the stalks removed before it is put into the

Crab-Apple Jelly.--Remove the stalks from the apples and cut them
in half, put them into a preserving pan, and boil till the fruit is
perfectly soft; do not stir it. When soft, pour off the water, and
to every pint allow 1 lb. sugar. Put it into another pan, and let
it boil slowly for ½ hour, taking off all the scum that rises. It
should by this time be clear. Fill your glasses or jars with it. Now
take the fruit and mash it; rub it through a coarse tammy; to every
lb. allow 1 lb. sugar and ½ pint water. Let it boil slowly till it
thickens, then put it into bowls. When used cut it in slices.

Crab-Apples, Preserved.--Gather them just before they are fully
ripe. Put a quantity of them into a pan of boiling water, and barely
scald them. As soon as one of the skins begins to crack remove them
from the fire, and strain them through an earthenware colander; they
may then be very easily peeled. In the meantime make a thin syrup,
and, having peeled the apples, place them in jars, and pour the
syrup over them quite hot. As they rise to the surface they must be
pushed back, so as to keep them all under the syrup. Let them remain
uncovered till the following day, when they must again all be poured
out into the colander, placing the syrup in the stewpan with more
sugar, to ensure its being thick. Boil and skim it well, return the
fruit to the jars, and again pour the hot syrup over it. Let them
still remain open; and the next day, if the fruit seems soft enough,
and the syrup sufficiently thick and clear, they may be considered
finished, and they may be tied down with bladder; if not, repeat the
process a third time, and keep for another day. About a week after
they have been tied down it is well to examine them, and, should they
show any signs of fermentation or mould, the syrup must again be
boiled down as before. The core is never removed from Siberian crabs;
it has in itself a most delicate flavour, which improves the whole

Cranberries, Preserved.--Gather the fruit in clusters, before it is
quite ripe. Pick away any dead leaves and injured berries, and keep
the clusters in strong salt and water, in jars well covered. Look to
them occasionally, and when the pickle begins to ferment change it.
Cranberries thus preserved will retain their flavour and quality for
many months.

Cucumbers, Preserved with Ginger.--Take small cucumbers, and large
ones that will cut into quarters, the greenest and most free from
seeds; put them in a jar with strong salt and water, covered with
cabbage leaves; tie a paper over them, and keep the jar in a warm
place till they yellow; wash them out, and put them over the fire in
fresh water, a little salt in it, and a fresh cabbage leaf over them;
cover the pan very close, and take care they do not boil. If they
are not a fine green change the water and make them hot again. When
a good green, take them off the fire, let them stand till cold, then
cut them in halves or quarters; take out the seeds and soft parts;
put them in water, and let them stand 2 days; change the water twice
a day to take out the salt. Take 1 lb. white sugar, ½ pint water, set
it on the fire, skim it clear, then put in the rind of a lemon, and
1 oz. ginger with the outside scraped off. When the syrup is pretty
thick, take it off, and, when cold, wipe the cucumbers dry and put
them in; boil the syrup once in 2-3 days for 3 weeks, and strengthen
if required, for there is more fear of them spoiling at first. The
syrup must be quite cold when put to the cucumbers.

Damsons, Bottled.--Fill the bottles with damsons, and add to each
bottle ½ lb. castor sugar. Put the bottles in cold water in a large
pan on the fire, where they must remain for ½ hour after they have
begun to boil. When boiled, let them cool, cork down tight, and tie
bladder over the corks, and keep in a very dry place. Care should be
taken that no bruised fruits are put in. Whilst the bottles are on
the fire, hay should be put between them to keep them from breaking.

Figs.--Weigh the fruit, and have an equal quantity of sugar, the peel
of 1 large lemon, and a little ginger. Lay the figs in cold water
for 24 hours, then simmer them till tender; put them again into cold
water, and let them remain for 2 days, changing the water every day.
If not quite soft simmer again, and replace in cold water until next
day. Take their weight in loaf sugar, and with ⅔ of it make a syrup,
in which simmer the figs for 10 minutes. In 2 days take the third
of the sugar, pounded fine, and pour the syrup from the figs on it.
Make a rich syrup with the peel of the lemon and a little raw ginger,
and boil the figs in it, then mix all together and put into large
jam pots. The figs may be cut in half, if preferred, after they have
simmered until soft.

Ginger, Preserved.--Put the ginger for 2 weeks every night and
morning into boiling water. Take off the outside skin with a sharp
knife. Boil the ginger in water till quite tender; slice it. Prepare
a syrup of 1 lb. sugar to ½ pint water. Clarify it, and put the
ginger in it. Boil it till clear. Leave it to cool before putting it
into jars.

Gooseberries, Bottled.--Pick off the soft brown outside part at
the top of each gooseberry, but be most particular to leave the
hair-like fibre which it surrounds; cut the stem close, and if any
one gooseberry breaks open reject it, as a single broken one might
spoil a whole bottleful. Put them into wide-mouthed bottles (pickle
bottles suit very well), fill them up with cold water, and place
them standing in a fish-kettle or any large, flat-bottomed pot; also
filled with water as high as the necks of the bottles, over a very
slow fire, where they are to remain until they come to a gentle boil
and begin to change colour; then take them out of the pot, and let
them stand until they become cold, when the bottles are to be filled
up with olive oil, and they need not be corked. Look at them from
time to time, and fill up with fresh oil, as some may evaporate. Keep
the bottles on a shelf in a dry place, for damp spoils them, and when
wanted for use, have them washed in water and soda by putting them
into a colander, and then a shower of fresh water at the end, just to
take off any soda which might remain.

Gooseberry Jam.--(_a_) Allow ¾ lb. lump or white crystallised sugar
to each lb. gooseberries; a few spoonfuls of water must be put at the
bottom of the preserving pan and care taken that the fruit does not
burn. Pot ½ hour after the jam boils; keep it well stirred.

(_b_) For every lb. picked gooseberries, put ¾ lb. sugar and 1 pint
water in a bowl or pan; when dissolved, place it on the fire. Beat
the white of an egg well up, and stir into it when boiling: when
on the point of boiling over check it by pouring in a little cold
water. On its rising up the second time, take it off, and place it
on one side to allow the black scum to rise, which must be taken off
carefully with a skimmer. Pour the liquor away quickly, leaving the
sediment at the bottom; add your fruit in the syrup, simmer gently
until the fruit looks clear, break it with a wooden spoon, put the
jam into pots, and cover up.

Gooseberry Jelly.--Take 1-2 gal. fruit when green, and a little more
than 1 qt. water to each gal. gooseberries. Boil till quite a pulp,
strain through a jelly bag of coarse flannel; when strained add to
every pint of juice 1 lb. loaf sugar. Boil till set.

Grape Jam.--(_a_) The grapes must be ripe. Wash them well, then stew
them until they become a soft pulp, and pass them through a sieve.
Weigh, and to every lb. add an equal quantity of sugar. Boil for 20
minutes, stirring well.

(_b_) A delicious preserve from unripe grapes can be made in the
following way: They should be carefully picked, and all that are at
all injured should be rejected. To 1 lb. grapes add ½ lb. sugar; no
water but what hangs about them after they have been washed. Put the
grapes into a preserving pan, then a layer of sugar, then a layer of
grapes. Boil on a moderate fire, stirring it all the time to prevent
its burning, and as the grape stones rise take them out with a spoon,
so that by the time the fruit is sufficiently boiled the stones will
have all boiled up and been taken out.

Grape Jelly.--Take some bunches of common outdoor white grapes,
unripe will answer the purpose; rinse them in a plentiful supply of
water, strip them from their stalks, and put them in a preserving
pan; set them over a moderate fire for about 2 hours, or till they
burst freely. Strain them through a colander or sieve, and to every
lb. of pulp and juice, add 1 lb. sugar; boil them about ½ hour. Each
shape will require ½ oz. gelatine; wet the moulds, and set them in
a cool place. It makes a pretty dessert dish, being a light green,
and tastes like greengage if managed well. Care must be taken to
use either a silver or wooden spoon, and an enamelled or a copper
preserving pan is important to preserve the colour.

Guava Jelly, Imitation.--This is made from medlars. It takes a
great number of medlars to make a small quantity of jelly, as they
contain so little juice. Put the medlars, which must be ripe, into a
preserving pan with just enough cold water to cover them. Let them
cook gently until they are quite soft, then put them into a jelly
bag, and let the juice drain off gradually; this will be a long
process, as they must not be squeezed, or the jelly would not have
the clear brightness of guava jelly. It is a good plan to leave them
to drain all night. To every pint of juice allow 1 lb. best white
sugar, pounded. Boil them together in a preserving pan, stirring
constantly with a silver or wooden spoon to prevent burning, and
carefully removing the scum as it rises. It will probably take about
½ hour to boil, but it must be tested by dropping a little from time
to time on a cold plate; when it jellies it is done, and must then be
poured off into small jars or moulds, care being taken that they are
not only clean, but perfectly dry. The next day tie them down in the
usual way, and keep in a dry cool place. When this is properly made
it resembles guava jelly very closely, both in colour, flavour, and

Hip Jam.--Collect the hips from the rose bushes when ripe, boil them
in water until they become soft enough to be easily crushed, and
press them through a very fine sieve. Take an equal weight of sugar
to that of the fruit, boil the hips, when pulped through the sieve,
thoroughly with sugar, and put the jam into a large stone jar. It is
liable to ferment a good deal, and therefore requires space. When
taking any out for use, mix and stir it up well with a little white
wine, and add sugar to taste if required. This jam is excellent,
either for eating alone as a sweatmeat, or for making sauce.

Hip Marmalade.--Gather hips, when perfectly ripe, wash them, and boil
them in water, in the proportion of ½ pint water to 1 lb. fruit. When
quite tender, pass them, water and all, through a sieve fine enough
to keep back all the seeds. To each lb. pulp put 1 lb. refined sugar,
and boil until your marmalade will jelly well. When a little cooled,
pour it into jelly glasses or small jars, with a few small pieces of
preserved ginger in each glass. Cover while hot.

Hips in Sugar.--For this, gather hips as soon as they have become
red. Boil them gently until tender (but they must not be allowed to
break) in sufficient water to cover them. Cut the stalks even, and a
small piece from the blossom end of each berry, and with a pointed
penknife or quill carefully remove all the seeds. Allow 1 lb. sugar
and a little cinnamon to each lb. prepared hips. Put the sugar in a
preserving pan, with just sufficient water to dissolve it--as little
as possible, as the syrup should be very thick and clear. When the
sugar is melted, put in the fruit, and boil gently until it is done
and the syrup becomes thick; let it cool a little, and then put it
carefully in glasses. It is important that the shape of the fruit
should be preserved, and the largest berries obtainable should be
used. A little lemon juice may be added to the above syrup if liked.

Hips in Vinegar.--Gather from the dog rose some of the largest
berries you can obtain, as soon as they are quite red, but not
over-ripe; cut the stalks even, leaving a short piece on each berry,
wash and put them in a stewpan with as much boiling water as will
cover them well. Boil gently until they are quite tender, but not at
all broken. Drain the water from them, but do not throw it away. As
soon as the hips are cold, cut a small piece from each at the blossom
end, and with a pointed penknife or quill remove all the seeds,
taking care not to break the fruit. For a syrup for 2 lb. berries
allow 1 pint good vinegar, ½ pint of the liquid in which the fruit
was boiled (which should be strained in muslin), 2 lb. loaf sugar, ¼
oz. cinnamon, and ¼ oz. cloves. Put all these in a preserving-pan,
stir with a wooden spoon until the sugar is dissolved, let the syrup
boil for 15 minutes, then put the hips in, and boil for 20 minutes,
or until the syrup is rich and thick. Store, spice and all, in small
jars or glasses, and cover like any other preserve. This will keep
good for 2 years and more. It is a delicious substitute for red
currant jelly with game or roast mutton, and is also good for colds
in the throat or chest.

Lemon Marmalade.--Take any number of lemons; 6 make a nice quantity.
Slice them very thin, only putting out the seeds. To each lb. sliced
fruit add 3 pints cold water; let this stand 24 hours. Then boil it
until the chips are tender, pour into an earthen bowl, and allow it
to remain until the next day. Then weigh it, and to every lb. boiled
fruit add 1½ lb. of lump sugar, boil the whole together until the
syrup jellies and the chips are rather transparent; in taking out the
pips be careful to leave all the white pith in, as that goes towards
making syrup.

Lemon Peel, Candied.--Cut the lemons into quarters lengthwise,
remove the juicy part, and throw the peels into strong salt and
water, to soak in it for about 6 days. The brine should be strong
enough to float an egg. At the end of the time take them from the
salt and water, and throw them into cold water, where they should
remain for 1 hour; remove them from this, and place them in a copper
preserving-pan with as much fresh cold water as will cover them, and
let them boil until quite soft. Try if they are done with a silver
fork; if it will go in easily they have boiled long enough. Place
them on a large hair sieve to drain the water from them, and during
the time make a syrup in the proportion of 1 lb. loaf sugar to 1 qt.
water; let them boil together until forming a thin syrup, in which
boil the peels for about ½ hour, or until they look clear. Some more
sugar must now be boiled with only just as much water as it will
absorb; there must be enough of this made to just cover the peels
when they are put into it. Again boil them, and continue boiling
until the sugar begins to candy; they must then be taken out and
again drained; before they are quite dry place them in large dishes,
when a little very finely powdered sugar must be shaken over them.
Set the dishes in a warm place for the peels to dry. They may then
be stored away for use. While the boiling is going on the syrup will
require constant stirring with a new wooden spoon to prevent burning.

Limes, Preserved.--(_a_) Take double the weight of crushed loaf sugar
to the weight of limes. Boil the limes in water gently until the
rinds are sufficiently tender to be easily penetrated with a silver
fork; the water should be changed 2 or 3 times. When soft enough,
drain the water from them, and cut them with a sharp knife into very
thin slices, remove the pips, and put the slices of limes into a deep
jar. Make a syrup, allowing 1 qt. water to every 5 lb. sugar, and let
it boil gently until you can see the bottom of the preserving-pan, by
which time it will be clear; stir frequently, using a silver spoon
for the purpose. When ready, pour this syrup boiling hot over the
limes, and let it remain for 2 days. On the third turn it all out
into a preserving-pan, and let it boil for about ½ hour, or until
it jellies. Then pour off into jars, and the following day, when
quite cold, tie them down as you would any other preserve. Tangerine
oranges would be done in the same way; but ¾ lb. sugar would be
enough to 1 lb. fruit.

(_b_) Another way of preserving limes is to make them into pickle.
For this make some incisions in the rinds of 12 limes, into which rub
¼ lb. common salt, lay them out in a deep dish and let them remain
in the meat screen near the kitchen fire for 4-5 days or until soft.
Boil enough vinegar to cover them, with ½ oz. whole pepper, 2 oz.
bruised ginger, and the same of mustard-seed. Put the limes into jars
when soft enough, also the salt, and pour the boiling vinegar over
them; the limes should be quite covered with it. The next day cork
the jars, and either brush melted rosin over the corks, or tie a
piece of moistened bladder tightly over each.

Medlar Jelly.--Fill a large jar with ripe medlars, and place it in
a saucepan of boiling water; it must be large enough to allow of
the water coming up to the neck of the jar, but care must be taken
not to let any of the water go into it. The jar must be uncovered.
Put the lid on the saucepan, and keep the water boiling until the
medlars are thoroughly cooked and quite soft. Then put them into a
linen jelly-bag, and let them drip into a basin; the bag must not be
squeezed or the jelly would not be clear. Medlars being a very dry
fruit, a great many will be required to make even a small quantity
of jelly; the juice comes from them but very slowly, so that this
first process should be gone through the day before the jelly is
to be made, and the straining should be allowed to go on during
the night. Measure the juice, and allow 1 lb. loaf sugar to every
pint. The sugar must be pounded and passed through a hair sieve
to have it very fine; put it in a dish before the fire, or in the
oven, until it is so hot that it would not remain any longer without
melting. Boil the juice in a copper preserving-pan, stirring it with
a silver spoon; when boiling add the sugar by little and little, a
teaspoonful at a time; this should be shaken gently over the surface,
the stirring continuing all the while. When the sugar is all in,
take the preserving-pan off the fire, as no further boiling will be
necessary. This jelly should be beautifully clear, and of about the
same consistence as guava jelly, which it also somewhat resembles in

Melons, Preserved.--Medium-sized melons are better than very large
ones for preserving, and they should not be over-ripe. Peel them,
and press the juice from the pulp and seeds, which should be taken
from the melons with a silver spoon: Wash the melons after this, and
add the water in which they have been washed to the juice obtained
from the pulp and seeds. The melons should be cut lengthwise into
eight pieces, if possible using a silver knife; allow them to soak a
day and night in cold water with a little salt and vinegar, in the
proportion of 1 teaspoonful salt and 2 of white vinegar to ½ gal.
water, throwing a clean cloth over during the time to keep out the
dust. In the meanwhile prepare a syrup with the juice from the pulp
and seeds, boiling 1 lb. good loaf sugar for 15 minutes to every ½
pint of the juice, and then letting it stand to become cold. After
the pieces of melons have soaked for 24 hours--care being taken that
they have been quite under the water all the time--place them in a
preserving-pan and add the cold syrup as prepared; set it on the
fire, and, after it comes to the boil, let it simmer for about ¼
hour, skimming it during the time; then remove the slices of melon
into a bowl, taking care not to break them and pour the syrup over
them. For 3 successive days pour off the syrup, give it a boil up
and pour it over again; on the third day place the slices of melon
in wide-mouthed bottles adding some bruised ginger to each; fill the
bottles with the hot syrup, let them remain until cold, and then tie
tightly down with bladder.

Mulberry Jam.--Take ripe mulberries and allow 1 lb. sugar and 1 pint
mulberry juice to every lb. picked fruit; boil and skim the sugar
with the juice for 5 minutes after the sugar is thoroughly dissolved;
then add the fruit, and boil quickly for ½ hour, stirring well; take
off the fire, and, if quite stiff when cold, it is done sufficiently,
if not, boil for another ¼ hour.

Mulberry Jelly.--It should be made like red currant jelly: the
fruit first stewed, by putting it in jars and setting the jars in a
saucepan of water and letting it simmer till the juice is well drawn;
then strain it off, and to every pint of juice put 1 lb. lump sugar;
boil gently for ¾ hour. Two or three kernels of peaches or almonds
are a great improvement.

Orange Chips.--Cut your oranges longways, take out all the pulp, and
put the rind into rather strong salt and water for 6 days, then boil
them in a large quantity of spring water until they are tender; take
them out and lay them on a hair sieve to drain, then make a thin
syrup of fine loaf sugar (1 lb. to 1 qt. water), put in your peels,
and boil them over a slow fire till you see the syrup candy about the
pan and peels, then take them out and grate fine sugar over them. Lay
them on a hair sieve to drain, and set them in a stove or before the
fire to dry. Lemon chips or candied peel may be made in the same way.

Orange Jelly.--Peel 6 oranges very thin, and 1 lemon. Put a little
hot water on the peel, and let it soak. Scoop out all the inside of
oranges and lemon into a basin. Then pour 1 oz. melted gelatine over
it, boil it a little while over the fire, and add white lump sugar,
sweetening to taste. Then pour it hot over the peel which has been
soaking in a little warm water, strain it all through some muslin,
and then put it into a shape till cold.

Orange Marmalade.--(_a_) Put 6 lb. oranges (bitter) and 6 lemons
into a brass pan, cover them completely with water, and boil until
soft (about 3 hours). Lay a plate on the top of the oranges, to keep
them below the water during the boiling. When soft take them out,
cut in halves, scoop out the pulp, and throw away the stones. Scrape
the skins free from the white fibre inside, then cut into very thin
stripes with a silver knife. Strain the water in which oranges were
boiled--probably now reduced to less than 1 qt.--put it into the pan
with 12 lb. loaf sugar, another qt. of water and the pulp; boil 15
minutes, add the cut skins, boil 10 minutes, and pot.

(_b_) Cut up, say, 12 Seville oranges very thin and small, pick out
the seeds, and to each lb. sliced fruit add 3 pints cold spring
water; let them stand 24 hours, then boil till tender. The seeds
should be put in a muslin bag, and boiled with the oranges. Let all
stand till next day, then to each lb. boiled fruit add 1½ lb. loaf
sugar; boil, stirring constantly, till the syrup jellies and the
chips are quite clear. The grated rind and juice of 2 China oranges
will improve the flavour at the last boiling, or the juice and grated
rind of 2 lemons. This quantity will require a large preserving pan,
and, when finished, ought to be quite clear and jellied. Excellent
marmalade can also be made from oranges cut up in large pieces and
put twice through the mincing machine, instead of being sliced in the
ordinary way.

(_c_) An equal weight of Seville oranges and loaf sugar must be
allowed. Wash and dry the oranges, and grate the peel of about ¼
them, setting aside the grating for after use. Pare off the peel from
the other ¾ of the oranges, and cut it into very fine chips; tie
these chips in a thin cloth, and let them boil slowly for 2-3 hours.
Cut the oranges into pieces, and scrape out the pulp, separating from
it the pips and white parts or refuse; put this refuse into a basin
with about 1 pint cold water, and when all the oranges are scraped,
strain this refuse through a cloth, and throw the liquid from it and
the pulp over the sugar in the boiling pan, and place it on the fire
or hot hearth, allowing the sugar to melt slowly. After it comes to
the boil, put in the chips, first straining the water from them, and
let the whole boil slowly for at least ½ hour. The grating to be put
in 10 minutes before the marmalade is taken from the fire. The juice
of 2 lemons added is an improvement.

Oranges Preserved Whole.--Take, say, ½ doz. nice looking oranges, cut
a small hole near the stalk at one end, and carefully scoop out the
pips, and press out the juice without damaging the fruit, and allow
the pulp to remain. Put them in a basin with 2-3 qt. fresh, spring
water, and leave them 3 days, changing the water each day. In the
meantime strain the juice as soon as squeezed out, and place the jar
into which it is strained in a pan of boiling water for about ¼ hour,
after which boil it with 1 lb. loaf sugar. Put this syrup, just as it
comes off the fire, into a jar, tie it over with a bladder, and set
it by. On the third day lift the fruit into a lined preserving pan,
strain the water on to them, and let them boil very gently for about
2 hours. Leave them in the pan as they are till the next day, when
boil again until quite tender. Then add another lb. sugar, bring it
to the boil and leave it to cool. Next day boil up the syrup and pour
it over the fruit in the pan, adding another lb. sugar and hot water
to supply any deficiency caused by boiling. Lift out the fruit, and
repeat the boiling of the syrup every day for a fortnight, pouring
it daily boiling hot on the fruit, then do it only every 2-3 days,
adding more and more sugar up to 3 lb. When the fruit looks clear and
bright boil up the syrup again, adding the juice that was set by at
the commencement, boil them up together and skim. Put the fruit into
wide-necked jars, pour the syrup on, and tie up quickly with bladders.

Peaches, Brandied.--(_a_) Drop the fruit into a weak boiling lye
until the skin can be wiped off. Make a thin syrup to cover them,
boil until they are soft to the fingernail; make a rich syrup, and
add, after they come from the fire and while hot, the same quantity
of brandy as syrup. The fruit must be covered. (_b_) The peaches
must be ripe, but firm. Prick them to the stone several times all
over with a pin; clarify some sugar, allowing ¾ lb. to each lb.
fruit. Break the sugar in large lumps; dip each lump into cold water
quickly, and put it into the preserving pan. The quantity of water
absorbed by the lumps in dipping will be right for boiling. Watch
carefully that it does not boil over. When it has come to a boil, let
it simmer slowly, and be ready with a cold spoon to check it whenever
it begins to rise. When it forms little beads it is boiled enough.
Now lay in the peaches, and let it simmer slowly till it is a little
softened but still firm; then set it all by to get cold. Next day
take out the fruit and drain it on a sieve or dish. Boil down the
syrup to thicken, and when it is cold mix it with an equal quantity
of pale brandy. Arrange the fruit in glasses, and pour the brandy
syrup over. ½ lb. sugar to the lb. of fruit is often considered

Peach Jam.--Cut the peaches in quarters, and take off the skins and
stones, put them in a pan with equal weight of white powdered sugar,
let them stand all night in the sugar, and next day boil them slowly
until they become quite soft and the juice jellies well. Fruit that
is not quite ripe is far preferable, because, when ripe, peaches have
so much juice that it is impossible to reduce it sufficiently to keep
well. Cover the pots with paper dipped in brandy, like all other
preserves, but not till a few days after it is made.

Pear Jelly.--The pears must be a juicy sort. Cut them into quarters
without paring or coring. Put 8 lb. in a pot with 1 qt. water, and
boil on a slow fire to a pulp, then throw them into a jelly bag,
made of coarse glass cloth, and let them remain all night to drain.
Next morning squeeze any remaining juice out of the bag, and to each
1 lb. juice add ½ lb. lump sugar, and a very little lemon juice to
flavour. Boil it on a quick fire till it comes to a jelly. Great care
must be taken not to let this burn. It takes about 2 hours to boil to
a jelly, but is more easily done in small quantities. Coarse, juicy
pears are the best.

Pears, Preserved.--Take some small pears as soon as the pips are
black; set them over the fire in a preserving pan with water to cover
them; let them simmer until they will yield to the pressure of the
finger; then with a skimmer take them out, and put them into cold
water; pare them carefully, leaving on a little of the stem and the
blossom end; pierce them at the blossom end to the core; then make
a syrup of 1 lb. sugar to 1 pint water for each lb. of fruit. When
it is boiling hot pour it over the pears, and let it stand until the
next day; then drain it off; make it boiling hot again, and pour it
over the fruit. After a day or two put the pears in the syrup over
the fire, and boil it gently until it is clear; then take out the
fruit, boil the syrup till thick, and put it and the fruit in jars.
The jargonelle pear is considered the best for preserving, or any
small firm pear.

Pineapple Jam.--Choose ripe fruit, but it must not be over ripe; if
at all bruised be careful to cut all the bruised parts out. Peel, and
remove all the eyes; cut into slices about ½ in. thick, and again
into pieces about 1 in. square. Weigh the fruit after preparing it,
and to every lb. allow 1 lb. powdered white sugar. Put the fruit only
in a bright copper preserving-pan on the fire until it is quite hot
and the juice flowing, stirring it from the moment of putting on the
fire with a wooden spoon. Then add the sugar gradually, continuing to
stir all the while, and let it boil for ½-¾ hour, or until it will
set. This jam requires especial care to prevent burning. If it burn
in the very least, the flavour is spoilt and the colour too. After
filling the jars, let them remain until the next day before tying
them down to keep.

Pineapple Jelly.--Take a tin of preserved pineapple, pound the
contents in a mortar, add 6 oz. sugar and ½ pint water; boil the
whole for ¼ hour, then strain through a napkin, add the juice of a
lemon and 1 pint clarified calves’-foot jelly. Pour into a mould, and
when set turn it out by dipping the mould in warm water. Pieces of
pineapple may be put in the jelly.

Pineapple Preserve.--To every lb. of fruit, weighed after being
pared, allow 1 lb. loaf sugar and ¼ pint water. The pines should be
perfectly sound, but ripe. Cut them into rather thick slices, as the
fruit shrinks very much in boiling; pare off the rind carefully, that
none of the pine be wasted, and in doing so notch it in and out,
as the edge cannot be smoothly cut without great waste. Dissolve a
portion of the sugar in a preserving-pan with ¼ pint water; when this
is melted, gradually add the remainder of the sugar, and boil until
it forms a clear syrup, skimming well. As soon as this is done, put
in the pieces of pine, and boil well for at least ½ hour, or until it
looks nearly transparent. Put it into pots, cover down when cold, and
store away in a dry place.

Plums, Bottled.--Take care to gather them on a dry day. They should
be quite ripe, but not over ripe, and any which are bruised must
be rejected. The following manner of preserving applies also to
damsons and bullaces. Fill wide-necked bottles with the fruit, pack
it closely, leaving only room enough in each bottle to put over the
fruit ¼ lb. castor sugar. Tie a piece of moistened bladder tightly
over each bottle, and place them standing upright in a fish-kettle:
put a little hay between each and all round them, so as to keep them
from touching each other and the sides of the kettle. Folded cloths
should be placed beneath the bottles. Fill the kettle with cold water
just high enough to cover the shoulders of the bottles; let them boil
at the side of the fire, which must not be a very fierce one, until
the fruit has sunk considerably, and appears done enough. Then take
the kettle from the fire, but let the bottles remain in it until the
water becomes perfectly cold. They must then be taken out, wiped dry
with a cloth, and set in a cool, dry place to keep. The bladders
must be constantly moistened while on the fire, or they will burst.
Should any of them burst, the first piece of bladder must instantly
be replaced by a fresh piece, duly moistened. When required for use
the whole bottle must be taken, for, after once being exposed to the
air the fruit will not keep. One bottle will make a moderately-sized
tart. Bottling without sugar is not recommended.

Plum Jam.--Take equal quantities fruit and sugar, pound the sugar,
pare and cut up with a silver knife some ripe plums, remove the
stones, lay the fruit in a dish, strew over them half the sugar, and
leave them till the following day; then boil and skim the remainder
of the sugar, add the fruit, boil it up quickly, well skimming and
stirring for 20 minutes; add the blanched kernels halved, boil for 10
minutes more, and the jam will be ready to pot.

Plums Preserved in Brandy.--Choose fine plums, not over ripe, prick
them slightly, put them into cold water, and let them simmer gently
until the water is nearly boiling. Take them out, and throw them
immediately into cold water. Have ready some clarified syrup, put
the plums into it, and boil gently for 20 minutes; take them off the
fire, and let them remain in the syrup until the following day; then
take out the plums, and put them into a wide-mouthed bottle, boil up
the syrup with an equal quantity of brandy, pour this over the plums,
and when cold cork them up tightly.

Plums in Syrup.--Gather the fruit when full grown, and just as it
begins to turn. Pick all the largest out, and save about ⅔ of the
fruit; to the other third put as much water as you think will cover
the whole. Let this boil, and skim well; when the fruit is boiled
very soft, strain it through a coarse hair sieve, and to every qt. of
liquor put 1½ lb. sugar. Boil it and skim it very well; then throw
in the rest of the fruit, just give them a scald; take them off the
fire, and when cold put them into bottles with wide mouths, pour the
syrup over them, lay a piece of white paper over them, and cover them
with oil. Be sure to take the oil well off when you use them, and do
not put them in larger bottles than you think you will use at a time,
because all these bottled fruits should be used when the bottles are
once opened.

Plums in Vinegar.--Gather the plums with the stalks, prick them with
a needle, and put them, with layers of cloves and cinnamon, into
glass jars. For every 4 lb. plums boil up 2 lb. sugar and 1 qt. best
vinegar, and pour it warm over the plums. Next day pour off the
vinegar, boil it up again, and pour over the fruit. This must be
repeated a third time. Tie up with bladder. This preserve improves
much by keeping.

Prune Jelly.--Put ½ lb. prunes into a saucepan, with 2 oz. white
sugar, a piece of lemon, a little cinnamon, and sufficient water to
cover them, stew until tender; take out the stones, pass the prunes
through a sieve, crack the stones, and put back the kernels into the
prune pulp. Steep ½ oz. gelatine in a little cold water, add this to
the prunes with a glass of red wine; boil all together. Ornament a
plain line mould with almonds blanched and split, pour the jelly into
the outer part, and leave it to get cold; when quite set remove the
lining, turn out the jelly, and fill up the centre with ½ pint of
cream whipped to a stiff froth.

Prune Preserve.--Take some prunes, wash them well, then cover them
with water and stew gently, with the grated rind of a lemon, until
quite tender, and pass the prunes through a sieve; weigh the pulp, to
every lb. of pulp allow ½-¾ lb. sugar. Boil the sugar with a little
water until melted, then add it to the pulp, boil both together for ¼
hour, skim well, and stir, and the preserve will be ready to pot.

Pumpkin Jam.--Weigh the pumpkin, have ready the same weight of sugar;
take off the skin and take out the inside and seeds, cover the latter
with water, and boil; cut the rest into thin slices, strain the seed
water over it, with sufficient to cover the whole, and boil with 1
oz. whole ginger to 2 lb. pumpkin, until the latter is nearly done
enough, take it out and boil the sugar in the same water until clear,
then add the fruit and boil slowly for 1½ hour, take out the ginger,
and tie up in pots.

Quinces, Brandied.--Peel some small ripe quinces, and allow ½
lb. loaf sugar to 1 lb. fruit; boil the quinces ½ hour in barely
sufficient water to cover them; drain them, and put aside to get
cool; empty the water out of the preserving-pan and put in the sugar,
moistening it with a little of the water in which the quinces were
boiled, and let the sugar boil for 10 minutes; put in the quinces and
let them boil rapidly for ½ hour. Place them in wide-mouthed jars,
as free from syrup as possible, boil down the syrup until it jellies
when dropped on a plate, set it aside in a large jug or bowl, and
when quite cold mix an equal quantity of good brandy with the syrup,
and pour over the quinces in the jars. Cover closely with paper
dipped in white of egg.

Quince Jam.--Peel and quarter your quinces, leaving the seeds in, as
they readily impart their mucilage to water, and thus thicken the
syrup. Allow ¾ lb. loaf sugar to 1 lb. fruit; put the fruit and sugar
into a preserving-pan, and ½ teacupful water to moisten the bottom of
the pan; stir the fruit and sugar frequently, and when it boils keep
it boiling rapidly until the fruit is soft, and a clear red colour.
It will take about an hour, reckoning from the first boiling up. Put
into jam pots, and cover when cold.

Quince Jelly.--For preserving, it is essential that the quinces
should be quite ripe and perfectly sound. Pare and slice them, and
put them into a copper preserving pan with just enough water to float
them. Let them boil till tender, and the fruit reduced to a pulp;
strain off the juice, letting it filter through the jelly-bag more
than once, if necessary, to be quite clear; to every pint of juice
allow 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar. Boil both together for about ¾ hour,
removing the scum as it rises; when it sets, by pouring a little on a
cold plate, it is done. Some people do not peel the quinces, thinking
it makes the jelly a better colour to boil them down after slicing
with the peel on. In this case they would have to be carefully washed
before cutting up.

Quince Marmalade.--Peel the quinces, quarter them, and remove the
cores and pips. The quarters should be thrown into a pan of cold
spring water as they are cut, to preserve the colour. The quinces
should then be put into a covered jar with 1 qt. water to 4 lb.
fruit, and stewed in a slow oven for several hours, till they are
quite tender, and of a bright red colour. When they are thus prepared
for marmalade weigh them, and to every lb. of fruit allow ¾ lb.
crushed lump sugar. Put the fruit into a preserving pan, and bring
it gently to a boil, stirring frequently all the time. Continue
boiling till the whole is quite soft, and a smooth pulp; then add the
sugar, and again bring the fruit to a boil. Continue boiling gently
for 20-25 minutes. Take the pan from the fire, and paste down the
marmalade in jars while hot with double papers, care being taken to
have the paste quite boiling, and to strain the papers tightly over
the jars.

Quinces Preserved Whole.--Pare some ripe quinces, and put them in a
preserving-pan, ¾ covered with cold water (if they should float while
the water is being poured on them, press them down with a plate until
you have gauged the exact height of the water); take the quinces out,
measure the water, and to every pint allow 3 lb. broken loaf sugar;
let this boil rapidly in the preserving-pan for five minutes, and
then put in the quinces. The syrup should not cover them at first,
but when they are half-cooked it will then amply cover the fruit.
Boil the quinces rapidly, until soft enough for a knitting-needle to
pierce them easily, which should be in 1½ hour, reckoning from the
first boiling up. Take the quinces out carefully so as not to break
them, and lay them on dishes to cool. Run the syrup through a jelly
bag, or a piece of new flannel put in a gravy strainer; this frees it
of all odd little bits that may boil from the outside of the quinces
and makes it clearer. Put the syrup back in the preserving-pan, and
boil it rapidly until it will jelly when dropped on a plate; put the
quinces into the boiling syrup, and let them simmer gently for 10
minutes. Place each quince carefully in wide-necked jars, pour the
hot syrup over them, and when cold cover in the usual way.

Raspberry Jelly.--Put the raspberries in an enamelled preserving-pan
over the fire, or in a stone jar in the oven, having first carefully
picked out any that are mouldy; squeeze through a piece of cheese
cloth, doubled. To each qt. raspberry juice add ½ pint red currant
juice extracted in the same manner; to each pint allow ¾ lb. lump
sugar; boil ½ hour moderately; skim, and stir frequently. Use a
wooden spoon for mashing the fruit, and a silver one for skimming;
iron spoils the colour.

Red Currant Jelly.--(_a_) To 3 lb. red currants, which should
be fresh and not over ripe, mix 1 lb. white. Place these into a
preserving-pan, and gently stir over a clear fire until the juice
flows freely; then turn them into a fine hair sieve, and drain; pass
the juice through a jelly bag, weigh it, and boil it fast for 15
minutes, adding to each lb. 8 oz. coarsely powdered sugar. Set this
aside on the hob, stirring well till all the sugar be dissolved. Then
thoroughly boil the jelly for 15 minutes, and pour it into a pot. An
excellent jelly may be made with equal parts of the juice of the red
and white currants and raspberries. Be sure that whenever scum rises,
before or after the sugar be put in, to remove it, or the preserve
will be cloudy.

(_b_) Take fresh red currants and put them in the oven to draw the
juice; then let them drain gradually. Take equal weights juice and
lump sugar. Pound the sugar fine in a mortar, pass it through a fine
sieve, then place it on a dish before the fire to get well heated.
When the juice is cold put it in the preserving pan, and place it
on the fire; put the sugar in slowly by handfuls, stirring all the
time. By the time the sugar is all in, the juice is ready to set. The
colour should be of a beautiful red.

Rhubarb, Bottled.--Bottling rhubarb is a little more troublesome than
other fruits as you must be so particular in peeling it. To obviate
this, use the early foreign rhubarb, which, though a little more
expensive, makes much the prettiest preserve from its bright red
colour, and does not require peeling. Cut the rhubarb into lengths
of 1 in.; have ready wide-mouthed bottles (also the corks in boiling
water to soften them) with about ½ teacupful cold water in each, fill
them with fruit to the end of the neck of the bottle; place them in
a pot of cold water, without corking them; place a little hay or
anything soft between the bottles to prevent their knocking together,
which they will do when the water boils; let them boil for about 15
minutes, and cork at once. When the water has cooled, remove the
bottles, and leave them till next day. Cut the corks level, and cover
them with bottlewax. Bottled fruits retain their colour by being kept
in the dark, buried in the earth if possible.

Rhubarb Jam.--Wipe the rhubarb dry, and cut it into pieces a little
more than 1 in. long; unless it is old, there is no need to peel it.
To every lb. of rhubarb add 1 lb. white sugar, and put a few bits of
whole ginger in the preserving-pan with the rhubarb and sugar; let it
reach boiling point slowly; when once it boils decidedly, keep it on
the fire 20 minutes if the rhubarb is young, ½-¾ hour if it is old.
Just before you take it off the fire stir in a spoonful of essence of
lemon. Take out the bits of ginger as you put the jam in pots. The
quantity of lemon and ginger is quite a matter of taste.

Rhubarb Jelly.--To be made in September. Cut nice stalks of red
rhubarb and put them into a large jar. To 6 lb. rhubarb add the peel
of three lemons, and let it get soft in a moderate oven. When cooked,
pour off the juice into an enamelled sauce-pan, and add the juice of
the 3 lemons. Let it simmer gently for ½ hour, and strain through a
jelly-bag. Then add 1½ lb. lump sugar to every pint juice; when it
is dissolved boil it in a preserving-pan for 40 minutes, keeping it
well stirred and skimmed. Pour into pots, and when cold tie down with
brandy paper. To use up the pulp, well boil it in the preserving-pan,
adding ¾ lb. lump sugar to every 1 lb. pulp and either halved or
pounded bitter almonds or candied peel.

Rhubarb and Orange Marmalade.--To every pint cut-up rhubarb allow
3 oranges and 12 oz. crushed loaf sugar. Peel the oranges, take
out some of the white pith, and cut the rinds into thin strips
as for orange marmalade. Cut up the insides of the oranges into
slices, removing the pips. Put rhubarb, oranges, and sugar into a
preserving-pan, and let them boil gently over a moderate fire until
sufficiently done, which may be ascertained as above. As the scum
rises it should be removed. When the jam sets pour it off into jars,
to be covered down next day when cold.

Rowan Jelly.--(_a_) The rowans should be quite ripe. Pick them off
the stalks and put them into the pan, and cover with water. Take them
off before they come to the boil, break them well down with a wooden
spoon, and strain through a jelly-bag; then add 1 lb. sugar to every
pint of juice, and boil till it jellies.

(_b_) Apples and rowans equal weight. Slice the apples without paring
or coring, put them in the pan with the rowans, water just sufficient
to cover the fruit. Warm slowly until they boil; then bruise with a
wooden spoon, and pass through a sieve. Strain through muslin, and
boil 1 lb. sugar to every lb. fruit juice. Boil to the thickness
desired. It keeps better when thick.

Strawberry Jam.--Gather the strawberries on a fine dry day, pick off
the stalks carefully, and reject all that are the least unsound.
Weigh the fruit, and take an equal quantity of pounded sugar; put the
fruit into a preserving-pan on the fire and when the juice runs out
add the sugar; let it simmer, stirring gently, and skimming well.
When it boils keep it boiling, not too fast, for 20 minutes, stirring
most carefully, so as not to break the fruit, all the time with a
wooden spoon.

Strawberry Jelly.--Take 3 lb. strawberries, and 2 lb. pink rhubarb or
red currants. If rhubarb, cut it in small lengths. Put these into a
very wide-mouthed jar, and set it on a hot stove, with a ring under
it lest it should catch. Cover the fruit with a plate or saucer small
enough to go inside the jar, so that as the fruit sinks down you may
be able to press it gently from time to time, and drain off the juice
into a basin. When 1½ pint is extracted, pass it through a hair sieve
into a stewpan, and put to it 2 oz. gelatine, which has been soaked
for ½ hour, in ½ pint of cold water, 6 oz. loaf sugar, and the beaten
whites and crushed shells of 3 fresh eggs. Stir until the gelatine is
dissolved, and the jelly boils. Put the lid on the stewpan, and let
it boil gently, without stirring or skimming for ½ hour. Let it stand
away from the fire for a few minutes, and then strain as you would
calf’s foot jelly. Oil the mould you intend using well with a little
good salad oil. Arrange prettily in the bottom of it, according to
its pattern, a few nice strawberries and blanched almonds. Pour in
sufficient of the lukewarm jelly to set the fruit, and put in a cool
place until set. Keep the remainder of the jelly in a liquid state
until you are ready to fill up the mould, then set the whole if
possible, on ice to get firm. Turn it out just before serving in a
glass dish, with or without a custard, round, but not over it. The
fruit pulp left from this may be made into a tolerable preserve for
nursery use, if boiled with ¾ lb. sugar to a pint of pulp.

Strawberries Preserved Whole.--Take equal weights largest
strawberries procurable and fine loaf sugar, lay the fruit in deep
dishes, and sprinkle half the sugar over them in fine powder; give
the dish a gentle shake that the sugar may touch the under part of
the fruit. The next day make a syrup with the remainder of the sugar
and the juice drawn from the strawberries, and boil it until it
jellies; then carefully put in the strawberries, and let them simmer
nearly an hour; then put them with care into jars or bottles, and
fill up with the syrup, of which there will be more than required;
but the next day the jars will hold nearly or quite the whole. Cover
the jars or bottles with brandy papers. (E. A. G.)

Tomato Preserve.--(_a_) Take those tomatoes not entirely ripe (the
very green ones late in the autumn are nice) and remove the stems;
allow ½ lb. white sugar to 1 lb. fruit; put into the preserving
kettle, and add water enough to make sufficient syrup. Do not put too
much water in at first, as you can add to it if there is not enough.
Lemons should be sliced and put into it in the proportion of 1 lemon
to every 2 lb. fruit. Cook until done through and the syrup looks
thick. They make an excellent preserve and taste almost like figs.

(_b_) Take the sound fruit as soon as ripe, scald, and peel them. To
7 lb. tomatoes add 7 lb. white sugar, and let them stand overnight.
Take the tomatoes out of the sugar and boil the syrup, removing the
scum; put in the tomatoes and boil gently 15-20 minutes. Remove the
fruit again and boil until the syrup thickens; on cooling put the
fruit into jars, and pour the syrup over it; add a few slices of
lemon to each jar.

Vegetable Marrow Preserve.--Take a ripe marrow about 9 lb. weight,
with the same amount of sugar, pare the marrow and remove the seeds
and any soft parts; cut in pieces 1 in. thick and 2 in. length; put
them in a basin with layers of sugar all night, with 1 tablespoonful
capsicums tied up in muslin, and double the quantity of rough ginger
well bruised and tied in muslin. In the morning pour the liquid
over the remainder of the sugar, which boil and skim; then add the
fruit, also the juice and rind of a lemon to each lb. of fruit, and
1 teaspoonful cochineal for colouring; boil till the fluid is clear;
before taking off 2 glasses of brandy may be added.

Walnuts, Preserved.--Gather the walnuts when they are full grown,
but not hard. They should be in that state that a pin will penetrate
them. Prick each walnut over with a large pin, put them in cold
water, and leave them for 2 hours; then pour that water away, and
fill the pan with fresh. Let the walnuts remain thus for 4 days,
changing the water every 24 hours, to take out all the bitterness.
At the end of the time change the water, and set them on the fire.
As soon as they are soft take them out carefully with a skimmer, put
them again into cold water, and leave them 4-5 days, changing the
water as before every 24 hours. Then place the walnuts in a large
glazed pan; then take common brown sugar, boil this with some water,
and run the syrup through a jelly bag. Boil it again until it becomes
thick, let it stand, and when about half cold pour it over the
walnuts, and leave them. Next day drain off the syrup, boil it again,
and when half cold pour it on the fruit. Repeat this every 24 hours,
increasing the thickness of the syrup each time of boiling. A small
quantity of coarse sugar should be added at every boiling, as the
fruit ought to be covered with the syrup. On the ninth day put a few
cloves and some cinnamon in a glass of water for 24 hours, then cut
each clove into 4 pieces lengthwise; cut the cinnamon also into bits
about the same size. Take the walnuts out of the syrup, and stick
4 pieces of clove and as many of cinnamon into each walnut. In the
meanwhile boil the syrup up again, and when half cold pour it over
the fruit and leave it. In 24 hours drain off the syrup, and set it
on the fire for the last time. As soon as it begins to boil put in
the fruit; let them boil up together about 12 times, and then take
them from the fire. Make the bottles quite hot, put in the walnuts
one by one with a skimmer, pour the syrup on (they should be well
covered with it), and, when cold, cork them tight and tie a parchment
over every one. You must not try to hurry the preserving, or you will
get a bitter jam. These walnuts may be eaten immediately, or they
will keep for 10 years; but, as in course of time the fruit sucks up
the syrup, they should be filled up with fresh. You might use loaf
sugar in preference to brown.


The dairy should either be an isolated building or attached to the
farm-house. It must be built with a view to keeping it dry, airy,
light, cool, and above everything clean. Nothing absorbs the taint of
bad odours more quickly than milk. The best aspect for a dairy is the
north, and while the windows admit plenty of light (which develops
colour in the cream) they should be shaded with evergreens to exclude
sunshine and heat. The temperature should range between 60° and 65°
F., never exceeding 65° nor descending below 55°. In a temperature of
40° F., milk keeps fresh for a very long time, but the cream becomes
bitter before it can be skimmed. In a temperature of 70° to 72° F.,
the milk sours readily and yields less cream, which latter will make
a soft butter very prone to rancidity.

Where the dairy is isolated, provision must be made in the building
for washing the utensils. This will need much care to avoid
conflicting with the conditions just mentioned. The dairy site must
be well drained. The walls may be of brick, built double with an air
space between, on concrete footings 12 in. thick, with a damp-course
as described on p. 5. The best material for flooring is well-laid
Portland cement concrete; the floor should incline gently to one
corner, where an outlet can be fitted so that the floor can be
thoroughly flushed at intervals. All sharp corners, and edges, and
mouldings must be avoided, as they form nests for the collection of
dirt. The walls may be plastered throughout with material that will
make a smooth surface capable of being washed, or they may be covered
with glazed tiles. Shelves for holding the milk dishes should be
about 5 ft. from the floor and preferably of enamelled iron or thin
slate or stone slabs. Perforated shelves afford better circulation of
air. The shelves should in any case be quite independent of the walls
of the room.

A typical dairy in Chester county, United States, is thus described
by Hazard. The main building, which is built on a hillside, is 50
ft. long by 13 ft. wide. The room for the milk is 6 ft. below the
surface and 12 ft. from floor to ceiling. This allows ample room
for ventilation and light by side-windows. The troughs for holding
the water in which the milk is set are formed of brick and cement,
with their bottoms 1 ft. above the level of the floor of the
building. They are 28 in. wide, so as to take in two rows of ordinary
milk-pans. Across one end is a trough formed similar to the others,
except that it is so arranged as to receive and hold the water to a
greater depth than the side-troughs, so as to contain the cream-cans.
In all there is an ingenious arrangement for increasing or decreasing
the depth of the water so as to suit the temperature outside. The
water is drawn from a well by a “telegraph” pump, and the surplus is
passed off by a drain, secured against the upward passage of odours
by a “bell-trap.” During the winter no water is used, and a fire
is lighted to keep the temperature to the proper point. The utmost
care is taken in ventilation, even to a small ventilator under which
to set the lamp used when too dark for skimming without artificial
light. At the front and in each side of the main building is a wing
13 ft. square; one of these contains the power-machine, the other
the needful arrangement for heating the water and washing pans. For
working the butter a large inclined table and lever are used, and the
printing is done by an ingenious machine for stamping and marking in
squares. This milk-house is made for a dairy of 50 cows; and it would
seem, therefore, the proper proportions are 13 ft. wide by 1 ft. in
length for each cow.

A supply of ice is a valuable provision in hot weather, and in some
climates an ice-house may be considered as an essential adjunct to
the dairy.

Ventilation demands extreme care. “The position of the milk-room with
relation to the other rooms of the dairy, as the churning and the
cheese-room, and the scalding or washing-room, should be such that
air can be admitted on three sides of the room, so as to ensure an
equable supply of air all over the interior of the milk-room. The
means adopted for ensuring a supply of fresh air by the windows are
of very simple character, namely, making each window in halves, the
lower and upper halves being hinged to a bar stretching horizontally
across the centre of the window frame; the lower half being hinged
so that it opens inwards and upwards, the upper half inwards and
downwards. By adjusting the opening of the two halves, the fresh air
may be admitted in any required volume, and in any direction--upwards
towards the ceiling, and downwards towards the floor. For removing
the used air, there are many plans. One good suggestion is that the
ceiling be made up of narrow fillets so placed that spaces are left
throughout the whole surface of ceiling; through these spaces the
air passes, into the space between the inner ceiling and the outer
roof, in which are placed ventilators with valves, which may be
opened and closed as desired. If a ceiling be dispensed with and an
open roof adopted, the roof will require to be double, that is, a
hollow space between the inner and outer boarding; this will tend to
keep the temperature of the dairy more equable, than if the boarding
and slates are the only covering. The double roof is simply made
by lining the inner side of rafters with inch boarding tongued and
grooved. The inner surface of boarding will be all the better if
papered with a glazed white paper. The door of the milk-room should
be double.” (Darton.)

While efforts are required to keep the milk-room cool in summer,
there may be need of warming in winter. The best means of warming is
by hot-water pipes. In some dairies the milk pans stand in a series
of troughs on an inclined plane, and all inter-communicating; in
this way a current of warm water may be made to surround the pans in
winter, and of cold water in summer. Gauze coverings should envelop
the pans to exclude insects. Milk pans may be made of glass, glazed
earthenware, or tinned iron, 15 to 18 in. across, and less than 6 in.

_Devonshire Cream._--The milk should be left in the pan till the
cream has sufficiently risen--about 12 hours in summer, and 24 hours
in winter. The whole pan must then be placed over a close range or
on a stove, and left there till the milk becomes quite hot, when the
surface will look thick, and bubbles will appear. Then take the pan
back to the dairy, and skim the cream off on the following day. The
milk must not be allowed to boil, and it should be heated slowly.
The time that it takes to scald the cream will depend upon the heat
of the fire, the temperature of the milk, and other circumstances;
and it is only by practice that you will learn to know when it is
sufficiently done. In Devonshire, celebrated for its clotted cream,
the pans are of tin and shallow. They contain 10-12 qt. milk. These,
after standing 10-12 hours, are placed on an iron hot-plate, or
over a stove, until the cream has formed, which is indicated by the
air bubbles rising through the milk, and producing blisters on the
surface of the cream; it is then near boiling point, and the pan must
be removed at once to a cool place. After some hours the cream is
skimmed off with a slice. Milk which is carried from a distance, or
much agitated before being put into pans to settle for cream, never
throws up so much, nor such rich cream, as if used directly after
being milked. The last drawn milk of each milking is at all times
richer than the first, and for that reason should be set apart for

_Devonshire Junket._--(_a_) If you cannot get milk from the cow warm,
take fresh milk, and put it in the oven, or on a hot stove, until
it becomes the same warmth as from the cow. Put a glass of brandy
and powdered sugar into it sufficient to sweeten it; add a piece of
rennet to the milk, or if you cannot get this use the essence of
rennet, which you can buy at the chemist’s. If you have used the
former, remove it in a few minutes, and leave the milk to set in
solid curd, which it will soon do; then lay over the top of it either
very good cream, quite smoothly, or Devonshire cream, or you may whip
the cream. The real Devonshire way is to remove cream from the top
of a dairy pan in one sheet, and lay it over. Ornament the top with

(_b_) Rub 2 large lumps of sugar on a lemon, put them with 1 pint
milk and ½ pint cream in a saucepan, and make warm, but be careful
not to let it be hotter than you can hold your finger in. Have ready
in a china bowl a small teacupful of brandy, pour the milk and cream
into it; suspend a piece of rennet (which you must well wash from
all the salt) by a string, and place it in a cool place to set. When
turned enough, take it out, pour ½ pint cream on the top, add some
powdered cinnamon, and serve.

