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Title: A Cyclopaedia of Canadian Biography: Being Chiefly Men of the Time
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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               _ROSE’S NATIONAL BIOGRAPHICAL SERIES. II._


                              A CYCLOPÆDIA

                                   OF

                          CANADIAN BIOGRAPHY:

                                 BEING

                        CHIEFLY MEN OF THE TIME.


       A COLLECTION OF PERSONS DISTINGUISHED IN PROFESSIONAL AND
          POLITICAL LIFE; LEADERS IN THE COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY
                  OF CANADA, AND SUCCESSFUL PIONEERS.


                              _EDITED BY_
                           GEO. MACLEAN ROSE.

                             [Illustration]



                            T o r o n t o :
            R O S E   P U B L I S H I N G   C O M P A N Y .
                                 1888.



             Entered according to the Act of Parliament of
             Canada, in the year one thousand eight
             hundred and eighty-eight, by HUNTER, ROSE
             & CO., at the department of Agriculture.

                          PRINTED AND BOUND BY
                          HUNTER, ROSE & CO.,
                                TORONTO.



                                PREFACE.


It has been too long a custom to regard as proper subjects for
biographical literature only persons who have figured in political life.
In preparing the present work, any man or woman who has, in any
conspicuous way, contributed to the moral, intellectual, industrial or
political growth of the country, has been deemed a suitable person for
these pages. To the heroism and uncomplaining industry of the men who
hewed out homes in the wilderness, and little by little overcame the
obstacles of nature, are we indebted now for our thriving cities, and
for our wide stretches of cultivated lands; and to omit a record of
their labors, and select only for permanent record the deeds of those
who came upon the scenes when the rugged work was done, would be
singularly unjust. We have had, and still have amongst us, men of great
genius in engineering skill, and in mechanical contrivance; and it was
fitting that a brief record of their lives, and what they accomplished
for the community, should be handed down in the history of our common
country. The same may be said of men prominent in every branch of
commerce, of our notable divines, our eminent judges, our great lawyers,
our talented medical men, and those who have contributed to the
educational growth of the country. These it was considered were worthy
of place side by side with the men who chose political careers, and have
won more or less distinction therein. There is to be said in
justification of all these records, that even the history of the man in
an obscure village is a portion of the history of the country, and the
aggregate record of “Representative Canadians” may be regarded in a
young country like Canada, as a full historical account, in every sense,
for the period covered by the biographical matter in the volume. Men are
forever drifting down the slow stream, and most of their deeds like
themselves, pass into oblivion; it is well while the opportunity is at
hand to save as much of the record as possible for posterity. The labor,
the time, and the pains spent in securing data for the sketches herein
contained have been greater than would be believed; and the more so
since accuracy of statement of fact, and the chronological order of
incidents, have been so rigidly aimed at. Dates and facts have all been
verified either by reference to the best published authorities, or to
the persons themselves. For the most part, the call for the coöperation
of the public in furnishing data for the records has been cordially
responded to. As for the literary portion of the work, no pains have
been spared to make that equal to the other features. To make the volume
complete in the historically “representative” sense, memoirs of the most
illustrious of the dead of this country will be found in its pages. The
enterprise has been tedious, laborious and expensive; but if it will
supply a record that the country should not let die; if it preserves the
names of worthy men and women whose deeds deserve to be remembered, it
surely will have well repaid the time, the anxiety, and the pains that
have been expended upon it. A work of this kind could not be else than
tedious; and, therefore, since its commencement, several changes have
taken place: some of the persons in its pages have died; others have
passed from one office to another, and dropped from public places; but
with these latter exceptions and some other minor ones, each memoir, it
is believed, will be found to be an accurate record up to the present
date.

                                                   GEO. MACLEAN ROSE.
  TORONTO, March, 1888.



       Transcriber’s Notes can be found at the end of this eBook.



                                 INDEX.


                                                               PAGE.
     Addenda                                                     815

                                   =A=

     Adam, G. M., Toronto,                                       759
     Adam, L. A. S., Sheriff, St. Hyacinthe,                     490
     Adams, Aaron A., Coaticook,                                 376
     Adams, Hon. Michael, Newcastle,                             230
     Adams, Rev. Thomas, M.A., D.C.L., Lennoxville,              403
     Aikins, Hon. James Cox, P.C., Lieut.-Governor,              609
       Winnipeg,
     Aikins, William T., M.D., LL.D., Toronto,                   797
     Alexander, Rev. Finlow, M.R.C.S., L.S.A.,                   300
       Fredericton,
     Allan, Hon. G. W., D.C.L., Toronto,                         781
     Allard, Joseph Victor, Berthierville,                       483
     Allen, Hon. John C., Fredericton,                           261
     Allison, Charles F., Sackville,                              50
     Allison, Charles, Yarmouth,                                 312
     Allison, David, M.A., LL.D., Halifax,                       719
     Allnatt, Rev. F. J. B., D.D., Lennoxville,                  497
     Alward, S., A.M., D.C.L., M.P.P., St. John,                 101
     Amherst, Lord Jeffery,                                      513
     Anderson, Alexander, Charlottetown,                          54
     Anderson, Captain Edward Brown, Sarnia,                     179
     Angers, Hon. Auguste Réal, Quebec,                     242, 815
     Angus, Richard Bladworth, Montreal,                         465
     Antliff, Rev. J. C., M.A., D.D., Montreal,                  251
     Archambault, Urgel-Eugène, Montreal,                         36
     Archibald, Abram Newcomb,                                   211
     Archibald, Hon. Sir Adams Geo., K.C.M.G., D.C.L.,           164
       P.C., Q.C., Halifax,
     Archibald, Peter S., Moncton,                               257
     Archibald, John S., Q.C., D.C.L., Montreal,                 526
     Armour, Hon. John Douglas, Judge, Cobourg,                  654
     Armstrong, Hon. James, Q.C., C.M.G., Sorel,                 325
     Armstrong, Rev. W. D., M.A., Ph.D., Ottawa,                  49
     Aubrey, Rev, François Fortunat, St. John’s,                 586

                                   =B=

     Baby, Hon. L. F. G., Judge, Montreal,                       192
     Badgley, Rev. E. I., M.A., B.D., LLD., Cobourg,             366
     Baillairgé, Chev. C. P. F., M.S., Quebec,                   166
     Baillairgé, Louis de G., Q.C., Quebec,                 252, 815
     Bain, James William, M.P., St. Polycarpe,                   603
     Ball, George, Nicolet,                                      769
     Baptist, George, Three Rivers,                              771
     Barbeau, Henri Jacques, Montreal,                           427
     Barclay, Rev. James, M.A., Montreal,                        124
     Barclay, Rev. John, D.D., Toronto,                          320
     Barker, Frederic Eustace, M.A., D.C.L., Q.C., M.P.,         207
       St. John,
     Barnard, Edmund, Montreal,                                  710
     Barrett, M., B.A., M.D., Toronto,                           160
     Barry, Denis, B.C.L., Montreal,                             723
     Baudouin, Philibert, St. John’s,                            582
     Baxter, Robert Gordon, M.D., Moncton,                       103
     Bayard, William, M.D., St. John,                             23
     Bayly, Richard, B.A., Q.C., London,                          38
     Baynes, William Craig, B.A.,                                371
     Beaton, Alexander H., M.D., Orillia,                        187
     Beaubien, Hon. Louis, Montreal,                             631
     Beckwith, A. G., C.E., Fredericton,                          86
     Beckwith, Hon. John Adolphus,                                88
     Beek, James Scott, Fredericton,                             218
     Begg, Alexander, Dunbow Ranch, N.W.T.,                      350
     Bégin, Rev. Louis Nazaire, D.D., Quebec,                    177
     Belanger, Louis-Charles, Sherbrooke,                        673
     Bélanger, Rev. François Honoré, Quebec,                     274
     Bell, Andrew Wilson, Carleton Place,                        109
     Bell, J. H., M.A., M.P.P., Summerside,                      269
     Belleau, Sir Narcisse, K.C.M.G., Q.C., Quebec,              347
     Benson, Rev. Manly, Toronto,                                 59
     Bentley, Hon. G. W. W., Kensington,                         259
     Bergeron, J. G. H., B.C.L., M.P., Montreal,                 438
     Bernier, Michael Esdras, M.P., St. Hyacinthe,               595
     Berryman, Daniel Edgar, M.D., C.M., A.R.S., St.             268
       John,
     Berryman, John, M.D., M.P.P., St. John,                     674
     Berthelot, Hon. J. A., Judge, Montreal,                      43
     Bethune, J. L., M.D.C.M., M.P.P., Baddeck,                  285
     Bethune, R. H., Toronto,                                    764
     Bingay, Thomas Van Buskirk, Yarmouth,                  550, 815
     Binney, Irwine Whitty, Moncton,                              42
     Binney, Right Rev. Hibbert, D.D.,                           699
     Blackadar, Hugh William, Halifax,                           706
     Black, Charles Allan, M.D., Amherst,                        474
     Black, J. Burpee, M.D., Windsor, N.S.,                      549
     Black, Thomas R., M.P.P., Amherst,                          733
     Black, William Tell, Windsor,                               808
     Blair, Frank I., M.D., St. Stephen,                         352
     Blair, Hon. A. G., Fredericton,                             440
     Blake, Hon. E., P.C., Q.C., M.P., Toronto,                  690
     Blanchet, Hon. Jean, Q.C., M.P.P., Quebec,                  431
     Blanchet, Hon. Joseph Goderic, Quebec,                      107
     Boak, Hon. Robert, Halifax,                                 682
     Boire, Louis Henri Napoleon, Three Rivers,                  430
     Boivin, Charles Alphonse, St. Hyacinthe,                    646
     Borden, F. W., B.A., M.D., M.P., Canning,                   317
     Boswell, G. M. J., Judge, Cobourg,                          131
     Botsford, Hon. Bliss, Moncton,                              603
     Boulton, Lieut.-Col. D’Arcy E., Cobourg,                    769
     Bourgeois, G. A., M.D., C.M., Three Rivers,                 766
     Bourgeois, Hon. Jean Baptiste, Three Rivers,                646
     Bourinot, John George, LL.D., Ottawa,                       326
     Bowell, Hon. Mackenzie, M.P., Belleville,                   701
     Bowser, Rev. Alex. Thomas, B.D., Toronto,                   473
     Branchaud, Moise, Q.C., Beauharnois,                        104
     Bresse, Hon. Guillaume, Quebec,                             583
     Bridges, Henry Seabury, Fredericton,                        749
     Brock, Major-General Sir Isaac, K.B.,                       113
     Brock, Rev. Isaac, M.A., D.D., Halifax,                     480
     Brodie, Robert, Quebec,                                     374
     Bronson, Erskine Henry, M.P.P., Ottawa,                     153
     Brooks, Hon. E. T., Judge, Sherbrooke,                      766
     Brown, H. B., Q.C., LL.M., Sherbrooke,                      499
     Brown, William,                                             577
     Bruce, Rev. George, B.A., St. John,                         202
     Brymner, Douglas, Ottawa,                                   806
     Bryson, Hon. George, Senr., Fort Coulonge,                  470
     Buchanan, Wentworth James, Montreal,                        744
     Buller, Frank, M.D., Montreal,                              172
     Bullock, Joseph, St. John,                                   41
     Burland, George B., Montreal,                               441
     Burns, Rev. Robert Ferrier, D.D., Halifax,              40, 815
     Burrill, James, Yarmouth,                                   716
     Burrill, William, Yarmouth,                                 720
     Burwash, Rev. Nathaniel, S.T.D., Cobourg,                    90

                                   =C=

     Cabana, Hubert Charon, Sherbrooke,                          602
     Cadman, James, C.E., Quebec,                                565
     Cairns, George Frederick, Smith’s Falls,                     57
     Cairns, Thomas, Perth,                                       57
     Call, Robert Randolph, Newcastle,                           121
     Cameron, Allan, M.D., Collingwood,                          807
     Cameron, Charles, Collingwood,                              333
     Cameron, Sir Matthew, Toronto,                              156
     Cameron, Wm., M.P.P., Sutherland River, Pictou,             333
     Campbell, F. W., M.A., M.D., L.R.C.P., Montreal,            321
     Campbell, George W., A.M., M.D., LL.D.,                     205
     Campbell, Hon. Wm., Park Corner,                            473
     Campbell, Rev. Kenneth A., Orillia,                         202
     Campbell, Rev. R., M.A., D.D., Montreal,                    132
     Campbell, Sir Alexander, K.C.M.G., Lieut.-Governor,         531
       Toronto,
     Cannon, Lawrence Ambrose, Quebec,                           400
     Carbray, Felix, Quebec,                                     499
     Cardin, Louis Pierre Paul, M.P.P., Sorel,                   688
     Cargill, Henry, M.P., Cargill,                              272
     Carignan, Onesime, Three Rivers,                            525
     “Caris Sima” (Clara H. Mountcastle), Clinton,               292
     Carleton, John Louis, St. John,                             100
     Carling, Hon. John, London,                                 680
     Caron, Hon. Sir Jos. Philippe Rene Adolphe,                 663
       K.C.M.G., B.C.L., Ottawa,
     Carrier, Charles William, Levis,                            421
     Carson, Rev. W. Wellington, Ottawa,                         556
     Carswell, James, Renfrew,                                   478
     Cartier, Jacques,                                            17
     Cartier, Sir George Etienne,                                569
     Casavant, Joseph Claver, St. Hyacinthe,                     590
     Casavant, Samuel, St. Hyacinthe,                            590
     Casgrain, T. C., Q.C., LL.D., M.P.P., Quebec,               278
     Castle, Rev. J. H., D.D., Toronto,                          768
     Chabot, Julien, Quebec,                                381, 815
     Chagnon, Hon. H. W., Judge, St. John’s,                     633
     Chamberlain, David Cleveland, Pembroke,                     242
     Champlain, Samuel de,                                       612
     Chapleau, Hon. J. A., Q.C., LL.D., M.P., Montreal,          634
     Chapman, Robert Andrew, Dorchester,                         263
     Charland, Hon. Justice Alfred N., B.C.L., St.               721
       John’s,
     Charlebois, Alphonse, Quebec,                               607
     Chauveau, Hon. Justice Alexander, B.C.L., Quebec,           213
     Chênevert, Cuthbert Alphonse, Berthierville,                751
     Chesley, John Alexander, Portland,                          138
     Chicoyne, Jerome Adolphe, Sherbrooke,                       369
     Child, Marcus, Coaticook,                                   647
     Chisholm, Mrs. Addie, Ottawa,                               604
     Chisholm, Peter J., Truro,                                  408
     Choquette, P. A., LL.B., M.P., Montmagny,                   341
     Church, Hon. Charles Edward, Halifax,                       171
     Cimon, Hon. M. H. E., Judge, Fraserville,                   377
     Clarke, Edw. Frederick, M.P.P., Toronto,                    525
     Clarke, Henry Edward, M.P.P., Toronto,                      746
     Clark, Rev. W. B., Quebec,                                  279
     Clemo, Ebenezer,                                            349
     Clinch, Robert Thomson, St. John,                           581
     Cloran, Henry Joseph, B.C.L., Montreal,                     342
     Cluxton, Wm., Peterboro’,                                    63
     Coburn, George H., M.D., Fredericton,                       206
     Cockburn, G. R. R., M.P., Toronto,                          600
     Coldwell, Albert Edward, M.A., Wolfville,                   506
     Coleman, Arthur Philemon, Ph.D., Cobourg,                   196
     Colfer, Lieut.-Col. George William, Quebec,                 448
     Cook, Rev. John, D.D., LL.D., Quebec,                       578
     Cooke, Richard S., Three Rivers,                            767
     Cooke, Right Rev. Thomas, Bishop,                           779
     Cooke, Thos. Vincent, Moncton,                              127
     Cooley, Rev. John W., Hamilton,                             740
     Corning, Thomas Edgar, Yarmouth,                            549
     Costigan, Hon. John, Ottawa,                                709
     Coté, Louis, St. Hyacinthe,                                 588
     Coursol, Capt. C. J. Q., St. John’s,                        563
     Courtney, Right Rev. Bishop Frederick,                      586
     Cowperthwaite, Rev. H. P., A.M., St. John,                  260
     Craig, James, B.A., Renfrew,                                 55
     Cram, John Fairbairn, Carleton Place,                       117
     Creed, Herbert Clifford, Fredericton,                       106
     Creelman, Hon. Samuel, M.L.C., Round Bank, Upper            306
       Stewiacke,
     Crinion, Rev. James Eugene, Dunnville,                      248
     Crisp, Rev. Robert S., Moncton,                             125
     Crocket, William, A.M., Fredericton,                        123
     Cross, Hon. Alexander, Judge, Montreal,                     165
     Currey, Lemuel Allan, M.A., St. John,                        89
     Currie, John Z., A.B., M.D., Fredericton,                    90
     Curry, Matthew Allison, M.D., Halifax,                      627
     Cuthbert, Edward O. J. A., Berthierville,                   191

                                   =D=

     Daly, Thomas Mayne, M.P., Brandon,                          316
     David, Laurent Oliver, M.P.P., Montreal,                    290
     Davidson, Hon. Justice C. P., Montreal,                     562
     Davie, George Taylor, Levis,                                728
     Davis, D. W., M.P., Macleod,                                783
     Dawson, Sir J. William, Knight, C.M.G., LL.D.,              598
       F.R.S., Montreal,
     de Cazes, Paul, Quebec,                                     378
     de La Bruère, Hon. P. B., St. Hyacinthe,                    424
     de Lottinville, J. B. S. L., Three Rivers,                  809
     de Martigny, Adelard Le Moyne, Montreal,                    147
     Denoncourt, N. L., Q.C., Three Rivers,                      541
     Derbishire, Stewart,                                        487
     Desaulniers, D. B. W., M.D., Nicolet,                       561
     Desaulniers, F. S. L., B.C.L., M.P., Yamachiche,            348
     DesBrisay, Theophilus, Q.C., Bathurst,                      181
     Deschenes, G. H., M.P.P., St. Epiphane,                     774
     Desilets, Joseph Moise, Q.C., Three Rivers,                 746
     Desjardins, Dr. Louis Edouard, Montreal,                    115
     Desjardins, Lieut.-Col. L. G., M.P.P., Levis,               472
     De Sola, Abraham, LL.D.,                                     97
     Dessaint, Major A., LL.B., Kamouraska,                      773
     Dessaulles, George Casimir, St. Hyacinthe,                  483
     De Wolfe, C. E., Judge, Windsor, N.S.,                      397
     Dickson, George, M.A., Toronto,                             760
     Dickson, William Welland, M.D., Pembroke,                   116
     Dionne, N. E., S.B., M.D., Quebec,                          256
     Dobell, Richard Reid, Quebec,                               421
     Dobson, Rev. William, Fredericton,                          335
     Doney, Charles, Ottawa,                                     328
     Dorion, Hon. Sir A. A., Knight, Montreal,                   641
     d’Orsonnens, Lieut.-Col. the Count Louis Gustave            596
       d’Odet,
     Doucet, Laman R., Sheriff, Bathurst,                        405
     Doutre, Joseph, Q.C., Montreal,                             305
     Dowdall, James, Almonte,                                    122
     Drolet, Jacques François Gaspard, Quebec,                   364
     Drummond, A. T., B.A., LL.B., Montreal,                     311
     Drysdale, William, Montreal,                                794
     Duchesnay, Lieut.-Col. H. J. J.,                            775
     Duclos, Silas T., St. Hyacinthe,                            775
     Duhamel, Most Rev. J. T., Archbp., Ottawa,                  683
     Dunbar, James, Q.C., Quebec,                                724
     Duncan, John, St. John,                                     496
     Dunn, Timothy Hibbard, Quebec,                              542
     Dunnet, Thomas, Toronto,                                    304
     Duplessis, L. T. N. Le N., Three Rivers,                    745
     Dupré, Rev. L. L., Sorel,                                   608
     Dymond, A. H., Brantford,                                   809

