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Title: An Universal Dictionary of the Marine - Or, a Copious Explanation of the Technical Terms and Phrases - Employed in the Construction, Equipment, Furniture, - Machinery, Movements, and Military Operations of a Ship. - Illustrated With Variety of Original Designs of Shipping, - in Different Situations; Together With Separate Views of - Their Masts, Sails, Yards, and Rigging. to Which Is Annexed, - a Translation of the French Sea-terms and Phrases, Collected - from the Works of Mess. Du Hamel, Aubin, Saverien, &c.
Author: Falconer, William
Language: English
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*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "An Universal Dictionary of the Marine - Or, a Copious Explanation of the Technical Terms and Phrases - Employed in the Construction, Equipment, Furniture, - Machinery, Movements, and Military Operations of a Ship. - Illustrated With Variety of Original Designs of Shipping, - in Different Situations; Together With Separate Views of - Their Masts, Sails, Yards, and Rigging. to Which Is Annexed, - a Translation of the French Sea-terms and Phrases, Collected - from the Works of Mess. Du Hamel, Aubin, Saverien, &c." ***

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                          UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY
                                 OF THE
                         A COPIOUS EXPLANATION
                                 OF THE
                      TECHNICAL TERMS and PHRASES
                            EMPLOYED IN THE
                                A SHIP.
                            ILLUSTRATED WITH
   Variety of Original DESIGNS of SHIPPING, in different Situations;
Together with separate Views of their Masts, Sails, Yards, and Rigging.
                          To which is annexed,
 A Translation of the FRENCH Sea-Terms and Phrases, collected from the
             Works of Mess. DU HAMEL, AUBIN, SAVERIEN, &c.

                          By WILLIAM FALCONER,

                        AUTHOR of The SHIPWRECK.


     Printed for T. CADELL (Successor to Mr. MILLAR) in the Strand.



                          THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

                        THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS

                      FOR EXECUTING THE OFFICE OF

                           LORD HIGH ADMIRAL


                          _GREAT BRITAIN, &c._

                               THIS WORK


                    By their LORDSHIPS’ PERMISSION,

                        WITH THE UTMOST RESPECT,



                                                             The AUTHOR.



The following work has engaged my utmost application for some years.
Several performances on the same subject have already appeared; as Sir
H. Manwaring’s _Seaman’s Dictionary_; Boteler’s _Sea Dialogues_;
Guillet’s _Gentleman’s Dictionary_, and Blanckley’s _Naval Expositor_,
&c. Far from exhibiting an enlarged and comprehensive view of naval
affairs, these productions are extremely imperfect, according to the
very circumscribed plan which their authors have adopted. There are
besides, the _Dictionaire de Marine_ of M. Aubin, published in Holland;
and that of M. Saverien, published in France. These are indeed
voluminous, but very deficient in the most necessary articles. Besides a
circumstantial detail of the local oeconomy of different marine
departments, they are swelled out with astronomy, navigation,
hydrography, natural history, &c. all of which are abundantly better
treated in other compositions. Of the machinery of a ship; the
disposition of the rigging on her masts and yards; and the comparative
force of her different mechanical powers, their accounts however are
often vague, perplexed, and unintelligible.

With regard to her internal government in action; to the general
regulations of the line of battle; and to the principal movements in
sailing, they are almost totally silent. Had any of these works been
executed with tolerable success, it might have rendered mine
unnecessary; or probably have introduced it in the form of a

I acknowledge with great pleasure the advantages I have derived in the
prosecution of this work, from several authors of distinguished
reputation: in reality however none of those above-mentioned are of the
number. In that part which is dedicated to the theory and art of
ship-building, I owe considerable obligations to the ingenious M. Du
Hamel. The principal pieces used in the construction of a ship, together
with their combination and disposition, are copiously and accurately
described in his _Elements of Naval Architecture_: and his general
account of the art itself is perspicuous and comprehensive. Many of his
explanations I have therefore implicitly adopted.

In treating of the artillery, I have occasionally consulted _Le Blond_,
_Muller_, and _Robins_, besides selecting some valuable materials from
the manuscripts of officers of long experience and established
reputation in that service. Whatever relates to the rigging, sails,
machinery, and movements of a ship; or to the practice of naval war, is
generally drawn from my own observations; unless where the author is

As there are abundance of books professedly written on astronomy, and
the theory of navigation, I have totally omitted the terms of the
former, as foreign to my plan; and slightly passed over the latter:
because no reader could acquire a sufficient idea of those sciences from
so partial a description. Many of the least important parts of a ship,
as well as of her rigging, are very generally defined. To explain the
track of every particular rope, through its different channels, would be
equally useless and unintelligible to a land reader: to mariners it were
superfluous: and even the youths who are trained to the sea, would reap
little advantage from it; because their situation affords them much
better opportunities of making these minute discoveries.

I have in general endeavoured to give the etymology of the most material
expressions, unless when their evident analogy to common words rendered
this unnecessary. Many reasons may be alledged for introducing the
French sea-terms and phrases; particularly that obvious one, of
understanding their pilots, when we may have occasion for their
assistance. Wherever it was found necessary to explain one technical
term by another, the latter is usually printed in italics the first time
it is mentioned; so that the reader may refer to it for a further

As the plates of this publication were intended to illustrate the
various objects to which they refer, they are little ornamented; but
have in general the recommendation of simplicity and geometrical truth.
In this part I have been particularly favoured with many original
drawings, which are usually considered amongst the inaccessible _arcana_
of ship-building. They are much more numerous, useful, and correct, than
what has hitherto appeared in any work of the kind. In fine, I have
endeavoured, to the best of my judgment, to retrench the superfluities,
and supply the deficiences of former writers on the same subject, as
well as to digest and methodise whatever appeared loose or inaccurate

This undertaking was first suggested to me by my worthy and ingenious
friend George Lewis Scott, Esq; who considered it as a work of extensive
utility, Indeed, in a country whose principal sources of strength are
derived from the superiority of her marine, it is evidently wanted. I
have the pleasure also to know that Sir Edward Hawke, and several
officers of respectable abilities in our navy, are of the same opinion.
To this may be added, what the celebrated M. Du Hamel lately observed,
in a letter to me, _s_. I mention this expressly, because some
sea-officers have considered the work unnecessary. It is however
submitted, with all possible deference, to superior judges; to men of
science and letters, who know the difficulty of explaining the parts of
a mechanical system, when the readers are unacquainted with the subject.


                        LIST of the SUBSCRIBERS.

His Royal Highness the DUKE of GLOUCESTER.

His Royal Highness the DUKE of CUMBERLAND.

Right Hon. Lords Commissioners of the ADMIRALTY, as a Board.


 Capt. Abdy, of the Navy

 John Adam, Esq;

 Robert Adam, Esq;

 James Adam, Esq;

 William Adam, Esq;

 Alex. Anderson, Esq;

 Capt. Alwright, of the Navy

 Capt. Antrobus, ditto

 Mr. Richard Atkinson, _2 copies_

 London Assurance Office

 Royal Exchange Assurance Office


 His Grace the Duke of Beaufort

 Right Hon. Earl of Berkeley

 Right Hon. Lord Bottetourt

 Right Hon. John Buller, Lord of the

 Col. Bendyshe

 Hon. George Berkeley

 The Rev. Dr. Blair

 Capt. Bentinck, of the Navy

 Capt. George Bowyer, of ditto

 Mr. Robert Baynes

 Edward Hugh Boscawen, Esq;

 William Glanville Boscawen, Esq;

 John Boddington, Esq;

 John Blair, Esq; Calcutta

 Lieut. Henry Baynes

 Lieut. T. P. Braithwaite

 Lieut. James Bradley

 Mr. J. Bourgh

 Lieut. Geo. Baker

 Capt. Brisac

 Mr. Robert Bogle

 Mr. William Brymer

 Mr. James Barwell

 Mr. William Berry

 Mr. Burrel

 Mr. Thomas Barwis

 Charles Boddam, Esq;

 Mr. Burgh

 Mr. Robert Brown

 John Bullock, Esq;

 Theobal Burke, Esq;


 Right Hon. Lord Cochran

 Hon. H. S. Conway, Lieut. Gen. of the Ordnance, &c.

 John Campbell, Esq; F.R.S. Capt. in the Navy

 John Carter, Esq; Deal

 John Cartwright, Esq;

 Charles Cartwright, Esq;

 Capt. Collin

 Alexander Craufurd, Esq;

 Lieut. R. P. Cooper

 Mr. Henry Crawford

 John Henry Cochran, Esq;

 Henry Cort, Esq;

 William Crighton, Esq;

 General Clerk

 Mr. Thomas Clerk

 Mr. Duncan Clerk

 Capt. John Campbell


 Rear Admiral Sir James Douglas

 Mr. Dalrymple

 Mr. Robert Dallas, _2 copies_

 George Dempster, Esq; _2 copies_

 Lieut. George Dawson

 Lieut. Richard Douglas

 Mr. Duncan Davidson

 Major Deaker

 Mr. Edward Downes

 Mr. John Delaton

 Thomas Dunkerley, Esq;

 Stillingfleet Durnford, Esq;


 Right Hon. Earl of Edgcumbe

 Right Hon. Earl of Egmont

 Right Hon. Lord Elibank

 Sir John Elwill

 General Ellison

 Arthur Edie, Esq;

 Mr. John Ewer


 Sir Thomas Frankland, Bart. Vice-Admiral of the Red Squadron

 Capt. Fanshaw

 Sir Robert Fletcher, Kt.

 Charles Ferguson, Esq;

 Sir Adam Ferguson

 Mr. John Finch

 Mr. Francis Farrar


 Right Hon. Earl of Gainsborough

 Charles Gore, Esq;

 Mr. John Gathorne

 James Gordon, Esq; _2 copies_

 Mr. Arch. Gairdner

 John Gray, Esq;

 Alexander Geddes, Esq;

 Mr. William Gemmell


 Right Hon. Earl of Home

 Right Hon. Lord Viscount Howe

 Right Hon. Sir Edw. Hawke, K. B. first Lord of the Admiralty, &c. &c.

 Thomas Hanway, Esq; Commissioner of the Navy

 Capt. John Hay, of the Navy

 Mr. Samuel Hannay, _4 copies_

 Sir Thomas Hesketh, Bart.

 Col. Hale

 Warren Hastings, Esq;

 The Rev. Wm. Hirst, A.M. F.R.S. _2 copies_

 John Hope, Esq;

 Lieut. Charles Hope

 Capt. Horne, of the East India Company

 Capt. Hume, of ditto

 John Hume, Esq;

 Mr. John Hunter, of Lisbon

 Lieut. Edmond Hawker

 Lieut. Harry Harmood

 Adam Hayes, Esq;

 Dr. Harris

 Mr. Hall

 Mr. Hutton

 Lieut. Harris


 The Court of Directors of the East India Company

 William Innis, Esq;

 George Johnstone, Esq; _4 copies_

 John Johnstone, Esq;

 Mr. James Johnston

 Lieut. Judd


 Hon. Augustus Keppel, Rear Admiral of the blue squadron

 Mr. Daniel Kemp

 Mr. John Kendrick


 Hon. Capt. Leveson

 Sir John Lindsay, Capt. in the Navy

 Lieut. Charles Logie

 Francis Lucas, Esq;

 William Lascelles, Esq; of the Inner Temple

 Mr. S. Cousgarne Lloyd

 Dr. Lawrence

 Capt. Lauder, of the East India Company

 Mr. Liddel

 Mr. Lennox


 Capt. Macbride, of the Navy

 Mr. Colin Mackenzie, _2 copies_

 Mr. Majendie

 Major Mills

 Richard Maitland, Esq;

 Lieut. David Maitland

 Lieut. James Macnamara

 Lieut. Thomas Montagu, _2 copies_

 Edward Meadows, Esq;

 James Montresor, Esq;

 Robert Mure, Esq;

 Mr. James Mason

 Mr. Mackworth

 Mr. Robert Man

 Mr. James Mather

 Mr. William Myrtle

 Mr. Money

 James Mill, Esq;

 Mr. John Mackintosh


 The principal Officers and Commissioners of his Majesty’s Navy

 Valentine Neville, Esq;

 Mr. Francis Newton

 Mrs. Sarah Norton


 Charles Ogilvie, Esq;

 Capt. Ommanney, of the Navy

 Mr. Ousnam


 Right Hon. Earl of Plymouth

 Right Hon. Lord Palmerston, Lord of the Admiralty

 Right Hon. Lord Pigot

 Capt. Hugh Pigot, of the Navy

 Mr. Simon Parry

 Edward Payne, Esq;

 The Rev. Hugh Panton, L. L. B.

 Lieut. Henry Gibson Panton

 Mr. Thomas Poynting

 Mr. Paterson

 Mr. John Perriman

 Mr. Pitchford


 His Grace the Duke of Queensbury and Dover


 Capt. Lockhart Ross, of the Navy

 Capt. Joseph Rowley, of ditto

 Capt. Reynolds, of the Navy

 Dr. Charles Richardson

 Capt. George Richardson, of the East India Company


 Hon. Sir Charles Saunders, K. B. Vice-Admiral of the Blue Squadron

 George Lewis Scott, Esq; F.R.S. _2 copies_

 Robert Stewart, Esq;

 Edward Salway, Esq;

 Gordon Skelly, Esq;

 Capt. Stott

 Lieut. Patrick Stewart

 Henry Smith, Esq;

 Capt. Peter Stokes, of the East India Company


 The Corporation of Trinity House

 Capt. Tonyn, of the Navy

 Lieut. Henry Tuite

 Mr. William Trotter

 Mr. Tais

 Mr. Taulbert

 Mr. William Tennant

 Mr. Thomas Trower

 Thomas Townshend, Esq;


 The Commissioners for Victualling his Majesty’s Navy, as a Board

 Hon. Capt. Raby Vane

 His Excellency Count San-Vincent, Rear Admiral of Portugal

 Henry Vansittart, Esq;

 George Vandeput, Esq; Capt. in the Navy


 Mr. Thomas Walker

 Mr. John Way

 Andrew Wilkinson, Esq;

 Capt. Williams

 Mr. William Wigginton, of Bristol

 Capt. John Waddell, of the East India Company

 Lieut. George Robinson Walters


 Rear Admiral Young

                           TABLE OF CONTENTS


                          UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY
                                 OF THE


ABACK, _coeffé_, the situation of the sails when their surfaces are
flatted against the masts by the force of the wind.

The sails are said to be _taken aback_, when they are brought into this
situation, either by a sudden change of the wind, or by an alteration in
the ship’s course. They are _laid aback_, to effect an immediate
retreat, without turning to the right or left; or, in the sea-phrase, to
give the ship _stern-way_, in order to avoid some danger discovered
before her in a narrow channel; or when she has advanced beyond her
station in the line of battle, or otherwise.

The sails are placed in this position by slackening their lee-braces,
and hauling in the weather ones; so that the whole effort of the wind is
exerted on the fore-part of their surface, which readily pushes the ship
astern, unless she is restrained by some counter-acting force. See

It is also usual to spread some sail aback near the stern, as the
mizen-top-sail, when a ship rides with a single anchor in a road, in
order to prevent her from approaching it so as to entangle the flukes of
it with her slackened cable, and thereby loosen it from the ground. See

Fig. 1. Plate III. discovers the plan of a ship, _a b_, with her
main-top-sail, _c d_, aback; in which the curved dotted line expresses
the cavity of it, as blown back by the wind on each side of the mast.
The fore-top-sail, which is full, is exhibited by the line _e f_. Fig.
3. represents a perspective view of the ship in the same situation; and
the dart shews the direction of the wind upon both.

_Lay all flat_ ABACK, the order to arrange all the sails in this

ABAFT, _arriere_, (_abaftan_, Sax. behind) the hinder part of a ship, or
all those parts both within and without, which lie towards the stern, in
opposition to afore; which see.

ABAFT, _arriere de_, is also used as a preposition, and signifies
_further aft_, or _nearer the stern_; as, the barricade stands _abaft_
the main mast, i. e. behind it, or nearer the stern.

ABOARD (_à bord_, Fr. _abordo_, Ital.) the inside of a ship: hence any
person who enters a ship is said to go _aboard_: but when an enemy
enters in the time of battle, he is said to _board_. A phrase which
always implies hostility. See the article BOARDING.

To fall ABOARD of, _aborder_, to strike or encounter another ship, when,
one or both are in motion; to be driven upon a ship by the force of the
wind or current.

ABOARD-_main-tack!_ _amure la grande voile!_ the order to draw the
main-tack, i. e. the lower corner of the main-sail, down to the
chess-tree. See CHESS-TREE.

ABOUT, _reviré_, (_abutan_, Sax.) the situation of a ship immediately
after she has _tacked_ or changed her course by going about, and
standing on the other tack. See TACKING.

ABOUT-SHIP! _adieu-va!_ the order to the ship’s crew to prepare for

ABREAST, _par le travers_ (of _breost_, Sax.), side by side, or opposite
to; a situation in which two or more ships lie, with their sides
parallel to each other, and their heads equally advanced.

This term more particularly regards the line of battle at sea, where, on
the different occasions of attack, retreat, or pursuit, the several
squadrons, or divisions of a fleet, are obliged to vary their
dispositions, and yet maintain a proper regularity by sailing in _right_
or _curved_ lines. When the line is formed _abreast_, the whole squadron
advances uniformly, the ships being equally distant from, and parallel
to each other, so that the length of each ship forms a right angle with
the extent of the squadron or line _abreast_. The commander in chief is
always stationed in the center, and the second and third in command in
the centers of their respective squadrons. See this farther illustrated
in the article LINE.

ABREAST, within the ship, implies on a line with the beam, or by the
side of any object aboard; as, the frigate sprung a leak abreast of the
main hatch-way, i. e. on the same line with the main hatch-way, crossing
the ship’s length at right angles, in opposition to _afore_ or _abaft_
the hatch-way. See ABAFT.

_We discovered a fleet ABREAST of Beachy-Head_, i. e. off, or directly
opposite thereto.

ACORN, _pomme de girouette_, a little ornamental piece of wood,
fashioned like a cone, and fixed on the uppermost point of the spindle,
above the vane, on the mast-head. It is used to keep the vane from being
blown off from the spindle in a whirlwind, or when the ship leans much
to one side under sail. See plate I. fig. 1. where _a_ represents the
acorn, _b_ the vane and stock, _c_ the spindle, and _d_ the mast-head.

ADMIRAL, _amiral_, an officer of the first rank and command in the
fleet, and who is distinguished by a flag displayed at his
main-top-mast-head. Also an officer who superintends the naval forces of
a nation, and who is authorised to determine in all maritime causes.

The origin and denomination of this important office, which seems to
have been established in most countries that border on the sea, have
given rise to a great variety of opinions. Some have borrowed them from
the Greek, others from the Arabic, while a third sort, with greater
probability, derive both the title and dignity from the Saracens.[1] But
since no certain conclusions have been deduced from these elaborate
researches, and as it rather appears the province of this work to give
the reader an idea of the office and duty of an admiral at sea, than to
furnish an historical or chronological detail of the rank and power with
which admirals have been invested in different nations, we shall
contentedly resign this task to the ingenious lexicographers who have so
repeatedly entertained us with such critical investigations.

The ADMIRAL, or commander in chief of a fleet, being frequently invested
with a great charge, on which the fate of a kingdom may depend, ought
certainly to be possessed of abilities equal to so important a station
and so extensive a command. His fleet is unavoidably exposed to a
variety of perplexing situations in a precarious element. A train of
dangerous incidents necessarily arise from those situations. The health,
order, and discipline of his people, are not less the objects of his
consideration, than the condition and qualities of his ships. A sudden
change of climate, a rank and infectious air, a scarcity, or
unwholsomness of provisions, may be as pernicious to the former, as
tempestuous weather or dangerous navigation to the latter. A lee-shore,
an injudicious engagement with an enemy greatly superior, may be equally
fatal to both. He ought to have sufficient experience to anticipate all
the probable events that may happen to his fleet during an expedition or
cruise, and, by consequence, to provide against them. His skill should
be able to counter-act the various disasters which his fleet may suffer
from different causes. His vigilance and presence of mind are necessary
to seize every favourable opportunity that his situation may offer to
prosecute his principal design; to extricate himself from any difficulty
or distress; to check unfortunate events in the beginning, and retard
the progress of any great calamity. He should be endued with resolution
and fortitude to animate his officers by the force of example, and
promote a sense of emulation in those who are under his command, as well
to improve any advantage, as to frustrate or defeat the efforts of his
ill fortune.

The most essential part of his duty, however, appears to be military
conduct. As soon as the fleet under his command puts to sea, he is to
form it into the proper order of battle, called the LINE. In this
arrangement he is to make a judicious distribution of strength from the
van to the rear, throwing the principal force into the center, to resist
the impression of the enemy’s fleet; which might otherwise, at some
favourable opportunity, break through his line, and throw the van and
rear into confusion.

A competent knowledge of the seas, weather, and reigning winds, of the
coast or region where he is stationed, is also requisite, as it will
greatly facilitate his plans on the enemy. It will enable him to avoid
being improperly embayed, where he might be surprised in a
disadvantageous situation; and to judge whether it will be most
expedient to attack his adversary, or lie prepared to receive his
assault. When his fleet is forced by stress of weather or otherwise to
take shelter in a road or bay, it will likewise suggest the necessary
conduct of keeping a sufficient number of cruisers at sea, to bring him
early intelligence, that they may be ready to cut or slip the cables
when they are too much hurried to weigh their anchors.

As the forming a complete, strong, and uniform line is a very material
article in naval war, the admiral ought frequently to arrange the fleet
under his command into this order, that the inferior officers may
observe to bring their ships, with greater dexterity and alertness, into
their several stations, and maintain the regularity of the line when
they tack, veer, or sail abreast. See LINE.

When the admiral intends a descent on an enemy’s coast, or other attack
which may be attended with complicated and unforeseen incidents, his
orders should be delivered or drawn up with the greatest accuracy and
precision: they should be simple, perspicuous, direct, and
comprehensive; they should collect a number of objects into one point of
view, and, foreseeing the effects of success or defeat, appoint the
proper measures to be adopted in consequence thereof. History and
experience confirm the necessity of this observation, and present us
with a variety of disasters that have happened on such occasions, merely
by a deficiency in this material article. In the commanding officer,
inattention, barrenness of expedient, or a circumscribed view of the
necessary effects of his enterprize, may be equally pernicious. And
general orders ought to be utterly free from pedantry and perplexity,
which always betray a false taste and confused imagination, besides the
probability of producing many fatal consequences.

When an admiral conquers in battle, he should endeavour to improve his
victory, by pushing the advantages he has acquired as far as prudence
directs; a conduct which merits his attention as much as any in the
action! When he is defeated, he ought to embrace every opportunity of
saving as many of his ships as possible, and endeavour principally to
assist those which are disabled. In short, it is his duty to avail
himself of every practicable expedient rather than sink under his
misfortune, and suffer himself to become an easy prey to the enemy.

He should be sufficiently acquainted with civil law, to judge with
propriety of the proceedings of courts-martial, and to correct the
errors, and restrain the abuses which may happen therein by mistake, or
ignorance, or inattention.

As secret treaties, propositions, or schemes of the enemy, may
occasionally be submitted to his inspection, or fall into his possession
by capture; and which it might be improper to discover to any person
near him, he ought to have a competent knowledge of the modern
languages, or at least, those of the countries against whom his military
operations are directed, to be able to comprehend with facility the full
scope and purport of such papers.

He ought to be well versed in geometry, to order proper and correct
surveys of unknown coasts, roads, or harbours to be made, and to judge
of their accuracy, and detect their errors. To ascertain the situation
and longitude of different places, he should be also sufficiently
skilled in astronomy, and the method of taking observations, which
indeed is essentially necessary to the profession of a sea-officer,
although too much neglected.

By his orders the admiral is likewise to assist at all councils of war
that relate to naval affairs: to visit, as often as convenient, the
other ships of his squadron: to enquire particularly into their
condition, and observe the men mustered, taking care that no
supernumeraries are borne on the books. He is directed to acquaint the
secretary of the admiralty of all his proceedings relating to the
service, for the information of the lord-high-admiral, or lords
commissioners of the admiralty; and to attend him or them, on his return
home, with an account of his voyage or expedition, and to transmit a
copy of his journal to their secretary.

Much more might be observed on this occasion. It appears however by the
general outline which we have sketched, that the office and duty of an
admiral requires greater skill and more comprehensive abilities than is
generally supposed necessary to the command of a naval armament. And
that he ought to be duly qualified, at least in this kingdom, to assist
at the councils of his sovereign, and enter into the enlarged system of
protecting his country from an invasion by sea, or of meditating a
descent on an enemy’s coast; as well as to improve navigation, and open
new channels of commerce. For further particulars of his charge, see the

ADMIRAL _of the fleet_, the highest officer under the admiralty of
Great-Britain: when he embarks on any expedition, he is distinguished by
the union flag at the main-top-mast-head.

_Vice_-ADMIRAL, _vice-Amiral_, the officer next in rank and command to
admiral; his flag is displayed at the fore-top-mast-head.

_Rear_-ADMIRAL, _contre-amiral_, _lieutenant-général des armées
navales_, the officer next in rank and command to the vice-admiral, and
who carries his flag at the mizen-top-mast-head.

There are at present in England, besides the admiral of the fleet, three
admirals of the white squadron, and four of the blue. Three
vice-admirals of the red, three of the white, and four of the blue. Four
rear-admirals of the red, four of the white, and five of the blue
squadron: besides twenty-two rear-admirals that have carried no flag,
who are superannuated upon half-pay.

_Vice_-ADMIRAL is also a civil officer appointed by the
lords-commissioners of the admiralty. There are several of these
officers established in different parts of Great-Britain, with judges
and marshals under them, for executing jurisdiction within their
respective districts. Their decisions, however, are not final, an appeal
lying to the court of admiralty in London.

ADMIRALTY, _Amirauté_, the office of lord-high-admiral, whether
discharged by one single person, or by joint commissioners, called Lords
of the Admiralty.

ADVICE-BOAT, _pacquet d’ avis_, a small vessel employed to carry
expresses or orders with all possible dispatch.

ADRIFT (from _a_ and _drift_, Sax.) the state of a ship or vessel broke
loose from her moorings, and driven without controul at the mercy of the
wind, seas, or current, or all of them together.

AFLOAT, (_à flot_, Fr.) floating on the surface of the water: a ship is
said to be _afloat_ when there is a volume of water under her bottom of
sufficient depth to buoy her up from the ground.

AFORE, _avant_, (_fore_, Sax.) all that part of a ship which lies
forward, or near the stem.

AFORE, as a preposition, likewise implies _further forward_, or nearer
the prow; as, the manger stands _afore_ the fore-mast, i. e. further
forward, or nearer the stem. In both these senses _afore_ is used in
contradistinction to _abaft_. See the article ABAFT.

AFT, _arriere_, (from _æfter_, or _abaft_) behind, or near the stern of
the ship; being opposed to _fore_; as, run out the guns _fore and aft_!
i. e. from one end of the ship to the other; and whence,

AFTER, _de l’arriere_, (_æfter_, Sax.) a phrase applied to any object
situated in the hinder-part of the ship; as, the _after_-hatchway, the
_after_-capstern, the _after_-sails, &c.

The AFTER-SAILS usually comprehend all those which are extended on the
mizen-mast, and on the stays between the mizen and main-masts. They are
opposed to the head-sails, which include all those that are spread on
the fore-mast and bowsprit; and both by their mutual operation on the
opposite ends of the ship, duly balance her when under sail. See the
article TRIM.

AGENT-VICTUALLER, _avitalleur_, an officer stationed at a royal port, to
regulate the victualling of the king’s ships, under the directions of
the commissioners for victualling the navy. He receives all the
provisions from the victualling-office in London, and distributes them
to the ships in the harbour. He also receives into his store-houses such
as may be returned by ships after the expiration of their voyage, and
renders an account thereof to the said commissioners.

AGROUND, _echoué_, (from _a_ and _ground_) the situation of a ship whose
bottom, or any part of it, hangs or rests upon the ground, so as to
render her immoveable till a greater quantity of water floats her off;
or till she is drawn out into the stream, by the application of
mechanical powers.

AHEAD, _avant_, _au devant_, (from _a_ and _head_, Sax.) further onward
than the ship, or at any distance before her, lying immediately on that
point of the compass to which her stem is directed. It is used in
opposition to _astern_, which expresses the situation of any object
behind the ship. See ASTERN.

_To run AHEAD of one’s reckoning_, _depasser_, to sail beyond the place
shewn erroneously in the dead-reckoning as the ship’s station.

_Line_ AHEAD. See the article LINE.

A-HULL, _à sec; à mats, & à cordes_ (from _a_ and _hull_) the situation
of a ship when all her sails are furled on account of the violence of
the storm, and when having lashed her helm on the lee-side, she lies
nearly with her side to the wind and sea, her head being somewhat
inclined to the direction of the wind. See this further explained in the
article TRYING.

AIM, the direction of a cannon, or other fire-arm, to its object, or the
point to which it is directed; whence,

_To take_ AIM, _prendre sa mire_, (from _esmer_, Fr.) is to point a gun
to its object according to the point-blank range. See CANNON and RANGE.

ALEE, _envoié_, (from _a_ and _lee_) the situation of the helm when it
is pushed down to the lee side of the ship, in order to put the ship
about, or lay her head to the windward.

ALL _in the wind_, the state of a ship’s sails when they are parallel to
the direction of the wind, so as to shake and shiver, by turning the
ship’s head to windward, either by design, or neglect of the helm’s man.

ALL’_s well_! an acclamation of safety or security pronounced by a
centinel, and repeated by all the others who are stationed in different
places of a ship of war, at the time of striking the bell each half-hour
during the period of the night watch.

ALL _hands high_, or ALL _hands hoay_! _tout le monde haut!_ the call or
order by which all the ship’s company are summoned upon deck by the

ALOFT, _en haut_, (_loffter_, to lift up, Dan.) up in the tops, at the
mast-heads, or any where about the higher yards or rigging.

ALONG-_side_, _bord à bord_, _flanc & flanc_, side by side, or joined to
a ship, wharf, &c. and lying parallel thereto.

To lay ALONG-_side_, _alonger_, to arrange a ship by the side of

ALONG-_shore_, along the coast; this phrase is commonly applied to
coasting-navigation, or to a course which is in sight of, and nearly
parallel to, the shore.

_Lying_ ALONG, _à la bande_, (_au longe_, Fr.) the state of being
pressed down sideways by a weight of sail in a fresh wind that crosses
the ship’s course either directly or obliquely.

ALOOF, _lof_, this has frequently been mentioned as a sea-term, but
whether justly or not we shall not presume to determine; it is known in
common discourse to imply, at a distance; and the resemblance of the
phrases, _keep aloof_, and _keep a luff_, or _keep the luff_, in all
probability gave rise to this conjecture. If it was really a sea-phrase
originally, it seems to have referred to the dangers of a lee-shore, in
which situation the pilot might naturally apply it in the sense commonly
understood, _viz._ keep _all off_, or quite off: it is, however, never
expressed in that manner by seamen now. See LUFF. It may not be improper
to observe, that, besides using this phrase in the same sense with us,
the French also call the weather side of a ship, and the weather clue of
a course, _le lof_.

AMAIN, _cale-tout_, (from _main_, or _maigne_, old French) at once,
suddenly; as, let go _amain_! i. e. let it run at once. This phrase is
generally applied to any thing that is hoisted or lowered by a tackle,
or complication of pullies.

AMIDSHIPS, the middle of the ship, either with regard to her length or
breadth. Example in the first sense; The enemy boarded us _amidships_,
i. e. in the middle, between the stem and stern. Example in the second
sense; Put the helm _amidships_, i. e. in the middle, between the two

ANCHOR, _ancre_ (_anchora_, Lat. from αγκυρα, Greek) a heavy, strong,
crooked instrument of iron, dropped from a ship into the bottom of the
water, to retain her in a convenient station in a harbour, road, or

The most ancient anchors are said to have been of stone, and sometimes
of wood, to which a great quantity of lead was usually fixed. In some
places baskets full of stones, and sacks filled with sand, were employed
for the same use. All these were let down by cords into the sea, and by
their weight stayed the course of the ship. Afterwards they were
composed of iron, and furnished with teeth, which being fastened to the
bottom of the sea, preserved the vessel immoveable; whence ὀδοντες and
_dentes_ are frequently taken for anchors in the Greek and Latin poets.
At first there was only one tooth, whence anchors were called
ἐτερόστομοι; but in a short time the second was added by Eupalamus, or
Anacharsis, the Scythian philosopher. The anchors with two teeth were
called ἀμφίβολοι, or ἀμφίστομοι, and from ancient monuments appear to
have been much the same with those used in our days, only the transverse
piece of wood upon their handles (the stock) is wanting in all of them.
Every ship had several anchors, one of which, surpassing all the rest in
bigness and strength, was peculiarly termed ἱηρὰ, or _sacra_, and was
never used but in extreme danger; whence _sacram anchoram solvere_, is
proverbially applied to such as are forced to their last refuge.
_Potter’s Antiquities of Greece._

The anchors now made are contrived so as to sink into the ground as soon
as they reach it, and to hold a great strain before they can be loosened
or dislodged from their station. They are composed of a shank, a stock,
a ring, and two arms with their flukes. The stock, which is a long piece
of timber fixed across the shank, serves to guide the flukes in a
direction perpendicular to the surface of the ground; so that one of
them sinks into it by its own weight as soon as it falls, and is still
preserved steadily in that position by the stock, which, together with
the shank, lies flat on the bottom. In this situation it must
necessarily sustain a great effort before it can be dragged through the
earth horizontally. Indeed this can only be effected by the violence of
the wind or tide, or of both of them, sometimes increased by the
turbulence of the sea, and acting upon the ship so as to stretch the
cable to its utmost tension, which accordingly may dislodge the anchor
from its bed, especially if the ground be soft and oozy or rocky. When
the anchor is thus displaced, it is said, in the sea phrase, to _come

That the figure of this useful instrument may be more clearly
understood, let us suppose a long massy beam of iron erected
perpendicularly, Plate I. fig. 2. _b c_; at the lower end of which are
two arms, _d_ _e_, of equal thickness with the beam (usually called the
shank) only that they taper towards the points, which are elevated above
the horizontal plane at an angle of thirty degrees; or inclined to the
shank at an angle of sixty degrees: on the upper part of each arm (in
this position) is a fluke, or thick plate of iron, _g h_, commonly
shaped like an isosceles triangle, whose base reaches inwards to the
middle of the arm. On the upper-end of the shank is fixed the stock
transversely with the flukes: the stock is a long beam of oak, _f_, in
two parts, strongly bolted, and hooped together with iron rings. See
also fig. 3. Close above the stock is the ring, _a_, to which the cable
is fastened, or _bent_: the ring is curiously covered with a number of
pieces of short rope, which are twisted about it so as to form a very
thick texture or covering, called the puddening, and used to preserve
the cable from being fretted or chafed by the iron.

Every ship has, or ought to have, three principal anchors, with a cable
to each, viz. the sheet, _maitresse-ancre_, (which is the _anchora
sacra_ of the antients) the best bower, _second ancre_, and small bower,
_ancre d’ affourche_, so called from their usual situation on the ship’s
bows. There are besides smaller anchors, for removing a ship from place
to place in a harbour or river, where there may not be room or wind for
sailing; these are the stream-anchor, _ancre de touei_; the kedge and
grappling, _grapin_; this last, however, is chiefly designed for boats.

_To drag the_ ANCHORS, _chasser sur ses ancres_, implies the effort of
making the anchor _come home_, when the violence of the wind, &c.
strains the cable so as to tear it up from the bed into which it had
sunk, and drag it along the ground; as already explained.

_Foul_-ANCHOR: it is so called when it either hooks some other anchor,
wreck, or cable, under the surface of the water; or when, by the wind
suddenly abating, the ship slackens her strain, and straying round the
bed of her anchor, entangles her slack cable about the upper fluke of
it, and easily draws it out of its place, as soon as she begins to ride
with a strain. To prevent this, it is usual, as she approaches the
anchor, in light winds, to draw the slack cable into the ship as fast as

_To_ ANCHOR, _ancrer_, _mouiller_, _&c._ is to let go the anchor, and to
let the ship ride thereby.

_The_ ANCHOR _is a cock-bill_, _ancre est àla vielle_, implies that the
shank-painter, or rope by which the flukes were hung to the ship’s bow,
being cast off, the flukes drop down perpendicularly; whilst the anchor
is suspended at the cat-head by its stopper, ready to be sunk from the
bow at a moment’s warning.

_At_ ANCHOR, _à l’ ancre_, the situation of a ship which rides by her
anchor in a road or haven, &c. Plate I. fig. 6. represents the fore-part
of a ship, as riding in this situation.

_The_ ANCHOR _is a peek_. See the article APEEK.

_The_ ANCHOR _is a-trip_, or _a-weigh_. See those articles.

_To back the_ ANCHOR. See BACK.

_To cat the_ ANCHOR, _caponner l’ancre_, is to hook a tackle called the
_cat_ to its ring, and thereby pull it up close to the cat-head, which

_To fish the_ ANCHOR, to draw up the flukes upon the ship’s side after
it is catted. See the articles DAVIT and FISH.

_To sheer the ship to her_ ANCHOR, _gouverner sur l’ancre_, is to steer
the ship’s head towards the place where the anchor lies when they are
heaving the cable into the ship; that the cable may thereby enter the
hause with less resistance, and the ship advance towards the anchor with
greater facility.

_To shoe the_ ANCHOR. See the article SHOE.

_To weigh the_ ANCHOR, _lever l’ancre_, to heave the anchor out of the
ground by its cable. See CAPSTERN and WINDLASS.

_To weigh the_ ANCHOR _with the long-boat_, _lever l’ancre avec la
chaloupe_, is to draw it up by applying mechanical powers to the
buoy-rope, and thereby pull it up to the boat’s stem or stern.

_To weigh the_ ANCHOR _by the hair_, is to weigh it by the cable in a
boat, when the ship cannot approach it, or when the buoy rope is broke.
See the French term _Ancre_, and the phrases which succeed in order.

ANCHOR-_ground_, _fond de bonne tenue_, is a bottom which is neither too
deep, too shallow, nor rocky; as in the first the cable bears too nearly
perpendicular, and is thereby apt to jerk the anchor out of the ground:
in the second, the ship’s bottom is apt to strike at low water, or when
the sea runs high, by which she is exposed to the danger of sinking: and
in the third, the anchor is liable to hook the broken and pointed ends
of rocks, and tear away its flukes; whilst the cable, from the same
cause, is constantly in danger of being cut through as it rubs on their

APEEK, (_à pique_, Fr.) perpendicular to the anchor; a ship is said to
be in this situation, when the cable is drawn so tight into the bow as
to, bring her directly over the anchor, so that the cable bears right
down from the ship’s stem.

APRON, (from _a_ and _foran_, Sax.) a platform, or flooring of plank,
raised at the entrance of a dock, a little higher than the bottom,
against which the dock gates are shut. See the article DOCK.

APRON, _contre etrave_, in ship-building, a piece of curved timber fixed
behind the lower part of the stem, immediately above the foremost end of
the keel. See plate I. fig. H. in the PIECES _of the_ HULL.

The APRON conforms exactly to the shape of the stem, so that when the
convexity of the former is applied to the concavity of the latter, it
forms one solid piece, which serves to fortify the stem, and give it a
firmer connexion with the keel.

As the apron is composed of two pieces scarfed together, and used to
support she scarf of the stem, it is necessary that the scarf thereof
should be at some distance from that of the stem. It is formed of the
same thickness with the heel of the stem; but its thickness is equal
throughout. Sometimes the piece immediately under the apron forms a
curve, of which the horizontal part covers the dead-wood, whilst the
vertical part corresponds with the inside of the stem, to which it is
fayed, making the commencement of the apron.


  _Naval ARCHITECTURE_       _PLATE. I._

APRON, _platine_, is also a square piece of lead fastened over the
touch-hole of the cannon, to keep the charge dry at sea or in rainy

_Naval_ ARCHITECTURE, or the science of ship-building, comprehends the
theory of delineating marine vessels upon a plane; and the art of
framing them upon the stocks, according to the proportions exhibited in
a regular design.

All edifices, whether civil or military, are known to be erected in
consequence of certain established plans, which have been previously
altered or improved till they have arrived at the desired point of
perfection. The construction of ships appears also to require at least
as much correctness and precision as the buildings which are founded
upon _terra firma_: it is therefore absolutely necessary that the
mechanical skill of the shipwright should be assisted by plans and
sections, which have been drawn with all possible exactness, examined by
proper calculations, and submitted to the most accurate scrutiny.

_Naval_ ARCHITECTURE, or ship-building, may be distinguished into three
principal parts.

First, To give the ship such an exterior form as may be most suitable to
the service for which she is designed.

Secondly, to give the various pieces of a ship their proper figures; to
assemble and unite them into a firm, compact frame, so that by their
combination and disposition they may form a solid fabric, sufficient to
answer all the purposes for which it is intended: And,

Thirdly, To provide convenient accommodations for the officers and crew,
as well as suitable apartments for the cargo, furniture, provisions,
artillery and ammunition.

The exterior figure of a ship may be divided into the bottom and

The bottom, or quick-work, contains what is termed the _hold_, and which
is under water when the ship is laden. The upper-works, called also the
dead-work, comprehend all that part which is usually above the water
when the ship is laden.

The figure of the bottom is therefore determined by the qualities which
are necessary for the vessel, and conformable to the service for which
she is proposed.

The limits of our design will not admit of a minute description, and
enumeration of all the pieces of timber which enter into the
construction of a ship, nor of a particular description of their
assemblage and union; or the manner in which they reciprocally
contribute to the solidity of those floating citadels. It nevertheless
appears necessary to give a general idea of the use, figure, and
station, of the principal pieces, to those who are intirely unacquainted
with the subject. As our definitions will be greatly illustrated also by
the proper figures, we have annexed to this article a plate which
comprehends some of the most material draughts, as well as a
representation of the principal pieces employed in naval architecture.

It is usual amongst shipwrights to delineate three several draughts.

First, The whole length of the ship is represented according to a side
view, perpendicular to the keel, and is termed the plane of elevation,
or sheer-draught. Plate I.

Second, The ship is exhibited according to an end view, and stripped of
her planks, so as to present the outlines of the principal timbers; and
this is properly termed the plane of projection, or the vertical plane
of the timbers, Plate I. because it shews the projection of their frames
relatively to each other.

Third, It is not sufficient to have the vertical curves of the bottom in
different places, for a distinct idea of the horizontal curves is also
equally necessary and useful: this is obtained by means of
_water-lines_, traced upon what is called the horizontal plane. In this
draught, the curves of the transoms called the _round-aft_, is also
marked, and sometimes the breadth and thickness of the timbers.

The plane of elevation, plate I. determines the length and depth of the
keel; the difference of the draughts of water; the length and
projection, or _rake_, of the stem and stern-post; the position of the
mid-ship frame upon the keel, together with that of the principal frames
afore and abaft; the load-water-line; the wales, the dimensions and
situations of the gun-ports, the projection of the rails of the head and
stern-gallery, with the stations of the masts and channels. See the
article ELEVATION.

This draught, however, conveys no idea of the vertical curve of the ribs
or timbers; for as their projection will be only represented in a plane
elevated upon the length of the keel, they will appear in this direction
no otherwise than as streight lines. To perceive these curves
accurately, they must be regarded in another point of view, which will
represent their projection upon a vertical plane, supposed to cut the
keel at right angles in the place where the ship is broadest. For as all
ships are broader near the middle of their length than towards the
extremities, it is evident that the timbers are more extended in
proportion. The most capacious of these represents what is called the
_midship-frame_; and upon the area of this frame is delineated the
projection of all the others.

Thus the plane of projection limits the different breadths of a ship in
various points of her length, and exhibits the outline of the timbers
respectively to each other, as they are erected upon the keel.
Accordingly, this draught ought to present a variety of sections of the
ship in different places of her length, and always perpendicular to the
surface of the water; so that the eye of the observer, when placed in
what may be properly termed the _axis_ of the ship, may perceive the
several sections at one glance, that is to say, when looking full on the
stem, from before the ship, (See plate V. fig. 4.) he shall discover the
fore-timbers; and when looking from behind, directly on the stern, he
shall perceive the form of the after-timbers, (See plate X. fig. 2 and
3.) in both of which figures the sections of the inferior timbers are
expressed by curved black lines drawn upon the area of the
midship-frame, which is already described to be a plane elevated
perpendicularly upon the keel at the extreme breadth of the vessel.

To form a just idea of this plane, therefore, we ought to suppose a ship
resting upon the stocks, in the same position as when afloat upon the
water. Thus a variety of black vertical lines may be drawn at equal
distances upon the bottom, which is white, to form different outlines of
the ship corresponding to the timbers within. It is to be observed, that
the fashion of the inferior timbers must conform to the figure of the
midship-frame, which is placed in the fullest part of the ship; and as
the planes of all the other timbers diminish in a certain progression as
they approach the stem and stern, they are properly delineated on the
plane of the midship-frame, which also represents the depth of the keel
and length of the midship-beam.

As the two sides of a ship ought to be exactly alike, it is judged
sufficient to represent the sections of the fore-part of the ship on the
left side, and those in the after-part on the right side, so as to
perceive all the sections, as well afore as abaft, upon one plane. See

However necessary it may be to understand precisely the vertical curves
of the bottom, it is no less requisite to have a just idea of those
which are horizontal.

The horizontal, or floor plane, is that upon which the whole frame is
erected, and will be more clearly understood by previously describing
the water-lines and ribbands, of which it is composed.

When a ship floats upon the stream, it is evident that her upper-works
will be separated from the bottom by the surface of the water, which
will accordingly describe an imaginary horizontal line upon the bottom
from the stem to the stern-post.

The most elevated of those lines is termed the load-water-line, which is
supposed to be drawn by the surface of the water on the upper part of
the bottom, when she is sufficiently laden for a sea-voyage. For if we
suppose this surface a rule, and thereby describe a corresponding black
line along the vessel’s bottom, that line will be distinguished upon the
bottom, which is white, and represent what is called the

If the ship is lightened of any part of her lading, and preserves the
same difference in her draught of water at the two ends, or, what is the
same thing, if she is lightened so as to preserve the same equilibrium
of the keel with regard to the surface of the water, it is evident that
she will rise higher out of the water, so that the black line already
described will be elevated above it, and another black line may be
delineated upon the bottom, close to the surface of the water, which
will exhibit a second water-line parallel to the first, but nearer the
keel in proportion to the number of feet which the ship has risen.

Thus by lightening a ship gradually, and at the same time preserving the
direction of her keel, or the angle which the keel makes with the
surface of the water, a variety of water-lines may be drawn parallel to
each other, and to the load-water-line. See a farther illustration of
these lines in the article WATER-LINE. See also their figure on a ship’s
bottom, plate I. fig. 5.

The ribbands are likewise of great utility in ship-building; they are
narrow and flexible planks placed on the bottom at different heights, so
as to form a sort of mould for stationing the inferior timbers between
the principal ones. They differ from the water-lines, inasmuch as the
latter have only one curve, which is horizontal, whereas the ribbands,
besides their horizontal one, have a vertical curve. To convey a just
idea of these curves, which cannot be represented on one draught at
their full length, without an oblique section of the ship’s length, it
will be necessary to have recourse to two planes; that of the elevation,
which exhibits their vertical curve; and to the floor-plane, upon which
the horizontal curve is expressed. See RIBBANDS.

These different lines are extremely useful in exhibiting the various
curves of a ship’s bottom, that as they are gradually diminished, their
uniformity or irregularity may be discovered by the skilful artist.

We have already observed, that the qualities required in a ship ought to
determine the figure of the bottom: a ship of war therefore should be
able to sail swiftly, and carry her lower tier of guns sufficiently out
of the water. A merchant-ship ought to contain a large cargo of
merchant-goods, and be navigated with few hands; and both should be able
to carry sail firmly; steer well; drive little to leeward; and sustain
the shocks of the sea without being violently strained.

The first thing to be established in the draught of a ship is her
length; and as a ship of war, according to her rate, is furnished with a
certain number of cannon, which are placed in battery on her decks, it
is necessary that a sufficient distance should be left between their
ports to work the guns with facility, and particularly to leave space
enough between the foremost gun and the stem, and between the aftmost
gun and the stern-post on each side, on account of the arching, or
inward curve of the ship towards her extremities.

When the length of a ship is determined, it is usual to fix her breadth
by the dimensions of the midship-beam. On this occasion the shipwrights,
for the most part, are conducted by rules founded on their own
observation; for having remarked, that some vessels which by repeated
experience have been found to answer all the purposes of navigation,
have a certain breadth in proportion to their length, they have inferred
that it would be improper to depart from this proportion: but as other
ships have been constructed with different breadths, which were equally
perfect, a variety of different general rules have been adopted by these
artists, who are accordingly divided in their opinions about the breadth
which ought to be assigned to a ship relatively with her length, whilst
each one produces reasons and experience in support of his own standard.
Those who would diminish the breadth alledge, that a narrow vessel meets
with less resistance in passing through the water; 2dly. That by
increasing the length she will drive less to leeward; 3dly. That
according to this principle, the water-lines will be more conveniently
formed to divide the fluid; 4thly. That a long and narrow ship will
require less sail to advance swiftly; that her masts will be lower, and
her rigging lighter; and, by consequence, the seamen less fatigued with
managing the sails, &c.

Those, on the contrary, who would enlarge the breadth, pretend, 1st.
That this form is better fitted to preserve a good battery of guns.
2dly. That there will be more room to work the guns conveniently. 3dly.
That by carrying more sail the ship will be enabled to run faster; or,
that this quality will at least overbalance the advantage which the
others have of more easily dividing the fluid. 4thly. That, being
broader at the load-water-line, or place where the surface of the water
describes a line round the bottom, they will admit of being very narrow
on the floor, particularly towards the extremities: and 5thly. That a
broad vessel will more readily rise upon the waves than a narrow one.

From such opposite principles has resulted that variety of standards
adopted by different shipwrights; and a servile imitation of these
mechanical methods has, to the great reproach of the art, produced all
these pretended rules of proportion: for the various models they have
hitherto adopted indisputably prove their doubt and uncertainty with
regard to their proper standard. Hence these pretended mysteries which
are only to be revealed to such as are initiated into the craft! Hence
this division of the art into classes, or, according to the technical
term, into _families_, each of which affects, with becoming solemnity,
to be possessed of the true secret, in preference to all the others! And
hence violence of opposition, and mutual contempt amongst the artists!
Indeed nothing appears more effectually to have retarded the progress of
naval architecture, than the involving it in mysteries which the
professors would gravely insinuate are only intelligible to themselves.
This ridiculous affectation is nevertheless tenaciously retained,
notwithstanding the example to the contrary of some of the most able
shipwrights in Europe, who are real masters of the theory of their art,
and do honour to their profession, and who are justly exempted from the
censure to which the others are often exposed.

It is not to be expected that an art so complicated and various,
comprehending such a diversity of structures, can be treated at large in
a work of this sort. To enter into a particular detail of the theory and
practice; to explain the different parts with sufficient accuracy and
perspicuity, would of itself require a large volume, and, by
consequence, greatly exceed the limits of our design. Being thus
necessitated to contract our description into a narrow compass, it will
be sufficient to give a general idea of the subject; to describe the
principal pieces of which a ship is composed, and to explain the
principal draughts used in the construction thereof.

As the several lines exhibited in the planes of elevation, projection,
&c. will be rendered more intelligible by a previous account of those
pieces, it may not be improper to begin with reciting their names, and
giving a summary description of their uses and stations. They are for
the most part represented according to the order of their disposition in
that part of plate I. which is termed PIECES _of the_ HULL.

A. The pieces which compose the keel, to be securely bolted together,
and clinched.

B. The stern-post, which is tenanted into the keel, and connected to it
by a knee, G. It supports the rudder, and unites the sides of the ship

C. The stem, which is composed of two pieces scarfed together: it is an
arching piece of timber, into which the ship’s sides are united

D. The beams, which are used to support the decks, and confine the sides
to their proper distance.

E. The false post, which serves to augment the breadth of the
stern-post, being also tenanted into the keel.

F. The knees, which connect the beams to the sides.

G. The knee of the stern-post, which unites it to the keel.

H. The apron, in two pieces: it is fayed on the inside of the stem, to
support the scarf thereof; for which reason, the scarf of the former
must be at some distance from that of the latter.

I. The stemson, in two pieces, to reinforce the scarf of the apron.

K. The wing transom: it is fayed across the stern-post, and bolted to
the head of it, having its two ends let into the fashion-pieces.

L. The deck transom, parallel to the wing-transom, and secured in the
same manner.

M. N. The lower transoms.

O. The fashion-piece on one side; the heel of it is connected with the
stern-post, and the head is secured to the wing-transom.

P. The top-timbers, or upper parts of the fashion-pieces.

Q. The sleepers, which fasten the transoms to the ship’s side.

R. The breast-hooks, in the hold; they are fayed across the stem, to
strengthen the fore part of the ship.

S. The breast-hooks of the deck: they are placed immediately above the
former, and used for the same purposes.

T. The rudder, which is joined to the stern-post by hinges, and serves
to direct the ship’s course.

U. The floor-timbers; they are laid across the keel, to which they are
firmly bolted.

V. The lower futtocks, and

W. The top-timbers, which are all united to the floor-timbers, forming a
frame that reaches from the keel to the top of the side.

X. The pieces which compose the kelson: they are scarfed together like
the keel pieces, and placed over the middle of the floor-timbers, upon
each of which they are scored about an inch and a half, as exhibited by
the notches.

Y. The several pieces of the knee of the head; the lower part of which
is fayed to the stem; the heel being scarfed to the fore-foot.

Z. The cheeks of the head or knees, which connect the head to the bows
on each side.

&. The standard of the head, which fastens it to the stem.

a. The catheads, one of which lies on each bow, projecting outwards like
the arm of a crane. They are used to draw the anchors up to the top of
the side without injuring the bow.

b. The bits, to which the cable is fastened when the ship rides at

c. The false post, in two pieces, fayed to the fore part of the

d. The side-counter-timbers, which terminate the ship abaft within the
quarter gallery.

e e. Two pieces of dead wood, one afore, and another abaft, fayed on the

In vessels of war, the general dimensions are established by authority
of officers appointed by the government to superintend the building of
ships. In the merchants service, the extreme breadth, length of the
keel, depth in the hold, height between-decks and in the waste, are
agreed on by contract; and from these dimensions the shipwright is to
form a draught suitable to the trade for which the ship is designed.

In projecting the draught of a vessel of war, the first article to be
considered is her length. As all ships are much longer above than below,
it is also necessary to distinguish the precise part of her height from
which her length is taken: this is usually the lower gun-deck, or the
load water-line. It has been already observed, that water-lines are
described longitudinally on a ship’s bottom by the surface of the water
in which she floats, and that the line which determines her depth under
the water is usually termed the load-water-line. In this draught it will
be particularly necessary to leave sufficient distance between the

The next object is to establish the breadth by the midship-beam.
Although there is great difference of opinion about proportioning the
breadth to the length, yet it is most usual to conform to the dimensions
of ships of the same rate. After the dimensions of the breadth and
length are determined, the depth of the hold must be fixed, which is
generally half the breadth: but the form of the body should be
considered on this occasion; for a flat floor will require less depth in
the hold than a sharp one. The distance between the decks must also be

We may then proceed to fix the length of the keel, by which we shall be
enabled to judge of the rake of the stem and stern-post. The rake is
known to be the projection of the ship at the height of the stem and
stern-post, beyond the ends of the keel afore and abaft; or the angle by
which the length is increased as the fabric rises. To these we may also
add the height of the stem and wing transom.

After these dimensions are settled, the timbers may be considered which
form the sides of the ship. A frame of timbers, which appears to be one
continued piece, is composed of one floor-timber, U, whose arms branch
outward to both sides of the ship; (See plate I. PIECES _of the_ HULL)
two or three futtocks V V, and a top-timber, W. The futtocks are
connected to the upper arms of the floor-timbers on each side of the
ship, and serve to prolong the timber in a vertical direction: and the
top-timbers are placed at the upper part of the futtocks for the same
purpose. All these being united, and secured by cross-bars, form a
circular enclosure, which is called a frame of timbers, _couple d’un
vaisseau_. And as a ship is much broader at the middle than at the
extremities, the arms of the floor-timber will form a very obtuse angle
at the extreme breadth; but this angle decreases in proportion to the
distance of the timbers from the midship-frame, so that the foremost and
aftmost ones will form a very acute angle. Floor-timbers of the latter
sort are usually called crutches.

Shipwrights differ extremely in determining the station of the
midship-frame; some placing it at the middle of the ship’s length, and
others further forward. They who place it before the middle, alledge,
that if a ship is full forward, she will meet with no resistance after
she has opened a column of water; and that the water so displaced will
easily unite abaft, and by that means force the ship forward; besides
having more power on the rudder, in proportion to its distance from the
center of gravity: this also comes nearer the form of fishes, which
should seem the most advantageous for dividing the fluid.

When the rising of the midship-floor-timber is decided, we may then
proceed to describe the rising-line of the floor, on the stern-post
abaft, and on the stem afore.

The height of the lower-deck is the next thing to be considered: it is
determined in the middle by the depth of the hold; and some builders
make it no higher than the stem; but they raise it abaft as much above
its height in the middle, as the load-water-mark, or draught of water
abaft, exceeds that afore. With regard to the height between decks, it
is altogether arbitrary, and must be determined by the rate of the ship,
and the service she is designed for.

It is also necessary to remember the sheer of the wales, and to give
them a proper _hanging_; because the beauty and stateliness of a ship
greatly depend upon their figure and curve, which, if properly drawn,
will, make her appear airy and graceful on the water.

We come now to consider the upper-works, and all that is above water,
called the dead-work: and here the ship must be narrower, so that all
the weight lying above the load-water-line will thereby be brought
nearer the middle of the breadth, and of course the ship will be less
strained by the working of her guns, &c. But although some advantages
are acquired by diminishing the breadth above water, we must be careful
not to narrow her too much; as there must be sufficient room left on the
upper-deck for the guns to recoil. The security of the masts should
likewise be remembered, which requires sufficient breadth to spread the
shrouds. A deficiency of this sort may indeed be in some measure
supplied by enlarging the breadth of the channels.

With regard to the qualities required in the construction of a ship, to
fit her for the various purposes of navigation, the reader is referred
to the article BOTTOM.

We shall now proceed to explain the sheer draught, or plane of
_elevation_, of a sixty gun ship; wherein we have been attentive to make
the same letters refer to the same objects, as in the explanation of the
PIECES, as above; at least when the same objects are in both figures; a
conduct we shall invariably pursue throughout this work, although it
seems to have been forgot by our predecessors. Thus in all the plates of
ship-building, the keel, whether separate or joined, is represented by
A, the stern-post by B, the stem by C, the beams by D; unless where
those objects do not _all_ appear, and then something else is placed
instead thereof. Thus in plate III. of the deck, where the keel cannot
be seen, the main hatchway is represented by A, as not being inserted in
any figure wherein the keel appears.

A A. The keel, whose upper edge is prolonged by the dotted line p q,
upon the extremities of which are erected perpendiculars which determine
the height of the wing transom, K, and length of the gun-deck, K C.

A B. The stern-post.

A C. The stem.

D D. The quarter-gallery, with its windows.

E F. The quarter-pieces, which limit the stern on each side.

F. The taffarel, or upper piece of the stern.

F G. Profile of the stern, with its galleries.

H. The gun ports.

I. The channels, with their dead-eyes and chain-plates.

K. The wing-transom.

K G. The counter.

L B. The deck-transom.

M N O. The first, second, and third transoms, of which O K is the third
or lowest.

_m_ O L P. The direction of the fashion-piece, having its breadth canted
aft towards the stern.

Q R. The main skeeds, for hoisting in the boats clear of the ship’s
side. L Q Z. The main wale, with its sheer afore and abaft.

D R X. The channel wales, parallel to the main wale.

S U S. The sheer rail, parallel to the wales.

T _t_. The rudder.

A t F. The rake of the stern.

V W V. The waist-rail.

P _i i_. The drift-rails abaft; and _i_ a, the drift-rails forward.

T U C. The water-line.

X X. The rails of the head.

Y. The knee of the head, or cutwater.

Z Z. The cheeks of the head.

a a. The cat-head.

M ⊕ C. The rising line of the floor.

_k_ _u_ C. The cutting-down line, which limits the thickness of all the
floor-timbers, and likewise the height of the dead-wood afore and abaft.

⊕ _u_ U W. The midship-frame.

_a_, _b_, _c_, _d_, _e_, _f_, _g_, _h_. The frames or timbers in the
fore-body of the ship, i. e. before the midship frame.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. The timbers in the after-body, or which are
erected abaft the midship-frame.

As the eye of a spectator is supposed in this projection to view the
ship’s side in a line perpendicular to the plane of elevation, it is
evident that the convexity will vanish, like that of a cylinder or
globe, when viewed at a considerable distance; and that the frames will
consequently be represented by strait lines, except the fashion-piece
abaft and the knuckle-timber forward.

It has been already observed, that the plane of projection may be
defined a vertical delineation of the curves of the timbers upon the
plane of the midship-frame, which is perpendicular to that of the
elevation. It is necessary to observe here, that the various methods by
which these curves are described, are equally mechanical and arbitrary.
In the latter sense, they are calculated to make a ship fuller or
narrower according to the service for which she is designed, and in the
former they are drawn according to those rules which the artist has been
implicitly taught, to follow, or which his fancy or judgment has
esteemed the most accurate and convenient. They are generally composed
of several arches of a circle, reconciled together by moulds framed for
that purpose. The radii of those arches therefore are of different
lengths, according to the breadth of the ship in the place where such
arches are swept; and they are expressed on the plane of projection
either by horizontal or perpendicular lines; the radii of the breadth
sweeps being always in the former, and the radii of the floor sweeps in
the latter direction. These two arches are joined by a third, which
coincides with both, without intersecting either. The curve of the
top-timber is either formed by a mould which corresponds to the arch of
the breadth-sweep, or by another sweep, whose center and radius are
without the plane of projection. The breadth of the ship at every
top-timber is limited by an horizontal line drawn on the floor-plane,
called the half-breadth of the top-timbers. The extreme breadth is also
determined by another horizontal line on the floor-plane; and the lines
of half-breadth are thus mutually transferable, from the projection and
floor-planes, to each other.

The necessary data by which the curves of the timbers are delineated
then are, the perpendicular height from the keel, the main or principal
breadth, and the top-timber breadth: for as a ship is much broader near
the middle of her length than towards the ends, so she is broader in the
middle of her height than above and below; and this latter difference of
breadth is continued throughout every point of her length. The main
breadth of each frame of timbers is therefore the ship’s breadth nearly
in the middle of her height in that part: and the top-timber breadth is
the line of her breadth near the upper ends of each timber. It has been
already observed, that as both sides of a ship are alike, the artificers
only draw one side, from which both sides of the ship are built:
therefore the timbers abaft the midship frame are exhibited on one side
of the plane of projection, and the timbers before it on the other.

                     Plane of PROJECTION, Plate I.

A. The keel.

B C. The line which expresses the upper-edge of the keel, from which the
height of each timber, and height of its different breadths are

B D and C E, perpendiculars raised on the line B C, to limit the ship’s
extreme breadth and height amid-ships; or, in other words, to limit the
breadth and height of the midship-frame.

A F. A perpendicular erected from the middle of the keel to bisect the
line of the ship’s breadth in two equal parts.

F * 9. The half-breadth line of the aftmost top-timber; being the
uppermost horizontal line in this figure.

Note. The seven lines parallel to, and immediately under this, on the
right side of the line A F, are all top-timber half-breadths, abaft the
midship-frame; the lowest of which coincides with the horizontal line D

The parallel horizontal lines nearly opposite to these, on the left side
of the line A F, represent the top-timber half-breadths in the
fore-body, or the half-breadths of the top-timbers before the

G, H, I, Q, R, S, T. The radii of the breadth-sweeps abaft the
midship-frame; those of the breadth-sweeps in the fore-body, or before
the midship-frame, are directly opposite on the right side.

⊕ A ⊕. The midship-frame, from the extreme breadth downwards.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. The out-lines of timbers abaft the
midship-frame, in different parts of their height.

_a_, _b_, _c_, _d_, _e_, _f_, _g_, _h_. The outlines of the timbers
before the midship-frame, in different parts of their height, h being
the foremost, or knucke-timber.

K _i_. The wing-transom, whose ends rest upon the fashion-piece.

L. The deck-transom, parallel to, and under the wing-transom.

M N O. The lower-transoms, of which O k is the third and lowest,

_m_ _k_ P. The dotted line, which expresses the figure of the
fashion-piece, without being canted aft.

P. The upper-part, or top-timber of the fashion-piece.

_n_, _o_, _p_, _q_, _r_, _s_. The radii of the floor-sweeps, abaft the
midship-frame: those before the midship-frame are on the opposite side
of the line A F, to which they are all parallel.

1st R^d. 2d R^d. 3d R^d. 4th R^d. The diagonal ribbands abaft the

_t_, _u_, _x_, _y_. The same ribbands expressed in the fore-body.

It has been remarked above, that the horizontal plane is composed of
water-lines and ribbands; it also contains the main and top-timber
breadth-lines, or the longitudinal lines by which the main-breadth and
top-timber-breadth are limited in every point of the ship’s length. The
horizontal curve of the transoms and harpins are also represented
therein, together with the planes of the principal timbers; the cant of
the fashion-piece, the length of the rake afore and abaft, the
projection of the cat-heads, and the curve of the upper-rail of the
head, to which curves of the lower ones are usually parallel.

                       HORIZONTAL PLANE. Plate I.

B A C. The line of the ship’s length, passing through the middle of the
stem and stern-post.

B. The upper-end of the stern-post.

C. The upper-end of the stem.

B F. The length of the rake abaft.

D W X. The top-timber-breadth-line, or the line which limits the breadth
of each top-timber.

D F. The breadth of the aftmost timber at the taffarel.

B K. The wing-transom.

B L P. The horizontal curve of the deck-transom.

M M. The horizontal curve, or _round-aft_, of the first transom.

M N. The horizontal curve of the second transom: it is prolonged into a
water-line, N 8 7.

_k_ O. The horizontal curve of the third transom, which is also
prolonged into another water-line, O, _n_, U, _p_, Q.

_m_ O P. The plane of the fashion-piece, as canted aft.

⊕ W U. The plane of the midship-frame.

_a_, _b_, _c_, _d_, _e_, _f_, _h_. The planes of the timbers before the

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. The planes of the timbers abaft the

X X. The figure of the upper-rail of the head.

C Y. The projection of the knee of the head.

The Third horizontal ribband, is marked on the plate.

a a. The projection of the cat-head.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Thus we have endeavoured briefly to explain the nature and uses of the
principal draughts used in the construction of a ship, which
reciprocally correspond with each other in the dimensions of length,
breadth, and depth. Thus the plane of elevation is exactly of the same
length with the horizontal or floor-plane. The several breadths of the
timbers in the floor-plane and that of the projection are mutually
transferable; and the real height of the timbers in the projection,
exactly conforms to their height in the elevation. Thus let it be
required to transfer the height of the wing-transom from the elevation
to the projection:

Extend the compasses from the point K, in the elevation, down to the
dotted line prolonged from the upper-edge of the keel, and setting the
other foot in the point _p_, then shall the line K _p_ be the
perpendicular height of the wing transom: transfer this from the middle
of the line B A C, in the projection, to the point K in the
perpendicular A F, then will A K be the height of the wing-transom in
the plane of projection: and thus the height of all the transoms may be
laid from the former upon the latter.

Again, let it be required to transfer the main-breadth of the
midship-frame from the projection to the horizontal plane: Set one foot
of the compasses in the point ⊕ on the perpendicular C E, and extend the
other along the main-breadth-sweep ⊕ G, till it touches the
perpendicular A F parallel to C E: lay this distance upon the horizontal
plane from the point u in the line of the ship’s length, B A C, along
the plane of the midship-frame to the point ⊕; so shall the line ⊕ W U
be the breadth of the midship-frame on the horizontal plane.

Thus also the top-timber-breadth, or the distance of each top-timber
from the middle of the ship’s breadth, may be in the same manner
transferred, by extending the compasses from the line B A C, in the
horizontal plane, to the top-timber breadth-line, upon any particular
timber, as 1, 2, 3, &c. which will give its proper dimensions thereon.

In the same manner the breadths of all the timbers may be laid from the
projection to the horizontal plane, and _vice versa_, from that to the
projection. Thus the height of each timber may also be transferred from
the elevation to the projection, &c.

The principal utility of these draughts therefore is to exhibit the
various curves of the ship’s body, and of the pieces of which it is
framed, in different points of view, which are either transverse or
longitudinal, and will accordingly present them in very different
directions. Thus the horizontal curves of the transoms and water-lines
are represented on the floor-plane, all of which are nearly streight
lines in the elevation and projection; and thus the vertical curves of
the timbers are all exhibited on the projection, although they appear as
streight lines in the elevation and floor plane.

Before this article is closed, it may be necessary to remark, that the
various pieces represented in plate I. as well as the lines in the
draughts which have not been already defined, are copiously explained in
their proper places; as it would have been contrary to the plan of this
work to have given a more enlarged description of them here.

That the reader, however, might be better enabled to comprehend the
scope of this article, it was judged necessary to give a general sketch
of naval architecture itself; to collect into one point of view the most
material draughts by which a ship is constructed, and to describe, as
concisely as possible, the several parts of which they are composed.

The principal parts of a ship also, which are here reduced into a narrow
compass, will be represented at large in different places of this work,
to illustrate those explanations whither it may be necessary to refer,
in order to understand the subject more clearly. Thus the stern, the
quarter, the midship-frame, the bow and head, of a ship of 74 guns, are
exhibited on a scale of ¼ of an inch to a foot; by which all the
subordinate parts may be distinctly viewed, and their combination and
arrangement sufficiently understood.

ARMED-SHIP, _vaisseau armé en guerre_, a vessel occasionally taken into
the service of the government in time of war, and employed to guard some
particular coast, or attend on a fleet. She is therefore armed and
equipped in all respects like a ship of war, and commanded by an officer
of the navy, who has the rank of master and commander. All ships of this
sort are upon the establishment of the king’s sloops, having a
lieutenant, master, purser, surgeon, &c.

ASHORE, (from _a_ and _shore_) on the shore, or land, as opposed to

A ship is said to be ASHORE, _echoué_, when she has run upon the ground,
or on the sea-coast, either by design or accident.

ASTERN, _au derriere_, (from _a_ and _steorn_, Sax.) any distance behind
a ship, as opposed to _a-head_, which is before her. Thus, when south is
_a-head_, or on the line to which the stem is directed, north will be

ATHWART, _par le travers_, (from _a_ and _twert_, Dan. transverse) when
used in navigation, implies across the line of the course; as, we
discovered a fleet at day-break standing _athwart_ us, i. e. steering
across our way.

ATHWART-HAUSE, the situation of a ship when she is driven by the wind,
tide, or other accident, across the fore-part of another. This phrase is
equally applied when the ships bear against each other, or when they are
at a small distance; the transverse position of the former to the latter
being principally understood.

ATHWART _the fore-foot_, a phrase employed to denote the flight of a
cannon-ball, as fired from one ship across the line of another’s course,
to intercept the latter, and compel her to shorten sail till the former
approaches near enough to examine her. The _fore-foot_ is the lower part
of the stem; so that the shot flying across it is said to be fired
_athwart the fore-foot_.

ATHWART-SHIPS, reaching across the ship, from one side to the other.

ATRIP (_trepor_, Fr. _trippen_, Dutch) is applied differently to the
anchor and the sails. The anchor is _atrip_, _derangée_, when it is
drawn out of the ground in a perpendicular direction, either by the
cable or buoy-rope. The top-sails are said to be _atrip_, when they are
hoisted up to the mast-head, or to their utmost extent.

AVERAGE, in commerce _avarie_, (_averagium_, Lat.) the accidents and
misfortunes which happen to ships and their cargoes, from the time of
their loading and sailing, till their return and unlading. It is divided
into three kinds. 1. The simple or particular _average_, which consists
in the extraordinary expences incurred for the ship alone, or for the
merchandise alone; such is the loss of anchors, masts, and rigging,
occasioned by the common accidents at sea; the damages which happen to
merchandises by storms, capture, shipwreck, wet, or rotting; all which
must be borne and paid by the thing that suffered the damage. 2. The
large and common average, being those expences incurred, and damages
sustained, for the common good and security, both of the merchandise and
vessels, consequently to be borne by the ship and cargo, and to be
regulated upon the whole. Of this number are the goods or money given
for the ransom of the ship and cargo; things thrown overboard for the
safety of the ship; the expences of unlading, or entering into a river
or harbour, and the provisions and hire of the sailors when the ship is
put under embargo. 3. The small averages, which are expences for towing
and piloting the ship out of, or into harbours, creeks, or rivers; one
third of which must be charged to the ship, and two thirds to the cargo.

AVERAGE is more particularly used for a certain contribution that
merchants make proportionably towards their losses. It also signifies a
small duty which the merchants, who send goods in another man’s ship,
pay to the master, for his care of them, over and above the freight.
Hence it is expressed in the bills of lading, paying so much freight for
the said goods, with damage and average accustomed.

AWEIGH, _a quitté_ (of _a_ and _weigh_) the state of the anchor when it
is drawn out of the ground in a perpendicular direction, by the
application of mechanical powers, as a capstern or windlass, to the
cable within the ship; so that aweigh is synonimous to _atrip_.

AWNING, _tendelet_, (from _aulne_, Fr.) a canopy of canvass extending
over the decks of a ship in hot weather, for the convenience of the
officers and crew, and to preserve the decks from being cracked or
split, _ebaroui_, by the heat of the sun: The awning is supported by a
range of light posts, called stanchions, which are erected along the
ship’s side on the right and left; it is also suspended in the middle by
a complication of small cords, called a crowfoot. See the article

AZIMUTH-COMPASS, an instrument employed to discover the magnetical
azimuth or amplitude of any heavenly object. This operation is performed
at sea, to find the exact variation of the magnetical needle. The
compass will be described in its proper place: it is, however, necessary
here to explain the additional contrivance by which it is fitted to take
the magnetical azimuth, or amplitude of the sun or stars, or the
bearings of head-lands, ships, and other objects at a distance.

The brass edge, originally designed to support the card, and throw the
weight thereof as near the circumference as possible, is itself divided
into degrees and halves; which may be easily estimated into smaller
parts if necessary. The divisions are determined by means of a cat-gut
line stretched perpendicularly with the box, as near the brass edge as
may be, that the parallax arising from a different position of the
observer may be as little as possible.

There is also added an index at the top of the inner-box, which may be
fixed on or taken off at pleasure, and serves for all altitudes of the
object. It consists of a bar, equal in length to the diameter of the
inner-box, each end being furnished with a perpendicular stile, with a
slit parallel to the sides thereof; one of the slits is narrow, to which
the eye is applied, and the other is wider, with a small cat-gut
stretched up the middle of it, and from thence continued horizontally
from the top of one stile to the top of the other. There is also a line
drawn along the upper surface of the bar. These four, viz. the narrow
slit, the horizontal cat-gut thread, the perpendicular one, and the line
on the bar, are in the same plane, which disposes itself perpendicularly
to the horizon when the inner-box is at rest and hangs free. This index
does not move round, but is always placed on, so as to answer the same
side of the box.

The sun’s azimuth is known to be an angle contained between the meridian
and the center of the sun. When this is required, and his rays are
strong enough to cast a shadow, the box is turned about till the shadow
of the horizontal thread, or if the sun be too low, till that of the
perpendicular thread, in one stile, or the slit through the other, falls
upon the line in the index bar, or vibrates to an equal distance on each
side of it, the box being gently touched if it vibrates too far: at the
same time they observe the degree marked upon the brass edge of the
cat-gut line. In counting the degree for the azimuth, or any other angle
that is reckoned from the meridian, the outward circle of figures upon
the brass edge is used; and the situation of the index, with respect to
the card and needle, will always direct upon what quarter of the compass
the object is placed.

But if the sun does not shine out sufficiently strong, the eye is placed
behind the narrow slit in one of the stiles, and the wooden box turned
about till some part of the horizontal, or perpendicular thread appears
to intersect the center of the sun, or vibrate to an equal distance on
each side of it; smoked glass being used next the eye, if the sun’s
light is too strong. In this method another observer is necessary, to
note the degree cut by the nonius, at the same time the first gives
notice that the thread appears to split the object.

Plate II. fig. 20. is a perspective view of the compass, when in order
for observation; the point of view being the center of the card, and the
distance of the eye two feet.

A B. is the wooden box in which it is usually contained.

K. is a cat-gut line drawn from the inside of the box for determining
the degree upon the brass edge.

L, M, N, O. is the index bar with its two stiles, and cat-gut threads,
which being taken off from the top of the box, is placed in two pieces P
Q, notched properly to receive it.

The other parts of the figure, with their references, are explained in
the article COMPASS.


BACK _of the post_. See the article STERN-POST.

To BACK _an anchor_, _empeneller_, to carry out a small anchor, as the
stream or kedge, ahead of the large one, by which the ship usually
rides, in order to support it, and prevent it from loosening, or _coming
home_, in bad ground. In this situation, the latter is confined by the
former, in the same manner that the ship is restrained by the latter.

_To BACK astern_, in rowing, _scier à culer_, is to manage the oars in a
direction contrary to the usual method, so as that the boat or vessel
impressed by their force, shall retreat, or move with her stern
foremost, instead of advancing.

_To BACK the sails_, is to arrange them in a situation that will
occasion the ship to retreat or move astern. This operation is
particularly necessary in narrow channels, when a ship is carried along
sideways by the strength of the tide or current, and it becomes
requisite to avoid any object that may intercept her course, as shoals,
or vessels under sail, or at anchor: it is also necessary in a naval
engagement, to bring a ship back, so as to lie opposite to her
adversary, when she is too far advanced in the line. See ABACK.

BACK-BOARD, a piece of board of a semicircular figure, placed
transversely in the after-part of a boat, like the back of a chair, and
serving the passengers to recline against whilst sitting in the
stern-sheets. See BOAT.

BACK-STAYS, _cale haubans_, (from _back_ and _stay_) long ropes reaching
from the topmast-heads to the starboard and larboard sides of the ship,
where they are extended to the channels: they are used to support the
top-masts, and second the efforts of the shrouds, when the mast is
strained by a weight of sail in a fresh wind.

They are usually distinguished into breast-back-stays and
after-back-stays; the intent of the former being to sustain the top-mast
when the force of the wind acts upon the ship sideways, or, according to
the sea-phrase, when the ship sails upon a wind; and the purpose of the
latter is to enable it to carry sail when the wind is further aft.

There are also back-stays for the top-gallant-masts, in large ships,
which are fixed in the same manner with those of the top-masts.

A pair of back-stays is usually formed of one rope, which is doubled in
the middle, and fastened there so as to form an eye, which passes over
the mast-head, from whence the two ends hang down, and are stretched to
the channels by dead-eyes and laniards. See DEAD-EYES, &c.

The figure of the back-stays, and their position, is exhibited in the
article RIGGING, to which the reader is further referred.

BADGE, _bouteille, fausse galerie_, in ship-building, a sort of
ornament, placed on the outside of small ships, very near the stern,
containing either a window, for the convenience of the cabin, or the
representation of it: it is commonly decorated with marine figures,
martial instruments, or such like emblems. See QUARTER.

To BALANCE, (_balancer_, Fr.) to contract a sail into a narrower
compass, in a storm, by retrenching or folding up a part of it at one
corner; this method is used in contradistinction to _reefing_, which is
common to all the principal sails; whereas balancing is peculiar to few,
such as the mizen of a ship, and the main-sail of those vessels, wherein
it is extended by a boom. See BOOM and REEF.

The BALANCE of the mizen, _fanon_, is thus performed: the mizen-yard is
lowered a little, then a small portion of the sail is rolled up at the
_peek_, or upper corner, and fastened to the yard about one fifth inward
from the outer end, or yard-arm, toward the mast. See MIZEN.

A boom-main-sail is balanced, after all its reefs are taken in, by
rolling up a similar portion of the hindmost, or aftmost lower-corner,
called the _clue_, and fastening it strongly to the boom, having
previously wrapped a piece of old canvas round the part (which is done
in both cases) to prevent the sail from being fretted by the cord which
fastens it.

BALLAST, _lest_, (_ballaste_, Dut. _ballastro_, Span.) a certain portion
of stone, iron, gravel, or such like materials, deposited in a ship’s
hold, when she has either no cargo, or too little to bring her
sufficiently low in the water. It is used to counter-ballance the effort
of the wind upon the masts, and give the ship a proper stability, that
she may be enabled to carry sail without danger of over-turning.

There is often great difference in the proportion of ballast required to
prepare ships of equal burthen for a voyage; the quantity being always
more or less, according to the sharpness or flatness of the ship’s
bottom, which seamen call the _floor_.

The knowledge of ballasting a ship with propriety, is certainly an
article that deserves the attention of the skilful mariner; for although
it is known that ships in general will not carry a sufficient quantity
of sail, till they are laden so deep that the surface of the water will
nearly glance on the extreme breadth amidships; yet there is more than
this general knowledge required; since, if she has a great weight of
heavy ballast, as lead, iron, &c. in the bottom, it will place the
center of gravity too low in the hold; and although this will enable her
to carry a great sail, she will nevertheless sail very heavily, and run
the risk of being dismasted by her violent rolling.

To ballast a ship, therefore, is the art of disposing those materials so
that she may be duly poised, and maintain a proper equilibrium on the
water, so as neither to be too _stiff_, nor too _crank_, qualities
equally pernicious; as in the first, although the ship may be fitted to
carry a great sail, yet her velocity will not be proportionably
increased; whilst her masts are more endangered by her sudden jerks and
excessive labouring: and in the last, she will be incapable of carrying
sail, without the risk of oversetting.

Stiffness in ballasting, is occasioned by disposing a great quantity of
heavy ballast, as lead, iron, &c. in the bottom, which naturally places
the center of gravity very near the keel; and that being the center
about which the vibrations are made, the lower it is placed, the more
violent will be the motion of rolling.

Crankness, on the other hand, is occasioned by having too little
ballast, or by disposing the ship’s lading so as to raise the center of
gravity too high, which also endangers the mast in carrying sail when it
blows hard: for when the masts lose their perpendicular height, they
strain on the shrouds in the nature of a lever, which encreases as the
sine of their obliquity; and a ship that loses her masts is in great
danger of being lost.

The whole art of ballasting, therefore, consists in placing the center
of gravity to correspond with the trim and shape of the vessel, so as
neither to be too high nor too low; neither too far forward, nor too far
aft; and to lade the ship so deep, that the surface of the water may
nearly rise to the extreme breadth amidships; and thus she will be
enabled to carry a good sail, incline but little, and ply well to the
windward. See the article TRIM.

BANIAN-DAYS, a cant term among common sailors, denoting those days on
which they have no flesh-meat: it seems to be derived from the practice
of a nation amongst the eastern Indians, who never eat flesh.

BANK, _banc, atterrissement_, (_banc_, Sax.) an elevation of the ground,
or bottom of the sea, which is often so high as to appear above the
surface of the water, or at least so little beneath it, as to prevent a
ship from floating over it: in this sense, bank amounts nearly to the
same as shallows, flats, &c. The shelves that abound with rocks under
water, are distinguished by other names, as reefs, ridges, keys, &c.

An exact knowledge of the banks, their extent, and the different depths
of water in which they lie, constitutes a very essential portion of the
science of a pilot, or master of a ship. If the vessel be large, and
draws much water, great attention will be necessary to avoid them. If,
on the contrary, she is small, the same banks afford a sure asylum,
where she may brave the largest ships, which dare not follow her to so
dangerous a retreat. Many small vessels have eluded the pursuit of a
superior enemy by means of this hospitable barrier.

BANKS on the sea-coast are usually marked by beacons or buoys. In charts
they are distinguished by little dots, as ridges of rocks are
characterised by crosses. The principal banks in the Western Ocean, are
those of Newfoundland, and the Bahama-Bank: the most remarkable one in
Newfoundland is called the Grand Bank, which is of a vast extent, being
nearly two hundred miles in length, and stretching north and south: its
usual depth is from twenty to eighty fathoms: and this is the great
scene of the cod-fishery, which is so material an article in European

BANK _of oars_, a seat or bench of rowers in a galley.

BANKER, a vessel employed in the cod-fishery on the Banks of

BAR _of a port or haven_, a shoal or bank of sand, gravel, &c. thrown up
by the surge of the sea, to the mouth of a river or harbour, so as to
endanger, and sometimes totally prevent the navigation.

BARCA-LONGA, a large Spanish fishing-boat, navigated with lug-sails, and
having two or three masts: these are very common in the Mediterranean.

BARGE (_bargie_, Dutch) a vessel or boat of state, furnished with
elegant apartments, canopies, and cushions; equipped with a band of
rowers, and decorated with flags and streamers: they are generally used
for processions on the water, by noblemen, officers of state, or
magistrates of great cities. Of this sort we may naturally suppose the
famous barge or galley of Cleopatra, which, according to Shakespeare,

         ———————‘Like a burnish’d throne
       Burnt on the water; the poop was beaten gold;
       Purple her sails, and so perfumed, that
       The winds were love-sick with them: the oars were silver,
       Which to the tune of flutes kept stroke, and made
       The water which they beat to follow faster,
       As amorous of their strokes——
       ——At the helm
       A seeming mermaid steer’d: the silken tackles
       Swell’d with the touches of those flower-soft-hands
       That yarely form’d their office.’——

There are likewise other barges of a smaller kind, for the use of
admirals and captains of ships of war. These are of a lighter frame, and
may be easily hoisted into, and out of the ships to which they
occasionally belong. See BOAT.

BARGE, _cabotiere_, is also the name of a flat-bottomed vessel of
burthen, for lading and discharging ships, and removing their cargoes
from place to place in a harbour.

BARK (_barca_, low Lat.) a general name given to small ships: it is
however peculiarly appropriated by seamen to those which carry three
masts without a mizen top-sail. Our northern mariners, who are trained
in the coal-trade, apply this distinction to a broad-sterned ship, which
carries no ornamental figure on the stem or prow.

BARNICLE, _cravan_, a species of shell-fish, often found sticking to the
bottoms of ships, rocks, &c.

BARRICADE (_barricada_, Span.) a strong wooden rail, supported by
several little pillars or stanchions, and extending, as a fence, across
the foremost part of the quarter-deck. In a vessel of war, the intervals
between the pillars are commonly filled with cork, junks of old cable,
or matts of platted cordage. In the upper-part, there is a double
rope-netting, supported by double cranes of iron, extending about a foot
above the rail; and between the two parts of the netting are stuffed a
number of hammocks, filled with the seamens bedding, to intercept and
prevent the execution of small-shot fired by swivel guns, carabines, or
muskets, in the time of battle.

BARS _of the Capstern and Windlass_. See those articles.

BASIN _of a dock_, (_bassin_, Fr.) a place where the water is confined
by double flood-gates, and thereby prevented from running out at the
tide of ebb. The use of it is to contain ships whilst repairing, either
before they enter, or after they come out of the dock.

BASIN, _paradis_, also implies some part of a haven, which opens from a
narrow channel into a wide and spacious reservoir for shipping.

BATTENS _of the hatches_, a sort of long narrow laths, scantlings of
wooden stuff, or streight hoops of casks. They are nailed along the
edges of tarpaulings, which are pieces of tarred canvas, of sufficient
breadth and length to cover the hatches at sea; the battens serve to
confine the edges of the tarpaulings close down to the sides of the
hatches, to prevent the water, which may rush over the decks in a storm,
from penetrating into the lower apartments of the ship.

BAY, _baye_, a gulf or inlet of the sea-coast, comprehended between two
promontories, or capes of land, where shipping frequently ride at
anchor, sheltered from the wind and sea.

BEACON, _balise_, (_beacon_, Sax.) a post or stake erected over a shoal
or sand-bank, as a warning to seamen to keep their ships at a distance.

BEAK-HEAD, _coltis_, a name given to a ship’s head whose forecastle is
square or oblong, a circumstance common to all vessels of war which have
two or more decks of guns. In smaller ships, the forecastle is nearly
shaped like a parabola, whose vertex, or angular point, lies immediately
over the stem.

The strong, projecting, pointed beaks used by the antients in time of
battle, have been intirely rejected since the use of gun-powder.

BEAMS, _baux_, (_beam_, Sax. a tree) strong thick pieces of timber,
stretching across the ship from side to side, to support the decks, and
retain the sides at their proper distance.

The BEAMS of ships of war are usually formed of three pieces scarfed
together; as appears in plate III. They are sustained at each end by
thick planks in the ship’s side, called clamps, upon which they rest.
They are also firmly connected to the timbers of the ship by means of
strong knees, and sometimes by standards. See MIDSHIP-FRAME.

It is necessary that the beams, as represented in the midship-frame,
should have a greater height in the middle than at the two ends, to
carry the water more readily off from the decks, and to diminish the
recoil of the guns, which will thereby more easily return into their

The longest of these is called the _midship-beam_; it is lodged in the
midship-frame, or between the widest frame of timbers. At about two
thirds of the height from the keel to the lower-deck, are laid a range
of beams, to fortify the hold, and support a platform called the orlop,
which contains the cables and stores of the ship.

There are usually twenty-four beams on the lower-deck of a ship of
seventy-four guns, and to the other decks additional ones in proportion,
as the ship lengthens above.

_On the_ BEAM, implies any distance from the ship on a line with the
beams, or at right angles with the keel: thus, if the ship steers or
points northward, any object lying east or west, is said to be on the
starboard or larboard _beam_. Thus also,

_Before the_ BEAM, is an arch of the horizon comprehended between the
line that crosses her length at right angles, and some object at a
distance before it, or between the line of the beam, and that point of
the compass which she stems. Thus if a ship, steering west, discovers an
island on the right, three points _before the beam_, the island must
bear N W b N from the ship. See the article BEARING.

BEAN-COD, a small fishing-vessel, or pilot-boat, common on the
sea-coasts and in the rivers of Portugal. It is extremely sharp forward,
having its stem bent inward above into a great curve: the stem is also
plated on the fore-side with iron, into which a number of bolts are
driven, to fortify it, and resist the stroke of another vessel, which
may fall athwart-hause. It is commonly navigated with a large lateen
sail, which extends over the whole length of the deck, and is
accordingly well fitted to ply to windward.

BEAR-A-HAND! a phrase of the same import with make haste, dispatch,
quick, &c.

BEARING, in navigation, _gissement_, an arch of the horizon intercepted
between the nearest meridian and any distant object, either discovered
by the eye, or resulting from the sinical proportion; as in the first
case, at 4 P. M. Cape Spado, in the isle of Candia, bore S by W. by the

In the second, the longitudes and latitudes of any two places being
given, and consequently the difference of latitude and longitude between
them, the bearing from one to the other is discovered by the following

                As the meridional difference of latitude
                Is to the difference of longitude:
                So is radius
                To the tangent bearing.

BEARING is also the situation of any distant object, estimated from some
part of the ship according to her position. In this sense, an object so
discovered, must be either ahead, astern, abreast, on the bow, or on the

These BEARINGS, therefore, which may be called mechanical, are on the
beam, before the beam, abaft the beam, on the bow, on the quarter,
ahead, or astern. If the ship sails with a side-wind, it alters the
names of such bearings in some measure, since a distant object on the
beam is then said to be to leeward, or to windward; on the lee quarter,
or bow; and on the weather quarter or bow.

BEARING-UP, or BEARING-away, _arriver_, in navigation, the act of
changing the course of a ship, in order to make her run before the wind,
after she had sailed some time with a side-wind, or close-hauled: it is
generally performed to arrive at some port under the lee, or to avoid
some imminent danger occasioned by a violent storm, leak, or enemy in

This phrase, which is absurd enough, seems to have been derived from the
motion of the helm, by which this effect is partly produced; as the helm
is then borne _up_ to the windward, or weather side of the ship.
Otherwise, it is a direct contradiction in terms, to say that a ship
_bears up_, when she goes before the wind; since the current of the
wind, as well as that of a river, is always understood to determine the
situation of objects or places within its limits. In the first sense we
say, up to windward and down to leeward; as in the latter we say, up or
down the river. This expression, however, although extremely improper,
is commonly adopted in the general instructions of our navy, printed by
authority, instead of bearing down, or bearing away.

BEATING, in navigation, the operation of making a progress at sea
against the direction of the wind, in a zig-zag line, or traverse, like
that in which we ascend a steep hill. As this method of sailing will be
particularly explained under the term TACKING, the reader is referred to
that article.

_To_ BECALM, _derober_, (from _calme_, Dut.) to intercept the current of
the wind, in its passage to a ship, with any contiguous object, as a
shore above her sails, a high sea behind, or some other ship. At this
time the sails remain in a state of rest, and are consequently deprived
of their power to govern the motion of the ship.

BECKETS, _bille_, imply in general any thing used to confine loose
ropes, tackles, oars, or spars, in a convenient place, where they may be
disposed out of the way till they are wanted. Hence, beckets are either
large hooks, or short pieces of rope, with a knot in one end and an eye
in the other, or formed like a circular wreath; or they are wooden
brackets; and, probably, from a corruption and misapplication of this
last term, arose the word becket, which seems often to be confounded
with bracket.

_Put the tacks and sheets in the_ BECKETS! the order to hang up the
weather main and fore-sheet, and the lee main and fore-tack, to a little
knot and eye-becket on the foremost main and fore-shrouds, when the ship
is close-hauled, to prevent them from hanging in the water.

BED, a flat thick piece of timber, usually formed of the rough staves of
casks, or such like materials, to be lodged under the quarters of casks
containing any liquid, and stowed in a ship’s hold. The use of the beds
is to support the cask, and keep the bilge, or middle-part of it, from
bearing against the ship’s floor, or against the body upon which it
rests, lest the staves should give way and break in the place where they
are weakest: or lie in a wet place, so as to rot in the course of the
voyage. See the article STOWING.

BED _of a river_, _lit._, the bottom of the channel in which the stream
or current usually flows.

BED _of a cannon_. See CARRIAGE.

_To_ BELAY, _amarrer_, (from _beleygen_, Belg.) to fasten a rope, by
winding it several times round a cleat, belaying-pin, or kevel: this
term is peculiar to small ropes, and chiefly the running-rigging, there
being several other expressions used for large ropes, as bitting,
bending, making fast, stoppering, &c. See those articles.

BEND, _avuste_, (probably from _bindan_, Sax. to bind) the knot by which
one rope is fastened to another, hence

_To_ BEND, is to fasten one rope to another, of which there are several

BENDING _the cable_, the operation of clinching, or tying the cable to
the ring of its anchor.

BENDING _a sail_, fastening it to its yard or stay. See the articles

BENDS, the thickest and strongest planks in a ship’s side. See WALES, by
which name they are more properly called.

BETWEEN-DECKS, _entre-pont_, the space contained between any two decks
of a ship.

BEVELLING, in ship-building, the art of hewing a timber with a proper
and regular curve, according to a mould which is laid on one side of its

‘In order to hew any piece of timber to its proper bevel, it will be
necessary, first, to make one side fair, and out of winding; a term used
to signify that the side of a timber should be a plane. If this side be
uppermost, and placed horizontally, or upon a level, it is plain, if the
timber is to be hewed square, it may be done by a plummet and line; but
if the timber is not hewed square, the line will not touch both the
upper and lower edge of the piece; or if a square be applied to it,
there will be wood wanting either at the upper or lower side. This is
called within or without a square. When the wood is deficient at the
under-side, it is called under-bevelling; and when it is deficient in
the upper-side, it is called standing-bevelling: and this deficiency
will be more or less according to the depth of the piece; so that before
the proper bevellings of the timbers are found, it will be sometimes
very convenient to assign the breadth of the timbers; nay, in most cases
it will be absolutely necessary, especially afore and abaft: though the
breadth of two timbers, or the timber and room, which includes the two
timbers and the space between them, may be taken without any sensible
error, as far as the square body goes. For as one line represents the
moulding-side of two timbers, the fore-side of the one being supposed to
unite with the aft-side of the other; the two may be considered as one
intire piece of timber.’ _Murray’s Ship-building._

BIGHT, _balant_, (_bygan_, Sax. to bend) the double part of a rope when
it is folded, in contradistinction to the end: as, her anchor hooked the
_bight_ of our cable, i.e. caught any part of it between the ends. The
_bight_ of his cable has swept our anchor; that is, the double part of
the cable of another ship, as she ranged about, has entangled itself
under the stock or fluke of our anchor.

BIGHT, _anse_, is also a small bay between two points of land.

BILANDER, _bilandre_, Fr. a small merchant-ship with two masts.

The BILANDER is particularly distinguished from other vessels of two
masts by the form of her main-sail, which is a sort of trapezia, the
yard thereof being hung obliquely on the mast in the plane of the ship’s
length, and the aftmost or hinder end peeked or raised up to an angle of
about 45 degrees, and hanging immediately over the stern; while the fore
end slopes downward, and comes as far forward as the middle of the ship.
To this the sail is bent or fastened; and the two lower corners, the
foremost of which is called the tack, and the aftmost the sheet, are
afterwards secured, the former to a ring-bolt in the middle of the
ship’s length, and the latter to another in the taffarel. The main-sails
of larger ships are hung across the deck instead of along it, being
fastened to a yard which hangs at right angles with the mast and the

Few vessels, however, are now rigged in this method, which has probably
been found more inconvenient than several others. See SHIP. It may not
be improper to remark, that this name, as well as brigantine, has been
variously applied in different parts of Europe to vessels of different

BILGE, (supposed from _bilik_, Sax. a storm) that part of the floor of a
ship, on either side of the keel, which approaches nearer to an
horizontal than to a perpendicular direction, and on which the ship
would rest if laid on the ground: or more particularly, those parts of
the bottom which are opposite to the heads of the floor-timbers
amidships on each side of the keel. Hence, when a ship receives a
fracture in this place, she is said to be _bilged_.

BILL _of lading_, _connoissement_, an acknowledgment signed by the
master of a ship, and given to a merchant, containing an account of the
goods which the former has received from the latter, &c. with a promise
to deliver them at the intended place for a certain sum of money. Each
bill of lading must be treble; one for the merchant who ships the goods,
another to be sent to the person to whom they are consigned, and the
third to remain in the hands of the master of the said ship. It must,
however, be observed, that a bill of lading is only used when the goods
sent on board a ship are but part of the cargo; for when a merchant
loads a vessel entirely on his own account, the deed passed between him
and the master of the ship is called charter-party. See _Charter-party_.

BINACLE, a wooden case or box, which contains the compasses,
log-glasses, watch-glasses, and lights to shew the compass at night.

As this is called _bittacle_ in all the old sea-books, even by mariners,
it appears evidently to be derived from the French term _habitacle_, (a
small habitation) which is now used for the same purpose by the seamen
of that nation.

The BINACLE (plate I. fig. 4.) is furnished with three apartments, with
sliding shutters: the two side ones, a b, have always a compass in each,
d, to direct the ship’s way, while the middle division, c, has a lamp or
candle, with a pane of glass on either side to throw a light upon the
compass in the night, whereby the man who steers may observe it in the
darkest weather, as it stands immediately before the helm on the

There are always two binacles on the deck of a ship of war, one being
designed for the man who steers, and the other for the person who
superintends the steerage, whose office is called _conning_, or

BIRTH, or BERTH, _eviteé_, the station in which a ship rides at anchor,
either alone or in a fleet; or the distance between the ship and any
adjacent object; comprehending the extent of the space in which she
ranges at the length of her cables; as, _she lies in a good birth_, i.
e. in a convenient situation, or at a proper distance from the shore and
other vessels; and where there is good anchoring-ground, and shelter
from the violence of the wind and sea.

BIRTH, _appartement_, also signifies the room or apartment where any
particular number of the officers or ship’s company usually mess and
reside. In a ship of war there is commonly one of these between every
two guns.

_To_ BITE, _mordre_, to hold fast in the ground; expressed of the

BITS, _bittes_, (_bitol_, Sax.) a frame composed of two strong pieces of
timber, fixed perpendicularly in the fore-part of a ship, whereon to
fasten her cables as she rides at anchor. See b b, PIECES _of the_ HULL.

These pieces being let down through square mortises cut in the decks
above and below, are bolted and fore-locked to the ship’s beams. There
are several bits in a ship, the principal of which are those for the
cables: their upper ends commonly reach about four or five feet above
the lower deck, over which the cable passes. They are supported on the
fore part by strong standards; one arm of which is bolted to the deck,
and the other to the bits: and on the after part is fixed a strong beam
of timber, g, (plate I. PIECES _of the_ HULL) parallel to the deck, and
at right angles with the bits, to which it is bolted and forelocked. The
ends of this beam, which is called the cross-piece, reach about two or
three feet beyond the bits, whose upper-ends are nearly two feet above
the cross-piece. The cable being passed once round about these bits, may
be gradually slackened at pleasure; without which it would be impossible
to prevent it from running out with the utmost rapidity, when the ship
rides a great strain, which is always the case in a storm, or an
impetuous tide. In ships of war there are usually two pair of cable
bits, and when they are both used at once, the cable is said to be
double-bitted. The plan of the bits, with their cross-pieces and
standards, are represented in Plate III. where b b are the bits, e their
standards, and g the cross-piece.

_To_ BIT _the cable_, is to put it round the bits, in order to fasten
it, or slacken it gradually, which last is called _veering away_.

The other bits are of a smaller kind, but constructed nearly in the same
manner. They are used to fasten the top-sail-sheets, or the ropes by
which the lower corners of the top-sails are extended.

BLACK-STRAKES, a range of planks immediately above the wales in a ship’s
side: they are always covered with a mixture of tar and lamp-black,
forming an agreeable variety with the white bottom beneath, and the
scraped planks of the side, covered with melted turpentine or varnish of
pine, above. All the yards are likewise daubed with this mixture, which
not only preserves them from the heat of the sun and the weather, but
gives them a fine gloss, which makes a good appearance contrasted with
the white varnish on the masts.

BLADE. See the article OAR.

BLOCK, _poulie_, a machine known in mechanics by the name of pully, and
used for various purposes in a ship, particularly to increase the
mechanical power of the ropes employed in contracting, dilating, or
traversing the sails. The ends of these ropes, being arranged in certain
places upon the deck, may thus be readily found whenever they are
wanted. The blocks, which are for these purposes disposed in various
places upon the masts, yards, and sails, and amongst the rigging, are
also of various sizes, shapes, and powers, according to the effect they
are calculated to produce. They are single, double, or treble, being so
denominated from the number of wheels they contain. There are even some
of five, six, and seven fold, but these are only employed to raise or
move some very weighty bodies, and are not used about the yards or
sails. We shall begin by describing the most simple, and afterwards
proceed to those which are more complicated.

A common single block is composed of three parts; the shell, the sheave,
and the pins. The shell, _arcasse_, approaches nearest to the figure of
a long spheroid, somewhat flatted in the middle. Between the two flat
sides it is hollowed so as to receive a narrow cylindrical wheel called
the sheave, _rouet_, formed of lignum vitæ, or other hard wood; and
thro’ the centre of this sheave is bored a round hole, to admit of a
pin, which is driven through two corresponding holes in the middle of
the shell, perpendicular to the hollow space within. The pin thus
becomes the axis of the wheel or sheave, which completes the wooden work
of the machine. Thus formed, it is bound with a sort of rope-ring, which
is closely fitted to a notch passing round the surface of the shell, and
over both ends of the pin: and by this ring, or wreath, which is called
a block-strop, they are suspended upon the masts, shrouds, &c.