_Swiss Cream._--This may be made in a mould in the following way, and
will be found extremely good. Soak 1 oz. gelatine in cold milk for ½
hour. Steep the rind of 2 lemons in 1½ pint milk with sugar to taste;
put it over the fire, but do not let it boil. Bake up the yolks of
5 fresh eggs, and pour the flavoured milk (strained) upon them. Mix
well, and then stir over the fire until the custard thickens; add the
gelatine, and stir again over the fire without letting it boil until
the gelatine is dissolved, then pour it into a basin. Dip a mould in
water, ornament it with preserved cherries, when cool pour some of
the above cream into it, put a layer of macaroons, previously soaked
in a little white wine, another layer of custard, and so on until the
mould is quite full. Set it on ice, or in a cool place to set, and
when wanted turn it out carefully.

_Butter._--The room where the cream is churned, and the butter made,
should be fitted with a table of marble or slate, and shelves for
holding the butter.

The yields of cream from milk, and butter from cream, are subject
to much variation. The richness of milk differs too at morning and
evening. But the average figures are approximately these:--12 qt. of
milk should give 1 qt. of cream, and 1 qt. of cream should afford 14
oz. of butter. Morning milk is richer than evening milk, and the last
portion drawn from the cow at each milking, is richer than the first.
Autumn milk is best for butter, summer milk for cheese.

Milk to be sold fresh as such should be cooled immediately it is
drawn from the cow, because while warm and exposed to the air,
the sugar present undergoes oxidation with consequent liberation
of lactic acid, which is indicated by the milk turning sour. When
promptly cooled, milk can be kept sweet and transported without risk,
besides which it gives up its cream more readily. The Americans have
introduced various coolers, all of which are more or less effective.

As fast as brought in, the milk should be run through a hair sieve.
This, and also the vessels with which the milk comes in contact, must
be kept scrupulously clean by the aid of constant scalding, to be
followed by rinsing with cold water, and drying in the air. The milk
is exposed in the pans for varying periods in order that the globules
of fat may have an opportunity of separating from the milk and
floating on the surface. This process is now very commonly replaced
by the use of a hydro-extractor, in which centrifugal action breaks
up the milk into cream and “skim milk” without any need for waiting.
According to the older practice the milk is left to stand for a
considerable time, but no advantage is gained by exceeding 24 hours;
in fact the best authorities say that it should be skimmed before the
surface begins to look wrinkled, as this appearance is a symptom of
incipient putrefaction. Large shallow perforated tin ladles are used
for removing the cream, which should be carefully deposited, without
splash, in white stoneware jars holding 2 to 12 gal., according to
the size of the dairy. Common glazed earthenware is to be avoided on
account of injurious chemical action. Skimming should be done twice
daily, and each time an addition of cream is made to the jar the
whole contents should be well but gently stirred with a stoneware
spoon. The jars should be covered with gauze to exclude insects.
In some dairies skimming is avoided by the simple plan of having a
hole in the bottom of the milk dish by which the milk is drawn off,
leaving the cream undisturbed.

Butter consists of the fatty portion of the milk, which is separated
by the process known as “churning,” the object of which is to rupture
the envelopes which hold the fatty matter. The bulk of this fatty
matter resides in the cream. Butter may be “made” by churning either
the milk or only the cream; and these may be either in a sweet or
sour (“lappered”) state. The most general practice is to churn the
cream alone in a lappered condition. For this reason the cream is set
to ripen in stoneware jars for several days, averaging about 3 days
in summer, and 5 or 6 in winter, preferably with occasional stirring.
It is the general opinion that to get the best butter, the operation
of churning should be comparatively slow, from ¾ hour to 2 hours--an
hour being a fair average, varying, however, according to the season;
the operation being much more tedious in winter than in summer. After
the butter is separated from the cream, the buttermilk remains,
containing the casein, salt, and sugar present in the original cream,
though a portion of these is taken up with the butter. The greater
the proportion of casein left in the butter, the poorer is the latter
in quality, and the more readily will it become rancid.

Commenting on Jenkins’ pamphlet, ‘Hints on Butter-making,’ the
_Field_ recently published the following remarks:--

“Cheese-making, owing to American importations, has recently been
so unprofitable that there is the more necessity for attention to
butter-making. Why should the dairies of France, Holland, Denmark,
and Sweden be able to supply an article in our markets which is
superior to the bulk of our own make? And why, above all, in
the matter of fresh butter, should Normandy be preferred by our
large purveyors to the home dairies, were it not that by superior
cleanliness and systematic management the quality is more dependable?
For instance, we have been told that the manager of the Midland Hotel
at Derby obtains all his butter from Normandy, because he finds it
more reliable and of better and more uniform quality than English
produce, notwithstanding that he lives in the centre of a great dairy
district, and that the foreign produce is liable to deterioration
by the journey. Here, then, the English farmer has an opportunity
which he is very wrong to neglect. Cheese does not pay--at least,
such varieties as are usually made; the demand for milk is limited;
but good sweet butter will always command a fair and often a very
high price. The reasons given by Jenkins for the inferior butter are
these: That the milk is not skimmed early enough--often not before
a certain amount of sourness has been developed in the milk, and an
appreciable amount of curd has therefore become mixed with the cream.
It is true that this curd increases the quantity, but it affects the
quality; the butter becomes rank, and fetches a low price. Careless
skimming, by taking off some of the milk with the cream, causes the
same results. Carelessness in churning or in the manipulation of the
butter, by which buttermilk and water are left in the butter. It may
be that this is sometimes intentional, as more weight is obtained;
but the quality is greatly injured. Much handling of the butter in
making up is also a source of injury. Dirt in any form, bad smells,
unskilful milking, bad food and water given to the cows; bad water,
soap, or other noxious substances used in washing the dairy and
vessels, are all causes of bad butter which must be guarded against.
Temperature being allowed to vary, bad packing, &c., are all elements
that require more care than is usually bestowed. As regards the
food, Jenkins points out that in a wet season, grass alone cannot be
depended on to give a good result--it is too succulent in its nature,
and should be modified by the use of 4 lb. of bean meal given to each
cow daily; whilst under ordinary circumstances the ration may consist
of 2 lb. to 3 lb. of decorticated cotton cake, or 2½ lb. of bran and
2½ lb. of oatmeal, or 3 lb. of oatmeal and 2 lb. of bean meal. And he
states, what all who have had experience will confirm, that by the
use of such food more cows can be profitably kept, and that a farmer
should look upon grass and hay as the most expensive articles of
food. Then Jenkins proceeds to describe the process of butter-making
adopted in the best districts of Normandy. We shall make no apology
for publishing these directions _verbatim_, as we shall thereby
assist the society in the dissemination of useful knowledge.

“1. Clean all dairy utensils by rinsing them with clean cold water,
and afterwards scrubbing them with boiling water; after which repeat
the cold rinsing.

“2. Cool the milk directly it is brought into the dairy by placing
the cans in a running stream, or by any other available method. This,
we may be permitted to observe, whilst most desirable, is often not
easily attainable. The Americans, in selecting the site for the
dairy, always prefer the base of a hill, so as to secure two very
important factors--shelter from the sun and a cold spring of water.
If running water cannot be obtained, that from a deep well may be

“3. Set the milk at a temperature of not exceeding 55°F. in glazed
earthenware or tin pans. The question of whether these shall be
shallow or deep will depend upon our facilities for reducing the
temperature. If we have running water or ice, there is no doubt
that the deep cans thus surrounded offer a greater surface of milk
to the cooling influence, and this rapid and regular cooling causes
the cream to rise freely and quickly; but if we have not these
facilities, then shallow pans are preferable.

“4. Skim after 12 hours with a perforated tin saucer, and take care
that nothing but cream is removed; 12 hours after, skim a second
time; but this should not be mixed with the first skimmed cream
at all, if our object is to make the finest class of butter; but
otherwise it must be mixed with the first cream just before churning.
Of course by following this plan we do not obtain the maximum
produce, but we have the best quality. If the cream is too thick, a
little pure water may be added, but the addition of milk should be

“5. Keep the cream, until the time for changing, in the coldest place
available, in covered earthenware or tin vessels.

“6. Churn the cream at a temperature of 57° to 60° F., and obtain
this by gradually raising or lowering the temperature by placing the
vessel in a bath of warm or cold water. Use an ordinary revolving
barrel, or a midfeather churn, fitted with a spigot. The more
simple the churn, and the less mechanism, the more easily is it
churned. Thomas and Taylor’s Self-acting Eccentric Churn (Stockport,
Cheshire), which gained the first prize at Bristol, is recommended,
to be turned at from 50 to 60 revolutions per minute. Stop the
churning at once when the butter comes, however small the globules
may be. Remove the buttermilk by allowing it to run through a hair
sieve, and return any butter globules to the churn.

“7. Work the butter slowly with cold water by half filling the churn,
giving it 3 or 4 turns, and then withdrawing the water. Repeat the
working until the water comes out clear; this is of great importance.
Remove the butter by a pair of wooden patters, and press out the
water by passing it under a kneading board, or on a larger scale, by
using a revolving butter worker. The board and roller can be obtained
for 13_s._ 6_d._, of How, 13, Bishopsgate-street, E.C.; or of T.
Bradford and Co., 140, High Holborn. Avoid using the hand.

“8. Make up the butter as is most saleable, and pack it in small
packages, lined first with white paper, and then with new and clean
muslin previously well rinsed in boiling water and again cooled, &c.”

We often consider the French our inferiors in agricultural matters,
but they have built up a position upon butter and cheese which has
made two or three departments absolutely wealthy, and they still
pursue the system in a most business-like and thrifty manner. We
wish we could point to a single English county in which one-half is
done with butter that is done in Calvados; but while we are content
to grow corn at a loss, and buy our dairy produce at considerably
more than we can get it for at home, we shall continue to contribute
to the wealth of Normandy and the difficulties which beset the land
question at home. Our producers must first break the back of the
middleman, and then there will be no such facts existing as the
best fresh butter a drug at 11_d._ a lb. in some of our country
districts, while it is 1_s._ 10_d._ in London.

Butter, Potting.--The best month of the year in which to pot butter
is May, or, at any rate, the business should be completed before the
hot weather comes on. If the butter is to be kept for several months,
it will be necessary to put a good deal of salt with it; 1 oz. salt
to 1 lb. butter will not be found too much. To ensure the proper
incorporation of the salt, it is best to add it by small quantities
at a time, kneading and re-kneading the butter till the whole is
thoroughly mixed. It must then be pressed firmly into wooden tubs,
or “kits,” as they are technically called; or stone jars may be used
if preferred. It is hardly necessary to add that great care must be
taken to have every vessel employed in the preparation as clean and
sweet as possible. Another very simple way to preserve butter is to
have a good-sized earthenware jar or pan filled with some strong
brine, and place it at hand in the dairy. Into the brine put from
time to time, as it can be spared, ½ lb. of fresh butter, each piece
being folded up separately in thin muslin. The only care required
is to be certain that the butter is always thoroughly covered with
brine: it will sometimes be necessary to put a weight on the butter,
as it has a tendency to rise to the surface when the brine is strong.
The butter will keep in this manner for weeks, or even months, and,
besides the advantage gained by this plan of being able to take
out just as much as is required for use at a time; there is the
additional benefit of having preserved fresh butter, as it does not
absorb the salt.

Butter, Rancid.--(_a_) Rancid butter may be recovered and sweetened
by washing and kneading it well, first in new milk, and afterwards
in cold spring water, butyric acid, on which the rancidity depends,
being freely soluble in new milk.

(_b_) Let the butter be melted and skimmed as for clarifying; then
put into it a piece of bread, well toasted all over. In a minute or
two the butter will lose its offensive smell and taste.

(_c_) Beat the butter in a sufficient quantity of water, in which you
put 25-30 drops lime chloride to 2 lb. butter. After having mixed it
till all its parts are in contact with the water, it may be left in
for 1-2 hours, afterwards withdrawn, and washed anew repeatedly in
fresh water.

_Cheese._--When milk is curdled, it separates into two portions,
curd and whey. The former consists of the butter and casein, and
produces cheese; the latter is mainly water, with the sugar and
mineral constituents of the milk in solution. Milk for cheese-making,
which is more or less rich in cream, according to the kind of cheese,
is placed in vats at a temperature varying from about 70° to 85°
F., with the due amounts of rennet and colouring matter, for 1-1½
hour under cover. The rennet must be prepared from perfectly fresh
(untainted) calves’ veils soaked in soft water--the halves of 1½
veils steeped in ½ gal. water will suffice for 250 lb. of cheese. The
best colour is liquid arnatto, ½ fl. oz. to 25 lb. cheese.

As soon as the curd has set, say 1-1½ hour, the curd is “cut” by a
special implement and broken up by the hand, a process demanding much
skill and care. This completed, the curd is subjected to pressure,
with the object of expressing the whey, which latter is drained off.
The pressure is increased and judiciously regulated as the curd
hardens, so as to remove all the whey without losing any butter.
Various appliances are in use for this purpose. When the curd has
been thoroughly freed from whey, it is broken up, salted in due
proportion, and again submitted to repeated and increasing pressings.
Finally it goes into the curing room to ripen.

Rennet.--Rennet is easily made at home, and costs less than half
what the same quantity is charged when bought ready-made. Home-made
rennet is also much stronger than the bought preparation and is
useful in making summer delicacies. Get a calf’s maw from a butcher.
They always keep them on hand, and charge about 1_s._ each. Tie the
skin tightly at one end, with a double loop of twine, and leave it
in a dairy or cool larder. When you want rennet, cut a piece about 1
in. square, and soak it in a teacupful warm water all night. Next
day, take out the bit of maw, and to 1 pint cream or milk, use 1
large tablespoonful of the liquid. As a rule, the Gloucestershire
cheese-makers do not manufacture their own rennet but buy it ready
prepared. The kind generally employed is Hansen’s Patent Rennet
Extract, which is used in the proportion of 1 teaspoonful extract to
6 gal. milk.

Cream Cheese.--Take ½ pint very richest cream and a cheese cloth.
Pour the cream into the cloth, and lay it upon one of your dairy pans
for an hour. Then take a perfectly clean knife and scrape off any
cream that may have stuck to the cloth, and lay it on the top and
sides of the cheese. Tie it up somewhat loosely, and hang it up to
drip; open it from time to time, and remove any cream that has stuck
to the cloth, and place it as before. When it stops dripping the
cheese is ready, and will turn out easily. The cheese should always
be used the same day it is made. In summer a few hours will suffice.
If you tell your dairywoman the day before, she will have thicker
cream for the cheese by keeping some of the milk that is set for
cream 12 hours or more beyond the usual time for ordinary purposes
before skimming it. The quantity of cream depends of course on the
number of your party; ½ pint is enough for 6-8 people. If the cream
be rich and the cheese well made, it will be soft, but without losing
its round shape in the least. Though tied up loosely at first, it
should be gradually tightened, after being opened from time to time
as directed above.

New-milk Cheese.--Mix 4 gal. new milk with a breakfastcupful of salt,
and a small teacupful of prepared essence of rennet. The milk should
be used warm as it comes from the cow, or, if it has cooled, all or
a part of it should be heated again, so that the whole marks about
95°F. The cheese is better if a pint or more of cream is added to
the milk, but it is not necessary. The curd and the cheese will be
hard if the milk is too hot. After about 2 hours the curd will have
set. It should then be slashed across in all directions, and some
of the whey ladled out with a cup. Next the curd should be drained
in a cloth laid over a colander, and then put into a wooden or tin
cheese mould in layers, with salt between. This should not be done
until the curd is fairly dry. The mould should be covered and turned
every day. Only a very light weight (if any) should be laid over.
At the end of 2 weeks the cheese should be put in a muslin bag, and
hung up in an airy, dry place, where the sun cannot reach it. Late in
the year try half or a third this quantity, as, though there is more
waste in a small cheese, it ripens quicker. May and June are the best
cheesemaking months. Cheese moulds are generally round or cylinder
shaped; but any strong box of wood, with gimlet holes at top, bottom,
and sides, and a lid that fits inside and not over (so that as the
cheese shrinks it still presses on it), will do for a makeshift.

Rush Cream Cheese.--To 1 pint thick, fresh cream, add ½ pint new
milk, warm from the cow, 1 teaspoonful pounded loaf sugar, and 1
tablespoonful rennet. Let it remain near the fire till it turns to
curd. Take the curd up with an egg slice, and fill the rush shape,
made as directed, and covered with a piece of straining cloth
inside. Lay a ¼ lb. weight on a saucer over the curd the first day;
afterwards a ½ lb. weight. Change the cloth every day until the
cheese is firm and begins to look mellow. Then dispense with the
cloths, and return the cheese to the rush shape and leave it to ripen
there. It may be ripened more quickly by keeping it from first to
last in a tolerably warm room. Although cream cheeses are generally
considered to be only in season during the summer, there is no reason
why they cannot be as readily made at any time of the year, and of
late they have come to be considered an almost indispensable delicacy
at a fashionable dinner-table. A little extra trouble is all that
is needed to ensure success. The cream and milk must be made rather
more than new milk warmth, and if rennet is used, the cream must be
covered and put in a warm place until the curd is come. During the
whole process the temperature should never be lower than 65°F.

Sage Cheese.--This is made by colouring the milk with juice pressed
from young red sage leaves and spinach. It should be added with the
rennet to the milk.

Much obscurity has hitherto hung around the natural processes
concerned in the development of flavour in cheese. Cheeses of
different districts and of different countries possess (apart from
mere richness due to the quantity of cream fat contained) each a
piquancy characteristic of itself, which the differences in the
mode of manufacture appear frequently much too slight to adequately
account for. In the cheese-making districts of the Continent,
however, this matter has been made the subject of scientific
investigations; and already results are forthcoming which throw much
light upon the subject. Among these, the researches of Duclaux,
at the dairy station at Fau, Cantal, France, deserve particular
attention, from the suggestiveness of the conclusions adduced. This
_savant_ has succeeded in isolating and in studying the life history
of certain microscopic organisms (microbia), in which he recognises
the primary agent that is engaged in modifying the constituents of
cheese. These organisms are nourished by the casein or curd of the
cheese, which they break up into a number of substances of simpler
constitution, some of which, like the fatty acids, are characterised
by highly piquant qualities. There are several ferments which produce
these odorous principles in different proportions, and thus give rise
to the differently flavoured cheeses; and the skill of the dairyman
largely consists (though he does not know it) in always employing the
same ferments or ripening agents, and in preventing other and less
desirable organisms from gaining a foothold. Fortunately, in course
of time, the useful ferments establish themselves in large quantities
in the dairy; they impregnate the air of the factory, and cling to
the vessels and the clothing of the operatives. From the moment the
milk is drawn, it becomes exposed to the influence of these germs,
which, developing rapidly in the warm milk, and becoming entangled
in the curd when the rennet is added, accompany it through the
operations that follow. On the Continent it appears common to curdle
the milk at a much higher temperature than we do. Duclaux speaks
of the rennet being frequently added just as the milk comes from
the cow; and if it has been allowed to cool, it is warmed up to the
natural temperature, 95°-98° F.

In making fine cheeses but little rennet is used, and the coagulation
takes a long time. The curd is soft and full of whey, which is
drained off slowly and as completely as possible, in order to get
rid of the milk sugar. That which is left is chiefly converted into
lactic acid, which renders the new cheese slightly acid. Soon,
however, the casein ferments begin to develop over the surface of
the cheese, giving rise to carbonate of ammonia, which neutralises
the acid, and leaves the cheese in the end slightly alkaline. From
the living cells of the ferment are at the same time secreted a
diastase similar to the active principle which in malt, and in all
germinating seeds, converts the starch into sugar. This penetrates
the curd little by little, and renders it soluble, and thus a
yellow translucent layer creeps gradually inward to the centre,
and replaces the white and opaque casein. When isolated, this
diastase attacked curd so strongly as to reduce it in 3 or 4 days
to the consistency and appearance of Camembert cheese; but, as the
flavouring organisms were absent, the resulting product was insipid
and tasteless. This action resembles strongly the digestion to which
the cheese is afterwards more completely subjected in the body.
Indeed, the similarity in properties between this peculiar principle
and the ferment of the pancreas is very marked. Simultaneously with
the digestive diastase there is also secreted a diastase capable
of coagulating the casein; but the cheese maker does not wait for
this to be developed, but adds to the milk some rennet, which is a
solution containing this diastase in considerable quantity. Such,
in short, is the rationale of cheese curing--first, an organised
ferment decomposes the curd, and produces in small quantities highly
flavoured compounds, which, like a condiment, give relish to the
whole mass; and secondly, a diastase, or unorganised ferment secreted
by the organism, mellows the curd and renders it more easily soluble.

The conditions most favourable for the exclusive development of
these organisms have been learnt by long practice; but should these
conditions at any time fail to be observed, some other ferment,
incapable of producing the particular kind of ripening wished for,
may intrude itself. The chamber is then said to be “sick,” and has
sometimes to be temporarily abandoned.

Special members of the yeast and mould families are also largely
concerned in the ripening of certain cheeses, and their action is
very similar to that mentioned above. Roquefort and Pontgibaud
cheeses, for example, are ripened by _Penicillium glaucum_, or, in
other words, bread mould. These cheeses are kept as near as possible
to 32° F., not because so low a temperature is most favourable to the
development of the mould, but because other ferments, and especially
such as give rise to putrefaction (vibrios), are thereby checked.
From the low temperature and unsuitable soil the ripening is apt to
proceed so slowly that it is customary to expedite the fermentation
by a liberal inoculation of mouldy bread, and by piercing holes to
enable the plant to penetrate inwards.

In Gruyère cheese are found long cells constricted in the middle
like an elongated figure of 8. These cells multiply by splitting in
two at the constricted part, forming two individuals. A gelatinous
layer surrounds each cell when young, and also divides and envelopes
the new individuals. This, however, disappears with age, leaving the
cell naked. The action of this organism is to resolve any milk sugar
that may be present into alcohol, acetic acid, and carbonic acid,
and as this latter is a gas, it forms a number of small bubbles in
the cheese. Gruyère is a cooked cheese; for in order to hasten the
elimination of the whey, and enable the curd to be pressed in the
mould as quickly as possible, the curd is heated slowly, and with
constant stirring, to about 120° F. This requires considerable care,
for if the heating be too rapid, the grains formed are large, and
in the press flatten out and adhere to one another, and so clothe
the cheese with an impenetrable layer, through which the whey is
unable to escape. On the other hand, an undercooked curd is liable
to retain an excess of whey; and the evil of this is that too much
gas is given off by the fermentation of the sugar, and consequently,
instead of bubbles, long channels appear in the cheese, which
depreciate the value of the product. Again, as the ferment is killed
at a temperature very near 120° F. (varying a little with the acidity
or alkalinity of the curd), it is very possible to destroy it by
overheating, and then the cheese becomes dry, is difficult to mature,
and is said to be “dead.” Under any circumstances the ripening of
Gruyère cheese is a very slow process.

In Duclaux’s own district of Cantal, a soft, quickly maturing,
uncooked cheese is made, which has the disadvantage of slowly
depreciating after ripening, owing to the large quantity of moisture
it contains. The practice is to curdle the milk rapidly, and then,
while the curd still retains a considerable amount of whey, to allow
it to ferment till all the milk sugar has disappeared. On pressing
the mass, there is squeezed out a certain amount of liquid and much
ferment; but the remainder, equivalent to half the weight of the
cheese, is retained, owing to a curious change in the properties
of the curd. So obstinately is this held, that, with additional
pressure, fat is forced out in preference to water. Duclaux finds,
however, that with cheese containing less fat--say, half skimmed
and half raw milk--more liquid can be extracted, and thus a
better-keeping cheese obtained. As the flavour and odour are derived
almost entirely from the alteration products of the casein, the
main characteristics of the Cantal cheese are not altered by this
modification, and he consequently recommends its adoption.

The most praiseworthy part of Duclaux’s investigations--that on the
life history of these organisms, and the isolation and investigation
of the diastases secreted by them--is of too scientific a nature
to be reproduced here. We may mention, however, that Manelli and
Mussi, in their researches on the maturing of Parmesan cheese, have
independently come to much the same conclusion as those given above;
so there is every reason to consider that we possess now a correct
explanation of the phenomena of cheese ripening.

Apart from the interest attached to the explanation of an every-day
process, researches such as these are sure in the end to lead to
results of direct practical utility. Little by little we are getting
to understand that no process of fermentation or putrefaction can be
truly called “spontaneous.” They are as much the result of sowing
as a thistle that turns up in a field where it was not purposely
planted; and just as we can keep our agricultural crops in order by
due attention, so crops of ferments can be controlled, the valuable
ones being cultivated, and the pernicious weeds sterilised. Methods
are known to the vinegar maker by which he can rear, when he needs
it, unmixed crops of _Mycoderma aceti_ to ferment his liquors; and
the high-class brewer already uses the microscope to ascertain the
healthiness of his yeast plant and its freedom from bacteria. May
not even cheesemaking, then, be raised from an empirical art into
a science, and each cheese factory of the future devote itself
knowingly to the cultivation of its own appropriate fungus, learning
its likes and its dislikes, and the enemies that have to be contended
with? Even the mould sowing of the Roquefort peasants might be
improved upon, and pure crops of ferment be raised to inoculate our
cheeses. Granted that even then our finest cheeses would not be made
better, yet the possibility of raising all cheese to the highest
standard of quality of which it is capable is surely sufficient to
claim for the scientific experimenter respect and encouragement.

In France there are a variety of cheeses which vary in consistence,
constitution, flavour, and ability to keep, and these differences
are rather owing to the process of manufacture than to the nature of
the soil or the peculiarity of climate. The various denominations
applied to them, too, indicate differences in manipulation rather
than any change in their matter. Nevertheless, we are far from
partaking of the opinion of those who deny that both sun and soil
have any influence; for as with wine and cider, so with butter and
cheese, the pasture has a marked action upon aroma and quality. If we
consider the general manner or process of manufacture, we find that
it comprehends five distinct operations, which in France are called:
1st, _coagulation du lait_, or the formation of the curd; 2nd,
_rompage_, or breaking up of the curd; 3rd, _égouttage_, or drainage,
which is accompanied in some cases by _pressage_ or pressing; 4th,
_salaison_, or salting; and 5th, _fermentation_, or maturing of the
cheese. It is in the various methods, many of which differ very
little from each other, and in all of which these operations are in
force, but carried out under different conditions, that it is found
possible to make 40 or more varieties of cheese, which are divided
into 4 categories; 1st, fresh soft cheese; 2nd, salt ditto ditto;
3rd, firm or medium-pressed ditto; 4th, cured cheese, more or less
hard and pressed.

In the first category we have the Neufchâtel, the manufacture of
which is extensive and profitable in the district of Bray; the Brie,
the Pont l’Evêque, and the Camembert may be mentioned as examples
of the second; Roquefort and Dutch of the third; and Gruyère and
Parmesan of the fourth.

There are defects to which even the best cheeses are commonly
subject--defects, of the causes of which the professed cheese-makers
themselves do not always give consistent accounts. Every good cheese
should be of uniformly smooth surface, and perfectly firm; of colour
unvarying throughout the whole surface, save only where the marks of
age, necessary to certain kinds, appear. Softness and soapiness of
texture; cracks, attributed by some to the action of lime on pasture,
by others to the employment of too strong a draught in the process
of drying; and holes, caused by “heaving” or “sweating,” are patent
signs of imperfection which should warn the most careless purchaser
against the cheese in which any of them are found. “Marbling,” the
worst of all faults, is a mottled appearance of the surface, somewhat
resembling the veining of marble. It is due to one or more of the
following causes: not properly scalding the cheese; adding the
colouring (which should be put in before the rennet) after the cheese
has come; not properly squeezing out the whey. Wherever this occurs,
it imparts to the cheese an exceeding ill flavour--in fact, makes it
unfit to be eaten. It is especially dangerous in cheeses of the North
Wilts kind, where the surface is invisible to the purchaser. Rankness
of flavour, which can of course be guarded against by those who buy
their own cheese, is also to be met with in the best kinds. This has
been imputed to impurity of rennet; but, as it is frequently found in
the cheeses of Scotland, where it is pretended that the greatest care
is taken of the rennet, it may possibly also result from bad quality
of pasture. In the Scotch dairy farms it is said to be obviated by
pouring a very small quantity of saltpetre into the pail before
milking the cows.

Following are some remarks on the chief British cheeses, culled from
the _Field_.

Cheddar.--The manufacture of this, the king of cheeses, occupies a
large tract of country, its head-quarters being at and about Pennard,
a few miles from the cliffs of Cheddar in the Mendips. For richness
combined with delicacy of flavour, and, indeed, for every good
quality that may become a cheese, it is without a rival. None can
serve better its purpose at dinner. This cheese is made of circular
shape, of large surface, and considerable depth; its price about
13_d._ per lb. at a good cheesemonger’s. It is mostly white, but is
occasionally coloured red, for which purpose Nicholl’s “colouring” is
used. It is said to make no perceptible difference in the flavour.
Cheddar, to be in perfection, must be kept for at least 2 years
before being eaten, when it will not show any outward signs of decay.
It is said, that the facility of exportation given by railways at
present has caused much of this cheese to be moved before it is
properly ripe, thereby producing a considerable general deterioration
of its quality in the markets. Yet by taking a little pains, and by
selection of right places of purchase, the best of it may still be

Cheshire.--This justly celebrated cheese, though for delicacy of
flavour inferior to Cheddar, was, and is still by many good judges,
held to be the best of English cheeses. In taste it is a good deal
stronger, not to say coarser, than Cheddar, but it is equally rich
in substance. Perhaps, owing to its strength, it may be considered
as better adapted for dinner than luncheon. It is of large size, and
circular in shape. Like Cheddar, it must be kept at least 2 years
before eating, and no cheese is more improved by age. It is for the
most part made in the county the name of which it bears, though,
of course, the general area of its distribution exceeds the limits
of that county, and very good specimens of it may be had at some
distance beyond the borders. Much of its excellence is, however, said
to be imparted by the peculiarity of the soil of Cheshire itself, and
by the salt springs with which that soil abounds. At least, wherever
such salt springs are most found, the cheese there produced has
always been deemed of superior quality. The price of the best quality
in London shops is mostly the same as that of Cheddar.

Cottenham.--Some say that it is a much superior cheese to Stilton. In
external appearance it closely resembles Stilton, and might easily
be mistaken for it. The interior, however, which is of a far richer
and creamier texture, is very different. The flavour is fuller,
though equally delicate; and although Cottenham, to be really good,
requires, like Stilton, to be kept until decay shows itself, yet it
is in itself not so insipid but that it may be eaten before that
decay is very fully developed. The veins with which it will then be
marked are of a brownish hue. It is about the same size as Stilton,
or perhaps a little larger, and its price ought to be about the same
as the price of that cheese.

Daventry.--A rare cheese of remarkably pleasant flavour, very
delicate of taste, and possibly rich of substance. It is of medium
size, flat and circular of shape, of whitish colour, and should be
marked when fit for eating with veins, somewhat after the manner of
Stilton, but of deeper green than is usual with that cheese.

Dorset (Double), or Blue Vinney.--This cheese is generally known
throughout a large tract of country, but is in fact a poor enough
cheese, and only adapted to make a tolerable luncheon off. It is
circular and flat, of white colour, mottled with a network of
blue veins; whence its name, though the etymology of the name has
disappeared in the popular spelling of it.

Dunlop.--This, the most famous--indeed, the only famous--Scotch
cheese, is made in the counties of Ayr, Renfrew, Lanark, and
Galloway, in various sizes from ¼ to ½ cwt. In texture and taste it
somewhat resembles double Gloucester, and, like it, is well adapted
for toasting.

Gloucester, Double and Single.--Double Gloucester is also a very rich
cheese, but with a certain poverty of flavour, by reason of which it
can hardly be recommended for use at dinner, although at luncheon
it may not be unacceptable. Its taste is peculiarly mild, and this,
combined with its waxy texture, which allows it to be cut into thin
slices without crumbling, admirably adapts it for toasting, for which
purpose it is, with hardly an exception, the best cheese we possess.
It is of circular shape, and generally weighs about 22 lb. The single
Gloucester is currently reported to be of the same substance and
richness as the double; but in fact, as a rule, is made of far poorer
materials, being composed of milk skimmed overnight, or partially
thereof; it is also of only about half the weight and thickness. It
is fit for nothing but toasting.

Leicester--commonly called in London shops _Derbyshire_--is chiefly
made in the county from which it takes it name; it is in shape flat
and circular, and very shallow, of moderate size, and coloured a
deepish red. It is a good second-rate cheese, and if any one shall
desire a serviceable article, whether for luncheon or dinner, very
equal in quality and agreeable of taste, let him try Leicester. The
price should be 9-10_d._ per lb.

North Wilts.--This, which derives its name from the county of its
birth, is a rich and nice little cheese, of a very delicate and
agreeable flavour. From the extreme mildness of its taste, it is far
fitter for the luncheon than for the dining-table. In shape it is
cylindrical, with a smooth hard rind, and weighs about 10-12 lb. It
is coloured red with arnatto. The price in London is 10-11_d._ per lb.

Stilton.--At Stilton, in Huntingdonshire, where the coaches of the
great north road were wont to stop for luncheon, this cheese was
first introduced to the public. Its sole connection with Stilton is
its name, the cheese itself having been made in the neighbourhood of
Melton Mowbray. Since then it has extended itself over most of the
rich lowlands of Leicestershire and a portion of Nottinghamshire. In
shape it is cylindrical, the outside covered with a whitish rind,
very thick and rough. The flavour of a good Stilton is exquisite,
though, perhaps rather cloying as compared with the finer sorts of
“plain” cheese. It is unfit to be eaten--indeed, is of a nauseous
insipidity--until pretty well covered with blue veins. This will
occur in about 2 years, and should be allowed to come on gradually
and naturally, by merely keeping the cheese moist enough not to
check the decay. Many artifices, however, are resorted to in order
to hasten its maturity, as by placing it in a damp but warm cellar;
sinking it, wrapped in brown paper, in a hotbed, &c. The practice
of pouring port wine into Stilton is condemned by some as at once
wasting good wine and spoiling good cheese. Stilton will be found
most acceptable both at luncheon and dinner. In size it averages 12
lb., and its price is from 1_s._ 6_d._ per lb. There is, however,
no cheese so unequal in quality, whether from accidents to which it
is liable during manufacture, or from whatever other cause, and the
utmost care must be taken in its purchase.

Subjoined is an account of the best known foreign cheeses, from the
same source.

Camembert.--This cheese, which is made in Brittany, is a kind of
cross between the “real” and “cream” cheese. It reminds one much of
the best privately made cream cheese of our own country, with a rich
and peculiar flavour superadded. It is of a soft and creamy texture,
of a yellowish white, flat and very shallow, with a dark brown rind,
very thick and soft. It may be confidently recommended as a real
delicacy, rather for the dinner than the luncheon-table. The price of
Camembert cheeses, which are o£ small size, is about 9-10_d._ each.

Cream Cheeses.--In this production the palm must be yielded by the
English to the foreign market. Our own cheeses of the kind, including
the best of private manufacture, are made to be eaten at once, and
will not bear keeping, by which process the Continental cheese, more
skilfully put together, is much improved.

The principal foreign cream cheeses are Stracchino (Milan), which
is a long way the best; Brie (Meaux), Marolles, and Pont l’Evêque,
all very good of their kind, and Neufchatel, which last is, of all,
the most commonly met with on this side of the Channel. Neufchatel,
frequently called “Bondon,” from being made of the shape and size
of the _bondon_ (Ang. “bung”) of a cask, is made at Neufchatel,
in Normandy. It is simply a white cream cheese, and when fresh,
extremely insipid--in fact, hardly equal to our own Yorkshire and
Bath cheeses. By keeping, however, until it becomes “ripe,” it
acquires a flavour by no means to be despised, though hardly on a
level with some of the cream cheeses already mentioned.

Crême de Brie has been alluded to as once the _crême de la crême_
of cheeses, and even now “running a good second” to Roquefort. La
Brie is situated near to Paris, in the Department of Seine et Marne,
with proximity, together with the difficulty of distant transport
and the fondness of the Parisians for the thing itself, causes the
most dainty to be almost entirely eaten in Paris. Imitations of it
are many, and, as a rule, as worthless as is the genuine article
valuable, for of all the French cheeses it is the most expensive by
reason of its not keeping sound beyond a few days, and the large
quantities in which it is partaken of at a meal. Brie is a soft,
creamy cheese, made in rounds of large size but of little thickness.

Dutch (Holland and Belgium).--This cheese is perhaps better known
in kitchens than in the upper regions. It has, however, many good
points, and is of by no means disagreeable flavour, though, owing
to the process of making, a little too salt for delicate taste.
It is also in general very safe, and very equal in quality. Being
extremely mild, it is hardly suited to the dinner table, but affords
an excellent luncheon. For domestic use it is eminently serviceable,
and will be found (which is a great merit) generally acceptable in
the kitchen. It is of a spherical oval shape, softish in texture, and
coloured red. Its cheapness is also a recommendation, as it costs
but 8_d._ or 9_d._ a lb. An imitation of this cheese is made in the
district of Calvados, Normandy.

Gorgonzola (North of Italy).--This is an excellent cheese, and one
that bears a close resemblance to Stilton. It has, however, so
strongly marked and distinct a character of its own, that it would be
injurious to institute a comparison between it and any other cheese.
In texture and marking it is not altogether unlike Stilton, but is of
deeper yellow, and the veins of a greener hue. It is equally good for
luncheon and dinner, having great delicacy combined with fulness of
flavour. Price about 1_s._ 5_d._ a lb.

Gruyère.--Gruyère is made in the Canton of Fribourg, and in the
Vosges, the Jura, and Ain. The best cheeses of this kind are selected
for exportation. Gruyère is a flat cheese of some 3 in. in depth,
of a pale yellow colour, and plain surface, marked sparsely with
large holes, which contain moisture. The rule laid down on the
“plain” cheeses of England as to uniformity of colour in the surface
of cheese holds good abroad as well as at home, but uniformity of
surface in foreign plain cheeses need not be so closely looked for.
In fact, the holes that abound in some of these cheeses constitute
neither blemish nor unsoundness. The odour of Gruyère is strongish,
but the taste mild and delicate. If anything, it is a little cloying.
It is a fair cheese, but cannot be called more than fair, for dinner;
but will serve very well for luncheon, though perhaps likely to pall
on the taste if eaten constantly at this meal. The wholesale price is
11_d._ a lb.

Parmesan (from the district in the North of Italy between Lodi and
Cremona) is a finer cheese than Gruyère. The cows from whose milk
it is made are kept in the house nearly all the year round, and fed
in summer on cut grass, in winter on hay. The process of making
both Gruyère and Parmesan is the same, but the quality of the milk
considerably differs. Parmesan is of great size, sometimes reaching
180 lb. and is perhaps, of all cheese imported from abroad, the most
useful “all round.” It is the only cheese that can be used grated for
soup or macaroni. It is the custom of a good many people to supply
grated Parmesan as a dinner cheese, but grated cheese, as compared
with whole, suffers a certain deterioration of flavour. However this
may be, avoid, if the cheese is served whole, the cutting of either
this or Gruyère into thin slices, as the manner of some is. Let the
cheese have fair play, and its full flavour, which it will not,
unless it be cut, like any other cheese, of a reasonable thickness.
Parmesan is of a yellowish-green hue, of firm and hard surface,
marked by small holes. The time for ripening it properly is about
3 years. When not wanted for use, it should be kept covered with a
cloth slightly steeped in sweet oil. The wholesale price is 1_s._
5_d._ a lb.

Port du Salut.--This cheese is hardly as well-known in England as are
the Roquefort and other French cheeses. It is, when fresh, a soft,
pasty, mild, most palatable cheese, generally made in round cakes of
5-8 lb. in weight, and stamped with a cross and words showing its
place of manufacture.

Roquefort, made in the department of Aveyron, in the south of
France, is not only the most highly priced and most highly prized
of the cheeses of that country, but a most formidable rival to any
of the best cheeses made on the continent, and even to our own more
celebrated “fancy” cheeses. It has been likened by some to Stilton;
but, beyond a certain similarity of surface texture, the two have not
much in common. They are, moreover, made of very different matter,
Roquefort being composed of sheep and goats’ milk intermixed. Its
peculiar excellence is said to be due to the natural qualities of
the cellars wherein it is placed for ripening, and partly also from
the manner of milking the sheep in making it. It should be kept
until considerable progress of decay has been made. It is of very
delicate though rather pungent flavour, and, if it lacks something
of the softness and mellowness of the Stilton, will be found equally
agreeable with it, at least at the dinner table. For luncheon Stilton
has the preference. Its wholesale price per lb. is 1_s._ 5_d._

Schabzieger.--This cheese is of spherical shape, of size somewhat
larger than a cricket ball, with a dark thick rind. Its colour is
yellow, with green veins. It is of a strong odour, and, unlike
Gruyère, of an equally strong and rank taste. There is no doubt of
its power to fulfil one purpose of cheese, the annihilation of the
taste of anything you may have previously eaten, and for this it will
be found to do good and useful service. It is a deservedly popular
delicacy. The price of each cheese is about 8_d._ See also p. 1002.


John Darton: ‘The Dairyman: a Practical Guide to Cow-keeping, and the
Making of Butter and Cheese.’ London. 1872. 1_s._

Willis P. Hazard: ‘Butter and Butter-making, with the Best Methods
for Producing and Marketing it.’ Philadelphia. 1877.

H. M. Jenkins: ‘Hints on Butter-making.’ London. 1886. 6_d._

J. P. Sheldon: ‘Dairy Farming.’ London. 1_l._ 11_s._ 6_d._

Canon Bagot: ‘Easy Lessons in Dairying.’ London, 1883. 6_d._

The _Field._ London. Weekly. 6_d._


A great mistake is sometimes made in ventilating cellars. The object
of ventilation is to keep the cellar cool and dry; but this object
often fails of being accomplished by a common mistake, and instead
the cellar is made both warm and damp. A cool place should never be
ventilated, unless the air admitted is cooler than the air within,
or is at least as cool as that, or a very little warmer. The warmer
the air, the more moisture it holds in suspension. Necessarily, the
cooler the air, the more this moisture is condensed and precipitated.
When a cool cellar is aired on a warm day, the entering air being in
motion appears cool, but as it fills the cellar the cooler air with
which it becomes mixed chills it, the moisture is condensed, and dew
is deposited on the cold walls, and may often be seen running down
them in streams. Then the cellar is damp, and soon becomes mouldy. To
avoid this, the windows should only be opened at night, and late--the
last thing before retiring. There is no need to fear that the night
air is unhealthful--it is as pure as the air of midday, and is really
drier. The cool air enters the apartment during the night, and
circulates through it. The windows should be closed before sunrise in
the morning, and kept closed and shaded through the day. If the air
of the cellar is damp, it may be thoroughly dried by placing in it a
peck of fresh lime in an open box. A peck of lime will absorb about 7
lb. or more than 3 qt. of water, and in this way a cellar may soon be
dried, even in the hottest weather.

[Illustration: 67. Barrel Stand.]

_Barrel Stand._--A simple and effective barrel stand may be made in
the manner described below. It consists of a stout frame on 4 legs
9-12 in. high, made of quartering which may vary from 2 in. sq. for
small casks to 3 in. sq. for larger ones. The proportions given in
the annexed illustration (Fig. 67) are suited to a 9 gal. cask. This
should be 22 in. long, 15 in. wide, 9 in. high, and made of 2½ in.
stuff, of which it will consume about 9½ ft. run. It will be seen
that the sides _a_, _b_ are joined to the legs _c_, _d_, _e_, _f_
by mortice and tenon joints, while the ends _g_, _h_ are dovetailed
into the sides _a_, _b_. The joints are secured by pins of oak or
red deal driven into holes bored by a gimlet. The stand thus made is
only adapted to carry casks stood on end. For holding them steadily
on their side, and at the same time giving them a tilt forward to
allow all the clear contents lying above the sediment to be drawn
out without disturbing the barrel, use is made of 2 pieces of board
hollowed out to receive the barrel. For the sized cask mentioned
(9 gal.), 15 in. will suffice in length and 1 in. in thickness for
each piece. Both are prepared for letting down into the frame by
cutting out a piece 2½ in. sq. from each of the 2 bottom corners as
at _a_, and can then be screwed to the cross piece _b_ of the frame.
Previously the cradle is formed by describing on the piece of wood an
arc of a circle corresponding to the size of the cask at the point
where it is to be supported. Supposing the diameter of the cask to be
15½ in., the radius of the circle to be described will be 7¾ in., as
shown. This gives the correct arc, but as the cask will lie sloping
and not flat, the foremost edge of the arc must be shaved away till
the cask will rest on the entire breadth of the edges of the cradle
_c_. For the front cradle the board may be 6½ in. wide, and for the
back 8½ in.

_Cleaning Casks._--(1) The acid smell very often found in casks
may be attributed to absorption in the pores of the wood of acetic
and lactic acids--a very small quantity of either of them having
power to communicate their principle to any fermenting liquid with
which they may be brought in contact, and increasing very fast at
the expense of the alcohol in the liquid, while at the same time
causing unsoundness to a greater or less extent, according as the
temperature of the atmosphere may be high or low. Bearing this in
mind, it is of the utmost importance that all free acid which the
cask may contain should be carefully neutralised before filling
with a liquid so liable to change as fermenting wort. Casks before
filling, after being well washed with boiling water, should be
allowed to cool, and then examined by some responsible person as
to their cleanliness, acidity, and probable mustiness; the cask is
well smelt, and usually a light is passed through the tap-hole, so
that the examiner may view the interior. Any cask that may smell
sour (especially in summer weather, or when required for stock or
pale ales) should be rejected, and be well treated with lime. This
should be put into the casks _dry_, small lumps of the lime being
broken, so that they can be easily inserted in the bung-holes, and
when sufficient has been put in (say, about 4 lb. to a barrel), then
about 4 gal. of _boiling_ water must be added, the casks bunged up,
and kept so for a few hours, occasionally rolling about. The lime
should then be well washed out, and the casks steamed, and allowed
to cool, when they will be in a fit condition for containing the
most delicate liquid without any injury. The hard brown substance,
which on being scraped with a nail leaves a white mark, so often
found in casks, is a deposit that forms from the constituents of
the liquid contained in them, and is often carbonate of lime, or
yeast dried, or both. When this is formed, the only effectual
method of cleansing is to take out the head, and put it into the
cooper’s hands to be well scraped, until every particle of the fur
is removed. Cask-washing machines never remove fur or thick dry
deposit properly; they are very convenient in a general way for the
usual run of casks, but any exceptionally bad must be unheaded, and
cleaned by hand. For stock ales it is a good plan to rinse with
solution of bisulphite of lime just before filling trade casks. (2)
With regard to the coating spoken of in (1), it not only preserves
the wood but keeps it clean and sweet, and does no harm at all to
the beer. It takes some considerable time before the wood is coated
with such a protecting enamel. It occurs alike in rounds, puncheons,
and stone squares. Formerly it was customary to have all vessels
that were furred over thoroughly dressed by the cooper, but now
intelligent coopers advise brewers to keep it on. (3) Blow sulphur
fumes into foul casks by fumigating bellows, such as gardeners use
when fumigating conservatories. The sulphurous acid formed by burning
brimstone is a powerful purifier, and will not leave an unpleasant
taste, being easily washed away. (4) Cider casks.--Half fill each
cask with boiling water, and add ¼ lb. of pearlash, then bung it up,
and turn over occasionally for 2 days, then empty, and wash with
boiling water. (5) Scald out with boiling water; if the heads are
out, put them over a straw fire for a few minutes, so as to slightly
char the inside. If you have a steam boiler, partially fill with
water, and admit steam through the bung-hole by a pipe down into the
water, and so boil. (6) Vinegar casks.--Old vinegar barrels become
impregnated to such an extent with acetous substances that it is next
to impossible to render them fit for the storage of any other liquid.
Fill the barrels with milk of lime, and let this remain in them for
several months, then rinse out well with plenty of warm water, and
steam them inside for ½ hour.

_Cleaning Bottles._--(1) The commonest plan is by means of water and
small shot. But lead shot, where so used, often leaves lead carbonate
on the internal surface, and this is apt to be dissolved in the wine
and other liquids afterwards introduced, with poisonous results; and
particles of the shot are sometimes inadvertently left in the bottle.
Fordos states that clippings of iron wire are a better means of
rinsing. They are easily had, and the cleaning is rapid and complete.
The iron is attacked by the oxygen of the air, but the ferruginous
compound does not attach to the side of the bottle, and is easily
removed in washing. Besides, a little oxidised iron is not injurious
to health. Fordos found that the small traces of iron left had no
apparent effect on the colour of red wines; it had on white wines,
but very little; but he thinks it might be better to use clippings of
tin for the latter. (2) Take a handful of common quicklime, such as
bricklayers use, and a handful of common washing soda; boil them in a
large kitchen iron saucepan (which will only be cleaned, not damaged,
by the process). When cold, the fluid will be lye; put this into the
vessel you want to clean with some small pebbles; make it warm if
you can, and shake up or let it soak according to the nature of the
vessel. (3) Gypsum, free from silicate, marble, or bruised bones, is
preferable to shot or sand. Sulphuric acid and bichromate mixed, are
best to free porcelain and glass from organic matter.

_Drying Bottles._--After washing, bottles and decanters should be
thoroughly dried inside. Let them first drain completely, then warm
them slightly and blow in fresh air by means of a pair of bellows;
this will absorb the moisture and leave the interior quite dry.

_Corks and Corking._--Cheap bad corks are always dear; the best corks
are soft, velvety, and free from large pores; if squeezed, they
become more elastic and fit more closely. If good corks are used, of
sufficiently large size to be extracted without the corkscrew, they
may be employed many times in succession, especially if they are
soaked in boiling water after, which restores them to their original
shape, and renews their elasticity.

[Illustration: 68. Corking Bottles.]

The most common mode of fastening down corks, is with the ginger-beer
knot, which is thus made:--First the loop is formed as at _a_ Fig.
68, then that part of the string which passes across the loop is
placed on the top of the cork, and the loop itself is passed down
around the neck of the bottle, and by pulling the ends of the cord
it is made tight beneath the rim; the ends of the string are finally
brought up, and tied either in a double knot, or in a bow on the top
of the cork.

For effervescing drinks, such as champagne, which require to be kept
a longer time and are more valuable, a securer knot is desirable,
which may be made thus:--A loop as at _b_ is first formed, and the
lower end is then turned upwards and carried behind the loop, as
shown at _c_; it is then pulled through the loop as at _d_, and in
this state is put over the neck of the bottle; the part _a_ being on
one side, and the two parts of the loop on the other; on pulling the
two ends, the whole becomes tight round the neck, and the ends, which
should be quite opposite, are to be brought up over the cork, twice
twisted, as at e, and then tied in a single knot.

Insects are often troublesome in devouring corks. This evil may be
prevented by the following remedies. (1) Smear petroleum over the
corks and bottle-necks, (2) Dip the cork and neck into a paste of
quicklime which has just been slaked, and let it concrete on the

=Aerated Drinks.=--These may be divided into two classes, alkaline
and saccharine. The alkaline, usually called mineral waters, are
such as soda, seltzer, potass, &c.; while the saccharine are those
which contain a portion of sugar, such as ginger beer, lemonade, and
the various drinks made from the syrups. The alkaline mixtures after
settling in the tanks, are usually passed through a lawn sieve, and
then pumped through the machine, which impregnates them with carbonic
acid gas. Saccharine drinks do not undergo this process, but a given
quantity is put into each bottle or siphon, and the aerated water is
forced into the bottle on it.

Either hard or soft water may be used for aerated drinks, so long
as it is pure; when any doubt exists, it is always best to have it
filtered. When a choice of water can be had, use hard or spring water
for saccharine drinks.

The following recipes may be varied considerably. Some of the best
beverages have been produced by mixing several of the essences
together, and altering the colour. In all these drinks it is the
essence that is used, as the fresh fruit will not do for bottle
goods; while for the fountain drinks, the fresh fruit, being consumed
as soon as mixed, forms a creamy beverage much in demand.

In all cases, in warm weather, it is advisable to have the factory
as cool as possible, and more particularly the water. It is a good
system and is employed in many factories, to have the pump of the
machine surrounded with ice, the refrigerator being external; any
kind of ice may be used.

In regard to the machinery, fountains, &c., used in the manufacture
and dispensing of aerated beverages the reader is referred to the
catalogues of the various manufacturers of the same.

Saccharine drinks are never pumped through a machine, but a given
quantity of the syrup is put into each bottle by means of a syrup
measure-tap, or better still, a syrup pump attached to the filling
machine, and the aerated water is bottled on it.

Following are the principal saccharine aerated beverages:--

_Champagne Cider._--This is lemonade syrup flavoured with pear
essence, and coloured with the sugar colouring.

_Gingerade._--(1) Mix 5 oz. essence of cayenne, 5 oz. essence of
ginger, and 5 oz. water; (2) dissolve 3 lb. citric acid in ½ gal. hot
water; (3) dissolve 4 oz. magnesia and 20 lb. fine loaf sugar in 3¼
gal. pure water. Filter the first compound and add 7 oz., also 14 oz.
of the second, to the third; there will be no cloudiness; bottle at a
pressure of 70 to 80 lb., using 1 oz. syrup to a bottle.