                                   =E=

     Earle, Sylvester Zobieski, M.D., St. John,                  229
     Edgar, James David, M.P., Toronto,                          594
     Edgar, William, Montreal,                              664, 815
     Edwards, William Cameron, Rockland,                         345
     Elliott, Andrew, Almonte,                                    92
     Elliott, Edward, Perth,                                     370
     Elliott, George, Guelph,                                    629
     Ellis, James, Toronto,                                      813
     Ellis, William, St. Catharines,                             121
     Ellis, Wm. Hodgson, B.A., M.B., L.R.C.P., Toronto,          662
     Emmerson, H. R., LL.B., Dorchester,                         500
     Emmerson, Rev. Robert Henry,                                498
     Evanturel, Francis Eugene Alfred, LL.B., M.P.P., St.        323
       Victor d’Alfred,

                                   =F=

     Fabre, Most Rev. E. C., Archbp., Montreal,                  446
     Falconbridge, Hon. William Glenholme, M.A., Toronto,    64, 815
     Farrell, E., M.D., Halifax,                                 777
     Fenwick, G. E., M.D., C.M., Montreal,                       402
     Ferguson, Hon. D., M.P.P., Charlottetown,                   135
     Fielding, Hon. W. S., M.P.P., Halifax,                      297
     Finnie, J. T., M.D., L.R.C.S., Montreal,                    101
     Fiske, Edward, Joliette,                                    723
     Fitch, Edson, Quebec,                                       365
     Fitzgerald, Rev. D., D.D., Charlottetown,                   112
     Fitzpatrick, Charles, Quebec,                               494
     Fizét, L. J. C., Lieut.-Colonel, Quebec,                    275
     Fogo, Hon. James, Judge, Pictou,                            184
     Foster, Hon. G. E., B.A., D.L.C., Ottawa,                   752
     Foster, James Gilbert, Q.C., Halifax,                       206
     Fothergill, Rev. M. Monkhouse, Quebec,                      185
     Flewelling, William Pentreath, Fredericton,                  67
     Flint, T. B., M.A., LL.B., Yarmouth,                        264
     Flynn, Hon. E. J., Q.C., LL.D., M.P.P., Quebec,             244
     Fournier, Hon. Telesphore, Judge, Ottawa,                   481
     Fowler, Rev. Robert, London,                                161
     Fraser, Hon. D. C., B.A., New Glasgow,                      458
     Fraser, Hon. J. J., Judge, Fredericton,                     183
     Fraser, John A., M.P.P., Big Bras d’Or,                     750
     Freer, Lieut. Harry Courtlandt, St. John’s,                 567
     Fry, Edward Carey, Quebec,                                  508
     Fulford, Right Rev. Francis, D.D., Bishop,                  425
     Fullerton, James S., Toronto,                               350
     Fulton, Dr. John, Toronto,                                  697
     Futvoye, I. B., St. John’s,                                 782

                                   =G=

     Gagnon, Hon. C. A. E., M.P.P., Kamouraska,                  529
     Galbraith, Rev. W., B.C.L., LL.B., Orillia,                  55
     Garneau, Hon. Pierre, Quebec,                               187
     Gauvreau, Rev. Antoine, Levis,                              451
     Gaynor, John Joseph, M.D., St. John,                        145
     Gendreau, Jean Baptiste, N.P., Coaticooke,                  391
     Genest, L. U. A., Three Rivers,                             405
     Germain, Adolphe, Sorel,                                    606
     Gervais, Marie Emery, M.D., Three Rivers,                   444
     Gibbons, Robert, Sheriff, Goderich,                         798
     Gibsone, W. C., Quebec,                                     776
     Gilmour, John Taylor, M.D., M.P.P., West Toronto            175
       Junction,
     Gilmour, Lieut.-Col. H., Stanbridge East,                   774
     Gilpin, Edwin, Jr., Halifax,                                177
     Gilpin, Rev. Edwin, D.D., Halifax,                          169
     Gingras, Hon. Jean Elie, Quebec,                            660
     Girard, Abbé Pierre, M.A., Sherbrooke,                      496
     Girouard, Désiré, Q.C., D.C.L., M.P., Dorval,               226
     Girouard, Theophile, Quebec,                                558
     Glackmeyer, Charles, Montreal,                              176
     Gouin, Antoine Nemese, Sorel,                               581
     Gould, George, Walkerton,                                   792
     Grant, Henry Hugh, Halifax,                                 678
     Grant, Rev. George Monro, D.D., Kingston,                   388
     Grant, Rev. R. N., Orillia,                                 212
     Gravel, Rev. J. A., St. Hyacinthe,                          750
     Graveley, Lieut.-Col. John Vance, Cobourg,                  216
     Gray, James, Perth,                                          93
     Green, Harry Compton, Summerside,                           184
     Greenwood, Stansfield, Coaticook,                           679
     Griffin, Martin J., Ottawa,                                 436
     Guest, Sheriff G. H., Yarmouth,                             566
     Guevrement, Hon. J. B., Sorel,                              780
     Guilbault, Edouard, Joliette,                               597
     Guillet, Major George, M.P., Cobourg,                       409
     Guthrie, Donald, Q.C., M.P.P., Guelph,                       49
     Guy, Michel Patrice, N.P., Montreal,                        726

                                   =H=

     Haanel, E. E., F.R.S.C., Ph.D., Cobourg,                    526
     Hale, Frederick Harding, M.P., Woodstock,                   363
     Hale, Hon. Edward,                                          518
     Hale, Hon. John,                                            552
     Haliburton, Hon. Thomas Chandler,                           443
     Hall, Francis Alexander, Perth,                              82
     Hall, John Smythe, Jr., B.A., B.C.L., Q.C., M.P.P.,         357
       Montreal,
     Hall, Robert Newton, B.A., LL.D., Q.C., M.P.,               685
       Sherbrooke,
     Hamilton, Hon. C. E., Q.C., Winnipeg,                       472
     Hamilton, Robert, D.C.L., Lennoxville,                      742
     Hammond, John, St. John,                                    521
     Hanington, Hon. Daniel L., Q.C., M.P.P., Dorchester,        245
     Harper, J. M., M.A., Ph.D., F.E.I.S., Quebec,               231
     Harris, Christopher Prince, Moncton,                         86
     Harris, John Leonard, Moncton,                              354
     Harris, Joseph A., Moncton,                            126, 815
     Harris, Michael Spurr, Moncton,                             108
     Harris, Very Rev. W. R., B.D., St. Catharines,              224
     Harrison, Hon. Archibald, Maugerville,                      175
     Harrison, Thomas, LL.D., Fredericton,                       107
     Hart, John Semple, Perth,                                   621
     Hatt, Samuel Staunton, Quebec,                              286
     Haythorne, Hon. Robert Poore, Charlottetown,                657
     Hearn, David A., M.P.P., Arichat,                           225
     Heavysege, Charles,                                          32
     Hemming, E. J., D.C.L., Drummondville,                       71
     Henderson, D., M.P., Acton,                                 777
     Hensley, Hon. J., Judge, Charlottetown,                     427
     Hetherington, George A., M.D., L.M., St. John,         298, 815
     Hewson, C. W. U., M.D., L.R.C.P., L.M., Amherst,            312
     Hill, Andrew Gregory, P.M., Niagara Falls,                   53
     Hill, Hon. G. F., St. Stephen,                              763
     Hincks, Sir Francis,                                        812
     Hind, Professor H. Y., M.A., Windsor, N.S.,                 308
     Hingston, William Hales, M.D., L.R.C.S., D.C.L.,            436
       Montreal,
     Hinson, Rev. Walter, Moncton,                                50
     Hodder, Edward M., M.D.,                                    647
     Holmes, Hon. Simon H., Halifax,                             163
     Honan, Martin, Three Rivers,                                773
     Honey, John S., Montreal,                                   772
     Hopper, Rev. J. E., M.A., D.D., St. John,                   336
     Hossack, William, Quebec,                                   330
     Hould, J. B. L., LL.B., Three Rivers,                       625
     Howard, R. P., M.D., L.R.C.S.E., Montreal,                  511
     Howe, Henry Aspinwall, T.C.D., M.A., LL.D.,                 565
       Montreal,
     Howe, Hon. Joseph,                                          587
     Hudspeth, Adam, Q.C., M.P., Lindsay,                        463
     Huggan, W. T., Charlottetown,                               805
     Humphrey, John Albert, M.P.P., Moncton,                     186
     Hunt, Henry George, St. Catharines,                         126
     Hunter, Rev. Samuel J., D.D., Hamilton,                      66
     Hunton, Sidney Walker, M.A., Sackville,                     197

                                   =I=

     Inch, James R., M.A., L.L.D., Sackville,                    322
     Inches, P. R., M.D., M.R.C.S., St. John,                    133
     Inglis, George, Owen Sound,                                 643
     Ingram, Andrew B., M.P.P., St. Thomas,                      301
     Irvine, Hon. George, Q.C., D.C.L., Quebec,                  564
     Irvine, Matthew Bell, C.B., C.M.G., Com.-General,           337
       Quebec,
     Irving, Andrew, Pembroke,                                   352
     Irving, J. D., Brigade Major, Charlottetown,                105
     Ives, Herbert Root, Montreal,                               629

                                   =J=

     Jack, William Brydone, M.A., D.C.L.,                        260
     Jaffray, Robert, Toronto,                                   675
     Jamieson, Philip, Toronto,                                  676
     Jarvis, Frederick William,                                  171
     Jennings, Rev. John, D.D.,                                  462
     Jetté, Hon. L. A., LL.D., Judge, Montreal,                  432
     Johnson, Hon. F. G., Montreal,                              114
     Johnston, C. H. L., M.D., L.R.C.S., St. John,               234
     Johnston, Hon. J. W., Judge, Dartmouth,                     266
     Jolicœur, Phillippe Jacques, Q.C., Quebec,                  602
     Joliffe, Rev. William John, B.C.L., Quebec,                 324
     Joncas, Louis Zephrim, M.P., Grand River,                   355
     Jones, Hon. A. G., P.C., M.P., Halifax,                     385
     Jones, Sir David,                                           345
     Jones, R. V., A.M., Ph.D., Wolfville,                       466
     Jones, Rev. Septimus, M.A., Toronto,                        637
     Jones, Simeon, St. John,                                    387
     Joseph, Abraham, Quebec,                                    274

                                   =K=

     Kay, Rev. John, Hamilton,                                   198
     Keating, Edward Henry, C.E., Halifax,                       214
     Keirstead, Rev. Elias M., M.A., Wolfville,                  493
     Kellond, Robert Arthur, Toronto,                            102
     Kelly, Francis, J.P., Joliette,                             565
     Kelly, Samuel James, M.D., M.S., Joliette,                  535
     Kelly, Thomas Eugene, Joliette,                             527
     Kelly, Thomas, Judge, Summerside,                            84
     Kemble, William, Quebec,                                    345
     Kennedy, George, M.A., LL.D., Toronto,                      142
     Kennedy, George Thomas, M.A., B.A.Sc., F.G.S.,              229
       Windsor,
     Kennedy, James Thomas, Indiantown,                     331, 815
     Kenny, Thomas Edward, M.P., Halifax,                        729
     Ker, Rev. Robert, Mitchell,                                 295
     Kerr, W., M.A., Q.C., LL.D., Cobourg,                       290
     Kerr, W. W. Hastings, Q.C., Montreal,                       619
     Kilgour, Robert, Toronto,                                   278
     Killam, Amasa Emerson, M.P.P., Moncton,                     398
     Kincaid, Robert, M.D., Peterboro’,                          591
     King, Edwin David, M.A., Q.C., Halifax,                     249
     King, James, Quebec,                                        562
     Klein, Alphonse B., Walkerton,                              771
     Klotz, Otto, Preston,                                        26
     Knowles, Charles William, Windsor, N.S.,                    310

                                   =L=

     Labelle, Capt. Jean B., M.P., Montreal,                     189
     Labelle, Rev. F. X. A., St. Jerome,                         358
     Lacerte, Elie, M.D., Three Rivers,                          618
     Lachapelle, E. P., M.D., Montreal,                          261
     Lafrance, Charles Joseph, Quebec,                           622
     Lake, John Neilson, Toronto,                                 96
     Laliberté, Jean Baptiste, Quebec,                           353
     Lamarche, Felix Oliver, Berthierville,                      582
     Lambly, William Harwood, Inverness,                         170
     La Mothe, G. J. B., Montreal,                                94
     Langevin, Hon. Sir Hector Louis, K.C.M.G., Q.C.,            748
       M.P., Ottawa,
     La Rocque, Basile, M.D., St. John’s,                        732
     La Rocque, Gedeon, M.D., Quebec,                            484
     La Rocque, Rev. Paul S., St. Hyacinthe,                     701
     La Rocque, Right Rev. Bishop Charles,                       689
     La Rocque, Right Rev. Bishop Joseph,                        712
     Larue, Hon. Jules Ernest, Judge, Quebec,                    628
     La Rue, Thomas George, Quebec,                              370
     Laurie, Maj.-Gen. J. W., M.P., Oakfield,               356, 816
     Laurier, Hon. Wilfrid, B.C.L., Q.C., M.P., Quebec,          592
     Laviolette, Hon. J. G., M.L.C., Montreal,                   320
     Law, William, M.P.P., Yarmouth,                             356
     Lawson, John A., Charlottetown,                             460
     Lawson, Prof. Geo., Ph.D., LL.D., F.I.C., F.R.S.C.,         717
       Halifax,
     Leach, Ven. Archdeacon William Turnbull, D.C.L.,            134
       LL.D.,
     Leblanc, P. E., M.P.P., Montreal,                           782
     Leclerc, Rev. J. U., Montreal,                              753
     Lefebvre, Guillaume, Waterloo, Q.,                          721
     Lefebvre, Joseph Herbert, Waterloo, Q.,                     587
     Le May, Léon Pamphile, Quebec,                              220
     Lemieux, François Xavier, M.P.P., Quebec,                   601
     LePan, Frederick N. D’Orr, Owen Sound,                       68
     Lewis, W. J., M.D., M.P.P., Hillsborough,                   316
     Long, Thomas, Collingwood,                                   81
     Longley, Hon. James Wilberforce, M.P.P., M.E.C.,            186
       Halifax,
     Longworth, Hon. John, Q.C.,                                 329
     Loranger, Hon, L. O., Judge, Montreal,                      299
     Lord, Major Artemas, Charlottetown,                         219
     Lorrain, Right Rev. Narcisse Zephirin, Bishop,              193
       Pembroke,
     Lount, William, Q.C., Toronto,                              743
     Lugrin, Charles H., A.M., Fredericton,                      382
     Lugrin, Charles S., Fredericton,                            407
     Lyall, Rev. William, LL.D., Halifax,                        233
     Lyman, F. S., B.A., B.C.L., Montreal,                       313

                                  =Mc=

     McCaffrey, Charles, Nicolet,                                544
     McCallum, G. A., M.D., Dunville,                            418
     McCaul, Rev. John, D.D., Toronto,                           165
     McClelan, Hon. Abner Reid, Hopewell,                        349
     McConnell, J., M.D., M.C.P.S.O., Toronto,                   367
     McConnell, J. B., M.D., C.M., Montreal,                     386
     McConnel, William George, Berthierville,                    490
     McConville, Joseph Norbet Alfred, Joliette,                 541
     McCosh, John, Orillia,                                       74
     McDonald, A. R., River du Loup (_en bas_),                  279
     McDonald, Hon. J., Chief Justice, Halifax,                  712
     McDonald, Rev. Clinton Donald, B.A., B.L., B.D.,            505
       M.A., Ph.D., B.Sc., Thorold,
     McEachran, Professor Duncan McNab, F.R.C.V.S.,              162
       Montreal,
     McGee, Hon. T. D’Arcy, B.C.L., M.R.I.A.,                    302
     McHenry, Donald C., M.A., Cobourg,                          482
     McIsaac, Angus, Judge, Antigonish,                          388
     McIsaac, Colin F., M.P.P., Antigonish,                      395
     McIlwraith, Thomas, Hamilton,                               722
     McIntyre, Right Rev. P., D.D., Charlottetown,               110
     McKinnon, Hon. John, M.P.P., Whycocomagh,                   410
     McKnight, Robert, Owen Sound,                               392
     McLachlan, Alexander, Erin,                                 411
     McLelan, Hon. Archibald Woodbury, M.P.,                     703
     McLellan, Hon. David, M.P.P., Indiantown,                   433
     McLeod, Hon. Neil, M.A., Charlottetown,                     220
     McLeod, Howard Douglas, St. John,                           387
     McLeod, Hon. J. D., M.L.C., Pictou,                         764
     McLeod, Rev. Joseph, D.D., Fredericton,                     137
     McMaster, Hon. William, Toronto,                            286
     McMicken, Hon. Gilbert, Winnipeg,                           346
     McMillan, John, M.D., Pictou,                               711
     McNeil, Hon. Daniel, Port Hood,                             381
     McNeill, John Sears, M.P.P., Barton,                        180
     McNicoll, David, Montreal,                                  662
     McPherson, R. B., Thorold,                                  154
     McRitchie, Rev. George, Prescott,                           215

                                   =M=

     Macallum, A., M.A., LL.B., Hamilton,                        738
     MacCallum, D. C., M.D., M.R.C.S., Montreal,                 138
     MacColl, Evan, Kingston,                                     95
     MacCoy, W. F., Q.C., M.P.P., Halifax,                       190
     Macdonald, Augustine Colin, Montague,                       354
     Macdonald, Charles De Wolf, B.A., Pictou,                   285
     Macdonald, Duncan, St. John’s,                              630
     Macdonald, Hon. A. A., Lieut.-Gov., Charlottetown,          466
     Macdonald, Hon. John, Senator, Toronto,                     579
     Macdonald, L. G., Q.C., St. John’s,                         543
     Macdonald, Lieut.-Col. C. J., Halifax,                      268
     Macdonald, Rev. J. C., Charlottetown,                       199
     Macdonald, R. Tyre, Sutton,                                 811
     Macdonald, Right Hon. Sir John Alexander, G.C.B.,           670
       D.C.L., LL.D., Ottawa,
     Macdonnell, Rev. D. J., B.D., Toronto,                      196
     MacDowall, D. H., M.P., Prince Albert,                      611
     MacFarlane, Foster, M.D., Fairville, St. John,               39
     Macfarlane, Thomas, Ottawa,                                  88
     MacGillivray, Hon. A., Antigonish,                          767
     Machin, Henry Turner, Quebec,                               554
     Mackay, Alexander Howard, B.A., B.Sc., F.S.Sc.,             210
       Pictou, N.S.,
     Mackay, N. E., M.D., C.M., M.R.C.S., Halifax,               269
     Mackay, W., M.D., M.P.P., Reserve Mines,                    556
     Mackenzie, Hon. A., P.C., M.P., Toronto,                    522
     Mackenzie, J. M., Moncton,                                  798
     MacKinnon, Tristiam A., Montreal,                           502
     Mackintosh, Charles H., Ottawa,                             446
     Maclaren, James, Buckingham,                                540
     MacLean, Alexander, Ottawa,                                 284
     MacLeod, Rev. John M., Charlottetown,                        46
     MacMahon, Hon. Hugh, Judge, Toronto,                        733
     Macpherson, Alexander, Montreal,                            778
     Macpherson, Henry, Judge, Owen Sound,                       200
     MacVicar, Rev. Malcolm, Ph.D., LL.D., Toronto,               30
     Madill, Frank, M.A., M.P., Beaverton,                       528
     Magnan, Adolphe, N.P., Joliette,                            637
     Mara, J. A., M.P., Kamloops,                                784
     Martin, Joseph, LL.B., Quebec,                              555
     Mason, T. G., Toronto,                                      811
     Masson, Hon. Louis François Roderique,                 346, 816
     Masson, James, Q.C., M.P., Owen Sound,                      666
     Matheson, David, Ottawa,                                    688
     Matheson, Hon. Roderick,                                    459
     Matheson, Lieut.-Col. Arthur James, Perth,                  465
     Mathews, Rev. George D., D.D., Quebec,                      258
     Mathieu, Hon. Michel, Judge, Montreal,                      265
     Mathison, George, Quebec,                                    66
     Maunsell, Lieut.-Col. G. J., Fredericton,                   102
     Maynard, Rev. T., M.A., D.D., Windsor,                      491
     Medley, Rev. C. S., B.A., Sussex,                           284
     Meek, Edward, Toronto,                                      725
     Mellish, John Thomas, M.A., Halifax,                   246, 816
     Mercier, Hon. Honoré, M.P.P., Premier, Quebec,              234
     Meredith, Sir William Collis, K.B., D.C.L., LL.D.,          223
       Quebec,
     Merritt, Jedediah Prendergast, St. Catharines,              714
     Methot, Joseph Edouard, Three Rivers,                       648
     Méthot, Right Rev. M. E., A.M., D.D., Quebec,               342
     Miller, John Stewart, M.P.P., Centreville,                  341
     Milligan, Rev. George M., B.A., Toronto,                     79
     Mills, John Burpee, M.P., Annapolis,                        666
     Mitchell, Hon. James, St. Stephen,                           39
     Mitchell, Samuel E., Pembroke,                              217
     Moffat, William, Pembroke,                                  413
     Moles, Robert George, Arnprior,                             327
     Molony, Thomas J., LL.B., Quebec,                           655
     Monk, Hon. S. C., LL.D., Judge, Montreal,                   537
     Montagu, Walter H., M.D., M.P., Dunville,                   686
     Montgomery, Donald, Charlottetown,                          568
     Moodie, Mrs. Susanna,                                       710
     Moody, James Cochrane, M.D., Windsor,                       435
     Moody, Rev. John T. T., D.D., Yarmouth,                     247
     Moore, Alvan Head, Magog,                              567, 816
     Moore, Dennis, Hamilton,                                    792
     Moore, Paul Robinson, M.D., Sackville,                       35
     Moreau, Right Rev. Bishop L. Z., St. Hyacinthe,             584
     Morin, Eusebe, St. Hyacinthe,                               611
     Morin, Louis Edmond, Quebec,                                385
     Morris, John Lang, B.C.L., Q.C., Montreal,                  747
     Morrison, Alfred Gidney, Halifax,                           464
     Morison, Lewis Francis, St. Hyacinthe,                      697
     Morrow, John, Toronto,                                      223
     Morse, Hon. W. A. D., Judge, Amherst,                       222
     Morson, W. A. O., Charlottetown,                             92
     Motton, Robert, Q.C., Halifax,                              783
     Mountain, Right Rev. G. J., Bishop, Quebec,                 439
     Mountcastle, Clara H., Clinton,                             292
     Mowat, Hon. O., Q.C., LL.D., Toronto,                       559
     Mowatt, Rev. Andrew Joseph, Fredericton,                     38
     Murchie, James, St. Stephen,                                221
     Murphy, Martin, C.E., Halifax,                              319
     Murphy, Owen, M.P.P., Quebec,                               208
     Murray, Lieut.-Col. John Robert, Halifax,                   717
     Murray, William, Sherbrooke,                                800