The complicated blocks, or those which contain a number of wheels,
either have all the wheels to run upon one axis, (see plate I.) or have
their shells so formed that the wheels are one above another. In the
former shape they approach nearest the figure of a cylinder, and in the
latter appear like two or more single blocks joined together endways.

In plate I. fig. 7. a, represents a single block, and b, c, two double
ones, of different kinds, without strops. Fig. e, f, two double
tackle-blocks iron bound, the lower one, f, being fitted with a swivel,
g, a double iron-bound block with a large hook, h, a snatch-block, i, a
top-block, k, a voyal-block, and l, a clue-garnet-block. See

The Cat-block (plate II. fig. 15.) is employed to draw the anchor up the
cat-head. See the article CAT.

The swivel in the iron-bound block is to turn it, that the several parts
of the rope of which the tackle is composed may not be twisted round
each other, which would greatly diminish the mechanical power.

The top-block is used to hoist up or lower down the top-masts, and is
for this purpose hooked in an eye-bolt driven into the cap. See CAP.

The clue-garnet blocks are used to draw the clues, or lower-corners of
the _courses_, up to the yard, and are consequently fastened to the
clues of those sails. See CLUE-GARNET. The use of the shoulder on the
lower-end, is to prevent the strop from being fretted or chafed by the
motion of the sail, as the ship rolls or pitches.

BOARD, in navigation, (_bordée_, Fr.) the space comprehended between any
two places where the ship changes her course by tacking; or the line
over which she runs between tack and tack, when she is turning to
windward, or sailing against the direction of the wind. See the articles

_She makes a good_ BOARD, i. e. sails nearly upon a streight line,
without deviating to leeward when she is close-hauled. See CLOSE-HAULED.

BOARDING, _abordage_, an assault made by one ship upon another, by
entering her in battle with a detachment of armed men; either because
the efforts of the artillery and musquetry have proved ineffectual, or
because she may have a greater number of men, and be better equipped for
this attack than the enemy who defends herself against it.

This stratagem, however, is chiefly practised by privateers upon
merchant-ships, who are not so well provided with men, and rarely
attempted in the royal navy; the battle being generally decided in men
of war by the vigorous execution of a close cannonade.

An officer should maturely consider the danger of boarding a ship of war
before he attempts it; and be well assured that his adversary is weakly
manned: for perhaps he wishes to be boarded, and if so, a great
slaughter will necessarily follow.

The swell of the sea ought also to be considered, because it may run so
high as to expose both the ships to the danger of sinking.

There is perhaps very little prudence in boarding a ship of equal force;
and when it is attempted, it may be either to windward or to leeward,
according to the comparative force or situation of the ships. If there
be any swell, or sea, it may be more adviseable to lay the enemy aboard
on the lee-side, as the water is there the smoothest; besides, if the
boarder is repulsed in that situation, he may more easily withdraw his
men, and stand off from his adversary. But as the weather-ship can
generally fall to leeward at any time, it is perhaps more eligible to
keep to windward, by which she will be enabled to rake her antagonist,
or fire the broadside into her stern as she crosses it, in passing to
leeward, which will do great execution amongst her men, by scouring the
whole length of the deck.

Boarding may be performed in different places of the ship, according to
the circumstances, preparation and position of both: the assailant
having previously selected a number of men armed with pistols and
cutlasses. A number of powder-flasks, or flasks charged with gun-powder
and fitted with a fuse, are also provided, to be thrown upon the enemy’s
deck immediately before the assault. Besides this, the boarder is
generally furnished with an earthen shell, called a stink-pot, which on
that occasion is suspended from his yard-arms or bow-sprit-end. This
machine is also charged with powder, mixed with other inflammable and
suffocating materials, with a lighted fuse at the aperture. Thus
prepared for the action, and having grappled his adversary, the boarder
displays his signal to begin the assault. The fuses of the stink-pot and
powder-flasks being lighted, they are immediately thrown upon the deck
of the enemy, where they burst and catch fire, producing an intolerable
stench and smoke, and filling the deck with tumult and distraction.
Amidst the confusion occasioned by this infernal apparatus, the
detachment provided rush aboard sword in hand, under cover of the smoke,
on their antagonist, who is in the same predicament with a citadel
stormed by the besiegers, and generally overpowered, unless he is
furnished with extraordinary means of defence, or equipped with
close-quarters, to which he can retreat with some probability of safety.
See the article CLOSE-QUARTERS.

BOAT (_bæt_, Sax. _boot_, Belg.) a small open vessel, conducted on the
water by rowing or sailing. The construction, machinery, and even the
names of boats, are very different, according to the various purposes
for which they are calculated, and the services on which they are to be

Thus they are occasionally slight or strong; sharp or flat-bottomed;
open or decked; plain or ornamented; as they may be designed for
swiftness or burthen; for deep or shallow water; for sailing in a
harbour or at sea; and for convenience, or pleasure.

The largest boat that usually accompanies a ship is the long-boat,
_chaloupe_, which is generally furnished with a mast and sails: those
which are fitted for men of war, may be occasionally decked, armed, and
equipped, for cruising short distances against merchant-ships of the
enemy, or smugglers, or for impressing seamen, &c.

The barges are next in order, which are longer, slighter, and narrower:
they are employed to carry the principal sea-officers, as admirals, and
captains of ships of war, and are very unfit for sea. See the article

Pinnaces exactly resemble barges, only that they are somewhat smaller,
and never row more than eight oars; whereas a barge properly never rows
less than ten. These are for the accommodation of the lieutenants, &c.

Cutters of a ship, _bateaux_, are broader, deeper, and shorter than the
barges and pinnaces; they are fitter for sailing, and are commonly
employed in carrying stores, provisions, passengers, &c. to and from the
ship. In the structure of this sort of boats, the lower-edge of every
plank in the side over-lays the upper-edge of the plank below, which is
called by shipwrights clinch-work.

Yawls, _canots_, are something less than cutters, nearly of the same
form, and used for similar services; they are generally rowed with six

The above boats more particularly belong to men of war; as
merchant-ships seldom have more than two, viz. a long-boat and yawl:
when they have a third, it is generally calculated for the countries to
which they trade, and varies in its construction accordingly.

Merchant-ships employed in the Mediterranean find it more convenient to
use a lanch, which is longer, more flat-bottomed, and better adapted
every way to the harbours of that sea than a long-boat. See LANCH.

A wherry, _diligence_, is a light sharp boat, used in a river or harbour
for carrying passengers from place to place.

Punts, _flette_, are a sort of oblong flat-bottomed boats, nearly
resembling floating stages; they are used by shipwrights and caulkers,
for breaming, caulking, or repairing a ship’s bottom.

A moses is a very flat broad boat, used by merchant-ships amongst the
Caribbee-islands, to bring hogsheads of sugar off from the sea-beach to
the shipping which are anchored in the roads.

A felucca is a strong passage-boat used in the Mediterranean, from ten
to sixteen banks of oars. The natives of Barbary often employ boats of
this sort as cruisers.

For the larger sort of boats, see the articles CRAFT, CUTTER, PERIAGUA,

Of all the small boats, a Norway yawl seems to be the best calculated
for a high sea, as it will often venture out to a great distance from
the coast of that country, when a stout ship can hardly carry any sail.

_Trim the_ BOAT! _barque-droit!_ the order to sit in the boat in such a
manner as that she shall float upright in the water, without leaning to
either side.

_To bale the_ BOAT, is to throw out the water which remains in her
bottom or the well-room.

_Moor the_ BOAT! the order to fasten a boat with two ropes, so as that
the one shall counter-act the other.

For a representation of some of the principal boats of a ship of war,
see plate III. where fig. 1. exhibits the elevation, or side view, of a
ten-oared barge; a a, its keel; b, the stern-post; c, the stem; b c, the
water-line, which separates what is under the surface of the water from
what is above it; e, the row-locks, which contain the oars between them;
f, the top of the stern; g, the back-board; f g, the place where the
cockswain stands or sits while steering the boat; l, the rudder, and m,
the tiller, which is of framed iron.

Fig. 2. represents the plan of the same barge, where d is the ‘thwarts,
or seats where the rowers sit to manage their oars; f, i, h, the
stern-sheets; i k, the benches whereon the passengers sit in the
stern-sheets: the rest is explained in fig. 1.

Fig 3. is a stern view of the same barge, with the projection of all the
timbers in the after-body; and fig. 4, a head view, with the curves of
all the timbers in the fore-body.

Having thus explained the different views of the barge, the reader will
easily comprehend the several corresponding parts in the other boats;
where fig. 5 is the plan, and fig. 6 the elevation of a twelve-oared
cutter that rows double banked: which, although seldom employed unless
in capital ships, because requiring twelve rowers, is nevertheless a
very excellent boat, both for rowing and sailing. Fig. 7 and 8 are the
head and stern of this boat.

Fig. 9 is the plan of a long-boat, of which fig. 10 is the elevation, 11
the stern-view, and 12 the head-view.

BOAT-HOOK, an iron hook with a sharp point on the hinder part thereof,
to stick into a piece of wood, a ship’s-side, &c. It is stuck upon a
long pole or shaft, (pl. III. fig. 1 n.) by the help of which a person
in the boat may either hook any thing to confine the boat in a
particular place, or push her off by the sharp point attached to the
back of the hook.

BOATSWAIN, _Contre-maitre_, the officer who has the boats, sails,
rigging, colours, anchors, and cables committed to his charge.

It is the duty of the boatswain particularly to direct whatever relates
to the rigging of a ship, after she is equipped from a royal dock-yard.
Thus he is to observe that the masts are properly supported by their
shrouds, stays, and back-stays, so that each of those ropes may sustain
a proportional effort when the mast is strained by the violence of the
wind, or the agitation of the ship. He ought also to take care that the
blocks and running-ropes are regularly placed, so as to answer the
purposes for which they are intended; and that the sails are properly
fitted to their yards and stays, and well furled or reefed when occasion

It is likewise his office to summon the crew to their duty; to assist
with his mates in the necessary business of the ship; and to relieve the
watch when it expires. He ought frequently to examine the condition of
the masts, sails, and rigging, and remove whatever may be judged unfit
for service, or supply what is deficient: and he is ordered by his
instructions to perform this duty _with as little noise as possible_.

BOB-STAY, _sous-barbe_, a rope used to confine the bowsprit of a ship
downward to the stem, or cut-water. It is fixed by thrusting one of its
ends through a hole bored in the fore-part of the cut-water for this
purpose, and then splicing both ends together so as to make it two-fold,
or like the link of a chain: a _dead-eye_ is then seized into it, and a
_laniard_ passing through this and communicating with another dead-eye
upon the bowsprit, is drawn extremely tight by the help of mechanical
powers. See BOWSPRIT.

The use of the bob-stay, is to draw down the bowsprit, and keep it
steddy; and to counter-act the force of the stays of the fore-mast,
which draw it upwards. The bowsprit is also fortified by shrouds from
the bows on each side; which are all very necessary, as the foremast and
the upper-part of the main-mast are stayed and greatly supported by the
bowsprit. For this reason, the bob-stay is the first part of a ship’s
rigging which is drawn tight to support the masts. To perform this task
more effectually, it is usual to suspend a boat, anchor, or other
weighty body, at the bowsprit-end, to press it downwards during this

BOLSTERS, a sort of small cushions or bags, filled with tarred canvas,
laid between the collars of the stays and the edge of some piece of wood
on which they lie: they are used to preserve the stays from being chafed
or galled by the motion of the masts, as the ship rocks or pitches at

BOLT-ROPE, _ralingue_, a rope to which the edges or skirts of the sails
are sewed, to strengthen, and prevent them from rending. Those parts of
the bolt-rope which are on the perpendicular or sloping edges, are
called leech-ropes; that at the bottom, the foot-rope; and that on the
top or upper edge, the head-rope. Stay-sails, whose heads are formed
like an acute angle, have no head-rope. To different parts of the
bolt-rope are fastened all the ropes employed to contract or dilate the
sails. The figure and position of the bolt-rope is exhibited in the
plate referred to from the article SAIL.

BOMB. See the articles MORTAR and SHELL.

BOMB-VESSEL, a small ship particularly calculated to throw bombs into a
fortress. They are said to be invented by M. Reyneau, and to have been
first put in action at the bombardment of Algiers. Till then it had been
judged impracticable to bombard a place from the sea. See a particular
description of these ships in the article KETCH.

BOOM, _estacade_, _barre_, (from _boom_, a tree, Dutch) in marine
fortification, a strong chain or cable, on which are fastened a number
of poles, bars, &c. extending athwart the mouth of a harbour or river,
to prevent the enemies ships of war from entering. It may be
occasionally sunk, or drawn up to the surface of the water, by
capsterns, and other mechanical powers.

BOOMS, _boute dehors_, certain long poles run out from different places
in the ship to extend the bottoms of particular sails. Of these there
are several sorts; as the jib-boom, studding-sail-booms, ring-tail-boom,
driver-boom, main-boom, and square-sail-boom; the two last, however, are
only appropriated to small ships of one or two masts. See JIB, &c.

BOOT-TOPPING, the act of cleaning the upper-part of a ship’s bottom, or
that part which lies immediately under the surface of the water, and
daubing it over with tallow, or with a _coat_ or mixture of tallow,
sulphur, resin, &c.

BOOT-TOPPING is chiefly performed where there is no dock, or other
commodious situation for breaming or careening; or when the hurry of a
voyage renders it inconvenient to have the whole bottom properly trimmed
and cleansed of the filth which gathers to it in the course of a
sea-voyage. It is executed by making the ship lean to one side, as much
as they can with safety, and then scraping off the grass, slime, shells,
or other material, that adheres to the bottom, on the other side, which
is elevated above the surface of the water for this purpose, and
accordingly daubed with the coat of tallow and sulphur. Having thus
finished one side, they make the ship lean to the other side, and
perform the same operation, which not only preserves the bottom from the
worm, but makes the ship slide smoothly through the water. See CAREEN
and DOCK.

BORE. See the article CANNON.

BOTH SHEETS AFT, _entre deux écoutes_, the situation of a ship that
sails right afore the wind, or with the wind right astern.

BOTTOM, _carene_, (_botm_, Sax. _bodem_, Belg.) as a sea-term, is either
used to denote the bottom of a ship, or that of the water: thus in the
former sense we say, a clean or a foul bottom; a British, French, or
Dutch bottom: and in the latter sense, a rocky, sandy, or oozy bottom.

The bottom of a ship, as we have described in the article _Naval_
ARCHITECTURE, comprehends all that part which is under water when the
ship is laden; the figure of it must therefore be determined by the
qualities required in the ship, and the purposes for which the is

It has been remarked, that a ship of war should carry her lowest tier of
cannon sufficiently above the surface of the water to be used when
necessary. If this quality is neglected, a small ship will have the
advantage of a large one, inasmuch as the latter cannot open her lower
battery in a fresh side-wind, without being exposed to extreme danger,
by receiving a great quantity of water in at her ports between-decks.

A ship should be duly poised, so as not to dive or pitch heavily, but go
smoothly and easily through the water, rising to the waves when they run
high, or when the vessel has reduced her sail to the storm. If she is
deficient in this article, the seas will frequently burst aboard, and
strain the decks or carry away the boats. The masts are also greatly
endangered from the same cause.

A ship should sail well when large, or before the wind; but particularly
when _close-hauled_, or sailing with a side-wind. She should also be
enabled in the latter situation to keep her wind, without deviating much
to leeward; to work and tack easily, and lie in a turbulent sea without
straining violently.

Many of our shipwrights have considered it extremely difficult, if not
impracticable, to make a ship carry her cannon well, bear a competent
sail, and advance swiftly through the water; because a very full bottom
is necessary to acquire the two first qualities; whereas a sharp floor
is better fitted to procure the latter. But when it is remembered, that
a full ship will carry a much greater force of sail than a sharp one, a
good artist may form the body so as to unite all these three qualities
with the additional one of steering easily, by paying a proper attention
to the following general rules.

To make a ship carry a good sail. A flat floor-timber somewhat long, or
the lower-futtocks pretty round, a streight upper-futtock, the
top-timber to throw out the breadth aloft; at any rate to carry the
main-breadth as high as the lower-deck. Now if the rigging be well
adapted to such a body, and the upper-works lightened as much as
possible, so that the whole contributes to lower the center of gravity,
there will be no reason to doubt of the ship’s carrying a good sail.

To make a ship steer well, and answer the helm readily. If the
fashion-pieces be well formed, the tuck, or spreading-parts under the
stern, carried pretty high; the midship-frame well forward; a
considerable additional depth in the draught of water abaft more than
forward; a great rake forward and none abaft; a snug quarter-deck and
forecastle: all these will greatly facilitate the steerage; and a ship
that sails well will always steer easily.

To make a ship carry her guns well out of the water. A long
floor-timber, and not of great rising; a very full midship-frame, and
low tuck, with light upper-works.

To make a ship go smoothly through the water, and prevent her from
pitching heavily. A long keel, a long floor, not to rise too high afore
and abaft; but the area, or space contained in the fore-body, according
to the respective weight it is destined to carry: all these are
necessary to make a ship pass easily through the sea.

To make a ship keep a good wind and drive little to leeward. A good
length by the keel; not too broad, but pretty deep in the hold, which
will occasion her to have a short floor-timber and a very great rising.
As such a ship will meet with great resistance in driving sideways, and
feel very little, in advancing or going ahead, she will fall very little
to leeward.

Being thus furnished with the methods to qualify a ship for the
different purposes of navigation, the only difficulty remains to apply
them properly in the construction, which must, in a great measure, be
left to the judgment of the artist. The whole art then is evidently to
form the body in such a manner, as that none of these qualities shall be
entirely destroyed; and in giving the preference to that which is
principally required in the service for which the ship is destined. As
it therefore appears possible to unite them all in one vessel so that
each of them may be easily discerned, a neglect of this circumstance
ought to be attributed to the incapacity of the shipwright, who has not
studied the principles of his art with proper application. See _Naval_

BOTTOMRY, _bomerie_, (from _bottom_) a contract for borrowing money on
the keel or bottom of a ship; so that the commander binds the ship
herself, that if the money be not paid at the time appointed, the
creditors shall have the ship.

BOTTOMRY is also where a person lends money to a merchant or adventurer
who wants it in traffic, and the lender is to be paid a much greater sum
at the return of the ship, standing to the hazard of the voyage.
Although the interest on this account be greater than the law commonly
allows, it is yet not esteemed usury; because the money being supplied
at the lenders risk, if the ship perishes, he shares in the loss

BOW, _epaule_, in ship-building, the rounding part of a ship’s side
forward, beginning at the place where the planks arch inwards, and
terminated where they close at the stem or prow. See the article Head,
where the bow of a ship is represented at large. It is proved by a
variety of experiments, that a ship with a narrow bow is much better
calculated for sailing swiftly, than one with a broad bow; but is not so
well fitted for a high sea, into which she always _pitches_, or plunges,
her fore-part very deep, for want of sufficient breadth to repel the
volume of water, which she so easily divides in her fall. The former of
these is called by seamen a _lean_, and the latter a _bluff_ bow.

“The bow which meets with the least resistance in a direct course, not
only meets with the least resistance in oblique courses, but also has
the additional property of driving the least to leeward; which is a
double advantage gained by forming the bow so as to give it that figure
which will be the least opposed in moving through any medium.”
_Bouguer’s Traité du Navire._

_On the_ BOW, in navigation, an arch of the horizon, comprehended
between some distant object, and that point of the compass which is
right-ahead, or to which the ship’s stem is directed. This phrase is
equally applicable, when the object is beheld from the ship, or
discovered by trigonometrical calculation: as, we saw a fleet at
day-break bearing three points _on the starboard bow_; that is, three
points, from that part of the horizon which is right ahead, towards the
right hand. See also the article BEARING.

BOWER. See the article ANCHOR.

BOWLINE, _bouline_, a rope fastened near the middle of the leech, or
perpendicular edge of the square sails, by three or four subordinate
parts, called bridles. It is only used when the wind is so unfavourable
that the sails must be all braced sideways, or _close-hauled_ to the
wind: in this situation the bowlines are employed to keep the weather,
or windward, edges of the principal sails tight forward and steddy,
without which they would be always shivering, and rendered incapable of
service. See the articles BRIDLE, CLOSE-HAULING, and SAIL.

_To check the_ BOWLINE, is to slacken it, when the wind becomes large.

_To_ BOWSE, _palanquer_, to draw on any body with a tackle, or
complication of pullies, in order to remove it, or otherwise alter its
state or situation: this is chiefly practised when such alteration or
removal cannot be conveniently effected without the application of
mechanical powers. This term is pronounced _bowce_.

BOWSPRIT, _beaupré_, (from _bow_ and _sprit_) a large boom or mast,
which projects over the stem, to carry sail forward, in order to govern
the fore part of a ship, and counter-act the force of the sails extended
behind, or, in the _after_ part. It is otherways of great use, as being
the principal support of the fore-mast, by confining the _stays_ whereby
it is secured, and enabled to carry sail: these are great ropes
stretching from the mast-head to the middle of the bowsprit, where they
are drawn tight. See the articles STAY and DEAD-EYE.

BOXES _of the pump_. See the article PUMP.

BOX-HAULING, in navigation, a particular method of veering a ship, when
the swell of the sea renders tacking impracticable. It is performed by
putting the helm _a-lee_, to throw the head up to windward, where
meeting with great resistance from the repeated shocks of the waves on
the weather bow, it _falls off_, or turns to leeward, with a quicker
effort, and without advancing. The aftermost sails are at this time
diminished, or perhaps altogether deprived of their force of action, for
a short time, because they would otherwise counteract the sails forward,
and prevent the ship from turning. They are, however, extended as soon
as the ship, in veering, brings the wind on the opposite quarter, as
their effort then contributes to assist her motion of wheeling.

BOX-HAULING is generally performed when the ship is too near the shore
to have room for veering in the usual way. See VEERING.

BOXING, an operation in sailing somewhat similar to box-hauling. It is
performed by laying the head-sails, or the sails in the fore-part of the
ship, aback, to receive the greatest force of the wind in a line
perpendicular to their surfaces, in order to throw the ship’s head back
into the line of her course, after she had inclined to windward of it by
neglect of the helmsman, or otherwise.

BRACE, _bras_, a rope employed to wheel, or traverse the sails upon the
mast, in a direction parallel to the horizon, when it is necessary to
shift the sails that they may correspond with the direction of the wind
and the course of the ship. Braces are, for this purpose, fastened to
the extremities of the yards, which are called the _yard-arms_.

All the braces of the yards are double, except those of the top-gallant,
and spritsail-topsail yards. The mizen-yard is furnished with _fangs_,
or vangs, in the room of braces. See the article MIZEN.

BRACKETS, _consoles_, short crooked timbers resembling knees. They are
fixed under the galleries and frame of a ship’s head, to support the

BRAILS, _cargues_, (_breuils_, Fr.) certain ropes passing through
pullies on the mizen-mast, and afterwards fastened, in different places,
on the hinder, or aftmost ridge of the sail, in order to truss it up to
the mast, as occasion requires. See MIZEN.

BRAILS, is likewise a general name given to all the ropes which are
employed to _haul up_, or collect to their yards, the bottoms, lower
corners, and skirts of the other great sails, for the more ready
_furling_ them whenever it is necessary. The operation of thus drawing
them together, is called brailing them up, or hauling them up in the
brails. See the article SAIL.

BRAKE, _brimbale_, the handle, or lever, by which a common ship-pump is
usually managed. It operates by means of two iron bolts thrust through
the inner end of it; one of which resting across two cheeks or ears, in
the upper-end of the pump, serves as a fulcrum for the brake, supporting
it between the cheeks. The other bolt connects the extremity of the
brake to the pump-spear, which draws up the _box_ or piston, charged
with the water in the tube. See the article PUMP.

BREADTH, _largeur_, the measure of a ship from side to side in any
particular place: it is usually distinguished into extreme-breadth,
_ligne du fort_, main-breadth, and top-timber-breadth. See the
explanation of the plane of projection, in the article _Naval_

As the sides of the ship are formed by a variety of ribs, called
timbers, and the areas of those timbers being of different breadths
above and below, it is necessary to distinguish them in the
construction, in order to form their several curves, and fix the
corresponding pieces with more accuracy and precision. The part of every
timber which encloses the greatest space from the middle-line of the
ship’s length, is therefore called the _main_-breadth; and the distance
between the upper-part of the same timber and the middle-line of the
ship’s length, is called the top-timber-breadth.

As the ship is also broader at the midship-frame than in any other point
of her length, the distance between her sides in the main-breadth of
that timber, is called the extreme-breadth of the ship.

BREADTH-SWEEP, the radius of the arch which forms part of the curve of a
ship’s timber; as explained in the horizontal plane. See _Naval_

BREAKERS, _brisans_, a name given by sailors to those billows that break
violently over rocks lying under the surface of the sea. They are
distinguished both by their appearance and sound, as they cover that
part of the sea with a perpetual foam, and produce a hoarse and terrible
roaring, very different from what the waves usually have in a deeper

When a ship is unhappily driven amongst breakers, it is hardly possible
to save her, as every billow that heaves her upwards, serves to dash her
down with additional force, when it breaks over the rocks or sands
beneath it.

BREAKING-BULK, the act of beginning to unlade a ship; or of discharging
the first part of the cargo.

_To_ BREAK-UP, _déchirer_, to rip off the planks of a ship, and take her
to pieces, when she becomes old and unserviceable.

BREAK-WATER, the hulk, or hull, of some old ship or vessel, sunk at the
entrance of a small harbour, to break off, and diminish the force of the
waves, as they advance towards the vessels moored within.

BREAK-WATER is also a sort of small buoy, fastened to a large one in the
water, when the buoy-rope of the latter is not long enough to reach from
the anchor, lying on the bottom, to the surface of the water. The use of
this break-water is therefore to shew where the buoy swims. See BUOY.

_To_ BREAM, _chauffer_ (from _broom_) to burn off the filth, such as
grass, ooze, shells, or sea-weed, from a ship’s bottom, that has
gathered to it in a voyage, or by lying long in a harbour. This
operation is performed by holding kindled furze, faggots, or such
materials, to the bottom, so that the flame incorporating with the
pitch, sulphur, &c. that had formerly covered it, immediately loosens
and throws off whatever filth may have adhered to the planks. After
this, the bottom is covered anew with a composition of sulphur, tallow,
&c. which not only makes it smooth and slippery, so as to divide the
fluid more readily, but also poisons and destroys those worms which eat
through the planks in the course of a voyage. Breaming may be performed
either when the ship lies aground after the tide has ebbed from her, by
_docking_, or by _careening_, which see; as also COAT and STUFF.

BREAST-FAST, a sort of hawser, or large rope, employed to confine a ship
sideways to a wharf or key, or to some other ship; as the head-fast
confines her forward, and the stern-fast, abaft.

BREAST-HOOKS, _guirlandes_, (from _breast_ and _hook_) are thick pieces
of timber, incurvated into the form of knees, and used to strengthen the
fore-part of the ship, where they are placed at different heights
directly across the stem, so as to unite it with the bows on each side.

The breast-hooks are strongly connected to the stem and hawse-pieces by
tree-nails, and by bolts, driven from without, through the planks and
hawse-pieces, and the whole thickness of the breast-hooks, upon whose
inside those bolts are forelocked, or clinched, upon rings. They are
usually about one third thicker, and twice as long, as the knees of the
decks which they support.

There are generally four or five of these pieces in the hold between the
kelson and the lower-deck, in the form of R, (plate I. PIECES _of the_
HULL), upon the uppermost of which the planks of that deck are rabitted.
There are two placed between the lower and the second decks, in the form
of S, (plate I.), one of which is immediately beneath the hawse-holes,
and the other under the second deck, whose planks are inlaid thereon,
and upon which the inner-end of the bowsprit frequently rests.

The fore-side of the breast-hook, which is convex, is formed so as to
correspond with the place in which it is stationed, that is to say, it
conforms exactly to the interior figure of that part of the bow where it
ought to be fayed: accordingly the branches, or arms, of the
breast-hooks, make a greater angle as they are more elevated above the
keel, whilst the lower ones are more incurvated, and are almost figured
like the crotches.

As it is not necessary that the inner, or concave side of these pieces,
should retain a regular form, the artificers frequently let them remain
as thick as possible, to give additional support to the ship’s
fore-part, where she sustains the whole shock of resistance in dividing
the fluid, or in plunging down into it.

It is evident that the connexion and solidity of the ship in this place
will be reinforced in proportion to the strength and extent of the
breast-hooks, so that they may cover a greater number of the

BREAST-WORK, _fronteau_, a sort of balustrade or fence, composed of
rails or mouldings, and frequently decorated with sculpture. It is used
to terminate the quarter-deck and poop at the fore-ends, and to inclose
the forecastle both before and behind.

BREECHING, _brague_, (from _breech_) a rope used to secure the cannon of
a ship of war, and prevent them from recoiling too much in the time of

It is fixed by fastening the middle of it to the hindmost knob or
cascabel of the gun, which sailors call the pomiglion, or pummelion; the
two ends of it are afterwards inserted through two strong rings on the
sides of the carriage, and fastened to other bolts in the ship’s sides.

The breeching is of sufficient length to let the muzzle of the cannon
come within the ship’s side to be charged.

The use of the breeching, as it checks the recoil of the cannon, is
shewn in plate III. DECK, where it is expressed by e e, passing through
the ring-bolts, f, on the side of the carriage, g, being fastened to the
cascabel, h. It is also exhibited in the MIDSHIP-FRAME, where it is
employed to lash the cannon when it is _housed_ during the course of a
voyage. See the article CANNON.

BREWING, the appearance of a collection of black and tempestuous clouds
arising gradually from a particular part of the hemisphere, as the
fore-runner of a storm.

BRIDLES, the upper-part of the moorings laid in the king’s harbours to
ride ships or vessels of war. See the article MOORINGS.

BRIDLES _of the bowline_, _pattes_, the legs by which the bowline is
fastened to different places on the edge or skirt of a large sail.

We have already explained the use of the _bowline_; that it is employed
to confine or keep steddy the windward or weather edges of the principal
sails when they are braced for a side-wind. For as the current of air
enters the cavity of the sail in a direction nearly parallel to its
surface, it follows that the ridge of the sail must necessarily be
shaken by the wind, unless it is kept tight forward; but as a single
rope has not been found sufficient to confine the whole skirt of the
sail, inasmuch as it only draws upon one part thereof, it became
necessary to apply bridles or legs spreading out from the bowline. They
are represented in the figures annexed to the article SAIL.

BRIG, or BRIGANTINE, a merchant-ship with two masts. This term is not
universally confined to vessels of a particular construction, or which
are masted and rigged in a method different from all others. It is
variously applied, by the mariners of different European nations, to a
peculiar sort of vessel of their own marine.

Amongst English seamen, this vessel is distinguished by having her
main-sail set nearly in the plane of her keel; whereas the main-sails of
larger ships are hung athwart, or at right angles with the ship’s
length, and fastened to a yard which hangs parallel to the deck: but in
a brig, the foremost edge of the main-sail is fastened in different
places to hoops which encircle the main-mast, and slide up and down it
as the sail is hoisted or lowered: it is extended by a _gaff_ above, and
by a boom below.

_To_ BRING _by the lee_. See _To_ BROACH-TO.

_To_ BRING-TO, in navigation, _caposer_, to check the course of a ship
when she is advancing, by arranging the sails in such a manner as that
they shall counter-act each other, and prevent her either from
retreating or moving forward. In this situation the ship is said to
lie-by, or lie-to, having, according to the sea-phrase, some of her
sails _aback_, to oppose the force of those which are _full_; or having
them otherwise shortened by being _furled_, or _hauled up in the

BRINGING-TO, is generally used to detain a ship in any particular
station, in order to wait the approach of some other that may be
advancing towards her: or to retard her course occasionally near any
port in the course of a voyage.

_To_ BRING-UP, a provincial phrase peculiar to the seamen in the
coal-trade, signifying to anchor, &c.

_To_ BROACH-TO, in navigation, to incline suddenly to windward of the
ship’s course when she sails with a large wind; or, when she sails
directly before the wind, to deviate from the line of her course, either
to the right or left, with such rapidity as to bring the ship’s side
unexpectedly to windward, and expose her to the danger of oversetting.

It is easy to conceive that a ship will carry much more sail before the
wind than when she makes a progress with her side to its direction;
because when the current of wind acts nearly endways on her hull, the
pressure of it on the masts must be considerably diminished as she
yields to its impulse and flies before it; and that if she carries a
great sail at this time, it can only press her fore-part lower down in
the water. But if, when she carries a great extension of sail, her side
is suddenly brought to the wind, it may be attended with the most fatal
consequences, as the whole force of it then pours like a torrent into
the cavities of the sails. The masts therefore unavoidably yield to this
strong impression, acting like levers on the ship sideways, so as nearly
to overturn her, unless she is relieved by some other event, which may
be also extremely pernicious, such as the sails rending to pieces, or
the masts being carried away.

It is generally occasioned by the difficulty of steering the ship; by
the negligence or incapacity of the helmsman; or by some disaster
happening to the helm or its machinery, which renders it incapable of
governing the ship’s course.

The difference between broaching-to and bringing _by the lee_, may be
thus defined. Suppose a ship with a great sail set is steering south,
having the wind N.N.W. then is west the _weather_, and east the

If by some deficiency in the steerage her head turns round to the
westward, so as that her sails are all taken aback on the weather-side
before she can be made to return to the course from which she has
deviated, she is said to _broach-to_.

If otherwise her head, from the same cause, has declined so far eastward
as to lay her sails aback on that side which was the lee-side, it is
called bringing her by the lee.

BROADSIDE, _bordee_, in a naval engagement, the whole discharge of the
artillery on one side of a ship of war above and below; as,

We poured a broadside into the enemy’s ship, i. e. discharged all the
ship’s cannon on one side upon her.

She brought her broadside to bear on the castle; that is, disposed the
ship so as to point all her cannon to it within point-blank range.

A squall of wind laid the ship on her broadside; that is, pressed her
down in the water, so as nearly to overturn her.

BROKEN-BACKED, _arcqué_, the state or quality of a ship, which is so
loosened in her frame, either by age, weakness, or some great strain, as
to droop at each end.

This circumstance is more common amongst French than the English or
Dutch ships, owing partly to their great length, and to the sharpness of
the floor, whose breadth is not sufficiently carried from the middle
towards each end; and partly from being frequently obliged to have a
great weight in both ends, when they are empty in the middle, at the
time of discharging one cargo and taking in another. See CAMBERING.

BUCCANEER, a name given to certain piratical rovers of various European
nations, who formerly infested the Spanish coasts in America, and, under
pretence of traffic with the inhabitants, frequently seized their
treasure, plundered their houses, and committed many other depredations.

_Ship_-BUILDING may be defined the manner of constructing ships, or the
work itself, as distinguished from naval architecture, which we have
rather considered as the theory or art of delineating ships on a plane,
and to which this article may properly be understood as a supplement.

The pieces by which this complicated machine is framed, are joined
together in various places, by scarfing, rabitting, tenanting, and
scoring. See those articles.

During the construction of a ship, she is supported in the dock, or upon
a wharf, by a number of solid blocks of timber placed at equal distances
from, and parallel to, each other, as may be seen in the article
LANCHING; she is then said to be on the stocks.

The first piece of timber laid upon the blocks is generally the keel; I
say _generally_, because, of late, a different method has been adopted
in some of the royal dock-yards, by beginning with the floor-timbers;
the artists having found that the keel is often apt to rot during the
long period of building a large ship of war. The pieces of the keel, as
exhibited in plate I. are scarfed together, and bolted, forming one
entire piece, A A. which constitutes the length of the vessel below. At
one extremity of the keel is erected the _stem_. It is a strong piece of
timber incurvated nearly into a circular arch, or, according to the
technical term, _compassing_, so as to project outwards at the
upper-end, forming what is called the _rake_ forward. In small vessels
this is framed of one piece, but in large ships it is composed of
several pieces scarfed and bolted together, as expressed in the
explanation of plate I. PIECES _of the_ HULL, and in those terms
separately. At the other extremity of the keel, is elevated the
stern-post, which is always of one entire strait piece. The heel of it
is let into a mortise in the keel, and having its upper-end to hang
outwards, making an obtuse angle with the keel, like that of the stem:
this projection is called the _rake_ abaft. The stern-post, which ought
to support the stern, contains the iron-work or hinges of the rudder,
which are called _googings_, and unites the lower-part of the ship’s
sides abaft. See the connexion of those pieces in the ELEVATION, pl. I.

Towards the upper-end of the stern-post, and at right angles with its
length, is fixed the middle of the _wing-transom_, where it is firmly
bolted. Under this is placed another piece parallel thereto, and called
the deck-transom, upon which the after-end of the lower-deck is
supported. Parallel to the deck-transom, and at a proper distance under
it, another piece is fixed to the stern-post, called the first transom,
all of which serve to connect the stern-post to the _fashion pieces_.
Two more transoms, called the second and third, are also placed under
these, being likewise attached to the fashion pieces, into which the
extremities of all the transoms are let, as exhibited in plate X. fig.
1. The fashion-pieces are formed like the other timbers of the ship, and
have their heels resting on the upper-part of the kelson, at the after
extremity of the floor ribbands.

All these pieces, viz. the transoms, the fashion-pieces, and their
top-timbers, being strongly united into one frame, are elevated upon the
stern-post, and the whole forms the structure of the stern, upon which
the galleries and windows, with their ornaments, are afterwards built,

The stem and stern-post being thus elevated upon the keel, to which they
are securely connected by knees and arched pieces of timber bolted to
both; and the keel being raised at its two extremities by pieces of
dead-wood, the midship _floor-timber_ is placed across the keel, whereto
it is bolted through the middle. The floor-timbers before and abaft the
midship-frame are then stationed in their proper places upon the keel;
after which the _kelson_, which, like the keel, is composed of several
pieces scarfed together, is fixed across the middle of the
floor-timbers, to which it is attached by bolts driven through the keel,
and clinched on the upper-part of the kelson. The futtocks are then
raised upon the floor-timbers, and the _hawse-pieces_ erected upon the
cant-timbers in the fore-part of the ship. The top-timbers on each side
are next attached to the head of the futtocks, as already explained in
the article _naval_ ARCHITECTURE. The frames of the principal timbers
being thus completed, are supported by ribbands, as exhibited in the
plate referred to from the article RIBBANDS.

The ribs of the ship being now stationed, they proceed to fix on the
planks, of which the wales are the principal, being much thicker and
stronger than the rest; as is represented in the MIDSHIP-FRAME. The
harpins, which may be considered as a continuation of the wales at their
fore-ends, are fixed across the hawse-pieces, and surround the fore-part
of the ship. The planks that inclose the ship’s sides are then brought
about the timbers, and the _clamps_, which are of equal thickness with
the wales, fixed opposite to the wales within the ship; these are used
to support the ends of the beams, and accordingly stretch from one end
of the ship to the other. The _thick stuff_, or strong planks of the
bottom within-board, are then placed opposite to the several scarfs of
the timbers, to reinforce them throughout the ship’s length. The planks
employed to line the ship, called the _ceiling_, or _foot-waling_, is
next fixed in the intervals between the thick-stuff of the hold. The
_beams_ are afterwards laid across the ship to support the decks, and
are connected to the side by lodging and hanging knees; the former of
which are exhibited in their proper stations in plate III. F. and the
hanging ones, together with the breadth, thickness, and position of the
keel, floor-timbers, futtocks, top timbers, wales, clamps, thick-stuff,
planks within and without, beams, decks, &c. are seen in the

The cable-bits being next erected, the _carlings_ and _ledges_, which
are represented in plate III. and described in their proper places, are
disposed between the beams to strengthen the deck. The _water-ways_ are
then laid on the ends of the beams throughout the ship’s length, and the
spirketting fixed close above them. The upper-deck is then planked, and
the _string_ placed under the _gunnel_ or _plansheer_ in the waist. The
disposition of those latter pieces on the timbers, viz. the water-ways,
spirketting, upper-deck, string, and gunnel, are also represented in the

They proceed next to plank the quarter-deck and forecastle, and to fix
the _partners_ of the masts and capsterns with the _coamings_ of the
hatches. The _breast-hooks_ are then bolted across the stem and bow
within-board, the _step_ of the fore-mast placed on the kelson; and the
_riders_, exhibited in the MIDSHIP-FRAME, fayed on the inside of the
timbers to reinforce the sides in different places of the ship’s length.
The _pointers_, if any, are afterwards fixed across the hold diagonally
to support the beams; and the _crotches_ stationed in the after-hold to
unite the half-timbers. The _steps_ of the main-mast and capsterns are
next placed; the planks of the lower-decks and orlop laid; the _navel
hoods_ fayed on the hawse-holes; and the _knee of the head_, or
cutwater, connected to the stem. The figure of the head is then erected,
and the _trail-board_ and cheeks fixed on the sides of the knee.

The _taffarel_ and _quarter pieces_, which terminate the ship abaft, the
former above, and the latter on each side, are then disposed; and the
stern and quarter galleries framed and supported by their brackets. The
_pumps_, with their well, are next fixed in the hold; the
_limber-boards_ laid on each side of the kelson, and the _garboard_
strake fixed on the ship’s bottom next to the keel without.

The hull being thus fabricated, they proceed to separate the apartments
by _bulk-heads_, or partitions; to frame the _port-lids_; to fix the
_catheads_ and _chess-trees_; to form the _hatchways_ and _scuttles_,
and fit them with proper covers or _gratings_. They next fix the ladders
whereby to mount or descend the different hatchways, and build the
_manger_ on the lower deck, to carry off the water that runs in at the
hawse-holes when the ship rides at anchor in a sea. The bread-room and
magazines are then lined, and the _gunnel_, _rails_, and _gangways_,
fixed on the upper part of the ship. The _cleats_, _kevels_, and
_ranges_, by which the ropes are. fastened, are afterwards bolted or
nailed to the sides. in different places.

The _rudder_, being fitted with its irons, is next hung to the
stern-post; and the _tiller_, or bar, by which it is managed, let into a
mortise at its upper-end. The _scuppers_, or leaden tubes, that carry
the water off from the decks, are then placed in holes cut through the
ship’s sides; and the _standards_, represented in the MIDSHIP-FRAME,
bolted to the beams and sides above the decks to which they belong. The
poop-lanthorns are last fixed upon their cranes over the stern, and the
bilge-ways, or cradles, placed under the bottom, to conduct the ship
steadily into the water whilst lanching.

As the various pieces, which have been mentioned above, are explained at
large in their proper places, with references to their figures according
to the plan of this work, it would have been superfluous to have entered
into a more particular description of them here. It is perhaps necessary
to observe, that as the theory ought always to precede the practice,
this article would probably be much better understood by previously
reading that of _Naval_ ARCHITECTURE, which may be considered as a
proper introduction to it.

BUILT, _fabrique_, the particular form or structure of a ship, by which
she is distinguished from others of a different class or nation. Thus a
ship is said to be frigate-built, galley-built, a hag-boat, a pink, a
cat, &c. or to be English-built, French-built, American-built, &c.

BULK-HEADS, certain partitions, or walls, built up in several places of
a ship between two decks, either lengthwise or across, to form and
separate the various apartments. Some of those which are built across
the ship are remarkably strong. See the article CLOSE-QUARTERS.

BULL’S-EYE, _cosse_. a sort of small pulley in the form of a ring,
having a rope spliced round the outer edge of it, (which is hollowed to
admit of the rope) and a large hole in the middle for another rope to
slide in. It is seldom used but for the main and fore bowline-bridles of
some ships, particularly the colliers of Northumberland, &c. It is
spliced in the outer-end of the bowline, and sliding along the bridle,
to rest in the most apposite place, draws it tight above and below. This
implement is more frequently used by Dutch than English seamen.

BUMKIN, or BOOMKIN, _boute-lof_, a short boom or bar of timber,
projecting from each _bow_ of a ship, to extend the lower-edge of the
fore-sail to windward; for which purpose there is a large block fixed on
its outer end, through which the rope is passed that is fastened to the
lower-corner of the sail to windward, called the _tack_; and this being
drawn tight down, brings the corner of the sail close to the block,
which being performed, the _tack_ is said to be _aboard_.

The bumkin is secured by a strong rope which confines it downward to the
ship’s bow, to counter-act the strain it bears from the fore-sail above,
dragging it upwards.

BUNT, the middle part, or cavity of the principal square sails, as the
main-sail, fore-sail, top-sails, and top-gallant-sails. If one of those
sails is supposed to be divided into four equal parts, from one side to
the other, then may the two middle divisions, which comprehend half of
the sail, be properly called the limits of the bunt.

BUNTINE, _etamine_, a thin woollen stuff, of which the colours and
signals of a ship are usually formed.

BUNTLINES, _cargues fond_, are ropes fastened to the bottoms of the
square sails, to draw them up to the yards: they are inserted through
certain blocks above, or on the upper-part of the yard, whence passing
down-wards on the fore-part of the sail, they are fastened below to the
lower-edge in several places of the _bolt-rope_.

BUOY, (_bouée_, Fr.) a sort of close cask, or block of wood, fastened by
a rope to the anchor, to determine the place where the anchor is
situated, that the ship may not come too near it, to entangle her cable
about the stock, or the flukes of it.

BUOYS are of various kinds; as,

_Can_-BUOYS; these are in the form of a cone, (see plate II. fig. 8.)
and of this construction are all the buoys which are floated over
dangerous banks and shallows, as a warning to passing ships, that they
may avoid them. They are extremely large, that they may be seen at a
distance, and are fastened by strong chains to the anchors which are
sunk for this purpose at such places.

_Nun_-BUOYS, are shaped like the middle frustum of two cones, abutting
upon one common base, (plate II. fig. 9.) being casks, which are large
in the middle, and tapering, nearly to a point, at each end.

_Wooden_ BUOYS, are solid pieces of timber, sometimes in the shape of a
cylinder, and sometimes of a nun-buoy; they are furnished with one or
two holes, in which to fix a short piece of rope, whose two ends being
spliced together make a sort of circle or ring called the strop.

_Cable_-BUOYS, common casks employed to buoy up the cable in different
places from any rocky ground. In the harbour of Alexandria, in Egypt,
every ship is moored with at least three cables, and has three or four
of these buoys on each cable for this purpose.

BUOY-ROPE, the rope which fastens the buoy to the anchor: it should be
little more than equal in length to the depth of the water where the
anchor lies, as it is intended to float near, or immediately above the
bed of it, that the pilot may at all times know the situation thereof.
See plate I. fig. 6. b is the anchor, c the buoy-rope, and d the buoy
floating on the surface of the water.

The BUOY-ROPE is often extremely useful otherways, in drawing up the
anchor when the cable is broke. It should therefore be always of
sufficient strength for this purpose, or else the anchor may be lost
through negligence.

_Slings of the_ BUOY, the ropes which are fastened about it, and by
which it is hung: they are curiously spliced round it, something
resembling the braces of a drum.

_To stream the_ BUOY, is to let it fall from the ship’s side into the
water, which is always done before they let go the anchor, that it may
not be retarded by the buoy-rope as it sinks to the bottom.

BURTHEN, or BURDEN, _port_, (_byrthen_, Sax.) the weight or measure of
any species of merchandize that a ship will carry when fit for sea.

To determine the burthen, or, in other words, the tonnage, of a ship, it
is usual to multiply the length of the keel into the extreme breadth of
the ship within-board, taken along the midship-beam, and multiply the
product by the depth in the _hold_ from the plank joining to the
_kelson_ upwards, to the main-deck, and divide the last product by 94,
then will the quotient be the burden required, in tons.

BURTON, _bredindin_, a sort of small tackle, formed by two blocks or
pullies, till the rope becomes three or four fold, and acquires an
additional power in proportion.

It is generally employed to tighten the shrouds of the top-masts, but
may be otherways used to move or draw along any weighty body in the
_hold_, or on the _deck_, as anchors, bales of goods, large casks, &c.

BUSS, _buche_, (_busse_, Germ.) a ship of two masts, used by the English
and Dutch in their herring fisheries. It is generally from fifty to
seventy tons burthen; being furnished with two small sheds or cabins,
one at the prow and the other at the stern; the former of which is
employed as a kitchen.

BUTT, _about_, the end of any plank in a ship’s side which unites with
the end of another, continuing its length: when a plank is loosened at
the end by the ship’s weakness or labouring, she is said to have started
or sprung a butt.

BUTTOCK, the convexity of a ship behind, under the stern; it is
terminated by the counter above, and by the after part of the bilge
below, by the rudder in the middle, and by the quarter on the side.

BUTTONS. See the article BONNET.


CABIN, _cabane_, a room or apartment in a ship where any of the officers
usually reside.

There are many of these in a large ship; the principal of which is
designed for the captain, or commander. In ships of the line, this
chamber is furnished with an open gallery in the ships stern, as also a
little gallery on each quarter. The apartments where the inferior
officers or common sailors sleep and mess, are usually called births;
which see.

The bed-places built up for the sailors at the ships side in
merchantmen, are also called cabins.

CABLE, (_cable_, Fr.) a large, strong rope of a considerable length,
used to retain a ship at anchor in a road, bay, or haven.

Cables are of various sorts and sizes. In Europe they are usually
manufactured of hemp; in Africa they are more frequently composed of
bass, which is a sort of long straw or rushes; and in Asia of a peculiar
sort of Indian grass.

Cables, of what thickness soever, are generally formed of three ropes
twisted together, which are then called _strands_: each of these is
composed of three smaller strands; and those last of a certain number of
rope-yarns. This number is therefore greater or smaller in proportion to
the size of the cable required.

There are some cables, however, manufactured of four strands; which are
chiefly the production of Italy and Provence.

All ships ought to be furnished with at least three good cables; the
_sheet_ cable, and the two _bowers_; best and small.

All cables ought to be one hundred and twenty fathoms in length; for
which purpose the threads or yarns must be one hundred and eighty
fathoms; inasmuch as they are diminished one third in length by
twisting. Besides this length, it is necessary to splice at least two
cables together, in order to double the length when a ship is obliged to
anchor in deep water. For although it is not common to anchor in a
greater depth than forty fathoms, yet if there is only one cable, and
the ship rides in a storm and tempestuous sea, the anchor will of
necessity sustain the whole weight and violent jerking of the ship, in a
direction too nearly perpendicular. By this effort it will unavoidably
be loosened from its hold, and dragged by the ship, which thus driven
from her station, is in immediate danger of being wrecked on the nearest
rocks or shallows; whereas it is evident, that if the cable, by its
great length, were to draw more horizontally on the anchor, it would
bear a much greater force. See ANCHOR.

The long cable is not so apt to break as the short one; because it will
bear a great deal more stretching before it comes to the greatest
strain: it therefore resembles a sort of spring, which may be very
easily extended, and afterwards recovers its first state, as soon as the
force which extended it is removed. Besides all this, a ship will ride
much smoother with a long cable, and be less apt to _pitch_, or plunge
deep in the water with her fore-part.

On the contrary, the short cable, being too nearly vertical to the
anchor, cannot bear such a strain, because it is charged with a greater
effort; and, as it will not bear stretching, may break at the first
violent tug. The ship also rides with much greater difficulty, labours
extremely, and often plunges all her fore-part under water.

By what has been said on this subject, we may see how very necessary it
is to furnish a ship with sufficiency of cables, or what is called
ground-tackle; and what an inconsiderate policy it is in merchants to
expose their vessels to such evident dangers from the want of them. For
we may venture to assert, without violation of truth, that many good
ships have been lost only on account of a deficiency in this important

A cable ought neither to be twisted too much or too little; as in the
former state it will be extremely stiff, and difficult to manage; and in
the latter, it will be considerably diminished in its strength.

All cables are to each other as the cubes of their diameters.

The number of threads also, of which each cable is composed, being
always proportioned to its length and thickness, the weight and value of
it are determined by this number. Thus a cable of ten inches in
circumference, ought to consist of four hundred and eighty-five threads;
and weigh one thousand nine hundred and forty pounds: and on this
foundation is calculated the following table, very useful for all
persons engaged in marine commerce, who equip merchant-ships on their
own account, or freight them for the account of others.

       A table of the number of threads and weight of cables of
                       different circumference.

   Circumference in inches. Threads or rope-yarns. Weight in pounds.
                          9                    393              1572
                         10                    485              1940
                         11                    598              2392
                         12                    699              2796
                         13                    821              3284
                         14                    952              3808
                         15                   1093              4372
                         16                   1244              4976
                         17                   1404              5616
                         18                   1574              6296
                         19                   1754              7016
                         20                   1943              7772

_Stream_-CABLE, a hauser, or rope, something smaller than the bowers,
and used to moor the ship in a river or haven, sheltered from the wind
and sea, &c.

_To bit the_ CABLE. See the article BITS.

_To serve the_ CABLE, is to bind it round with ropes, leather, or other
materials, to prevent it from being galled, or fretted in the hawse by

_Heave in the_ CABLE! the order to draw it into the ship by winding
about the capstern or windlass.

_Pay away the_ CABLE! slacken it, that it may run out of the ship. This
phrase is the same with _veer away_ the cable. See the French term
_cable_, and the phrases following it.

CABLE’S _length_, a measure of 120 fathoms, or of the usual length of
the cable.

_To_ CALK, or CAULK, _calfater_, (probably from _calage_, Fr. hemp) to
drive a quantity of oakum, or old ropes untwisted and drawn asunder,
into the seams of the planks, or into the intervals where the planks are
joined to each other in the ship’s decks or sides, in order to prevent
the entrance of water. After the oakum is driven very hard into these
seams, it is covered with hot melted pitch or resin, to keep the water
from rotting it.

Amongst the ancients, the first who made use of pitch in calking, were
the inhabitants of Phæacia, afterwards called Corsica. Wax and resin
appear to have been commonly used previous to that period; and the Poles
at this time use a sort of unctuous clay for the same purpose, on their
navigable rivers.

CALL, _sifflet_, a sort of whistle, or pipe, of silver or brass, used by
the boatswain and his mates to summon the sailors to their duty, and
direct them in the different employments of the ship.

As the call can be sounded to various strains, each of them is
appropriated to some particular exercise; such as hoisting, heaving,
lowering, veering away, belaying, letting-go a tackle, &c. The act of
winding this instrument is called _piping_, which is as attentively
observed by sailors, as the beat of the drum to march, retreat, rally,
charge, &c. is obeyed by soldiers.

CALM, the state of rest which appears in the air and sea when there is
no wind stirring.

That tract of the Atlantic ocean, situated between the tropic of Cancer
and the latitude of 29° north; or the space that lies between the
_trade_ and the variable winds, is frequently subject to calms of very
long duration: and hence it has acquired, amongst seamen, the name of
the Calm Latitudes.

A long calm is often more fatal to a ship than the severest tempest,
because if the ship is tight and in good condition, she may sustain the
latter without much injury; whereas in a long calm, the provision and
water may be entirely consumed, without any opportunity of obtaining a
fresh supply. The surface of the sea in a continued calm is smooth and
bright as a looking-glass.

CAMBERED-DECK, the deck or flooring of a ship is said to be cambered, or
to lie cambering, when it is higher in the middle of the ship’s length,
and droops towards the stem and stern, or the two ends. Also when it
lies irregular; a circumstance which renders the ship very unfit for
war. See the article BROKEN-BACKED.


CAN-HOOKS, an instrument used to sling a cask by the ends of the staves:
it is formed by fixing a broad and flat hook at each end of a short
rope, and the tackle by which the cask so slung may be hoisted or
lowered, is hooked to the middle of the rope. See plate II. fig. 8 and
9. The canhooks commonly used ashore by brewers, &c. are all iron, the
middle part being fitted with a chain in the place of a rope.

CANNON, a well known piece of artillery, mounted in battery on the decks
of a ship, and used in all naval engagements.

This engine has already been so accurately described by a variety of
authors, that it may seem unnecessary to give a particular description
of it here. As it forms, however, so important an article in all the
military operations of the marine, it cannot, consistently with our
plan, be omitted in this place.

CANNON then may be defined a long, conical fire-arm of brass or iron,
concave within, and smaller at the muzzle, or face, than at the opposite

The principal parts of a sea-cannon, as represented in plate VII. fig.
3, are, 1st. The breech, A C, and its button, or cascabel, A h, called
by seamen the pomiglion. The breech is generally understood to be the
solid metal from the bottom of the concave cylinder to the cascabel,
which is the extremity of the cannon opposite to its muzzle.

2d. The trunnions, T, which project on each side like arms, and serve to
support the cannon near the middle of its length: on these it may be
poised, and held almost in _equilibrio_. As the metal is thicker at the
breech than towards the mouth, the trunnions are placed nearer to that
end than the other.

3d. The bore, or caliber, which is comprehended between the dotted
lines, and particularly expressed in the longitudinal section of a
thirty-two-pounder, fig. 15. This represents the interior or concave
cylinder, wherein the powder and shot are lodged with which the cannon
is charged: the entrance of the bore is called the mouth.

   =Names of the other parts, including the above plate VII. fig. 3.=

                A B, the length of the  cannon.
                A E, the first reinforce.
                E F, the second reinforce.
                F B, the chace.
                H B, the muzzle.
                A o, the cascabel, or pomiglion.
                A C, the breech.
                C D, the vent-field.
                F I, the chace-girdle.
                r s, the base-ring and ogee.
                t, the vent-astragal and fillets.
                p q, the first reinforce-ring and ogee.
                v w, the second reinforce-ring and ogee.
                x, the chace-astragal and fillets.
                z, the muzzle-astragal and fillets.
                n, the muzzle-mouldings.
                m, the swelling of the muzzle,
                A i, the breech-mouldings.

The use of these machines is to discharge upon the enemy globes or balls
of iron, called _shot_, which are therefore of various sizes, in
proportion to the caliber of the cannon. The diameter of the ball is
always somewhat less than the bore of the piece, that it may be
discharged with the greater ease, and not damage the piece by rubbing it
too forcibly in its passage; and the difference between these diameters
is called the windage of the cannon.

The length of any cannon is always reckoned from the hind part of the
base ring, or beginning of the cascabel, to the extremity of the muzzle.
The second reinforce begins at the same circle where the first
terminates; and the chace at the same circle where the second reinforce

The first reinforce therefore includes the base ring; the ogee nearest
thereto; the vent-field; the vent-astragal, and first reinforce-ring.
The second reinforce contains the ogee next to the first reinforce-ring
and the second reinforce-ring. The chace comprehends the ogee nearest to
the second reinforce-ring; the chace-girdle and astragal; and the muzzle
and astragal. The trunnions are always placed on the second reinforce,
so as that the breech part of the cannon may weigh something more than
the muzzle-part, to prevent the piece from starting up behind when it is

A variety of experiments, made with great care and accuracy, prove that
powder when on fire possesses at least 4000[2] times more space than
when in grains. Therefore if we suppose that the quantity of powder with
which a cannon is charged possesses one fourth of a cubical foot in
grains, it will, when on fire, occupy the space of about 1000 cubical
feet. The same experiments evince also that the powder when inflamed, is
dilated equally round its center. One grain of powder fired in the
center of different concentric circles, round which grains of powder are
placed, shall therefore set fire to all those grains at once.

From this principle it necessarily follows, that powder, when fired in a
cannon, makes at the same instant an equal effort on every part of the
inside of the piece, in order to expand itself about its center every
way, But as the resistance from the sides of the piece turns the action
of the powder, so as to follow the direction of the bore of the cannon
when it presses upon the ball, so as to force it outwards, it presses
also on the breech of the cannon; and this gives the piece a motion
backwards, that is called its _recoil_ which, as we have already
observed, is restrained by the _breeching_ and the convexity of the
decks. The recoil in some degree diminishes the action of the powder
upon the shot. But this cannot be avoided; for, if the carriages were
fixed so as not to give way to this motion, the action of the powder, or
the effort that causes the recoil, would tear them to pieces in a very
short time.

All pieces of artillery were formerly distinguished into the names of
sakers, culverins, cannon, and demi-cannon; but at present their names
are derived from the weight of the ball which they discharge: thus a
piece that discharges a ball of twenty-four pounds, is called a
twenty-four-pounder; and one that carries a shot of thirty-two pounds, a
thirty-two-pounder; and so of the rest.

The metal of cannon is not equally thick in all parts, but is in some
measure proportioned to the force of the powder which it is to resist.
At the breech, where the effort is strongest, the thickness of the metal
is equal to the diameter of the corresponding shot. At the first
reinforce, where this begins to slacken, the thickness is somewhat less
than at the breech: at the second, where the force is still further
diminished, the thickness is more reduced than at the first: and, by the
same rule, the chace has less thickness than the second reinforce. The
thickness of the chace gradually diminishes from the trunnions to the
mouth of the piece; so that if a cannon was without cascabel, trunnion,
and mouldings, it would exactly resemble the frustum of a cone, or a
cone deprived of the small end.

In a vessel of war, cannon are placed on a sort of wheeled sledge,
called the _carriage_, of which fig. 16. plate VII. is the plan, and
fig. 17. the elevation. This carriage is composed of two large pieces of
plank, called sides or cheeks, connected together by means of
cross-pieces, which are either bolts, axle-trees, or transoms. The two
axle-trees are fixed across under the fore and hinder parts of the
carriage, being supported at their extremities by solid wooden wheels
called trucks. The transom is placed directly over the fore axle-tree,
and exactly in the middle of the height of the cheeks or side-pieces.
The height of the transom is equal to two diameters of the shot, and the
breadth to one diameter.

Explanation of the iron-work, and different parts of a sea-carriage, as
  exhibited in the plan and elevation of a thirty-two pounder, pl. VII.
  fig. 16. and 17.

a. The cap-squares, commonly called clamps in the sea-service.

b. Eye-bolts, by which one end of the clamp is fixed to the carriage.

c. Joint-bolts, upon which the other end of the clamp is fixed over the
trunnions; after which it is fore-locked, to prevent the cannon from
starting out of its carriage when fired.

b g. The cheeks or sides of the carriage.

d. The transom-bolt.

e. The bed bolt, upon which the bed rests to support the breech of the
cannon. The bed is expressed by fig. 4.

f. Hind axle-tree bolts.

g. Breeching-bolts, with rings, through which the breechings pass.

h. Loops, or eye-bolts, to which the gun-tackles are hooked.

i. The fore axle-tree, with its trucks, k.

l. The hind axle-tree, with its trucks, k.

The wheels are firmly retained upon their axle-trees by means of iron
bolts passing through the latter without the wheels: these bolts are
called linch-pins.

The breadth of the wheels is always equal to that of the cheeks; but the
height of the cheeks and diameter of the trucks must conform to the
height of the gun-ports above the deck. The carriages of the lower tiers
should therefore be so formed, that when the breech of the cannon lies
upon the hind axle-tree, the muzzle of the piece should touch above the
port, as expressed in fig. 19. which represents a cannon secured by its
tackles and breechings, to prevent it from straining the ship as she
rolls in a stormy sea.

Cannon are charged by putting down into the bottom first a quantity of
powder, one third or one half the weight of the ball. This is done with
an instrument, fig. 7. termed a _ladle_ which is a kind of cylindrical
spoon, generally made of copper, and fixed to the end of a staff, called
its handle. Upon the powder is put in a wad of rope-yarn, formed like a
ball, which is pressed down upon the powder with the instrument
expressed by fig. 17. called a _rammer_. Upon this wad is put the ball
or shot; and to secure it in its place, another wad is firmly pressed
down upon it, which operation is called _ramming-home_ the wad and shot.
The touch-hole of the piece is then filled with powder, from the
upper-part of which a little train is laid that communicates with it.
The use of this train is to prevent the explosion of the powder from
operating directly upon the instrument employed to fire the piece, which
in that case might be forced out of the hand of the gunner.

In the modern pieces, a little gutter or channel is framed on the upper
part of the breech, to prevent the train from being dispersed by the
wind. This channel reaches from the touch-hole to the base-ring.

The cannon being pointed to its _object_, or the place which it is
intended to strike, the train is fired, and the flame immediately
conveyed to the powder in the touch-hole, by which it is further
communicated to that in the piece. The powder being kindled, immediately
expands so as to occupy a much greater space than when in grains, and
thus dilated it makes an effort on every side to force itself out. The
ball making less resistance than the sides of the piece, upon which the
powder presses at the same time, is driven out by its whole effort, and
acquires that violent motion which is well known to the world.

In plate VII. all the instruments necessary for charging cannon are
exhibited. Besides these already described, there is the spunge, fig.
10. which is used to clean the piece after firing, and to extinguish any
sparks that may remain behind. In the land-service, the handle of the
spunge is nothing else than a long wooden staff; but in ships of war
this handle, that usually contains the rammer at its other end, is a
piece of rope well stiffened by _spun-yarn_, which is for this purpose
firmly wound about it. By this convenience the rammer becomes flexible,
so that the piece is charged within the ship, as the person who loads it
may bend and accommodate the length of the rammer to the distance
between the muzzle and the ship’s side; being at the same time sheltered
from the enemy’s musquetry, to which he would be exposed when using a
wooden rammer without the ship. To spunge a piece therefore is to
introduce this instrument into the bore, and thrusting it home to the
farthest end thereof, to clean the whole cavity. The figures 8 and 9
represent spunges of a different kind; one of which is formed of
sheep-skin, and the other of the strongest bristles of a hog. See the
article EXERCISE.

The _worm_, of which there are also different kinds, fig. 6. and 9. is
used to draw the charge when necessary.

The bit, or priming-iron, is a kind of large needle, whose lower end is
formed into a gimblet, serving to clear the inside of the touch-hole,
and render it fit to receive the prime.

The lint-stock is a kind of staff about three feet long, to the end of
which a match is occasionally fastened to fire the piece.

The fluctuating motion of the sea renders it necessary to secure and
confine the artillery in vessels of war, by several ropes and pullies,
which are called the _gun-tackles_ and _breechings_, without which they
could never be managed in a naval engagement. The breeching has been
already explained, as employed to restrain the recoil. The tackles *
fig. 18, are hooked to ring-bolts in the sides of the carriage, and to
other ring-bolts in the side of the ship, near the edges of the
gun-ports, and are used to draw the piece out into its place after it is
loaded. Besides these, there is another tackle hooked to the rear or
_train_ of the carriage, to prevent the cannon from rolling into its
place till it is charged: this is called the train-tackle, and is
exhibited in fig. 17.

In ships of war, the cannon of the lower-decks are usually drawn into
the ship during the course of an expedition at sea, unless when they are
used in battle. They are secured by lowering the breech so as that the
muzzle shall bear against the upper-edge of the port, after which the
two parts of the breeching are firmly braced together by a rope which
crosses them between the front of the carriage and the port; which
operation is called _frapping_ the breeching. The tackles are then
securely fastened about it with several turns of the rope extended from
the tackle and breeching, over the chace of the cannon, as represented
in fig. 19.

The service of the artillery, or the method of employing it in a naval
action, is explained in the articles ENGAGEMENT and EXERCISE. The manner
of pointing, or directing them to different objects; the effects of
different quantities of powder upon the cannonball; and the different
lines described by its flight, are also treated at large in the article

We shall here subjoin a table of the length and weight of different
cannon, for the information of those who may be entirely unacquainted
therewith; and particularly our sea-gunners.

          Length and weight of brass cannon according to the
                         mensuration in 1753.

      Pounders.│      Length.      │           Weight.
               │    Feet.   Inches.│   100lb. Quarters.       lb.
             42│        9         6│       61         2        10
             32│        9         5│       55         2         7
             24│        9         5│       51         1        12
             18│        9         0│       48         1         0
             12│        9         0│       29         0         0
              9│        8         5│
              6│        8         0│       19         0         0
              3│        6         5│       11         0         0

        Length and weight of iron guns used in the sea-service,
                 according to the mensuration in 1753.

      Pounders.│      Length.      │           Weight.
               │    Feet.   Inches.│   100lb. Quarters.       lb.
             42│       10         0│       55         1        12
             32│        9         6│       53         3        23
             24│        9         5│       48         0         0
             18│        9         0│       41         1         8
             12│        9         0│       32         3         3
              9│        8         5│       23         2         2
              6│        7         0│       17         1        14
              4│        6         0│       12         2        13
              3│        4         6│        7         1         7

For an account of the particular number of men appointed to manage the
different degrees of cannon, and the arrangement or distribution of the
cannon according to the several classes of ships, see QUARTERS and RATE.

The following judicious remarks for increasing the strength of the
British navy, by changing the cannon used in ships of war into others of
equal weight but of greater bore, have been selected from the proposal
of the late ingenious Mr. Robins.

The advantage of large cannon over those of a smaller bore is so
generally acknowledged, that a particular discussion of it might perhaps
be spared. * * *

“The most important advantage of heavy bullets is this, that with the
same velocity they break holes out in all solid bodies in a greater
proportion than their weight; that is, for instance, a twenty-four pound
shot will, with the same velocity, break out a hole in any wall,
rampart, or solid beam, in which it lodges, above eight times larger
than will be made by a three pound shot; for its diameter being double,
it will make a superficial fracture above four times as great as the
three-pounder, (more of a smaller hole being closed up by the springing
of the solid body than of a great one) and it will penetrate to more
than twice the depth; by this means the firmest walls of masonry are
easily cut through their whole substance by heavy shot, which could
never be affected by those of a smaller caliber; and in ships the
strongest beams and masts are hereby fractured, which a very great
number of small bullets would scarcely injure.

“To this last advantage of large cannon, which is indeed a capital one,
there must be that of carrying the weight of their bullet in grape or
lead shot, and thereby annoying the enemy more effectually than could be
done by ten times the number of small pieces.

“These are the principal advantages of large cannon, and hence it is no
wonder that those entrusted with the care of the British navy have
always endeavoured to arm all ships with the largest cannon they could
with safety bear; and indeed, within these last hundred years, great
improvements have been made on this head, by reducing the weight of many
of the species of cannon, and thereby enabling the same ships to carry
guns of a larger bore: and, very lately, the six pounders in some of the
smaller ships have been changed for nine pounders of a larger fabric
than usual, which hath been justly esteemed a very great addition, to
the strength of those ships.

“The importance then of allotting to all ships the largest cannon they
can with safety bear being granted, it remains to shew on what
foundation a change is proposed to be made in the fabric of all pieces
from the present eighteen pounders downwards, so that they may be
changed for others of the same, or less weight, but of a larger bore.
This proposition turns on the following considerations.—The species of
cannon proper for each ship is limited by the weight of the pieces; and
when the charge and effort of the bullet are assigned, this weight in
each species is, or ought to be determined by the following

       That they shall not be in danger of bursting;
       That they shall not recoil too boisterously;
       And that they shall not heat too much in frequent firing.

“All this is to be done by a proper quantity of metal properly disposed;
and when the pieces are secured from these accidents, all additional
weight of metal, is not only useless but prejudicial.

“Now what dimensions and weight of metal are more than sufficient for
these purposes, we may learn from the present practice of the navy, in
the fabric of the thirty-two pounders, the heaviest guns in common use;
these are made to weigh (if the author’s information be right) from
fifty-two to fifty-three hundred weight; that is somewhat less than an
hundred and two-thirds for each pound of bullet.

“From this then the author concludes, that any smaller piece, made upon
the model of these thirty-two pounders, and having their weight
proportioned in the same manner to the weight of their bullet, will
fully answer all the purposes recited above, and will be of
unexceptionable service.

“And he founds his opinions on these two principles: first, that the
strength of iron, or of any other metal, is in proportion to its
substance; so that, for instance, where it has one half the substance,
it has one half the strength; and this supposition, he presumes, will be
scarcely contested. Secondly that the force of different quantities of
powder fired in spaces which they respectively fill, is not exactly in
the proportion of those quantities; but the lesser quantity has in
proportion the least force: that is, for instance, the force of one
pound of powder, in like circumstances, is less than one half the force
of two pounds. And this principle the author has deduced from many
repeated and diversified trials of his own; and he believes it will be
found agreeable to all the observations which have been made, or shall
be made, on this subject.

“From these two considerations, he hopes, it will be granted him, that,
if two pieces, a large one and a small one, are made with all their
dimensions in proportion to the diameter of their respective bullets,
and consequently their weights in the same proportion with the weights
of their bullets, then the larger piece, with the same proportion of
powder, will be more strained, will heat more, and recoil more than the

“Hence then, as we are assured, that the present thirty-two pounders are
of a sufficient strength and weight for all marine purposes, we have the
greatest reason to suppose, that, if all the pieces of an inferior
caliber were formed upon the same model, measuring by the diameter of
the bullet, these smaller pieces would not be defective, either in
strength or weight, but would be to the full as serviceable on
ship-board, as the present pieces, which are so much overloaded with

“The author’s scheme then for augmenting the force of the present
sea-batteries, is no more than this plain principle, that all ship-guns
should be cast upon the model of the thirty-two pounders, measuring by
the diameter of the respective bullet; so that for each pound of bullet,
there should be allowed one hundred and two thirds of metal only.

“The advantages of this scheme will appear, by the following comparison
of the weight of the present pieces with their weight proposed by this
new fabric.

          Pieces. Weight now in hundreds. Ditto by new fabric.
               24       48  to  46                 40
               18       41  to  39                 30
               12       34  to  31                 20
                9       29  to  26                 15
                6       24  to  18                 10

“Hence then it appears, that the twenty-four-pounders will be eased of
six or eight hundred of useless metal; and instead of an inferior
caliber now used, much larger ones of the same weight may be borne,
especially when it is remembered, that this computation exceeds even the
present proportion of the thirty-two-pounders; so that from the above
projected eighteen pounders, for instance, two or three hundred weight
may be safely taken.”

The changes then proposed by the author are these:

             │Pounders.  Hundreds.     Pounders.    Hundreds.
          For│    6  of  24 and 18 new        12 of        20
             │    9      29 and 26            18 of        28
             │   12      34 and 31            18 of        28
             │   18      41 and 39            24 of        40

“The nine pounders lately cast, being, as the author is informed, still
lighter than what is here represented, they may perhaps be only
transformed into twelve pounders; but this will be a very great addition
of strength, and the twelve-pounders thus borne will be considerably
lighter than the smallest nine-pounders now in use. The weight of the
present three-pounders are not remembered exactly by the author; but he
doubts not, but they are heavier than the proposed six-pounders, and may
therefore be changed for them.

“That many objections will be made to the present proposal is not to be
questioned; but, as they will equally hold against the use of the
present thirty-two-pounders, which are known to be guns of
unexceptionable service, that alone, it is conceived, will be an answer.

“If it be supposed (as ancient practice is always favourably heard) that
the excesses in the proportionate weight of the small pieces must have
been originally founded on some approved principle, or otherwise they
could not have been brought into use, it may be answered, that a hundred
years since there were four-pounders made use of, which were heavier
than some of the present nine-pounders, and had the same prescription to
plead in their behalf.—Perhaps the origin of this excess in the smaller
pieces may be accounted for by supposing, that when guns are used in
batteries on shore, their length cannot be in proportion to the diameter
of their bore; because the parapet being of a considerable thickness, a
short piece would, by its blast, ruin the embrasures; and the smaller
pieces being for this reason made nearly of the same length with the
larger, did hence receive their additional weight of metal. But this
reason holds not at sea, where there is no other exception to the
shortness of a piece, but the loss of force, which, in the instances
here proposed, is altogether inconsiderable; for the old
twelve-pounders, for example, being in length from nine feet to nine
feet, and a half, the new ones here proposed will be from seven feet to
seven and a half long. The difference in the force of the bullet, fired
from these different pieces, is but little; and it will hereafter
appear, that in the present subject much greater differences than these
are of no consequence.

“If it should be said, that the new fabric here proposed must have the
present allowance of powder (which in the smaller pieces is half the
weight of the ball) diminished, and that it must be reduced to the rate
of the thirty-two-pounders, which is only seven-sixteenths of the weight
of the ball; it is answered, that if the powder in all ship-cannon
whatever, was still farther reduced to one-third of the weight of the
ball, or even less, it would be a considerable advantage, not only by
the saving of ammunition, but by keeping the guns cooler and more quiet,
and at the same time more effectually injuring the ships of the
enemy[3]; for with the present allowance of powder the guns are heated,
and their tackles and furniture strained, and this only to render the
bullet less efficacious than it would prove if impelled by a smaller
charge. Indeed in battering of walls, which are not to be penetrated by
a single shot from any piece whatever, the velocity of the bullet, how
much soever augmented, still produces a proportionate effect, by
augmenting the depth to which it penetrates: but the sides of the
strongest ships, and the greater part of her timbers, are of a limited
thickness, insufficient to stop the generality of cannon bullets, fired
at a reasonable distance, even with a less charge than is here proposed.
And it is a matter of experiment, that a bullet, which can but just pass
through a piece of timber, and loses almost all its motion thereby, has
a much better chance of rending and fracturing it, than if it passed
through it with a much greater velocity.

“That a much better judgment may be made of the reasonableness of this
speculation, the author thinks proper to add (and he believes future
experience will not contradict him) that a twelve-pounder, as here
proposed, which is one of the smallest pieces at present under
consideration, when charged with one-third of the weight of the bullet
in powder, will penetrate a beam of the best seasoned toughest oak, to
more than twenty inches depth; and if, instead of one solid beam, there
are a number of small ones, or of planks laid together; then allowing
for rending and tearing, frequent in such cases, he doubts not, but it
will often go through near double that thickness, and this any where
within a hundred yards distance: that is, any where within that
distance, which the most experienced officers have recommended for naval
engagements. In the same distance, a bullet from the twelve-pounders now
in use, charged with half the weight of powder, will penetrate about
one-third part deeper: but if the efforts of each piece are compared
together at five hundred yards distance, the differences of their forces
will not be considerable. If this be so, it will not be asserted, I
imagine, that the twelve-pounder here proposed is less useful, or less
efficacious, for all naval purposes, than the weightier twelve-pounder
hitherto made use of.

“The author has in this proposal fixed on the thirty-two pounders, as
the standard for the rest; because experience has long authorised them.
But from the trials he has made, he is well satisfied, a much greater
reduction of weight, than is here proposed, might safely take place; and
that one fourth, or even one fifth of the weight of the bullet in
powder, if properly disposed, is abundantly sufficient for every species
of ship-guns[4]. However, the author is far from desiring, that his
speculations should be relied on in an affair of this nature, where he
pretends not to have tried the very matter he proposes, but founds his
opinion on certain general principles and collateral experiments, which
he conceives, he may apply to the present case without error. He would
himself recommend an experimental examination of this proposal, as the
only one to which credit ought to be given. What he intends by the
present paper, is to represent it as a matter worthy of consideration,
and really such as it appeared to him: if those to whose censure he
submits it, are of the same opinion, there is an obvious method of
determining how far his allegations are conclusive; and that is by
directing one of these pieces to be cast, a twelve-pounder for instance,
and letting it be proved with the same proportion of powder allotted for
the proof of the thirty-two-pounders: Then if this piece be fired a
number of times successively on a carriage, and its recoil, and degree
of heat be attended to, and if the penetration of its bullet into a
thick butt of oak-beams or plank be likewise examined, a judgment may
thence be formed, of what may be expected from the piece in real
service; and the result of these trials will be the most incontestable
confutation or confirmation of this proposal.”

CANNONADE, as a term of the marine, may be defined the application of
artillery to the purposes of naval war, or the direction of its efforts
against some distant object intended to be seized or destroyed, as a
ship, battery, or fortress.

Cannonading is therefore used in a vessel of war to take, sink, or burn
the enemy’s ships, or to drive them from their defences ashore, and to
batter and ruin their fortifications.

Since a large man of war may be considered as a combination of floating
batteries, it is evident that the efforts of her artillery must in
general be greatly superior to those of a fortress on the sea-coast: I
say in general, because on some particular occasions her situation may
be extremely dangerous, and her cannonading ineffectual. Her superiority
consists in several circumstances, as, the power of bringing her
different batteries to converge to one point; of shifting the line of
her attack so as to do the greatest possible execution against the
enemy; or to lie where she will be the least exposed to his shot: and
chiefly because, by employing a much greater number of cannon against a
fort than it can possibly return, the impression of her artillery
against stone-walls soon, becomes decisive and irresistible. Besides
these advantages in the attack, she is also greatly superior in point of
defence: because the cannon shot passing with rapidity through her
sides, seldom do any execution out of the line of their flight, or
occasion much mischief by their splinters: whereas they very soon
shatter and destroy the faces of a parapet, and produce incredible havoc
amongst the men, by the fragments of the stones, &c. A ship may also
retreat when she finds it too dangerous to remain longer exposed to the
enemy’s fire, or when her own fire cannot produce the desired effect.
Finally, the fluctuating situation of a ship, and of the element on
which she rests, renders the efforts of bombs very uncertain, and
altogether destroys the effect of the _ricochet_, or rolling and
bounding shot, whose execution is so pernicious and destructive in a
fortress or land-engagement; both of which, however, a ship may apply
with great success. See RANGE.

The chief inconveniency to which a ship is exposed, on the contrary, is,
that the low-laid cannon in a fort near the brink of the sea, may strike
her repeatedly, on or under the surface of the water, so as to sink her
before her cannonade can have any considerable efficacy.

CANOE, a sort of Indian boat or vessel, formed of the trunk of a tree
hollowed, and sometimes of several pieces of the bark fastened together.

Canoes are of various sizes, according to the uses for which they may be
designed, or the countries wherein they are formed. The largest are made
of the cotton tree, some of which will carry between twenty and thirty
hogsheads of sugar or molasses. Some are made to carry sail, and for
this purpose are steeped in water till they become pliant, after which
their sides are extended, and strong beams placed between them, on which
a deck is afterwards laid that serves to support their sides. The other
sorts very rarely carry sail, unless when going before the wind: their
sails are made of a sort of silk grass or rushes. They are commonly
rowed with paddles, which are pieces of light wood somewhat resembling a
corn-shovel; and instead of rowing with it horizontally, like an oar,
they manage it perpendicularly. The small canoes are very narrow, having
only room for one person in breadth, and seven or eight lengthways. The
rowers, who are generally negroes or American savages, are very expert
in managing their paddles uniformly, and in ballancing the canoes
properly with their bodies, which would be difficult for a stranger to
do, how well accustomed soever to the conducting of European boats,
because the canoes are extremely light, and liable to be overturned.

The American Indians, when they are under the necessity of landing to
avoid a water-fall, or of crossing the land from one river to another,
carry their canoes on their heads; till they arrive at a place where
they can lanch them again.

The following curious account of the canoes of the Esquimaux Indians in
Labrador, has been lately transmitted to the author, which he apprehends
will not be displeasing to his readers.

The Esquimaux canoe has a light wooden frame, and the shell, instead of
plank, is made with seal-skins sewed together, which are not only
extended round the bottom and sides, but likewise over the top; forming
a compleat deck, and having only one opening, conveniently framed and
situated to admit the Indian into his seat. A flat hoop is fitted to
this hole, rising about four inches, to which the surrounding skin is
sewed. The Indian’s seal-skin jacket, being of a proper length, he can
occasionally bind the skirt of it round the outside of this hoop; by
which means he keeps the canoe free from water, and is enabled to pursue
his game far from land or in stormy seas. His paddle is about ten feet
long, light, and flat at each end, with which he both rows and steers
with great velocity and exactness. Mr. Crantz, in his History of
Greenland, informs us, that the young men in their exercise are taught
to overset their canoes, and when the bottom is upward, to recover, by
the dextrous management of their paddle, their former upright position,
the men rising again either on the side by which they went down, or on
the contrary, as they please. The construction of this extraordinary
little vessel, so admirably well adapted to the purposes of its owner,
does the greatest credit to the ingenuity of this savage people. Though
natives of the extensive country of Labrador, they inhabit only the
sea-coasts, particularly the islands, the interior parts being no less
barren, and possessed by other wandering tribes, their perpetual enemies
and superiors at land; so that they are reduced to almost an entire
dependance upon the sea for the common necessaries of life. Seals-flesh
and oil are amongst the chief articles of their food; and with the skins
they make tents, canoes, and apparel. Those islands on which the
sea-fowl breed, they visit for their eggs and young; and kill birds in
the water with their darts. We are surprised, that provided thus, they
should do so much execution amongst these creatures; but when we behold
a party of savages, each in his canoe, with only his harpoon and his
lance, pursue, attack, and kill the largest whale, how justly are we
filled with admiration. The whale’s flesh and oil they eat; and the
tough substance of the gills, commonly called whalebone, they apply very
ingeniously to a great variety of uses; trafficking with the overplus
for such European goods as they want. In their language, the canoe is
called _kaiak_, or man’s-boat, to distinguish it from _umiak_, the
woman’s boat. The latter is a large boat managed by the women for
transporting their families and possessions, when they shift their
encampment from place to place, as most convenient for the particular
hunting of the season. A kind of wolf-dog, natural to that country, is
the only animal they breed for food. The same canoes, language, customs,
and way of life, being common to the Greenlanders with the Esquimaux, it
is evident they have been originally one people.

There is a Greenland canoe in the Repository of the Royal Society,
covered with seal-skins, and exactly conformable to the above

CANTING, as a sea-phrase, denotes the act of turning any thing about.

CANT-TIMBERS, in ship-building, those timbers which are situated at the
two ends of a ship. They derive their name from being _canted_, or
raised obliquely from the keel; in contradistinction to those whose
planes are perpendicular to it. The upper-ends of those on the _bow_, or
fore-part of the ship, are inclined to the stem; as those in the
_after_, or hind-part, incline to the stern-post above. See the articles

The principal of these last is the fashion-piece, which forms the
outline of the counter, terminating it on the sides.

CAP, _chouquet_, a strong, thick block of wood, used to confine two
masts together, when the one is erected at the head of the other, in
order to lengthen it. It is for this purpose furnished with two holes
perpendicular to its length and breadth, and parallel to its thickness;
one of these is Square, and the other round; the former being solidly
fixed upon the upper-end of the lower-mast, whilst the latter receives
the mast employed to lengthen it, and Secures it in this position.

The principal caps of a ship are those of the lower-masts, which are
fitted with a strong eye-bolt on each side, wherein to hook the block by
which the top-mast is drawn up through the cap; the process of which is
explained in the article MAST.

The breadth of all caps is equal to twice the diameter of the top-mast,
and the length to twice the breadth. The thickness of the main and
fore-caps is half the diameter of their breadths; the mizen-cap
three-sevenths, and the top-mast-caps two-fifths of their respective

In the same manner as the top-mast slides up through the cap of the
lower-mast, the _top-gallant mast_ slides up through the cap of the
top-mast. The cap is represented by fig. 9. plate II.

CAPE, a promontory, or head-land, which projects into the sea farther
than the rest of the coast.

CAPPANUS, a name given by some authors to the worm which adheres to, and
gnaws the bottom of a ship.

The cappanus is extremely pernicious to ships, particularly in the East
and West Indies: to prevent this, several ships have lately been
sheathed with copper; the first trial of which was made on his majesty’s
frigate Alarm.

CAP-SQUARE. See the article CANNON.

CAPSTERN, or CAPSTAN, (_cabestan_, Fr.) a strong, massy column of
timber, formed like a truncated cone, and having its upper extremity
pierced with a number of holes to receive the bars or levers. It is let
down perpendicularly through the decks of a ship, and is fixed in such
manner, that the men, by turning it horizontally with their bars, may
perform any work which requires an extraordinary effort.

A capstern is composed of several parts, (see plate II. fig. 11.) where
A is the barrel, b the whelps, c the drum-head, and d the spindle.

The whelps rise out from the main body of the capstern like buttresses,
to enlarge the sweep; so that a greater portion of the cable, or
whatever rope encircles the barrel, may be wound about it at one turn,
without adding much to the weight of the capstern. The whelps reach
downwards from the lower part of the drum-head to the deck.

Plate II. fig. 10. The drum-head is a broad cylindrical piece of wood,
resembling a mill-stone, and fixed immediately above the barrel and
whelps. On the outside of this piece are cut a number of square holes,
parallel to the deck, to receive the bars.

The pivot, or spindle, d, which is shod with iron, is the axis or foot
upon which the capstern rests, and turns round in the saucer, which is a
sort of iron socket let into a wooden stock or standard, called the
step, resting upon, and bolted to the beams.

Besides the different parts of the capstern above explained, it is
furnished with several appurtenances, as the _bars_, the _pins_, the
_pawls_, the _swifter_, and the _saucer_, already described.

The bars are long pieces of wood, or arms, thrust into a number of
square holes in the drum-head all round, in which they are as the radii
of a circle, or the spokes to the nave of a wheel. They are used to
heave the capstern round, which is done by the men setting their breasts
against them and walking about, like the machinery of a horse-mill, till
the operation is finished.

The pins, e, are little bolts of iron thrust perpendicularly through the
holes of the drum-head, and through a correspondent hole in the end of
the bar, made to receive the pins when the bars are fixed. They are used
to confine the bars, and prevent them from working out as the men heave,
or when the ship labours. Every pin is fastened to the drum-head with a
small iron chain; and, that the bars may exactly fit their respective
holes, they are all numbered.

The pawls, f, fig. 10. are situated on each side of the capstern, being
two short bars of iron, bolted at one end through the deck to the beams
close to the lower part of the whelps; the other end, which occasionally
turns round on the deck, being placed in the intervals of the whelps, as
the capstern turns, prevents it from recoiling or turning back by any
sudden jerk of the cable as the ship rises on the sea, which might
greatly endanger the men who heave. There are also hanging pawls g, g,
fig. 12, used for the same purposes, reaching from the deck above to the
drum-head immediately beneath it.


  _Plate ii._      _To pace CAPSTERN._

The _swifter_, is a rope passed horizontally through holes in the outer
ends of the bars, and drawn very tight: the intent of this is to keep
the men steddy as they walk round, when the ship rocks, and to give room
for a greater number to assist by pulling upon the swifter itself.

The most frequent use of the capstern is to heave in the cable, and
thereby remove the ship, or draw up the anchor. It is also used to wind
up any weighty body, as the masts, artillery, &c. In merchant-ships it
is likewise frequently employed to discharge or take in the cargo,
particularly when consisting of weighty materials that require a great
exertion of mechanical powers to be removed.

There are commonly two capsterns in a ship of war, the _main_ and the
_gear_ capstern; the former of which has two drum-heads, and may be
called a double one. This is represented by fig. 12. of plate II. the
latter is exhibited in fig. 11.

Formerly the bars of the capstern went intirely through the head of it,
and consequently were more than twice the length of the present ones;
the holes were therefore formed at different heights, as represented in
fig. 10. plate II. But this machine had several inconveniencies, such as
the persons who heaved at the higher bars incommoding those at the lower
ones; the bars being lifted or lowered by the persons who heaved at
their opposite ends; some of the bars being too high, and others two
low, &c. It has therefore been long intirely disused in the navy. Some
of these sort of capsterns, however, are still retained in merchant
ships, and are usually denominated crabs. The situation of the bars in a
crab, as ready for heaving, is represented in fig. 13. plate II.

_To rig the_ CAPSTERN, _garnir_, is to fix the bars in their respective
holes, and thrust in the pins in order to confine them.

_Surge the_ CAPSTERN, _choquer_, is the order to slacken the rope heaved
round upon it, of which there is generally two turns and a half about
the barrel at once, and sometimes three turns.

_To heave the_ CAPSTERN, _virer au cabestan_, is to go round with it
heaving on the bars, and drawing in any rope of which the purchase is

_To come up the_ CAPSTERN, is to let go the rope upon which they had
been heaving. See the French term CABESTAN, and the phrases annexed

_To pawl the_ CAPSTERN, is to fix the pawls to prevent it from recoiling
during any pause of heaving.

CAPTAIN _of a ship of war_, _capitaine du haut bord_, the officer who
commands a ship of the line of battle, or a frigate carrying twenty or
more cannon. The charge of a captain in his majesty’s navy is very
comprehensive, inasmuch as he is not only answerable for any bad conduct
in the military government, navigation, and equipment of the ship he
commands; but also for any neglect of duty, or ill management in his
inferior officers, whose several charges he is appointed to superintend
and regulate.

On his first receiving information of the condition and quality of the
ship he is appointed to command, he must attend her constantly, and
hasten the necessary preparations to fit her for sea. So strict indeed
are the injunctions laid on him by the lord high admiral, or
commissioners of the admiralty, that he is forbid to lie out of his
ship, from his arrival on board, till the day of his discharge, unless
by particular leave from the admiralty, or his commander in chief.

He is enjoined to shew a laudable example of honour and virtue to the
officers and men, and to discountenance all dissolute, immoral, and
disorderly practices, and such as are contrary to the rules of
discipline and subordination, as well as to correct those who are guilty
of such offences, as are punishable according to the usage of the sea.

He is ordered particularly to survey all the military stores which are
sent on board, and to return whatsoever is deemed unfit for service. His
diligence and application are required to procure his complement of men;
observing carefully to enter only such as are fit for the necessary
duty, that the government may not be put to improper expence. When his
ship is fully manned, he is expected to keep the established number of
men complete, and superintend the muster himself, if there is no clerk
of the check at the port.

When his ship is employed on a cruising station, he is expected to keep
the sea the whole length of time previously appointed; but if he is
compelled by some unexpected accident to return to port sooner than the
limited time, he ought to be very cautious in the choice of a good
situation for anchoring, ordering the master, or other careful officers,
to sound, and discover the depths of water, and dangers of the coast.

Previous to any possibility of engagement with an enemy, he is to
quarter the officers and men to the necessary stations according to
their office or abilities, and to exercise them in the management of the
artillery, that they may be more expert in the time of battle. See the

His station in an engagement is on the quarter-deck; at which time he is
expected to take all opportunities of annoying his enemy, and improving
every advantage over him; to exhibit an example of courage and fortitude
to his officers and crew; and to place his ship opposite to his
adversary in such a position as that every cannon shall do effectual
execution. See ENGAGEMENT.

At the time of his arrival in port after his return from abroad, he is
to assemble his officers, and draw up a detail of the observations that
have been made during the voyage; of the qualities of the ship, as to
her trim, ballast, stowage, and manner of sailing, for the information
and direction of those who may succeed in command; and this account is
to be signed by himself and officers, and to be returned to the resident
commissioner of the navy at the port where the ship is discharged.

CAREENING, _faire abattre_, (_cariner_, Fr.) the operation of heaving
the ship down on one side, by the application of a strong purchase to
her masts, which are properly supported for the occasion, to prevent
them from breaking with so great a strain.

Careening is used to heave one of the ship’s sides so low in the water,
as, that her bottom being elevated above its surface on the other side,
(See Plate I. fig. 5.) may be cleansed of any filth which adheres to it,
by BREAMING, which see.

When a ship is laid on a careen, every thing is taken out of her: she is
also said to careen, when inclining to one side at sea, as pressed with
a weight of sail.

CARGO, _chargement_, the whole lading, or quantity, of whatever species
of merchandise a ship is freighted with, in order to proceed from port
to port.

CARLINGS, _entremises_, short pieces of timber ranging fore and aft,
from one of the deck beams to another, into which their ends are scored:
they are used to sustain and fortify the smaller beams of the ship, and
are exhibited in the DECK, plate III.

CARPENTER _of a ship_, _charpentier_, an officer appointed to examine
and keep in order the frame of the ship, together with her masts, yards,
boats, and all other wooden machinery.

It is his duty in particular to keep the ship _tight_; for which purpose
he ought frequently to review the decks, and sides, and to calk them
when it is found necessary. In the time of battle he is to examine up
and down, with all possible attention, in the lower apartments of the
ship, to stop any holes that may have been made in the sides by shot,
with wooden plugs provided, of several sizes, for that purpose.

CARTEL, _cartel_, a ship commissioned in time of war to exchange the
prisoners of any two hostile powers; also to carry any particular
request or proposal from one to another: for this reason the officer who
commands her is particularly ordered to carry no cargo, ammunition, or
implements of war, except a single gun for the purpose of firing

CASTING, in navigation, _abattre_, the motion of falling off, so as to
bring the direction of the wind on either side of the ship after it had
blown for some time right a-head.

This term is particularly applied to a ship when her anchor first
loosens from the ground, when she is about to depart from any place
where she had anchored; and as she had probably rested at anchor with
her head to windward, it is plain she must turn it off, so as to _fill_
the sails before she can advance in her course, which operation is
called casting.

Hence she is said to cast the right way, or the wrong way. See TRIM.

CAT, _chatte_, a ship employed in the coal trade, formed from the
Norwegian model. It is distinguished by a narrow stern, projecting
_quarters_, a deep _waiste_, and by having no ornamental figure on the

These vessels are generally built remarkably strong, and carry from four
to six hundred tons; or, in the Language of their own mariners, from
twenty to thirty _keels_ of coals.

Cat, _capon_, is also a sort of strong tackle, or complication of
pullies, to hook and draw the anchor perpendicularly up to the
_cat-head_. The use of this machine is represented in plate II. fig. 14.

CATAMARAN, _catimoran_, a sort of raft or float, formed by the fastening
a number of poles to each other sideways, and laying boards, planks, &c.
on the top, so as to convey goods or passengers to some distant place by
water when no boat can be procured. This, however, can only be performed
when the surface of the water is not much agitated.

CAT-HARPINGS, a purchase of ropes employed to brace in the _shrouds_ of
the lower masts behind their yards, for the double purpose of making the
shrouds more tight, and of affording room to draw the yards in more
obliquely, to _trim_ the sails for a side-wind, when they are said to be

CAT-HEADS, _bossoirs_, two strong short beams of timber, which project
almost horizontally over the ship’s bows, on each side of the bow-sprit,
being like two radii which extend from a center taken in the direction
of the bow-sprit.

That part of the cat-head which rests upon the fore-castle is securely
bolted to the beams: the other part projects like a crane, as above
described, and carries in its extremity two or three small wheels, or
_sheaves_, of brass, or strong wood, about which a rope called the
_cat-fall_ passes, and communicates with the cat block, which also
contains three sheaves. The machine formed by this combination of
pullies is called the _cat_, which serves to pull the anchor up to the
cat head without tearing the ship’s side with its flukes.

The cat-head also serves to suspend the anchor clear of the bow, when it
is necessary to let it go: it is supported by a sort of knee, which is
generally ornamented with sculpture.

The cat-block is fitted with a large and strong hook, which catches the
ring of the anchor when it is to be drawn up. See a representation of
this article plate II. fig. 14.

CATS PAW, _echars_, a light air of wind perceived at a distance in a
calm, by the impression made on the surface of the sea, which it sweeps
very lightly, and then decays.

CAULKING. See the article CALKING.

CEILING, the inside planks of a ship. See FOOT-WALEING.

CENTER _of a_ FLEET, _or_ SQUADRON, _corps de bataille_, the middle of
the line, which is always the station of the admiral or commander in
chief, and ought to be the strongest proportionably, as it reaches from
the van and rear. See LINE OF BATTLE.

_To_ CHAFE, _racquer_, is to rub or fret the surface of a cable, mast,
or yard, whilst the ship is agitated by the motion of the sea, or

CHAIN-PUMP. See the article PUMP.

CHAINS, _cadenes_, strong links or plates of iron, the lower ends of
which are bolted through the ship’s side to the timbers.

They are placed at short distances from each other on the ship’s
out-side, as being used to contain the blocks called _dead-eyes_, by
which the _shrouds_ of the masts are extended. The disposition of the
chains, and that of their _channels_, is represented by the letters I,
I, in the plane of ELEVATION, plate I. as also by fig. 16, plate II.

CHAIN-SHOT, a particular kind of shot formed by fastening two
cannon-balls together with a short chain, and designed to mangle and
ruin a ship’s sails and rigging, or to destroy her masts and yards. See

_Top_ CHAIN, a chain to sling the sail-yards in the time of battle, in
order to prevent them from falling down when the ropes, by which they
are hung, happen to be shot away, or rendered incapable of service.


CHANNEL, _manche_, in hydrography, the deepest part of a river, harbour,
or streight, which is most convenient for the track of shipping.

CHANNELS, or CHAIN-WALES _of a ship_, _porte bossoirs_, broad and thick
planks projecting horizontally from the ship’s out-side, a-breast of,
and somewhat behind, the masts. See plate II. fig. 16.

They are formed to extend the shrouds from each other, and from the axis
or middle line of the ship, so as to give a greater security and support
to the masts, as well as to prevent the shrouds from damaging the
gun-wale, or being hurt by rubbing against it. See also SHROUD.

Every mast has its chain-wales, which are either built above or below
the second deck-ports in a ship of the line: they are strongly connected
to the side by knees, bolts, and standards, besides being confined
thereto by the chains, whose upper ends pass through notches on the
outer edge of the chain-wales, so as to unite with the shrouds above.

CHAPELING _a ship_, _faire chapelle_, the act of turning her round in a
light breeze of wind when she is close-hauled, so as that she will lie
the same way she did before. This is commonly occasioned by the
negligence of the steersman, or by a sudden change of the wind.

CHARGE _of a cannon_. See the article CANNON.

CHART, (_charta_, Lat.) a marine map or draught, upon which are
represented the coasts, isles, banks, rocks, and dangers of the sea,
together with the rumbs of the wind, and the entrance of bays and
rivers, whereby to shape and regulate the various courses of a ship in
her voyage.

CHARTER-PARTY, _charte-partie_, a deed or writing made between merchants
and sea-faring men, concerning their merchandise and maritime affairs.

A charter-party of affreightment settles the agreement in relation to
the freight and cargo of a ship between the merchant and master, or
commander of the vessel. It binds the master to deliver the cargo in
good condition at the place where his ship is to be discharged, &c.

In those charter-parties, if the dangers of the sea are excepted, it has
been adjudged that such exception extends as well to any danger upon sea
from ships of war or pirates, as to common hazards by shipwreck,
tempests, &c.

CHASE, a vessel pursued by some other, which she apprehends or knows to
be an enemy.

_Bow_ CHASE, a cannon situated in the fore-part of a ship to fire upon
any object a-head of her.

_Stern_ CHASES, the cannons which are placed in the after-part of a
ship’s gun-room, pointing a-stern, and intended to strike any ship which
chases her, or other object in her rear.

CHASING, the act of pursuing a ship or fleet, supposed or known to be
hostile. The admiral displayed the signal for a general chace, i. e.
gave the alarm to the whole fleet or squadron to pursue some other fleet
in sight.

CHEARLY, a phrase which usually implies heartily, chearfully, or
quickly, as row chearly in the boats! lower away chearly! i. e. row
heartily, lower speedily, &c.

CHEEKS _of the mast_, _jottereaux_, the faces or projecting parts on
each side of the masts, used to sustain the frame of the top, together
with the top-mast, which rests immediately upon them.

CHESTREES, _taquets d’ amure_, two pieces of wood bolted
perpendicularly, one on the starboard, and the other on the larboard
side of the ship. They are used to confine the _clue_, or lower corners
of the main-sail; for which purpose there is a hole in the upper part
through which the rope passes that usually extends the clue of the sail
to windward. See the article TACK.

The chess-trees are commonly placed as far before the main-mast as the
length of the main-beam.

_Clerk of the_ CHECK, an officer in the royal dock-yards, who keeps a
muster or register of all the men employed aboard his majesty’s ships
and vessels, and also of all the artificers and others in the service of
the navy at the port where he is settled.

_To_ CHINSE, is to thrust oakum into a seam or chink with the point of a
knife or chissel. This is chiefly used as a temporary expedient when
calking cannot be safely or conveniently performed.

CHOCK, a sort of wedge used to confine a cask, or other weighty body, in
a certain place, and to prevent it from fetching way when the ship is in
motion, &c.

CLAMPS, _bauquieres_, thick planks in a ship’s side, used to sustain the
ends of the beams. See the article MIDSHIP FRAME.

The clamps extend from the stem to the fashion-pieces of the stern,
including the whole interior range of the side. They are placed close
under each deck so as to be securely fayed to all the timbers, to which
they are fastened by nails driven through the clamp, and penetrating two
thirds of the thickness of the timbers.

The clamps of the lower and second decks ought to be equal in thickness
to half the corresponding timbers in that part, and as broad as can be
procured. In their disposition it is essentially necessary to avoid
their being wounded by the ports, as the strength and firmness of a ship
greatly depend on the substance and solidity of those pieces which lie
horizontally in her frame.