_Ginger Ale._--This is ginger-beer syrup coloured slightly with sugar
or saffron colouring. An addition of pineapple will also greatly
improve the flavour. Bottle as for lemonade. Add albumen compound,

_Ginger Beer._--This is lemonade syrup flavoured with essence of
ginger and capsicine. The soluble essence of ginger is added to
the syrup by dropping the quantity required on to pieces of sugar,
when the syrup is lukewarm; the palate will be the best guide
for quantity, as the essences vary much in strength. The albumen
compound is to be added at the same time as the essence; bottle as
for lemonade, using ¾ oz. to a bottle.

(_a_) A strong ginger beer is made by boiling with every gallon of
water, 2 lb. loaf sugar, and 1 oz. bruised ginger, 1 oz. cream of
tartar, and one small lemon, sliced. To the cooled mixture some
yeast is added, and the whole is set aside for fermentation. When
the tumultuous fermentation is over, the liquid is bottled. Ginger
beer thus made is, when properly fermented, of considerable alcoholic
strength, equal at least to the strongest Scotch ale.

(_b_) Keeps for many months. Take white sugar, 20 lb.; lime juice,
18 (fluid) oz.; honey, 1 lb.; bruised ginger, 22 oz.; water, 18 gal.
Of course the quantities can be modified. Boil the ginger in 3 gal.
water for ½ hour, the sugar, the lime juice, and the honey with
the remainder of the water, and strain through a cloth. When cold,
add the white of one egg and ½ oz. (fluid) essence of lemon. After
standing four days, bottle.

(_c_) Boil a sliced lemon with 1 oz. ground ginger in ½ pint water
for ½ hour; stand to settle, and pour off clear part into a vessel
containing 5 qt. cold water; add 1 lb. lump sugar and 1 oz. cream of
tartar; ferment with 2 oz. German or other yeast spread on toast or
plain bread; stand to ferment in warm place; cover from dust; bottle
soon as fermented; drink in three days.

(_d_) White sugar, 1 lb.; cream of tartar and ginger, each 1 oz.;
honey, 2 oz.; lemons, 2; water, 2 gal.; tartaric acid, 40 gr.; white
of an egg. Bruise the ginger, and let the water boil for 10 minutes;
pour it on the cream of tartar, sugar, and lemons. Let it stand till
cold, then add white of an egg and a tablespoonful of yeast; let it
work 6 hours, then add tartaric acid and bottle directly.

(_e_) Put into a 30 gallon brew 2 lb. of good fresh brewer’s yeast,
and stir it up well. Now allow it to ferment, taking care that there
shall be a gradual rise in temperature during fermentation. Skim
the yeast off carefully until the beer is ready for bottling (which
will not be under 24 hours), then add your eggs, and bottle quickly.
After bottling lay the bottles down, as they will mature better
than if standing up. The eggs have no effect on the strength of the
beer. The barm should not be skimmed off too often; it is necessary
to allow a good head to form before skimming. About three times
should be sufficient. 70° F. is too high a temperature to commence
a fermentation; better commence at 63° or 64° F. Beat up the eggs
with a birch rod, mixing well with 2 or 3 pints of beer; add it to
the beer after the fermentation is finished, then well mix the whole
together and bottle. If the fermentation has been conducted properly,
it will not be necessary to rack into a clean cask before fining and
bottling. Use sufficient yeast (2 lb.), avoid skimming too often, and
do not have the liquor too hot.

_Ginger Champagne._--This refreshing and agreeable beverage is,
according to a French recipe, made as follows:--Take 60 gal. water;
add 40 lb. ginger cut in small pieces, and gently boil for ½ hour,
carefully removing any froth that may arise. Cool the liquor as
quickly as possible, and when at a blood-heat (100° F.) add 9 lb.
raisins chopped fine, and the juice of 6 doz. oranges and 6 doz.
lemons. Allow the liquid to ferment, and after standing a month it
may be bottled in the usual manner. If desired, the ginger may be
omitted, and the number of oranges increased to 18 doz.

_Lemonade._--(_a_) A difference of opinion exists as to whether this
syrup is best by simmering over a slow fire, or by merely pouring
boiling water on the ingredients; but this is greatly influenced
by the quality of the water used. The quantity of sugar and citric
acid used to a gallon of syrup is also subject to variation, as some
like it more acidulated than others. The usual proportions are 27
lb. loaf sugar and 12 oz. citric acid, previously dissolved, to 3
gal. water. Simmer over a slow fire for 5 minutes; carefully skim
it and strain through a felt bag while hot; when cooled down to the
warmth of new milk, add about ½ oz. oil of lemon. A slight head is
considered an improvement, to produce which add about ½ oz. of the
French gum extract to 1 gal. syrup; 1 oz. of syrup is to be put into
the bottle, and the aerated water bottled on it at a pressure of 90
to 100 lb.

(_b_) Rinse out with boiling water an earthen glazed vessel, to warm
it; put into it about 27 lb. loaf sugar and 12 oz. citric acid,
previously dissolved in a small quantity of boiling water; stir
occasionally, and when properly dissolved, strain it through a felt
bag. Drop oil of lemon on some large lumps of sugar till they have
taken up ½ oz.; when the mixture has cooled down to the warmth of new
milk, drop in the lumps of sugar, and see that they are dissolved
before proceeding to use it. Tartaric acid may be used in place of
citric acid, but it is not so good. Use 1 oz. to each bottle, and
bottle as for (_a_).

As lemonade syrup forms the basis for so many of the saccharine
drinks, it may be as well to state that some makers prefer to use
less water, as well as to vary the proportions of citric acid and
sugar; it is also considered an improvement to add a drop or two of
otto of roses to each gallon of syrup; this, without adding at all to
the quality of the drink, throws off a pleasant aroma on the opening
of a bottle. Caramel is used for a strong colour.

_Nectar._--This is lemonade syrup, flavoured with the essence of

_Orange Champagne._--Take 7 gal. water, 20 oz. citric acid, 54 lb.
sugar. When cold add to each gallon 3½ oz. orange tincture; colour to
fancy (sugar colouring), add ¼ oz. albumen compound at the rate of 1½
oz. to a ½ pint bottle. This is a very delicious drink, and should be
put up in champagne bottles; a special corking machine is required,
and also a better cork than the one used for lemonade.

_Pepper Punch._--Take 1¼ oz. concentrated punch to 1 gal. plain
syrup; mix well; add a few drops essence of capsicine. About 1½ oz.
of the syrup for each bottle, filling up with aerated water.

_Tonic Lemonade._--Lemonade syrup flavoured with quinine, using the
same quantity as for tonic water; or to suit the palate.

The chief ingredient in all saccharine aerated drinks is the syrup.
This is formed by making concentrated solutions of sugar in pure
water, or in water containing the principles of various flavouring
substances; the former are called simple, and the latter compound

There are many precautions to be taken in order to ensure the
production of good syrups, the most important being, perhaps, the
selection of the sugar. Cane-sugar only should be used, and that
should be perfectly refined. The least shade of colour in the sugar
is due to the presence of impurities, and syrup prepared from such
sugar not only has an unpleasant flavour, but is also very difficult
to keep. The use of common or brown sugar may be regarded, in many
cases, as an adulteration.

Syrups are very easily prepared. A hemispherical copper basin, not
tinned, but well polished, and kept scrupulously clean, is the
apparatus employed. This basin stands on three legs, and is furnished
with a false bottom, which is also hemispherical. The two hemispheres
are surrounded by a copper cylinder, fitted with a lid; the three
parts of the apparatus are fixed together by means of two circular
iron rings, which are fitted to the circumference of the hemispheres
and to the bottom of the cylinder, the whole being well pinned or
bolted together. A stop-cock in the outer hemisphere communicates
by means of a short pipe with the inner one, and serves to withdraw
the contents. Another cock, placed almost at the top, serves for the
admission of steam between the two bottoms; and the condensed water
is drawn off by means of a third cock communicating only with the
outer bottom, and placed at a short distance from the first. The
whole apparatus may be of any convenient size. Its chief advantage
is that the syrup can be heated to the required degree with the
utmost nicety; the steam is admitted until this degree is reached,
and the supply may then be stopped in a moment, thus ensuring perfect
regularity of working.

There are many circumstances which tend to produce changes in
syrups when made, and to cause them to degenerate and become
worthless; these must be carefully guarded against. The most
common is fermentation; this may be either the result of too short
or too long-continued boiling; or of the presence of an excess of
mucilaginous substances; or an imperfect clarification of the syrup
will also produce it in the course of time. But the most frequent
cause of fermentation is found in leaving the syrup in a warm place,
or in vessels which are not completely filled, and especially if they
happen to have been wet when the syrup was introduced. In order to
guard against under or over-boiling of simple syrups, it should be
laid down as a rule that they stand at 32° B. when boiling, and when
cold at 34° B. in winter, and 35° B. in summer. They should then be
bottled, and stored in a cool cellar.

In the preparation of syrups, which are solutions of sugar, more or
less strong according to the object for which they are used, care
should be taken to employ only the best refined sugar, and either
distilled or filtered rain-water, as they will be rendered much less
liable to spontaneous decomposition, and become perfectly transparent
without the trouble of clarifying. When, however, impure sugar is
employed, clarification is always necessary. This is best done by
dissolving the sugar in the water or fruit juices cold, and then
beating up a little of the cold syrup with some white of egg and 1 or
2 oz. cold water, until the mixture froths well; this must be added
to the syrup in the boiler, and when the whole is frisked up to a
good froth, heat should be applied, and the scum which forms removed
from time to time with a clean skimmer. As soon as the syrup begins
to simmer it must be removed from the fire and allowed to stand
until it has cooled a little, when it should again be skimmed, if
necessary, and then passed through a clean flannel. By using refined
sugar, however, all this trouble of clarification can be avoided.

When vegetable infusions or solutions enter into the compositions of
syrups, they should be rendered perfectly transparent by filtration
or clarification, before being added to the sugar.

The proper quantity of sugar for syrups will, in general, be found
to be 2 lb. to every pint of water or thin aqueous fluid. These
proportions allow for the water that is lost by evaporation during
the process, and are those best calculated to produce syrup of proper
consistence and possessing good keeping qualities. They closely
correspond to those recommended by Guibourt for the production of a
perfect syrup, which, he says, consists of 30 parts of sugar to 16
parts of water.

In the preparation of syrup it is of great importance to employ as
little heat as possible, as a solution of sugar, even when kept at a
temperature of boiling water, undergoes slow decomposition. The best
plan is to pour the water (cold) over the sugar, and to allow the two
to lie together for a few hours in a covered vessel, occasionally
stirring, and to apply a gentle heat, preferably that of steam or of
a water-bath, to finish the solution. Syrups are sufficiently boiled
when some taken up in a spoon pours out like oil, or a drop cooled
on the thumb nail gives a proper thread when touched. When a thin
skin appears on blowing the syrup, it is judged to be completely
saturated. These rude tests, however, often lead to errors, which
might be easily prevented by employing the proper proportions, or
determining the specific gravity by immersing in the syrup one of
Baumé’s saccharometers or syrup gauges, as indicated in the following

  Sugar in 100 parts.    Sp. Gr.    Deg. Baumé.
           0              1·000          0
           5              1·020          3
          10              1·040          6
          15              1·062          8
          20              1·081         11
          25              1·104         13·5
          30              1·128         16·3
          35              1·152         19
          40              1·177         21·6
          45              1·204         24·5
          50              1·230         27
          55              1·257         29·5
          60              1·284         32
          67              1·321         35

A fluid ounce of saturated syrup weighs 577½ gr.; a gallon weighs
13½ lb.; its specific gravity is 1·319 to 1·321 or 35° Baumé; its
boiling point is 221° F., and its density at the temperature of 212°
is 1·260 to 1·261, or 30° Baumé. The syrups prepared with the juices
of fruits mark about 2° or 3° more on Baumé’s scale than the other
syrups. According to Ure, the decimal part of the number denoting the
specific gravity of a syrup multiplied by 26 gives very nearly the
number of pounds of sugar it contains per gallon.

The preservation of syrups, as well as of all saccharine solutions,
is best promoted by keeping them in a moderately cool, but not a
very cold place. Let syrups be kept in vessels well closed, and in
a situation where the temperature never rises above 55° F. They
are kept better in small than in large vessels, as the longer the
bottle lasts the more frequently will it be opened, and the syrup
consequently exposed to the air. By bottling syrups while boiling
hot, and immediately corking down and tying the bottles over with a
bladder, perfectly air-tight, they may be preserved even at a summer
heat for years, without fermenting or losing their transparency.

The candying of syrups may be prevented (unless the syrup be
over-saturated with sugar) by the addition of acetic or citric acid,
2 or 3 dr. per gallon. Confectioners add a little cream of tartar
to prevent granulation. Syrups may be effectually prevented from
fermenting by the addition of a little sulphite of potash or lime;
also by the use of salicylic acid in small quantities. Fermenting
syrups may be immediately restored by exposing the vessel containing
them to the temperature of boiling water. The addition of a little
spirit is also good, say about 10 per cent.

A solution of sugar prepared by dissolving 2 parts of double refined
sugar in one of water, and boiling this a little, affords a syrup
which neither ferments nor crystallises.

The basis of most mineral water syrups is simple syrup, which is
prepared by adding 16 lb. of finest white sugar and the whites of 4
eggs to 1 gal. water; stir until all the sugar is dissolved; simmer
over a gentle heat for 2 or 3 minutes; skim well and strain through a
fine flannel bag.

The best way to keep fruit syrups from fermenting is by bottling
while hot, into suitable bottles or larger vessels, and to prevent
access of air. This is the principle, and it may be carried out
in various ways. For instance, fill the syrup while hot in quart
bottles, previously warmed, and fill them almost full. Cover or cork
the bottles temporarily until the syrup cools a little and contracts
in volume; then, having heated a small quantity of the syrup, refill
the bottles, cork them securely and wax them.

A great variety of syrups are made by the addition of proper
flavouring ingredients to simple syrup; but in other cases,
especially when the juices of fruits are employed, the syrup is not
first prepared and then flavoured, but the processes go hand-in-hand.
In such instances specific instructions will be given. It is always
advisable, when fresh fruit can be obtained, to use it in preference
to the essence. One general recipe, which answers for nearly all
fresh fruit, is as follows: Use nothing but the very best fresh
fruit, which must be freed from stocks, &c., and crushed with a
wooden instrument (not metal); when well mashed, let it stand in a
room of even temperature (about 68° F.) for 4 days, which will give
sufficient time for fermentation to take place; press out the juice
from the fruit and let it settle in a cool cellar for 2 days, after
which 5 lb. of the clear juice is to be simmered with 9 lb. loaf
sugar; while warm, strain through flannel. The colour may be improved
by a solution of some colouring agent.

It is advisable to add to the fresh fruit before setting it for
fermentation, about 2 lb. powdered loaf sugar for every 100 lb.
fruit. When cold, it is ready for bottling. Cleanliness should
be strictly observed in all the utensils used. When bottling for
storing, skim the top off any floating matter from the syrups in
the large pan, and see that no residue at the bottom goes into the
bottles. Most of the syrups not made of fruit, may have a little
mucilage of gum arabic added, in order to produce a rich froth. The
following recipes comprise syrups made from the fruit, and also from
essences. These may be varied to suit taste and requirements. A
variety of syrups have been brought into use by adding the various
wines, such as claret, hock, sherry, &c., to simple syrup; others, by
the addition of spirits, as milk punch, by adding to vanilla cream
Jamaica rum and nutmeg. Almost any syrup may be made by the addition
of a sufficient quantity of flavouring essence to simple syrup; but
these artificially prepared syrups are inferior to those made from
fresh fruits.

_Red Colouring for Soda-Water Syrups._--The most convenient is
probably tincture of cudbear, as it affords a good, substantial,
and natural-looking colour miscible with syrups without cloudiness.
It may be made as follows:--2 to 4 oz. powdered cudbear, 1 pint
diluted alcohol. Exhaust by maceration or displacement. Used alone,
the tincture gives a shade of red closely imitating the colour of
raspberries or currants. For deeper red, like blackberries, the
addition of some caramel is all that is necessary. The strawberry
colour is best imitated with tincture of cochineal. Aniline red,
owing to its cheapness, is often used for colouring syrups, but it
produces a glaring, artificial-looking bluish-red, and is liable to
the objection that it sometimes contains arsenic.

_Ambrosia Syrup._--A mixture of equal parts of vanilla and strawberry

_Apple Syrup._--As for pineapple syrups.

_Banana Syrup._--As for pineapple syrups.

_Blackberry Syrup._--Prepared from ripe fruit the same as raspberry
syrups. Improved by adding 1 oz. best French brandy to each quart.

_Capillaire Syrup._--9 lb. loaf sugar, 5 lb. orange-flower water.
Boil till the sugar is dissolved and the syrup is clear; while hot,
strain through flannel; add to the cool syrup 2 dr. tartaric acid,
previously dissolved in 8 oz. strongest orange-flower water; lastly
add 4 oz. best Rhine wine.

_Cream Syrup._--(_a_) 1 pint condensed milk, 1 pint water, 1¼ lb.
sugar. Heat to boiling and strain. This will keep for over a week in
a cool place.

(_b_) Imitation.--Make an emulsion with 3 oz. fresh oil of sweet
almonds, 2 oz. powdered gum arabic, and 2 oz. water; then dissolve 1
lb. white sugar by gentle heat, strain, and when cool, add the whites
of two eggs. It should be put up in small bottles, well corked, in a
cool place. This is not only an excellent imitation and substitute
for cream syrup, but will keep for a considerable time.

_Currant Syrup._--(_a_) 6 pints simple syrup, 2 pints water, 2 oz.
tartaric acid, 3 dr. fruit essence. Mix; colour with liquid carmine
for red currants, and with burnt sugar, for black.

(_b_) 1 pint red currant juice, 1 gal. simple syrup.

_Ginger Syrup._--(_a_) 6 pints simple syrup, 2 pints water, 1 oz.
tartaric acid, 2 oz. ginger. Burnt sugar to colour.

(_b_) 4 oz. extract Jamaica ginger, 1 gal. syrup. Shake well. A few
drops of tincture curcuma to colour.

(_c_) 9 lb. loaf sugar, 5 lb. water, 12 oz. essence of ginger, 4 oz.
Rhine wine. Boil sugar and water until dissolved and clear; when
cool, add ginger and wine. Mix well and let settle.

_Grape Syrup._-½ pint brandy, 1 oz. tincture of lemon, 1 gal. simple
syrup, 1 qt. tincture red saunders.

_Imperial Syrup._--Equal parts of raspberry and orange syrups.

_Lemon Syrup._--(_a_) Grate off the yellow rinds of lemons, and
beat it up with a sufficient quantity of granulated sugar; express
the lemon juice; add to each pint of juice 1 pint of water, 3½ lb.
granulated sugar, including that rubbed up with the rind; warm until
the sugar is dissolved and strain. Under no circumstances must the
syrup be allowed to boil, and the less heat that can be used to
effect the complete solution of the sugar the better will be the

(_b_) Add to 1 gal. simple syrup when cold, 20 drops fresh oil lemon
and ½ oz. citric acid, previously dissolved in 3 oz. water; mix by
shaking well in a bottle; add 4 oz. gum solution, made by dissolving
2 oz. fine white gum arabic in 2 oz. warm water.

(_c_) 6 pints simple syrup, 2 pints distilled water, 2 oz. essence of
lemon, 2 oz. citric acid, dissolved in boiling water. Mix, and, if
required, colour with saffron.

_Maple Syrup._--3½ lb. maple sugar, 1 qt. water. Dissolve, and, if
desired, add a small proportion of gum solution to produce a rich

_Milk-Punch Syrup._--To 1 pint heavy syrup add ½ pint each brandy and
Jamaica rum; flavour with 2 teaspoonfuls of an extract prepared by
macerating 2 oz. ground nutmegs in 8 oz. alcohol. The syrup is first
to be poured into the glass in the proper quantity, and ordinary
cream syrup added before drawing the soda water.

_Mulberry Syrup._--Made from the fruit, the same as strawberry, and
acidulated slightly with a solution of citric acid. It may also be
made from the fruit essence in the same manner as for strawberry,
using about half the quantity of tartaric acid.

_Nectar Syrup._--(_a_) 1 oz. extract of vanilla, 1 oz. extract of
rose, 1 oz. extract of lemon, 1 oz. extract of bitter almonds. Mix
and add 1 gal. of simple syrup; colour pink with cochineal.

(_b_) Mix 3 parts vanilla syrup with 1 each of pineapple and lemon

_Orange Syrups._--These may be made from the fresh fruit or from the
essence in a similar manner as for lemon syrups. Orange syrups may be
coloured slightly with tincture of saffron or of turmeric.

_Orgeat Syrup._--(_a_) ½ pint cream syrup, ½ pint simple syrup, 1
pint vanilla syrup, 5 drops oil bitter almonds.

(_b_) Beat to an emulsion in a mortar 8 oz. blanched sweet almonds
and 4 oz. bitter ones, adding a little water; when smooth, add 3
pints water; mix and strain; dissolve in this without heat 6 lb.
sifted white sugar, and 4 oz. fresh orange-flower water.

(_c_) An excellent imitation of orgeat syrup is made by flavouring
cream syrup, made with eggs and milk, with a few drops of oil of
bitter almonds.

_Pear Syrup._--As for pineapple syrups.

_Pineapple Syrup._--(_a_) Take a convenient number of the fruit; pare
and mash them in a marble or porcelain mortar, with a small quantity
of sugar; express the juice; for each quart of juice take 1½ pint
water, and 6 lb. sugar; boil the sugar and water, and add the juice;
remove from the fire; skim and strain.

(_b_) 6 pints simple syrup, 2 pints distilled water, 1 oz. tartaric
acid, 1 dr. essence of pineapple. Saffron to colour.

(_c_) Proceed as for raspberry (_d_); but the hard nature of this
fruit requires pounding with a heavy chump of wood (not metal) in a
tub with a strong bottom; when well mashed, it will require great
pressure to extract all the juice from this fruit; a cider press will
answer the purpose; add 14 lb. sugar to 1 gal. juice and a little
pure acetic acid; put it on a slow fire, and stir until the sugar
dissolves; when cold, bottle and tie down.

_Raspberry Syrup._--(_a_) Take fresh berries and enclose them in a
coarse bag; press out the juice, and to each quart add 6 lb. white
sugar and 1 pint water; dissolve, raising it to the boiling point;
strain; bottle and cork hot, and keep in a cool place. Raspberry
syrup is improved by adding 1 part of currants to 4 parts of

(_b_) 5 qt. raspberries, 12 lb. white sugar, 1 pint water. Sprinkle
some of the sugar over the fruit in layers, allowing the whole to
stand for several hours; express the juice and strain, washing out
the pulp with the water, add the remainder of the sugar and water;
bring the fluid to the boiling point, and then strain. This will keep
for a long time.

(_c_) 6 pints simple syrup, 2 pints water, 2 oz. tartaric acid, 2 oz.
essence of raspberry. Colouring sufficient. Colouring for raspberry,
blackberry, &c., syrups may be made by boiling 1 oz. cochineal with
half a teaspoonful cream of tartar; filter.

(_d_) Take any quantity of fully ripe fruit; free them from stalks;
place them in a tub and crush them with a wooden spatula; after
they have been mashed, let them remain for 3 or 4 hours, and strain
the crushed berries through a strong flannel bag or strainer into
a suitable vessel. Dissolve ½ oz. citric acid in 3 oz. water, and
add this quantity to each gallon of juice; mix 14 lb. broken sugar
to every gallon of juice; put on a slow fire and stir until all the
sugar is dissolved (not boil); take off the fire, and when cold,
bottle and cork for future use. If too thick when cold, it may be
brought to a proper consistency by the addition of water.

(_e_) Imitation.--3 oz. bruised orris root, 2 oz. acetic acid, 1 oz.
acetic ether, 1 pint alcohol. Cochineal to colour. Mix and allow to
stand a few days; filter, and use to flavour simple syrup.

_Rose Syrup._--1 gal. simple syrup, 1 oz. essence of rose. Colour
pink with prepared cochineal, and acidulate lightly with a solution
of citric acid.

_Rowan Syrup._--Dry the berries till they are quite shrivelled. Then
place them in brandy, and leave them in it for 7-10 days. Strain
it off the berries at the end of that time, and mix with an equal
quantity of thick very clear syrup made with loaf sugar in a brass
boiler. A handful of picked berries is sufficient for 1 pint brandy.
This is a very palatable liqueur.

_Sarsaparilla Syrup._--(_a_) 1 gal. simple syrup, 2 oz. essence of
sarsaparilla. Colour with caramel.

(_b_) 1 gal. simple syrup, essence of sarsaparilla, q.s., 1 oz.
powdered extract licorice, 15 drops oil of sassafras, 15 drops oil of
wintergreen, 10 drops oil of aniseed. Stir the oils with the powdered
licorice; add a portion of the syrup; stir smoothly, and mix the
whole together by agitation.

_Sherbet Syrup._--Mix equal parts of orange, pineapple, and vanilla

_Sherry Cobbler Syrup._--To 1 pint good sherry add an equal measure
of heavy simple syrup, and one lemon cut in very thin slices. Allow
the syrup to stand a few hours; strain through a sieve, and bottle
for use.

_Strawberry Syrup._--Proceed as for raspberry syrup (_d_); but the
fruits being more stubborn will require a good beating with the
spatula to mash them; when they have stood 3 or 4 hours, strain and
press the juice out by squeezing the strainer between the hands;
add to the juice the same quantity of citric acid; dissolve in each
gallon 14 lb. loaf sugar; simply warm the juice sufficiently to
dissolve the sugar; take from the fire, and when cold bottle and cork
till required.

_Vanilla Syrup._--(_a_) 1 gal. simple syrup, 1 oz. extract vanilla, ½
oz. citric acid. Stir the acid with a portion of the syrup; add the
extract of vanilla; mix.

(_b_) 4 pints simple syrup, 2 oz. extract of vanilla.

The essences used by aerated water makers are usually purchased ready
made, though in many cases it is found desirable to prepare them at
the factory. Below are given a few recipes for those most commonly

For essence of lemons, remove the outer rinds of 40 lemons, without a
particle of pulp, and macerate them with 6 qt. perfectly pure alcohol
at 85°. After two or three days, distil to dryness in a water-bath;
add 2 qt. water and rectify to obtain 5 qt. of the essence. The
essences of oranges and cedrats are made in precisely the same way.

For essence of strawberries and raspberries, take 56 lb. of the
fresh fruit, free from stalks and leaves, and place them in 45 qt.
pure alcohol at 80°. Macerate for 24 hours in a vessel closed in
a water-bath; add 20 qt. water, and distil to obtain 44 qt., each
containing 17½ oz. of essence.

=Beer.=--Owing in a great measure to Excise restrictions, very little
home-brewed beer is made now in England; but a few notes may be

_Half-hogshead of Ale._--Take 5 bush. pale malt, 4 lb. best Worcester
hops; put into mash tub 30 gal. hot water (202° F.), 13 gal. cold
water (49° F.), mean heat 166° F.; shake the malt in and stir it
well about, and let it stand 1½ hour; draw off the wort and mix it
with the hops; pour over the grains sufficient hot water at 200° F.
to fill your barrel, allowing some for waste in boiling and working.
Boil the wort and hops for one hour. Put 1 pint yeast to 3 gal. wort,
at 72° F., to begin to work, and add the remainder at 68° F.

_Summer Beer._--Over 1 bush. (40 qt.) malt pour enough boiling water
to enable you to draw off 100 qt. of wort. Put into the wort ½ lb.
hops, and boil it an hour. Having washed your mashing tub well
from the grains, pour the wort into it, and, when cooled to the
temperature of new milk, add in summer ½ pint of yeast, in winter a
little more. Cover the tub with a cloth, and let it work till next
day; pour it into your barrel before it begins to sink, and rack
it before the barrel is stopped up. It will be fit to drink in a
fortnight or three weeks.

_Champagne Beer._--According to Teltscher, of Breslau, this beer
is prepared in the following manner:--A light, strongly hopped,
bottom-fermentation beer is left in cask until fit for consumption,
and is then mixed with 2 per cent. of “Krausen-beer” (that is to
say, beer in the first stage of active fermentation), and bottled.
The bottles are filled up, carefully corked, and racked with the
necks downwards, in which position they are left for a fortnight.
The mixture develops an amount of carbonic acid not obtainable in
other light bottom-fermentation beers strongly hopped. The reversed
position of the bottles causes the floating particles of yeast to
settle inside the necks, and by drawing the bottles lengthwise
through the hands daily, these particles are detached and settle down
finally on the cork. When the beer has generated enough carbonic acid
gas, as indicated by its paleness, which sometimes occurs as early as
the eighth day, the bottles are taken one by one in the left hand,
with the neck inclining outwards and downwards, and the cork being
removed with the right, the internal pressure is allowed to blow away
the sediment from the neck. The bottles are then carefully re-corked.
In this way a light bottom-fermentation beer, strong of the hop,
and perfectly free from yeast, is obtained, which, owing to the
large proportion of carbonic acid it holds, retains its refreshing
properties at temperatures as high as 18° C. (64° F.), whereas beers
of a _like_ character with little or no carbonic acid become flat at
8° C. (46° F.). That the beer can be drunk without artificial cooling
is put forward as another recommendation.

_Bottling Beer._--(_a_) The bottles should be clean, sweet, and dry,
the corks sound and good, and the beer “fine.” When the bottles are
filled, if for home consumption, they should not be corked till the
day following, and if for exportation to a hot climate, they must
stand 3 days or more (if the liquor is new); it should be well corked
and wired, but for family use they may do without wiring, only they
should be well packed in sawdust, and stand upright. But if some are
wanted ripe, keep a few packed on their sides, so that the liquor
may touch the corks, and this will soon ripen, and make it fit for

(_b_) Choose clear weather, and leave the bung out of the cask all
night. Fill the bottles, throw sheets of paper over them to keep out
the dust, let them stand 24 hours, then cork, wire, and pack away in
a cool place. If for immediate use, ripen by adding a piece of sugar
to each bottle before corking.

_Brightening Cloudy Beer._--Add calcined oyster shells, but after the
application of oyster shells the ale requires to be rapidly drunk, as
it will not keep good for any length of time. At the time of being
brewed, if it is rapidly cooled, it never will become cloudy. All
depends upon the time it takes to cool.

_Restoring Sour Beer._--When beer has once been sour, i.e. has once
been through acetous fermentation, it never again will have its
former brilliancy, liveliness, or full flavour; it will always remain
acid. Procure a 4½ gal. cask (commonly called a pin), rack the ale
into it, and get about 3 oz. of new hops, which put in the pin, bung
it down tight, put it in a cellar, where let it remain six months at
least; it may then be better.

If beer is sour in bottles, put ¼ teaspoonful of soda carbonate and
a large teaspoonful of brown sugar into each bottle; then cork well,
and tie it down the same as ginger beer, and place the bottles cork
downwards for about 3 weeks, where it is not too cold.

_Finings._--(_a_) Take 1½ pints water and 2 oz. unslaked lime, mixed
well together; let them stand 4 hours, and when the sediment is
settled pour it off clear and mix 2 oz. isinglass, cut small, in ½
pint water. When dissolved put it into a barrel of beer.

(_b_) Eggs, any quantity; beat them to a froth and expose them to a
gentle heat or in the sun to dry; then powder. In some cases a little
fine wheat flour is added, the paste made into balls, and dried in
the sun or a warm room, and then powdered.

(_c_) Isinglass, 1 lb.; water, 8 gal.; vinegar, 4 gal. Mix the
vinegar and isinglass, and macerate for 4 days, then add the water.

(_d_) Isinglass, 1 lb.; sour beer or cider, 5 gal.; water, 6 gal.
Digest the first two until the isinglass is dissolved, then add the
water, and strain.

_Weevil in Malt._--This can be killed by heat or checked by cold. If
the temperature is raised to 167°-190° F., the insects die; if cold
air is introduced, they cease to breed. Frequent turning of the malt,
careful whitewashing of the walls, and the introduction of cold air
(leaving all the windows open for two or three frosty nights) are the
best preventives.

=Bitters.=--The following are the chief kinds in vogue.

_Amazon._--90 gal. plain proof spirit; 3¼ lb. red Peruvian bark; 3¼
lb. calisaya bark; 1⅛ lb. calamus root; 4¾ lb. orange peel; 3½ oz.
cinnamon; 3½ oz. cloves; 3½ oz. nutmeg; 2 oz. cassia buds; 6½ lb. red
sanders wood. First mash all the ingredients, put them in the spirit,
and let them infuse 14 days, stirring the mixture well twice every
day. Rack off and colour with 11 pints brandy colouring, to get a
dark red tint. Stir ¼ hour. Dissolve 30 lb. white sugar in 30 gal.
water; add, and again stir ½ hour. Let the mixture rest 4 or 5 days,
and when bright, bottle. If the sanders wood is not used, the colour
will be a bright amber. Compounded according to the above directions,
will yield 120 gal. 25° below proof.

_Angostura._--4 oz. gentian root; 10 oz. each calisaya bark, Canada
snake-root, Virginia snake-root, liquorice root, yellow bark,
allspice, dandelion root, and Angostura bark; 6 oz. cardamom seeds;
4 oz. each balsam of tolu, orangetis, Turkey rhubarb, and galanga;
1 lb. orange peel; 1 lb. alkanet root; 1½ oz. caraway seed; 1½
oz. cinnamon; ½ oz. cloves; 2 oz. each nutmegs, coriander seed,
catechu, and wormwood; 1 oz. mace; 1¼ lb. red sanders wood, and 8 oz.
turmeric. Pound these ingredients and steep them for 15 days in 50
gal. proof spirit; before filtering, add 30 lb. honey.

_Aromatic._--Macerate 2¾ lb. ground dried small orange apples, ¼ lb.
ground dried orange peel, 2 oz. ground dried calamus root, 2 oz.
ground dried pimpinella root, 1 oz. ground dried cut hops, for 14
days, with 10 gal. of spirit at 45 per cent.; press, and add 2½ pints
brown-sugar syrup. Filter. Colour dark brown.

_Boker’s._--1½ oz. quassia; 1½ oz. calamus; 1½ oz. catechu
(powdered); 1 oz. cardamom; 2 oz. dried orange peel. Macerate for 10
days in ½ gal. strong whisky, and then filter and add 2 gal. water.
Colour with mallow or malva flowers.

_Brandy._--Grind to coarse powder 3 lb. gentian root, 2 lb. dry
orange peel, 1 lb. cardamom seeds, 2 oz. cinnamon, 2 oz. cochineal.
Infuse 10 days in 1 gal. brandy, 8 gal. water, and filter.

_Essence._--40 gal. proof spirit, 1 drm. oil of anise, 1 drm. oil of
caraway, ½ drm. oil of cloves, 1 drm. oil of lemon, 1 drm. oil of
oranges, 1 drm. oil of cinnamon, ½ drm. oil of bitter almonds, 1 gal.
sugar syrup. Cut the oils in 95 per cent. alcohol, and mix. Colour
with brandy colouring.

_French Cognac._--1½ lb. each red Peruvian bark, calisaya bark,
bitter orange peel, and sweet orange peel; 2 oz. calamus root; 4 oz.
cardamom seeds; 1½ oz. each cinnamon, cloves, and nutmegs; 4 oz.
caraway seed; and 3 lb. wild cherry bark. Pound all these ingredients
to a coarse powder and steep for 15 days in 45 gal. proof spirit (or
60 gal. spirit 25° below proof), stirring occasionally. Then rack it
off, and mix sufficient caramel to make it a dark red; add 15 lb.
white sugar dissolved in 15 gal. water; let the whole settle, then
filter. If the bitters are required to be of an amber colour, omit
the wild cherry bark and the caramel colouring.

_Hamburg._--Grind to a coarse powder 2 oz. agaric, 5 oz. cinnamon, 4
oz. cassia buds, ½ oz. grains of Paradise, 3 oz. quassia wood, ¾ oz.
cardamom seeds, 3 oz. gentian root, 3 oz. orange apples dried, 1½ oz.
orange peel; macerate with 4¼ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, mixed with
5¾ gal. water; add 2¾ oz. acetic ether. Colour brown.

_Nonpareil._--Grind to coarse powder 2 oz. Peruvian bark, ½ oz.
sweet orange peel, ½ oz. bitter orange peel, 25 gr. cinnamon, 25 gr.
cloves, 25 gr. nutmeg, 15 cayenne seeds. Infuse 10 days in 2 gal. 65
per cent. alcohol, then filter.

_Orange._--(1) Macerate 6 lb. orange peel for 24 hours with 1 gal.
water, cut the yellow part of the peel from off the white, and chop
it fine; macerate with 4¾ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol for 2 weeks, or
displace; then add a syrup made of 4¼ gal. water and 16 lb. sugar.
Filter through Canton flannel. (2) ½ oz. Seville orange peel, ¼ oz.
lemon peel, ¼ oz. gentian root, ¼ oz. ginger, all bruised and put
into a jug; pour a pint of boiling water on it, and cover up with a

_Peruvian._--8 oz. red Peruvian bark; 8 oz. orange peel; 1½ drm.
each cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg; and 75 cayenne pepper seeds.
Infuse them, well bruised, in 8 gal. proof spirit, for 15 to 20 days,
stirring every day. Draw off and filter.

_Spanish._--Grind to coarse powder 5 oz. polypody, 6 oz. calamus
root, 8 oz. orris root, 2½ oz. coriander seed, 1 oz. centaurium, 3
oz. orange peel, 2 oz. German camomile flowers; then macerate with 4¾
gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, and add 5¼ gal. water and 1½ oz. of sugar.
Filter, and colour brown.

_Stomach._--Grind to a coarse powder ½ lb. cardamom seeds, ⅛ lb.
nutmegs, ¼ lb. grains of Paradise, ½ lb. cinnamon, ¼ lb. cloves, ¼
lb. ginger, ¼ lb. galanga, ¼ lb. orange peel, ⅛ lb. lemon peel; then
macerate with 4¾ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, and add a syrup made of
4½ gal. water and 12 lb. sugar; filter.

_Stoughton._--(1) To 12 lb. dry orange peel, 3 lb. Virginia
snake-root, 1 lb. American saffron, 16 lb. gentian root, add 1 lb.
red sanders wood. Grind all the ingredients to a coarse powder, and
macerate for 10 days in 20 gal. 65 per cent. alcohol, then filter.

(2) 2 lb. ginseng; 2 lb. gentian root; 1½ lb. dry orange peel; ½ lb.
Virginia snake-root; 1 oz. quassia; ¼ lb. cloves; 3 oz. red sanders
wood; 3 gal. alcohol 95 per cent.; 3 gal. soft water. Grind all the
ingredients to coarse powder, infuse 10 days, and filter.

_Wild Cherry._--Wild cherry bark, 4 lb.; squaw vine (Partridge
berry), 1 lb.; Juniper berries, 8 oz. Pour boiling water over, and
let stand for 24 hours; strain, and pour again boiling water on the
ingredients; let macerate for 12 hours, then express and filter
through paper, so that the whole will make 5 gal., to which add 3½
lb. of sugar; 1½ gal. molasses; 6 oz. tincture of peach kernels; 3
oz. tincture of prickly ash berries; 2 qt. alcohol.

=Cordials and Liqueurs.=--These consist mainly of best spirit
flavoured with essences and sweetened with white-sugar syrup.

_Absinthe._--This liqueur is prepared in various ways. (_a_) The
genuine Swiss absinthe is prepared in the following manner: by
macerating 4 oz. wormwood herb, 2 oz. star anise-seed, 2 oz. green
cherry leaves, 2 oz. sage herb, in 5 gal. proof spirit; and after one
week’s maceration add ¼ oz. oil of anise, ½ oz. oil of bergamot, ¼
oz. oil of fennel.

(_b_) Another recipe for making the absinthe is, to dissolve the best
oil of wormwood, say 2 oz., in 5 gal. pure spirit, and add ½ oz. oil
of anise, ¼ oz. oil of calamus, ¼ oz. oil of orange, 1 gal. white
syrup, and prepare the colour from neutral extract of indigo, made
green with tincture of turmeric.

(_c_) 4 lb. tops of _Absinthum majus_, 2 lb. tops of _A. minus_, 15
gr. angelica root, 15 gr. Chinese aniseed, 15 gr. calamus aromaticus,
15 gr. dittany of Crete, 4 gal. brandy 12 u.p.; macerate for 10 days;
add 1 gal. water; distil 4 gal. by gentle heat, and dissolve 2 lb.
crushed white sugar in the distilled spirit.

_Alkermes._--(_a_) 1 lb. bay leaves, 1 lb. mace, 2 oz. nutmegs, 2 oz.
cinnamon, 1 oz. cloves, all bruised; 3½ gal. cognac; macerate for 3
weeks, frequently shaking; distil 3 gal., and add 18 lb. clarified
spirit of kermes, 1 pint orange-flower water; mix well, bottle.

(_b_) 4 gal. British brandy; spice as (_a_), 1 gal. water; macerate
as (_a_); distil 4 gal. and add 2 gal. capillaire and ¼ pint sweet
spirit of nitre. Cassia often replaces the cinnamon.

_Angelica Cordial._--To 1 oz. oil of angelica add ¼ oz. calamus,
dissolve them in 1 gal. pure spirit, and add 1 gal. white-sugar syrup.

_Angelica Ratafia._--1 dr. angelica seeds, 4 oz. angelica stalks, 1
oz. bruised, blanched bitter almonds, 6 qt. proof spirit or brandy;
digest for 10 days, filter, add 1 qt. water, 3½ lb. white sugar; mix
well, and in a fortnight decant clear portion through flannel.

_Anise Liqueur._--1 lb. essence of anise, ¼ lb. tincture of orris, 20
drops oil of coriander, 2 bar. pure spirits.

_Anise-seed Cordial._--Dissolve 3 dr. oil of anise-seed in 2¾ gal. 95
per cent. alcohol; then add 2½ gal. fine white syrup, mixed with 4¾
gal. water. Stir and filter.

_Anisette._--(_a_) Dissolve 2 oz. oil of anise and ½ oz. oil of star
anise in 10 gal. pure spirit, and add 2 gal. white-sugar syrup to it.

(_b_) 2 oz. aniseed (or 1½ dr. essential oil) and 3 lb. sugar per
gal. If weaker than 45 u.p. it cannot be made full flavoured without
liability to milkiness.

(_c_) 4 oz. aniseed, 1 oz. bruised coriander seeds, 1 oz. bruised
sweet fennel seeds, ½ gal. rectified spirit, 3 qt. water; macerate
for 5 or 6 days; distil 7 pints, and add 2½ lb. lump sugar.

(_d_) 15 drops oil of aniseed, 6 drops cassia oil, 6 drops caraway
oil; rub with a little sugar, and dissolve in 3 qt. spirit 45 u.p. by
well shaking together; filter if necessary, and dissolve 1½ lb. sugar
in the clear liquid.

(_e_) 1 gal. brandy or proof spirit, ¾ lb. sugar, dissolved in 1 pint
aniseed water.

(_f_) Put in a barrel 13 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol. Dissolve 3½ oz.
essence of green anise-seed in 1 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, and add ½
gal. orange-flower water, 8 or 10 drops infusion of mace, and 5 drops
essence of cinnamon. Then put in the barrel 26 gal. sugar syrup 25°
Baumé. Stir and filter.

_Apple or Cider Brandy._--1 lb. oil of apple, ½ lb. oil of pear, 1
gal. syrup of gum arabic, 5 bar. good rectified spirit.

_Aromatic Wine-bitters._--Macerate 1 lb. orange peel, 2 lb. orange
buds, ½ lb. agaric, ½ lb. Peruvian bark, 1 lb. gentian root, 5 gal.
Teneriffe wine, 20 gal. spirits of wine.

_Blackberry Brandy._--(_a_) 1 lb. essence of blackberry, 1 gal.
blackberry juice, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 4 bar. pure spirit.

(_b_) To 10 gal. blackberry juice and 25 gal. spirit 40 above proof,
add 1 dr. each of oil of cloves and oil of cinnamon dissolved in
95 per cent. alcohol, and 12 lb. white sugar dissolved in 6 gal.
water. Dissolve the oils separately in ½ pint 95 per cent. alcohol;
mix both together, and use half the quantity; if the cordial is not
sufficiently flavoured, use the balance.

(_c_) ¼ oz. each of cinnamon, cloves, and mace, 1 dr. cardamom. Grind
to a coarse powder; add to 16 lb. blackberries, mashed, and 5 gal.
95 per cent. alcohol. Macerate for two weeks; press; then add 10 lb.
sugar, dissolved in 3⅜ gal. water. Filter.

_Blackberry Cordial._--(_a_) Crushed blackberries, 1 gal.; sugar, 2
lb.; brandy, 1 gal. Macerate the berries in the brandy for 5 or 6
days; express the liquor; add the sugar and after 2 weeks decant and

  (_b_) Dried blackberries                     16 oz.
          Or fresh blackberries                 4 pints.
        Powdered blackberry root               12 oz.
        Powdered mace                           1½ oz.
        Powdered cassia                         9 dr.
        Powdered allspice and cloves, of each   5 dr.
        Sugar                                  60 oz.
        Brandy                                  2 pints.
        Port wine                               1½ pints.
        Alcohol                                 1 pint.
        Water                                   q.s.

Soak the berries, if dry, in q.s. of water, and express, and repeat
until 6½ pints of juice are obtained. If the berries are fresh,
express the juice, and mix water with residue, to wash out all juice;
then add water to make it measure 6½ pints. Mix the spirit with the
6½ pints of juice; moisten the powders with this mixture, and pack in
a percolator. Allow it to drain, and pour on water until percolate
measures 10 pints; then add the sugar, dissolve and, if necessary,

_Brandy Shrub._--1 gal. brandy, 1 pint orange juice, 1 pint lemon
juice, peel of 2 oranges and 1 lemon; digest for 24 hours, strain,
add 4 lb. white sugar dissolved in 5 pints water; in a fortnight
decant the clear liquid.

_Cacao._--Infuse 1 lb. Caraccas cacao nuts, cut small, add ½ oz.
vanilla in 1 gal. brandy for 8 days; strain, and add 3 qt. thick

_Caraway._--From the essential oil or the seed (1 fl. dr. of the
oil = ¼ lb. seed), using 2½ lb. sugar per gal., and adding a little
cassia oil and essence of lemon or orange.

_Cedrat._--(_a_) 1 pint spirit of citron, 1 qt. spirit of cedrat, 3
qt. proof spirit, 16 lb. white sugar dissolved in 2 gal. pure soft

(_b_) ¼ oz. cedrat essence, 1 gal. pure proof spirit; dissolve; add
3 pints water; agitate well; distil 3 qt., and add equal measure of
clarified syrup.

_Celery Cordial._--To 1 lb. essence of celery, add 1 gal. pure spirit
and 1 gal. syrup of white sugar.

_Chartreuse._--Macerate 64 parts by weight, each, of the fresh herb
of sweet balm and hyssop, 32 parts of fresh root of angelica, 16 of
cannella, and 4 each of Spanish saffron and mace, in 1000 parts of
alcohol, for 8 days. Then distil it on to a certain quantity (which
varies according to the colour desired) of fresh balm and hyssop;
after a time these are expressed, the liquor sweetened with 125 parts
of sugar, and filtered.

_Cherry-bounce._--(_a_) This is a very wholesome cordial, and may,
with great benefit, be taken by persons affected with cough of long
standing, or those suffering with lung complaint. Take 5 gal. cherry
juice, 2 gal. syrup of white sugar. And dissolve in 1 gal. pure
spirit, ½ oz. oil of bitter almonds, ¼ oz. oil of cloves, ¼ oz. oil
of cinnamon. Mix all together.

(_b_) To 15 gal. cherry juice, add 15 gal. 80 per cent. spirit; 30
gal. Catalonia or Marseilles wine; 1½ oz. essence of noyeau; 3 oz.
mace infused in 1 qt. 95 per cent. alcohol; ½ lb. cinnamon infused in
½ gal. water; ¼ lb. cloves ground and infused in 1 qt. water. Put all
the above ingredients in a clean barrel and add 60 gal. sugar syrup
25° B. Stir up the ingredients well, and filter after 4 or 5 days.
If the colour is not deep enough, add a little sugar colouring. The
above recipe is to make 120 gal., but a much smaller quantity may be
made by reducing the quantity of each ingredient and observing the
same proportion in all.

(_c_) To 12 gal. cherry juice, add 30 gal. 80 per cent. spirit; 30
gal. Catalonia or Marseilles wine; 3 oz. essence of noyeau; ½ lb.
cinnamon ground and infused in ½ gal. water; ½ lb. cloves ground and
infused in ½ gal. water; 1½ oz. mace infused in 1 pint 95 per cent.
alcohol. Mix all the above ingredients in a clean barrel, and add 60
gal. sugar syrup 13° B. Stir up all the ingredients well together,
and filter after 4 or 5 days. Make the colour a little darker with
sugar colouring, and to give a good shade add a little orchil.

_Cherry Brandy._--(_a_) 1 lb. essence of cherry, ¼ lb. essence of
pineapple, ¼ oz. oil of cinnamon, ¼ oz. oil of cloves, 4 bar. pure
rectified spirits, 2 gal. cherry juice.

(_b_) Mash 16 lb. of black cherries with their stones; 5 gal. 95 per
cent. alcohol. Macerate for 2 weeks; press; then add 10 lb. sugar,
dissolved in 3⅜ gal. water. Filter.

_Cherry Cordial._--Good French brandy, 1 qt.; juice of cherries, 1
qt.; best white sugar, finely powdered, 2 lb. Add the sugar to the
juice and stir until it is thoroughly dissolved; add the brandy, and
filter through blotting-paper.

_Cherry Ratafia._--8 lb. Morella cherries with kernels bruised, 1
gal. brandy or proof spirit, 2 lb. sugar; as currant.

_Cinnamon._--Usually made from cassia bark or oil (1 oz. oil = 8 lb.
bark or buds), with 2 lb. sugar per gal., adding 5 or 6 drops each
of essence of lemon and orange peel, with a spoonful of essence of
cardamoms per gal. About 1 fl. dr. of the cassia oil suffices for 2½
gal. Colour with burnt sugar.

_Cinnamon Brandy._--1 lb. essence of cinnamon, ½ lb. essence of
cherry, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 4 bar. pure spirits.

_Citron._--From the oil or peel, with 3 lb. sugar per gal.

_Citronelle._--(_a_) 2 oz. fresh orange peel, 4 oz. fresh lemon peel,
½ dr. cloves, 1 dr. coriander seed, 1 dr. cinnamon, 4 pints proof
spirit; digest for 10 days, add 1 qt. water, and distil to ½ gal.;
add 2 lb. white sugar dissolved in 1 qt. water.

(_b_) 1 dr. essence of lemon, ½ dr. essence of orange, 10 drops clove
oil, 10 drops cassia oil, 20 drops coriander oil, 5 pints spirit 58
o.p.; agitate till dissolved; add 3 pints distilled or soft water;
well mix, filter through paper, if necessary; finally add q.s.
dissolved sugar.

_Clairet._--1 oz. aniseed, 1 oz. fennel seed, 1 oz. coriander seed,
1 oz. caraway seed, 1 oz. dill seed, 1 oz. candy-carrot seed, ½ gal.
proof spirit; digest for a week, strain, and add 1 lb. loaf sugar
dissolved in water.

_Clove._--1 oz. bruised cloves (or 1 fl. dr. essential oil), 3 gal.
proof spirit: when distilling, add some salt, and use a quick fire;
sweeten with fully 3 lb. sugar per gal.; and colour with poppy
flowers or burnt sugar; add 1 dr. bruised pimento or 5 drops of the
oil per oz. of cloves.

_Clove Brandy._--1 lb. essence of cloves, ½ lb. essence of cherry, ¼
lb. essence of ginger, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 4 bar. pure spirit.

_Clove-pink Ratafia._--4 lb. clove pinks without the white buds, 15
gr. cinnamon, 15 gr. cloves, 1 gal. proof spirit; macerate 10 days,
express tincture, filter, and add 2½ lb. white sugar.

_Cocoa Ratafia._--1 lb. Caraccas cacao, ½ lb. W. Indian, both bruised
and roasted; 1 gal. proof spirit; digest 14 days, filter, and add 2½
lb. white sugar, ½ dr. tincture of vanilla; decant in a month, and

_Coffee Ratafia._--1 lb. roasted and ground coffee, 1 gal. brandy or
proof spirit, 2 lb. sugar dissolved in 1 qt. water.

_Coriander._--As cloves, adding a few sliced oranges.

_Cream Ratafia._-¼ pint noyeau cream, ¼ pint sherry, ½ pint
capillaire, 1 pint fresh cream; beaten together.

_Crême de Macarons._--(_a_) 1 dr. cloves, 1 dr. cinnamon, 1 dr. mace,
all bruised, 7 oz. bitter almonds, blanched and beaten to a pulp, 1
gal. spirit 17 u.p.; digest for a week, filter, and add 6 lb. white
sugar dissolved in 2 qt. pure water.

(_b_) 2 gal. clean spirit 24 u.p., ¾ lb. bitter almonds, 1½ dr.
cloves, 1½ dr. cinnamon, 1½ dr. mace, in coarse powders; infuse 10
days, filter, and add 8 lb. white sugar dissolved in 1 gal. pure
water; tint with infusion or tincture of litmus and cochineal. The
almonds may be reduced to half.

_Crême de Naphe._--7 qt. spirit 60 u.p. containing 3½ lb. sugar per
gal., 1 qt. orange-flower water.

_Crême des Barbades._--As citronelle, adding orange juice and 1 lb.
more sugar per gal.

_Crême d’Orange._--3 doz. sliced oranges, 2 gal. rectified spirit;
digest 14 days; add 28 lb. loaf sugar, previously dissolved in 4½
gal. water; 1½ fl. oz. tincture of saffron, 2 qt. orange-flower water.