                                   =N=

     Nantel, G. A., M.P.P., St. Jerome,                          669
     Nault, Joseph, St, Hyacinthe,                               450
     Nelles, Rev. Samuel Sobieski, D.D., LL.D.,                  363
     Nelson, Hon. Hugh, Lieut-Governor, Victoria,                649
     Nettleton, John, Collingwood,                               161
     Nolin, Charles, Sheriff, St. John’s,                        502
     Norman, Rev. Richard Whitmore, M.A., D.C.L.,                 74
       Montreal,
     Normand, Telesphore Euzebe, Three Rivers,                   682
     Norquay, Hon. John, M.P.P., Winnipeg,                       479
     Noyes, John Powell, Q.C., Waterloo, Q.,                     605

                                   =O=

     O’Connor, Hon. John,                                        412
     Ogden, Charles Kinnis, Three Rivers,                        511
     Ogden, W. W., B.M., M.D., Toronto,                          716
     Ogilvie, Hon. A. W., Senator, Montreal,                     131
     Ostigny, Joseph Henry, Joliette,                            545
     O’Sullivan, D. A., M.A., D.C.L., Toronto,                   592
     Otter, Lieut.-Col. William Dillon, Toronto,                 620
     Ouellette, Rev. J. R., St. Hyacinthe,                       677
     Ouimet, Hon. Gédéon, Q.C., D.C.L., Quebec,                  450
     Ouimet, Hon. Lieut.-Col. Aldric Joseph, LL.B., Q.C.,        413
       M P., Montreal,
     Oulton, Alfred E., Judge, Dorchester,                       394
     Owens, John, St. John,                                      548
     Owens, William, M.P.P., Lachute,                            410

                                   =P=

     Pacaud, Ernest, Quebec,                                     405
     Pacaud, Gaspard, M.P.P., Windsor,                           558
     Palmer, Caleb Read, J.P., Moncton,                          135
     Panneton, Louis Edmond, Q.C., B.C.L., LL.D.,           351, 816
       Sherbrooke,
     Papineau, Hon. Louis Joseph,                                679
     Paquet, Hon. A. H., M.D., St. Cuthbert,                     535
     Paquet, Rev. Benjamin, Quebec,                              531
     Park, William A., M.P.P., Newcastle, N.B.,                  322
     Parker, Rev. W. R., M.A., D.D., Toronto,                    516
     Partridge, Rev. F., M.A., D.D., Halifax,                    644
     Paton, Andrew, Sherbrooke,                                  448
     Paton, Hugh, Montreal,                                      396
     Patton, Hon. James, Q.C., LL.D., Toronto,                   174
     Payan, Paul, St. Hyacinthe,                                 638
     Payzant, J. Y., M.A., Halifax,                              778
     Peck, Charles Allison, Hopewell Hill,                       451
     Pelland, B. L., Berthierville,                              810
     Pelletier, Hon. H. C., Judge, Rimouski,                     275
     Pelton, S. H., Q.C., Yarmouth,                              296
     Perley, William Dell, M.P., Wolseley,                       665
     Perrigo, James, M.A., M.D., M.R.C.S., Montreal,             284
     Peters, Simon, J.P., Quebec,                                459
     Peterson, Peter Alexander, C.E., Montreal,                  707
     Pettit, Rev. Charles Biggar, M.A., Cornwall,                724
     Phelan, Cornelius J. F. R., M.D., C.M., Waterloo,           595
       Q.,
     Phillips, Rev. Caleb T., Woodstock,                         432
     Philp, Rev. John, M.A., Montreal,                           395
     Piché, E. U., Berthierville,                                780
     Pickard, Rev. Humphrey, D.D., Sackville,                    140
     Pidgeon, J. R., J.P., Indiantown,                           455
     Pim, Richard, Toronto,                                      563
     Pipes, Hon. W. T., Amherst,                                 791
     Plumb, Hon. Josiah Burr, Niagara,                           706
     Pope, Edwin, Quebec,                                        512
     Pope, Hon. James Colledge,                                  605
     Pope, Hon. John Henry, M.P., Ottawa,                        650
     Pope, Hon. Joseph, Charlottetown,                           417
     Pope, P. W. T., Charlottetown,                              428
     Poupore, Wm. Joseph, M.P.P., Chichester,                    645
     Power, Hon. L. G., LL.B., Halifax,                          503
     Power, Michael Joseph, Halifax,                             530
     Prefontaine, R. F., B.C.L., M.P., Montreal,                 779
     Prévost, Major Oscar A., Quebec,                            612
     Price, Evan John, Quebec,                                   628
     Price, Herbert Molesworth, Quebec,                          594
     Prince, Right Rev. John C., Bishop,                         689
     Prior, James, Merritton,                                    600
     Proudfoot, Hon. William, Judge, Toronto,                    270
     Proulx, Hon. Jean Baptiste George, Nicolet,                 607
     Pugsley, Hon. William, D.C.L., St. John,                    649
     Purcell, Patrick, M.P., Summertown,                    669, 816

                                   =Q=

     Quinton, William A., M.P.P., Fairville,                     632

                                   =R=

     Radenhurst, W. H., Perth,                                   719
     Ratcliffe, John,                                            546
     Ratcliffe, Rev. J. H., St. Catharines,                      378
     Raymond, Rev. Joseph Sabin, St. Hyacinthe,                  686
     Read, John, Stratford,                                      416
     Read, Rev. P. C., M.A., Lennoxville,                        704
     Reddin, James Henry, Charlottetown,                          54
     Reddy, John, M.D.,                                           85
     Reed, Robert, St. John,                                     557
     Reid, Rev. Charles Peter, Sherbrooke,                       530
     Rexford, Rev. Elson Irving, B.A., Quebec,                   486
     Reesor, Hon. D., Toronto,                                   704
     Rice, Charles, Perth,                                        75
     Richard, Rev. Cannon Louis, A.M., Three Rivers,             476
     Richey, Hon. Matthew H., Q.C., D.C.L., Lieut.-Gov.,         380
       Halifax,
     Richey, Rev. Matthew, D.D.,                                 471
     Ritchie, Hon. J. N., Judge, Halifax,                        193
     Ritchie, Hon. Robert J., M.P.P., St. John,                  702
     Rivard, A. M., M.D., Sheriff, Joliette,                     568
     Robb, Alexander, Amherst,                                   179
     Robb, David W., Amherst,                                    183
     Roberts, C. G. D., M.A., Windsor, N.S.,                     368
     Robertson, Andrew, Montreal,                                314
     Robertson, George, St. John,                                336
     Robertson, Henry, LL.B., Collingwood,                       808
     Robertson, Hon. T., Judge, Hamilton,                        799
     Robertson, N., Walkerton,                                   776
     Robillard, Alexander, M.P.P., Russel,                       486
     Robinson, D. A., M.D., Coaticook,                           751
     Robinson, Samuel Skiffington, Orillia,                      252
     Robitaille, Louis Adolphe, Quebec,                          663
     Roche, William, Jr., M.P.P., Halifax,                       217
     Rogers, Henry Cassady, Peterboro’,                     147, 816
     Rogers, Lieut.-Col. R. Z., Grafton,                         765
     Rogers, Rev. Jabez A., Windsor, N.S.,                       534
     Rolland, Hon. J. B., Montreal,                              793
     Rose, George Maclean, Toronto,                              731
     Rose, Hon. John E., LL.D., Judge, Toronto,                  737
     Rosebrugh, John W., M.D., Hamilton,                         314
     Ross, Alexander Milton, M.D., Montreal,                     118
     Ross, Hon. David Alexander, Q.C., Quebec,                   300
     Ross, Hon. James Gibb, Quebec,                              648
     Ross, Hon. William, Halifax,                                189
     Ross, James Duncan, M.D., Moncton,                          136
     Rottot, Jean Philippe, M.D., Montreal,                      128
     Rourke, James, St. Martin’s,                                375
     Rousseau, Joseph Thomas, St. Hyacinthe,                     518
     Routhier, Hon. A. B., LL.D., Quebec,                        755
     Roy, Rouer Joseph, Q.C., Montreal,                          667
     Ruel, James Rhodes, St. John,                               228
     Russell, Willis, Quebec,                                    535
     Rutherford, John, J.P., Owen Sound,                         289
     Ryan, Hon. Patrick George, M.P.P., Caraquet,                736

                                   =S=

     Saint-Cyr, D. N. D., Quebec,                                379
     Saint-Pierre, Henri C., Montreal,                            69
     Sanderson, Rev. Dr. G. R., Sarnia,                           65
     Sandford, Hon. W. E., Hamilton,                             753
     Sangster, Charles, Kingston,                                423
     Scarth, William Bain, M.P., Winnipeg,                       624
     Schiller, Charles Edward, Montreal,                         677
     Scott, Capt. Peter Astle, R.N.,                             700
     Scott, Hon. Richard W., Q.C., Ottawa,                       758
     Scott, Lieut.-Col. Thomas, Winnipeg,                        715
     Sears, Lieut. James Walker, Toronto,                        606
     Sedgewick, Robert, Q.C., Halifax,                           422
     Sénécal, Hon. Louis Adelard, Montreal,                      452
     Senkler, William Stevens, Judge, Perth,                      52
     Seymour, James, St. Catharines,                             544
     Shakespeare, Noah, Victoria,                           297, 816
     Shannon, Hon. S. L., D.C.L., Halifax,                       756
     Shaw, Lieut.-Col. James,                                     68
     Shearer, James Traill, Montreal,                            654
     Shehyn, Hon. Joseph, M.P.P., Quebec,                        539
     Shields, John, Toronto,                                     551
     Shorey, Hollis, Montreal,                                   651
     Shortt, Rev. William, B. D., Walkerton,                     747
     Sicotte, Hon. Louis Victor, St. Hyacinthe,                  438
     Sifton, Hon. John Wright, Brandon,                           46
     Silver, William Chamberlain, Halifax,                       318
     Simcoe, Lieut.-General John Graves,                         181
     Sinclair, Donald, Walkerton,                                757
     Skinner, Hon. Charles N., Q.C., St. John,                   401
     Slack, Edward, Waterloo, Q.,                                463
     Slaven, John Wallace, Orillia,                              650
     Smart, William Lynn, Hamilton,                              468
     Smith, Andrew, F.R.C.V.S., Toronto,                         726
     Smith, A. Lapthorn, B.A., M.D., Montreal,                   681
     Smith, G. B., M.P.P., Toronto,                              791
     Smith, Rev. H. Percy W., Dunnville,                         209
     Smith, Rev. James Cowie, M.A., B.D., Guelph,                680
     Smith, Rev. John, Toronto,                                  515
     Smith, John H., Buffalo,                                     56
     Smith, Robert Barry, Moncton,                               331
     Smith, Robert Herbert, Quebec,                              462
     Smith, William, M.P., Columbus,                             503
     Spencer, Charles Worthington, Montreal,                     507
     Spencer, E. E., M.P.P., Frelighsburg,                       382
     Sprague, Thomas Farmer, M.D., Woodstock,                    145
     Starnes, Hon. Lieut-Col. Henry, Montreal,                   749
     Steadman, James, Fredericton,                               543
     Steele, Rev. D. A., A.M., Amherst,                          264
     Steeves, Chipman Archibald, Moncton,                        326
     Steeves, James Thomas, M.D., St. John,                      151
     Stennett, Rev. Canon Walter, M.A., Cobourg,                 272
     Stephen, Alexander, Halifax,                                762
     Stephen, Sir George, Baronet, Montreal,                     231
     Stephenson, Major James, Montreal,                          665
     Sterling, Alexander Addison, Fredericton,                   705
     Stevens, Hon. Gardner Green, Waterloo, Q.,                  585
     Stevens, Rev. Lorenzo Gorham, A.M., B.D., Portland,          25
       N.B.,
     Stevenson, Major S. C., Montreal,                           492
     Stewart, George Jr., D.C.L., F.R.G.S., F.R.S.C.,            227
       Quebec,
     Stewart, John, Woodstock,                                   204
     Stewart, Rev. William James, Portland, N.B.,                 37
     St. George, Percival Walter, C.E., Montreal,                134
     St. George, Rev. Charles, Iberville,                        720
     Stockton, Alfred Augustus, D.C.L., Ph.D., LL.D.,            116
       M.P.P., St. John,
     Strachan, Right Rev. John, LL.D., D.D.,                     371
     Strange, Major-General T. B., Kingston,                     784
     Stratford, John H., Brantford,                          58, 816
     Strothard, Rev. James, Halifax,                             334
     Stuart, Sir Andrew, Knight, Quebec,                         640
     Sturdee, Henry L., M.A., Portland, N.B.,                    426
     Sutherland, Hugh McKay, Winnipeg,                           620
     Sutherland, Rev. Alexander, D.D., Toronto,                   86
     Sullivan, Hon. W. W., Charlottetown,                        429
     Sweeny, Right Rev. John, D.D., R.C. Bishop, St.             455
       John,

                                   =T=

     Taché, Eugene Etienne, Quebec,                              376
     Taillon, Alphonse Antoine, Sorel,                           537
     Talbot, Hon. Thomas,                                        157
     Tartre, Joseph Raphael, M.P., Waterloo, Q.,                 593
     Taschereau, His Eminence Elzéar-Alexandre, Cardinal,        625
       Quebec,
     Taschereau, Hon. Henry T., B.L., B.C.L., Judge,             410
       Montreal,
     Taschereau, Hon. H. E., Judge, Ottawa,                      434
     Taschereau, Hon. J. T., LL.D., Quebec,                      610
     Taylor, Henry, Perth,                                        78
     Tellier, Hon. Louis, Judge, St. Hyacinthe,                  443
     Tessier, Jules, M.P.P., Quebec,                             608
     Tetreau, Rev. F., St. Hyacinthe,                            508
     Thomas, N. W., Coaticook,                                   763
     Thomas, Rev. B. D., D.D., Toronto,                          379
     Thompson, David,                                            727
     Thompson, Hon. J. S. D., Q.C., M.P., Ottawa,                283
     Thompson, Lieut.-Col. D. C., Quebec,                        394
     Thorne, William Henry, St. John,                            306
     Thornton, John, Coaticook,                                  439
     Tilley, Sir S. L., K.C.M.G., Fredericton,                    60
     Tims, Frank Dillon, Quebec,                                 545
     Tomkins, Rev. John,                                         652
     Tooke, Benjamin, Montreal,                                  699
     Torey, Edgar J.,                                            705
     Torrance, David,                                            400
     Torrance, Hon. F. W., B.C.L., Montreal,                     393
     Torrance, Rev. Robert, D.D., Guelph,                         33
     Torrington, Frederick Herbert, Toronto,                     546
     Tourangeau, Adolphe G., Quebec,                             477
     Trenaman, Thomas, M.D., Halifax,                            554
     Trueman, Hermon Silas, M.D., Sackville,                     335
     Tupper, Hon, Sir Charles, G.C.M.G., C.B., D.C.L.,           642
       Ottawa,
     Turcotte, Hon. Arthur, Q.C., Three Rivers,                  445
     Turnbull, Lieut.-Col. James Ferdinand, Quebec,              403
     Turnbull, William Wallace, St. John,                        143
     Tyrwhitt, Lieut.-Col. R., M.P., Bradford,                   461

                                   =U=

     Underhay, J. C., M.P.P., Bay Fortune,                       415
     Unsworth, Joseph Lennon, Charlottetown,                     653
     Ure, Rev. Robert, D.D., Goderich,                           375
     Ussher, Right Rev. B. B., M.D., Montreal,                    19

                                   =V=

     Valin, Pierre, Vincent, Chateau Richer,                     383
     Vallee, Thomas E. A., M.D., Quebec,                         538
     Van Horne, William C., Montreal,                            469
     Van Koughnet, S. J., Q.C., Toronto,                         795
     Van Wyck, Rev. James, Toronto,                              152
     Vaughan, William, St. Martins,                              458
     Vidal, Major Henry Beaufort, Toronto,                       533

                                   =W=

     Wade, Edward Harper, Quebec,                                430
     Waddell, John, M.D.,                                         29
     Wainwright, William, Montreal,                              736
     Walker, Thomas, M.D., St. John,                             538
     Wallace, Joseph James, Truro,                               298
     Wallace, Rev. Robert, Toronto,                              418
     Wallbridge, Hon. Lewis,                                     374
     Wallis, Herbert, Montreal,                                   81
     Wanless, John, M.D., Montreal,                              128
     Watson, George, Collingwood,                                125
     Webster, Walter Chester, Coaticook,                         678
     Weeks, Otto Swartz, M.P.P., Halifax,                        668
     Wedderburn, Hon. W., Judge, Hampton,                        150
     Weir, W., Montreal,                                         527
     Weldon, R. C., B.A., Ph.D., M.P., Halifax,                  661
     Weller, C. A., Judge, Peterborough,                         673
     Wells, Hon. R. M., Toronto,                                 639
     Welton, Rev. Daniel Morse, D.D., Toronto,                   529
     Whelan, Hon. Edward, Charlottetown,                         414
     Whidden, Charles Blanchard, Antigonish,                     190
     White, Hon. Thomas, M.P., Ottawa,                           744
     Whitney, Henry A., Moncton,                                 364
     Wickwire, William Nathan, M.D., Halifax,                    265
     Wild, Rev. Joseph, M.A., D.D., Toronto,                      82
     Wilkinson, W., Judge, Bushville, Chatham,                   270
     Willets, Rev. Charles E., M.A., D.C.L., Windsor,            687
       N.S.,
     Williams, Rev. John Æ., D.D., Toronto,                      294
     Williams, Rev. William, D.D., Cobourg,                      175
     Williams, Richard Wellington, Three Rivers,                 495
     Williams, Right Rev. James W., D.D., Bishop, Quebec,        434
     Williams, Thomas, Moncton,                                  140
     Wilmot, Hon. R. D., Fredericton,                            765
     Willmott, J. B., M.D.S., D.D.S., Toronto,                   173
     Wilson, Daniel, LL.D., F.R.S, Toronto,                      338
     Wilson, J. C., M.P., Montreal,                              149
     Wilson, Rev. Robert, St. John,                               80
     Withall, William John, Montreal,                            520
     Wood, Rev. Enoch, D.D.,                                     585
     Wood, Robert Edwin, Peterborough,                           244
     Woodland, Rev. James Barnaby, Yarmouth,                     311
     Woodward, J. R., B.A., Sherbrooke,                          685
     Workman, Joseph, M.D., Toronto,                             204
     Worthington, Edward D., A.M., M.D., F.R.C.S.,               456
       Sherbrooke,
     Wright, Aaron A., Renfrew,                                   57
     Wright, Philemon,                                           631