CLAMPS are also small crooked plates of iron, fore-locked upon the
trunnions of the cannon, to keep them steddy in their carriages at sea.
These, however, are more properly termed cap-squares. See CANNON.

Clamps of the latter sort are likewise frequently used to fasten the
masts or bowsprits of small vessels or boats.

CLAWING, or CLAWING-OFF, _chicaner_, in navigation, the act of _beating_
or turning to windward from a lee-shore, so as to acquire a sufficient
distance from it, to escape the dangers of shipwreck, which often attend
so hazardous a situation.

CLEAR, as a naval term, is variously applied to the weather, the
sea-coasts, cordage, navigation, &c. The weather is said to be clear
(_fin_) when it is fair and open, as opposed to cloudy or foggy.

The sea-coast is called clear (_saine_) when the navigation is not
interrupted, or rendered dangerous by rocks, sands, or breakers, &c.

It is expressed of cordage, cables, &c. when they are unembarrassed or
disentangled so as to be ready for immediate service. It is usually
opposed to _foul_, in all those senses.

CLEATS, _taquets_, pieces of wood of different shapes, used occasionally
to fasten ropes upon in a ship: some of them have one, and some two
arms, fig. 17, _a_, plate II. others are hollowed in the middle, and
have no arms at all, fig. 17, _b_: these are nailed to the deck or sides
to fasten any thing to.

CLINCH, that part of a cable, or other rope, which is fastened to the
ring of the anchor.

CLINCHER-WORK, _bordée à quoin_, the disposition of the planks in the
side of any boat or vessel, when the lower edge of every plank over-lays
the next under it, like the slates on the top of a house.

CLOSE-HAULED, in navigation, _au plus pres_, the general arrangement or
trim of a ship’s sails, when she endeavours to make a progress in the
nearest direction possible towards that point of the compass from which
the wind bloweth.

In this manner of sailing the _keel_ commonly makes an angle of six
points with the line of the wind; but sloops, and some other small
vessels, are said to sail almost a point nearer. All vessels, however,
are supposed to make nearly a point of _lee-way_, when close-hauled,
even when they have the advantage of a good sailing-breeze and smooth
water. The angle of lee-way, however, enlarges in proportion to the
increase of the wind and sea.

In this disposition of the sails, they are all extended sideways on the
ship, so that the wind, as it crosses the ship obliquely toward the
stern from forwards, may fill their cavities. But as the current of wind
also enters the cavities of the sails in an oblique direction, the
effort of it, to make the ship advance, is considerably diminished: she
will, therefore, make the least progress when sailing in this manner.

The ship is said to be close-hauled, because at this time her _tacks_,
or lower corners of the principal sails, are drawn close down to her
side to windward; the sheets hauled close aft; and all the bow-lines
drawn to their greatest extension, in order to keep the sails steddy.

CLOSE-QUARTERS, certain strong barriers of wood stretching across a
merchant-ship in several places. They are used as a place of retreat
when a ship is boarded by her adversary, and are therefore fitted with
several small loop-holes, through which to fire the small arms, whereby
the ship’s crew may defend themselves and annoy the enemy. They are
likewise furnished with several small caissons, called powder-chests,
which are fixed upon the deck, and filled with powder, old nails, &c.
and may be fired at any time from the close-quarters upon the boarders.

We have known an English merchant-ship, of sixteen guns, and properly
fitted with close-quarters, defeat the united efforts of three French
privateers who boarded her in the late war, after having engaged at some
distance nearly a day and a half with very few intervals of rest. Two of
the cruisers were equipped with twelve guns each, and the other with
eight. The French sailors were, after boarding, so much exposed to the
continued fire of musquetry, and coehorns charged with granadoes, that a
dreadful scene of carnage ensued, in which the decks were soon covered
with the dead bodies of the enemy, several of which the boarders, in
their hurry to escape, had left behind.

CLUE _of a sail_, _point_, the lower corner, and hence

CLUE-GARNETS, _cargues point_, are a sort of tackles fastened to the
_clues_, or lower corners of the mainsail and foresail, to truss them up
to the yard as occasion requires, which is usually termed _clueing-up_
the sails.

CLUE-LINES are for the same purpose as clue-garnets, only that the
latter are confined to the courses, whereas the clue-lines are common to
all the square sails. See these ropes, as represented in the article

COACH, or COUCH, a sort of chamber or apartment in a large ship of war
near the _stern_. The floor of it is formed by the aftmost part of the
quarter-deck, and the roof of it by the poop: it is generally the
habitation of the captain.

COAMINGS _of the hatches_, certain raised borders about the edge of the
hatches of a ship, to prevent the water which may flow in upon the deck
at sea, from running down into the lower apartments. They are
represented in the DECK, plate III. as enclosing their respective

COASTING, in navigation, _aller terre à terre_, the act of making a
progress along the sea-coast of any country. The principal articles
relating to this part of navigation are, the observing the time and
direction of the tide; knowledge of the reigning winds; of the roads and
havens; of the different depths of the water, and qualities of the

COASTING-PILOT, _cotier_, a pilot, who by long experience has become
sufficiently acquainted with the nature of any particular coast, and of
the requisites mentioned in the preceding article, to conduct a ship or
fleet from one part of it to another.

COAT, _braye_, a piece of tarred canvas nailed round that part of the
masts and bowsprit which joins to the deck, or lies over the stem of a
ship. It is used to prevent the water from running down into the hold,
or between the decks.

Besides those above mentioned, there is a coat for the rudder nailed
round the hole where the rudder traverses in the ship’s counter. This
hole is represented at the upper part of the stern-post, exhibited in
plate X.

COAT, _suage_, also implies the materials or _stuff_ with which the
ship’s sides or masts are varnished, to preserve them from the sun and
weather, as turpentine, tar, &c. In this sense we say, “Give her a good
coat of tar.”

COBBING, a punishment sometimes inflicted at sea. It is performed by
striking the offender a certain number of times on the breech with a
flat piece of wood called the cobbing-board. It is chiefly used as a
punishment to those who quit their station during the period of the

COBOOSE, _fogone_ (_kambuis_, Dutch), a sort of box or house to cover
the chimney of some merchant-ships. It is somewhat resembling a
centry-box, and generally stands against the barricade on the fore part
of the quarter-deck.

COCK-PIT _of a ship of war_, the apartments of the surgeon and his
mates, being the place where the wounded men are dressed in the time of
battle, or otherwise. It is situated under the lower-deck.

COCKSWAIN, or COXEN, the officer who manages and steers a boat, and has
the command of the boat’s crew. It is evidently compounded of the words
_cock_ and _swain_, the former of which was anciently used for a yawl or
small boat, as appears by several authors[5]; but it has now become
obsolete, and is never used by our mariners.

COIL, (_cueillir_, Fr.) the manner in which all ropes are disposed
aboard ships for the conveniency of stowage, because

COILING, _rouer_, implies a sort of serpentine winding of a cable or
other rope, that it may occupy a small space in the ship. Each of the
windings of this sort is called a _fake_, and one range of fakes upon
the same line is called a _tier_; there are generally from five to seven
fakes in a tier; and three or four tiers in the whole length of the
cable. This, however, depends on the extent of the fakes. The smaller
ropes employed about the sails are coiled upon _cleats_ at sea, to
prevent their being entangled amongst one another in traversing,
contracting, or extending the sails.

COLLAR, _collier d’ etai_, a name given to the lower part of any of the
principal stays of the masts, or the part by which the stay is confined
at its lower end. Thus the collar of the main-stay connects the lower
end of the stay to the ship’s stem. See the article STAY.

COLOURS, the flags or banners which distinguish the ships of different
nations. See the articles ENSIGN, JACK, and PENDANT.

COLLIERS, certain vessels employed to carry coals from one port to
another, chiefly from the northern parts of England to the capital, and
more southerly parts, as well as to foreign markets. This trade is known
to be an excellent nursery for seamen, although they are often found,
from the constitution of their climate, to be not so well calculated for
southern navigation.

COMMAND, in the royal navy, implies the rank and power of an officer who
has the management of a ship of war, of whatever kind, under twenty
guns, as sloops of war, armed ships, or bomb-vessels. He is intitled
_master_ and _commander_, _capitaine du petit état_, and ranks with a
major in the king’s army.

COMMANDER is also expressed of a large wooden mallet used on sundry
occasions in a ship.

COMMISSIONERS _of the navy_, certain officers appointed to superintend
the affairs of the marine, under the direction of the lord-high-admiral,
or lords commissioners of the admiralty.

The duty of these officers does not extend to the internal government of
ships invested with a military command, either at sea or in the port. It
is more immediately concerned in the building, docking, repairing, and
cleaning of ships in the dock-yards. In consideration of this, all ships
of war are commissioned from a report of their qualities presented to
the Admiralty by the Navy-board.

They have also the appointment of some of the inferior sea-officers, as
surgeons, and masters of ships.

The principal officers and commissioners residing at the board are, 1,
The comptroller. 2, Two surveyors, who are shipwrights. 3, Clerk of the
acts. 4. Comptroller of the treasurer’s accounts. 5. Comptroller of the
victualling accounts. 6. Comptroller of the store-keeper’s accounts. 7.
An extraordinary commissioner. Besides these, there are three resident
commissioners, who manage the affairs of the _dock-yards_ at Chatham,
Portsmouth, and Plymouth, under the direction of the board at the

COMMODORE, _chef d’ escadre_, a general officer in the British marine,
invested with the command of a detachment of ships of war destined on
any particular enterprise; during which time he bears the rank of
brigadier-general in the army, and is distinguished from the inferior
ships of his squadron by a broad red pendant tapering towards the
outer-end, and sometimes forked. The word is corrupted from the Spanish

_Commodore_ is also a name given to some select ship in a fleet of
merchantmen, who leads the van in time of war, and carries a light in
his top, to conduct the rest and keep them together.

COMPANION, a sort of wooden porch placed over the entrance or stair case
of the master’s cabin in a merchant-ship.

COMPANY, the whole crew of any ship, including her officers.

COMPASS, an instrument employed to determine the ship’s course at sea,
and consisting of a card and two boxes. The card, which is calculated to
represent the horizon, is a circle divided into thirty-two equal parts,
by lines drawn from the center to the circumference, called points or
rumbs. The intervals between the points are also subdivided into equal
parts called degrees, 360 of which complete the circle; and consequently
the distance or angle comprehended between any two rumbs is equal to
11°, 15´ The four principal rumbs are called the _cardinal points_,
deriving their names from the places to which they tend; viz. the two
which extend themselves under the meridian, opposite to each other,
pointing to the north and south, are called the _north_ and _south_
points. That which is towards the right hand as we look north is termed
_east_, and its opposite the _west_ point. The names of all the inferior
ones are compounded of these, according to their situation. Along the
north and south-line is fixed a steel needle, which being touched by the
load-stone acquires a certain virtue that makes it hang nearly in the
plane of the meridian, and consequently determine the direction of the
other points toward the horizon.

The compass being of the utmost importance to the purposes of
navigation, it is reasonable to expect that the greatest attention
should be used in its construction, and every attempt to improve it
carefully examined, and adopted, if proper. Great errors and
irregularities, however, have been found incident to the construction of
common compasses, arising from the shape of their needles, by which they
have not only turned from the true direction, but from that of each
other[6]. To remedy these inconveniencies, the learned Dr. Knight was
induced to contrive a new sea-compass, which is now used aboard all our
vessels of war[7]. The needles of the other instruments were generally
composed of two pieces of steel wire, bent in the middle, and
approaching each other towards the ends, where they met. Others were
made of one piece of steel of a spring temper, and broad towards the
ends, but tapering towards the middle; but the needle in Dr. Knight’s
compass is quite straight, and square at the ends, and consequently has
only two poles, although the curves are a little confused about the hole
in the middle. Needles of this construction, after vibrating a long
time, will always point exactly in the same direction; and if drawn ever
so little on one side, will return to it again, without any sensible

In order to illustrate the above description, we have exhibited a view
of the several parts of the compass, plate II. where fig. 19, is the
card, with the needle N S, and its cap fixed upon it.

Fig. 21, is the pedestal that supports the card, containing a sewing
needle fixed in two small grooves to receive it, by means of a collet C,
in the manner of a port crayon. D, the stem, is filed into an octogon,
that it may the more easily be unscrewed.

A B, fig. 20, is the box in which the compass hangs in the binacle.

C D, is the ring that supports the inner box.

E F, is the inner box, which contains the card and needle.

G H, one of its axes, by which it is suspended on the ring C D.

I, is a place cut out in the wood, serving as an handle.

The magnet or needle appears passing though the center, together with a
small brace of ivory that confines the cap to its place.

The card is a single varnished paper, reaching as far as the outer
circle of figures, which is a circle of thin brass; the edge whereof is
turned down at right angles to the plane of the card, in order to
stiffen it.

The compass is retained in the binacle at sea, as exhibited in plate I.
fig. 6. For the other parts of the compass represented in the figure,
see the article AZIMUTH.

COMPASSING, _devers_, a name given by shipwrights to such pieces of
timber as are incurvated into the figure of an arch, whether circular,
elliptical, or otherwise.

COMPTROLLER _of the navy_, one of the principal officers of the
Navy-board, at which he presides, to direct the inferior and civil
department of the marine, as the admiralty superintends the superior and
military operations of it.

CONVOY, _conserve_, (_convoyer_, Fr.) a fleet or navy of merchant-ships
bound on a voyage to some particular part or general rendezvous.

CONVOY also implies the ship or ships appointed to conduct and defend
them on their passage thither.

CORDAGE, (_cordage_, Fr.) a general term for the running _rigging_ of a
ship, or all that part of her rigging which is employed to extend,
contract, or traverse the sails; or which lies in reserve to supply the
place of such as may be rendered unserviceable. See the article RIGGING.

CORPORAL _of a ship of war_, an officer under the master at arms,
employed to teach the sailors the exercise of small arms, or musketry;
to attend at the gangway, or entering-ports, and observe that no
spirituous liquors are brought into the ship, unless by particular leave
from the officers. He is also to extinguish the fire and candles at
eight o’clock in winter, and nine in summer, when the evening gun is
fired; and to walk frequently down in the lower decks in his watch, to
see that there are no lights but such as are under the charge of proper

CORPOSANT, _feu St. Elme_ (_corpo santo_, Ital.), a sort of volatile
meteor, or _ignis fatuus_, often beheld in a dark and tempestuous night
about the decks or rigging of a ship, but particularly at the
extremities, as the mast-heads, and yard arms: it is most frequent in
heavy rain, accompanied with lightning. “They usually wander with
uncertain motion from place to place, sometimes appearing to cleave
close to the sails and masts; but they frequently leap up and down with
intermission, affording an obscure flame, like that of a candle burning
faintly. They are produced by some sulphureous and bituminous matter,
which being beat down by the motion of the air above, and gathering
together, is kindled by the agitation of the air, as butter is gathered
together by the agitation of the cream. And from this appearance we
infer that storms come from sulphureous spirits that rarify the air, and
put it into a motion.” _Varenius_.

CORSAIR, (_corsair_, Fr.) a name commonly given to the piratical
cruisers of Barbary, who frequently plunder the merchant-ships of
European nations with whom they are at peace.

COTT, a particular sort of bed-frame, suspended from the beams of a
ship, for the officers to sleep in between the decks. This contrivance
is much more convenient at sea than either the hammocks or fixed cabins,
being a large piece of canvas sewed into the form of a chest, about six
feet long, one foot deep, and from two to three feet wide: it is
extended by a square wooden frame with a canvas bottom, equal to its
length and breadth, to retain it in an horizontal position.

COVE, _anse_, a small creek or bay, where boats or little vessels may
ride at anchor sheltered from the wind and sea.

COUNTER, _contre-arcasse_, an arch or vault whose upper-part is
terminated by the bottom of the _stern_, and the lower part by the
wing-transom and buttock, being expressed by the letters KG, in the
elevation, plate I. as likewise by the same letters in fig. 1, plate X.
and the figure referred to from the article QUARTER.

There is also another counter above, parallel to this, but not vaulted;
it extends from the upper-part of the lower, or vaulted counter, to the
moulding which terminates the windows of the cabin or ward-room below.
This latter is usually called the upper or second counter.

COUNTER-BRACING. See this operation fully explained in the article

COURSE, _route_, in navigation, the angle contained between the nearest
meridian and that point of the compass upon which a ship sails in any
particular direction.

COURSES, _pacfis_, a name by which the principal sails of a ship are
usually distinguished, viz. the main-sail, fore-sail, and mizen: the
mizen-stay-sail and fore-sail are also sometimes comprehended in this
denomination, as are the main-stay-sails of all brigs and schooners. See
the article SAIL.

CRAB, a sort of wooden pillar, whose lower end, being let down through a
ship’s decks, rests upon a socket like the capstern; and having in its
upper-end three or four holes, at different heights, thro’ the middle of
it, above one another, into which long bars are thrust, whose length is
nearly equal to the breadth of the deck. It is employed to wind in the
cable, or to purchase any other weighty matter which requires a great
mechanical power. This differs from a capstern, as not being furnished
with a _drum-head_, and by having the bars to go intirely through it,
reaching from one side of the deck to the other; whereas those of the
capstern, which are superior in number, reach only about eight inches or
a foot into the drum-head, according to the size thereof. This machine
is represented in plate II. by fig. 10, and 13. See also CAPSTERN.

CRADLE, _slee_, a frame placed under the bottom of a ship, in order to
conduct her smoothly and steddily into the water when she is to be
lanched; at which time it supports her weight whilst she slides down the
descent, or sloping passage called the _ways_, which are for this
purpose daubed with soap and tallow. This frame is exhibited by fig. 23,
plate II.

CRAFT, a general name for all sorts of vessels employed to load or
discharge merchant-ships, or to carry along-side, or return the stores
of men of war: such are lighters, hoys, barges, prames, &c. See those

CRANK, _coté-foible_, the quality of a ship, which for want of a
sufficient quantity of _ballast_ or cargo, is rendered incapable of
carrying sail without being exposed to the danger of overturning. See
the articles BALLAST and TRIM.

CRANK, is also an iron brace which supports the lanthorns on the
poop-quarters, &c.

CRAWL, _bouchot_, a sort of pen, or place of confinement, formed by a
barrier of stakes and hurdles on the sea-coast, to contain any sort of
fish within it.

CREEPER, an instrument of iron resembling a grappling, having a _shank_
and four hooks or claws, fig. 24, plate II. It is used to throw into the
bottom of any river or harbour, with a rope fastened to it, to hook and
draw up any thing from the bottom which may have been lost.

CRINGLE, _ancet_, a small hole made in the _bolt-rope_ of a sail, by
inter-twisting one of the divisions of a rope, called a _strand_,
alternately round itself and through the _strands_ of the bolt-rope,
till it becomes three-fold, and assumes the shape of a wreath or ring.
See plate II. fig. 25, where a, b, represents part of the bolt-rope of a
sail; and c, the cringle.

The use of the cringle is generally to contain the end of some rope,
which is fastened thereto, for the purpose of drawing up the sail to its
yard, or of extending the skirts by the means of _bridles_ to stand upon
a side-wind. The word seems to be derived from _krinckelen_, (Belg.) to
run into twists.

CROSS-JACK, pronounced _crojeck_, a sail extended on the lower yard of
the _mizen_-mast, which is hence called the _cross-jack yard_, _vergue
seche_. This sail, however, has generally been found of little service,
and is therefore very seldom used.

CROSS PIECE, _rasteau_, a rail of timber extended over the _windlass_ of
a merchant-ship from the knight-heads to the belfry. It is stuck full of
wooden pins, which are used to fasten the running-rigging as occasion
requires. See the article WINDLASS.

CROSS-TREES, _barres de hune_, certain pieces of timber supported by the
_cheeks_ and tressel-trees, at the upper-ends of the lower-masts,
athwart which they are laid, to sustain the frame of the _top_.

CROTCHES, _fourcats_, (_croccia_, Ital.) a name given to those crooked
timbers that are placed upon the keel in the fore and hind-parts of a
ship, upon which the frame of her hull grows narrower below, as it
approaches the stern afore, and the stern-post abaft.

CROTCHES, _cornes_, are also certain pieces of wood or iron, whose upper
part opens into two horns or arms, like a half-moon. They are fixed in
different places of the ship, according to the uses for which they may
be designed, which is usually to support the spare-masts, yards, &c. The
iron crotches are exhibited in plate II. fig. 26.

CROW, an iron lever well known in mechanics, and furnished with a sharp
point at one end, and two claws at the other, as appears in fig. 27,
plate II.

This instrument is used for various purposes, by shipwrights and
mariners; as to remove pieces of timber, and other weighty bodies; and
to draw spike-nails, &c. as well as to manage the great guns, by moving
them into their ports, levelling or pointing them to a particular

_To_ CROWD, _forcer de voiles_, (_cruth_, Sax.) to carry an
extraordinary force of sail upon a ship, in order to accelerate her
course on some important occasion, as in pursuit of, or flight from, an
enemy; to escape any immediate danger, &c.

CROW-FOOT, _trelingage_, a complication of small cords spreading out
from a long block, like the smaller parts which extend from the
back-bone of a herring. See plate II. fig. 27. It is used to suspend the
_awnings_; or to keep the _top-sails_ from striking violently and
fretting against the edges of the tops.

CROWNING, the finishing part of a knot made on the end of a rope. It is
performed by interweaving the ends of the different brands artfully
amongst each other, so as that they may not become loosened or
untwisted. The design of these knots is to keep the end of the rope fast
in some place assigned for it: they are more particularly useful in all
kinds of stoppers.

CRUISE, _campaigne_ (_croiser_, Fr.), a voyage or expedition in quest of
vessels or fleets of the enemy, which may be expected to sail through
any particular tract of the sea at a certain season of the year. The
region in which these cruises are performed, is usually termed the
rendezvous or cruising-latitude. When the ships employed for this
purpose, which are accordingly called cruisers, have arrived at their
destined station, they traverse the sea backward and forward, under an
easy sail, and within a limited space, conjectured to be nearly in the
tract of their expected adversaries.

CUDDY, _coqueron_, a sort of cabin, or cook-room, in the fore-part, or
near the stern, of a lighter or barge of burden.

CUNNING, _faire gouverner_, the art of directing the steersman to guide
the ship in her proper course: the officer who performs this duty is
either the pilot or quarter-master.

CURRENT, in navigation, _courans_, (_currens_, Lat.) a certain
progressive movement of the water of the sea, by which all bodies
floating therein are compelled to alter their course, or velocity, or
both, and submit to the laws imposed on them by the current.

In the sea, currents are either natural and general, as arising from the
diurnal rotation of the earth about its axis; or accidental and
particular, caused by the waters being driven against promontories, or
into gulfs and streights; where, wanting room to spread, they are driven
back, and thus disturb the ordinary flux of the sea.

“Currents are various, and directed towards different parts of the
ocean, of which some are constant, and others periodical. The most
extraordinary current of the sea is that by which part of the Atlantic
or African ocean moves about Guinea from Cape Verd towards the curvature
or bay of Africa, which they call Fernando Poo, viz. from west to east,
contrary to the general motion. And such is the force of this current,
that when ships approach too near the shore, it carries them violently
towards that bay, and deceives the mariners in their reckoning.

“There is a great variety of shifting currents, which do not last, but
return at certain periods; and these do, most of them, depend upon, and
follow the anniversary winds or monsoons, which by blowing in one place
may cause a current in another[8].” _Varenius._

In the streights of Gibraltar the currents almost constantly drive to
the eastward, and carry ships into the Mediterranean: they are also
found to drive the same way into St. George’s-channel.

The setting, or progressive motion of the current, may be either quite
down to the bottom, or to a certain determinate depth.

As the knowledge of the direction and velocity of currents is a very
material article in navigation, it is highly necessary to discover both,
in order to ascertain the ship’s situation and course with as much
accuracy as possible. The most successful method which has been hitherto
attempted by mariners for this purpose, is as follows. A common iron
pot, which may contain four or five gallons, is suspended by a small
rope fastened to its ears or handles, so as to hang directly upright, as
when placed upon the fire. This rope, which may be from 70 to 100
fathoms in length, being prepared for the experiment, is coiled in the
boat, which is hoisted out of the ship at a proper opportunity, when
there is little or no wind to ruffle the surface of the sea. The pot
being then thrown overboard into the water, and immediately sinking, the
line is slackened till about seventy or eighty fathoms run out, after
which the line is fastened to the boat’s stem, by which she is
accordingly restrained, and rides as at anchor. The velocity of the
current is then easily tried by the _log_ and half-minute glass, the
usual method of discovering the rate of a ship’s sailing at sea. The
course of the stream is next obtained by means of the compass provided
for this operation.

Having thus found the setting and drift of the current, it remains to
apply this experiment to the purposes of navigation. If the ship sails
along the direction of the current, then the motion of the ship is
increased by as much as is the drift or velocity of the current.

If a current sets directly against the ship’s course, then her motion is
retarded in proportion to the strength of the current. Hence it is

1. If the velocity of the current be less than that of the ship, then
the ship will advance so much as is the difference of these velocities.

2. If the velocity of the current be more than that of the ship, then
will the ship fall as much _astern_ as is the difference of these

3. If the velocity of the current be equal to that of the ship, then
will the ship stand still, the one velocity destroying the other.

If the current thwarts the course of a ship, it not only diminishes or
increases her velocity, but gives her a new direction, compounded of the
course she steers, and the setting of the current, as appears by the



If a body at A be impelled by two forces at the same time, the one in
the direction A B, carrying it from A to B in a certain space of time,
and the other in the direction A D, pushing it from A to D in the same
time; complete the parallelogram ABCD, and draw the diagonal A C: then
the body at A, (which let us suppose a ship agitated by the wind and
current; A B, being the line along which she advances as impressed by
the wind, and A D the line upon which she is driven by the current) will
move along the diagonal A C, and will be in the point C, at the end of
the time in which it would have moved along A D or AB, as impelled by
either of those forces (the wind or current) separately.

CUTTER, _bateau_, a small vessel commonly navigated in the channel of
England; it is furnished with one mast, and rigged as a _sloop_.

Many of these vessels are used on an illicit trade, and others employed
by the government to seize them; the latter of which are either under
the direction of the Admiralty or Custom-house. See a representation of
a cutter of this sort in the plate referred to from the article VESSEL.

CUTTER is also a small boat used by ships of war. See BOAT.

CUTTING-DOWN LINE, a curved line used by shipwrights in the delineation
of ships: it determines the thickness of all the floor timbers, and
likewise the height of the _dead-wood_, _afore_ and _abaft_. It is
limited in the middle of the ship by the thickness of the floor-timber,
and abaft by the breadth of the _kelson_; and must be carried up so high
upon the stem, as to leave sufficient substance for the breeches of the
rising timbers. _Murray’s Ship-building._

CUT-WATER, the foremost part of a ship’s prow, formed of an assemblage
of several pieces of timber, to render it broad at the upper-part, where
it projects forward from the stem to open the column of water as the
ship sails along, and also to make her keep to windward better, when she
is close-hauled. It is otherwise called the knee of the head. See the
article STEM; as also the several parts of it represented in plate I.
PIECES _of the_ HULL.


Davit, _minot_, a long beam of timber, represented by a, a, plate II.
fig. 28, and used as a crane, whereby to hoist the flukes of the anchor
to the top of the _bow_, without injuring the planks of the ship’s side
as it ascends; an operation which by mariners is called fishing the
anchor. The anchors being situated on both the bows, the davit may be
occasionally shifted so as to project over either side of the ship,
according to the position of that anchor on which it is to be employed.
The inner-end of the davit is secured by being thrust into a square ring
of iron b, which is bolted to the deck, and fore-locked under the beams.
This ring, which is called the span-shackle, exhibited at large by fig.
34, is fixed exactly in the middle of the deck, and close behind the
fore-mast. Upon the outer-end of the davit is hung a large block c,
through which a strong rope traverses, called the fish-pendant d, to
whose foremost end is fitted a large iron hook e, and to its after end a
tackle or complication of pullies f, the former of which is called the
fish-hook, and the latter the fish-tackle.

The davit therefore, according to the sea-phrase, is employed to _fish
the anchor_, which being previously _catted_, the fish-hook is fastened
upon its flukes; and the effort of the tackle, being transmitted to the
hook by means of the fish-pendant, draws up that part of the anchor
sufficiently high upon the bow to fasten it, which is done by the
_Shank-painter_. See that article.

There is also a davit of a smaller kind, occasionally fixed in the
longboat, and employed to weigh the anchor therein.

DAY’S-WORK, _cinglage_, the reckoning or account of the ship’s course,
during twenty-four hours, or between noon and noon, according to the
rules of trigonometry. See DEAD-RECKONING.

DEAD-EYE, _cap de mouton_, a sort of round, flattish, wooden block, see
fig. 30, plate II. It is usually encircled with the end of a rope, or
with an iron band, fig. 31, _b_, and pierced with three holes through
the flat, in order to receive the rope called a _laniard c_, which
corresponding with three holes in another dead-eye _a_, creates a
purchase employed for various uses, but chiefly to extend the _shrouds_
and _stays_, otherwise called the standing-rigging.

In order to form this purchase, one of the dead-eyes is fastened in the
lower-end of each shroud, and the opposite one in the upper-link of each
_chain_ on the ship’s side, which is made round to receive and encompass
the hollowed outer-edge of the dead-eye. After this the laniard is
passed alternately through the holes in the upper and lower dead-eyes
till it becomes six-fold; and is then drawn tight by the application of
mechanical powers. The general disposition of the dead eyes in their
channels is represented in the Elevation, plate I. In merchant-ships
they are generally fitted with iron plates in the room of chains. These
last are exhibited in fig. 16, plate II.

The dead-eyes used for the stays, _moques_, have only one hole, which,
however, is large enough to receive ten or twelve turns of the laniard:
these are generally termed _hearts_, and are expressed by fig. 32.

There are also dead-eyes of another form, employed for the _crow-feet_,
_moques de trelingage_. These are long cylindrical blocks, fig. 33, with
a number of small holes in them, to receive the legs or lines of which
the crow-foot, fig. 28, is composed.

DEAD-LIGHTS, certain wooden ports which are made to fasten into the
cabin-windows, to prevent the waves from gushing into the ship in a high
sea. As they are made exactly to fit the windows, and are strong enough
to resist the waves, they are always fixed in, on the approach of a
storm, and the glass frames taken out, which might other wise be
shattered to pieces by the surges, and suffer great quantities of water
to enter the vessel.

DEAD-RECKONING, in navigation, _estime_, the judgment or estimation
which is made of the place where a ship is situated, without any
observation of the heavenly bodies. It is discovered by keeping an
account of the distance she has run by the _log_, and of her course
steered by the _compass_; and by rectifying these data by the usual
allowances for _drift_, _lee-way_, &c. according to the ship’s known
trim. This reckoning, however, is always to be corrected, as often as
any good observation of the sun can be obtained.

DEAD-RISING, or RISING-LINE _of the floor_, _fleurs_, those parts of a
ship’s floor, or bottom, throughout her whole length, where the
floor-timber is terminated upon the lower futtock. See the article NAVAL

DEAD-WATER, _remoux_ the eddy of water which appears like little
whirl-pools, closing in with the ship’s stern as she sails through it.

DEAD-WOOD, _contre-quille_, a name given by shipwrights to certain
blocks of timber laid upon the keel, particularly at the extremities
afore and abaft, where these pieces are placed one upon another to a
considerable height, because the ship is there so narrow as not to admit
of the two half timbers, which are therefore scored into this dead wood,
where the angle of the floor-timbers gradually diminishes, as
approaching the stem and stern-post. See the article NAVAL ARCHITECTURE.

In the fore-part of the ship, the dead-wood generally extends from the
stemson, upon which it is scarfed to the loof-frame; and in the
after-end from the stern-post, where it is confined by the knee, to the
after-ballance-frame. It is connected to the keel by strong spike-nails.
Those pieces are represented by e e, PIECES _of the_ HULL, plate I.

The dead-wood afore and abaft is equal in depth to two-thirds of the
depth of the keel, and as broad as can be procured, so as not to exceed
the breadth of the keel.

DEAD-WORK, all that part of a ship which is above water when she is
laden. See the article UPPER-WORK.

DECKS, _ponts_, (_decken_, Dan. to cover) the planked floors of a ship,
which connect the sides together, and serve as different platforms to
support the artillery, and lodge the men, as also to preserve the cargo
from the sea in merchant-vessels.

As all ships are broader at the lower-deck than on the next above it,
and as the cannon thereof are always heaviest, it is necessary that the
frame of it should be much stronger than that of the others; and, for
the same reason, the second or middle deck ought to be stronger than the
upper deck, or forecastle.

Ships of the first and second rates are furnished with three whole
decks, reaching from the stem to the stern, besides a forecastle and a
quarterdeck, which extends from the stern to the main-mast, between
which and the fore-castle, a vacancy is left in the middle, opening to
the upper-deck, and forming what is called the _waist_. There is yet
another deck above the hinder or aftmost part of the quarter-deck,
called the poop, which also serves as a roof for the captain’s cabin or

The inferior ships of the line of battle are equipped with two decks and
a half, and frigates, sloops, &c. with one gun-deck and a half, with a
spar deck below to lodge the crew.

The decks are formed and sustained by the beams, the clamps, the
water-ways, the carlings, the ledges, the knees, and two rows of small
pillars, called stanchions, &c. See those articles.

That the figure of a deck, together with its corresponding parts, may be
more clearly understood, we have exhibited a plan of the lower-deck of a
74 gun-ship in plate III. And as both sides of the deck are exactly
similar, the pieces by which it is supported appear on one side, and on
the other side the planks or floor of which it is composed, as laid up
on those pieces.

     EXPLANATION of the figures represented in the Deck, plate III.

A, the principal, or main hatch-way.

B, the stern-post.

C, the stem.

D, the beams, composed of three pieces, as exhibited by D, in one of
which the dotted lines shew the arrangement of one of the beams under
the other side of the deck.

E, part of the vertical or hanging knees. See also _e_, fig. 16, in the
same plate.


  PLATE III.       _To Face DECK._

F, the horizontal or lodging knees, which fasten the beams to the sides.

G, the carlings, ranging fore and aft, from one beam to another.

H, the gun-ports.

I, the pump-dales, being large wooden tubes which return the water from
the pumps into the sea.

K, the spurs of the beams; being curved pieces of timber serving as
half-beams to support the decks, where a whole beam cannot be placed on
account of the hatch-ways.

L, the deck-transom, which is bolted by the middle to the stern-post,
and whose ends rest upon the fashion-pieces.

M, the bulk-head or partition, which encloses the manger, and prevents
the water which enters at the hause-holes from running aft between

N N, the fore hatch-way.

O O, the after hatch-way.

P, the drum-head of the gear cap-stern.

P p, the drum-head of the main capstern.

Q, one of the lower transom-knees.

R, one of the breast-hooks under the gun-deck.

S, the breast-hook of the gun-deck.

T T, the station of the chain-pumps.

V, the breadth and thickness of the timbers at the height of the

U U, scuttles leading to the gunner’s store-room, and bread-room.

W, the station of the fore-mast.

X, the station of the main-mast.

Y, the station of the mizen-mast.

Z, the ring-bolts of the decks, used to retain the cannon whilst

a, a, the ring-bolts of the sides, whereon the tackles are hooked that
secure the cannon at sea.

c a a d, the water-ways, through which the scupper-holes are pierced, to
carry the water off from the deck into the sea.

b, b, plan of the foremost and aftmost cable-bits, with their
crosspieces g, g, and their standards e, e.

Thus we have represented on one side, all the pieces which sustain the
deck with its cannon; and on the other side, the deck itself, with a
tier of 32 pounders planted in battery thereon. In order also to shew
the use of the breeching and train-tackle, one of the guns is drawn in
as ready for charging. See the articles BREECHING and CANNON.

The number of beams, by which the decks of ships are supported, is often
very different, according to the practice of different countries; the
strength of the timber of which the beams are framed; and the services
for which the ship is calculated.

As the deck which contains the train of a fire-ship is furnished with an
equipage peculiar to itself, the whole apparatus is particularly
described in the article FIRE-SHIP.

_Flush_-DECK, or DECK-_Flush fore and aft_, implies a continued floor
laid from stem to stern, upon one line, without any steps or intervals.

_Half_-DECK, _corps de garde_, a space under the quarter-deck of a ship
of war, contained between the foremost bulk-head of the _steerage_, and
the fore-part of the quarter-deck.

In the colliers of Northumberland the steerage itself is called the
half-deck, and is usually the habitation of the ship’s crew.

DECOY, a stratagem employed by a small ship of war to betray a vessel of
inferior force into an incautious pursuit, till she has drawn her within
the range of her cannon, or what is called within gun-shot.

It is usually performed by painting the stern and sides in such a manner
as to disguise the ship, and represent her either much smaller, and of
inferior force, or as a friend to the hostile vessel, which she
endeavours to ensnare, by assuming the emblems and ornaments of the
nation to which the stranger is supposed to belong. When she has thus
provoked the adversary to chase, in hope of acquiring a prize, she
continues the decoy by spreading a great sail, as endeavouring to
escape, at the same time that her course is considerably retarded by an
artful alteration, of her _trim_ till the enemy approaches.

Decoying is also performed to elude the chace of a ship of superior
force in a dark night, by throwing out a lighted cask of pitch into the
sea, which will burn for a considerable time, and misguide the enemy.
Immediately after the cask is thrown out, the ship changes her course,
and may easily escape if at any tolerable distance from the foe.

DEEP-WAISTED, _encastillé_, the distinguishing fabric of a ship’s decks,
when the quarter-deck and fore-castle are elevated from four to six feet
above the level of the upper-deck, so as to leave a vacant space, called
the waiste, on the middle of the upper-deck. See the article WAISTE.

DEMURRAGE, an allowance given to the commander of a trading ship by the
merchants, for having detained him longer in port than the time
previously appointed for his departure.

DEPARTURE, in navigation, the distance between any two places lying on
the same parallel, counted in miles of the equator; or the distance of
one place from the meridian of another, counted on the parallel passing
over that place. See NAVIGATION.

DEPTH _of a sail_, _chute_, the extent of any square or oblong sail from
the head-rope to the foot-rope; or the length of the after-leech of any
boom-sail or stay-sail. See the article SAIL.

DETACHMENT _of a fleet or squadron_, a certain number of ships chosen by
an admiral or commodore from the rest of the fleet, charged to execute
some particular service.

DIFFERENCE _of latitude_, in navigation, the difference between any two
places lying on the same meridian; or the distance between the parallels
of latitude of any two places, expressed in miles of the equator.

DINNAGE, see the article DUNNAGE.

DISABLED, _desemparé_, the state of a ship when, by the loss of her
masts, sails, yards, or rigging; by springing a leak, or receiving some
fracture in her hull, or other disaster; she is rendered incapable of
prosecuting her voyage without great difficulty and danger.

_To_ DISCHARGE, (_decharger_, Fr.) when applied to a ship, signifies to
unlade her, or take out her stores, ammunition, artillery, &c. When
expressed of the officers or crew, it implies to disband them from
immediate service.

DISMASTED, _dematé_, the state of a ship which has lost her masts by
boisterous weather, engagement, or other misfortune.

DIVISION, a select number of ships in a fleet or squadron of men of war,
distinguished by a particular flag or pendant, and usually commanded by
a general officer. A squadron is commonly ranged into three divisions,
the commanding officer of which is always stationed in the center.

When a fleet consists of sixty sail of the _line_, that is, of ships
having at least sixty cannon, the admiral divides it into three
squadrons, each of which has its divisions and commanding officers. Each
squadron has its proper colours, according to the rank of the admiral
who commands it, and every division its proper mast. Thus, the white
flag denotes the first squadron of France; the white and blue the
second, and the third is characterised by the blue. In England, the
first admiral, or the admiral of the fleet, displays the union flag at
the main-top-mast-head; next follows the white flag with St. George’s
cross; and afterwards the blue. The private ships carry pendants of the
same colour with their respective squadron, at the masts of their
particular divisions; so that the last ship in the division of the blue
squadron carries a blue pendant at her mizen-top-mast-head.

DOCK, _forme_, (imagined of δοχεῖον) a sort of broad and deep trench,
formed on the side of a harbour, or on the banks of a river; and
commodiously fitted either to build ships, or receive them to be
repaired and _breamed_ therein. These sorts of docks have generally
strong flood-gates, to prevent the flux of the tide from entering the
dock while the ship is under repair.

There are likewise docks of another kind, called wet-docks, where a ship
can only be cleaned during the recess of the tide, or in the interval
between the time when the tide left her dry a-ground, and the period
when it again reaches her by the return of the flood. Docks of the
latter kind are not furnished with the usual flood-gates.

DOCKING _a ship_, the act of drawing her into the dock, in order to give
her a proper repair, and cleanse the bottom, and cover it anew with a
preparation of stuff, as explained in the article BREAMING.

DOCK-YARDS, _arcenaux_, certain magazines containing all sorts of naval
stores, and timber for ship-building. In England, the royal dock-yards
are at Chatham, Portsmouth, Plymouth, Deptford, Woolwich, and Sheerness.
His majesty’s ships and vessels of war are generally moored at these
ports, during the time of peace; and such as want repairing are taken
into the docks, examined, and refitted for service. See the article

The principal dock-yards are governed by a commissioner, resident at the
port, who superintends all the musters of the officers, artificers, and
labourers, employed in the dock-yard, and ordinary. He also controls
their payment therein; examines the accounts; contracts, and draws bills
on the Navy-office to supply the deficiency of stores; and, finally,
regulates whatever belongs to the dock-yard, maintaining due order in
the respective offices.

These yards are generally supplied from the northern crowns with hemp,
pitch, tar, rosin, canvas, oak plank, and several other species. With
regard to the masts, particularly those of the largest size, they are
usually imported from New-England.

DOG, a sort of iron hook, or bar, with a sharp fang at one end, so
formed as to be easily driven into a plank: it is used to drag along the
planks of oak when they are let into a hole under the stern of a ship,
to be stowed in the _hold_. For this purpose there is a rope fastened to
the end of the dog, upon which several men pull, to draw the plank
towards the place where it is to be stowed. It is also used for the same
purpose in unlading the ship.

DOGGER, _dogre-bot_, a Dutch fishing-vessel navigated in the German
ocean. It is generally employed in the herring fishery, being equipped
with two masts, viz. a main-mast and a mizen-mast, and somewhat
resembling _a ketch_.

DOLPHIN _of the mast_ a peculiar kind of wreath, formed of platted
cordage, to be fastened occasionally round the masts, as a support to
the _puddening_, whose use is to sustain the weight of the fore and
main-yards, in case the rigging, or chains, by which those yards are
suspended, should be shot away in the time of battle; a circumstance
which might render their sails useless at a season when their assistance
is extremely necessary. See the article PUDDENING.

DOUBLING, in navigation, (_doubler_, Fr.) the act of sailing round, or
passing beyond a cape or promontory, so as that the cape or point of
land separates the ship from her former situation, or lies between her
and any distant observer.

DOUBLING-NAILS, amongst shipwrights, the nails commonly used to fasten
the lining of the gun-ports, &c.

DOUBLING-UPON, in a naval engagement, the act of enclosing any part of a
hostile fleet between two fires, or of cannonading it on both sides.

It is usually performed by the van or rear of that fleet which is
superior in number, taking the advantage of the wind, or of its
situation and circumstances, and tacking or veering round the van or
rear of the enemy, who will thereby be exposed to great danger, and can
scarcely avoid being thrown into a general confusion.

_To_ DOUSE, _molir_, to lower suddenly or slacken: expressed of a sail
in a squall of wind, an extended hawser, &c.

DOWN-HAWL, _calebas_, a rope passing up along a stay through the rings
of the stay-sail, and tied to the upper-corner of the sail, to pull it
down, when they are _shortening_ sail.

DOWN-HAUL-TACKLE, a complication of pullies, employed to pull down the
main or fore-yard in a tempest, in order to reef the sail. It is used at
this time, because the violence of the wind prevents the weight of the
yard from having its natural effect, of descending, when the ropes by
which it is suspended are slackened.

DRABLER, an additional part of a sail, sometimes laced to the bottom of
the _bonnet_ of a _square-sail_, in sloops and schooners.

DRAG, a machine consisting of a sharp square iron ring encircled with a
net, and commonly used to rake the mud off from the platform or bottom
of the docks. See plate II. fig. 35.

DRAGGING _the anchor_, the act of trailing it along the bottom, after it
is loosened from the ground, by the effort of the wind or current upon
the ship, communicated to the cable. See the article ANCHOR.

DRAUGHT, the depth of a body of water necessary to float a ship; hence a
ship is said to draw so many feet of water, when she is borne up by a
column of water of that particular depth. Thus, if it requires a body of
water whose depth is equal to twelve feet, to float or buoy up a ship on
its surface, she is said to draw twelve feet water; and that this
draught may be more readily known, the feet are marked on the stem and
stern-post, regularly from the keel upwards.

DRESSING, (_faire la parade_), the act of ornamenting a ship with a
variety of colours; as ensigns, flags, pendants, &c. displayed from
different parts of her masts and rigging on a day of festivity.

DRIFT, in navigation, _derive_ (from _drive_), the angle which the line
of a ship’s motion makes with the nearest meridian, when she drives with
her side to the wind and waves, and is not governed by the power of the
helm: it also implies the distance which the ship drives on that line.

A ship’s way is only called drift in a storm; and then, when it blows so
vehemently, as to prevent her from carrying any sail, or at least
restrains her to such a portion of sail as may be necessary to keep her
sufficiently inclined to one side, that she may not be dismasted by her
violent labouring produced by the turbulence of the sea.

DRIVER, an oblong sail, occasionally hoisted to the mizen-peak, when the
wind is very fair. The lower corners of it are extended by a _boom_ or
pole, which is thrust out across the ship, and projects over the

DRIVING, _abattre_ (_drifan_, Sax.) the state of being carried at random
along the surface of the water, as impelled by a storm, or impetuous
current: it is generally expressed of a ship when, accidentally, broke
loose from her anchors or moorings.

DROP, _etarcure_, a name sometimes given to the depth of the principal
sails; as, her main-top-sail _drops_ seventeen yards.

DUCKING, a sort of marine punishment inflicted by the French on those
who have been convicted of desertion, blasphemy, or exciting sedition.
It is performed as follows: the criminal is placed astride of a short
thick batten, fastened to the end of a rope, which passes thro’ a block
hanging at one of the yard-arms. Thus fixed, he is hoisted suddenly up
to the yard, and the rope being slackened at once, he is plunged into
the sea. This chastisement is repeated several times, conformable to the
purport of the sentence pronounced against the culprit, who has at that
time several cannon-shot fastened to his feet during the punishment,
which is rendered public by the firing of a gun, to advertise the other
ships of the fleet thereof, that their crews may become spectators.

DUCKING, is also a penalty which veteran sailors pretend to inflict on
those, who, for the first time, pass the tropic of Cancer, the Equator,
or the streights of Gibraltar, in consequence of their refusal or
incapacity to pay the usual fine levied on this occasion, which would
redeem them from the said penalty.

DUNNAGE, _fardage_, a quantity of faggots, boughs of trees, or other
loose wood, laid in the bottom of a ship, either to raise the heavy
goods which might make her too stiff, or to keep the cargo sufficiently
above the bottom, that it may sustain no damage from the water, if the
ship should prove leaky.


EARINGS, _rabans_, certain small cords employed to fasten the upper
corners of a sail to its respective yard; for which purpose one end of
the earing is spliced to the _cringle_, fixed in that part of the sail;
and the other end of it is passed six or seven times round the yard-arm
and through the cringle, thereby fastening the latter to the former. Two
of the turns are intended to stretch the upper-edge of the sail tight
along the yard; and the rest to draw it close up to it. The former are
therefore called _outer_, and the latter _inner_ turns, as being passed
without, or within the rigging, on the yard-arms.

EASE _the ship_! the command given by the pilot to the steersman, to put
the helm close to the lee-side, or, in the sea-phrase, _hard-a-lee_,
when the ship is expected to _pitch_ or plunge her fore-part deep in the
water, while close-hauled. The reason usually given for this practice
is, that the sudden movement of the helm prevents the ship’s head from
falling with so much weight and rapidity into the hollow of the sea, as
it would do otherwise: which is presuming that the flow, and uncertain
effect of the helm is sufficient to retard the certain and violent
action of gravity: a position that necessarily infers a very singular
theory of mechanics. We shall not endeavour to advance any argument in
favour of this practice; only to remark, that it is most religiously
observed, both in merchant-ships and his majesty’s navy.

_To_ EASE _off_, or EASE _away_, _molir_, _filer_, to slacken gradually
any single rope, or complication of ropes, formed into a tackle.

EBB, _jussant_, the reflux of the tide, or the return of it into the sea
after the highest of the flood, usually termed full-sea, or high-water.

EDDY, _remoux_, (_ed_, backward, again, and _ea_, water, Sax.) the water
that, by some interruption in its course, runs contrary to the direction
of any river, or current, and appears like the motion of a whirlpool.

_To_ EDGE _away_, in navigation, _abattre_, to decline gradually from
the shore, or from the line of the course which the ship formerly
steered: it is particularly applied when a ship changes her course, by
sailing nearer the direction of the wind; or, in the lea-language, by
sailing _larger_, or more _afore_ the wind, than she had done before
that operation.

ELBOW _in the hause_, a particular twist in the cables by which a ship
rides at anchor. In this situation each of the cables, after crossing
the other before the stem, is directed outwards on the same _bow_ from
which it issued: that is to say, the starboard cable _grows_ out on the
starboard bow, and the larboard cable on the larboard bow, as exhibited
in fig. 36, plate II. where a expresses the fore-castle, b the stem, c c
the larboard cable, and d d the starboard one. See the article HAWSE.

EMBARGO, in commerce, _arret_ (_embargar_, Span.), an arrest laid on
ships or merchandise by public authority, or a prohibition of state,
commonly issued on foreign ships, to prevent their putting to sea in
time of war; and sometimes to prevent their coming in, and otherwise
both to prevent their entrance and departure.

EMBAYED, _encapé_, (from _bay_,) the situation of a ship when she is
inclosed between two capes or promontories. It is particularly applied
when the wind, by blowing strongly into any bay or gulf, makes it
extremely difficult, and perhaps impracticable, for the vessel thus
enclosed, to _claw_ off from the shore, so as to weather the capes and
arrive into the offing.

ENGAGEMENT, in a naval sense, implies a particular or general battle at
sea; or an action of hostility between single ships, or _detachments_,
or _squadrons_ of men of war.

In order to have a clearer idea of this article, it will, therefore, be
necessary that the reader who is little acquainted with the subject,
should previously refer to the explanation of those terms, as also to

The sea-fights of the ancients were usually carried on in two different
manners. Advanced by the force of their oars, the gallies ran violently
_aboard_ of each other, and by the mutual encounter of their beaks and
prows, and sometimes of their sterns, endeavoured to dash in pieces, or
sink their enemies.

The prow, for this purpose, was commonly armed with a brazen point or
trident, nearly as low as the surface of the sea, in order to pierce the
enemy’s ships under the water. Some of the gallies were furnished with
large turrets, and other accessions of building, either for attack or
defence. The soldiers also annoyed their enemies with darts and slings,
and, on their nearer approach, with swords and javelins; and, in order
that their missive weapons might be directed with greater force and
certainty, the ships were equipped with several platforms, or elevations
above the level of the deck[9]. The sides of the ship were fortified
with a thick fence of hides, which served to repel the darts of their
adversaries, and to cover their own soldiers, who thereby annoyed the
enemy with greater security.

As the invention of gun-powder has rendered useless many of the machines
employed in the naval wars of the ancients, the great distance of time
has also consigned many of them to oblivion: some few are, nevertheless,
recorded in ancient authors, of which we shall endeavour to present a
short description. And first,

The Δελφιν was a large and massy piece of lead or iron, cast in the form
of a dolphin. This machine being suspended by blocks at their mast-heads
or yard-arms, ready for a proper occasion, was let down violently from
thence into the adverse ships, and either penetrated through their
bottom, and opened a passage for the entering waters, or by its weight
immediately sunk the vessel.

The Δρήπαναν an engine of iron crooked like a sickle, and fixed on the
top of a long pole. It was employed to cut asunder the _slings_ of the
sail-yards, and, thereby letting the sails fall down, to disable the
vessel from escaping, and incommode her greatly during the action.
Similar to this was another instrument, armed at the head with a broad
two-edged blade of iron, wherewith they usually cut away the ropes that
fastened the rudder to the vessel[10].

Δόρατα ναύμαχα, a sort of spears or maces of an extraordinary length,
sometimes exceeding twenty cubits, as appears by the 15th Iliad of
Homer[11], by whom they are also called μακρὰ.

Κιραῖαι were certain machines used to throw large stones into the
enemies ships.

Vegetius mentions another engine, which was suspended to the main-mast,
and resembled a battering-ram: for it consisted of a long beam, and an
head of iron, and was, with great violence, pushed against the sides of
the enemies gallies.

They had also a grappling-iron, which was usually thrown into the
adverse ship by means of an engine: this instrument facilitated the
entrance of the soldiers appointed to _board_, which was done by means
of wooden bridges, that were generally kept ready for this purpose in
the fore-part of the vessel[12].

The arms used by the ancients rendered the disposition of their fleets
very different, according to the time, place and circumstances. They
generally considered it an advantage to be to windward, and to have the
sun shining directly on the front of their enemy. The order of battle
chiefly depended on their power of managing the ships, or of drawing
them readily into form; and on the schemes which their officers had
concerted. The fleet being composed of rowing-vessels, they lowered
their sails previous to the action: they presented their prows to the
enemy, and advanced against each other by the force of their oars[13].
Before they joined battle, the admirals went from ship to ship, and
exhorted their soldiers to behave gallantly. All things being in
readiness, the signal was displayed by hanging out of the admiral’s
galley a gilded shield, or a red garment or banner. During the elevation
of this the action continued, and by its depression, or inclination
towards the right or left, the rest of the ships were directed how to
attack, or retreat from their enemies. To this was added the sound of
trumpets, which began in the admiral’s galley, and continued round the
whole navy. The light was also begun by the admiral’s galley, by
grappling, boarding, and endeavouring to overset, sink, or destroy, the
adversary, as we have above described[14]. Sometimes, for want of
grappling irons, they fixed their oars in such a manner as to hinder the
enemy from retreating.[15] If they could not manage their oars as
dexterously as their antagonists, or fall along-side so as to board him,
they penetrated his vessel with the brazen prow. The vessels approached
each other as well as their circumstances would permit, and the soldiers
were obliged to fight hand to hand, till the battle was decided: nor
indeed could they fight otherwise with any certainty, since the shortest
distance rendered their slings and arrows, and almost all their
offensive weapons, ineffectual, if not useless. The squadrons were
sometimes ranged in two or three right lines, parallel to each other;
being seldom drawn up in one line, unless when formed into an half moon.
This order indeed appears to be the most convenient for rowing vessels
that engage by advancing with their prows towards the enemy. At the
battle of Ecnomus, between the Romans and the Carthaginians, the fleet
of the former was ranged into a triangle, or a sort of wedge in front,
and towards the middle of its depth, of two right parallel lines. That
of the latter was formed into a rectangle, or two sides of a square, of
which one branch extended behind, and, as the opening of the other
prosecuted the attack, was ready to fall upon the flank of such of the
Roman gallies as should attempt to break their line. Ancient history has
preserved many of these orders, of which some have been followed in
later times. Thus, in a battle in A. D. 1340, the English fleet was
formed in two lines, the first of which contained the larger ships, the
second consisted of all the smaller vessels, used as a reserve to
support the former whenever necessary. In 1545 the French fleet under
the command of the Mareschal d’Annebault, in an engagement with the
English in the Channel, was arranged in the form of a crescent. The
whole of it was divided into three bodies, the center being composed of
thirty-six ships, and each of the wings of thirty. He had also many
gallies; but these fell not into the line, being designed to attack the
enemy occasionally. This last disposition was continued down to the
reigns of James I. and Louis XIII[16].

Meanwhile the invention of gun-powder, in 1330, gradually introduced the
use of fire-arms into naval war, without finally superseding the ancient
method of engagement. The Spaniards were armed with cannon in a
sea-fight against the English and the people of Poitou abreast of
Rochelle in 1372; and this battle is the first wherein mention is made
of artillery in our navies. Many years elapsed before the marine
armaments were sufficiently provided with fire-arms[17]. So great a
revolution in the manner of fighting, and which necessarily introduced a
total change in the construction of ships, could not be suddenly
effected. In short, the squadrons of men of war are no longer formed of
rowing-vessels, or composed of gallies and ships of the line, but
entirely of the latter, which engage under sail, and discharge the whole
force of their artillery from their sides. Accordingly they are now
disposed in no other form than that of a right line parallel to the
enemy; every ship keeping _close-hauled_ upon a wind on the same tack.
Indeed the difference between the force and manner of fighting of ships
and gallies rendered their service in the same line incompatible. When
we consider therefore the change introduced, both in the construction
and working of ships, occasioned by the use of cannon, it necessarily
follows, that squadrons of men of war must appear in the order that is
now generally adopted. Finally, the ships ought to present their
broad-sides to the enemy; and to sail close upon a wind in the wake of
each other; as well to retain their own uniformity, as to preserve or
acquire the advantage which the weather-gage gives them over their

The machines which owe their rise to the invention of gun powder have
now totally supplanted the others; so that there is scarce any but the
sword remaining, of all the weapons used by the ancients. Our naval
battles are therefore almost always decided by fire-arms, of which there
are several kinds, known by the general name of artillery.

In a ship of war fire-arms are distinguished into cannon mounted on
carriages, swivel-cannon, grenadoes, and musquetry. The first has been
already described at large in its proper place. The second is a small
piece of artillery, carrying a shot of half a pound, and fixed in a
socket on the top of the ships side, stern or bow, and also in her tops.
The trunnions of this piece are contained in a sort of iron crotch,
whose lower-end terminates in a cylindrical pivot resting in the socket,
so as to support the weight of the cannon. The socket is bored in a
strong piece of oak, reinforced with iron hoops, in order to enable it
to sustain the recoil. By means of this frame, which is called the
swivel, and an iron handle on its cascabel, the gun may be directed by
hand to any object. It is therefore very necessary in the tops,
particularly when loaded with musket-balls, to fire down on the
upper-decks of the adversary in action.——The grenado is a kind of little
bomb of the same diameter as a four pound bullet; it weighs about two
pounds, being charged with four or five ounces of powder.——Grenadoes are
thrown from the tops by the hands of the seamen. They have a touch-hole
in the same manner as a bomb, and a fuse of the same composition. See
MORTAR. The sailor fires the fuse with a match, and throws the grenado
as he is directed: the powder being inflamed, the shell instantly bursts
into splinters, that kill or maim whomsoever they reach on the decks of
the enemy. As this machine cannot be thrown by hand above fifteen or
sixteen fathoms, the ship must be pretty near, to render it useful in
battle.——The musket or firelock is so well known, that it appears
unnecessary to describe it in this place.—Besides these machines, there
are several others used in merchant-ships and privateers, as coehorns,
carabines, fire-arrows, organs, powder-flasks, stink-pots, &c[19].

Since a general engagement of fleets or squadrons of men of war is
nothing else than a variety of particular actions of single ships with
each other, in a line of battle; it appears necessary, according to the
plan of this work, to begin by describing the latter, and then proceed
to represent the usual manner of conducting the former.

The whole oeconomy of a naval engagement may be arranged under the
following heads, viz. the preparation; the action; and the repair, or
refitting, for the purposes of navigation.

The preparation is began by issuing the order to clear the ship for
action, which is repeated by the boatswain and his mates at all the

_hatchways_ or stair-cases, leading to the different batteries. As the
management of the artillery in a vessel of war requires a considerable
number of men, it is evident that the officers and sailors must be
restrained to a narrow space in their usual habitations, in order to
preserve the internal regularity of the ship. Hence the _hammocs_, or
hanging-beds, of the latter are crowded together as close as possible
between the decks, each of them being limited to the breadth of fourteen
inches. They are hung parallel to each other, in rows stretching from
one side of the ship to the other, nearly throughout her whole length,
so as to admit of no passage but by stooping under them. As the cannon
therefore cannot be worked while the hammocs are suspended in this
situation, it becomes necessary to remove them as quick as possible. By
this circumstance a double advantage is obtained: the batteries of
cannon are immediately cleared of an incumbrance, and the hammocs are
converted into a sort of parapet, to prevent the execution of small-shot
on the _quarter-deck_, _tops_, and _fore-castle_. At the summons of the
boatswain, _Up all hammocs!_ every sailor repairs to his own, and,
having stowed his bedding properly, he cords it up firmly with a
_lashing_, or line provided for that purpose. He then carries it to the
quarter-deck, poop, or forecastle, or wherever it may be necessary. As
each side of the quarter-deck and poop is furnished with a double
net-work, supported by iron cranes fixed immediately above the _gunnel_
or top of the ship’s-side; the hammocs thus corded are firmly stowed by
the quarter-master between the two parts of the netting, so as to form
an excellent barrier. The tops, waiste, and fore-castle, are then fenced
in the same manner.

Whilst these offices are performed below, the boatswain and his mates
are employed in securing the sail-yards, to prevent them from tumbling
down when the ship is cannonaded, as she might thereby be disabled, and
rendered incapable of attack, retreat, or pursuit. The yards are now
likewise secured by strong chains, or ropes, additional to those by
which they are usually suspended. The boatswain also provides the
necessary materials to repair the rigging, wherever it may be damaged by
the shot of the enemy; and to supply whatever parts of it may be
entirely destroyed. The carpenter and his crew in the meanwhile prepare
his shot-plugs and mauls, to close up any dangerous breaches that may be
made near the surface of the water; and provide the iron-work necessary
to refit the chain-pumps, in case their machinery should be wounded in
the engagement. The gunner with his mates and quarter-gunners is busied
in examining the cannon of the different batteries, to see that their
charges are thoroughly dry and fit for execution: to have every thing
ready for furnishing the great guns and small arms with powder, as soon
as the action begins: and to keep a sufficient number of cartridges
continually filled, to supply the place of those expended in battle. The
master and his mates are attentive to have the sails properly trimmed,
according to the situation of the ship; and to reduce or multiply them,
as occasion requires, with all possible expedition. The lieutenants
visit the different decks, to see that they are effectually cleared of
all incumbrance, so that nothing may retard the execution of the
artillery: and to enjoin the other officers to diligence and alertness,
in making the necessary dispositions for the expected engagement, so
that every thing may be in readiness at a moment’s warning.

When the hostile ships have approached each other to a competent
distance, the drums beat to arms. The boatswain and his mates pipe, _all
hands to quarters!_ at every hatchway. All the persons appointed to
manage the great guns, immediately repair to their respective stations.
The crows, handspikes, rammers, spunges, powder-horns, matches, and
train tackles, are placed in order by the side of every cannon. The
hatches are immediately laid, to prevent any one from deserting his post
by escaping into the lower apartments. The marines are drawn up in rank
and file, on the quarter-deck, poop, and fore-castle. The lashings of
the great guns are cast loose, and the tompions withdrawn. The whole
artillery, above and below, is run out at the ports, and levelled to the
point-blank range ready for firing.

The necessary preparations being completed, and the officers and crew
ready at their respective stations, to obey the order, the commencement
of the action is determined by the mutual distance and situation of the
adverse ships, or by the signal from the commander in chief of the fleet
or squadron. The cannon being levelled in parallel rows, projecting from
the ship’s side, the most natural order of battle is evidently to range
the ships abreast of each other, especially if the engagement is
general. The most convenient distance is probably within the point-blank
range of a musket, so that all the artillery may do effectual execution.

The combat usually begins by a vigorous cannonade, accompanied with the
whole efforts of the swivel-guns and the small arms. The method of
firing in platoons, or vollies of cannon at once, appears inconvenient
in the sea-service, and perhaps should never be attempted, unless in the
battering of a fortification. The sides and decks of the ship, although
sufficiently strong for all the purposes of war, would be too much
shaken by so violent an explosion and recoil. The general rule observed
on this occasion throughout the ship, is to load, fire, and spunge, the
guns with all possible expedition, yet without confusion or
precipitation. The captain of each gun is particularly enjoined to fire
only when the piece is properly directed to its object, that the shot
may not be fruitlessly expended. The lieutenants who command the
different batteries, traverse the deck to see that the battle is
prosecuted with vivacity; and to exhort and animate the men to their
duty. The midshipmen second these injunctions, and give the necessary
assistance wherever it may be required, at the guns committed to their

The gunner should be particularly attentive that all the artillery is
sufficiently supplied with powder, and that the cartridges are carefully
conveyed along the decks in covered boxes. The havoc produced by a
continuation of this mutual assault may be readily conjectured by the
reader’s imagination: battering, penetrating, and splintering the sides
and decks; shattering or dismounting the cannon; mangling and destroying
the rigging; cutting asunder, or carrying away the masts and yards;
piercing and tearing the sails so as to render them useless; and
wounding, disabling, or killing the ship’s company! The comparative
vigour and resolution of the assailants to effect these pernicious
consequences in each other, generally determine their success or defeat:
I say generally, because the fate of the combat may sometimes be decided
by an unforeseen incident, equally fortunate for the one and fatal to
the other. The defeated ship having acknowledged the victory, by
striking her colours, is immediately taken possession of by the
conqueror, who secures her officers and crew as prisoners in his own
ship; and invests his principal officer with the command of the prize
until a captain is appointed by the commander in chief.

The engagement being concluded, they begin the repair: the cannon are
secured by their breechings and tackles, with all convenient expedition.
Whatever sails have been rendered unserviceable are unbent; and the
wounded masts and yards struck upon the deck, and _fished_, or replaced
by others. The standing rigging is _knotted_, and the running rigging
spliced wherever necessary. Proper sails are bent in the room of those
which have been displaced as useless. The carpenter and his crew are
employed in repairing the breaches made in the ship’s hull, by
shot-plugs, pieces of plank, and sheet-lead. The gunner and his
assistants are busied in replenishing the allotted number of charged
cartridges, to supply the place of those which have been expended, and
in refitting whatever furniture of the cannon may have been damaged by
the late action.

Such is the usual process and consequences of an engagement between two
ships of war, which may be considered as an epitome of a general battle
between fleets or squadrons, The latter, however, involves a greater
variety of incidents, and necessarily requires more comprehensive skill
and judgment in the commanding officer.

When the admiral, or commander in chief, of a naval armament has
discovered an enemy’s fleet, his principal concern is usually to
approach it, and endeavour to come to action as soon as possible. Every
inferior consideration must be sacrificed to this important object; and
every rule of action should tend to hasten and prepare for so material
an event. The state of the wind, and the situation of his adversary,
will, in some measure, dictate the conduct necessary to be pursued with
regard to the disposition of his ships on this occasion. To facilitate
the execution of the admiral’s orders, the whole fleet is ranged into
three squadrons, each of which is classed into three divisions, under
the command of different officers. Before the action begins, the adverse
fleets are commonly drawn up in two lines parallel to each other, and
close-hauled. We have endeavoured to explain the propriety and necessity
of this disposition in the article _Line_. As soon as the admiral
displays the signal for the line of battle, the several divisions
separate from the columns, in which they were disposed in the usual
order of sailing, and every ship crouds into its station in the _wake_,
of the next a-head: and a proper distance from each other, which is
generally about fifty fathom, is regularly observed from the van to the
rear. The admiral, however, will, occasionally, contract or extend his
line, so as to conform to the length of that of his adversary, whose
neglect, or inferior skill, on this occasion, he will naturally convert
to his own advantage; as well as to prevent his own line from being
_doubled_, a circumstance which might throw his van and rear into

When the adverse fleets approach each other, the _courses_ are commonly
hauled up in the brails, and the top-gallant sails and stay sails
furled. The movement of each ship is chiefly regulated by the main and
fore-top sails, and the jib; the mizen-top sail being reserved to hasten
or retard the course of the ship, and, in fine, by _filling_ or
_backing_, _hoisting_ or _lowering_ it, to determine her velocity.

The frigates, tenders, and fire-ships, being also hauled upon a wind,
lie at some distance, ready to execute the admiral’s orders, or those of
his seconds, leaving the line of battle between them and the enemy. If
there are any transports and store-ships attendant on the fleet, these
are disposed still further distant from the action. If the fleet is
superior in number to that of the enemy, the admiral usually selects a
body of reserve from the different squadrons, which will always be of
use to cover the fire-ships, bomb-vessels, &c. and may fall into the
line in any case of necessity: these also are stationed at a convenient
distance from the line, and should evidently be opposite to the weakest
parts thereof.

And here it may not be improper to observe, with an ingenious French
author[20], that order and discipline give additional strength and
activity to a fleet. If thus a double advantage is acquired by every
fleet, it is certainly more favourable to the inferior, which may
thereby change its disposition with greater facility and dispatch than
one more numerous, yet without being separated. When courage is equal to
both, good order is then the only resource of the smaller number. Hence
we may infer that a smaller squadron of men of war, whose officers are
perfectly disciplined in working their ships, may, by its superior
dexterity, vanquish a more powerful one, even at the commencement of the
fight; because the latter being less expert in the order of battle,
will, by its separation, suffer many of the ships to remain useless, or
not sufficiently near, to protect each other[21].

The signal for a general engagement is usually displayed when the
opposite fleets are sufficiently within the _range_ of point-blank shot,
so that they may level the artillery with certainty of execution, which
is near enough for a line of battle. The action is begun and carried on
throughout the fleet, in the manner we have already described between
single ships, at which time the admiral carries little sail, observing,
however, to regulate his own motions by those of the enemy. The ships of
the line mean while keep close in their stations, none of which should
hesitate to advance in their order, although interrupted by the
situation of some ship a-head, which has negligently fallen astern of
her station.

Such is now the practice of naval war, that the necessary order of
battle, and the fabric of our ships, very seldom permit the assault of
_boarding_, unless in single actions. No captain ought therefore to
abandon his station in the line, under any pretence whatsoever, unless
his ship is too much disabled to continue the combat. The small quantity
of sail carried on this occasion will permit the bulk of the fleet,
altho’ somewhat impaired, to continue their cannonade a long time
without quitting the line.

An ambition to distinguish himself should never seduce any captain to
break the line, in order to atchieve any distant enterprize, however the
prospect may flatter him with success. He ought to wait the signal of
the admiral or his commanding officer; because it is more essential to
preserve the regularity of a close line, which constitutes the principal
force of the fleet, than to prosecute a particular action, which,
although brilliant in itself, has seldom any material consequences,
unless its object is to seize a flag-ship, and even this can only be
justified by success[22].

The various exigencies of the combat call forth the skill and resources
of the admiral, to keep his line as complete as possible, when it has
been unequally attacked; by ordering ships from those in reserve, to
supply the place of others which have suffered greatly by the action; by
directing his fire-ships at a convenient time to fall aboard the enemy;
by detaching ships from one part of the line or wing which is stronger,
to another which is greatly pressed by superior force, and requires
assistance. His vigilance is ever necessary to review the situation of
the enemy from van to rear, every motion of whom he should, if possible,
anticipate and frustrate. He should seize the favourable moments of
occasion, which are rapid in their progress, and never return. Far from
being disconcerted by any unforeseen incident, he should endeavour, if
possible, to make it subservient to his design. His experience and
reflection will naturally furnish him with every method of intelligence
to discover the state of his different squadrons and divisions. Signals
of enquiry and answers; of request and assent; of command and obedience;
will be displayed and repeated on this occasion. Tenders and boats will
also continually be detached between the admiral and the commanders of
the several squadrons or divisions.

As the danger presses on him, he ought to be fortified by resolution and
presence of mind, because the whole fleet is committed to his charge,
and the conduct of his officers may, in a great degree, be influenced by
his intrepidity and perseverance. In short, his renown or infamy may
depend on the fate of the day.

If he conquers in battle, he ought to prosecute his victory as much as
possible, by seizing, burning, or destroying the enemies ships. If he is
defeated, he should endeavour by every resource his experience can
suggest, to have as many of his fleet as possible; by employing his
tenders, &c. to take out the wounded and put fresh men in their places;
by towing the disabled ships to a competent distance, and by preventing
the execution of the enemies fire-ships. In order to retreat with more
security, he may judge it expedient to range his fleet into the form of
an half-moon, placing himself in the center. By this disposition the
enemy’s ships which attempt to fall upon his rear, will at once expose
themselves to the fire of the admiral, and his seconds, in a
disadvantageous situation; a circumstance which will serve to facilitate
the escape of his own ships, and retard the pursuit of those of his

If his fleet is too much extended by this arrangement, the wings or
quarters are easily closed, and the half-moon rendered more complete; in
the midst of which may be placed his store-ships, tenders, &c. In
flying, or retreating, the uncertainty of the weather is to be
considered: it may become calm, or the wind may shift in his favour. His
schemes may be assisted by the approach of night, or the proximity of
the land; since he ought rather to run the ships ashore, if practicable,
than suffer them to be taken afloat, and thereby transfer additional
strength to the enemy. In short, nothing should be neglected that may
contribute to the preservation of his fleet, or prevent any part of it
from falling into the hands of the conqueror.

By what we have observed, the real force, or superiority, of a fleet
consists less in the number of vessels, and the vivacity of the action,
than in good order, dexterity in working the ships, presence of mind,
and skilful conduct in the captains.

ENSIGN, _pavillon de pouppe_, (_enseigne_, Fr.) a large standard, or
banner, hoisted on a long pole erected over the poop, and called the

The ensign is used to distinguish the ships of different nations from
each other, as also to characterise the different squadrons of the navy.

The British ensign in ships of war is known by a double cross, viz. that
of St. George and St. Andrew, formed into an union, upon a field which
is either red, white, or blue.

ENTERING ROPES, _tire-veilles_, two ropes hanging from the upper-part of
a ship’s-side, on the right and left of the accommodation-ladder, or
steps of the gangway. See GANGWAY.

ENTRANCE, a name frequently given to the foremost part of a ship under
the surface of the sea.

_To_ EQUIP, a term borrowed from the French marine, and frequently
applied to the business of fitting a ship for sea, or arming her for
war. See the article FITTING.

ESCUTCHEON, (_ecusson_, Fr.) a name sometimes given to the compartment
for the name, or arms, of the owner, or of the person whose title the
vessel assumes: it is usually fixed on the middle of the ship’s stern,
and is more peculiar to the French and other foreigners, than to English
built vessels. See fig. 3, plate 10.

EXERCISE is the preparatory practice of managing the artillery and
small-arms, in order to make the ship’s crew perfectly skilled therein,
so as to direct its execution successfully in the time of battle.

The exercise of the great guns has, till the late war, been very
complicated, and abounding with superfluities, in our navy, as well as
all others. The following method was then successfully introduced by an
officer of distinguished abilities.

                     EXERCISE _of the great guns_.

                      1st. Silence.
                       2d. Cast loose your guns.
                       3d. Level your guns.
                      4th. Take out your tompions.
                      5th. Run out your guns.
                      6th. Prime.
                      7th. Point your guns.
                      8th. Fire.
                      9th. Spunge your guns.
                     10th. Load with cartridge.
                     11th. Shot your guns.
                     12th. Put in your tompions.
                     13th. House your guns.
                     14th. Secure your guns.

“Upon beat to arms[23] (every body having immediately repaired to their
quarters) the midshipman commanding a number of guns, is to see that
they are not without every necessary article, as (at every gun) a
spunge, powder-horn, with its priming wires, and a sufficient quantity
of powder, crow, hand-spike, bed, quoin, train-tackle, &c. sending,
without delay, for a supply of any thing that may be missing; and, for
the greater certainty of not overlooking any deficiency, he is to give
strict orders to each captain under him, to make the like examination at
his respective gun, and to take care that every requisite is in a
serviceable condition, which he is to report accordingly. And (besides
the other advantages of this regulation) for the still more certain and
speedy account being taken upon these occasions, the midshipman is to
give each man his charge at quarters (as expressed in the form of the
monthly report) who is to search for his particular implements, and, not
finding it, is immediately to acquaint his captain, that, upon his
report to the midshipman, it may be replaced.

“The man who takes care of the powder is to place himself on the
opposite side of the deck from that where we engage, except when
fighting both sides at once, when he is to be amidships. He is not to
suffer any other man to take a cartridge from him, but he who is
appointed to serve the gun with that article, either in time of a real
engagement, or at exercise.

“Lanthorns are not to be brought to quarters in the night, until the
midshipman gives his orders for so doing to the person he charges with
that article. Every thing being in its place, and not the least lumber
in the way of the guns, the exercise begins with,

                             1st, Silence.

“At this word every one is to observe a silent attention to the

                       2d. Cast loose your guns.

“The muzzle lashing is to be taken off from the guns, and (being coiled
up in a small compass) is to be made fast to the eye-bolt above the
port. The lashing-tackles at the same time to be cast loose, and the
middle of the breeching seized to the thimble of the pomillion. The
spunge to be taken down, and, with the crow, hand-spike, &c. laid upon
the deck by the gun.

“N. B. When prepared for engaging an enemy, the seizing within the
clinch of the breeching is to be cut, that the gun may come sufficiently
within-board for loading, and that the force of the recoil may be more
spent before it acts upon the breeching.

                          3d. Level your guns.

“The breech of your metal is to be raised so as to admit the foot of the
bed’s being placed upon the axle-tree of the carriage, with the quoin
upon the bed, both their ends being even one with the other.

“N. B. When levelled for firing, the bed is to be lashed to the bolt
which supports the inner end of it, that it may not be thrown out of its
place by the violence of the gun’s motion, when hot with frequent
discharges. See fig. 17, plate VII.

                      4th. Take out your tompions.

“The tompion is to be taken out of the gun’s mouth, and left hanging by
its laniard.

                        5th. Run out your guns.

“With the tackles hooked to the upper-bolts of the carriage, the gun is
to be bowsed out as close as possible, without the assistance of crows
or hand-spikes; taking care at the same time to keep the breeching clear
of the trucks, by hauling it through the rings; it is then to be bent so
as to run clear when the gun is fired. When the gun is out, the
tackle-falls are to be laid along-side the carriages in neat fakes, that
when the gun by recoiling overhauls them, they may not be subject to get
foul, as they would if in a common coil.

                              6th. Prime.

“If the cartridge is to be pierced with the priming wire, and the vent
filled with powder, the pan also is to be filled; and the flat space
having a score through it at the end of the pan, is to be covered, and
this part of the priming is to be bruised with the round part of the

The apron is to be laid over, and the horn hung up out of danger from
the flash of the priming.

                         7th. Point your guns.

“At this command the gun is, in the first place, to be elevated to the
height of the object, by means of the side-sights; and then the person
pointing is to direct his fire by the upper-sight, having a crow on one
side and a hand-spike on the other, to heave the gun by his direction
till he catches the object.

“N. B. The men who heave the gun for pointing, are to stand between the
ship’s side and their crows or hand-spikes, to escape the injury they
might otherwise receive from their being struck against them, or
splintered by a shot; and the man who attends the captain with a match
is to bring it at the word, “Point your guns,” and kneeling upon one
knee opposite the train-truck of the carriage, and at such a distance as
to be able to touch the priming, is to turn his head from the gun, and
keep blowing gently upon the lighted match to keep it clear from ashes.
And as the missing of an enemy in action, by neglect or want of
coolness, is most inexcusable, it is particularly recommended to have
the people thoroughly instructed in pointing well, and taught to know
the ill consequences of not taking proper means to hit their mark;
wherefore they should be made to elevate their guns to the utmost
nicety, and then to point with the same exactness, having caught the
object through the upper-sight at the word,

                               8th. fire.

“The match is instantly to be put to the bruised part of the priming;
and when the gun is discharged the vent is to be closed, in order to
smother any spark of fire that may remain in the chamber of the gun; and
the man who spunges is immediately to place himself by the muzzle of the
gun in readiness, when, at the next word,

                         9th. Spunge your gun.

“The spunge is to be rammed down to the bottom of the chamber, and then
twisted round, to extinguish effectually any remains of fire; and when
drawn out, to be struck against the out-side of the muzzle, to shake off
any sparks or scraps of the cartridge that may have come out with it;
and next its end is to be shifted ready for loading; and while this is
doing, the man appointed to provide a cartridge is to go to the box, and
by the time the spunge is out of the gun, he is to have it ready; and,
at the word,

                       10th. Load with cartridge.

“The cartridge (with the bottom-end first, seam-downwards, and a wad
after it) is to be put into the gun, and thrust a little way within the
mouth, when the rammer is to be entered; the cartridge is then to be
forcibly rammed down, and the captain at the same time is to keep his
priming-wire in the vent, and, feeling the cartridge, is to give the
word _home_, when the rammer is to be drawn, and not before. While this
is doing, the man appointed to provide a shot is to provide one (or two,
according to the order at that time) ready at the muzzle, with a wad
likewise, and when the rammer is drawn, at the word,

                         11th. Shot your guns.

“The shot and wad upon it are to be put into the gun, and thrust a
little way down, when the rammer is to be entered as before. The shot
and wad are to be rammed down to the cartridge, and there have a couple
of forcible strokes, when the rammer is to be drawn, and laid out of the
way of the guns and tackles, if the exercise or action is continued; but
if it is over, the spunge is to be secured in the place it is at all
times kept in.

                      12th. Put in your tompions.

“The tompions to be put into the muzzle of the cannon.

                         13th. House your guns.

“The seizing is to be put on again upon the clinched end of the
breeching, leaving it no slacker than to admit of the guns being housed
with ease. The quoin is to be taken from under the breech of the gun,
and the bed, still resting upon the bolt, within the carriage, thrust
under, till the foot of it falls off the axle-tree, leaving it to rest
upon the end which projects out from the foot. The metal is to be let
down upon this. The gun is to be placed exactly square, and the muzzle
is to be close to the wood, in its proper place for passing the muzzle
lashings. See CANNON, and fig. 19, plate VII.

                        14th. Secure your guns.

“The muzzle lashings must first be made secure, and then with one tackle
(having all its parts equally taught with the breeching) the gun is to
be lashed. The other tackle is to be bowsed taught, and by itself made
fast, that it may be ready to cast off for lashing a second breeching.

“N. B. Care must be taken to hook the first tackle to the upper bolt of
the carriage, that it may not otherwise obstruct the reeving of the
second breeching, and to give the greater length to the end part of the

“No pains must be spared in bowsing the lashing very taught, that the
gun may have the least play that is possible, as their being loose may
be productive of very dangerous consequences.

“The quoin, crow, and handspike, are to be put under the gun, the
powder-horn hung up in its place, &c.

“Being engaged at any time when there is a large swell, a rough sea, or
in squally weather, &c. as the ship may be liable to be suddenly much
heeled, the port-tackle falls is to be kept clear, and (whenever the
working of the gun will admit of it) the man charged with that office is
to keep it in his hand; at the same time the muzzle lashing is to be
kept fast to the ring of the port, and being hauled taught, is to be
fastened to the eye-bolt over the port-hole, so as to be out of the
gun’s way in firing, in order to haul it in at any time of danger.

“This precaution is not to be omitted, when engaging to the windward,
any more than when to the leeward, those situations being very subject
to alter at too short a warning.

“A train tackle is always to be made use of with the lee-guns, and the
man stationed to attend it is to be very careful in preventing the gun’s
running out at an improper time.”

EXERCISE may also be applied with propriety to the forming our fleets
into orders of sailing, lines of battle, &c. an art which the French
have termed _evolutions_, or _tactiques_. In this sense exercise may be
defined, the execution of the movements which the different orders and
disposition of fleets occasionally require, and which the several ships
are directed to perform by means of signals.

EYE _of a block-strop_. In the article BLOCK it has been mentioned, that
a block is commonly bound with a ring, or wreath, formed of a piece of
rope, called the _strop_; the eye of the strop, therefore, is that part
by which it is fastened, or suspended, to any particular place upon the
sails, yards, or rigging, the eye whereof is represented by fig. 37,
plate II. The eye is sometimes formed by fastening the two ends of the
strop together with a short line, so as to bind round a mast, yard, or
boom, as occasion requires. See fig. 38, of the same plate.

EYE _of a stay_, _oeillet_, that part of a stay which is formed into a
sort of collar to go round a mast-head.

EYE-BOLT, a long bar of iron with an eye in one end of it, represented
by fig. 39, plate II. It is formed to be driven into the decks or sides
of a ship for divers purposes, as to hook _tackles_, or fasten ropes to,
as occasion requires.

EYE-LET-HOLE. See the article _Sails_.

EYES _of a ship_, _oeils_, a name frequently given to those parts which
lie near the hause-holes, particularly in the lower apartments within
the vessel.


FACTOR, in commerce, an agent, or correspondent, residing beyond the
seas, or in some remote part, and commissioned by merchants to buy or
sell goods on their account, or assist them to carry on their trade.
Hence any place where a considerable number of factors reside, to
negociate for their masters, or employers, is called a factory; as the
factories of Lisbon, of Leghorn, of Calcutta, &c.

FAG-END, the end of any rope, or cord, which is become untwisted and
loosened by frequent use. To prevent this effect, the ends of ropes are
generally well fastened by winding a piece of small line, or
pack-thread, around them, which operation is called _whipping_.

FAIR, a general term for the disposition of the wind, when it is
favourable to a ship’s course, in opposition to that which is contrary
or _foul_.

This term, when applied to the wind, is much more comprehensive than
_large_, since the former seems to include about eighteen points of the
compass, or at least sixteen; whereas _large_ is confined to the beam or
quarter, that is, to a wind which crosses the keel at right angles, or
obliquely from the stern, but never to one right a-stern. See the
articles LARGE and SCANT.

FAIR-CURVE, a winding line, used in delineating ships, whose shape is
varied according to the part of the ship it is intended to describe:
this curve is not answerable to any of the figures of conic sections,
although it occasionally partakes of them all.

FAIR WAY, the path or channel of a narrow bay, river, or haven, in which
ships usually advance in their passage up and down; so that if any
vessels are anchored therein, they are said to lye in the fair-way.

FAKE, one of the circles, or windings, of a cable, or hauser, as it lies
disposed in the coil. See the article COILING. The fakes are greater or
smaller in proportion to the extent of space which a cable is allowed to
occupy where it lies.

FALL, _garant_, the loose end of a tackle; or that part upon which the
people pull, or hoist, to produce the required effect. See the article

_To_ FALL _aboard_. See the article ABOARD.

_To_ FALL _a-stern_, (_tomber en arriere_,) to be driven backwards; to
retreat with the stern foremost: expressed of the motion of a ship
either under sail or at anchor.

_To_ FALL _calm_, _pacifier_, a phrase expressed of the weather,
implying to fall into a state of rest by a total cessation of the wind.

_To_ FALL _down_, in navigation, to sail, or be conducted from any part
of a river, towards some other nearer to its mouth or opening.

FALLING-OFF, _abatíe_, the movement or direction of the ship’s head to
leeward of the point whither it was lately directed, particularly when
she sails near the wind, or lies by.

_Cat_ FALL. See the article CAT.

FALLING-OFF, is also the angle contained between her nearest approach
towards the source of the wind, and her farthest declination from it,
when TRYING. See that article.

FASHION-PIECES, _estains_, the aft-most or hind-most timbers of a ship,
which terminate the breadth, and form the shape of the stern. They are
united to the stern-post, and to the extremity of the wing-transom by a
rabbit, and a number of strong nails, or spikes, driven from without.
See their connection with the stern post and transom, in plate X. fig.
I. as explained in the article STERN.

FATHOM, _bras_, a measure of six feet, used for a variety of purposes at
sea; as to regulate the length of the rigging, cables, &c. and to divide
the log lines, and sounding-lines.

_To_ FAY, to fit any two pieces of wood so as to join close together.
The plank is said to fay to the timbers, when it bears, or lies, close
to all the timbers. _Murray’s Ship-building._

FENDERS, (from _fend_,) certain pieces of old cable, timber, faggots, or
other materials, hung over the side of a ship or vessel, to prevent it
from striking or rubbing against a wharf, or key: as also to preserve
the smaller vessel from being damaged by the larger ones.

_To_ FETCH WAY, to be shaken or agitated from one side to another. It is
usually applied to a mast, bowsprit, &c. when it is not sufficiently
wedged, being loose in the partners: it is also said of a cask, box, or
such body which moves by the rocking of the ship at sea, as not being
well secured and enclosed.

FETCHING _the pump_, the act of pouring a can of water into the
upper-part of it, to expel the air which is contained between the lower
box, or piston, and the lower-end of the pump that rests upon the ship’s
floor; and accordingly to make the water, poured into the chamber,
communicate with that in the bottom of the pump-well, so as to be thrown
out above by _striking_ with the brake, or handle. See PUMP.

FID, _clef de ton_, a square bar of wood, or iron, with a shoulder at
one end, as represented in plate IV. fig. I. It is used to support the
weight of the top-mast, when erected at the head of the lower-mast, by
passing through a mortise in the lower end of the former, and resting
its ends on the tressel-trees, which are sustained by the head of the
latter. The fid, therefore, must be withdrawn every time the top-mast is
lowered. The top-gallant-mast is retained at the head of the top-mast in
the same manner. See the article MAST.

FID, (_fitta_, Ital.) is also a large pin of hard wood, tapering to a
point, and used for splicing of cables or large cordage.

_Sea_-FIGHT. See the article ENGAGEMENT.

_To_ FILL, in navigation, _faire servir_, to brace the sails in such a
manner, as that the wind, entering their cavities from behind, dilates
them so as to advance the ship in her course, after the sails had for
some time been shivering, or braced aback. See those articles.

FIRE-ARROW, a steel dart used by privateers and pirates to fire the
sails of the enemy in battle: these machines are particularly described
in the article ENGAGEMENT.

FIRE-SHIP, _brulot_, an old vessel filled with combustible materials,
and fitted with grappling-irons to hook, and set fire to, the enemies
ships in battle, &c.

As there is nothing particular in the construction of this ship, except
the apparatus by which the fire is instantly conveyed from one part to
another, and from thence to the enemy, it will be sufficient to describe
the fire-room, where these combustibles are enclosed, together with the
instruments necessary to grapple the ship intended to be destroyed.

The fire-room is built between-decks, and limited on the after-part by a
_bulk-head_, I, behind the main-mast, from which it extends quite
forwards, as represented in fig. 2, plate IV. The train enclosed in this
apartment is contained in a variety of wooden troughs, D, G, which
intersect each other in different parts of the ship’s length; being
supported at proper distances by cross-pieces and stanchions. On each
side of the ship are six or seven ports, H, about eighteen inches broad,
and fifteen inches high, and having their lids to open downward,
contrary to the usual method.


  _PLATE. IV._

Against every port is placed an iron chamber[24], which, at the time of
firing the ship, blows out the port-lid, and opens a passage for the
flame. Immediately under the main and fore shrouds is fixed a wooden
funnel, M; whose lower-end communicates with a fire-barrel[25], by which
the flame passing through the funnel is conducted to the shrouds.
Between the funnels, which are likewise called fire-trunks, are two
_scuttles_, or small-holes in the upper-deck, serving also to let out
the flames. Both funnels must be stopped with plugs, and have
sail-cloth, or canvas, nailed close over them, to prevent any accident
happening from above to the combustibles laid below.

The ports, funnels, and scuttles, not only communicate the flames to the
out-side and upper-works of the ship, and her rigging, but likewise open
a passage for the inward air, confined in the fire-room, which is
thereby expanded so as to force impetuously through those out-lets, and
prevent the blowing up of the decks, which must of necessity happen,
from such a sudden and violent rarefaction of the air as will then be

On each side of the bulk-head behind is cut a hole L, of sufficient size
to admit a trough of the same dimensions as the others. A leading
trough, L I, whose foremost-end communicates with another trough within
the fire-room, is laid close to this opening, from whence it extends
obliquely to a sally-port, I, cut through the ship’s side. The decks and
troughs are well covered with melted rosin. At the time of firing either
of the leading troughs, the flame is immediately conveyed to the
opposite side of the ship, whereby both sides burn together.

The spaces N, O, behind the fire-room, represent the cabins of the
lieutenant and master, one of which is on the _starboard_, and the other
on the _larboard_ side. The captain’s cabin, which is separated from
these by a bulk-head, is exhibited also by P.

                Proportion of Stores for one Fire-ship,

 │            │Number │             │             │             │
 │            │  of   │  Interior   │  Interior   │Height of the│
 │            │stores │ diameter of │ diameter at │composition. │
 │            │of each│  each end.  │ the bulge.  │             │
 │            │nature.│             │             │             │
 │            │       │             │             │             │
 │            │       │             │             │             │
 │            │       │Feet. Inches.│Feet. Inches.│Feet. Inches.│
 │Fire        │      8│  1     8½   │  2     9½   │  2      1   │
 │  barrels,  │       │             │             │             │
 │            │       │             │             │             │
 │Curtains,   │     30│             │             │             │
 │            │       │             │             │             │
 │Bavins,     │    200│             │             │             │
 │            │       │             │             │             │
 │Port fires, │     24│             │             │             │
 │            │       │             │             │             │
 │Reeds│long, │    150│             │             │             │
 │     │      │       │             │             │             │
 │     │short,│     75│             │             │             │
 │     │      │       │             │             │             │
 │     │short │       │             │             │             │
 │     │double│     75│             │             │             │
 │     │dipped│       │             │             │             │
 │            │       │             │             │             │
 │Composition │       │             │             │             │
 │  in        │     3½│             │             │             │
 │  barrels,  │       │             │             │             │
 │            │       │             │             │             │
 │Quick match │       │             │             │             │
 │  in        │      1│             │             │             │
 │  barrels,  │       │             │             │             │
 │            │       │             │             │             │
 │Hand        │     60│             │             │             │
 │  grenadoes,│       │             │             │             │
 │            │       │             │             │             │
 │Chambers for│     12│             │             │             │
 │  ports,    │       │             │             │             │

 │            │             │        │             │             │
 │            │  Greatest   │ Weight │  Length of  │ Diameter of │
 │            │   height.   │ empty. │    one.     │ the breadth │
 │            │             │        │             │   of one.   │
 │            │             │        │             │             │
 │            │             │        │             │             │
 │            │             │        │             │             │
 │            │Feet. Inches.│℔  ℥  ʒ │Feet. Inches.│Feet. Inches.│
 │Fire        │  2      4   │        │             │             │
 │  barrels,  │             │        │             │             │
 │            │             │        │             │             │
 │Curtains,   │             │        │  3      9   │  3      9   │
 │            │             │        │             │             │
 │Bavins,     │             │        │  4      6   │             │
 │            │             │        │             │             │
 │Port fires, │             │        │             │             │
 │            │             │        │             │             │
 │Reeds│long, │             │        │  3      5   │         5   │
 │     │      │             │        │             │             │
 │     │short,│             │        │  2      6   │        4½   │
 │     │      │             │        │             │             │
 │     │short │             │        │             │             │
 │     │double│             │        │  2      6   │        4½   │
 │     │dipped│             │        │             │             │
 │            │             │        │             │             │
 │Composition │             │        │             │             │
 │  in        │             │        │             │             │
 │  barrels,  │             │        │             │             │
 │            │             │        │             │             │
 │Quick match │             │        │             │             │
 │  in        │             │        │             │             │
 │  barrels,  │             │        │             │             │
 │            │             │        │             │             │
 │Hand        │             │        │             │             │
 │  grenadoes,│             │        │             │             │
 │            │             │        │             │             │
 │Chambers for│             │        │             │             │
 │  ports,    │             │        │             │             │

 │            │                                                 │
 │            │                                                 │
 │            │                    Composition.                 │
 │            │                                                 │
 │            │                                                 │
 │            │ Swedish │ Tallow. │  Corn   │  Salt   │ Rosin.  │
 │            │ pitch.  │         │ powder. │ petre.  │         │
 │            │C.│Qr.│℔ │C.│Qr.│℔ │C.│Qr.│℔ │C.│Qr.│℔ │C.│Qr.│℔ │
 │Fire        │  │   │3 │3 │   │  │  │   │6 │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │  barrels,  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Curtains,   │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Bavins,     │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Port fires, │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Reeds│long, │  │ 2 │4 │  │   │6 │  │   │  │  │   │  │1 │   │8 │
 │     │      │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │     │short,│  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │     │      │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │     │short │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │     │double│  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │     │dipped│  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Composition │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │  in        │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │ 1 │22│  │   │6 │
 │  barrels,  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Quick match │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │  in        │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │  barrels,  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Hand        │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │  grenadoes,│  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Chambers for│  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │  ports,    │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │  │   │  │

 │            │                   │
 │            │                   │
 │            │    Composition.   │
 │            │                   │
 │            │                   │
 │            │Sulphur. │ Mealed  │
 │            │         │ powder. │
 │            │C.│Qr.│℔ │C.│Qr.│℔ │
 │Fire        │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │  barrels,  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Curtains,   │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Bavins,     │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Port fires, │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Reeds│long, │  │ 3 │6 │  │   │12│
 │     │      │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │     │short,│  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │     │      │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │     │short │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │     │double│  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │     │dipped│  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Composition │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │  in        │  │ 1 │12│  │ 3 │16│
 │  barrels,  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Quick match │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │  in        │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │  barrels,  │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Hand        │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │  grenadoes,│  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │            │  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │Chambers for│  │   │  │  │   │  │
 │  ports,    │  │   │  │  │   │  │

Four of the eight fire-barrels are placed under the four fire-trunks;
and the other four between them, two on each side the fire-skuttles,
where they are securely _cleated_ to the deck. The longest reeds[26] are
put into the fore and aft troughs, and tied down: the shortest reeds are
laid in the troughs athwart, and tied down also. The bavins[27], dipped
at one end, are tied fast to the troughs over the reeds and the curtains
are nailed up to the beams, in equal quantities, on each side of the

The remainder of the reeds are placed in a position nearly upright, at
all the angles of every square in the fire-room, and there tied down. If
any reeds are left, they are to be put round the fire-barrels, and other
vacant places, and there tied fast.

                         Instructions to prime.

Take up all your reeds, one after another, and strow a little
composition at the bottom of all the troughs under the reeds, and then
tye them gently down again: next strow composition upon the upper part
of the reeds throughout the fire-room, and upon the said composition lay
double quick-match[28] upon all the reeds, in all the troughs: the
remainder of the composition strow over all the fire-room, and then lay
your bavins loose.

Cast off all the covers of the fire-barrels, and hang the quick-match
loose over their sides, and place leaders of quick-match from the reeds
into the barrels, and from thence into the vent of the chambers, in such
a manner as to be certain of their blowing open the ports, and setting
fire to the barrels. Two troughs of communication from each door of the
fire-room to the sally-ports, must be laid with a strong leader of
quick-match, four or five times double: also a cross-piece to go from
the sally-port, when the ship is fired, to the communication trough,
laid with leaders of quick-match, that the fire may be communicated to
both sides at once.

What quick-match is left, place so that the fire may be communicated to
all parts of the room at once, especially about the ports and
fire-barrels, and see that the chambers are well and fresh primed.

N. B. The port-fires[29] used for firing the ship, burns about twelve
minutes. Great care must be taken to have no powder on board when the
ship is fired.

The sheer-hooks represented by fig. 3, plate IV. are fitted so as to
fasten on the yard-arms of the fire-ship, where they hook the enemies
rigging. The fire-grapplings, fig. 4, are either fixed on the yard-arms,
or thrown by hand, having a chain to confine the ships together, or
fasten those instruments wherever necessary.

When the commanding officer of a fleet displays the signal to prepare
for action, the fire-ships fix their sheer-hooks, and dispose their
grapplings in readiness. The battle being begun, they proceed
immediately to prime, and prepare their fire-works. When they are ready
for grappling, they inform the admiral thereof by a particular signal.

To avoid being disabled by the enemy’s cannon during a general
engagement, the fire-ships continue sufficiently distant from their line
of battle, either to windward or to leeward.

They cautiously shun the openings, or intervals, of the line, where they
would be directly exposed to the enemy’s fire, from which they are
covered by lying on the opposite side of their own ships. They are
attentively to observe the signals of the admiral, or his seconds, in
order to put their designs immediately in execution.

Although no ship of the line should be previously appointed to protect
any fire-ship, except a few of the smallest particularly destined to
this service, yet the ship before whom she passes in order to approach
the enemy, should escort her thither, and assist her with an armed boat,
or whatever succour may be necessary in her situation[30].

The captain of the fire-ship should himself be particularly attentive
that the above instructions are punctually executed, and that the yards
may be so braced, when he falls along-side of the ship intended to be
destroyed, that the sheer-hooks and grapplings fastened to the yardarms,
&c. may effectually hook the enemy. He is expected to be the last person
who quits the vessel, and being furnished with every necessary
assistance and support, his reputation will greatly depend on the
success of his enterprise.

FISH, a machine employed to hoist or draw up the flukes of the ship’s
anchor towards the top of the bow in order to stow it, after having been
heaved up by the cable. It is composed of four parts, viz. the pendant,
the block, the hook, and the tackle; which, together with their several
uses, are described in the article DAVIT.

FISH, _jumelle_, is also a long piece of oak, convex on one side, and
concave on the other. It is used to fasten upon the outside of the lower
masts, either as an additional security, to strengthen them when it
becomes necessary to carry an extraordinary pressure of sail, in pursuit
of, or flight from, an enemy, or to reinforce them after they have
received some damage in battle, tempestuous weather, &c.

The fishes are also employed for the same purpose on any yard, which
happens to be sprung or fractured. Thus their form, application, and
utility are exactly like those of the splinters applied to a broken limb
in surgery.

FISH-GIG, _foesne_, an instrument used to strike fish at sea,
particularly dolphins. It consists of a staff, three or four barbed
prongs, and a line fastened to the end, on which the prongs are fixed:
to the other end is fitted a piece of lead, which serves to give
additional force to the stroke when the weapon flies, and to turn the
points upward after the fish is penetrated.

FITTING-OUT, _equiper_, the act of providing a ship with a sufficient
number of men, to navigate and arm her for attack or defence: also to
furnish her with proper masts, sails, yards, ammunition, artillery,
cordage, anchors, and other naval furniture; together with sufficient
provisions for the ship’s company.

FLAG, _pavillon_, (_flag_, Dutch) a certain banner or standard, by which
an admiral is distinguished at sea from the inferior ships of his
squadron; also the colours by which one nation is distinguished from

In the British navy flags are either red, white, or blue, and are
displayed from the top of the main-mast, fore-mast, or mizen-mast,
according to the rank of the admiral.

The first flag in Great Britain is the royal standard, which is only to
be hoisted when the king or queen are aboard the vessel: the second is
that of the anchor of hope, which characterizes the lord high admiral,
or lords commissioners of the admiralty: and the third is the union
flag, in which the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew are blended.
This last is appropriated to the admiral of the fleet, who is the first
military officer under the lord high admiral.

When a flag is displayed from the flag-staff on the main-mast, the
officer distinguished thereby, is known to be an admiral; when from the
fore-mast, a vice-admiral; and when from the mizen-mast, a rear-admiral.

The next flag after the union is that of the white squadron, at the
main-mast, and the last, which characterizes an admiral, is the blue, at
the same mast-head.

For a vice-admiral, the first flag is the red; the second, the white;
the third, the blue, at the flag-staff on the fore-mast.

The same order proceeds with regard to the rear-admirals, whose flags
are hoisted on the top of the mizen-mast: the lowest flag in our navy is
accordingly the blue on the mizen-mast.

FLAG-OFFICER, a term synonimous to admiral.

FLAG-SHIP, the ship on which any flag is displayed.

FLAG-STAFF, _baton_, a pole erected at the head of a top-gallant-mast,
or top-mast, whereon to hoist and display the flag or pendant.

FLAKE, _echafaud_, a sort of scaffold or platform, formed of hurdles and
supported by stanchions, and used for drying cod-fish in Newfoundland.
These flakes are usually placed near the shores of fishing-harbours.

FLAT, _plain_, a level ground lying at a small depth under the surface
of the sea, and otherwise called a shoal or shallow.