_Curaçao._--(_a_) This liqueur derives its name from the Curaçao
peel, as it is nothing else but a tincture of the Curaçao orange
peel, sweetened and flavoured with more essential oils. Macerate 5
lb. green Curaçao orange peel in 6 gal. pure spirits, adding about ¼
lb. red sanders wood for obtaining at the same time the reddish brown
colour; after a week’s digestion, strain off, and dissolve ¼ oz. oil
of bitter almonds, ¼ oz. oil of cinnamon in the above tincture, and
then add 1 gal. white-sugar syrup; when all ingredients are mixed,
filter and fill in bottles, and after standing a few weeks it will
produce a delightful cordial.

(_b_) Spirit 56 u.p., containing 3½ lb. sugar per gal., flavoured
with a tincture made by digesting the “oleo-saccharum,” prepared from
9 Seville oranges, 1 dr. cinnamon and ¾ dr. mace in 1 pint rectified
spirit; colour by digesting 1 oz. powdered Brazil wood for 10 days,
and mellow with burnt sugar.

(_c_) 2 lb. Curaçao orange peel, ½ lb. Ceylon cinnamon. Let them soak
in water; boil them for 5 minutes with the juice of 32 oranges and 14
gal. white plain syrup; then add 6 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol; strain,
filter; colour dark yellow with sugar colouring.

(_d_) 2 oz. each essence of bitter oranges and neroli; ¼ oz. essence
of cinnamon; 3 dr. mace infused in alcohol. Dissolve the above
essences in 1 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, then put in a clean barrel
13 gal. 85 per cent. alcohol, 26 gal. sugar syrup 30° B., and add 1
gal. perfumed spirit. Colour with saffron or turmeric.

_Curaçao Cordial._--Oil of orange, very fresh, 1 dr.; oil of
cinnamon, 1 drop; oil of juniper berries, 2 drops; oil of coriander
seed, 2 drops; deodorised alcohol, 3 pints; simple syrup, 2 pints;
water, sufficient to complete 1 gal. Mix the alcohol with an equal
volume of water, and add the mixture slowly to the essential oils
previously rubbed in a mortar with carbonate of magnesia or phosphate
of lime. Transfer the whole to a bottle, and set it aside with
occasional agitation, for 2 or 3 days. Then add the simple syrup,
the remainder of the water, and filter through paper. This gives the
_white cordial_; for the _red_, infuse in the alcoholic menstruum
about 2 dr. of cudbear.

_Currant Ratafia._--1 qt. black currant juice, 1 dr. cinnamon, ½ dr.
cloves, ½ dr. peach kernels, 1 gal. brandy, 3 lb. white sugar; digest
for fortnight, and strain through flannel.

_Dorée._-½ oz. cinnamon, ½ oz. bitter orange peel; ½ oz. Peruvian
bark, ¼ oz. hay saffron, 3 qt. brandy, 3 qt. Malaga wine; digest for
a week, strain, and add 2 lb. lump sugar.

_Dry Ratafia._--5 pints gooseberry juice, 1 pint cherry juice, 1 pint
strawberry juice, 1 pint raspberry juice, 6 qt. proof spirit, 7 lb.
sugar; macerate.

_Elixir Vitæ._--Macerate for 10 days, in 5 gal. pure spirits, 1 oz.
zedoary root, 1 oz. ginger root, ½ oz. gentian root, ½ oz. agaric,
¼ oz. rhubarb root. Strain off the clear tincture, and add 2½ gal.
water and ½ gal. syrup.

_Extract Bishop_ or _Glow-wine_.--1 lb. tincture of Curaçao peel, ¼
lb. tincture of orange buds. Dissolve in the same 5 drops of the oil
of nutmegs, 10 drops of the oil of cloves, 20 drops of the oil of
cinnamon. Mix them together, and add about ½ gal. sugar syrup.

_Extract Punch._-½ oz. essence of Jamaica rum, 1 oz. tartaric acid,
1 gal. sugar syrup, 2 gal. pure spirits, 10 drops oil of lemon.
Dissolve the oil of lemon and essence of rum in the spirits, and the
tartaric acid in a little water, before adding all together.

_Four-fruit Ratafia._--30 lb. cherries, 15 lb. gooseberries, 8 lb.
raspberries, 7 lb. black currants; express the juice, and add 6 oz.
sugar to each pint, with 6 gr. cinnamon, 3 gr. mace, and 3 gr. cloves.

_Ginger Brandy._--1 lb. essence of ginger, 20 drops oil of bergamot,
¼ lb. tartaric acid, 1 gal. elderberry juice, 1 gal. syrup of gum
arabic, 4 bar. pure spirits.

_Ginger Cordial._--To 1 qt. essence of ginger add 1 gal. pure spirit
and 1 gal. white-sugar syrup.

_Gold Cordial._--1 lb. sliced angelica root, ½ lb. raisins, 2 oz.
coriander seeds, 1½ oz. caraway seeds, 1½ oz. cassia, ½ oz. cloves,
4 oz. figs, 4 oz. sliced licorice-root, 3 gal. proof spirit, 1 gal.
water; digest 2 days, and distil 3 gal. by gentle heat; add 9 lb.
sugar dissolved in 1 qt. rose water and 1 qt. clean soft water;
colour by steeping 1¼ oz. hay saffron.

_Grenoble Ratafia._--(_a_) 2 lb. small wild black cherries, with
kernels bruised, 1 gal. proof spirit, 3 lb. white sugar, a few gr.
citron peel; as Juniper.

(_b_) 1 qt. cherries with bruised stones, 2 qt. rectified spirit;
mix; digest for 48 hours, express the liquor, heat to boiling in a
close vessel; when cold add enough sugar or capillaire, with a little
noyeau, syrup of bay laurel and galangal, to flavour; decant in 3
months, and bottle.

_Hop Cordial._--The following is recommended as a palatable
preparation, not inferior to many of the so-called “Hop Bitters.”

  Hops                           2 oz.
  Dandelion                      2 oz.
  Gentian                        2 oz.
  Camomile                       2 oz.
  Stillingia                     2 oz.
  Orange peel                    2 oz.
  Alcohol, water, of each   77 fl. oz.
  Syrup, simple             12 fl. oz.

Exhaust the solids, with the alcohol and water, and add the syrup.

_Huile de Venus._--2½ oz. wild carrot flowers, 3 lb. sugar per gal.
spirit; coloured by cochineal powder.

_Juniper Ratafia._-¼ lb. juniper berries, each pricked with a fork,
40 gr. caraway seed, 40 gr. coriander seed, 1 gal. finest malt spirit
22 u.p., 2 lb. white sugar; digest a week, strain with expression.

_Kirschwasser._--Dissolve 1 oz. oil of bitter almonds in 3 gal. pure
spirits, and add 1 gal. white-sugar syrup.

_Kümmel._--1 lb. essence of caraway, ¼ oz. oil of anise, ¼ oz. oil of
fennel, 20 drops oil of neroli, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 2 bar.
pure spirits.

_Lemon Cordial._--2 oz. fresh lemon peel, 2 oz. dried lemon peel, 1
oz. fresh orange peel, digested in 1 gal. proof spirit for a week;
strain with expression, add enough soft water to reduce to desired

_Lime-juice Cordial._--4 oz. glucose, 1 pint syrup, 1 pint lime
juice, 36 oz. water; tincture of lemon peel and triple orange-flower
water, each sufficient to flavour.

_Liquodilla._--3 sliced oranges and 3 sliced lemons, with 2½ lb.
sugar per gal.

_Lovage._--1 oz. fresh lovage roots per gal., ¼ oz. each fresh roots
of celery and fennel; also sometimes a little fresh valerian root and
oil of savin before distillation.

_Malliorca d’Espagne._--40 gal. 55 per cent. alcohol, 5 oz. essence
green anise-seed and 5 oz. essence of star anise dissolved in 95 per
cent. alcohol, ½ dr. ether (to give the cordial age). Stir and filter.

_Mandarin Delight._--1 gal. spirit 22 u.p., ½ gal. pure soft water,
4½ lb. white sugar, crushed small, ½ oz. Chinese aniseed, ½ oz.
ambrette, ¼ oz. safflower; digested together in a stone jar of double
the capacity and agitated every day for a fortnight.

_Maraschino._--(_a_) This is an Italian cordial, while the curaçao
is a favourite in Holland. Maraschino derives its aroma from the oil
of bitter almonds, blended with the oils of cinnamon and rosewater,
&c. 10 gal. pure spirits, 1 oz. oil of bitter almonds, ½ oz. oil of
cinnamon, ¼ oz. oil of cloves, ¼ oz. oil of vanilla, 5 drops oil
of rose, 5 drops oil of neroli, 5 drops oil of bergamot. To this
solution add 2 gal. white-sugar syrup, ¼ gal. rosewater, and ¼ gal.
orange-flower water; mix together, filter, and fill in bottles.

(_b_) Dissolve in 1½ gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, 1½ oz. essence of
maraschino, 1½ dr. essence of rose, ½ dr. essence of noyeau, 5 drops
essence of cloves, and 8 drops essence of cinnamon; add ½ gal. orris
root flavouring. Mix the above with 12 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol and
26 gal. syrup of 30° B. Stir thoroughly and filter.

(_c_) 4 oz. essence of noyeau; 1 oz. essence of rose; ½ oz. essence
of neroli (genuine); 4 dr. of mace, infused in 95 per cent. alcohol;
¼ lb. cinnamon, infused in 1 qt. water; 2 oz. cloves, infused in 1
pint water; 2 lb. orris root (powdered), infused in 2 gal. 95 per
cent. alcohol for 15 days. Dissolve the essences in 2 gal. 95 per
cent. alcohol. Mix, put into a barrel 41 gal. 85 per cent. alcohol;
add the aromas, in 4 gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, sugar syrup, 90 gal.
at 32° B. Stir all the ingredients well together for at least ½ hour
and let the mixture stand 2 weeks; then filter and put in the filter
2 or 3 sheets of filtering paper.

(_d_) 1¼ oz. essence of maraschino, 1½ dr. essence of rose, ½ dr.
essence of noyeau, 8 drops essence of cinnamon, 5 drops essence of
cloves, ½ lb. orris root (powdered), infused in ½ gal. 95 per cent.
alcohol for 15 days. Dissolve the essences in 1 gal. 95 per cent.
alcohol. Mix, put in a barrel 12 gal. 80 per cent. alcohol and add 2
gal. 95 per cent. perfumed alcohol (as described above); sugar syrup,
26 gal. at 25° B. Mix and filter.

(_e_) 3½ oz. essence of noyeau, 6 dr. essence of rose. Dissolve in ½
gal. 95 per cent. alcohol, and add 4 spoonfuls of magnesia, 1 gal.
orange-flower water, ½ lb. cinnamon (bruised) infused in ½ gal.
water, ¼ lb. cloves (bruised), infused in ¼ gal. water, 4 dr. mace
infused in alcohol, 2 lb. orris root (powdered) infused in 2 gal. 95
per cent. alcohol for 15 days. Mix 41 gal. 80 per cent. alcohol, 90
gal. syrup at 25° B., and add 4 gal. perfumed spirits, as described
above. Stir and filter as already directed.

_Molucca Balm._-½ oz. cloves, 1 dr. mace, 1 gal. clean spirit 22
u.p.; infuse for a week in a well-closed jar, frequently shaking;
colour with burnt sugar; to clear the liquor, add 4½ lb. loaf sugar
dissolved in ½ gal. pure water.

_Nectar Cordial._--1 oz. oil of bitter almonds, ½ oz. oil of orange,
½ oz. oil of cloves. Dissolve them in 1 gal. pure spirits, and add 1
gal. white-sugar syrup and 2 gal. of Teneriffe wine.

_Noyeau._--This cordial is generally drunk by ladies, and requires to
be very sweet. Take 1 oz. oil of bitter almonds, ½ oz. oil of orange,
¼ oz. oil of cinnamon. Dissolve in 2 gal. pure spirits, and add 1
gal. syrup of white sugar.

_Noyeau Ratafia._--120 peach or apricot kernels, bruised, 2 qt. proof
spirit or brandy, 1 lb. white sugar; digest for a week, press, filter.

_Orange._--As lemon, using ½ lb. fresh orange peel per gal.

_Orange Brandy._--2 oz. oil of orange, 10 drops oil of neroli, 1 lb.
essence of orange, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 4 bar. pure spirits.

_Orange Elixir._--(_a_) To 5 gal. pure spirits add ½ lb. orange
peel, ¼ lb. calamus root, ¼ lb. hops. After macerating for one week,
strain, and add 1 gal. sugar syrup, and colour with sugar colouring.

(_b_) Dissolve in 3 gal. pure spirits, 1 oz. oil of orange, ¼ oz. oil
of calamus, add 1 gal. white-sugar syrup, and colour the whole with
sugar colouring.

_Orange-flower Ratafia._--2 lb. fresh orange petals, 1 gal. proof
spirit, 2½ lb. white sugar; as clove pink; 1 dr. neroli may replace
the orange-flower.

_Orange Gin._--The rinds of 8 Seville oranges and 8 large lemons, cut
very thin, put into 1 gal. gin for 4 days. Then strain off the spirit
from the rinds. Have ready 4 lb. loaf sugar boiled in 1 pint water,
which must be thrown into the spirit boiling hot and well stirred, to
cause it to mix well together. When cool, bottle.

_Orgeat._--To milk of blanched sweet almonds, 2 lb., add 2 dr. oil of
bitter almonds, 1 dr. oil of orange, 1 gal. white-sugar syrup, ½ gal.

_Parfait Amour._--(_a_) Macerate in 10 gal. pure spirit, 2 oz. orris
root, 4 oz. raisins, 2 oz. figs, for one week. Then dissolve ¼ oz.
oil of lemon, 1 dr. oil of cinnamon, 1 dr. oil of juniper, 1 dr.
oil of calamus, 1 dr. oil of cloves, 1 oz. oil of vanilla. Colour
by sugar colouring, and add 4 gal. white-sugar syrup: it is then
filtered through a woollen filtering-bag, and filled in bottles.

(_b_) 3 lb. sugar per gal., flavoured with yellow rind of 4 lemons,
and a teaspoonful of essence of vanilla; coloured with cochineal.

_Peach Brandy._--(_a_) 1 lb. essence of peach, 1 gal. syrup of gum
arabic, 1 oz. acetic ether, 1 oz. pineapple ether, 4 bar. pure

(_b_) Mash 18 lb. of peaches, with their stones; macerate them for 24
hours with 4¾ gal. of 95 per cent. alcohol and 4 gal. water. Strain,
press, and filter; add 5 pints white plain syrup. Colour dark yellow
with burnt sugar colouring.

(_c_) Take 4½ oz. powdered bitter almonds, 3¼ gal. 95 per cent.
alcohol, 5¼ gal. water. Mix together, and macerate for 24 hours; then
add a strained syrup, made of 3¾ lb. sugar, 1 pint peach jelly, 2¼
oz. preserved ginger, 1 lemon cut in slices, 1 dr. grated nutmegs, 1
dr. allspice in powder, and 5 pints of water boiled for 2 minutes.
Mix the whole, and filter.

_Peppermint._--5 oz. peppermint oil, 3 pints rectified spirits of
wine, well agitated for some time in a corked bottle holding 4 pints;
empty into a 100 gal. cask, pour in 36 gal. white and flavourless
proof spirit, and agitate 10 minutes; add solution of 2¾ cwt. best
double-refined lump sugar in 35 gal. pure filtered rain-water, and
“rummage up” for 15 minutes; add sufficient clear rain-water to
make up to 100 gal., containing 5 oz. alum in solution, and again
shake for ¼ hour; then bung down and let repose a fortnight before
broaching. If at all thick, add 2 oz. salt of tartar dissolved in 1
qt. hot water, and let stand a few days.

_Peppermint Brandy._--To 40 gal. proof spirit add 4 oz. essence of
peppermint, dissolved in 95 per cent. alcohol. Colour with ½ lb.
powder of turmeric infused in 1 gal. spirit 95 per cent. Use this
infusion in such quantity as to get the proper shade.

_Peppermint Cordial._--To 1 oz. oil of peppermint dissolved in 1 gal.
pure spirit, add 1 gal. syrup of white sugar.

_Peppermint Liqueur._--1 lb. essence of peppermint, ¼ lb. sulphuric
ether, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 2 bar. pure spirit.

_Plum or Zwetschen Brandy._--(_a_) This favourite German liquor, also
called Sligowitz, is prepared from 1 lb. plum essence, ½ lb. acetic
ether, ½ lb. banana, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 4 gal. pure spirits.

(_b_) Another mode of preparing the sligowitz or plum brandy is from
prunes, which are mashed together with the kernels, and exposed to
fermentation, when it is again distilled, and produces a fine spirit.

_Provençal Ratafia._--1 lb. striped pinks, 1 qt. brandy or proof
spirit, ¾ lb. white sugar, ¾ pint strawberry juice, 20 gr. saffron;
as Clove-pink.

_Quince Ratafia._--3 qt. quince juice, 3 dr. bitter almonds, 2 dr.
cinnamon, 2 dr. coriander seeds, ½ dr. mace, 15 gr. cloves, all
bruised; ½ gal. flavourless rectified spirit; digest for a week,
filter, add 3½ lb. white sugar.

_Railroad Liqueur._--To 5 gal. pure spirits add ¼ oz. oil of
peppermint, ¼ oz. oil of absinthe, 10 drops oil of roses. Add to the
solution 1 gal. white syrup, and colour the liqueur with blue orchil.

_Raspberry Brandy._--1 lb. essence of raspberry, 1 lb. acetic acid,
1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 1 gal. raspberry juice, 4 bar. pure

_Raspberry Cordial._--Take 5 gal. raspberry juice, 2 gal. white-sugar
syrup, and 1 gal. pure spirits.

Quince, gooseberry, strawberry, black and red currant, peach, nut,
and apple cordials, are all prepared in the same manner from their
respective juices.

_Red Ratafia._--3 qt. black cherry juice, 1 qt. strawberry juice, 1
qt. raspberry juice, 1 dr. cinnamon, 15 gr. mace, 15 gr. cloves, 2
gal. proof spirit or brandy, 7 lb. white sugar, macerate.

_Roman Punch._--This very refreshing beverage is prepared from 1 oz.
lemon juice or citric acid, ½ oz. essence of rum, dissolved in 1 gal.
pure spirit, adding ½ gal. syrup of sugar. Mix all together, and

_Rose Cordial._--To ½ oz. otto of rose add ¼ oz. oil of bitter
almonds. Dissolve in 1 gal. highest-proof alcohol, add 1 gal. syrup
of white sugar, and colour by cochineal rose colour.

_Rum Shrub._--34 gal. proof rum, 2 oz. orange oil, 2 oz. lemon
oil, dissolved in 1 qt. rectified spirit, 300 lb. good lump sugar
dissolved in 20 gal. water; mix well by “rummaging”; gradually and
cautiously add enough Seville orange juice or solution of tartaric
acid in water to produce pleasantly perceptible acidity; rummage for
15 minutes; add sufficient water to make up 100 gal.; again rummage
for ½ hour; bung loosely, and let remain for about a fortnight,
when it should be sufficiently “brilliant” for racking. It is much
improved by adding 1 oz. each of bruised bitter almonds, cloves,
and cassia, the peel of about 2 doz. oranges, and a “thread” of the
essences of ambergris and vanilla.

_Sarsaparilla Mead._--(_a_) Sarsaparilla root, contused, 1 lb.;
sassafras, 8 oz.; aniseed, 2 oz.; ginger, 2 oz.; cloves, 1 oz. Boil
for 15-20 minutes in 8 gal. water; strain and set the liquor aside
for several hours to become clear. Then decant, and transfer to a
10 gal. soda-water fountain, adding to it molasses, 3 qt.; honey,
3 pints. Complete with water the 10 gal., and charge with carbonic
acid gas. (_b_) Another way is to add to the completed mixture 1 qt.
brewer’s yeast, and when the fermentation is about half completed, to
bottle the mead in ordinary soda-water bottles.

_Shrub._--1 pint Seville orange juice, 3 pints rum or brandy, 2 lb.
white sugar. When the sugar is dissolved, strain the mixture through
a jelly-bag and bottle it.

_Sighs of Love._--(_a_) Proof spirit, flavoured with equal parts otto
of roses and capillaire.

(_b_) 6 lb. sugar, enough pure water to make 4 gal. syrup; add 1
pint eau-de-rose, 7 pints proof spirit; colour pale pink by powdered
cochineal; 1 drop essence of ambergris or vanilla improves it.

_Sloe Gin._--(_a_) To 1 gal. gin in a 2 gallon jar put 3 qt. sloes, ½
oz. bitter almonds, 2½ lb. loaf sugar, or the same quantity of sugar
candy, if preferred. Let it be well shaken twice a week for 3 months.
Then strain and bottle it, and well seal the corks. It will keep for
years, and improve whilst in bottle. (_b_) Pick the sloes free of
stalks, and let them be quite dry. Fill wine or other bottles, that
are wide enough at the mouth to admit the fruit, with them. Next put
in as much white pounded sugar as you can, then fill up with gin and
cork. Shake well every few days for 14 days. Leave for 6 months, then
strain off through a piece of muslin into clean bottles.

_Strawberry Cordial._--Take any quantity of thoroughly ripe
strawberries, pour over as much proof spirit as will cover them;
allow to stand for 24 hours; drain off and replace with the same
quantity of fresh proof spirit; allow to stand another 24 hours; now
drain off and replace with water; add fine sugar or syrup in the
proportion of 3 lb. to every gallon of the mixed liqueur; also, a
gill of orange-flower water. Filter and bottle.

_Tears of the Widow of Malabar._--As molucca balm, using ½ oz. mixed
cloves, 1 dr. shredded mace, and 1 teaspoonful essence of vanilla for
flavouring; also ¼ pint orange-flower water. Slightly colour with
burnt sugar.

_Tent._--1 qt. port wine, 1 qt. plain spirit 22 u.p., 1 pint sherry,
1 pint soft water, ¼ pint orange-flower water, ¼ pint lemon juice, 2
drops essence of ambergris, 2 lb. sugar.

_Tolu Ratafia._--1 oz. tolu balsam, 1 qt. rectified spirit, dissolve;
add 3 pints water; filter, and further add 1½ lb. white sugar.

_Vermouth._--Take of Peruvian bark ½ oz.; lemon peel, angelica
root, balm leaves, lesser centaury, of each 3 dr.; juniper berries,
coriander seeds, cinnamon, mace, of each 1½ dr.; wormwood, 1 dr.;
syrup of bitter orange peel, 4 oz.; spirits of wine, 3 oz.; dry white
wine, 3 gal.; macerate for some days and filter.

_Violet Ratafia._--3 oz. orris powder, 4 oz. litmus, 2 gal. rectified
spirit; digest 10 days, strain, add 12 lb. white sugar dissolved in 1
gal. soft water.

_Walnut Ratafia._--60 young walnuts with soft shells, pricked; 2 qt.
brandy, 15 gr. mace, 15 gr. cinnamon, 15 gr. cloves; digest for 8
weeks; press, filter, add 1 lb. white sugar; keep for some months.

_Wormwood Liqueur._--1 lb. essence of wormwood, 1 oz. oil of tansy, 1
oz. oil of calamus, 2 oz. oil of orris, 1 gal. syrup of gum arabic, 3
bar. pure spirits.

=Wine, and Miscellaneous Drinks.=--Fruits intended for making wine
must be perfectly ripe and sound, and gathered in dry weather. The
most convenient sized cask is 10 gal. All utensils must always be
scoured and scalded, and set out of doors to sweeten the day before
being used. The tub in which the liquor is put to settle should have
a tap within 3 in. of the bottom, so that the wine may be drawn,
instead of poured off, without disturbing the lees or sediment;
which must not on any account be put into the cask until it has
been filtered well. The sieves and flannel strainers should be kept
perfectly sweet, and exposed to the fresh air, and nothing of brass
or copper used.

Never add the yeast for fermentation until the liquor is cool enough
to receive it: 85° F. is about the proper temperature. Stir the
liquor well occasionally, and cover the vessel close in cold weather.
When liquor is working in a cask, it must be kept quite full to allow
it to work out, or the wine will not be clear; keep a tile over the
bung-hole that the froth may escape, or put the bung on lightly.
Fermentation will be accelerated by mixing the yeast with 2 qt. of
the liquor in a jar for 10 minutes, and then adding it to the whole

Wines made from raspberries, mulberries, elderberries, blackberries,
and all such fruits as produce much sediment, should always be
filtered through flannel bags into the cask, as this saves much
trouble in fining and racking. Wines never “feed” on the lees, but,
on the contrary, fret; and if not made strong, frequently go sour.

When the liquor is ready for putting into the cask, draw it off as
long only as it runs clear; then filter the lees more than once, if
necessary, and fill completely. Put any overplus into bottles, with
a small quantity of brandy, as a reserve for filling up in future.
When brandy is to be added, take out 3 qt. of the wine, pour in the
spirit, and then fill up. Never add water to wines when casked;
should there by accident be a deficiency of the liquor, add foreign
wine mixed with brandy.

Racking off is best performed by drawing the wine off into a clean
vessel as long as it runs perfectly clear, then put in a cork, and
turn the lees out in a separate tub, and filter it well. Next return
all that is bright into the same cask; add what is recommended, and
stop it up again securely. This should be done in cool weather, or
early in the morning.

When bottling take care that your bottles are clean and not specked,
or they will leak; fill them so that the wine will just come in
contact with the cork when driven home. Use the best corks, and dip
each in some of the wine, or in brandy, which is better. Seal the
corks of such white wines as require caution when ripe, with green
wax to distinguish them, and fasten them with wire. All newly-made
wines should be kept in cool, dry, dark cellars. When casks are
emptied, stop all the holes to prevent their becoming musty or foul.

Bins are formed of brickwork, board, or iron. Place some fine dry
sand over the bottom of each bin, and make it quite level. On this
lay down 2 or 3 laths, so that the necks of the first layer of
bottles may rest on them, and at the same time be quite level. They
are usually placed in rows two deep, and in laying them down, be
careful the shoulders of one row do not touch those of the opposite
one, or they will break from the pressure. Be sure that the bottom
rows are perfectly secure, as upon these depends the safety of the
whole pile. Upon the first layers of bottles place a lath, to support
the necks of those in the second row, the bottoms of which should
rest on the laths placed over the necks of the first in the intervals
between each bottle neck. Continue in this way until the piles are 3
or 4 ft. high.

All the bins that contain wine should be labelled, to specify the
kind of wine and the date of their being bottled.

To cool wine, swathe the bottle or decanter in a wet bandage, and
stand it in the full heat of the sun; when the bandage is nearly dry
the wine will be found as cool as if iced.

_Apple Wine._--Cut up 1 lb. of apples into quarters, add ½ lb. sugar,
and then pour over them ½ gal. boiling water. Let it get cold, and
then pulp the apples. Pour the fluid over the pulp, let it stand an
hour, and then strain. This forms an agreeable drink, the acid of the
apple blending with the sweet of the sugar pleasantly, so as to be
grateful to a parched palate.

_Apricot Wine._--Boil 10 gal. river water ½ hour, and set it to
cool in a clean vessel. Cut 45 lb. ripe apricots into thick slices,
and put them, with their juice, into the water, adding 25 lb. best
loaf sugar, and stir them well; then cover the vessel closely, and
let them steep until the day following. Boil the liquor and fruit
together, stir in the whites of 8 eggs well beaten, and take off the
scum as it rises. When the liquor is clear, and the fruit is reduced
to a pulp, press, and strain it through a fine sieve, into a cooler,
add the stones broken, and stir well. Spread good yeast on both sides
of a toast, and when the liquor is at its proper warmth, work it well
2 days, and strain it through a jelly-bag into the cask, put on the
bung lightly, and let it work over, keeping the cask full, and when
it has done fermenting, add to it 2 qt. French brandy, and 2 oz.
white sugar-candy. Then put in the bung, and secure it well, keep it
12 months, and then bottle it. It must remain in bottle a year or
more, for it is a very rich wine, and will improve greatly by age.

_Badminton._--(_a_) 1 bot. vin ordinaire, 2 bot. soda water, 1 small
glass pale brandy; add lemon peel, sugar, and ice.

(_b_) 1 bot. light claret, 1 or 1½ glass sherry, 1 bot. soda water,
crushed sugar to taste.

(_c_) Put the parings of half a cucumber in a cup with white sugar;
pour on 1 bot. claret, and let stand ½ hour in ice; add 1 bot. soda

_Balm Wine._--Into 8 gal. water put 20 lb. moist sugar; boil for 2
hours, skimming thoroughly; then pour into a tub to cool; place 2½
lb. balm tops, bruised, into a barrel with a little new yeast; when
the liquor is cold, pour it on the balm; stir it well together, and
let it stand 24 hours, stirring it frequently; then close it up
tightly at first, and more securely after fermentation has quite
ceased; when it has stood 2 months, bottle off, putting a lump of
sugar into each bottle; cork down well, and keep in bottle at least a

_Barley Water._--Wash the barley well, add a few strips of
lemon-peel, very thin, and pour on the water boiling. The juice of
the lemon should be squeezed in fresh just before it is served.
Robinson’s patent barley is best (see p. 775).

_Beetroot Beer._--Having well cleansed and scraped the roots,
removing the discoloured portion near the set of the leaves, cut them
into pieces of an inch or so in thickness, fill the copper with them,
and then put in as much water as will just cover them. Boil for about
5 hours, place them lightly in a wicker basket or sieve to drain, but
do not put any pressure upon them. Then put the liquor back into the
boiler, and to every 7 pails liquor put 3 lb. hops; boil together
for 2 hours, and then strain through the sieve. When cool work it
with yeast, the same as other beer. The scum which rises should
be removed before casking. Beetroot may be substituted for malt if
deprived of the greater part of its juice by pressure, then dried
and treated in the same manner as the grain intended for brewing.
The beer made from beetroot has been found perfectly wholesome and
palatable, and little inferior to that prepared from malt.

_Bilberry Wine._--The fruit should be picked on a very dry day, when
it is quite ripe. The leaves and stalks must be carefully removed
from the berries and the fruit, then weighed. To 4 gal. fruit allow
either 6 gal. cold water or 3 gal. water and 3 of cider, and 10 lb.
good moist sugar; let all these ingredients ferment in an open tub
until working is over; then add ½ gal. brandy, a handful of lavender
and rosemary leaves mixed, 2 oz. powdered ginger, and 2 oz. powdered
tartar; let the liquor rest after this addition for 48 hours, then
strain very carefully through a hair sieve into a perfectly clean
cask, laying the bung lightly on the bung-hole until the working is
quite over, and no hissing sound is heard; then close down quite
tightly, and bottle off at the end of 3 months; keep 6-8 months in
bottle before use.

_Birch Wine._--(_a_) Take 11 gal. of the sap of a healthy birch tree,
fresh as you can get it, boil it gently as long as any scum rises,
which must be carefully taken off to avoid wasting it. Add to the
clear liquor 25 lb. best loaf sugar, boil it again 20 minutes with
the whites of 10 eggs beaten to a froth, and skim frequently until it
is beautifully bright. Set it in a clean vessel to cool, and when at
96° F. put into it a toast well spread on both sides with thick fresh
ale yeast, and keep it closely covered up, 6 or 7 days, stirring
daily. Rinse a sweet 10 gal. cask with a pint of old raisin wine,
filter the liquor into it, add the thin yellow rinds of 2 lemons and
3 Seville oranges, and 3 qt. French brandy, put in the bung, and
secure it with paper and sand. Set it in a cool cellar, and bottle
it in 2 years; fasten the corks down with wire, and seal with wax. A
year later it will be in perfection.

(_b_) Boil 9 gal. healthy birch sap with 2 lb. clarified honey
½ hour, skimming it well. Beat 9 whites of eggs up with ½ oz.
isinglass, dissolved in a cupful of cold water, and put in 20 lb.
loaf sugar broken small. Mix this well with the liquor when cool, and
boil it ½ hour longer, skimming and stirring until it is quite clear.
Put it into a tub, and when milk warm stir well into it ¼ pint of
strong yeast; let it work 3 days in the tub, then put it into your
cask, add the rinds of 6 lemons and 2 lb. best raisins, and keep the
bung out until the fermentation has ceased. Put to the wine a bottle
of old Madeira and 1 qt. the best brandy; stop the cask up safely,
and let it stand 6 months. Draw off the wine into a clean vessel
as long as it runs clear, then filter the dregs through 3 folds of
flannel, and put all back again into the same cask; fasten the bung
in well, and put clay over it. In 6 months you may bottle it; seal
and wire the corks to prevent accidents, for it is a lively wine, and
should be kept in a cool cellar. When it has been bottled 6 months it
will be fit for use.

_Bishop._--Make several incisions in the rind of a lemon; stick
cloves in the holes and roast the lemon at a slow fire. Put small
but equal quantities of cinnamon, cloves, mace, and allspice into
a saucepan, with ½ pint of water; let it boil until it is reduced
one-half. Boil a bottle of port wine; burn a portion of the spirit
out of it by applying a lighted paper to the saucepan. Put the
roasted lemon and spice into the wine; stir it up well, and let it
stand near the fire 10 minutes. Rub a few knobs of sugar to taste
on the rind of a lemon, put the sugar into a bowl or jug, with the
juice of half a lemon (not roasted), pour the wine into it, grate
some nutmeg into it, sweeten it to your taste, and serve it up with
the lemon and spice floating in it. Oranges are sometimes introduced
instead of lemons.

_Blackberry Wine._--Mix 45 qt. ripe blackberries, well picked and
pressed, with 10 lb. good honey, and 26 lb. strong, bright, moist
sugar; boil it with 12 gal. soft water and the whites of 12 eggs,
well beaten, until it is reduced to 10 gal., skimming it until
perfectly clear. Strain it into a tub, and let it stand until the
next day, then pour it clear off the lees, and boil it again ¾ hour,
adding the lees filtered twice, and 2 oz. isinglass dissolved in 1
qt. water. Skim well, and put in 2 oz. Jamaica pepper, cloves, and
best ginger, all bruised, and tied loosely in a piece of muslin.
Put into your cooler the thin rinds of 6 Seville oranges and 1 pint
lemon juice; strain the liquor upon them, stir well, and when cool
enough, work it with 1 pint fresh yeast stirred well into 1 gal. of
the liquor. Cover it up close, and let it work 5 or 6 days, taking
off the top scum and stirring twice daily; then strain, and filter it
into the cask, put on the bung lightly, keep the cask well filled up,
and when it has ceased fermenting, let a day elapse, and add 2 qt.
French brandy, and 1½ oz. isinglass, dissolved in a little water, and
mix with 1 gal. of the wine 10 minutes, 1 oz. bitter almonds blanched
and slit, and 6 oz. sugar candy broken small. Stop up the bung, paste
strong white paper over it, or coarse linen, and place plenty of sand
over all, wetted a little. Keep it 2 years in a cool cellar, then
bottle it; seal the corks, and keep in bottle 2 years; then use it.
If allowed greater age, it will still improve.

_Bucellas._--Press the pulp and juice out of 30 lb. Lisbon grapes,
add 6 gal. cold soft water that has been well boiled; stir well, and
covering the vessel close, let it stand 24 hours; add 30 lb. bright,
strong, moist sugar, stir well until it is dissolved, and in 3 days
more strain the liquor into your cask upon the thin rinds of 8 lemons
and 1 oz. bitter almonds, blanched, and beaten with a spoonful of
water in a stone mortar. When you have filled the cask, cover the
bung-hole with a tile, and let the liquor work over; when it has
ceased fermenting, pour in 3 pints French brandy and 4 oz. sugar
candy, and stop it up for a year; then bottle it, seal the corks, and
keep it 12 months.

_Burgundy Cup._--(_a_) 1 bot. ordinary Burgundy, ½ gill ordinary
brandy; 4 fresh black currant leaves or buds, steeped in the brandy
2 hours; sweeten with 1 oz. powdered sugar candy; when all well
blended, strain the leaves; add bottle of aerated lemonade, and, just
before serving, 1 lb. ice, in small lumps.

(_b_) Peel and juice of 2 lemons; 1 qt. seltzer water; 2 bot.
Burgundy; sugar to taste; when well iced, draw out the peel and serve.

_Buttered Jack._--Take a brass pan, put in ½ lb. lump sugar, 1 glass
sherry, and 1 lb. fresh butter to melt; beat up 6 fresh eggs well
with a little sherry, and having moderately cooled the pan with 2
bot. light dinner sherry, add the eggs while gently stirring, and
place on the hob till quite hot, taking care not to let it boil;
sweeten to taste. The pan must not be too hot when pouring in the
eggs, or they will curdle.

_Cardinal._--The same as Bishop. Substitute claret for port wine.

_Chablis Cup._--(_a_) Dissolve 5 lumps sugar in 1 pint boiling water;
add a little thin lemon peel; when cool, add wineglass of dry sherry,
1 bot. Chablis, and 1 lb. ice.

(_b_) Put 1 bot. Chablis and a liqueur glass of chartreuse,
maraschino, or noyeau, into a jug embedded in ice; add a lump of ice;
immediately before serving add a bottle of seltzer water.

_Champagne Cup._--(_a_) 1 qt. bot. champagne, 2 bot. soda water, 1
liqueur glass of brandy or curaçao, 2 tablespoonfuls powdered sugar,
1 lb. pounded ice, and a sprig of green borage.

(_b_) 1 bot. champagne (iced); 1 gill Amontillado; liqueur glass of
citronelle or maraschino; juice and paring of a Seville orange or
lemon, rubbed on sugar; verbena and cucumber; sugar to taste; 1 bot.
seltzer water.

(_c_) 1 bot. sparkling champagne (iced), 1 bot. soda water (iced),
2 oz. powdered loaf sugar, sprig of borage and balm, juice and thin
peel of one lemon; pour the champagne on the lemon, sugar, and herbs;
cover the vessel, which is in ice, till the sugar is dissolved; add
the soda water.

_Cherry Brandy._--(_a_) Take ripe black geans (Scotch wild cherries);
pick off the stalks, and pick over the fruit as for a tart, but do
not wash them. Half fill large wide-mouthed bottles with layers of
fruit and pounded white sugar, weight for weight; fill up with good
French brandy; cork well, and the longer it stands the finer it is.
Bruise a few of the fruit, so as to crack the stones. It is useless
to attempt to make good liqueurs with anything but French brandy,
and that of the best. If you cannot procure black geans, use fine
Morella cherries, each of which must be wiped and pricked with a bone
stiletto or knitting needle. In this case the cherries are a good
dessert dish.

(_b_) Get the largest Morella cherries, cut off half the stalk,
pricking each cherry with a needle, and putting them into a
wide-mouthed bottle. Add ¾ of the weight of the cherries in white
candy sugar bruised, between the layers of the cherries, until full;
add a gill of noyeau, and then fill up with French brandy; cork
tight, and tie a bladder over the bottle.

(_c_) Having cut off half the stalks of some Morella cherries, put
them very gently in and ¾ fill a wide-mouthed glass bottle that
contains 1 qt. Add 4 oz. white sugar candy finely powdered, fill
close up with the best brandy, adding one clove, 2 dr. dried Seville
orange peel, and 1 dr. cinnamon. The three last ingredients to be
taken out in 14 days; then fill up the vacant space with brandy, and
cork carefully.

_Cider._--Bottling.--Cider or perry, when bottled in hot weather,
should be left a day or two uncorked, that it may get flat; but if
too flat in the cask, and soon wanted for use, put into each bottle
a small lump or two of sugar candy, or four or five raisins. Cider
should be well corked and waxed, and the bottles put upright in a
cool place.

Restoring Flavour.--(_a_) Cider, 1 hhd.; rum, weak flavoured, 2
gal.; alum, dissolved, 1 lb.; honey, or coarse sugar, 15 lb.; bitter
almonds, ½ lb.; cloves, ½ lb. Mix, and after a few days fine it down
with isinglass.

(_b_) To fine and improve the flavour of 1 hhd., take ½ oz.
cochineal, 1 lb. alum, and 3 lb. sugar candy; bruise them all well in
a mortar, and infuse them in 1 gal. good French brandy for a day or
two; then mix the whole with the cider and stop it close for 5 or 6
months. After which, if fine, bottle it off.

_Cider Cup._--(_a_) 1 bot. cider, 1 bot. soda water, 2 glasses
sherry, powdered sugar, sprig of borage.

(_b_) 2 bot. sparkling cider, ½ gill curaçao, ½ gill brown brandy,
¼ lb. sugar; the juice, strained, and the peel of one lemon, rubbed
on sugar; slice of cucumber; pour ½ pint boiling water on the sugar;
when dissolved and cool, add the brandy, cucumber, liqueur, and
juice; in a few minutes add the cider and 1 qt. shaven ice; use

(_c_) Grate into a cup some nutmeg and a little ginger; add a
well-browned toast, a glass or two of sherry, sugar to taste; add a
bottle of cider, poured on slowly. It may be drunk at once.

_Claret Cup._--(_a_) 1 bot. claret, 1 bot. soda water, ½ lb. pounded
ice, 4 tablespoonfuls powdered sugar, ¼ teaspoonful grated nutmeg, 1
liqueur glass maraschino, and a sprig of green borage.

(_b_) To 1 bot. ordinary claret add 1 bot. soda water, a glass of
sherry or curaçao, the peel of a lemon cut very thin, powdered sugar
according to taste. Let the whole remain an hour or two before
serving, and then add some lumps of clear ice.

(_c_) To (_b_) add a few slices of cucumber, or some sprigs of borage
instead of the cucumber.

(_d_) As (_b_), except the lemon peel, for which substitute, when in
season, a pint of ripe raspberries or 4 or 5 peaches or nectarines,
cut in slices.

(_e_) 2 bot. claret, 1 of sparkling champagne, wine glass of
maraschino or citronelle; borage, balm, and sugar to the flavour
required; ice well, and before serving add 2 bot. seltzer water.

(_f_) 2 bot. claret, 1 pint dry sherry, ½ gill brandy, 1 bot.
champagne (iced); ½ gill noyeau; infuse some borage and balm leaves
in the sherry; when sufficiently herbed, strain; add this to the
claret, sweeten to taste, add the noyeau and spirit, ice up; just
before serving, add 2 bot. iced potash water, 1 pint shaven ice, and
the champagne; serve immediately.

(_g_) Peel one lemon fine, cover with pounded sugar, pour over a
glass of sherry; add 1 bot. claret, sprig of verbena, and bottle of
iced soda water.

_Clary Wine._--Mix 9 gal. cold soft water with 6 lb. honey, 30 lb.
best loaf sugar, and the whites of 12 eggs beaten to a froth; boil
1½ hour, skimming and stirring nearly the whole time. Put the liquor
into a cooler, and add 14 qt. clary tops in flower; work it at the
proper temperature with good fresh ale yeast, keeping it closely
covered, and stirred well. Pick, stone, and cut in pieces, 14 lb.
good Malaga raisins, pour on them 3 gal. lukewarm water, that has
been well boiled; stir well, and let steep 5 days; then press the
fruit in a hair bag, strain the liquor, and put it into a sweet 10
gal. cask; strain the liquor from the flowers, add to it the rinds
of 10 lemons pared thin, and their juice strained, and put this
into the cask, filling up, and keep it open 3 or 4 days, until the
fermentation has entirely ceased. Then add 2 qt. French brandy, and
stop it up for 3 months, after which rack it off into a clean vessel,
filter the lees, and fill the same cask again, adding 6 oz. sugar
candy bruised, and 1 oz. isinglass dissolved in 2 qt. of the wine.
Stop it up securely, and keep it 18 months in a cool dry cellar; then
bottle it, seal the corks, and in a year more it will be fit for use.

_Coltsfoot Wine._--Boil 1 gal. water with 2½ lb. moist sugar and the
beaten white of an egg, for ¾ hour; pour the boiling liquor on ¼ peck
of fresh-gathered coltsfoot flowers and 1 lb. raisins stoned and cut
small. Cover the vessel close, and let the ingredients infuse for 3
days, stirring thrice daily; then add a tablespoonful of yeast, keep
it well mixed and covered close until it has worked freely; then
strain into a cask upon ½ oz. best bruised ginger and the rind of
half a Seville orange; let it remain open, covering the bung-hole
with a tile until it has ceased fermenting; add a gill of French
brandy, stop it up securely, and keep it for 12 months, then bottle
it and use it 6 months later.

_Corn Beer._--5 gal. water, 2 qt. molasses, 1 qt. sound corn. Put
all into a keg and shake well; in a few days fermentation will have
been brought on as nicely as with yeast. Keep it bunged tight. It
may be flavoured with oil of lemon, &c. The corn will last five or
six makings. If it gets too sour, add more molasses and water in the
above proportions. This drink is cheap, healthy, and there is no
better with yeast.

_Cottage Beer._-½ pint good wheat bran, 3 handfuls hops, 2
tablespoons yeast, 10 gal. water, 2 qt. molasses. Boil bran and hops
in the water until both sink to the bottom; strain through a hair
sieve; when lukewarm put in the molasses and stir till it is melted.
Put in a cask; bung up, and it will be ready for use in a few days.

_Cowslip Syrup._--Take of fresh cowslip flowers, 12 oz.; boiling
water, 1 pint: infuse for 24 hours, strain, and then add ½ lb. white
sugar; boil it gently until it attains the consistence of a syrup.
The cowslip was at one time very highly celebrated for its narcotic
virtues; and cowslip water and infusion of cowslip have been much
recommended. The infusion is made in the following manner: ½ oz.
dried cowslip flowers, or 1 oz. fresh, must be put to stand in a
close vessel with 1½ pints boiling water for ½ hour, when it may be
drunk in the same manner as tea.

_Cowslip Wine._--(a) To 2 gal. water add 2½ lb. powdered sugar; boil
them ½ hour, and take off the scum as it rises; then pour it into a
tub to cool with the rinds of 2 lemons; when cold add 4 qt. cowslip
flowers to the liquor with the juice of 2 lemons. Let it stand in
the tub 2 days, stirring it every 2 or 3 hours, and then put it in
the barrel. Let it stand a month; bottle it, and put a lump of sugar
into each bottle. It makes the best wine to have only the tops of the

(_b_) To 6 gal. water add 21 lb. lump sugar and the whites of 2 eggs;
boil it (taking off the scum as it rises) till it clears itself,
which will be in about ½ hour; when nearly cold add 24 qt. cowslips,
the rinds of 2 lemons, and a spoonful of brewers’ yeast spread upon
toast. Let it ferment for 3 days, stirring it twice or thrice a day,
and then put it into a barrel, adding 1 pint of brandy, and cork it
tight. When it has done fermenting, which will be in about 3 weeks,
put into the cask a syrup made of 6 lemons and 1½ lb. sugar, which
has stood till cold. Let it stand 4 months, when you may bottle it
for use. Take out the rinds of the lemons before you put it into the

_Cream Mead._--A very agreeable drink may be prepared for
convalescents as follows:--Dissolve 3 lb. white sugar in ½ gal.
boiling water, and while cold add 3 oz. tartaric acid previously
dissolved in 1 pint cold water. Now add the whites of 3 eggs well
beaten; flavour to taste, and bottle. When it is to be used, stir in
a few grains of soda bicarbonate, and a delicious effervescing drink
is the result.

_Currant Wine._--Gather the currants on a fine day, and, when they
are fully ripe, pick them from the stalks, and squeeze out all the
juice through a clean muslin bag. To 1 gal. juice put 2 of cold
water, and 2 tablespoonfuls yeast. Let it work 2 days, then strain
through a hair sieve, and, to 1 gal. liquor, add 3 lb. powdered
sugar; stir all well together, put it into a clean cask, and to every
gallon add 1 wineglassful brandy. Close the cask, and let it stand 3
months, then bottle.

_Damson Wine._--Boil 10½ gal. pure river water with 32 lb. strong
moist sugar, and the whites of 10 eggs well beaten, for ½ hour,
skimming well; then add 32 qt. ripe prune damsons well picked from
the stalks, and stoned, and boil them ½ hour longer, skimming and
stirring, until the liquor is beautifully bright. Strain it off the
fruit in a fine hair-sieve into your cooler, and when at the proper
temperature, work it with fresh yeast, spread on a toast, 3 or 4
days. Then draw it off the sediment, put it into the cask, filter
the lees, and fill up, letting it work out at the bung. When it has
ceased hissing, put to it 1 qt. French brandy, and stop it up safely,
pasting paper over the bung. Let it stand 6 months, then rack it
off, filter the lees through flannel twice folded, and filling the
cask again, add 1 oz. isinglass, dissolved in 2 qt. of the wine.
Secure the bung well, and let it remain 2 years; then draw it off and
bottle, sealing the corks. This being a rich wine should not be drunk
until it has been bottled 2 years or more.

_Dandelion Tea._--Pull up 6 or 8 dandelion roots, according to size,
and cut off the leaves; well wash the roots and scrape off a little
of the skin. Cut them up into small pieces and pour on 1 pint boiling
water. Let them stand all night, then strain through muslin, and the
tea is ready for use. It should be quite clear, and the colour of
brown sherry. 1 wineglassful should be taken at a time. The decoction
will not last good for more than 2-3 days, and therefore it must only
be made in small quantities.

_Egg Flip._--(_a_) Boil 3 qt. ale with a little nutmeg; beat 6 eggs
and mix them with a little cold ale; then pour in some of the hot
ale, and return it several times to prevent it curdling; stir it
well, and add a piece of butter and a glass of brandy, with sugar,
nutmeg, and ginger to taste. A few cloves are an improvement.

(_b_) Break 2 fresh eggs into a jug, to which add 4 teaspoonfuls
sugar, a little grated nutmeg and ginger. Some put a little allspice.
Beat the eggs, sugar, and spices well up with a fork. Place 1 qt. ale
on the fire in a pan, and when warm pour a little of the ale into the
jug, and again well beat the eggs, &c. Then pour all the ale out of
the pan into the jug, and from the jug into the pan, backwards and
forwards several times, until the whole is well mixed. Heat the ale
again if not hot enough, and sweeten to taste. It is best drunk warm.
A little rum may be added for those who like it, and more than 2 eggs
put in a quart of ale if desirable--say 3 or 4. Care must be taken
not to let the ale boil, or it will be spoiled.

(_c_) Beat 2 eggs with a little water and 1½-2 oz. sugar; add a
little grated nutmeg or allspice or cloves. Boil 1 pint sound ale,
and when boiling pour it on the eggs, stirring the mixture the
while; pour it backwards and forwards, and if it does not become
thick, put it on the fire, carefully stirring until it does so.

(_d_) The yolks of 8 eggs well beaten up, powdered sugar, and a
grated nutmeg; extract the juice from the rind of a lemon by rubbing
loaf sugar upon it; put the sugar, a piece of cinnamon, and 1 qt.
strong beer into a saucepan, take it off the fire when boiling, pour
into it 1 glass cold beer, or a glass of gin if agreeable; put it
into a jug, and pour it gradually among the yolks of the eggs, &c.,
stirring all the time; add sugar if required. Pour the mixture as
swiftly as possible from one vessel to the other till a white froth
is obtained.

_Elderberry Wine._--(_a_) Gather your elderberries when quite ripe,
bake them in an oven prepared for bread, then strain the juice; for
every quart of juice take 1 gal. water, and boil in it ½ lb. moist
sugar for 1 hour, skimming it carefully, and adding more water to
make up for the evaporation, so as to leave at the end 1 gal. syrup.
When cool, add the juice, spread a toast thickly with yeast, put it
in, and let it ferment for a week in an open vessel; then pour it
into a cask, with 1 lb. raisins, and 1 oz. each sugar and allspice.
Let it stand 3 months, strain and bottle, adding ½ pint brandy at the
last moment.

(_b_) To 3 qt. of berries put 1 gal. water; boil the berries for 15
minutes, then strain; boil not quite 3 lb. of sugar to the gallon for
45 minutes; and then add some ginger and cloves according to taste.

_Elder-flower Wine._--To 1 gal. water put 4 lb. white sugar, ½ pint
elder flowers _loosely_ packed, and one tablespoonful of yeast. Mix
and put all in a barrel, stirring the whole every morning for a week;
then stop it up close, and it will be ready to bottle in 6 weeks.

_Ginger Beer._--(_a_) 1¼ lb. lump sugar, ¾ oz. ginger well pounded,
the peel of 1 lemon cut very thin; put them into a pitcher, then add
11 pints boiling water; stir the whole, then cover it up. When cooled
till only milk warm, put 2 spoonfuls of yeast on a piece of toast,
hot from the fire; add the juice of the lemon. Let work 12 hours;
strain through muslin and bottle. Will be fit to drink in 4 days.

(_b_) 2 lb. loaf sugar, 2 oz. bruised ginger, 1 lemon; put all
together and pour 2 gal. boiling water on it; let stand one day, then
strain, and put 2 spoonfuls of yeast to it; bottle.

(_c_) To 10 gal. water put 12 lb. sugar, 6 oz. bruised ginger
(unbleached is the best). Boil 1 hour, put into a barrel with 1 oz.
hops and 3 or 4 spoonfuls of yeast. Let stand 3 days; then close the
barrel, putting in 1 oz. isinglass. In a week it is fit for use. Draw
out in a jug and use as beer.

(_d_) The rinds of 3 lemons pared very thin, 1½ oz. cream of tartar,
¼ lb. ginger (bruised), 3½ lb. loaf sugar, 2½ gal. boiling water. Let
all stand till milk warm; then add a dessertspoonful of yeast. Let
remain all night, then strain off, and add ½ pint brandy. Bottle in
very clean half-pint glass bottles, and tie down the corks. It will
be ready for drinking in a week’s time. Lemon juice may be added, if

(_e_) 18 gal. water, 24 lb. sugar, 24 lemons, whites of 18 eggs, 2
lb. ginger, 1 oz. isinglass, 3 tablespoonfuls yeast. Boil the water
and sugar, add the whites of eggs; when coming to the boil, add the
ginger; boil for ½ hour, then add the lemon peel and juice; boil
for 10 minutes, strain into a tub, add the isinglass; when nearly
cold, add the yeast; when done fermenting, close up. Let stand for a
fortnight, then bottle.