                                   =Y=

     Young, Edward, Windsor,                                     800
     Young, Hon. Charles, LL.D., Q.C., Charlottetown,             18
     Young, Hon. James, Galt,                                    740
     Young, Sir William, LL.D.,                                  398



                             =A CYCLOPÆDIA=

                                  =OF=

                         =CANADIAN BIOGRAPHY.=

[Illustration]

=Cartier, Jacques.=—The ancient town of St. Malo, in France, had been
for centuries a nursery of hardy seamen, and among the most eminent on
its list stands the name of Jacques Cartier.—This celebrated navigator
was the first European who explored the shores of Canada to any extent.
On the 20th April, 1534, he sailed with two ships of three score tons
apiece burthen, and sixty-one well appointed men in each. He steered for
Newfoundland, which he reached in twenty days, passed through the
straits of Belle Isle, and advanced up the St. Lawrence, till he saw the
shores of Anticosti. The approach of winter caused him to return to
France. In the spring of 1535, he received a fresh commission, and three
vessels, named _La Grande Hermine_, _La Petite Hermine_ and
_L’Hémerillon_, the largest about 120 tons, were placed at his disposal.
On the 16th May, the officers and sailors assembled in the Cathedral at
St. Malo, where, after confession and hearing mass, they received a
parting blessing from the bishop, and, three days later, they set sail.
After experiencing very stormy weather, during which the vessels were
separated, they reached the coast of Newfoundland on the 26th July. On
the 10th August, it being the festival of St. Lawrence. Cartier gave
that name to the bay which he entered, and it was afterwards extended to
the river and gulf. On the 16th, he reached Stadacona (now Quebec).
Hearing from the Indians that a town of some importance stood by the
bank of the river, many days’ journey above, and named “Hochelaga,”
Cartier determined to go thither, and on the 19th September, he hoisted
sail, and with his pinnace and two small boats, departed on his journey
up the river. On the 28th he reached lake St. Peter. At the head of this
lake he was compelled to cast anchor on account of the shoals; and
finding it impossible to proceed further with his vessel
(_L’Hémerillon_), he took to his boats, and on the 2nd October, 1535, he
landed about six miles from the town, below the current St. Mary. After
he had gone about four miles, he was met by one of the chiefs,
accompanied by many of the natives, who gave him a cordial welcome.
Having seen all that he deemed worthy of notice in the village, Cartier
was conducted to the top of the mountain, the view from which filled him
with feelings of joy and gratification. In honour of his king he named
it “Mont Royal,” which name has been extended to the city. On his return
to the boats he was accompanied by a large number of natives, who
appeared to be anxious to have him stay longer. He, however, embarked
the same evening, and on the 4th October, he reached his vessel, in
which he passed down the St. Lawrence, and rejoined his company at
Stadacona. As the season was far advanced Cartier made the bold resolve
to winter in the country. His party suffered much during the winter from
want of proper food and clothing, and in addition to this, they were all
attacked by the scurvy, twenty-six of whom died. The remainder soon
recovered their health by the use of a decoction of the spruce fir,
which had been recommended to them by an Indian. When spring returned
Cartier sailed for France, taking with him several of the natives, and
among them, Donacona, a chief. None of them ever returned, all dying
before the French again visited Canada. On his return to France, Cartier
found his native land distracted with religious dissensions, and it was
not until 1541, that he sailed with five vessels, and full power to make
discoveries and settlements in Canada. Jean François de la Rocque,
superior of Roberval, was appointed by the king viceroy and lieutenant
of Canada, and was to have accompanied Cartier, but through insuperable
obstacles he was unable to leave until the next year, when he left with
three vessels, having on board two hundred persons, male and female.
Cartier passed the winter at Cape Rouge, where he erected a fort, but
fearing the natives he resolved to return to France. On his way he fell
in with Roberval, at St. John’s, Newfoundland, but he refused to return
with him to Canada, and proceeded on his way to France, where he died
shortly after his return. Cartier manifested in all his expeditions
adventurous courage. No contemporary navigator had as yet dared to
advance so far into the lands of the new world as he. In his braving the
rigours of a Canadian winter, and shutting himself up for six months,
without means of escape, he gave a signal example of the intrepidity of
the mariners of his time and country. Of right therefore in every sense,
he heads the long file of visitors of inner North America.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Young, Hon. Charles=, LL.D., Q.C., Judge of Surrogate and Probate,
Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, was born on the 30th of April,
1812, at Glasgow, Scotland, and is the younger brother of Sir William
Young, Chief Justice of Nova Scotia. The father of these illustrious men
was John Young, of Falkirk, Stirlingshire, Scotland, and subsequently of
Halifax, Nova Scotia. Judge Young received his early education in
Dalhousie College, Halifax, and studied law in the office of his
brother, Sir William Young, in that city. He was called to the bar of
Nova Scotia in 1838, and to the bar of Prince Edward Island the same
year. He practised his profession for a short time with his brothers,
Sir William and the Hon. George Young, now deceased; and on November
23rd, 1847, was created a Queen’s Counsel, being the first barrister in
Prince Edward Island on which this honour was conferred. Judge Young
entered public life a young man in 1840, where he was returned for
Queen’s County to the Island Assembly, and in December following, he was
appointed to the Legislative Council. In this latter body he accepted a
seat until 1863, ten years of which period he acted as president. He
filled the office of Attorney-General from 28th May, 1851 to the 2nd of
May, 1852; and from 26th June, 1858 to 11th April, 1859; and held the
commission under the Royal Sign Manual as administrator of the
Government of the Island for four years. Judge Young has the honour of
being the first public man who advocated the question of responsible
government for the Island, and he and his co-workers had the pleasure of
seeing this boon granted in 1851, together with other important reforms,
such as free schools, free lands for tenantry, savings banks, etc. He
received his appointment as judge of probate in 1852, and judge in
bankruptcy in 1868. On retiring from the latter position in March, 1875,
he was presented with the following address, which was signed by every
member of the bar in Prince Edward Island, viz:—

    “_To His Honour Judge Young, LL.D., etc._

    “SIR,—We, the undersigned barristers and attorneys, cannot
    permit the opportunity to pass of your honour’s retiring from
    the judgeship of the Insolvent Debtor’s Court—the jurisdiction
    of which is now merged in another court by virtue of ‘The
    Insolvent Act, 1875,’ of the Dominion of Canada—without
    expressing our entire satisfaction at the manner in which you
    presided over the meetings of the court; and at the same time
    thanking you for your many courtesies extended to us during the
    eight years Your Honour presided over said court.—(Signed), F.
    Brecken, Attorney-General; W. W. Sullivan, Solicitor-General;
    John Longworth, Q.C.; Charles Palmer, Q.C.; Charles Binns,
    Richard Reddin, E. H. Haviland, Edward J. Hodgson, Louis H.
    Davies, R. R. Fitzgerald, W. D. Haszard, Henry E. Wright,
    Malcolm McLeod, Neil McLean.

    “Charlottetown, P.E.I., March 29th, 1876.”

To which His Honour Judge Young replied:—

    “GENTLEMEN,—Be pleased to accept my best thanks for the address
    you have so unexpectedly presented, and be assured that I do
    most highly value it on account of the expressions it contains
    of your entire satisfaction with the manner in which I have
    presided over the Insolvent Debtor’s Court for the last eight
    years. Where I have always been treated with marked
    consideration by yourselves, gentlemen, I could not do otherwise
    than reciprocate the courtesies to which you kindly refer.
    (Signed),

                                                 “CHARLES YOUNG.”

While Judge Young was practising at the bar, he had a large and
lucrative business, and was generally engaged on one side or the other
in most of the leading cases then before the courts. He was invariably
retained on behalf of those he was pleased to style the “Bleeding
tenantry of Prince Edward Island” against the landlords, and generally
succeeded in gaining a verdict in favour of his clients. He was always
the friend and advocate of the oppressed. It is pleasing to note here
that Judge Young has held no position which he has not adorned. In
office and out of office he has rendered great service to the community.
In 1838, a Mechanics’ Institute was established in Charlottetown, mainly
through his efforts, and he had the honour of delivering the
introductory lecture, which was afterwards published in the _Gazette_.
He has since 1845 taken a very deep interest in the cause of temperance,
and was Grand Worthy Patriarch of the Sons of Temperance of Prince
Edward Island several terms, and is a member of the National Division of
the Sons of Temperance of North America. He is also an active member of
the Methodist church, a local preacher, and a Bible-class teacher, and
fills several other important offices in that church. He was
instrumental in founding the second Methodist church in Charlottetown,
and is president of Prince Edward Island Auxiliary Bible Society. The
Judge is a thorough working Christian. The degree of LL.D. was conferred
upon him by the Newton (United States) University; and in 1858 he was
offered the honour of knighthood by Her Majesty, but respectfully
declined the royal gift. In Masonry he takes an interest, and belongs to
the Royal Arch Chapter. In 1838 Judge Young married Lucretia, daughter
of John Starr, of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and he and his wife, there being
no children, enjoy life in their beautiful home, “Fairholm,”
Charlottetown.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Ussher, The Right Rev. Brandram Boileau,= M.D., Montreal, Bishop of the
Reformed Episcopal church in the Dominion of Canada and the Island of
Newfoundland, was born in the city of Dublin, Ireland, on the 6th day of
August, 1845. He is the youngest son of Captain Richard Beverly Ussher,
late of H. M. 86th Regt., and Henrietta Ussher (_née_ Boileau). On both
sides of the house his ancestors were most distinguished. Captain R. B.
Ussher was descended from Richard Neville, the great Earl of Warwick,
one of whose descendants (for political reasons took the name of the
office which he bore, viz., Usher of the Black Rod, thus retaining his
influential and lucrative position when the name of Neville had become
unpopular and the “Kingmaker’s” influence had waned,) subsequently
settled in Ireland. To distinguish the family name from the office, the
second letter, s, was added some eighty years ago. The subject of this
sketch is descended from a long line of churchmen. His great-grandfather
was rector of the parish of Clontarf, near Dublin, which was held in the
family from father to son for over one hundred and fifty years. The Rev.
John Ussher, afterwards Astronomer Royal for Ireland, was the last of
the family to hold the incumbency. His sons were Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas
Ussher, K.C.A., who figured in the history of the great Napoleon, taking
him to Elba in H.M.S. _Undaunted_. He died Naval Commander-in-Chief, at
Cork, Ireland, and lies buried in one of the vaults of Monkstown church,
County Dublin—his record was that of a gallant sailor. John Ussher, of
Woodpark, who left four sons, the youngest of whom, Richard Beverly, was
the father of Bishop Ussher, of Montreal. He is directly descended from
Archbishop Henry Ussher, one of the founders of Trinity College, Dublin,
whose brother Arland was the father of James Ussher (Trinity’s first
student, buried in Henry VII. Chapel in Westminster Abbey), the
celebrated Primate of Ireland, author of “Ussher’s Chronology,” etc.,
with whom the Duke of Wellington was also connected, owing to the fact
that Mary Ussher married Henry Colley, of Castle Carberry, who was the
mother of the first Lord Mornington, who was the grandfather of the Duke
of Wellington. The Venerable Archdeacon Adam Ussher, rector of Clontarf,
was the brother of the above named Mary Ussher and son of Sir William
Ussher, clerk of the Council. The Rectory of Clontarf descended to his
son Frederick, and from him to his son Henry Ussher, D.D., who held the
Andrew’s Professorship of Astronomy in Trinity College, Dublin, and from
him is directly descended Captain R. B. Ussher, the father of the Right
Rev. Bishop Ussher. Three hundred years ago two brothers of the name of
Ussher were driven from Ireland during one of the troubles, and settled
in the neighbourhood of Melrose, in Scotland, where they acquired
considerable lands, and amongst them the property of Huntley-burn, one
of the most celebrated spots on the Borders. The grandfather of the
present Thomas Ussher, of Edinburgh, for seventeen years secretary of
the Borders’ County Association for the Advancement of Education (and
out of which arose the celebration of the centenary of Sir Walter
Scott), sold to Sir Walter Scott the chief part of the estate of
Abbotsford (_vide_ “Lockhart’s Life of Scott”). By unbroken tradition
this branch claims kinship with Archbishop Ussher; and the Rev. W.
Neville Ussher, cousin of the above named Thomas Ussher, is a canon of
the Cathedral in Edinburgh. The Ussher family have had the honour of
having four distinguished church dignitaries; two Archbishops of Armagh;
one Bishop of Kildare (Robert Ussher); and Bishop B. B. Ussher, of
Montreal, who has at present five surviving brothers and two sisters as
follow:—Major-General John Theophilus Ussher, Beverly Ussher, Henry
Ussher, M.B., Rev. P. R. C. Ussher, a prominent minister in Australia;
and James Ussher, solicitor; Henrietta Buchanan and Arabella Madelina
Buchanan. On his mother’s side Bishop Ussher has an equally
distinguished ancestry, the Boileau family being one of the few that can
trace their genealogy back without a break for a period of over six
hundred years. The present Baron Boileau de Castleneau is the
seventeenth in descent from Etienne Boileau, who, born early in the
thirteenth century, was appointed by Louis IX., in the year 1255, Grand
Provost of Paris, at that period the highest officer of state. In 1371,
Jean Boileau was ennobled by Charles V. At the revocation of the Edict
of Nantes, A.D. 1685, Jacques Boileau, the 10th baron, was arrested as a
Protestant, tortured, and, after an imprisonment of ten and one-half
years, died in the prison of St. Jean de Vedas, one mile from
Montpellier, a noble martyr for the Protestant faith, having been
beheaded by order of the Duke de Nemours. His son, Charles Boileau, then
a youth, having taken refuge in England and having entered the British
Army, firm to his Protestant faith, formally renounced his rights and
titles to the honours and estates of the family which thereby devolved
on his younger brother Maurice, who became the eleventh Baron Boileau.
From that time the barony fell into the hands of the junior and Roman
Catholic branch of the family of which the present Baron Boileau de
Castleneau is now the representative. He holds, too, the ancient château
de Castleneau, six miles from Nimes, which has been for three and a half
centuries in the family to which it gives the present title of the
barony. Five of the Barons de Castleneau held in succession the office
of Royal Treasurer. Charles Boileau died in 1733, leaving three children
who had issue, whose grandchildren and more remote issue are now living
to the number of six hundred and fifty. The Right Rev. Bishop Ussher,
when a child, was sent from under the jurisdiction of a governess at a
very early age. At Delgany College, in the county Wicklow, the Rev. Dr.
Daniel Flyns, of Harcourt street, Dublin, and the Rugby of Ireland, the
Rev. Dr. Stackpools, of Kingstown, he received his education as a youth.
As a lad he was older than his years and sought the company of those
much his seniors, showing a decided _penchant_ for those given to study.
Thrown chiefly amongst medical students he followed the course of study
so closely with one companion, that he was almost as well fitted as he
to pass the examinations. At a little over sixteen years he secured the
diploma of the Royal Dublin Society, taking sixth place out of
seventy-three candidates. Owing to heavy financial losses, through the
dishonesty of associates, the father of young Ussher was unable to
permit him to continue his studies and the determination was formed to
visit the United States. The resolve was put into execution, and, in the
city of New York, mercantile life was entered upon; successful, though
not in harmony with it, it was abandoned after a year, and a visit
undertaken to Washington, where several of the United States’ army
hospitals were visited; the old medical love rekindled and much
practical knowledge gained in the treatment of surgical diseases and
gun-shot wounds. The resolve was then formed to adopt medicine as a
profession, and after pursuing his medical studies in the University of
Michigan, he finally received the degree of Doctor of Medicine in
Illinois, became a member of the State Medical Association, and was
ultimately elected a member of the National Eclectic Medical
Association. As a practitioner he was most successful, and as a citizen
highly esteemed in the city of Aurora, Illinois, where he practised for
over ten years. He was vigorously identified with the welfare of the
community, and at one time it seemed that he would enter into political
life, being offered the nomination by the Democratic party as a
candidate for the legislature. Politics, however, were too impure to
have any permanent attraction for him, and he devoted himself to his
professional duties and the interests of the Anglican Church, of which
he was a member. Set thinking by a sermon preached by the well-known
evangelist, Mr. Moody, the instructions of pious parents were revived,
and earnest Christian work entered upon with marked evidence of the
divine favour. Under the license of the Right Rev. Dr. Whitehouse, then
bishop of Illinois, he kept alive several mission fields and taught a
large Bible-class with great acceptability. It was then pressed upon him
that he should enter the ministry of the Anglican Church in the Diocese
of Illinois. Steadily the conviction of the need of entire consecration
to God’s service deepened; it was fought back, but the urging of Bishop
Whitehouse was strong, and as there was then little evidence of the
sacerdotalism that subsequently manifested itself, the course of study
was entered upon under the bishop’s direction. In time it became
apparent that the bishop of Illinois held strong High Church views. He
was a guest in Dr. Ussher’s house on the evening of the day of the
publication of Bishop Tozer’s letter condemning Bishop Cummins of
Kentucky, for partaking of and administering the communion of the Lord’s
Supper with Dr. John Hall, Drs. Arnot and Dorner, of the Presbyterian
church, and reading it with a sense of indignation, he (Dr. Ussher)
asked Bishop Whitehouse what he thought of such a letter, to which
Bishop Whitehouse replied in cold, severe tones, “I think Bishop Tozer
is perfectly right, and Bishop Cummins deserves the severest
condemnation.” Those words decided the mind of Dr. Ussher, and realizing
that as an Evangelical Protestant Churchman, he would be out of sympathy
with Bishop Whitehouse, he determined to abandon the idea of entering
the Anglican ministry. He felt, however, that his heart was so bound up
in the Episcopal Church, and his love for her liturgy was so great, that
he could not be at home in any other branch of Christ’s Church. At this
juncture the Right Rev. Bishop Cummins, D.D., took steps to organize the
Reformed Episcopal Church, which being made public, proved the open
door. Under the guidance of that distinguished Protestant prelate, he
pursued his studies and was ordained deacon in the city of Chicago, by
the Right Rev. Bishop Cheney, in Christ Church, June 9th, 1874, and
presbyter, July 16th, 1876, in Emmanuel Church, Ottawa, Ontario, by
Bishops Cheney, Nicholson, Cridge and Fallows. His pastorates in Canada
have been, one of three years in Toronto, during which was built the
church on the corner of Simcoe and Caer Howell streets, and his present
charge in St. Bartholomew’s, Montreal, over which he has been pastor
since 1878. For good and sufficient reasons he and his congregation
withdrew from the jurisdiction of the Reformed Episcopal Church in the
United States and united with the English branch of the Reformed
Episcopal Church under the Right Rev. T. H. Gregg, M.D., D.D., otherwise
called the Reformed Church of England. By the General Synod in England,
in the following year, the Rev. Dr. Ussher was elected to the
episcopate, but declined. Two years after he was elected again, the
Canadian Synod electing him as their bishop, and in 1882, on the 19th
day of June, he was consecrated in Trinity Church, Southend, by the
Right Rev. Bishop Gregg, and seven presbyters, as “a bishop in the
Church of God.” Returning to Canada he took charge of the Diocese of
Canada and Newfoundland. The bishop believing in benevolent societies as
handmaids to the church, has been a member of the Order of Oddfellows
since 1865, and has held the office of Grand Master of the Province of
Quebec; he has also been, and is at present, a member of the Order of
Knights of Pythias, in which he holds the rank of Past Grand Chancellor,
and has had the honour of being Supreme Representative for the State of
Illinois, and the authorship of one of the degrees in use by the order.
Bishop Ussher is a graceful and forcible writer and an eloquent speaker,
and poet of acknowledged merit. In his religious views he is an old-time
Evangelical believer, pronounced in his Protestant views, in fact, a
_keeper in the old paths_, for which reason he is ecclesiastically where
he is to-day. On the 16th day of July, 1867, he was married by the Rev.
Dr. Kelly, in the city of Chicago, to Elizabeth Leonora Thompson, third
daughter of the Rev. Skeffington Thompson, of Broomfield, near Lucan, in
the county of Dublin, Ireland, and Elizabeth Margaret D’Arcy. The father
of Mrs. Ussher, the Rev. Skeffington Thompson, is the thirteenth child
of the late Skeffington Thompson, of Rathnally, county of Meath, by Anna
Maria Carter, only child and heiress of Thomas Carter, of Rathnally,
county Meath. Skeffington Thompson the elder was an unsuccessful
candidate in the last Irish Parliament against the Duke of Wellington
for the borough of Trim, both candidates being neighbours in the same
county, Dangan Castle, the Wellesley seat, being near Trim. The family
of Thompson, according to Burke, descended from the Thompsons of Barton,
Cumberland, a branch of which settled about the 16th century in the
county of Hertford, England. The Irish branch are descended from those
who crossed over to Ulster when that province was first taken in hand by
King James, and engaging in the prosperous linen trade made large
fortunes. Mrs. Ussher’s family history on the male side is interesting,
as leading back to the famous Thomas Carter, who took so active a part
in the Irish revolution, ending with the battle of the Boyne, 1690. This
Thomas Carter was sergeant-at-arms, a partisan of King William III. at
the siege of Derry, and battle of the Boyne. He was, as Burke, Ulster
King of Arms, says “_a gentleman whose services to his country at the
revolution were very considerable, for he not only served King William
at the battle of the Boyne (July 1st, 1690), but secured divers useful
books and writings belonging to King James and his secretaries_.” These
documents he secreted in the vaults of Christ’s Church Cathedral,
Dublin, until after the disturbances. He married for his second wife,
the Countess of Roscommon, widow of Wentworth Dillon, the poet, who was
publicly buried in Westminster Abbey. By her he had no family, but his
only son Thomas became Master of the Irish Rolls, for twenty-four years,
Privy Councillor, and Secretary of State. This Right Hon. Thomas Carter
had two sons and three daughters, from the eldest of whom Mrs. Ussher is
descended. The eldest sister of this Thomas Carter married Doctor Philip
Twysden, bishop of Raphoe, and son of Sir William Twysden, baronet, of
Roydon Hall, Kent. The issue of this marriage, Frances, married George
Bussey, fourth Earl of Jersey and first cousin to Anna Maria Carter,
Mrs. Ussher’s grandmother. This latter alliance resulted in the birth of
two sons and six daughters, her eldest son being George, fifth Earl of
Jersey, and the daughters became Ladies William Russell, Ann Lambton,
Sarah Bailey, Lady Ponsonby, Lady Henrietta, who married the bishop of
Oxford, and Lady Anglesey, wife of the Marquis of Anglesey, a hero of
Waterloo, and for her second husband the Duke of Argyll, which Duchess
of Argyll was cousin german to Mrs. Skeffington Thompson, Mrs. Ussher’s
paternal grandmother. The Right Hon. Thomas Carter’s second daughter,
Susan, married Thomas Carter, of Duleek Park and Castle, county Louth,
and her grand-daughter, Elizabeth, became Marchioness of Thomond by
entering the family of William O’Bryen, descendant from Brien Boroimhe,
King of Ireland, and whose line was continued by the King of Munster and
of Thomond to the reign of Henry VIII., King of England (see Sharpe’s
Peerage). Mrs. Ussher’s family history on the female side is even more
interesting. Her mother was Elizabeth Margaret, eldest daughter of the
Rev. Joshua D’Arcy, Rector of Lacka, county Kildare. This D’Arcy family
came to Ireland early in the 14th century and settled at Platten in the
county Meath. In a book “Maynooth Castle,” written by the present Duke
of Leinster when Marquis of Kildare, on page 5, we read, “Sir John
D’Arcy, Lord Justice of Ireland, married the Countess Johanna de Burgh,
daughter to the Red Earl of Ulster, and sister to Ellen, wife of Robert
Bruce, King of Scotland. They had a son, William, born at Maynooth, in
1330, from whom the present family of D’Arcy are lineally descended, and
are represented by George James Norman D’Arcy, of Hyde Park, county
Westmeath (see Burke’s “Landed Gentry”, also Walford’s “County
Families”), the worthy head of both English and Irish families and
representative of twenty-eight peerages of Great Britain.” The Irish
D’Arcys were governors of Ireland in the reign of the three Edwards,
with extraordinary privileges, the power to appoint a deputy, which as
Fynes Thompson remarks, neither before nor after was granted to any but
some few of the royal blood (and which he exercised on two several
occasions). A descendant, Sir William D’Arcy of Platten (or Platyn) was
the person who carried Lambert Simnel on his shoulders through Dublin
after he had been crowned in Christ Church Cathedral, for which he was
obliged to do homage to his viceroy, in 1488. This Sir William D’Arcy’s
descendant, Vice-Treasurer of Ireland, in 1523, was the author of a work
entitled, “The Decay of Ireland and the causes of it,” the MS. of which
is now in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. It is quite beyond the
limit of this sketch to give a full history of a family dating back to
their ancient seat in Arcques, in Normandy, whence they came to England
with the Conqueror, into whose family they had married previously—then
settled in Lincolnshire and are given _in extenso_ in Burke’s “Extinct
Peerages.” The Yorkshire histories contain a full pedigree of about
twenty-five generations, and the English and Irish pedigree illuminated
by Camden, the historian, and author of the “Brittania,” dating from
1066 to 1617, is in the possession of the present head of the D’Arcy
house, Mrs. Ussher’s cousin. This history says, that Nicholas D’Arcy, of
Platyn, espoused the cause of King James II., and was a captain in his
army. He was consequently attained in 1690, and his estates were
forfeited and sold in 1691; his only son Christopher, dying unmarried,
George D’Arcy, the surviving lineal heir, male, succeeded to the family
headship. This George D’Arcy entertained James the Second in his Castle
of Dunmow the night after the battle of the Boyne, and King William was
his guest previous to the battle. King James in his hurried departure
next morning forgot his pistol which yet remains in the D’Arcy family.
It is related of him that on the occasion he repeated the following
couplet:

        “Who will be king I do not know,
         But I’ll be D’Arcy of Dunmow.”

He was declared an innocent Papist in 1693, and died in full possession
of his estates in Meath and Westmeath, in 1718. His descendant John
D’Arcy, born 1700, married, 1727, and was the first of the family to
conform to the Protestant faith, which took place before his marriage
with Miss Judge, of Grangebey, county Westmeath. He died in 1785,
leaving four sons, Judge, Francis, Arthur, and James. Francis D’Arcy, on
the death of his brother, Judge D’Arcy, became heir male of Sir William
D’Arcy, of Platyn, second son of Lord D’Arcy, viceroy of Ireland. On the
death of Robert D’Arcy, fourth Earl of Holderness, in Yorkshire, 1778,
heir male of John D’Arcy and Norman D’Arcy. Francis D’Arcy died in 1813,
without issue, and his youngest brother James D’Arcy, who alone had sons
and daughters, thus continued the line—his eldest son, John, claimed
the older D’Arcy baronies, held by the last Earl of Holderness, and this
claim after trial was established. But it appears that as Robert D’Arcy,
fourth Earl of Holderness, left an only child, Lady Amelia, who married
the Marquis of Carmarthan, afterwards fifth Duke of Leeds, thus carrying
off the Yorkshire estates into the Osborn family, the title has not been
resumed by the present family. James D’Arcy, born in 1740, had three
sons, John, born 1767, Joshua, the grandfather of Mrs. Ussher, and
Thomas, who was a major in the army, and at his death, Inspector General
of Police, in Ulster. It is interesting to know that the marriage of
Lady Amelia D’Arcy, Baroness Conyers in her own right, was dissolved by
Act of Parliament in May, 1779, after the birth of three children, and
both parties remarried the following year, the Lady Amelia marrying John
Byron, father of the poet, Lord Byron (she died January 20th, 1784,
Dodd’s Peerage, Genealogical Volume and Plates of Arms, page 5). The
foregoing is a very condensed account, necessarily, of Mrs. Ussher’s
family history. A more extended history involving, as it would, the
introduction of many other distinguished families in every department of
the state, and covering many professions, literary, scientific, military
and naval, we must ask our readers to spare us. Reference to the usual
standard histories, genealogies and heralds of Great Britain, would
confirm the above. It must be remembered that all the history of the
English D’Arcys, dating from 1066, their possession of thirty-three
baronies in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, their active part with the other
barons in extracting Magna Charta from King John, their subsequent
prominent part in the state during every reign down to that of George
III., the _Pilgrimage of Grace_, these and many other matters have been
omitted, but what has been said will suffice to show whence we have
come, and we trust that the present and future will verify the wise
man’s saying (Prov. xvii, 6.) in the history of Mrs. Ussher, that if
“Children’s children are the crown of old men, the glory of children are
their father’s.” The following are the surviving children of Bishop and
Mrs. Ussher:—Sydney Lahmire Neville Ussher, Clarence Douglas Ussher,
Charles Edward Cheney Ussher, George Richard Beardmore Ussher, Elizabeth
Henrietta Ussher, Warwick Wellesley Ussher.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Bayard, William=, M.D., Edin., St. John, New Brunswick, was born in
Kentville, Nova Scotia, on the 21st day of August, 1814. The ancestors
of our subject were Huguenots, and directly connected with the family,
represented by the famous knight, “sans peur et sans reproche,” whose
coat of arms is carried by them to this day. Having been driven from
France, they landed in New Amsterdam, now New York, in the month of May,
1647. There were three brothers, Petrus, Balthazer and Nicholas; one
remained in New York, and became one of the most prominent men in that
city; one went to Baltimore and his branch gave senators to that city
for the last hundred years, among them the present United States
Secretary; and the other one went to England, giving numerous soldiers
of distinction to that country, among them Colonel Samuel Vetch Bayard
and Colonel John Bayard, brothers. Colonel Samuel Vetch Bayard had three
sons; one a captain in the army, was killed at the battle of Waterloo;
one a captain in the English navy, was murdered at Fordham, near New
York city; and the third son, Robert, the father of our subject, was a
lieutenant in the British army at the age of thirteen years, and was
allowed to proceed with his studies at Windsor, Nova Scotia, while his
father’s regiment was stationed at Halifax, N.S. He left the army and
graduated in medicine at the University of Edinburgh in 1809, was a D.
C. L. of Windsor College, N.S., and for three years professor of
Obstetrics in the University of New York. When the war of 1812 was
declared against Great Britain, he was required to take the oath of
allegiance or leave the country. He chose the latter course, found his
way to Portland, Maine, left that city in an open boat, and arrived in
the city of St. John, N.B., in the month of May, 1813. From that city he
went to Halifax, N.S., and there married Frances Catherine Robertson,
daughter of Commissary Robertson, who was killed in the Colonial war
which commenced in 1775. Her grandfather was Colonel John Billop, who
owned a large part of Staten Island, near New York, and being a
Loyalist, his property was confiscated. He died in the city of St. John.
Dr. Robert Bayard practised his profession in Kentville, N.S., for
several years, and in 1824 removed to St. John, N.B., where he died in
June, 1868 at the advanced age of eighty-one years. He stood at the head
of his profession, and was a fluent speaker and an able writer. His son,
Dr. W. Bayard, when twelve years of age, was sent to a popular
educational institution, conducted by the Rev. William Powell, at
Fordham, near New York city, where he remained five years. He then
entered as a private student with Dr. Valentine Mott, the eminent
surgeon of New York, at the same time attending the medical lectures at
the College. While in Dr. Mott’s office he took high honours for
proficiency in anatomy. The next year he matriculated at the University
of Edinburgh, from which institution he received the degree of doctor in
medicine in 1837. He then walked the hospitals in Paris, and visited
many in Germany, and on returning to St. John, practised in company with
his father. He has since that time frequently visited the hospitals in
England, France and Germany. “His reputation for skill has,” says a
writer who has noted this gentleman’s career “almost from the start,
stood high, and of his profession he has made a brilliant success. He
has been greatly honoured, alike by the medical fraternity and his
fellow citizens generally, and it is safe to say, that no man in his
profession, in the Province, is held in higher esteem. There is not a
city or large town in the Province of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia or
Prince Edward Island, to which he has not been called upon professional
business.” It may be said that the general public hospital in the city
of St. John owes its existence to the energy and perseverance of Dr.
Bayard. Prior to 1858 he brought the subject prominently before the
authorities, but no action was taken. He then endeavoured to obtain
money to build one by subscription, but finding that many of the most
wealthy men in the city refused to subscribe, he abandoned the idea, and
employed and paid a lawyer to draft an Act to assess the community for
the purpose. This bill he placed before the Legislature of the Province,
and with the assistance of Sir Leonard Tilley, Judge the Hon. John H.
Gray and other members of the House, got the bill passed granting power
to raise the funds required for the building, and the support of it. He
has been President of the Board of Commissioners since its establishment
in 1860. He is chairman of the Board of Health for the city and county
of St. John, having been appointed by the Government in 1855 to carry
out the Sanitary Act passed in that year. He was elected President of
the New Brunswick Medical Society for four years in succession,
resigning the situation in 1881. He was elected President of the Council
of Physicians and Surgeons of New Brunswick in 1881, and resigned the
situation in 1885, not feeling justified in assuming the responsibility
of carrying out the Act, the Legislature having declined to pass
amendments to it required. He was appointed Coroner for the city and
county of St. John in 1839, resigning the situation in 1867. During his
tenure of office, there was but one coroner, now there are six with very
small increase of population. The above situations were unsolicited. Dr.
Bayard was at one time the New Brunswick editor of the _Montreal Medical
and Surgical Journal_, in which many interesting articles from his pen
may be found. The arduous duties of his profession compelled him to give
up the work. “He is regarded as a high authority on any branch of
medical science which he sees fit to discuss.” His address to the
Medical Society upon the “use and abuse of alcoholic drinks,” and his
lecture at the Mechanics’ Institute in St. John upon the “Progress of
Medicine, Surgery and Hygiene during the last one hundred years,” has
received high commendation. His politics are liberal-conservative. He is
a member of Trinity Episcopal church, and an exemplary man in all the
walks of life. The wife of Dr. Bayard was Susan Maria Wilson, daughter
of John Wilson, Esq., of Chamcook, near St. Andrew’s, in his day a large
ship owner and merchant, and one of the most enterprising men in the
county. It may be said that the St. Andrew’s and Woodstock railway owes
its origin to his energy. It was from him that Dr. Bayard received the
first telegram ever sent to St. John, as follows:—“To Dr. W. Bayard,
April 30th, 1851. Being the first subscriber to the Electric Telegraph
Company, I am honoured by the first communication to your city,
announcing this great and wonderful work God has made known to man, by
giving him control of his lightning. Signed, John Wilson.” Dr. Bayard
was married in the year 1844, and his wife died in the year 1876,
leaving no children. She was a woman of ability and fine social
qualities, always happiest when she had a house full of friends, and was
a splendid entertainer. She had wonderful energy as shown in attending
to the details of domestic life, in looking after the poor and
unfortunate, and in visiting the Home for Aged Women, the Protestant
Orphan Asylum, etc., etc. She was truly an angel of mercy, and her death
was nothing short of a calamity to the city. Dr. Bayard has not again
married.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Stevens, Rev. Lorenzo Gorham=, A.M., B.D., Portland, St. John, was born
in Bedford, Mass., U.S.A., on 26th December, 1846, and is the eldest son
of Lorenzo Dow Stevens and Mary Gorham Parsons Stevens. His grandparents
on his father’s side were Abel Stevens, whose nephew, Abel Stevens,
D.D., LL.D., is one of the leading divines of the Methodist Episcopal
church in the United States; and Hadassa Mills, whose brother, Luther
Mills, was a distinguished graduate of Harvard University, in the class
of 1792. His father’s cousin, Edward Lewis Stevens, a graduate of
Harvard, of the class of 1863, and afterwards first lieutenant in the
44th Mass. Volunteer Militia, was killed at Boykin’s Mills, near Camden,
S.C., April 18th, 1865. His grandfather on his mother’s side was Wilhelm
Edlund, ship owner and merchant, born in Stockholm, Sweden. The brother
of this gentleman was private secretary to Gustavus III. His grandfather
left no male issue, and the name, so far as can be learned, is now
extinct in America. His grandmother, on his mother’s side, was Abigail
Hodges, daughter of Abigail Davis, who was cousin of Chief Justice
Parsons, of Massachusetts, and whose brother, Aaron Davis, served at the
battle of Bunker Hill, under Gen. Warren, and received a musket ball in
his thigh at the time. His mother’s grandfather, Joseph Davis, after the
early death of his wife Abigail, married Christina Greene, niece of Gen.
Greene, one of the Division Commanders under Gen. Washington. After
leaving the Francis St. grammar school, Boston, Lorenzo Gorham Stevens
entered the (Roxbury) Latin School, professor Buck, principal, where he
remained five years, graduating July, 1865. He then entered Harvard
University, and remained four years, graduating in the class of 1869.
His favourite studies in the college were the languages, history and
mental and moral philosophy. The year following his graduation he was
principal of the English department of the German-American School, in
Morrisania, New York. In September, 1870, he entered the Episcopal
Theological Seminary, Cambridge, Mass., and remained one year. The years
1872 and 1873 he spent in foreign travel, at the same time prosecuting
his theological studies. While in Berlin he attended at the University
the lectures of the celebrated Dr. Dörner. Mr. Stevens travelled as far
east as St. Petersburg, and as far north as Upsala, Sweden. After a most
enjoyable tour in which sight-seeing and study were about equally
combined, he returned to the Cambridge Seminary, and graduated June,
1874. His diaconate he spent in Massachusetts, preaching in several
places. In September, 1875, he became rector of Trinity Church, St.
Stephen, N.B., and in January of the following year, was admitted to the
order of priesthood in the cathedral, Fredericton, by Bishop Medley, now
Metropolitan. He served as rector of Trinity church three years. On
November, 1878, he entered upon the rectorship of St. Luke’s church,
Portland, St. John, a position he still holds. Rev. Mr. Stevens was
chaplain of the Sussex Lodge, F. and A. M. (St. Stephen), and has acted
as chaplain for other lodges at various times. On August, 30, 1881 he
was married to Susan Lynds, only surviving child of Dr. John Waddell,
superintendent for twenty-seven years of the Provincial Lunatic Asylum,
St. John. (A sketch of his life will be found elsewhere in this book.)
Of this marriage two children have been born, Henry Waddell, March 24,
1883, and Edlund Archibald, August 23, 1885.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Klotz, Otto=, Preston, Ontario, is a native of Germany, having been
born in the city of Kiel, on the shores of the Baltic sea, on the 25th
of November, 1817. His father, Jacob Klotz, was the junior of the firm
of Klotz & Son of that place. After the death of the senior member, the
firm was continued for many years, first by Jacob Klotz, and
subsequently by his younger brother, Christian Klotz, their business
being chiefly the purchase of grain and shipping it to England. Otto
Klotz received his primary education at a public school in his native
place, but was subsequently educated in Luebeck; after having passed his
final examination creditably, he was confirmed in conformity with the
rites of the Lutheran Church at Kiel, and thereupon apprenticed to a
wine merchant in Luebeck, where, in addition to his mother-tongue, he
had ample opportunity of making use of French and English, which
languages he had by this time fairly mastered. At the expiration of his
apprenticeship, he returned home. In the spring of 1837, his uncle,
Christian Klotz, under the old firm of Klotz & Son, sent on speculation
a cargo of wheat to America (the crops having failed in 1836), and young
Otto Klotz was permitted to make a trip to the new world in his uncle’s
brig, laden with wheat. The requisite arrangements for that voyage were
soon made, and since neither himself nor his relations and friends
considered the departure as being of long duration, but rather a
pleasure trip, the farewell at the wharf was neither gloomy nor sombre,
although his father had advised him to inquire for a good situation, and
if found to stay for a few years, and then return with a good store of
general knowledge, as many young men of the town had done before him. On
the 27th of March, 1837, the anchor was weighed, the sails set, and the
_Friedericke_, heavily laden with wheat, sailed out of Kiel harbour with
young Klotz on board. The voyage was completed in seventy-nine long
days, and on the 14th of June, anchor was cast in the East River, at New
York. On arrival it was found that the wheat was heated, and the market
overstocked, hence the speculation was a failure. Otto Klotz found to
his regret that owing to great depression in business and the numerous
failures, he could not procure a situation in New York. He visited
Newark, New Jersey, and there met a German farmer from Canada, who
proposed to him the taking up of wild land and going into farming. The
novelty of this proposal appeared to have some charm and was really
entered upon. Writing to his father informing him of his resolution, he
handed the letter to the captain of his uncle’s brig, bade him farewell,
and left for Canada. Arrived in the township of McKillop, in the Huron
Tract, he endeavoured to learn what was required in order to become a
successful farmer, and soon ascertained that for a young man standing
alone without relations or friends and without any knowledge of farming,
it would be unwise to take up land and “roughing it in the bush;”
however he stayed about two months, during which time he acquired
considerable proficiency in the use of the axe, helping to chop and put
up log houses in the neighbourhood. He left McKillop in October, 1837,
and went to Preston, which place was then all alive with new settlers
from Germany. He engaged for some time as clerk in a store, and thinking
he saw a good opportunity, he started in business on his own account in
February, 1838, using his father’s letter of credit in the purchase of
his first stock of goods. In 1839, he married the daughter of a farmer
of the township of Wilmot. This marriage proved to be a happy one, his
good wife being an excellent helpmate, a good housewife, a dutiful
mother and an exemplary spouse. Shortly after young Klotz had settled in
Preston, he became acquainted with an old English gentleman, William
Scollick, who was a surveyor, conveyancer and a commissioner of the
Court of Request, and who took a particular fancy to him and his
penmanship. He advised him to learn conveyancing, and promised to
instruct him therein. This kind offer was readily accepted; the pupil
employed his spare moments in studying to perfect himself, became an apt
scholar, and after the death of old Mr. Scollick, became his successor
as conveyancer, a business which proved no mean help for improving his
pecuniary circumstances. Mr. Klotz was made a naturalized British
subject in 1844, was appointed a notary public in 1846, a commissioner
for taking affidavits in 1848, a clerk of the Division Court in 1848,
and a justice of the peace in 1853. For a long term of years, he was
director of the County Agricultural Society, and once its president. Of
the Preston Mechanics’ Institute and Horticultural Society he has been
president from the establishment of the same. Of the Executive Committee
of the Association of Mechanics’ Institutes for Ontario, he was a member
for twelve years, during six of which its vice-president and for two
years its president, and by virtue of these offices a member of the
Agricultural Council of Ontario. But the office which he has occupied
longest and in which he has worked with greater energy than in any
other, is that of School Trustee. When in 1841, the Public Schools Act
became law, he was elected one of the School Commissioners in the
township (the title was subsequently changed to School Trustee); at the
expiration of his term he was re-elected, and has been so re-elected
ever since. A good stone school building with a teacher as good as in
those days could be obtained was the result of his early work in the
cause of education. He next succeeded in getting permission from the
District Council to have all property in the Preston school section
taxed for a free school, and that school has been free ever since,
although in former years it was optional with the rate-payers whether
their school should be free or supported by a rate bill per pupil
attending school. After Preston became incorporated, he was appointed
local superintendent of schools, and in that capacity he was seventeen
years a member of the County Board of Examiners of Teachers. The
scarcity of good teachers was often severely felt, while at present they
are plentiful, and Mr. Klotz obtained permission for German teachers to
be examined in German, and he had charge of preparing the questions for
such examinations. At the insistance of several teachers, he prepared
and published a German grammar for use of German pupils and others
studying German. In 1853, he agitated a public examination of all the
schools in the county; in this move he was ably assisted by the late Dr.
Scott, who was then the warden of the county. The county council granted
$100 for the purchase of prizes to be distributed among the successful
competitors, and appointed Mr. Klotz to make the requisite arrangements,
which were successfully carried out. In 1865, Mr. Klotz, assisted by two
of the teachers of the Preston school, prepared an _exposé_ of “The
Irish National Readers,” which at that time were the authorized readers
for the common schools. In that _exposé_ the writer criticised the
spelling, grammatical construction, historical blunders, unsuitable
words and expressions for children, unfitness of the books for Canadian
schools, and the entire absence therein of any article which might tend
to cultivate in the minds of the pupils a patriotic feeling. A lengthy
and animated correspondence between the chief superintendent, the Rev.
Dr. Ryerson, and Mr. Klotz was the result; but notwithstanding the same,
Mr. Klotz had the gratification of seeing “The Irish National Readers”
superseded by a Canadian series of Readers. As president of the
Mechanics’ Institute, Mr. Klotz has been indefatigable in providing for
the inhabitants of Preston and neighbourhood a large library of well
selected books, numbering in 1886 4,000 volumes, of which 2,800 are
English, and 1,200 German. In politics Mr. Klotz commenced as early as
1838, then hardly a year in Canada, to take an active part, having been
required to shoulder a gun and to stand guard at the Grand River bridge,
upon a report that a band of rebels under lead of one Duncan, was coming
from London to invade Waterloo, which, however, afterwards proved a
false report. He concluded that if, though yet an alien, he was required
to risk his life in defence of Canada, he would claim it as a right to
speak and vote upon political questions. Shortly after the Earl of
Durham’s Report had been published, mass meetings were held in several
parts of Upper Canada to discuss the same; and Mr. Klotz was one of
thirty-six men, mostly old settlers of Waterloo county, who by
hand-bills called a public meeting to be held at Preston, on the 10th
day of August, “to take into consideration the deplorable state of the
province of Upper Canada, and to express their opinion thereon, in
concurrence with the great county meeting lately held at Dundas, upon
the glorious report of the Earl of Durham.” One of those handbills is
still preserved by Mr. Klotz as a relic of his younger days. The first
parliamentary election which came on was held at Guelph, and Mr. Klotz
went there to vote. A scrutineer, the late Colonel Hodgins, asked him:
“How long are you in this country, sir?” The answer was given with
firmness: “Not quite ten years, sir;” the response was: “Oh, that will
do; for whom do you vote?” “for Mr. James Durand, sir,” said Mr. Klotz
and left the polling place. Mr. Durand was afterwards declared elected.
After responsible government had been granted to the people of Canada,
and the political party which adopted the name “Conservatives” had been
formed, Mr. Klotz joined that party, and he has ever since supported it
with all his energy. He held for a number of years the office of
secretary of that party in his electoral division, and in later years
that of president of the same. For the celebration of the Peace Jubilee,
held at the county town, Berlin, shortly after the Franco-German war, he
was elected president of the German societies, and as such he delivered
on May 2nd, 1871, in front of the Court House, to an audience of several
thousands, the Peace Jubilee address; and subsequently at the town of
Waterloo, on the occasion of the first “German Saenger Fest” in Ontario,
being held there, he delivered to an overcrowded house at the
Agricultural Hall, the address in German and also in English. The old
Alien Act requiring a residence of seven years before a foreigner could
become a naturalized subject, was felt by many Germans to be too long a
period of probation, especially since it only required five years’
residence in the United States to become a citizen there. Accordingly
Mr. Klotz agitated the matter through the medium of the public press,
and by letters to members of Parliament and to the government. In this
he was ably assisted by other Germans, and their united efforts were
crowned with success, the seven years being first reduced to five, and
later to three years’ residence. An attempt was made by him to induce
the British government to extend the privileges of a person naturalized
in Canada, over the whole British empire; but in this attempt he failed,
although his arguments upon that subject had been kindly forwarded to
the British government, by His Excellency the Governor-General. It
appeared that the reasons for refusal were not on account of Canada, but
of such of the numerous British possessions which still number among its
inhabitants a large body of semi-civilized peoples, through whom serious
difficulties might arise, if such colonies were also to apply and obtain
the like privileges which were asked for Canada. Among the Masonic
fraternity, the name of Otto Klotz has become a household word. He
became a member of the same in 1846, and has ever since been an active
and energetic worker of the Mystic tie. He is an old member of the Grand
Lodge and served without interruption as a member of the Board of
General Purposes since 1864. He made the subject of Benevolence his
special study, and the present system of distributing aid, and of
regulating grants is his work; in acknowledgment of which, the Grand
Lodge presented him in 1873 with a handsome testimonial. He continued
his noble work with unabated energy, adding from time to time
improvements suggested by experience, and in 1885, after twenty-one
consecutive years as chairman of the Committee on Benevolence, the Grand
Lodge conferred upon him the highest honour, by unanimously electing him
a Past Grand Master, and voting for the purchase of a handsome and
costly Grand Master’s regalia, which, with an elaborate address
beautifully engraved, were presented to him at a later day at his mother
lodge, the old Barton, No. 6, in the city of Hamilton, in presence of
one of the largest gatherings of the fraternity ever assembled there.
Besides this great honour conferred upon him, and the many fraternal
greetings and tributes paid him on that occasion by the brethren
assembled, he had the additional pleasure of the presence of three of
his sons, two of whom as Past Masters of Preston lodge, and the youngest
as Master of the Lodge of Strict Observance, in Hamilton; and the
gratification of a most cordial and fraternal reception of them by the
brethren assembled, as worthy sons of a worthy father. The family of Mr.
Klotz and his good wife consists of four sons and two daughters, of whom
three sons and one daughter are married and have families, while the
eldest son and youngest daughter have remained single. They are all
living in comfortable circumstances, highly respected by all who know
them, and the just pride of their aged parents. A family gathering which
occurs once a year is always accompanied by those genuine pleasures
which are in store for a happy family in which strife and bickerings are
unknown quantities. At one of these gatherings the unanimous wish of Mr.
Klotz’s children was expressed that he should retire from business, and
spend with his good wife the remaining years of his life in rest and
comfort. Arrangements were made accordingly, and in 1881, he retired
from business, since which time he has been living on his income, with
his wife and unmarried daughter in a commodious dwelling, enjoying that
repose and comfort which is the just reward of honest industry.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Waddell, John=, M.D. The late Dr. Waddell, of St. John, New Brunswick,
was the son of the Rev. John Waddell, a native of Shotts, Scotland. The
latter was educated at Glasgow, and came to Nova Scotia in 1797, and
became pastor of the Presbyterian church of Truro. He was married in
1802 to a daughter of Jotham Blanchard (a loyalist from Massachusetts,
and a colonel in one of the loyalist regiments). The Rev. Mr. Waddell
officiated on the occasion of the opening of the old St. Andrew’s Kirk,
in St. John, N.B. (destroyed by the great fire), having delivered the
first sermon in the church in which his son, the subject of this sketch,
fifty years afterwards became a prominent and influential elder. Dr.
Waddell was born in Truro, Nova Scotia, on the 17th of March, 1810. When
quite a boy, his mother died. After attending the Grammar school at
Truro, kept by Mr. James Irving, he entered the Pictou Academy, under
the presidency of Dr. McCulloch (the able Biblical controversialist,
whose discussions with Bishop Burke, of Halifax, made his name famous
throughout Nova Scotia). After leaving the academy, he went into
mercantile business in his native town, and so continued until the
autumn of 1833, when he commenced the study of medicine under Dr. Lynds.
He next proceeded to Glasgow, Scotland, where he pursued his studies
with untiring assiduity, and received his diploma, October 18th, 1839,
from the Royal College of Surgeons, London. He then went to Paris, and
continued there two years, attending the medical lectures given by some
of the most scientific men of the French capital. On his return to Nova
Scotia, in 1840, he commenced the practice of medicine in Truro. The
same year he married Susan, the only daughter of his first medical
teacher, Dr. Lynds. The following year she died. Five years afterwards
he married Jane Walker Blanchard, daughter of Edward Blanchard, of
Truro. In 1849, Dr. Waddell was appointed by His Excellency, Sir Edmund
Head, to the situation of medical superintendent of the New Brunswick
Lunatic Asylum, a position whose arduous and multifarious duties he
discharged with signal success, until his retirement in the spring of
1876, a period of twenty-seven years. When he took charge of the asylum,
at the age of thirty-nine, he was the very personification of vigorous
health. He was tall and finely proportioned. Humanly speaking there was
in him the promise of the attainment of a life of four score years and
more. He sprang from a long-lived race. His step was elastic and his
form erect; his mind was buoyant and full of love for the work he had
but just undertaken. By his kind and gentlemanly manner, he was
singularly capable of dealing with those unfortunates who required so
much of paternal care and solicitude. And yet, with this urbanity and
goodness, there was firmness of character, so much required by the rules
of discipline, which never failed to exact obedience, but it was the
obedience of a child to a parent. When Dr. Waddell assumed the duties of
his office, there were but eighty patients in the establishment, which
number gradually increased until the figures reached, at the time of his
retirement, three hundred, besides about fifty domestics. With every
successive year, from 1849, there was a steady increase of work—work of
the most sorrowful description—and with it a corresponding amount of
care, anxiety and responsibility. And yet, Dr. Waddell worked on, day
after day, in the same unwearied round for twenty-seven years, devoting
the flower of his days, his vigour, his manhood to a task which led
ultimately to the destruction of a once powerful constitution. At the
earnest request of his family—whose members had always been closely
knit and compacted together by the most tender cords of affection—he
retired from the asylum in the spring of 1876, under the expectation
that with rest and freedom from care and anxiety, he would be enabled to
take a new lease of life. But instead of that repose for which
retirement was sought, it was found that a change from an active to a
passive life was more than his shattered constitution could withstand.
The day he laid down his staff and turned his back upon the asylum he
loved so well and served so faithfully, that day Dr. Waddell’s work upon
earth was ended. Bowed down with the infirmities of a premature old age,
he lingered till August 29th, 1878, when he passed away at the age of
sixty-eight. Probably no man in the province of New Brunswick was better
or more generally known than Dr. Waddell, and there are few whose name
and works will be held in more grateful remembrance by its inhabitants.
His only surviving child, Susan Lynds (by his second marriage), was
married August 30th, 1881, to the Rev. Lorenzo Gorham Stevens, rector of
St. Luke’s Church, Portland, St. John, N.B., a sketch of whose life will