_To_ FLAT-IN, the action of drawing in the aftmost lower-corner, or clue
of a sail towards the middle of the ship, to give the sail the greater
power of turning the vessel. Thus if the mizen, or after-sails are
flatted-in, it is evident that the intention is to carry the stern to
leeward, and turn the head nearer to the direction of the wind: and if
the head-sails are slatted-in, the intention is accordingly to make the
ship _fall off_, when by design or accident she has come so near the
wind as to make the sails shiver. Hence

FLAT-IN FORWARD, _traverse misaine_, is the order to draw in the
fore-sheet, jib-sheet, and fore-stay-sail-sheet, towards the middle of
the ship. This operation is seldom performed, except in light breezes of
wind, when the helm has not sufficient government of the ship.

FLEET, _vaisseaux du roi_, (_flota_, Sax.) a general name given to his
majesty’s navy, or to any part thereof destined on a particular
enterprise or expedition: also a convoy or company of merchant ships,
_flotte_, _conserve_, with or without ships of war to defend them.

The admirals of his majesty’s fleet are classed into three squadrons,
viz. the red, the white, and the blue. When any of these officers are
invested with the command of a squadron or detachment of men of war, the
particular ships are distinguished by the colours of their respective
squadron: that is to say, the ships of the red squadron wear an ensign,
whose union is displayed on a red field; the ensigns of the white
squadron have a white field; and those of the blue squadron, a blue
field; the union being common to all three. The ships of war therefore
are occasionally annexed to any of the three squadrons, or shifted from
one to another.

Of whatsoever number a fleet of ships of war is composed, it is usually
divided into three squadrons; and these, if numerous, are again
separated into divisions. The admiral, or principal officer, commands
the centre; the vice-admiral, or second in command, superintends the
van-guard; and the operations of the rear are directed by the
rear-admiral, or the officer next in rank. See the article DIVISION.

The disposition of a fleet, while proceeding on a voyage, will in some
measure depend on particular circumstances; as the difficulty of the
navigation; the necessity of dispatch, according to the urgency or
importance of the expedition; or the expectation of an enemy in the
passage. The most convenient order is probably to range it into three
lines or columns, each of which is parallel to a line close-hauled
according to the tack, on which the line of battle is designed to be
formed. This arrangement is more used than any, because it contains the
advantages of every other form, without their inconveniences. The fleet
being thus more inclosed, will more readily observe the signals, and
with greater facility form itself into the line of battle; a
circumstance which should be kept in view in every order of sailing.

FLEETING, the act of changing the situation of a tackle, when the blocks
are drawn together; or what is called _block and block_ by sailors. The
use of fleeting is accordingly to replace the mechanical powers into a
state of action; the force by which they operated before being destroyed
by the meeting of the blocks or pullies.

Fleeting therefore is nearly similar to the winding up of a watch or
clock. See the article TACKLE.

FLOAT, a raft, or quantity of timber fastened together across, to be
wafted along a river with the tide or current.

FLOATING, (_flotter_, Fr.) the state of being borne up, or wafted along
with the tide on the surface of the water, the theory of which is
explained in the article Trim.

FLOOR, the bottom of a ship; or all that part on each side of the keel,
which approaches nearer to an horizontal, than a perpendicular
situation, and whereon she rests when aground. Thus it is common to say,
a sharp floor, a flat floor, a long floor, &c. Whence

FLOOR-TIMBERS, _varangues_, are those parts of the ship’s timbers which
are placed immediately across the keel, and upon which the bottom of the
ship is framed: to these the upper parts of the _timbers_ are united,
being only a continuation of floor-timbers upwards. See _Naval_

FLOWING, the position of the _sheets_, or lower corners of the principal
sails, when they are loosened to the wind, so as to receive it into
their cavities in a direction more nearly perpendicular than when they
are _close-hauled_, although more obliquely than when the vessel is
sailing before the wind.

A ship is therefore said to have a flowing sheet when the wind crosses
the line of her course nearly at right angles: that is to say, a ship
steering due north, with the wind at east, or directly on her side, will
have a flowing sheet; whereas if the sheets were extended close aft, she
would sail two points nearer the wind, viz. N. N. E. See the articles

FLY _of an ensign_, _battant_, the breadth or extent from the staff to
the extremity or edge that flutters loose in the wind.

FLY-BOAT, or FLIGHT, a large flat-bottomed Dutch vessel, whose burthen
is generally from four to six hundred tons. It is distinguished by a
stern remarkably high, resembling a Gothic turret, and by very broad
buttocks below.


  _PLATE. V._

FOOT _of a sail_, _fond de voile_, lower edge or bottom.

FOOT-ROPE, the rope to which the foot of a sail is sewed. See BOLT-ROPE.

FOOT-ROPES are also the same with horses of the yards. See that article.

FOOT-WALEING, the whole inside planks or lining of a ship, used to
prevent any part of the ballast or cargo from falling between the
floor-timbers. See MIDSHIP-FRAME.

FORE, the distinguishing character of all that part of a ship’s frame
and machinery which lies near the stem.

FORE AND AFT, throughout the ship’s whole length, or from end to end.

FORE BOWLINE, the bowline of the fore-sail. See BOWLINE.

FORE-CASTLE, _gaillard d’avant_, a short deck placed in the fore part of
the ship, above the upper deck. It is usually terminated, both before
and behind, by a breast-work in vessels of war; the foremost end forming
the top of the _beak-head_, and the hind part reaching to the after part
of the fore-chains.

FORE-CAT-HARPINGS, a complication of ropes used to brace in the upper
part of the fore-shrouds. See CAT-HARPINGS.

FORE-FOOT, _brion_, a piece of timber which terminates the keel at the
fore end. It is connected by a scarf to the extremity of the keel, of
which it makes a part: and the other end of it, which is incurvated
upwards into a sort of knee or crotch, is attached to the lower end of
the stem, of which it also makes a part, being also called the _gripe_.

As the lower arm of the fore-foot lies on the same level with the keel,
so the upper one coincides with the middle line of the stem: its breadth
and thickness therefore correspond to the dimensions of those pieces,
and the heel of the cut-water is scarfed to its upper end.

The form of this piece, and its disposition and connexion with the
adjacent pieces, appears by the letter _i_, in plate I. PIECES OF THE

FORE-HOOKS, the same with breast-hooks, which see.

FORELAND, a cape or promontory projecting into the sea; as the North or
South Forelands.

FORE-LOCK, _clavette_, a little flat-pointed wedge of iron, used to
drive through a hole in the end of a bolt, to retain it firmly in its

              FORE-JEARS.            See JEARS.
              FORE-MAST.                 MAST.
              FORE-SAIL.                 SAIL.
              FORE-SHROUDS.              SHROUDS.
              FORE-STAY.                 STAY.
              FORE-TOP.                  TOP.
              FORE-TOP-MAST.             TOP-MAST.
              FORE-TYE.                  TYE.
              FORE-YARD, &c.             YARD, &C.

N B. By referring to the articles _Top-mast_ and _Top-gallant-mast_, we
mean to comprehend all the apparatus thereto belonging, as their yards,
sails, &c.

FORE-REACHING UPON, the act of advancing before, or gaining ground of,
some other ship or ships in company.

FORGING OVER, the act of forcing a ship violently over a shoal, by the
effort of a great quantity of sail.

FORMING _the Line_. See the article LINE.

FORWARD, _avant_, towards the fore part of the ship. See AFORE.

FOTHERING, a peculiar method of endeavouring to stop a leak in the
bottom of a ship while she is afloat, either under sail or at anchor. It
is usually performed in the following manner: a basket is filled with
ashes, cinders, and chopped rope-yarns, _bonette lardeé_, and loosely
covered with a piece of canvas; to this is fastened a long pole, by
which it is plunged repeatedly in the water, as close as possible to the
place where the leak is conjectured to lie. The oakum, or chopped
rope-yarns, being thus gradually shaken through the twigs, or over the
top of the basket, are frequently sucked into the hole along with the
water, so that the leak becomes immediately choaked, and the future
entrance of the water is thereby prevented.

FOUL, _empecheé_, as a sea-term, is generally used in opposition to
clear, and implies intangled, embarrassed, or contrary, in the following

A ship ran foul of us in the river, _i. e._ entangled herself amongst
our rigging.

FOUL, when expressed of a ship’s bottom, denotes that it is very dirty;
as being covered with grass, sea-weeds, shells, or other filth which
gathers to it during the course of a long voyage. When understood of the
ground or bottom of a road, bay, sea-coast, or harbour, _mal sain_, it
signifies rocky, or abounding with shallows, or otherwise dangerous.

When spoken of the hawse, it means that the cables are turned round each
other, by the winding or turning about of the ship while she rides at
anchor. See ELBOW and HAWSE.

FOUL, when applied to the wind, is used to express that it is
unfavourable, or contrary to the ship’s course, as opposed to _large_ or

_To_ FOUNDER, _sancir_, to sink at sea, as being rendered, by the
violence and continuation of a storm, and the excess of the leaks,
unable to keep the ship afloat above the water.

FOX, a sort of _strand_, formed by twisting several rope-yarns together,
and used as a _seizing_, or to weave a _mat_ or _paunch_, &c.


FRAPPING, the act of crossing and drawing together the several parts of
a tackle, or other complication of ropes, which had already been
straitened to their utmost extent: in this sense it exactly resembles
the operation of bracing up a drum, &c. The frapping always increases
the tension, and of course adds to the security acquired by the
purchase. Hence the cat-harpings are no other than frappings to the

FRAPPING _a ship_, _ceintrer_, the act of passing three, four, or five
turns of a cable round the hull, or frame of a ship, in the middle, to
support her in a great storm, when it is apprehended that she is not
strong enough to resist the violent efforts of the sea. This expedient
however is rarely put in practice, unless in very old ships, which their
owners are willing to venture to sea as long as possible, by ensuring
them deeply.

FREEING, _affranchir_, the act of pumping, or otherwise throwing out the
water which has leaked into a ship’s bottom at sea, &c.

FREEZING, a sort of ornamental painting on the upper part of a ship’s
_quarter_, _stern_, or _bow_. It consists generally of armour,
instruments of war, marine emblems, &c.

FREIGHT, or _fraight of a ship_ (_affretement_) the hire, or a part
thereof, usually paid for the carriage and conveyance of goods; or the
sum agreed, upon between the owner and the merchant for the hire and use
of a vessel.

FREIGHT also implies the lading or cargo which she has aboard.

FRESH, when applied to the wind, generally signifies strong, but not
violent or dangerous: hence when the gale increases, it is said to

_To_ FRESHEN _the hawse_, _refraichir_, to relieve that part of the
cable which for some time has been exposed to the friction in one of the
_hawse-holes_, produced by the rocking and pitching of a ship as she
rides at anchor in a high sea.

When a ship remains in such a situation, it is always necessary to wrap
some old canvas, mat, leather, or such like material, round that part of
the cable which rubs against the _stem_, &c. The matter used for this
purpose is called _service_: but as the violent agitation of the ship,
produced by the tempest, or sea, as she rides in an open road, must
communicate a great friction to the cable, the service will consequently
be soon worn through: it is necessary therefore to have it frequently
renewed by a fresh application of the like materials, behind the former,
for the preservation of the cable, on which every thing depends; and
this renewal of service is called _freshening the hawse_, a circumstance
which cannot be too vigilantly observed.

FRESHES, _souberme_, imply the impetuosity of an ebb-tide, increased by
heavy rains, and flowing out into the sea, which it often discolours to
a considerable distance from the shore; inasmuch as the line, which
divides the two colours, may be perceived distinctly for a great length
along the coast.

FRIGATE, (_fregate_, Fr.) in the navy, a light nimble ship built for the
purposes of sailing swiftly. These vessels mount from twenty to
thirty-eight guns, and are esteemed excellent cruizers.

FRIGATE-BUILT, _fregaté_, implies the disposition of the decks of such
merchant ships as have a descent of four or five steps from the
_quarter-deck_ and _fore-castle_ into the _waist_, in contra-distinction
to those whose decks are on a continued line for the whole length of the
ship, which are called _galley-built_. See the article FLUSH.

Formerly the name of frigate was only known in the Mediterranean, and
applied to a kind of long vessel, navigated in that sea with sails and
oars. The English were the first who appeared on the ocean with those
ships, and equipped them for war as well as commerce.

FULL AND BY, _pres & plein_, the situation of a ship with regard to the
wind, when she is close-hauled, and sailing in such a manner as neither
to steer too nigh the direction of the wind, nor to deviate to leeward;
both of which movements are unfavourable to her course, as in the former
her sails will shiver, and render the effort of the wind precarious and
ineffectual; and in the latter she will advance in a direction widely
distant from her real course. Hence, keep her full! _defie du vent!_ is
the order from the pilot or other officer to the helmsman, not to
incline too much to windward, and thereby shake the sails so as to
retard the course.

FURLING, (_ferler_, Fr.) the operation of wrapping or rolling a sail
close up to the _yard_, _stay_, or _mast_ to which it belongs, and
winding a gasket or cord about it to fasten it thereto. And hence

FURLING-LINE denotes a cord employed in this office: those which are
used for the larger sails are generally flat, and are known by the name
of _gaskets_.

FUTTOCKS, the middle division of a ship’s timbers; or those parts which
are situated between the _floor_ and the top-timbers. See this fully
explained in the article TIMBER.

As the epithet _hooked_ is frequently applied in common language to any
thing bent or incurvated, and particularly to several crooked timbers in
a ship, as the _breast-hooks_, _fore-hooks_, _after-hooks_, &c. this
term is evidently derived from the lowest part or _foot_ of the timber,
and from the shape of the piece. Hence



GAFF, a sort of boom or pole, frequently used in small ships, to extend
the upper edge of the mizen; and always employed for the same purpose on
those sails whose foremost edges are joined to the mast by hoops or
lacings, and which are usually extended by a _boom_ below. Such are the
main-sails of all sloops, brigs, and schooners.

The foremost, or inner extremity of the gaff, is furnished with two
cheeks forming a semi-circle, which incloses the after-part of the mast
so as to confine the gaff close to its respective mast whilst the sail
is hoisting or lowering. It is further secured in this situation by a
rope passing from one of the cheeks to the other on the fore side of the
mast; and to prevent the friction of this rope upon the mast, by
hoisting or lowering, several little wooden balls, called _trucks_, are
hung upon it, in the same manner as the holy beads are hung upon a
catholic’s rosary.


_To_ GAIN _the wind_, in navigation, _gagner au vent_, to arrive on the
weather-side, or to windward of, some other vessel in sight, when both
are plying to windward, or sailing as near the wind as possible.

GALE _of wind_, a phrase used by sailors to express a storm or tempest.
It is more particularly termed a hard gale, or strong gale.

GALEON, a name formerly given to ships of war, furnished with three or
four batteries of cannon. It is now retained only by the Spaniards, and
applied to the largest size of their merchant ships, employed on
West-Indian voyages, and usually furnished with four decks. They
likewise bestow the same name on those vessels, whether great or small,
which proceed annually to La Vera Cruz. The Portugueze also have several
ships which they send to India and the Brazils, nearly resembling the
galeons, and by them called _caragues_.

GALLED, _raqué_, the state of a mast, yard, cable, or other rope, when
it is deprived of the surface, and chafed by friction. To preserve those
articles from being damaged by this effect, it is therefore usual to
cover them with skins, mats, canvas, or such materials, in the places
where they are the most exposed to it by the rocking of the vessel. See
the article SERVICE.

GALLERY, a balcony projecting from the _stern_ or _quarter_ of a ship of
war, or large merchantman. In the former, the stern-gallery is usually
decorated with a ballustrade, extending from one side of the ship to the
other; the fore-part is limited by a partition called the skreen-bulk
head, in which are framed the cabin windows; and the roof of it is
formed by a sort of vault, termed the _cove_, which is frequently
ornamented with sculpture. See STERN.

The quarter gallery of a ship of 74 guns is represented at large, in the
plate referred to from the article QUARTER.

GALLEY, _galere_, a kind of low flat-built vessel, furnished with one
deck, and navigated with sails and oars, particularly in the

The largest sort of these vessels, _galeasse_, is employed only by the
Venetians. They are commonly 162 feet long above, and 133 feet by the
keel; 32 feet wide, with 23 feet length of stern-post. They are
furnished with three masts, and thirty-two banks of oars; every bank
containing two oars, and every oar being managed by six or seven slaves,
who are usually chained thereto. In the fore-part they have three little
batteries of cannon, of which the lowest is of two 36 pounders, the
second of two 24 pounders, and the uppermost of two 2 pounders: three 18
pounders are also planted on each quarter. The compliment of men for one
of these galleys is generally 1000 or 1200. They are esteemed extremely
convenient for bombarding or making a descent upon an enemy’s coast, as
drawing but little water; and having by their oars frequently the
advantage of a ship of war, in light winds or calms, by cannonading the
latter near the surface of the water; by scouring her whole length with
their shot, and at the same time keeping on her quarter or bow, so as to
be out of the direction of her cannon.

The gallies next in size to these, which are also called half-gallies,
are from 120 to 130 feet long, 18 feet broad, and 9 or 10 feet deep.
They have two masts, which may be struck at pleasure, and are furnished
with two large lateen sails, and five pieces of cannon. They have
commonly 25 banks of oars, as described above. A size still less than
these are called quarter-gallies, carrying from twelve to sixteen banks
of oars. There are very few gallies now besides those in the
Mediterranean, which are found by experience to be of little utility,
except in fine weather; a circumstance which renders their service
extremely precarious. They generally keep close under the shore, but
sometimes venture out to sea to perform a summer cruise. See the
articles QUARTER and VESSEL.

GAMMONING, _lieure_, a rope used to bind the inner quarter of the
bowsprit close down to the ship’s stem, in order to enable it the better
to support the stays of the fore-mast, and carry sail in the fore part
of the vessel. Seven or eight turns of this rope, fig. 7. plate IV. are
passed over the bowsprit A, and through a large hole in the stem or knee
of the head Y alternately: after all the turns are drawn as firm as
possible, the opposite ones are braced together under the bowsprit by a
_frapping_, as exhibited in the same figure.

GANG, a select number of a ship’s crew appointed on any particular
service, and commanded by an officer suitable to the occasion.

GANG-BOARD, _planche_, a board or plank with several cleats or steps
nailed upon it for the convenience of walking into, or out of, a boat
upon the shore, where the water is not deep enough to float the boat
close to the landing-place.

GANGWAY, _passe-avant_, a narrow platform, or range of planks, laid
horizontally along the upper part of a ship’s side, from the
quarter-deck to the forecastle, for the convenience of walking more
expeditiously, _fore and aft_, than by descending into the waist. This
platform is therefore peculiar to ships which are _deep-waisted_. It is
fenced on the outside by several small iron pillars, and a rope extended
from one to the other; and sometimes by a netting, to prevent any one
from falling off into the sea when the ship is in motion. This is
frequently called the gang-board in merchant vessels.

GANGWAY, _echelle_, is also that part of a ship’s side, both within and
without, by which the passengers enter and depart. It is for this
purpose provided with a sufficient number of steps, or _cleats_, nailed
upon the ship’s side, nearly as low as the surface of the water; and
sometimes furnished with a railed accommodation-ladder, whose lower end
projects from the ship’s side, being secured in this position by iron
braces, so as to render the ascent and descent extremely convenient.

GANGWAY, _accoursie_, is likewise used to signify a passage left in the
hold, when a ship is laden, in order to arrive at any particular place
therein, occasionally; as to examine the situation of the provisions or
cargo; to discover and stop a leak; or to bring out any article required
for service; &c. Finally, a gangway implies a thoroughfare, or narrow
passage of any kind.

GARLAND, a sort of net, whose opening is extended by a wooden hoop of
sufficient size to admit a bowl or platter within it. It is accordingly
used by the sailors as a locker or cupboard to contain their provisions,
being hung up to the deck within the _birth_, where they commonly mess

_Shot_-GARLAND, _epitie_, a piece of timber nailed horizontally along
the ship’s side from one gun-port to another, and used to contain the
round-shot ready for charging the great guns in battle. For this purpose
it is furnished with several semi-globular cavities, corresponding to
the size of the cannon-balls which it is employed to contain.

GARNET, _garant_, a sort of tackle fixed to the main-stay of a merchant
ship, and used to hoist in and out the goods of which the cargo is

GARNET is also a small tackle fastened to the clues or lower corners of
the main-sail or fore-sail, for the purpose of trussing up those sails,
as occasion requires; and hence it is called CLUE-GARNET, which see.

GARBOARD-STREAK, _gabord_, in ship-building, the first range or _streak_
of planks laid upon a ship’s bottom next to the keel, throughout the
whole length of the floor. The edge of this plank is let into a groove
or channel in the side of the keel, which is called the rabbit of the

GASKET, _garcet_, a sort of platted cord fastened to the sail-yards of a
ship, and used to _furl_ or tie up the sail firmly to the yard. This is
performed by wrapping the gasket round the yard and sail six or seven
times, the turns being at a competent distance from each other.

GAUNTLOPE, pronounced gauntlet, a race which a criminal is sentenced to
run in a vessel of war, as a punishment for felony, or some other
heinous offence.

It is executed in the following manner: the whole ship’s crew is
disposed in two rows, standing face to face on both sides of the deck,
so as to form a lane, whereby to go _forward_ on one side, and return
_aft_ on the other; each person being furnished with a small twisted
cord, called a knittle, having two or three knots upon it. The
delinquent is then stripped naked above the waist, and ordered to pass
forward between the two rows of men, and aft on the other side, a
certain number of times, rarely exceeding three; during which every
person gives him a stripe as he runs along. In his passage through this
painful ordeal he is sometimes tripped up, and very severely handled
while incapable of proceeding. This punishment, which is called _running
the gauntlet_, _courir la bouline_, is seldom inflicted except for such
crimes as will naturally excite a general antipathy amongst the seamen;
as on some occasions the culprit would pass without receiving a single
blow, particularly in cases of mutiny or sedition, to the punishment of
which, our common sailors seem to have a constitutional aversion.


GIMBALS, _balanciers_, the brass rings by which a sea-compass is
suspended in its box that usually stands in the binacle. See the article

GIMBLETING, a term particularly applied to the anchor, to denote the
action of turning it round by the stock, so that the motion of the stock
appears similar to that of the handle of a gimblet, when it is employed
to turn the wire.

GIRT, the situation of a ship which is moored so strait by her cables,
extending from the _hause_ to two distant anchors, as to be prevented
from swinging or turning about, according to any change of the wind or
tide, to the current of which her head would otherwise be directed.

The cables are extended in this manner, by a strong application of
mechanical powers within the ship; so that as she veers, or endeavours
to swing about, her side bears upon one of the cables, which catches on
her heel, and interrupts her in the act of traversing. In this position
she must ride with her broadside or stern to the wind or current, till
one or both of the cables are slackened so as to sink under the keel;
after which the ship will readily yield to the effort of the wind or
current, and turn her head thither. See the article RIDING.

GIRT-LINE, _cartahu_, a rope passing through a single block, on the head
of the lower masts, to hoist up the rigging thereof; as also the persons
employed to place the rigging and cross-trees upon the mast-heads. The
girt-line is therefore the first rope employed to rig a ship, and by
means of this all the rest are drawn up and fixed; after which it is
removed till the ship is to be unrigged.

GONDOLA, a sort of _barge_, curiously ornamented, and navigated on the
canals of Venice; also a passage-boat of six or eight oars, in other
parts of the coast of Italy.

GOOGINGS, _femelles_, certain clamps of iron bolted on the stern-post of
a ship, whereon to hang the rudder, and keep it steddy; for which
purpose there is a hole in each of them, to receive a correspondent
spindle bolted on the back of the rudder, which turns thereby as upon
hinges. There are generally four, five, or six googings on a ship’s
stern-post and rudder, according to her size, and upon these the rudder
is supported, and traverses from side to side as upon an axis. See HELM.

GOOSE-NECK, a sort of iron hook fitted on the inner end of a boom, and
introduced into a clamp of iron, or eye-bolt, which encircles the mast,
or is fitted to some other place in the ship, so that it may be unhooked
at pleasure. See BOOM.

GOOSE-WINGS _of a sail_, the clues or lower corners of a ship’s
main-sail, or fore-sail, when the middle part is furled or tied up to
the yard.

The goose-wings are only used in a great storm to scud before the wind,
when the sail at large, or even diminished by a _reef_, would be too
great a pressure on the ship, in that situation.

GORING, _langue_, that part of the skirts of a sail, where it gradually
widens from the upper part or head, towards the bottom: the
goring-cloths are therefore those, which are cut obliquely, and added to
the breadth. See Sail.

GRAPPLING, (_grapin_, Fr.) a sort of small anchor, fitted with four or
five flukes or claws, plate IV. fig. 5. and commonly used to ride a boat
or other small vessel.

_Fire_-GRAPPLING, _grapin d’abordage_, an instrument nearly resembling
the former, but differing in the construction of its flukes, which are
furnished with strong barbs on their points, fig. 4. plate IV. These
machines are usually fixed on the yard-arms of a ship, in order to
grapple any adversary whom she intends to board. They are however more
particularly useful in _fire-ships_, for the purposes described in that

GRATINGS, _caillebotis_, a sort of open covers for the hatches, formed
by several small laths or battens of wood, which cross each other at
right angles, leaving a square interval between. They are formed to
admit the air and light from above into the lower apartments of the
ship, particularly when the turbulence of the sea or weather renders it
necessary to shut the ports between decks; and also to let the smoke
escape from the lower decks in the time of battle.

GRAVING, _oeuvres de marée_, the act of cleaning a ship’s bottom when
she is laid aground during the recess of the tide. See the article
BREAMING, where this operation is particularly explained.

GRIPES, _haubans de chaloupe_, a machine formed by an assemblage of
ropes, hooks, and _dead-eyes_, and used to secure the boats upon the
deck of a ship at sea, and prevent them from being shaken by the
labouring of the vessel. The hooks, which are fastened at their ends,
are fixed in ring-bolts in the deck on each side of the boat; whence,
passing over her middle and extremities, they are extended by means of
the dead-eyes, so as to render the boats as firm and secure as possible.

GRIPING, _ardent_, the inclination of a ship to run to windward of her
course, particularly when she sails with the wind on her beam or
quarter. This effect is partly occasioned by the shock of the waves that
strike the ship perpetually on the weather-quarter, and force the stern
to leeward; but chiefly by the arrangement of the sails, which disposes
the ship continually to edge to windward, while in this situation of

GROMMET, _daillot_, a sort of small wreath, formed of a _strand_ of
rope, and used to fasten the upper edge of a stay-sail to its respective
stay, in different places. By means of the grommets, the sail is
accordingly hoisted or lowered, _i. e._ drawn up or down upon its stay,
in the same manner as a curtain is extended or drawn along upon its rod,
by the assistance of rings. See also the article HANK.

GROUNDING, the act of laying a ship ashore, in order to bream or repair
her. It is also applied to running aground accidentally when under sail,
or driving in a tempest.

GROUND-TACKLE, _amarrages_, a general name given to all sorts of ropes
and furniture which belong to the anchors, or which are employed in
mooring, or otherwise securing a ship in a road or harbour; as cables,
hausers, tow-lines, warps, and buoy-ropes.

GROWING, implies the direction of the cable from the ship towards the
anchors; as, the cable grows on the starboard-bow, _i. e._ stretches out
forwards on the starboard, or right side.

GUARD-BOAT, a boat appointed to row the rounds amongst the ships of war
which are laid up in any harbour, &c. to observe that their officers
keep a good look-out, calling to the guard-boat as she passes, and not
suffering her crew to come aboard, without having previously
communicated: the watch-word of the night.

GUARD-IRONS, certain curved or arched bars of iron placed over the
ornamental figures, on a ship’s head or quarter, to defend them from the
impression of some other ship when they lie close to, or rub against
each other.

GUARD-SHIP, a vessel of war appointed to superintend the marine affairs
in a harbour or river, and to see that the ships, which are not
commissioned, have their proper watch kept duly, by sending her
guard-boats around them every night: she is also to receive seamen who
are impressed in the time of war.

GULF, _golfe_, (_golfo_, Ital.) a broad and capacious bay, comprehended
between two promontories, and sometimes taking the name of a sea, when
it is very extensive, but particularly when it only communicates with
the sea by means of a streight: such are the Euxine, or Black Sea,
otherwise called the gulf of Constantinople; the Adriatic Sea, called
also the gulf of Venice; the gulf of Sidra near Barbary, and the gulf of
Lions near France: all these gulfs are in the Mediterranean: there are
besides the gulf of Mexico, the gulf of St. Lawrence, and the gulf of
Calliphornia, which are in North America. There are also the gulf of
Persia, otherwise called the Red Sea, between Persia and Arabia; the
gulf of Bengal in India, and the gulfs of Cochinchina and Kamtschatca,
near the countries of the same name.

GUNNEL, or GUN-WALE, _plat-bord_, the upper edge of a ship’s side.

GUNNER _of a ship of war_, an officer appointed to take charge of the
artillery and ammunition aboard; to observe that the former are always
kept in order, and properly fitted with tackles and other furniture, and
to teach the sailors the exercise of the cannon. See EXERCISE.

GUN-ROOM, an apartment on the after end of the lower, or gun-deck, of a
ship of war; generally destined for the use of the gunner in large
ships, but in small ones, it is used by the lieutenants as a
dining-room, &c.

GUST, _dragon de vent_, a sudden and violent squall of wind, bursting
from the hills upon the sea, so as to endanger the shipping near the
shore. These are peculiar to some coasts, as those of South Barbary and

GUTTER-LEDGE, _traversier d’ecoutille_, a cross-bar laid along the
middle of a large hatchway in some vessels, to support the covers, and
enable them the better to sustain any weighty body which may be moved or
laid thereon.

GUY, a rope used to steddy any weighty body whilst it is hoisting or
lowering, particularly when the ship is shaken by a tempestuous sea.

GUY is likewise a large slack rope, extending from the head of the
main-mast to the head of the fore-mast, and having two or three large
blocks fastened to the middle of it. This is chiefly employed to sustain
the tackle used to hoist in and out the cargo of a merchant ship, and is
accordingly removed from the mast-heads as soon as the vessel is laden
or delivered.

GYBING, the act of shifting any boom-sail from one side of the mast to
the other.

In order to understand this operation more clearly, it is necessary to
remark, that by a boom-sail is meant any sail whose bottom is extended
by a _boom_, the fore-end of which is hooked to its respective mast, so
as to swing occasionally on either side of the vessel, describing an
arch, of which the mast will be the center. As the wind or the course
changes, it also becomes frequently necessary to change the position of
the boom, together with its sail, which is accordingly shifted to the
other side of the vessel as a door turns upon its hinges. The boom is
pushed out by the effort of the wind upon the sail, and is restrained in
a proper situation by a strong _tackle_ communicating with the vessel’s
stern, and called the _sheet_. It is also confined on the fore-part by
another tackle, called the _guy_. See the preceding article.


HAGS TEETH, or HAKES TEETH, those parts of a _matting_, _pointing_, &c.
which are interwoven with the rest, in an erroneous and irregular
manner, so as to appear aukward in the general uniformity of the work.

HAILING, the salutation or accosting of a ship at a distance, either at
sea or in a harbour. The usual expression is, Hoa, the ship ahoay! To
which she answers, Holloa! Whence came ye? Where are ye bound? Good
voyage! What cheer? All well! How fare ye? &c.

HALIARDS, _drisse_, the ropes or tackles usually employed to hoist or
lower any sail upon its respective masts or stay. See also JEARS.

HAMMOC, _branle_, a piece of canvas, six feet long and three feet wide,
gathered or drawn together at the two ends, and hung horizontally under
the deck, lengthways, for the sailors to sleep therein. There are
usually from fourteen to twenty inches in breadth allowed between decks
for every hammoc in a ship of war: this space however must in some
measure depend on the number of the crew, &c. in proportion to the room
of the vessel.

In the time of battle the hammocs, together with their bedding, are all
firmly corded, and fixed in the nettings on the quarter-deck, or
where-ever the men are too much exposed to the view, or fire of the
enemy. See the article ENGAGEMENT.

HANDING _the sails_, the same operation with furling them, which see.

HAND-OVER-HAND! _main avant!_ the order to the men, who pull upon any
rope, to pass their hands alternately one before the other, or one above
the other, if they are hoisting, in order to hasten the service.

A sailor is said to go aloft, hand-over-hand, when he ascends into the
tops, &c. by a single rope, as a shroud or back-stay, without the help
of the _rattlings_, by the dexterity of throwing one hand above the
other, and lifting his weight along with it.

HANDSPEC, _anspec_, a wooden bar used as a lever to heave about the
windlass, in order to draw up the anchor from the bottom, particularly
in merchant ships: for this purpose the handle or small end is round and
tapering; and the other end is square, in order to conform to the shape
of the holes in the windlass. It is also employed as a lever on many
other occasions, as stowing the anchors, or provisions, or cargo, in the
ship’s hold.

_Gunner’s_ HANDSPEC, _renard_, an handspec shorter and flatter than the
above, and armed with two claws, for the purpose of managing the
artillery in battle, &c.

HANK FOR HANK, a phrase expressed of two ships which _tack_ and make a
progress to windward together. The Dolphin and Cerberus turned up the
river _hank for hank_, without being able to get to windward of each

HANKS, _daillots_, certain wooden rings fixed upon the stays of a ship,
whereby to confine the stay-sails thereto at different heights. They are
used in the place of _grommets_, being a later invention and much more
convenient; because, being framed by the bending of a tough piece of
wood into the form of a wreath, and fastened at the two ends by means of
notches, they retain their circular figure and elasticity; whereas the
grommets, which are formed of rope, are apt to relax in warm weather and
adhere to the stays, so as to prevent the sails from being readily
hoisted or lowered.

HARBOUR, _havre_, a general name given to any sea-port or haven; as also
to any place convenient for mooring shipping, although at a great
distance from the sea. The qualities requisite in a good harbour are,
that the bottom be entirely free from rocks or shallows; that the
opening be of sufficient extent to admit the entrance or departure of
large ships, without difficulty; that it should have good
anchoring-ground, and be easy of access; that it should be well defended
from the violence of the wind and sea; that it should have room and
convenience to receive the shipping of different nations, and those
which are laden with different merchandizes; that it be furnished with a
good light-house, and have variety of proper rings, posts, moorings, &c.
in order to remove or secure the vessels contained therein: and finally,
that it have plenty of wood, and other materials for firing, besides
hemp, iron, mariners, &c.

HARD-A-LEE, _barre à bord_, _sous le vent_, the situation of the helm
when it is pushed close to the _lee_ side of the ship, either to _tack_
or keep her head to the wind, when lying by or _trying_: also the order
to put the helm in this position.

HARD-A-WEATHER, _arrive tout_, the order to put the helm close to the
weather or windward side of the ship, in order to bear away. It is
likewise the position of the helm, in consequence of that order; being
in both senses opposed to _hard-a-lee_.

HARPINGS, the fore-parts of the wales which encompass the bow of a ship,
and are fastened to the stem, being thicker than the after part of the
wales, in order to reinforce the ship in this place, where she sustains
the greatest shock of resistance in plunging into the sea, or dividing
it, under a great pressure of sail.


HARPOON, (_harpon_, Fr.) a spear or javelin used to strike the whales in
the Greenland fishery.

The harpoon, which is sometimes called the harping-iron, is furnished
with a long staff, having at one end a broad and flat triangular head,
sharpened at both edges, so as to penetrate the whale with facility: to
the head of this weapon is fastened a long cord, called the whale-line,
which lies carefully _coiled_ in the boat, in such a manner, as to run
out without being interrupted or intangled. As soon as the boat has
rowed within a competent distance of the whale, the harponeer launches
his instrument; and the fish, being wounded, immediately descends under
the ice with amazing rapidity, carrying the harpoon along with him, and
a considerable length of the line. Being soon exhausted with the fatigue
and loss of blood, he re-ascends in order to breathe, where he presently
expires, and floats upon the surface of the water, when they approach
the carcase by drawing in the whale-line.

HATCH, or HATCHWAY, _ecoutille_, a square or oblong opening in the deck
of a ship, of which there are several, forming the passages from one
deck to another, and into the _hold_, or lower apartments. See the DECK,
plate III. where A represents the main-hatchway of the lower deck; N N,
the fore-hatchway; and O O, the after-hatchway.

There are likewise hatches of a smaller kind, called scuttles. See U U
in the same figure, as also the article SCUTTLE.

HATCHES is also, although improperly, a name applied by sailors to the
covers or lids of the hatchways.

_To_ HAUL, _haler_, an expression peculiar to seamen, implying to pull a
single rope, without the assistance of blocks, or other mechanical
powers: when a rope is otherwise pulled, as by the application of
tackles, or the connection with blocks, &c. the term is changed into
_bowsing_. See also the articles BOWSE, HOIST, and ROWSING.

_To_ HAUL _the wind_, _venir an vent_, to direct the ship’s course
nearer to that point of the compass from which the wind arises. Thus
supposing a ship sailing south-west, with the wind northerly, and some
particular occasion renders it necessary to haul the wind farther to the
westward; to perform this operation it is necessary to arrange the sails
more obliquely with her keel; to brace the yards more forward, by
slackening the starboard, and pulling in the larboard braces, and to
haul the lower _sheets_ farther aft: and finally, to put the helm
a-port, _i. e._ over to the larboard side of the vessel. As soon as her
head has turned directly to the westward, and her sails are trimmed
accordingly, she is laid to have hauled the wind four points, that is to
say, from S. W. to W. She may still go two points nearer to the
direction of the wind, by disposing her sails according to their
greatest obliquity; or, in the sea-phrase, by _trimming all sharp_: and
in this situation she is said to be close-hauled, as sailing W. N. W.
See the articles CLOSE-HAULED and SAILING.

HAUSE, or HAWSE, is generally understood to imply the situation of the
cables before the ship’s stem, when she is moored with two anchors out
from forward, viz. one on the starboard, and the other on the larboard
_bow_. Hence it is usual to say, She has a clear hause, or a foul hause.
It also denotes any small distance _a-head_ of a ship, or between her
head and the anchors employed to ride her; as, “He has anchored in our
hause;” the “brig fell athwart our hause,” &c.

A ship is said to ride with a clear hause, when the cables are directed
to their anchors, without lying athwart the stem; or crossing, or being
twisted round each other, by the ships winding about, according to the
change of the wind, tide, or current.

A foul hause, on the contrary, implies that the cables lie across the
stem, or bear upon each other, so as to be rubbed and chafed by the
motion of the vessel.

The hause accordingly is foul, by having either a cross, an elbow, or a
round turn. If the larboard cable, lying across the stem, points out on
the starboard side, while the starboard cable at the same time grows out
on the larboard side, there is a cross in the hause. If, after this, the
ship, without returning to her former position, continues to wind about
the same way, so as to perform an entire revolution, each of the cables
will be twisted round the other, and then directed out from the opposite
bow, forming what is called a round turn. An elbow is produced when the
ship stops in the middle of that revolution, after having had a cross:
or, in other words, if she rides with her head northward with a clear
hause, and afterwards turns quite round so as to direct her head
northward again, she will have an elbow. See the articles ELBOW and

HAUSE-HOLES, _ecubiers_, certain cylindrical holes cut through the bows
of a ship on each side of the item, through which the cables pass in
order to be drawn into, or let out of the vessel, as occasion requires.
They are represented by _d d_ in fig. 10. plate IV. being fortified on
each side by the

HAUSE-PIECES, a name given to the foremost timbers of a ship, whose
lower ends rest upon the knuckle-timber, or the foremost of the
cant-timbers. They are generally parallel to the stem, having their
upper ends sometimes terminated by the lower part of the beak-head, and
otherwise, by the top of the bow, particularly in small ships and

HEAD, an ornamental figure erected on the continuation of a ship’s stem,
as being expressive of her name, and emblematical of war, navigation,
commerce, &c.

The heads which have any affinity to war or navigation, are in general
either historical, as referring to some of the deities or heroes of
antiquity; or allegorical, as alluding to some of the natural
consequences of battle, or the virtues most essential to a life exposed
to perpetual danger. Thus, in the former sense, they represent a
Neptune, an Alcides; a Mars, an Achilles; a Minerva, or a Jason; and in
the latter they produce a _Magnanime_, an Intrepid, a Revenge, or a

The head of a ship however has not always an immediate relation to her
name, at least in the British navy. Various instances might be produced
to shew, that our artists, as it suits their conveniency or judgment,
can dispense with this supposed idea of propriety. Hence we sometimes
observe the place of a Jason supplied by a Medea; or a best of prey made
the representative of an illustrious lady. The same liberty of design
may therefore, with equal propriety, be allowed to symbolize the
successes of our arms, by a groupe of heterogeneous figures, of sundry
shapes and sizes, according to the artists opinion of their superiority
or subordination. Their attitude and situation, as well as their size,
must accordingly depend, in a great measure, on the space into which
they are to be crowded: for although the figures may be of equal
importance in themselves, yet as there is not room for them all, as
large as the life, on a ship’s head, it becomes expedient to diminish a
few, in order to give place to others. The emblems by which allegorical
figures are usually characterized in painting, poetry, and sculpture,
are not always thought necessary in a work of this kind, nor even the
postures in which these figures are exhibited. And indeed, if we reflect
with how much labour and application the workman has endeavoured to fill
up every vacancy with some little figure of a convenient form and size,
we ought rather to admire his ingenuity than censure him for a violation
of those general rules of art, by which it is supposed necessary, on
such occasions, to relieve the eye from a scene of perplexity and

The heads of many of our ships of war have undoubtedly great beauty and
propriety; and candour must acknowledge that some of the most elegant
and judicious have been borrowed from the French designs, which are
never left to the invention of illiterate mechanics. A multitude of
ornaments appears rather unnecessary in any building calculated for the
purposes of war. If there be any general rule to determine the subjects,
and the quantity of sculpture employed in ship-building, it seems to be
connected with the ideas of dignity and simplicity. These too are the
genuine characteristics of the Grecian and Roman orders of architecture,
as opposed to that perplexity, and rage for embellishment, which
peculiarly distinguish the Gothic. It is hardly possible for us to
recollect the various disasters to which a single hero, or goddess, on
the head of a ship, is exposed by tempestuous weather, battle, and the
unexpected encounter of ships, without trembling for the havoc and
indecency that may happen in an assemblage of gods and conc-shells,
princesses and satyrs; heroes, blunder-buffes, sea-monsters, little
children, globes and thunder-bolts, and all the apparatus necessary to
constitute the head of a ship of the first class in our navy.

In plate IV. we have sketched four heads, which are calculated for
vessels of different sizes and constructions. Fig. 6. exhibits an image
of Hercules brandishing his club over the heads of Cerberus, calculated
for a ship of the line. Fig. 7. represents Jupiter riding on his eagle,
and armed with his thunders, being a suitable head for a capital ship.
The eagle displayed by fig. 8. may serve for a frigate; and fig. 9.
which expresses an incumbent dragon, is very proper for any small vessel
with a projecting beak or prow. These figures have been selected from
many others, because, being very rarely used to decorate the head of a
ship, it is possible that several of our readers may never before have
observed them. The two first, which are usually called image-heads, are
bold, warlike, and classical. The eagle in the third is certainly a
proper emblem of dignity, force, and velocity: and it is apprehended
neither the representation of the latter, nor any other figure in that
position, are to be met with amongst our shipping.

HEAD, _avant_, is also used, in a more enlarged sense, to signify the
whole front or fore part of the ship, including the bows on each side:
the head therefore opens the column of water through which the ship
passes when advancing. Hence we say, head-sails, head-sea, head-way, &c.

Thus fig. 10. plate IV. represents one side of the fore-part, or head of
a seventy-four gun ship, together with part of the bow, keel, and
gunnel. The names of the several pieces, exhibited therein, are as

A A fore part of the keel, with _a a_ the two false keels beneath it.

A C The stem.

_a a_ The cat-head.

_b b_ The supporter of the cat-head, _sous-barbe_.

_c c_ The knight-head, or bollard-timber, of which there is one on each
side, to secure the inner-end of the bowsprit.

_d d_ The hause-holes.

_e e_ The navel-hoods, _i. e._ thick pieces of plank laid upon the bow
to strengthen the edges of the hause-holes.

_f_ The davit-chock, by which the _davit_ is firmly wedged while
employed to fish the anchor.

_g_ The bulk-head, which terminates the forecastle on the fore-side,
being called the beak-head bulk-head by ship-wrights.

H The gun-ports of the lower deck.

_h_ The gun-ports of the upper deck and forecastle.

I, I, The channels, with their dead-eyes and chain-plates.

_i_ The gripe, or fore-foot, which unites the keel with the stem,
forming a part of either.

_k k_ These dotted lines represent the thickness and descent of the
different decks from the fore-part of the ship towards the middle. The
lowest of the three dotted lines _l_ expresses the convexity of the
beams, the difference between the height of the deck in the middle of
its breadth, and at the ship’s side. This is also exhibited more clearly
in the midship-frame, where the real curve of the beam is delineated.

N. B. These lines must be always parallel to the lines which terminate
the gun-ports above and below.

_m m_ The timbers of the head part of the bowsprit.

X The rails of the head which lie across the timbers.

Q Z Fore-part of the main-wale.

R X Fore-part of the channel-wale.

U C The load water-line.

See also the continuation of a ship throughout her whole length, upon a
smaller scale, plate I. ELEVATION.

Fig. 11. represents a head-view of a ship, with the projection of her
principal timbers, and all her planks laid on one side. This figure
corresponds to that of the elevation, plate I. and the stern-view, fig.
2. plate X.

It is evident that the fore-part of a ship is called its head, from the
affinity of motion and position it bears to a fish, and in general to
the horizontal situation of all animals whilst swimming.

_By the_ HEAD, the state of a ship, which is laden deeper at the
fore-end than the after-end.

HEAD-FAST, _amarre d’avant_, a rope employed to fasten a ship to a
wharf, chain, or buoy, or to some other vessel along-side.

HEAD-LAND, _acrotere_, a name frequently given to a cape, or promontory.

HEADMOST, the situation of any ship or ships which are the most advanced
in a fleet, or line of battle.

HEAD-ROPE, that part of the bolt-rope which terminates any of the
principal sails on the upper-edge, which is accordingly sewed thereto.
See the article BOLT-ROPE.

HEAD-SAILS, _voiles de l’avant_, a general name for all those sails
which are extended on the fore-mast and bowsprit, and employed to
command the fore-part of the ship: such are the fore-sail,
fore-top-sail, fore-top-gallant-sail, jib, fore-stay-sail, and the
sprit-sail with its top-sail. This term is used in opposition to
_after-sails_, which see.

HEAD-TO-WIND, _de bout au vent_, the situation of a ship or boat, when
her head is turned to windward.

HEAD-WAY, _sillage_, the motion of advancing at sea. It is generally
used when a ship first begins to advance; or in calm weather, when it is
doubtful whether she is in a state of rest or motion. It is in both
senses opposed to retreating, or moving with the stern foremost. See the
article STERN-WAY.

HEART, _moque_, a peculiar sort of dead-eye, somewhat resembling the
shape of a heart, but differing from the common dead-eyes, inasmuch as
it is only furnished with one large hole in the middle, fig. 32. plate
II. whereas the common dead-eyes have always three holes. The hearts are
principally used to contain the _laniards_, by which the stays are
extended. See DEAD-EYE.

HEAVER, a name given by seamen to a wooden staff, employed by them as a
lever on many occasions; particularly in setting up the
top-mast-shrouds, frapping the top masts, dropping the larger blocks,
seizing the standing rigging, &c. See those articles.

HEAVING, _virer_, (_heafian_, Sax.) the act of turning about a
_capstern_, _windlass_, or other machine of the like kind, by means of
bars or handspecs.

HEAVING _the lead_. See the article SOUNDING.

HEAVING _a-head_, is advancing the ship by heaving-in the cable, or
other rope, which is fastened to an anchor at some distance before her.
To heave a-stern is therefore to draw the ship backwards by the same

HEAVING-_down_. See the article CAREENING.

HEAVING-_out_, the act of unfurling and throwing loose a sail from the
place where it had been rolled and fastened. This phrase is more
particularly applied to the stay-sails: thus we say, “Loose the
top-sails, and heave out the stay-sails!” which is accordingly done,
either to _set_ or _dry_ them.

HEAVING-_short_, is the drawing so much of the cable into the ship, by
means of the capstern or windlass, as that by advancing, she will be
almost perpendicularly above the anchor, and in a proper situation to
set sail.

HEAVING-_taught_, the act of heaving about the capstern, till the rope
applied thereto becomes streight and ready for action.

HEEL, _talon_, a name usually given to the after-end of a ship’s keel;
as also to the lower end of the stern-post, to which it is firmly

HEEL _of a mast_, the lower end, which is diminished into the frustrum
of a pyramid, so as to sink immoveably into a hole of the same shape,
cut in the step, which is attached to the ship’s keel.

HEEL _of a top-mast_, the lower end, which is sustained upon the
_tressel-trees_ by means of an iron bar, called the fid. See the article

_To_ HEEL, _carguer_, to stoop or incline to either side. It is usually
applied to a ship when she is forced into this position by the wind
acting upon her sails, while braced obliquely across her; or by being
ballasted so as to lean more to one side than the other. See the
articles CRANK, STIFF, and TRIM.

HELM, _gouvernail_, (_helme_, Sax.) a long and flat piece of timber, or
an assemblage of several pieces, suspended along the hind part of a
ship’s stern-post, where it turns upon hinges to the right or left,
serving to direct the course of the vessel, as the tail of a fish guides
the body.

The helm is usually composed of three parts, viz. the rudder, the
tiller, and the wheel, except in small vessels, where the wheel is

The length and breadth of the rudder are represented in plate VIII.
where it is evident that it becomes gradually broader in proportion to
its distance from the top, or to its depth under the water. The _back_,
or inner part of it, which joins to the stern-post, is diminished into
the form of a wedge throughout its whole length, so as that the rudder
may be more easily turned from one side to the other, where it makes an
obtuse angle with the keel. The hinges upon which it is supported are
also expressed in this figure. Those which are bolted round the
stern-post to the after extremity of the ship, are called googings, and
are furnished with a large hole on the afterpart of the stern-post. The
other parts of the hinges, which are bolted to the back of the rudder,
are called pintles, being strong cylindrical pins, which enter into the
googings, and rest upon them. The length and thickness of the rudder is
nearly equal to that of the stern-post, as represented in fig. 1. plate

The rudder is turned upon its hinges by means of a long bar of timber,
called the tiller, which is fixed horizontally in its upper end within
the vessel. The movements of the tiller to the right and left,
accordingly, direct the efforts of the rudder to the government of the
ship’s course as she advances, which, in the sea-language, is called
steering. The operations of the tiller are guided and assisted by a sort
of tackle, communicating with the ship’s side, called the tiller-rope,
which is usually composed of untarred rope-yarns, for the purpose of
traversing more readily through the blocks or pullies.

In order to facilitate the management of the helm, the tiller-rope, in
all large vessels, is wound about a wheel, which acts upon it with the
powers of a crane or windlass. The rope employed in this service being
conveyed from the fore-end of the tiller _k_, to a single block _i_, on
each side of the ship, (plate III. DECK) is farther communicated to the
wheel, by means of two blocks, suspended near the mizen-mast, and two
holes immediately above, leading up to the wheel, which is fixed upon an
axis, on the quarter-deck, almost perpendicularly over the fore end of
the tiller. Five turns of the tiller-rope are usually wound about the
barrel of the wheel, and, when the helm is amidship, the middle turn is
nailed to the top of the barrel, with a mark by which the helmsman
readily discovers the situation of the helm, as the wheel turns it from
the starboard to the larboard side. The spokes of the wheel generally
reach about eight inches beyond the rim or circumference, serving as
handles to the person who steers the vessel. As the effect of a lever
increases in proportion to the length of its arm, it is evident that the
power of the helmsman, to turn the wheel, will be increased according to
the length of the spokes, beyond the circumference of the barrel.

When the helm, instead of lying in a right line with the keel, is turned
to one side or the other, as in BD, fig. 1. plate V. it receives an
immediate shock from the water, which glides along the ship’s bottom in
running _aft_ from A to B; and this fluid pushes it towards the opposite
side, whilst it is retained in this position: so that the stern, to
which the rudder is confined, receives the same impression, and
accordingly turns from B to _b_ about some point _c_ whilst the head of
the ship passes from A to _a_. It must be observed, that the current of
water falls upon the rudder obliquely, and only strikes it with that
part of its motion which acts according to the sine of incidence,
pushing it in the direction N P, with a force which not only depends on
the velocity of the ship’s course, by which this current of water is
produced, but also upon the extent of the sine of incidence. This force
is by consequence composed of the square of the velocity with which the
ship advances, and the square of the sine of incidence, which will
necessarily be greater or smaller according to circumstances; so that if
the vessel runs three or four times more swiftly, the absolute shock of
the water upon the rudder will be nine or sixteen times stronger under
the same incidence: and, if the incidence is increased, it will yet be
augmented in a greater proportion, because the square of the sine of
incidence is more enlarged. This impression, or, what is the same thing,
the power of the helm, is always very feeble, when compared with the
weight of the vessel; but as it operates with the force of a long lever,
its efforts to turn the ship are extremely advantageous. For the helm
being applied to a great distance from the centre of gravity, G, or from
the point about which the vessel turns horizontally, if the direction P
N of the impression of the water upon the rudder be prolonged, it is
evident that it will pass perpendicularly to R, widely distant from the
centre of gravity G: thus the absolute effort of the water is very
powerful. It is not therefore surprizing that this machine impresses the
ship with a considerable circular movement, by pushing the stern from B
to _b_, and the head from A to _a_; and even much farther, whilst the
sails with rapidity: because the effect of the helm always keeps pace
with the velocity with which the vessel advances[31].

Amongst the several angles that the rudder makes with the keel, there is
always one position more favourable than any of the others, as it more
readily produces the desired effect of turning the ship, in order to
change her course. To ascertain this, it must be considered, that if the
obliquity of the rudder with the keel is greater than the obtuse angle A
B D, so as to diminish that angle, the action of the water upon the
rudder will increase, and at the same time oppose the course of the ship
in a greater degree; because the angle of incidence will be more open,
so as to present a greater surface to the shock of the water, by
opposing its passage more perpendicularly. But at that time the
direction N P of the effort of the helm upon the ship will pass, with a
smaller distance from the centre of gravity G towards R, and less
approach the perpendicular N L, according to which it is absolutely
necessary that the power applied should act with a greater effect to
turn the vessel. Thus it is evident that if the obtuse angle A B D is
too much enclosed, the greatest impulse of the water will not
counterbalance the loss sustained by the distance of the direction N P
from N L; or by the great obliquity, which is given to the same
direction N P of the absolute effort of the helm with the keel A B. If,
on the contrary, the angle A B D is too much opened, the direction N P
of the force of action of the helm will become more advantageous to turn
the vessel, because it will approach nearer the perpendicular N L; so
that the line prolonged from N P will increase the line G R, by removing
R to a greater distance from the centre of gravity G: but then the helm
will receive the impression of the water too obliquely, for the angle of
incidence will be more acute; so that it will only present a small
portion of its breadth to the shock of the water, and by consequence
will only receive a feeble effort. By this principle it is easy to
conceive, that the greatest distance G R from the centre of gravity G is
not sufficient to repair the diminution of force occasioned by the too
great obliquity of the shock of the water. Hence we may conclude, that
when the water either strikes the helm too directly, or too obliquely,
it loses a great deal of the effect it ought to produce. Between the two
extremes there is therefore a mean position, which is the most
favourable to its operations.

The diagonal N P of the rectangle I L represents the absolute direction
of the effort of the water upon the helm. N I expresses the portion of
this effort which is opposed to the ship’s head-way, or which pushes her
astern, in a direction parallel to the keel. It is easily perceived that
this part N I of the whole power of the helm contributes but little to
turn the vessel; for if I N is prolonged, it appears that its direction
approaches to a very small distance G V from the centre of gravity G,
and that the arm of the lever B N=G V, to which the force is applied, is
not in the whole more than equal to half the breadth of the rudder: but
the relative force N L, which acts perpendicular to the keel, is
extremely different. If the first N I is almost useless, and even
pernicious, by retarding the velocity; the second N L is capable of a
very great effect, because it operates at a considerable distance from
the centre of gravity G of the ship, and acts upon the arm of a lever G
E, which is very long. Thus it appears, that between the effects N L and
N I, which result from the absolute effort N P, there is one which
always opposes the ship’s course, and contributes little to her motion
of turning; whilst the other produces only this movement of rotation,
without operating to retard her velocity[32].

Geometricians have determined the most advantageous angle made by the
helm with the line prolonged from the keel, and fixed it at 54° 44´
presuming that the ship is as narrow at her floating-line, or at the
line described by the surface of the water round her bottom, as at the
keel. But as this supposition is absolutely false, inasmuch as all
vessels augment their breadth from the keel upward to the extreme
breadth, where the floating-line or the highest water-line is
terminated; it follows that this angle is too large by a certain number
of degrees. For the rudder is impressed by the water, at the height of
the floating-line, more directly than at the keel, because the fluid
exactly follows the horizontal outlines of the bottom; so that a
particular position of the helm might be supposed necessary for each
different incidence which it encounters from the keel upwards. But as a
middle position may be taken between all these points, it will be
sufficient to consider the angle formed by the sides of the ship, and
her _axis_, or the middle-line of her length, at the surface of the
water, in order to determine afterwards the mean point, and the mean
angle of incidence.

It is evident that the angle 54° 44´ is too open, and very unfavourable
to the ship’s head-way, because the water acts upon the rudder there
with too great a sine of incidence, as being equal to that of the angle
which it makes with the line prolonged from the keel below: but above,
the shock of the water is almost perpendicular to the rudder, because of
the breadth of the bottom, as we have already remarked. If then the
rudder is only opposed to the fluid, by making an angle of 45° with the
line prolonged from the keel, the impression, by becoming weaker, will
be less opposed to the ship’s head-way, and the direction N P, fig. 1.
plate V. of the absolute effort of the water upon the helm drawing
nearer to the lateral perpendicular, will be placed more advantageously,
for the reasons above mentioned[33]. On the other hand, experience daily
testifies, that a ship steers well when the rudder makes the angle D B E
equal to 35° only.

It has been already remarked, that the effect of moving the wheel to
govern the helm increases in proportion to the length of the spokes; and
so great is the power of the wheel, that if the helmsman employs a force
upon its spokes equivalent to 30 pounds, it will produce an effect of 90
or 120 pounds upon the tiller. On the contrary, the action of the water
is collected into the middle of the breadth of the rudder, which is very
narrow in companion with the length of the tiller; so the effort of the
water is very little removed from the fulcrum B upon which it turns;
whereas the tiller forms the arm of a lever ten or fifteen times longer,
which also increases the power of the helmsman in the same proportion
that the tiller bears to the lever upon which the impulse of the water
is directed. This force then is by consequence ten or fifteen times
stronger, and the effort of 30 pounds, which at first gave the helmsman
a power equal to 90 or 120 pounds, becomes accumulated to one of 900 or
1800 pounds upon the rudder. This advantage then arises from the
shortness of the lever upon which the action of the water is impressed,
and the great comparative length of the tiller, or lever, by which the
rudder is governed; together with the additional power of the wheel that
directs the movements of the tiller, and still farther accumulates the
power of the helmsman over it. Such a demonstration ought to remove the
surprize with which the prodigious effect of the helm is sometimes
considered, from an inattention to its mechanism: for we need only to
observe the pressure of the water, which acts at a great distance from
the centre of gravity G, about which the ship is supposed to turn, and
we shall easily perceive the difference there is between the effort of
the water against the helmsman, and the effect of the same impulse
against the vessel. With regard to the person who steers, the water acts
only with the arm of a very short lever N B, of which B is the fulcrum:
on the contrary, with regard to the ship, the force of the water is
impressed in the direction N P, which passes to a great distance from G,
and acts upon a very long lever E G, which renders the action of the
rudder extremely powerful in turning the vessel; so that, in a large
ship, the rudder receives a shock from the water of 2700 or 2800 pounds,
which is frequently the case, when she sails at the rate of three or
four leagues by the hour; and this force being applied in E, perhaps 100
or 110 feet distant from the centre of gravity G, will operate upon the
ship, to turn her about, with 270000 or 308000 pounds; whilst, in the
latter case, the helmsman acts with an effort which exceeds not 30
pounds upon the spokes of the wheel.

After what has been said of the helm, it is easy to judge, that the more
a ship increases her velocity with regard to the sea, the more powerful
will be the effect of the rudder, because it acts against the water with
a force, which increases as the square of the swiftness of the fluid,
whether the ship advances or retreats; or, in other words, whether she
has head-way or stern-way; with this distinction, that in these two
circumstances the effects will be contrary. For if the vessel retreats,
or moves astern, the helm will be impressed from I to N, fig. 1. plate
V. and, instead of being pushed, according to N P, it will receive the
effort of the water from N towards R; so that the stern wall be
transported according to the same movement, and the head turned in a
contrary direction.

When the helm operates by itself, the centre of rotation of the ship,
and her movement, are determined by estimating the force of this
machine; that is to say, by multiplying the surface of the rudder by the
square of the ship’s velocity[34]. See the articles RUDDER, SAILING,

HIGH AND DRY, a phrase which implies the situation of a ship, when she
has run aground, so as to be seen dry upon the strand.

HIGH WATER, _haute marée_, the greatest height of the flood-tide, See

HITCH, _clef_, a sort of knot or noose, by which one rope is fastened to
another, or to some other object, as a post, ring, timber-head, mast,
&c. Hence we say an half-hitch, _demi-clef_, a clove-hitch, a
rolling-hitch, &c. See BEND and KNOT.

HOASE, _manche pour l’eau_, a long flexible tube, formed of leather or
tarred canvas, but chiefly of the latter, and employed to conduct the
fresh water, which is hoisted aboard a ship, into the casks that are
ranged in the hold; and to pass the water, or other liquors, out of one
cask into another. For the latter use, one of the ends or openings of
the hoase is fixed in the empty cask, whilst the other is applied to the
pump that extracts the water out of the full one. This exercise is, on
some occasions, necessary to alter or preserve the trim of the vessel,
without disturbing her stowage.

HOG, _goret_, a sort of flat scrubbing-broom, serving to scrape off the
filth from a ship’s bottom, under water, particularly in the act of
_boot-topping_, which see.

This instrument is formed by inclosing a multitude of short twigs of
birch, or such wood, between two pieces of plank, which are firmly
attached to each other, after which the ends of the twigs or branches
are cut off even, so as to form a sort of brush of considerable
strength. To this machine is fitted a long staff, together with two
ropes, the former of which is used to thrust the hog under the ship’s
bottom, and the latter to guide, and pull it up again, close to the
planks thereof, so as to rub off all the filth effectually. This
exercise is usually performed in the ship’s boat, which is accordingly
confined as close as possible to the vessel’s side during the operation,
and shifted from one part of the side to another, till the whole is

HOIST, _guindant_, the perpendicular height of a flag or ensign, as
opposed to the _fly_, which implies its breadth from the staff to the
outer edge.

HOISTING, _hisser_, the operation of drawing up any body by the
assistance of one or more tackles, according to the weight intended to
be raised. See the article TACKLE.

The act of pulling up any body, by the help of a single block only, is
never expressed by the term _hoisting_, if we except the exercise of
extending the sails, by drawing them upwards along the masts or stays,
to which it is invariably applied. See also TRACING-UP and WHIPPING.

HOLD, _cale_, the whole interior cavity or belly of a ship, or all that
part of her inside, which is comprehended between the floor and the
lower-deck, throughout her whole length.

This capacious apartment usually contains the ballast, provisions, and
stores of a ship of war, and the principal part of the cargo in a
merchantman. The disposition of those articles, with regard to each
other, &c. necessarily falls under our consideration in the article
STOWAGE; it suffices in this place to say, that the places where the
ballast, water, provisions, and liquors are stowed, are known by the
general name of the hold. The several store-rooms are separated from
each other by _bulk-heads_, and are denominated according to the
articles which they contain, the sail-room, the bread-room, the
fish-room, the spirit-room, &c.

_To trim the_ HOLD. See the article TRIM.

_After_-HOLD, a general name given to all that part of the hold which
lies abaft the main-mast.

_Fore_-HOLD, that part of the hold which is situated in the fore-part of
the ship, or before the main hatch-way.

HOLD, in navigation, is generally understood to signify a particular
situation of a ship with regard to the shore, by which she is enabled to
keep within a sufficient distance, to facilitate her course, or answer
some other important object. Hence we say, Keep a good hold of the land!
or, Keep the shore well aboard! which are synonimous phrases, implying
to keep near, or in sight of the land.

HOLDING-_on_, the act of pulling back the hind part of any cable, or
other rope, which is heaved round, by the capstern or windlass, or drawn
in by the purchase of a tackle. See CAPSTERN &c.

To have a clearer idea of this exercise, it is necessary to premise,
that there are seldom or never more than three turns of any rope passed
about the barrel of the capstern, when it is employed in heaving;
because a great number of turns of a large rope would soon cover the
whole barrel, and utterly destroy the effect of this motion, till those
turns could be removed; a circumstance which might be attended with very
bad consequences. On the contrary, when there are only a few turns, the
capstern or windlass is always kept sufficiently clear for action for it
is evident, that every revolution of either will heave-in a quantity of
the rope, upon which it is employed, equal to the circumference of its
barrel. Now as there are only a few turns upon the barrel at once, an
equal quantity of the rope will necessarily come off from the capstern
at the same time; and this is accordingly pulled back as strongly as
possible, to prevent it from _surging_ or jerking round the barrel, by
being held too loosely. This is called _holding-on_, which therefore may
be defined, the act of retaining any quantity of rope, acquired by the
effort of a capstern, windlass, or tackle, as being employed in hoisting
as well as heaving.

HOLDING _water_, the operation of stopping a boat in her course, by
holding the oars in the water and bearing the blade, or flat part,
strongly against the current made _along-side_, by her passing swiftly
through the water. See BACK-ASTERN, OAR, and ROWING.

HOLLOA! _commande!_ an exclamation of answer, to any person, who calls
to another to ask some question, or to give a particular order. Thus, if
the master intends to give any order to the people in the main-top, he
previously calls, Main-top, hoay! To which they answer, Holloa! to shew
that they hear him, and are ready. It is also the first answer in
hailing a ship at a distance. See HAILING.

HOME, in a naval sense, either implies the situation of some object,
where it retains its full force of action; or where it is properly
lodged for convenience or security. In the former sense it is applied to
the sails; and in the latter, it usually refers to the stowage of the
hold, or the anchors.

When it is expressed of the sails, it denotes that their _clues_, or
lower corners, are close to the blocks upon the yard-arm, immediately
beneath them; it is therefore understood only of the loftier sails, as
the top-sails, top-gallant-sails, and the studding-sails thereto
belonging. Hence to haul-home the top-sail sheets, is to extend the
bottom of the top-sail to the lower-yard, by means of the sheets. See

In the stowage of the hold, &c. a cask, bale, or case, is said to be
_home_, when it bears against, or lies close to some other object,
without leaving any interval between; and indeed the security, or
firmness of the stowage, greatly depends on this circumstance.

HOME, when spoken of the anchor, seems to imply the station of the ship,
with regard to her anchor; which is accordingly said to come home when
it loosens from the ground, by the effort of the cable, and approaches
the place where the ship floated, at the length of her moorings. See the
article ANCHOR.

HOMMOC, _tertre_, a name given by mariners to a hillock, or small
eminence of land resembling the figure of a cone, and appearing on the
sea-coast of any country.

HOOD, _tremue_, a sort of low wooden porch, resembling the _companion_,
and placed over the stair-case or ladder, which leads into the steerage
or apartments, where the crew generally reside in a merchant-ship. The
use of the hood is to admit the air and light, and at the same time
prevent the rain from falling into the steerage.

HOOK, a crooked piece of iron, of which there are several of different
shapes and sizes, used at sea, as boat-hooks, can-hooks, cat-hooks,
fish-hooks, foot-hooks, &c. See the articles BOAT-HOOK, CAN-HOOK, &c.

HORSE, _marche-pied_, a rope reaching from the middle of a yard to its
extremity, or what is called the yard-arm, and depending about two or
three feet under the yard for the sailors to tread upon, whilst they are
loosing, reefing or furling the sails, rigging out the studding-sail
booms, &c. In order therefore to keep the horse more parallel to the
yard, it is usually suspended thereto, at proper distances, by certain
ropes called _stirrups_, which hang about two feet under the yard,
having an eye in their lower ends through which the horse passes. See
the article RIGGING.

HORSE is also a thick rope, extended in a perpendicular direction near
the _fore_ or _after_-side of a mast, for the purpose of hoisting or
extending some sail thereon. When it is fixed before a mast, it is
calculated for the use of a sail called the _square-sail_, whose yard
being attached to the horse, by means of a _traveller_, or _bull’s-eye_,
which slides up and down occasionally, is retained in a steddy position,
either when the sail is set, or whilst it is hoisting or lowering. When
the horse is placed _abaft_ or behind a mast, it is intended for the
_try-sail_ of a snow, and is accordingly very rarely fixed in this
position, except in those sloops of war which occasionally assume the
form of snows, in order to deceive the enemy.

HOUNDS, a name given to those parts of a mast-head, which gradually
project on the right and left side, beyond the cylindrical or conical
surface, which it preserves from the _partners_ upwards. The hounds,
whose upper parts are also called _cheeks_, are used as shoulders to
support the frame of the top, together with the top-mast and the rigging
of the lower-mast. See the article MAST.

HOUSED, _à la serre_, the situation of the great guns of a ship, when
they are secured at sea by their tackles and breechings. See CANNON.

HOWKER, a vessel in the Dutch marine, commonly navigated with two masts,
viz. a main-mast and a mizen-mast, and being from sixty to upwards of
two hundred tons in burthen.

HOUSING, or HOUSE-LINE, a small line, formed of three fine strands, or
twists of hemp, smaller than rope-yarn. It is chiefly used to _seize_
blocks into their strops, to bind the corners of the sails, or to fasten
the bottom of a sail to its bolt-rope, &c. See BOLT-ROPE.

HOY, a small vessel, chiefly used in coasting, or carrying goods to or
from a ship, in a road or bay, where the ordinary lighters cannot be
managed with safety or convenience.

It would be very difficult to describe, precisely, the marks of
distinction between this vessel and some others of the same size, which
are also rigged in the same manner; because what is called a _hoy_ in
one place, would assume the name of a _sloop_ or _smack_ in another: and
even the people, who navigate these vessels, have, upon examination,
very vague ideas of the marks by which they are distinguished from those
above mentioned. In Holland, the hoy has two masts; in England it has
but one, where the main-sail is sometimes extended by a boom, and
sometimes without it. Upon the whole, it may be defined a small vessel,
usually rigged as a sloop, and employed for carrying passengers and
luggage from one place to another, particularly on the sea-coast.

HULK, an old ship of war, fitted with an apparatus, to fix or take out
the masts of his majesty’s ships, as occasion requires.

The mast of this vessel, _a a_, fig. 2. plate V. is extremely high, and
withal properly strengthened by _shrouds_ and _stays_, in order to
secure the sheers, _machine à mater_, which serve, as the arm of a
crane, to hoist out or in the masts of any ship lying alongside. The
sheers, _b b_, are composed of several long masts, whose heels rest upon
the side of the hulk, and having their heads declining outward from the
perpendicular, so as to hang over the vessel whose masts are to be fixed
or displaced. The tackles, _c c_, which extend from the head of the mast
to the sheer-heads, are intended to pull in the latter towards the
mast-head, particularly when they are charged with the weight of a mast
after it is raised out of any ship, which is performed by strong tackles
depending from the sheer-heads. The effort of these tackles is produced
by two capsterns, fixed on the deck for this purpose.

HULK is also a name bestowed on any old vessel laid by, as unfit for
further service: it is probably derived from the ολκαδες, or vessels of
burthen of the ancient Grecians.

HULL, _corps d’un vaisseau_, the frame, or body of a ship, exclusive of
her masts, yards, sails, and rigging: it is usually expressed of a ship
either before she is furnished with masts, &c. or after she is dismasted
and stripped of the aforesaid machinery.

_To_ HULL _a ship_, is to fire cannon-balls into her hull within the
point-blank range.

HULL-_to_, the situation of a ship when she is _trying a-hull_, or with
all her sails furled; as in trying. See the article TRYING.

HURRICANE, _ouragan_, (_huracan_, Span.) a violent and prodigious
tempest, occasioned by the collection and opposition of several winds,
that sometimes blow from one quarter and sometimes from another,
producing a dangerous agitation in the sea, where the waves break, and
dash against each other with astonishing fury. On the approach of a
hurricane, the sea and air become perfectly calm and motionless, without
a breath of wind stirring either. Soon after this the sky is darkened,
the clouds accumulate, and the light of the day is replaced by terrible
flashes of lightening. The hurricanes often last abundantly long, and
are usually accompanied with many fatal accidents[35]. During the
continuance of this general calamity, the vessels which were anchored in
the roads frequently cut their cables and put to sea, where they drive
at the mercy of the winds and waves, after having struck their yards and

The hurricanes are more usual between the tropics, particularly in the
Atlantic ocean, than to the northward or southward of the torrid zone.


JACK, a sort of flag or colours, displayed from a mast erected on the
outer end of a ship’s bowsprit. In the British navy the jack is nothing
more than a small union flag, composed of the intersection of the red
and white crosses; but in merchant ships this union is bordered with a
red field. See the article UNION.

JAMMING, the act of inclosing any object between two bodies, so as to
render it immoveable, whilst they continue in the same position. This
expression is usually applied to the situation of some running-rope,
when it happens to be squeezed by the compression of the
standing-rigging, &c. and by consequence incapable of performing its
office, by traversing in the blocks, till it is released from this
confinement. In this sense jamming is opposed to _rendering_, which see.

A cask, box, &c. is also said to be jammed, when it is in the same
manner wedged in between weighty bodies, so as not to be dislodged
without great difficulty.

JEARS, or GEERS, _drisse_, an assemblage of tackles, by which the lower
yards of a ship are hoisted up along the mast to their usual station, or
lowered from thence as occasion requires; the former of which operations
is called _swaying_, and the latter, _striking_. See those articles.

In a ship of war, the jears are usually composed of two strong tackles,
each of which has two blocks, viz. one fastened to the lower-mast-head,
and the other to the middle of the yard. The two blocks which are
_lashed_ to the middle, or _slings_ of the yard, are retained in this
situation by means of two cleats, nailed on each side, whose arms
enclose the ropes by which the blocks are fastened to the yard. The two
ropes, which communicate with these tackles, lead down to the deck on
the opposite side of the mast, according to the situation of the upper

The jears, in merchant-ships, have usually two large single blocks on
the opposite side of the mast-head, and another of the same size in the
middle of the yard. The rope, which communicates with these, passes
through one of the blocks hanging at the mast-head, then through the
block on the yard, and afterwards through the other hanging-block upon
the mast. To the two lower ends of this rope, on the opposite sides of
the mast, are fixed two tackles, each of which is formed of two double
blocks, the lower one being hooked to a ring-bolt in the deck, and the
upper one spliced, or seized into the lower end of the great rope above,
which is called the tye. By this contrivance the mechanical power of the
tackle below is transmitted to the tye, which, communicating with blocks
on the yard, readily _sways up_, or lowers it, either by the effort of
both jears at once, on the opposite sides of the mast, or by each of
them separately, one after the other.

JETTY-HEAD, a name usually given, in the royal dock-yards, to that part
of a wharf which projects beyond the rest; but more particularly the
front of a wharf, whose side forms one of the cheeks of a dry or wet

JEWEL-BLOCKS, a name given to two small blocks, which are suspended at
the extremity of the main and fore-top-sail-yards, by means of an
eye-bolt, driven from without into the middle of the yard-arm, parallel
to its axis. The use of these blocks is to retain the upper-part of the
topmast studding-sails beyond the skirts of the top-sails, so that each
of those sails may have its full force of action, which would be
diminished by the incroachment of the other over its surface. The
_haliards_, by which those studding-sails are hoisted, are accordingly
passed through the jewel-blocks; whence, communicating with a block on
the top-mast-head, they lead downwards to the top or decks, where they
may be conveniently hoisted. See the article SAIL.

JIB, _foc_, the foremost sail of a ship, being a large stay-sail
extended from the outer end of the bowsprit, prolonged by the jib-boom,
towards the fore-top-mast-head. See _Sail_.

The jib is a sail of great command with any side-wind, but especially
when the ship is _close-hauled_, or has the wind upon her beam; and its
effort in _casting_ the ship, or turning her head to leeward, is very
powerful, and of great utility, particularly when the ship is _working_
through a narrow channel. See SAILING.

JIB-BOOM, a boom run out from the extremity of the bowsprit, parallel to
its length, and serving to extend the bottom of the jib, and the stay of
the fore-top-gallant-mast. This boom, which is nothing more than a
continuation of the bowsprit forward, to which it may be considered as a
top-mast, is usually attached to the bowsprit by means of two large
boom-irons, (see the article IRON-WORK) or by one boom-iron, and a _cap_
on the outer-end of the bowsprit; or, finally, by the cap without, and a
strong lashing within, instead of a boom-iron; which is generally the
method of securing it in small merchant-ships. It may therefore be drawn
in upon the bowsprit, as occasion requires, which is usually practised
when the ship enters a harbour, where it might very soon be broke, or
carried away, by the vessels which are moored therein, or passing by
under sail.


JIGGER, a machine, consisting of a piece of rope about five feet long,
with a block at one end and a sheave at the other; and used to _hold-on_
the cable, when it is heaved into the ship by the revolution of the
_windlass_. See HOLDING-ON.

The jigger is particularly useful when the cable is either slippery with
mud or ooze, or when it is stiff and unwieldy; in both of which cases it
is very difficult to stretch it back from the windlass by hand, which
however is done with facility and expedition, by means of the jigger, as
follows: the end of the rope, to which the sheave is fastened by a knot,
is passed round the cable close to the windlass, and the hind part of
the rope coming over the sheave, is stretched aft by means of another
rope passing through the jigger-block. As soon as the last rope is
extended, the turn of the former about the cable is firmly retained in
its position, by the compression of its hind part under the sheave,
acting upon what may be called the neck of the jigger. But as the cable
continues to be heaved into the ship, it is evident that the jigger,
which is fastened on a particular part thereof, stretching it back, will
be removed further aft, by every turn of the windlass, and the effort of
the jigger will be lessened in proportion to its distance from the
windlass: this circumstance renders it necessary to _fleet_ it, or
replace in a proper state of action, as occasion requires. The man who
performs this office accordingly calls out, fleet, jigger! one of the
men, at the windlass, instantly fixes his handspec between the deck and
the cable, so as to _jam_ the latter to the windlass, and prevent it
from running out till the jigger is refixed.

JIGGER-TACKLE, a light small tackle, consisting of a double and single
block, and used on sundry occasions by seamen. See TACKLE.

IN, _dedans_, the state of any of a ship’s sails, when they are furled
or stowed. It is used in this sense also in opposition to _out_, which
implies that they are _set_, or extended to assist the ship’s course.

INSURANCE, _assurance_, a certain contract, by which an individual, or
company, agrees to indemnify whatever losses or damages may happen to a
ship or cargo, during a voyage, provided they are not occasioned by
default of the person insured. For this agreement the latter pays a
certain sum in advance, called the _præmium_, which accordingly falls to
the insurer, in case the ship arrives in a safe harbour; but if the ship
is lost, the insurer renders the stipulated sum to the merchant.

JOURNAL, in navigation, a sort of diary, or daily register of the ship’s
course, winds, and weather; together with a general account of whatever
is material to be remarked in the period of a sea-voyage.

In all sea-journals, the day, or what is called the 24 hours, terminates
at noon, because the errors of the dead-reckoning are at that period
generally corrected by a solar observation. The daily compact usually
contains the state of the weather; the variation, increase, or
diminution of the wind; and the suitable shifting, reducing, or
enlarging the quantity of sail extended; as also the most material
incidents of the voyage, and the condition of the ship and her crew;
together with the discovery of other ships or fleets, land, shoals,
breakers, soundings, &c.

The form of keeping journals is very different in merchant-ships; but
one method appears to be invariably pursued in the navy, which
nevertheless is certainly capable of improvement, because no form can be
properly called perfect, that leaves as great a space for one day’s
work, the matter of which may be contained in very few lines, as for
another that abounds with important incidents, so as to occupy ten times
the space. If therefore there be any such thing as propriety of method
on this occasion, it seems to imply, that the space containing, should
conform to the matter contained, which will necessarily be greater or
less, according to circumstances.

IRON-WORK, _ferrure_, a general name for all the pieces of iron, of
whatsoever figure or size, which are used in the construction of a ship:
as bolts, boom-irons, nails, spikes, chains and chain-plates,
block-strops, cranks, braces, pintles, and googings.

The most material of these articles are explained in their proper
places; but as the article _bolt_, of which the figures are represented
in plate II. was accidentally omitted in the proper place, according to
the plan of this work, it may not be improperly introduced here.

A bolt then is generally a cylindrical pin of iron, of which there are
various sorts, used for sundry occasions in ship-building.

The bolts are principally employed either to unite several members of a
ship’s frame into one solid piece, or to fasten any moveable body on a
particular occasion. Those which are calculated for the former purpose
have commonly small round heads, somewhat flatted, as in fig. 1 & 2.
plate II. On the contrary, the bolts which are intended for the latter
use, have either a large round head, as those of the chains, fig. 4. or
an eye, with or without a ring in the same place, fig. 5, 6, and 39, as
those which are designed to secure the great guns, the _jears_ of the
main-sail and fore-sail, the stoppers of the cables, &c.

The bolts are short or long, according to the thickness of the timber
wherein they are to be lodged: they penetrate either quite through the
pieces into which they are driven, or to a certain determinate depth.
The last of these, called a rag-bolt, is retained in its situation by
means of several barbs, fig. 3. which, fastening into the timbers,
prevent the bolt from loosening from its station by the working of the
ship. The first, after being driven through the pieces it is intended to
unite, is confined by a flat iron wedge, called the forelock, which is
thrust through a narrow hole in the small end of the bolt, where it is
hardened home by a hammer; and to prevent the forelock from cutting the
wood-work in this position, a little iron ring is fixed over the end of
the bolt, between the forelock and the timber.

Those bolts, which have the largest of the round-heads, are called
fender-bolts, being driven into the wales, stem, or sides of some small
vessels of burthen, as lighters, beancods, prames, &c. to defend their
timber-work from the shock of any other vessels which may fall aboard by

A boom-iron is composed of two iron rings, formed into one piece, so as
nearly to resemble the figure of 8. It is employed to connect two
cylindrical pieces of wood together, when the one is used as a
continuation of the other; such is the jib-boom to the bowsprit; and
such are the _studding-sail_ booms to the respective yards from whose
extremities they are prolonged. The rims, or circles of the boom-irons,
are broad and flat; and one of them, which is firmly driven upon the
main, or fore-yard-arm, is somewhat larger than the other, as exhibited
in fig. 7. plate II. The studding-sail-boom usually rests in the small
ring, through which it is occasionally thrust outwards from the
yard-arm, when the studding-sail is to be set. Every boom of this kind
has, or ought to have, two boom-irons, one of which is fixed on the
extremity of the yard, and the other further inward. The former of these
is frequently framed of one ring only, which projects from the end of
the yard, where it is fastened by a strong iron bar, opening into a sort
of fork or crotch that slides upon the yard lengthwise, where it is
fastened by nails driven from above and below.

ISLAND of ICE, a name given by sailors to a great quantity of ice
collected into one huge solid mass, and floating about upon the seas
near or within the arctic circle.

Many of these fluctuating islands are met with on the coasts of
Spitzbergen, to the great danger of the shipping employed in the
Greenland fishery.

JUNK, _bouts de cable_, a name given to any remnants or pieces of old
cable, which is usually cut into small portions for the purpose of
making points, mats, gaskets, sennit, &c. See POINTS, &c.

JURY-MAST, a temporary or occasional mast, erected in a ship to supply
the place of one which has been carried away by tempest, battle, or the
labouring of a ship in a turbulent sea.


KAICLING, or KECKLING, a name given to any old ropes, which are wound
about a cable, with a small interval between the turns, and used to
preserve the surface of the cable from being fretted, when it rubs
against the ship’s bow, or _fore-foot_. See also ROUNDING and SERVICE.

KEDGE, _ancre de touei_, a small anchor, used to keep a ship steddy
whilst she rides in a harbour or river, particularly at the turn of the
tide, when she might otherwise drive over her principal anchor, and
entangle the stock or flukes with her slack cable, so as to loosen it
from the ground. This is accordingly prevented by a kedge-rope, that
restrains her from approaching it.

The kedges are also particularly useful in _transporting_ a ship, _i.
e._ removing her from one part of the harbour to another, by means of
ropes, which are fastened to these anchors. They are generally furnished
with an iron stock, which is easily displaced, for the convenience of
stowing them. See the articles ANCHOR and WARP.

KEEL, the principal piece of timber in a ship, which is usually first
laid on the blocks in building.

If we compare the carcase of a ship to the skeleton of the human body,
the keel may be considered as the back-bone, and the timbers as the
ribs. It therefore supports and unites the whole fabric, since the stem
and stern-post, which are elevated on its ends, are, in some measure, a
continuation of the keel, and serve to connect and enclose the
extremities of the sides by transoms; as the keel forms and unites the
bottom by timbers.

The keel is generally composed of several thick pieces, (A, plate I.
PIECES of the HULL) placed lengthways, which, after being scarfed
together, are bolted, and clinched upon the upper side. When these
pieces cannot be procured large enough to afford a sufficient depth to
the keel, there is a strong thick piece of timber bolted to the bottom
thereof, called the _false keel_, which is also very useful in
preserving the lower-side of the main keel. In our largest ships of war,
the false keel is generally composed of two pieces, which are called the
upper and the lower false keels. See MIDSHIP-FRAME.

The lowest plank in a ship’s bottom, called the _garboard-streak_, has
its inner-edge let into a groove, or channel, cut longitudinally on the
side of the keel: the depth of this channel is therefore regulated by
the thickness of the garboard-streak.

KEEL is also a name given to a low flat-bottomed vessel, used in the
river Tyne to bring the coals down from Newcastle, and the adjacent
parts, in order to load the colliers for transportation.

_Upon an even_ KEEL, the position of a ship when her keel is parallel to
the plane of the horizon, so that she is equally deep in the water at
both ends.

KEEL-HAULING, a punishment inflicted for various offences in the Dutch
navy. It is performed by plunging the delinquent repeatedly under the
ship’s bottom on one side, and hoisting him up on the other, after
having passed under the keel. The blocks, or pullies, by which he is
suspended, are fastened to the opposite extremities of the main-yard,
and a weight of lead or iron is hung upon his legs to sink him to a
competent depth. By this apparatus he is drawn close up to the yard-arm,
and thence let fall suddenly into the sea, where, passing under the
ship’s bottom, he is hoisted up on the opposite side of the vessel. As
this extraordinary sentence is executed with a serenity of temper
peculiar to the Dutch, the culprit is allowed sufficient intervals to
recover the sense of pain, of which indeed he is frequently deprived
during the operation. In truth, a temporary insensibility to his
sufferings ought by no means to be construed into a disrespect of his
judges, when we consider that this punishment is supposed to have
peculiar propriety in the depth of winter, whilst the flakes of ice are
floating on the stream; and that it is continued till the culprit is
almost suffocated for want of air, benumbed with the cold of the water,
or stunned with the blows his head receives by striking the ship’s

_To_ KEEP, a term used on several occasions in navigation: as,

_To_ KEEP _the land aboard_, is to keep within sight of land as much as
possible. See also HOLD.

_To_ KEEP _the luff_, to continue close to the wind, _i. e._ sailing
with a course inclined to the direction of the wind, as much as
possible, without deviating to leeward. This is also called, _keeping
the wind_. See CLOSE-HAULED.

_To_ KEEP _off_, _alargeer_, _tenir le largue_, to sail off, or keep at
a distance from the shore. See also OFFING.

_Boat_-KEEPER, one of the rowers, who remains as a centinel in his turn,
to take care of any boat and her contents, either when she lies by the
shore, or along-side of the ship; or when she is towed astern of her.

KELSON, _contre quille_, a piece of timber, which may be properly
defined the interior, or counter-part of the keel, as it is laid upon
the middle of the floor-timbers, immediately over the keel, and, like
it, composed of several pieces, scarfed together, represented by X,
plate I. PIECES of the HULL. In order to fit with more security upon the
floor-timbers and crotches, it is notched about an inch and a half deep,
opposite to each of those pieces, and thereby firmly scored down upon
them to that depth, where it is secured by spike-nails. The pieces of
which it is formed are only half the breadth and thickness of those of
the keel.

The kelson serves to bind and unite the floor-timbers to the keel. It is
confined to the keel by long bolts, which, being driven from without
through several of the timbers, are fore-locked or clinched upon rings
on the upper side of the kelson.

KETCH, a vessel equipped with two masts, viz. the main-mast and
mizen-mast, and usually from 100 to 250 tons burthen.

KETCHES are principally used as yachts, or as bomb-vessels, the former
of which are employed to convey princes of the blood, ambassadors, or
other great personages from one part to another; and the latter are used
to bombard citadels, or towns, or other fortresses.

The bomb-ketches are therefore furnished with all the apparatus
necessary for a vigorous bombardment. They are built remarkably strong,
as being-fitted with a greater number of _riders_ than any other vessel
of war; and indeed this reinforcement is absolutely necessary to sustain
the violent shock produced by the discharge of their mortars, which
would otherwise, in a very short time, shatter them to pieces. See

KEVELS, _taquets_, a frame composed of two pieces of timber, whose lower
ends rest in a sort of step or foot, nailed to the ship’s side, from
whence the upper ends branch outward into arms or horns, serving to
belay the great ropes by which the bottoms of the main-sail and
fore-sail are extended. These are represented by fig. 3. plate V.

KEY, _quai_, a long wharf, usually built of stone, by the side of a
harbour or river, and having several store-houses for the convenience of
lading and discharging merchant-ships. It is accordingly furnished with
posts and rings, whereby they are secured; together with cranes,
capsterns, and other engines, to lift the goods into, or out of, the
vessels which lie along-side.

KEYS, _attalons_, are also certain sunken rocks, lying near the surface
of the water, particularly in the West-Indies.

KINK, a sort of twist or turn in any cable or other rope, occasioned by
its being very stiff or close-laid; or by being drawn too hastily out of
the roll or tier, when it lies coiled. See the article COILING.

KNEE, _courbe_, a crooked piece of timber, having two branches, or arms,
and generally used to connect the beams of a ship with her sides or

The branches of the knees form an angle of greater or smaller extent,
according to the mutual situation of the pieces which they are designed
to unite. One branch is securely bolted to one of the deck-beams, whilst
the other is in the same manner attached to a corresponding timber in
the ship’s side, as represented by E in the MIDSHIP-FRAME, plate VII.

Besides the great utility of knees in connecting the beams and timbers
into one compact frame, they contribute greatly to the strength and
solidity of the ship, in the different parts of her frame to which they
are bolted, and thereby enable, her, with greater firmness, to resist
the effects of a turbulent sea.

In fixing of these pieces, it is occasionally necessary to give an
oblique direction to the vertical, or side-branch, in order to avoid the
range of an adjacent gun-port, or, because the knee may be so shaped as
to require this disposition; it being sometimes difficult to procure so
great a variety of knees as may be necessary in the construction of a
number of ships of war.

In France, the scarcity of these pieces has obliged their shipwrights
frequently to form their knees of iron.

KNEES are either said to be _lodging_ or _hanging_. The former are fixed
horizontally in the ship’s frame, having one arm bolted to the beam, and
the other across two or three timbers, as represented by F in the DECK,
plate III. The latter are fixed vertically, as we have described above.

KNEE _of the head_, _poulaine_, a large flat piece of timber, fixed
edgways upon the fore-part of a ship’s stem, and supporting the
ornamental figure or image, placed under the bowsprit. See the article

The knee of the head, which may properly be defined a continuation of
the stem, as being prolonged from the stem forwards, is extremely broad
at the upper-part, and accordingly composed of several pieces united
into one, Y Y, plate I. PIECES of the HULL. It is let into the head, and
secured to the ship’s _bows_ by strong knees fixed horizontally upon
both, and called the _cheeks of the head_, Z Z, plate IV. fig. 10. The
heel of it is scarfed to the upper end of the fore-foot, and it is
fastened to the stem above by a knee, called a _standard_, expressed by
&, in plate I. PIECES of the HULL.

Besides supporting the figure of the head, this piece is otherwise
useful, as serving to secure the boom, or _bumkin_, by which the
fore-tack is extended to windward; and, by its great breadth, preventing
the ship from falling to leeward, when _close-hauled_, so much as she
would otherwise do. It also affords a greater security to the bowsprit,
by increasing the angle of the bob-stay, so as to make it act more
perpendicularly on the bowsprit.

The knee of the head is a phrase peculiar to shipwrights; as this piece
is always called the _cut-water_ by seamen, if we except a few, who
affecting to be wiser than their brethren, have adopted this expression
probably on the presumption that the other is a cant phrase, or
vulgarism. It appears a material part of the province of this work to
call the several articles contained therein by their proper names, and
to reject those which are spurious, however sanctified by the authority
of official dulness, or seconded by the adoption of dignified ignorance.
Accordingly we cannot help observing, that when a term of art has been
established from time immemorial, and besides being highly expressive,
produces the testimony of foreign nations[36] to its propriety, nothing
more certainly betrays a superficial understanding, than the attempt to
change it, without being able to assign the shadow of a reason for this
alteration. For although _knee of the head_, being invariably used by
the artificers, is of course explained in this work as a term of naval
architecture, wherein practice has indeed rendered it natural and
intelligible; it is nevertheless very rarely used by seamen, especially
in common discourse, unless when it is intended to impress the hearer
with an idea of the speaker’s superior judgment.


KNIGHT-HEADS, two strong pieces of timber, fixed on the opposite sides
of the main-deck, a little behind the fore-mast, in a merchant-ship.

They are used to support and inclose the ends of the windlass, which
accordingly is turned therein as upon an axis. As each of the
knight-heads is formed of two pieces, they may be occasionally separated
in order to take off the turns of the cable from the windlass, or
replace them upon it. They are sometimes called the _bits_, and in this
sense their upper-parts only are denominated knight-heads, which being
formerly embellished with a figure designed to resemble a human head,
gave rise to the name they have ever since retained. See the article

KNIGHT-HEADS, _sep de drisse_, was also a name formerly given to the
lower jear-blocks, which were then no other than bits, containing
several sheaves, and nearly resembling our present top-sail-sheet bits.

KNITTLE, _eguillette_, (_from knit_) a small line, which is either
plaited or twisted, and used for various purposes at sea; as to fasten
the service on the cable, to reef the sails by the bottom, and to hang
the hammocs between decks, &c.

KNOT, a large knob formed on the extremity of a rope, by untwisting the
ends thereof, and interweaving them regularly amongst each other. There
are several sorts of knots, which differ in their form and size,
according to the uses for which they are designed: the principal of
these are the diamond-knot, the rose-knot, the wall-knot or walnut, some
of which are single, and others double.

The knots are generally used to fasten one rope to another, by means of
a small cord attached to the neck of the knot, called the _laniard_,
which is firmly tied about both ropes. They are also designed to prevent
the end of a rope from sliding through an _eye_, which the knot is
intended to confine in a particular situation. See BECKETS.


_TO_ LABOUR, _travailler_, as a sea-term, implies to roll or pitch
heavily in a turbulent sea; an effect, by which the masts and hull of
the ship are greatly endangered, because by the rolling motion the masts
strain upon their shrouds with an effort, which increases as the sine of
their obliquity: and the continual agitation of the vessel gradually
loosens her joints, and often makes her extremely leaky.

LADDER, _echelle_, a well-known convenience, of which there are a great
number in a ship, formed of two pieces of plank joined together by
crosspieces, which serve as steps, whereby to mount or descend from one
deck to another.

The ladders derive their names from the several hatchways, or other
parts of a ship, wherein they are situated. Besides these, there are, of
a particular construction, the accommodation-ladder and the

_Accommodation_-LADDER, is a sort of light stair-case, occasionally
fixed on the gangway of the admiral, or commander in chief, of a fleet.
It is furnished with rails and entering-ropes, covered with red bays,
and the lower-end of it is retained at a competent distance from the
ship’s side by iron bars, or braces, to render the passage more
convenient to those who enter or depart from the ship. See the article

_Quarter_-LADDERS, two ladders of rope, depending from the right and
left side of a ship’s stern, whereby to descend into the boats which are
moored astern, in order to bring them up along-side of the ship; or to
use them for any other occasion.

LADEN, _chargée_, the state of a ship when she is charged with a weight
or quantity of any sort of merchandizes, or other materials, equal to
her tonnage or burthen. If the cargo with which she is laden is
extremely heavy, her burthen is determined by the weight of the goods;
and if it is light, she carries as much as she can _stow_, to be fit for
the purposes of navigation. As a ton in measure is generally estimated
at 2000 lb. in weight, a vessel of 200 tons ought accordingly to carry a
weight equal to 400,000 lb. when the matter of which the cargo is
composed is specifically heavier than the water in which she floats; or,
in other words, when the cargo is so heavy that she cannot float high
enough, with so great a quantity of it, as her hold will contain.

LADEN _in bulk_, the state of being freighted with a cargo which is
neither in casks, boxes, bales, or cases, but lies loose in the hold;
being defended from the moisture, or wet of the hold, by a number of
mats and a quantity of _dunnage_. Such are usually the cargoes of corn,
salt, or such materials.

LAID-UP, the situation of a ship when she is either moored in a harbour
during the winter season, or laid by, for want of employment: or when by
age and craziness she is rendered incapable of further service.

LANCH, a peculiar sort of long-boat, used by the French, Spanish, and
Italian shipping; and in general by those of other European nations,
when employed in voyaging in the Mediterranean sea.

A lanch is proportionably longer, lower, and more flat-bottomed than the
long-boat; it is by consequence less fit for sailing, but better
calculated for rowing and approaching a flat shore. Its principal
superiority to the long-boat, however, consists in being, by its
construction, much fitter to under-run the cable, which is a very
necessary employment in the harbours of the Levant sea, where the cables
of different ships are fastened across each other, and frequently render
this exercise extremely necessary.

LANCH is also the movement by which a ship or boat descends from the
shore, either when she is at first built, or at any time afterwards.

To facilitate the operation of lanching, and prevent any interruption
therein, the ship is supported by two strong platforms, laid with a
gradual inclination to the water, on the opposite sides of her keel, to
which they are parallel. Upon the surface of this declivity are placed
two corresponding ranges of planks, which compose the base of a frame
called the _cradle_, whose upper-part envelops the ship’s bottom,
whereto it is securely attached. Thus the lower surface of the cradle,
conforming exactly to that of the frame below, lies flat upon it,
lengthways, under the opposite sides of the ship’s bottom; and as the
former is intended to slide downwards upon the latter, carrying the ship
along with it, the planes or faces of both are well daubed with soap and

The necessary preparations for the lanch being made, all the blocks and
wedges, by which the ship was formerly supported, are driven out from
under her keel, till her whole weight gradually subsides upon the
platforms above described, which are accordingly called the _ways_. The
_shores_ and stanchions by which she is retained upon the stocks till
the period approaches for lanching, are at length cut away, and the
screws applied to move her, if necessary. The motion usually begins on
the instant when the shores are cut, and the ship slides downward along
the ways, which are generally prolonged under the surface of the water,
to a sufficient depth, to float her as soon as she arrives at the
farthest end thereof.

When a ship is to be lanched, the ensign, jack, and pendant, are always
hoisted, the last being displayed from a staff erected in the middle of
the ship. Plate V. fig. 4. represents a ship of war ready to be lanched
from the stocks.

The largest ship that ever was lanched in England, is the Britannia, of
100 guns, built at Portsmouth. Ships of the first rate are commonly
constructed in dry docks, and afterwards floated out, by throwing open
the flood-gates, and suffering the tide to enter, as soon as they are

LAND-FALL, _atterrage_, the first land discovered after a sea-voyage:
hence it is common for ships, who accost each other at sea, to wish a
good land-fall at parting, by which they imply a discovery of land, at
or near the place whither their course is directed, and which they
expect to _make_ by their journals.

LAND-LOCKED, _bouclé_, the situation of a ship which is environed by the
land on all sides in a road, bay, or haven; so as to exclude the
prospect of the sea, unless over some intervening land. See the French
word _terre_, and the phrases following it.

LANGREL, or LANGRAGE, _mitrailles_, a particular kind of shot, formed of
bolts, nails, bars, or other pieces of iron tied together, and forming a
sort of cylinder, which corresponds with the bore of the cannon, from
which it is intended to be discharged. This contrivance is particularly
designed to wound or carry away the masts, or tear the sails and rigging
of the adversary, so as to disable him from flight or pursuit. It is
never used in royal ships, but very often by privateers and merchantmen.

LANIARD, (_lanier_, Fr.) a short piece of cord or line, fastened to
several machines in a ship, and serving to secure them in a particular
place, or to manage them more conveniently. Such are the laniards of the
gun-ports, the laniard of the buoy, the laniard of the cat-hook, &c.

The principal laniards used in a ship, however, are those employed to
extend the shrouds and stays of the masts, by their communication with
the dead-eyes, so as to form a sort of mechanical power, resembling that
of a tackle. See DEAD-EYES.

These laniards, _rides_, are fixed in the dead-eyes as follows: One end
of the laniard is thrust through one of the holes in the upper dead-eye,
and then knotted, to prevent it from drawing out; the other end is then
passed through one of the holes in the lower dead-eye, whence, returning
upward, it is inserted through the second hole in the upper dead-eye,
and next through the second in the lower dead-eye, and finally through
the third holes in both dead-eyes. The end of the laniard being then
directed upwards from the lowest dead-eye, is stretched as stiff as
possible by the application of tackles; and that the several parts of it
may slide with more facility through the holes in the dead-eyes, it is
well smeared with hog’s lard or tallow, so that the strain is
immediately communicated to all the turns at once.

LANTHORN, a well-known machine, of which there are many used in a ship,
particularly for the purpose of directing the course of other ships in a
fleet or convoy: such are the poop and top-lanthorns, &c.

LAP-SIDED, _bordier_, the state of a ship, which is built in such a
manner as to have one side heavier than the other; and, by consequence,
to retain a constant _heel_, or inclination towards the heaviest side;
unless when she is brought upright, by placing a greater quantity of the
cargo, or ballast, on the other side. See BALLAST.

LARBOARD, _babord_, a name given by seamen to the left side of a ship,
wherein the right and left are apparently determined by the analogy of a
ship’s position, on the water, to that of a fish.

LARGE, a phrase applied to the wind, when it crosses the line of a
ship’s course in a favourable direction, particularly on the _beam_ or
_quarter_. To understand this more clearly, let us suppose a ship
steering west; then the wind, in any point of the compass to the
eastward of the south or north, may be called _large_, unless indeed
when it is directly east, and then it is said to be right aft.

_Sailing_ LARGE, _aller vent largue_, is therefore advancing with a
large wind, so as that the _sheets_ are slackened and _flowing_, and the
_bowlines_ entirely disused. This phrase is generally opposed to sailing
_close-hauled_, or with a _scant_ wind, in which situation the sheets
and bowlines are extended as much as possible.

LASHING, _amarrage_, a piece of rope employed to fasten or secure any
moveable body in a ship, or about her masts, sails, and rigging: also
the act of fastening or securing any thing by means of the rope used for
this purpose.

LATEEN-SAIL, a long triangular sail extended by a lateen-yard, and
frequently used by xebecs, polacres, settees, and other vessels
navigated in the Mediterranean sea.