(_f_) Put 4 lb. loaf sugar in a crock, also 6 lemons (sliced), 5
oz. cream of tartar, 4 oz. ground ginger, 24 cloves in a small bag;
pour on the above 4 gal. boiling water; cover up close. When nearly
cold, whisk in the whites of 3 eggs, then add 3 tablespoonful a good
yeast on a slice of toast; ferment 24 hours, then strain and skim and
bottle off. Lay the bottles on their sides for 24 hours.

(_g_) White sugar, 5 lb.; the juice and peel of 3 or 4 lemons; ginger
(bruised), 5 oz.; Water, 4½ gal. Boil the ginger in 1 gal. of the
water for ½ hour, with the peels of the lemon, then add the sugar,
and lemon juice, with the remainder of the water at a boiling heat,
and strain through a cloth; when cold, add the quarter of the white
of an egg, beaten up with a small quantity of the liquid. Let the
whole stand 4 days, and bottle. Will keep good many months.

(_h_) Crush 12 oz. best ginger, and put it in a large tub; boil 8
gal. water and pour thereon; add 5 lb. best white sugar, 1 oz. cream
of tartar, and 1 oz. tartaric acid; stir the whole up with a stick
till the sugar is dissolved; allow it to stand till milk warm, then
add 1 gill brewers’ yeast; stir this in, let it stand for 12 hours,
or until a scum forms on the top, then drain it off; clear by means
of a tap about an inch from the bottom of the tub; whisk the white of
an egg to a froth, and mix it with a teaspoonful of the essence of
lemon; strain through a flannel cloth; bottle and tie down.

(_i_) 5 gal. water, ½ oz. tartaric acid, 4 lemons, sliced thin, 12
oz. ginger, ¾ oz. cream tartar, whites of 2 eggs, ½ oz. compressed
yeast, 5 lb. sugar. Proceed as (_h_).

(_j_) 8 gal. boiling water, 5 lb. best white sugar, ½ oz. cream
tartar, white of egg beaten to a froth, ½ lb. best ginger, 2 oz.
tartaric acid, 1 teaspoonful essence lemon, 1 gill brewers’ yeast.
Leave to work 24 hours before bottling.

_Ginger Brandy._--1 lb. raisins, the rind of one lemon, and ¾ oz.
bruised ginger. Steep them in 1 qt. best French brandy, strain, and
add 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar.

_Ginger Wine._--(_a_) Boil together 3 gal. water and 10 lb. loaf
sugar; then turn it out to cool, except 1 qt., in which boil for ½
hour the thin rind of 3 large lemons and 1 Seville orange, with 4
oz. pounded ginger, and 4 oz. raisins; when nearly cold, mix all
together, adding the juice of the orange and lemons, 1 oz. isinglass,
and 2 tablespoonfuls yeast; put into a cask, and stir daily for 2
days, or till the fermentation ceases; then close, and leave for
6 weeks; rack carefully into a clean cask, and leave for another
month; then bottle. If required to be strong, you must add (after the
fermentation ceases) 1 bot. brandy.

(_b_) 4 gal. water, 7 lb. sugar, boil ½ hour, skimming frequently;
when the liquor is cold, squeeze in the juice of 2 lemons; then boil
the peels with 2 oz. white ginger in 3 pints water, 1 hour; when cold
put all into the cask, with 1 gill finings and 3 lb. Malaga raisins;
bung; let it stand 2 months, then bottle. March is considered the
proper time to make it, and it would be better if you were to add a
little brandy to each bottle.

(_c_) To 7 gal. water put 19 lb. sugar, and boil it for ½ hour,
removing the scum as it rises; then take a small quantity of the
liquor, and add to it 9 oz. best ginger bruised. Put it all together,
and when nearly cold, chop 9 lb. raisins very small, and put them
into a 9 gal. cask; slice 4 lemons into the cask, after taking out
the seeds, and pour the liquor over them, with ½ pint fresh yeast.
Leave it unstopped for 3 weeks, keeping it filled up, and in about 6
or 9 weeks it will be fit for bottling.

(_d_) To 37 qt. water add 1¼ lb. best white ginger, well bruised, 27
lb. sugar, loaf or moist, and the rinds of 12 lemons thinly pared;
boil together 1 hour, taking off the scum as it rises in the copper.
Strain off when cool, ferment it with 2 tablespoonfuls of yeast
and let remain until next morning, then put it into the cask with
the rinds and the juice of the lemons (observe to strain the juice
first), the ginger, and 3 lb. good raisins broken open. Stir once a
day for 10 days, then add 1 oz. isinglass. Care must be taken not to
bung the cask quite close until the fermentation has ceased; bottle
in 6 or 8 weeks, and use. The rinds of the lemons are to be boiled,
but _not_ the juice: that is to be put into the cask _without_ having
been boiled.

_Gin Sling._--Take a large tumbler or silver tankard, put into it
a liqueur glass of maraschino of noyeau or of plain syrup (made by
dissolving in spring water as much pounded loaf sugar as it will
possibly take up). Half fill the tankard with little blocks of ice,
and put in a thin paring of the outer yellow skin of a lemon. Then
add a sufficient quantity of unsweetened gin to suit the taste. Now
empty into the tumbler the contents of a bottle of soda water, and
stir well up with a tablespoon to amalgamate the whole. A sprig of
borage with one blue flower may be added.

_Gooseberry Wine._--(_a_) To 1 lb. gooseberries, when picked and
bruised, put 1 qt. fresh cold spring water; let stand 3 days,
stirring two or three times a day. To 1 gal. juice put 3 lb. loaf
sugar in a barrel, and when it has done working, to every 20 qt. of
liquor put 1 qt. brandy and a little isinglass. The gooseberries
should be picked when they are just changing colour, and may be of
any sort or kind. It should stand in the barrel 6 months. Taste
frequently, and bottle when the sweetness is sufficiently gone off.

(_b_) To 10 gal. cold water take 10 gal. unripe large gooseberries,
cut them in halves, and throw them into the water; let them lie 4 or
5 days, frequently stirring; strain off the liquor, and add 30 lb.
white sugar; dissolve the sugar, strain the whole into a cask. It
will probably remain in a state of fermentation for 2 months; when
that has subsided, bottle.

_Greengage Wine._--Take 40 qt. ripe greengage plums, stone them, and
press the fruit in a tub; pour 10 gal. boiling water on, and let them
lie till the following day. Boil them with the liquor and 25 lb. of
good loaf sugar, ½ hour, skimming well, then add the whites of 8 eggs
well beaten, and boil 20 minutes longer, skimming until the liquor is
quite clear. Break the stones, put the shells and kernels into the
cooler, strain the liquor through a sieve upon them hot, cover close,
and when properly cooled, add a toast well covered with thick fresh
yeast, and let it ferment 4 or 5 days, stirring it twice each day.
Let it settle, take off the scum, and put the clear liquor into the
cask, upon 6 oz. of white sugar candy, the thin rinds of 4 Seville
oranges and 4 lemons, and 6 lb. of Smyrna raisins stoned and cut in
pieces. Filter the lees and add them to the rest, filling the cask;
put paper and a tile over the bung-hole, and let it work out. When
fermentation has ceased, add 3 pints of French brandy, and stop it up
securely for 12 months; then rack it off, filter the lees, and fill
the cask again, adding 1 oz. of best isinglass dissolved, and 4 or 5
oz. of white sugar candy bruised. Secure the bung well.

_Hop Beer._--4 lb. sugar, water q.s., 6 oz. hops, 4 oz. ginger,
bruised. Boil the hops for 3 hours with 5 qt. water, then strain; add
5 more qt. water and the ginger; boil a little longer, again strain,
add the sugar, and when lukewarm add 1 pint yeast. After 24 hours it
will be ready for bottling.

_Horehound Beer._--To make 6 gal., make an infusion of 1½ oz. quassia
with a dozen sprigs of horehound; boil with part of this liquid 24
cayenne pods for 20 minutes, then add 6 fl. oz. lime juice and 1½ oz.
licorice (dissolved in cold water); strain the mixture and put with
it 6 gal. cold water, with 2 lb. brown sugar, colouring with burnt
sugar; allow the whole to work 4 days. Now take 2 qt. of it, warm
it rather warmer than new milk, mix with this 8 tablespoonfuls good
brewers’ yeast, and stand in a warm place till in a brisk state of
fermentation; mix it with the rest of the liquor, and in a few hours
it will be all in full work. Give it a stir twice a day for the first
two days to promote fermentation; keep it from contact with cold air
for the following two days, and skim the top off as it gets yeasty.
The beer must be now drawn off as clear as possible into a clean
vessel by passing it through a filtering bag. Clean the tub well, and
return the liquid to it, and add ½ dr. pure dissolved isinglass; stir
the whole well together, and put a cloth over the tub, and also a lid
on it, to exclude the air as much as possible; in 30 hours the beer
may be bottled off. In summer this will be ripe and fit to drink in
8 days. A superior quality may be made by putting a small piece of
sugar into each bottle just before corking.

_Imperial Pop._--(_a_) 1 oz. cream of tartar, ¼ lb. lump sugar, the
juice and peel of 1 lemon or less, according to taste. Pour over this
4 qt. of boiling water, and drink when cold.

(_b_) 1½ gal. boiling water, 1½ lb. best white sugar, 1 oz. best
ginger, 1 oz. lemon juice. When cool, strain and ferment with 1 oz.
yeast, and bottle.

_Lawn Sleeve._--The same as Bishop. Substitute Madeira or sherry for
port, with 3 glasses hot calves’-foot jelly.

_Lemonade._--(_a_) Can be used in powders, and carried when out
shooting, fishing, &c.: soda bicarbonate, 20 gr.; citric or tartaric
acid, 15 gr.; sugar to taste--the sugar and soda in one glass, and
the acid in another; mix.

(_b_) Take lemon juice, sugar, and water only. About 1 lemon to 1
pint water, adding the peel cut very thin, and sugar to the palate.

_Lemon Beer._--1 lb. sugar, 1 lemon sliced, 1 teacupful yeast, 1 gal.
boiling water, 1 oz. ginger, bruised. Let it stand 12 to 20 hours,
after which it may be bottled.

_Lemon Shrub._--The juice of 12 lemons, the thin rind of 2, 1 lb.
sugar, the whites of 2 eggs well whisked, 1 pint water, ½ pint rum,
and ½ pint brandy. Mix and strain.

_Lemon Whey._--1 pint boiling milk, ½ pint lemon juice, sugar to
taste. Mix and strain.

_Linseed Tea._--Take 3 tablespoonfuls linseed, about 1 pint water,
and boil for 10 minutes. Strain off the water, put in a jug with 2
lemons, cut in thin slices; put also some brown sugar. A wineglassful
of wine is an improvement. This has been found most nourishing for

_Loving Cup._--(_a_) ½ oz. cloves, allspice (whole), and cinnamon;
mix them together with 1 pint water; boil till reduced to one-third,
then strain it off. Add 2 bot. sherry, 2 Madeira, 1 port, 1 claret,
the juice of 6 lemons, 1½ lb. loaf sugar, 2 nutmegs grated finely,
1 qt. water. Flavour with the spices according to taste. This is
sufficient for 150 guests. Send round cold.

(_b_) Extract the juice from the peel of the lemon by rubbing sugar
on it, cut 2 lemons into thin slices; add the rind of 1 lemon cut
thin, ¼ lb. loaf sugar, and ½ pint brandy; put the whole into a large
jug, mix it well together, and pour 1 qt. cold spring water upon it;
grate a nutmeg into it, and add 1 pint Madeira, and 1 bot. cider;
sweeten it to taste with capillaire or lump sugar; put (in summer) a
handful of balm, and the same quantity of borage, in flower, into it,
stalks downward; then put the jug containing the liquor into a tub
of ice, and when it has remained there 1 hour it is fit for use. The
balm and borage should be fresh gathered. In winter use ale instead
of cider, omit ice, and drink warm.

_Mangold-wurzel Beer._--Wash the roots, scrape and pare them, cut
them up as for sheep, fill the boiler with them and then pour as
much water to them as it will hold. Let them boil about 6 hours, and
then strain them through a basket, but do not press them. Measure
the liquor back again into the boiler and to every 7 pails put 3 lb.
hops, 6 lb. coarse brown sugar, and ½ lb. mustard-seed. Boil together
for 2 hours, then strain through the brewing-sieve; when cool, work
it with yeast the same as other beer. Before putting into the barrel
the next day, skim off the dark-looking froth.

_Marigold Wine._--Boil 25 lb. good loaf sugar and 4 lb. honey with
10 gal. soft water, and the whites of 8 eggs well beaten, 1 hour,
skimming until quite clear; pour hot upon 3 pecks marigold flowers
and 4 lb. good raisins, stoned and shredded, covering the vessel
close. Next day stir the liquor continually 20 minutes, and let
remain covered until the following morning. Then strain, and put into
cask upon the rinds of 6 Seville oranges pared very thin, and 8 oz.
sugar candy broken small, reserving 2 gal., which must be made nearly
boiling hot, and stirred amongst the rest. Then work with 7 or 8
tablespoonfuls good fresh yeast, cover the bung-hole with a tile, and
let it work over, filling it up every day as the liquor decreases.
When it has ceased fermenting, put in 3 pints French brandy, and 1
oz. dissolved isinglass, and stop it up securely. It will be fine in
9 months, and fit to bottle, but will improve if kept longer. Let it
remain in bottles well corked and sealed 12 months.

_May Drink._--Put into a large glass mug or china bowl about 2 doz.
black-currant leaves, a small handful of woodruff, and a quantity,
according to taste, of pounded lump sugar and lemon juice; pour
in 2 bot. hock or Moselle, never mind how common. Stir the whole
occasionally for ½ hour, and serve.

_Mead._--(_a_) Dissolve 1 oz. cream of tartar in 5 gal. boiling
water; pour the solution off clear upon 20 lb. fine honey, boil them
together and remove the scum as it rises. Towards the end of the
boiling add 1 oz. fine hops; about 10 minutes afterwards put the
liquor into a tub to cool; when reduced to the temperature of 70° or
80° F. (rather less than the warmth of new milk), according to the
season, add a slice of bread toasted and smeared over with a little
yeast. The liquor should now stand in a warm room, and be stirred
occasionally. As soon as it begins to carry a head, it should be
tunned, and the cask filled up, from time to time, from the reserve,
till the fermentation has nearly subsided. It should now be bunged
down, leaving a small peg-hole; in a few days this also may be
closed, and in about 12 months the wine will be fit to bottle.

(_b_) 10 gal. water, 2 lemons, cut in slices, 2 gal. honey, a handful
dried ginger root. Mix all together, and boil ½ hour, carefully
skimming all the time. While boiling add 2 oz. hops. Remove from the
fire, and while the liquid is lukewarm add a strong yeast, and put
into a cask to work about 3 weeks, when it is fit for use.

(_c_) 1 gal. water, 3 lb. strained honey. Boil about ½ hour, adding
to it ½ oz. hops; skim carefully, and drain the skimmings through
a hair sieve, returning what runs through. Remove from the fire,
and when the liquid is lukewarm stir into it ½ pint yeast, which is
sufficient for 9 gal. mead. Put into a cask and let it work over,
filling it up until fermentation subsides. Put a strong paper over
the bung-hole. This mead may be flavoured with spices while boiling,
and make a delicious summer drink.

_Milk Lemonade._--Loaf sugar 1½ lb., dissolved in 1 qt. boiling
water, with ½ pint lemon juice, and 1½ pint milk; this makes a
capital summer beverage; ½ pint sherry added is a great improvement.

_Milk Punch._--(_a_) Pare the rind off 12 lemons and 2 Seville
oranges thinly; put them to steep in 6 pints rum, brandy, or whisky
for 24 hours; then add 2 lb. refined sugar, 3 pints water, 2 nutmegs
grated, and 1 pint lemon juice; stir it till the sugar is dissolved;
then take 3 pints new milk, boiling hot, and pour on the ingredients;
let stand 12 hours, closely covered; strain through a jelly-bag till
quite clear; bottle.

(_b_) Pare 18 lemons very thin, infuse the peel in 1 qt. rum, and
keep closely covered. The next day squeeze the juice of the 18 lemons
over 4 lb. white sugar, and keep this also closely covered. The third
day mix the above ingredients together, and add 3 qt. more rum (or
1 qt. rum and 2 qt. best cognac, which is preferred by some), and 5
qt. water that has been boiled, but is cold when added, also 2 qt.
boiling milk; stir the whole mixture for about 10 minutes, cover
close, and let it stand for about 3 hours, until quite cold; strain
through a flannel bag 2 or 3 times, till quite clear. In bottling,
care should be taken that the corks fit tight, and it will keep 3 or
4 years.

(_c_) The following is a celebrated Cambridge recipe for milk
punch:--Beat up 4 new-laid eggs in the bowl in which you intend
sending the punch to table; then add the following ingredients
(recollecting always to put in the noyeau first), ½ pint noyeau, of
rum, and of brandy, and then ½ pint noyeau, rum, and brandy mixed in
equal proportions. Have 2 qt. milk boiling, to which add ½ teacup
sugar, and then pour it on to the spirit, putting a little nutmeg
grated on the top.

_Molasses Beer._--1 lb. brown sugar, 1 oz. bruised ginger, 1 lb.
molasses, ½ oz. hops. Boil for a few minutes with 3 qt. water; strain
and add 5 qt. water and a spoonful of yeast; let this work all night,
and bottle in the morning.

_Moselle Cup._--(_a_) To 1 bot. still or sparkling Moselle add 1
bot. soda-water, 1 glass sherry or brandy, 4 or 5 thin slices of
pineapple, the peel of half a lemon cut very thin, and powdered sugar
according to taste; let the whole stand about 1 hour, and before
serving add some lumps of clear ice.

(_b_) As (_a_), except the pineapple, for which substitute 1 pint
fresh strawberries, or 3 or 4 peaches or nectarines.

(_c_) As (_a_), but add, instead of fruit, some sprigs of woodruff.
Woodruff is a herb much used on the Rhine for making May drink, its
peculiar flavour being most powerful in May; it is to be found in
forests in many parts of England also.

(_d_) When neither fruit nor woodruff can be obtained, add, instead
of sherry or brandy, a glass or two of milk punch or essence of
punch, and a little more of the lemon peel.

_Mulled Ale._--To 1 qt. strong ale add 1 large wineglass gin or
whisky. Pour it into a clean saucepan, and put it on a brisk fire
until it creams, adding at the same time brown sugar, grated ginger,
and nutmeg to taste; add cold ale until the whole is lukewarm. Serve
in a brown earthenware two-handled cup, adding a thick piece of
toasted bread. The toasted bread is covered with brown sugar, and
eaten with toasted cheese.

_Nectar._--Citric acid, 1 dr.; potash bicarbonate, 1 scr.; White
sugar, 1 oz. Fill a soda-water bottle nearly full of water; drop
in the potash and sugar, and finally the crystals of citric acid.
Quickly cork the bottle and shake. The crystals being dissolved, the
nectar is fit for use.

_Nettle Beer._--1 peck green nettles, 1 handful dandelion, 1 oz.
ginger, 1 oz. yeast, 1 handful coltsfoot, 2 lb. brown sugar, 1 oz.
cream tartar, 3 gal. boiling water. Infuse the herbs in the boiling
water, and when cold strain the liquor. In it dissolve the cream of
tartar and the sugar, adding the yeast and bruised ginger. Let the
whole work about 12 hours, skim the liquor carefully, and put into
champagne bottles. Close tightly with good corks softened in boiling
water, and tie the corks down. After a few days the beer is ready for

_Nettle Wine._--Boil 25 lb. best loaf sugar with 10 gal. river or
rain water, and the whites of 8 eggs well beaten, 1 hour, skimming
well; pour the hot liquor upon 5 pecks young tops of nettles
previously bruised a little, and cover the vessel close with cloths.
When at a proper temperature work it with 8 tablespoonfuls of good
yeast, stirring well 3 days; then strain the liquor into the cask
upon 8 oz. cream of tartar, 4 lb. Malaga raisins stoned, the rinds of
8 lemons pared very thin, and 6 oz. white sugar candy broken; leave
out the bung, keeping the cask quite full until fermentation has
ceased. Add 3 pints white French brandy, stop up the cask securely,
and keep it in a cool cellar 10 months; bottle it, wire and seal the
corks, and in 6 months it will be excellent.

_Oatmeal Drink._--Mix ½ lb. oatmeal with 5 gal. cold water, boil it
for ½ hour, and strain it through a rather coarse gravy strainer;
add brown sugar to taste while hot. It is very much improved by the
addition of ½ oz. citric acid or 1 oz. tartaric acid. The thinly-cut
rind of 2 or 3 lemons or oranges may be boiled in it; or a still
cheaper flavouring is to add, before boiling, a bit of cinnamon stick
or a few cloves. To be served cold.

_Orange Wine._--The oranges must be perfectly ripe. Peel them and cut
them in halves, crossways of the cells; squeeze into a tub. The press
used must be so close that the seeds cannot pass into the must. Add
2 lb. white sugar to each gallon of sour orange juice, or 1 lb. each
gallon of sweet orange juice, and 1 qt. water to each gallon of the
mixed sugar and juice. Close fermentation is necessary. The resultant
wine is amber-coloured, and tastes like dry hock, with the orange
aroma. Vinegar can be made from the refuse, and extract from the

_Oxford Grace Cup._--Extract juice from peeling of a lemon, and cut
the remainder into thin slices; put it into a jug or bowl, and pour
on it 1½ pints strong beer, and a bottle of sherry; grate a nutmeg
into it; sweeten it to taste; stir till the sugar is dissolved, and
then add 3 or 4 slices bread toasted brown. Let stand 2 hours and
strain off.

_Oxford Mull._--Boil a small quantity of cinnamon, cloves, and mace
in ½ pint water; pour into it a bottle of port wine, and when it is
nearly boiling add 2 lemons thinly sliced; sweeten it to taste.

_Oxford Punch._--Extract the juice from the rind of 3 lemons by
rubbing loaf sugar on them; the peeling of 2 Seville oranges and 2
lemons cut very thin, the juice of 4 Seville oranges and 10 lemons, 6
glasses of calves’-foot jelly in a liquid state: put into a jug and
stir well together. Pour 2 qt. boiling water on the mixture, cover
the jug closely, and place it near the fire for ¼ hour, then strain
the liquid through a sieve into a punch-bowl or jug, sweeten it with
a bottle of capillaire, and add ½ pint white wine, 1 pint French
brandy, 1 pint Jamaica rum, and 1 bot. orange shrub. The mixture to
be stirred as the spirits are poured in. If not sufficiently sweet,
add loaf sugar, gradually, in small quantities, or a spoonful of
capillaire. To be served hot or cold.

_Parsnip Wine._--May be made by infusing 5 or 6 lb. of the chopped
stem in 1 gal. hot water till cold; strain, and add to each gallon of
the infusion 3 or 4 lb. white sugar, 1 oz. cream of tartar, and about
2 to 5 per cent. brandy. When well made and strong, this wine is of
rich and excellent quality, especially after fermentation.

_Parting Cup._--Put 2 or 3 slices of very brown toast in a bowl;
grate over the same a little nutmeg; then pour in 1 qt. ale (mild
preferable), and ⅔ bot. sherry; sweeten with syrup, and (immediately
before drinking) add 1 bot. soda water; a little clove or cinnamon
may be added, if approved of.

_Primrose Wine._--Pick the flowers of fresh-gathered primroses
from the stalks, and put 3 pecks of them and 1 peck cowslip pips
into a clean vessel; boil 30 lb. good loaf sugar with 2 oz. best
ginger bruised, and 10 gal. of river or rain water, ¾ hour, skimming
it well; then add the whites of 10 eggs well beaten, boiling and
skimming until it is perfectly clear; pour this boiling hot upon the
flowers, stir well 10 minutes, and cover the vessel up closely for 3
days, adding 6 lb. Smyrna raisins cut small, and stoned, the juice
of 10 lemons, and their rinds pared off very thin; let them infuse,
stirring well twice daily, and on the fourth day warm the liquor, and
work it at the proper temperature with ½ pint good yeast; when it has
fermented 3 days, strain well, and filter into the cask; cover the
bung-hole with a tile, keep the cask full, and let it work out; when
it has ceased fermenting, pour in 3 pints white French brandy and 1
oz. best isinglass dissolved in 1 qt. of the wine; stop up the cask,
put sand on the bung, and keep it in a cool cellar 12 months; bottle
it, and in 6 months more it will be ready.

_Punch._--(_a_) Take the juice and thin rind of 1 lemon, juice of 2
sweet oranges, taking out the pips; pour on these 3 pints boiling
water; add ½ lb. loaf sugar, and when the sugar is dissolved, add ½
pint old Jamaica rum, and ½ pint cognac. Let stand for 6 hours, and

(_b_) Rub ¼ lb. white lump sugar over 1 large lemon until it has
absorbed all the yellow part of the skin; then put the sugar into
your bowl, add the juice of the same lemon, and mix well together.
Pour over them 1 pint boiling water, stirring well together; then add
½ pint rum, ½ pint brandy, and ½ teaspoonful nutmeg; again mix well
together, and it is ready to serve. Great care should be taken that
the ingredients are thoroughly incorporated.

(_c_) ½ pint rum, ½ pint brandy, ½ pint stout (made hot), 1 quartern
of cloves, 1 quartern of shrub, 1 lemon sliced, and the juice of one,
¼ lb. loaf sugar, 1 qt. boiling water.

(_d_) 1 bot. rum, 1 of sherry, 1 pint brandy, the juice of 3 lemons
and 3 Seville oranges, 1½ lb. lump sugar; rub the rinds of the lemon
and oranges with some of the sugar; add 1 qt. new milk to these
ingredients, not quite boiling. Let stand 24 hours covered close,
strain through a jelly bag, and bottle close. It will keep many years.

_Raisin Wine._--Pick the raisins from their stalks, and put them into
a tub with 1 gal. spring water (which has been boiled and allowed to
cool) to every 8 lb. fruit; stir it thoroughly every day, then strain
it into a cask, and leave it until the fermentation has ceased; add
a bottle of brandy, bung up the barrel tight, and leave it for 12
months. Then strain it again into a clean cask. It may be bottled
after standing 2 years.

_Rhenish Cup._--(_a_) Take with 1 bot. light hock about 1 doz. sprigs
of woodruff, ¼ orange cut in small slices, and about 2 oz. powdered
sugar. The herbs are to be removed after having been in the wine ½
hour or longer, according to taste. A bottle of sparkling wine, added
to 4 or 5 bot. still hock, is a great improvement. A little ice is

(_b_) Instead of woodruff and orange, take to each bottle of hock
about ½ pint highly flavoured strawberries. Sugar as above. The fruit
to be taken with the wine after having been in it about 1 hour.

(_c_) Take some thin slices of pineapple instead of the strawberries.

(_d_) Take to each bottle of hock 2 highly flavoured peaches, peeled
and cut in slices. Sugar as above.

_Rhubarb Wine._--(_a_) The rhubarb must be quite ripe; to 1 gal.
rain-water, boiling, cut 8 lb. rhubarb into thin slices, put into pan
or tub, cover close with a thick cloth or blanket, and stir 3 times
a day for a week; then strain through a cloth, and add 4 lb. loaf
sugar, the juice of 2 lemons and the rind of 1. To fine it, take 1
oz. isinglass and 1 pint of the liquor, and melt it over the fire;
be sure you do not add it to the rest of the liquor till quite cold;
then cask it. When the fermentation is over, bung it down. Bottle in
March, and the following June it will be fit for use.

(_b_) To every 5 lb. rhubarb stalks, when sliced and bruised, put 1
gal. cold spring water; let stand 3 days, stir 2 or 3 times every
day, then press and strain through a sieve, and to 1 gal. liquor put
30½ lb. loaf sugar, stir it well, and when melted barrel it; when it
has done working, bung it up close, first suspending a muslin bag
with isinglass from the bung into the barrel (say 2 oz. for 15 gal).
In 6 months bottle it and wire the bottles; let them stand up for the
first month, then lay 4 or 5 down lengthwise for a week, and if none
burst all may be laid down. Should a large quantity be made it must
remain longer in cask.

(_c_) Take 18 lb. rhubarb, cut it into small pieces, put them with
20 gal. soft water in a copper, and boil till soft; then strain
through a sieve, add 5 or 6 handfuls balm, fresh or dried. To 1 gal.
liquor put 3 lb. lump sugar and ½ lb. Malaga raisins, chopped; when
lukewarm, put it into the barrel, and in 3 weeks stop it down. In 6
months, bottle. It will be fit to use in 3 months, or it will keep 20
years. You may make it pink colour by adding 1 pint damson juice.

(_d_) In the absence of a press to extract the juice, the stalks are
boiled in a common stove boiler, using 2 qt. water to a boilerful
of stalks. The stalks are very juicy, and after boiling require no
pressing; they are merely left to drain; to 1 gal. juice add 2 lb.
sugar, and place in a barrel to ferment; after fermenting, it should
be corked tight.

(_e_) Cut up fruit into pieces, 2 in. long; to 1 gal. such add 1 gal.
water and 3½ lb. loaf sugar. Fermentation will soon commence; stir
up twice daily; when the pulp ceases to rise, wring out 1 qt. at a
time in a piece of thin canvas; cork down in stone bottle or cask.
Ease the cork for a minute twice daily the first week, as an after
fret (fermentation) may occur. Good to drink in about 6 months. To
please fancy you may add a little cut up dandelion root (fresh) or a
handful of the leaves per gallon: but it must be all put together at
commencement. Nearly all other fruits may be treated in the same way.

_Sarsaparilla Beer._--Take of compound syrup of sarsaparilla 1 pint;
good pale ale 7 pints; use no yeast.

_Sham Champagne._--1 oz. tartaric acid, 1 oz. ginger root, 2½ gal.
water, 1 good-sized lemon, 1½ lb. white sugar, 1 gill yeast. Slice
lemon, bruise ginger, and mix all, except the yeast; boil the water
and pour on, letting stand till cooled to blood heat. Add the yeast
and stand in the sun one day. Bottle at night, tying the corks. In 2
days it may be used.

_Sherry Cobbler._--Procure some clean ice, slice it on an ice plane,
or pound it with a hammer, putting the ice into a linen or paper bag;
then half fill a tumbler with it, and add 1 or 2 glasses sherry, ½
tablespoonful lemon juice, and 1 spoonful powdered white sugar, more
or less according to palate. Imbibe through a straw.

_Smoker’s Drink._--(_a_) In a large tumbler put a coffee-cup of hot
(very strong) Mocha coffee, pure, a piece of sugar, according to
taste (it ought not to be too sweet), a handsome dash of pure cognac;
then fill up with pure cold water, and drink after stirring well up.

(_b_) Lemon and water, with or without sugar.

_Spruce Beer._--(_a_) Take 10 gal. boiling water, 10 lb. sugar, 4 oz.
essence of spruce, mix, and when nearly cold add ½ pint yeast. Next
day bottle, and tie down as ginger beer.

(_b_) 2 oz. hops, 10 gal. water, 2 oz. chip sassafras. Boil ½ hour,
strain and add 7 lb. brown sugar. 1 oz. essence of ginger, 1 oz.
essence of spruce, ½ oz. ground pimento. Put into a cask, and cool;
add 1½ pints of yeast; let stand 24 hours, and bottle.

_Still Lemonade._--The juice of 3 lemons, the peel of 1, ¼ lb. lump
sugar, and 1 qt. cold water. Mix, digest for 5 hours, and strain.

_Sulphuric Orangeade._--3 oz. dilute sulphuric acid, 3 oz.
concentrated compound infusion of orange peel, 12 oz. simple syrup,
and 4 gal. boiled filtered water. A wineglassful of this mixture is
taken as a draught in as much boiled and filtered water as may be

_Summer Drinks._--(_a_) Cold tea flavoured with sliced lemon and
dashed with cognac. The tea should be properly made--not allowed to
stand until it becomes rank, but boiling water should be poured on
the leaves, allowed to stand 5 minutes, then poured into a jug with
slices of lemon at the bottom. A wineglass of good brandy added when

(_b_) Mix together 2 qt. best bottled cider--old, if
possible--sweeten to taste, taking care that the sugar is perfectly
melted. Add ½ nutmeg grated, a little powdered ginger, a glass of
brandy, a glass of noyeau; cut a lemon into it in moderately thin
slices, and let them remain there. Make it 2 hours before wanted, and
stand in some ice.

(_c_) Sherry, 6 tablespoonfuls; brandy, 2 tablespoonfuls; sugar, 1½
oz.; 2 or 3 shreds of fresh lemon peel, cut very thin. This is the
stock. It will be found convenient, when a quantity is required,
to make a syrup of the sugar (1 oz. water to 2 oz. sugar), and to
prepare the stock beforehand. The above quantity of stock should be
added to 1 bot. claret and 1 bot. soda water. These should be kept
in a cool place--a refrigerator, for instance--and only opened just
before drinking. A lump of ice and a little borage are improvements;
2 bot. soda water instead of one can be used in summer.

(_d_) To 1½ pint good ale allow 1 bot. ginger beer. For this beverage
the ginger beer must be in an effervescing state, and the beer not in
the least turned or sour. Mix them together, and drink immediately.

(_e_) Get 3 pints water, 3 oz. tartaric acid, 3½ lb. lump sugar;
mix and put to the fire to warm, not quite boil. While the above is
getting hot, get the whites of 3 eggs and 4 teaspoonfuls wheaten
flour, which well beat together, then mix by well stirring it with
the water, acid, and sugar, then boil the whole 3 minutes. When cold,
flavour with essence of lemon; bottle off. For use put a medium-sized
spoonful of the liquor into a tumbler, fill up with water, and add a
little soda carbonate; stir up and drink. A small quantity of brandy
or sherry with the soda is a great improvement.

(_f_) Milk and whisky; quantity according to taste; the less spirit
the better.

(_g_) Melt or dissolve by a gentle heat 1 oz. black currant jelly in
½ pint syrup; when cold add the same quantity of rum. In summer the
above is best; for the winter months, do as follows: Pick fine dry
black currants, put them into a stone jar, and then the jar into a
saucepan of boiling water till the juice is extracted; strain, and to
every pint add ½ lb. loaf sugar; give one boil and skim well; when
cold add the same quantity of rum (or gin, if you prefer it), shake
well, and bottle.

(_h_) 8 or 10 drops sulphuric acid added to a glass of water make a
very wholesome subacid refreshing drink, having tonic properties, and
well adapted to check the tendency to diarrhœa that exists during
sultry weather.

(_i_) Mix 1 oz. essence of ginger and 1 oz. essence of cloves; put
20-30 drops into a tumbler of water. This renders even tepid water

_Syllabubs._--(_a_) Put 1 pint beer and 1 pint cider into a
punchbowl, grate in a small nutmeg, and sweeten it to your taste. Put
the bowl under a cow and milk in about 3 pints milk; wash and pick
some currants, make them plump before the fire, and strew them over
the syllabub. (_b_) Take 1 qt. cream, 3 gills white wine, the juice
of 1 lemon and of 2 Seville oranges, add sugar to taste, beat it
well, and fill up your glasses as the froth, rises. (_c_) Take ¼ lb.
loaf sugar in one piece, and rub on it 2 lemons till you have got all
the essence out of the rinds, then pour over the sugar 1 gill white
wine, and when it is dissolved add the juice of the lemons and 1 pint
cream, whip it well, or mill it with a chocolate mill. (_d_) Take
½ pint cream, ½ pint white wine, and the juice of a lemon, sweeten
it to your taste with white sugar, put in a piece of the paring of
the lemon and some powdered cinnamon, beat it well, and as it rises
take up the froth with a spoon and lay it on a sieve to drain; fill
your glasses half full with wine, sweeten it, and fill up with the
whisked cream. (_e_) Put into a china bowl 1 pint port wine and 1
pint sherry, sugar to taste, milk the bowl nearly full, cover it with
clotted cream, grate nutmeg over it.

_Toast and Water._--(_a_) Hold a small piece of bread before the fire
until it is the colour of mahogany, but do not let it burn. Put it in
a jug and pour boiling water upon it, cover it down close until cold.
(_b_) The bread should be very slowly and thoroughly toasted, great
care being taken to prevent its burning in the slightest degree; cold
water should then be poured over it. It must stand some time before
being used.

_Wassail Bowl._--Put into a bowl ½ lb. Lisbon sugar; pour on it 1
pint warm beer; grate a nutmeg and some ginger into it; add 4 glasses
sherry and 5 additional pints beer; stir well; sweeten to taste; let
stand covered up 2 or 3 hours; then put 3 or 4 slices bread (cut
thin and toasted brown) into it. Sometimes a couple or three slices
of lemon, and a few lumps of loaf sugar rubbed in the peeling of a
lemon, are introduced.

_White Wine Negus._--Extract the juice from the peel of a lemon by
rubbing loaf sugar on it, or cut the peel of a lemon very thin, and
pound it in a mortar; cut 2 lemons into thin slices, add 4 glasses
calves’-foot jelly in a liquid state, small quantities of cinnamon,
mace, cloves, and allspice. Put the whole into a jug, pour 1 qt.
boiling water upon it, cover the jug close, let stand ¼ hour, and
then add 1 bot. boiling white wine; grate half a nutmeg into it, stir
well together, sweeten to taste. In making port wine negus, omit the
jelly. Negus is not confined to any particular sort of wine; if the
jelly is omitted, it can be made with any or several sorts mixed

_Wines, British._--There are many persons who would rather buy their
drinks than have the trouble and expense of making them. Such will be
glad to know that Beaufoy’s British wines and non-alcoholic drinks
are to be recommended before all others.


=Bread.=--Household bread may be made with brewers’ yeast (barm) or
with German yeast.

(_a_) _With Brewers’ Yeast._--Take a small quantity--say 2 lb. flour.
This should be perfectly dry, or the dough will not rise well. Put
it into a bowl--a brown earthenware one glazed on the inside is
best--which should also be perfectly dry, and in the winter slightly
warmed. Stir in 1 teaspoonful salt, then make a hole about 1½ in. in
depth in the centre of the flour. Have ready 1½ tablespoonful fresh
brewers’ yeast, mixed in 1 teaspoonful warm--not _hot_--water; pour
this into the hole, and stir a handful of flour lightly into it with
a wooden spoon. Then cover with flour again, lightly. Lay a thick
cloth over the pan, taking care that it does not press on the flour,
and stand it in a warm corner. When the flour at the top of the
yeast begins to crack, and the “sponge”--i.e., fermented dough--runs
through, which, if the yeast be perfectly fresh and good, it will
do in about ½ hour; it is then fit to knead. Now the potatoes may
be added, but they must first be finely mashed. A jug of warm water
must be ready, and a small quantity at a time poured into a pan; this
should be thoroughly mixed with the other ingredients--_not_ with a
spoon this time, but the hand. Continue pouring in water and mixing
till the mass is perfectly free from lumps, and about the consistency
of pastry for pies or puddings. Then turn it out of the pan on to a
well-floured pastry board, and roll to and fro for about 3 minutes.
Put it back into the pan, again covered with a thick cloth, and
leave to rise. Another ½ hour or so will find it fit for the oven.
This can easily be ascertained by pulling the dough slightly apart;
if it be close and heavy, it must remain a while longer; but if it
looks spongy and rises again quickly after the pressure is removed,
it is ready for the baking. If tins are to be used, they should be
warmed, and a very little butter or dripping should be rubbed over
the bottom and sides, to prevent the dough sticking. Many people
prefer “cottage” or “batch” loaves as they are called in some
countries, made something in the shape of a brioche cake; but a tyro
in the art will find it safest to trust to the tins till she has by
practice become light-fingered enough to manipulate the dough easily
and quickly; for it must be borne in mind that dough, like pastry,
becomes heavy by rough or too frequent handling. (Bessie Tremaine.)

Ovens and Baking.--With regard to the baking. The loaves must not be
put into too hot an oven at first, or they will not rise; neither
must the oven be too cool, or the bread will be underdone, and taste
heavy and sodden. A good test is to sprinkle a little flour on the
bottom of the oven, and shut the door; if in 5 minutes the flour is
found to be coloured a golden brown, the bread may with safety be put
in; if, on the contrary, the flour is a deep brown and smells burnt,
the oven is too hot, and the fire should be slightly checked, also
the oven door left open for a few minutes. The best way of regulating
the temperature of the oven is to use a Bailey’s pyrometer (W. H.
Bailey and Co., Albion Works, Salford, near Manchester), by which it
is easy to see whether the fire should be urged or checked, ensuring
the proper degree of heat without wasting fuel.

Bread is generally supposed to have a more pleasant flavour when
baked in a brick oven. One reason why this is so is because the brick
oven (when there is one attached to a house) is generally so large
and cumbrous, besides being troublesome to heat, that it is only
used on baking days for bread or cake; so that there is no stale
flavour of meat, game, or poultry hanging about it. This should be
borne in mind when the baking is to be done in a kitchener, which
should be thoroughly ventilated and washed out before the bread is
put in. If this is attended to, the difference in the taste will be
scarcely perceptible. (Bessie Tremaine.)

Mention may here be made of Perkins’ Patent Steam Oven (Seaford
Street, Gray’s Inn Road), in which the baking is remarkably even and
regular; and of the portable gas oven (J. Baker and Sons, 58 City
Road). See also p. 1003.

Yeast.--(_a_) First get 6 good-sized potatoes, wash and pare them
and boil them in 2 qt. water with a handful of hops (the latter in a
small bag kept for the purpose). When quite soft take them out, mash
fine, and pour upon them the water in which they were boiled, adding
a little water for what may have boiled away, and also ½ cup salt
and same of white sugar. When cooled down to a lukewarm temperature
add 1 cup yeast to ferment it with. It does not rise, it works like
beer, and having been covered closely and kept in a warm place, in
the course of 5-6 hours the entire surface will be covered with fine
bubbles, which indicate that it is ready for use. It should now be
bottled and put in the cellar, where it will keep a long time. The
bottles must not be corked tight at first, or they will be liable to
burst. If the theory be true that some of the same kind must be used
to start with, some difficulty may be encountered in introducing it
where it is not used.

(_b_) Boil and mash 1 lb. potatoes, mix with them ¼ lb. coarse raw
sugar and 1 teaspoonful salt, add 1 qt. tepid water, and let the
mixture stand in a warm place for 24 hours; then boil a small handful
of hops for 10 minutes in ½ pint water, strain, and add the liquor
to the yeast. Again let it stand for 24 hours; if it does not then
ferment, get a little brewers’ yeast, and let it work for 24 hours;
then strain it, and it is fit for use. When cold, put away the yeast
in stone bottles, the cork tied down firmly. Keep in a cool dry place
until wanted. About ½ pint yeast will be required to ferment 7 lb.

(_c_) _With German Yeast._--The one great point is to knead well.
Not only should the dough be well kneaded, but the sponge, where it
is placed to rise, should be well and rapidly beaten with a wooden
spoon. The effect will be speedily seen, for the grain of the sponge
becomes closer and finer, and, when put in a suitable place, will at
once begin to rise in very fine bubbles. Potatoes much improve bread,
and, in order to use them with a good effect, they must be steamed
and beaten to a pulp, or, rather, to a cream; for a little water
must be added to the pulp as soon as all the lumps have been beaten
away, and this water should be in quantity just sufficient to give
the potatoes the consistency of thick cream. This potato cream is to
be put in the sponge before the beating commences--in fact, it is
part of the sponge. It is advisable to put German yeast in water over
night, and in the morning, when you are ready to lay your sponge, you
must add to the yeast and water 2 lumps sugar. As the sugar assists
the yeast to ferment, it must not be carelessly put in and left. As
soon as it is dissolved the sponge should be mixed. Bread mixed with
milk is much better than that made with water. Therefore, if you can
procure it, place some milk on the fire to boil, and when it has
partly cooled it is ready for use. An easy mode of cooling milk that
has boiled is to place the can containing it in a pail of cold water.

Never make bread with raw milk, for the chances are that the dough
will become sour, and, although a little soda carbonate will
counteract the acidity when in the sponge, it is impossible to remedy
any such accident in the dough. It is a very difficult thing to
tell anyone how much liquid to use to any given quantity of flour.
American flour, which makes the finest bread, requires more liquid
than English flour. The reason is obvious--the better the flour the
drier, and American flour is very dry. Although commanding a higher
price than English, it is in reality much more economical, as a stone
of American flour will produce a much larger batch of bread than a
stone of English flour will.

¼ lb. yeast will be found sufficient for an ordinary baking. It is a
general rule to lay the sponge in the centre of the flour that you
intend shall form the dough. This is a mistaken idea, and the better
plan is to have a bowl about the size of a toilette basin. Warm it;
do not quite half fill with flour. Have your yeast and sugar ready
dissolved and smoothly mixed with cold water; have also in a jug at
your left hand some milk that has been boiled and lost its scalding
heat. Your bread will be improved if you provide yourself too with
some warm creamed potatoes (you may with advantage have as much
potato as flour in your sponge). It is quite out of the question to
say when it will have risen--the weather affects it, and it will vary
each time. The better way is to keep a watchful eye on it. It is fit
to be taken when it has risen to a fine spongy mass, presenting the
appearance of froth.

Have a large bowl ready warmed, place in this as much flour as you
judge will make the quantity of bread you desire; but do not more
than half fill your bowl, or there will be no room for rising. Make
a hole in the centre of the flour, and pour in the sponge, add a
small quantity of salt, and proceed to knead it up, moistening from
time to time with milk, or water, as the case may be. Do not have
the dough too stiff. It is as well to use the right hand first, and
keep the left free to add the liquid from the jug. The right hand has
most power, and vigour is required in kneading bread. We have proof
of this in the Italians, who knead their dough with such force as to
produce corns on the knuckles of the hand. When you find you have
sufficient liquid, let the left hand take its share in pounding and
working the dough.

Draw the dough from the sides of the pan to the middle in kneading,
and continue to do this until it ceases to stick either to the hands
or bowl. Having arrived at this point, place the bread-bowl in a warm
position, and cover with a cloth. When the dough is ready to be made
into loaves it will be risen and cracked all over. The bread-tins
must be rubbed inside with lard before using. Remember, when you cut
your dough into loaves, that it is necessary to knead it up again
before placing in the tins. It is a good plan to nearly ¾ fill the
tins, prick through with a fork, and put to rise again. Stand your
tins together, if possible, and place a clean light cloth over them,
to keep any dust off, and also to prevent the surface of the dough
from drying. The loaves must rise until they nearly reach the tops
of the tins. Now place in an oven that has a moderately good heat,
and do not open the door during the first 15 minutes. The middle
shelf of an oven is the proper place for bread, and the tins should
stand on rings; there is then no chance of burning the bottoms of the
loaves. After the loaves have been in the oven ½ hour, change their
positions. An hour should bake an ordinary loaf. During the last ½
hour the heat of the oven may be allowed to decrease.

As soon as your bread is baked, take the loaves out of the tins and
wrap them in a clean old blanket kept especially for the purpose.
The object is to prevent hard crust, and the blanket will absorb
any moisture caused by the steam. When quite cold the bread may be
placed in the bread-pan, which should be kept in a cold damp place.
No bread will keep in a good state which is in a dry, warm situation.
It is certain to dry, crack, and mould. It will be found a good plan
to bake once a week during the winter, and twice during the summer
months. Should any difficulty be experienced during very sultry
weather, make the dough in the evening with quite cold water or milk,
there will be no sponge to lay in this case; all must be kneaded up
at once, and in the morning it will be ready for use. Bread made up
in this way is excellent if well kneaded, but never has such delicate
grain as that made by the above directions.

The only real enemy to success in bread-making is warm sultry
weather. When the air is charged with electricity, the housewife may
think of danger. Want of attention is, in the majority of cases, the
real cause of mishaps. (Harriett Estill.)

The flour called “seconds” makes a more economical loaf for family
use than the first quality; when, however, a very white light kind of
bread is preferred, “best whites” must be used. German yeast should
be perfectly fresh and sweet, in which state it is nearly white and
quite dry. Dissolve 1½ oz. in a few spoonfuls of cool water, and
then stir into it 3½ pints tepid water; pour it rapidly over 5 lb.
flour, in which 1 tablespoonful salt has been mixed; beat it up with
the hand or a wooden spoon until well mixed, then gradually work in
2 lb. more of flour, kneading it well. When finished, the dough will
be perfectly smooth, and not a particle will adhere to the hands or
pan. Set the dough in a warm place to rise for an hour, then work
it up with a handful of flour until it is stiff; divide it into 2
or 3 loaves, working them up into a compact shape. Put them on a
floured baking sheet, and bake them in an oven as hot as it can be
without burning the bread, as it will then keep its shape. In about
10 minutes the heat may be moderated and kept equal until the bread
is finished. A 5 lb. loaf will take 1¼ hour to bake. A skewer may be
thrust into the loaf, and if it comes out clean the bread is done
enough, but generally the appearance of the loaf should indicate this
to anyone having the least experience. (Mary Hooper.)

=Biscuits, Cakes, and Fancy Breads.=--Of these there is an endless
variety, the majority being well adapted for making at home.

_Abernethy Biscuits._--(_a_) Dissolve ¼ lb. butter in ½ pint warm
milk, and with 4 lb. fine flour, a few caraways, and ½ lb. sugar,
make a stiff but smooth paste; to render the biscuits short and
light, add ½ dr. ammonia carbonate in powder. Roll out very thin;
stamp the biscuits, pricking them with a fork, and bake in tins in a
quick oven.

(_b_) Into 7 lb. flour rub 1 lb. butter; add 1 lb. moist sugar,
powdered, and 2 oz. caraway seeds; make into smooth dough with 2½
pints water containing 4 oz. sal volatile; roll into thin sheets; cut
into biscuits, place on buttered tins, wash tops with white of egg,
bake in quick oven.

_Almond Bread._--8 oz. sweet almonds, 1 oz. bitter almonds blanched
and dried; pound fine with 18 oz. loaf sugar in a mortar; pass
through sieve; mix into soft batter with yolk of egg; grate off the
peel of 1 lemon, and add it with 2 oz. flour; mix lightly as for
sponge cake; pour the batter into square, flat, tin dishes, turned up
about 2 in., and buttered inside; bake in cool oven.

_Almond Cakes._--Cover 1 lb. sweet almonds with boiling water in a
saucepan; when just boiling, strain off, and rub skins off; slice up
2 oz. of them; put remainder into a mortar with 2¼ lb. loaf sugar, 1
tablespoonful orange-flower water and white of 6 eggs, pound fine;
spread wafer-paper on a tin, and drop on pieces of the paste as large
as walnuts; sprinkle each with the shredded almonds; bake in slow

_Almond Savoy Cake._--Take 1 lb. blanched sweet almonds (4 oz. of
them may be bitter), 2 lb. sugar, 1 pint yolk of egg, ½ pint whole
eggs, 1 lb. flour, and the whites of 12 eggs beaten to a firm froth.
Pound the almonds with the sugar in a mortar, and sift through a wire
sieve, or grind in a mill, and mix with the sugar in the mortar.
First mix the whole eggs well with the almonds and sugar, then add
the yolks by degrees, stirring until quite light; then mix in the
whites, and afterwards the flour lightly; prepare some moulds as for
Savoy cakes, or only butter them. Fill the moulds ¾ full, and bake in
a moderate oven.

_American Biscuits._--Rub ½ lb. butter with 4 lb. flour; add 1 pint
milk or water; mix well; break up the dough; bake in hot oven.

_Apple Bread._--After having boiled 1 lb. peeled apples, bruise them
while quite warm into 2 lb. flour, including the proper quantity
of leaven, and knead the whole without water, the juice of the
fruit being quite sufficient. When this mixture has acquired the
consistency of paste, put it into a vessel, in which allow it to rise
for about 12 hours. By this process you obtain a very sweet bread,
extremely light.

_Banbury Cake._--(_a_) 1½ lb. flour, 1 lb. butter; roll the butter in
sheets in part of the flour; wet up the rest of the flour in nearly ½
pint water and a little German or brewers’ yeast; make into a smooth
paste, roll in a large sheet, and lay on the butter; double up, and
roll out again; do this 5 times; cut into square pieces, about 1½
oz. each. Mix together currants, candied peel chopped fine, moist
sugar, and a little brandy; put 2 teaspoonfuls of this mixture on
each piece of paste; bring the two corners together in the middle,
and close them up of an oval shape; turn the closing downwards; sift
finely powdered loaf sugar over the tops; put on a cold tin; let
stand awhile in the cold to prove; bake in rather a cool oven.

(_b_) 2 lb. currants, ½ oz. each ground allspice and powdered
cinnamon; 4 oz. each candied orange and lemon peel; 8 oz. butter, 1
lb. moist sugar, 12 oz. flour; mix the whole well together; roll out
a piece of puff paste; cut into oval shape; put a small quantity of
composition into each, and double up in the shape of a puff; put on a
board, flatten down with rolling-pin, and sift powdered sugar over;
do not put too close together; bake on iron plates in a hot oven.

_Bath Buns._--1 lb. flour, peel of 2 lemons grated fine, ½ lb. butter
melted in teacup of cream, 1 teaspoonful yeast, 3 eggs; mix; add ½
lb. powdered loaf sugar; mix well; let stand to rise; quantities will
make about 3 dozen buns.

_Bath Cake._--Roll 1¾ lb. moist sugar till fine; add ¾ pint water;
let stand all night; into 4½ lb. flour rub 3 oz. butter; make a hole
in it, and pour in the sugar and water with ½ pint honey water; roll
thin; cut out, place on buttered tin, wash over with water, bake in
quick oven.

_Biscuit Powder._--Dry the biscuits in a slow oven; grind with a
rolling-pin on a clean board till the powder is fine; sift through a
fine hair-sieve, and it is fit for use.