be found elsewhere.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=MacVicar, Rev. Malcolm=, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of Apologetics and
Christian Ethics, McMaster Hall (Baptist College), Toronto, was born on
the 30th September, 1829, in Argyleshire, Scotland. His father, John
MacVicar, was a farmer in Dunglass, near Campbeltown, Kintyre, Scotland,
and was known as a man of great physical and intellectual vigour, and
was well known in his native Scotland and the land of his adoption,
Canada, for his ability, generosity and sterling integrity. His wife,
Janet MacTavish, possessed a similar character, and reached the age of
ninety-two years before she died, having seen her children’s children in
positions of usefulness and influence. Malcolm, the subject of this
sketch, was one of twelve children, and came with his parents to Canada
in 1835, and settled on a farm at Chatham, Ontario. His early years were
spent at first on a farm, then at Cleveland, Ohio, where he learned the
trade of ship carpenter. Being ambitious and anxious to get on, he
decided to secure an education, and along with his brother Donald, now
Principal of the Presbyterian College in Montreal, went to Toronto, in
1850, and entered Knox College to study for the Presbyterian Ministry,
where he remained for two years. In the meantime his views of doctrines
having undergone a change, he became connected with the Baptist
denomination, and turned his attention to teaching and fitting young men
for the Toronto University, preaching occasionally. He was ordained to
the Baptist Ministry in 1856. In 1858 he went to Rochester, New York
State, and entered the senior class at the University of Rochester,
taking his degree of B. A. the following summer. He immediately went to
Brockport, in the same county, where he became a member of the faculty
of the Brockport Collegiate Institute, then under the principalship of
Dr. David Barbank. Here, with the exception of one year spent in the
Central School at Buffalo, he remained until the spring of 1867 (when
that institution was transformed into a Normal School), first as
subordinate, then as associate principal, and from April, 1864, sole
principal of the school. He was a very successful teacher from the
first, being full of energy, and ambitious to devise new and improved
methods of illustrating and impressing the truth. Nor were the
class-room walls the limit of his intellectual horizon, but he was
constantly seeking some better plan of organizing the educational work
immediately in hand, and over the whole state. He was quickly recognized
by the regents of the University as one of the foremost teachers and
principals in the state. In August, 1865, he, by appointment, read a
paper before the convocation of that body on Internal Organization of
Academies, which looked towards and proved the first step towards
putting in practice regent’s examinations in the academies as a basis
for distribution of the income of the literary fund. He was shortly
afterwards appointed by the chancellor, chairman of a committee of
principals of academies to consider the practical workings and results
of the system of regent’s examinations just being instituted. During
these years of his connection with the Collegiate Institute, he took a
lively interest in the subject of the so-called normal training in
academies, and became convinced that the utmost that could be done for
teachers’ classes under the circumstances was too little to meet the
needs of the common schools of the state. He, therefore, with the advice
and cooperation of friends of education in Brockport and Rochester, and
the Hon. Victor M. Rice, then state superintendent, proposed to the
State Legislature, in 1865-66, a bill authorizing the establishment of a
Normal and Training School at Brockport, and offering to transfer the
Institute property to the state for that purpose on very liberal terms.
Subsequently this measure was so modified as to provide for four schools
instead of one, and to leave the location of them to a board consisting
of the governor, state superintendent and state officers and others. In
this form the bill became law. It now became necessary to adopt some
definite plan of organization for the new schools, and Superintendent
Rice at once turned to Professor MacVicar for assistance. The professor
submitted a plan, which, with some slight modifications, was adopted and
became the basis for the organization of all the schools under the law.
In consideration of the services rendered by Professor MacVicar and
other friends of the cause, the first school was located in Brockport,
with Professor MacVicar as its principal, and he immediately set to work
to organize this school, and opened it in the spring of 1867, having
among the members of his faculty, Professor Charles McLean, William J.
Milne and J. H. Hoose, now the Principals of the Normal schools of
Brockport, Genesee and Courtland. The first year of Normal school work,
carried on as it was in connection with planning and supervising the
erection of the new buildings, proved a very trying one to Principal
MacVicar, and his health giving way under the pressure, he resolved to
offer his resignation at the end of the school year of 1867-8. This he
accordingly did, but the state superintendent, preferring not to lose
him from the state, granted him a year’s leave of absence, instead of
accepting his resignation. He then took a trip west, during the summer
of 1868, and was invited to become superintendent of the schools of the
city of Leavenworth; after some consideration, he accepted this
position, and remained there until the following April, in the meantime
reorganizing the schools from bottom to top, a work that had been
neglected hitherto. His western trip having restored him to perfect
health, he returned to New York state, but thought it best not to again
take up his work at Brockport. A Normal School having been located in
Potsdam, St. Lawrence county, and about ready to open, he was invited to
become its principal, and accepted the office. He at once gathered
around him a corps of teachers, and opened his second Normal school,
three weeks after he left Leavenworth. The regents of the University
welcomed him back to the state, and expressed their estimation of his
ability by conferring upon him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in
the summer of 1869, and his _alma mater_ added an LL.D. the following
year. The school at Potsdam was no sooner organized than he gave himself
anew to the study of methods of instruction and the philosophy of
education, for which he possessed a peculiar aptitude. Being encouraged
by the other principals to work out his ideas into permanent shape for
the general good, he became the author of several books on arithmetic;
he also became the author and inventor of various important devices to
illustrate, objectively, principles of arithmetic, geography and
astronomy. Meanwhile there arose a degree of friction between the
academies and Normal schools of the state, which made itself felt in the
legislative session of 1876, in a threat to cut off the appropriations
from the Normal schools, unless the academies were treated more
liberally. At the next meeting of the Normal school principals, the
matter was discussed, and the cause of the difficulty was found to be
the double-headed management of their educational system. It was agreed
that the remedy for the existing difficulties was found in uniting the
management of all the schools of the state under one head. Dr. MacVicar
and Dr. Sheldon, of the Oswego Normal school, were appointed to urge
this view on the State Legislature at its next session. They conferred
with a deputation of academy principals, and won their approval of the
plan prepared. It was then embodied in a bill, and brought before the
legislature in 1877. Although much time was spent in bringing the matter
before the committees of the assembly and the senate, and many of the
prominent men of both houses, who generally approved of the measure, yet
the private interests of aspirants to the office of state
superintendents conflicted with it, and it was thrown out when it came
up for a hearing. In the autumn of 1880, Dr. MacVicar was invited to
take the principalship of the Michigan State Normal school, at
Ypsilanti, and finding it the only school of the kind in that state, and
there being no diversity of interest in the educational management of
the state, it seemed to offer an opportunity for something like ideal
Normal school work, so he accepted the position. He remained there,
however, but one year, when, being thoroughly worn out with hard work,
and being urgently pressed to join the faculty of the Toronto Baptist
College, just then opened, he resigned his position in Michigan and came
to Canada. Dr. MacVicar excels as a mathematician and metaphysician,
having read extensively in both directions, as well as in the natural
sciences. He has also made the relation of science and religion a
special study, and is now investigating the wide field of Christian
Apologetics. As a writer and in the classroom, he is characterized by
the utmost clearness and force, and his career as an educator has been
eminently successful. It has fallen to his lot to perform a vast amount
of hard work in all of which he has shown a spirit of self-sacrifice in
a remarkable degree, through which he has been the means of advancing
many others to positions of high trust and usefulness. His
investigations in the science of education are critical and original,
being based upon extensive observation and a large induction of facts.
Having for twenty-five years taught a wide range of subjects, and being
naturally possessed of strong and well trained logical powers, he is
well qualified to analyze the human mind and all that is concerned in
its proper education and harmonious development. To this work he now
devotes such time as can be spared from strictly professional duties. As
a theologian his views are definite and comprehensive, thoroughly
evangelical and uncompromisingly opposed to the materialistic pantheism,
and philosophical and scientific scepticism of the present day. On the
1st of January, 1865, Dr. MacVicar was married to Isabella McKay, of
Chatham, and has a family consisting of three sons and one daughter.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Heavysege, Charles=, the gifted author of “Saul,” was born in
Liverpool, England, May 2nd, 1816. On his arrival in Canada in 1853, he
took up his residence in Montreal, where for a time he worked as a
machinist, earning by hard labour a modest subsistence for himself and
his family. Afterwards he became a local reporter on the staff of the
Montreal _Daily Witness_; but, as has been the case with many another
son of genius, his life was one long struggle with poverty. Through all
his earlier years of toil and harassing cares, he devoted himself to
study and poetical composition, but published nothing till he was nearly
forty years of age. A poem in blank verse saw the light in 1854. This
production, crude, no doubt, and immature, met with a chilling
reception, even from his friends. Some time afterwards appeared a
collection of fifty sonnets, many of them vigorous and even lofty in
tone, but almost all of them defective in execution, owing to the
author’s want of early culture. “Saul,” his greatest work, was published
in 1857, and fortunately fell into the hands of Hawthorne, then a
resident of Liverpool, who had it favourably noticed in the _North
British Review_. Longfellow and Emerson, too, spoke highly of its
excellence, the former pronouncing it to be “the best tragedy written
since the days of Shakespeare.” Canadians then discovered that Heavysege
was a genius, and made partial atonement for their neglect; but even to
the end the poet’s struggle with fortune was a bitter one. In 1857, he
published “Saul: A scriptural tragedy.” “Count Flippo or, The Unequal
Marriage:” a drama in five acts (1860). This production is inferior to
“Saul,” not only because it does not possess the epic sublimity of the
sacred drama, but because in it there is too much straining after
effect, the characterization is defective, and the criticism of life
displayed is not of the highest quality. “Jephthah’s Daughter,” (1865):
a drama which follows closely the scriptural narrative, and, so far as
concerns artistic execution, is superior to “Saul.” The lines flow with
greater smoothness; there are fewer commonplace expressions, and the
author has gained a firmer mastery over the rhetorical aids of figures
of speech. His mind, however, shows no increase in strength, and we miss
the rugged grandeur and terrible delineations of his earliest drama.
“The Advocate:” a novel (1865). Besides these works, Heavysege produced
many shorter pieces, one of the finest of which, “The Dark Huntsman,”
was sent to the _Canadian Monthly_ just before his death. To Art
Heavysege, so his critics say, owed little. Even his most elaborate
productions are defaced by unmusical lines, prosaic phrases and
sentences, and faults of taste and judgment. But he owed much to Nature;
for he was endowed with real and fervid, though unequal and irregular,
genius. To the circumstances of his life, as much as to the character of
his mind, may be attributed the pathetic sadness that pervades his
works. Occasionally, it is true, there is a faint gleam of humour; but
it is grim humour, which never glows with geniality or concentrates into
wit. Irony and quaint sarcasm, too, display themselves in some of the
Spirit scenes in “Saul.” But for sublimity of conception and power of
evoking images of horror and dread, Heavysege was unsurpassed except by
the masters of our literature. He possessed also, an intimate knowledge
of the workings of the human heart; his delineations of character were
powerful and distinct; and his pictures of impassioned emotion are
wonderful in their epic grandeur. Every page of his dramas betrays an
ardent study of the Bible, Milton, and Shakespeare, both in the
reproduction of images and thoughts, and in the prevailing accent of his
style. But he had an originality of his own; for many of his sentences
are remarkable for their genuine power, and keen and concentrated
energy. Here and there, too, we meet with exquisite pieces of
description, and some of the lyrics in “Saul” are full of rich fancy and
musical cadence. Without early culture, and amid the toilsome and
uncongenial labours of his daily life, Heavysege has established his
right to a foremost place in the Canadian Temple of Fame: what might he
not have done for himself and his adopted country, had he been favoured
by circumstances as he was by Nature! His death took place at Montreal,
in August, 1876.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Torrance, Rev. Robert=, D.D., Guelph, Ontario, was born at Markethill,
county of Armagh, Ireland, on the 23rd of May, 1825, and was the
youngest of seven sons. His ancestor on his father’s side—M.
Torrance—left Ayrshire, Scotland, during the times of the persecution,
and settled in the north of Ireland, and their descendants have lived
there, in the same locality, ever since. Robert Torrance, the subject of
this sketch, went to school at an early age in his native village, and
remained under the same tutor until he was ten years old, when he began
the study of the Latin and Greek languages. In 1837, his parents removed
to Glenluce, Wigtonshire, Scotland, and here Robert entered the school
in this place, and continued the studies he had already begun before
leaving Ireland, and began others preparatory to the life-work selected
for him by his parents. In 1839, he was enrolled as a student in the
Royal Academical Institution, Belfast, then or shortly afterwards
affiliated with the London University; then he studied Greek and logic,
and _belles-lettres_; mental and moral philosophy under Dr. Robert
Wilson; mathematics under Prof. Young; natural philosophy, including
astronomy and optics, and Hebrew under Professor Harte, assistant to Dr.
Hincks, who was then an old man, and confined his attention to the
senior class. This Dr. Hincks, was the father of the celebrated Oriental
scholar, Dr. Hincks, and of the late Sir Francis Hincks, whose name is
well known in Canada. After the completion of his art course and passing
the usual examination by the Presbytery in whose bounds he resided, he
entered on the study of divinity, in the halls of the United Secession
Church in Scotland. His first session was spent in Glasgow, and the
subsequent ones in Edinburgh. His course was completed in 1845, with the
exception of one session, and, as there was great want at that time for
missionaries to go out to Canada, he offered his services, and was
accepted, it being agreed, under the circumstances, to exempt him from
attending the last or fifth session on his furnishing testimonials as to
fitness for the field and work. These having been produced to the
satisfaction of the Committee on Foreign Missions, of which Dr. John
McKerrow was convener, the Presbytery of Kinross was instructed to take
him on trials for license, with a view to his proceeding to Canada.
According to appointment, these trials were delivered in the church at
Inverkeithing, a village in Fifeshire, about four miles south from
Dunfermline. Having passed the Presbytery and been licensed, he preached
two Sabbath days in Scotland, one for Rev. Dr. MacKelvie, in Balgedie,
in whose family he had been tutor for three seasons; and the other for
Rev. Mr. Puller, in Glenluce, where he had spent his boyhood. He then at
once left for Liverpool, taking his parents with him, and from that port
sailed, in a few days, for New York, which was reached safely after a
voyage of four weeks. Without delay, he proceeded to Toronto, and there
occupied the pulpit of Rev. Mr. Jennings for a few Sabbaths, Mr.
Jennings being at the time in Scotland recruiting his health. Mr.
Torrance spent one year as a probationer, travelling through the western
section of Canada, from Toronto to Goderich and Detroit, as he had
determined not to settle down in a charge till he had gone over a good
part of the mission field, and given as much supply as in his power.
Travelling in those days was far from possessing the conveniences and
comforts now enjoyed. There were no railways; in several of the
districts there were no stage coaches. The probationer was thus under
the necessity of purchasing a horse, and making his journeys on
horseback. In winter he was exposed at times to intense cold, and in
summer to prostrating heat. He had to clothe himself for such changes of
temperature. Roads were sometimes obstructed with snow, and he had to
wait till parties turned out and made them passable, or opened up a way
through adjoining fields; in spring and fall there was deep mud and
often the horse had difficulty in getting through, and some of the
stations were difficult of access from other causes, such as their
recent formation. Accommodation when he reached his destination, was not
always such as he had been accustomed to in the fatherland. But the
people were uniformly kind and courteous; they gave the best they had
ungrudgingly, often wishing it were better; and extended a cordial
welcome. Many an event then befell him which interested him at the time
and still lingers in his recollection. After receiving and declining
calls from three or four congregations, he accepted a call from a
congregation in Guelph, and was ordained and inducted on the 11th of
November, 1846. He remained in this charge till January, 1882, when his
resignation was placed in the hands of the Presbytery, and its
acceptance pressed. Towards the close of the same month the pastoral
relationship to his congregation was dissolved, the General Assembly
giving permission to retain his name on the Roll of Presbytery. Since
that time he has not had a stated charge, but has been frequently
employed as moderator of sessions of vacant congregations in the bounds,
and doing other work of a ministerial character. Shortly after his
settlement in Guelph, he was appointed a trustee on the High School
Board, and filled that position for a number of years. He succeeded for
a time to the superintendence of the Common (now called Public) schools,
in the south riding of the county, having the oversight of the townships
of Erin, Eramosa, Guelph and Puslinch. Finding the labours too onerous
in connection with his pastoral work, he resigned the position after two
years occupancy to the hands of the County council. Previous to this,
however, in 1855, he had been chosen by the Guelph Board of Trustees
superintendent of the schools in the town, then only three or four in
number. This situation he has since filled without interruption, and has
seen the progress made up to this date, the number of schools having
increased to twenty-six, and a class of buildings provided unsurpassed
by any in Ontario. Shortly after the Rev. Mr. Torrance’s settlement in
Guelph, a new presbytery was formed, called the Presbytery of
Wellington, and of this he was chosen clerk, and this office he filled
till the union of the churches, which took place in 1861, when Mr., now
Rev. Dr. Middlemiss, who had been clerk of the Free Church Presbytery,
was chosen clerk of the united one. In 1870, Mr. Middlemiss resigned,
and was succeeded by Mr. Torrance, who still occupies the office. The
church with which he was connected was known in his early days as the
“United Secession,” a name afterwards changed to “United Presbyterian,”
when the union between the Relief and Secession churches was effected.
For some years he filled the position of convener of their committee on
statistics, and also of their committee on the supply of vacancies and
distribution of probationers. In 1874, his name appears for the first
time as convener of the committee of the united church on statistics,
and he was continued in the office at the farther union, which took
place in 1875, and still occupies it. For some time the supply of
vacancies and allocation of probationers were under the charge of the
Home Mission committee, but they chose a sub-committee for the purpose,
and for a few years the burden of the work fell to him with the other
members. Ultimately a distinct committee was appointed by the General
Assembly, to whom this service was assigned, and he was chosen convener.
In 1880 he was chosen moderator of the Synod of Toronto and Kingston,
which met in St. James’ Square Church, Toronto, and occupied the office
for the usual period of one year. In 1883, he tendered his resignation,
when Rev. Mr. Laidlaw of St. Paul’s Church, Hamilton, was chosen to
succeed him. The scheme fell out of use, and it was considered
unnecessary to continue the committee after 1884, till 1886, when the
want of it having made itself felt, a new committee was appointed under
a revised scheme, of which Rev. Mr. Laidlaw was appointed convener by
the Assembly, and Mr. Torrance clerk by the committee, Mr. Laidlaw
feeling that he could not carry on the work of the committee in
connection with the weight and responsibility of his labours as the
minister of an important city charge. In 1884, Mr. Torrance was chosen a
life member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at
its meeting in Montreal. In 1885, he was installed as a member of the
Canadian Postal College of the natural sciences, and in September of the
same year, he was constituted a life member of the Canadian Short-Hand
Society. For several years he has been a member, by the appointment of
the General Assembly of the Board of Examiners of Knox College, Toronto,
and the senate of that institute conferred upon him, in 1885, the
honorary degree of D.D. In 1851, he revisited Scotland, for the
restoration of his health, which had become impaired through the labours
that had been undergone; and again in 1881 he visited the old country,
accompanied by his wife. On this occasion he travelled over the greater
part of Scotland, visited Ireland and its chief cities, with the lakes
of Killarney, and crossed over to Paris, where a week was spent amid the
scenes of that gay and enchanting city. Rev. Mr. Torrance’s religious
views are Presbyterian; these he says he acquired from his parents and
is satisfied with their scriptural character, and has not changed his
mind since boyhood. Rev. Mr. Torrance may now be considered as having
retired from very active duties. In 1857, he purchased ten acres of fine
land in the neighbourhood of Guelph, and having built thereon for
himself a comfortable house, he resides there and devotes his spare time
to gardening and the cultivation of flowers, having gone to the expense
of importing from Scotland, and even China, some very rare flower seeds.
In August, 1854, he was married to Bessie Dryden, of Eramosa, whose
father and mother had come from the neighbourhood of Jedburgh, in
Scotland, and took up land in that township soon after it was thrown
open to settlers. Four children, two sons and two daughters, were born,
all of them now grown up; two of them married, one of the latter, a
daughter, having gone with her husband to China, under an engagement for
four years at the close of which they have returned.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Moore, Paul Robinson=, M.D., Sackville, New Brunswick, was born on the
30th of March, 1835, in Hopewell, Westmoreland county, New Brunswick.
(Since the county was divided, Hopewell is in Albert county). His
father, Thomas Benjamin Moore was a lawyer in Albert and Westmoreland
counties, and died in Moncton, Westmoreland county, April, 1875, aged
sixty-eight years. His mother’s maiden name was Apphia Robinson,
daughter of Deacon Paul C. Robinson, of Hopewell. She bore thirteen
children, six sons and seven daughters, of whom three sons and four
daughters still survive, the subject of this sketch being the third
child. His paternal grand-father was John W. Moore, sergeant of the 1st
battalion of Royal Artillery, and died a pensioner in Ballymena,
Ireland, at eighty-five years of age. His paternal ancestors resided in
the north of Ireland, and it is a family tradition that at the siege of
Londonderry there were seven brothers Moore, engaged in the fighting,
five of whom were slain in one attack. The remaining two survived the
perils of the siege, and their descendants are still for the most part
settled in the north of Ireland. His father was five years old when he
came to this country in 1813, when the regiment to which his
grand-father belonged was ordered out to defend Fort Cumberland. Paul
Robinson Moore received a mathematical and classical education at the
Mount Allison Institution, in Sackville, New Brunswick, up to the age of
fifteen, when on account of ill health his studies were abandoned. Three
years later, having regained his health, he commenced the study of
medicine with Dr. Wm. T. Taylor, of Philadelphia, U.S., but had to give
it up at the end of the first year, on account of another serious attack
of illness which threatened to end in phthisis. He then returned to New
Brunswick, and after recruiting his health, took a clerkship at the
Albert mines in Hillsborough, New Brunswick, for eighteen months, and
afterwards he was employed as bookkeeper and pay-master of the Boudreau
stone quarries in Westmoreland county for a year. His health being then
perfectly restored, he went to New York, and resumed his medical studies
at the university of the city of New York, receiving private instruction
at the same time from Dr. Gaillard Thomas. He graduated in March, 1859,
and was appointed house physician and surgeon of Brooklyn City Hospital
the following May, which position he held till May, 1860, when he
returned to Albert county, New Brunswick, and commenced the practice of
his profession. In January, 1875, he removed to Sackville, and entered
into a professional co-partnership with Dr. Alexander Fleming, which
continued till April, 1881, when Dr. Fleming removed to Brandon,
North-West Territory, since which time Dr. Moore has been attending
closely to his professional duties in Sackville. He was appointed
coroner for Albert county in 1866, and magistrate for the same county in
1873. The doctor has taken an interest in various companies, and is at
present a stockholder in the Moncton Cotton Company, the Sackville Music
Hall Company, and the Baptist Publishing Company. He joined the Howard
lodge of Free Masons in 1867, and Sackville division of the Sons of
Temperance in 1875; became honorary member of the Glasgow Southern
Medical Society in 1880, and president of the New Brunswick Medical
Society in 1885. He is also a member of the Medical Council. He has
never taken an active part in politics, but supports a Liberal
government, and is an uncompromising Prohibitionist. He has travelled in
England, Ireland, France, Scotland, and the United States. He has been a
member of the Baptist church since 1865. On the 12th of December, 1866,
he was married to Rebecca, eldest daughter of John Weldon, of
Dorchester, Westmoreland county, by whom he has had nine children, four
boys and five girls, of whom one boy and five girls survive.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Archambault, Urgel-Eugène=, Principal of the Catholic Commercial
Academy, Montreal, was born at L’Assomption, on the 27th of May, 1834.
His parents were Louis Archambault, farmer, and Marie-Angélique
Prud’homme, belonging to a very old family of the province of Quebec.
The Archambault family came from France and settled on the Isle of
Montreal about the year 1650, thence off-shoots established themselves
in different parts of the province of Quebec, especially at
L’Assomption, from which place three or four members of this family
were, at various times, elected to the Canadian parliament. Urgel-Eugène
having attended school at Saint-Jacques de l’Achigan and at
L’Assomption, became a teacher at the age of seventeen years (1851),
taught during six years at Saint-Ambroise de Kildare, L’Assomption,
Chateauguay, and finally completed his own studies at the
Jacques-Cartier Normal School, from which institution he received an
academic diploma. In 1858, he taught at Saint-Constant, and the
following year he became head-master of the Catholic Commercial Academy
of Montreal, the principal work of his life, and which he still directs.
This school, established in Coté street, was transferred to the Plateau
in 1871; it has become one of the principal educational institutions of
the city, and even of the province of Quebec. In 1873, Mr. Archambault
was named local superintendent of all the schools controlled by the
Catholic Board of School Commissioners. The interior plans of the
Plateau, Belmont and Olier schools are the work of his hands. This same
year, 1873, he laboured successfully to bring about the foundation of an
institution destined to form civil, mining, and industrial engineers.
This was the Polytechnic School of Montreal, founded by the Catholic
school commissioners and the Honorable Gedéon Ouimet, superintendent of
education for the province of Quebec. Intended principally for
Catholics, it was annexed to the Laval University in January, 1887. The
university, which retains Mr. Archambault as principal of the
Polytechnic School, has named him titular professor of the arts faculty.
Much of the success attending the Jacques-Cartier Normal School
conventions has been due to the active interest which he has taken in
them. He is the author of the Teachers’ Pension Fund Bill, which became
law in 1880, and was amended in 1886. In 1870, Mr. Archambault visited
Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Richmond
(Virginia), and became acquainted with the best educators in the United
States. Since then he has kept himself informed of their methods of
teaching and management. With the same object in view, he visited the
Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, in 1876. In 1878, Mr. Archambault
was sent to the Paris Exhibition, to represent the Educational
department of the province of Quebec; and while in France he was named
member of the International Educational Jury, and was the first Canadian
ever decorated with the _Palmes Académiques_, and honored with the title
of _Officier d’Académie_. On this occasion he was commissioned, by the
Minister of Public Instruction in France, to deliver the _Palmes
Académiques_ to Dr. J. B. Meilleur, and to the Honourable P. J. O.
Chauveau and G. Ouimet, who, each in turn, had directed the Educational
department of the province. To allow him to fulfil his mission at the
Paris Exhibition, he was granted a seven months’ leave of absence,
during which time he gathered an ample store of pedagogic ideas, which
he has since utilized for the benefit of his country. In 1883-4, he made
a second trip to Europe and to Northern Africa, during a six months’
leave of absence granted to him on account of his health. These voyages
brought him into communication with several eminent persons, and with
different societies. Already a member of the Saint-Jean-Baptiste and of
the Historical Society of Montreal, he became a member of the
Geographical Society of Paris; in 1882, he received the title of Knight
of the Sacred and Military Order of the Holy Sepulchre, and in 1886 he
was named honorary member of the first degree of the Universal Humane
Society of Knight-Saviors. In 1860, Mr. Archambault married
Marie-Phélonise Azilda, daughter of Dr. Robitaille, of Saint-Roch de
l’Achigan. Of the eleven children born to them, six, a son and five
daughters, are still living (1887).