LAYING THE LAND, in navigation, the state of motion which increases the
distance from the coast, so as to make it appear lower and smaller; a
circumstance which evidently arises from the intervening convexity of
the surface of the sea. It is used in contradistinction to _raising_ the
land, which is produced by the opposite motion of approach towards it.

LEAK, a chink or breach in the decks, sides, or bottom of a ship,
through which the water passes into her hull. When a leak first
commences, the vessel is said to have sprung a leak.

LEAKY, the state of a ship when abounding with leaks.

LEE, an epithet used by seamen to distinguish that part of the
hemisphere to which the wind is directed, from the other part whence it
arises; which latter is accordingly called _to windward_. This
expression is chiefly used when the wind crosses the line of a ship’s
course, so that all on one side of her is called _to-windward_, and all
on the opposite side, _to leeward_: and hence,

_Under the_ LEE, implies farther to the leeward, or farther from that
part of the horizon from whence the wind blows; as,

_Under the_ LEE _of the shore_; _i. e._ at a short distance from the
shore which lies to windward. This phrase is commonly understood to
express the situation of a vessel, anchored, or sailing under the
weather-shore, where there is always smoother water, and less danger of
heavy seas, than at a great distance from it[37].

LEE-LARCHES, the sudden and violent rolls which a ship often takes to
the leeward in a high sea, particularly when a large wave strikes her on
the weather-side.

LEE-SIDE, all that part of a ship or boat which lies between the mast,
and the side farthest from the direction of the wind; or otherwise, the
half of a ship, which is pressed down towards the water by the effort of
the sails, as separated from the other half, by a line drawn through the
middle of her length. That part of the ship, which lies to windward of
this line, is accordingly called the _weather-side_.

Thus admit a ship to be sailing southward, with the wind at east, then
is her starboard, or right-side, the _lee-side_; and the larboard, or
left, the _weather-side_.

LEEWARD-SHIP, a vessel that falls much to-leeward of her course, when
sailing _close-hauled_, and consequently loses much ground.

_To_ LEEWARD, towards that part of the horizon which lies under the lee,
or whither the wind bloweth. Thus, “We saw a fleet under the lee,” and,
“We saw a fleet to-leeward,” are synonimous expressions.

LEE-WAY, is the lateral movement of a ship to-leeward of her course, or
the angle which the line of her way makes with the keel when she is
_close-hauled_. See that article.

This movement is produced by the mutual effort of the wind and sea upon
her side, forcing her to-leeward of the line upon which she appears to
sail; and in this situation her course is necessarily a compound of the
two motions by which she is impelled, of which the one presses forward,
according to the line of her keel, from H to K, fig. 5. plate V. whilst
the other, acting in the line B A, pushes her to leeward of the course
from B towards A, with a motion which is usually in proportion to the
force of the wind, and the rate of her velocity, as appears by the
following theory.

When a ship is close-hauled, and the head-sails are in perfect
equilibrio with those abaft, the resistance of the water from A to B.
fig. 5. plate V. is equal to the impulse of the sails, whether it is
impressed upon the centre of gravity H of the ship, or any other point
of her length before or abaft it. In this situation, the ship will as
readily bear away as come nearer to the wind, with regard to the
resistance of the water upon her bottom on one side, and the impulsion
of the wind upon the sails on the other. But it must be observed, that
the united effort of the sails acts upon the ship according to a
direction B A, perpendicular to their surfaces, and commencing its
action in some point H, being the mean _d_ between the different effects
C G, of the sails _afore_ and abaft, which should exactly correspond
with the resistance of the water from A towards B; so that the vessel is
pushed to leeward of the course I K, which she steers in the direction B
A of the effort of the sails. But the resistance of the water, acting
upon the lee-side of her bottom, counterbalances this effort, and
becomes stronger, in proportion to the greater facility with which she
divides the fluid with her stem; so that she will really advance in the
course N R, which lies nearer the line of her keel than B A. Thus the
angle K H R of the lee-way is proportional to the greater or less
resistance the ship meets with from the fluid upon her lee side,
respectively with her greater or less facility of dividing it with her
fore-part; so that the lee-way is very inconsiderable, except, when the
ship is close-hauled, and is accordingly disregarded whenever the wind,
is large.

This demonstration might be pushed farther by a fact founded on daily
experience, which proves that not only the lee-way depends on the form
of the vessel, but also the degree of velocity with which she advances;
and perhaps never, intirely, upon the greater or less obliquity of the
sails with the keel, as some authors have pretended. For when a
swift-sailing ship is _close-hauled_, with all her sails out, in a very
light wind, and scarcely having _steerage-way_, the lee-way is
considerable even in smooth water. This is occasioned by the tardy
motion of the vessel, which being feebly pushed forward, cannot impress
the water with a forcible effect, and by consequence feels no resistance
from it, but is accordingly carried with facility by her sails, in the
direction of their effort B A: and if we consider the situation of the
ship’s side, which presents a great surface of sail above the water, it
appears that the lee-way will become yet more perpendicular to the keel.
But when the wind makes a forcible impression, the velocity of moving
forward is considerably augmented; the ship strikes the fluid with a
force, expressed by the square of two or three leagues of swiftness,
from B towards A, in the space of an hour, whilst the water repels her
effort in a contrary direction. The resistance of the water is then, in
the ratio of this square, to the square of her first velocity, or
head-way; and in this state will not readily yield to its effort. The
lee-way immediately decreases, and will be still farther diminished, if
the ship’s course is accelerated. If then at the moment when the ship
advances with great rapidity, she _bears away_ 12 or 15 degrees, or even
two points, without altering the general arrangement of her sails, their
obliquity remains the same, the ship therefore ought to have the same
lee-way, according to the opinion of those who have written on the
theory of sailing. The velocity is augmented, because the sails then
receive the wind by a greater sine of incidence, and thereby acquire a
more powerful effort, whilst the ship’s _head_ is always struck by the
water in the same parts, and by the same sine of incidence; so that the
lee-way is also diminished, because the water resists more, in
consequence of the accelerated swiftness; and because the resistance is
more exerted on the ship’s side than on her head, which is less opposed
to its impulsion. Hence we may conclude, that the lee-way of a ship does
not entirely depend on the disposition of her sails; that it is
different in different vessels, because they are neither formed alike,
nor are their sails equally _trimmed_ in the same oblique courses: and
finally, because they have always a different velocity, at the same
time, and under the same sail. Thus it is evident, that the lee-way is
always composed of the ship’s comparative velocity; of her form, which
gives more or less proportional resistance upon the side than on the
fore-part; and of the disposition of her sails, as forming a greater or
smaller obliquity with the keel. See also CLOSE-HAULED, DRIFT, and

LEECHES, _bords_, the borders or edges of a sail, which are either
sloping or perpendicular. See GORING.

The leeches of all sails, whose tops and bottoms are parallel to the
deck, or at right angles with the mast, are denominated from the ship’s
side, and the sail to which they belong; as the _starboard_ leech of the
main-sail, the _lee_ leech of the fore-top-sail, &c. but the sails which
are fixed obliquely upon the masts, have their leeches named from their
situation with respect to the ship’s length; as the fore-leech of the
mizen, the after-leech of the jib, or fore-stay-sail, &c.

LEECH-LINES, _cargues-bouline_, certain ropes fastened to the middle of
the leeches of the main-sail and fore-sail, and communicating with
blocks under the opposite sides of the top, whence they pass downwards
to the deck, serving to truss up those sails to the yard, as occasion
requires. See BRAILS.

LEECH-ROPE, _ralingue_, a name given to that part of the bolt-rope, to
which the border, or skirt of a sail is sewed. In all sails, whose
opposite leeches are of the same length, it is terminated above by the
earing, and below by the clue. See BOLT-ROPE, CLUE, and EARING.

LENGTHENING, the operation of cutting a ship down across the middle, and
adding a certain portion to her length. It is performed by sawing her
planks asunder, in different places of her length, on each side of the
midship frame, to prevent her from being weakened too much in one place.
The two ends are then drawn apart, to a limited distance, which must be
equal to the proposed addition of length. An intermediate piece of
timber is next added to the keel, upon which a sufficient number of
timbers are erected, to fill up the vacancy produced by the separation.
The two parts of the kelson are afterwards united, by an additional
piece which is scored down upon the floor-timbers; and as many beams as
may be necessary, are fixed across the ship in the new interval.
Finally, the planks of the side are prolonged, so as to unite with each
other, and those of the ceiling refitted in the same manner; by which
the whole process is completed.

_To_ LET _in_, _enclaver_, amongst shipwrights, is to fix a diminished
part of one plank or piece of timber into a vacancy, formed in another
for this purpose. See RABBIT.

LETTER OF MART, a commission granted by the lords of the admiralty, or
by the vice-admiral of any distant province, to the commander of a
merchant-ship, or privateer, to cruize against, and make prizes of, the
enemy’s ships and vessels, either at sea, or in their harbours.

_To_ LIE _along_, or LIE _over_. See the article ALONG.

_To_ LIE-_to_. See LYING-TO, &c.

LIEUTENANT _of a ship of war_, the officer next in rank and power to the
captain, in whose absence he is accordingly charged with the command of
the ship; as also the execution of whatever orders he may have received
from the commander relating to the king’s service.

The lieutenant, who commands the watch at sea, keeps a list of all the
officers and men thereto belonging, in order to muster them, when he
judges it expedient, and report to the captain the names of those who
are absent from their duty. During the night-watch, he occasionally
visits the lower decks, or sends thither a careful officer, to see that
the proper centinels are at their duty, and that there is no disorder
amongst the men; no tobacco smoaked between decks, nor any fire or
candles burning there, except the lights which are in lanthorns, under
the care of a proper watch, on particular occasions. He is expected to
be always upon deck in his watch, as well to give the necessary orders,
with regard to _trimming_ the sails and superintending the navigation,
as to prevent any noise or confusion; but he is never to change the
ship’s course without the captain’s directions, unless to avoid an
immediate danger.

The lieutenant, in time of battle, is particularly to see that all the
men are present at their quarters, where they have been previously
stationed according to the regulations made by the captain. He orders
and exhorts them every where to perform their duty, and acquaints the
captain at all other times of the misbehaviour of any persons in the
ship, and of whatever else concerns the service or discipline.

The youngest lieutenant of the ship, who is also stiled lieutenant at
arms, besides his common duty, is particularly ordered, by his
instructions, to train the seamen to the use of small arms, and
frequently to exercise and discipline them therein. Accordingly his
office, in time of battle, is chiefly to direct and attend them, and at
all other times to have a due regard to the preservation of the small
arms, that they be not lost or embezzled, and that they are kept clean
and in good condition for service.

LIFTS, _balanciers_, certain ropes, descending from the cap and
mast-head, to the opposite extremities of the yard immediately under;
where, passing through a block or pulley, they become double. They are
used to keep the yard in equilibrio; or to pull one of its extremities
higher than the other, as occasion requires; but particularly to support
the weight of it, when a number of seamen are employed thereon, to furl
or _reef_ the sail.

The lifts of the top-sail-yards, called the top-sail-lifts, are also
used as _sheets_ to extend the bottom of the top-gallant-sail above.

The yards are said to be squared by the lifts, when they hang at right
angles with the mast; that is to say, parallel to the horizon, when the
vessel is upright upon the water.


LIGHT, _lege_, in the sea-language is used in contradistinction to
laden. A ship is accordingly called light, either when she has no cargo,
or when she is not sufficiently ballasted.

LIGHTER, _allege_, a large, open, flat-bottomed vessel, generally
managed with oars, and employed to carry goods to or from a ship when
she is to be laden or delivered. See the article VESSEL.

There are also some lighters furnished with a deck throughout their
whole length, in order to contain those merchandizes, which would be
damaged by rainy weather: these are usually called close-lighters.

LIGHT-HOUSE, _phare_, _tour à feu_, a sort of tower erected upon a cape
or promontory on the sea-coast, or upon some rock in the sea, and having
a great fire, or light formed by candles, upon its top, in the night
time, which is constantly attended by some careful person, so as to be
seen at a great distance from the land. It is used to direct the
shipping on the coast, that might otherwise run ashore, or steer an
improper course, when the darkness of the night, and the uncertainty of
currents, &c. might render their situation, with regard to the shore,
extremely doubtful.

LIGHT-ROOM, _fanal de soute_, a small apartment, inclosed with glass
windows, near the magazine of a ship of war. It is used to contain the
lights by which the gunner, and his assistants, are enabled to fill the
cartridges with powder, to be ready for action.

LIMBERS, or LIMBER-HOLES, _parclosses_, certain square holes cut through
the lower parts of a ship’s floor-timbers, very near the keel. Being
disposed in a line, parallel to the keel, they form a channel, which
communicates with the pumps throughout the whole length of the floor, so
that the water which enters by a leak, and would otherwise be
intercepted by the timbers, is easily conveyed to the well-room, where
the pumps are fixed. Every floor-timber has two limber-holes cut through
it, viz. one on each side of the _kelson_.

LIMBER-BOARDS, short pieces of plank, which form a part of the ceiling,
or lining of a ship’s floor, close to the kelson, and immediately above
the limbers. They are occasionally removed, when it becomes necessary,
to examine, or clear the limber-holes of any filth, sand, chips, or
gravel, by which they may be clogged, so as to interrupt the passage of
the water, in the ship’s floor, to the pump-well.

LIMBER-ROPE, a long rope, frequently retained in the limber-holes of a
ship, and communicating from one to another, in order to clear them by
pulling the rope backwards and forwards, so as to loosen the sand or
dirt by which they may occasionally be choaked.

LINE, _ligne_, a general name given to the arrangement or order in which
a fleet of ships of war are disposed to engage an enemy.

This disposition, which is the best calculated for the operations of
naval war, is formed by drawing up the ships in a long file, or right
line, prolonged from the keel of the hindmost to that of the foremost,
and passing longitudinally through the keels of all the others, from the
van to the rear; so that they are, according to the sea-phrase, in the
_wake_ of each other.

In the line, or order of battle, all the ships of which it is composed
are _close-hauled_, upon the starboard or larboard-tack, about 50
fathoms distant from each other. See plate V. fig. 5. where _a b_
represents the elevation, and A B the plan of this order, upon the
starboard-tack; the direction of the wind in both being expressed by the
arrow in the latter.

A fleet is more particularly drawn up in the line when in presence of an
enemy. It ought to be formed in such a manner as that the ships should
mutually sustain and reinforce each other, and yet preserve a sufficient
space in their stations, to _work_ or direct their movements with
facility during the action. Thus they will be enabled effectually to
cannonade the enemy, without incommoding the ships of their own

The line close-hauled is peculiarly chosen as the order of battle,
because if the fleet, which is to windward, were arranged in any other
line, the enemy might soon gain the _weather-gage_ of it; and even if he
thinks it expedient to decline that advantage, it will yet be in his
power to determine the distance between the adverse fleets, in an
engagement, and to compel the other to action. The fleet to leeward,
being in a line close-hauled, parallel to the enemy, can more readily
avail itself of a change of the wind, or of the neglect of its
adversary, by which it may, by a dextrous management, get to windward of
him: or, should it fail in this attempt, it will nevertheless be
enabled, by the favourable state of the wind, to avoid coming to action,
if the enemy is greatly superior; or to prevent him from escaping, if he
should attempt it.

Besides these advantages, this order of battle is singularly convenient
and proper in other respects. The sails of each ship are disposed in
such a manner as to counter-act each other, so that the ships in general
neither advance or retreat during the action. By this circumstance they
are enabled to retain their stations with greater stability, and to
prosecute the battle with vigour and resolution, yet without perplexity
and disorder. The uniformity of the line will be preserved, so that the
admiral’s orders may be readily communicated by signals from the van to
the rear. The distress of any particular ship, that is disabled and
rendered incapable to continue the action, will be presently discovered,
and her place accordingly supplied by one of the ships in reserve. The
circumstances and situation of the enemy’s line will be ever open to the
view of the commander in chief, so that he may be enabled to convert any
disaster that may happen therein to his own advantage.

It may be alledged indeed, that the same reasons hold good with regard
to the enemy, to whom this arrangement will be equally beneficial. It
may also be observed, that particular occasions have rendered it
necessary to break the order of the line; and that sometimes this
expedient has been practised with equal judgment and success. To the
first of these allegations it may be answered, that in war as well as
politics, there are certain general rules absolutely necessary to be
observed by the hostile powers: rules which are founded on mutual
convenience, and authorised by the invariable example of all ages!
Whatever tends to facilitate the designs of the adverse parties on each
other, or whatever operates to shorten the period of war, and render it
less destructive and fatal, are objects which ought never to be
disregarded. Disorder has not only a tendency to protract the war, but
to make it more bloody and ruinous, and to aggravate all the calamities
with which it is inseparably attended. Perhaps this observation is
particularly applicable to our present purpose, unless the consequences
of disorder in a sea-fight, as related below, should rather be
considered as the creation of fancy, than a recital of facts, naturally
resulting from known causes. Although peculiar circumstances have
sometimes, by their success, justified the measure of engaging an
enemy’s fleet, without forming the line; or after the line has been
separated; there is nevertheless very few operations in war that require
greater delicacy and vigilance, if the hostile fleets are very near to
each other. Perhaps no military enterprize can be attended with greater
hazard, or with fewer hopes of success. The incessant fire of so large
an assembly of ships in a very short time covers the scene of action
with a cloud of smoke, which is constantly accumulating. The winds that
enabled the two fleets to approach each other are soon become extremely
feeble, or perhaps perfectly lulled, by the explosions of a vigorous
cannonade: they are of course incapable any longer to dissipate the
smoke, which then darkens the air, and is almost impenetrable to the
eye. If in this situation the hostile ships are promiscuously scattered
amongst each other, it is easy to foretel the mischief, perplexity, and
distraction, to which the whole will be inevitably exposed. Not only is
the most comprehensive skill of the commander in chief rendered useless;
the smaller ships, abandoned to their ill fortune, may be torn to pieces
by superior force, without relief or succour: and, what is infinitely
worse than all, the ships of the same fleet may cannonade each other,
with all the resolution and spirit which they exert against their
enemies! If the design of war is conquest, and not massacre, it is thus
totally perverted! The battle, instead of being brought to a speedy
issue, and decided by a victory and defeat, is unhappily protracted into
a scene of slaughter and ruin, equally fatal and undecisive to both

If then disorder and confusion are fraught with such dangerous
consequences in a naval armament, it is no less certain that the
principal sinews of its strength are discipline, regularity, vigilance,
and activity. It has been already remarked, that the ships of the line
should be sufficiently close, to sustain each other; for if they are
farther apart than those of the enemy’s line, many single ships will
suffer the fire of two at once. Hence the fleet is rendered inferior to
that of the enemy, at the onset of battle; a circumstance which evinces
the superiority of larger ships, accompanied with weightier metal! the
enemy is defeated by the efforts of a more numerous and more powerful

Besides these advantages, the larger ships are in other respects highly
preferable in a line of battle. They overlook those of an inferior rate,
which are accordingly laid open to the fire of their musquetry. In a
high sea they can more safely employ the artillery of their lower deck
than a smaller ship; and if both are obliged to shut their lower deck
ports, the advantage of the three-decked ships, with regard to their
cannon, will yet be considerable: they have three tier against two, and
two against one. The same superiority subsists, in case they are
dismasted, when the upper-deck is encumbered with the ruins.

The large ships, being higher _between-decks_, are less incommoded with
the smoke; and their cannon is managed with greater facility.

The large ships, having greater solidity of frame, are better calculated
to resist the effects of battle and tempest. In general also, they sail
better than the small ones, except in fine weather; for in a fresh wind,
when the sea becomes agitated, they have always the superiority.

The fire-ships do not succeed so well against large ships as the smaller
ones: the artillery will sink them, or oblige them sooner to relinquish
their design; and they are easily _towed_ away by the great long boats.

The line of a fleet, which has abundance of capital ships, need not be
so much enclosed as that of an enemy who has fewer. The former may be
also less numerous, without being weaker.

An open line will, on many occasions, work more easily than one which is
more enclosed; and if it is less numerous, the movements thereof are
more expeditious; the signals better attended; the general order more
exactly preserved; and the ships less liable to be separated. Hence it
will be less embarrassed by a change of wind, and the order will be
sooner re-established.

A less numerous line will more readily approach or escape from an enemy,
or a hostile shore; and, finally, when cruizing in a smaller space, it
will not be so much contracted.

From the preceding reflections it results, that the line, which contains
more capital ships, will be stronger than one more numerous, if composed
of smaller ships. This reflection however does not exclude a certain
number of the third and fourth _rates_, which are necessary in all naval

As the hostile fleets are drawn up in two opposite lines, with their
sides to the wind, it is evident that one must be to the leeward of the
other, as appears in fig. 8. plate V. Both situations however have their
defects as well as advantages.

The advantages of a weather-line are generally, that it may approach the
enemy so as to determine the time and distance of action. If it is more
numerous than the lee-line, it may easily appoint a detachment to fall
upon the van and rear of the latter, and enclose it between two fires.
It is little incommoded by the fire or smoke of the cannon, and may
dispatch the fire-ships, under cover of the smoke, upon the disabled
ships of the lee-line; or wheresoever they may occasion perplexity and
disorder, by obliging the enemy to break the line and _bear away_.

The weather-line has nevertheless its defects, which sometimes
counterbalance the advantages above recited. If the sea is rough, and
the wind boisterous, it cannot readily fight with the lower-deck
battery. It cannot decline the action without the dangerous expedient of
forcing through the enemy’s line: and if it _keeps the wind_, the
lee-line may enclose, and totally destroy it, especially if it is
inferior in number to the latter; or if the ships thereof are in bad
condition; for it then can find no other resource but in the dexterity
of its manœuvres, unless it is favoured by the wind, or any oversight of
the enemy. The disabled ships of the weather-line must tack, to avoid
falling into the enemy’s fleet; and if they are much shattered, they may
be altogether separated from their own fleet, particularly if they are
in the rear of the line.

The line to leeward has also its advantages, which have occasionally
been preferred to those of the weather-line. The ships of the former may
use the guns of their lower decks, without the hazard of taking in much
water at the ports in stormy weather; whereas the line to windward dare
not open them, without the greatest danger. If the lee-line, although
more numerous, cannot so easily _double_ upon the van and rear of the
enemy, and inclose them between two fires, it may nevertheless have
opportunities of tacking, and cutting off a part of the enemy’s rear, by
obliging them to bear away, or separate from the rest. The disabled
ships to leeward are much more readily removed from the line than those
to windward, without being obliged to tack and continue exposed to the
enemy’s fire: they bear away, and remain at a competent distance from
the fleet in a state of safety. Finally, the lee-line can with more
facility avoid the action than its adversary; a circumstance which is
extremely favourable to an inferior squadron.

The defects of the lee-line, on the contrary, are, that it cannot decide
the time and distance of the battle, which may commence before it is
sufficiently formed; and it will perhaps be attacked by an enemy, who
bears away upon it in regular order. The fire and smoke of the
weather-line are a great inconvenience to it; and it cannot easily break
the enemy’s line with its fire-ships, which are very slowly and with
great difficulty conveyed to windward.

It must be remarked, that the admiral’s ship attentively preserves her
station in the centre of the line; for if the commander in chief should
give way to the caprice or inattention of any of those under his
direction, it would introduce an endless disorder into the squadron.

To illustrate this article, and enable the reader to form a clearer idea
of the line, we have, in plate V. represented several distinct views,
according to the different situations which it occasionally assumes.

Fig. 7. exhibits a perspective view of the line of battle on the
starboard-tack, A B being the plan thereof.

Fig. 8. _a_, represents the profile of the same line on the
starboard-tack, as brought to action by the opposite line _b_. The plan
of these squadrons, A B, appears immediately below.

It is necessary to remark here, that a fleet frequently retains the
order of the same tack, occasionally, when the whole fleet goes about at
once, as expressed by _a_, fig. 9. of which A is the plan. Or it goes
about gradually, the headmost ship having _tacked_ first, and the next
tacked as soon as she arrived in her wake; the rest following the same
example. See _c_, fig. 7. and C in the plan of the same figure.

It also frequently preserves the order of the line close-hauled,
although steering with a large wind, either in pursuit of a flying
enemy, or proceeding in a particular course. Thus the fleet _b_, fig.
10. although ranged so as to be in a line upon the larboard-tack, if
close to the wind, is chacing the fleet _a_ to leeward, which is either
parallel to the former and preserving the same order, or sails on a line
abreast, as expressed by the plan C. See also the article ABREAST.

Fig. 11 exhibits a fleet formed into a line, on the starboard-tack,
bearing away upon the continuation of the same line astern. Thus
supposing them to be formed on the starboard-tack, and sailing due
north, in a line ahead; it is evident that if every ship, at one and the
same time, bears away and steers south, the whole fleet will again be
upon a line ahead, with the wind upon the larboard-quarter, as expressed
in this figure, and in the plan under it.

Fig. 12 represents a fleet bearing away, and having half of its ships
ranged on the starboard-tack, and the other half on the larboard-tack,
so as to form the two sides of the angle _b c a_, of which the commander
in chief _a_ makes the central point. This disposition is sometimes used
to force through a passage which is guarded by an enemy. See also the
plan thereof, A B C below, where it is evident that the admiral is the
foremost ship, whilst bearing away, although she would be the last in
both lines, if they were close-hauled.

Fig. 13 expresses the order of retreat, which is frequently practised by
the French, and is directly the reverse of this; because the angular
point is farthest to leeward in the former, whereas it is to windward of
both lines in the latter; being also the headmost of both, when
close-hauled, although the sternmost ship while they are bearing away.

In an engagement, the ships are generally _brought-to_, with the
main-top-sails laid aback, and their fore-top-sails full, for the
purpose of bearing away more readily, when occasion requires. This
disposition of the sails is represented in fig. 13. plate III. See also

The line is said to be formed abreast, when the ships sides are all
parallel to each other, on a line which crosses their keels at right
angles. This is more frequently used in pursuing or retreating, with the
wind right aft, so that the line forms a perpendicular with the
direction of the wind, as exhibited by the ships C, in the plan annexed
to fig. 10.

LINE is also a name given to several small cords, of different sizes,
and used for various purposes at sea; as house-line, marline,
rattling-line, &c. See those articles.

LINTSTOCK, _baton à feu_, a staff about three feet long, having a sharp
point at one end, and a sort of fork or crotch in the other; the latter
of which serves to contain a lighted match, and by the former the
lintstock is occasionally stuck in the deck, in an upright position. It
is frequently used in small vessels, in an engagement, where there is
commonly one fixed between every two guns, by which the match is always
kept dry and ready for firing.

LOADING. See the articles CARGO and LADING.


LOG, a machine used to measure the ship’s head-way, or the rate of her
velocity as she advances through the sea. It is composed of a reel and
line, to which is fixed a small piece of wood, forming the quadrant of a
circle. The term log however is more particularly applied to the latter.

The log, fig. 14, plate V. is generally about a quarter of an inch
thick, and five or six inches from the angular point _a_ to the
circumference _b_. It is balanced by a thin plate of lead, nailed upon
the arch, so as to swim perpendicularly in the water, with about ⅔
immersed under the surface. The line is fastened to the log by means of
two legs _a_ and _b_, fig. 15, one of which passes through a hole _a_ at
the corner, and is knotted on the opposite side; whilst the other leg is
attached to the arch by a pin _b_, fixed in another hole, so as to draw
out occasionally. By these legs the log is hung in equilibrio, and the
line, which, is united to it, is divided into certain spaces, which are
in proportion to an equal number of geographical miles, as a half minute
or quarter minute is to an hour of time.

This instrument is employed to measure the ship’s course in the
following manner: The reel, fig. 16, about which the log-line is wound,
being held by one man, and the half-minute glass by another, the mate of
the watch at the same time fixes the pin, and throws the log over the
stern, which, swimming perpendicularly in the sea, feels an immediate
resistance as the ship advances. To prevent the pin from being drawn by
the effort of this resistance, the person who heaves the log continually
slackens the line over the stern, or quarter, so that it becomes almost
straight on the water, and the log continues nearly in the same place
where it first alighted, and is considered as fixed therein. The knots
are measured from a mark fastened at the distance of 12 or 15 fathoms
from the log; the glass is therefore turned at the instant when this
mark passes over the stern, and as soon as the glass runs out, the line
is accordingly stopped; when the water, acting forcibly on the surface
of the log, immediately dislodges the pin, so that the log, no longer
resisting the effort of the water, is easily drawn aboard. The degree of
the ship’s velocity is then readily determined, by examining the number
of knots nearest to that part of the line, where it was stopped at the
expiration of the glass, as the knots increase in their natural order
from the mark above mentioned. The space comprehended between that mark
and the log is used to let the latter be far enough astern, to be out of
the eddy of the ship’s _wake_ when the glass is turned.

If the glass runs thirty seconds, the distance between the knots should
be fifty feet. When it runs more or less, it should therefore be
corrected by the following analogy: As 30 is to 50, so is the number of
seconds of the glass to the distance between the knots upon the line. As
the heat or moisture of the weather has often a considerable effect on
the glass, so as to make it run slower or faster, it should be
frequently tried by the vibrations of a pendulum. The line, being also
liable to relax or shrink from the same cause, ought likewise to be
measured, as occasion requires.

It is usual to heave the log once every hour in ships of war and
East-India men; and in all other vessels, once in two hours; and if at
any time of the watch, the wind has increased or abated in the
intervals, so as to affect the ship’s velocity, the officer generally
makes a suitable allowance for it, at the close of the watch.

LOG-BOARD, a sort of table, divided into several columns, containing the
hours of the day and night, the direction of the winds, the course of
the ship, and all the material occurrences that happen during the
twenty-four hours, or from noon to noon; together with the latitude by
observation. From this table the different officers of the ship are
furnished with materials to compile their journals, wherein they
likewise insert whatever may have been omitted; or reject what may
appear superfluous in the log-board. See the article JOURNAL.

LOG-BOOK, a book into which the contents of the log-board is daily
copied at noon, together with every circumstance deserving notice, that
may happen to the ship, or within her cognizance, either at sea or in a
harbour, &c. The intermediate divisions or watches of the log-book,
containing four hours each, are usually signed by the commanding officer
thereof, in ships of war or East-Indiamen.

LONG-BOAT, _chaloupe_, the largest and strongest boat belonging to any
ship. It is principally employed to carry great burthens, as anchors,
cables, ballast, &c. See the article BOAT.

LOOF, the after-part of a ship’s bow; or that part of her side forward
where the planks begin to be incurvated into an arch, as they approach
the _stem_.

LOOK-OUT, _découverte_, a watchful attention to some important object,
or event, which is expected to arise from the present situation of a
ship, &c. It is principally used in navigation, when there is a
probability of danger from the real or supposed proximity of land,
rocks, enemies, and, in short, whatever peril she may encounter, through
inattention, which might otherwise have been avoided by a prudent and
necessary vigilance.

There is always a look-out kept on a ship’s forecastle at sea, to watch
for any dangerous objects lying near her track, and to which she makes a
gradual approach as she advances: the mate of the watch accordingly
calls often from the quarter-deck, “Look out afore there!” to the
persons appointed to this service.

LOOMING, an indistinct appearance of any distant object, as the
sea-coast, ships, mountains, &c. as, “she looms large afore the wind;
the looming of the land is high above the water,” &c.

LOOP-HOLES, _meurtrieres_, certain small apertures, formed in the
_bulk-heads_ and other parts of a merchant-ship, through which the small
arms are fired on an enemy who boards her.

_To_ LOOSE, _deferler_, to unfurl or call loose any sail, in order to be
_set_, or dried, after rainy weather.

LOST, _passé_, the state of being foundered or cast away; expressed of a
ship when she has either sunk at sea, or struck upon a rock, shelf, or
lee-shore, where she has beat to pieces by the violence of the sea.

LOW-WATER, that state of the tide, in which the reflux has fallen to its
greatest depression from the sea-coasts, or rivers of any country. See
the article TIDE.

_To_ LOWER, _amener_, to ease down gradually, expressed of some weighty
body, which is suspended by tackles, or other ropes, which, being
slackened, suffer the said body to descend as slowly or expeditiously as
the occasion requires. Hence

LOWER _handsomely_! and _lower cheerly!_ are opposed to each other, the
former being the order to lower gradually, and the latter to lower

LUFF, _lof_, the order from the pilot to the steersman to put the helm
towards the _lee_-side of the ship, in order to make the ship sail
nearer the direction of the wind. Hence, luff round, or luff alee,
_envoie, lof tout_, is the excess of this movement, by which it is
intended to throw the ship’s head up in the wind, in order to tack her,

A ship is accordingly said to spring her luff, _faire une olofée_, when
she yields to the effort of the helm, by sailing nearer to the line of
the wind than she had done before. See also HAULING _the wind_, and

LUFF-TACKLE, a name given by sailors to any large tackle that is not
destined for a particular place, but may be variously employed as
occasion requires. It is generally somewhat larger than the
_jigger-tackle_, although smaller than those which serve to hoist the
heavier materials into and out of the vessel; which latter are the main
and fore-tackles, the stay and quarter-tackles, &c.

LUG-SAIL, _treou_, a square sail, hoisted occasionally on the mast of a
boat, or small vessel, upon a yard which hangs nearly at right angles
with the mast. These are more particularly in the barca longas,
navigated by the Spaniards in the Mediterranean.

LYING-TO, or LYING-BY, _en panne_, the situation of a ship when she is
retarded in her course, by arranging the sails in such a manner as to
counteract each other with nearly an equal effort, and render the ship
almost immoveable, with respect to her progressive motion, or
_head-way_. A ship is usually _brought-to_ by the main and
fore-top-sails, one of which is laid _aback_, whilst the other is full;
so that the latter pushes the ship forward, whilst the former resists
this impulse, by forcing her astern. This is particularly practised in a
general engagement, when the hostile fleets are drawn up in two lines of
battle opposite each other. It is also used to wait for some other ship,
either approaching or expected; or to avoid pursuing a dangerous course,
especially in dark or foggy weather, &c.

LYING-TO _in a storm_. See the article TRYING.


MAGAZINE, _soute au poudres_, a close room or store-house, built in the
fore, or after-part of a ship’s hold, to contain the gun-powder used in
battle, &c. This apartment is strongly secured against fire, and no
person is suffered to enter it with a lamp or candle: it is therefore
lighted, as occasion requires, by means of the candles or lamps which
are fixed in the _light-room_ contiguous to it. See that article.

MAGNET. See the article COMPASS.

MAIN, an epithet usually applied by sailors to whatever is principal, as
opposed to what is inferior or secondary. Thus the main land is used in
contradistinction to an island or peninsula; and the main-mast, the
main-wale, the main-keel, and the main-hatchway, are in like manner
distinguished from the fore and mizen-masts, the channel-wales, the
false-keel, and the fore and after-hatchways, &c.

As the sails, yards, and rigging of the main-mast, are all described in
their proper places, namely, under those particular articles, to which
the reader is referred, it will be unnecessary to say any thing farther
of them here.

_To_ MAKE, is variously applied, in the sea-language, to the land, to
the sails, to the ship’s course, &c.

_To_ MAKE _a good board_. See the article BOARD.

_To_ MAKE _the land_, _decouvrir_, is to discover it from a distant
situation, in consequence of approaching it after a sea-voyage: as, “In
your passage to cape Tiburon, it will be necessary to make Turk’s

_To_ MAKE _sail_, _faire plus de voiles_, is to increase the quantity of
sail already extended, either by letting out the _reefs_, and by
hoisting an additional number of small sails, or by performing either of
those exercises separately.

_To_ MAKE _sternway_, _aller en arriere_, is to retreat or move with the
stern foremost.

_To_ MAKE _water_, _faire eau_, usually signifies to leak, unless when
the epithet _foul_ is added thereto. A ship is said to make foul water,
when running in shallow water, her keel disturbs and loosens the mud or
ooze, lying at the bottom thereof.

MALLET, a sort of wooden hammer, of which there are several sorts used
for different purposes on ship-board, as the

_Calking_-MALLET, an implement chiefly employed to drive the oakum into
the _seams_ of a ship, where the edges of the planks are joined to each
other in the sides, decks, or bottom.

The head of this mallet is long and cylindrical, being hooped with iron
to prevent it from splitting in the exercise of calking.

_Serving_-MALLET, a mallet used in _serving_ the rigging, by binding the
spun-yarn more firmly about it, than could possibly be done by hand;
which is performed in the following manner: the spun-yarn being
previously rolled up in a large ball, or clue, two or three turns of it
are passed about the rope and about the body of the mallet, which for
this purpose is furnished with a round channel in its surface, that
conforms to the convexity of the rope intended to be served. The turns
of the spun-yarn being strained round the mallet, so as to confine it
firmly to the rope, which is extended above the deck, one man passes the
ball continually about the rope, whilst the other, at the same time,
winds on the spun-yarn by means of the mallet, whose handle acting as a
lever, strains every turn about the rope as firm as possible.

MANGER, _gatte_, a small apartment, extending athwart the lower-deck of
a ship of war, immediately within the hause-holes, and fenced on the
afterpart by a partition, which separates it from the other part of the
deck behind it.

This partition serves as a fence to interrupt the passage of the water,
which occasionally gushes in at the hause-holes, or falls from the wet
cable whilst it is heaved in by the capstern. The water, thus prevented
from running aft, is immediately returned into the sea, by several small
channels, called _scuppers_, cut through the ship’s side within the

The manger is therefore particularly useful in giving a contrary
direction to the water that enters at the hause-holes, which would
otherwise run aft in great streams upon the lower deck, and render it
extremely wet and uncomfortable, particularly in tempestuous weather, to
the men who mess and sleep in different parts thereof.

MARINE, a general name for the navy of a kingdom or state; as also the
whole œconomy of naval affairs; or whatever respects the building,
rigging, arming, equipping, navigating, and fighting ships. It
comprehends also the government of naval armaments, and the state of all
the persons employed therein, whether civil or military.

MARINES, or MARINE-FORCES, a body of troops employed in the sea-service,
under the direction of the lords of the admiralty.

MARLINE, (_merlin_, Fr.) a small line, somewhat less than house-line,
and used for the same purposes. See HOUSE-LINE.

MARLING, the act of winding any small line, as marline, spun-yarn,
packthread, &c. about a rope, so that every turn is secured by a sort of
knot, so as to remain fixed in case all the rest should be cut through
by friction, &c. This expedient is much preferable to the winding a line
spirally about a rope for the same purpose, because as the turns are at
some distance from each other, the same quantity of line will serve for
the one method as the other; with this difference, that if one of the
spiral turns are cut through, the whole will be rendered useless,
whereas by marling, this is entirely prevented.

Marling is commonly used to fasten slips of canvas, called _parsling_,
upon the surface of a rope, to prevent it from being galled by another
rope that rubs against it, to attach the foot of a sail to its
bolt-rope, &c.

MARLING-SPIKE, _epissoir_, an iron pin, tapering to a point, and
furnished with a large round head. It is principally used to penetrate
the twists, or strands of a rope, in order to introduce the ends of some
other through the intervals, in the act of _knotting_ or _splicing_.

It is also used as a lever, on many other occasions, about the rigging,
particularly in fixing the seizings upon the _shrouds_, _block-strops_,
_clues_ of the sails, &c.

_To_ MAROON, _deserter_, to put one or more sailors ashore upon a
desolate island, under pretence of their having committed some great
crime. This detestable expedient has been repeatedly practised by some
inhuman commanders of merchant-ships, particularly in the West-Indies.

MAST, _mât_, a long round piece of timber, elevated perpendicularly upon
the keel of a ship, to which are attached the yards, the sails, and the

A mast, with regard to its length, is either formed of one single piece,
which is called a _pole-mast_, or composed of several pieces joined
together, each of which retains the name of mast separately. The lowest
of these is accordingly named the lower-mast, _a_, fig. 1. plate VI. the
next in height is the top-mast, _b_, which is erected at the head of the
former; and the highest is the top-gallant-mast, _c_, which is prolonged
from the upper end of the top-mast. Thus the two last are no other than
a continuation of the first upwards.

The lower-mast is fixed in the ship by an apparatus, described in the
articles _hulk_ and _sheers_: the foot, or heel of it, rests in a block
of timber called the step, which is fixed upon the _kelson_; and the
top-mast is attached to the head of it by the _cap_ and the
_tressel-trees_. The latter of these are two strong bars of timber,
supported by two prominencies, which are as shoulders on the opposite
sides of the mast, a little under its upper end: athwart these bars are
fixed the _cross-trees_, upon which the frame of the top is supported.
Between the lower mast-head, and the foremost of the cross-trees, a
square space remains vacant, the sides of which are bounded by the two
tressel-trees. Perpendicularly above this is the foremost hole in the
cap, whose after-hole is solidly fixed on the head of the lower-mast.
The top-mast is erected by a tackle, whose effort is communicated from
the head of the lower mast to the foot of the top-mast; and the upper
end of the latter is accordingly guided into, and conveyed up through,
the holes between the tressel-trees and the cap, as above mentioned. The
machinery by which it is elevated, or, according to the sea-phrase,
_swayed-up_, is fixed in the following manner: the top rope _d_, fig. 2.
passing through a block _e_, which is hooked on one side of the cap, and
afterwards through a hole, furnished with a sheave or pulley _f_, in the
lower end of the top-mast, is again brought upwards on the other side of
the mast, where it is at length fastened to an eye-bolt in the cap _g_,
which is always on the side opposite to the top-block _e_. To the lower
end of the top-rope is fixed the top-tackle _h_, the effort of which
being transmitted to the top-rope _d_, and thence to the heel of the
top-mast _f_, necessarily lifts the latter upwards, parallel to the
lower-mast. When the top-mast is raised to its proper height, fig. 3.
the lower end of it becomes firmly wedged in the square hole, above
described, between the tressel-trees. A bar of wood, or iron, called the
_fid_, is then thrust through a hole _i_ in the heel of it, across the
tressel-trees, by which the whole weight of the top-mast is supported.

In the same manner as the top-mast is retained at the head of the
lower-mast, the top-gallant-mast is erected, and fixed at the head of
the top-mast.

Besides the parts already mentioned in the construction of masts, with
respect to their length, the lower-masts of the largest ships are
composed of several pieces united into one body. As these are generally
the most substantial parts of various trees, a mast, formed by this
assemblage, is justly esteemed much stronger than one consisting of any
single trunk, whose internal solidity may be very uncertain. The several
pieces are formed and joined together, as represented in the section of
a lower-mast of this sort, fig. 4. plate VI. where _a_ is the shaft, or
principal piece into which the rest are fixed, with their sides or faces
close to each other. The whole is secured by several strong hoops of
iron, driven on the outside of the mast, _a_, fig. 1. where they remain
at proper distances.

The principal articles to be considered in equipping a ship with masts
are, 1st, the number; 2d, their situation in the vessel; and 3d, their
height above the water.

The masts being used to extend the sails by means of their yards, it is
evident that if their number were multiplied beyond what is necessary,
the yards must be extremely short, that they may not entangle each other
in _working_ the ship, and by consequence their sails will be very
narrow, and receive a small portion of wind. If, on the contrary, there
is not a sufficient number of masts in the vessel, the yards will be too
large and heavy, so as not to be managed without difficulty. There is a
mean between these extremes, which experience and the general practice
of the sea have determined; by which it appears, that in large ships,
every advantage of sailing is retained by three masts and a bowsprit.

The most advantageous position of the masts is undoubtedly that from
whence there results an equilibrio between the resistance of the water,
on the body of the ship, on one part, and of the direction of their
effort on the other. By every other position this equilibrio is
destroyed, and the greatest effort of the masts will operate to turn the
ship horizontally about its direction; a circumstance which retards her
velocity. It is counterbalanced indeed by the helm; but the same
inconvenience still continues; for the force of the wind, having the
resistance of the helm to overcome, is not intirely employed to push the
vessel forward. The axis of the resistance of the water should then be
previously determined, to discover the place of the main-mast, in order
to suspend the efforts of the water equally, and place the other masts
so as that their particular direction will coincide with that of the
_main-mast_. The whole of this would be capable of a solution, if the
figure of the vessel were regular, because the point, about which the
resistance of the water would be in equilibrio, might be discovered by

But when the real figure of the ship is considered, these flattering
ideas will instantly vanish. This observation induced M. Saverien to
employ a mechanical method to discover the axis of resistance of the
water, which he apprehended might be used with success in the manner

When the vessel is lanched, before the places of the masts are
determined, extend a rope A B, fig. 6. plate VI. from the head to the
stern. To the extremities A and B attach two other ropes A D, B C, and
apply to the other ends of these ropes two mechanical powers, to draw
the ship according to the direction B C, parallel to itself. The whole
being thus disposed, let a moveable tube Z, fixed upon the rope A B,
have another rope Z R attached to it, whose other end communicates with
a mechanical power R, equal to the two powers D and C. This last being
applied to the same vessel, in such manner as to take off the effects of
the two others by sliding upon the rope A B, so as to discover some
point Z, by the parallelism of the ropes A D B C feebly extended with
the rope Z R; the line Z R will be the axis of the equilibrium of the
water´s resistance, and by consequence the main-mast should be planted
in the point Z.

The figures E, E, E, are three windlasses on the shore, by which this
experiment is applied.

With regard to the situation of the other masts, it is necessary, in the
same manner, to discover two points; so that the direction of the two
mechanical powers operating, will be parallel to the axis of resistance
R Z already found.

The exact height of the masts, in proportion to the form and size of the
ship, remains yet a problem to be determined. The more the masts are
elevated above the centre of gravity, the greater will be the surface of
sail, which they are enabled to present to the wind; so far an
additional height seems to be advantageous. But this advantage is
diminished by the circular movement of the mast, which operates to make
the vessel stoop to its effort; and this inclination is increased, in
proportion to the additional height of the mast; an inconvenience which
it is necessary to guard against. Thus what is gained upon one hand is
lost upon the other. To reconcile these differences, it is certain, that
the height of the mast ought to be determined by the inclination of the
vessel, and that the point of her greatest inclination should be the
term of this height, above the centre of gravity. See the article TRIM.

With regard to the general practice of determining the height of the
masts, according to the different rates of the ships in the royal navy,
the reader is referred to the article SAIL.

In order to secure the masts, and counterbalance the strain they receive
from the effort of the sails impressed by the wind, and the agitation of
the ship at sea, they are sustained by several strong ropes, extended
from their upper-ends to the outside of the vessel, called _shrouds_,
see fig. 5. plate VI.

They are further supported by other ropes, stretched from their heads
towards the fore-part of the vessel. See RIGGING.



The mast, which is placed at the middle of the ship’s length, is called
the main-mast, _grand-mât_; that which is placed in the fore-part, the
foremast, _mât de misaine_; and that which is towards the stern is
termed the mizen-mast, _mât d’artimon_.

N. B. _Mizen_ is applied to this mast by all the nations of Europe,
except the French, who alone call the fore-mast _misaine_.

MASTER _of a ship of war_, _maitre_, an officer appointed by the
commissioners of the navy to take charge of the navigating and
conducting a ship from port to port, under the direction of the captain.
The management and disposition of the sails, the working of the ship
into her station in the order of battle, and the direction of her
movements in the time of action, and in the other circumstances of
danger, are also more particularly under his inspection. It is likewise
his duty to examine the provisions, and accordingly to admit none into
the ship but such as are sound, sweet, and wholsome. He is moreover
charged with the _stowage_, or disposition of these materials in the
ship’s hold; and to enable him the better to perform these services, he
is allowed several assistants, who are properly termed mates and
quarter-masters. See those articles.

MASTER _of a merchant-ship_, the commanding officer, who is appointed by
the merchants to manage the navigation and every thing relating to her
cargo, voyage, sailors, &c.

MASTER _at arms_, an officer appointed to teach the officers and crew of
a ship of war the exercise of small arms; to confine and plant centinels
over the prisoners, and superintend whatever relates to them during
their confinement. He is also to observe that the fire and lights are
all extinguished as soon as the evening gun is fired, except those which
are permitted by proper authority, or under the inspection of centinels.
It is likewise his duty to attend the _gangway_, when any boats arrive
aboard, and search them carefully, together with their rowers, that no
spirituous liquors may be conveyed into the ship, unless by permission
of the commanding officer. In these several duties he is assisted with
proper attendants, called his corporals, who also relieve the centinels,
and one another, at certain periods.

MASTER-_attendant_, an officer in the royal dock-yards, appointed to
hasten, and assist at, the fitting-out or dismantling, removing or
securing vessels of war, &c. at the port where he resides. He is
particularly to observe, that his majesty’s ships are securely moored;
and for this purpose he is expected frequently to review the _moorings_
which are sunk in the harbour, and observe that they are kept in proper
repair to be always ready when occasion requires. It is also his duty to
visit all the ships in _ordinary_, and see that they are frequently
cleaned and kept in order; and to attend at the general musters in the
dock-yards, taking care that all the officers, artificers, and
labourers, registered in the navy-books, are present at their duty.

MAT, _coussin_, a sort of thick web or texture, formed of spun-yarn, or
of a variety of _strands_, or separate parts of a small rope; or of a
number of rope-yarns twisted into _foxes_. The foxes are therefore
larger or smaller, as containing a greater or lesser number of
rope-yarns, in proportion to the thickness of the mat intended to be

Mats are commonly used to fasten upon the outside of such parts of the
standing rigging as are exposed to the friction of other ropes, in
extending, shifting, or trussing up the sails, particularly the lower
ones. The largest and strongest sort of these mats are called _panches_.

MATE _of a ship of war_, an officer under the direction of the master,
by whose choice he is generally appointed, to assist him in the several
branches of his duty. Accordingly he is to be particularly attentive to
the navigation in his watch, &c. to keep the _log_ regularly, and
examine the line, and glasses by which the ship’s course is measured,
and to adjust the sails to the wind in the fore-part of the ship. He is
also to have a diligent attention to the cables, seeing that they are
well _coiled_ and kept clean when laid in the _tier_, and sufficiently
_served_ when employed to ride the ship. Finally, he is to superintend,
and assist at the stowage of the hold, taking especial care that all the
ballast and provisions are properly stowed therein.

MATE _of a merchant-ship_, the officer who commands in the absence of
the master thereof, and shares the duty with him at sea; being charged
with every thing that regards the internal management of the ship, the
directing her course, and the government of her crew.

The number of mates allowed to ships of war and merchantmen is always in
proportion to the size of the vessel. Thus a first-rate man of war has
six mates, and an East-Indiaman the same number; a frigate of 20 guns,
and a small merchant-ship, have only one mate in each: and the
intermediate ships have a greater or smaller number, according to their
several sizes, or to the services on which they are employed.

MESS, a particular company of the officers or crew of a ship, who eat,
drink, and associate together.

MESS-MATE, a companion or associate of the above division. See the
article BIRTH.

MIDSHIP, _maitre_, a term of distinction, applied by shipwrights to
several pieces of timber which lie in the broadest part of the vessel;

MIDSHIP-BEAM, _maitre-bau_, the beam upon which the extreme breadth of a
ship is formed, and which is situated in the _midship-frame_, nearly in
the middle of her length, serving as a standard from whence the
dimensions and proportions of the masts and yards are to be taken.

MIDSHIP-FRAME, _maitre-couple_, a name given to that timber, or
combination of pieces, formed into one timber, which determines the
extreme breadth of the ship, as well as the figure and dimension of all
the inferior timbers.

In the 8th page, from the beginning of the article _Naval_ ARCHITECTURE,
the reader will find a full explanation of what is meant by a frame of
timbers. He will also perceive the out-lines of all the principal
frames, with their gradual dimensions, from the midship-frame delineated
in the plane of projection annexed to that article. As the parts, of
which the several frames are composed, have the same relation to each
other throughout the vessel; and as all the corresponding pieces,
without and within those frames, are also nearly alike, and fixed in the
same manner, it will be sufficient for our purpose to represent the
principal, or midship-frame, together with its corresponding parts,
which are as follow:

Explanation of the _Midship-frame_, plate VII. which exhibits a
transverse section of a 74 gun ship, at the broadest part, answering to
the same scale by which are delineated the head, quarter, and stern of a
ship, of the same size, in plates IV. VIII. and X. to which the reader
is referred.

A the keel, with _a_ the false keel beneath it.

B the chocks fixed upon the kelson, to retain the opposite pieces of the
_riders_ firmly together.

C one of the beams of the orlop.

D one of the lower-deck beams; with _d_ the beams of the upper-deck.

E the hanging-knees, by which the beams are attached to the timbers.

F the standards, which are fixed above the decks to which they belong.

G the clamps, which sustain the extremities of the beams.

H the gun-ports of the lower-deck; with _h_ the ports of the upper-deck.

I, K, L different pieces of _thick-stuff_, placed opposite to the
several scarfs, or joinings, in the frame of timbers.

M the planks of the deck.

N the water-ways.

O the planks of the ceiling, between the several ranges of thick-stuff.

P the spirketting.

Q the mainwale, to fortify the ship’s side opposite to the lower-deck.

R the channel-wale, opposite to the upper-deck.

S the waist-rail.

T the string, with the moulding under the gunwale.

U the floor-timbers, which are laid across the keel, and bolted to it.

V the several futtocks; and W the top-timbers, which are all united into
one frame.

X the kelson.

MIDSHIPMAN, a sort of naval cadet, appointed by the captain of a ship of
war, to second the orders of the superior officers, and assist in the
necessary business of the vessel, either aboard or ashore.

The number of midshipmen, like that of all other officers, is always in
proportion to the size of the ship to which they belong. Thus a
first-rate man of war has twenty-four, and the inferior rates a suitable
number in proportion. No person can be appointed lieutenant, without
having previously served two years in the royal navy in this capacity,
or in that of _mate_, besides having been at least four years in actual
service at sea, either in merchant-ships, or in the royal navy.

Midshipman is accordingly the station in which a young volunteer is
trained in the several exercises, necessary to attain a sufficient
knowledge of the machinery, discipline, movements, and military
operations of a ship, to qualify him for a sea-officer.



As the chief object of our attention has been to facilitate the
acquisition of this intelligence, we have endeavoured to treat those
subjects at large, in the different parts of this work, according to
their importance. We have also sketched the general outlines of the
respective charges of all the superior officers, which, in conformity to
the plan of this work, become previous to this article. Thus the duties
of the admiral, the captain, the lieutenant, and the master, are already
explained in their proper places; and whatever intelligence appears
necessary to discharge those offices, is also, in a high degree,
essential to the midshipman. Those officers indeed, as well as many
others, are furnished with suitable instructions to regulate their
conduct; but the midshipman, being invested with no particular charge
from the government, is by consequence omitted in those official
regulations. In a work of this kind, however, the importance of the
subject is not always determined by the superiority of rank or station.
If our province is to communicate instruction, those who are the least
informed are certainly the principal objects thereof, and to them our
attention is more peculiarly directed. Hence the extent of our design
comprehends many circumstances which would be immaterial in general
orders and regulations; and hence abundance of particular directions to
respective officers, inserted in those general regulations, are rejected
here as foreign to our purpose. Averse as we are, on other occasions, to
offend the rigid nicety of a critic, by introducing moral reflections,
in a performance dedicated to scientifical description, we must for once
be indulged with a short deviation from the plan hitherto invariably
followed. Happy! if our efforts may in any degree operate to produce the
effects for which they were calculated.

On his first entrance in a ship of war, every midshipman has several
disadvantageous circumstances to encounter. These are partly occasioned
by the nature of the sea-service, and partly by the mistaken prejudices
of people in general, respecting naval discipline, and the genius of
sailors and their officers. No character, in their opinion, is more
excellent than that of the common sailor, whom they generally suppose to
be treated with great severity by his officers, drawing a comparison
between them not very advantageous to the latter. The midshipman usually
comes aboard tinctured with these prejudices, especially if his
education has been amongst the higher rank of people; and if the
officers happen to answer his opinion, he conceives an early disgust to
the service, from a very partial and incompetent view of its operations.
Blinded by these prepossessions, he is thrown off his guard, and very
soon surprized to find, amongst those honest sailors, a crew of
abandoned miscreants, ripe for any mischief or villainy. Perhaps, after
a little observation, many of them will appear to him equally destitute
of gratitude, shame, or justice, and only deterred from the commission
of any crimes by the terror of severe punishment. He will discover, that
the pernicious example of a few of the vilest in a ship of war are too
often apt to poison the principles of the greatest number, especially if
the reins of discipline are too much relaxed, so as to foster that
idleness and dissipation, which engender sloth, diseases, and an utter
profligacy of manners. If the midshipman, on many occasions, is obliged
to mix with these, particularly in the exercises of extending or
reducing the sails in the tops, he ought resolutely to guard against
this contagion, with which the morals of his inferiors may be infected.
He should however avail himself of their knowledge, and acquire their
expertness in managing and fixing the sails and rigging, and never
suffer himself to be excelled by an inferior. He will probably find a
virtue in almost every private sailor, which is entirely unknown to many
of his officers: that virtue is emulation, which is not indeed mentioned
amongst their qualities by the gentleman of _terra firma_, by whom their
characters are often copiously described with very little judgment.
There is hardly a common tar who is not envious of superior skill in his
fellows, and jealous on all occasions to be out-done in what he
considers as a branch of his duty! Nor is he more afraid of the dreadful
consequences of whistling in a storm, than of being stigmatized with the
opprobious epithet of _lubber_. Fortified against this scandal, by a
thorough knowledge of his business, the sailor will sometimes sneer in
private, at the execution of orders, which to him appear aukward,
improper, or unlike a seaman. Nay, he will perhaps be malicious enough
to suppress his own judgment, and by a punctual obedience to command,
execute whatever is to be performed, in a manner which he knows to be
improper, in order to expose the person commanding to disgrace and
ridicule. Little skilled in the method of the schools, he considers the
officer who cons his lesson by rote as very ill qualified for his
station, because particular situations might render it necessary for the
said officer to assist at putting his own orders in practice. An
ignorance in this practical knowledge will therefore necessarily be
thought an unpardonable deficiency by those who are to follow his
directions. Hence the midshipman, who associates with these sailors in
the tops, till he has acquired a competent skill in the service of
extending or reducing the sails, &c. will be often entertained with a
number of scurrilous jests, at the expence of his superiors. Hence also
he will learn, that a timely application to those exercises can only
prevent him from appearing in the same despicable point of view, which
must certainly be a cruel mortification to a man of the smallest

If the midshipman is not employed in these services, which are
undoubtedly necessary to give him a clearer idea of the different parts
of his occupation, a variety of other objects present themselves to his
attention. Without presuming to dictate the studies which are most
essential to his improvement, we could wish to recommend such as are
most suitable to the bent of his inclination. Astronomy, geometry, and
mechanics, which are in the first rank of science, are the materials
which form the skilful pilot and the superior mariner. The theory of
navigation is entirely derived from the two former, and all the
machinery and movements of a ship are founded upon the latter. The
action of the wind upon the sails, and the resistance of the water at
the stem, naturally dictate an enquiry into the property of solids and
fluids: and the state of the ship, floating on the water, seems to
direct his application to the study of hydrostatics and the effects of
gravity. A proficiency in these branches of science will equally enlarge
his views, with regard to the operations of naval war, as directed by
the efforts of powder, and the knowledge of projectiles. The most
effectual method to excite his application to those studies is, perhaps,
by looking round the navy, to observe the characters of individuals. By
this enquiry he will probably discover, that the officer, who is
eminently skilled in the sciences, will command universal respect and
approbation; and that whoever is satisfied with the despicable ambition
of shining the hero of an assembly, will be the object of universal
contempt. The attention of the former will be engaged in those studies,
which are highly useful to himself in particular, and to the service in
general. The employment of the latter is to acquire those superficial
accomplishments, that unbend the mind from every useful science,
emasculate the judgment, and render the hero infinitely more dextrous at
falling into his station in the dance, than in the line of battle.

Unless the midshipman has an unconquerable aversion to the acquisition
of those qualifications, which are so essential to his improvement, he
will very rarely want opportunities of making a progress therein. Every
step he advances in those meritorious employments, will facilitate his
accession to the next in order. If the dunces, who are his officers or
mess-mates, are rattling the dice, roaring bad verses, hissing on the
flute, or scraping discord from the fiddle, his attention to more noble
studies will sweeten the hours of relaxation. He should recollect that
no example from fools ought to influence his conduct, or seduce him from
that laudable ambition which his honour and advantage are equally
concerned to pursue.

MIZEN, _artimon_, (_misana_, Ital.) the aftermost or hindmost of the
fixed sails of a ship, extended sometimes by a _gaff_, and sometimes by
a _yard_ which crosses the mast obliquely; the fore-end reaching almost
down to the deck, and the after-end being peeked up as high above the
middle of the yard, where it is attached to the mast. The figure of the
mizen is accordingly a trapezia, or a parallelogram, one of whose
corners is cut off by a diagonal, extended from one of its sides to the
opposite corner, which becomes the _peek_ of the mizen. See the article

MIZEN-MAST, the mast upon which the mizen and its top-sail and
stay-sails are supported, besides other sails, which are set
occasionally, as the _driver_, ring-tail, &c. See the article MAST.

The shrouds, stays, and back-stays of this mast, as well as all the
running-rigging, together with its several yards and sails, being
described under the articles SHROWD, STAY, YARD, &c. the reader is
referred thither for the explanations thereof, which are in general
applicable also to the same furniture of both the other masts.

MOLE, a name given in the Mediterranean to a long pier, or artificial
bulwark of masonry, extending obliquely across the entrance of a
harbour, in order to break the force of the sea from the vessels which
are anchored within.

MOLE is also, although improperly, applied to the harbour or haven,
which is formed by the bulwark above described, which is then
denominated the mole-head.

MONSOON, a name given to the periodical or trade-winds, which blow
regularly in certain latitudes of the Indian ocean. They continue five
or six months invariably in one direction, and then alter their course,
and blow, during an equal space of time, from a different point of the
compass with the same uniformity.

MOORING, the act of confining and securing a ship in a particular
station, by chains or cables, which are either fastened to the adjacent
shore, or to anchors in the bottom.

A ship may be either moored by the _head_, or by the head and stern;
that is to say, she may be secured by anchors before her, without any
behind: or she may have anchors out, both before and behind her; or her
cables may be attached to posts, rings, or _moorings_, which answer the
same purpose.

When a ship is moored by the head with her own anchors, they are
disposed according to the circumstances of the place where she lies, and
the time she is to continue therein. Thus wherever a tide ebbs and
flows, it is usual to carry one anchor out towards the flood, and
another towards the ebb, particularly where there is little room to
range about; and the anchors are laid in the same manner, if the vessel
is moored head-and-stern in the same place. The situation of the
anchors, in a road or bay, is usually opposed to the reigning winds, or
those which are most dangerous; so that the ship rides therein with the
effort of both her cables. Thus if she rides in a bay, or road, which is
exposed to a northerly wind and heavy sea from the same quarter, the
anchors passing from the opposite _bows_ ought to lie east and west from
each other: hence both the cables will retain the ship in her station
with equal effort against the action of the wind and sea.

MOORINGS are usually an assemblage of anchors, chains, and _bridles_,
laid athwart the bottom of a river, or haven, to ride the shipping
contained therein.

The anchors, employed on this occasion, have rarely more than one fluke,
which is sunk in the river near low-water mark. Two anchors, being fixed
in this manner, on the opposite sides of the river, are furnished with a
chain, extending across from one to the other. In the middle of the
chain is a large square link, whose lower end terminates in a swivel,
which turns round in the chain as about an axis, whenever the ship veers
about with the change of the tide. To this swivel-link are attached the
bridles, which are short pieces of cable, well served, whose upper ends
are drawn into the ship, at the mooring-ports, and afterwards fastened
to the masts, or cable-bits.

A great number of moorings, of this sort, are fixed in the royal ports,
or the harbours adjacent to the king’s dock-yards, as Deptford, Chatham,
Portsmouth, Plymouth, &c.

MORTAR, a piece of artillery, shorter and wider than the cannon, and
having a chamber different from the size of its bore.

Mortars are used in the attack of a fortified place, by sea, to
discharge bombs or carcases amongst the buildings. The bomb is a great
hollow ball, filled with powder, which, falling into the works of a
fortification, &c. destroys the most substantial buildings by its
weight; and, bursting asunder, creates the greatest disorder and
mischief by its splinters.

The chambers of mortars are extremely different in their figures, and
each of those figures is defended by better or worse arguments. Thus
they are spherical, cylindrical, conical, bottled, or concave. In
reality, nothing appears to be less determined upon true principles or
experiments than the proportions of the several parts of a mortar[39].

As the sea-mortars, or those which are fixed in the bomb-vessels, are
generally fixed at a much greater distance than is ever required ashore,
they are made somewhat longer, and much heavier, than the land-mortars.

Plate VI. fig. 7. represents a sea-mortar, the principal parts of which
are, A, the chace; B, the reinforce; C, the breech; and D, the
trunnions. The interior part, comprehended between the dotted lines, is
called the bore, wherein the bomb is lodged; and the inner part of the
bore, which is diminished towards the breech, and contains the powder,
is termed the chamber.

Mr. Muller, in his Treatise of Artillery, very justly observes, that the
breech of our 13 inch sea-mortars is loaded with an unnecessary weight
of metal. The chamber thereof contains 32 pounds of powder, and at the
same time they are never charged with more than 12 or 15 pounds, by the
most expert officers, because the bomb-vessel is unable to bear the
violent shock of their full charge. Thus the action of the powder is
diminished by the vacancy left in the chamber, which is never above half
filled. As a charge of 12 or 15 pounds of powder at most is therefore
sufficient, it is evidently proved, by the theory of powder, that this
will produce the greatest effect when discharged from a mortar with a
cylindrical chamber, represented by fig. 8. He also proves, by a variety
of experiments made by Captain Desaguliers and himself, that the conical
chamber, now used, is considerably inferior to the cylindrical one with
the last charge of powder.

To facilitate the use of the mortar, it is placed in a solid carriage of
timber, called the bed, whose different parts are strongly bolted
together. By means of this it is firmly secured in its situation, so
that the explosion of the powder may not alter its direction. In the
middle of the upper-side of this carriage, plate VI. fig. 9. are two
semi-circular notches, to receive the trunnions; over these are fixed
two very strong bands of iron, called the cap-squares, _a_, the middle
of which is bent into a semi-circle, to embrace the trunnions, and keep
them fast in the mortar-bed. The cap-squares are confined to the
timber-work by strong pins of iron, called the eye-bolts, _b_, into
whose upper ends are driven the keys, chained beneath them. On the
fore-part of the bed a piece of timber is placed transversely, upon
which rests the belly of the mortar, or that part which contains the
chamber. The elevation of this piece, which is called the bed-bolster,
is represented by fig. 13. and the plan by fig. 12. it is used to
elevate and support the mortar whilst firing.

These beds are placed upon very strong frames of timber, which are fixed
in the bomb-ketch, and represented in fig. 14. plate VI. They are
securely attached to the frames, by means of a strong bolt of iron, fig.
15. called the pintle, passing perpendicularly through both, and
afterwards through one of the beams of the vessel. Thus the pintle,
which passes through the hole in the centre of the plan, fig. 10. serves
as an axis to the bed; so that the mortar may be turned about
horizontally as occasion requires.

Plate VI. fig. 9. represents the elevation of the bed of a 10 inch
sea-mortar; fig. 10 is the plan, and 11 the front view thereof; fig. 12
exhibits the plan, and fig. 13 the elevation of the bed-bolster.

We have already observed, that the bomb, which is usually called the
shell by artillery-people, is a great hollow ball, charged with powder.
Fig. 16 is a perspective view of the bomb, and fig. 17 a section of it,
whereby the thickness is exhibited. The parts _a_ and _b_ of the shell
are its handles, by which it is lifted up or removed; and _c_ is the
fuse-hole, or aperture, through which the powder is poured in to charge

It appears, by fig. 17, that the lower part of the shell is thickest, by
which it becomes heavier on that side, and accordingly falls thereon,
and never on the fuse. It is also the better enabled thereby to resist
the impression of the powder, by which it is discharged from the mortar.
Both of these reasons, however, Mr. Muller conceives to be immaterial,
because nothing but an absolute stoppage of the air can exhaust the
fuses, as their composition enables them to burn in water, as well as
air or earth; and the explosion of the mortar would not, in his opinion,
be able to break them, if they are equally thick every where. The most
proper quantity of powder to charge a bomb is probably two thirds of the
weight which would fill the cavity.

The fuse of the bomb is represented by _c d_, fig. 17. It is generally a
conical tube, formed of beech, willow, or some dry wood, and filled with
a composition of sulphur, salt-petre, and mealed-powder. The bomb being
charged, this fuse is inserted in the cavity through the fuse-hole; and
when fired, communicates the fire to the powder in the shell.

The fuses for bombs are charged with great care, that nothing may
prevent them from communicating the fire to the powder in the centre of
the bomb. They are driven into the shell so as that only about an inch
and a half comes out beyond the fuse-hole; and then the shell is said to
be fixed.

These fuses are also charged long before there is occasion to use them;
and that the composition with which they are filled may not fall out, or
be damaged, by growing damp, the two ends are covered with a composition
of tallow, mixed either with pitch or bees wax. When the fuse is to be
put into the shell, the little end is opened or cut off; but the great
end is never opened till the mortar is to be fired[40].

When the proper quantity of powder, necessary to charge the mortar, is
put into the chamber, it is covered with a wad, well beat down with the
rammer. After this the fixed shell is placed upon the wad, as near the
middle of the mortar as possible, with the fuse-hole uppermost, and
another wad pressed down close upon it, so as to keep the shell firm in
its position. The officer then points the mortar, or gives it the
inclination necessary to carry the bomb to the place designed. When the
mortar is thus fixed, the fuse is opened; the priming-iron is also
thrust into the touch-hole of the mortar to clear it, after which it is
primed with the finest powder. This done, two of the matrosses, or
sailors, taking each one of the matches, the first lights the fuse, and
the other fires the mortar. The bomb, thrown out by the explosion of the
powder, is carried to the place intended; and the fuse, which ought to
be exhausted at the instant of the shell’s falling, inflames the powder
contained therein, and bursts the shell into splinters; which, flying
off circularly, occasion incredible mischief wheresoever they reach.

            _Necessary orders before a bombardment by sea._

When any fixed shells are issued from the tenders, the artillery people
on board are immediately to fix others in their room, and are always to
keep in their tenders the same number they had at first.

The shells are to be fixed in the boat appointed to carry them, provided
the weather permits; otherwise, in the safest place on deck, and to be
_kitted_, or lowered down into a spare rack, which must be in each boat
for that purpose. While the shells are fixing, the powder-room is to be
shut, the hatches laid and well secured against fire, and the place
where they are fixed is to be well watered.

The shells being carefully examined in order that no spike is left
therein, by which the fuse may be split, the fuses are to be cut the
full length, and to be set home into the shell very strongly.

No shells, fixed during the service, are to be kitted; but if any should
be left, when the service is over, they are immediately to be kitted.

The powder in the bomb-vessels is to be used first; and none to be
opened or measured out, except in the captain’s cabin, the door of which
is to be kept shut during the whole time, and covered with tanned hides,
to make it as secure as possible.

The fixed shells in the boats are to be likewise covered from fire or
wet with hair-cloth and tanned hides, with the utmost care.

If the service is carried on at night, all the powder is to be ready
measured out in cartridges, which may be kept in the powder-magazine and
captain’s cabin, in the empty powder-barrels and powder-bags; and all
the shells requisite are to be ready. The tin tubes, one powder-horn,
and the port-fires; also the punches and bits for the vents, are to be
kept in the captain’s cabin.

No fire or light, except match and port-fires, to be on board either
bomb-vessel or tender during the service.

The captain’s cabin and the passage to it; also the way to the magazine
and decks, are to be constantly watered.

The spunges for the mortars are to be all examined and tried, and if too
large, they are to be cut so as to enter easily.

The vents of the mortars are to be examined, and the punches and tubes
tried in them.

A laboratory-chest is to be on board each bomb-vessel, in the captain’s
cabin, in which all the small stores are to be kept.

Two tubs of water are to be on deck, for the lightest port-fires and
match, which must be constantly held in them till ordered to fire.

Two careful men are also to be appointed for this service, who are to do
nothing else on any account.

Two careful men of the artillery are to be left on board each tender,
for the filling and fixing of the shells.

Application must be made to the admiral for two men of war’s boats to
attend on each bomb-ketch and tender, for carrying shells and stores.
One of these is to be loaded with fixed shells, which, when sent to the
bomb-vessel, must remain with her until they are all taken out, which
should be only as they are wanted for loading the mortars; it is then to
return to the tender. The other boat, mean while, will be receiving more
fixed shells, and on the signal given from the bomb-ketch for more
shells, must immediately repair to her with them.

A gang of warrant-officers, and eight seamen, are to be at each mortar,
to give whatever assistance may be required.

A gang from the navy, with a careful warrant-officer, and a
non-commissioned officer of the artillery, are to have the charge
between decks on board each bomb and tender, to get up the fixed shells
that are in the rack; and a careful person is to remain constantly at
the powder-room door, which must be kept shut as much as possible.

When any powder is wanted from the tender for loading the mortar, it
should be measured out in the tender, and the proper charge put into
paper-cartridges, upon which should be written the quantity, and the
mortar for which it is allotted.

If the service of mortars should render it necessary to use pound-shots,
200 of them, with a wooden bottom, are to be put into the 13 inch
mortar, and a quantity of powder, not exceeding five pounds; and 100 of
the above shot, with 2½ lb. of powder for the 10 inch mortar, or 3 lb.
at most.

One inch of fuse burns 4 seconds and 48 parts.

  Weight of the sea-mortars and shells, as also of their full charges.

 │                │Powder        │              │Weight of│ Weight of │
 │ Nature of the  │  contained in│Weight of the │  the    │  powder   │
 │    mortar.     │  the chamber │  mortar.     │  shell  │ contained │
 │                │  when full.  │              │  when   │  in the   │
 │                │              │              │  fixed. │  shell.   │
 │                │ lb.  oz.  pl.│Cwt.  qu.  lb.│      lb.│  lb.   oz.│
 │10 inch howitzer│  12    0    0│  31    2   26│         │           │
 │13 inch mortar  │  30    0    0│  81    2    1│      198│    7     0│
 │10 inch mortar  │  12    0    0│  34    2   11│       93│           │

The howitzer, fig. 18. is a sort of mortar, which is to be fixed
horizontally like a cannon; and has, like the cannon, a wheel-carriage.
These pieces, however, are very rarely used in the sea-service.

For an account of the elevation of the mortar, and flight of bombs
according to the different charges of powder, the reader is referred to
the article RANGE.

MOULD, _devers_, a thin flexible piece of timber, used by shipwrights,
as a pattern whereby to form the different curves of the timbers, and
other _compassing_ pieces, in a ship’s frame. There are two sorts of
these, namely, the bend-mould and hollow-mould: the former of these
determines the convexity of the timbers, and the latter, their concavity
on the outside, where they approach the keel, particularly towards the
extremities of the vessel. The figure, given to the timbers by this
pattern, is called their _bevelling_. See that article.

MOUNTED, _monté_, the state of being armed or equipped with a certain
number of cannon; expressed of a vessel of war.

MOUSE, _fusée_, a sort of knob, usually in the shape of a pear, wrought
on the outside of a rope, by means of spun-yarn, parsling, &c. as
described in the article _puddening_. It is used to confine some other
securely to the former, and prevent it from sliding along its surface.

These mouses are particularly used on the stays of the lower-mast, to
prevent the _eye_ from slipping up to the mast; a circumstance which
would render it extremely difficult to remove the stay from the
mast-head, when necessary.

MOUSING _a hook_, the operation of fastening a small cord, or line,
across the upper-part, from the point to the back thereof, in order to
prevent it from unhooking by the motion of the vessel, or otherwise.

MUSTERING, (_mousteren_, Dutch) the act of calling over a list of the
whole ship’s company, or any particular detachment thereof, who are
accordingly summoned to answer by their names on the occasion.


NAVAL, of or belonging to a ship, or to the royal navy. Hence we say,
naval-stores, naval officers, &c.

NAVE-LINE, a sort of small tackle, depending from the head of the
main-mast and foremast, and fastened to the middle of the _parrel_
immediately behind the mast, and communicating with the gears. It is
used to keep the parrel directly opposite to the yard, and particularly
whilst hoisting or lowering, as it would otherwise hang under the yard,
and prevent it from being sufficiently _braced_.

NAVIGATION, (_navigation_, Fr.) the art of directing the movements of a
ship by the action of the wind upon the sails. See the article SAILING.

Navigation is then applied, with equal propriety, to the arrangement of
the sails, according to the state of the wind; and to the directing and
measuring a ship’s course by the laws of geometry; or it may comprehend
both, being then considered as the theory and practice thereof.

Since every sea-officer is presumed to be furnished with books of
navigation, in which that science is copiously described, it would be
superfluous to enter into a particular detail of it in this place. As it
would also be a fruitless task to those who are entirely ignorant of the
rules of trigonometry, it appears not to come within the limits of our
design: and those who are versed in that science generally understand
the principles of navigation already. It suffices to say, that the
course of a ship, and the distance she has run thereon, are measured by
the angles and sides of a right-angled plain triangle, in which the
hypothenuse is converted into the distance; the perpendicular, into the
difference of latitude; the base, into the departure from the meridian;
the angle, formed by the perpendicular and hypothenuse, into the course;
and the opposite angle, contained between the hypothenuse and base, into
its complement of the course.

The course of the ship is determined by the _compass_; and the
_log-line_, or a solar observation, ascertains the distance. Hence the
hypothenuse and angles are given, to find the base and perpendicular; a
problem well known in trigonometry.

That part of navigation, which regards the piloting or conducting a ship
along the sea-coast, can only be acquired by a thorough knowledge of
that particular coast, after repeated voyages. The most necessary
articles thereof are already described in the article COASTING: it is
sufficient to observe, that the bearings and distances from various
parts of the shore are generally ascertained in the night, either by
_light-houses_, or by the different depths of the water, and the various
sorts of ground at the bottom; as shells of different sizes and colours,
sand, gravel, clay, stones, ooze, or shingle. In the day, the ship’s
place is known by the appearance of the land, which is set by the
compass, whilst the distance is estimated by the master or pilot.

NAVY (from _navis_, Lat.) implies, in general, any fleet or assembly of
ships. It is, however, more particularly understood of the fleet of
vessels of war, that belong to a kingdom or state, to be employed either
in assaulting and destroying its enemies, or protecting its commerce,
and defending its coasts against hostilities or invasion.

The navy of Great-Britain, together with its civil and military
departments, is governed by the lord high-admiral, or the lords
commissioners for executing this office. It is divided into several
classes, or orders, in proportion to the size of the ships, &c. See the
article RATE.

If the only objects to be considered in the distribution of the navy,
into different rates, were to improve ship-building, and facilitate the
operations of the marine, it might appear expedient to multiply the
rates, much beyond their present number, which would oblige the
shipwrights to study the principles of their art with more diligence and
application. But the simplicity of the service in our dock-yards, and
the views of œconomy, which ought never to be neglected when they regard
important objects, has rendered it convenient to arrange the masts, the
yards, the sails, the rigging, and artillery, into six rates; which,
besides that of sloops of war, answers all the purposes of the navy. See

NAVY is also the collective body of officers employed in his majesty’s

NEAPED, (from _nepflod_, Sax.) the situation of a ship which is left
aground on the height of a spring-tide, so that she cannot be floated
off till the return of the next spring. See TIDE.

NEEDLE, See the article COMPASS.

NETTING, a sort of fence, formed of an assemblage of ropes, fastened
across each other, so as to leave uniform intervals between. These are
usually stretched along the upper-part of a ship’s quarter, and secured
in this position by _rails_ and _stanchions_. See QUARTER.

NIPPERS, _garcettes de tournevire_, certain pieces of flat, braided
cordage, used to fasten the cable to the _voyal_ in a ship of war, when
the former is drawn into the ship by mechanical powers applied to the

These nippers are usually six or eight feet in length, according to the
size of the cable; and five or six of them are commonly fastened about
the cable and voyal at once, in order to be heaved in by the capstern.
Those which are farthest aft are always taken off, as the cable
approaches the main hatchway; and others are at the same time fastened
on, in the fore-part of the ship, to supply their places. The persons
employed to bind the nippers about the cable and voyal, are called
nipper-men: they are assisted in this office by the boys of the ship,
who always supply them with nippers, and receive the ends of those which
are fastened, to walk aft with them, and take them off at the proper
place, in order to return them to the nipper-men.


NO NEARER! (_arrive!_) the command given by the pilot, or
quarter-master, to the helmsman, to steer the ship no higher to the
direction of the wind than the sails will operate to advance the ship in
her course. It is often abbreviated into _no near_, and sometimes into
_near_; and is generally applied when the sails shake in the wind. See

NO MAN’S LAND, _St. Aubinet_, a space between the after-part of the
belfrey and the fore-part of a ship’s boat, when the said boat is stowed
upon the booms, as in a _deep-waisted_ vessel. These booms are laid from
the forecastle nearly to the quarter-deck, where their after-ends are
usually sustained by a frame called the gallows, which consists of two
strong posts, about six feet high, with a cross piece, reaching from one
to the other, _athwart-ships_, and serving to support the ends of those
booms, masts, and yards, which lie in reserve to supply the place of
others carried away, &c. The space called _No man’s land_ is used to
contain any blocks, ropes, tackles, &c. which may be necessary on the
forecastle. It probably derives this name from its situation, as being
neither on the starboard nor larboard side of the ship, nor on the
_waiste_ or _forecastle_; but being situated in the middle, partakes
equally of all those places.

NORMAN, a name given to a short wooden bar, thrust into one of the holes
of the windlass in a merchant-ship, whereon to fasten the cable. It is
only used when there is very little strain on the cable, as in a
commodious harbour, when the ship is well sheltered from the wind and

NUTS _of the anchor_, two little prominencies, appearing like short
square bars of iron, fixed across the upper-part of the anchor-shank, to
secure the stock thereof in its place; for which purpose there is a
corresponding notch, or channel, cut in the opposite parts of the stock,
of the same dimensions with the nuts. See the article ANCHOR.


OAKHAM, or OAKUM, the substance into which old ropes are reduced, when
they are untwisted, loosened, and drawn asunder. It is principally used
to drive into the seams, or intervals, between the planks of a ship, to
prevent the water from entering. See the article CAULKING.

_White_ OAKUM, is that which is formed of untarred ropes.

OAR, _rame_, (_are_, Sax.) a long piece of timber, flat at one end, and
round or square at the other, and which being applied to the side of a
floating-vessel, serves to make it advance upon the water.

That part of the oar which is out of the vessel, and which enters into
the water, is called the blade, or wash, _plat_; and that which is
within-board, is termed the loom, whose extremity, _manche_, being small
enough to be grasped by the _rowers_, or persons managing the oars, is
called the handle.

To push the boat or vessel forwards, by means of this instrument, the
rowers turn their backs forward, and, dipping the blade of the oar in
the water, pull the handle _forward_ so that the blade at the same time
may move _aft_ in the water: But since the blade cannot be so moved,
without striking the water, this impulsion is the same, as if the water
were to strike the blade from the stern towards the head: the vessel is
therefore necessarily moved according to this direction. Hence it
follows, that she will advance with the greater rapidity, by as much as
the oar strikes the water more forcibly. Thus it is evident, that an oar
acts upon the side of a boat or vessel like a lever of the second class,
whose fulcrum is the station, upon which the oar rests on the boat’s
_gunnel_. In large vessels, this station is usually called the
_row-port_; but in lighters and boats it is always termed the

_To ship the_ OARS, _armer_, is to fix them in the row-locks ready for

OBSERVATION, the art of measuring the altitude of the sun or a star, in
order to determine the latitude, or the sun’s azimuth, &c.

OFF, an expression applied to the movement of a ship, when she sails out
from the shore towards the distant sea. When a ship is beating to
windward, so that by one board she approaches towards the shore, and by
the other sails out to sea-ward, she is said to stand off and on shore,
alternately. Hence,

OFFING, _largue_, _dehors_, implies out at sea; or at a competent
distance from the shore, and generally out of anchor-ground.

OFFWARD, the situation of a ship which lies aground, and leans off from
the shore.

OLERON, a name given to a code of general rules relating to naval
affairs, and formed by Richard I. when he was at the island of Oleron.
These have been frequently esteemed the most excellent sea-laws in the
world; and are still preserved in the black book of the admiralty.

OPEN, _debouclé_, the situation of a place which is exposed to the wind
and sea, with little or no shelter for shipping to anchor therein.

OPEN, _ouvert_, is also expressed of any distant object, to which the
sight or passage is not intercepted by something lying, or coming
between. Thus, to be open with any place, is to be opposite to it; as
the entry of a port, road, or haven.

OPENING, a passage, or streight, between two adjacent coasts or islands.

ORDINARY, _gardiens_, the establishment of the persons employed by the
government to take charge of the ships of war, which are _laid-up_ in
the several harbours adjacent to the royal dock-yards. These are
principally composed of the warrant-officers of the said ships, as the
gunner, boatswain, carpenter, deputy-purser and cook, and their
servants. There is besides a crew of labourers enrolled in the list of
the ordinary, who pass from ship to ship occasionally to pump, moor,
remove, or clean them, whenever it is necessary.

The term _ordinary_ is also applied, sometimes, to the ships themselves;
it is likewise used to distinguish the inferior sailors from the most
expert and diligent. Thus the latter are rated _able_ on the navy-books,
and have 1_l._ 4_s._ per month whereas those who are rated _ordinary_,
have only 19_s._ per month.

ORLOP, (_over-loop_, Dutch) _faux-pont_, a plat-form of planks laid over
the beams, in the hold of a ship of war, whereon the cables are usually
coiled, and the several officers store-rooms contained.

OVER-BOARD, the state of being thrown out of a ship, or boat, into the
water whereon she swims: also the act of falling from such a vessel into
the sea, &c. as, the ship sprung a leak, and obliged us to throw the
guns over-board; a heavy sea broke over the deck, and carried two of our
men over-board.

OVER-CAST-STAFF, _trebuchet_, a scale, or measure, employed by
shipwrights to determine the difference between the curves of those
_timbers_ which are placed near the greatest breadth, and those which
are situated near the extremities of the keel, where the floor rises and
grows narrower.

OVER-HAULING, _parcourir_, the act of opening and extending the several
parts of a _tackle_, or other assemblage of ropes, communicating with
blocks or _dead-eyes_. It is used to remove those blocks to a sufficient
distance from each other, that they may be again placed in a state of
action, so as to produce the effect required. See the article TACKLE.

OVER-HAULING, is also vulgarly expressed of an examination or inspection
into the condition of a person or thing.

OVER-MASTED, the state of a ship, whose masts are too high, or too
heavy, for the weight of her hull to counter-balance.

OVER-SETTING, _chavirer_, the act of turning any thing upside-down; also
the movement of a ship when she over-turns, _faire capot_, so that the
keel becomes above the water, and the masts under the surface.

OUT, _dehors_, an expression frequently used at sea, implying the
situation of the sails when they are _set_, or extended, to assist the
ship’s course; as opposed to _in_; which is also applied, in the
contrary sense, to signify that such sails are furled.

OUT-FIT, is generally used to signify the expences of equipping a ship
for a sea-voyage; or of arming her for war, or both together. See

OUT OF TRIM, _endormi_, the state of a ship when she is not properly
balanced for the purposes of navigation; which is either occasioned by
the size, or position of her masts and sails; or by the comparative
quantity, or arrangement of her cargo and ballast in the hold.

OUT-RIGGER, a strong beam of timber, of which there are several fixed on
the side of a ship, and projecting from it, in order to secure the masts
in the act of _careening_. See that article.

The outer ends of these beams are firmly lashed to a bolt in the ship’s
side beneath, by which they are enabled to support the mast, by
counteracting the strain it suffers from the effort of the careening
tackles; which being applied in the mast-head, draws it downwards, so as
to act upon the vessel with the power of a lever, whose fulcrum is in
her centre of gravity.

OUT-RIGGER is also a small boom, occasionally used in the _tops_ to
thrust out the breast-back-stays to windward, in order to increase their
tension, and thereby give additional security to the top-mast.

This boom is usually furnished with a tackle at its inner-end,
communicating with one of the topmast-shrouds; and has a notch on the
outer end to contain the back-stay, and keep it steddy therein. As soon
as the back-stay is drawn tight, by means of its tackle in the _chains_,
the out-rigger is applied aloft, which forces it out to windward, beyond
the circle of the top, so as to increase the angle which the mast makes
with the back-stay, and accordingly enable the latter the better to
support the former.

This machine is sometimes applied without any tackle; it is then thrust
out to its usual distance beyond the top-rim, where it is securely
fastened; after which the back-stay is placed in the notch, and extended

OWNER, the proprietor of a ship, by whom she is freighted to the
merchant for a sea-voyage.


PACKET, or PACKET-BOAT, (_paquet_, Fr.) a vessel appointed by the
government to carry the mail of letters, packets, and expresses from one
kingdom to another by sea, in the most expeditious manner. Thus the
packet-boats, under the direction of the post-master-general of
Great-Britain, carry the mails from Dover to Calais, from Falmouth to
Lisbon, from Harwich to Helvoetsluys, and from Parkgate to Dublin.

PADDLE, _pagaie_, (_pattal_, Welsh) a sort of oar used by the savages of
Africa and America to navigate their canoes. It is much shorter and
broader in the blade than the oars of a boat, and is equally employed in
rowing and steering. See the article CANOE.

PAINTER, _cableau_, (probably from _bindar_, Sax. to bind) a rope
employed to fasten a boat either along-side of the ship to which she
belongs, or to some wharf, key, &c. as occasion requires.

PALM, _paumet_, an implement used instead of a thimble in the exercise
of making and mending sails. It is formed of a piece of leather or
canvas, on the middle of which is fixed a round plate of iron, of an
inch in diameter, whose surface is pierced with a number of small holes,
to catch the head of the sail-needle. The leather is formed so as to
encircle the hand, and button on the back thereof, while the iron
remains in the palm; so that the whole strength of the hand may be
exerted to thrust the needle through the canvas, when it is stiff and
difficult to be penetrated in sewing.

PANCH, a sort of thick and strong mat, or texture, formed by
interweaving twists of rope-yarn as close as possible. It is chiefly
used to fasten on the outside of the yards, or rigging, to prevent their
surfaces from being rubbed by the friction of some other contiguous
object, particularly when the vessel is rocked by a tempestuous sea. See
also MAT.

PARBUCKLE, a contrivance used by sailors to _lower_ a cask or bale from
any height, as the top of a wharf or key, into a boat or lighter, which
lies along-side, being chiefly employed where there is no crane or

It is formed by fastening the _bight_ of a rope to a post, or ring, upon
the wharf, and thence passing the two parts of the rope under the two
quarters of the cask, and bringing them back again over it; so that when
the two lower parts remain firmly attached to the post, the two upper
parts are gradually slackened together, and the barrel, or bale,
suffered to roll easily downward to that place where it is received
below. This method is also frequently used by masons, in lifting up or
letting down large stones, when they are employed in building; and from
them it has probably been adopted by seamen.

PARCELLING, certain long narrow slips of canvas, daubed with tar, and
frequently bound about a rope, in the same manner as bandages are
applied to a broken limb in surgery.

This is chiefly practised when the said rope is intended to be _served_,
at which time the parcelling is laid in spiral turns, as smoothly upon
the surface as possible, that the rope may not become uneven and full of
ridges. It is also employed to raise the _mouses_, which are formed on
the _stays_ and on the _voyal_ being firmly fastened by _marling_ it
from one end to the other.

PARCELLING a _seam_, is laying a shred of canvas upon it, and daubing it
over with melted pitch, both above and below the canvas.

PARLIAMENT-HEEL, the situation of a ship, when she is made to stoop a
little to one side, so as to clean the upper part of her bottom on the
other side, and cover it with a new composition; and afterwards to
perform the same office on that part of the bottom which was first
immersed. The application of a new composition, or _coat_ of stuff, on
this occasion, is called _boot-topping_. See that article.

PARREL, _racage_, (probably from _parallel_) a machine used to fasten
the sail-yards of a ship to the masts, in such a manner as that they may
be easily hoisted and lowered thereon, as occasion requires.

There are four different sorts of parrels, one of which is formed of a
single rope; another, of a rope communicating with an assemblage of
_ribs_ and trucks; a third, of a rope passing through several trucks,
without any _ribs_; and the fourth, of a _truss_, by which the yard may
be at any time slackened from the mast, or confined thereto as close as

The first of these, which is also the simplest, is formed of a piece of
rope, well covered with leather, or spun-yarn, and furnished with an eye
at each end. The middle of it being passed round the middle of the yard,
both parts of it are fastened together on the after-side of the yard,
and the two ends, which are equally long, are passed round the
after-part of the mast; and one of them being brought under, and the
other over the yard, the two eyes are lashed together with a piece of
spun-yarn on the fore-side thereof, whilst another lashing is employed
to bind them together, behind the mast, according to the manner
described in the article MARLING.

The second and most complicated are composed of ribs and trucks, the
former of which are long flat pieces of wood, having two holes near
their ends, _bigots_, as represented by fig. _a._ plate VIII. the
latter, _pommes_, are small globular pieces, _b_, with a hole through
the middle, of the same size with those of the ribs. Between every two
ribs are placed two trucks, of which one is opposite to the upper hole,
and the other to the lower holes of both ribs; so that the parrel-rope,
_bâtard_, which passes through the whole, unites them together like a
string of beads.

In order to fasten this machine _c_ more conveniently about the mast and
yard, so as to attach the latter to the former, the parrel-rope is
formed of two pieces, each of which are furnished with an eye at one
end, and both eyes lie on one side of the mast; that is to say, one
piece of the rope passes through the lower part of the parrel, and
thence under the yard, whilst the other comes through the upper part of
the parrel and over the yard, till both eyes meet on the fore-side of
the yard, where they are _joined_ together. The other two ends of the
parrel-rope are passed about the yard, and the hind part of the parrel
alternately, till the latter is sufficiently secured to the former. The
whole process is compleated by _marling_ the turns of the parrel-rope
together, so as to confine them close in the cavity, formed on the back
of the ribs, as expressed in the figure.

The third is nothing more than a single rope, with any number of trucks
thereon, sufficient to embrace the mast. These are calculated for the
cheeks of a _gaff_. See that article.

The last, which are known by the name of truss-parrels, are somewhat
resembling the first, only that instead of being fastened by lashings,
the ropes, of which they are composed, communicate with tackles reaching
to the deck, so that the parrel may be occasionally slackened or
straitened, in order to let the yard move off from the mast, or confine
it thereto as strictly as possible. The last of these are peculiar to
the lower-yards, whereon they are extremely convenient. The second are
always used for the top-sail yards, and frequently for the lower-yards,
in merchant-ships; and the first are seldom employed but for the


PARTING, _démarrer_, the state of being driven from the anchors,
expressed of a ship, when she has broke her cable by the violence of the
wind, waves, or current, or all of them together.

PARTNERS, _etambraies_, certain pieces of plank nailed round the several
_scuttles_, or holes, in a ship’s deck, wherein are contained the masts
and capsterns. They are used to strengthen the deck where it is weakened
by those breaches, but particularly to support it when the mast leans
against it; as impressed by a weight of sail, or when the capstern bears
forcibly upon it whilst charged with a great effort.

PARTNERS is also a name given occasionally to the scuttles themselves,
wherein the masts and capsterns are fixed.

PASS, or PASSPORT, a permission granted by any state to navigate in some
particular sea, without hindrance or molestation from it. It contains
the name of the vessel, and that of the master, together with her
tonnage, and the number of her crew, certifying that she belongs to the
subjects of a particular state, and requiring all persons, at peace with
that state, to suffer her to proceed on her voyage without interruption.

PASSAGE, _traversée_, a voyage from one place to another by sea; an
outward or homeward-bound voyage.

PASSAREE, a rope used to fasten the main-tack down to the ship’s side, a
little behind the _chesstree_. This contrivance however is very rarely
used, and never but in light breezes of wind.

PAUL, _elinguet_, (_epaule_, Fr.) a certain short bar of wood, or iron,
fixed close to the _capstern_, or _windlass_ of a ship, to prevent those
engines from rolling back, or giving way, when they are employed to
heave-in the cable, or otherwise charged with any great effort. See


_To_ PAY, _espalmer_, as a naval term, implies to daub or anoint the
surface of any body, in order to preserve it from the injuries of the
water, weather, &c.

Thus the bottom of a ship is paid with a composition of tallow, sulphur,
resin, &c. as described in the article BREAMING.

The sides of a ship are usually paid with tar, turpentine, or resin; or
by a composition of tar and oil, to which is sometimes added red oker,
&c. to protect the planks thereof from being split by the sun or wind.
The lower-masts are, for the same reasons, paid with materials of the
same sort, if we except those, along which their respective sails are
frequently hoisted and lowered; such are the masts of _sloops_ and
_schooners_, which are always paid with tallow for this purpose: for the
same reason all top-masts and top-gallant-masts are also paid with hog’s
lard, butter, or tallow. See COAT and STUFF.

PAYING-OFF, _abattée_, the movement by which a ship’s head falls to
leeward of the point whither it was previously directed: particularly
when, by neglect of the helmsman, she had inclined to windward of her
course, so as to make the head-sails shiver in the wind, and retard her
velocity. See also FALLING-OFF.

PAYING-OFF is likewise used to signify the payment of the ship’s
officers and crew, and the discharge of the ship from service, in order
to be laid-up at the moorings.

PAYING-OUT, or PAYING-AWAY, the act of slackening a cable, or other
rope, so as to let it run out of the vessel for some particular purpose.

PEAK, or PEEK, a name given to the upper-corner of all those sails which
are extended by a _gaff_; or by a yard which crosses the mast obliquely,
as the mizen-yard of a ship, the main-yard of a _bilander_, &c. The
upper extremity of those yards and gaffs are also denominated the peak.

PEEK-HALIARDS, are the ropes, or tackles, by which the outer end of a
gaff is hoisted, as opposed to the _throat_-haliards, which are applied
to the inner end. See HALIARDS.

PENDANT, _flamme_, a sort of long narrow banner, displayed from the
mast-head of a ship of war, and usually terminating in two ends or
points, as expressed by _a_, fig. 4. plate V. There are, besides others,
pendants, _cornets_, of a larger kind, used to distinguish the chief of
a squadron of ships. See the article COMMODORE.

PENDANT, _pantoire_, is also a short piece of rope, fixed under the
shrouds, upon the head of the main-mast and fore-mast, from which it
depends as low as the _cat-harpings_, having an eye in the lower-end,
which is armed with an iron _thimble_, to prevent the eye from being
fretted by the hooks of the main and fore-tackles, &c.

There are, besides, many other pendants of the latter kind, which are
generally single or double ropes, to whose lower extremities is attached
a block, or tackle: such are the fish-pendant, the yard-tackle-pendants,
the reef-tackle-pendants, &c. all of which are employed to transmit the
effort of their respective tackles to some distant object.

PERIAGUA, a sort of large canoe, used in the Leeward islands, South
America, and the gulf of Mexico. It differs from the common vessels of
that name, as being composed of the trunks of two trees, hollowed and
united into one fabric; whereas those which are properly called canoes,
are formed of the body of one tree. See CANOE.

PIER, a strong mound, or fence, projecting into the sea, to break off
the violence of the waves from the entrance of a harbour.

PILLOW, _coussin_, a block of timber, whereon the inner-end of the
bowsprit is supported. See BOWSPRIT.

PILOT, the officer who superintends the navigation, either upon the
sea-coast or on the main ocean. It is, however, more particularly
applied by our mariners to the person charged with the direction of a
ship’s course, on, or near the sea-coast, and into the roads, bays,
rivers, havens, &c. within his respective district[41].

PIN _of a block_. See BLOCK.

PINK, (_pinque_, Fr.) a name given to a ship with a very narrow stern;
whence all vessels, however small, whose sterns are fashioned in this
manner, are called _pink-sterned_.

PINNACE, a small vessel, navigated with oars and sails, and having
generally two masts, which are rigged like those of a schooner.

PINNACE is also a boat, usually rowed with eight oars. See the article

PINTLES, certain pins or hooks, fastened upon the back part of the
rudder, with their points downwards, in order to enter into, and rest
upon the _googings_, fixed on the stern-post to hang the rudder. See

PIRATE, _pirate_ (πειρατης, Gr.) a sea-robber, or an armed ship that
roams the seas without any legal commission, and seizes or plunders
every vessel she meets indiscriminately, whether friends or enemies.

The colours usually displayed by pirates are said to be a black field,
with a death’s head, a battle-axe and hour-glass. The last instrument is
generally supposed to determine the time allowed to the prisoners, whom
they take, to consider whether they will join the pirates in their
felonious combination, or be put to death, which is often perpetrated in
the most cruel manner.

Amongst the most celebrated pirates of the north is recorded _Alvilda_,
daughter of a king of the Goths, named _Sypardus_. She embraced this
occupation to deliver herself from the violence imposed on her
inclination, by a marriage with _Alf_, son of _Sigarus_, king of
Denmark. She drest herself as a man, and composed her band of rowers,
and the rest of her crew, of a number of young women, attired in the
same manner. Amongst the first of her cruizes she touched at a place
where a company of pirates bewailed the death of their captain. The
strangers were captivated with the agreeable manners of Alvilda, and
chose her for their chief. By this reinforcement she became so
formidable upon the sea, that prince Alf came to engage her. She
sustained his attacks for a considerable time; but, in a vigorous
action, Alf boarded her vessel, and having killed the greatest part of
her crew, seized the captain, namely, herself; whom nevertheless he knew
not, because the princess had a casque which covered her visage. Being
master of her person, he removed the casque, and, in spite of her
disguise, instantly recognized her, and offered her his hand in

PITCH, _brai_, (_pix_, Lat.) a composition, black, dry, brittle, and
shining, which remains at the bottom of an alembic after the oil of
turpentine is drawn off by distillation. It is used in calking a ship,
to fill the chinks, or intervals between the planks of her sides, or
decks, or bottom. It is sometimes mixed with resin, or other glutinous
material. See TAR.

_To_ PITCH _the seams_. See the article PAY.

PITCHING, _tangage_, (_appicciare_, Ital.) may be defined, the vertical
vibration which the length of a ship makes about her centre of gravity;
or the movement, by which she plunges her _head_ and after-part
alternately into the hollow of the sea.

This motion may proceed from two causes: the waves, which agitate the
vessel; and the wind upon the sails, which makes her stoop to every
blast thereof. The first absolutely depends upon the agitation of the
sea, and is not susceptible of inquiry; and the second is occasioned by
the inclination of the masts, and may be submitted to certain
established maxims[43].

When the wind acts upon the sails, the mast yields to its effort, with
an inclination, which increases in proportion to the length of the mast,
to the augmentation of the wind, and to the comparative weight and
distribution of the ship’s lading.

The repulsion of the water, to the effort of gravity, opposes itself to
this inclination, or at least sustains it, by as much as the repulsion
exceeds the momentum, or absolute effort of the mast, upon which the
wind operates. At the end of each blast, when the wind suspends its
action, this repulsion lifts the vessel; and these successive
inclinations and repulsions produce the movement of _pitching_, which is
very inconvenient; and when it is considerable, will greatly retard the
course, as well as endanger the mast, and strain the vessel.

PLANE, a term used by shipwrights, implying the area, or imaginary
surface, contained within any particular outlines. Thus the plane of
elevation, plate I. exhibits a surface limited by the head before, by
the stern abaft, by the keel below, and by the upper part of the
vessel’s side above. Thus the horizontal plane, in the same plate, is
comprehended within the lines which describe the ship’s greatest breadth
and length; and thus also the plane of projection, represented likewise
in plate I. circumscribes the greatest height and breadth of the same

PLANKING, _border_, the act of covering and lining the sides of a ship
with an assemblage of oak planks, which completes the process of
ship-building, and is sometimes called _laying on the skin_, by the
artificers. See the article BUILDING.