_Bordeaux Cake._--Make a mixture as for pound-cakes, leaving out the
fruit, peel, and spices; bake in a round or oval hoop. When baked
and cold, cut into slices ½ in. thick; spread each slice with jam or
marmalade. The outside of the cake may be cut round, or fluted to
form a star; and the centre of the cake is occasionally cut out to
about 1½ in. from the edge, leaving the bottom slice whole: this may
be filled with preserved wet or dry fruits, creams, or a trifle. The
top is ornamented with piping, wet or dry fruits, and peels, or piped
with jam and icing.

_Brandy Snaps._--(_a_) Rub ¼ lb. butter into ½ lb. flour, add ½ lb.
moist sugar, ½ oz. ground ginger, and the grated rind and juice of
a lemon. Mix with a little treacle to a paste thin enough to spread
on tins. Bake in a moderate oven, and when done enough cut it into
strips whilst still on the tins, and then roll it round the fingers.
When cold put in a tin at once, or they will lose their crispness.
(_b_) Take 1 lb. flour, ½ lb. coarse brown sugar, ¼ lb. butter, 1
dessertspoonful allspice, 2 of ground ginger, the grated peel of
half, and the juice of a whole lemon; mix altogether, adding ½ lb.
treacle; beat it well; butter some sheet tins, and spread the paste
thinly over them, bake in rather a slow oven. When done cut it into
squares, and roll each square round the finger as it is raised from
the tin. (_c_) ½ lb. salt butter, ½ lb. moist sugar, ½ lb. treacle
and flour (more treacle than flour), 1½ oz. finely-powdered ginger.
The butter, treacle, and part of the sugar to be made boiling hot,
and poured on the remainder of the ingredients well mixed. Spread it
very thinly with a knife on a sheet tin which has been buttered, and
bake. When done, to be taken off with a knife.

_Breakfast Cake._--Mix ½ oz. German yeast with ½ pint warm milk in
a pan; weigh 2 lb. flour and take sufficient of it to make the milk
the consistence of batter. When this sponge has risen, take a little
milk--melt in it 3 oz. butter; add a teaspoonful of salt, and the
yolks of 8 eggs; mix well with the sponge, and make into a dough
with the remaining portion of flour. Do not use more milk with the
eggs than will make ½ pint, or the dough will be too soft. When the
dough is proved, make it into cakes about 2 in. thick; put them into
buttered hoops; lay the hoops on iron plates, and when they are
lightly risen, bake them in a warm oven; cut into slices ½ in. thick
and butter each.

_Bride Cake._--Cleanse and dry 2½ lb. currants; stone ½ lb. muscatel
raisins; pound ¼ oz. mace, ⅛ oz. cinnamon; scald ¼ lb. sweet almonds,
remove skins, and shred; slice up 2 oz. each candied citron, lemon,
and orange peel; break 8 new eggs into a basin; sift 1 lb. powdered
loaf sugar into 1¼ lb. flour; in a warmed pan beat 1 lb. butter by
hand till it melts, then add the sugar and beat again; add ⅕ of the
flour, stir, and add nearly half the eggs; beat up, add more flour
and remainder of eggs; beat again and stir in rest of flour and
currants; next add the raisins, almonds, candied peel, spices, and ½
gill brandy; thoroughly mix; double paper the tin, and bake in a very
slow oven.

_Brighton Biscuits._--Take 1¼ lb. good moist sugar; roll fine; mix
with 2½ lb. flour, and sift through a flour sieve; rub in 2 oz.
butter; make a hole in the middle, and strew in a few caraway seeds;
pour in ½ pint each honey-water and milk; mix into dough, but do not
work too much; roll out in thin sheets; cut into biscuits and put 2
in. apart on buttered tin; wash with milk; bake steadily.

_Buttered Biscuits._--Rub 1 lb. butter into 7 lb. flour; wet up with
1 qt. warm water, and ½ pint good yeast; break smooth; prove; cut
into biscuits; bake in strong heat.

_Captain’s Biscuits._--Rub 6 oz. butter into 7 lb. flour; wet up with
1 qt. water; break smooth; bake in good strong heat.

_Chelsea Buns._--Take ½ or 1 quartern light bread dough; dust the
dresser or table with flour, and roll out with a rolling-pin into
a sheet about ¼ in. thick; over the surface put 4-6 oz. butter, in
little bits, work up and roll out 2 or 3 times, the same as for
making puff paste. The last time it is rolled out, spread thinly
and evenly over the surface, either moist or powdered loaf sugar;
moisten by sprinkling with water; cut into strips, ½-¾ in. wide; roll
up so as to form a coil or roll of dough about 2 in. in diameter.
Lay these pieces (when rolled up) on a clean baking-tin, with some
butter rubbed over the surface, to prevent the buns adhering when
baked. Place rather more than ¼ in. asunder, with one of the cut
edges downward. Put in a warm place, covered with a cloth, to prove,
or rise; bake in a moderately warm oven. May be made richer by using
more butter and sugar, and seeds or spice may be added at pleasure.
When baked, some sugar may be sifted over the surface.

_Cheese Cake._--Beat 4 oz. butter with the hand in a warm pan, till
it comes to a fine cream; add 4 oz. powdered sugar; beat well;
add yolks of 2 eggs; beat again; add a little milk; beat all well
together, and mix in 4 oz. clean currants; lay puff paste in the
patty-pans; fill half full; shake a little sugar over, and bake in a
good heat.

_Cinnamon Buns._--Same as saffron, omitting the caraway seeds and
saffron, and substituting ground cinnamon.

_Cinnamon, Currant, and Caraway Cake._--Rub 1 lb. butter into 3½ lb.
flour; in a hole put 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar; then wet up with ½
pint each honey-water and milk. Divide the dough into 3 parts; add to
one part a little powdered cinnamon; to another a few currants; to
another a few caraway seeds. Roll in sheets to the thickness of the
currants; cut to about the size of a penny; wash with a little milk,
and bake in a steady heat.

_Colchester Bread._--(_a_) Prepare dough as for Bath cakes; cut with
a Colchester cutter to about the thickness of a penny; wash with
milk; bake quick; wash with egg and milk while hot; when cold cut

(_b_) Put ¾ lb. loaf sugar into a saucepan, with ¼ pint water over
steady fire; stir till dissolved; beat 6 eggs with a whisk in a pan;
when the sugar boils pour it gently on the eggs, beating till cold;
stir in ¾ lb. fine sifted flour; paper frames; fill ¾ full with the
batter; sift sugar over; bake in steady oven.

_Cracknel Biscuits._--Rub 6 oz. butter into 3½ lb. flour; in a hole
put 6 oz. powdered loaf sugar; wet up with 8 eggs and ¼ pint water;
break dough smooth; make and dock like captain’s biscuits; form on
the reel; drop into a stew-pan of water boiling over the fire; when
they swim, take out with a skimmer, and put into a pailful of cold
water; let remain 2 hours before baking; drain in a cloth or sieve;
bake on clean tins in a brisk oven.

_Crumpets._--These are made of batter composed of flour, water (or
milk), and a small quantity of yeast. To 1 lb. best wheaten flour add
3 tablespoonfuls yeast. A portion of the liquid paste, not too thin
(after being suffered to rise), is poured on a heated iron plate, and
baked, like pancakes in a pan.

_Curd Cheese Cake._--Warm 1 pint new milk; stir in a little rennet;
keep warm till a nice curd appears; break and strain the whey through
a hair-sieve; put mixture prepared as for cheese-cakes, but without
any currants, into sieve with curd; rub all through together; mix in
currants; fill out, and bake in a good heat.

_Derby Cake._--Rub 1 lb. butter in 2½ lb. flour; in a hole put 1 lb.
powdered loaf sugar; beat 2 eggs with 3 tablespoonfuls honey-water,
and milk to make up ½ pint; add ½ lb. currants; mix; bake in a steady

_Diet Bread._--Whisk the yolks of 12 and the whites of 6 eggs,
together, so as just to break them; put ¼ pint water into a saucepan
or small stew-pan, add 1 lb. loaf sugar, and put on the fire; take it
off just before it boils; put in the eggs, and whisk well till cold;
stir in lightly 1 lb. flour; put mixture into papered square tins;
sift sugar over tops; bake in cool oven till dry and firm on top.

_Drop Biscuits._--Warm the pan; put in 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar and
8 eggs; beat with a whisk till milk warm; then beat till cold; stir
in lightly 1 lb. sugar, 2 oz. fine sifted flour, ½ oz. caraway seeds;
put batter into a bladder, drop through the pipe, in quantities about
the size of a nutmeg, on wafer-paper; sift sugar over the top; bake
in quick oven.

_Drops._--Whisk ½ teacup water, 6 eggs, and 1 lb. sifted loaf sugar
together till thick; add a few caraway seeds, and 18 oz. flour; mix
lightly together; drop on wafer-paper, about the size of a small
walnut; sift sugar over, and bake in a hot oven.

_Filbert Biscuits._--Rub 1 lb. butter into 3½ lb. flour; make a hole,
and put in 10 oz. powdered loaf sugar; wet up with 4 tablespoonfuls
honey-water, 1 of orange-flower water, and ¾ pint milk; break dough
smooth; mould as large as a nutmeg, and round; cut twice across the
top each way, about half through, with a sharp knife; place on tin;
bake in steady heat.

_French Rolls._--Set a sponge with 1 qt. warm water, and ½ pint good
small-beer yeast; let sponge rise and drop; melt 1 oz. butter in 1
pint warm milk, and 1 oz. salt; wet up about 7 lb. flour; let lie ½
hour; put on warm tins; prove well; bake in quick oven.

_Ginger Cake._--Prepare dough as for Bath cakes; add as much ground
ginger as will give a pleasant taste; cut as thick as a shilling and
as large as a penny; wash with water; bake quick.

_Hot Cross Buns._--Take 1 qt. milk, 12 oz. butter, 12 oz. sugar, ½
oz. mixed spice, 2 eggs, 2 oz. German yeast, or ½ teacupful of good
thick small-beer yeast, and 4 lb. flour. If to be made with currants,
add 1 or 1½ lb. currants, clean washed, picked, and dried. Make the
milk blood-warm; if the weather is cold, rather warmer; put it into a
gallon pan, with half the sugar, 6 oz. of flour, the yeast and eggs;
mix together, cover the pan, and put in a warm place. When this has
risen with a high, frothy head, and again fallen and become nearly
flat, it is ready for the remaining portion of the ingredients to
be mixed with it; but while rising, the butter should be rubbed in
with the flour between the hands, until reduced to small crumbles.
Mix the whole together into a nice mellow dough. If the flour is not
very good and strong, about 4-6 oz. more may be required to make the
dough of the required consistence. Cover the pan; let remain in a
warm place for about ½ hour, or until the dough has risen 4 in. Make
into buns by moulding the dough up into small balls lightly under
the hands, and place on warm tins, slightly rubbed over with butter,
about 3-4 in. asunder. Half-prove, and cross; brush the tops over
with milk, and finish proving; bake in a hot oven; when done, brush
the tops over again with milk. The best method for proving is to put
the tins on shelves in a warm cupboard near the fire. Place a pan
with hot water at the bottom, but put no tin on the pan. Put a piece
of heated iron or brick into the water in the pan occasionally, to
cause a steam to ascend, which will keep the surface of the buns
moist, when they will expand or prove to their full size, otherwise
the surface will be hardened, and prevent expansion. Keep the
cupboard door close shut until ready to bake.

_Italian Bread._--Take 1 lb. butter, 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar,
18 oz. flour, 12 eggs, ½ lb. citron and lemon peel. Mix as for
pound-cake. If the mixture begins to curdle, which is most likely
from the quantity of eggs, add a little of the flour. When the eggs
are all used, and it is light, stir in the remainder of the flour
lightly. Bake in long, narrow tins, either papered or buttered; first
put in a layer of the mixture, and cover with the peel cut in large
thin slices; proceed in this way until ¾ full, and bake in a moderate

_Lemon Biscuits._--Prepare dough as for filbert biscuits, but leave
out orange-flower water and use 6 drops essence of lemon; cut out,
dock with lemon docker; bake in good steady heat.

_Lemon Cheese Cake._--Prepare as for common cheese-cakes; grate rind
of fresh lemon; squeeze the juice, and mix.

_Lord Mayor’s Cake._--Whisk 1 lb. sifted loaf sugar and 8 eggs in
a warm earthen pan for 15 minutes, or until quite thick; add a few
caraway seeds and 1 lb. flour; mix lightly with a spoon, and drop on
paper, about the size of a small teacup; place on iron plates; sift
sugar or caraway seeds on top; bake in hot oven; when done, take off
the papers, and stick two together.

_Lunch or School Cake._--Mix ½ lb. moist sugar with 2 lb. flour;
in a hole in the middle put 1 tablespoonful good thick yeast (not
bitter); warm ½ pint milk rather more than blood warm, but not hot
enough to scald the yeast; mix ⅓ with the yeast and a little of the
flour; when it has risen (say ¾ hour if the yeast is good) melt ½ lb.
butter in a little more milk; add 1½ lb. currants, a little candied
peel, and grated rind of lemon, and 1 teaspoonful powdered allspice;
mix; butter hoop or tin, put in, and set in warm place to rise; bake
in warm oven. This cake should be mixed up rather softer than bread

_Macaroons._--Pound 1 lb. blanched and dried sweet almonds fine in
a mortar; pass through wire sieve; make into softish batter, with
whites of 5 or 6 eggs, and a spoonful or two of orange-flower water;
beat well; lay on oval wafer-paper; dredge tops with powdered loaf
sugar; bake in rather cool oven.

_Madeira Cake._--Whisk 4 eggs very light, and, still whisking, throw
in by slow degrees the following ingredients in the order named--6
oz. each sifted sugar and flour, 4 oz. butter, slightly dissolved
but not heated, the rind of a fresh lemon, and ⅓ teaspoonful soda
carbonate; beat well just before moulding; bake for 1 hour in
moderate oven. Each portion of butter must be beaten into the mixture
until no appearance of it remains, before the next is added.

_Muffins._--These should be baked on a hot iron plate. To 1 peck
flour add ¾ pint good small-beer yeast, 4 oz. of salt, and water (or
milk) slightly warmed, sufficient to form a dough of rather soft
consistency; when light, small portions of the dough are put into
holes, made in a layer of flour about 2 in. thick, placed on a board;
cover up with a blanket, and stand near a fire, to cause the dough
to rise to a semi-globular shape; place on heated iron plate, and
bake; when bottoms begin to acquire brownish colour, turn, and bake
opposite side.

_Naples Biscuits._--Take 6 oz. each moist and loaf sugar, ¼ pint
water; proceed as for diet cake, with 6 eggs and ¾ lb. flour; have
tins papered: fill nearly full of the batter; sugar the tops; bake in
rather slow oven. These biscuits are diet-bread batter, fancifully
dropped into tins, papered with white paper, and baked in a warm
oven, with a little sugar sifted over the top.

_Oatmeal Cakes._--These are composed of oatmeal and water; and the
difficulties lie, first, in wetting, with sufficient quickness, the
whole of the meal, without drenching any portion of it; secondly,
in properly kneading and rolling out the cakes with dexterity and
despatch; and, finally, in turning them while baking, or “firing.”
They are sometimes baked on a “girdle” or “griddle”--a flat piece of
cast iron, placed over a bright fire; sometimes on a “toaster,” which
is similar to a hanger, with a sliding back, which supports the cake
in front of the fire; and sometimes in an American oven.

The process of making is as follows:--Put 2 or 3 handfuls of meal
into a 3 pint basin; stir while pouring in boiling water; when
all is moistened, having scattered a handful of dry meal over the
paste-board, turn out the “leaven” with a spoon or your hand, dusted
with meal; take a piece, according to the size of cake required,
and knead out, using the rolling-pin if wanted thin; shape with a
knife or tin cutter 4-5 in. in diameter. As oatmeal swells and dries
very rapidly, to have cakes that will stick together, and, at the
same time, eat short or “free,” this process cannot be done too
expeditiously. Each of the three modes of baking gives a different
flavour. For toasting let the cakes be 10 or 12 in. in diameter,
nip up the edge all round, and cut them across twice, which makes
a square edge for them to stand on. In this form they are called
“farls.” For turning, use a broad, supple knife, or a piece of tin
plate. A little butter melted in the water is an improvement.

_Parkin._--(_a_) 4 lb. oatmeal, 4 lb. treacle, 1 lb. sugar, 1 lb.
butter, 2 oz. powdered ginger. Set a pan before the fire with the
treacle and butter in it. When dissolved, add the other ingredients,
and stir it as stiff as you can with a knife, but do not knead it.
Add 1 teacupful brandy (if liked), and bake it in a cool oven in
dripping pans or flat dishes about 2 in. thick. Do not turn it out
till quite cold, or it will break, but cut it across with a knife
where you would like it divided. It must be baked in a cool oven.
Some people make it in round cakes. (_b_) 1 lb. Yorkshire oatmeal,
1 lb. thick treacle (not golden syrup), ¼ lb. butter, ¼ lb. moist
sugar, mixed spice and ginger to taste. Rub the butter into the
meal with the sugar and spice, then add the treacle (melted, if
too thick), mix all well together, and bake in flat tins, such as
are used for Yorkshire puddings, in a slow oven, for 2 hours or
more. Parkin is not fit for eating for 2-3 days, till it has become
perfectly soft. (_c_) 7 lb. oatmeal, 1 lb. butter, 2 lb. treacle,
3 tablespoonfuls soda carbonate; to be baked in hoops the same as
teacakes. The butter to be melted and mixed with the treacle warm.
(_d_) 4 lb. oatmeal, ¾ lb. butter, ¾ lb. lard; currants, raisins
(candied lemon peel if approved), ginger, and cayenne pepper to
taste. Add sufficient treacle to make the whole into a soft paste.
Bake in a slow oven. The treacle, butter, and lard should be warmed a
little together. Butter and lard keep the cake moist longer than if
only butter were used.

_Plum Cake._--(_a_) Set a sponge with 1 lb. flour, ½ pint warm milk,
and 3 tablespoonfuls good yeast; beat up 4 oz. butter, 4 oz. powdered
sugar, 2 eggs, and 4 oz. flour as for pound cake; put in sponge, and
beat all well together; add 1 lb. currants; bake without proving in a
slow oven.

(_b_) Beat 1 lb. butter with your hand in a warm pan till it comes
to a fine cream, add 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar; beat together to a
nice cream; have 1¼ lb. flour sifted, put in a little, and stir; add
4 eggs; beat well; add a little more flour and 4 more eggs; beat it
well again; stir in remainder of flour; for small cakes, butter the
tins; for large ones, paper; sugar over the top, and bake in moderate

(_c_) Sift 1 lb. loaf sugar; add 1 lb. fresh butter, melted a little,
and worked by hand to consistency of cream; beat together; while
doing so, add 10 eggs; beat till well incorporated; mix 4 oz. candied
orange or lemon peel, shred or cut small, a few currants and 1 lb.
flour well together; put in a hoop; sift sugar on top; bake in warm

_Porridge._--Put on the fire a pan, of the size that will hold the
quantity required, about ⅔ full of water; when the water is quick
boiling take a handful of meal, and holding the hand over the pan--of
course high enough to avoid being burned by the steam--let the meal
slide slowly through the fingers into the water, the other hand
stirring all the time with a wooden spoon, or what Scotch cooks call
the “spurtle.” Continue this till enough of meal is put into the
water, then add salt to taste, and, allow the porridge to boil for
20-30 minutes, stirring occasionally lest it stick to the pan and
scorch. Porridge is not good if boiled less than 20 minutes; but
for children, or delicate stomachs it should be boiled the full ½
hour, by which time the meal is so well swelled and softened that it
becomes a digestible and most nutritious article of food. Letting
the meal slide slowly into the water is an important element in
making good porridge. If it is thrown in too quickly, or the water
allowed to cease boiling, it forms into lumps, and is not so good. It
is not easy to give any rule as to the proportion of meal to water,
as the thickness of porridge is quite a matter of taste. Of course it
must be still thin when one stops putting in the meal, as it swells
to more than half as much again with the boiling.

_Pound Cake._--The following table gives the ingredients necessary
for rich pound-, Twelfth-, or bride-cakes of different prices:--

  Ingredients.   |10s.6d.|  12s. |  15s. |  18s. | 1l.1s.|1l.11s.| 2l.2s.
                 |       |       |       |       |       |       |
                 | lb.oz.| lb.oz.| lb.oz.| lb.oz.| lb.oz.| lb.oz.| lb.oz.
  Butter         |  0 11 |  0 13 |  1  1 |  1  4 |  1  6 |  2  1 |  2 12
  Sugar          |  0  7 |  0  8 |  0 10 |  0 12 |  1  0 |  1  6 |  1 12
  Currants       |  1  4 |  1  6 |  1 10 |  2  0 |  2  8 |  3 12 |  5  0
  Orange, lemon, |  0  6 |  0  7 |  0  8 |  0 10 |  0 12 |  1  2 |  1  8
    and citron   |       |       |       |       |       |       |
    (mixed)      |       |       |       |       |       |       |
  Almonds        |  0  1½|  0  2 |  0  2 |  0  3 |  0  3 |  0  4 |  0  6
  Mixed spice*   |  0  0½|       |  0  0¾|       |  0  1 |  0  1½|  0  2
  Flour          |  0 11 |  0 13 |  1  1 |  1  4 |  1  6 |  2  1 |  2 12
  Eggs (number)  |   6   |   7   |    9  |   10  |   12  |   18  |   24
  Brandy, or     |  Wine | glass | full  |       |  ¼ pt.|       | ½ pt.
    brandy and   |       |       |       |       |       |       |
    wine         |       |       |       |       |       |       |

      * Nutmegs, mace, and cinnamon, of equal parts, in powder.

These proportions allow for the cake being iced. If more sugar is
preferred, it may be the same as the butter; less is used that the
cake may be light, and to allow for the sweet fruit. Double the
quantity of almonds may be used. To make: warm a smooth pan, large
enough for the mixture; put in the butter, and reduce it to a fine
cream, by working it about the pan with your hand. In summer the
pan need not be warmed; but in winter keep the mixture as warm as
possible, without oiling the butter. Add the sugar and mix it well
with the butter, until it becomes white and feels light in the hand.
Break in 2 or 3 eggs at a time, and work the mixture well before
more is added. Continue doing this until all are used and it becomes
light; then add the spirit, currants, peel, spice, and almonds, most
of the almonds being previously cut in thin slices, and the peel
into small thin strips and bits. When these are incorporated, mix in
the flour lightly; put it in a hoop with paper over the bottom and
round the sides, and place on a baking-plate. Large cakes require
3 or 4 pieces of stiff paper round the sides; and if the cake is
very large, a pipe or funnel, made either of stiff paper or tin, and
well buttered, should be put in the centre, and the mixture placed
round it; this is to allow the middle of the cake to be well baked,
otherwise the edge would be burnt 2 or 3 in. deep before it could be
properly done. Place the tin plates containing the cake on another,
the surface of which is covered 1 or 2 in. thick with sawdust or
fine ashes to protect the bottom. Bake it in an oven at a moderate
heat. The time required to bake it will depend on the state of the
oven and the size of the cake. A guinea cake in an oven of a proper
heat will take 4 to 5 hours. When the cake is cold proceed to ice it.
Wedding-cakes have generally, first, a coating on the top of almond
icing; when this is dry, the sides and top are covered with royal or
white icing. Fix on gum paste or other ornaments while it is wet; and
when dry, ornament with piping, orange-blossoms, ribbon, &c.; the
surface and sides are often covered with small knobs of white sugar
candy whilst the icing is wet. Twelfth-cakes are iced with white or
coloured icing, and decorated with gum paste, plaster ornaments,
piping-paste, rings, knots, and fancy papers, &c., and piped.

_Prussian Cake._--Rub 4 oz. butter into 7 lb. flour; wet up with 1
qt. warm milk, 1 pint warm water, 4 yolks of eggs, and ½ pint good
thick yeast; if obliged to take more yeast, leave out some of the
water; let dough lie 10-20 minutes; mould up round, ½-¾ lb. each;
place on tins, about 2 in. from each other; put in warm place, and
prove well; bake in steady heat; melt a little butter and wash over
when done.

_Queen’s Biscuits._--Rub 1 lb. butter into 2 lb. flour; add 1 lb.
powdered sugar; make a hole and pour in ¼ pint milk, to mix it up
with; add a few caraways, if you choose; roll the paste in sheets of
the thickness of a halfpenny, cut into biscuits with a small round or
oval cutter: place on clean tins, see that they do not quite touch;
prick with a fork, and bake in a quick oven till they begin to change
colour; when cold, they will be crisp.

_Queen’s Cake._--Warm 1 lb. butter a little in an earthen pan, and
work it by hand to a smooth cream; add 1 lb. finely-powdered and
sifted loaf sugar; stir well with the butter for 5 minutes; add 8
eggs and 2 spoonfuls water gradually, continuing the beating until
the whole is well mixed: stir in lightly 20 oz. flour, and a handful
of currants; fill some small round buttered tins; dust tops with
powdered loaf sugar; bake in warm oven.

_Queen’s Drops._--Prepare as for pound cakes; add 2 oz. more flour,
1½ lb. currants; drop on whited brown paper, about the size of large
nutmegs, about 2 inches from each other; put sheets on tins; bake in
steady oven.

_Queen’s Gingerbread._--Take 2 lb. honey, 1¾ lb. moist sugar, 3 lb.
flour, ½ lb. sweet almonds blanched, ½ lb. preserved orange peel
cut in thin fillets, the yellow rinds of 2 lemons grated off, 1 oz.
cinnamon, ½ oz. each cloves, mace, and cardamoms, mixed and powdered;
put the honey into a pan over the fire, with a wineglassful of water,
and make quite hot; mix other ingredients together; make a bay, pour
in the honey, and mix; let stand till next day; make into cakes, and
bake; rub a little clarified sugar until it will blow into bubbles
through a skimmer, and with a paste-brush rub over gingerbread when

_Rice Pound-cake._--Take 1 lb. butter, 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar, 12
oz. flour, ½ lb. ground rice, and 12 eggs. Mix as Italian bread, and
bake in a papered hoop. If required with fruit, put 2 lb. currants, ¾
lb. peel, 1 grated nutmeg, and a little pounded mace.

_Rout Biscuits._--Put 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar into a basin, with 3
gills milk, and let stand 2 hours, stirring occasionally; rub ½ lb.
butter into 2 lb. flour; make a hole in it, add a little sal volatile
pounded fine, and an egg, with the dissolved sugar; stir together,
and mix into smooth dough; let lie 10 minutes; cut out; place on
buttered tins; wash with milk; bake quickly.

_Rout Cake._--Pound 1 lb. sweet almonds, blanched and dried, and
1 lb. loaf sugar in a mortar; sieve; put what will not pass into
a mortar again, with 4 yolks of eggs, and the rind of a lemon;
pound very fine, put in what has passed through sieve, and mix all
together; make any shape; sprinkle lightly with a little water; sift
sugar over, and put on tins that have been rubbed with a bit of
butter, so as not to touch each other; bake in rather brisk oven till
lightly coloured over; if coloured too deep at bottom, put cold tins
under to finish baking.

(_c_) Take shape, butter it, sift sugar into it, and turn out all the
sugar that does not stick to the butter; mix ½ lb. sifted sugar, and
6 oz. sifted flour; warm pan, put in sugar, break in 4 whole eggs and
1 yolk; whisk till warm and then cold; stir in flour, turn batter
into the shape, and bake in slow oven about 1 hour; when done, turn
out bottom uppermost.

_Rusks._--Put 1 qt. warm milk into a pan, with 1 oz. German yeast, 4
oz. moist sugar, and about 6 oz. flour; mix, and put aside in warm
place to rise. Rub 6 oz. butter into 3½ lb. flour, and make into a
dough with the ferment as soon as ready; prove a little, and divide
in pieces of about 1½ lb. each; roll in long rolls about size of
rolling-pin; place on buttered tins, 3-4 in. apart; flat down a
little with the hand; prove well; bake in moderately heated oven;
when cold, cut across in slices; place on tins, and brown off on both
sides in brisk oven.

_Saffron Buns._--Made with the same mixture as hot cross buns, but
with the addition of 1 oz. caraway seeds, and colouring with saffron.

_Sally Lunns._--Take flour, a little salt and butter, 2 or 3 eggs, a
small quantity of yeast, and milk and water; make light dough; set
to rise after kneading; make dough into cakes, large enough to slice
into rounds for toasting; bake slightly and quickly in hot oven.

_Savoy Biscuits._--Powder and sift 1 lb. loaf sugar; sift 1 lb.
flour; warm a pan, and put in the sugar; break 1 lb. eggs upon it;
beat both together with a whisk till warm; beat till cold; stir
in your flour; have a bladder and pipe ready; put batter into the
bladder, and force through on sheets of paper; sift sugar over, and
bake in quick oven; when cold, turn up, and wet bottom of paper; turn
back again, and in 5 minutes they will come off easily.

_Savoy Cake._--(_a_) Hot Mixture.--Take 1 lb. powdered loaf sugar, 1
pint good eggs, and 14 oz. flour. Warm a pan, free from grease, with
the sugar in it, in the oven until you can scarcely bear your hand
against it; then take out and pour in the eggs; whisk with a birch
or wire whisk until quite light and cold, when it will be white and
thick. If it should not whisk up well, warm again and beat as before;
or it may be beat over the stove fire until it is of the warmth of
new milk. When finished, sift the flour and stir it in lightly with a
spoon, adding a few drops of essence of lemon to flavour it. Butter
some tin or copper moulds regularly, with rather less on the top than
the sides. Dust with loaf sugar sifted through a lawn sieve. Knock
out all that does not adhere, and again dust with fine flour; turn
out, and knock the mould on the board. Tie or pin a piece of buttered
paper round the mould, so as to come 2 or 3 in. above the bottom. Fix
the mould in a stand and nearly fill it. Bake in a moderate oven.
When done, the top should be firm and dry. Try it by pushing in a
small piece of stick or whisk, and if it comes out dry, it is done.
The surface of the cake should be quite smooth. There is as much art
in buttering the mould properly as in preparing the mixture.

(_b_) Cold Mixtures.--Separate the yolks from the whites when you
break the eggs. Put the yolks into a clean pan with the sugar, and
the whites in another by themselves. Let the pans be quite free from
grease. If they are rubbed round with a little flour, it will take
off any which may be left. Wipe out with a clean cloth. Beat up the
yolks and sugar by themselves, with a wooden spoon, and afterwards
whip up the whites to a very strong froth. If they should happen to
be rather weak, a bit of powdered alum may be added. When the whites
are whisked up firm, stir in the yolks and sugar. Sift the flour and
mix it lightly with the spatula, adding a little essence of lemon
to flavour. Fill the moulds and bake as before. When cakes are made
in this way, the eggs should be quite fresh and good, otherwise the
whites cannot be whipped up. When weak, pickled eggs are used. A good
method is to beat the eggs first by themselves, over a fire, until
they are warm; then add the sugar, and whip it over the fire until
again warm, or make as for hot mixtures, and heat twice.

_Scones._--Warm fresh milk almost to boiling; stir in as much flour
as will make a mass that will turn clean out of the bowl without
leaving anything adhering to the sides, roll out thin; cut into
rounds; bake lightly and quickly.

_Seed Cake._--As for pound cakes, but instead of currants and candied
lemon peel, substitute a few caraway seeds; omit sugar on top.

_Short-Bread._--Rub 1 lb. butter into 3 lb. flour; add 1½ lb.
powdered loaf sugar; wet up with ¼ pint each honey-water and milk,
and 2 eggs; break in pieces about 1½ oz. each; roll oval or round to
size of tea-saucer; pinch round edge; place 1 in. from each other on
clean tins, not buttered; cut ½ lb. candied orange or lemon peel into
pieces, and lay on top; bake in steady oven.

_Shrewsbury Cake._--Mix ¾ lb. powdered loaf sugar with 1¼ lb. flour;
rub ¾ lb. butter in with the flour and sugar; add 1 white and 3
yolks of eggs; mix together to a smooth paste; roll into thin sheets;
cut out cakes about size of half-a-crown; place on clean tins; bake
in slow oven till they begin to change colour.

_Simnel Cake._--In some counties these are called “Mothering” cakes,
it being the custom to have them on mid-Lent or Mothering Sunday. A
simnel cake is really neither more nor less than any other very rich
plum cake, the only difference being that it is first boiled and then
baked (very slowly) in a crust of flour and water, with which has
been mixed some saffron to make it look yellow. To make the cake,
beat up 1½ lb. butter with the hand till it becomes a cream, and whip
the whites of 8 fresh eggs to a froth; mix these with the creamed
butter, and afterwards add the 8 yolks well beaten; add 1 lb. castor
sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls salt, 2 lb. well cleaned and dried currants,
1½ lb. flour, ½ lb. candied lemon peel, and the same of citron,
cut very thin, ½ oz. pounded nutmeg, cinnamon and allspice, ½ lb.
blanched almonds pounded, 6 large lumps of sugar rubbed on the rinds
of 4 oranges and then pounded, beating each of the above ingredients
into the flour before adding the next; also stir in 1 wineglassful
brandy, continuing to beat the cake for more than ½ hour. Roll out
the paste, made as directed, somewhat less than ½ in. thick; put a
cloth wrung out of boiling water and floured into a large basin,
over this put the rolled-out paste, and into the paste put the cake
mixture when sufficiently beaten. Close the paste by folding it over,
and then tie it up in the cloth. Remove it from the basin, which was
merely to support the cake while tying it up, and put it on to boil
for 3 hours. Remove the cloth, and place the cake on a baking tin the
smooth side upwards. When nearly cold, brush it well over with egg,
and put it to bake in a very slow oven until the crust is as hard as
wood. The crust should be a light colour.

_Soda Scones._--To 2 lb. flour add 1 oz. butter, ½ oz. soda
bicarbonate, ¼ oz. tartaric acid, and 1 qt. milk or butter-milk; mix
and bake as scones.

_Spice Gingerbread._--Take 3 lb. flour, 1 lb. butter, 1 lb. moist
sugar, 4 oz. candied lemon or orange peel cut small, 1 oz. powdered
ginger, 2 oz. powdered allspice, ½ oz. powdered cinnamon, 1 oz.
caraway seeds, and 3 lb. treacle; rub the butter with your hand into
the flour; add the other ingredients, and mix it in the dough with
the treacle; make into nuts or cakes; bake in cool oven.

_Spice Nuts._--Take 7 lb. treacle; rub 1 lb. butter into 9 lb. flour;
mix 4 oz. each ground allspice and ground ginger, 2 oz. each caraway
and coriander seeds powdered, with butter, flour, and treacle; roll
1 lb. moist sugar, and strew over top; roll out in long rolls about
size of finger; cut in pieces size of nutmeg; place on buttered tins;
wash with water or small-beer; bake in steady oven.

_Sponge Cake._--Into ¾ lb. powdered sugar, break ¾ lb. eggs in a warm
pan; whisk till cold; stir in ½ lb. flour; have tins ready buttered
and sugared; put about ¾ tablespoonful into each; sift sugar over;
bake in moderately brisk oven.

_Sweetmeat Nuts._--Take 7 lb. treacle; mix 4 oz. ground ginger, 6 oz.
ground allspice, 8 oz. candied lemon and orange, cut small, with 9
lb. flour; wet up with treacle; beat in dough 4 lb. butter and 5 lb.
moist sugar; lay off on buttered tins, about the size of walnuts,
flat down, wash with water, and bake in slow oven.

_Sweet Rusks._--Cut a diet-bread cake into thin long slices; lay
on iron plates, and brown quickly in very hot oven; turn when of a
light-brown colour; when of same colour on other side, they are done.

_Tea Cake._--Break 8 eggs into a warm pan on 1 lb. pounded and sifted
loaf sugar; beat together till thick and whitish; stir in lightly 1
lb. sifted flour; with a bag and pipe, as for Savoy biscuits, form
mixture into drops about size of half-a-crown, 1 in. apart, on sheets
of whited brown paper; dust lightly with powdered loaf sugar; place
on tins; bake in good heat till nicely coloured; remove from paper as
Savoy biscuits.

_Thick Gingerbread._--Take 7 lb. treacle; rub ¾ lb. butter into 12
lb. flour; mix 3 oz. caraway, 2 oz. ground coriander seeds, and 2
oz. ground allspice, with flour and treacle; mould; in a week make
into cakes, on a mould or print; butter the sides, and place close
together on buttered tins; put up-sets round, wash with milk, and
bake in steady heat; when done, wash with egg and milk.

_Tops and Bottoms._--Prepare as for rusks; make into small balls
about the size of a large walnut; place on tins in straight rows just
to touch; prove well; bake in a moderate heat; when cold, draw a
sharp knife between rows; to cut balls out square turn on side, and
cut through middle, one at a time: place close on tin, with cut part
upwards; put in warm oven; done when nicely browned over.

_Twelfth Cake._--Prepare as for plum or bride cake; or, if as for
plain pound cake, take 3 lb. currants, 4 oz. candied orange and lemon
peel, to every pound of sugar; make any size; when done, ice over,
and lay on ornaments while ice is wet.

_Venice Cake._--Cut a Savoy cake in slices ½ to ¾ in. thick, in a
parallel direction from the bottom to the top; spread each slice
with raspberry or apricot jam, or some of each alternately, or any
other sort of preserve. Replace each piece in its original form: when
completed, make an icing as directed for cakes, with 4 whites of eggs
to 1 lb. sugar, which will make it rather thin. It may be coloured
with cochineal, &c.; spread it over the cake, which, being thin, will
run into the flutes and mouldings of the cake, when it will appear
of the same form as before. Let dry in the mouth of the oven, but be
careful it does not get discoloured. When dry, ornament with piping.
Savoy cakes are often done in the same manner, without being cut in
slices, to ornament them; or they may be done without icing, and
either piped, or ornamented with gum-paste borders, &c., which are
fixed on with dissolved gum arabic. Volutes or high and projecting
figures are supported with pieces of small wire.

_Vienna Bread._--Add to 1 pint new milk, 2 oz. fresh German yeast, 6
oz. each best loaf sugar and good butter, and sufficient best Vienna
flour to form a tight or stiff dough; shape into rolls, pointed at
each end; bake rich brown colour in quick oven.

_Wine Biscuits._--2 lb. flour, 1 lb. butter, 4 oz. sifted loaf sugar;
rub the sugar and butter into the flour, and make into a stiff paste
with milk; pound in a mortar; roll out thin, and cut into sizes or
shapes to fancy; lay on buttered paper or iron plates: brush tops
with milk; bake in warm oven; glaze by brushing over with a brush
dipped in egg; caraway seeds may be added.

_York Biscuits._--Prepare as for filbert biscuits; dock; bake in hot
oven, and do not wash over.

_Yorkshire Cake._--Rub 4 oz. butter into 7 lb. flour; wet up with
1 qt. warm milk, 1 pint warm water, and ½-¾ pint good yeast; prove
about 20 minutes; make into cakes, and put on warm tins; when well
proved, make a hole in the middle, size of finger; bake in hot oven;
when done, wash with a little melted butter.

_Yule Cakes._--Put 1 lb. sifted flour into a large basin, to which
add 1 saltspoonful salt; dissolve ¼ oz. German yeast in ½ pint tepid
water, and stir into the flour with a wooden spoon; cover it with a
thick cloth, and let it stand in a warm place for an hour to rise,
add ½ lb. butter beaten to a cream, ½ lb. moist sugar, ⅙ nutmeg
(grated), ¾ lb. currants, 4 oz. candied peel (chopped), and 2 beaten
eggs; mix well, and only half fill the tin into which you put it;
bake in a moderate oven for 1¾-2 hours; turn it out of the tin to get


This chapter may be divided into 3 sections, dealing respectively
with (1) the Fittings, embracing the cooking range, pots, pans, &c.;
(2) the Processes of Cookery; and (3) Recipes for the preparation of
a great variety of dishes and their adjuncts, such as sauces, &c.


_Ranges._--There is no subject more interesting to the housekeeper,
or of more importance in the household, than the proper preparation
of our food by cooking, and good results can only be obtained by
two means, a fair knowledge of cookery, and (absolutely necessary
under any circumstances) an efficient cooking apparatus. There are
stringent laws governing our sanitary arrangements, and it is to
be regretted that equally stringent laws do not exist to govern
the efficiency of the apparatus under discussion, for it must be
acknowledged that if the latter is not fairly perfect, it interferes
with the health and comfort of a household. A vast number of badly
fixed and badly constructed ranges are in use at the present moment.
The speculative builder, not being governed by any rules or laws,
is apt to purchase and use a cheap range, provided its general
appearance is pleasing, “brick-flue” ranges being invariably adopted.
It is in the construction of these brick flues where the trouble
generally arises, as the flues in question have to be made by the
builders’ man or fixer, who is more or less experienced in range
work (commonly less), and, as everyone knows, the flues are the most
important part of the range. Their importance is so great that one
small error or want of judgment will ruin the most costly brick-flue
range made. Brick-flue ranges, wherever possible, should be fixed
by the makers, and the same remark may be applied to “iron-flue”
ranges. The difference between a brick-flue and an iron-flue range
is, that in the former all the flues are built in brickwork by the
person fixing the stove, and in the latter all the flues are made of
iron by the range manufacturer. It is acknowledged that the latter
are superior, but they are not generally adopted on account of
increase in cost (not great). The superiority consists in the greater
durability, never requiring re-setting, greater efficiency, and,
most important, it being almost impossible for even an ignorant man
to set them wrongly. Iron flues also are slower in becoming fouled
and more easily cleaned. But these flues should be of cast iron, and
not less than ¼ in. substance. Brick flues have several failings
as is known to almost everyone, for it is a very common saying
that the range does not work because it is not set well, or wants
re-setting. In the first place, a bricklayer, however skilled, cannot
know the correct size of flues for certain ranges so well as the
manufacturers, and secondly, on the first occasion that such a range
is used, expansion takes place and, in cooling, the metal and the
brickwork part company, causing leakage of draught, and so tending to
spoil efficiency; and in time the unequal expansion and contraction
make re-setting necessary, which should never arise with an iron-flue
range. It may be here mentioned that immediately air or draught leaks
into the flues from any cause whatever, the good results will be
diminished, or, in other words, it will take a greater quantity of
fuel to do a certain amount of work, apart from the inconvenience,
worry, increased labour, &c. It will be noticed that the above
remarks only apply to the comparatively modern close-fire ranges or

Open-fire Ranges.--The now old fashioned open range, although very
often met with, is rapidly dying out, as its disadvantages are
very great, and it is ill adapted for modern cookery (which may be
correctly defined as hot-plate cookery). Its disadvantages may be
summed up as follows:--dirtiness, as all the cooking vessels have to
be put in contact with the fire; aptness for smoking, as under almost
the best of circumstances, a “blower” is necessary; extravagance;
intense heat radiated into the kitchen, and so necessitating the use
of a screen (or what might be more properly termed a cook protector);
and irregularity in action, as unless the cook is careful or really
skilful in attention, it cannot be relied upon one day to give the
results it gave the previous day, and the chimney requires very
frequent sweeping. It is a capital range for roasting in front, an
advantage highly appreciated by many (but in England only).

Hot Plates.--A hot-plate consists very generally of a mass of
brickwork surmounted by a strong cast-iron plate with several
apertures in it, these apertures being provided with covers; a
furnace or fire-place is situated at one end of the structure and at
the opposite end is the chimney; between the furnace and the chimney
a flue or passage for the flame and heat is provided, and this flue
is situated immediately under the iron plate, so that when the fire
is alight the plate quickly reaches a very high temperature, hence
the term “hot-plate.”

A hot-plate, as will be understood, is adapted for boiling, stewing,
&c. only, and it cannot be recommended as economical.

Baking Ovens.--These are made exactly like the ovens used by bakers
but upon a smaller scale, suited for domestic requirements. They
consist of an oven having a flue passing up each side of it, the fire
or furnace being situated at the base. The results are very good, as
the oven thus has an excess heat at bottom, which is so necessary for
the baking of bread and pastry.

Close-fire Ranges or “Kitcheners.”--This is the form of
cooking-ranges now in general favour, and under ordinary
circumstances very satisfactory results are obtained both in
efficiency and economy.

Close-fire ranges are made in various forms, the smaller and medium
sizes generally having an oven on one side and a boiler on the other,
the fire being situated between. The larger sizes are also made like
this if desired, but more generally they have one or more ovens On
each side of the fire, the boiler (either high or low pressure,
or steam) being placed at the back of the fire. This is the most
economical arrangement, as the boiler then utilises the only space
that cannot be used for anything else. The ovens of these ranges are
invariably heated by means of flues; a flue is a passage by which
the flame-heat and products of combustion pass from the fire to the
chimney, and a flue is so constructed that the heat in passing is
caused to impinge upon the under surface of the hot plate, upon the
oven, and upon any part or surface where heat is needed. Fig. 69
(in section) will acquaint the reader with the general arrangement
of a close-fire range, such as is at present in use. The oven, it
will be noticed, is heated by means of a flue passing over down the
outer side and under the oven, and an oven of this description is
known as a “Leamington” oven, as it is the arrangement that was first
introduced in what is known as the “Leamington range.”

The Leamington range was first made (in Leamington) some 30 years
ago, and with at the time such a vast improvement upon the cooking
apparatus then in use that it has remained in favour up till the
present day, and it will be noticed in the ranges that are described
farther on that very little improvement has been made upon it, except
in one or two instances. From the illustration it will be seen that
the oven must necessarily have an excess heat at top and the least
heat at bottom. This is the best arrangement for meat roasting, as
the heat is not required under the roasting-pan; but for pastry, this
arrangement is ruinous, as the oven is thus heated in precisely an
opposite manner to a baker’s oven, and this is its only objection.
Every housekeeper knows that pastry requires a bottom heat to make
it rise and be light. As the heat passes over the oven, it also
heats the hot plate which forms the upper surface of the flue. It
must now be explained why the flame, &c., passes around the oven
when its natural tendency is of course to go upwards. The up-current
of air or draught that exists in a chimney is treated and explained
under Heating (see p. 79); this draught or up-current, as it rises,
naturally causes fresh air to rush into the chimney to take the
place of that which has risen. When a range is properly set the only
opening through which this fresh supply of air can pass is through
the fire, and thence by way of the flues into the chimney, this
current is very rapid, and so carries all products from the fire with
it, thus effectually distributing the heat as desired. When these
products reach the bottom of the oven, they pass into a flue at the
back, which is carried up and terminated in the chimney as shown.

[Illustration: 69. Section of Close Range.]

It will also be noticed from the illustration (and it is known to
all who have used close ranges) that for the fire to be effectual it
must be kept up, or in other words the flue-box must be kept _full_
of fuel as _all the work is done from the top of the fire_. It cannot
be comprehended why range-makers still insist upon making such deep
fires; they average about 10-12 in. in depth (or height), whereas 5-6
in. will give as good results with decidedly less fuel, as can be
proved by anyone by using a high false bottom (this cannot be done
if a high-pressure boiler is at back of fire, as it will prevent the
heat passing under the flue). The reason is that, as before stated,
all the work is done from the top of the fire, the hot plate and the
entrance to the flues being both situated there; and it will be found
that the fire-box, however deep, will not heat the oven or hot plate
if it is only three-fourths full of fuel, as there will naturally
be a space above the fuel where the air can pass through into the
flues without being first heated, and will so tend to cool the ovens
and hot plate most effectually. The only part of a range that still
answers fairly when the fire-box is not full is the boiler at the
back, as the flue of this is always at the bottom of the fire. _It is
imperative with these ranges that all the air that passes into the
chimney should first pass through the fire._

The dampers are metal plates which slide through suitable slots into
the flues that are carried up the back of the range, they have knobs
or handles in front by which they are pushed in or drawn out as
desired. When drawn fully out, they leave the flue clear and do not
obstruct the draught; when pushed quite in, they close the flue and
stop the draught. They can be put in any intermediate position; their
object is to regulate the draught to the requirements; by regulating
the draught the heat and the consumption of fuel are regulated also,
and by means of the dampers the heat can be closed off or put on to
the oven, or boiler, &c., as desired. It is to the mismanagement of
these dampers that the extravagance in many instances is due; if
the draught is good, they should never be pulled out fully, as this
will cause the fire to “roar;” they should be pushed in (both for
ovens and boilers) until a murmuring sound is heard; this is the
correct speed for all purposes in general. It cannot be too strongly
impressed upon housewives that a “roaring” fire gives really _less_
result than a steadily burning one as described. Too fierce a fire
has other serious results, viz., undue wear and tear to the range,
overheating the kitchen, increased labour in attention and stoking,
and the probability of the ovens, &c., becoming too hot; in fact
general inconvenience is experienced by this, irrespective of the
great waste of fuel.

A good feature in a close-fire range is a means of making an open
fire when no cooking or work is required to be done between meals,
and in the evening.

An open fire is very slow burning as it is not affected by the
draught; it will burn 2 hours without attention, and is thus very
economical, saves labour, and if desired the cook can leave the
kitchen for a considerable time without anxiety as to whether the
fire wants replenishing. The closed fire is decidedly the best form
for cooking purposes, but when no cooking is required it must be
attended to frequently or be permitted to go out. An open fire is
also a ventilator, is cheerful for those in the kitchen, and if a
good fire is left open at night, the boiler will be found to contain
fairly warm, if not hot water in the morning.

Ovens should always be provided with 2 ventilators, viz., an inlet
and an outlet; there are very many ovens with even modern ranges that
are only fitted with one ventilator, but a moment’s consideration
will show that one ventilator is useless, as you cannot get air to
pass out of an oven unless there is a means for a corresponding
volume of air to pass in to replace it, and _vice versâ_, and means
should be provided to warm the air as it passes in, for reasons that
are obvious. The use of the ventilators is to take off the excess
heat, the steam, smells of cooking, &c., from the oven (the outlet
ventilator opening into the flue), and by use of the ventilators meat
can be either roasted or baked in an oven, the distinction between
roasting and baking being that to roast meat the air must have free
access to the joint by opening the vents, whereas in baking meat the
vents are closed and the meat is cooked in its own vapour, &c.

The former method has the greatest number of advocates, as the
results are the same as if it was roasted in front of the fire,
_provided it has the same attention in basting, &c._ It may be here
mentioned that in oven-roasting, a water-pan should be used, as it
prevents the oven becoming foul by the burning and splashing of fat,
and has other advantages; this pan really consists of 2 pans, one
fitting within the other, a space of about ½ in. existing between,
and a properly constructed meat-stand fitting into the upper one. The
joint is put in position on the stand, and the whole is placed in the
oven, _after_ which the space between the two is filled with water
through an aperture provided for the purpose. These pans are very
satisfactory in use, and are now in general favour.

The cleaning of flues should be done once weekly, if the chimney
has a good draught, or with hard fuel this time may be exceeded;
but it is desirable to say once weekly, as it is then done at
regular periods on a certain day; with a very sluggish draught it is
sometimes found necessary to clean them a little oftener, as the soot
is then nearly all deposited in the flues, and as the fire is longer
in becoming bright, more soot is naturally formed (with a bright
fire scarcely a particle of soot is formed, the combustion being
nearly perfect). The correct method to clean the flues of a kitchen
(close fire) range is as follows:--First remove all small flue-doors,
loose covers, &c., then draw out the dampers to their full extent,
take the flue-brush and pass it first up and then down the flues that
are carried up the back of the range, inserting the brush through the
openings that are provided just below the dampers; then brush the
soot from the tops of the ovens down the flues at the sides; brush
down these side flues; and lastly carefully scrape and brush out
all the soot that has now accumulated in the flues under the ovens.
But it must not be forgotten that the _bottom_ of the oven requires
well brushing; this is often omitted, yet it is most important, as
in many instances, as before explained, the utmost heat is needed
at the bottom, and if it is coated with soot very little heat will
pass through, as soot is a fairly good non-conductor of heat. After
cleaning the flues, carefully replace all doors, covers, &c.; it
cannot too strongly be impressed upon housewives that no opening
must be left for the air to pass in, except first passing _through_
the fire. Soot in flues produces two different ill effects, viz.,
reducing the draught by choking the flues, and preventing the heat
coming in proper contact with the oven, as it is a very bad conductor.

The flue-brush for the average of flues should be about 4 in. in
diameter at the hair, with a 3 ft. 6 in. or 4 ft. wire handle.
Chimneys do not require sweeping nearly so often with close ranges as
with open. With an entirely closed range it will with proper care go
about 10 to 12 months; with a close range that can be opened (when
not cooking) about 7-9 months, varying with different coals, &c. The
management of a close-fire range has now been nearly all explained;
it may be summed up as follows. At first lighting (after clearing
the fire-box of ash, &c., in the usual way), draw out all dampness
until the fire is established, after which push in dampers to a more
or less extent according to draught. Never permit the fire to make
a roaring noise, whether for oven or boiler. If the range has a
high-pressure boiler, direct the heat to this until the water is hot,
or until the range is required in preparing breakfast. After this
meal, the dampers must be pushed in as far as possible to slacken the
fire down until it is required for the midday meal (unless the range
is required for any other purpose between these times), and the same
follows after this meal. There are, however, very many residences
where cooking, to a more or less extent is going on all day, in which
case the regulation of the dampers must be left to the discretion
of the cook. Thoroughly clean the flues _at regular periods_; if a
high-pressure boiler exists, clear the flue under it of cinders,
&c., every morning. Thoroughly clean inside the ovens and the oven
shelves of any grease, &c., as this is the very general cause of
unpleasant smells that pervade the house. When cooking, keep the
fire-box well filled with fuel, by feeding it moderately often but in
small quantities, as the fire must not be permitted to get low. Do
not permit the hot plate to become red-hot; should it do so, push in
dampers to decrease the draught, as the fire is burning too fiercely.