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Stewart, Rev. Wm. James=, Minister of the Baptist Church, Portland
city, St. John county, New Brunswick, was born at Second Falls, St.
George, Charlotte county, New Brunswick, on the 22nd of April, 1850. His
parents, David and Agnes Stewart, were born in Newtownards, county Down,
Ireland. They came to America with their parents, and were married in
St. Andrews, New Brunswick, soon after their arrival. Shortly after this
event they removed to Second Falls, where they lived happily together
and raised a family of eleven children, William being the youngest. In
February, 1857, his mother was removed from her family by death, and
laid to rest by loving hands in the village church-yard. His father
married again, his second wife being a Mrs. Manzer, a widow lady, who
still survives him. He had no issue by this wife. In July, 1876, his
father was called to his reward, and buried beside his first wife. Both
were consistent members of the Baptist church. William James Stewart,
the subject of this sketch, was not a very rugged boy, and was therefore
kept constantly at school from his earliest boyhood. At the age of
sixteen he finished the studies in the primary schools, and as there was
no high school near his home, he was allowed to drop his studies for a
few years. In the meantime he went on a visit to his brother and sister,
both of whom were married and lived in the State of Minnesota, and after
a year and a half he returned home a young man of twenty years, with no
very definite idea of life or what he should do in the future. Not long
after this, however, there came a change into his life which decided the
future for him. The sermons of Rev. Edward Hickson, then pastor of the
Baptist church in his native place, made a very deep impression on his
mind. His father was a deacon of that church, and a very godly man, his
life and influence being in perfect accord with the truth preached from
the pulpit; and so after a good deal of anxiety of mind and earnest
prayer to God, William was led to give his heart to the Saviour, and
experience in his life that “peace which passeth all understanding.” On
the 16th of June, 1872, he was immersed in the name of the Trinity by
the Rev. E. Hickson, and received into the fellowship of the Second
Falls Baptist church. He at once felt a desire in his heart to do
something for Him who had done so much for the world, and his first work
was to organize a Sunday school in connection with the church of which
he was then a member. He also resolved to take up his long neglected
studies and prepare himself for a life of usefulness, in the world. In
October, 1872, he entered the Baptist Collegiate School in Wolfville,
Nova Scotia. He did not at that time have the ministry in view, but not
long afterward it was pressed upon him with such weight that he could
not rest day or night until he yielded to the voice of God in his soul,
and began to shape his course with this in view. On 21st May, 1874, he
received a license from the church of which he was a member, signed by
George Allen, clerk, to preach the gospel according to the faith and
practice of the Baptist church. He spent the vacations of each year of
his student life in preaching the word as opportunity offered. The
vacation of 1876 he spent at Musquash, near St. John, New Brunswick, and
God poured out His Holy Spirit wonderfully upon the people and many
precious souls were saved. There was no minister near to baptize, and he
consented to be ordained, although he was but a student. His ordination
took place on the 23rd day of May, 1876, in the Carleton Baptist church.
In May, 1877, he finished his studies at Acadia College, and received a
unanimous call to the churches at St. George and Second Falls, the
latter of which he was a member. He at once entered upon his work, and
was greatly blessed in his labours among his own people. On 1st July,
1878, he was married to Lillie S. Hanson, daughter of Vernon and Helen
Hanson, in the city of Boston, by the Rev. Dr. Lorimer. After a
pastorate of about four years in his native place, he received and
accepted a call to the Baptist church in Parrsborough, Nova Scotia. He
spent one year with this church, and then received and accepted a call
to the Baptist church in Portland city, St. John county, N.B., and on
1st June, 1882, he entered upon his duties in the church of which he is
at present (1887) the pastor. About two hundred souls have been added to
this church since he took up the work, and God is now very graciously
blessing it. The church edifice has been improved at a cost of about
fifteen hundred dollars, and a fine parsonage purchased since he began
his ministry in it. The outlook for the future is very hopeful. To God
be all the praise. Rev. Mr. Stewart has had two children, a boy and a
girl. The eldest is now a bright boy of seven years. The little girl,
too sweet and pure for earth, was taken at the age of four by Him who
said, “Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for
of such is the kingdom of heaven.”