The breadth and thickness of all the planks of a 74 gun ship, as also of
her _wales_ and _thick-stuff_, are exhibited in the midship section,
plate VII.

PLAT, _garcette de cable_, a sort of braided cordage, formed of several
_strands_ of old rope-yarn, twilled into _foxes_. It is used to wind
about that part of the cable which lies in the _hause-hole_, or against
the fore-part of the ship, where it would otherwise be greatly injured
by the continual friction, produced by the agitation of the ship in
stormy weather. See the articles FRESHEN and SERVICE.

PLUG, _pelardeaux_, (_plugg_, Swed.) certain pieces of timber, formed
like the frustrum of a cone, and used to stop the hause-holes, and the
breaches made in the body of a ship by cannon-balls; the former of which
are called hause-plugs, and the latter, shot-plugs, which are formed of
various sizes in proportion to the holes made by the different sizes of
shot, which may penetrate the ship´s sides or bottom in battle;
accordingly they are always ready for this purpose. See ENGAGEMENT.

PLUNDER, _butin_, a name given to the effects of the officers or crew of
a prize, which are pillaged by the captors.

PLYING, the act of making, or endeavouring to make, a progress against
the direction of the wind. Hence a ship, that advances well in her
course in this manner of sailing, is said to be a good plyer,
_boulinier_. See the articles BEATING and TACKING.

POINT, a low angle, or arm of the shore, which projects into the sea, or
into a river, beyond the rest of the beach.

POINTING, the operation of tapering the end of a rope, and weaving a
sort of mat, or close texture, about the diminished part of it, so as to
thrust it more easily through any hole, and prevent it from being
readily untwisted. Thus the end of a _reef-line_ is pointed, so that,
being stiffer, it may more readily penetrate the eye-let holes of the
reef; and the ends of the strands of a cable are occasionally pointed,
for the greater conveniency of _splicing_ it to another cable,
especially when this task is frequently performed. The extremities of
the splice of a cable are also pointed, that it may pass with more
facility through the hause-holes.

POINTS, _garcettes de ris_, short flat pieces of braided cordage,
tapering from the middle towards each end, and used to reef the courses
and top-sails of a ship. See the article REEF.

POLACRE, a ship with three masts, usually navigated in the Levant, and
other parts of the Mediterranean. These vessels are generally furnished
with square sails upon the main-mast, and _lateen_ sails upon the
fore-mast and mizen-mast. Some of them however carry square sails upon
all the three masts, particularly those of Provence in France. Each of
their masts is commonly formed of one piece, so that they have neither
top-mast nor top-gallant-mast; neither have they any _horses_ to their
yards, because the men stand upon the top-sail-yard to loose or furl the
top-gallant-sail, and on the lower-yard to _reef_, loose, or furl the
top-sail, whose yard is lowered sufficiently down for that purpose. See
also XEBEC.

POLE-AXE, a sort of hatchet nearly resembling a battle-axe, having an
handle about 15 inches in length, and being furnished with a sharp
point, or claw, bending downwards from the back of its head; the blade
whereof is formed like that of any other hatchet. It is principally
employed to cut away and destroy the rigging of any adversary who
endeavours to board.

Pole-axes are also said to have been successfully used on some occasions
in boarding an enemy, whose sides were above those of the boarder. This
is executed by detaching several gangs to enter at different parts of
the ship’s length, at which time the pole-axes are forcibly driven into
her side, one above another, so as to form a sort of scaling-ladders.

POLE-MAST. See the article MAST.

_Under bare_ POLES, _etre à sec_, the situation of a ship at sea when
all her sails are furled, particularly in a tempest. See the articles

POMIGLION, a name given by seamen to the cascabel, or hindmost knob of a
cannon. See that article.

PONTOON, (_ponton_, Fr.) a low flat vessel, nearly resembling a lighter,
or barge of burthen, and furnished with cranes, _capsterns_, tackles,
and other machinery necessary for careening ships of all sizes. These
are very common in the principal parts of the Mediterranean, but are
rarely used in the northern parts of Europe.

POOP, _dunette_, (_puppis_, Lat.) the highest and aftmost deck of a
ship. See the article DECK.

POOP-ROYAL, _dunette sur dunette_, a short deck, or platform, placed
over the aftmost part of the poop in the largest of the French and
Spanish men of war, and serving as a cabin for their masters and pilots.
This is usually called the top-gallant-poop by our shipwrights.

POOPING, the shock of a high and heavy sea, upon the stern or quarter of
a ship, when she _scuds_ before the wind in a tempest. This circumstance
is extremely dangerous to the vessel, which is thereby exposed to the
risk of having her whole stern beat inwards, by which she would be
immediately laid open to the entrance of the sea, and of course,
foundered or torn to pieces.

PORT, a harbour or haven on the sea-coast. See the article HARBOUR.

PORT is also a name given, on some occasions, to the larboard, or
left-side of the ship, as in the following instances:

_The ship heels to_ PORT, _i. e._ stoops or inclines to the larboard

_Top the yard to_ PORT, the order to make the larboard extremity of a
yard higher than the other. See TOPPING.

PORT _the helm_! the order to put the helm over to the larboard-side of
the vessel.

In all these senses this phrase appears intended to prevent any mistakes
happening from the similarity of sounds in the words starboard and
larboard, particularly when they relate to the helm, where a
misapprehension might be attended with very dangerous consequences.

PORTS, _sabords_, the embrasures or openings in the side of a ship of
war, wherein the artillery is ranged in battery upon the decks above and

The ports are formed of a sufficient extent to point and fire the
cannon, without injuring the ship’s side by the recoil; and as it serves
no end to enlarge them beyond what is necessary for that purpose, the
shipwrights have established certain dimensions, by which they are cut
in proportion to the size of the cannon.

The ports are shut in at sea by a sort of hanging-doors, called the
_port-lids_, _mantelets_; which are fastened by hinges to their
upper-edges, so as to let down when the cannon are drawn into the ship.
By this means the water is prevented from entering the lower-decks in a
turbulent sea. The lower and upper edges of the ports are always
parallel to the deck, so that the guns, when levelled in their
carriages, are all equally high above the lower extremity of the ports
which is called the port-cells. The ports are exhibited, throughout the
ship’s whole length, by H. in the ELEVATION, plate I. They are also
represented upon a larger scale in plate IV. fig. 10. and plate VIII.
fig. 3. The gun-room-ports, in the ship’s counter, are expressed by H.
fig. 1. plate X. See also the articles DECK and CANNON.

POWDER-CHESTS, certain small boxes, charged with powder and a quantity
of old nails, or splinters of iron, and fastened occasionally on the
decks and sides of a ship, in order to be discharged on an enemy who
attempts to seize her by boarding. See that article.

These cases are usually from 12 to 18 inches in length, and about 8 or
10 in breadth, having their outer or upper-part terminating in an edge.
They are nailed to several places of the _quarter_, the quarter-deck and
bulk-head of the waist, having a train of powder which communicates with
the inner apartments of the ship, so as to be fired at pleasure to annoy
the enemy. They are particularly used in merchant-ships, which are
furnished with close quarters to oppose the boarders. See

PRAM, or PRAME, a sort of lighter, used in Holland and the ports of the
Baltic sea, to carry the cargo of a merchant-ship _along-side_, in order
to lade her: or to bring it ashore to be lodged in the store-houses
after being discharged out of the vessel.

PRATIC, _pratique_, a term used in the European ports of the
Mediterranean sea, implying free intercourse or communication with the
natives of the country, after a limited quarantine has been performed,
in consequence of a voyage to Barbary or Turkey.

PREVENTER, an additional rope, employed at times to support any other,
when the latter suffers an unusual strain, particularly in a strong gale
of wind; as the

PREVENTER-BRACE, a temporary brace, fixed occasionally to succour the
main or fore-yard of a ship, but particularly the latter, when it is
charged with a greater effort than usual, and which, it is apprehended,
the common standing braces would not be able to support. See BRACE.

_Preventer-shrouds_, and _Preventer-stays_, are applied, in the same
manner, to serve the same purposes; and may be easily understood by
referring to the articles SHROUD and STAY.

PRICKING _the chart_, _pointer_, the act of tracing a ship’s course upon
a a marine chart, by the help of a scale and compasses, so as to
discover her present situation.

PRICKING _the sails_, the act of stitching two cloths of a sail together
along the space, comprehended between the two edges, or selvages, that
overlay each other. Or, it is the sowing a middle-seam between the two
seams which are employed to unite every cloth of a sail to the next
adjoining. This operation is rarely performed till the sails have been
worn for a considerable time, so that the twine, with which they were
originally sewed, is become very feeble and incapable of resisting the
efforts of a strong gale of wind.

PRIMING, the train of powder which is laid from the opening of the
touch-hole, along the cavity of the pan, in order to fire the piece:
also the operation of laying this train. See the articles CANNON and

PRIMING-WIRE, or PRIMING-IRON, a sort of iron-needle, employed to
penetrate the touch-hole of a cannon, when it is loaded, in order to
discover whether the powder contained therein is thoroughly dry, and fit
for immediate service.

PRIVATEER, a vessel of war, armed and equipped by particular merchants,
and furnished with a military commission by the admiralty, or the
officers who superintend the marine department of a country, to cruize
against the enemy, and take, sink, or burn their shipping, or otherwise
annoy them as opportunity offers. These vessels are generally governed
on the same plan with his majesty’s ships, although they are guilty of
many scandalous depredations, which are very rarely practised by the

PRIZE, a vessel taken from the enemy by a ship of war, privateer, or
armed merchantman[44].

PRIZING, the application of a lever to move any weighty body, as a cask,
anchor, cannon, &c.

PROTEST, an instrument, drawn up in writing, and attested before a
justice of peace, by the master and a part of the ship’s crew after the
expiration of a voyage, describing the severity of the said voyage,
occasioned by tempestuous weather, heavy seas, an insufficient crew, or
any other circumstances by which the ship has suffered, or may suffer,
either in her hull, masts, rigging, or cargo. It is chiefly intended to
shew, that such damages or misfortunes did not happen through any
neglect or ill conduct of the master or his officers.

PROW, _proue_ (_pros_, Lat.) a name given by seamen to the beak, or
pointed cut-water of a polacre, xebeck, or galley. The upper-part of the
prow, in those vessels, is usually furnished with a grating-platform for
the convenience of the seamen who walk out to perform whatever is
necessary about the sails or rigging on the bowsprit.

PUDDENING, _bourrelet_, a thick wreath, or circle of cordage, tapering
from the middle towards the ends, and fastened about the main-mast and
fore-mast of a ship, to prevent their yards from falling down, when the
ropes by which they are usually suspended are shot away in battle.

The puddening, which is represented by fig. 1. plate VIII. is generally
formed in the following manner: A small piece of rope, whose length is
twice the diameter of the mast, is spliced together at the two ends, and
being thus doubled and extended, a _thimble_ is seized into each of the
extremities. After this a large quantity of parcelling is firmly wound
about its surface in such a manner as to make it gradually larger from
the two ends towards the middle. It is afterwards, once or twice,
_served_ with spun-yarn throughout its whole length, to bind the
parcelling more closely, and render it firmer and more compact; and the
whole is completed by _pointing_ it on the surface. Being then fitted
with a laniard at one of the eyes, it is fixed about the mast by passing
the laniard alternately through both eyes or thimbles on the fore side
of the mast. See also DOLPHIN.

PULLING, a name given by sailors to the act of rowing with the oars.

PUMP, a well-known machine, used to discharge the water from the ship’s
bottom into the sea.

The common pump is so generally understood, that it hardly requires any
description. It is a long wooden tube, whose lower end rests upon the
ship’s bottom, between the timbers, in an apartment called the _well_,
inclosed for this purpose near the middle of the ship’s length.

This pump is managed by means of the brake, and the two boxes, or
pistons. Near the middle of the tube, in the chamber of the pump, is
fixed the lower-box, which is furnished with a staple, by which it may
at any time be hooked and drawn up, in order to examine it. To the
upper-box is fixed a long bar of iron, called the spear, whose upper-end
is fastened to the end of the brake, by means of an iron bolt passing
through both. At a small distance from this bolt the brake is confined
by another bolt between two cheeks, or ears, fixed perpendicularly on
the top of the pump. Thus the brake acts upon the spear as a lever,
whose fulcrum is the bolt between the two cheeks, and discharges the
water by means of the valves, or clappers, fixed on the upper and lower

These sort of pumps, however, are very rarely used in ships of war,
unless of the smallest size. The most useful machine of this kind, in
large ships, is the chain-pump, which is universally used in the navy.
This is no other than a long chain, equipped with a sufficient number of
valves, at proper distances, which passes downward through a wooden
tube, and returns upward in the same manner on the other side. It is
managed by a _roller_ or _winch_, whereon several men may be employed at
once; and thus it discharges, in a limited time, a much greater quantity
of water than the common pump, and that with less fatigue and
inconvenience to the labourers.

This machine is nevertheless exposed to several disagreable accidents by
the nature of its construction. The chain is of too complicated a
fabric, and the sprocket-wheels employed to wind it up from the ship’s
bottom, are deficient in a very material circumstance, _viz._ some
contrivance to prevent the chain from sliding or jerking back upon the
surface of the wheel, which frequently happens when the valves are
charged with a considerable weight of water, or when the pump is
violently worked. The links are evidently too short, and the
immechanical manner in which they are connected, exposes them to a great
friction in passing round the wheels. Hence they are sometimes apt to
break or burst asunder in very dangerous situations, when it is
extremely difficult or impracticable to repair the chain.

The consideration of the known inconveniences of the above machine has
given rise to the invention of several others which should better answer
the purpose. They have been offered to the public one after another with
pompous recommendations by their respective projectors, who have never
failed to report their effects as considerably superior to that of the
chain-pump with which they have been tried. It is however much to be
lamented, that in these sort of trials there is not always a scrupulous
attention to what may be called mechanical justice. The artist who
wishes to introduce a new piece of mechanism, has generally sufficient
address to compare its effects with one of the former machines which is
crazy or out of repair. A report of this kind indeed favours strongly of
the evidence of a false witness, but this finesse is not always
discovered. The persons appointed to superintend the comparative effects
of the different pumps, have not always a competent knowledge of
hydraulics to detect these artifices, or to remark with precision the
defects and advantages of those machines as opposed to each other. Thus
the several inventions proposed to supplant the chain-pump have hitherto
proved ineffectual, and are now no longer remembered.

Of late, however, some considerable improvements have been made on the
naval chain-pump, by Mr. Cole, under the direction of Capt. Bentinck.
The chain of this machine is more simple and mechanical, and much less
exposed to damage. It is exactly similar to that of the fire engine, and
appears to have been first applied to the pump by Mr. Mylne, to exhaust
the water from the caissons at Black-fryars bridge. It has thence been
transferred to the marine by Capt. Bentinck, after having received some
material additions to answer that service. The principal superiority of
this pump to the former is, 1. That the chain is more simple and more
easily worked, and of course less exposed to injuries by friction. 2.
That the chain is secured upon the wheel, and thereby prevented from
jerking back when charged with a column of water. 3. That it may be
easily taken up and repaired when broken, or choaked with ballast, &c.
4. That it discharges a much greater quantity of water with an inferior
number of men.

 _The latter part of this account is inserted after the last article in_

PUNT, a sort of flat-bottomed boat, whose floor resembles the platform
of a floating-stage. It is used by the naval artificers, either in
_calking_, _breaming_, or repairing the bottom of a ship.

PURCHASE, a name given by sailors to any sort of mechanical power
employed in raising or removing heavy bodies, or in fixing or extending
the ship’s rigging. Such are the tackles, windlasses, capsterns, screws,
and handspikes.

PURSER, an officer, appointed by the lords of the admiralty, to take
charge of the provisions of a ship of war, and to see that they are
carefully distributed to the officers and crew, according to the
instructions which he has received from the commissioners of the navy
for that purpose.


  _PLATE VIII_       _to face QUARTER_


QUADRANT, an instrument used to take the altitude of the sun or stars at
sea, in order to determine the latitude of the place; or the sun’s
azimuth, so as to ascertain the magnetical variation.

These instruments are variously constructed, and by consequence the
apparatus of each kind is somewhat different from those of the others,
according to the improvements they have at different times received from
several ingenious artists.

As all the different kinds of quadrants are circumstantially described,
either in printed directions to use them, or in other books, a
particular account of them here might reasonably be esteemed
superfluous. It suffices to say that the most useful, as well as the
most general, for taking observations at sea is the octant, originally
invented by Sir Isaac Newton, and since that time improved and brought
into practice by Mess. Godfrey and Hadley. It may not however be
unnecessary to remark, that the back-observation, which, in many
situations, is certainly more accurate and useful than that which is
taken in front, is almost totally neglected by our observers, under
pretence of its being more uncertain, or more liable to error: but
really because it is somewhat more difficult to learn. We may venture to
affirm however, that no artist, who thoroughly understands the
operation, will ever advance so absurd an objection, unless we should
doubt the testimony of a multitude of experiments.

QUARANTINE, the state of the persons who are restrained within the
limits of a ship, or lazaretto; or otherwise prevented from having a
free communication with the inhabitants of any country, till the
expiration of an appointed time, during which they are repeatedly
examined with regard to their health. It is chiefly intended to prevent
the importation of the plague, from the countries under the dominion of
the Turks.

QUARTER _of a ship_, _hanche_, that part of a ship’s side which lies
towards the stern, or which is comprehended between the aftmost end of
the main _chains_ and the sides of the stern, where it is terminated by
the quarter-pieces.

Although the lines by which the quarter and bow of a ship, with respect
to her length, are only imaginary, yet experience appears sufficiently
to have ascertained their limits: so that if we were to divide the
ship’s sides into five equal portions, the names of each space would be
readily enough expressed. Thus the first, from the stern, would be the
quarter; the second, abaft the midships; the third, the midships; the
fourth, before the midships; and the fifth, the bow. Whether these
divisions, which in reality are somewhat arbitrary, are altogether
improper, may be readily discovered by referring to the mutual situation
or approach of two adjacent vessels. The enemy boarded us on the
larboard-side! Whereabouts? Abaft the midships, before the midships, &c.

Plate VIII. fig. 3. represents a geometrical elevation of the quarter of
a 74 gun ship, as corresponding with the other figures of a ship of the
same rate, delineated upon the same plate. See the articles HEAD,

In this figure, all the parts are distinguished by the same letters as
those in the plane of elevation, plate I. wherein the quarter is
continued into the side, upon a smaller scale.

                   Explanation of fig. 3. plate VIII.

A the keel, with _a_ the false keel beneath it.

B the stern-post.

D D the quarter-gallery, with its ballustrades and windows.

E F the quarter-pieces, which limit and form the outlines of the stern.

F the taffarel, or upper pieces of the stern.

F G the profile of the stern, with its galleries.

H the gun-ports of the lower-deck.

_h_ the gun-ports of the upper and quarter-decks.

I the after-part of the mizen-channel.

K the wing-transom.

K G the lower counter.

L B the station of the deck-transom.

L Q the after-part of the main-wale.

D R the after-part of the channel-wale, parallel to the main-wale,

S U the sheer-rail, parallel to both wales.

T _t_ the rudder.

A _t_ F the rake of the stern.

P _i i_ the drift-rails.

T U the after-part of the load _water-line_.

_k k l_ the curve of the several decks corresponding to those
represented in the head.

As the marks, by which vessels of different constructions are
distinguished from each other, are generally more conspicuous on the
stern, or quarter, than any other part, we have represented, in plate
VIII. some of the quarters, which assume the most different shapes, and
form the greatest contrast with each other.

Fig. 4. shews the stern and quarter of a Dutch flight.

Fig. 5. the stern and quarter of a cat.

Fig. 8. is the stern and quarter of a common galley.

Fig. 9. exhibits the quarter of a first-rate galley, otherwise called a

Fig. 6. the quarter of a Dutch dogger, or galliot.

Fig. 7. represents the stern and quarter of a sloop of war.

The quarters of all other ships have a near affinity to those above
exhibited. Thus all ships of the line, and East-Indiamen, are formed
with a quarter little differing from the principal figure in this plate.
Xebecs have quarters nearly resembling those of galeasses, only somewhat
higher. Hag-boats and pinks approach the figure of _cats_, the former
being a little broader in the stern, and the latter a little narrower;
and the sterns and quarters of cats seem to be derived from those of
fly-boats. The sterns of Dutch doggers and galliots are indeed singular,
and like those of no other modern vessel: they have nevertheless a great
resemblance to the ships of the antient Grecians, as represented in
medals and other monuments of antiquity.

_On the_ QUARTER, may be defined an arch of the horizon, contained
between the line prolonged from the ship’s stern and any distant object,
as land, ships, &c. Thus if the ship’s keel lies on an east and west
line, the stern being westward, any distant object perceived in the
north-west or south-west, is said to be on the larboard or starboard
quarter. See the article BEARING.

QUARTER-BILL, a roll, or list, containing the different stations, to
which all the officers and crew of the ship are quartered, in the time
of battle, and the names of all the persons appointed to those stations.

QUARTER-CLOTHS, _bastingage_, long pieces of painted canvas, extended on
the outside of the quarter-netting from the upper-part of the gallery to
the _gangway_. They are generally decorated with martial instruments, or
allegorical figures.

QUARTER-GALLERY, a sort of small balcony, with or without ballustrades,
on the quarter of a ship, as represented by fig. 1. plate VIII. The
gallery on the quarter generally communicates with that on the stern, by
means of a door passing from one to the other.

QUARTER-GUNNER, an inferior officer under the direction of the gunner of
a ship of war, whom he is to assist in every branch of his duty; as
keeping the guns and their carriages in proper order, and duly furnished
with whatever is necessary; filling the powder into cartridges; scaling
the guns, and keeping them always in a condition to be ready for
service. The number of quarter-gunners in any ship is always in
proportion to the number of her artillery, one quarter-gunner being
allowed to every four cannon.

QUARTER-MASTER, an inferior officer, appointed by the master of a ship
of war to assist the _mates_ in their several duties; as stowing the
ballast and provisions in the hold, _coiling_ the cables on their
platforms, overlooking the steerage of the ship, and keeping the time by
the watch-glasses.

QUARTER-NETTING, a sort of net-work, extended along the rails on the
upper-part of a ship’s quarter. In a ship of war these are always
double, being supported by iron cranes, placed at proper distances. The
interval is sometimes filled with cork, or old sails, but chiefly with
the hammocs of the sailors, so as to form a parapet to prevent the
execution of the enemy’s small arms in battle. See the article

QUARTER-RAILS, are narrow-moulded planks, generally of fir, reaching
from the top of the stern to the gangway. They are supported by
stanchions, and serve as a fence to the quarter-deck, to prevent the men
from tumbling into the sea by the rolling of the ship, particularly in
small vessels.

QUARTERS, a name given, at sea, to the several stations where the
officers and crew of a ship of war are posted in action. See the article

The number of men appointed to manage the artillery is always in
proportion to the nature of the guns, and the number and condition of
the ship’s crew. They are, in general, as follow, when the ship is well
manned, so as to fight both sides at once occasionally:

                           Nature of the gun.

                          Pounder. No. of men.
                           To a 42          15
                                32          13
                                24          11
                                18           9
                                12           7
                                 9           6
                                 6           5
                                 4           4
                                 3           3

This number, to which is often added a boy to bring powder to every gun,
may be occasionally reduced, and the guns nevertheless well managed. The
number of men appointed to the small arms, on board his majesty’s ships
and sloops of war, by order of the admiralty, are,

            Rate of the ship. No. of men to the small arms.
            1st                                         150
            2d                                          120
            3d of 80 guns                               100
            — of 70 guns                                 80
            4th of 60 guns                               70
            4th of 50 guns                               60
            5th                                          50
            6th                                          40
            Sloops of war                                30

The lieutenants are usually stationed to command the different
batteries, and direct their efforts against the enemy. The master
superintends the movements of the ship, and whatever relates to the
sails. The boatswain, and a sufficient number of men, are stationed to
repair the damaged rigging; and the gunner and carpenter, wherever
necessary, according to their respective offices. See also the articles

The marines are generally quartered on the poop and forecastle, or
gangway, under the direction of their officers; although, on some
occasions, they assist at the great guns, particularly in distant

QUARTERS! is also an exclamation to implore mercy from a victorious

QUICK-SAND, a loose quaking sand, into which a ship sinks by her own
weight, as soon as the water retreats from her bottom.

QUICK-WORK, _œuvres-vives_, a general name given to all that part of a
ship, which is under the surface of the water when she is laden fit for
a sea-voyage. It is also applied, occasionally, to that part of the side
which is above the sheer-rail, and which is usually painted with
trophies, &c. on the outside.

QUILTING, (_kulcht_, Dutch) the operation of weaving a sort of coat, or
texture, formed of the _strands_ of rope, about the outside of any
vessel, to contain water, &c. as a jar, cask, bottle, &c.

QUOIN, a sort of wedge, employed to raise the cannon to a proper level,
that it may be more truly directed to the object.

QUOINS are also employed to wedge off the casks of wine, oil, spirituous
liquors, &c. from each other, that their bilges may not rub against each
other so as to occasion a leak, by the agitation of the ship, at sea.


RABBIT, _rablure_, (_rabatre_, Fr.) a deep groove, or channel, cut in a
piece of timber longitudinally, to receive the edge of a plank, or the
ends of a number of planks, which are to be securely fastened therein.
The depth of this channel is equal to the thickness of the plank, so
that when the end of the latter is let into the rabbit, it will be level
with the outside of the piece. Thus the ends of the lower planks of a
ship’s bottom terminate upon the stem afore, and the stern-post abaft,
with whose sides their surfaces are even. The surface of the garboard
streak, whose edge is let into the keel, is, in the same manner, level
with the side of the keel at the extremities of the vessel.

RACKING, the fastening two opposite parts of a tackle together, so as
that any weighty body suspended thereby, shall not fall down, although
the rope, which forms the tackle, should be loosened by accident or

This expedient is chiefly practised when the boats are hung up to the
ship’s side, during the night time, in an open road or bay, lest the
rope of the tackle should be untied by the inattention of some of the
crew; by which accident the boat might be considerably damaged, and
probably lost, or dashed in pieces.

RAFT, _radeau_, a sort of float, formed by an assemblage of various
planks, or pieces of timber, fastened together side by side, so as to be
conveyed more commodiously, to any short distance in a harbour or road,
than if they were separate. The timber and plank, with which
merchant-ships are laden, in the different parts of the Baltic sea, are
attached together in this manner, in order to float them off to the

RAFT-PORT, a square hole, cut through the buttocks of some ships,
immediately under the counter, to receive the planks or pieces of timber
which are brought to lade her for transportation; and which, on account
of their great length, could not be received aboard otherwise.

RAG-BOLT, an iron pin, having several barbs, as explained in the article
IRON-WORK, and represented in fig. 2, plate II.

RAILS, are narrow planks, generally of fir, upon which there is a
moulding stuck. They are for ornament, and are nailed across the stern,
above the wing-transom and counters, &c. They are likewise nailed upon
several planks along the side; one in particular is called the
sheer-rail, which limits the height of the side from the forecastle to
the quarter-deck, and runs aft to the stern, and forward to the
cat-head; the wales are nearly parallel to this. _Murray’s

The reader will understand this article better by referring to the
figures of the rails, as represented in plates I, IV, VII, and VIII. and
their explanations, in NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, &c.

RAILS _of the head_, certain curved pieces of timber, extending from the
bows on each side to the continuation of the ship’s stem, to support the
_knee of the head_, and the ornamental figure fixed thereon. The form of
these rails is represented at large in the figure referred to from the
article HEAD, plate IV.

_To_ RAISE, to elevate any distant object at sea, by a gradual approach
towards it from the place whence it was formerly observed. This effect
is known to be occasioned by the convexity of the surface of the sea,
which previously intercepted the view, when directed towards the lower
parts of the said object. This term is opposed to LAYING, which see.

RAISING _a purchase_, the act of disposing certain instruments, or
machines, in such a manner, as that, by their mutual effects, they may
produce a mechanical force sufficient to overcome the weight, or
resistance of the object to which this machinery is applied.

RAKE, the projection of the upper parts of a ship at the height of the
stem, and stern, beyond the extremities of the keel. Thus if a plummet
be hung from the top of a ship’s stern, so as to be level with the
continuation of the keel, the distance between the after end of the keel
and the plummet will be the length of the rake abaft, or the rake of the

RAKING _a ship_, the act of cannonading a ship on the stern, or head, so
as that the balls shall scour the whole length of her decks; which is
one of the most dangerous incidents that can happen in a naval action.
This is frequently called raking fore and aft, being the same with what
is called _enfilading_ by engineers.

RANGE, a sufficient length of the cable, drawn up on the deck, before
the anchor is cast loose from the bow, to let it sink to the bottom,
without being interrupted, that the flukes may be forced the deeper into
the ground, by the additional weight which the anchor acquires in
sinking. For this reason the range, which is drawn up out of the tier,
ought to be equal in length, to the depth of the water where the ship
anchors. See ANCHOR and CABLE-TIER.

RANGE, is also the distance to which a bomb or cannon-ball is thrown
from a piece of artillery, by the explosion of gun-powder. See the
articles CANNON and MORTAR.

The flight of a shot is distinguished, by artillery people, into two
different ranges, of which the first is called the point-blank; and the
second, the random-shot. To these also may be added the _ricochet_, or
rolling and bounding-shot.

Whatever has been observed, in other parts of this work, with regard to
the flight of a shot from a piece of artillery, is on the presumption
that it describes a right line in its passage to the object. This,
however, is not strictly true; because by its weight it inclines to the
earth every instant of its motion: but as its velocity is very great
when first discharged from the cannon, the weight does not sensibly
affect the direction in the first instant of its motion. Thus the line
it describes, as represented in plate III. extending from fig. 16. to
the ship under sail, is apparently straight, and the extent of this line
is called the _point-blank_ range of the piece; which accordingly may be
defined the extent of the apparent right line, described by a ball
discharged from a cannon.

This range is much less than the greatest range, or _random-shot_; but
the piece cannot be levelled, or, as it is generally expressed,
_pointed_ at an object intended to be battered, if that object is not
within the distance of the point-blank range; for beyond that, the
stroke is very uncertain.

A piece is said to fire at random-shot, when the breech rests upon the
bed of the carriage, so that the ball is carried to the greatest
possible distance. But as, in this method of firing, the ball cannot be
directed to any determinate object, it is rarely used in the
sea-service, and only when the shot cannot fail of doing great execution
in the place whereon it falls.

Besides the two ranges above described, there is the _ricochet_[45],
invented by the Marshal de Vauban.

To fire a piece by way of the ricochet, the cannon is only charged with
a quantity of powder sufficient to carry the shot along the face of the
works attacked. The shot, thus discharged, goes rolling and bounding,
killing, maiming, or destroying all it meets in its course, and creates
much more disorder by going thus slowly, than if thrown from the piece
with greater violence.

When ricochet firing is used, the pieces are elevated from 3 to 6
degrees, and no more; because if the elevation is greater, the shot will
only drop into the work, without bounding from one place to another.
They are to be loaded with a small charge, and directed in such a manner
as just to go over the parapet[46].

It was the opinion of engineers formerly, that by charging the pieces
high, the ball was thrown to a greater distance. Hence the pieces were
charged with two thirds, or even the whole weight of the shot, in order
to impel it with greater velocity; but it has been discovered since,
that the half, or one third of the weight of the ball, is the fittest
charge for the piece[47].

If the whole quantity of powder, employed to charge the cannon, could
take fire at the same instant, it is apparent that the velocity,
communicated to the shot, would increase in proportion to the additional
quantity of powder. But though the time of its inflammation is very
short, it may yet be conceived as divided into many instants. In the
first instant, the powder begins to dilate and impel the shot forward;
and if it has force enough to expel it from the piece before the whole
charge is inflamed, that part which is left to take fire afterwards will
produce no effect at all on the shot. A charge of extraordinary force
does not therefore accelerate the velocity of the bullet: and hence it
follows that the piece ought to be charged with no more powder, than
will take fire whilst the ball is passing through the chace of the

It may not be amiss to observe here, that the range of cannon is greater
in the morning and at night, than at noon; and in cold, than in hot
weather. The reason is, that at these times the air being less heated,
gives less way to the dilatation of the powder, which being by this
means confined, as it were, to a smaller sphere of action, must have a
stronger effect in proportion[48].

“When the lengths of cannon are proportional to the height of the
charge, the shot will be discharged with the same velocity, whatever the
calibre may be; and since the ratios of the velocities of shots, issuing
from pieces of different lengths, loaded with different charges of
powder, will be of great use in the construction of cannon, we have
collected them in the following table, where the numbers at the top
express the length of the pieces by the diameter of their shots. That
is, the first is 12 diameters; the second 15, and so on. The first
perpendicular column expresses the charges, in respect to the weight of
the shots: thus, ¼, ⅓, ½, ⅔ imply that the weight of the charge is ¼, ⅓,
½, ⅔ of the weight of the shot. The other numbers, in the same
horizontal lines, express the distance in feet moved over by the
velocities of the shot, uniformly continued in a second of time.

                        _A Table of Velocities._

                │ 12 │ 15 │ 18 │ 21 │ 24 │ 27 │ 30 │ 36 │

“We made use of the diameter of a 9 pound shot, which being 4 inches, is
more convenient in the calculation; and this diameter expresses the
height of the charge when it is a quarter of the weight of the shot, and
the rest in proportion.

“Several remarks may be made upon this table, which are of great
importance in the construction of cannon. First, when the charge is but
a quarter of the shot’s weight, the difference between the velocities,
when the length is 12 and 15 diameters, is but 9 feet in a second; and
the differences between the other velocities decrease as the length

“Hence, as the difference between the velocities when the piece is 15
and 36 diameters long, is but 22 feet in a second, it is easily
perceived, that when the pieces are charged with one quarter of the
shot’s weight, the length from 12 to 15 diameters is the best.

“Secondly, When the charge is one third of the shot’s weight, the
difference of the velocities, when the piece is 12, 15, and 18 diameters
long, are 14, 10 seconds; and from thence decrease more and more, as the
length of the piece increases: so the length, from 15 to 18 diameters
seems to be the best, every thing being considered.

“Thirdly, and lastly, it appears, from the same manner of reasoning,
that when the charge is one-half of the shot’s weight, the length ought
to be from 18 to 21 diameters; and when the charge is two thirds of the
shot’s weight, the length ought to be from 21 to 24 diameters.”
_Muller’s Artillery._

As one of the effects of the bomb results from its weight, the range of
mortars is extremely different from that of cannon, because the former
is not pointed at a certain object, like the latter, but inclined to the
horizon at a certain angle; so that the bomb, being thrown up obliquely,
much in the same direction as a tennis-ball struck by the racket, may
fall upon the place intended. Hence it appears that the mortar has no
point-blank range, or at least that no use is made of it.

The mortar, being fixed in a situation obliquely with the horizon, so as
that the line _a c_, which passes through the middle of it
longitudinally, being continued, would make an angle _b a d_ with the
horizon _a b_; a bomb, discharged in the direction of this continued
line, would deviate from it every instant of its motion by its weight,
which inclines it downwards, and by this means it would describe a
curve-line, as _a e b_, called a _parabola_[49].

The line _a b_, fig. 19. plate VI. is called the extent of the range, or
the amplitude of the parabola; and the line _a d_, the elevation of the

To make a bomb fall on a given place, two things are to be considered;
viz. the elevation of the mortar; and the quantity of powder used to
charge it; both of which may be ascertained as follows: A bomb
discharged from a mortar, pointed vertically, will describe a line
nearly perpendicular to the horizon: I say nearly, because the mortar
will always have some little motion, which will destroy the exact
perpendicularity of the bomb’s flight; but abstracted from this, a bomb,
discharged vertically, would fall again into the mortar[50].

If the mortar be afterwards inclined more and more towards the horizon,
the bomb will fall still farther and farther distant from the mortar,
till the elevation rests at 45°; and the more the mortar is pointed
under this angle, the more will the range of the bomb be diminished: all
of which is strictly demonstrated by geometry. But the following is a
very simple manner of conceiving it, without having recourse to that

A bomb, discharged in the direction of a line, nearly perpendicular to
the horizon, will fall at a little distance from the bomb-vessel. This
requires no proof. A bomb, thrown according to a line that makes a very
acute angle with the horizon, will presently come to the ground by its
weight, and by consequence will not, any more than the other, fall at a
considerable distance from the mortar.

Hence it is easy to conceive, that in order to fall at the greatest
distance from the mortar, the bomb must be fired according to an
elevation at the greatest possible distance, as well from a vertical, as
from an horizontal line. This elevation divides in two equal parts the
angle formed by the vertical and horizontal lines, which being of 90
degrees, or what is called a right angle, a bomb will be thrown to the
greatest distance, in the direction of a line making an angle of 45
degrees. For above this angle the range will diminish, because the bomb
approaches the vertical line; and under the same elevation it will also
decrease, because the flight of the bomb approaches the horizontal line.

Hence also it appears that there are two angles, according to which a
mortar may be inclined to make the bomb fall on the same place; these
are the angles, equally distant from the line, which cuts the quadrant
into two equal parts: so that if, for example, a mortar is elevated at
30°, the bomb will fall at the same distance as if it had been elevated
at 60°, each of these angles being 15° distant on this, and that side of
the quadrant; that is, from the angle of 45 degrees.

The second thing to be considered, is, to know the exact charge of
powder necessary to throw a bomb to a given distance.

If the bomb, being fired at an elevation of 45°, falls short of the
place intended, the charge of powder must be increased. If it reaches
the place, or goes beyond it, it is evident that the charge is
sufficient. If the bomb, at an elevation under 45°, fall short of the
place intended, with a given charge, the mortar must be more elevated:
if, on the contrary, it falls too far off, it must be more inclined to
the horizon: and by these essays the proper degree of inclination may be
easily and speedily discovered.

If the mortar then is raised above 45°, it must be more inclined, so as
to make a more acute angle with the horizon, to increase the range of
the bomb; and, on the contrary, raised nearer a perpendicular, to
diminish it: all of which are consequences drawn from what has been said
on this subject.

It must be observed, first, that the greatest distance to which a bomb
can be thrown, with the strongest charge, is little more than about
1800, or 2000 fathoms.

Secondly, that though a mortar may be elevated indifferently, either so
much above or below 45° as to carry a bomb to a given distance, yet when
any building is to be destroyed, it should be raised above 45°, because
the shell, rising to a greater height when fired according to a greater
angle, falls with greater force, and by consequence will do more damage
to the place on which it is thrown. But when the business is to fire on
a body of men, the mortar must be pointed below 45°, that the bomb may
not have force enough to enter far into the ground, and that the
splinters in the explosion may do more execution.

                       PRACTICE FOR SEA-MORTARS.

     Nature of the Mortar.
    13 Inch.      10 Inch.     Flight in    Ranges in     Length of
     Powder.       Powder.      Seconds.      Yards.     Composition
                                                          in Fuses.
     lb.    oz.    lb.    oz.                           Inches  Parts
       3      0                         12          612      2     64
       4      0      1     12           14          832      3      8
                     2      4           15          958      3     30
       5      0      2      6           16         1088      3     52
       5      8      2      8           17         1299      3     74
                     3      2           18         1377      2     96
       7      0      3      8           19         1534      4     18
                     4      0           20         1700      4     40
       8     12      4      8           21         1874      4     62
       9      0      5      8           22         2057      4     84
      12      0                         23         2248
      14                                24         2448
      16                                25         2656
      18             8      2           26         2873      5     72
      20      0      8     10           27         3098      5     94
      22      0      9      8           28         3332      6     16
      24      8     11      4           29         3574      6     38
      28      0     12      0           30         3821      6     60
      31      8                         31         4085      6     82

The ranges of mortars, at the several elevations below, are in
proportion to one another, viz.

                       45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10  5
                      100 98 94 86 76 64 50 34 17

Example. Knowing the range of a shell at 45 to be 890 yards, required
the range at 30 with the same powder; say, as 100 : 86 : : 890 : 765.4;
and if you have a shell’s range at 30, and would know how far it will go
at 45 with the same quantity of powder, rule as 86 : 100 : : 765.4 :

N. B. These propositions only hold good when the powder is equal.

RATES, the orders or classes into which the ships of war are divided,
according to their force and magnitude.

It has already been observed, in the article NAVY, that this regulation,
which limits the rates of men of war to the smallest number possible,
seems to have been dictated by considerations of political œconomy, or
of that of the simplicity of the service in the royal _dock-yards_. The
British fleet is accordingly distributed into six rates, exclusive of
the inferior vessels that usually attend on naval armaments; as sloops
of war, armed ships, bomb-ketches, fire-ships and cutters, or schooners
commanded by lieutenants.

Ships of the first rate mount 100 cannon, having 42 pounders on the
lower deck, 24 pounders on the middle deck, 12 pounders on the upper
deck, and 6 pounders on the quarter deck and forecastle. They are manned
with 850 men, including their officers, seamen, marines, and servants.

In general, the ships of every rate, besides the captain, have the
master, the boatswain, the gunner, the chaplain, the purser, the
surgeon, and the carpenter; all of whom, except the chaplain, have their
mates or assistants, in which are comprehended the sail-maker, the
master at arms, the armorer, the captain’s clerk, the gunsmith, &c.

The number of other officers are always in proportion to the rate of the
ship. Thus a first rate has six lieutenants, six master’s mates,
twenty-four midshipmen, and five surgeon’s mates, who are considered as
gentlemen; besides the following petty officers: quarter-masters, and
their mates, fourteen; boatswains mates and yeomen, eight; gunners mates
and assistants, six; quarter-gunners, twenty-five; carpenters mates,
two, besides fourteen assistants; with one steward, and steward’s mate
to the purser.

If the dimensions of all ships of the same rate were equal, it would be
the simplest and most perspicuous method to collect them into one point
of view in a table; but as there is no invariable rule for the general
dimensions, it must suffice to remark those of some particular ships in
each rate; for which purpose we have selected some of the latest

The Victory, which is the last built of our first rates, is 222 feet 6
inches in length, from the head to the stern; the length of her keel,
151 feet 3 inches; that of her gun-deck, or lower deck, 186 feet; her
extreme breadth is 51 feet 10 inches; her depth in the _hold_, 21 feet 6
inches; her burthen 2162 tons; and her poop reaches 6 feet before the

Ships of the second rate carry 90 guns upon three decks, of which those
on the lower battery are 32 pounders; those on the middle, 18 pounders;
on the upper-deck, 12 pounders; and those on the quarter-deck, 6
pounders, which usually amount to four or six. Their complement of men
is 750, in which there are six lieutenants, four master’s mates,
twenty-four midshipmen, and four surgeon’s mates, fourteen
quarter-masters and their mates, eight boatswain’s mates and yeomen, six
gunner’s mates and yeomen, with twenty-two quarter-gunners, two
carpenter’s mates, with ten assistants, and one steward and steward’s

Ships of the third rate carry from 64 to 80 cannon, which are 32, 18,
and 9 pounders. The 80–gun ships however begin to grow out of repute,
and to give way to those of 74, 70, &c. which have only two whole
batteries; whereas the former have three, with 28 guns planted on each,
the cannon of their upper-deck being the same as those on the
quarter-deck and fore-castle of the latter, which are 9 pounders. The
complement in a 74 is 650, and in a 64, 500 men; having, in peace, 4
lieutenants, but in war, 5; and when an admiral is aboard, 6. They have
3 master’s mates, 16 midshipmen, 3 surgeon’s mates, 10 quarter-masters
and their mates, 6 boatswain’s mates and yeomen, 4 gunner’s mates and
yeomen, with 18 quarter-gunners, 1 carpenter’s mate, with 8 assistants,
and 1 steward and steward’s mate under the purser.

Ships of the fourth rate mount from 60 to 50 guns, upon two decks, and
the quarter-deck. The lower tier is composed of 24 pounders, the upper
tier of 12 pounders, and the cannon on the quarter-deck and fore-castle
are 6 pounders. The complement of a 50 gun ship is 350 men, in which
there are three lieutenants, 2 master’s mates, 10 midshipmen, 2
surgeon’s mates, 8 quarter-masters and their mates, 4 boatswain’s mates
and yeomen, 1 gunner’s mate and 1 yeoman, with 12 quarter-gunners, 1
carpenter’s mate and 6 assistants, and a steward and steward’s mate.

All vessels of war, under the fourth rate, are usually comprehended
under the general name of frigates, and never appear in the line of
battle. They are divided into the 5th and 6th rates, the former mounting
from 40 to 32 guns, and the latter from 28 to 20. The largest of the
fifth rate have two decks of cannon, the lower battery being of 18
pounders, and that of the upper-deck of 9 pounders; but those of 36 and
32 guns have only one complete deck of guns, mounting 12 pounders,
besides the quarter-deck and fore-castle, which carry 6 pounders. The
complement of a ship of 44 guns, is 280 men and that of a frigate of 36
guns, 240 men. The first has 3, and the second 2 lieutenants; and both
have 2 master’s mates, 6 midshipmen, 2 surgeon’s mates, 6
quarter-masters and their mates, 2 boatswain’s mates and 1 yeoman, 1
gunner’s mate and 1 yeoman, with 10 or 11 quarter-gunners, and 1
purser’s steward.

Frigates of the 6th rate carry 9 pounders, those of 28 guns having 3
pounders on their quarter-deck, with 200 men for their complement; and
those of 24, 160 men; the former has 2 lieutenants, the latter, 1; and
both have 2 master’s mates, 4 midshipmen, 1 surgeon’s mate, 4
quarter-masters and their mates, 1 boatswain’s mate and 1 yeoman, 1
gunner’s mate and 1 yeoman, with 6 or 7 quarter-gunners, and 1 purser’s

The sloops of war carry from 18 to 8 cannon, the largest of which have 6
pounders; and the smallest, viz. those of 8 and 10 guns, 4 pounders.
Their officers are generally the same as in the 6th rates, with little
variation; and their complements of men are from 120 to 60, in
proportion to their force or magnitude.

N. B. Bomb-vessels are on the same establishment as sloops; but
fire-ships and hospital-ships are on that of fifth rates.

Having already exhibited the dimensions of the largest first rate in our
navy, we have, in the following table, collected those of the inferior

              │Guns.│  Length of│ Length of │  Extreme  │ Depth in  │Bur- │
    Rates.    │     │ the keel. │ the lower │ breadth.  │ the hold. │then │
              │     │           │   deck.   │           │           │ in  │
              │     │           │           │           │           │tons.│
              │     │Feet. Inch.│Feet. Inch.│Feet. Inch.│Feet. Inch.│     │
 2d rate,     │   90│  144     ¾│  177    6 │   50      │   21      │ 1934│
 Barfleur,    │     │           │           │           │           │     │
              │     │           │           │           │           │     │
 3d    Arro-  │   74│  138      │  168    3 │   47    4 │   19     9│ 1644│
 rate, gant,  │     │           │           │           │           │     │
       Europa,│   64│  139      │  159      │   44    4 │   19     4│ 1366│
              │     │           │           │           │           │     │
 4th rate,    │   50│  120    8 │  146      │   40    4 │   17     4│ 1044│
 Salisbury,   │     │           │           │           │           │     │
              │     │           │           │           │           │     │
 5th   Phœnix,│   44│  116   11 │  140    9 │   37    1⅜│   16      │  856│
 rate,        │     │           │           │           │           │     │
       Venus, │   36│  106    3 │  128    4½│   35    9 │   12     4│  722│
              │     │           │           │           │           │     │
 6th   Carys- │   28│   97    3½│  118    4 │   33    8 │   10     6│  586│
 rate, fort,  │     │           │           │           │           │     │
       Dol-   │   24│   93    4 │  113      │   32    1 │   11      │  511│
       phin,  │     │           │           │           │           │     │
              │     │           │           │           │           │     │
 Sloop,       │   16│   80    7⅝│   98      │   27    2 │   12     8│  316│
 Nautilus,    │     │           │           │           │           │     │

Nothing more evidently manifests the great improvement of the marine
art, and the degree of perfection to which it has arrived in England,
than the facility of managing our first rates; which were formerly
esteemed incapable of government, unless in the most favourable weather
of the summer. In testimony of this observation we may, with great
propriety, produce the example of the Royal George, which, during the
whole course of the late war, was known to be as easily navigated, and
as capable of service, as any of the inferior ships of the _line_, and
that frequently in the most tempestuous seasons of the year. The
ingenious M. Du Hamel, who is eminently distinguished for his knowledge
of marine affairs, has indeed judiciously objected to the defects and
bad qualities of such large ships[51]. It is nevertheless hardly
possible for any Englishman, who was witness to the defeat of M.
Conflans, by the victorious Sir Edward Hawke, on the ever-memorable 20th
of November, without dissenting a while from that gentleman’s opinion.
In reality, a fact, confirmed by repeated experience, must unavoidably
triumph over all theoretical conclusions.

Ships of the second rate, and those of the third, which have three
decks, carry their sails remarkably well, and labour very little at sea.
They are excellent in a general action, or in cannonading a fortress.
Those of the third rate, which have two tiers, are fit for the line of
battle, to lead the convoys and squadrons of ships of war in action, and
in general, to suit the different exigencies of the naval service.

The fourth rates may be employed on the same occasions as the third
rates, and may be also destined amongst the foreign colonies, or on
expeditions of great distance; since these vessels are usually excellent
for keeping and sustaining the sea.

Vessels of the fifth rate are too weak to suffer the shock of a line of
battle; but they may be destined to lead the convoys of merchant-ships,
to protect the commerce in the colonies, to cruize in different
stations, to accompany squadrons, or be sent express with necessary
intelligence and orders. The same may be observed of the sixth rates.

The frigates, which mount from 28 to 38 guns upon one deck, with the
quarter-deck, are extremely proper for cruizing against privateers, or
for short expeditions, being light, long, and usually excellent sailers.

RATTLINGS, _enflechures_, certain small lines which traverse the
_shrouds_ of a ship horizontally, at regular distances from the deck,
upwards, and forming a variety of ladders, whereby to climb to any of
the mast-heads, or descend from them. Hence the term is apparently
derived from _rath_, an obsolete word, signifying an hill.

In order to prevent the rattling from slipping down by the weight of the
sailors, they are firmly attached by a knot, called a _clove-hitch_, to
all the shrouds, except the foremost or aftmost; where one of the ends,
being fitted with an eye-splice, is previously fastened with twine or

REACH, (_ræcan_, Sax.) the line, or distance, comprehended between any
two points or stations on the banks of a river, wherein the current
flows in a streight uninterrupted course.

REAR, (_arriere_, Fr.) a name given to the last division of a squadron,
or the last squadron of a fleet, and which is accordingly commanded by
the third officer of the said fleet or squadron. See the article

REEF, _ris_, (_reef_, Dutch) a certain portion of a sail, comprehended
between the top or bottom, and a row of eyelet-holes parallel thereto.

The intention of the reef is to reduce the surface of the sail in
proportion to the increase of the wind; for which reason there are
several reefs parallel to each other in the superior sails, whereby they
may be still farther diminished, in order to correspond with the several
degrees of the gale. Thus the top-sails of ships are usually furnished
with three reefs, _l_ _m_ _n_, fig. 1. plate IX. parallel to the yard;
and there are always three or four reefs, parallel to the bottom on
those main-sails and fore-sails, which are extended upon booms: a
circumstance common to many of the small vessels.

REEF also implies a chain of rocks, lying near the surface of the water.

REEF-BAND, a piece of canvas, sewed across the sail, to strengthen it in
the place where the eyelet-holes of the reefs are formed.

REEFING, the operation of reducing a sail, by taking in one or more of
the reefs, which is either performed by lines, _points_, or _knittles_.

Thus the top-sails are always, and the courses generally, reefed with
points, which are flat braided pieces of cordage, whose lengths are
nearly double the circumference of the yard. These being inserted in the
eyelet-holes, are fixed in the sail by means of two knots in the middle,
one of which is before, and the other behind the reef-band.

In order to reef the top-sails with more facility and expedition, they
are lowered down and made to _shiver_ in the wind, which considerably
relaxes their tension. The extremities of the reef are then drawn up to
the _yard-arms_ by an assemblage of pullies communicating with the deck,
termed the _reef-tackle_; and they are securely fastened to the
yard-arms by small cords, called _earings_. The space of sail,
comprehended in the reef, is then laid smoothly over the yard, in
several folds, or doubles: and the whole is completed by tying the
points about the yard, so as to bind the reef close up to it.

The courses of large ships are either reefed with points or small cords,
which are thence called _reef-lines_. In the latter case the line is
passed spirally through the eyelet-holes of the reef, and over the head
of the sail alternately, and afterwards strained as tight as possible.
It must be observed, however, that the reef-line is sometimes passed
round the yard, and sometimes only round the head of the sail; and each
of these methods have their advocates, with arguments more or less
convincing. But if it should appear essential to prevent the friction by
which a sail is galled between the line and the yard; and as the
rope-bands are sufficient to sustain the effort of the sail, it is
certainly much better to pass the line only round the sail, provided
that the turns are inserted through the _roband-legs_; a circumstance
which is carefully practised by every skilful sailor.

The same reason may be alledged, with equal propriety, in favour of
tying the points of the courses in the same manner; that is to say, the
after-end of the point should be thrust forward between the head of the
sail and the yard; and the fore-leg of the said point should come aft
over the head of the sail, and also under the yard: and thus crossed
over the head of the sail, the point should be extended, and the two
ends brought over the yard, and tied on the upper side of it as strait
as possible.

When a sail is reefed at the bottom, it is done by _knittles_, which
being thrust through the eyelet-holes thereof, are tied firmly about the
space of canvas of which the reef is composed, and knotted on the lower
side of the bolt-rope. These knittles are accordingly removed as soon as
the reef is let out.

Besides the manner above described, there are other methods of reducing
a sail to the storm, as explained in the articles GOOSE-WING and

REEF-TACKLE, a rope which passes from the deck to a _block_ at the
topmast-head, and thence to another block at the topsail-yard-arm, where
it communicates with another rope, called its _pendant_, that runs
downwards through a hole in the yard, and is afterwards attached to a
_cringle_, a little below the lowest reef, as exhibited by fig. 1. plate
IX. where _b_ is the reef-tackle, and _i_ the pendant thereof. It is
used, as we have already observed, to pull the skirts of the reefs close
up to the extremities of the topsail-yards, in order to lighten the
sail, the weight of which would otherwise render it very difficult to
perform this operation.

REEL _of the log_. See the article LOG.

_To_ REEVE, is to pass the end of a rope through any hole, as the
channel of a block, the cavity of a thimble, cleat, ring-bolt, &c.


REFITTING, is generally understood to imply the repairing any damages,
which a ship may have sustained in her sails or rigging, by battle or
tempestuous weather; but more particularly by the former. See ENGAGEMENT

REIGNING-WINDS, a name given to the winds which usually prevail on any
particular coast or region, the knowledge of which is essentially
necessary to every pilot who is charged with the navigation in those

RELIEVING-TACKLES, two strong tackles, used to prevent a ship from
overturning on the _careen_, and to assist in bringing her upright after
that operation is compleated.

The relieving-tackles are furnished with two strong _guys_, (_attrapes_)
or _pendants_, by which their efforts are communicated, under the ship’s
bottom, to the opposite side, where the ends of the guys are attached to
the lower gun-ports. The other ends of the tackles are hooked to the
wharf, or _pontoon_, by which the vessel is careened. Thus if the ship
is first to be laid down on the larboard-side, which is nearest the
wharf, the relieving-tackles are passed under her bottom from the said
wharf, and attached to the starboard-side, by which they will restrain
her from falling lower than is necessary. See _Righting_.

RELIEVING-TACKLE, is also a name sometimes given to the train-tackles of
a gun-carriage. See CANNON and EXERCISE.

RENDERING, as a sea-term, is generally understood to be the effect of
yielding, or giving way, without resistance, to the efforts of some
mechanical power. It is usually expressed of a complicated tackle,
_laniard_, or _lashing_, when the effect of the power applied is
communicated with facility to all the parts, without being interrupted
in its passage. It is therefore used in contra-distinction to sticking
or jamming.

RENDEVOUS, the port, or place of destination, where the several ships of
a fleet or squadron are appointed to rejoin the whole, in case of a
separation, occasioned by tempestuous weather, or other unforeseen

REPAIR, _radoub_, the operation of amending any injuries, or supplying
any deficiencies, which a ship may have received by age, battle,
tempestuous weather, &c.

The repair is necessarily greater or smaller, in proportion to the loss
which the vessel has sustained. Accordingly a suitable number of the
_timbers_, _beams_, or _planks_, or a sufficient part of either, are
removed, and new pieces fixed in their places. The whole is completed by
_breaming_, _calking_, and _paying_ the body with a new composition of
stuff. See DOCKING.

REPRISE, a ship which is retaken from the enemy, soon after the first
capture; or at least before she has arrived in any neutral or hostile

If a vessel, thus retaken, has been twenty-four hours in the possession
of the enemy, it is deemed a lawful prize; but if it be retaken within
that time, it is to be restored to the proprietor, with every thing
therein, upon his allowing one-third to the vessel who made the reprise.
Also if the reprise has been abandoned by the enemy, either in a
tempest, or from any other cause, before it has been led into any port,
it is to be restored to the proprietor.

RETREAT, the order or disposition in which a fleet of French men of war
decline engagement, or fly from a pursuing enemy[52].

RHOMB-LINE, a line prolonged from any point of the compass on a nautical
chart, except the four cardinal points.

RIBBANDS, _lisses_, (from _rib_ and _bend_) in naval architecture, long
narrow flexible pieces of timber, nailed upon the outside of the ribs,
from the _stem_ the _stern-post_, so as to envelop the ship lengthways,
and appear on her side and bottom like the meridians on the surface of
the globe.

The ribbands, being judiciously arranged with regard to their height and
distance from each other, and forming regular sweeps about the ship’s
body, will compose a kind of frame, whose interior surface will
determine the curve of all the intermediate, or filling-timbers, which
are stationed between the principal ones. As the figure of the ship’s
bottom approaches to that of a conoid, and the ribbands having a limited
breadth, it is apparent, that they cannot be applied to this convex
surface without forming a double curve, which will be partly vertical
and partly horizontal; so that the vertical curve will increase by
approaching the stem, and still more by drawing near the stern-post. It
is also evident, that by deviating from the middle line of the ship’s
length, as they approach the extreme breadth at the _midship-frame_, the
ribbands will also form an horizontal curve. The lowest of these, which
is terminated upon the stem and stern-post, at the height of the
_rising-line of the floor_, and answers to the upper part of the
floor-timber upon the midship-frame, is called the _floor_-ribband. That
which coincides with the _wing-transom_, at the height of the lower-deck
upon the midship-frame, is termed the _breadth_-ribband: all the rest,
which are placed between these two, are called intermediate ribbands.

From this double curve it results, that the ribbands will appear in
different points of view, when delineated upon different planes of the
same ship. To conceive this, let us suppose the skeleton of a ship upon
the stocks, as in plate IV. fig. 11. and plate X. fig. 2. with the
ribbands represented by dotted lines upon her bottom, If a spectator is
placed opposite to the stem or stern-post, on a line prolonged from the
keel, he will only view the projection of the ribbands on the plane of
the midship-frame, in which the horizontal curve is very little
perceived; he will discover part of the vertical curve, which rises
continually from the extreme breadth towards the stem and stern, so that
they must be drawn upon the plane of projection as oblique lines, which
terminate upon the midship-frame at the point where the ribband touches
it, and upon the stem and stern-post at the point where their ends are

If the spectator were to change his position, and perceive the
projection of the ribbands upon a plane, supposed to be elevated upon
the length of the keel, he would also discover their vertical curve, as
it is sometimes expressed in the sheer-draught, without distinguishing
the horizontal one.

But if we imagine the eye of the spectator placed considerably above the
ship, on a line perpendicular to the middle of the keel, he will then
discover the projection of the ribbands upon the plane of the ground
beneath the ship, and view the horizontal curve, (see the _horizontal
plane_, plate I.) without perceiving the perpendicular one.

In order to give the reader as distinct an idea as possible of the
ribbands, we have, besides the above representations, exhibited a
perspective view of them in the frame or skeleton of a small vessel,
referred to, from the article TIMBER.

RIBS _of a ship_, a figurative expression for the timbers. See that

RIBS _of a parrel_. See PARREL.

RIDERS, a sort of interior ribs, fixed occasionally in a ship’s hold
opposite to some of the principal timbers, and reaching from the kelson
to the beams of the lower-deck, and sometimes higher, in order to
strengthen her frame. They are bolted to the other timbers, to support
them when it is apprehended the ship is not sufficiently strong in the
part where they are fixed; which is generally amidships.

The riders have also their floor-pieces and futtocks, and sometimes
their top-pieces, all of which are scarfed to each other in the same
manner as in the timbers.

The riders ought to be stationed so as to lie between two ports of the
lower deck, and to correspond with the timbers to which they are
attached, in such a manner, as that the scarfs of the riders may be
clear of those of the timbers. They are scored upon the kelson, clamps,
and thick-stuff of the bottom. They are secured by bolts, which are
driven from without, so as to penetrate the outside planks, the timbers,
the clamps, and the riders; on the inside of which last they are
fore-locked. See those articles.

These pieces are rarely used in merchant-ships, because they would be
extremely inconvenient in the hold, besides occupying too large a space
thereof; neither are they always used in vessels of war, at least till
after the ship is enfeebled by several cruizes at sea.

RIDGE, a long assemblage of rocks, lying near the surface of the sea, so
as to intercept the passage of a ship under sail. See also REEF and

RIDING, when expressed of a ship, is the state of being retained in a
particular station, by means of one or more cables with their anchors,
which are for this purpose sunk into the bottom of the sea, &c. in order
to prevent the vessel from being driven at the mercy of the wind or
current. See MOORING.

RIDING _athwart_, the position of a ship which lies across the direction
of the wind and tide, when the former is so strong as to prevent her
from falling into the current of the latter.

RIDING _between the wind and tide_, the situation of a vessel at anchor,
when, the wind and tide act upon her in direct opposition; in such a
manner as to destroy the effort of each other upon her hull; so that she
is in a manner balanced between their reciprocal force, and rides
without the least strain on her cables.

When a ship does not labour heavily, or feel a great strain when
anchored in an open road or bay, she is said to ride easy. On the
contrary, when she pitches violently into the sea, so as to strain her
cables, masts, or hull, it is called riding hard, and the vessel is
termed a bad roader.

A ship is rarely said to ride when she is fastened at both the ends, as
in a harbour or river, that situation being comprehended in the article

RIGGING, a general name given to all the ropes employed to support the
masts; and to extend or reduce the sails, or arrange them to the
disposition of the wind.

The former, which are used to sustain the masts, remain usually in a
fixed position, and are called _standing_ rigging; such are the
_shrouds_, _stays_, and _back-stays_. The latter, whose office is to
manage the sails, by communicating with various blocks, or pullies,
situated in different places of the _masts_, _yards_, _shrouds_, &c. are
comprehended in the general term of _running_-rigging. Such are the
_braces_, _sheets_, _haliards_, _clue-lines_, _brails_, &c.

In rigging a mast, the first thing usually fixed upon its head, is a
circular wreath of rope, called the _grommet_, or collar, which is
firmly beat down upon the top of the _hounds_. The intent of this is to
prevent the shrouds from being fretted or worn by the _tressel-trees_,
or shoulders of the mast; after this are laid on the two _pendants_,
from whose lower ends the main, or fore-tackles are suspended; and next,
the _shrouds_ of the starboard and larboard side, in pairs, alternately.
The whole is covered by the _stays_, which are the largest ropes of the

When a yard is to be rigged, a grommet is also driven first on each of
its extremities: next to this are fitted-on the _horses_, the _braces_;
and, lastly, the _lifts_, or _top-sail sheet_-blocks: all of which are
explained in their proper places.

The principal objects to be considered in rigging a ship appear to be
strength, convenience, and simplicity; or the properties of affording
sufficient security to the masts, yards, and sails; of arranging the
whole machinery in the most advantageous manner, to sustain the masts,
and facilitate the management of the sails; and of avoiding perplexity,
and rejecting whatever is superfluous or unnecessary. The perfection of
this art then consists in retaining all those qualities, and in
preserving a judicious medium between them.

RIGGING-OUT _a boom_, the operation of running out a pole upon the end
of a yard, or bowsprit, to extend the foot of a sail. These booms are
confined in those places by double rings, formed like a figure of 8, one
part of which is fastened to the respective yard-arm, or bowsprit-end,
and the other receives the boom, which is occasionally rigged out, or
drawn in through it. The rings used in this service are termed

RIGHTING, _relever_, the act of restoring a ship to her upright
position, after she has been laid on a _careen_, by the mechanical
powers usually applied in that operation.

This is generally the natural effect of casting loose the careening
pullies by which she had been drawn down. It is however necessary
sometimes to apply mechanical powers to right the ship in such a
situation. The principal of these are the relieving-tackles. See that

A ship is also said to right at sea when she rises, with her masts
erected, after having been prest down on one side by the effort of her
sails, or a heavy squall of wind.

RIGHTING, when expressed of the helm, implies the replacing it in the
middle of the ship, after having produced the required effect, of
wheeling her to the right or left, as much as appeared necessary.

RIM, or BRIM, a name given to the circular edge of any of the _tops_.
See that article.

RING-BOLT, _cheville à boucle_, an iron bolt, with an eye at one end,
wherein is fitted a circular ring, as expressed in fig. 3. and 4. plate
II. The ring bolts are for several uses, but particularly to hook the
_tackles_, by which the cannon of a ship are managed and secured:
accordingly there is one fixed in the deck opposite to every cannon,
represented by Z, plate III. DECK: and they are, for the same purpose,
fixed in the edges of the gun-ports, as expressed in the MIDSHIP-FRAME,
plate VII. They are driven through the plank and the corresponding beam,
or timber, and retained in this position by a small pin thrust through a
hole in the small end, as appears in fig. 39, plate II.

RING-ROPES, short pieces of rope, tied occasionally to the ring-bolts of
the deck, to fasten the cable more securely when the ship rides in a
tempest, or turbulent sea, or rapid current. They are, however, more
particularly necessary in veering away the cable gradually in those
circumstances, in order to _freshen the hause_; as, without this
precaution, it would be extremely difficult to check the cable, which,
being then charged with a great effort, might be drawn violently out of
the ship at random.

RING-TAIL, a small triangular sail, extended on a little mast, which is
occasionally erected for that purpose on the top of a ship’s stern. The
lower part of this sail is stretched out by a boom, which projects from
the stern horizontally. This sail is only used in light and favourable
winds, particularly in the Atlantic ocean.

RING-TAIL is also a name given to a sort of _studding-sail_, hoisted
beyond the after-edge, or skirt of those main-sails which are extended
by a _boom_ and gaff; as in all _sloops_, _brigs_, and _schooners_: this
ring-tail is accordingly of the same depth with that part of the
main-sail upon which it borders. See SAIL.

RIPPLING, a broken and interrupted noise, produced by a current on or
near the sea-coast.

RISING-LINE, a name given by shipwrights to an incurvated line, which is
drawn on the plane of elevation, to determine the height of the ends of
all the _floor-timbers_ throughout the ship’s length, and which
accordingly ascertains the figure of the bottom, with regard to
sharpness and flatness.

ROAD, (_rade_, Fr.) a bay, or place of anchorage, at some distance from
the shore, on the sea-coast, whither ships or vessels occasionally
repair to receive intelligence, orders, or necessary supplies; or to
wait for a fair wind, &c.

The excellence of a road consists chiefly in its being protected from
the reigning winds, and the swell of the sea; in having a good
_anchoring-ground_, and being at a competent distance from the shore.
Those which are not sufficiently enclosed are termed open roads.

ROADER, a vessel riding at anchor in a road, bay, or river. If a vessel
under sail strikes against any roader, and damages her in passing, the
former is obliged by law to make good the damages sustained by the

The roaders attentively observe to anchor, or moor, at a competent
distance from each other; and that those which arrive last shall not
moor in the tract of the shipping which anchored before, so as to
intercept their passage when they are ready to depart.


ROGUES-YARN, a name given to a rope-yarn, of a particular construction,
which is placed, in the middle of every _strand_, in all cables and
cordage in the king’s service. It differs from all the rest, as being
untarred, and twisted in a contrary manner, by which it is easily
discovered. The use of this contrivance is to examine whether any
cordage, supposed to be stolen or embezzled, has been formed for the
king’s service.

ROLLER, a cylindrical piece of timber, fixed either horizontally or
perpendicularly above a ship’s deck, so as to revolve about an axis. It
is used to prevent the _cables_, _hausers_, &c. from being chafed by the
friction which their surfaces would otherwise encounter, from bearing
against that part of the ship, where the roller is placed, whilst they
are drawn into the ship, &c. by mechanical powers.

ROLLERS, are also moveable pieces of wood, of the same figure, which are
occasionally placed under planks, or long pieces of timber, in order to
move them with greater facility either in the _dock_-yards, or in lading
and delivering merchant-ships.

ROLLING, the motion by which a ship rocks from side-to side like a
cradle, occasioned by the agitation of the waves.

ROLLING, therefore, is a sort of revolution about an imaginary axis,
passing through the center of gravity of a ship: so that the nearer the
center of gravity is to the keel, the more violent will be the
rolling-motion; because the center about which the vibrations are made,
is placed so low in the bottom, that the resistance made by the keel to
the volume of water which it displaces in rolling, bears very little
proportion to the force of the vibration above the center of gravity,
the radius of which extends as high as the mast-heads.

But if the center of gravity is placed higher above the keel, the radius
of vibration will not only be diminished; but an additional force to
oppose the motion of rolling will be communicated to that part of the
ship’s bottom which is below the center of gravity.

So far as relates to the effect of rolling, when produced by the quality
or stowage of the ballast, and to the manner by which it may be
prevented, _viz._ a change of the quantity or disposition of the
ballast, we shall endeavour to explain under the article TRIM. It may,
however, be necessary to remark, that the construction of the ship’s
bottom may also contribute to diminish this movement considerably.

To illustrate this by an example, let us suppose the section of a ship
perpendicular to the keel to be exactly circular, plate VIII. fig. 8. it
is evident, that if this be agitated in the water, it will have nothing
to sustain it, because the rolling or rotation about its center
displaces no more water than when it remains upright: consequently the
rolling motion must be very great in a high sea. But if a plank is fixed
below it edgeways, or perpendicular to the surface, as low as _e_,
throughout the whole length of the ship, it is plain that the plank e
will displace a volume of water to the right, when the ship is inclined
to the left, which will retard her motion; and this obstruction will
always act contrary to her _heeling_ or inclination to one side, and
greatly diminish the vibration or rolling; although it will add very
little to her stiffness: For, admitting the ship to incline to one side,
as in fig. 8. the plank _d e_ would produce a very weak effort to bring
her upright. But the depth of the keel, the rising of the floors, and
the dead wood fore and aft, as in fig. 9. plate VIII. will answer the
same purpose as the plank _d e_.

Many fatal disasters have happened to ships, arising from a violent
rolling; as the loss of the masts, loosening of the cannon, and
straining violently on the decks and sides, so as to weaken the ship to
a great degree. See BALLAST, LABOURING, and PITCHING.

ROLLING-TACKLE, a pulley or purchase fastened to that part of a
sail-yard which is to the windward of the mast, in order to confine the
yard close down to the leeward, when the sail is furled.

It is used to prevent the yard from having a great friction against the
mast in a high sea, which would be equally pernicious to both.

ROPES, _cordes_, (_rap_, Sax. _reep_, Dutch) a general name given to all
sorts of cordage, above one inch in circumference, used in the rigging a

ROPES are either cable-laid or hauser-laid: the former are composed of
nine _strands_, viz. three great strands, each of which is composed of
three smaller strands; and the latter is made with three strands, each
of which contains a certain number of rope-yarns, in proportion to the
size of the rope required.

ROPE-BANDS, _rabans_, pronounced roebins, certain pieces of small rope,
or braided cordage, used to tie the upper edges of the great sails to
their respective yards. They are inserted through the eyelet-holes in
the head of the sail, being generally of a sufficient length to pass two
or three times about the said yard.

ROPE-YARN, _fil de caret_, the smallest and simplest part of any rope,
being one of the threads of which a _strand_ is composed; so that the
size of the latter, and of the rope into which it is twisted, are
determined by the number of rope-yarns.

ROVER, a pirate or free-booter. See PIRATE.

ROUGH-TREE, a name given in merchant-ships to any mast, yard, or boom,
placed as a rail or fence above the ship’s side, from the quarter-deck
to the fore-castle. It is, however, with more propriety, applied to any
mast, &c. which remains rough and unfinished.

ROUND-HOUSE, a name given, in East-Indiamen, and other large
merchant-ships, to a cabin or apartment built in the after part of the
quarterdeck, and having the poop for its roof. This apartment is usually
called the coach in our ships of war.

ROUNDING, certain old ropes wound firmly and closely about that part of
a cable which lies in the _hause_, or under the ship’s _bow_, or athwart
the stem. It is used to prevent the surface of the cable from being
chafed or fretted in those places. See the articles KAICLING and

ROUNDING-IN generally implies the act of pulling upon any rope which
passes through one or more blocks, in a direction nearly horizontal; as,
round-in the weather-braces! &c. It is apparently derived from the
circular motion of the rope about the _sheave_ or pulley through which
it passes.

ROUNDING-UP is used nearly in the same sense, only that it is expressed
of a _tackle_ which hangs in a perpendicular position, without
sustaining or hoisting any weighty body: it is then the operation of
pulling the blocks closer to each other, by means of the rope which
passes through them, to compose the tackle; and is therefore opposed to
_over-hauling_, by which the blocks are drawn farther asunder.

ROUSSING, the act of pulling together upon a cable, hauser, &c. without
the assistance of _tackles_, _capsterns_, or other mechanical powers. It
is particularly used in the exercise of removing a ship from one place
to another, by means of ropes and anchors. See the article WARPING.

_To_ ROW, _ramer_, (_rowan_, Sax.) to impel a boat or vessel along the
surface of the water by oars, which are managed in a direction nearly
horizontal. See OAR.

ROW-GALLEY. See the article GALLEY.

ROW-LOCKS, those parts of the _gunwale_, or upper edge of a boat’s side,
whereon the oar rests in the exercise of rowing. In the sides of the
smallest vessels of war, a number of little square holes, called
row-ports, are cut for this purpose, parallel to the surface of the

ROWERS, _rameurs_, a name given to the persons by whom the oars are


ROYAL, _boulingue_, a name given to the highest sail which is extended
in any ship. It is spread immediately above the top-gallant-sail, to
whose yardarms the lower corners of it are attached. This sail is never
used but in light and favourable breezes.

RUDDER. See the article HELM.

RUN, the aftmost or hindmost part of a ship’s bottom, where it grows
extremely narrow, as the floor approaches the stern-post.

RUNG-HEADS, _fleurs_, a name sometimes given by shipwrights to the upper
ends of the floor-timbers, which are otherwise more properly called
floor-heads. See NAVAL ARCHITECTURE.

RUNNER, _itague_, a thick rope used to increase the mechanical powers of
a _tackle_. See that article.

The runner _a_, fig. 10. plate VIII. passes through a large hook-block,
as _c_, and has usually a hook _b_ attached to one of its ends, and one
of the tackle-blocks to the other; and in applying it, the hook, as well
as the lower block of the corresponding tackle, is fixed to the object
intended to be removed.

RUNNING-OUT _a warp_, the act of carrying the end of a rope out from the
ship, in a boat, and fastening it to some distant place, to remove the
ship towards the said place, or keep her steddy whilst her anchors are
lifted, &c.

RUNNING-RIGGING, all that part of a ship’s rigging which passes through
the blocks, to dilate, contract, or traverse the sails. See the article


SADDLE, a small _cleat_ or wooden block, hollowed on the upper and lower
side, and nailed on the lower _yard-arms_, to retain the
studding-sail-_booms_ in a firm and steddy position. For this purpose
the cavity on the lower part of the saddle conforms to the cylindrical
surface of the yard to which it is attached: and in like manner the
hollow, on the upper side, answers to the figure of the boom, and serves
as a channel whereby it may be run out or in, along the yard, as
occasion requires.

SAGGING _to leeward_, the movement by which a ship makes a considerable
_lee-way_, or is driven far to leeward of the course whereon she
apparently sails. It is generally expressed of heavy-sailing vessels, as
opposed to keeping well to windward, or, in the sea-phrase, holding a
good wind.

SAIC, a sort of Grecian ketch, which has no top-gallant-sail or
mizen-top-sail. See KETCH.

SAIL, _voile_, (_segl_, Sax. _seyhel_, _seyl_ Dutch) an assemblage of
several breadths of canvas, or other texture, sewed together, and
extended on, or between the _masts_, to receive the wind, and carry the
vessel along the water.

The edges of the _cloths_, or pieces, of which a sail is composed, are
generally sewed together with a double seam: and the whole is skirted
round at the edges with a cord, called the _bolt-rope_.

Although the form of sails is extremely different, they are all
nevertheless triangular or quadrilateral figures or, in other words,
their surfaces are contained either between three or four sides.

The former of these are sometimes spread by a _yard_, as _lateen_-sails;
and otherwise by a _stay_, as _stay_-sails; or by a mast, as
shoulder-of-mutton-sails: in all which cases the foremost _leech_ or
edge is attached to the said yard, mast, or stay, throughout its whole
length. The latter, or those which are four-sided, are either extended
by yards, as the principal sails of a ship; or by yards and booms, as
the _studding_-sails, _drivers_, _ring-tails_, and all those sails which
are set occasionally; or by _gaffs_ and booms, as the _main-sails_ of
_sloops_ and _brigantines_.

The principal sails of a ship (fig. 1. plate IX.) are the courses or
lower sails _a_, the _top-sails b_, which are next in order above the
courses; and the top-gallant-sails _c_, which are expanded above the

The courses are the main-sail, fore-sail, and mizen, main-stay-sail,
fore-stay-sail and mizen-stay-sail; but more particularly the three
first. _N. B._ The main-stay-sail is rarely used except in small

In all quadrangular sails the upper edge is called the head; the sides
or skirts are called leeches; and the bottom or lower edge is termed the
foot. If the head is parallel to the foot, the two lower corners are
denominated _clues_, and the upper corners earings.

In all triangular sails, and in those four-sided sails wherein the head
is not parallel to the foot, the foremost corner at the foot is called
the tack; and the after lower-corner the clue; the foremost
perpendicular or sloping edge is called the _fore_ leech, and the
hindmost the _after_ leech.

The heads of all four-sided sails, and the fore-leeches of lateen sails,
are attached to their respective yard or gaff by a number of small cords
called robands; and the extremities are tied to the yard-arms, or to the
peek of the gaff, by _earings_.

The stay-sails are extended upon stays between the masts, whereon they
are drawn up or down occasionally, as a curtain slides upon its rod, and
their lower parts are stretched out by a tack and sheet. The clues of a
top-sail are drawn out to the extremities of the lower yard, by two
large ropes called the top-sail sheets; and the clues of the
top-gallant-sails are in like manner extended upon the top-sail
yard-arms, as exhibited by plate IX. fig. 1.

The studding-sails are set beyond the leeches or skirts of the main-sail
and fore-sail, or of the top-sails or top-gallant-sails of a ship. Their
upper and lower edges are accordingly extended by poles run out beyond
the extremities of the yards for this purpose. Those sails however are
only set in favourable winds and moderate weather.

All sails derive their name from the mast, yard, or stay upon which they
are extended. Thus the principal sail extended upon the main-mast is
called the main-sail, _grande voile_, _d_, fig. 2. plate IX.; the next
above, which stands upon the main-top-mast, is termed the main top-sail,
_grand hunier_, _e_; and the highest, which is spread across the
main-top-gallant-mast, is named the main-top-gallant-sail, _grand
perroquet_, _f_.

In the same manner there is the fore-sail, _misaine_, _g_; the
fore-top-sail, _petit hunier_, _h_; and the fore-top-gallant-sail,
_petit perroquet_, _i_; the mizen, _artimon_, _k_; the mizen top-sail,
_perroquet d’artimon_, _l_; and mizen top-gallant-sail _m_. Thus also
there is the main stay-sail _o_; main-top-mast stay-sail _p_; and
main-top-gallant stay-sail _q_; with a middle stay-sail which stands
between the two last. _N. B._ All these stay-sails are between the main
and fore masts.

The stay-sails (_voiles d’etai_) between the main-mast and mizen-mast
are the mizen stay-sail _r_; and the mizen top-mast stay-sail _s_; and
sometimes a mizen top-gallant stay-sail above the latter.

The stay-sails between the fore-mast and the bowsprit are the fore
stay-sail _t_; the fore top-mast stay-sail _u_; and the jib, _foc_, _x_.
There is besides two square sails extended by yards under the bowsprit,
one of which is called the sprit-sail, _civadiere_, _y_; and the other
the sprit-sail top-sail _z_, _perroquet de beaupré_. For the French
names of all the stay-sails, see the French term ETAI, and the phrases
following it.

The studding-sails (_bonnettes en étui_) being extended upon the
different yards of the main-mast and fore-mast, are likewise named
according to their stations, the lower, top-mast, or top-gallant
studding sails.

The ropes by which the lower yards of a ship are hoisted up to their
proper height on the masts, are called the _jears_. In all other sails
the ropes employed for this purpose are called _haliards_.

The principal sails are then expanded by haliards, sheets, and bowlines,
except the courses, which are always stretched out below by a _tack_ and
sheet. See BOWLINE, CLOSE-HAULED, _&c._ They are drawn up together, or
trussed up, by _bunt-lines_, _clue-lines_, _d d_, fig. 1.;
_leech-lines_, _e e_; _reef-tackles_, _f f_; _slab-line_, _g_; and
_spilling-lines_. As the bunt-lines and leech-lines pass on the other
side of the sail, they are expressed by dotted lines in the figure. See
those articles.

The courses, top-sails, and top-gallant sails, are wheeled about the
mast, so as to suit the various directions of the wind, by _braces_. The
higher studding-sails, and in general all the stay-sails, are drawn
down, so as to be furled, or taken in, by down-hauls. See BRACE, TRIM,

SAIL is also a name applied to any vessel beheld at a distance under

_To set_ SAIL, _faire voile_, is to unfurl and expand the sails, upon
their respective yards and stays, in order to begin the action of

_To make_ SAIL, is to spread an additional quantity of sail, so as to
increase the ship’s velocity.

_To shorten_ SAIL, is to reduce or take in part of the sails, with an
intention to diminish the ship’s velocity.

_To strike_ SAIL, is to _lower_ it suddenly. This is particularly used
in _saluting_ or doing homage to a superior force, or to one whom the
law of nations acknowledges as superior in certain regions. Thus all
foreign vessels strike to an English man of war in the British seas. See

SAILING, the movement by which a vessel is wafted along the surface of
the water, by the action of the wind upon her sails.

When a ship changes her state of rest into that of motion, as in
advancing out of a harbour, or from her station at anchor, she acquires
her motion very gradually, as a body which arrives not at a certain
velocity till after an infinite repetition of the action of its weight.


  _PLATE. IX._

The first impression of the wind greatly affects the velocity, because
the resistance of the water might destroy it, since the velocity being
but small at first, the resistance of the water which depends on it will
be very feeble: but as the ship increases her motion, the force of the
wind on the sails will be diminished; whereas on the contrary the
resistance of the water on the _bow_ will accumulate, in proportion to
the velocity with which the vessel advances. Thus the repetition of the
degrees of force which the action of the sails adds to the motion of the
ship, is perpetually decreasing; whilst on the contrary the new degrees
added to the effort of resistance on the bow are always augmenting. The
velocity is then accelerated in proportion as the quantity added is
greater than that which is subtracted: but when the two powers become
equal, when the impression of the wind on the sails has lost so much of
its force, as only to act in proportion to the opposite impulse of
resistance on the bow, the ship will then acquire no additional
velocity, but continue to sail with a constant uniform motion. The great
weight of the ship may indeed prevent her from acquiring her greatest
velocity; but when she has attained it, she will advance by her own
intrinsic motion, without gaining any new degree of velocity, or
lessening what she has acquired. She moves then by her own proper force
_in vacuo_, without being afterwards subject either to the effort of the
wind on the sails, or to the resistance of the water on the bow. If at
any time the impulsion of the water on the bow should destroy any part
of the velocity, the effort of the wind on the sails will revive it, so
that the motion will continue the same. It must however be observed,
that this state will only subsist when these two powers act upon each
other in direct opposition; otherwise they will mutually destroy one
another. The whole theory of working ships depends on this
counter-action, and the perfect equality which should subsist between
the effort of the wind and the impulsion of the water. _Bouguer_,
_Traité du navire_.

The effect of sailing is produced by a judicious arrangement of the
sails to the direction of the wind. Accordingly the various modes of
sailing are derived from the different degrees and situations of the
wind with regard to the course of the vessel.

To illustrate this observation by examples, the plan of a number of
ships proceeding on various courses are represented by fig. 3. plate IX.
which exhibits the thirty-two points of the compass, of which C is the
center: the direction of the wind, which is northerly, being expressed
by the arrow.

It has been observed in the article CLOSE-HAULED, that a ship in that
situation will sail nearly within six points of the wind. Thus the ships
B and _y_ are close-hauled, the former being on the larboard _tack_,
steering E. N. E. and the latter on the starboard tack sailing W. N. W.
with their yards _a_ _b_ braced obliquely, as suitable to that manner of
sailing. The _line_ of battle on the larboard tack would accordingly be
expressed by C B, and on the starboard by C _y_.

When a ship is neither close-hauled, nor steering afore the wind, she is
in general said to be sailing _large_. The relation of the wind to her
course is precisely determined by the number of points between the
latter and the course _close-hauled_. Thus the ships _c_ and _x_ have
the wind one point large, the former steering E. _b_ N. and the latter
W. _b_ N. The yards remain almost in the same position as in B and _y_:
the bowlines and _sheets_ of the sails being only a little slackened.

The ships _d_ and _u_ have the wind two points large, the one steering
east and the other west. In this manner of sailing, however, the wind is
more particularly said to be upon the _beam_, _perpendiculaire du vent_,
as being at right angles with the keel, and coinciding with the position
of the ship’s beams. The yards are now more across the ship, the
bowlines are cast off, and the sheets more relaxed; so that the effort
of the wind being applied nearer to the line of the ship’s course, her
velocity is greatly augmented.

In _e_ and _t_ the ships have the wind three points large, or one point
_abaft_ the beam, the course of the former being E. _b_ S. and that of
the latter

W. _b_ S. The sheets are still more flowing; the angle which the yards
make with the keel farther diminished; and the course accelerated in

The ships _f_ and _s_ the first of which steers E. S. E. and the second
W.S. W. have the wind four points large, or two points abaft the beam.
In _g_ and _r_ the wind is five points large, or three points abaft the
beam, the former sailing S. E. _b_ E. and the latter S. W. _b_ W. In
both these situations the sheets are still farther slackened, and the
yards laid yet more athwart the ship’s length, in proportion as the wind
approaches the _quarter_.

The ships _h_ and _q_, steering S. E. and S. W. have the wind six points
large, or more properly on the quarter; which is considered as the most
favourable manner of sailing, because all the sails co-operate to
increase the ship’s velocity: whereas, when the wind is right aft, as in
the ship _m_, it is evident, that the wind, in its passage to the
foremost sails, will be intercepted by those which are farther aft. When
the wind is on the quarter, the fore-tack is brought to the cat-head;
and the main-tack being cast off, the weather-clue of the mainsail is
hoisted up to the yard, in order to let the wind pass freely to the
foresail; and the yards are disposed so as to make an angle of about two
points, or nearly 22°, with the keel.

The ships _i_ and _p_, of which the former sails S. E. _b_ S. and the
latter S. W, _b_ S. are said to have the wind three points on the
larboard or starboard quarter: and those expressed by _k_ and _o_, two
points; as steering S. S. E. and S. S. W. in both which positions the
yards make nearly an angle of 16°, or about a point and an half, with
the ship’s length.

When the wind is one point on the quarter, as in the ships _l_ and _n_,
whose courses are S. _b_ E. and S. _b_ W. the situation of the yards and
sails is very little different from the last mentioned; the angle which
they make with the keel being somewhat less than a point, and the
stay-sails being rendered of very little service. The ship _m_ sails
right afore the wind, or with the wind right aft. In this position the
yards are laid at right angles with the ship’s length: the stay-sails,
being entirely useless, are hauled down: and the mainsail is drawn up in
the brails, that the fore-sail may operate: a measure which considerably
facilitates the steerage, or effort of the helm. As the wind is then
intercepted, by the main top-sail and main top-gallant-sail, in its
passage to the fore top-sail and fore top-gallant-sail, these latter are
by consequence entirely _becalmed_, and might therefore be furled, to
prevent their being fretted by flapping against the mast, but that their
effort contributes greatly to prevent the ship from _broaching-to_, when
she deviates from her course to the right or left thereof.

Thus all the different methods of sailing may be divided into four, viz.
close hauled, large, quartering, and afore the wind; all which relate to
the direction of the wind with regard to the ship’s course, and the
arrangement of the sails. See also _Drift_ and _Leeway_.

_Order of_ SAILING, the general disposition of a fleet of ships when
proceeding on a voyage or expedition.

It has already been observed in the article FLEET, that the most
convenient order of sailing, for a squadron of ships, is in three
parallel columns, so as to form the line of battle with greater facility
and expedition. In this disposition, the station of each ship is
previously appointed by the commander in chief; and the ranks or columns
are as near to each other as regularity, and a regard for their common
security, will admit. This distance, which ought to be carefully
observed in tacking, may be regulated by the movements of some of the
ships in the column farthest to windward, which should accordingly
govern the operations of the whole squadron. See TACKING.

SAILING also implies a particular mode of navigation, formed on the
principles, and regulated by the laws of trigonometry. Hence we say,
plain sailing, mercator’s, middle-latitude, parallel and great circle
sailing. See the article NAVIGATION.

SAILOR, _matelot_, a seafaring man: a person trained in the exercise of
fixing the machinery of a ship, and managing her, either at sea, or in a
road, or harbour.

SAIL-YARD. See the article YARD.

SALVAGE, a third part of the value of anything recovered from the enemy,
after having remained in his possession twenty-four hours; or of any
thing dragged up from the bottom of the sea. It is paid by the first
proprietors to the persons who have so recovered it, or else detained
legally by the latter.

SALUTE, _salut_, (from _saluto_, Lat.) a testimony of deference or
homage rendered by the ships of one nation to another; or by ships of
the same nation to a superior or equal.

This ceremony is variously performed, according to the circumstances,
rank, or situation of the parties. It consists in firing a certain
number of cannon, or vollies of small arms; of striking the colours or
top-sails; or of one or more general shouts of the whole ship’s crew,
mounted on the masts or rigging for that purpose.

The principal regulations with regard to salutes in the royal navy are
as follow.

‘When a flag-officer salutes the admiral and commander in chief of the
fleet, he is to give him fifteen guns; but when captains salute him,
they are to give him seventeen guns. The admiral or commander in chief
of the fleet is to return two guns less to flag-officers, and four less
to captains. Flag-officers saluting their superior or senior officer,
are to give him thirteen guns. Flag-officers are to return an equal
number of guns to flag-officers bearing their flags on the same mast,
and two guns less to the rest, as also to captains.

‘When a captain salutes an admiral of the white or blue, he is to give
him fifteen guns; but to vice and rear admirals, thirteen guns. When a
flag-officer is saluted by two or more of his Majesty’s ships, he is not
to return the salute till all have finished, and then to do it with such
a reasonable number of guns as he shall judge proper.

‘In case of the meeting of two squadrons, the two chiefs only are to
exchange salutes. And if single ships meet a squadron consisting of more
than one flag, the principal flag only is to be saluted. No salutes
shall be repeated by the same ships, unless there has been a separation
of six months at least.

‘None of his Majesty’s ships of war, commanded only by captains, shall
give or receive salutes from one another, in whatsoever part of the
world they meet.

‘A flag-officer commanding in chief shall be saluted, upon his first
hoisting of his flag, by all the ships present, with such a number of
guns as is allowed by the first, third, or fifth articles.

‘When any of his Majesty’s ships shall meet with any ship or ships
belonging to any foreign prince or state, within his Majesty’s seas,
(which extend to Cape Finisterre) it is expected, that the said foreign
ships do strike their top-sail, and take in their flag, in
acknowledgment of his Majesty’s sovereignty in those seas: and if any
shall refuse or offer to resist, it is enjoined to all flag-officers and
commanders to use their utmost endeavours to compel them thereto, and
not suffer any dishonour to be done to his Majesty. And if any of his
Majesty’s subjects shall so much forget their duty, as to omit striking
their top-sail in passing by his Majesty’s ships, the name of the ship
and master, and from whence, and whither bound, together with affidavits
of the fact, are to be sent up to the secretary of the admiralty, in
order to their being proceeded against in the admiralty-court. And it is
to be observed, that in his Majesty’s seas, his Majesty’s ships are in
no wise to strike to any; and that in other parts, no ship of his
Majesty’s is to strike her flag or topsail to any foreigner, unless such
foreign ship shall have first struck, or at the same time strike her
flag or top-sail to his Majesty’s ship.

‘The flag-officers and commanders of his Majesty’s ships are to be
careful to maintain his Majesty’s honour upon all occasions, giving
protection to his subjects, and endeavouring, what in them lies, to
secure and encourage them in their lawful commerce; and they are not to
injure, in any manner, the subjects of his Majesty’s friends and allies.

‘If a foreign admiral meets with any of his Majesty’s ships, and salutes
them, he shall receive gun for gun. If he be a vice-admiral, the admiral
shall answer with two guns less. If a rear-admiral, the admiral and
vice-admiral shall return two less. But if the ship be commanded by a
captain only, the flag-officers shall give two guns less, and captains
an equal number.

‘When any of his Majesty’s ships come to an anchor in a foreign port or
road, within cannon-shot of its forts, the captain may salute the place
with such a number of guns as have been customary, upon good assurance
of having the like number returned, but not otherwise. But if the ship
bears a flag, the flag-officer shall first carefully inform himself how
flags of like rank, belonging to other crowned heads, have given or
returned salutes, and to insist upon the same terms of respect.

‘It is allowed to the commanders of his Majesty’s ships in foreign
parts, to salute the persons of any admirals, commanders in chief, or
captains of ships of war of foreign nations, and foreign noblemen or
strangers of quality, as also the factories of the king’s subjects,
coming on board to visit the ship; and the number of guns is left to the
commander, as shall be suitable to the occasion, and the quality of the
persons visiting; but he is nevertheless to remain accountable for any
excesses in the abuse of this liberty. If the ship visited be in company
with other ships of war, the captain is not to make use of the
civilities allowed in the preceding article, but with leave and consent
of the commander in chief, or the senior captain.

‘Merchant-ships, whether foreigners, or belonging to his Majesty’s
subjects, saluting the admiral of the fleet, shall be answered by six
guns less; when they salute any other flag-ships, they shall be answered
by four guns less; and if they salute men of war commanded by captains,
they shall be answered by two guns less. If several merchant-ships
salute in company, no return is to be made, till all have finished, and
then by such a number of guns as shall be thought proper; but though the
merchant-ships should answer, there shall be no second return.——

‘None of his Majesty’s ships of war shall salute any of his Majesty’s
forts or castles in Great Britain or Ireland, on any pretence
whatsoever.’ _Regulations and Instructions for the Sea-service._

SAMSONS-POST, _piedroit_, a sort of pillar erected in a ship’s hold,
between the lower deck and the _kelson_, under the edge of a hatchway,
and furnished with several notches that serve as steps to mount or
descend, as occasion requires.

This post being firmly driven into its place, not only serves to support
the beam, and fortify the vessel in that place, but also to prevent the
cargo or materials contained in the hold from shifting to the opposite
side, by the rolling of the ship in a turbulent and heavy sea.

SAUCER. See the article CAPSTERN.

SCALING _the guns_, _soufler_, the act of cleaning the inside of a
ship’s cannon, by the explosion of a small quantity of powder; which
effectually blows out any dirt or scales of iron which may adhere to the
interior surface.

SCANTING, _addoner_, the variation of the wind by which it becomes
unfavourable to a ship’s course, after having been _fair_ or _large_. It
is distinguished from a foul wind, as in the former, a ship is still
enabled to sail on her course, although her progress is considerably
retarded; but in the latter she is obliged to deviate from the line of
her course, as explained in the article TACKING.

SCANTLING, the dimensions of any piece of timber with regard to its
breadth and thickness.

SCARF, _empature_, (_scherven_, Dutch) a particular method of uniting
two pieces of timber together by the extremities.

When two pieces of timber are joined together, so that the end of one
goes over the end of the other, being tapered so that the one may be let
into the other, and become even, they are said to be scarfed: such are
the keel-pieces. But when the ends of the two pieces are cut square, and
put together, they are said to _butt_ to one another; and when another
piece is laid upon, and fastened to both, as is the case in all the
frame-timbers, this is called scarfing the timbers; and half the piece
which fastens the two timbers together is reckoned the length of the
scarf. _Murray’s Ship-building._

SCHOONER, a small vessel with two masts, whose main-sail and fore-sail
are suspended from _gaffs_ reaching from the mast towards the stern; and
stretched out below by booms, whose foremost ends are hooked to an iron,
which clasps the mast so as to turn therein as upon an axis, when the
after ends are swung from one side of the vessel to the other.

SCOOP, _écoupe_, a little hollowed piece of wood, employed to throw
water out of a boat into the sea, which is usually called bailing the

SCRAPING, the act of shaving off the dirty surface of the plank, in a
ship’s side or decks, particularly after a voyage, or when the _seams_
have been covered with a new composition of melted pitch or rosin. The
instrument with which this is performed is accordingly called a scraper,
and is represented in fig. 4. plate IX.

After the sides of a ship are sufficiently scraped, they are varnished
over with turpentine, or a mixture of tar and oil, or such materials;
which preserves the planks from being rent or split by the sun and wind,
and gives the ship a more gay and spendid appearance on the water.

SCUDDING, (_Skutta_, Swedish) the movement by which a ship is carried
precipitately before a tempest.

As a ship flies with amazing rapidity through the water, whenever this
expedient is put in practice, it is never attempted in a contrary wind,
unless when her condition renders her incapable of sustaining the mutual
effort of the wind and waves any longer on her side, without being
exposed to the most imminent danger. See the article TRYING.

A ship either scuds with a sail extended on her fore mast, or, if the
storm is excessive, without any sail, which in the sea-phrase is called
scudding under _bare poles_, _aller à sec_. In sloops and schooners, and
other small vessels, the sail employed for this purpose is called the
square-sail, _voile de fortune_. In large ships, it is either the
foresail, at large, _reefed_, or with its _goose-wings_ extended,
according to the degree of the tempest; or it is the fore top-sail
close-reefed, and lowered on the _cap_: which last is particularly used
when the sea runs so high as to _becalm_ the foresail occasionally; a
circumstance which exposes the ship to the danger of _broaching-to_.

The principal hazards incident to scudding are generally, a _pooping_
sea; the difficulty of steering, which exposes the vessel perpetually to
the risk of broaching-to; and the want of sufficient sea-room. A sea
striking the ship violently on the stern may dash it inwards, by which
she must inevitably _founder_. In broaching-to suddenly, she is
threatened with being immediately overturned; and, for want of sea-room,
she is endangered by shipwreck on a lee-shore; a circumstance too
dreadful to require explanation!

SCUPPERS, _dalots_, (_schoepen_, Dutch, _to draw off_) certain channels
cut through the water-ways and sides of a ship, at proper distances, and
lined with plated lead, in order to carry the water off from the deck
into the sea.

The scuppers of the lower deck of a ship of war are usually furnished
with a leathern pipe, called the scupper-hoase, which hangs downward
from the mouth or opening of the scupper. The intent of this is to
prevent the water from entering when the ship inclines under a weight of

SCUTTLE, (_écoutille_, Fr.) a small hatchway cut for some particular
purpose through a ship’s deck, or through the coverings of her
hatchways, and being furnished with a lid which firmly encloses it
whenever necessary. See DECK and HATCHWAY.

SCUTTLING, the act of cutting large holes through the bottom or sides of
a ship, either when she is _stranded_ or overset, and continues to float
on the surface. The design of this expedient is usually to take out the
whole or a part of the cargo, provisions, stores, &c. with all possible

SEA, _mer_, (_sæ_, Sax. _zee_, Dutch) is known to be a great
congregation of waters, which is either universal or local; as
surrounding the whole earth, or flowing on the coast of some particular

This term, however, is variously applied by sailors, to a single wave;
to the agitation produced by a multitude of waves in a tempest; or to
their particular progress or direction. Thus they say, a heavy sea broke
over our _quarter_, or we _shipped_ a heavy sea; there is a great sea in
the _offing_; the sea sets to the southward. Hence a ship is said to
head the sea, when her course is opposed to the _setting_ or direction
of the surges.

A long sea implies an uniform and steddy motion of long and extensive
waves; on the contrary, a short sea is when they run irregularly,
broken, and interrupted; so as frequently to burst over a vessel’s side
or quarter.

SEA-BOAT, _vaisseau beau de mer_, a vessel that bears the sea firmly,
without labouring heavily, or straining her masts and rigging.

SEA-COAST, the shore of any country; or that part which is washed by the

SEA-FARING, the occupation of a mariner or sailor.

SEAMAN, _homme de mer_, a mariner or person trained in the exercise of
fixing the machinery of a ship, and applying it to the purposes of

The principal articles required in a common sailor to intitle him to the
full wages, are, that he can steer, sound, and manage the sails, by
extending, _reefing_, and furling them, as occasion requires. When he is
expert at these exercises, his skill in all other matters relative to
his employment is taken for granted.

SEA-MARK, a point or conspicuous place distinguished at sea.

Sea-marks are of various kinds, as steeples, promontories, piles of
ruins, groupes of trees, &c. and are very necessary to direct vessels on
the coast of their situation. See also BEACON and BUOY.

SEA-ROOM, _belle derive_, implies a sufficient distance from the coast,
as well as from any rocks or shallows, whereby a ship may drive or scud
without danger of shipwreck.

SEA-WEEDS, _sarts_, a sort of herbs or tangles floating on the surface
of the sea, or washed upon the sea-coast. See the French term MER, and
the phrases which follow in order.

SEAMS, _coutures_, the intervals between the edges of the planks in the
decks and sides of a ship; or the places where the planks join together.
These are always filled with a quantity of _oakum_, and covered with hot
pitch, to prevent the entrance of the water. See the article CALKING.

SEIZING, _amarrer_, the operation of fastening any two ropes, or
different parts of one rope together, with a small line or cord: also
the cord (_ammarage_) which fastens them.

SELVAGEE, a sort of hank or skein of rope-yarn tied together at several
distances. It is used to fasten round any rope, as a shroud or stay, so
that a tackle may be hooked in it, to extend the said shroud or stay,
which is called setting it up.

SENDING, the act of pitching precipitately into the hollow or interval,
between two waves.

SENNIT, _garcettes_, (from _seven_ and _knit_) a sort of flat braided
cordage, formed by platting five or seven rope-yarns together.

SERVING, _fourrer_, winding any thing round a rope, to prevent it from
being rubbed. The materials used for this purpose, and which are
accordingly called _service_, _fourrure_, are generally small lines,
leather, _plat_ canvas, &c.

SETTEE, _scitie_, a ship of two masts, equipped with triangular sails,
commonly called lateen sails. These vessels are peculiar to the
Mediterranean sea, and are generally navigated by Italians, Greeks, or

SETTING, the act of observing the situation of any distant object by the
compass, in order to discover the angle which it makes with the nearest
meridian; as, at seven in the evening, we set the Tower of Arabia near
the port of Alexandria, and it bore S. S. E. distant four leagues by
estimation. See BEARING.

SETTING also denotes the direction of the wind, current, or sea, but
particularly the two latter: as, the tide which sets to the south, is
opposed to a swelling sea setting to the north-west.