Want of draught, which sometimes occurs, and causes an utter failure
of the range is due to several causes, the chief of which are:--(_a_)
Other flues running into the kitchen chimney, generally a copper
flue, not provided with a damper to close it when not in use. (_b_)
Leakage of air into the flues through some aperture, commonly around
the range, caused by imperfect or hurried setting. This can be
discovered by holding the flame of a candle near any likely spot,
when the flame will be drawn through if any leakage exists. (_c_)
Insufficient height of chimney; about 20 ft. is sufficient for say
a 4 ft. range, but the chimney top must be as high as any adjacent
building, or impeded or down draught will occur. Suburban villas,
&c., are frequently designed with the kitchen situated at the
back, in an addition to the main building, this addition generally
being lower, in which case, if the chimney is not carried up to
the necessary height great inconvenience and annoyance will ensue.
Impeded or down draught is sometimes caused by high trees being
situated near the chimney. (_d_) Sooty flues, through want of
regular cleaning, or failing to put one of the flue doors in position
after cleaning.

The use of the door in the top covering-in plate of the range is,
by partially opening it, to take off the objectionable smell when
frying, &c.; to reduce the draught to the whole of the range; and for
the sweep to operate through when sweeping the chimney.

When a range is newly fixed, it will not give its best results until
it has had good use for 6-8 days, as everything around it, the
brickwork, &c., is damp and cold. They will sometimes smoke at first
lighting, and as ranges differ considerably, a new range requires
a certain amount of getting used to. When a range is newly set,
the workmen should, before leaving, clear the flues, but this is
sometimes neglected, and careless workmen have been known to leave
even their tools in the flues.

In instances where a strong draught exists, and the servants cannot
be depended upon to regulate the dampers or open the door at top
to decrease it, an excellent method is to cut a hole into the flue
through the chimney breast above the mantelpiece and there insert
a ventilator, but it must be a self-acting one. Arnott’s patent is
the best suited for this purpose, as it can be set to a nicety, so
that, when the draught is excessive, the valve opens and the chimney
gets part of its air, without affecting the fire; this reduces the
draught, and then the valve partially or wholly closes, and so it
continues. The results are similar to those ensured by the governor
on a steam engine, viz., giving uniform regularity to the work.

Fuels.--The ordinary coals of commerce, such as Wallsend, Silkstone,
Derby Main, &c., &c., although in general use, are not best adapted
for close-fire ranges, which are really furnaces on a small scale,
and should be treated as such. Coals such as the above are too highly
charged with bitumen (tar), the major portion of which distils off
as smoke, fouling the flue, and, as every particle of smoke is
unconsumed fuel, there is considerable waste. These coals have also
too great a proportion of hydrogen (producing flame) for furnace
purposes, as combustion is so rapid; it will be noticed that when
burning these soft bituminous coals, upon feeding the fire, volumes
of smoke are first given off, after which the fuel fuses into a soft
and sometimes sticky mass: this then flames violently for a short
period, after which it is time to replenish the fire again. It must
not, however, be concluded that fuels entirely free from hydrogen,
such as anthracite, coke, charcoal, &c., are well suited for this
work, as a fuel free of hydrogen gas burns without flame, and it is
found desirable to have some flame, for the heat has to travel some 6
ft. (3 sides of the oven) before its work is performed. It is found
that coke and anthracite give an intense local heat (i.e. immediately
in or near the fire); but this has an ill effect with the Leamington
oven, as making the top of the oven of so much higher a temperature
than the bottom, which is fatal to pastry. Where, however, other
fuels are not conveniently attainable, coke and anthracite can be
used; but the results are not so satisfactory. Coke is almost always
used on yachts, so that the sails, decks, &c., may be spotless; but a
yacht range is of special make.

Coke, broken to the size of a large walnut, and ordinary coal, mixed
in about equal proportions, is found very satisfactory; but the best
fuel for close-fire (or the convertible close or open fire) ranges is
what is commonly known as hard steam coal; this is not the technical
appellation for it, but it is generally recognised by this name, and
any good firm of coal merchants stock it, as it is much used for
small furnace work. This coal has several advantages, viz., low price
(about 16_s._ to 19_s._ per ton), much less smoke and soot, more
intense heat evolved, and greater length of time in consumption. This
is a coal bordering upon anthracite in its nature and composition,
but has a moderate percentage of hydrogen; care must be exercised
to see that the correct coal is obtained, as should a coal merchant
not keep it, he might consider that the low price was the chief
consideration and would send a cheap soft coal, which is very
unsuitable. This coal has one disadvantage, which is that it cannot
be burned in the ordinary open grates unless the grate is provided
with a blower, or some means of causing a draught to pass through the
fire at first lighting or when heavily fed; it is therefore necessary
to have convenience for keeping two sorts of coal.

The best size of coal for these ranges is “nuts,” this is a size that
will pass through a 2 in. hole (in a coal sieve) and not through a
1 in. hole. “Cobbles,” which is a 4 in. coal, is too large for this
work. It is commonly understood that “nuts” and “cobbles” indicate
certain qualities of coal, but it is not so, they denote size only.

The kitchen range should be made to burn all the rubbish of the
kitchen, provided it is combustible at all; but this should be done
when the cooking of the day is finished.

The following are some ranges of modern and reliable make which have
withstood the criticism of the public and the trade, and are all
having a fair share of favour.


_The “National” Patent Open and Close Fire Kitchener_ (GEORGE WRIGHT
& SONS, 113 Queen Victoria Street, E.C.). This method of converting
from a close to an open fire, or _vice versâ_, is a great improvement
on the ordinary arrangements for this purpose owing to its extreme
simplicity, one movement only being required to effect the change,
as will be seen by reference to the sectional diagrams, Figs. 70,
71. The well-known “Eagle” Patent Adjustable Bottom Grate, for
regulating the fire, made under licence from the original patentees,
being adapted to this range in combination with the above patent,
establishes it as one of the most efficient and at the same time most
economical ranges in the market, the slight extra initial cost of
the range over that of an ordinary range being very soon covered by
the great saving in fuel. Our illustration shows a high class range,
but the same principles can be adapted to ranges of the cheaper
class, though we do not advocate cheap ranges. Of all the fittings
in a house, the kitchen range should be the first consideration,
as so much of the comfort of a tenant depends upon its quality and
efficiency. We cannot too highly recommend this range to the notice
of our readers. _See advertisement in front of title page._

[Illustration: Fig. 70. Fig. 71.]

Fig. 70 is a sectional elevation through centre of fire from front to
back when range is used as an open fire; the bottom grate being shown
in a level position or half way up.

Fig. 71 is a sectional elevation on the same line as above, showing
the position when in use as a close fire, and also shows the bottom
grate in its lowest position.

To convert a close fire into an open fire, all that is necessary
is to draw forward the top of the plate B, which then assumes a
horizontal position, the same single movement opening the back, and
forming a complete open hood or bonnet to convey the smoke from the
fire into the chimney. The fire-cap C then slides back, the fall-bar
turns down, and a complete open fire is formed. There are no wheels
or cranks to get out of order, and there are no projections at back
to interfere with back boiler or flues.

_The “Eagle” Bottom Grate_ is so well known that it scarcely needs
description, and when intelligently used is most economical. For
heating the ovens or the hot plates a shallow fire only is necessary,
and the consumption of fuel is thereby greatly reduced, and the
deeper fire is only required for roasting or toasting, and even then
the amount of fuel need not be greatly increased, as the bottom grate
being worked on a pivot at back, when it is lowered to full extent
in front, throws all the fuel to front of fire and the bars being
vertical and slightly curved outwards, a large radiating surface is
afforded, making a most perfect fire for roasting in front. This
arrangement does away entirely with the objectionable “false bottom”
of the ordinary kitchener, which is always burning out and very
frequently checks the proper action of the boiler. _See advertisement
in front of title page._

[Illustration: 72. Underfed Smoke-consuming Kitchener.]

Brown and Green’s “Underfed Smoke-consuming Kitchener” (Brown &
Green, 69 Finsbury Pavement, London), Fig. 72, is made in all sizes,
from 8 ft. to 7 ft., with 1 to 4 ovens. The fire of this range is
underfed, i.e. the fire is replenished at the bottom instead of at
the top as usual, thus all gas, smoke, &c., are perfectly consumed,
and the range is practically smokeless. This is an advantage of
importance from an hygienic point of view, and greatly decreases
the flue-cleaning, chimney-sweeping, &c. The ovens of this range
are of the Leamington type, and the flues have to be constructed in

This firm also make the “Gem” cooking range, which is used as an
auxiliary range, being quite portable, with iron flues, and requiring
no brickwork whatever. It is made from 1 ft. 6 in. to 3 ft. wide.

[Illustration: 73. Wilson Grate.]

The “Wilson” range (Wilson Engineering Co., 227 High Holborn), Fig.
73, is a portable range requiring no brickwork, and made in all sizes
from 2 ft. to 10 ft. The range is fitted with a means of consuming
the major portion of the smoke. The fire-door and sides of fire-box
are chambered in such a manner as to cause a swift current of
superheated air to mingle with the smoke as it leaves the fire-box,
and this causes combustion to take place, producing flame and very
materially lessening the quantity of soot.

The ovens are upon the Leamington principle, but with a series of
gills or heat collectors fitted at the bottom (in the flue), which
equalises the heat at top and bottom (so necessary for pastry baking,

[Illustration: 74. Treasure Range.]

The “Treasure” range (T. J. Constantine, 61 Fleet Street, London),
Fig. 74, is a portable range made in all sizes from 2 ft. upwards,
and is similar in nearly every respect to the “Wilson” range last
mentioned, excepting that the “Treasure” is now being made with an
open-fronted fire for roasting, and with a movable bottom grating by
which the size of fire can be increased or decreased at will. This
range requires no brick-setting.

This firm make a tray to slide (upon rollers), and closely fit under
the range, which is of great convenience for heating plates, dishes,

The “Sine qua Non” range (Albion Iron Co., 175 Upper Thames Street,
London) is made in all sizes, and has the following advantages.
Closed or open fire (one movement only); the heat can be directed
to the top or to the bottom of ovens at will, and an improved
ventilating arrangement at the back of range lessens draught and
takes off excess heat and objectionable smells, &c., created at the
hot plate. This is a brick-flue range. Cooking operations can be
carried on with this range when the fire is open.

[Illustration: 75. Dow’s Patent Range.]

“Dow’s” patent range (J. B. Colbran & Co., 247 High Holborn, London),
Fig. 75, is made in all sizes. It is a closed or open fire (one
movement only), and the heat can be directed to the top or bottom of
the oven at will. It is a brick-flue range, and cooking operations
can be carried on when the fire is open.

The “Mistress” range (Smith and Welstood, Ludgate Circus, London),
Fig. 76, is a portable range, made in various sizes, with one or two
ovens and boiler. This is what is commonly known as an “American”
range. This term originated with ranges made for the use of American
settlers, being quite portable, very compact, and provided with a
complete set of utensils. They were then made light for convenience
of transit, and being provided with rather high legs they could be
stood down anywhere, and worked safely at a moment’s notice after
attaching a few feet of flue-pipe.

[Illustration: 76. Mistress Range.]

The “Mistress” is made with a convertible open and closed fire,
and can be had with doors, forming a hot closet for plates, &c.,
underneath (between the legs). The fire of this range is suited for
roasting in front, and every range is fitted with a set of cooking
utensils. The ovens are upon the Leamington principle. This firm also
make many other patterns of this type of range suited for various

The “Yorkshire” range (so named as it is the pattern in general
use in that county) is made to suit many purposes. It is a range
especially adapted for bread, cake, and pastry baking, the ovens
invariably having an excess heat at bottom; the flues are ascending,
and the range therefore works with less draught. The range consists
of a fire-box situated in the usual position, and the flues are
carried from the top of the fire to the right or left, as in the
Leamington range, but the bottom of the oven or ovens forms the
upper surface of this first flue instead of the hot plate, i.e. the
bottom of the oven is on a level with the top of the fire-box; the
flue passes from the fire under the bottom of the ovens, then up the
further side, and lastly across the top into the chimney, the results
being like those obtained with the “Thorncliffe” range, but the only
available hot-plate is that immediately over the fire and on top of
the ovens. The space under the ovens (where the ovens of a Leamington
pattern range would exist) is sometimes entirely closed, but more
usually occupied by hot closets, which are heated by the fire that
passes across the top of them, similar to the “Thorncliffe” before
mentioned. This description of range is not commonly met with in the
south of England, but any range maker is prepared to supply it.

There is a combination of the Yorkshire and Leamington ranges made
with an ordinary Leamington oven on one side with hot plate above it,
and a Yorkshire oven on the other side with hot closet below it. This
is a good and useful combination, but the hot plate is necessarily
contracted. This and the Yorkshire range require brick flues.

It must be understood that the ranges mentioned are but a few
well-known patterns that possess certain improvements upon the
Leamington range. There are numberless other makes equally good, but
it would occupy the major portion of this work to treat them all; and
although those mentioned possess improvements upon the Leamington
pattern, we must leave it to the intending purchaser to say whether
the improvements are to his advantage. It must be said in favour of
the Leamington range, that for general good results and simplicity
in working and cleaning, it has always met with general approval,
and probably no other make of range will remain in favour without
interruption for upwards of 30 years as this has done.

Although certain makes of ranges have been specified, as having brick
flues, yet the majority, if not all of them, can be had with iron
flues at a proportionate extra expense, if so ordered, and this extra
expense is a good investment if permanency is desired.

A most useful arrangement is to have a small portable range fixed
in the scullery, or any other convenient position, to act as an
auxiliary to the large range. The convenience of this arrangement
is especially felt when the large range, during some repair, or the
periodical boiler cleaning, cannot be used; or when company increase
the requirements, or in summer, when only a small amount of cooking
is needed, the small range will do the necessary work, and this also
applies when only servants are remaining in the house.

This auxiliary range can be connected into a copper flue, or into the
large range flue, but it must be seen that the damper of this small
range is tightly closed when it is not in use, otherwise it will
seriously interfere with the efficiency of whatever else is being
worked by the flue.

With the old-fashioned open ranges there is a common complaint of
the chimney smoking. This will be found in probably every instance
to be effectually cured by the adoption of a close-fire range or

Fire-bricks.--This is a subject upon which much misunderstanding has
often arisen between manufacturers and users of kitchen ranges, as it
is unfortunately no rare occurrence for the fire-bricks of quite a
new range to be found cracked, after, say 2-3 months’ wear, whereas
another set of bricks of exactly the same make and the same clay,
in the same range, will last 2-3 years, or even longer. This may be
sometimes caused by negligence. For instance, if fire-bricks are
fitted tightly, they will, when heated, crack, as no room is left
for expansion; but, what is more commonly the cause of failure, is
firstly, the influence of the poker, and secondly the practice of
putting out the fire (at night) with water. This rapid cooling and
contraction causes a fracture, the same as putting cold water into a
hot empty boiler.

Most makers are now making iron cheeks of suitable construction
to take the place of fire-bricks, and the results are said to be
satisfactory, though quite contrary to the principles already laid
down as to a minimum use of iron in grates.

There is a rather general idea that fire-bricks assist in heating the
ovens. This, however, is incorrect; the object of fire-bricks is to
protect the oven sides from the direct action of the fire, as this
would in a short time injure them.

There are now to be obtained several makes of fire-resisting cement.
This material is gaining favour, and will no doubt come into general
use for the purposes for which it is intended. It is a clay-like
material, and is used for repairing cracked fire-bricks or the
interior lining of any description of furnace or fire-box; for
rendering the joints of stoves and ranges air-tight; and it is also
successful in temporarily repairing cracked boilers as it adheres to
an iron surface as well as to any other material.

After cementing up the crack or damaged part, a fire is immediately
made, and in 10 minutes the cement will be found to have set as hard
as the iron itself, and it has a valuable property in not shrinking
as it dries. This material is also used for lining the fire-boxes
of kitchen ranges in place of fire-bricks, as it is much more
lasting; its applications are very numerous, it being suitable for
any and every purpose where heat is to be resisted. There are a few
directions that must be followed to make the application successful,
but these are provided by the manufacturers. Two of the best makes
that have had considerable trial and are now in favour are the “Etna”
cement (Verity Bros., 98 High Holborn), and the “Purimacos.”

[Illustration: 77. Eagle Grill Stove.]

Grills.--Grilling stoves, for coke or charcoal fuel, invariably take
the form of an open-topped shallow furnace, above which is suspended
the gridiron; Fig. 77 shows the general details. The furnace is
sometimes supported on legs, but more generally the space underneath
is utilised as a hot closet for plates, &c., and in some instances a
hot closet is fitted above (as illustrated). The gridiron, which is
made with fluted or grooved bars, is suspended at such an angle as to
cause the gravy to run down freely into the pan in front provided to
receive it. The method of suspending the grid permits of its being
raised or lowered as the heat dictates. All grills are constructed to
work with a down draught, i.e. the air that passes into the chimney
has to first pass _downwards_ through the fire and then up the flue
provided behind. By this means, all products of combustion are
carried away, and the fire may be said to be burning upside down.

Grills are also made to work with a series of Bunsen (atmospheric)
burners in place of fuel beneath the gridiron.

Grills are made in various sizes for domestic or business
requirements. The one illustrated in Fig. 77 is made by the Eagle
Range & Foundry Co., 76 Regent Street, London, but they can be
obtained of all range merchants and manufacturers.

Steam.--It has been long anticipated by many competent authorities
that steam cooking would come into general favour, to the prejudice
of cooking ranges, and although this has not come to pass, any
description of food cooked by steam (in a proper manner) is by many
considered superior to that cooked by any other method. But it may
be here mentioned that to gain good results the steam must be dry,
i.e. there must be a moderate pressure developed in the boiler and
the steam should not be permitted to condense too quickly; if the
steam pipe is of any length it should be felted, or covered with
some non-conducting material. Steam at no pressure (atmospheric
pressure only), although a gas, may be said to be saturated with
moisture, whereas if a little pressure is developed it becomes dry,
and may be compared to hot air. Steam without pressure has the
further disadvantage of condensing very rapidly, and the moisture is
objectionable for several reasons.

One advantage possessed by steam cooking is that the kitchen does
not become over heated, as the boiler, if desired, can be placed in
a basement or elsewhere, provided it is convenient for stoking; and
there is, of course, economy of space.

Steam can be economically used for every description of cooking
purpose, and for heating water, by placing a coil of steam pipe in
the water that is to be heated.

[Illustration: 78. Steam Boiler.]

Fig. 78 represents a steam boiler which requires to be fixed in
brickwork. They are also made cylindrical (vertical) in shape
with the furnace within them, and so require no setting, except
connection with the chimney. A description of a steam boiler will
be found under “motors,” the boiler and fittings in each case
being nearly identical, except that a pressure-gauge is not always
used with a boiler for cooking purposes, and a different means is
provided for water supply generally, as illustrated. The reference
letters indicate:--_a_, inlet valve, regulated by stone float _c_
and balance-weight _h_; _b_, cold supply-pipe from main; _d_,
safety-valve; _e_, water gauge; _f_, steam delivery pipe; _g_,

In many instances, especially when the boiler is in a kitchen range,
a steam chest is used. This is a square wrought-iron box, of nearly
the same capacity as the boiler, and situated somewhere near but in a
more conveniently accessible position.

All the fittings are attached to this chest, which is connected to
the boiler by 2 pipes one above and one below water level (2 pipes
being necessary to equalise the pressure). The chest is of service
when the boiler is not easily accessible, as the fittings should
always be situated where they can have regular attention, cleaning,
&c., and it is very necessary to see that the water inlet valve and
safety valve are in proper working order.

Sometimes in small steam boilers in kitchen ranges the inlet valve
is dispensed with, and an ordinary cast-iron supply cistern is
used, with a ball valve in the usual way; but the cistern must have
a lid that can be secured, and the pipe between the cistern and
boiler must have a deep syphon to prevent the water being blown
back by the steam. This system, however, cannot be recommended, as
it is not reliable. When this system is adopted it is generally
where the boiler is also used for hot-water supply, and only when
comparatively no pressure of steam is required for 1-3 small kettles.
See also p. 1004.

Gas.--Gas cooking stoves are now growing in favour, as being very
convenient and cleanly, instantaneously lighted and extinguished, and
producing no smoke, soot, or ashes. They are portable, and the cost
of fixing is generally small; but, as with all gas contrivances, they
can only be adopted where gas is to be obtained. The makers claim
economy over coal-burning ranges, greater simplicity in working and
cleaning, less attention, unvarying heat, &c. There are, however,
drawbacks in not having means of working a high-pressure boiler for
bath supply, &c. (this, however, is now being overcome), and there
are sometimes complaints of waste of gas, as servants cannot always
be relied upon to turn off or lower the gas at intervals when it is
not required.

Gas ranges have now attained a high degree of perfection, and the
results are very satisfactory. There is no obnoxious taste commonly
associated with meat cooked by this means, and it has been proved
that no difference can be discerned even by the most fastidious
between joints cooked in gas and coal-burning ranges. Gas ranges
are made in numberless sizes and shapes to meet every requirement,
from the small “Workman’s Friend,” which is large enough to cook a
steak and boil a quart of water, to those that are used in large
institutions, hospitals, &c., to cook for hundreds daily.

[Illustration: 79. Eureka Gas Cooker.]

Ordinary gas is sometimes used, but more generally it is “atmospheric
gas,” which is a mixture of gas and air burnt by a “Bunsen” burner,
giving a blue flame. In lighting an atmospheric burner, it should
be turned on full for a ¼ minute before the match is applied,
otherwise it will light back in the air chamber of the burner, which
will also happen if the burner is not turned on full when lighting.
If necessary, the gas can be turned down immediately after it is
lighted. When one of these burners lights back, it will be found to
be burning the ordinary gas as it issues from the nozzle in the air
chamber. This of course gives no heat where it is required, and if
allowed to burn for a short time it will choke the burner with soot.
There is a little objection experienced at first in lighting an
atmospheric burner, as it lights violently with a slight explosion,
but one quickly gets used to this.

Fig. 79 is the “Eureka” gas cooker (John Wright & Co., 155A Upper
Thames Street, London). This range is double cased and jacketed on
the sides, back, and door with a non-conducting material to prevent
loss of heat. The top of the oven is formed of fire-brick, over which
the waste heat passes, heating it to a high temperature, and adding
to the efficiency. The oven interior can be had either galvanised
or enamelled by a new process which the makers highly recommend,
and the oven fittings are so made that they can be removed wholly
for cleaning purposes and leave no ledges inside where grease could
accumulate. The hot plate is formed of loose wrought-iron bars,
which can be removed for cleaning purposes. This range is made in
all sizes, with from 1-4 ovens, and boilers are fitted when desired.
Hoods can be fitted to these (and to any other make) to carry away
any objectionable smell and vapour from the hot plate, the hood being
connected with a flue. A hood is of course not necessary when the
range stands in an opening under a chimney.

[Illustration: 80. Fletcher’s Cellular Cast-iron Cooker. 81. Leoni’s
Nonpareil Gas Kitchener.]

Fig. 80 is a Fletcher’s cellular cast-iron cooker (Thos. Fletcher &
Co., 83 Upper Thames Street, London). This cooker is jacketed with
slagwool, to prevent loss of heat; the whole is constructed of cast
iron, the interior being in panels to prevent cracking. This range
is also made in all sizes, with every convenience, and is of very
strong construction. It will be noticed with gas ranges that they are
especially well adapted for pastry and bread baking, as the ovens
have a perfect bottom heat.

Fig. 81 is Leoni’s “Nonpareil” gas kitchener (General Gas Apparatus
Company, 74 Strand, London). These cookers are greatly patronized for
large works, institutions, &c. They are fitted at W. Whiteley’s where
they cook for 3000 persons daily. They are also made in small and
medium sizes for domestic requirements. This and other makes of gas
ranges are provided with means of grilling by deflected heat, which
is very successful.

[Illustration: 82. Metropolitan Gas Kitchener.]

Fig. 82 is the “Metropolitan gas kitchener” (H. and C. Davis & Co.,
198 and 200, Camberwell Road, London). This is constructed of wrought
iron, the whole of the top, sides, door, and back being jacketed
with a non-conductor. The outer casing is of galvanized iron, the
inner casing is not galvanized, but is treated with a preparation to
prevent rust. These are made in all sizes.

The ovens of gas ranges are ventilated upon the same principle as the
ovens of other ranges, but as there are no flues to discharge the
steam and smell into, a hood, as just spoken of, must be provided,
otherwise the smell may pervade the house.

These are but a few of the many makes of gas stoves.

In addition to ranges many other forms of gas apparatus adapted for
cooking are made, such as hot-closets, hot-plates, salamanders,
grills, coffee roasters, &c., &c. Gas ranges can now be obtained upon
hire from nearly all gas companies at very low charges, in fact, the
charges can but barely cover first cost, but the reason for this low
charge is obvious. See also p. 1004.

Oil.--Oil cooking stoves are to be recommended for their convenience
where gas and the more bulky fuel, coal, are not attainable. They are
especially well adapted for camping out, picnics, &c., and in many
instances they can be recommended for domestic use. With ordinary
care, they may be said to be odourless and smokeless, very cleanly,
and the makers assert that they are very economical. They are so
constructed that neither the oil nor products of combustion in any
way come in contact with whatever is being cooked, and consequently
there is no faint or objectionable flavour. They can be stood upon a
table or in almost any position with perfect safety, and as will be
seen from the illustration (Fig. 83), every part is easily accessible.

[Illustration: 83. Rippingille’s A B C Oil Kitchener.]

Fig. 83 is Rippingille’s “A B C Oil Kitchener” (Holborn Lamp
and Stove Company, 118 Holborn, London), with oven, boiler, and
hot-plate, price 3_l._ 18_s._ 6_d._ These stoves are made in sizes
from the breakfast-cooker (15_s._) to those with 2 ovens, and
suitable for a family, costing about 5_l._ They are also made for
boiling only, in different sizes, and even fitted with a small
hot-water circulating apparatus for heating.

_Pots and Pans._--Iron is cheap, and lasts. It is all very well so
long as it is kept clean; but that seldom happens. Buy a saucepan
brush and silver sand, and see that it is used. See that your iron
saucepans are lined with tin, and not with brown rust and dirt, and
know once for all that an iron saucepan 6 months old should be as
bright inside as it was on the day when it was bought. Understand
yourself, and then try to explain to others, that a saucepan, whether
of tin, iron, or anything else, must be scrubbed both outside and in.
How common it is to see a saucepan crusted outside with soot, which
no one has ever attempted to remove. It gets red hot, and burns the
saucepan as well as its contents, and the bill of the ironmonger
grows apace, and the soup is burnt and spoilt, and every one blames
the cook, while no one thinks of the scrubber. There are not a few
cooks, old enough to know better, who direct that the scrubbing of
saucepans should be done by the hand. Why the hand is to be hardened
and the nails to be ground down to the quick, in order to do slowly
what a 6_d._ saucepan-brush would do quickly, is hard to say. Another
excellent saucepan scrubber, though not so common or so cheap as
the brush, is a small square piece of steel chainwork--a piece of
chain armour, in fact. A bunch of twigs or a wisp of straw, though
better than nothing generally, leaves something to be desired in the
way of brightness. When the soot disappears from the outside, and
the dirt from inside, half the faults of iron saucepans disappear
also. For beef tea, however, some recommend glass or earthenware--a
soda-water bottle or a jampot, if there is nothing better--to be set
inside the saucepan of boiling water, however bright it may be; for
invalids are fastidious, and beef tea always tastes of the saucepan
if possible. Tin saucepans, especially the low-priced ones, are by
no means cheap. They are often met with in the homes of the poor,
and in poor localities in towns ironmongers underbid each other
until the cost of a saucepan only reaches a few pence. How dear
these saucepans are in the long run, no one knows who has not used
them on the open fireplace, upon which in these poor homes they are
generally placed. It is impossible to fry in them without risk of
losing the bottom; it is difficult to stew, because the heat passes
through very rapidly. Tin is little trouble to clean, so there is
no excuse for dirt or dulness, outside or in. The fault often lies
in leaving the lid on after cleaning is done, and the result is
damp and rust. All saucepans should be kept in a dry place, bottom
upwards, and without their lids; if they are dried before the fire so
much the better. A clean tin saucepan may be used for many purposes
where iron is inadmissible; but “clean” is not to be interpreted as
meaning a saucepan carelessly wiped out with a greasy cloth, and
left to dry or to rust as chance may befall. Rust and dirt are not
flavourless articles of cookery. Suppose clear soup or jelly is to be
made. In an iron pan it will be not clear, but thick; in a clean tin
pan or even a fish-kettle it will be not the fault of the pan, but
of the cook, if the jelly be not as clear as glass. The least speck
of rust, the smallest remainder of yesterday’s cooking will spoil
either jelly or soup. Why, indeed, should not tin serve all purposes,
since it is with tin that all copper pans are (or should be) lined?
And copper pans are the _ne plus ultra_ of culinary furniture. The
grand difference lies in the fact that tin pans are thin, the heat
penetrates them quickly, and therefore they are apt to burn, while
copper is thick and a slow conductor of heat. Perhaps something may
also be said on the score of shape. There is an ugly seam round the
bottom of tin pans, where rust is likely to collect; and the best
block-tin saucepans are generally made with sides sloping in towards
the top, as if for the express purpose of producing lumps in all
gravies and rust in all weathers. Why this form ever was or continues
to be fashionable, it is not easy to say. There is, however, another
argument in favour of copper stewpans, namely this--that cooks will
take the trouble to clean them, while they think half the time and
labour wasted on tin, which can be replaced at small cost. Let us
grant, as readily as you please, that copper is the best material;
still it is certain that its cost will always place it out of reach
of modest housewives; therefore the first substitute is plenty of
soap, sand, and labour expended on iron or tin. The next substitute
and a more common one, is enamel-lined iron. The difficulties here
are two. First, the enamel is apt to chip, when all the defects of
the native iron appear; secondly, the heat quickly penetrates, and
is not quickly evaporated. An enamelled pan keeps its contents at
boiling heat for some time after it is removed from the fire. It very
often boils over, and it needs careful watching to prevent burning.
An enamelled pan is not one to be selected for slow stewing. The
substitute in many ways best of all is but little used in England.
Earthenware pots have the many advantages of being cheap to buy, easy
to clean, slow to burn, giving no unpleasant flavour to anything
cooked. Perhaps the reason of their unpopularity is to be sought in
the prevalence of open fires, and the fact that not all earthenware
will stand any closer proximity to the fire than the top of an iron
stove. Those delicate brown porcelain cooking utensils lined with
white are excellent for delicate cookery on a close stove, but they
are not suited to the rough wear and tear of an every-day kitchen,
and considering their fragility, one cannot call them cheap. What we
want is good strong brown earthenware, glazed inside, hardy enough to
be set on an open fire, strong enough to withstand a few taps, and
withal cheap enough to be readily replaced. That such a thing may be
had, every one knows who has travelled out of England and kept their
eyes open. They are common enough in Switzerland, in many parts of
Germany, and our grandmothers would have said they were common in
this country, as indeed they were 50 years ago. Though not common
now, they are still to be bought, in price ranging from a few pence
to 2_s._ One purpose for which they are particularly suited is the
making of broth or stock out of odds and ends. Earthenware may be
kept on the fire day after day, and finally lifted off the fire to
grow cold with its contents; no draining or trouble is necessary, and
no sour or metallic flavour will remain to shock the most fastidious
palate. You may make by turns jelly and oatmeal porridge, and the
same pot serves equally well for both--good for slow stewing on the
hob, but perfectly serviceable on an open fire. There is perhaps no
cooking material for common use to equal earthenware.

Copper must be lined with tin, for unlined copper, whether
clean-scoured or not, is extremely unwholesome. Upon this point much
indecision prevails in the public mind, and it is well to speak
positively, as many cases of poisoning from copper saucepans are
on record. Turning to frying-pans, there is for the impecunious
householder no refuge from iron and tin. A copper frying or sauté
pan is not found in many houses. Nevertheless, there is no occasion
to burn the outside of cutlets; and if the inside is raw, the cook
is to blame, not the metal. “Once burnt will burn again.” A new pan
does not burn; therefore, why should an old one? No frying-pan should
be washed or scoured; it should be wiped while hot with a cloth. But
this rule presupposes no scraps left on the edges, no burning on the
bottom; it assumes, in fact, that the frying be well done. If the pan
be burnt, you must scrub and scour it until it is bright, for nothing
so effectually spoils both the flavour and the appearance of cooking
as the black bits that detach themselves from the sides of dirty
pans. For omelets, copper, enamel, tin, are all used effectually by a
careful cook; while no one of the three will serve the purpose with
unskilful fingers. But every housewife who wishes first-class omelets
served on her table will do well to invest in a copper pan, since
there are few dishes to which the utensils at command of the cook
make so great a difference. Then, again, porcelain and earthenware
might be used with great advantage. The great art in making omelets
is that they shall not be cooked so slowly as to be tough, nor yet
so quickly as to be over-coloured; and the happy medium is difficult
to attain when cooking with metal that, like iron, is a very rapid
conductor of heat. English middle-class kitchens are often furnished
with a strange mixture of niggardliness and extravagance. Any one
accustomed to foreign customs will have been struck with the modest
but well-chosen _batterie de cuisine_ commonly seen abroad in houses
of the lower middle classes. There the mistress selects her own stock
by the light of her own experience; here an order is given to some
ironmonger, who furnishes the kitchen according to precedent, and
in sublime indifference as to the first principles of cookery. The
general absence of so trifling a luxury as wooden spoons may account
for the quality of the unpleasant mixture commonly known as melted
butter. And the extreme reluctance of mistresses to invest in such an
article as a frying-basket, while they waste double its cost every
week by bad frying without it, may be cited as another example of
ignorant saving (E. A. B. in the _Queen_.)

An extensive catalogue might here be given of the various appliances
used in the kitchen, such as mincing, cutting, slicing, whisking,
mixing, knife-cleaning, bread-making, and other domestic machines,
but it could serve no useful purpose. All ordinary requisites can be
purchased at any ironmonger’s, in all degrees of size and quality.
Sundry new and ingenious implements are introduced to public notice
every year, and a great many may be found in the price lists of
the large firms, such as Mappin and Webb, 18 to 22 Poultry; Farrow
and Jackson, 8 Haymarket; Spong, 226 High Holborn; Kent, 199 High
Holborn; J. Baker and Sons, 58 City Road; Wilson and Son, King
William Street, Strand; and several others. In the _Ironmonger_ for
May and June, 1885, appeared an account of an ingenious machine for
washing crockery, adapted to the needs of large establishments. See
also p. 1006.


Much useful information is to be derived from Prof. Mattieu
Williams’s Cantor Lectures on the Scientific Basis of Cookery, from
which some of the following paragraphs are borrowed.

_Roasting._--Williams shows that “in roasting a joint before the fire
without any screen, the radiant heat from the coal is only used; the
meat is heated only on one side, that next to the fire, and, as it
turns round, is radiating its heat away from the other side to the
wall, &c., of the kitchen. If a meat screen of polished metal is
placed behind the meat, the rays of heat not intercepted by the meat
itself are received upon the screen, and reflected back towards the
meat, and thus both sides are heated.”

There is an old rule well known all over the world of cookery, and
that is, “white meats well done, black meats underdone;” this applies
to all meats of the four as well as of the two-legged sort, but then
it means properly well done, and properly underdone. To attain this
end the first thing which demands attention is the making up of the
fire. It should be regulated according to the size and the nature of
the article which is to be roasted, and should be so managed as to
last all-aglow the whole length of time which the roasting will take.
In the case of joints of meat the following are the main points to
be attended to. The joint should be trimmed neatly; cut off the end
or flaps of a sirloin of beef (this makes a very good stew for the
kitchen dinner, or maybe used to make stock with greater advantage
than roasting it with the joint in the point of view both of economy
and of taste), a piece of buttered paper should be tied on with
string over the fat, and not removed until just before the joint is
done. If it can possibly be avoided do not use skewers to fix up the
joints, but use string instead; and when practicable perpendicular
roasting is preferable to horizontal, as not requiring the use of the
spit. Place the meat at first 18 in. from the fire, or even farther
off if it be a large joint and the fire greater in proportion. When
the meat is well warmed, gradually bring it nearer, and from that
time never cease basting the joint at regular intervals, but this you
must not overdo. The time that meat takes to roast is usually set
down at 15-20 minutes for every lb. the joint weighs, but this is
a very broad rule, so many circumstances tending to modify it. The
quality of the meat, the age of it, whether it be fresh killed or
not, the season of the year, the nature of the fire, and the position
of it as regards currents of air in the kitchen, must all be taken
into consideration. One thing only is certain, and that is, that when
the joint begins to smoke it is nearly if not quite done, and at
this stage 2-3 minutes more or less at the fire will make or mar the
success of the joint as a piece of artistic roasting. (The G. C.)

In Ovens.--“The oven is an apparatus for cooking by radiation. In
this case the meat or other object of cookery receives radiant heat
from the heated walls of the oven. If this chamber, with radiant
walls, be so arranged that the heat shall be radiated equally on all
sides, and is capable of regulation, it becomes a roaster, which
theoretically does its work more perfectly than an open fire, even
when aided by a screen.” (Williams.)

Williams has “not the slightest hesitation in affirming that
moderate-sized joints properly roasted in a closed chamber, are far
better than similar joints cooked with the utmost skill in front of a
fire. The smaller the joint, the greater the advantage of the closed

Roasting-ovens are now attached to all the best forms of kitcheners.

On one point in the philosophy of roasting, Williams differs from
Rumford. He thinks “it desirable--and has tested this theory
experimentally--to begin at a temperature above that which is to be
maintained throughout the roasting. The object of this is to produce
a crust on the surface of the meat that shall partially seal it, and
keep in the juices as much as possible. Then the temperature may
fall to the average, which should be well kept up, and rather raised
towards the last. This comes about automatically in the ordinary
course of cooking with a roasting-oven.”

He adds that “sealing is more demanded by a joint of beef than by one
of mutton of given size, because in the beef there is more of cut
surface, exposing the ends of the fibres of the meat. In a leg of
mutton, for example, this exposure is only at one end, the rest is
partially protected by the skin of the leg.”

_Basting._--“The _rationale_ of basting appears to be that it assists
in the sealing, and diminishes the evaporation of the juices of the
meat, the chief difference between well-roasted and ill-roasted
meat depending upon this.” In roasting, “the meat is stewed in its
own juices. The flavour depends on this: no water being used, these
juices are not diluted--they are, on the contrary, more or less
concentrated by evaporation; but if this evaporation be carried too
far, a drying-up occurs, and this desiccation is accompanied with
toughness and indigestibility, as well as sacrifice of flavour. The
smaller the joint, the greater the risk of such desiccation.”

_Grilling._--“This principle brings us at once to grilling, which is
another kind of roasting, i.e. of cooking by radiation. A beef steak
or mutton chop is not roasted by turning it round and round in front
of the fire, because so large a surface is exposed in proportion to
the mass, and such treatment would evaporate from that large surface
too much of the juices. Rapidity is the primary condition of success
in grilling. When a large and specially-constructed grill, placed
over a large coke or charcoal fire, is available, the heat radiated
on the exposed surface of the meat rapidly browns or carbonises the
exposed surface, and partially seals its pores.”

_Boiling._--“When water is heated in a glass vessel over a flame
where the action may be watched, bubbles are first seen growing on
the sides of the glass, gradually detaching themselves, and rising
to the surface. These are merely bubbles of air that was dissolved
in the water. After this, other and larger bubbles form on the
bottom just above the flame. At first they are flat, and continually
collapsing. Presently they become hemispherical, but still they
collapse; then they become more and more nearly spherical, and
afterwards quite spherical; afterwards they detach themselves, and
start upwards, but perish in the attempt, by collapsing somewhere
on the way. At last they reach the surface, and break there,
ejecting themselves as steam into the air. Now the water boils,
and a thermometer dipped into it registers 212° F. After this, it
matters not whether the boiling is very violent or only the gentlest
simmering, no further rise of the thermometer is perceptible, showing
that the simmering temperature and the ‘galloping’ temperature are
the same.”

“The actual cooking temperature for animal food is considerably below
the boiling point of water, and is regulated by the coagulation of
albumen, which commences at rather below 160° F., i.e. more than 50°
below the boiling point of water.”

To “apply this practically to the boiling of an egg for breakfast.
By the ordinary method of the 3 minutes’ immersion in continually
boiling water, the white becomes hard and indigestible before the
yolk is fairly warmed, and ½ minute too much, or ½ minute too little,
will nearly ruin the operation.”

“The proper mode is to place the egg in boiling water, and then
remove the saucepan from the fire altogether, and leave the egg in
the water from 10 minutes to ¼ hour. About ½ pint for 1 egg, ¾ pint
for 2 eggs, or 1 pint for 4 eggs, is the quantity demanded if the
saucepan is well covered.”

_Stewing._--“The prevailing idea in England is that stewed meat
only differs from boiled meat by being kept in the water for a
longer time--that stewing is simply protracted boiling. I venture,
nevertheless, to declare the total fallacy of this, and to assert
that, so far as flesh food is concerned, boiling and stewing are
diametrically opposite, as regards the special objects to be
attained. In boiling a joint--say, a leg of mutton--the best efforts
of the cook should be directed to retaining the juices within the
meat, and allowing the smallest possible quantity to come out into
the water. In stewing, the business is to get as much as possible out
of the meat, to separate the juices from the meat and convey them to
the water. This is the case, whether the French practice of serving
the liquid _potage_ or _bouillon_ as a separate dish, and the stewed
meat or _bouilli_ as another, or the English and Irish fashion of
serving the stewed meat in its own juices or gravy, as in the case of
stewed steak, Irish stew, &c.

“The poor French peasant does more with 1 lb. of meat, in the way of
stewing, than the English cook with three or four. The little bit of
meat, and the large supply of vegetables are placed in a pot, and
this in another vessel containing water--the _bain-marie_ or water
bath. This stands on the embers of a poor little wood fire, and is
left there till dinner-time, under conditions that render boiling
impossible, and demand little or no further attention from the cook;
consequently, the meat, when removed, has parted with its juices to
the _potage_, but is not curled up by the contraction of the hardened
albumen, nor reduced to stringy fibres. It is tender, eatable, and
enjoyable, that is, when the proper supply of saline juices of the
meat _plus_ the saline juices of the vegetables, have been taken into
the system.

“Whether the _potage_ and the meat should thus be separated, or
whether they should be stewed together, as in an Irish stew, &c., is
merely a matter of taste and custom; but that a stew should never
be boiled, nor placed in a position on the fire where boiling or
‘simmering’ is possible, should be regarded as a primary axiom in
cooking where stewing is concerned.”

_Braising._--This takes its name from the French word _braise_, the
red embers of a wood fire being so called. There are proper pans
sold for this kind of cooking, called braising-pans; they are rather
shallower than ordinary stewpans, and they have the edges of the lid
turned up to hold live coals, it being necessary to have heat from
above as well as below in braising. It is also necessary as much as
possible to exclude the air. Should there be no braising-pan in the
house it is possible to do it, but less well, in an ordinary stewpan,
which will have to be put into the oven.

_Frying._--“Frying ranks with boiling and stewing, rather than with
grilling. When properly conducted, it is one of the processes in
which the heat is communicated by convection, the medium being hot
fat instead of the hot water used in the so-called, and mis-called
‘boiling’ of meat. I say ‘when properly conducted,’ because it is too
often very improperly conducted in domestic kitchens. This is the
case whenever fish, cutlets, &c., are fried on a merely greased plate
of metal, such as a common frying-pan. Pancakes or omelettes may be
thus fried, but no kind of fish or meat. These should be immersed in
a bath of fat sufficiently deep to cover them completely. To those
who have not reasoned out the subject, such complete immersion in so
large a quantity of fat may appear likely to produce a very greasy
result. The contrary is the case.

“Let us take, as an example, the frying of a sole. On immersing this
in a bath of fat raised to a temperature above that of boiling water,
a violent hissing and crackling noise (‘frizzling’) is heard. This is
caused by a series of small explosions due to the sudden conversion
of water into steam. The water was originally on the surface and
between and within the fibres of the flesh of the sole. The continual
expansion of this water into vapour, and its outbursting, prevent
the fat from penetrating the fish, so long as the temperature is
maintained above 212° F., and thus the substance of the sole is
cooked by the steam of its own juices, and its outside is browned by
the superheated fat.

“Now, let us suppose that a merely greased plate, like the bottom
of a frying-pan, is used. Only one side of the sole is cooked at
first--the side in contact with the pan--therefore it must be turned
to cook the other side. When thus turned, the side first cooked with
its adhering fat is cooling; its steam is condensing between its
fibres, and the fat is gradually entering to supply the place of
steam, while the other side is cooking. Thus it is more greasy than
if rapidly withdrawn from the bath of hot fat, and then allowed to
drain before the steam commences to condense. A stew-pan, or any
other suitable kind of kettle, may be used, if provided with a wire
basket for lifting; or a frying-pan of the ordinary kind, if deep

To fry rissoles, or anything which requires to be fried all over at
one time, a wire basket must be used, a stewpan large enough round
to receive the basket, and deep enough to hold a sufficient quantity
of melted fat to completely cover whatever is to be fried. Place the
rissoles in the basket, set the stewpan containing the fat on the
fire, and when the fat is boiling, at once plunge the basket into it
and hold it there until they are sufficiently cooked, which will be
when they have attained a delicate golden colour. The greatest care
will be necessary in watching for the moment of boiling, this will
be when the fat ceases to bubble and splutter; it will then become
perfectly silent, and almost immediately a light blue steam will rise
from it, which is the sign of boiling, the frying must then instantly
commence, for it will soon after begin to smoke, and if put into the
fat while in this condition the rissoles would be quite spoilt, both
in colour and flavour. For cutlets, soles, or anything flat, you may
use a cutlet-pan or frying-pan and fry one side at a time. Lard,
butter, and sweet oil are all used, and for very delicate frying they
are necessary. Whitebait must be done in oil, omelettes in butter, as
also cutlets if you wish them to be particularly nice; but for most
things and for all ordinary occasions there is nothing better than
good well-clarified dripping.

_Kitchen odours._--All “greens,” to use a familiar expression,
especially cabbage, as we know, have a horrible tendency to create
noxious vapours; whilst onions, it need not be said, permeate the
remotest recesses of a building, not only while they are cooking, but
while they are being prepared for the saucepan or the frying-pan.
To thoroughly deodorise the boiling cabbage or the frying onion
is next door to impossible, but the effluvium may be mitigated. A
large piece of bread is sometimes put upon the knife’s point whilst
onions are being peeled, in order to prevent the tearful effect
which the pungent esculent produces on the eyes; and we have lately
been told in a popular cookery book that the offensive results of
cabbage boiling may be well nigh got rid of, by wrapping up in a
piece of clean white linen rag a large lump of bread, and putting it
in the saucepanful of water in which the cabbage is being cooked.
The same plan, no doubt, would be equally effective in the case of
broccoli, which, if possible, is a greater offender than cabbage in
emitting offensive fumes. The obnoxious reek is mitigated, we are
told, by some cooks, by boiling broccoli in two waters--parboiling
them to begin with; then taking them out of the saucepan, straining
them, allowing cold water to run over them for a few minutes, and
placing them in a fresh pot of boiling water. What applies here may
be extended, no doubt, with beneficial results to most greenery,
not forgetting the cauliflower--another marked offender in the way
of creating bad odour. It is, however, very frequently the careless
manner in which the water used in the boiling of vegetables is thrown
away, which produces the worst stench of which the kitchen is guilty.
Nothing is so detestable as this smell of “green water,” and the cook
who allows it to get the upper hand of her is either very careless or
very incompetent. If the water be thrown recklessly down the sink,
and no means are adopted to deodorise it, hours will elapse ere the
fumes can be dissipated, during which they will have found their way
all over the house. Where the drainage and such like appliances are
in perfect order (or, indeed, where they are not more particularly),
it should be held as an essential part of the scullery-maid’s duty
to pour gallons of fresh water, both boiling and cold, down the sink
immediately after the cabbage water. If this be done freely, and a
liberal sprinkling of Sanitas Powder or other inoffensive deodoriser
be then distributed about the sink or drain trap, we need not be
troubled, as we constantly are, by bad smells when dinner is over.


In the presence of such a number of cookery books as already exist,
it is obviously impossible to offer a selection of original recipes.
Every known dish has been subjected to variations till the list is
practically endless. The idea which has guided the writer of this
section is general utility. Many of the recipes are gleaned from the
replies of experienced housewives in the correspondence columns of
recent numbers of the ‘Queen’ newspaper; than this, no more valuable
and inexhaustible source of current information exists, and the
reader in quest of additional recipes or instructions cannot do
better than consult the weekly pages of that pre-eminent “ladies’”

=Soups.=--The foundation of all soups is or should be found in the
stockpot, an institution that is too often neglected, especially in
small households where economy is most necessary. As the nutritive
elements of all foods, both animal and vegetable, are readily
extracted by the prolonged application of hot water, it follows that
much feeding material which is of too coarse or rough a character
to be brought to table can be made useful by simmering till all its
virtue is exhausted. Hence the value of the stockpot. If the odds and
ends accumulated in the kitchen do not suffice to make the quantity
of stock required, they must be supplemented by stock prepared
specially. The following recipes for making stock are sufficient for
all ordinary needs.

_Common Stock._--(_a_) 6 lb. shin of beef, 6 qt. water. Cut all the
meat off the bones, and cut the meat across and across, and sprinkle
a teaspoonful of salt over it and put it at once into the 6 qt.
water in an earthen vessel, while you do as follows: wash and cut up
2 carrots and 2 turnips and leave them in clear water; then put at
the bottom of your soup pot (the digesters are the best) 2 slices
of bacon, a piece of butter as large as 2 walnuts, a Spanish onion
stuck all over with cloves, another cut up in rings, 2 large lumps
of white sugar, a few peppercorns, a small bunch of marjoram and
thyme tied up in muslin, as much grated lemon peel as would cover
sixpence, and then put in the carrots and turnips. Let these all be
browned at the bottom of the stockpot, stirring all the time, until
the bacon looks well enough done to be eaten, then put in the meat
and the water it has stood in, and the bones broken; leave the lid
off at first, so that you may watch for the rising of the scum,
which must be instantly removed, or the colour of your soup will
be spoiled; when you have carefully skimmed it, and no more rises,
put the lid tightly on the digester, and leave your soup to simmer
gently and evenly for 5 hours. Do not throw away the scum; it is not
dirty, provided you have wiped the shin of beef clean before you cut
it up; and this scum, although it would spoil the clearness of your
soup, is really beef-tea, and worth using in the stockpot. When the 5
hours are nearly elapsed, have ready a large kettle of quite boiling
water, then strain the soup through a close sieve into a perfectly
clean earthen jar, and immediately put back into the digester all
the contents of the sieve, and pour the kettle of boiling water upon
them, and let this stew all night. The next morning strain it into
another earthen jar, and leave it to set. The first stock is now
ready to scrape every atom of fat from the top of it, then wipe the
top with a clean soft cloth, and all the edges of the jar, then turn
it upside down on a large dish, and scrape the fat and sediment from
the other side. Wash the earthen jar, and dry well before the fire,
and then put your stock back, and you will have a perfectly clean
soup with a delicious flavour, and without requiring any clearing
with whites of eggs, which always impoverishes the soup. To colour
it, take pieces of bread, toasted very brown, and put into the stock
when you warm it: and before sending to table put a teaspoonful of
sherry at the bottom of the tureen, and pour the almost boiling
soup upon it. Of course, it must be strained, to prevent the pieces
of toast going in; and you can either use it plain, or with cut
vegetables in it. Those sold in tins are best; but they require
washing in water, and then warming in some inferior stock, and must
be well strained, and then put with the wine at the bottom of the
tureen, before you pour your soup into it. The next day scrape and
wipe your second stock, and do just the same with it, and it comes
in for gravies, for entrées, or for thick soups, and sometimes is as
clear as the first stock.

(_b_) Slack’s patent digester is the most useful and economical of
stockpots. Its management is quite simple, but care must be taken
when filling it to leave sufficient room for the steam to pass away
through the hole in the cover. A sheep’s milt is a good foundation
for stock.

(_c_) Procure from a heel shop a cowheel that has been boiled, crack
it up and simmer for several hours in salt and water; when done,
strain, and there will be about a gallon of good jelly. If the heel
is uncooked, boil till half done, then throw the first water away, or
the jelly will be too rancid for soup.

(_d_) Take about 3 lb. shin of beef, seeing that the butcher does
not send it all bone; put this into the stockpot with 2 large onions
well fried, 2 raw onions, 2 large carrots cut down the centre, a
head of celery, and a few sprigs of sweet herbs; add to this 3-4 qt.
cold water, and set it on the fire to boil; let it remain boiling
for 3-4 hours, draw it to the side, and let it simmer for the rest
of the day; in the evening strain the liquor through a sieve into a
large basin, put the rest on a dish, set both in the larder, and have
the stockpot well washed out before putting away for the night. The
next morning take the meat from the bones to use for potted meat,
put the bones and vegetables into the stockpot, together with any
bones, whether large or small, left from the previous day, trimmings
of meat, cooked or uncooked, gristle, skin, &c.: bones from poultry
and game of any kind should be used with the rest, and a ham or bacon
bone, or trimmings from a tongue, all help to improve the flavour
of the stock. Carefully skim the fat from the stock made yesterday,
measure off as much as may be required for soup, gravies, &c., during
the day, and pour the remainder into the stockpot, filling it up
with cold water (one which holds about 4 qt. is a useful size for a
moderate-sized family); freshly fried onion, well browned, must be
added every day, and every second or third day the vegetables must be
changed for fresh ones. Every morning the bones, &c., must be looked
over, taking away those in which no goodness remains as others are
added; and every now and then, when there happens to be a good supply
of fresh bones, such as perhaps a ham bone and those from a sirloin
of beef (which will be none the worse for having been previously
broiled for breakfast), it will be as well to get rid of all which
have been already used, and start afresh as before. The water in
which rice has been boiled, or in which bread has been soaked for
puddings, should all go into the stockpot, and of course that which
has been used in boiling fresh meat or poultry. Rabbit bones do not
improve stock, and those from a hare should be used by themselves.