SETTING, when applied to the sails, is the loosening and expanding them,
so as to move a ship along the water, after she had been for some time
at rest; or to accelerate her velocity when she is already moving, and
perhaps give a new direction to her motion. It is used in
contradistinction to taking-in the sails, as loosing or heaving-out is
opposed to furling or stowing them.

SETTING-UP, the act of extending the _shrouds_, _stays_, and
_back-stays_, to secure the masts, by the application of mechanical
powers, as tackles, &c. See DEAD-EYE, LANIARD, &c.

SETTLED, lowered in the water; as, we have settled the land, or sunk it
lower, by sailing farther out to seaward. This phrase is usually opposed
to raising; the former being occasioned by departing from the object
understood, and the latter by approaching it: however, the sense is more
commonly expressed _laying_.

SEWED, the situation of a ship which rests upon the ground till the
depth of water sufficient to float her is diminished by the reflux of
the tide. Thus if a ship runs aground on the tide of ebb, and it be
required to know if she has sewed, the water-line or mark on her side,
stem, or stern-post, where the surface of the water reaches when she is
afloat, is examined, and this mark being found above the water, she is
said to be sewed by as much as is the difference.

SHAKES, _ébaroui_, a name given by shipwrights to the cracks or rents in
a plank, occasioned by the sun or weather.

SHANK, the beam or shaft of an _anchor_. See that article.

SHANK-PAINTER, a short rope and chain which hangs the shank and flukes
of the anchor up to the ship’s side, as the _stopper_ fastens the ring
and stock to the cathead.

_To_ SHAPE _the course_, _commander à la route_, to direct or appoint
the track of a ship, in order to prosecute a voyage.


SHEATHING, _doublage_, a sort of casing or covering laid on the outside
of a ship’s bottom, to protect the planks from the pernicious effects of
the worms: particularly in hot climates, as between the tropics.

Sheathing either consists of a number of boards or deals of fir, or of
sheets of lead or copper; which last is a very late invention, having
been only experienced on a few of his Majesty’s frigates: it seems,
however, to answer the purpose much better than the fir-planks. When the
sheathing is performed with boards, there is a quantity of hair and tar
inserted between the outside of the bottom and the inner surface of the

SHEAVE, _rouet_, (_schijf_, Dutch) a solid cylindrical wheel, fixed in a
channel, and moveable about an axis, as being used to raise or increase
the mechanical powers applied to remove any body.

The sheaves are either fixed in blocks, or in channels cut through the
masts, caps, cat-heads, or sides of a ship. See those articles.

SHEEP-SHANK: a sort of knot or hitch cast on a rope, to shorten it as
occasion requires: particularly to increase the sweep or length of a
tackle by contracting its _runner_. By this contrivance the body to
which the tackle is applied may be hoisted much higher, or removed much
farther, in a shorter time.

Thus if any weighty body is to be hoisted into a ship, and it be found
that the blocks of the tackle meet before the object can reach the top
of the side, it will be necessary to lower it again, or hang it by some
other method, till the _runner_ of the tackle is sheep-shanked, by which
the blocks will again be separated to a competent distance.

SHEER, _relevement_, the longitudinal curve of a ship’s deck or sides.

SHEERING, in navigation, the act of deviating or straying from the line
of the course, either to the right or left, so as to form a crooked and
irregular path through the water. It is commonly occasioned by the
ship’s being difficult to steer, but very often from the negligence or
incapacity of the helmsman. Hence, to _sheer off_ is to remove at a
greater distance.

SHEERS, _machine à mater_, an engine used to hoist-in or displace the
lower masts of a ship. See the article MAST.

The sheers employed for this purpose in the royal navy are described
under the article _hulk_. In merchant-ships this machine is composed of
two masts or props, erected in the same vessel wherein the mast is to be
planted, or from whence it is to be removed. The lower ends of these
props rest on the opposite sides of the deck, and their upper parts are
fastened across, so as that a _tackle_, which depends from the
intersection, may be almost perpendicularly above the station of the
mast, to which the mechanical powers are applied. These sort of sheers
are secured by stays, which extend forward and aft to the opposite
extremities of the vessel.

SHEET, _écoute_, a rope fastened to one or both the lower corners of a
sail, to extend and retain it in a particular station. See CLUE and

When a ship sails with a lateral wind, the lower corner of the main and
fore sail are fastened by a tack and a sheet; the former being to
windward and the latter to leeward: the tack, however, is entirely
disused with a stern-wind; whereas the sail is never spread without the
assistance of one or both of the sheets.

The stay-sails and studding-sails have only one tack and one sheet each:
the stay-sail-tacks are always fastened forward, and the sheet drawn
_aft_; but the studding-sail-tack draws the outer clue of the sail to
the extremity of the boom; whereas the sheet is employed, to extend the

_To haul home the_ SHEET. See HOME.

SHEET-ANCHOR. See the article ANCHOR.

SHELL, in artillery. See MORTAR and RANGE.

SHELL _of a block_, the outer frame or case, wherein the _sheave_ or
wheel is contained, and traverses about its axis. See BLOCK.

SHELVES, _écueils_, (_schylf_, Sax.) a general name given to any
dangerous shallows, sand-banks, or rocks lying immediately under the
surface of the water, so as to intercept any ship in her passage, and
expose her to destruction.

SHIFTED, _desarrimée_, the state of a ship’s ballast or cargo when it is
shaken from one side to the other, either by the violence of her
_rolling_ in a turbulent sea, or by an extraordinary inclination to one
side when under a great pressure of sail. This circumstance, however,
rarely happens, unless to those cargoes which are stowed in _bulk_, as
corn, salt, or such materials. See LADEN and TRIM.

SHIFTED, _sauté_, when expressed of the wind, implies altered.

SHIFTER, _detrempeur_, a person appointed to assist the ship’s cook,
particularly in washing, steeping, and shifting the salt provisions.

SHIFTING _a tackle_, the act of removing the blocks of a tackle to a
greater distance from each other, on the object to which they are
applied, in order to give a greater scope or extent to their purchase.
This operation is otherwise called fleeting. See that article.

SHIFTING _the helm_, _rencontrer_, is the alteration of its position, by
pushing it towards the opposite side of the ship. See HELM.

SHIFTING _the voyal_, _depasser_, changing its position on the capstern
from the right to the left, and _vice versa_.

SHIP, _vaisseau_, (_scip_, Sax.) a general name given by seamen to the
first rank of vessels which are navigated on the ocean.

Amongst people who are unacquainted with marine distinctions, this term
is of very vague and indiscriminate acceptation: and indeed sailors
themselves, submitting occasionally to the influence of custom, receive
it according to this general idea. In the sea-language, however, it is
more particularly applied to a vessel furnished with three masts, each
of which is composed of a lower mast, top-mast, and top-gallant-mast,
with the usual machinery thereto belonging.

The design of this work being professedly to treat of the construction,
mechanism, furniture, movements, and military operations of a ship, we
may properly consider the present article as a general recapitulation of
the whole subject.

The plans, elevations, and sections used in the construction of a ship;
the principal pieces of which she is composed, and the qualities
requisite to answer the several purposes of navigation, are described,
or referred to, in _Naval_ ARCHITECTURE: and the application of this
theory to practice is treated in the article _Ship_-BUILDING.

The machinery and furniture with which she is equipped are variously
diffused throughout this work, and naturally spring from one another,
like a multitude of branches from one general trunk. See MAST, SAIL,

The qualities by which she is enabled to encounter a tempestuous sea are
treated in the article BALLAST and TRIM; and her several movements
therein are explained under NAVIGATION, DRIFT, SAILING, TACKING, LEEWAY,

Considered as a moveable fortress or citadel, her military operations
are copiously described in CANNON, CANNONADE, ENGAGEMENT, LINE, and
RANGE; and as her efforts are occasionally like those of a mine, or
bombardment, the reader is also referred to the articles FIRE-SHIP and

The vessels which are usually comprehended under the general name of
ship, besides those of the line of battle, are galleons, frigates,
hag-boats, cats, barks, pinks, and fly-boats; all of which are defined
in their proper places, except the hag-boat, that only differs from a
frigate-built ship in the figure of the stern, which has a great
resemblance to that of the _cat_, as being in a middle degree between
the former and the latter. See also the article QUARTER.

Ships of war are properly equipped with artillery, ammunition, and all
the necessary martial weapons and instruments for attack or defence.
They are distinguished from each other by their several ranks or
classes. See RATE.

SHIP _of the line_ is usually applied to all men of war mounting sixty
guns and upwards. Of late, however, our fifty-gun ships have been formed
sufficiently strong to carry the same metal as those of sixty, and
accordingly may fall into the line in cases of necessity. See LINE.

The ships of seventy-four cannon, and thereabouts, are generally
esteemed the most useful in the line of battle, and indeed in almost
every other purpose of war. It has therefore been judged conformable to
our design, to represent different views and sections of a ship of this
class. Thus plate IV. exhibits the head, together with the _bow_ or fore
part. Plate VII. shews a transverse section through the broadest part,
with the profile of her upper and lower deck batteries. Plate III.
contains an horizontal section at the lower deck, together with the plan
of the battery planted on one side thereof, and all the pieces by which
the deck is supported on the other. The quarter, and all the after part
of the ship, is exhibited in plate VIII. and the elevation of the stern
in plate X. all of which are on the same scale, _viz._ one fourth of an
inch to a foot, except the deck, which is one eighth of an inch to a

We have also, on a smaller scale, expressed an elevation or side-view of
a sixty-gun ship, in plate I. with the head thereof in plate IV. fig.
11. and the stern in plate X. fig. 2. both of which are viewed upon a
line on the continuation of the keel.


_Hospital_-SHIP, a vessel fitted up to attend on a fleet of men of war,
and receive their sick or wounded; for which purpose her decks should be
high, and her ports sufficiently large. Her cables ought also to run
upon the upper deck, to the end that the beds or cradles may be more
commodiously placed between decks, and admit a free passage of the air,
to disperse that which is offensive or corrupted.

_Leeward_ SHIP. See LEEWARD.

_Merchant_-SHIP, a vessel employed in commerce, to carry commodities of
various sorts from one port to another.

The largest merchant-ships are those employed by the different European
companies of merchants who trade to the East Indies. They are in general
somewhat larger than our forty-gun ships: they are mounted with twenty
cannon on their upper deck, which are nine pounders, and six on their
quarter-deck, which are six pounders. Plate IX. fig. 5. represents a
view of one of these vessels on the larboard bow, where _a_ is the
ensign-staff, A the mizen-mast, B the main-mast, C the fore-mast, K the
_poop_, L L an awning of wood extending across the after part of the
quarter-deck, M poop-ladder, N O steps of the gangway, P head of the
capstern on the quarter-deck, Q R the skeeds on the gangway, _r_ the
belfry on the forecastle, _s_ the timber-heads, _y_ the cut-water, with
a lion-head fixed upon it. The other parts of this ship represented in
the figure are referred to from the explanations of the head, plate IV.
and the quarter in plate VIII.

Fig. 6. plate IX. exhibits a quarter view of a foreign-built
East-Indiaman, with a _square tuck_, or perpendicular counter, and
having three poop-lanthorns fixed on her _taffarel_.

_Private_ SHIP _of war_. See PRIVATEER.

_Store_-SHIP, a vessel employed to carry artillery or naval stores for
the use of a fleet, fortress, or garrison.

_Transport_-SHIP is generally used to conduct troops from one place to


In the different kinds of ships, referred to above, and distinguished
from each other by their size or figure, we have only considered those
which are most common in European nations, where the marine art has
received the greatest improvements. So far is apparently consistent with
the views of utility. To give a circumstantial account of the various
species of ships employed in different nations, besides being an almost
endless task, would be of little service, except to gratify an useless
curiosity. See VESSEL.

_To_ SHIP, is either used actively, as, to embark any person, or put any
thing aboard-ship; or passively, to receive any thing into a ship; as,
we shipped a heavy sea at three o’clock in the morning.

_To_ SHIP, also implies to fix any thing in its place; as, to ship the
oars, _i. e._ to fix them in their row-locks. To ship the swivel-guns,
is to fix them in their sockets, &c.

SHIP-SHAPE, according to the fashion of a ship, or in the manner of an
expert sailor; as, the mast is not rigged ship-shape; trim your sails

SHIPPING, a multitude of vessels. The harbour is crouded with shipping.

SHOAL, a term synonimous with _shallow_. See that article.

SHOE _of the anchor_, _soulier_, a small block of wood, convex on the
back, and having a small hole, sufficient to contain the point of the
anchor-fluke, on the fore side. It is used to prevent the anchor from
tearing or wounding the planks on the ship’s _bow_, when ascending or
descending; for which purpose the shoe slides up and down along the bow,
between the fluke of the anchor and the planks, as being press’d close
to the latter by the weight of the former.

_To_ SHOE _an anchor_, _brider_, is to cover the flukes with a broad
triangular piece of plank, whose area or superficies is much larger than
that of the flukes. It is intended to give the anchor a stronger and
surer hold of the bottom in very soft and oozy ground.

SHORE, a general name for the sea-coast of any country.

SHORE is also a prop or large _stanchion_ fixed under a ship’s sides or
bottom, to support her when laid aground or on the stocks, &c.

_Bold_ SHORE, a coast which is steep and abrupt, so as to admit the
closest approach of shipping without exposing them to the danger of
being stranded.

_To_ SHORTEN, expressed of a ship’s sails, is used in opposition to
_make_. See that article, as also SAIL.

SHOT, a missive weapon, discharged by the force of inflamed powder from
a fire-arm in battle.

The shot used in the sea-service is of various kinds, as bullets,
bar-shot, chain-shot, case-shot, and grape-shot; all of which are used
in the royal navy. There is besides other shot, of a more pernicious
kind, used by privateers, and other piratical rovers: such are
_langrage_ star-shot, fire-arrows, &c.

The first and most simple is the round-shot, which is a ball or globe of
iron, whose weight is in proportion to the size of the cannon, or to the
diameter of its bore.

The double-headed, or bar-shot, fig. 11. plate VII. are balls cut into
two equal parts, and joined together by a kind of iron bar. In the
French service the middle is sometimes filled with a composition, and
the whole covered with linen dipped in brimstone; the cannon in firing
also inflames the combustibles or composition of this ball, which sets
fire to the sails of the vessel. One of the heads of this ball has an
hole to receive a fuse, which, communicating with the charge of the
cannon, sets fire to the bullet[54].

The chain-shot, fig. 12. consists of two balls chained together, being
principally designed to destroy the masts and rigging, which they are
better fitted to perform than the single bullets.

Grape-shot is a combination of balls, fig. 13. put into a thick canvas
bag, and corded strongly together, so as to form a sort of cylinder,
whose diameter is equal to that of the ball which is adapted to the
cannon. This shot is represented by fig. 13. on a larger scale, at the
bottom of the plate.

Case-shot, fig. 14. is formed by putting a great quantity of
musket-bullets into a cylindrical tin-box called a canister. They are
principally used by the French to scour the decks of the enemy.

                            Diameter of IRON
                            SHOT used in the
                              according to
                             their weight.

                            Wt.│  Diamet.
                            lb.│Inch. Parts.
                             1½│  2     20
                             3 │  2     77
                             4 │  3      5
                             6 │  3     49
                             9 │  4     00
                            12 │  4     40
                            18 │  5      4
                            24 │  5     50
                            32 │  6     60
                            42 │  6     68

          Construction of Grape-shot used in the Sea-service.

 Pounders.│Thickness of│        Spindles.        │    Weight.
          │  Bottoms.  │                         │
          │            │  Length.   │  Diamet.   │ Shot. │Bottom.
          │            │            │            │       │
          │Inch. Parts.│Inch. Parts.│Inch. Parts.│lb. oz.│lb. oz.
       42 │    0     60│    9     16│    0     57│  4  0 │  7  0
       32 │    0     55│    8     32│    0     55│  3  0 │  5  4
       24 │    0     48│    7     27│    0     70│  2  0 │  4  0
       18 │    0     44│    6     61│    0     64│  1  8 │  3  0
       12 │    0     38│    5     77│    0     55│  1  0 │  2  0
        9 │    0     36│    5     38│    0     41│  0 38 │  1  8
        6 │    0     30│    4     58│    0     44│  0  8 │  1  0
        4 │    0     27│    4     16│    0     27│  0  6 │  0 10½
        3 │    0     22│    3     63│    0     35│  0  4 │  0  8
        1½│    0     19│    2     88│    0     27│  0  2 │  0  4
        1 │    0     17│    2     62│    0     17│  0  0½│  0  3
        0½│    0     14│    2     25│    0     12│  0  0¾│  0  2

 Pounders.│   Canvas for Bags.    │        Cord.         │ Weight
          │                       │                      │finished.
          │Length.│Breadth│ Width │  Length.  │ Circum.  │
          │       │       │ made. │           │          │
          │Inches.│Inches.│       │Feet. Inch.│ Inches.  │lb.  oz.
       42 │  16   │  20  5│   9  8│   10     0│      1  0│  43   0
       32 │  15   │  19   │   9  0│    8    10│      1  0│  32   4
       24 │  14   │  17  5│   8  3│    7     4│      0  8│  22   8
       18 │  12   │  16  5│   7  8│    6     6│      0  8│  16   8
       12 │  11   │  14  5│   6  8│    5     8│      0  5│  11   0
        9 │  10½  │  12 75│   6  0│    5     1│      0  5│   8  13
        6 │   9   │  11  5│   5  3│    4     8│      0  4│   5   8
        4 │   7 75│  10   │   4  6│    3    10│      0  4│   4   0
        3 │   7   │   9  5│   4  3│    3     9│      0  4│   2  12
        1½│   6   │   7  5│   3  4│    3     5│      0  3│   1   6
        1 │   5   │   6 75│   3  0│    3     0│      0  3│   1   0
        0½│   4  5│   5 25│   2  3│    2     3│Packthread│   0   8¾

_Fire-arrows_ are described in the notes under the article ENGAGEMENT,
and _Langrage_ under that word.

Star-shot consists of four pieces of iron, whose bases, when separate,
form the quadrant of a circle; so that the whole being joined, forms a
cylinder equal to the shot of the cannon. Each of those pieces is
furnished with an iron bar, the extremity of which is attached to a sort
of link, as keys are strung upon a ring. Being discharged from the gun,
the four branches or arms extend every way from the link in the center.
These also are chiefly intended to destroy the sails or rigging, but
their flight and execution is very precarious at any tolerable distance.

SHROUDS, _haubans_, (_scrud_, Sax.) a range of large ropes extended from
the mast-heads to the right and left side of the ship, to support the
masts, and enable them to carry sail, &c.

The shrouds are always divided into pairs or couples: that is to say,
one piece of rope is doubled, fig. 7. plate IX. and the two parts
fastened together at a small distance from the middle _a_, so as to
leave a sort of noose or collars _a b_ to fix upon the mast-head. This
collar being fixed in its place, viz. close down upon the _tressel-trees
k_ fig. 2. plate VI. a pair of shrouds depend from it, whose lower ends
ought to reach down to the deck. The lower ends of these shrouds are
_set up_ or extended to the _channel_ I. fig. 2. plate VI. on the
outside of the ship, by the application of mechanical powers, as
explained in the articles _dead-eye_ and _laniard_.

The shrouds as well as the sails are denominated from the masts to which
they belong. Thus they are the main, fore, and mizen shrouds, the main
top-mast, fore top-mast, or mizen top-mast shrouds, and the main
top-gallant, fore top-gallant, or mizen top-gallant shrouds.

The number of shrouds by which a mast is sustained, as well as the size
of rope of which they are formed, is always in proportion to the size of
the mast, and the weight of sail it is intended to carry.

The two foremost shrouds on the starboard and larboard side of the ship
are always fitted first upon the mast-head; and then the second on the
starboard and the second on the larboard, and so on till the whole
number is fixed. The intention of this arrangement is to _brace_ the
_yards_ with greater facility when the sails are close-hauled, which
could not be performed without great difficulty if the foremost shrouds
were last fitted on the mast-head, because the angle which they would
make with the mast would then be greatly increased. See also _Swifter_.

The topmast-shrouds are extended from the topmast-heads to the edges of
the tops, as expressed by fig. 3, pl. VI. and fig. 1. pl. IX. The lower
dead-eye _q_, employed for this purpose, is fitted with an iron band,
called the foot-hook plate, which passes thro’ a hole in the edge of the
top, and communicates with a rope called the foot-hook shroud, whose
lower end is attached to the shrouds of the lower mast, in the station
_l_. The upper ends of the foot-hook shrouds are furnished with an iron
hook _n_, which enters a hole in the lower end of the foot-hook plate,
so that when the top-mast shrouds are extended to secure the mast, the
foot-hook shrouds necessarily acquire an equal tension by means of the
foot-hook plate, which, passing through the top, transmits the effort of
the mechanical powers, to the foot-hook shrouds below.

The shrouds of the top-gallant masts are extended to the cross-trees, as
represented by _m_, fig. 1. plate IX. See also fig. 5. plate VI.

SIDE, _coté_, a name given to the flanks of a ship, or in general to all
that part which is presented to the view between the _stem_ and _stern_,
in a direction nearly perpendicular to the horizon.

The figure of the side is formed by that of the timbers upon which it is
constructed. It is covered with planks, extending from one end of the
ship to the other; it is also reinforced in different places by _beams_,
_clamps_, _knees_, _riders_, and _standards_. See those articles.

The side is terminated above by the gunnel, and below by the lower edge
of the main wale, which separates it from the bottom: it is inclosed by
the stern abaft, and by the bow forward.

SIGNALS, (_signal_, Fr.) certain alarms or notices used to communicate
intelligence to a distant object at sea.

Signals are made by firing artillery, and displaying colours, lanthorns,
or fire-works: and these are combined by multiplication and repetition.
Thus, like the words of a language, they become arbitrary expressions,
to which we have previously annexed particular ideas: and hence they are
the general sources of intelligence throughout a naval armament, &c. See

Signals ought to be distinct, with simplicity. They are simple, when
every instruction is expressed by a particular token, in order to avoid
any mistakes arising from the double purport of one signal. They are
distinct, when issued without precipitation; when sufficient time is
allowed to observe and obey them; and when they are exposed in a
conspicuous place, so as to be readily perceived at a distance.

All signals may be reduced into three different kinds, _viz._ Those
which are made by the sound of particular instruments, as the trumpet,
horn, or fife; to which may be added, striking the bell, or beating the
drum. Those which are made by displaying _pendants_, _ensigns_, and
_flags_ of different colours; or by lowering or altering the position of
the sails: And, finally, those which are executed by rockets of
different kinds; by firing cannon, or small arms; by artificial
fire-works; and by lanthorns.

Firing of great guns will serve equally in the day or night, or in a
fog; to make or confirm signals; or to raise the attention of the
hearers to a future order. This method, however, is attended with some
inconveniencies, and should not be used indiscriminately. Too great a
repetition of the cannon is apt to introduce mistakes and confusion, as
well as to discover the tract of the squadron. The report and flight of
the rockets is liable to the same objection, when at a short distance
from the enemy.

It is then, by the combination of signals, previously known, that the
admiral conveys orders to his fleet; every _squadron_, every _division_,
and every ship of which has its particular signal. The instruction may
therefore occasionally be given to the whole fleet, or to any of its
squadrons; to any division of those squadrons, or to any ship of those

Hence the signal of command may at the same time be displayed for three
divisions, and for three ships of each division; or for three ships in
each squadron, and for only nine ships in the whole fleet. For, the
general signal of the fleet being shewn, if a particular pendant be also
thrown out from some remarkable place on the same mast with the general
signal, it will communicate intelligence to nine ships that wear the
same pendant.

The preparatory signal given by the admiral to the whole, or any part of
his fleet, is immediately answered by those to whom it is directed; by
shewing the same signal, to testify that they are ready to put his
orders in execution. Having observed their answer, he will shew the
signal which is to direct their operations: as,

To chace, to form the _line_, to begin the engagement, to board, to
double upon the enemy, to rally or return to action, to discontinue the
fight, to retreat and save themselves. The dexterity of _working_ the
ships in a fleet depends on the precise moment of executing these
orders; and on the general harmony of their movements: a circumstance
which evinces the utility of a signal of preparation.

As the extent of the line of battle, and the fire and smoke of the
action, or other circumstances in navigation, will frequently prevent
the admiral’s signals from being seen throughout the fleet, they are
always repeated by the officers next in command; by ships appointed to
repeat signals; and, finally, by the ship or ships for which they are

The ships that repeat the signals, besides the chiefs of squadrons or
divisions, are usually frigates lying to windward or to _leeward_ of the
line. They should be extremely vigilant to observe and repeat the
signals, whether they are to transmit the orders of the commander in
chief, or his seconds, to any part of the fleet; or to report the
fortunate or distressful situation of any part thereof. By this means
all the ships from the van to the rear will, unless disabled, be ready
at a moment’s warning to put the admiral’s designs in execution.

To preserve order in the repetition of signals, and to favour their
communication, without embarassment, from the commander in chief, to the
ship for which they are calculated, the commanders of the squadrons
repeat after the admiral; the chiefs of the divisions, according to
their order in the line, after the commanders of the squadrons; and the
particular ships after the chiefs of the divisions; and those, in
return, after the particular ships, _vice versa_, when the object is to
convey any intelligence from the latter to the admiral.

Besides the signals above mentioned, there are others for different
ranks of officers; as for captains, lieutenants, masters, _&c._ or for
any of those officers of a peculiar ship. See DIVISION and SQUADRON.

SKEET, a sort of long scoop commonly used to wet the decks and sides of
a ship in hot weather, in order to keep them cool, and to prevent them
from splitting by the heat of the sun. This practice is accordingly
performed in general every morning and evening before sun-rise and after

This instrument, fig. 8. plate IX. is also employed in small vessels to
wet the sails, to render them more steady and efficacious in light

SKIDS, or SKEEDS, are long compassing pieces of timber, formed so as to
answer the vertical curve of a ship’s side. See Q, R, fig. 5. plate IX.
They are notched below so as to fit closely upon the wales; and as they
are intended to preserve the planks of the side, when any weighty body
is hoisted or lowered, they extend from the main wale to the top of the
side; and they are retained in this position by bolts or spike-nails.

SKIFF, _esquife_ (_scaffa_, Lat.) a small boat resembling a yawl. See
the article BOAT.

SLAB-LINE, _cargue à vue_, a small cord passing up behind a ship’s
mainsail or fore-sail, and being _reeved_ through a block, fig. 1. plate
IX. attached to the lower part of the yard, is thence transmitted in two
branches to the foot of the sail, to which it is fastened. It is used to
truss up the sail as occasion requires; but more particularly for the
conveniency of the pilot or steersman, that they may look forward
beneath it, as the ship advances.

SLACK-WATER, the interval between the flux and reflux of the tide; or
between the last of the ebb and the first of the flood, during which the
current is interrupted; and the water apparently remains in a state of

SLATCH, is generally applied to the period of a transitory breeze of
wind, or the length of its duration.

SLEEPERS, a name formerly given by shipwrights to the _thick-stuff_
placed longitudinally in a ship’s hold, opposite to the several _scarfs_
of the timbers. It is now properly applied to the knees, which connect
the _transoms_ to the after-timbers on the ship’s _quarter_.

SLINGS, _elingue_ (_slingan_, Sax.) a rope whose ends are fixed in such
a manner to its other part, as to encircle a cask, bale, or case, and
suspend it whilst hoisting or lowering. Of these there are various
sorts, according to the weight or figure of the object to which they are
applied. Those which are most frequently used in lading and delivering
ships are represented in fig. 9. plate IX. being nearly in the form of a
pair of spectacles, the _tackle_ being hooked to the middle part _a_,
whilst _b_ and _c_ are fixed on the opposite quarters of the cask, &c.

SLIP, a place lying with a gradual descent on the banks of a river
convenient for ship-building.

SLOOP, a small vessel furnished with one mast, the main-sail of which is
attached to a _gaff_ above, to the mast on its foremost edge, and to a
long boom below; by which it is occasionally shifted to either quarter.

SLOOP OF WAR, a name given to the smallest vessels of war, except
cutters. They are either rigged as ships or as snows. See COMMAND,

_To_ SLUE, is to turn any cylindrical or conical piece of timber about
its axis, without removing it. This term is generally expressed of the
movement by which a mast or boom is turned about, in its _cap_ or

SMACK, a small vessel commonly rigged as a _sloop_ or _hoy_, used in the
coasting or fishing trade; or as a _tender_ in the King’s service.

SNATCH-BLOCK, _galoche_, a block having an opening in one of its sides,
wherein to fix the _bight_ of rope occasionally. See BLOCK.

SNOTTER. See the article SPRIT.

SNOW, _senau_, is generally the largest of all two-masted vessels
employed by Europeans, and the most convenient for navigation.

The sails and rigging on the main-mast and fore-mast of a snow, are
exactly similar to those on the same masts in a ship; only that there is
a small mast behind the main-mast of the former, which carries a sail
nearly resembling the _mizen_ of a ship. The foot of this mast is fixed
in a block of wood on the quarter-deck abaft the main-mast; and the head
of it is attached to the afterpart of the main-_top_. The sail, which is
called the try-sail, is extended from its mast towards the stern of the

When the _sloops_ of war are rigged as snows, they are furnished with a
_horse_, which answers the purpose of the trysail-mast, the fore part of
the sail being attached by rings to the said horse, in different parts
of its height.

SOLE, a name sometimes given to the lower side of a gun-port, which
however is more properly called the port-sell.

SOUNDING, (_sonder_, Fr.) the operation of trying the depth of the
water, and the quality of the ground, by means of a plummet, _plomb de
sonde_, sunk from a ship to the bottom.

There are two plummets used for this purpose in navigation; one of which
is called the hand-lead, weighing about 8 or 9 pound; and the other the
deep-sea-lead, which weighs from 25 to 30 pound, and both are shaped
like the frustrum of a cone or pyramid. The former is used in shallow
waters, and the latter at a great distance from the shore; particularly
on approaching the land, after a sea-voyage. Accordingly the lines
employed for this purpose are called the deep-sea lead-line, and the
hand lead-line.

The hand lead-line, which is usually 20 fathoms in length, is marked at
every 2 or 3 fathoms; so that the depth of the water may be ascertained
either in the day or night. At the depth of 2 and 3 fathoms, there are
marks of black leather; at 5 fathom, there is a white rag; at 7, a red
rag; at 10, black leather; at 13, black leather; at 15, a white rag; and
at 17, a red ditto.

Sounding with the hand-lead, which is called heaving the lead by seamen,
is generally performed by a man who stands in the main-_chains_ to
windward. Having the line all ready to run out, without interrupton, he
holds it nearly at the distance of a fathom from the plummet, and having
swung the latter backwards and forwards three or four times, in order to
acquire the greater velocity, he swings it round his head, and thence,
as far forward as is necessary; so that, by the lead’s sinking whilst
the ship advances, the line may be almost perpendicular when it reaches
the bottom. The person sounding then proclaims the depth of the water in
a kind of song resembling the cries of hawkers in a city. Thus, if the
mark of 5 fathoms is close to the surface of the water, he calls ‘By the
mark five!’ and as there is no mark at 4, 6, 8, &c. he estimates those
numbers, and calls, ‘By the dip four,’ &c. If he judges it to be a
quarter, or an half more than any particular number, he calls, ‘And a
quarter five! and a half four,’ &c. If he conceives the depth to be 3
quarters more than a particular number, he calls it a quarter less than
the next: thus, at 4 fathom and ¾, he calls ‘A quarter less five!’ and
so on.

The deep-sea-lead is marked with two knots at 20 fathom, 3 at 30, 4 at
40, and so on to the end. It is also marked with a single knot in the
middle of each interval, as at 25, 35, 45 fathoms, &c. To use this lead
more effectually at sea, or in deep water on the sea-coast, it is usual
previously to _bring-to_ the ship, in order to retard her course: the
lead is then thrown as far as possible from the ship on the line of her
drift, so that, as it sinks, the ship drives more perpendicularly over
it. The pilot feeling the lead strike the bottom, readily discovers the
depth of the water by the mark on the line nearest its surface. The
bottom of the lead being also well rubbed over with tallow, retains the
distinguishing marks of the bottom, as shells, ooze, gravel, &c. which
naturally adheres to it.

The depth of the water, and the nature of the ground, which is called
the soundings, are carefully marked in the log-book, as well to
determine the distance of the place from the shore, as to correct the
observations of former pilots. See COASTING and NAVIGATION.

SPAN, _pendour_ (_spanna_, Ital.) a small line or cord, the middle of
which is usually attached to a stay, from whence the two ends branch
outwards to the right and left, and having either a _block_ or _thimble_
attached to their extremities. The intention of the span is accordingly
to confine some rope which passes through the corresponding block or
thimble, as well to increase the effort of the said rope, as to prevent
it from swinging at too great a distance from the centre of its action
in stormy weather. Such are the spans occasionally used for the
top-gallant _braces_, or the fore-top-gallant _bowlines_, &c.

SPAN-SHACKLE. See the article DAVIT.

SPARE, _rechange_, an epithet applied to any part of a ship’s equipage,
or furniture, that lies in reserve, to supply the place of such as may
be lost, or rendered incapable of service. Hence we say, spare
top-masts, spare sails, spare rigging, &c.

PUMP-SPEAR. See the article PUMP.

SPELL, the period wherein a sailor, or gang of sailors, is employed in a
particular exercise, from which they are relieved as soon as the limited
time expires. Such are the spells, to the hand-lead in sounding; to the
pump; to look out on the mast-head, &c. and to steer the ship; which
last, however, is generally called the _trick_. See STEERING.

Spell also implies the relief, or the return of duty to those services:
Thus we say, spell the pump, spell the lead, &c.

_To_ SPILL, to discharge the wind out of the cavity or belly of a sail
when it is drawn up in the brails in order to _furl_ or _reef_ it. This
is either performed by collecting the sail together, or by bracing its
edge to the wind, so as to shiver or be laid aback.

SPILLING-LINES, certain ropes fixed occasionally to the main-sail and
fore-sail of a ship, in tempestuous weather, for reefing or furling them
more conveniently. They are passed through blocks above the yard, and
thence leading down before the sail, come under its bottom, and return
upwards behind it to the yard, where they are fastened; so that the
sail, by their effort, is closely and immoveably confined to the yard.

SPINDLE, a sort of iron-pin tapering at the upper end to a point. It is
used to stick into the upper end of the top-gallant-mast, so as to carry
a vane, which, turning thereon horizontally, will show the direction of
the wind. It is usually crowned with a globular or conical piece of wood
called the acorn, which prevents the vane from being blown off. See

SPINDLE is also the lower end or foot of the capstern, which is shod
with iron, and becomes the pivot or axis upon which it turns in the
saucer. See the article CAPSTERN.

SPIRKETTING, that range of planks which lies between the water-ways and
the lower edge of the gun-ports within the side of a ship of war.

_To_ SPLICE, _episser_ (_splitser_ Dutch, _plico_ Lat.) to join the two
ends of a rope together, or to unite the end of a rope to any other part

There are several different methods of performing this operation,
according to the services on which it is to be employed. Thus, there is
the short-splice, the long-splice, the eye-splice, and the cunt-splice;
all of which are calculated for different purposes.

The short-splice is made by untwisting the ends of two ropes, or the two
ends of one rope, and, having placed each of the _strands_ of one
opposite to and in the interval between two _strands_ of the other, to
draw them close together; and then interweave the strands of one into
the alternate strands of the other, by penetrating the latter with a
_fid_ or marline-spike, parallel to the axis or length of the rope. This
splice is used on the cables, slings, block-strops, and in general all
ropes which are not intended to run through blocks, or where the splice
is not in danger of being loosened or separated.

The long-splice being fixed in three places, occupies a greater extent
of the rope; but by the division of the joinings, the bulk is also
divided into different parts of its length. Hence it is much neater and
smoother than the short-splice, and better adapted to run through the
channel of a block, &c. for which use it is generally calculated.

The eye-splice being intended to make a sort of eye or circle at the end
of a rope, the strands are untwisted, and their extremities thrust
through the three strands in that part of the said rope, whereon the
splice is to be formed, and thence passing over the surface of the
second strand, they are again thrust through the third, which compleats
the operation.

The cunt-splice is constructed in the same manner as the eye-splice,
being no other than the ends of two lines fastened together at a short
distance from each other, the extremities of either being interwoven
into the _bight_ of the other, so that the line becomes double in the
extent of the splice. This is chiefly used in lead-lines, log-lines, and
fishing-lines, where the short-splice would be liable to separation, as
being frequently loosened by the water.

SPLIT, the state of a sail which is rent asunder by the violence of a
tempest, or by sustaining a greater effort on one part of its surface
than the rest.

SPLIT, when applied to a ship, is also the state of being stranded and
bilged on a rock or shore.

SPOON-DRIFT, a sort of showery sprinkling of the sea-water, swept from
the surface of the waves in a tempest, and flying according to the
direction of the wind like a vapour.

SPOONING. By the explanation of this term in our dictionaries, it seems
formerly to have signified that movement, in navigation, which is now
called scudding. Be that as it may, there is at present no such phrase
in our sea-language.

SPRAY, the sprinkling of the sea, which is driven from the top of a wave
in stormy weather. It differs from spoon-drift, as being only blown
occasionally from the broken surface of a high wave, whereas the latter
continues to fly horizontally along the sea, without intermission,
during the excess of a tempest or hurricane.

SPRING, a crack or breach running transversely or obliquely through any
part of a mast or yard, so as to render it unsafe to carry the usual
quantity of sail thereon.

SPRING is also a rope passed out of one extremity of a ship and attached
to a cable proceeding from the other, when she lies at anchor. It is
usually performed to bring the ship’s broad-side, or battery of cannon,
to bear upon some distant object; as another ship, or a fortress on the
coast, &c. When a ship rides by anchors which are only carried out of
one end, she will swing upon the surface of the water like a
weather-cock, according to the direction of the wind; unless when the
wind is opposed by a current. Now, if instead of being fastened at one
end, she is attached by ropes, which, proceeding from her head and stern
towards the same source, sustain an equal effort of the wind, it is
evident that her side will be presented to the wind; and that, by
slackening one of those ropes, and keeping fast the other, her side will
lie more or less obliquely to the wind, so as to be opposed to any
distant object to the right or left.

Thus, if a ship rides with her head northerly, and it is required to
cannonade a fortress lying on the south or south-east: a hauser is run
out of the stern, and being carried forward, without her side, is
attached to the cable, at a competent distance ahead of the ship: the
hauser is then tightened by the _capstern_ or tackles, and the cable
being slackened, the ship immediately turns her side towards the object
intended to be battered.

SPRING is likewise a rope reaching diagonally from the stern of a ship
to the head of another which lies _along-side_ or a-breast of her, at a
short distance. This is generally performed to make one of the ships
_sheer_ off, to a greater distance from the other; or to make
merchant-ships lie uniformly in the same tier. Springs of this sort are
therefore occasionally applied from a ship, to a wharf or key, for the
same purposes.

_To_ SPRING A LEAK. See the article LEAK.


SPRING-TIDE, the periodical excess of the elevation and depression of
the TIDE. See that article.

SPRIT, (_spryttan_, Sax. to branch out) a small boom or pole which
crosses the sail of a boat diagonally, from the mast, to the upper
hindmost corner of the sail, which it is used to extend and elevate: the
lower end of the sprit rests in a sort of wreath or collar called the
_snotter_, which encircles the mast in that place. These sort of sails
are accordingly called sprit-sails.

SPRITSAIL, _civadiere_, a sail attached to a yard which hangs under the
bowsprit, as represented in fig. 2. _y_, plate IX. It is furnished with
a large hole in each of its lower corners, to evacuate the water with
which the cavity, or belly of it is frequently filled, by the surge of
the sea when the ship pitches.

SPRITSAIL-TOPSAIL, _perroquet de beaupré_, a sail extended above the
former, by a yard which hangs across the _gib-boom_. The lower corners
of this sail are hauled _home_ to the spritsail-yard-arms; after which
the sail is drawn out towards the extremity of the boom, in light winds,
as any other topsail-yard is hoisted upon its mast.

Formerly the spritsail-topsails were set on a mast, which was erected
perpendicularly on the end of the bowsprit: but this method has of late
been justly rejected as inconvenient and dangerous to the bowsprit,
although serviceable in light breezes,

SPUNGE. See the article CANNON.

SPUN-YARN, _bittord_, a small line or cord formed of two or three
rope-yarns twisted together by a winch. The yarns of which it is usually
made at sea, are drawn out of the strands of old cables or other ropes,
and are knotted together and tarred. It is employed for several
purposes; particularly to fasten one rope to another, to seize
block-strops to the shrouds, and to _serve_ ropes which are liable to be
chafed by rubbing one against another, &c.

SPURS _of the beams_. See the article DECK, and the explanation of the
figure annexed thereto.

SQUADRON, _escadre_, (_squadrone_, Ital.) either implies a detachment of
ships employed on any particular expedition, or the third part of a
naval armament. See the articles FLAG, CENTRE, FLEET, and DIVISION.

SQUALL, _raffale_, a sudden and violent blast of wind, usually
occasioned by the interruption and reverberation of the wind from high
mountains. These are very frequent in the Mediterranean; particularly
that part of it which is known by the name of the Levant, as produced by
the repulsion, and new direction which the wind meets with in its
passage between the various islands of the Archipelago.

SQUARE, a term peculiarly appropriated to the yards and their sails,
implying that they hang at right angles with the mast or keel; or that
they are of greater extent than usual.

Thus, when the yards are so balanced by their _lifts_, as to hang at
right angles with the mast, they are said to be square by the lifts:
when they hang perpendicular to the ship’s length, they are called
square by the braces: but when they lie in a direction perpendicular to
the plane of the keel, they are square by the lifts and braces; or, in
other words, they hang directly across the ship, and parallel to the

The yards are said to be very square, when they are of extraordinary
length; and the same epithet is then applied to their sails, which by
consequence acquire an additional breadth.

SQUARE-RIGGED, an epithet applied to a ship whose yards are very long.
It is also used in contradistinction to all vessels whose sails are
extended by _stays_ or _lateen-yards_; or by booms and gaffs; the usual
situation of which is nearly in the plane of the keel; and hence

SQUARE-SAIL, _treou_, is a sail extended to a yard, which hangs parallel
to the horizon, as distinguished from the other sails which are extended
by _booms_ and stays, placed obliquely. This sail is only used in fair
winds, or to scud under in a tempest. In the former case, it is
furnished with a large additional part called the bonnet, which is then
attached to its bottom, and removed when it is necessary to _scud_. See
that article.

STAFF, _baton_, a light pole erected in different parts of a ship,
whereon to hoist and display the colours.

The principal of these is reared immediately over the stern, to display
the _ensign_; another is fixed on the bowsprit, to extend the _jack_;
three more are erected at the three mast-heads, or formed by their upper
ends, to show the flag or pendant of the respective squadron or division
to which the ship is appropriated. See ENSIGN, MAST, JACK, and PENDANT.

STANCHION, a sort of small pillar of wood or iron used for various
purposes in a ship; as to support the decks, the quarter-rails, the
_nettings_, the _awnings_, &c.

The first of these are two ranges of small columns, fixed under the
beams, throughout the ship’s length _between-decks_; one range being on
the starboard, and the other on the larboard side of the hatchways. They
are chiefly intended to support the weight of the artillery.

STANCHIONS _of the nettings_, are either slender bars of iron, whose
lower ends are fixed in iron sockets at proper distances; or square
wooden pillars let into the upper part of the ship’s side. See

STANDARD, _courbe_, in ship-building, is no other than an inverted knee,
which is placed above the deck instead of beneath it, and having its
vertical branch pointed upwards from that which lies horizontally. The
figure and position of one of these standards is expressed by the curve
line _f_, which is dotted through the gun-carriage in the MIDSHIP-FRAME,
plate VII. Such also are the standards of the bits and channels.

_Royal_ STANDARD, _etendard royale_, a flag in which the imperial
ensigns of Great Britain, and the arms of France and Ireland, together
with the armorial bearings of Hanover, are united and quartered. It is
never hoisted unless when the sovereign is personally aboard; at which
time it is displayed at the main-top-mast-head.

STANDING, in navigation, the movement by which a ship advances towards a
certain object, or departs from it: as the enemy stands in-shore: the
English fleet are standing _off_: at day-break we discovered three sail
standing to the northward, &c.

STARBOARD, _tribord_, the right side of the ship when the eye of the
spectator is directed forward. See LARBOARD.

STAY, (_etai_, Fr.) a large strong rope employed to support the mast on
the fore part, by extending from its upper end towards the fore part of
the ship, as the shrouds are extended to the right and left, and behind

The stay of the fore-mast _a_, fig. 10. plate IX. which is called the
fore-stay, reaches from the mast-head towards the bowsprit-end: the
main-stay _b_, extends over the fore-castle to the ship’s stem; and the
mizen-stay _c_, is stretched down to that part of the main-mast which
lies immediately above the quarter-deck: the fore-top-mast-stay _d_,
comes also to the end of the bowsprit, a little beyond the fore-stay:
the main-top-mast-stay _e_, is attached to the head or _hounds_ of the
fore-mast; and the mizen-top-mast-stay comes also to the hounds of the
main-mast: the fore-top-gallant-stay comes to the outer end of the
jib-boom; and the main-top-gallant-stay is extended to the head of the

STAY-SAIL, a sort of triangular sail extended upon a stay. See SAIL.

STEDDY, the command given by the pilot, &c. to the helmsman, in a _fair_
wind, to steer the ship according to the line, on which she advances at
that instant, without deviating to the right or left. The helmsman
accordingly answers, steddy; to shew his attention and obedience to the
pilot’s order.

STEERAGE, an apartment without the great _cabin_ of a ship, from which
it is separated by a thin partition. In large ships of war it is used as
a hall through which it is necessary to pass to, arrive at, or depart
from the great cabin. In merchant-ships it is generally the habitation
of the inferior officers and ship’s crew. See also BIRTH.

STEERAGE is also used to express the effort of the helm; and hence

STEERAGE-WAY, is that degree of progressive motion communicated to a
ship, by which she becomes susceptible of the effects of the helm to
govern her course. See HELM and SAILING.

STEERING, _gouverner_ (_steoran_, Sax.) may be defined the art of
directing the ship’s way by the movements of the helm; or of applying
its efforts to regulate her course when she advances.

The perfection of steering consists in a vigilant attention to the
motion of the ship’s _head_, so as to check every deviation from the
line of her course in the first instant of its motion; and in applying
as little of the power of the helm as possible. By this she will run
more uniformly in a streight path, as declining less to the right and
left: whereas, if a greater effort of the helm is employed, it will
produce a greater declination from the course, and not only increase the
difficulty of steering, but also make a crooked and irregular tract
through the water. See HELM.

The helmsman should diligently watch the movements of the head by the
land, clouds, moon, or stars; because although the course is in general
regulated by the compass, yet the vibrations of the needle are not so
quickly perceived, as the sallies of the ship’s head to the right or
left, which, if not immediately restrained, will acquire additional
velocity in every instant of their motion, and demand a more powerful
impulse of the helm to reduce them; the application of which, will
operate to turn her head as far on the contrary side of her course.

The phrases used in steering a ship vary according to the relation of
the wind to her course. Thus, if the wind is _fair_, or _large_, the
phrases used by the pilot, or officer, who superintends the steerage,
are _port_, _starboard_, and _steddy_. The first is intended to direct
the ship’s course farther to the right; the second is to guide her
farther to the left; and the last, as explained under that word, is
designed to keep her exactly in the line, whereon she advances,
according to the course prescribed. The excess of the first and second
movement is called hard-a-port, and hard-a-starboard; the former of
which gives her the greatest possible inclination to the right, and the
latter an equal tendency to the left.

If, on the contrary, the wind is _foul_ or _scant_, the phrases are
_luff_, _thus_, and _no nearer_; the first of which is the order to keep
her close to the wind; the second, to retain her in her present
situation; and the third, to keep her sails full. The effects of these
movements are farther explained under the several terms; but more
particularly under the article FULL AND BY.

In a ship of war, the exercise of steering the ship is usually divided
amongst a number of the most expert sailors, who attend the helm in
their turns; and are accordingly called _timoneers_, from the French
term _timonier_, which signifies helmsman. The steerage is constantly
supervised by the quarter-masters, who also attend the helm by rotation.
In merchant-ships every seaman takes his turn in this service, being
directed therein by the mate of the watch, or some other officer.

As the safety of a ship, and all contained therein, depend, in a great
measure, on the steerage or effects of the helm, the apparatus by which
it is managed should often be diligently examined by the proper
officers. Indeed, a negligence in this important duty appears almost
unpardonable, when the fatal effects which may result from it are duly

STEEVING, the elevation of a ship’s bowsprit above the stem, or the
angle which it makes with the horizon.

STEM, _etrave_, (_stammen_, Swed.) a circular piece of timber, into
which the two sides of a ship are united at the fore end: the lower end
of it is scarfed to the _keel_, and the _bowsprit_ rests upon its upper

The stem is formed of one or two pieces, according to the size of the
vessel; and as it terminates the ship forward, the ends of the _wales_
and planks of the sides and bottom are let into a groove or channel, in
the middle of its surface, from the top to the bottom: which operation
is called _rabetting_. See that article.

The out side of the stem is usually marked with a scale, or division of
feet, according to its perpendicular height from the keel. The intention
of this, is to ascertain the draught of water at the fore part, when the
ship is in preparation for a sea-voyage, &c.

The stem at its lower end is of equal breadth and thickness with the
keel, but it grows proportionally broader and thicker towards its upper
extremity. See _Naval_ ARCHITECTURE and _Ship_-BUILDING.

STEMSON, _marsouin_, an arching piece of timber fixed within the apron
to reinforce the scarf thereof, in the same manner as the apron supports
the scarf of the stem. In large ships it is usually formed of two
pieces, as represented by I. in plate I. PIECES OF THE HULL.

STEP, _carlingue_, a block of wood fixed on the decks or bottom of a
ship, and having a hole in its upper side fitted to receive the heel of
a mast or _capstern_.

The steps of the main and fore-masts of every ship rest upon the kelson,
as appears in fig. 2. and 3. plate VI. to which they are firmly secured
by _knees_, bolts, or spike-nails. The step of the mizen-mast usually
rests upon the lower deck. See also the article CAPSTERN.

STERN, _arcasse_, (_steor_, Sax.) the posterior face of a ship; or that
part which is presented to the view of a spectator, placed on the
continuation of the keel behind, as exhibited in plate X. fig. 1, 2, and
3; and in plate XI. fig. 1.

The stern, as represented in plate X. is terminated above by the
_taffarel_, and below by the _counters_: It is limited on the sides by
the quarter-pieces; and the intermediate space comprehends the galleries
and windows of the different cabins.

      EXPLANATION of fig. 1. plate X. which exhibits the Stern of

a seventy-four gun-ship.

A, the keel, with _a_ the false keel beneath it.

A B, the stern-post.

C, the rail which determines the height of the counters.

D D, the upper and lower quarter-galleries, with their balustrades and

E, the quarter-pieces: and P F P, the taffarel.

K G K, the lower counter, with H H, its gun-ports.

G, the rail which separates the lower counter from the second or upper
counter; which last is included between G and C.

K K, the wing-transom.

L L, the deck-transom.

M, N, O, first, second, and third transoms; with _l_, _m_, _n_, _o_,
four intermediate transoms.

O M L K P, the direction of the fashion-piece, whose upper part is
expressed by the dotted lines K P.

Q, the cove, a sort of arched canopy, serving as a roof to the

R Q R, the screen bulk-head, or partition, containing the cabin windows.

R S S R, the balustrade of the stern gallery, with S S, the
foot-pace-rail, which determines the height of its floor, or platform.

S C S, the ward-room windows.

T, the lower finishing of the quarter gallery.


  _To Face STERN_       _PLATE X._

Fig. 2. exhibits a stern view of a 60 gun-ship, with the curve of the
_frame-timbers_ on one side, and the disposition of all the planks of
the bottom on the other side.

Fig. 3. represents a stern view of a French man of war of 70 guns.

Plate XI. fig. 1. is a stern for a first or second rate: accordingly it
is furnished with a middle apartment between the ward-room and the
captain’s cabin. This apartment is also furnished with galleries on the
stern and quarter. The other parts of it are described in the
explanation of fig. 1. in plate X. See also the article QUARTER.

STERN-FAST, a rope used to confine the stern of a ship or boat to any
wharf or jetty-head, &c.

STERNMOST, usually implies that part of a fleet of ships which is in the
rear, or farthest astern, as opposed to _head-most_.

STERN-POST, _etambot_, a long straight piece of timber erected on the
extremity of the _keel_, to sustain the rudder, and terminate the ship

This piece, which is expressed by B in the PIECES _of the_ HULL, plate
I. ought to be well secured and supported; because the ends of all the
lower planks of the ship’s bottom are fixed in a channel, cut on its
surface; and the whole weight of the rudder is sustained by it.

The dimensions of the stern-post, or the proportional breadth and
thickness, in the different parts of its height, are geometrically
delineated in the _quarter_ and stern of a 74 gun-ship, plate VIII. and
X. being expressed in both by A B. It is usually marked like the _stem_,
with a scale of feet from the keel upwards, in order to ascertain the
draught of water, at that part of the vessel.

The difficulty of procuring a stern-post of sufficient breadth in one
piece, has introduced the practice of fixing an additional piece behind
it, which is strongly bolted to the former. The hinges, which support
the rudder, are accordingly fixed to this latter, which is also tenanted
into the keel, and denominated the back of the _post_, being expressed
by E in the _pieces_ of the _hull_, referred to above. It is half the
breadth of the stern-post, at the heel, but diminishes gradually towards
the upper end, where it is one third narrower.

The stern-post is strongly attached to the keel by a knee, G, PIECES of
the HULL, of which one branch extends along the keel, being _scarfed_
and bolted to the _dead-wood_, and fore-locked under the keel; whilst
the other branch inclines upwards, and corresponds with the inside, or
fore part of the stern-post; to which it is also bolted in the same

STERN-SHEETS, that part of a boat which is contained between the stern
and the aftmost, or hindmost, seat of the _rowers_. It is generally
furnished with benches, to accommodate the passengers. See the article

STERN-WAY, the movement by which a ship retreats, or falls backward,
with her stern foremost.

STEWARD, _maitre-valet_, an officer in a ship of war, appointed by the
purser, to distribute the different species of provisions to the
officers and crew; for which purpose he is furnished with a mate, and
proper assistants.

STIFF, the quality by which a ship is enabled to carry a sufficient
quantity of sail, without hazard of oversetting. See the articles

STINK-POT, _pot à feu_, an earthen jar, or shell, charged with powder,
grenadoes, and other materials of an offensive and suffocating smell. It
is frequently used by privateers, in the western ocean, in the attack of
an enemy, whom he designs to board; for which purpose it is furnished
with a lighted fuse, at the opening or touch-hole. See BOARDING.

STIRRUPS. See the article HORSE.

STOCKS, a frame erected on the shore of a river, or harbour, whereon to
build shipping. It generally consists of a number of wooden blocks,
ranged parallel to each other, at convenient distances, and with a
gradual declivity towards the water. See LANCHING.

STOPPERS, _bosses_, certain short pieces of rope, which are usually
_knotted_ at one, or both ends, according to the purpose for which they
are calculated. They are either used to suspend any weighty body, or to
retain a cable, _shroud_, &c. in a fixed position.

Thus, the anchors, when first hoisted up from the ground, are hung to
the cat-head, by a stopper attached to the latter, which passing through
the anchor-ring, is afterwards fastened to the timber-head, _n_, fig.
10. plate IV. and the same rope serves to fasten it on the _bow_ at sea;
or to suspend it by the ring when it is to be sunk from the ship to the

The stoppers of the cables have a large knot, and a _laniard_, at one
end, and are fastened to a ring-bolt in the deck, by the other. They are
attached to the cable, by the laniard, which is fastened securely round
both by several turns passed behind the knot, or about the neck of the
stopper; by which means the cable is restrained from running out of the
ship, when she rides at anchor. See also BITS and RING-ROPE.

The stoppers of the shrouds have a knot and a laniard at each end. They
are only used when the shrouds are cut asunder in battle, or disabled by
tempestuous weather; at which time they are _lashed_, in the same manner
as those of the cables, to the separated parts of the shroud, which are
thereby reunited, so as to be fit for immediate service. This, however,
is only a temporary expedient, applied when there is not time or
opportunity to refit them, by a more complete operation.

STORE-KEEPER, _garde-magasin_, an officer in the royal dock-yards,
invested with the charge of the principal naval stores; as the sails,
anchors, cordage, &c.

STORE-ROOM, _soute_, an apartment, or place of reserve, of which there
are several in a ship, to contain the provisions, or stores of a ship,
together with those of her officers, during a sea-voyage.

STOWAGE, _arrimage_, the general disposition of the several materials
contained in a ship’s hold, with regard to their figure, magnitude, or

In the stowage of different articles, as ballast, casks, cases, bales,
and boxes, there are several general rules to be observed, according to
the circumstances or qualities of those materials. The casks, which
contain any liquid, are, according to the sea phrase, to be _bung-up_
and _bilge-free_, i. e. closely wedged up, in an horizontal position,
and resting on their quarters: so that the bilges, where they are
thickest, being entirely free all round, cannot rub against each other,
by the motion of the vessel. Dry goods, or such as may be damaged by the
water, are to be carefully inclosed in casks, bales, cases, or wrappers;
and wedged off from the bottom and sides of the ship, as well as from
the bows, masts, and pump-well. Due attention must likewise be had to
their disposition, with regard to each other, and to the trim and centre
of gravity of the ship; so that the heaviest may always be nearest the
keel, and the lightest gradually above them. See BALLAST, TRIM, and

STRAIT, _etroite_, a narrow channel, or arm of the sea, contained
between two opposite shores; as the straits of Gibraltar; the straits of
Sunda; the straits of Dover, &c.

STRAKES, or STREAKS, the uniform ranges of planks on the bottom and
sides of a ship; or the continuation of planks joined to the end of each
other, and reaching from the _stem_, which limits the vessel forward, to
the _stern-post_, and fashion-_pieces_, which terminate her length
abaft. The lowest of these, which is called the _garboard-streak_, is
let into the keel below, and into the stem and stern-post. See those

STRAND, _touron_, one of the twists, or divisions, of which a rope is
composed. See the articles ROPE and CABLE.

STRAND also implies the sea-beach: hence a ship is said to be stranded
when she has run a-ground on the sea-shore.

STRETCHER, _banquet_, a sort of staff fixed athwart the bottom of a
boat, for the rower to place his feet against, in order to communicate a
greater effort to his oar.

STRETCHING, _in navigation_, is generally understood to imply the
progression of a ship under a great surface of sail, when
_close-hauled_. The difference between this phrase and _standing_, is
apparently in the quantity of sail, which, in the latter, may be very
moderate; but in stretching, generally signifies excess: as, we saw the
enemy at day-break stretching to the southward, under a crowd of sail,

_To_ STRIKE, _in navigation_, to run ashore, or to beat upon the ground
in passing over a bank or shallow.

_To_ STRIKE also implies to lower or let down any thing; as an ensign,
or topsail, in saluting; or, as the yards and topmasts in tempestuous
weather. It is, however, more particularly used to express the lowering
of the colours, in token of surrender, to a victorious enemy.

STRING _in ship-building_, the highest range of planks in a ship’s
ceiling; or that which lies between the _gunnel_, and the upper edge of
the upper deck-ports, as expressed by T in the MIDSHIP-FRAME, plate VII.

_To_ STRIP _the masts_, _defuner_, is to unrig a ship, or deprive the
masts of their machinery and furniture; an exercise which is otherwise
called dismantling.

STROKE, a single sweep of the oars in rowing. Hence they say, Row a long
stroke! _longue rime!_ which is intended to push the vessel forward more
steddily. See the article OAR; as also the French term NAGER, and the
phrases following it.



  _Geometrical Elevation of the STERN of a 1^{st} 2^d RATE._

STROKESMAN, the person who rows the hindmost oar in a boat, and gives
the stroke, which the rest are to follow; so that all the oars may
operate together.

STROP, _etrope_, a piece of rope _spliced_ into a circular wreath, and
used to surround the body of a block; so that the latter may be hung to
any particular station about the _masts_, _yards_, or _rigging_. Thus,
fig. 37. and 38. in plate II. represent two block-strops of different
sorts. See BLOCK and EYE.

STROPS are also used occasionally to fasten upon any large rope, for the
purpose of hooking a _tackle_ to the eye, or double part of the strop;
in order to extend, or pull with redoubled effort, upon the said rope;
as in _setting-up_ the rigging, where one hook of the tackle is fixed in
a strop applied to the particular _shroud_, and the other to its
laniard. See the article LANIARD.

STUDDING-SAILS, _bonettes en etui_, certain light sails extended, in
moderate and steddy breezes, beyond the skirts of the principal sails,
where they appear as wings upon the yard-arms.

The word may be traced from several derivations; as from _scud_,
_stead_, or _steddy_. The small sails used by _sloops_, schooners, and
tartanes, when scudding, are nearly of the same size and figure with the
lower studding-sails; and the accidental application of the former, to
the usual design of the latter, throws a probability on the derivation
from _scud_; especially as being used in the small vessels of our
ancestors, who were unacquainted with topmasts; and, of course, had no
conception of topmast-studding-sails. An ingenious friend of the author,
seems, with greater propriety, to derive it from steddy; because, when
the wind is extremely feeble, the fluctuation of the sea, although
almost imperceptible, is communicated to the ship, and thence to the
principal sails; which, being shaken and slapped against the masts,
will, by their weight, prevent, or at least considerably diminish, the
operation of the wind. The studding-sails, on the contrary, being of a
much lighter and thinner texture, more readily feel the effort of the
breeze, and continue inflated, so as to push the ship forward, and give
her head-way. By this circumstance, she becomes susceptible of the power
of the helm, and is accordingly retained in a steddy course; and hence
those sails may originally have been called _steddying_-sails,
afterwards corrupted into studding-sails. The last conjecture, which
seems equally favourable, is drawn from the Saxon word _sted_, to help
or assist; in which sense, those sails may be considered as auxiliar,
being set occasionally to help the others, or assist the ship’s course;
and thence called steading, or stedding-sails. But the expression of
_steering sails_, however adopted by many officers, is a most
contemptible conceit, without either authority or reason to support it.
The others are implicitly submitted to the reader’s decision.

The topmast studding-sails, or those which are set on the out side of
the topsails, are spread below by a boom, which, sliding out from the
extremities of the main and fore-yards, as explained in the article
SADDLE, pushes out their lower corners: and their upper edges, which are
attached to a light pole, are hoisted up to the topsail-yard-arms. See
also BOOM-IRON, in the article IRON-WORK.

The lower studding-sails, which are spread beyond the skirts or _leech_
of the main-sail and fore-sail, are fixed nearly in the same manner;
only that the boom, which extends their bottoms, is generally hooked to
the _chains_ by means of a _goose-neck_; or else swings off along with
the sail, to which it is suspended; being kept steddy behind by a rope
called the _guy_.

STUFF, _courrée_, any composition, or melted mass, used to smear or daub
the masts, sides, or bottom of a ship. That which is chiefly used for
the lower masts is simply turpentine, rosin, or varnish of pine: for the
topmasts, tallow or butter: for the sides, turpentine, varnish of pine,
tar and oil, or tar mixed with oil and red oker: and for the bottom, a
mixture of tallow, sulphur, and rosin, or tar: whale-oil and broken
glass; or any part of these ingredients: and this application is called
giving a new coat of stuff to the masts, sides, &c.

SUPERCARGO, an officer charged with the accounts of the cargo, and all
other commercial affairs in a merchant-ship.

SUPPLY, a fresh recruit of provisions or stores sent to a ship or fleet.

SURF, the swell of the sea which breaks upon the shore, or any rock
lying near the surface of the sea.

SURGE, the same with a wave; which see.

SURVEY, an examination made by several naval officers into the state or
condition of the provisions, or stores, belonging to a ship, or fleet of
men of war.

SURVEYORS _of the navy_, two officers, who sit at the navy-board, being
invested with the charge of building and repairing his Majesty’s ships,
at the different dock-yards of the kingdom: for which purpose they are
trained to the theory and practice of ship-building. It is also their
office to know the state of the navy; to audit the accounts of all
boatswains and carpenters serving therein; and to enquire into the
condition of all naval stores, at home or abroad, in order to supply
whatsoever may be deficient.

SWAB, _fauber_, (_swabb_, Swed.) a sort of mop formed of a large bunch
of old rope-yarns, and used to clean the decks and cabins of a ship:
hence the person, who uses it, is called the swabber.

SWEEPING, _draguer_, the act of dragging the bight, or loose part of a
small rope, along the surface of the ground, in a harbour, or road, in
order to hook and recover some anchor, wreck, or other material, sunk at
the bottom. It is performed by fastening the two ends of this rope to
the sides of two boats which are abreast of each other, at some
distance. To the middle of the rope are suspended two cannon-shot, or
something which weighs heavy, in order to sink it to the ground; so
that, as the boats advance, by rowing ahead, the rope drags along the
bottom, to hook any anchor, &c. for which they are searching.

SWELL, _enflement_, generally denotes an heavy and continued agitation
of the waves, according to a particular direction: as there is a great
swell setting into the bay. It is, however, more particularly applied to
the fluctuating motion of the sea, which remains after the expiration of
a storm: as also, to that which breaks on the sea-shore; or upon rocks,
or shallows.

SWIFTER, a rope used to confine the bars of the capstern in their
sockets, whilst the men are heaving it about; for which purpose it is
passed through holes in the extremities of the bars, so as to strain
them firmly together like the spokes of a wheel; which is accordingly
called swifting. See the article CAPSTERN.

SWIFTER is also a strong rope, sometimes used to encircle a boat
longitudinally, as well as to strengthen and defend her sides, as to
enable her the better to resist the impression of other boats which may
run against her occasionally. It is usually fixed about a foot under the
boat´s upper edge, or gunnel.

SWIFTERS are likewise two _shrouds_ fixed on the starboard and larboard
side of the lower masts, above all the other shrouds, as an additional
security to the masts. The hoisters are never confined, like the other
shrouds, by _Cat-harpings_. See that article.

_To_ SWING, to turn round the anchors, or _moorings_, at the change of
the wind, or tide: it is usually expressed of a ship, either when she is
moored by the head, or _riding_ at a single anchor.


TABLING, _bander_, a sort of broad hem formed on the skirts and bottoms
of a ship’s sails, to strengthen them in that part which is attached to
the bolt-rope.

TACK, _couet_, a rope used to confine the foremost lower-corners of the
_courses_ and _stay-sails_ in a fixed position, when the wind crosses
the ship’s course obliquely. The same name is also given to the rope
employed to pull out the lower corner of a _studding-sail_ or _driver_
to the extremity of its boom.

The main-sail and fore-sail of a ship are furnished with a tack on each
side, which is formed of a thick rope tapering to the end, and having a
knot wrought upon the largest end, by which it is firmly retained in the
clue of the sail. By this means one tack is always fastened to windward,
at the same time that the _sheet_ extends the sail to leeward. See

TACK is also applied, by analogy, to that part of any sail to which the
tack is usually fastened.

A ship is said to be on the starboard or larboard tack, when she is
_close-hauled_, with the wind upon the starboard or larboard side; and
in this sense the distance which she sails in that position is
considered as the length of the tack; although this is more frequently
called a BOARD. See that article.

_To_ TACK, _virer vent devant_, to change the course from one board to
another, or turn the ship about from the starboard to the larboard tack,
in a contrary wind. Thus the ship A, fig. 2. plate XI. being
close-hauled on the larboard tack, and turning her prow suddenly to
windward, receives the impression of the wind on her head-sails _a_, by
which she falls off upon the line of the starboard tack _a_. Tacking is
also used, in a more enlarged sense, to imply that manœuvre, in
navigation, by which a ship makes an oblique progression to the
windward, in a zigzag direction. This, however, is more usually called
beating or turning to windward. See BEATING and TURNING.

Thus, suppose a ship A, fig. 2. plate XI. bound to a port B lying to
windward, with the wind northerly, as expressed by the arrow. The sails
_a_, _b_, _c_, being braced obliquely with the keel, the wind also falls
upon their surfaces in an oblique direction, by which the ship is pushed
to leeward, as explained in the article LEE-WAY. Hence, although she
apparently sails W. N. W. upon the larboard tack, as expressed in the
dotted line A _d_, and E. N. E. upon the other _d f_, yet if the lee-way
is only one point, (and indeed it is seldom less in the smoothest
water), the course will accordingly be W. _by_ N. upon one tack, and E.
_by_ N. upon the other, as represented by the lines A _e_, and _e g_.

If the port A were directly to windward of the ship, it is evident that
both tacks ought to be of equal length; or, in other words, that she
ought to run the same distance upon each tack: but as the place of her
destination lies obliquely to windward, she must run a greater distance
upon one tack than the other; because the extremities of both _boards_
should be equally distant from the line of her true course B A; so the
larboard tack A _e_, crossing the course more obliquely than the other
_e g_, will necessarily be much longer.

As the true course, or the direct distance from B to A, is only 12
leagues, it is evident, that with a favourable wind she could reach it
in a few hours. On the contrary, her distance is considerably increased
by the length of her boards, in a contrary wind; which, by its obliquity
with her sails, operates also to retard her velocity. Thus her first
board A _e_, on a W. _by_ N. course, is equal to 5.7 leagues. The second
tack _e g_ is 9.2 leagues E. _by_ N.: the third tack, parallel to A _e_,
is 11.5: the fourth, parallel to _e g_, is 9.2: and the fifth, parallel
to the first, 11.7 leagues. Finally, the sixth board is 4.8 leagues,
parallel to the second, which brings her to the port B. By this scheme
it appears that she has run more than four times the extent of the line
A B, her primitive distance; and this in the most favourable
circumstances of a contrary wind, viz. when the sea is smooth, and when
she may carry her full topsails. For if the wind blows stronger, to
render it necessary to _reef_ the topsails, she will soon make two
points of _lee-way_, and accordingly run east on one board, and west on
the other. In this situation she will neither approach, nor recede from
the place of her destination: but if the wind increases, the sea will
also be enlarged; a circumstance that still farther augments the
lee-way. Hence the vessel will gradually fall off from the port, in
proportion to the augmentation of the wind and sea, which occasions a
proportional increase of lee-way.

In order to explain the theory of tacking a ship, it may be necessary to
premise a known axiom in natural philosophy, That every body will
persevere in a state of rest, or of moving uniformly in a right line,
unless it be compelled to change its state by forces impressed; and that
the change of motion is proportional to the moving force impressed, and
is made according to the right line in which that force is exerted.

By this principle it is easy to conceive how a ship is compelled to turn
into any direction, by the force of the wind acting upon her sails, in
horizontal lines. For the sails may be so arranged as to receive the
current of air, either directly, or more or less obliquely: hence the
motion communicated to the sails must of necessity conspire with that of
the wind upon their surfaces. To make the ship tack, or turn round with
her head to the windward, it is therefore necessary, after she has
received the first impression from the _helm_, that the head-sails
should be so disposed as to diminish the effort of the wind, in the
first instant of her motion, and that the whole force of the wind should
be exerted on the _after_-sails, which operating on the ship’s stern,
carries it round like a weather-cock. But since the action of the
after-sails, to turn the ship, will unavoidably cease when her head
points to the windward, it then becomes necessary to use the head-sails,
to prevent her from _falling-off_, and returning to her former
situation. These are accordingly laid _aback_ on the lee-side, to push
the vessel’s fore-part towards the opposite side, till she has fallen
into the line of her course thereon, and fixed her sails to conform with
that situation.

It has been observed above, that the first effort to turn the ship in
tacking is communicated by the helm, which is then put to the lee-side.
This circumstance being announced by the pilot, or commanding-officer,
who then calls out, _Helm’s a-lee!_ the head-sails are immediately made
to shiver in the wind, by casting loose their _sheets_, or _bowlines_.
The pilot then calls, _Up tacks and sheets!_ which is executed by
loosening all the ropes which confine the corners of the lower sails, in
order that they may be more readily shifted to the other side. When the
ship has turned her head directly to windward, as in _d_, fig. 2. plate
XI. the pilot gives the order to turn about the sails on the main and
mizen masts, by the exclamation, _Haul main-sail, haul!_ the bowlines
and braces are then instantly cast off on one side, and as expeditiously
drawn in on the other side, so as to wheel the yards about their masts:
the lower corner of the main-sail is, by means of its tack, pulled down
to its station at the chestree; and all the after-sails are, at the same
time, adjusted to stand upon the other board. Finally, when the ship has
fallen off five or six points, as _h_, fig. 2. plate XI. the pilot
cries, _Haul of all!_ or, _Let go, and haul!_ the sails on the fore-mast
are wheeled about by their braces: and as the ship has then a tendency
to fall off, she is checked by the effort of the helm, which for that
purpose is put _hard a-lee_. The fore-tack, or the lower corner of the
fore-sail, being fixed in its place, the bowlines are hauled; and the
other sails, which have been neglected in the hurry of tacking, are
properly arranged to the wind, which exercise is called trimming the
sails. See LEE-WAY and SAILING.

TACKLE, _palan_, pronounced _taicle_, a machine formed by the
communication of a rope with an assemblage of blocks, and known in
mechanics by the name of pulley.

Tackles are used in a ship to raise, remove, or secure weighty bodies;
to support the masts; or to extend the sails and rigging. They are
either moveable, as communicating with a _runner_; or fixed, as being
hooked in an immoveable station; and they are more or less complicated,
in proportion to the effects which they are intended to produce.

If _a b d e_, fig. 3. plate XI be a single block, upon which are
suspended the weights _f g_, then since the nearest distance of the
ropes _f g_, from the center of motion _c_, are _a c_ equal to _d c_,
the block will be reduced to the lever or balance _a d_ with respect to
its power: Since _a c_ is then equal to _d c_, it is apparent that _f g_
will always be in equilibrium. As no advantage therefore can be
acquired, in raising a weight by an immoveable single block, it is only
rendered useful by changing the direction of the moving power. This
circumstance is extremely convenient to the labourers, and often
absolutely necessary; particularly in raising bodies to a higher
station; as from the hold to the upper decks, or from the deck to the
masts or yards, &c. which would otherwise be difficult or impracticable
to perform. See also the articles BLOCK and WHIP.

When a single block is moveable along with the body to which it is
attached, fig. 4. plate XI. as the blocks of the _brace-pendants_,
_reef-tackle pendants_, _jiggers_, &c. the momentum of the power is
doubled; because it moves twice as fast as the weight, or body to which
it is attached. For in the same time that any part of the rope _f_,
moves upward from _f_ to _g_, equal in length to the two equal ropes _d_
and _c_, the block, and consequently the weight annexed, will be drawn
through the space _e h_, whose length is equal to one of the ropes only.

When a tackle consists of two or more fixed and moveable blocks, wherein
one rope communicates with the whole; if one end of the rope be fixed,
as in fig. 5. 6. and 7. in order to proportion the weight to the
resistance, the power applied must be to the weight, as one, to twice
the number of _sheaves_ in the moveable blocks: because, in the efforts
of a tackle, the velocity of the moving power is, to the velocity of the
rising or moving body, as twice the number of moveable sheaves to unity,
as appears in fig. 5. which consists of one fixed block _a_, and another
moveable as _e_. For since one rope operates on all the sheaves from _g_
to _f_, the part at _f_, lying beyond the fixed block, and called the
_fall_, cannot be drawn down and lengthened, unless the two parts _d_
and _c_, on each side of the moveable block, be at the same time equally
drawn up and shortened. Hence it is evident, that the part _a f_ will be
lengthened twice as much as either _d_ or _c_ is shortened, because
whatever is taken from each of those parts is added to the length of _a
f_; but the point _f_, to which the power is applied, descends as fast
as _a f_ is lengthened and the point _e_, to which the weight is
fastened, ascends as fast as _d_ or _c_ is shortened. If therefore, a
weight suspended at _f_, be to a weight suspended at _e_, as one to two,
they will balance each other, as being in the reciprocal ratio of their

Whatever has been observed with regard to the tackles above mentioned,
is equally applicable to all others, and is in the same manner
demonstrable, viz. that the velocity with which the mechanical force
moves, in raising a weight, is to the velocity wherewith the weight
rises, as twice the number of moveable sheaves to unity.

A tackle wherein both the blocks are moveable, and communicate with a
runner, is represented by fig. 10. plate VIII. That part of the tackle
which is fixed to one of the blocks, &c. is called the standing part;
all the rest are called running parts; and that whereon the men pull
when employing the tackle, is called the _fall_. The application of the
tackle to mechanical purposes is termed _hoisting_ or _bowssing_. See
those articles.


TACK-TACKLE, a small tackle used occasionally to pull down the tack of
the principal sails of a ship to their respective stations. There is
also a tackle of this kind constantly fixed to the tacks of the
main-sail in _brigs_, _sloops_, and _schooners_, for the same purpose.
See the French term PALAN, and the phrases annexed thereto.

TAFFAREL, _couronnement_, the upper part of a ship’s stern, being a
curved piece of wood, expressed by F F, in fig. 1. plate X. and usually
ornamented with sculpture.

TAIL, a name given by sailors to the extremities of a hurricane, wherein
the violence is considerably exhausted.

TAIL-BLOCK, a small single block, having a short piece of rope attached
to it, by which it may be fastened to any object at pleasure; either for
convenience, or to increase the force applied to the said object, as
explained in the first part of the article TACKLE.

TAKING-IN, the act of brailing-up and furling the sails at sea,
particularly when the wind increases. It is generally used in opposition
to _setting_. See also FURL and SHORTEN.

TALLYING, _border_, a phrase used by the common sailors, implying the
act of pulling aft the _sheets_, or lower corners of the main-sail and

TAR, a sort of liquid gum, of a blackish hue, which distils from pines
or fir-trees, either naturally or by incision; and being prepared by
boiling, is used to pay the sides of ships and boats, and their rigging,
in order to preserve them from the effects of the weather, by which they
would otherwise soon become cracked, split, or rotten.

TAR is also a figurative expression for a sailor of any kind.

TAR-PAWLING, _prélart_, a broad piece of canvas well daubed with tar,
and used to cover the hatchways of a ship at sea, to prevent the
penetration of the rain, or sea-water, which may occasionally rush over
the decks. See BATTENS.

TARTAN, (_tartana_, Ital.) a small coasting vessel navigated in the
Mediterranean sea, and having only one mast and a bowsprit, the
principal sail, which is extremely large, being extended by a
lateen-yard. See VESSEL.

TAUGHT, _roide_, (_dicht_, Dutch) the state of being extended or
stretched out. It is usually applied to a rope or sail, in opposition to

TAUNT, _foit_, an epithet used, in the sea-language, to signify high or
tall. It is peculiarly expressed of the masts when they are of an
extraordinary length, as _square_ is applied to the yards on the same

TENDER, _patache_, a small vessel employed in the King’s service, on
various occasions; as, to receive volunteers and impressed men, and
convey them to a distant place; to attend on ships of war or squadrons;
and to carry intelligence or orders from one place to another, &c.

TENDING, the movement by which a ship turns or swings round her anchor
in a tide-way, at the beginning of the flood or ebb. Thus, if the flood
sets northerly, it is evident that the ship, unless when moored head and
stern, will fall into the line of the current, turning her head to the
southward. But as the reflux will for the same reason set to the
southward, the ship will of necessity turn about at the change of the
tide, and carry her head to the northward; and the transition from one
situation to the other is called tending or swinging.

TENON, the end of a piece of timber cut smaller to enter into a mortise.

THIMBLE, _cosse_, a sort of iron ring, whose outer surface is hollowed
throughout its whole circumference, in order to contain, in the channel
or cavity, a rope which is spliced about it, and by which it may be hung
in any particular station. See plate XII. fig. 1. It is used to guide
the direction of some running rope, which passes through it, from one
place to another. See Span.

THOLES, (_tholet_, Fr.) certain small pins driven perpendicularly into
the upper edge of a boat, as expressed by _e_, fig. 1, plate III. In the
exercise of rowing, the oar is contained between the two tholes, in the
space which is called the _row-lock_. Sometimes there is only one pin to
each oar, as in the boats navigated on the Mediterranean sea. In that
case the oar is hung upon the pin by means of a strop; and indeed this
method is much more ancient than the former. See the article ROWING.

THROAT, a name given to the inner end of a _gaff_, or to that part which
is next to the mast. It is opposed to _peek_, which implies the outer
extremity of the said gaff, or that part of it which extends the sail
behind. Hence the ropes employed to hoist up, and lower a gaff, being
applied to those parts of it, are called the throat and peek haliards.
See _Haliards_.

THUS! the order by which the pilot directs the helmsman to keep the ship
in her present situation when sailing with a _scant_ wind; so that she
may not approach too near the direction of the wind, and thereby shiver
her sails, nor fall to leeward, and run farther out of her course. See

THWART, _banc_, the seat or bench of a boat whereon the rowers sit to
manage the oars.

THWART-SHIPS, across the ship. See the article ATHWART.

TIDE, _marée_, (_tyd_, Sax.) a regular periodical current of the water,
setting alternately in a flux and reflux, produced by the influence of
the moon.

If the ocean were equally deep in every place, the ebbing and flowing of
the tide would be universally regular and equal; but the shallowness of
the water in many places, and the streightness of the channels, by which
the tides may be considerably interrupted in some parts, and propagated
in others, occasion a great diversity in their force and quantity.
Hence, without an exact knowledge of all the circumstances of the
several places where they happen to run, as of the position of the land,
the breadth and depth of channels; it is impossible to account for this

The theory of the tides is concisely described by a great author, in
these words: “That motion of the water called tides is a rising and
falling of the sea: the cause of this is the attraction of the moon,
whereby the part of water in the great ocean which is nearest the moon,
being most strongly attracted, is raised higher than the rest; and the
part opposite to it being least attracted, is also higher than the rest;
and these two opposite elevations of the surface of the water in the
great ocean, following the motion of the moon from est to west, and
striking against the large coasts of the continents, from thence
rebounds back again, and so makes floods and ebbs in narrows, seas, and
rivers.” _Locke._

With regard to the relative force of the tide on a ship floating
therein, it is already explained in the article CURRENT.

TIER, _batterie_, a name given to the range of cannon mounted on one
side of a ship’s deck. See the articles DECK and CANNON.

TIER _of the cable_, is a range of the _fakes_ or windings of the cable,
which are laid within one another in an horizontal position, so as that
the last becomes the innermost. See COILING.

_Cable_-TIER is the hollow space in the middle of a cable, when it is

TIGHT, (_dicht_, Dutch) the quality whereby a vessel resists the
penetration of any fluid, whether compressing its surface, or contained
within it. Hence a ship is said to be tight, when her planks are so
compact and solid as to prevent the entrance of the water in which she
is immersed: and a cask is called tight, when the staves are so close
that none of the liquid contained therein can issue through or between
them. In both senses it is opposed to _leaky_, which see.

TILLER, _timon_, or _barre de gouvernail_, the bar or lever employed to
turn the rudder in steering. See the article HELM.

TILT, _tendelet_, (_tyld_, Sax.) a small canopy or awning of canvas, or
other cloth, extended over the stern-sheets of a boat, and supported by
small pillars, or broad laths of flexible wood incurvated into arches.
It is used to cover the passengers from the rain or sunshine. See BOAT.

TIMBERS, _couples_, the ribs of a ship, or the incurvated pieces of
wood, branching outward from the keel in a vertical direction, so as to
give strength, figure, and solidity to the whole fabric.

It has been observed in the article _Naval_ ARCHITECTURE, that one
timber is composed of several pieces united into one frame, which is
accordingly called a frame of timbers by the artificers. These different
pieces are exhibited in plate I. PIECES of the HULL, by U, V, and W. The
head of the lower piece, called the _floor_-timber, being cut square, to
join the heel of the next above it. To support the connection of the
timber in that place, another assemblage of pieces are formed, and
joined in the same manner; so that when both the sets are fastened
together, the joinings in one set will be nearly opposite to the middle
of the pieces in the other. Hence it is evident, that the mould which
serves for the lowest piece will conform to the under part of the
corresponding piece above it: and thus the mould, appropriated to every
division of a timber, will determine, or answer to the figure of the
next adjoining thereto.

The timbers whose areas or _planes_ are perpendicular to the _keel_, are
called square timbers; and those which are placed obliquely on the keel,
as at the extremities of a ship, are called cant-timbers. The foremost
of those pieces on the ship’s _bow_, are called the knuckle-timbers; and
the hindmost on the quarter are called the fashion-pieces.

The outlines, or _bends_ of the principal timbers of the ship are
geometrically delineated in the plane of projection, plate I. as also in
plate IV. fig. 11. and plate X. fig. 2.: and their particular stations
in the ship’s length are represented in the horizontal plane, and that
of the elevation, plate I. In order to give a more comprehensive idea of
their figures and dimensions, we have exhibited a perspective view of
the carcase of a small vessel, in plate XII. fig. 2. consisting only of
the _keel_ A, the _stern-post_ B, the _stem_ C, the _transoms_ K L M,
and the _ribbands_ F F.

TIMBER AND ROOM, or _room and space_, is the alliance betwixt the
moulding edge of two adjoining timbers, which must always contain the
breadth of two timbers; and sometimes two or three inches between them.
It must be observed, that one mould serves for two timbers; the fore
side of the one being supposed to unite with the after side of the
other, and so make only one line; which is actually the case in all the
frames, which in some ships are every third, and in others every fourth
timber. The frames are first put up, and fastened to the ribbands, and
afterwards the others are put up, which are called fitting-timbers.
_Murray’s ship-building._

TIMONEER, (_timonier_, Fr.) the helmsman, or person who manages the helm
to direct the ship’s course. See the article STEERING.

In a ship of war the quarter-masters and timoneers are usually chosen by
the master, to _cun_ and steer the ship; as also, to stow the provisions
in the hold, coil the cables, regulate the watch, &c. See

TOGETHER! _accord_, the order given to the men in the exercises of
_heaving_, rowing, holding, &c. to act all in concert, or at the same

TOGGEL, _cabillot_, a small wooden pin, about five or six inches in
length, and usually tapering from the middle towards the extremities. It
is used to fix transversely in the lower part of a tackle, in which it
serves as an hook whereby to attach the tackle to a strop, slings, or
any body whereon the effort of the tackle is to be employed.

There are also toggels of another kind, employed to fasten the
top-gallant sheets to the _span_, which is knotted round the cap at the
top-mast-head. For as the lifts of the topsail-yard are out of use when
the topsail is hoisted, they are always converted into top-gallant
sheets, to render the rigging at the mast-heads as light and simple as
possible. Before the topsail-yards can be lowered so as to be sustained
by their lifts, it therefore becomes necessary to transfer that part of
the lift to the top-mast-head, that so the whole weight of the yard may
be sustained by its mast-head, and no part thereof by the
top-gallant-yard, which would otherwise be the case. This is performed
by fixing the double part, or bight of the lift, within the eye of the
span above mentioned, and inserting the toggel through the former, so as
to confine it to the latter, which operation is amongst sailors called
putting the sheets in the _beckets_.

TOMPION, (_tampon_, Fr.) a sort of bung or cork used to stop the mouth
of a cannon. At sea this is carefully encircled with tallow or putty, to
prevent the penetration of the water into the bore, whereby the powder
contained in the chamber might be damaged or rendered incapable of

TONNAGE. See the article BURTHEN.

TOP, _hune_, a sort of platform, surrounding the lower mast-head, from
which it projects on all sides like a scaffold.

The principal intention of the top is to extend the top-mast shrouds, so
as to form a greater angle with the mast, and thereby give additional
support to the latter. It is sustained by certain timbers fixed across
the _hounds_ or shoulders of the mast, and called the tressel-trees and
cross-trees, the former of which are expressed by _k_, fig. 1. plate VI.
and the latter by _l, l_, fig. 2. The plan of the top is represented in
fig. 6. where _g g_ represents the holes through which the top-mast
shrouds communicate with those of the lower mast, as explained in the
article SHROUD.

Besides the use above mentioned, the top is otherwise extremely
convenient to contain the materials necessary for extending the small
sails, and for fixing or repairing the rigging and machinery, with more
facility and expedition. In ships of war it is used as a kind of
redoubt, and is accordingly fortified for attack or defence, being
furnished with swivels, musketry, and other fire-arms; and guarded by a
thick fence of corded _hammocs_. Finally, it is employed as a place for
looking out, either in the day or night.

The frame of the top is either close-planked like a platform, or open
like a grating. The former kind, which is exhibited in fig. 6. plate VI.
is generally stronger and more convenient; but the latter is much better
in tempestuous weather, as presenting a smaller surface to the wind when
the ship leans over to one side, and by consequence being less exposed
to its efforts.

In all ships of war, and in the largest merchantmen, the top is fenced
on the aft-side by a rail of about three feet high, stretching across,
and supported by stanchions, between which a netting is usually
constructed, as appears by fig. 2. plate VI. The outside of this netting
is generally covered with red bayze or red painted canvas, which is
extended from the rail down to the edge of the top, and called the
top-armour. By this name it seems to have been considered as a sort of
blind, behind which the men may conceal themselves from the aims of the
enemy’s fire-arms in time of action, whilst they are charging their own
muskets, carabines, or swivels.

The dimensions of tops in the royal navy are as follow. The breadth of
the top _athwart-ships_, _q q_, fig. 6. is one third of the length of
its corresponding top-mast. The length of all tops, from the foremost to
the after edge _p p_, is equal to three fourths of their breadth
athwart; and the square hole in the middle is five inches to a foot of
those dimensions. The tressel-trees and cross-trees extend nearly to the
edge of the tops. See those articles.


TOP-CHAIN. See the article CHAIN.

TOP-LANTHORN, _fanal de hune_, a large lanthorn placed in the after part
of the top, in any ship where an admiral or commodore is personally
aboard. It is supported on each side by iron braces _r_, as expressed in
fig. 3. plate VI.

TOP-MAST, _mât de hune_, the second division of a mast; or that part
which stands between the upper and lower pieces. See the article MAST.

TOP-ROPE, _guinderesse_, a rope employed to _sway-up_ a top-mast or
top-gallant mast, in order to fix it in its place; or to lower it in
tempestuous weather, or when it is no longer necessary. The rope used on
this occasion for the top-masts is, on account of their great weight,
furnished with an assemblage of pullies, at its lower end, called the
_top-tackle_, to hoist or lower the mast with greater facility. The
whole of this is particularly explained in the article MAST, and the
plate therein referred to.

TOP-SAILS, certain large sails extended across the top-masts, by the
top-sail-yard above, and by the yard attached to the lower mast beneath;
being fastened to the former by _robands_, and to the latter by means of
two great blocks fixed on its extremities, through which the
topsail-sheets are inserted, passing from thence to two other blocks
fixed on the inner part of the yard close by the mast: and from these
latter the sheets lead downwards to the deck, where they may be
slackened or extended at pleasure. See the article SAIL. _N. B._ The
top-gallant sails are expanded above the topsail-yard, in the same
manner as the latter are extended above the lower yard.

The several parts of the machinery by which the top-sails are managed,
as the _bowlines_, _braces_, _haliards_, _lifts_, and _sheets_, being
copiously defined in their proper places, it would be superfluous to
repeat their explanations.

TOPPING, _apiquer_, the act of pulling one of the extremities of a yard
higher than the other, by slackening one of the _lifts_, and pulling
upon the opposite one, so as to place the yard at a greater or lesser
obliquity with the mast.

TOPPING-LIFT, _balancine de gui_, a large and strong tackle, employed to
suspend or _top_ the outer end of a gaff, or of the _boom_ of a
main-sail and fore-sail; such as are used in _brigs_, _sloops_, or
_schooners_. See SQUARE.

TORNADO, _travade_, a violent squall or gust of wind rising suddenly
from the shore, and afterwards veering round the compass like a
hurricane. These are very frequent on the coasts of Guinea and South
Barbary. See WIND.

TOUCHING, the state of a ship’s sails when they first begin to shiver,
with their edges in the direction of the wind. It is either occasioned
by a sudden alteration of the ship’s course, or by a change of the wind,
in which it blows more obliquely along the surface of the sails, instead
of falling into their cavities from behind, according to its usual
direction. See FULL AND BY.

TOUCHING-AT, implies the circumstance of stopping, or anchoring
occasionally, at some intermediate port, in the course of a voyage.

_To_ TOW, _remorquer_, (_teon_, _teohan_, Sax.) to draw a ship forward
in the water, by means of a rope attached to another vessel or boat,
which advances by the effort of rowing or sailing.

Towing is either practised when a ship is disabled, and rendered
incapable of carrying sail at sea; or when her sails are not fixed upon
the masts, as in a harbour: or when they are deprived of their force of
action by a cessation of the wind.

When a ship of war is dismasted, or otherwise disabled from carrying
sail at sea, she is usually towed by a cable reaching from her bow to
another ship a-head. In a harbour towing is practised by one or more
boats, wherein all the force of the oars are exerted to make her

TOW-LINE, a small hauser generally used to remove a ship from one part
of an harbour or road to another, by means of anchors, capsterns, &c. as
explained in the article WARPING. It is also employed occasionally to
moor a small vessel in a harbour, conveniently sheltered from the wind
and sea.

TOW-ROPE, a name given to any cable or other rope used in the exercise
of towing.

TRACING-LINE, _martinet_, a small cord generally passing through a block
or _thimble_, and used to hoist up any object to a higher station, in
order to render it less inconvenient. Such are the tracing-lines of the
_awnings_, and those of the _yard-tackles_, which, by hanging down in a
cavity or bight, would be aukward and incommodious.

TRACK _of a ship_. See the article WAKE.

TRACKING, the act of pulling any vessel or floating body along the
stream of a canal or river, by means of a rope extending from the
vessel, &c. to the adjacent shore, and drawn along the banks of the
river, by men or horses. Whence,

TRACK-SCOUT, a vessel employed to carry goods or passengers up and down
the rivers or canals in Holland, and the countries bordering on the
Baltic sea. It is usually tracked by a horse, who trots along the margin
to a limited distance, after which he is relieved by another.

TRADE-WINDS, certain regular winds blowing within or near the tropics,
and being either periodical or perpetual. Thus, in the Indian ocean,
they blow alternately from different points of the compass, during a
limited season; and, in the Atlantic ocean, continue almost without
intermission in the same direction. They are accordingly called
trade-winds, from their great utility in navigation and commerce. See

TRAIN. See the articles CANNON and FIRE-SHIP.

TRANSOMS, _barres d’arcasse_, (_transenna_, Lat.) certain beams or
timbers extended across the _stern-post_ of a ship, to fortify her
after-part, and give it the figure most suitable to the service for
which she is calculated.

Transoms are here defined _beams_ or _timbers_, because they partake
equally of the form and purpose of those pieces. Thus the deck-transom
is the aftmost or hindmost beam of the lower deck, whereon all the
deck-planks are rabetted: and all the transoms are fixed athwart the
stern-post, in the same manner as the floor-timbers are laid upon the
keel. As the floor-timbers also, with regard to their general form and
arrangement, have a _rising_, by which, the bottom becomes narrower as
it ascends towards the extremities; so the arms of the transoms, being
gradually closer in proportion to their distance from the wing-transom
downwards, give a similar figure to that part of the ship, which
accordingly becomes extremely narrow, from the counter towards the keel;
and this general figure or curve is called the _flight_ of the transoms.

Although these pieces are therefore extremely different in their
figures, according to the extent of the angles formed by their branches
or horns, each of them has nevertheless a double curve, which is partly
vertical, and partly horizontal, with regard to its situation in the
ship. The former of these is called, by the artificers, the round-up,
and the latter the _round-aft_.

As the transoms fill up the whole space comprehended between the head of
the stern-post above, and the aftmost floor-timbers below, it is
necessary to distinguish them by particular names. Thus the highest is
called the wing-transom: the next, the deck-transom; and afterwards
follow the first, second, and third transoms; together with the
intermediate ones, as represented in fig. 1. plate X. and described in
the explanation thereof.

The vertical direction of the arms or angles of the transoms, with
regard to the ship’s length, are expressed in the plane of ELEVATION;
and their horizontal curves are also delineated on the plane of
Projection; both of which are represented under those terms in plate I.
and described in the general explanation of the planes in the article

The highest transoms are connected to the ship’s quarter by knees, which
are bolted to those pieces, and to the after-timbers. See the article

TRANSPORT. See the article SHIP.

TRANSPORTING, the act of removing a ship from one place to another, by
the help of anchors and ropes. See WARPING.

TRAVELLER, _racambeau_, a sort of _thimble_, whose diameter is much
longer, in proportion to the breadth of its surface, than the common
ones, fig. 3. plate XII. It is furnished with a tail formed of a piece
of rope, about three feet in length, one end of which encircles the
ring, to which it is _spliced_. These machines are principally intended
to facilitate the _hoisting_ or _lowering_ of the top-gallant-yards at
sea: for which purpose two of them are fixed on each _back-stay_,
whereon they slide upwards and downwards, like the ring of a curtain
upon its rod: being thus attached to the extremities of the
top-gallant-yard, they prevent it from swinging backwards and forwards,
by the agitation of the ship, whilst the yard is hoisting or lowering at

TRAVERSE, in navigation, implies a compound course, or an assemblage of
various courses, lying at different angles with the meridian. Thus fig.
2. plate XI. exhibits the traverses formed by a ship, when making an
oblique progression against the direction of the wind, as explained in
the article TACKING.

The true course and distance resulting from this diversity of courses is
discovered by collecting the difference of latitude and departure of
each course, and reducing the whole into one departure and one
difference of latitude, according to the known rules of trigonometry.
This reduction will immediately ascertain the base and perpendicular;
or, in other words, will give the difference of latitude and departure
to discover the course and distance. See NAVIGATION.

TRAVERSE-BOARD, a thin circular piece of board, marked with all the
points of the compass, and having eight holes bored in each, and eight
small pegs hanging from the center of the board. It is used to determine
the different courses run by a ship during the period of the watch; and
to ascertain the distance of each course. This implement is particularly
useful in light and variable winds, at which time the helmsman marks the
course every half hour, by fixing a peg in that point of the compass
whereon the ship had advanced. Thus, if the wind is northerly at the
beginning of the watch, the ship, being _close-hauled_ on the larboard
_tack_, will steer W. N. W. If, after the first half hour, the wind
changes to N. _by_ W. the ship will fall off to W. _by_ N. both of these
courses are marked by the helmsman upon the traverse-board, by putting
in one peg for every half hour on which she steers the same course; as,
one peg into W. N. W. and two pegs into W. _by_ N. if she sails an hour
on the latter course; and so on. The lee-way and variation of the
compass are afterwards allowed by the pilot, on summing up the whole.

TREE-NAILS, _gournables_, certain long cylindrical wooden pins, employed
to connect the planks of a ship’s side and bottom to the corresponding

The tree-nails are justly esteemed superior to spike-nails or bolts,
which are liable to rust, and loosen, as well as to rot the timber; but
it is necessary that the oak of which they are formed should be solid,
close, and replete with gum, to prevent them from breaking and rotting
in the ship’s frame. They ought also to be well dried, so as to fill
their holes when they are swelled with moisture. They have usually one
inch in thickness to 100 feet in the vessel’s length; so that the
tree-nails of a ship of 100 feet long, are one inch in diameter; and one
inch and a half for a ship of 150 feet.

TRESTLE-TREES, _tesseaux_, two strong bars of timber fixed horizontally
on the opposite sides of the lower mast-head, to support the frame of
the top, and the weight of the top-mast. See MAST and TOP.

TRIM, _manege du navire_, (_trimman_, Sax. _to build_) implies, in
general, the state or disposition by which a ship is best calculated for
the several purposes of navigation.

Thus the trim of the _hold_ denotes the most convenient and proper
arrangement of the various materials contained therein, relatively to
the ships motion or stability at sea. The trim of the masts and sails is
also their most apposite situation, with regard to the construction of
the ship, and the effort of the wind upon her sails.

As the _stowage_ of the hold, or the disposition of the several articles
of the cargo, considerably affects the ship’s motion and stability, it
will be necessary to give a general idea of the action of a heavy body
upon the fluid that supports it, and the re-action of the fluid on the
floating body.

The whole weight of any body, then, may be considered as united in its
center of gravity; so that, if it were suspended by a line fastened to
this center, the line would hang in a perpendicular position, as
directed through the center of gravity to the center of the earth. A
body which floats in a fluid is not, however, supported by its center of
gravity, but by the compression of the surrounding filaments of water:
and each of these, being considered as infinitely small, will act upon a
very minute portion of the surface of the floating body, with regard to
the specific gravity, and conform to a principle applicable to all
fluids, in proportion to the height of these filaments, viz. That the
weight of a column of any fluid will be in proportion to the specific
gravity of the fluid and the height of the column multiplied by its

But as heavy bodies endeavour, by their gravity, to approach the center
of the earth, in a vertical line passing through their centers; so the
pressure of fluids endeavours to carry bodies in a vertical, tending
from the center of the earth towards their surface, and passing through
the center of gravity of the submerged part, which forces them towards
the surface. So, in any submerged body at rest, these two opposite
forces coincide in the same vertical, acting in a direction quite
contrary to each other. _Bouguer’s Traité du navire._

From this theory it results, that the stability or trim of a ship
chiefly depends upon her construction, as considering the bottom to be
homogeneous. This, however, can only happen when her cargo consists of
the same materials throughout, as with corn, salt, or any species stowed
in bulk, and when her hold is entirely filled. For if the ship has not
sufficient breadth to resist the effort of the wind upon her sails; or
if she is built too high, or too sharp in the floor, her center of
gravity will be too high, and she will be very _crank_, i. e. apt to

But as the _stiffness_ of a ship, or quality to carry sail without
danger of overturning, depends very much on the _stowage_ of the hold,
the center of gravity may thereby be considerably lowered, by which her
stability will be increased in proportion. It is a general maxim amongst
mariners, that a ship will not carry sufficient sail till she is laden
so deep that the surface of the water may glance on her extreme breadth
_amidships_. She must therefore have a great deal of weight, as ballast,
&c. to bring her to this situation, which is called a good sailing trim.

Several circumstances are also to be particularly considered with regard
to the quality, weight, and stowage of the ballast. The center of
gravity being placed too high, will render the ship incapable of
carrying a sufficient quantity of sail; and by having it too low, she
will be in danger of rolling away her masts. When it is placed too far
forward, the ship will _pitch_, and _labour_ heavily; and when too far
aft, she will occasionally be exposed to the dangerous circumstance of a
_pooping_ sea. These extremes being carefully avoided, it remains to
proportion the contents of every part of the _hold_ to its capacity, and
to place the lightest materials uppermost. See STOWAGE.

TRIM, when applied to the sails, denotes the general arrangement which
is best calculated to accelerate the ship’s course, according to the
direction of the wind. See the article SAILING.

If the ship were always to sail before the wind, it would be a very
simple operation to trim the sails; because nothing else could be
required than to dispose them so as to receive the greatest possible
effort of the wind, which is evidently performed by arranging them at
right angles with its direction. But, when the current of wind acts more
directly upon the ship’s side, it necessarily falls more obliquely on
the surface of the sails, so as to diminish their effort to push the
ship forward; and to augment their tendency to make her incline to one
side. Hence we may conclude, that an increase of the wind, when
accompanied with a variation unfavourable to the ship’s course, will by
no means augment her velocity; because the force previously employed to
push her forward, will afterwards operate to overturn her; and because
this impression renders it necessary to reduce the quantity of sail; the
effort of which is farther diminished by the obliquity of the action of
the wind upon its surface.

By this theory it appears, that the effect of the wind to advance the
ship decreases in proportion to its obliquity with any sail upon which
it operates.