_Clear Stock (Consommé)._--Put 2 lb. lean beef cut in small pieces,
and a fowl half roasted, and also cut in pieces, bones and all, into
a saucepan, which fill up with common stock or broth (cold). Set the
saucepan on the fire, and when the contents get hot skim the liquor
carefully, then add salt to taste, and the following vegetables cut
up in small pieces; 2 or 3 carrots, 2 onions, a head of celery (a
pinch of celery seed will do as well if no celery is procurable),
one tomato (fresh or dried), and a handful of parsley. Also add in
due proportions, and according to taste, chervil, marjoram, thyme,
cloves allspice, whole pepper, mace, and bay leaf. This done, set
the saucepan by the side of the fire to simmer very gently for at
least 4 hours; then strain the liquor through a cloth, free it
absolutely from fat, and clarify with white of egg or raw meat.

_Fish Stock._--(_a_) Take 2 lb. any kind of fish, such as skate,
plaice, flounders, small eels, or the trimmings of soles that have
been filleted, pack them into a saucepan with a head of parsley
including the root, a head of celery, 2 blades of mace, a few cloves,
some white pepper, salt to taste, and a bay leaf; put in as much
cold water as will cover the contents of the saucepan, and set it
to simmer gently for 2 hours, then strain off the liquor and it is
ready. A small onion may be put in with the other vegetables. (The G.

(_b_) Put the bones, trimmings, and skin of any fish you may have
into the liquor in which fish has boiled, with a suitable assortment
of vegetables and flavouring herbs, a few peppercorns, a little
spice, and boil the whole for 2 hours. Strain it off, add to each
quart 1 oz. boiled rice, a teacupful of milk, and half a teaspoonful
of finely chopped parsley. Serve at once. Small pieces of cooked fish
improve the soup. If it is intended to make this soup, the liquor
must not be made very salt, nor acid with vinegar. This is a slight
drawback, for these expedients both have the effect of making the
flesh firm and flaky. It is said that fish is never so good as when
boiled in sea water, and whether that be true or not, it certainly is
a good plan to make the water decidedly brackish to boil white fish
like cod.

_Gravy Stock._--Place a layer of slices of onion in a saucepan,
holding a gallon, over this a layer of fat bacon, and over all about
2 lb. shin of beef chopped up in small pieces; 1 pint common stock,
or even water, being poured on the whole, set the saucepan on the
fire for 1 hour, or until the liquor is almost evaporated--what is
called reduced to a “glaze”--then add sufficient cold common stock or
cold water to cover the contents of the saucepan, and 2 or 3 carrots
cut in slices, a leek, a head of celery (when in season), or some
celery seed, a handful of parsley, half a clove of garlic, a sprig of
marjoram and thyme, a bay leaf, 4 or 5 cloves, white pepper and salt
to taste. After boiling about 3 hours, strain off the liquor, and,
being absolutely freed from fat, it is ready for use.

_Veal or White Stock._--Toss 2 onions sliced and 1 lb. lean veal cut
in small pieces in a saucepan with some butter until they assume a
light colour, then add ½ lb. ham chopped up small, and moisten with a
pint of common stock cold and perfectly free from fat. Let the liquor
reduce almost to a glaze, but not quite; then add 2 qt. cold common
stock, a knuckle of veal or 2 calves’ feet chopped up, 2 carrots, a
head of celery, parsley, bay leaf, thyme, mace, pepper, and salt, all
in due proportions. After 2-3 hours’ boiling, strain free from fat,
and it is ready.

_Vegetable Stock._--Take some carrots, turnips, onions, leeks, and
celery, in equal quantities; cut them up into small pieces, and toss
them in plenty of butter for ½ hour; then add 2 heads of lettuce
shred fine, some parsley, and chervil, a little thyme, marjoram, and
tarragon, in judicious proportions; toss them a little longer, and
then add as much water as you want stock; pepper, salt, cloves, mace
to taste, and a pinch of sugar; let the whole stew gently for some
hours, then strain the liquor through a cloth. A couple of tomatoes
(either from a tin or fresh), or 2 or 3 spoonfuls of _conserve de
tomates_, is a great improvement.

_White Stock._--See Veal Stock.

_Clarifying Stock._--(_a_) For 1 qt. take the white of an egg, beat
it up with a cupful of soup (cold), then add the rest, and beat it on
the fire with an egg whisk; when it boils, strain through a piece of

(_b_) For same quantity, mince, not too finely, 1 oz. lean raw beef,
add it to the liquor and set it on the fire in a saucepan; when it
boils, strain it as above. Liver may be used instead of beef, and the
white of egg may be used in addition to either. If the soup does not
turn out clear enough, the operation of clarifying must be repeated.

With stock as a basis, a great variety of soups are made, and
generally named from the particular vegetable or dainty employed to
give the desired flavour. Following are some recipes.

_Apple Soup._--Boil apples with their cores until quite soft with
slices of bread and some lemon peel in sufficient water. Strain
through a sieve, add sugar, a glass of wine and some powdered
cinnamon or nutmeg. Stir in yolks of eggs or cream, if approved.

_Apple and Currant Soup._--Proceed with apples, bread, and the lemon
peel as in last recipe. After straining, boil again with currants,
a cup of milk, and the requisite sugar, with a small teaspoonful of
aniseeds, if approved. A few cloves with the first boiling is an
improvement. Another way is to leave out the spice, and when the soup
is ready for serving, stir in some pounded sweet and bitter almonds.

_Artichoke Soup (d’artichauts)._--Boil 3 lb. Jerusalem artichokes
in 1 qt. milk, adding to it about a teacupful of water. When the
artichokes have become very soft, rub them through a sieve, and add
a little pepper and salt and a few grains of cayenne. Just before
serving, stir in ¼ pint cream; if not thick enough, add a little
flour and butter. Serve with bread cut in small dice and fried in
butter, to be handed round with the soup.

_Asparagus Soup (d’asperges)._--Take 50 asparagus heads (called sprue
asparagus), boil it in a saucepan with 3 pints stock free from fat.
When done, remove the asparagus, pound in a mortar, and pass through
a hair sieve. Melt about 1½ oz. butter in a saucepan on the fire, and
mix with it 2 tablespoonfuls flour; add a little sugar, pepper, and
salt, the asparagus pulp, and all the stock in which the asparagus
was boiled. Let the whole boil up, adding as much more stock as will
make the soup of the right consistency. Then put in a little spinach
greening, and lastly a small pat of fresh butter, or stir in ½ gill
cream. Serve over small dice of bread fried in butter.

_Barley Soup (d’orge)._--Cut up in small pieces carrots, turnips,
onions, leeks, and celery in equal quantities; toss them in plenty of
butter for ½ hour; add 2 heads of lettuce finely shredded, parsley,
chervil, a sprig of marjoram; put in 2 qt. boiling water, pepper,
salt, a few cloves, and a pinch of sugar; let the whole simmer for
2 hours, then strain the liquor through a cloth. Boil 1 pint pearl
barley in 1 qt. of this stock till it is reduced to a pulp, pass it
through a hair sieve, and add as much more stock as will be required
to make the purée of the consistency of cream; put the soup on the
fire, when it boils stir into it, off the fire, the yolk of an egg
beaten up with a gill of cream; add ½ pat of fresh butter, and serve
with small dice of bread fried in butter.

_Batter-cream Soup._--Mix 2-3 tablespoonfuls flour with water enough
to make as thick a batter as you can stir, then add as many eggs as
there are spoonfuls of flour, and stir well. Have ready some boiling
broth which has been seasoned and strained; pour it into the batter,
stirring all the while; set it over the fire to boil a few minutes,
and serve.

_Bean Soup._--See Haricot.

_Beer Soup._--Simmer together 2 qt. beer, not bitter, a stick of
cinnamon, a few cloves, the thin rind of a lemon, and sugar to taste.
Beat in a tureen or bowl the yolks of 6 eggs and ½ pint cream. Strain
on these the scalding beer, stirring all to a foam with the wire
whisk. Serve hot, with toast.

_Birds’-nests Soup._--One bird’s nest is needed for each person; soak
for 12 hours in fresh water; drain and wipe, separating the fibres,
and carefully removing all feathers &c., by washing through several
waters, until the nests are perfectly clean. Put them in a saucepan,
cover with chicken broth, place the saucepan in a bain-marie, and
cook very gently for 2 hours in the broth. At the moment of serving,
place the nests in a soup dish, and cover with enough very rich,
clear, hot chicken broth for the number of guests. Add pepper and
salt to taste, and serve at once.

_Bone Soup._--Take a good quantity of bones of any kind, cover with
water, add carrots, celery, a bunch of all kinds of herbs, a little
parsley, onions, a blade or two of mace, and a few cloves, according
to the quantity. Make it boil up quick, then pour in a little cold
water to make the scum rise, and skim just as you would clear soup.
Boil for several hours, then strain off and let it stand till next
day. Take off the grease, whip up the whites of 2 eggs in a little
cold water, add the shells, and beat all well together in the soup;
set it on the fire to boil for ½ hour, till it looks clear, and
strain off. Do not let it boil too fast.

_Bonne Femme Soup._--Cut up a good-sized onion into very thin rounds,
and place these in a saucepan with a good allowance of butter.
Take care not to let the onion get brown, and when it is half done
throw in 2-3 handfuls of sorrel, 1 lettuce, and a small quantity
of chervil, all finely cut; add pepper, salt, a little nutmeg, and
keep stirring until the vegetables are nearly done. Then put in 1
tablespoonful pounded loaf sugar, and half a cupful of stock or
broth free from fat. Let the mixture reduce nearly to a glaze, when
about 1 qt. of stock or broth of the same kind as that used before
should be added, and, after the soup has given one boil, it can be
put aside until the time of serving. Meanwhile prepare about 18 very
thin slices of bread, about 1 in. wide and 2 in. long, taking care
that they have a crust along one of their sides. Dry these slices
in the oven. When it is time to send up the soup, first remove the
superfluous fat from it, then set it to boil, and when it boils take
it off the fire and stir into it the yolks of 2 or 3 eggs beaten up
with ¼ pint of cream or milk. Pour the soup over the slices of bread,
and serve in 3 minutes. (The G. C.)

_Brunoise Soup._--Take equal parts of carrots, turnips, onions, and
celery; cut them all in the shape of very small dice. Put a good
piece of butter in a saucepan, with a little pepper and salt, and a
teaspoonful of powdered lump sugar. Toss the carrots in this till
they begin to take colour; then put in the celery, after a little
time the turnips, and then the onions. When all the vegetables are
equally coloured, add as much stock as you want soup, and set the
saucepan by the side of the fire to simmer gently for 2 hours. Then
skim, and serve. (The G. C.)

_Calf’s Head Soup._--Having well washed and soaked the head, put it
on the fire in cold water, and simmer it 2½ hours from the time of
its coming to a scalding heat. When quite done, take it out. Cut the
meat off in neat slices; slice the tongue also, and take out the
brains. Throw back the bones into the soup. Dry a pinch of saffron,
rub it to powder, put it in the soup, with a small wineglassful of
pale vinegar, a tablespoonful of sugar, a little nutmeg, and salt to
taste. Shred parsley may be added if approved. The brains, divided
into small pieces, must be put into the tureen, with 3 or 4 yolks of
eggs beaten, and the scalding soup poured on them. Dip the slices of
meat in egg and breadcrumbs, fry them a delicate brown in butter, and
serve them after the soup, with any white vegetable.

_Carrot Soup (Crécy, Nivernaise)._--Fry a large onion a nice brown
colour without burning it, scrape, wash, and well dry 2 or 3 large
carrots, cutting out all specks; cut them into thin slices and put
them into a stewpan with about 3 pints of stock, let them cook gently
over the fire until quite tender, then strain them from the soup, rub
them through a tammy with the fried onion back into the soup, warm
it again, and season with a very little pepper and salt. Serve with
fried croutons on a napkin in a plate to hand round with it. This
soup should be made the day before or early in the day on which it is
to be used; this gives the fat in which the onions have been fried
time to rise to the top, and it can easily be removed when cold. If a
very nice colour is wished, only the red parts of the carrots should
be used, of course more carrots will then be required; it should be
of about the consistency of pea soup. Almost any other vegetable
suitable for a purée may be used in the same way, such as turnip,
parsnip, vegetable marrow, or potato; or if the stock chance not
to be particularly good, it may be thickened either with semolina,
tapioca, or sago in the proportion of about three ounces to a quart
of stock. For semolina, drop it into the stock when boiling, keep
stirring it, and let it simmer gently for about ½ hour. Sago should
be washed in boiling water, and added gradually to the boiling stock,
stirring and simmering until perfectly soft and transparent. Tapioca
must be put into the stock while cold, and must be allowed to boil
gradually, it must then be simmered gently till quite soft as for
sago; but even greater care will be necessary to keep stirring, or
the tapioca will cling together and be lumpy. Should there not be
likely to be any sufficiently good stock for next day’s dinner, an
excellent soup, as well as a most useful cold dish for family use,
may be made by stewing a piece of the thick brisket of beef the day
before the soup is wanted. To 6 lb. of beef allow 3 large onions, 2
medium-sized carrots, 12 cloves, a sprig or two of parsley, and a
tiny bunch of sweet herbs tied in muslin. Fry one of the onions a
dark brown, without burning it, slice up one of the carrots and the
remaining onions into a large stewpan, adding the second carrot,
merely cut into 2 or 3 pieces, add a small piece of sweet dripping,
and set the stewpan on the fire, stirring the vegetables until they
are about half cooked, and are slightly browned; then take out half
the vegetables; to those remaining in the stewpan add half the
fried onion, 6 of the cloves, the bunch of herbs, and the parsley;
slightly rub the beef with a small quantity of salt, place it above
the vegetables, adding those that were taken from the stewpan, the
other half of the fried onion, and 6 cloves, to rest on the top of
the beef. Pour in as much of any stock you may happen to have as will
well cover the beef, or, if you have no stock, use cold water; set
it on the fire, which should not be a very fierce one, and let it
remain till it begins to bubble; then remove it to the side, and let
it remain simmering for 4-5 hours, or until done enough to be able
to draw out the bones; it will require watching to ascertain this,
as, when once tender enough for this, it should not cook any more.
When the bones are removed, set the beef in a cool place between 2
dishes, with a heavy weight on the top; the next day it will be ready
to trim and glaze, and serve as pressed beef. The soup and vegetables
should be poured into a basin to stand all night; in the morning
remove the fat which has risen to the top, warm the soup, and strain
the vegetables from it. Trim off the outer discoloured parts of the
larger pieces of carrot and cut them into thin slips, putting them
back into the soup to be served in it; the rest of the vegetables may
go into the stockpot, as there will still be much goodness in them. A
slight shake of pepper will complete the soup, which should be a dark
brown gravy soup of excellent flavour. If preferred to the carrots,
a small quantity of Naples macaroni may be served in it; boil it in
water till tender, then strain it and cut it into fine rings and add
it to the soup.

_Cauliflower Soup._--Make a clear white soup of mutton, or veal,
properly seasoned with salt and white pepper. Mix 2 or 3 spoonfuls of
flour in milk to thicken the soup to the consistence of cream. Break
up a cauliflower into small tufts; boil them in salted water; drain
carefully, and add them unbroken to the soup when about to serve.
If extra richness is desired, add the yolks of 2 or 3 eggs, with a
little cream beaten up.

_Celery Soup._--Put into a saucepan the carcase and other remnants
of a roast fowl, with a piece of ham or bacon, and a couple of heads
of celery (reserving a few of the best pieces to be sliced finely,
boiled in stock, and served in the soup). Fill up with stock and let
it simmer 2-3 hours, then strain, clarify with white of egg or a
little raw meat, and serve with celery.

_Cheap Soups._--These are given more especially for the benefit of
those who have charge of soup kitchens for the poor in winter. Many
hints, however, may be gained from them, and some are well adapted
for households with small means.

(_a_) Take the liquor of meat boiled the day before, with the bones
of leg and shin of beef, add to the liquor as much water as will make
it 130 qt. and also the meat of 10 stone of leg and shin of beef and
2 ox heads cut into pieces, add 2 bunches of carrots, 4 bunches of
turnips, 2 bunches of leeks, ½ peck of onions, a bunch of celery, ½
lb. pepper, and some salt. To be boiled for 6 hours. Either oatmeal,
barley, or peas may be put in to thicken it if necessary.

(_b_) Wash 1 qt. Scotch barley or split peas, put them into a large
saucepan or fish-kettle with 3 gal. water, add 3 large Portugal or
Spanish onions cut into quarters, 6 large carrots, 6 or 8 turnips,
herbs, pepper, salt, and allspice according to taste, one ox heel
well divided, 7 lb. shin of beef; boil all together for 8-10 hours.
It can be made cheaper and equally good by substituting for the shin
of beef a 4 lb. tin of Australian beef or mutton, but this must be
added only so as to mix in at the last with the other ingredients.
Being thoroughly cooked in Australia, and free from bone, skin, and
gristle, it is spoiled if it is cooked more than enough to make it
hot for use. This beef or mutton is enveloped in its own jelly.

(_c_) Be most particular that the kitchen maid keeps every drop of
water in which any meat is boiled; put this in the boiler, and fill
up with water. When this boils, put in a few pieces of meat, 10 lb.
to the 20 gal. (get 30 lb. of neck and shoulder pieces of beef once
a week for it, and slightly salt them), some salt, and either pearl
barley, groats, or oatmeal; whilst these are boiling, cut up some
turnips and carrots in small pieces, say ½ in. square, cabbage and
leeks, not cut too fine. These add to the soup, and boil all for 2
hours. The outer stalks of celery, if kept, make a great addition.
Then take out the meat, and cut it up into small portions, putting
one or two pieces into the can with the soup, when given to the poor.

(_d_) Put 2 oz. dripping into a saucepan capable of holding 2 gal.
water, with ¼ lb. leg of beef, without bones, cut into square pieces
about ½ in., and two middling-sized onions peeled and sliced; set the
saucepan on the fire, and stir the contents round for a few minutes
until fried lightly brown; then add (ready washed) the peelings of
2 turnips, 15 green leaves or tops of celery, and the green part of
2 leeks--the whole of which are usually thrown away; cut the above
vegetables in small pieces and throw them into the saucepan with the
other ingredients, stirring them occasionally; then add ½ lb. common
flour (any farinaceous substance would do), ½ lb. pearl or Scotch
barley, mixing all well together; then add 2 gal. water seasoned with
3 oz. salt and ¼ oz. brown sugar; stir it occasionally until boiling,
and then allow it to simmer for 3 hours gently. You may use all kinds
of vegetables cut aslant.

_Cherry Soup._--Use black cherries, and proceed as for plum soup.
Put a few cloves in at first; 1 lb. cherries to 1 qt. water will be
found very good. After straining, break some of the stones, and put
the kernels into the soup. Add also a few whole cherries towards the
last, only long enough to soften them.

_Chestnut Soup (de marrons)._--Boil ½-1 lb. chestnuts until they will
peel easily. Put them in a stewpan, sprinkle with salt, and leave to
steam soft and mealy. Work through a wire sieve; put butter half the
size of an egg in a stewpan, and when it is melted add a small finely
minced onion and a few mushrooms. Dredge in a tablespoonful of flour,
put in the chestnuts, and stir in enough white or brown soup to give
it the consistency of a creamy batter; let it boil up. Serve with
sippets of toast or any other soup accompaniment. As a thickening or
purée for any kind of good white soup, chestnuts are very delicate.
They take less time to cook if the outer rind is peeled off first,
and when they have had a scald scrape off the inner peel, boil, and
steam them dry; then pass them through a sieve. About a pint will
thicken a soup for a small pastry.

_Chicken Soup (Sévigné, de volaille, à la reine)._--(_a_) Cut some
carrots in slices, and with a column cut out of these a number of
discs ¼ in. diameter. Cut similar discs out of some leeks, celery,
and sorrel leaves; make an equal quantity (about a wineglassful) of
each, and parboil them separately in salted water, leaving the leeks
and sorrel discs in the water until wanted. Take 3 pints white stock
made with poultry and quite free from grease; when boiling hot put
the vegetables into it, then a few tarragon leaves cut small, and a
little chervil picked out leaf by leaf. Beat up the strained yolks of
4 eggs with ½ gill cream, stir into them a little of the soup, and
then quickly stir in the whole into the soup off the fire, and serve.

(_b_) See Poultry Soup.

_Clear Soup (Consommé)._--Order in 7 lb. shin of beef (the bones
must be broken), and 2 lb. veal, prepare about 8 large onions, 6
carrots, thyme, parsley, cloves, and bay leaves, head or stick of
celery, 6 peppercorns. Order your meat, &c., the day before, so that
you have it in the house early. First cut up the meat, dividing
it from the bones, and casting away all gristle, veins, and fat,
then well wash the whole in a basin of cold water. Put aside 1 lb.
of the best of the beef, and the whole of the veal; keep them for
clearing the soup. Put a little butter, size of a walnut, into a
large saucepan to fry the onions in, cutting up and casting in, when
the butter has melted, 8 small or 1 large onion. Let them fry till
quite brown. While this is doing take out the meat from the basin of
water (which beforehand must be washed well with the hand, so as to
remove all grease and impurity), take a clean cloth and dry the meat
carefully piece by piece; separate it from the bones. First, put the
bits of meat (without any water) in, and let them stew for ½ hour,
then add to them the bones, and let them stew for ½ hour; remember
every few minutes to stir with a wooden spoon, or it will burn at
the bottom of the saucepan. Then put the water, 16 tumblers, 1 pint
water to 1 lb. meat. This for the best soup, for a dinner party, or
for strengthening an invalid. Skim as long as the scum rises; do not
keep the lid on. After it is thoroughly skimmed, put in a bunch made
of a little thyme, parsley, and bay leaves, a stick of celery (or,
if out of season, a muslin bag of seed), also throw in 4 good-sized
onions, one of which stick with 4 cloves; then for eleven hours let
it simmer, then take it off the fire (a good bright fire must be kept
up all day), and strain it through a hair sieve, letting it remain
all night. Next morning remove all fat from the surface with a spoon;
if, as sometimes happens in hot weather, small bits of fat stick to
the surface, take kitchen paper and quickly press it on the places;
the fat in this way is easily removed. After this take a clean cloth
dipped in boiling water, and wipe the top of the stock over, and
the sides of the basin. When all the fat is removed put it into a
saucepan (there is always a dark sediment at the bottom of the basin,
which must be cast away; care must therefore be taken when spooning
out the stock not to disturb this). Put the saucepan on the fire and
let it get nearly to a boil; it must never boil till the very last;
then put in the raw beef and veal, which must be prepared carefully,
as much depends on how this is done. In hot weather keep the clearing
meat till wanted in a cool place in salt and water, so as to keep
fresh overnight. Take 3 eggs and break them (putting away the yolks,
of which soup custard can be made afterwards), and mix the whites in
a basin with the shells, and if possible collect beforehand other
eggshells. Wash the shells in hot water, mash them, and put them
into the basin. Chop up finely 1 large onion, 2 carrots, and with a
tablespoonful of water mix all these together in the basin with the
hands till all are well mixed; when it comes to a froth move the soup
close to the fire, and when just on the boil watch it carefully, so
that it does not boil too rapidly; take a whisk, and gradually pour
in all that is in the basin with one hand, while whisking the soup
briskly with the other, as if not whisked all the time the whites
of egg set, and it does not clear. Remove it again, so as only to
simmer. Put in 2 drops of colouring; go on whisking till it just
comes to the boil after putting in the raw beef, &c.; remove it now
off the fire, and let it simmer gently for an hour. Take the soup now
off the fire altogether, and bring in a large basin. Take a clean
napkin (the finer the better; it is always better than a tammy, as
it is much finer), and be careful before using to wash it well in
hot water, thereby removing all starch and soap, as often a small
neglect in these details, after no end of previous trouble, is the
cause of the soup not being perfectly clear. Lay the napkin over the
top of the basin, and bring the saucepan to its side, and ladle out
with a cup the soup into the basin, keeping the napkin from sinking;
some one must hold it while the soup is being put in. Take care
not to ladle out too fast, as it then does not give full time to
strain gradually. When all is strained through, raise the napkin--in
which, of course, there is still a quantity of stock--tie the ends
on a hook, placing the basin below, and for several hours, till
all is removed, let it drop in.--Hints: Time for making, 24 hours.
First, say, begin at 11 A.M., and remove at 10 at night; strain all
night. Next day at 11 put on soup, preparing beforehand the raw beef
and veal, &c.; take it off at 1 o’clock. No salt or turnip while
making; turnips always turn the stock sour. Put salt in just before
serving, and so also macaroni and vegetables. They must be boiled
by themselves in a small saucepan; when done plunge them into cold
water to remove all scum, and have ready a basin of clear boiling
water in which to put them again; after which, the last thing, take
them out and lay them at the bottom of the tureen, pouring the soup
on the top and adding the salt. From the meat and bones of the first
day’s straining, excellent thin soup can be made called seconds,
and, though not half so strong, it is very good. With the yolks of
the eggs before mentioned, soup custard can be made as follows: Take
the yolks of 3 eggs, mix them with a little stock, pepper and salt,
and put the whole into a mould, cover it over with a piece of paper,
and let it steam for about five minutes; then take it out and let
it cool. Then cut it into small squares evenly, and, the last thing
after the soup is hotted, drop them in.

_Clear Soup with Custard (Royale)._--Mix the yolks of 6 eggs with
rather less than 1 gill cold water and a pinch of salt; strain the
mixture, and divide it into 3 equal parts; colour one with some
cochineal, the other with spinach greening, and leave the third
plain. Put them into 3 small plain moulds, previously buttered, and
set these in a pan of hot water, which place on the fire to boil
just long enough to set the mixture. When the water in the saucepan
has become quite cold, turn out the contents of each mould on to
a wet napkin, and you will have 3 small cakes of firm custard,
respectively green, red, and yellow. Cut them into small dice, and,
handling them in the gentlest possible manner, spread them out on a
plate to be kept till wanted. At the time of serving put a clear and
well-flavoured consommé into the soup tureen; slip in carefully the
custard dice, and serve at once.

_Clear Soup with Poached Eggs (aux œufs pochés)._--Cut up in small
pieces 1 lb. lean veal, put it into a saucepan with a couple of
onions, 2 or 3 carrots, a head of celery, all cut in small pieces,
and a large piece of butter. Shake the saucepan on the fire until
the contents have taken a colour, moisten with ½ pint common stock
(hot) and keep on stirring over the fire for some time longer, adding
during the process ½ lb. of ham cut up small. Then take the saucepan
off the fire, and when the contents are cold pile up on them a small
knuckle of veal chopped up, bones and all, into small pieces; fill up
the saucepan with common stock (cold), and add parsley, sweet herbs,
spices, pepper and salt, in due proportions. Set the saucepan to
simmer gently by the side of the fire for about 3 hours, then strain
the liquor. When cold free it absolutely from fat, and to every quart
of liquor add the white of an egg whisked to froth, keep on beating
the liquor on the fire at intervals, and as soon as it boils strain
it through a fine tammy or a napkin. Put into a shallow sauté pan
some water salted to taste, a little vinegar, a few peppercorns, and
a few leaves of parsley. As soon as the water approaches boiling
point (it should never be allowed to boil), poach some eggs (one
for each person and one over) in it, just long enough to set the
yolk slightly. Take out each egg with a slice, brush it clean with
a paste brush, and cut it with a round fluted paste cutter, about
2 in. in diameter, so as to get all the eggs a uniform shape, and
leave neither too much nor too little white round them. Turn the egg
over carefully, brush it clean, and lay it in the soup tureen ready
filled with boiling-hot clear soup. Add a few leaves of tarragon and
chervil, and serve.

_Clear Soup with Quenelles._--Put into a saucepan 1 gill water, a
pinch of salt, and a small piece of butter; when the water boils stir
in as much flour as will form a paste, put the mixture away to get
cold. Take ½ lb. lean veal, cut it into small pieces, and pound it in
a mortar; add 3 oz. butter and 2 oz. the paste, and thoroughly mix
the whole in the mortar, adding during the process the yolks of 2 and
the white of 1 egg, salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste; pass
the mixture through a sieve, work a little cream into it, and, by
means of 2 teaspoons, shape it in pieces the size of pigeons’ eggs;
lay these carefully in a saucepan, pour in at the side sufficient
boiling stock to cover them, and let them cook gently for a few
minutes. Have the tureen ready filled with well-flavoured clear
stock, boiling hot; slip the quenelles into it (with or without the
stock they are boiled in), and serve.

_Cock-a-Leekie Soup._--Wash well 2 or 3 bunches of leeks (if old
scald them in boiling water), take off the roots and part of the
heads, and cut them into lengths of about 1 in. Put half the quantity
into a pot with 5 qt. stock, and a fowl trussed for boiling, and
allow them to simmer gently. In ½ hour add the remaining leeks, and
let all simmer for 3 or 4 hours longer. It must be carefully skimmed
and seasoned to taste. To serve the fowl carve neatly, placing
the pieces in the tureen, and pouring over them the soup. This is
sufficient for 10 persons.

_Cockle Soup (de clovisses)._--Cockles require a good deal of care
in cleansing. They must be well scrubbed in 2 or 3 waters until the
shells are quite clean, and must then soak for some hours in salt
and water. After this put a little hot water at the bottom of a
large saucepan, place the cockles in it, and cover them over with a
clean cloth; set it on a moderate fire, or rather, hold the saucepan
over the fire, for it must be kept moving constantly or the cockles
will burn. Keep looking at them, and as each shell opens remove it
from the pan. When all are open, remove the fish from the shells,
straining the liquor from them. Having trimmed the cockles, put the
delicate parts into the soup tureen. Put the trimmings into the
liquor. Put into another stewpan a ¼ lb. butter, let it melt over
the fire, add 6 oz. flour, stirring it in, still holding it over
the fire, but taking care to keep the mixture quite white; let this
stand until cool, then add the liquor and trimmings of the cockles,
1 qt. milk, and 2 qt. white stock. Stir this over the fire until it
boils, then add a tablespoonful of Harvey sauce, a dessertspoonful of
essence of anchovy, a blade of mace, 6 peppercorns, and a teaspoonful
of salt. Let this boil quickly for 10 minutes, skim well, and just
before serving add 1 gill cream; strain through a hair sieve over the
cockles, and serve. About 4 dozen cockles will be required or 6 if
very small.

_Coconut Soup._--This is a favourite soup in India, and might be more
frequently tasted in England than it is, especially by vegetarians.
It is made thus: Scrape or grate fine the inside of 2 well-ripened
coconuts, put the scrapings into a saucepan with 2 qt. milk, add
a blade of mace; let it simmer very gently for about ½ hour, then
strain it through a fine sieve; have ready beaten the yolks of 4 eggs
with a little milk and sufficient ground rice to thicken the soup;
mix into a very smooth batter, which add by degrees to the soup;
allow to simmer, and stir carefully until ready; season with salt and
white pepper. Do not allow to boil, or it will curdle and be spoilt.
If eggs are scarce, cream (½ pint) can be used instead. This soup is
made in India with white stock instead of milk, but is equally good
as a white soup if made as above. Boiled rice, the grains dry and
quite distinct, should be served with it. (Eliot-James.)

_Crayfish Soup (d’écrevisses)._--20-50 crayfish, according to the
quantity of soup required, should be thrown into boiling water and
left to boil ¼ hour. Pick out the tails and rest of the fish, cover
the meat, and set it aside. Pound the shells and small claws, adding,
by degrees, 3 or 4 oz. butter. Put this mass into a small stewpan,
and stir over the fire until the butter is red. Add then 1 pint clear
white soup and let it stew slowly ½ hour; then strain it off and add
to it sufficient well-seasoned white soup, which, however, must have
no strong or prominent flavour. Put in the tails and the pickings of
the fish, make the soup quite hot; beat up the yolks of 2 or 3 eggs
in the tureen, pour in the scalding soup, and serve with toasted roll.

_Conger-eel Soup._--Boil 2 lb. conger-eel in 3 pints water, with a
little salt, for 1 hour over a slow fire. Then strain it, and put
again upon a slow fire with ½ pint young peas. When they have boiled
a short time add some parsley, thyme, borage, leek, and chives
chopped fine, and marigold flowers (the petals of the flower). Let it
boil again for 5 minutes; then mix together 2 spoonfuls flour, and
1 tablespoonful butter, with a little of the broth. When well mixed
add 1 pint new milk, doing it with care so as not to curdle it. Let
boil 5 minutes, and serve it up with a slice or two of bread cut very
thin, in the tureen. When peas are not in season, cabbage shred very
fine, or vegetable marrow chopped small, or asparagus heads, are each
good as a substitute. It can be greatly enriched by increasing the
quantity of butter and milk.

_Crust Soup (Croûte au pot)._--Cut off the bottom crust of a quartern
loaf, leaving the same thickness of crumb as there is crust. Cut
it out in rounds the size of a sixpence. Soak the rounds in broth;
put them (in a tin with some butter) into the oven, and let them be
until they are quite dried up (_gratinés_). Then lay them in the soup
tureen with rounds of carrots, turnips, leeks, or cabbages boiled in
stock, and cut the same size, pour some well-flavoured clear stock
over, and after the lapse of 3 or 4 minutes serve. (The G. C.)

_Custard Soup._--See Clear soup with custard.

_Flemish Soup._--Boil equal parts of potatoes and turnips in water,
with one onion and a head of celery, adding pepper and salt to taste.
When the vegetables are quite done, pass the whole through a hair
sieve. Put the soup in a saucepan on the fire, and as soon as it
boils, add a pat of fresh butter, and plenty of chervil, a pinch of
parsley, and a few tarragon leaves, all finely minced; then pour it
over slices of toast, and serve.

_French Soup._--Take one sheep’s head, remove the brains, and steep
it. Put it into a saucepan with 3 qt. water, one teacupful pearl
barley, 6 onions, 1 turnip, 1 carrot, a bunch of sweet herbs, and a
few cloves. Let it simmer gently for about 5 hours, then remove the
head; strain and rub the vegetables through a sieve, or leave them
whole, according to taste. Let it stand all night, and when cold take
off every particle of fat; cut up the meat from the head into small
pieces, and warm it up in the soup. Season to taste, add a wineglass
of white wine, a little mushroom ketchup, and thicken with butter and
flour. Very little inferior to mock turtle soup.

_Fried Soup._--3 potatoes, 3 turnips, 3 parsnips, 3 onions, 3 heads
of celery, thinly sliced and fried; stew for some hours in weak
stock. When quite tender, keep some pieces of each vegetable to put
in the soup; pass all the rest through the sieve, and add a good
cupful of pea soup, or soaked and boiled peas, to thicken the purée.
Season to taste; warm it up; add the fried pieces to it at the last.

_Game Soup (de Gibier)._--Take the remnants of any kind of game not
high, put them in a saucepan with an onion or carrot, 2 or 3 cloves,
a small piece of mace, a bay leaf, some parsley, whole pepper and
salt to taste. Cover the whole with veal or poultry stock, and set
the saucepan to boil gently for 2 hours. Strain off the soup and set
it to boil again, then throw in 1 oz. raw beef or liver coarsely
chopped, let it give one boil, and strain the soup through a napkin.
If not quite clear, the clarifying process must be repeated. A very
small quantity of sherry may be put in before clarifying.

_Giblet Soup (gibelette)._--This is generally a favourite soup, is
very nutritious, and if flavoured simply, need not be unwholesome.
Prepare the giblets as usual. Brown a slice of lean ham in a pan,
adding a little water occasionally to collect the brown gravy from
it; put this with the ham, giblets, and a teaspoonful of pearl
barley, into a stewpan with enough cold water to cover them well;
simmer gently until the gizzards are perfectly tender. Take them out,
and stew the remainder of the giblets, with a clove or two, celery
leaves, and any flavourings considered suitable, until the meat is
quite done to rags. If necessary, add a little hot water now and then
to keep the giblets covered. Strain off the stock, and allow it to
become cold, when every particle of fat must be removed. To ensure
this, not only skim, but wipe the surface with a soft cloth dipped
into hot water. Mix with this an equal quantity of stock; flavour
with a little wine and mushroom ketchup, or the latter only; cut up
the gizzards into convenient pieces, and simmer them in the soup for
a few minutes. Serve with this a slice of French roll or whole-meal
bread as preferred. If salt meat be objected to, brown the soup with
a little Liebig instead of the ham. To avoid richness, the gizzards
are the only part of the giblets that should be served in the soup,
and these are said to be particularly nourishing.

_Gniocchi Soup._--Put 1 oz. butter into a saucepan with 1 pint water
and a pinch of salt; when the water boils, stir with a spoon (and
throw in gradually with the other hand) as much flour as will make a
stiff paste that will not stick to the spoon; then add 2 oz. grated
Parmesan cheese, mix well, and, removing the saucepan from the fire,
work into it 2 or 3 eggs. Next put the paste into a biscuit forcer,
and as it is forced out cut it off in even lengths of 1 in., letting
them drop into some well-flavoured stock boiling on the fire. A
few minutes’ poaching will cook the gniocchi, but expedition is
necessary, so that the first that is cut off may not be overdone by
the time the last is cut off. The knife used should be dipped now and
then in hot water, else the paste will stick to it.

_Gravy Soup (Consommé)._--Place a layer of slices of onions in a
saucepan holding a gallon, over this a layer of fat bacon, and
over all about 2 lb. shin of beef chopped up in small pieces; 1
pint common stock, or even water, being poured on the whole, set
the saucepan on the fire for 1 hour, or until the liquor is almost
evaporated--what is called reduced to a “glaze”; then add sufficient
cold common stock or cold water to cover the contents of the
saucepan, and 2 or 3 carrots cut in slices, 1 leek, a head of celery
(when in season), or some celery seed, a handful of parsley, have a
clove of garlic, a sprig of marjoram and one of thyme, a bay leaf, 4
or 5 cloves, white pepper and salt to taste. After boiling about 3
hours strain off the liquor, and, being absolutely freed from fat, it
is ready for use.

_Green Corn Soup._--Boil unripe green corn in broth or water till
quite soft; pass it through a sieve, in the manner of peas. Add it to
some good broth, in which celery or parsley-roots have been boiled,
or any flavouring herbs. Give a quick boil, and serve with sippets of
toast. The broth or soup should be clear and colourless, not to alter
the green tint of the corn. A few spinach leaves may be boiled with
it, to give a deeper green.

_Green-pea Soup (de pois verts)._--(_a_) Take 1½ pint green peas,
boil them in salt and water with a little mint; when thoroughly
cooked pound them and pass them through a hair sieve. Put a piece of
butter into a stewpan; when melted put in an onion and a carrot cut
in thin slices, fry until they begin to colour; add 1 qt. stock, a
little salt, pepper, and a pinch of white sugar. Leave it to boil for
¼ hour, stir in the purée of peas, let it come to the boil, strain,
and serve with small dice of bread fried in butter.

(_b_) When shelling the peas, divide the youngest from the oldest
ones; 1 pint of young peas, and 3 pints of the oldest ones will be
required. In 2 qt. water boil, until the whole will mash through a
sieve, 3 pints old peas, a lettuce, a faggot of thyme and knotted
marjoram, 2 blades of mace, 8 cloves, and 4 cayenne pods. After being
mashed and rubbed through a sieve, put it in a china-lined saucepan,
add the heart of a large lettuce shred, and ¼ lb. butter rolled in
about 3 tablespoonfuls of flour; set the saucepan on the stove and
stir till it boils, then add the young peas; when these are nearly
boiled enough, add a very little green mint, finely chopped, a
tablespoonful of juice of spinach, and salt to taste.

_Grouse Soup._--Chop up the remains of 2 roast grouse; put them into
a saucepan with an onion and a carrot cut in pieces, a faggot of
sweet herbs, and pepper and salt to taste. Fill up the saucepan with
sufficient common stock to cover the contents; let the whole boil
till the meat comes off easily from the bones; strain off the liquor;
pick all the meat from the bones; pound it in a mortar, pass through
a wire sieve, and add the liquor. Amalgamate in a saucepan a piece of
butter with a tablespoonful of flour, add the soup to it, let it come
to boiling point, then stir in (off the fire) the yolks of a couple
of eggs with or without lemon juice, according to taste. Serve on
very small dice of bread fried in butter.

_Hare Soup (de levraut)._--Take a hare, skin, draw, and reserve the
blood: cut it up and put it into a saucepan with an onion, 2 cloves,
a faggot of herbs (parsley, thyme and basil), pepper, salt, and mace,
2 qt. stock and half bottle of red wine; simmer gently till the meat
be quite tender; strain it from the soup, soak the crumb of some
bread in the soup, and, removing the meat from the bones, chop it up
with the soaked bread, and pound it quite smooth in a mortar; add the
soup gradually to it, pass through a tammy, hot it up, but do not let
it boil. Just before serving add the blood, very gradually stirring
it in off the fire, pour the soup into the soup tureen over small
dice of fried bread.

_Haricot Bean Soup (Condé)._--Soak 1 pint Haricots de Soissons in
cold water for 12 hours, throw away that water, and put them into a
saucepan with 3 pints cold water, a head of celery, a small onion
stuck with 3 cloves, a bay leaf, a sprig of parsley, some whole
pepper, and salt to taste. Let them boil till the beans are quite
tender, then strain off the water, and pass them through a sieve. Put
the purée in a saucepan, and work into it, on the fire, 1 oz. or more
of butter, moistening if necessary with a little of the liquor in
which the beans were boiled.

_Herb Soup._--A handful each of chervil, sorrel, spinach, and a few
sprigs of parsley must be washed, drained, and chopped small. Put
them in a stewpan with a piece of butter to steam until soft. Stir in
with them 2 tablespoonfuls of flour. Pour in sufficient clear soup,
and simmer 10 minutes. Add salt and a grate of nutmeg. Eggs may be

_Herring Soup._--Wash well 1½ pint good split peas, and float off
such as remain upon the surface of the water. Leave them to soak for
one night, and the next morning boil them in 5 pints cold soft water;
add a couple of onions, with a clove stuck in each end of them; 2
carrots grated, 3 anchovies, one red herring, a bunch of savoury
herbs, one teaspoonful of black pepper, and one teaspoonful of salt,
if required. Let all these ingredients simmer gently together until
the vegetables are quite tender, when pass the whole through a fine
sieve into a clean saucepan. Slice in the white part of a head of
celery, add 2 oz. butter, a little more seasoning if required, and a
dessertspoonful of mushroom ketchup, if liked. Boil again gently for
20 minutes, and serve with a plate of fried bread, and another of
shred mint. If convenient, the liquor that pork, ham, or bacon have
been boiled in gives a nice flavouring, instead of the herring or
anchovies; but, if this liquor be too salt, as is generally the case,
it must be diluted with water, and the teaspoonful of salt omitted.

_Hotchpotch (de mouton à l’écossaise)._--Hotchpotch is a strong kail
soup, the chief difference between it and common Scotch broth being
its extra richness resulting from the meat being almost boiled away
in it, what remains coming to table in the tureen, and in its being
quite thick with the quantities of fresh green peas, onions and leeks
(both the latter shredded), grated carrots, beans from which white
skin has been removed, and a carefully limited quantity of turnips
and other vegetables of the more watery kinds. Scotch barley is, of
course, also an important ingredient.

_Hunter’s Soup._--Slice thin a large carrot, or 2 or 3 small ones,
a large onion, a head of celery, and some rather lean ham or bacon.
Fry these, with some parsley, in butter. When done yellow, dredge in
plenty of flour, and let it colour, but not a dark brown. Then add
some good beef broth, give it an active stir, and turn it into the
soup cauldron; add the requisite quantity of broth, and a pint of
red wine. Leave it to simmer slowly. In the meantime roast 3 or 4
partridges, basted with butter. Cut off the breasts in neat slices,
and the other meat from the bones. Bruise the bones in a mortar, and
throw them into the soup. Boil it well, strain, season with salt
and cayenne pepper, and make it hot again; but do not let it boil a
second time. Add the meat, to be served in the soup.

_Imperial Soup._--Beat 5 eggs well. Add 1 pint rich clear soup, some
salt, and a grate of nutmeg. Pour it into a well-buttered pudding
mould or basin; set this in boiling water, and let it boil 1 hour.
Be sure that water does not flow into the mould. When done, cut the
mass into thin slices or little pieces, and serve in clear soup; 2 or
3 fresh yolks may be beaten in the tureen if approved.

_Italian Soup._--(_a_) Take the flesh left from the cowheel or
calves’ feet that jelly has been made from; cut it into dice. Boil
2 tablespoonfuls of sago, well washed, until it is clear, either in
water or inferior stock, and warm just to boiling point some soup
stock. Just before dinner, put the pieces of meat into some boiling
stock until warmed through, then put them at the bottom of the
tureen, also the sago and a large tablespoonful of grated Parmesan
cheese, and pour the boiling stock upon these and send to table.

(_b_) Minestrone.--Take equal quantities marrowfat peas and carrots
cut to the size of peas; boil separately in salted water till done;
take as much rice boiled in salted water as there are peas and
carrots; put all into a saucepan with sufficient common stock free
from fat; add enough French tomato sauce to give the stock a rich
colour. Let the whole come to the boil, and serve. Grated Parmesan
cheese to be handed round with the soup.

_Julienne Soup._--Take about equal quantities carrots, turnips,
leeks, onions, and celery; cut them all in thin strips, not much
more than ⅛ in. square and about 1½ in. long; put them in a saucepan
with a lump of fresh butter, a good pinch of pounded loaf sugar, add
pepper and salt to taste; toss them lightly on the fire until they
begin to colour, then add one lettuce finely shredded, and a small
handful of chervil and sorrel, also finely shred; and, after giving
the whole a tossing on the fire for about 5 minutes, moisten with
some clear stock, and keep the soup hot by the side of the fire for 2
hours. When wanted, add as much more stock as is necessary, and serve.

_Kidney Soup._--Take 3 pints well-flavoured white stock, slice finely
one or two gherkins, have ready 6 small button mushrooms previously
cooked in a little lemon juice. Slice a small onion, and put it into
a saucepan with a little butter, let it just take colour, add to it a
veal kidney cut in small dice, season with pepper and salt, and toss
together for a few minutes, but do not overcook the kidney; drain
them from the butter, and put them into the soup tureen with the
gherkins and the mushroom. Make the soup hot, and add to it, off the
fire, the yolks of 2 eggs and a little milk or cream; pour it over
the kidney, &c., add a dash of cayenne, and serve very hot.

_Leek Soup._--Take the green leafy part of the leeks, rejecting any
leaves which may be otherwise than quite fresh and tender; soak them
in cold water so as to be quite crisp; cut them into lengths of about
1-1½ in., and boil them in as much good stock as may be required for
the size of the party. Let them boil until perfectly soft and tender,
season with a little salt and a slight shake of pepper stirred in,
and serve. This soup should be quite thick from the quantity of leeks
in it, and not just gravy soup with a few pieces of leek floating
about it.

_Lentil Soup (Conti)._--Well wash about 1 pint lentils, and soak
them for several hours; add to them 3 qt. water, some bones, which
can be purchased for 3_d._, or 2 lb. of shin of beef cut up, 3 or
4 good-sized onions, and the same of carrots and turnips, with
the outside leaves of a stick of celery if at hand; add a little
seasoning, but be careful not to put too much pepper, and let
the soup simmer gently on the side of the hob all day. When the
vegetables are quite soft they can be rubbed through a colander,
or many people prefer to leave them whole. The latter plan would
perhaps answer best for poor people, especially if there is meat in
the soup. You can make lentil soup with only the liquor in which meat
has been boiled, but if the meat is salted, the lentils, &c., must
be cooked first, or they will harden, and the liquor added when they
are nearly done, care being taken not to make it too salt. A cowheel
makes excellent stock for soup, and can be eaten separately, or cut
up and left in the soup. They can be bought for 8_d._ each, and are
most nutritious if poor people could only be taught the value of such
food. If eaten separately the cowheel should be allowed to simmer
gently for about 3 hours. The meat will then separate readily from
the bone, and can be fried in batter. The bones should be left to
boil up again in the soup, and thus two dinners may be provided at
a small cost; but as it is always very difficult to persuade poor
people to expend so much time on cookery, it would possibly be better
to cut up the meat and let it be eaten with the soup.

_Lettuce Soup (aux Laitues)._--Boil some lettuces in salted water,
when quite done drain them well, and pass through a hair sieve. Mix
a small piece of butter with a tablespoonful of flour in a saucepan,
add a little stock, then the purée of lettuce, let it boil for a
minute or so, season with pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg to taste,
add as much stock as is necessary to make the soup, and serve with
small dice of bread fried in butter.

_Liebig’s Beef Tea._--This is rendered much more nourishing and
palatable by the addition of milk or cream. If with milk, make with
equal parts of milk and water; if cream, add a tablespoonful or two
to a breakfastcupful of beef tea. Season with salt. When milk cannot
be taken, thin pearl barley water is excellent with Liebig stirred in
it, and any approved flavouring. A little stock will also be found
very nice with a little Liebig and salt only. Either of these, while
containing nutriment, can be taken as simple beverages.

_Liver Soup._--Slice ½ lb. liver, dredge with flour, and fry brown
in butter, with an onion cut in slices. Then pound the liver quite
smooth, season with salt, black pepper, and a grate of nutmeg. Stir
in about 3 pints good brown soup, and boil 10 minutes with a French
roll sliced in, crust included. Strain, and again make hot, nearly
boiling. Pour it on 2 well-beaten eggs in the tureen. Offer lemon
juice and cayenne pepper at table.

_Lobster Soup (Bisque de Homard)._--Pick out all the meat from a
lobster, pound it in a mortar with an equal quantity of butter until
a fine orange-coloured pulp is obtained; to this add pepper, salt,
and grated nutmeg to taste; take as much breadcrumbs as there is
lobster pulp, soak them in stock, then melt a piece of butter in a
saucepan, amalgamate with it a heaped tablespoonful of flour, mix the
lobster pulp with the breadcrumbs, and put both in the saucepan on
the fire, stirring the contents until they thicken and boil, draw it
then on one side, and carefully skim off superfluous fat; then strain
the soup through a hair sieve, make boiling hot, and serve with small
dice of bread fried in butter.

_Macaroni Soup._--(_a_) Take 4 oz. macaroni, break into small pieces,
and simmer gently for ¼ hour in 1 pint water; then add a piece of
butter the size of a small nutmeg, pepper, salt, and 1½ pint stock.
A teaspoonful of chopped parsley or dried herbs can be added for
flavouring; simmer another ½ hour, and serve.

(_b_) Boil 2 oz. macaroni (broken up in convenient pieces) in a pint
of stock free from grease, to which add a good pinch of salt; when
cooked (10-15 minutes), drain them and put them into the soup tureen
containing 1 qt. well-flavoured clear stock boiling hot. Grated
Parmesan to be handed round with it.

_Milk Soup._--Peel 2 lb. potatoes and 2 leeks or onions (leeks are
the best). Boil them together in 2 qt. boiling water to become
tender. Pass all through a fine wire sieve and put it back as a purée
into the stewpan. Add to this 2 oz. butter, let it melt, and then
a pint milk; season to taste with a little pepper and salt; keep
stirring it over the fire, and, when boiling, sprinkle in gradually 3
dessertspoonfuls of crushed tapioca; keep it boiling for another 10
minutes to cook the tapioca, and serve.

_Mock Pea Soup._--Flavour some stock according to taste (a leaf or
two of mint should not be forgotten), and thicken to consistency of
thin cream, with some revalenta arabica; season with pepper and salt,
and serve with it dice of crisp toast and some finely powdered mint
on small dishes. A small piece of butter or a little thick cream may
be added to the soup, if approved. It will be found a fair imitation
of pea soup, is nutritious, easy of digestion, and may be acceptable
in not seeming like an invalid dish. If no stock be at hand, a
simpler edition of it may be made by making a cupful of revalenta,
either with water or equal parts of milk and water, in the usual way.
Stir to it Liebig to taste, and season with pepper and salt. Serve
with or without the accompaniments given above.

_Mock Turtle Soup (fausse tortue)._--(_a_) Boil half a calf’s head
with the skin on for ¾ hour. Remove eye, ear, and brains, cut the
meat into squares 1½ in., put it into a large stewpan, add to it 2
oz. butter, 1 pint old Madeira, 1 gill veal broth, a small bundle of
sweet herbs, a little sage, a small onion chopped very fine with one
teaspoonful of white pepper, a little salt, a little cayenne, also
a little allspice if liked. Stew gently till the meat is tender,
keeping well covered; then add 2 qt. good veal stock, make some
thickening with cold veal broth, flour, and herbs; boil, strain, and
add to the soup. Take out the meat, boil the soup about 10 minutes,
strain over the meat, add lemon juice and some forcemeat and egg
balls. This is the simplest to have it good, but it may be made far

(_b_) Take an ox foot, cleaned and split, 2 onions with their skins
on to darken the soup, a few cloves, one tablespoonful of vinegar,
peppercorns and salt to taste, a little celery seed, and carrots, and
a small piece of turnip. Take out when the bones slip away easily,
about 6 hours, strain through a sieve, then mix 2 tablespoonfuls of
arrowroot, add a glass of sherry, let it boil, carefully stirring,
add some forcemeat balls, and send to table. _Forcemeat Balls._--One
teaspoonful of sage, pepper and salt, one egg slightly beaten, ¼ lb.
lean bacon or pork, a few breadcrumbs; mix altogether, the bacon to
be finely minced, shape all into balls the size of marbles, and fry
in boiling lard until a light brown; sufficient for 12 persons.

_Mulligatawny Soup (au kari)._--(_a_) Wash nicely a knuckle of veal
in lukewarm water, and put it in to stew gently in 7 pints water,
skim it carefully as it comes to the boil, and let it simmer for 1½
hour closely covered; take out the meat, strain the liquor into a
stewpan, and have ready 2 lb. best end of a breast of veal cut up
into pieces 1 in. square, without gristle or bon