The mechanical disposition of the sails, according to every direction of
the wind upon their surfaces, is copiously described in the articles

TRIM, when expressed of the masts, denotes their position with regard to
the ship and to each other. Thus, in the latter sense, they should
neither be too near nor too far apart; and, in the former, they should
not be too far forward or aft; and, according to the situation or
quality which communicates a greater velocity to the vessel, they should
either be upright, or inclining aft, or forward.

TRIM _the boat_. See BOAT, and the phrases succeeding it.

_Sharp_-TRIMMED, the situation of a ship’s sails in a scant wind.

TRIMONEER, a barbarous corruption of TIMONEER. See that article.

TRIP, a cant phrase, implying an outward-bound voyage, particularly in
the coasting navigation. It also denotes a single _board_ in _plying_ to

TRIPPING, the movement by which an anchor is loosened from the bottom by
its cable or buoy-ropes. See ATRIP.

TROUGH, a name given to the hollow, or interval between two high waves,
which resembles a broad and deep trench perpetually fluctuating. As the
_setting_ of the sea is always produced by the wind, it is evident that
the waves, and consequently the trough or hollow space between them,
will be at right angles with the direction of the wind. Hence a ship
rolls heaviest when she lies in the trough of the sea.

TROWSERS, a sort of loose breeches of canvas worn by common sailors.

TRUCK, a piece of wood, which is either conical, cylindrical, spherical,
or spheroidical.

Thus the trucks fixed on the spindle of a mast-head, and which are
otherwise called _acorns_, are in the form of a cone: and those which
are employed as wheels to the gun-carriages are cylinders. The trucks of
the parrels assume the figure of a globe; and, lastly, those of the
flag-staffs resemble an oblate spheroid. See the articles ACORN, CANNON,

Trucks of the shrouds are nearly similar to those of the parrels: they
are fastened to the shrouds about twelve or fourteen feet above the
deck, the hole in the middle being placed perpendicularly to contain
some rope which passes through it. The intention of these is to guide
the sailors to the particular rope, which might otherwise be easily
mistaken for some other of the same size, especially in the night.

_Speaking_-TRUMPET, _trompette marine_, a trumpet of brass or tin used
at sea, to propagate the voice to a great distance, or to convey the
orders from one part of the ship to another, in tempestuous weather, &c.
when they cannot otherwise be distinctly heard by the persons to whom
they are directed.

_Fire_-TRUNK. See the article FIRE-SHIP.

TRUNNIONS, _tourillons_, the two knobs or arms which project from the
opposite sides of a piece of artillery, and serve to support it in the
carriage. See CANNON and MORTAR.

TRUSS, (_trousse_, Fr.) a machine employed to pull a yard home to its
respective mast, and retain it firmly in that position.

As the truss is generally used instead of a parrel, it is rarely
employed, except in flying top-gallant-sails, which are never furnished
with parrels. It is no other than a ring or traveller, which encircles
the mast, and has a rope fastened to its after-part, leading downward to
the top or decks; by means of which the truss may be straitened or
slackened at pleasure. The _haliards_ of the top-gallant-sail being
passed through this ring; and the sail being hoisted up to its utmost
extent; it is evident, that the yard will be drawn close to the mast, by
pulling down the truss close to the upper part of the sail. For, without
the truss, the sail and its yard would be blown from the mast, so as to
swing about, by the action of the wind, and the rocking of the vessel;
unless the yard were hoisted close up to the pulley wherein the haliards
run; which seldom is the case in flying top-gallant-sails, because they
are usually much shallower than those which are fixed or _standing_.


TRYING, _à la cape_, the situation in which a ship lies nearly in the
_trough_ or hollow of the sea in a tempest, particularly when it blows
contrary to her course.

In _trying_, as well as in _scudding_, the sails are always reduced in
proportion to the increase of the storm. Thus, in the former state, a
ship may lie by the wind under a whole main-sail, a whole fore-sail, or
a whole mizen; or under any of those sails, when diminished by the
_reef_ or _balance_. As the least possible quantity of sail used in
scudding are the _goose-wings_ of the foresail; so in _trying_, the
smallest portion is generally the mizen-staysail or main-staysail: and
in either state, if the storm is excessive, she may lie with all the
sails furled, or, according to the sea-phrase, _under bare poles_.

The intent of spreading a sail at this time is to keep the ship more
steddy, and, by pressing her side down in the water, to prevent her from
rolling violently; and also to turn her _bow_ towards the direction of
the wind, so that the shock of the waves may fall more obliquely on her
flank, than when she lies along the trough of the sea. While she remains
in this situation, the helm is fastened close to the lee-side, or, in
the sea-language, _hard a-lee_, to prevent her as much as possible from
falling-off. But as the ship is not then kept in equilibrio by the
effort of her sails, which at other times counterbalance each other at
the _head_ and _stern_, she is moved by a slow but continual vibration,
which turns her head alternately to windward and to leeward, forming an
angle of three or four points in the interval. That part where she
stops, in approaching the direction of the wind, is called her
_coming-to_, and the contrary excess of the angle _to leeward_ is termed
her _falling-off_.

Thus, suppose the wind northerly, and a ship trying with her starboard
side to windward: if, in turning her head towards the source of the
wind, she arrives at N. W. ½ N. or N. 39° W. and then declines to the
leeward as far W. ½ S. or S. 84° W, the former will be called her
coming-to, and the latter her falling-off. In this position she advances
very little according to the line of her length, but is driven
considerably to leeward, as described in the articles DRIFT and LEE-WAY.

TUCK, a name given to that part of the ship where the ends of the
bottom-planks are collected together immediately under the stern or

When this part, instead of being incurvated, and forming a convex
surface, assumes the shape of a vertical or oblique plane, it is said to
be square, as represented in fig. 8. plate IX. A square tuck is
accordingly terminated above by the wing-_transom_, and below and on
each side by the _fashion-pieces_.

TUMBLING-HOME, _encabanement_, that part of a ship’s side which falls
inward above the extreme breadth, so as to make the ship gradually
narrower from the lower deck upwards. This angle is represented in
general throughout all the timbers in the plane of _projection_, plate
I. It is also more particularly expressed by Q T in the MIDSHIP-FRAME,
plate VII. where it is evident, that the ship grows narrower from Q
towards T. N. B. In all our old sea-books, this narrowing of a ship from
the extreme breadth upwards is called housing-in. See UPPER-WORK.

TURNING-_to-windward_, _chicaner le vent_, that operation in sailing
wherein a ship endeavours to make a progress against the direction of
the wind, by a compound course, inclined to the place of her
destination. This method of navigation is otherwise called _plying_. See

TYE, _itague_, a sort of _runner_ or thick rope, used to transmit the
effort of a tackle to any _yard_ or _gaff_, which extends the upper part
of a sail.

The tye is either passed through a block fixed to the mast-head, and
afterwards through another block moveable upon the yard or gaff intended
to be hoisted; or the end of it is simply fastened to the said yard or
gaff, after communicating with the block at the mast-head. See also the
article JEARS.


VAN, _avante-garde_, the foremost division of any naval armament, or
that part which usually leads the way to battle; or advances first in
the order of sailing. See CENTER, FLEET, and REAR.

VANE, a thin slip of bunting hung to the mast-head, or some other
conspicuous place in the ship, to show the direction of the wind. See
_b_, fig. 1. plate I. It is commonly sewed upon a wooden frame called
the stock, which contains two holes whereby to slip over the spindle,
upon which it turns about as the wind changes.

_Dog_-VANE, _panon_, a small light vane, formed of a piece of packthread
about two feet in length, upon which are fixed five or six thin slices
of cork stuck full of light feathers. It is usually fastened to the top
of a staff two yards high, which is placed on the top of the ship’s side
on the quarter-deck, in order to shew the direction of the wind to the
helmsman, particularly in a dark night, or when the wind is extremely

VANGS, a sort of _braces_ to support the mizen _gaff_, and keep it
steddy. They are fixed on the outer-end or _peek_, and reach downwards
to the aftmost part of the ship’s side, where they are hooked and drawn
tight, so as to be slackened when the wind is _fair_; and drawn in to
windward when it becomes unfavourable to the ship’s course.

VARIATION, the angle contained between the true meridian and the
magnetic meridian.

‘After the discovery of that most useful property of the magnet, or
loadstone, namely, the giving hardened iron and steel a polarity, the
compass was for many years used without knowing that its direction in
any wise deviated from the poles of the world: and about the middle of
the 16th century, so certain were some of its inflexibly pointing to the
north, that they treated with contempt the notion of the variation,
which about that time began to be suspected[55]. However, careful
observations soon discovered, that in England, and its neighbourhood,
the needle pointed to the eastward of the true north: but the quantity
of this deviation being known, mariners became as well satisfied as if
the compass had none; because they imagined that the true course could
be obtained by making allowance for the true variation.

‘From successive observations made afterwards, it was found, that the
deviation of the needle from the north was not a constant quantity; but
that it gradually diminished, and at last, about the year 1660, it was
found at London that the needle pointed due north, and has ever since
been getting to the westward, and now the variation is more than 20
degrees to the westward of the north: so that in any one place it may be
suspected the variation has a kind of libratory motion, traversing
through the north to unknown limits eastward and westward. But the
settling of this point must be left to time.

‘During the time of the said observations it was also discovered, that
the variation of the needle was different in different parts of the
world, it being west in some places when it was east in others; and in
places where the variation was of the same name, yet the quantity of it
greatly differed. It was therefore found necessary, that mariners should
every day, or as often as they had opportunity, make, during their
voyage, proper observations for an amplitude or azimuth; whereby they
might be enabled to find the variation of the compass in their present
place, and thence correct their courses.’ _Robertson’s Elements of

Dr. Halley published, in the last century, a theory of the variations of
the compass. In this work he supposes there are four magnetic poles in
the earth, two of which are fixed and two moveable, by which he explains
the different variation of the compass, at different times, in the same
place. But it is impossible to apply exact calculations to so
complicated an hypothesis. M. Euler, son of the celebrated geometrician
of that name, has however shewn, that two magnetic poles placed on the
surface of the earth will sufficiently account for the singular figure
assumed by the lines which pass through all the points of equal
variation in the chart of Dr. Halley.

M. Euler first examines the case, wherein the two magnetic poles are
diametrically opposite; 2d. he places them in the two opposite
meridians, but at unequal distances from the poles of the world; 3d. he
places them in the same meridian. Finally, he considers them situated in
two different meridians. These four cases may become equally important;
because, if it is determined that there are only two magnetic poles, and
that these poles change their situations, it may some time hereafter be
discovered that they pass through all the different positions.

Since the needle of the compass ought always to be in the plane which
passes through the place of observation and the two magnetic poles, the
problem is reduced to the discovery of the angle contained between this
plane and the plane of the meridian. M. Euler, after having examined the
different cases, finds, that they also express the earth’s magnetism,
represented in the chart published by Mess. Mountaine and Dodson in
1744, particularly throughout Europe and North America, if the following
principles are established.

Between the Arctic pole and the magnetic pole 14° 53´.

Between the Antarctic pole and the other magnetic pole 29° 23´.

53° 18´ The angle at the north pole, formed by the meridians passing
through the two magnetic poles.

250° The longitude of the meridian, which passes over the northern
magnetic pole.

As the observations which have been collected with regard to the
variation are, for the most part, loose and inaccurate, it is impossible
to represent them all with precision; and the great variations observed
in the Indian ocean, seem to require, says M. Euler, that the three
first quantities should be 14, 35, and 63 degrees. In the mean time, the
general agreement is sufficiently satisfactory.

The high reputation of Dr. Halley’s magnetical chart renders it more
particularly necessary to point out the errors contained therein[56].
There is evidently too little distance between the lines of no
variation, of which one crosses the equator 17° westward of London, and
the other 119° to the eastward. This makes 136 degrees only; whereas it
should necessarily exceed 180 and even 200, inasmuch as the pole of the
world is supposed farther distant from the magnetic pole towards the
south than in the north, as is required by the other phænomena. Again,
upon the coasts discovered by _Diemen_, there was no variation in 1642;
and Dr. Halley also supposes there was none in 1700. Meanwhile, by the
alteration observed at Paris, the line of no variation should be
advanced 60° towards the south, which will agree better with the
calculations, and prove that the distance of the two intersections was
really greater than Dr. Halley had established.

The table of variation of Mess. Mountaine and Dodson is accompanied with
several interesting particulars, which equally deserve to be inserted

At Barbadoes, (says Capt. Snow) the variation seems very nearly at a
stand; for in the road I observed 5° east; and by Dr. Halley’s draught,
in the year 1701, 5½ degrees. In 1747, at Port Royal keys, Jamaica, I
observed the variation 7° 20´ E.; and on the coast of Carthagena, the
same week, off the high land of Santa Martha, 7° 45´ nearly south of
Port Royal. Therefore these curves are not much altered: the curve at
Jamaica is nearly at a stand, as though tied, and the south part of them
with the rest dropping to the westward.

Under the equator, in longitude 40° E. from London, the highest
variation during the whole fifty-six years appears to be 17°¼ W. and the
least 16°½ W.: and in latitude 15° N. longitude 60° W. from London, the
variation has been constantly 5° E.: but in other places the case has
been widely different. For in the latitude of 10° S. longitude 60° E.
from London, the variation has decreased from 17° W. to 7°¼ W.; and in
latitude 10° S. longitude 5° W. from London, from 2°¼ W. to 12°¾ W.; and
in latitude 15° N. longitude 20°, it has increased from 1° W. to 9° W.

But there is still a more extraordinary appearance in the Indian seas.
For instance, under the equator:

                   East from│ in 1700.    in 1756.
                    London. │
                   Degrees. │ Degrees.    Degrees.
                          40│  16¾ West.   16¼ West.
                          45│  17¾ W.      14½ W.
                          50│  17½ W.      11¾ W.
                          55│  16½ W.       8¾ W.
                          60│  15¼ W.       6  W.
                          65│  13½ W.       4½ W.
                          70│  11½ W.       3¼ W.
                          75│   9¾ W.       1  W.
                          80│   7¾ W.       0¼ East.
                          85│   5½ W.       1¼ E.
                          90│   4¼ W.       1  E.
                          95│   3¼ W.       0½ West.
                         100│   2½ W.       1  W.

Where the west variation, in the longitude 40° E. is the same in both
the above years; and in 1700 the west variation seemed to be regularly
decreasing from longitude 50° E. to the longitude 100° E.; but in 1756,
we find the west variation decreasing so fast, that we have east
variation in the longitude 80°, 85°, and 90° E.; and yet in the
longitude 95° and 100° E. we have west variation again. _Philosophical
Transactions for the year 1757._

To these remarks may be subjoined the following extracts from the
_Exposition du calcul astronomique_, by _M. de la Lande_.

At the royal observatory in Paris, a magnetical needle of four inches
deviated from the N. 18° 10´ towards the west, on the 15th of February
1759: and on the 22d of April 1760, the same needle varied 18° 20´. It
is indeed natural to conceive, that nothing can be precisely ascertained
by ten minutes upon a circle whose diameter is only four inches. It is
nevertheless sufficiently evident, that this variation continues to
increase at Paris. In 1610 the needle declined 8° towards the east, so
that the variation has changed 26° 20´ in the space of 150 years; and
this appears particularly since 1740: for the same needle, which has
always been used by M. Maraldi, is more than 3° advanced towards the
west, beyond what it was at that period; and this makes 9´ in one year.

_To_ VEER _and haul_, to pull a rope tight, by drawing it in and
slackening it alternately, till the body to which it is applied acquires
an additional motion, like the increased vibrations of a pendulum, so
that the rope is straitened to a greater tension with more facility and
dispatch. This method is particularly used in hauling the _bowlines_.

The wind is said to veer and haul when it alters its direction, and
becomes more or less _fair_. Thus it is said to veer aft and to haul

_To_ VEER _away the cable_. See CABLE.

VEERING, _virer vent arriere_, the operation by which a ship, in
changing her course from one board to the other, turns her stern to
windward. Hence it is used in opposition to _tacking_, wherein the head
is turned to the wind, and the stern to _leeward_.

Thus the ship A, fig. 8. plate XI. having made the necessary
dispositions to veer, _bears away_ gradually before the wind, till it
blows obliquely upon the opposite side, which was formerly to leeward,
as at _a_; and as the stern necessarily yields to this impression of the
wind, assisted by the force of the helm, and the action of the waves
upon the same quarter, the side which was formerly to leeward soon
becomes to windward, as in the point _a_.

Since, by this movement, a ship loses ground considerably more than by
tacking, it is rarely practised except in cases of necessity or delay:
as, when the violence of the wind and sea renders tacking impracticable;
or when her course is slackened to wait for a pilot, or some other ship
in company, &c.

It has been observed in the article TACKING, _that the change of motion
in any body, will be in proportion to the moving force impressed, and
made according to the right line in which that force operates_. Hence it
is evident, that veering as well as tacking is a necessary consequence
of the same invariable principle; for as, in the latter, almost the
whole force of the wind and of the helm are exerted on the hind part of
the ship, to turn the prow to windward; so, in the former, the same
impression, assisted by the efforts of the helm, falls upon the prow, to
push it to leeward; and the motion communicated to the ship must in both
cases necessarily conspire with the action of the wind.

Thus, when it becomes necessary to veer the ship, the sails towards the
stern are either furled, or _brailed_ up, and made to _shiver_ in the
wind; whilst those near the head are spread abroad, so as to collect the
whole current of air which their surfaces can contain. Hence, while the
whole force of the wind is exerted on the fore part of the ship to turn
her about, its effect is considerably diminished, or altogether
destroyed, on the surfaces of the after-sails. The fore part accordingly
yields to the above impulse, and is put in motion; and this movement,
conspiring with that of the wind, pushes the ship about as much as is
necessary to produce the effect required. When she is turned so that the
wind will act upon that quarter which was formerly to leeward, as at the
point _a_, fig. 8. her circular motion will be accelerated by extending
some of the sails near the stern, as the mizen, and by placing those at
the prow more obliquely, which will wheel the vessel round with her bow
to the windward; in the same situation, with regard to the wind, as when
_close-hauled_, or tacking.

When the tempest is so violent as to prevent the use of sails, the
effort of the wind operates almost equally on the opposite ends of the
ship, so that the masts and yards situated at the head and stern
counterbalance each other. The effect of the helm is also considerably
diminished, because the _head-way_, which gives life and vigour to all
its operations, is at this time feeble and ineffectual. Hence it is
necessary to defray this equilibrium which subsists between the masts
and yards _afore_ and _abaft_, and to throw the balance forward, in
order to prepare for veering. This is accordingly performed by bracing
the foremost yards across the direction of the wind, and arranging those
on the main-mast and mizen mast directly in the line of the wind. If
this expedient proves unsuccessful, and it is absolutely necessary to
veer, in order to save the ship from destruction, by oversetting or
running ashore, the mizen-mast must instantly be cut away, and even the
main-mast, if she yet remains incapable of answering the helm by bearing
away before the wind.

VENT. See the articles _Cannon_ and _Windage_.

VESSEL, _batiment_, a general name given to the different sorts of ships
which are navigated on the ocean, or in canals and rivers. It is,
however, more particularly applied to those of the smaller kind,
furnished with one or two masts.

It has already been remarked in the article SHIP, that the views of
utility, which ought always to be considered in a work of this kind,
seemed to limit our general account of shipping to those which are most
frequently employed in European navigation. We have therefore collected
into one point of view the principal of these in plate XII.; so that the
reader who is unacquainted with marine affairs, may the more easily
perceive their distinguishing characters, which are also more
particularly described under the reflective articles.

Thus fig. 4. plate XII. exhibits a snow under sail; fig. 5. represents a
ketch at anchor; fig. 6. a brig or brigantine; fig. 7. a bilander; fig.
8. a xebec; fig. 9. a schooner; fig. 10. a galliot; fig. 11. a dogger;
all of which are under sail; fig. 12. & 13. two galleys, one of which is
under sail, and the other rowing; and fig. 14. a sloop.

The ketch, whose sails are furled, is furnished with a try-sail, like
the snow; and it has a fore-sail, fore-staysail, and jib, nearly similar
to those of a sloop; but the sails on the main-mast and mizen-mast are
like those of a ship. The main-sail and main-topsail of the brig are
like those of the schooner; and the fore-mast is rigged and equipped
with sails in the same manner as the ship and snow. The sails, masts,
and yards of the xebec, being extremely different from these, are
described at large under the article. In the schooner both the mainsail
and foresail are extended by a _boom_ and _gaff_, as likewise is the
sloop’s mainsail; the sails of the dogger and galliot are sufficiently
expressed in the plate; and, finally, the galleys are navigated with
lateen-sails, which are extremely different from those of the vessels
above described.


_To_ UNBALLAST, _delester_, to discharge the ballast of a ship.

UNBENDING, _désamarrer_, generally implies the act of taking off the
sails from their yards and stays; of casting loose the anchors from
their cables, or of untying one rope from another. See also _Bend_.

UNBITTING, _débitter_, the operation of removing the turns of a cable
from off the bits. See BITS and CABLE.

_To_ UNDER-RUN, _parcourir_, to pass under or examine any part of a
cable or other rope, in order to discover whether it is damaged or

It is usual to under-run the cables in particular harbours, as well to
cleanse them with brooms and brushes from any filth, ooze, shells, &c.
collected in the stream; as to examine whether they have sustained any
injury under the surface of the water; as, from rocky ground, or by the
friction against other cables or anchors.


  _PLATE. XII_       _to face VESSEL_

_To_ UNDER-RUN _a tackle_, is to separate the several parts of which it
is composed, and range them in order, from one block to the other; so
that the general effort may not be interrupted, when it is put in

UNDER SAIL, the state of a ship when she is loosened from her moorings,
and under the government of her sails and rudder. See HELM and SAIL.

UNLACING, _déboutonner_, the act of loosening and taking off the
_bonnet_ of a sail from its principal part.

_To_ UNMOOR, _desafourcher_, is to reduce a ship to the state of
_riding_ by a single anchor and cable, after she has been _moored_ or
fastened by two or more cables. See the articles ANCHOR and MOORING.

UNREEVING, the act of withdrawing or taking out a rope from any channel
through which it had formerly passed; as in a _block_, _thimble_,
_dead-eye_, &c. See REEVE.

_To_ UNRIG _a ship_, _défuner_, is to deprive her of the standing and
running _rigging_.

VOYAL, _tournevire_, a large rope used to unmoor, or heave up the
anchors of a ship, by transmitting the effort of the _capstern_ to the

This is performed by fastening one part of the voyal to the cable in
several places, and by winding another part thereof three or four times
about the capstern, which answers the same purpose as if the cable
itself were in that manner wound about the capstern; and the voyal being
much lighter and more pliant, is infinitely more convenient in this
exercise. See the articles CAPSTERN and NIPPER.

If the cable is drawn into the ship by the main capstern, the voyal is
used without any block: but if the capstern in the fore-part of the ship
be employed for this purpose, the voyal usually passes through a large
block attached to the main-mast; and thence communicates with the

UPPER-DECK, the highest of those decks which are continued throughout
the whole of a ship of war, or merchantman, without any interruption, of
steps or irregular ascents. See DECK and WAIST.

UPPER-WORK, _oeuvres mortes_, a general name given to all that part of a
ship which is above the surface of the water when she is properly
balanced for a sea-voyage: hence it may be considered as separated from
the bottom by the main _wale_, as explained particularly in the article

UPRIGHT, the situation wherein the opposite sides of a ship are equally
elevated above the surface of the water, as in fig. 2. plate VI.; or
when she neither inclines to the right nor left, with regard to the
vertical position of her stem and stern-post.

USES AND CUSTOMS _of the sea_; certain general principles which compose
the basis of marine jurisprudence, and regulate the affairs of commerce
and navigation.


WAD, _bourrelet_, a quantity of old rope-yarns rolled firmly together
into the form of a ball, and used to confine the shot or shell, together
with its charge of powder, in the breech of a piece of artillery.

M. Le Blond observes, in his Elements of war, that the wad is necessary
to retain the charge closely in the chamber of the cannon, so that it
may not, when fired, be dilated around the sides of the ball, by its
_windage_ as it passes through the chace; a circumstance which would
considerably diminish the effort of the powder. But as the wad cannot be
fastened to the sides of the bore, it is carried away in the same
instant when the charge is inflamed, and that with so little resistance,
that it cannot in any degree retard the explosion, or give time for the
entire inflammation of the powder.

This reasoning may with equal propriety be applied to the wad that
covers the bullet; which, nevertheless, is absolutely requisite, to
prevent it from rolling out when the piece is fired horizontally or
pointed downwards. Both are therefore peculiarly necessary in naval
engagements, because, without being thus retained in its chamber, the
shot would instantly roll out of the chace by the agitation of the

WAFT, _berne_, a signal displayed from the stern of a ship for some
particular purpose, by hoisting the ensign, furled up together into a
long roll, to the head of its staff. It is particularly used to summon
the boats off from the shore to the ship whereto they belong; or as a
signal for a pilot to repair aboard. See SIGNAL.

WAIST, that part of a ship which is contained between the quarter-deck
and fore-castle, being usually a hollow space, with an ascent of several
steps to either of those places.

When the waist of a merchant-ship is only one or two steps of descent
from the quarter-deck and fore-castle, she is said to be galley-built;
but when it is considerably deeper, as with six or seven steps, she is
called frigate-built. See the articles DECK, DEEP-WAISTED, and FRIGATE.

WAKE, _houaiche_, the print or track impressed by the course of a ship
on the surface of the water. It is formed by the re-union of the body of
water, which was separated by the ship’s bottom whilst moving through it
and may be seen to a considerable distance behind the stern, as smoother
than the rest of the sea. Hence it is usually observed by the compass,
to discover the angle of LEE-WAY.

A ship is said to be in the wake, _dans l’eau_, of another, when she
follows her on the same track, or on a line supposed to be formed on the
continuation of her keel. Thus the ships _a_ _b_, fig. 11. and _a_ _b_,
fig. 7. plate V. are all in the wake of the foremost _b_. See the
article LINE.

Two distant objects observed at sea are called in the _wake_ of each
other, when the view of the farthest is intercepted by the nearest; so
that the observer’s eye and the two objects are all placed upon the same
right line.

WALE-KNOT, or WALL-KNOT, a particular sort of large knot raised upon the
end of a rope, by untwisting the _strands_, and interweaving them
amongst each other. See the article KNOT.

WALE-REARED, an obsolete phrase, implying _wall-sided_, which see.

WALES, _preceintes_, an assemblage of strong planks extending along a
ship’s side, throughout her whole length, at different heights, and
serving to reinforce the decks, and form the curves by which the vessel
appears light and graceful on the water.

As the wales are framed of planks broader and thicker than the rest,
they resemble ranges of hoops encircling the sides and _bows_. They are
usually distinguished into the main-wale and the channel-wale; the
breadth and thickness of which are expressed by Q and R in the
MIDSHIP-FRAME, plate VII. and their length is exhibited in the
ELEVATION, plate I. where L Q Z is the main-wale, and D R X the
channel-wale, parallel to the former.

The situation of the wales, being ascertained by no invariable rule, is
generally submitted to the fancy and judgment of the builder. The
position of the gun-ports and scuppers ought, however, to be
particularly considered on this occasion, that the wales may not be
wounded by too many breaches.

WALL-SIDED, the figure of a ship’s side, when, instead of being
incurvated so as to become gradually narrower towards the _upper part_,
it is nearly perpendicular to the surface of the water, like a wall; and
hence the derivation of the phrase.

WALT, an obsolete or spurious term signifying _crank_. See that article.

WARP, a small rope employed occasionally to remove a ship from one place
to another, in a port, road, or river. And hence,

_To_ WARP, _remorquer_, is to change the situation of a ship, by pulling
her from one part of a harbour, &c. to some other, by means of warps,
which are attached to buoys; to anchors sunk in the bottom; or to
certain stations upon the shore, as posts, rings, trees, &c. The ship is
accordingly drawn forwards to those stations, either by pulling on the
warps by hand, or by the application of some purchase, as a tackle,
windlass, or capstern, upon her deck. See those articles.

When this operation is performed by the ship’s lesser anchors, these
machines, together with their warps, are carried out in the boats
alternately towards the place where the ship is endeavouring to arrive:
so that when she is drawn up close to one anchor, the other is carried
out to a competent distance before her, and being sunk, serves to fix
the other warp by which she is farther advanced.

Warping is generally used when the sails are _unbent_, or when they
cannot be successfully employed, which may either arise from the
unfavourable state of the wind, the opposition of the tide, or the
narrow limits of the channel.

WASH. See the article OAR.

WASH-BOARD, a broad thin plank fixed occasionally on the top of a boat’s
side, so as to continue the height thereof, and be removed at pleasure.
It is used to prevent the sea from breaking into the vessel,
particularly when the surface is rough, as in tempestuous weather.

WATCH, _quart_, the space of time wherein one division of a ship’s crew
remains upon deck, to perform the necessary services, whilst the rest
are relieved from duty, either when the vessel is under sail, or at

The length of the sea-watch is not equal in the shipping of different
nations. It is always kept four hours by our British seamen, if we
except the _dog_-watch between four and eight in the evening, that
contains two reliefs, each of which are only two hours on deck. The
intent of this is to change the period of the night-watch every
twenty-four hours; so that the party watching from eight till twelve in
one night, shall watch from midnight till four in the morning on the
succeeding one. In France the duration of the watch is extremely
different, being in some places six hours, and in others seven or eight;
and in Turky and Barbary it is usually five or six hours.

A ship’s company is usually classed into two parties; one of which is
called the starboard and the other the larboard watch. It is, however,
occasionally separated into three divisions, as in a _road_ or in
particular voyages.

In a ship of war the watch is generally commanded by a lieutenant, and
in merchant-ships by one of the mates; so that if there are four mates
in the latter, there are two in each watch; the first and third being in
the larboard, and the second and fourth in the starboard watch: but in
the navy the officers who command the watch usually divide themselves
into three parts, in order to lighten their duty.

WATCH-GLASSES, _horloge_, a name given to the glasses employed to
measure the period of the watch, or to divide it into any number of
equal parts, as hours, half-hours, &c. so that the several stations
therein may be regularly kept and relieved; as at the _helm_, _pump_,
_look-out_. &c.

_To set the_ WATCH, is to appoint one division of the crew to enter upon
the duty of the watch; as at eight o’clock in the evening. Hence it is
equivalent to _mounting the guard_ in the army. See the French term

WATER-BORNE, the state of a ship, with regard to the water surrounding
her bottom, when there is barely a sufficient depth of it to float her
off from the ground; particularly when she had for some time rested

For _Dead_-WATER, _Foul_ WATER, and _High_-WATER, see DEAD, FOUL, and

WATER-LINES, _lignes d’eau_, certain horizontal lines supposed to be
drawn about the outside of a ship’s bottom, close to the surface of the
water in which she floats. They are accordingly higher or lower upon the
bottom, in proportion to the depth of the column of water required to
float her. See a particular account of these in the article _Naval_

In order to conceive a clearer idea of the curves of those lines when
represented on a plane, let us suppose a ship laid _upright_ on a level
ground; so that the keel shall lie in the same position, with respect to
the horizon, as when she is laden. We may then describe several black
horizontal lines about her bottom, which may be whitened for that

If a spectator is supposed to be placed, at a competent depth, under the
middle of her bottom, in a line perpendicular to the plane of the
ground; he will then, viewing the bottom upwards, discover the
horizontal curves of all the water-lines.

These curves are all delineated on a plane, supposed to be formed by an
horizontal section of the bottom, at the height of the load-water-line,
_ligne d’eau du vaisseau chargé_.

WATER-LOGGED, the state of a ship when, by receiving a great quantity of
water into her hold, by leaking, &c. she has become heavy and inactive
upon the sea, so as to yield without resistance to the efforts of every
wave rushing over her decks. As, in this dangerous situation, the center
of gravity is no longer fixed, but fluctuating from place to place, the
stability of the ship is utterly lost: she is therefore almost totally
deprived of the use of her sails, which would operate to overset her, or
press the head under water. Hence there is no resource for the crew,
except to _free_ her by the pumps, or to abandon her by the boats as
soon as possible.

WATER-SAIL, a small sail spread occasionally under the lower
studding-sail, or driver-boom, in a fair wind, and smooth sea.

WATER-SHOT. See the article MOORING.

WATER-SPOUT, an extraordinary and dangerous meteor, consisting of a
large mass of water, collected into a sort of column by the force of a
whirlwind, and moved with rapidity along the surface of the sea.

A variety of authors have written on the cause and effects of these
meteors, with different degrees of accuracy and probability. As it would
be superfluous to enter minutely into their various conjectures, which
are frequently grounded on erroneous principles, we shall content
ourselves with selecting a few of the latest remarks; and which are
apparently supported by philosophical reasoning.

Dr. Franklin, in his physical and meteorological observations, supposes
a water-spout and a whirlwind to proceed from the same cause, their only
difference being, that the latter passes over the land, and the former
over the water. This opinion is corroborated by _M. de la Pryme_, in the
_Philosophical Transactions_; where he describes two spouts observed at
different times in Yorkshire, whose appearances in the air were exactly
like those of the spouts at sea; and their effects the same as those of
real whirlwinds.

Whirlwinds have generally a progressive as well as a circular motion; so
had what is called the spout at _Topsham_, described in the
_Transactions_; and this also by its effects appears to have been a real
whirlwind. Water-spouts have also a progressive motion, which is more or
less rapid; being in some violent, and in others barely perceptible.

Whirlwinds generally rise after calms and great heats: the same is
observed of water-spouts, which are therefore most frequent in the warm

The wind blows every way from a large surrounding space to a whirlwind.
Three vessels employed in the whale-fishery, happening to be _becalmed_,
lay in sight of each other, at about a league distance, and in the form
of a triangle. After some time a water-spout appeared near the middle of
the triangle; when a brisk gale arose, and every vessel made sail. It
then appeared to them all by the _trimming_ of their sails, and the
course of each vessel, that the spout was to leeward of every one of
them; and this observation was farther confirmed by the comparing of
accounts, when the different observers afterwards conferred about the
subject. Hence whirlwinds and water-spouts agree in this particular

But if the same meteor which appears a water-spout at sea, should, in
its progressive motion, encounter and pass over land, and there produce
all the phenomena and effects of a whirlwind, it would afford a stronger
conviction that a whirlwind and a water-spout are the same thing. An
ingenious correspondent of Dr. Franklin gives one instance of this that
fell within his own observation[57].

A fluid moving from all points horizontally towards a center, must, at
that center, either mount or descend. If a hole be opened in the middle
of the bottom of a tub filled with water, the water will flow from all
sides to the center, and there descend in a whirl. But air flowing on or
near the surface of land or water, from all sides towards a center, must
at that center ascend; because the land or water will hinder its

If these concentring currents of air be in the upper region, they may
indeed descend in the spout or whirlwind; but then, when the united
current reached the earth or water, it would spread, and probably blow
every way from the center. There may be whirlwinds of both kinds; but
from the effects commonly observed, Dr. Franklin suspects the rising one
to be most frequent: when the upper air descends, it is perhaps in a
greater body extending wider, as in thunder-gusts, and without much
whirling; and when air descends in a spout or whirlwind, he conceives
that it would rather press the roof of a house _inwards_, or force in
the tiles, shingles, or thatch, and force a boat down into the water, or
a piece of timber into the earth, than snatch them upwards, and carry
them away.

The whirlwinds and spouts are not always, though most frequently, in the
day-time. The terrible whirlwind which damaged a great part of _Rome_,
June 11. 1749. happened in the night; and was supposed to have been
previously a water-spout, it being asserted as an undoubted fact, that
it gathered in the neighbouring sea, because it could be traced from
Ostia to Rome.

The whirlwind is said to have appeared as a very black, long, and lofty
cloud, discoverable, notwithstanding the darkness of the night, by its
continually lightening, or emitting flashes on all sides, pushing along
with a surprising swiftness, and within three or four feet of the
ground. Its general effects on houses were, stripping off the roofs,
blowing away chimnies, breaking doors and windows, _forcing up the
floors, and unpaving the rooms_, (some of these effects seem to agree
well with a supposed vacuum in the center of the whirlwind) and the very
rafters of the houses were broke and dispersed, and even hurled against
houses at a considerable distance, &c.

The Doctor, in proceeding to explain his conceptions, begs to be allowed
two or three positions, as a foundation for his hypothesis. 1. That the
lower region of air is often more heated, and so more rarified, than the
upper; and by consequence specifically lighter. The coldness of the
upper region is manifested by the hail, which sometimes falls from it in
warm weather. 2. That heated air may be very moist, and yet the moisture
so equally diffused and rarified as not to be visible till colder air
mixes with it, at which time it condenses and becomes visible. Thus our
breath, although invisible in summer, becomes visible in winter.

These circumstances being granted, he presupposes a tract of land or
sea, of about sixty miles in extent, unsheltered by clouds and
unrefreshed by the wind, during a summer’s day, or perhaps for several
days without intermission, till it becomes violently heated, together
with the lower region of the air in contact with it, so that the latter
becomes specifically lighter than the superincumbent higher region of
the atmosphere, wherein the clouds are usually floated: he supposes also
that the air surrounding this tract has not been so much heated during
those days, and therefore remains heavier. The consequence of this, he
conceives, should be, that the heated lighter air should ascend, and the
heavier descend; and as this rising cannot operate throughout the whole
tract at once, because that would leave too extensive a vacuum, the
rising will begin precisely in that column which happens to be lighted,
or most rarified; and the warm air will flow horizontally from all parts
to this column, where the several currents meeting, and joining to rise,
a whirl is naturally formed, in the same manner as a whirl is formed in
a tub of water, by the descending fluid receding from all sides of the
tub towards the hole in the center.

And as the several currents arrive at this central rising column, with a
considerable degree of horizontal motion, they cannot suddenly change it
to a vertical motion; therefore, as they gradually, in approaching the
whirl, decline from right to curve or circular lines, so, having joined
the whirl, they ascend by a spiral motion; in the same manner as the
water descends spirally through the hole in the tub before mentioned.

Lastly, as the lower air nearest the surface is more rarified by the
heat of the sun, it is more impressed by the current of the surrounding
cold and heavy air which is to assume its place, and consequently its
motion towards the whirl is swiftest, and so the force of the lower part
of the whirl strongest, and the centrifugal force of its particles
greatest. Hence the vacuum which encloses the axis of the whirl should
be greatest near the earth or sea, and diminish gradually as it
approaches the region of the clouds, till it ends in a point.

This circle is of various diameters, sometimes very large.

If the vacuum passes over water, the water may rise in a body or column
therein to the height of about thirty-two feet. This whirl of air may be
as invisible as the air itself, though reaching in reality from the
water to the region of cool air, in which our low summer thunder-clouds
commonly float; but it will soon become visible at its extremities. The
agitation of the water under the whirling of the circle, and the
swelling and rising of the water in the commencement of the vacuum,
renders it visible below. It is perceived above by the warm air being
brought up to the cooler region, where its moisture begins to be
condensed by the cold into thick vapour; and is then first discovered at
the highest part; which being now cooled, condenses what rises behind
it, and this latter acts in the same manner on the succeeding body;
where, by the contact of the vapours, the cold operates faster in a
right line downwards, than the vapours themselves can climb in a spiral
line upwards; they climb, however, and as by continual addition they
grow denser, and by consequence increase their centrifugal force, and
being risen above the concentrating currents that compose the whirl,
they fly off, and form a cloud.

It seems easy to conceive, how, by this successive condensation from
above, the spout appears to drop or descend from the cloud, although the
materials of which it is composed are all the while ascending. The
condensation of the moisture contained in so great a quantity of warm
air as may be supposed to rise in a short time in this prodigiously
rapid whirl, is perhaps sufficient to form a great extent of cloud: and
the friction of the whirling air on the sides of the column may detach
great quantities of its water, disperse them into drops, and carry them
up in the spiral whirl mixed with the air. The heavier drops may indeed
fly off, and fall into a shower about the spout; but much of it will be
broken into vapour, and yet remain visible.

As the whirl weakens, the tube may apparently separate in the middle;
the column of water subsiding, the superior condensed part drawing up to
the cloud. The tube or whirl of air may nevertheless remain entire, the
middle only becoming invisible, as not containing any visible matter.

Dr. Stuart, in the _Philosophical Transactions_, says, “It was
observable of all the spouts he saw, but more perceptible of a large
one, that towards the end it began to appear like a hollow canal, only
black in the borders, but white in the middle; and though it was at
first altogether black and opaque, yet the sea-water could very soon
after be perceived to fly up along the middle of this canal like smoke
in a chimney.”

When Dr. Stuart’s spouts were full charged, that is, when the whirling
pipe of air was filled with quantities of drops and vapour torn off from
the column, the whole was rendered so dark that it could not be seen
through, nor the spiral ascending motion discovered; but when the
quantity ascending lessened, the pipe became more transparent, and the
ascending motion visible. The spiral motion of the vapours, whose lines
intersect each other on the nearest and farthest side of this
transparent part, appeared therefore to Stuart like smoke ascending in a
chimney; for the quantity being still too great in the line of sight
through the sides of the tube, the motion could not be discovered there,
and so they represented the solid sides of the chimney.

Dr. Franklin concludes by supposing a whirlwind or spout to be
stationary, when the concurring winds are equal but if unequal, the
whirl acquires a progressive motion in the direction of the strongest
pressure. When the wind that communicates this progression becomes
stronger above than below, or below than above, the spout will be bent
or inclined. Hence the horizontal process and obliquity of water-spouts
are derived.

WATER-WAY, _gouttiere_, a long piece of timber serving to connect the
sides of a ship to her decks, and form a sort of channel to carry off
the water from the latter by means of scuppers. See that article.

The convexity of the decks, represented by N, M, N, in the
MIDSHIP-FRAME, plate VII. necessarily carries the water towards the
sides, where this piece is fixed, which is principally designed to
prevent the water from lodging in the seams, so as to rot the wood and
oakum contained therein. The water-ways N N are therefore hollowed in
the middle lengthways, so as to form a kind of gutter or channel, one
side of which lies almost horizontally, making part of the deck, whilst
the other rises upwards, and corresponds with the side, of which it
likewise makes a part. They are scored down about an inch and a half, or
two inches, upon the beams, and rest upon lodging-knees or carlings.
They are secured by bolts driven from without through the planks,
timbers, and water-ways, and clinched upon rings on the inside of the

The scuppers, which are holes by which the water escapes from off the
deck, are accordingly cut through the water-ways.

WAVE, a volume of water elevated by the action of the wind upon its
surface, into a state of fluctuation.

Mr. Boyle has proved, by a variety of experiments, that the utmost force
of the wind never penetrates deeper than six feet into the water; and it
should seem a natural consequence of this, that the water put in motion
by it can only be elevated to the same height of six feet from the level
of the surface in a calm. This six feet of elevation being then added to
the six of excavation, in the part whence that water was raised, should
give twelve feet for the greatest elevation of a wave, when the height
of it is not increased by whirlwinds, or the interruption of rocks or
shoals, which always gives an additional elevation to the natural swell
of the waves.

We are not to suppose, from this calculation, that no wave of the sea
can rise more than six feet above its natural level in open and deep
water; for some immensely higher than these are formed in violent
tempests, in the great seas. These, however, are not to be accounted
waves in their natural state; but they are single waves composed of many
others: for in these wide plains of water, when one wave is raised by
the wind, and would elevate itself up to the exact height of six feet,
and no more, the motion of the water is so great, and the succession of
the waves so quick, that during the time wherein this rises, it receives
into it several other waves, each of which would have been of the same
height with itself. These accordingly run into the first wave, one after
another as it rises: by this means its rise is continued much longer
than it would naturally have been, and it becomes accumulated to an
enormous size. A number of these complicated waves arising together, and
being continued in a long succession by the duration of the storm, make
the waves so dangerous to shipping, which the sailors, in their phrase,
call mountains high.

WAY _of a ship_, the course or progress which she makes on the water
under sail. Thus, when she begins her motion, she is said to be under
way; and when that motion increases, she is said to have fresh way
through the water. Hence also she is said to have _head-way_ or
_stern-way_. See those articles.

WEARING. See the article VEERING.

WEATHER is known to be the particular state of the air with regard to
the degree of the wind, to heat or cold, or to driness and moisture.

WEATHER is also used as an adjective, applied by mariners to every
thing lying to-windward of a particular situation. Thus a ship is said
to have the weather-gage of another, when she is farther to-windward.
Thus also, when, a ship under sail presents either of her sides to the
wind, it is then called the weather-side; and all the rigging and
furniture situated thereon are distinguished by the same epithet; as,
the _weather-shrouds_, the weather-_lifts_, the weather-_braces_, &c.
See the article LEE.

_To_ WEATHER, is to sail to-windward of some ship, bank, or head-land.

WEATHER-BIT, a turn of the cable of a ship about the end of the
_windlass_, without the _knight-heads_. It is used to check the cable,
in order to slacken it gradually out of the ship, in tempestuous
weather, or when the ship rides in a strong current. See also RING-ROPE.

WEATHER-SHORE, a name given by seamen to the shore lying to the

_To_ WEIGH, denotes in general to heave up the _anchor_ of a ship from
the ground, in order to prepare her for sailing. See also AWEIGH.

WELL, an apartment formed in the middle of a ship’s hold to inclose the
pumps, from the bottom to the lower deck. It is used as a barrier to
preserve those machines from being damaged by the friction or
compression of the materials contained in the hold, and particularly to
prevent the entrance of ballast, &c. by which the tubes would presently
be choaked, and the pumps rendered incapable of service. By means of
this inclosure, the artificers may likewise more readily descend into
the hold, in order to examine the state of the pumps, and repair them,
as occasion requires.

WELL _of a fishing-vessel_, an apartment in the middle of the hold,
which is entirely detached from the rest, being lined with lead on every
side, and having the bottom thereof penetrated with a competent number
of small holes, passing also through the ship’s floor, so that the
salt-water running into the well is always kept as fresh as that in the
sea, and yet prevented from communicating itself to the other parts of
the hold.

WELL-ROOM _of a boat_, the place in the bottom where the water lies,
between the ceiling and the platform of the stern-sheets, from whence it
is thrown out into the sea with a scoop.

WHARF, a perpendicular building of wood or stone raised on the shore of
a road or harbour, for the convenience of lading or discharging a vessel
by means of cranes, _tackles_, _capsterns_, &c.

A wharf is built stronger or slighter, in proportion to the effort of
the tide or sea which it is to resist, and to the weight which it is
intended to support.

WHARFINGER, the person who has the charge of a wharf, and takes account
of all the articles landed thereon, or removed from it, into any vessel
lying alongside thereof; for which he receives a certain fee called
wharfage, which becomes due to the proprietor for the use of his
machines and furniture.

WHEEL _of the helm_. See HELM.

WHELPS. See the article CAPSTERN.

WHIP, a sort of small tackle, either formed by the communication of a
rope with a single immoveable block, as fig. 3. plate XI. or with two
blocks, one of which is fixed, and the other moveable, as fig. 5. It is
generally used to hoist up light bodies, as empty casks, &c. out of a
ship’s hold, which is accordingly called _whipping_ them up. See TACKLE.

_To_ WHIP, is also to tie a piece of packthread, spun-yarn, &c. about
the end of a rope, to prevent it from being untwisted and loosened.

_Boatswain’s_ WHISTLE. See CALL.

WHOODING. See the article RABBIT.

WINCH, a cylindrical piece of timber, furnished with an axis, whose
extremities rest in two channels placed horizontally or perpendicularly.
It is turned about by means of an handle resembling that of a draw-well,
grind-stone, &c. and is generally employed as a _purchase_, by which a
rope may be more conveniently or more powerfully applied to any object,
than when used singly, or without the assistance of mechanical powers.

WIND, _vent_, a stream or current of air which may be felt; and usually
blows from one part of the horizon to its opposite part.

The horizon, besides being divided into 360 degrees, like all other
circles, is by mariners supposed to be divided into four quadrants,
called the north-east, north-west, south-east, and south-west quarters.
Each of these quarters they divided into eight equal parts, called
points, and each point into four equal parts, called quarter-points. So
that the horizon is divided into 32 points, which are called _rhumbs_ or
_winds_; to each wind is assigned a name, which shews from what point of
the horizon the wind blows. The points of north, south, east, and west,
are called _cardinal points_ and are at the distance of 90 degrees, or
eight points from one another.

Winds are either constant or variable, general or particular. Constant
winds are such as blow the same way, at least for one or more days; and
variable winds are such as frequently shift within a day. A general or
_reigning_ wind is that which blows the same way, over a large tract of
the earth, almost the whole year. A particular wind is what blows, in
any place, sometimes one way, and sometimes another, indifferently. If
the wind blows gently, it is called a breeze; if it blows harder, it is
called a gale, or a stiff gale; and if it blows with violence, it is
called a storm or hard gale[58].

The following observations on the wind have been made by skilful seamen:
and particularly the great Dr. Halley.

1st. Between the limits of 60 degrees, namely, from 30° of north
latitude to 30° of south latitude, there is a constant east wind
throughout the year, blowing on the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; and
this is called the _trade-wind_.

For as the sun, in moving from east to west, heats the air more
immediately under him, and thereby expands it; the air to the eastward
is constantly rushing towards the west to restore the equilibrium, or
natural state of the atmosphere; and this occasions a perpetual east
wind in those limits.

2d. The trade-winds near their northern limits blow between the north
and east, and near the southern limits they blow between the south and

For as the air is expanded by the heat of the sun near the equator;
therefore the air from the northward and southward will both tend
towards the equator to restore the equilibrium. Now these motions from
the north and south, joined with the foregoing easterly motion, will
produce the motions observed near the said limits between the north and
east, and between the south and west.

3d. These general motions of the wind are disturbed on the continents,
and near their coasts.

For the nature of the soil may either cause the air to be heated or
cooled; and hence will arise motions that may be contrary to the
foregoing general one.

4th. In some parts of the Indian ocean there are periodical winds, which
are called Monsoons; that is, such as blow half the year one way, and
the other half-year the contrary way.

For air that is cool and dense, will force the warm and rarefied air in
a continual stream upwards, where it must spread itself to preserve the
equilibrium: so that the upper course or current of the air shall be
contrary to the under current; for the upper air must move from those
parts where the greatest heat is; and so, by a kind of circulation, the
N. E. trade-wind below will be attended with a S. W. above; and a S. E.
below with a N. W. above: And this is confirmed by the experience of
seamen, who, as soon as they get out of the trade-winds, generally find
a wind blowing from the opposite quarter.

5th. In the Atlantic ocean, near the coasts of Africa, at about 100
leagues from shore between the latitudes of 28° and 10° north, seamen
constantly meet with a fresh gale of wind blowing from the N. E.

6th. Those bound to the Caribbee islands, across the Atlantic ocean,
find, as they approach the American side, that the said N. E. wind
becomes easterly; or seldom blows more than a point from the east,
either to the northward or southward.

These trade-winds, on the American side, are extended to 30, 31, or even
to 32° of N. latitude; which is about 4° farther than what they extend
to on the African side: Also, to the southward of the equator, the
trade-winds extend three or four degrees farther towards the coast of
Brasil on the American side, than they do near the Cape of Good Hope on
the African side.

7th. Between the latitudes of 4° and 4° south, the wind always blows
between south and east. On the African side the winds are nearest the
south; and on the American side nearest the east. In these seas Dr.
Halley observed, that when the wind was eastward, the weather was
gloomy, dark, and rainy, with hard gales of wind; but when the wind
veered to the southward, the weather generally became serene, with
gentle breezes next to a calm.

These winds are somewhat changed by the seasons of the year; for when
the sun is far northward, the Brasil S. E. wind gets to the south, and
the N. E. wind to the east; and when the sun is far south, the S. E.
wind gets to the east, and the N. E. winds on this side of the equator
veer more to the north.

8th. Along the coast of Guinea, from Sierra Leone to the island of St.
Thomas, (under the equator) which is above 500 leagues, the southerly
and south-west winds blow perpetually: for the S. E. trade-wind having
passed the equator, and approaching the Guinea coast within 80 or 100
leagues, inclines towards the shore, and becomes south, then S. E. and
by degrees, as it approaches the land, it veers about to south, S. S. W.
and when very near the land it is S. W. and sometimes W. S. W. This
tract is troubled with frequent calms, violent sudden gusts of wind,
called tornadoes, blowing from all points of the horizon.

The reason of the wind setting in west on the coast of Guinea, is in all
probability owing to the nature of the coast, which being greatly heated
by the sun, rarefies the air exceedingly, and consequently the cool air
from off the sea will keep rushing in to restore the equilibrium.

9th. Between the 4th and 10th degrees of north latitude, and between the
longitude of Cape Verd, and the eastermost of the Cape Verd isles, there
is a track of sea which seems to be condemned to perpetual calms,
attended with terrible thunder and lightnings, and such frequent rains,
that this part of the sea is called the _rains_. In sailing through
these six degrees, ships are said to have been sometimes detained whole

The cause of this is apparently, that the westerly winds setting in on
this coast, and meeting the general easterly wind in this track, balance
each other, and so produce the calms; and the vapours carried thither by
each wind meeting and condensing, occasion the almost constant rains.

The last three observations shew the reason of two things which mariners
experience in sailing from Europe to India, and in the Guinea trade.

And first. The difficulty which ships in going to the southward,
especially in the months of July and August, find in passing between the
coast of Guinea and Brasil, notwithstanding the width of this sea is
more than 500 leagues. This happens, because the S. E. winds at that
time of the year commonly extend some degrees beyond the ordinary limits
of 4° N. latitude; and besides coming so much southerly, as to be
sometimes south, sometimes a point or two to the west; it then only
remains to ply to windward: And if, on the one side, they steer W. S. W.
they get a wind more and more easterly; but then there is danger of
falling in with the Brasilian coast, or shoals: and if they steer E. S.
E. they fall into the neighbourhood of the coast of Guinea, from whence
they cannot depart without running easterly as far as the island of St.
Thomas; and this is the constant practice of all the Guinea ships.

Secondly. All ships departing from Guinea for Europe, their direct
course is northward; but on this course they cannot proceed, because the
coast bending nearly east and west, the land is to the northward.
Therefore, as the winds on this coast are generally between the S. and
W. S. W. they are obliged to steer S. S. E. or south, and with these
courses they run off the shore; but in so doing they always find the
winds more and more contrary; so that when near the shore, they can lie
south; but at a greater distance they can make no better than S. E. and
afterwards E. S. E.; with which courses they commonly fetch the island
of St. Thomas and Cape Lopez, where finding the winds to the eastward of
the south, they sail westerly with it, till coming to the latitude of
four degrees south, where they find the S. E. wind blowing perpetually.

On account of these general winds, all those that use the West India
trade, and even those bound to Virginia, reckon it their best course to
get as soon as they can to the southward, that so they may be certain of
a fair and fresh gale to run before it to the westward: And for the same
reason those homeward-bound from America endeavour to gain the latitude
of 30 degrees, where they first find the winds begin to be variable;
though the most ordinary winds in the north Atlantic ocean come from
between the south and west.

10th. Between the southern latitudes of 10 and 30 degrees in the Indian
ocean, the general trade-wind about the S. E. _by_ S. is found to blow
all the year long in the same manner as in the like latitudes in the
Ethiopic ocean: and during the six months from May to December, these
winds reach to within two degrees of the equator; but during the other
six months, from November to June, a N. W. wind blows in the tract lying
between the 3d and 10th degrees of southern latitude, in the meridian of
the north-end of Madagascar; and between the 2d and 12th degree of south
latitude, near the longitude of Sumatra and Java.

11th. In the tract between Sumatra and the African coast, and from three
degrees of south latitude quite northward to the Asiatic coasts,
including the Arabian sea and the Gulf of Bengal, the Monsoons blow from
September to April on the N. E.; and from March to October on the S. W.
In the former half-year the wind is more steddy and gentle, and the
weather clearer, than in the latter six months: and the wind is more
strong and steddy in the Arabian sea than in the Gulf of Bengal.

12th. Between the island of Madagascar and the coast of Africa, and
thence northward as far as the equator, there is a tract, wherein from
April to October there is a constant fresh S. S. W. wind; which to the
northward changes into the W. S. W. wind, blowing at times in the
Arabian sea.

13th. To the eastward of Sumatra and Malacca on the north of the
equator, and along the coasts of Cambodia and China, quite through the
Philippines as far as Japan, the Monsoons blow northerly and southerly;
the northern one setting in about October or November, and the southern
about May. The winds are not quite so certain as those in the Arabian

14th. Between Sumatra and Java to the west, and New Guinea to the east,
the same northerly and southerly winds are observed; but the first half
year Monsoon inclines to the N. W. and the latter to the S. E. These
winds begin a month or six weeks after those in the Chinese seas set in,
and are quite as variable.

15th. These contrary winds do not shift from one point to its opposite
all at once; and in some places the time of the change is attended with
calms, in others by variable winds: and it often happens on the shores
of Coromandel and China, towards the end of the Monsoons, that there are
most violent storms, greatly resembling the hurricanes in the West
Indies; wherein the wind is so excessively strong, that hardly any thing
can resist its force.

All navigation in the Indian ocean must necessarily be regulated by
these winds; for if mariners should delay their voyages till the
contrary Monsoon begins, they must either sail back, or go into harbour,
and wait for the return of the trade-wind.

The relative force of the wind upon a ship’s sails, and the epithets by
which it is distinguished, as _fair_, _large_, &c. according to the
angle which it makes with her course, are explained in the article


_To_ WIND _a ship or boat_, is to change her position, by bringing the
stern to lie in the situation of the head; or directly opposite to its
former situation.

_To_ WINDWARD, towards that part of the horizon from whence the wind

WINDAGE, the difference between the diameter of a piece of artillery,
and the diameter of the shot or shell corresponding thereto. See CANNON

WINDING _a Call_, the act of blowing or piping upon a boatswain’s
whistle, so as to communicate the necessary orders of _hoisting_,
_heaving_, _belaying_, _slackening_, &c. See the article CALL.

WINDING-TACKLE, a name usually given to a tackle formed of three fixed
and two or three moveable sheaves. It is principally employed to hoist
up any weighty materials into or out of a ship, in the exercises of
lading and delivering. See TACKLE.

WINDLASS, _vindas_, a machine used in merchant-ships to heave up the
anchors from the bottom, &c.

The windlass is a large cylindrical piece of timber, fig. 15. plate XII.
formed on the principles of the _axis in peritrochio_. It is supported
at the two ends by two frames of wood, _a_, _b_, placed on the opposite
sides of the deck near the fore-mast, called _knight-heads_, and is
turned about in this position as upon an axis, by levers called
handspecs, which are for this purpose thrust into holes bored through
the body of the machine. See the article HEAVING.

The lower part of the windlass is usually about a foot above the deck.
It is, like the _capstern_, furnished with strong _pauls_, _c_, _d_, to
prevent it from turning backwards by the effort of the cable, when
charged with the weight of the anchor, or strained by the violent
jerking of the ship in a tempestuous sea. The pauls, which are formed of
wood or iron, fall into notches, cut in the surface of the _windlass_,
and lined with plates of iron. Each of the pauls being accordingly hung
over a particular part of the windlass, falls eight times into the
notches at every revolution of the machine, because there are eight
notches placed on its circumference under the pauls. So if the windlass
is twenty inches in diameter, and purchases five feet of the cable at
every revolution, it will be prevented from turning back, or losing any
part thereof, at every seven inches nearly, which is heaved in upon its

As this machine is heaved about in a vertical direction, it is evident
that the effort of an equal number of men acting upon it will be much
more powerful than on the capstern; because their whole weight and
strength are applied more readily to the end of the lever employed to
turn it about. Whereas, in the horizontal movement of the capstern, the
exertion of their force is considerably diminished. It requires,
however, some dexterity and address to manage the handspec to the
greatest advantage; and to perform this the sailors must all rise at
once upon the windlass, and, fixing their bars therein, give a sudden
jerk at the same instant, in which movement they are regulated by a sort
of song or howl pronounced by one of their number.

The most dextrous managers of the handspec in heaving at the windlass
are generally supposed the colliers of Northumberland: and of all
European mariners, the Dutch are certainly the most aukward and sluggish
in this manœuvre.

WINDSAIL, a sort of wide tube or funnel of canvas, employed to convey a
stream of fresh air downward into the lower apartments of a ship.

This machine is usually extended by large hoops situated in different
parts of its height. It is let down perpendicularly through the
_hatches_, being expanded at the lower end like the base of a cone; and
having its upper part open on the side which is placed to windward, so
as to receive the full current of the wind; which, entering the cavity,
fills the tube, and rushes downwards into the lower regions of the ship.
There are generally three or four of these in our capital ships of war,
which, together with the ventilators, contribute greatly to preserve the
health of the crew.

WINGS, a name given to those parts of a ship’s _hold_ which are nearest
to the sides, or farthest removed from the middle of her breadth.

This term is particularly used in the stowage of the several materials
contained in the hold; as, Stow the large casks _amidships_, and the
smaller barrels in the wings. See TRIM and STOWAGE.

WINGS are also the skirts or extremities of a fleet when it is ranged
into a line a-breast, or when bearing away upon two sides of an angle.
Thus the ships a, b. fig. 10. & 11. plate V. are in the wings of their
fleet or squadron.

It is usual to extend the wings of a fleet in the day-time, in order to
discover any enemy which may fall into their track. To prevent
separation, however, they are commonly summoned to draw nearer to the
center of the squadron before night, by a signal from the commander in
chief, which is afterwards repeated by ships in the intervals.

WOOLDING, _surlier_, (_woelen_, Dut.) the act of winding a piece of rope
about a mast or yard, to support it in a place where it may have been
_fished_ or _scarfed_; or when it is composed of several pieces united
into one solid. See MAST.

WOOLDING is also the rope employed in this service. Those which are
fixed on the lower masts, are represented in _a_, fig. 1, 2, & 3. plate

TO WORK, _manœuvrer_, to direct the movements of a ship, by adapting the
sails to the force and direction of the wind.

A ship is also said to work, when she strains and labours heavily in a
tempestuous sea, so as to loosen her joints or timbers. See PITCHING and

WORKING _to windward_, the operation by which a ship endeavours to make
a progress against the wind. See BEATING, PLYING, TURNING, and TACKING.

WORMING, _emieller_, the act of winding a rope spirally about a cable,
so as to lie close along the interval between every two strands. It is
generally designed to support and strengthen the cable, that it may be
enabled to sustain a greater effort when the ship rides at anchor; and
also to preserve the surface of the cable, where it lies flat upon the
ground, near the station of the anchor: particularly in moderate

WRECK, the ruins of a ship which has been stranded or dashed to pieces
on a shelf, rock, or lee-shore, by tempestuous weather.

                  _Conclusion of the article_ _PUMP_.

As we wish to pay all possible attention in this work to every
improvement in the marine, we have exhibited in plate VIII. a section of
this machine at large, as fixed in a frigate of war, fig. 2. wherein A
is the keel, and V the floor timbers, and X the kelson, _a a a_ the
several links of the chain, _b b_ the valves, C the upper wheels, D the
lower wheels, _c c_ the cavities upon the surface of the wheels to
receive the valves as they pass round thereon, _d d_ the bolts fixed
across the surface of the wheels, to fall in the interval between every
two links, to prevent the chain from sliding back.

The links of the chain, which are no other than two long plates of iron
with a hole at each end, and fixed together by two bolts serving as
axles, are represented on a larger scale as _a a_. The valves are two
circular plates of iron with a piece of leather between them: these are
also exhibited at large by _b b_.

Upon a trial of this machine with the old chain-pump aboard the seaford
frigate, it appears, in a report signed by rear admiral Sir John Moore,
12 captains, and 11 lieutenants of his majesty’s navy, that its effects,
when compared with the latter, were as follow.

           │       New Pump.       │       Old Pump.       │
           │Number │Tuns of│Seconds│Number │Tuns of│Seconds│
           │of Men.│Water. │  of   │of Men.│Water. │  of   │
           │       │       │ Time. │       │       │ Time. │
           │   4   │   1   │  43½  │   7   │   1   │  76   │
           │   2   │   1   │  55   │   4   │   1   │  81   │

The subscribers further certify, that the chain of the new pump was
dropped into the well, and afterwards taken up and repaired and set at
work again in two minutes and a half; and that they have seen the lower
wheel of the said pump taken up to show how readily it might be cleared
and refitted for action, after being choaked with sand or gravel; which
they are of opinion may be performed in four or five minutes.


XEBEC, a small three-masted vessel, navigated in the Mediterranean sea,
and on the coasts of Spain, Portugal, and Barbary. See fig. 8. plate

The sails of the xebec are in general similar to those of the polacre,
but the hull is extremely different from that and almost every other
vessel. It is furnished with a strong _prow_, and the extremity of the
stern, which is nothing more than a sort of railed platform or gallery,
projects farther behind the counter and buttock than that of any
European ship.

Being generally equipped as a corsair, the xebec is constructed with a
narrow floor, to be more swift in pursuit of the enemy; and of a great
breadth, to enable her to carry a great force of sail for this purpose,
without danger of overturning. As these vessels are usually very
low-built, their decks are formed with a great convexity from the middle
of their breadth towards the sides, in order to carry off the water,
which falls aboard, more readily by their scuppers. But as this extreme
convexity would render it very difficult to walk thereon at sea,
particularly when the vessel rocks by the agitation of the waves, there
is a platform of grating extending along the deck from the sides of the
vessel towards the middle, whereon the crew may walk dry-footed, whilst
the water is conveyed through the grating to the scuppers.

When a xebec is equipped for war, she is occasionally navigated in three
different methods, according to the force or direction of the wind.

Thus, when the wind is _fair_, and nearly astern, it is usual to extend
_square_ sails upon the main-mast; and indeed frequently on the
fore-mast: and as those sails are rarely used in a scant wind, they are
of an extraordinary breadth.

When the wind is unfavourable to the course, and yet continues moderate,
the square yards and sails are removed from the masts, and laid by, in
order to make way for the large lateen yards and sails, which soon after
assume their place: but if the foul wind increases to a storm, these
latter are also lowered down and displaced; and small lateen yards with
proportional sails are extended on all the masts.

The xebecs, which are generally armed as vessels of war by the
Algerines, mount from sixteen to twenty-four cannon, and carry from 300
to 450 men, two thirds of whom are generally soldiers.

By the very complicated and inconvenient method of working these
vessels, it will be readily believed, what one of their captains of
Algiers acquainted the author, viz. That the crew of every xebec has at
least the labour of three _square-rigged_ ships, wherein the standing
sails are calculated to answer every situation of the wind.


YACHT, a vessel of state, usually employed to convey princes,
ambassadors, or other great personages from one kingdom to another.

As the principal design of a yacht is to accommodate the passengers, it
is usually fitted with a variety of convenient apartments, with suitable
furniture, according to the quality or number of the persons contained

The royal yachts are commonly rigged as ketches, except the principal
one reserved for the sovereign, which is equipped with three masts like
a ship. They are in general elegantly furnished, and richly ornamented
with sculpture; and always commanded by captains in his majesty’s navy.

Besides these, there are many other yachts of a smaller kind, employed
by the commissioners of the excise, navy, and customs; or used as
pleasure-boats by private gentlemen.

YARD, _vergue_, a long piece of timber suspended upon the masts of a
ship, to extend the sails to the wind. See MAST and SAIL.

All yards are either square or lateen; the former of which are suspended
across the mast at right angles, and the latter obliquely.

The square-yards, fig. 1. plate IX. are nearly of a cylindrical surface.
They taper from the middle, which is called the _slings_, towards the
extremities which are termed the _yard-arms_; and the distance between
the slings and the yard-arms on each side, is, by the artificers,
divided into quarters, which are distinguished into the first, second,
third quarters, and yard-arms. The middle quarters are formed into eight
squares, and each of the end parts is figured like the frustrum of a
cone. All the yards of a ship are square except that of the mizen.

The proportions for the length of yards, according to the different
classes of ships in the British navy, are as follows:

                          │     │                         │    Guns.
                          │     │main yard expressed by   │
                          │     │  _d_, fig. 1. plate IX. │
 1000 : gun-deck ::       │560 :│  _Note_, the figure     │100
                          │     │  represents the yards   │
                          │     │  and sails of a ship of │
                          │     │  74 guns.               │
                          │559 :│                         │90 80
                          │570 :│                         │70
                          │576 :│                         │60
                          │575 :│                         │50
                          │561 :│                         │44

 1000 : main-yard ::      │880 :│        fore-yard        │100 90  80
                          │874 :│                         │all the rest.

 To apply this rule to practice, suppose the gun-deck 144 feet. The
 proportion for this length is as 1000 is to 575, so is 144 to 83; which
 will be the length of the main-yard in feet, and so of all the rest.

 1000 : main-yard ::      │820 :│       mizen-yard        │100 90 80 60
                          │     │                         │  44
                          │847 :│                         │70
                          │840 :│                         │24

 1000 : main-yard ::      │726 :│main topsail-yard  _e_,  │24
                          │     │  fig. 1. plate IX       │
                          │720 :│                         │all the rest.

 1000 : fore-yard ::      │719 :│fore topsail-yard        │70
                          │726 :│                         │24
                          │715 :│                         │all the rest.

 1000 : main  topsail-y^d.│690 :│main top-gall. yard      │all the
   ::                     │     │                         │  rates.

 1000 : fore topsail-y^d. │696 :│fore top-gall. yard _f_, │70
   ::                     │     │  fig. 1. plate IX.      │
                          │690 :│                         │all the rest.

 1000 : fore topsail-y^d. │768 :│mizen topsail-yard       │70
   ::                     │     │                         │
                          │750 :│                         │all the rest.

Cross-jack and sprit-sail yards equal to the fore topsail yard.

Sprit topsail yard equal to the fore top-gallant-yard.

The diameters of yards are in the following proportions to their length.

The main and fore yard five sevenths of an inch to a yard. The topsail,
cross-jack, and sprit-sail yards, nine fourteenths of an inch to one
yard. The top-gallant, mizen topsail, and sprit-sail topsail yards eight
thirteenths of an inch to one yard.

The mizen yard five ninths of an inch to one yard.

All studding-sail booms and yards half an inch to one yard in length.

The lifts of the main-yard are exhibited in the above figure, by _g_;
the horses and their stirrups, by _h_, _i_; the reef-tackles and their
pendants, by _k_, _l_; and the braces and brace-pendants, by _m_, _n_.

The lateen-yards evidently derive their names from having been peculiar
to the ancient Romans. They are usually composed of several pieces
fastened together by wooldings, which also serve as steps whereby the
sailors climb to the _peek_, or upper extremity, in order to furl or
cast loose the sail.

The mizen-yard of a ship, and the main-yard of a bilander, are hung
obliquely on the mast, almost in the same manner as the lateen-yard of a
xebec, settee, or polacre. See those articles.

_To brace the_ YARDS, _brasser_, is to traverse them about the masts, so
as to form greater or lesser angles with the ship’s length. See BRACE.

_To square the_ YARDS. See LIFT and SQUARE.

_Dock_-YARD. See the article DOCK-YARD.

YAW, a name given by seamen to the movement by which a ship deviates
from the line of her course towards the right or left in steering.

YAWL, a small ship’s boat, usually rowed by four or six oars. See BOAT.

YEOMAN, an officer under the boatswain or gunner of a ship of war,
usually charged with the stowage, account, and distribution of their
respective stores.

YOKE, a name formerly given to the tiller, when communicating with two
blocks or _sheaves_ affixed to the inner end of the tiller. It is now
applied to a small board or bar which crosses the upper end of a boat’s
rudder at right angles, and having two small cords extending from its
opposite extremities to the _stern-sheets_ of the boat, whereby she is
steered as with a tiller.

                                THE END.


Footnote 1:

  In regno Saracenorum quatuor prætores statuit, qui admiralii
  vocabantur. SIGEBERT.

Footnote 2:

  Mr. Bigot de Morogues says from 4000 to 4500, and Mr. Hauksbee 5000.

Footnote 3:

  “The change proposed here, of reducing the quantity of powder in all
  ship guns to one-third of the weight of the bullet, has for some time
  past been practised by the French in a much severer service, where the
  encreasing the velocity of the bullet could not at any time diminish
  its effect; the service I mean is battering in breach. For I learn,
  that of late years all their breaches, in the different sieges they
  have undertaken, have been made with this very charge, that is, their
  twenty four-pounders have been loaded with eight pounds of powder, and
  they have found, that though the penetration of the bullet is less
  with this charge than with a larger one, yet the other conveniences
  attending this smaller charge, are more than, sufficient to balance
  that particular.

  “And here I must observe, that there have not been wanting persons of
  considerable name, who have asserted that the velocity of a
  twenty-four pound bullet was really greater with eight pounds of
  powder than with any large quantity, founding their opinion on the
  ridiculous persuasion, that whatever quantity was put in, no more than
  eight pounds of it took fire; but this supposition is destroyed by
  their own experiments, and their own reasonings and later experiments,
  with greater attention, put it beyond all doubt, that to the larger
  charge (at least as far as twenty pounds of powder) there corresponds
  a greater velocity.

Footnote 4:

  It is necessary to observe in this place, that Mr. Muller, whose
  opinion herein has been confirmed by various experiments, has, with
  little variation, adopted the sentiments of the above proposal, and
  strongly recommended them as a scheme of public utility.

Footnote 5:

          ——Yon tall anchoring bark
          Diminish’d to her cock; her cock a buoy, &c.

Footnote 6:

  The wires of which the needle has hitherto been generally composed,
  were only hardened at their ends; now if those ends are not equally
  hard, or if one end be hardened up higher than the other, when they
  come to be put together, in fixing them to the card, that end which is
  hardest will destroy much of the virtue of the other; by which means
  the hardest end will have the greatest power in directing the card,
  and consequently make it vary towards its own direction; and, as the
  wires are disposed in the form of a lozenge, these cards can have but
  little force; so that they will often, when drawn aside, stand at the
  distance of several degrees on either side the point from whence they
  are drawn; for all magnetical bodies receive an additional strength by
  being placed in the direction of the earth’s magnetism, and act
  proportionably less vigorously when turned out of it. Therefore when
  these kind of needles are drawn aside from their true point, two of
  the parallel sides of the lozenge will conspire more directly than
  before with the earth’s magnetism, and the other two will be less in
  that direction: by this means the two former sides will very much
  impede its return, and the two latter will have that impediment to
  overcome, as well as the friction, by their own force alone.

Footnote 7:

  It is necessary to observe here, that the principal, and indeed the
  only circumstance in which Knight’s compasses are superior to those
  which have hitherto obtained, is, that their needles being tempered
  much higher than usual, are thereby enabled to contain a much greater
  quantity of the magnetical stream, which is certainly a real
  advantage. But, on the other hand, experience sufficiently proves, and
  truth obliges us to remark, that the methods he has taken to ballance
  the card with more accuracy than had been formerly attempted, have
  rendered it by far too delicate to encounter the shocks of a
  tempestuous sea.

Footnote 8:

  “At Java, in the streights of Sunda, when the monsoons blow from the
  west, viz. in the month of May, the currents set to the eastward,
  contrary to the general motion.

  “Also between the island of Celebes and Madura, when the western
  monsoons set, viz. in December, January, and February, or when the
  winds blow from the N W. or between the north and west, the currents
  set to the S E. or between the south and east.

  “At Ceylon, from the middle of March to October, the currents set to
  the southward, and in the other parts of the year to the northward;
  because at this time the southern monsoons blow, and at the other, the

  “Between Cochin-China and Malacca, when the western monsoons blow,
  viz. from April to August, the currents set eastward against the
  general motion, but the rest of the year set westward; the monsoon
  conspiring with the general motion. They run so wrongly in these seas,
  that unexperienced sailors mistake them for waves that beat upon the
  rocks known by the name of breakers.

  “So for some months after the fifteenth of February the currents set
  from the Maldivies towards India on the east, against the general
  motion of the sea.

  “On the shore of China and Cambodia, in the months of October,
  November, and December, the currents set to the N W. and from January
  to the S W. when they run with such a rapidity of motion about the
  shoals of Parcel, that it seems swifter than that of an arrow.

  “At Pulo Condore, upon the coast of Cambodia, though the monsoons are
  shifting, yet the currents set strongly towards the east, even when
  they blow to a contrary point.

  “Along the coasts of the bay of Bengal, as far as the cape Romania, at
  the extreme point of Malacca the current runs southward in November
  and December.

  “When the monsoons blow from China to Malacca, the sea runs swiftly
  from Pulo Cambi to Pulo Condore, on the coast of Cambodia.

  “In the bay of Sans Bras, not far from the Cape of Good Hope, there is
  a current particularly remarkable, where the sea runs from east to
  west to the landward; and this more vehemently as it becomes opposed
  by the winds from a contrary direction. The cause is undoubtedly owing
  to some adjacent shore, which is higher than this.” _Varenius._

  These currents constantly follow the winds, and set to the same point
  with the monsoon, or trade-wind, at sea. See MONSOON.

Footnote 9:


Footnote 10:


Footnote 11:

        A ponderous mace, with studs of iron crown’d,
        Full twenty cubits long he swings around.           POPE.

Footnote 12:

  See the note on the following page.

Footnote 13:

  Potter’s Archaeologia Graeca. De Morogues Tactique Navale.

Footnote 14:

        _Ut primum rostris crepuerunt obvia rostra,
        In puppim rediere rates, emissaque tela
        Aera texerant, vacuumque cadentia pontum._          LUCAN.

  Which we may thus translate:

               The beaks encounter with a thundering sound,
               Then reeling, from the mutual shock rebound.
               The javelins fly! an iron tempest sweeps
               The darken’d air, and covers all the deeps!

Footnote 15:

           _Seque tenent remis toto stetit æquore bellum.
           Jam non excussis torquentur tela lacertis
           Nec longinqua cadunt jaculato vulnera ferro;
           Miscenturque manus, navali plurima bello;
           Ensis agit; stat quisque suæ de robore puppis
           Pronus in adversos ictus._——                 LUCAN.

  Thus translated by ROWE.

             ——Others by the tangling oars are held.
             The seas are hid beneath the closing war,
             Nor need they cast the javelins now from far;
             With hardy strokes the combatants engage,
             And with keen faulchions deal their deadly rage:
             Man against man, and board by board, they lie.

  “The famous machine called the Corvus, was framed after the following
  manner: They erected on the prow of their vessels a round piece of
  timber, of about a foot and a half diameter, and about twelve foot
  long; on the top whereof they had a block or pulley. Round this piece
  of timber, they laid a stage or platform of boards, four foot broad,
  and about eighteen foot long, which was well framed, and fastened with
  iron. The entrance was long-ways, and it moved about the aforesaid
  upright piece of timber, as on a spindle, and could be hoisted up
  within six foot of the top: about this was a sort of a parapet, knee
  high, which was defended with upright bars of iron, sharpened at the
  end; towards the top whereof there was a ring: through this ring,
  fastening a rope, by the help of the pulley, they hoisted or lowered
  the engine at pleasure; and so with it attacked the enemy’s vessels,
  sometimes on their bow, and sometimes on their broad-side, as occasion
  best served. When they had grappled the enemy with those iron spikes,
  if they happen’d to swing broad-side to broad-side, then they entered
  from all parts; but in case they attacked them on the bow, they
  entered two and two by the help of this machine, the foremost
  defending the fore-part, and those that followed the flanks, keeping
  the boss of their bucklers level with the top of the parapet.

  “To this purpose Polybius gives us an account of the first warlike
  preparations which the Romans made by sea. We may add, in short, the
  order, which they observed in drawing up their fleet for battle, taken
  from the same author. The two consuls were in the two admiral galleys,
  in the front of their two distinct squadrons, each of them just a-head
  of their own divisions, and a-breast of each other; the first fleet
  being posted on the right, the second on the left, making two long
  files or lines of battle. And, whereas it was necessary to give a due
  space between each galley, to ply their oars, and keep clear one of
  another, and to have their heads or prows looking somewhat outwards;
  this manner of drawing up did therefore naturally form an angle, the
  point whereof was at the two admiral galleys, which were near
  together; and as their two lines were prolonged, so the distance grew
  consequently wider and wider towards the rear. But, because the naval
  as well as the land army consisted of four legions, and accordingly
  the ships made four divisions; two of these were yet behind: Of which
  the third fleet, or the third legion, was drawn up front-ways in the
  rear of the first and second, and so stretching along from point to
  point composed a triangle, whereof the third line was the base. Their
  vessels of burden, that carried their horses and baggage, were in the
  rear of these; and were, by the help of small boats provided for that
  purpose, towed or drawn after them. In the rear of all, was the fourth
  fleet, called the Triarians, drawn up likewise in rank or front-ways,
  parallel to the third: but these made a longer line, by which means
  the extremities stretched out, and extended beyond the two angles at
  the base. The several divisions of the army, being thus disposed,
  formed, as is said, a triangle; the area within was void, but the base
  was thick and solid, and the whole body quick, active, and very
  difficult to be broken.” _Kennett Antiq. Rome._

Footnote 16:

  De Morogues Tact. Navale.

Footnote 17:

  “The use of powder was not established in battle, till the long wars
  of Francis I. and Charles V. From its invention to this period, both
  the machines in use before that discovery, and those which that
  discovery introduced, were used in war at the same time; and even some
  time after this period, both sorts of machines were continued in use.”
  _Le Blond’s Elements of War._

Footnote 18:

  De Morogues Tact. Navale.

Footnote 19:

  “The carabine is a sort of musketoon, the barrel of which is riffled
  spirally from the breech, so that when the ball, which is forced into
  it, is again driven out by the strength of the powder, it is
  lengthened about the breadth of a finger, and marked with the riffle
  of the bore. This piece has an iron rammer.

  “The barrel of the carabine is three foot long, including the stock.
  It has a much greater _range_ than the fusil or musket, because the
  riffle of the barrel impedes the ball, which thereby makes the greater
  resistance at the first inflammation of the powder, and, giving time
  for the whole charge to take fire before it goes out of the bore, it
  is at length thrown out with greater force than from the common
  musket.” _Le Blond’s Elements of War._

  The coehorn is a sort of small mortar, fixed on a swivel, and
  particularly used to discharge grenadoes, or cast bullets from close
  quarters in merchant vessels when boarded.

  The fire-arrow, _dard à feu_, is a small iron dart furnished with
  springs and bars, together with a match, impregnated with powder and
  sulphur, which is wound about its shaft. It is intended to fire the
  sails of the enemy, and is for this purpose discharged from a
  musketoon or swivel-gun. The match being kindled by the explosion,
  communicates the flame to the sail against which it is directed, where
  the arrow is fastened by means of its bars and springs. As this is
  peculiar to hot climates, particularly the West-Indies, the sails
  being extremely dry, are instantly inflamed, and of course convey the
  fire to the masts and rigging, and finally to the vessel itself.

  The powder-flask and stink pot are described in the article BOARDING:
  and the organ is no other than a machine consisting of six or seven
  musket barrels fixed upon one stock, so as to be fired all at once.

Footnote 20:

  M. De Morogues.

Footnote 21:

  The Gauls, says Vegetius, had the advantage of the Romans in their
  numbers: The Germans have their stature; the Spaniards their strength
  and numbers united; the Africans their artifice and opulence; the
  Greeks their policy and prudence; but the Romans have triumphed over
  all by their discipline.

Footnote 22:

  M. De Morogues.

Footnote 23:

  As a number of technical terms are introduced in these instructions,
  the land-reader who wishes to understand the subject, should refer to
  the several articles, all of which are inserted in this work.

Footnote 24:

  The iron chambers are ten inches long, and 3.5 in diameter. They are
  breeched against a piece of wood fixed across the ports, and let into
  another a little higher. When loaded, they are almost filled with
  corn-powder, and have a wooden tompion well driven into their muzzles.
  They are primed with a small piece of _quick-match_ thrust through
  their vents into the powder, with a part of it hanging out. When the
  ports are blown open by means of the iron chambers, the port-lids
  either fall downward, or are carried away by the explosion.

Footnote 25:

  The fire-barrels ought to be of a cylindrical form, as most suitable
  to contain the _reeds_ with which they are filled, and more convenient
  for stowing them between the troughs in the fire-room. Their inside
  diameters should not be less than twenty-one inches, and thirty inches
  is sufficient for their length. The bottom parts are first well stored
  with short double dipped reeds placed upright; and the remaining
  vacancy is filled with fire-barrel composition, well mixed and melted,
  and then poured over them. The composition used for this purpose is a
  mass of sulphur, pitch, tar, and tallow.

  There are five holes of ¾ inch in diameter, and three inches deep,
  formed in the top of the composition while it is yet warm; one being
  in the center, and the other four at equal distances round the sides
  of the barrel. When the composition is cold and hard, the barrel is
  primed by filling those holes with fuse-composition, which is firmly
  driven into them, so as to leave a little vacancy at the top to admit
  a strand of quick match twice doubled. The center hole contains two
  strands at their whole length, and every strand must be driven home
  with mealed powder. The loose ends of the quick-match being then laid
  within the barrel, the whole is covered with a dipped _curtain_,
  fastened on with a hoop that slips over the head of the barrel, to
  which it is nailed.

  The barrels should be made very strong, not only to support the weight
  of the composition before firing, when they are moved or carried from
  place to place, but to keep them together whilst burning: for if the
  staves are too light and thin, so as to burn very soon, the remaining
  composition will tumble out and be dissipated, and the intention of
  the barrels, to carry the flame aloft, will accordingly be frustrated.

  The curtain is a piece of coarse canvas, nearly a yard in breadth and
  length, thickened with melted composition, and covered with saw-dust
  on both sides.

Footnote 26:

  The reeds are made up in small bundles of about a foot in
  circumference, cut even at both ends, and tied together in two places.
  They are distinguished into two kinds, viz. the long and short; the
  former of which are four feet, and the latter two feet five inches in
  length. One part of them are singly dipped, i. e. at one end; the rest
  are dipped at both ends in a kettle of melted composition. After being
  immersed about seven or eight inches in this preparation, and then
  drained, they are sprinkled over with pulverised sulphur upon a tanned

Footnote 27:

  The bavins are made of birch, heath, or other brush-wood, which is
  tough and readily kindled. They are usually two or three feet in
  length, and have all their bush-ends lying one way, the other ends
  being tied together with small cords. They are dipped in composition
  at the bush-ends, whose branches are afterwards confined by the hand,
  to prevent them from breaking off by moving about; and also to make
  them burn more fiercely. After being dipped, in the same manner as the
  reeds, they also are sprinkled with sulphur.

Footnote 28:

  Quick match is formed of three cotton strands drawn into length, and
  dipped in a boiling composition of white-wine vinegar, salt-petre, and
  mealed powder. After this immersion it is taken out hot, and laid in a
  trough where some mealed powder, moistened with spirits of wine, is
  thoroughly incorporated into the twists of the cotton, by rolling it
  about therein. Thus prepared they are taken out separately, and drawn
  through mealed powder, then hung upon a line till dried, by which they
  are fit for immediate service.

Footnote 29:

  Port-fires are frequently used by the artillery people in preference
  to matches, to set fire to the powder or compositions. They are
  distinguished into wet and dry port-fires. The composition of the
  former is salt-petre four, sulphur one, and mealed powder four. When
  these materials are thoroughly mixed and sifted, the whole is to be
  moistened with a little linseed oil, and rubbed between the hands till
  all the oil is imbibed by the composition. The preparation for dry
  port fires is salt-petre four, sulphur one, mealed powder two, and
  antimony one. These compositions are driven into small paper cases, to
  be used whenever necessary.

Footnote 30:

  De Morogues Tact. Navale,

Footnote 31:

  Bourdé. Manœuvrier.

Footnote 32:

  Bourdé. Manœuvrier.

Footnote 33:

  Beugner, Traité de la Manœuvre de Vaisseaux. Bourdé. Manœuvrier.

Footnote 34:

  Saverien Dict. Marine.

Footnote 35:

  Aubin. Saverien.

Footnote 36:

  The cut-water is called _taille-mer_ by the French.

Footnote 37:

  Milton alludes to this situation, in his second book of _Paradise
  Lost_: where,

             “The pilot of some small night-founder’d skiff,
             “With fixed anchor——
             “Moors by his side, under the lee.”——

Footnote 38:

  De Morogues. Tactique Navale.

Footnote 39:

  Muller’s Artillery.

Footnote 40:

  Le Blond’s Elements of War.

   _Extract of a letter from the commanding-officer of the artillery at
                        Gibraltar, May 10, 1756._

  “Happening to mention, before the governor and commodore Edgecumbe,
  that, in case of Gibraltar being attacked by sea, howitzers would be
  of great service, as I did not imagine any ship’s side proof against a
  10 inch shell, fired point-blank, or at a small elevation, with a full
  charge of powder; which being thought impossible by most present, it
  was agreed to try the experiment: accordingly a target, of about 6
  feet square, of an equal strength and resistance with the strongest
  part of our largest men of war’s sides, was made, and was just 3 feet
  thick of solid fir-timber: we fired at it out of a sea-service 10 inch
  howitzer, at 150 yards distance, and with 10 lb. of powder.”

  “The first shell just touched the top of the object, and lodged in the
  bank of sand behind it; the second grazed short three yards, and went
  through the lower corner of the object; but the third shell gave full
  satisfaction, going through the very centre of the object, and
  entering 5 feet into a solid bank of sand behind it.”

Footnote 41:

  The regulations, with regard to pilots in the royal navy, are as
  follow: The commanders of the king’s ships, in order to give all
  reasonable encouragement to so useful a body of men as pilots, and to
  remove all their objections to his majesty’s service, are strictly
  charged to treat them with good usage, and in equal respect with

  “The purser of the ship is always to have a set of bedding provided on
  board for the pilots, and the captain is to order the boatswain to
  supply them with hammocs, and a convenient place to lie in, near their
  duty, and apart from the common men; which bedding and hammocs are to
  be returned when the pilots leave the ship.

  “A pilot, when conducting one of his majesty’s ship’s in pilot-water,
  shall have the sole charge and command of the ship, and may give
  orders for steering; setting, trimming, or furling the sails; tacking
  the ship; or whatever concerns the navigation: and the captain is to
  take care that all the officers and crew obey his orders. But the
  captain is diligently to observe the conduct of the pilot, and if he
  judges him to behave so ill as to bring the ship into danger, he may
  remove him from the command and charge of the ship, and take such
  methods for her preservation as shall be judged necessary; remarking
  upon the log-book the exact hour and time when the pilot was removed
  from his office, and the reasons assigned for it.

  “Captains of the king’s ships, employing pilots in foreign parts of
  his majesty’s dominions, shall, after performance of the service, give
  a certificate thereof to the pilot, which being produced to the proper
  naval-officer, he shall cause the same to be immediately paid; but if
  there be no naval-officer there, the captain of his majesty’s ship
  shall pay him, and send the proper vouchers, with his bill, to the
  navy-board, in order to be paid as bills of exchange.

  “Captains of his majesty’s ships, employing foreign pilots, to carry
  the ships they command into, or out of foreign ports, shall pay them
  the rates due by the establishment or custom of the country, before
  they discharge them; whose receipts being duly vouched, and sent with
  a certificate of the service performed, to the navy-board, they shall
  cause them to be paid with the same exactness as they do bills of
  exchange.” _Regulations and Instructions of the Sea-service, &c._

Footnote 42:

  Hist. Denmark, by Saxo Grammaticus.

Footnote 43:

  Saverien Dict. Marine.

Footnote 44:

  The regulations with regard to prizes in the royal navy are as follow:

  “I. When any ship or vessel is taken from the enemy, the hatches are
  to be immediately spiked up, and her lading and furniture secured from
  embezzlement, till sentence is passed upon her in some court of
  admiralty, empowered to take cognizance of causes of that nature.

  “II. The captain is to cause the officers of the prize to be examined;
  three or more of the company, who can give best evidence, to be
  brought to the said court of admiralty, together with the
  charter-parties, bills of lading, and other ship’s papers found on

  “V. When a privateer is taken, great care is to be had to secure all
  the ship’s papers, especially the commission; but if there be no legal
  commission found on board, then all the prisoners are to be carried
  before some magistrate, in order to their being examined and committed
  as pirates.”

  N. B. The third and fourth articles relate to the finding any of the
  king’s subjects in the prizes; and appear unnecessary in this place.

Footnote 45:

  _Ricoche_ signifies _duck_ and _drake_, a name given to the bounding
  of a flat stone thrown almost horizontally into the water.

Footnote 46:

  Muller’s Artillery.

Footnote 47:

  Le Blond’s Elements of War.

Footnote 48:

  Belidor. Bigot de Morogues.

Footnote 49:

  Weight, or gravity, always operates equally on a falling body; for as
  it always subsists in an equal degree, it must perpetually act with
  equal force, or produce always the same effect in the same time. So
  if, in the first instant of falling, it communicates to a body a
  certain force sufficient to move a certain space, it must, in every
  following instant, communicate a force capable of moving it the like
  space, and by this means the velocity of a falling body is every
  moment accelerated; for if it has one degree the first instant, it
  will have two the second, three the third, and so on. Hence it must
  move different spaces every instant, and by that means describe the
  curve-line above mentioned.

Footnote 50:

  Le Blond’s Elements of War.

Footnote 51:

  The same gentleman observes, that a ship of two decks, such as are
  generally all those of the third and fourth rates, cannot be so
  strongly connected as one that is furnished with three: a vessel
  pierced for 15 guns on one side of her deck must necessarily be very
  long, and is sometimes apt to droop at the two ends; or, in the
  sea-phrase, to _break her back_ under the enormous weight of her

Footnote 52:

  The reader, who wishes to be expert in this manœuvre, will find it
  copiously described by several ingenious French writers, particularly
  L’Hôte, Saverien, Morogues, Bourdé, and Ozane; who have given accurate
  instructions, deduced from experience, for putting it in practice when
  occasion requires. As it is not properly a term of the British marine,
  a more circumstantial account of it might be considered foreign to our
  plan. It has been observed in another part of this work[53], that the
  French have generally exhibited greater proofs of taste and judgment
  in the sculpture, with which their ships are decorated, than the
  English; the same candour and impartiality obliges us to confess their
  superior dexterity in this movement.

Footnote 53:

  See the article HEAD.

Footnote 54:

  Le Blond’s Elements of War.

Footnote 55:

  Mr. Robertson, librarian of the Royal Society, favoured the author
  with an inspection of several curious remarks concerning the history
  of modern navigation; in which it appears, that the most early
  discoveries with regard to the magnetical variation were made about
  the year 1570. Mr. Robert Norman, from a variety of observations made
  by him nearly at that time, ascertains it to have been 11° 15´
  easterly, or one point of the compass.

Footnote 56:

  Euler. De la Lande.

Footnote 57:

  I had often seen water-spouts at a distance, and heard many strange
  stories of them, but never knew any thing satisfactory of their nature
  or cause, until that which I saw at Antigua; which convinced me that a
  water-spout is a whirlwind, which becomes visible in all its
  dimensions by the water it carries up with it.

  There appeared, not far from the mouth of the harbour of St. John’s,
  two or three water-spouts, one of which took its course up the
  harbour. Its progressive motion was slow and unequal, not in a strait
  line, but as it were by jerks or starts. When just by the wharf, I
  stood about 100 yards from it. There appeared in the water a circle of
  about twenty yards diameter, which to me had a dreadful though
  pleasing appearance. The water in this circle was violently agitated,
  being whisked about, and carried up into the air with great rapidity
  and noise, and reflected a lustre, as if the sun shined bright on that
  spot, which was more conspicuous, as there appeared a dark circle
  around it. When it made the shore, it carried up with the same
  violence shingles, staves, large pieces of the roofs of houses, &c.
  and one small wooden house it lifted entirely from the foundation on
  which it stood, and carried it to the distance of fourteen feet, where
  it settled without breaking or oversetting; and, what is remarkable,
  tho’ the whirlwind moved from west to east, the house moved from east
  to west. Two or three negroes and a white woman were killed by the
  fall of timber, which it carried up into the air, and dropt again.
  After passing through the town, I believe it was soon dissipated; for,
  except tearing a large limb from a tree, and part of the cover of a
  sugar-work near the town, I do not remember any farther damage done by
  it. I conclude, wishing you success in your enquiry, and am, &c.

                                                                   W. M.

Footnote 58:

  The swiftness of the wind in a great storm is not more than 50 or 60
  miles in an hour; and a common brisk gale is about 15 miles an hour.
  _Robertson’s Navigation._

                       _SUPPLEMENT_ and _ERRATA_.


_In the article_ ABACK, _line_ 19. _for_ fig. 1. _read_ fig. 14. _and in
line_ 22, _read_ fig. 13.

_After the_ ANCHOR is a cock bill, _read_ à la veille.

AN-END, _debout_, the situation of any mast or boom, when erected
perpendicularly on the plane of the deck, tops, &c. The top-masts are
also said to be an-end when they are hoisted up to their usual station,
at the head of the lower masts, as in fig. 3. plate VI.

_In line_ 24. _page_ 2. _of_ Naval ARCHITECTURE, _dele_ see the article
Elevation, _and line_ 21. _under this in the same page, for_ plate V.
fig. 4. _read_ plate IV. fig. 11.

_In the explanation of the_ pieces of the Hull, _page_ 6. _of_ Naval
ARCHITECTURE, _line_ 31. _for_ sternpost, _read_ dead-wood, _and two
lines lower, for_ sleepers, _read_ knees.

_In line_ 34. _page_ 9. _of the same article, for_ O K, _read_ O _k_.

_Top_-ARMOUR. See the article TOP.

AVAST, the order to stop, or pause in any exercise.

_In the article_ AWEIGH, _after the words_ perpendicular direction,
_read_ as in fig. 6. plate 1.


To BAGPIPE _the Mizen_, is to lay it _aback_, by bringing the sheet to
the mizen shrouds.

BILL, the point or extremity of the fluke of an anchor.

BLOCK AND BLOCK, the situation of a tackle when the two opposite blocks
are drawn close together, so that the mechanical power becomes
destroyed, till the tackle is again _over-hauled_ by drawing the blocks

_In the 2d page of the article_ BOAT, _line_ 13. _from the bottom, for_
of framed iron, _read_ framed of iron.

BOLD, an epithet applied to the sea coast, signifying steep, or abrupt,
so as to admit the approach of shipping without exposing them to the
danger of being run a-ground, or stranded.

For the articles BOLT and BOOM-IRON, see IRON-WORK, as corrected below.

BONNET, an additional part laced to the bottom of the main sail and fore
sail of some small vessels, in moderate winds.

_In the article_ BREAM, _the last line except one, read_ or by docking.

In-BULK, _see_ LADEN.

BUM-BOAT, a small boat used to sell vegetables, &c. to ships lying at a
distance from the shore.


_In the article_ Can-BUOYS, _for_ fig. 8. _read_ fig. 6. _and in_
Nun-BUOYS, _for_ fig. 9. _read_ fig. 7.

_In_ Can-HOOKS, _dele_ and 9.

_In the 4th page of the article_ CANNON, _line 22. for_ fig. 17. _read_
fig. 10. _and in the 5th page of the same article, line 11. read the
figures_ 8. and 10.

_Line 14. of_ CAPSTERN, _for_ fig. 10. _read_ fig. 11. and 12.

CAST-AWAY, the state of a ship which is lost or wrecked on a lee-shore,
bank, or shallow.

COMING-TO. See the article TRYING.

COMPLEMENT, the limited number of men employed in any ship, either for
navigation or battle.

CROWFOOT, _line 3. for 27. read 28._


DAVIT, _line 2. for 28. read 29._

_In the explanation of_ DECK, plate III. _for_ L the deck-transom,
_read_ L the wing-transom, _and nine lines lower, read_ Q the

_In_ DIVISION, _line 7. after_ cannon, _read_ each.

DOUBLE-BANKED, the situation of the oars of a boat when two opposite
ones are managed by rowers seated on the same bench, or _thwart_. The
oars are also said to be double-banked when two men row upon every
single one.

DRAWING, the state of a sail when it is inflated by the wind, so as to
advance the vessel in her course.


_In the 12th page of the article_ ENGAGEMENT, _line 18. for_ have as
many, _read_ save as many.


FIRE-SHIP, _line 10. after_ bulk-head, _for_ I, _read_ L.

FLAW, a sudden breeze, or gust of wind.

FLUSH. See the article DECK.


GAMMONING, _line 4. for_ fig. 7. _read_ fig. 6, 8, and 9.

GRIPE, the same with FORE-FOOT. See that article.

GUY, line 1. _read_ to keep steddy.


HAUSER, a large rope which holds the middle degree between the _cable_
and _tow-line_, in any ship whereto it belongs, being a size smaller
than the former, and as much larger than the latter.

_In the 3d page of the article_ HEAD, _line 26. after_ beams, _read_ or;
_and six lines lower, read_ the head, and part, &c.


_In the article_ IRON-WORK, _line 14. dele_ as in fig. 1. and 2. plate
II. _and two lines lower, for_ fig. 4. _read_ fig. 1. plate II. _and in
the next line, for_ fig. 5, 6, and 39. _read_ fig. 3, and 39. _Seven
lines below this, after_ barbs, _read_ fig. 2. _and in the 2d line from
the bottom, for_ fig. 7. _read_ fig. 5.


_To_ KEEP-OFF _for_ alargeer, _read_ alarguer.

_In line 9. of the article_ KETCH, _after_ war, _read see_ fig. 5. plate


LANCH, the order to let go the _top-rope_, after any top mast is

LEDGES, certain small pieces of timber placed _athwart-ships_, under the
decks of a ship, in the intervals between the beams, as exhibited in the
representation of the deck, plate III.

LEDGE, is also a long ridge of rocks, near the surface of the sea.

_Line 10. of the article_ LINE, _for_ fig. 5. _read_ fig. 6.


MIDSHIPMAN, _line 4. for_ all other, _read_ several other.

_In page 2d of the article_ MORTAR, _line 9. after_ distance, _read_
from the object, &c. _and in page 3. of the same article, line 2. for_
fig. 14. plate VII. _read_ fig. 5. and 20. plate VII. the former of
which exhibits the transverse section of a bomb-vessel, with the mortar
fixed in its place, at an elevation of forty-five degrees. See RANGE.




RACK, _rasteau_, a frame of timber, containing several _sheaves_, and
usually fixed on the opposite sides of a ship’s bow-sprit, to direct the
sailors to the respective ropes passing through it, all of which are
attached to the sails on the bowsprit.

_In page 4. of the article_ RATE, _line 14. for_ without, _read_ to

_After the article_ RIDING, _read_, a rope is said to ride, when one of
the turns by which it is wound about the _capstern_ or _windlass_ lies
over another, so as to interrupt the operation of heaving.


SALLY-PORT. See the article FIRE-SHIP.

SCUD, a name given by seamen to the lowest and lightest clouds, which
are most swiftly wafted along the atmosphere by the winds.

SHALLOP, a sort of large boat with two masts, and usually rigged like a

SHIVERING, the state of a sail when it shakes or flutters in the wind,
as being neither _full_ nor _aback_, but in a middle degree, between
both, as well with regard to its absolute position, as to its relative
effect on the vessel.

_In line 9. of the article_ STERN, _for_ fig. 1. _read_ fig 3. _and
thirteen lines lower, after_ third transoms, _dele_ with _l_, _m_, _n_,
_o_, four intermediate transoms, _and read_ the 4th, 5th, and 6th
transoms are placed immediately under these: and that which lies between
the wing and deck-transoms, is called the filling-transom.



_In page 2. of the article_ TOP, _line 19. for_ fig. 2. plate VI. _read_
fig. 1. plate IX.

                                 OF THE
                        PHRASES AND TERMS OF ART
                                 IN THE
                             FRENCH MARINE.


  In the Article

ALLER en course, read, in search of an enemy.

AMURÉ, r. larboard or starboard-tacks.

BARRES _de panneaux_, &c. r. under the covers of the hatchways.

CHEVILLE _œillets_, &c. r. CHEVILLE _à œillets_, &c.

CLEF _des etains_, for cheek, r. chock.

CORDE _de retenue_ (art. 2d.) r. also the pendant, &c.

COUP _de partance_, r. as a signal, &c.


FAIRE _honneur_, for _a quelq