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Bayly, Richard=, B.A., Q.C., Barrister-at-law, London, Ontario, was
born in Dublin, Ireland, on the 25th of May, 1834. He is the son of Rev.
Benjamin Bayly, and Cassandra Henrietta Bayly, who, previous to coming
to Canada, resided in Dublin, Mr. Bayly’s ancestors having resided in or
near that city for over three hundred years. The Rev. Mr. Bayly occupied
the important position of principal of the London Grammar school
(afterwards the London Collegiate Institute) for over thirty-five years,
until the 17th January, 1879, when he died, greatly respected by all who
had the honour of his acquaintance. Richard received his education at
the London Grammar school, in London, and at the University of Toronto,
where he graduated with the degree of B.A. He then studied law in the
office of the Hon. John Wilson (afterwards Justice John Wilson), and
became a barrister and solicitor in 1857, and has successfully practised
his profession in London ever since. He occupied a seat on the London
Board of Education from 1876 to 1885 inclusive, and was chairman of the
board for one year, and chairman of the School Management Committee for
four years. For nine years Mr. Bayly was a warden of St. Paul’s
Episcopal church, and for several years a delegate to the Diocesan and
Provincial synods. In politics, he belongs to the Liberal-Conservative
party, and for many years has taken an active interest in political
issues. He was brought up in the Episcopal fold, and has seen no reason
to change his religious belief. On the 22nd June, 1864, he was married
to Eliza, eldest daughter of the late Dr. Chas. G. Moore, of London, and
the issue of this marriage has been ten children, eight of whom
survive—five boys and three girls.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Mowatt, Rev. Andrew Joseph=, Pastor of St. Paul’s (Presbyterian)
Church, Fredericton, New Brunswick, is a native-born Canadian, having
first seen the light on the 11th of February, 1838, in the town of
Woodstock, Carleton county, N.B. His father, Thomas Mowatt, and mother,
Elizabeth Scott Moffatt, emigrated from Great Britain to New Brunswick,
and settled in Woodstock in 1837, where they remained for about two
years, and then moved to Harvey, York county, where Andrew, the subject
of our sketch, was brought up, and whose early recollections of the
place is a little log hut in the forest, and a small log school-house
where he received a common school education. After leaving this school,
he went for two winters to the Collegiate school in Fredericton, then in
charge of Dr. George Roberts, and afterwards he spent three terms at the
Presbyterian college at Truro, Nova Scotia, taking the regular arts
course there. He then studied theology under Rev. Dr. King, at Gerrish
Theological Hall, Halifax, N.S., and completed his studies in 1866. On
the 2nd of May of the same year, he received a license to preach the
gospel from the Presbytery of Pictou, was called to the new congregation
of Sharon church, Albion Mines, now Stellarton, and was ordained pastor
on the 5th of June following. The Rev. Mr. Mowatt retained the charge of
this church for seven years, and then left on receiving a call from St.
John’s church, Windsor, N.S., and was inducted its pastor by the
Presbytery of Halifax on the 8th of July, 1873. Here he laboured in the
Lord’s vineyard for six and a half years. He then was called to the
pastorate of St. Paul’s church in Fredericton, and was inducted into
this charge on the 8th of January, 1880, by the Presbytery of St. John;
and here he has laboured ever since. This church has greatly prospered
under Mr. Mowatt’s able ministration, and, on the 10th of January, 1886,
the congregation abandoned their old church edifice and moved into a
fine stone building, which is an ornament to the town. Rev. Mr. Mowatt
was brought up in the faith as taught by the Presbyterian church, and
has so far seen no reason to change his opinion with regard to it. He
has spent his life in his Master’s service, and he has the satisfaction
of knowing that he has done something to advance His kingdom in this
world, and, under God’s grace, fitted many a poor soul to enter the
Father’s home of many mansions. He was married to Louisa Jane Annand, of
Gay’s River, Colchester county, N.S., on the 30th of June, 1868. Her
brother, the Rev. Joseph Annand, is a missionary on the island of
Espiritu Santo, in the New Hebrides. Rev. Mr. Mowatt has a family of
nine children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Mitchell, Hon. James=, St. Stephen, New Brunswick, was born at the
Scottish Settlement, York county, N.B., on the 16th March, 1843. His
father, William Mitchell, was a native of Inverkip, Renfrewshire,
Scotland, and came to America in 1827, settling in York county, N.B. His
mother, Ann Dobie, was a native of Dumfries, in Scotland. James Mitchell
received his education first in the public school, then in the
Collegiate Institute, and latterly in the University of New Brunswick,
at Fredericton, where, in 1867, he graduated with the degrees of B.A.,
and M.A. He afterwards studied law, and was called to the bar in
October, 1870, and has since practised his profession at St. Stephen,
Charlotte county, where he now resides. Mr. Mitchell was inspector of
schools for Charlotte county from 1872 to 1875, and from 1877 to 1879,
and during these years exercised a very material influence on the
educational affairs of his town and county. He occupied the position of
Census commissioner in 1881. He is at present a member of the Senate of
the University of New Brunswick, and a member of the Alumni Society;
also a member of the Lunatic Asylum Commission and of the Board of
Education of the province of New Brunswick. At the general election in
1882 his fellow-citizens of Charlotte county chose him to represent them
in the New Brunswick parliament; and, on the 3rd of March, 1883, he was
appointed a member of the Executive Council, and surveyor-general of the
province. On his presenting himself for re-election, he was returned by
acclamation. He was again elected at the general election in 1886. Hon.
Mr. Mitchell is a Liberal-Conservative in politics, having always
identified himself with the party of progress in the country, and is an
active promoter of railways, manufactures, and other public works. As a
barrister he stands high at the bar of his native province. He is a
past-master of the Free and Accepted Masons, and past-principal Z of the
Royal Arch Chapter. He has followed in the footsteps of his parents, and
is a consistent adherent of the Presbyterian church. On the 17th
December, 1873, he was married to Miss Ryder, of St. Stephen.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=MacFarlane, Foster=, M.D., Fairville, St. John, New Brunswick, was born
in the parish of Studholm, Kings county, N.B., on the 12th December,
1834. His father, Matthew MacFarlane, was born in the parish of Dramore,
county of Tyrone, Ireland, and was a descendant of a family of that
name, who, with others, sought refuge from the persecution then
prevailing in the Highlands of Scotland. The record of the family dates
back to the beginning of the thirteenth century. The family name of
“MacFarlane” took its origin from a grandson of the Earl of Lennox,
named Bartholomew, the Gaelic of which is “Pharlan,” whose son was named
MacFarlane (or son of Bartholomew). The seat of the Earl of Lennox was
Dumbarton castle, which was held by his descendants the MacFarlanes, at
intervals, and for six centuries they held possession of their original
lands, the principal seat of which was Arrochar, at the head of
Lochlong. The MacFarlane clan fought, and distinguished themselves, in
the battle of Langside, May 13th, 1565, their valour mainly contributing
to decide the fortunes of the day, and the defeat of Mary, Queen of
Scots. For their bravery they received from the Regent their crest and
motto which has ever since been inscribed on their family escutcheon,
“This I’ll defend.” Chief among the descendants of this ancient family
may be mentioned Walter MacFarlane, of MacFarlane, who is justly
celebrated as the indefatigable collector of the ancient records of his
country, and whose historical writings, according to Mr. Skeen, “form
the best monuments to his memory; and as long as the existence of the
ancient records of the country, or a knowledge of its ancient history
remains an object of interest to any Scotchman, the name of MacFarlane
will be handed down as one of its benefactors, which monument will be
found more enduring than the barbaric splendour of his warlike
countrymen, which has long since faded away, thus showing that it is not
the destroyer but the benefactor of his fellow-creatures who is secure
of immortality.” In 1815, when but a lad of twelve years of age, Matthew
MacFarlane, accompanied his father, James MacFarlane, and other members
of the family, to America, and on their arrival settled at Rockland, in
Kingston, Kings county, N.B. Some years afterwards, and when the family
had grown up, Mr. MacFarlane, sr., left his eldest son, Charles, on the
homestead, and removed, with Matthew and his other sons and daughters,
to Studholm, in the same county. About the year 1827, being amongst the
pioneer settlers of that part of the country, Matthew MacFarlane married
Sarah Foster, whose father, Ezekiel Foster, came from New England during
the American war. One of his brothers fought at the battle of Lexington,
and died in defending what he considered his rights, having espoused the
cause of the colonists. Foster MacFarlane, the subject of our sketch,
was the fifth child of this marriage, and first saw the light in a log
cabin, the common abode of the pioneer farmers of those days. His
earliest education was received in the parish school, and was limited to
the rudiments of an ordinary English education. At the age of twenty,
having passed the required examination before the local board then
existing, he received a license to teach in the public school. After
teaching for a time, he entered upon a course of study at the Baptist
Seminary, Fredericton, and afterwards took a special course for a time
at the University of New Brunswick. After leaving the university, he
pursued a course in medicine at Harvard University, Cambridge, United
States, and was privileged to sit at the feet of such men as Professor
Agassiz, Jeffries Wyman, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and E. Brown-Sequard, of
Paris, graduating in 1868. He first practised medicine in his native
parish for two years and a half. During this time he was appointed by
the government a coroner for Kings county. He then removed to Fairville,
St. John, N.B., where he has ever since practised his profession. He has
been a member of the Senate of the University of New Brunswick since the
spring of 1883, and a director of the Union Baptist Education Society
since its incorporation. He was one of the promoters of the Dominion
Safety Fund Life Association, filling for a number of years the position
of director, and is now its medical superintendent. He united about
thirty years ago with the Sons of Temperance, and has since belonged to
other temperance organizations, being now a member of the Independent
Order of Good Templars. He was brought up in connection with the
Methodists, but in the year 1858 his views underwent a change, and he
united with the Baptists, and is at present a member of the Fairville
Baptist church. On July 20, 1868, he was married to Elizabeth A.
Babbitt, daughter of Samuel Perry and Phœbe Babbitt, of St. John, N.B.
He has five children—one son and four daughters.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Burns, Rev. Robert Ferrier=, D.D., Pastor of the Fort Massey
Presbyterian church, Halifax, Nova Scotia. This popular minister was
born in Paisley, Scotland, on the 23rd of December, 1826. His father was
Robert Burns, D.D., and his mother, Janet Orr, daughter of the first
provost of Paisley. His mother’s sister, Susan, was mother of Sir
Archibald Orr Ewing, baronet, M.P. for Dumbarton. His father had three
brothers in the ministry of the Church of Scotland,—namely, Rev. James
Burns, who for forty years was minister of the parish of Brechin; Rev.
William H. Burns, D.D., Kilsyth; and Rev. George Burns, D.D., first
Presbyterian minister of St. John, New Brunswick, afterwards of
Tweedsmuir and Corstorphine, Scotland,—and two uncles in the service of
their Sovereign—Major-General Islay Ferrier, the last governor of
Dumbarton castle, and Sir William Hamilton, baronet, who commanded the
marines that pulled the guns up to the Plains of Abraham, in 1759, at
the taking of Quebec. Miss Ferrier, author, and friend of Sir Walter
Scott, was a second cousin. Rev. Dr. Burns, sr., was pastor for
thirty-three years of Dr. Witherspoon’s church (Laigh Kirk and St.
George’s), Paisley, and moved to Toronto in 1845, and became the first
pastor of Knox’s Church in that city, and professor in Knox’s College.
He died at Toronto on the 19th of August, 1869; and his widow on the
22nd of August, 1882. Rev. Dr. Robert Ferrier Burns received his early
education at the High school of Paisley, and then entered the University
of Glasgow, where he remained four years, taking honours in Latin,
Greek, logic, and moral philosophy. He studied theology in the New
College (Free Church), Edinburgh, and Knox’s College, Toronto. In April,
1847, he was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Toronto, and on the
1st of July following he was ordained pastor of Chalmer’s Presbyterian
church, Kingston, Ontario. He was Presbyterian chaplain in the 71st
Highland Light Infantry for a year. He remained in this charge for eight
years, and, during his ministry there, succeeded in having built for his
congregation a handsome church edifice. In July, 1855, he moved to St.
Catharines, and was settled over Knox Presbyterian church of that place.
A fine building was erected by his people for him. Here he ministered
until March, 1867, when he accepted a call from the Scotch Presbyterian
church in Chicago, United States, to become its first pastor, and,
during his residence there of three years, a church was built. In 1866,
the degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Hamilton College, New York.
In April, 1870, he was translated to Côté Street Presbyterian church
(now Crescent street), Montreal, as successor to Principal MacVicar,
where he did good work. On the 18th of March, 1875, he became pastor of
Fort Massey Presbyterian church in Halifax, as successor to the Rev. J.
K. Smith, M.A., now of Galt, who for two years had been first pastor of
this influential congregation. In 1873, Dr. Burns occupied the position
of moderator of the Synod of Montreal, and in 1883 he was moderator of
the Synod of the Maritime provinces. During his residence in Montreal he
was chairman of the Presbyterian College Board; and, for the past twelve
years, has acted as chairman of the Halifax College Board. In 1880 he
was sent as a delegate to the Raikes’ centenary celebration in London,
and during the same year he represented the Assembly of the Presbyterian
Church of Canada in the Presbyterian Council at Philadelphia. In 1884 he
was a delegate from the same church to the council held in Belfast,
Ireland, where he read one of the papers presented to that body, and was
appointed one of its executive committee. This year (1887) the doctor
has been nominated for the moderatorship of the General Assembly of the
Presbyterian Church, which meets in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in June next.
Rev. Dr. Burns takes a great interest in Sunday-school work, and was one
of the first to advocate the establishment of Sunday-school conventions
in Canada, which have done so much of late years to advance this branch
of Christian work. As a platform speaker he stands high, and has often
spoken on subjects, professional and otherwise, before large audiences.
At present he is lecturer on theological themes in the Presbyterian
College at Halifax. As a book-writer, too, he has done his share. His
life of his father, a volume of nearly five hundred pages, published in
Toronto in 1873, soon went through three editions. His other writings,
“Sketch of Abraham Lincoln,” “The Presbyterian Church,” “Modern
Babylon,” “The Maine Law,” “Christian Liberality,” “Confession and
Absolution,” and a variety of sermons and tracts—have all been
favourably received, and commanded a good sale. He has also contributed
largely to the columns of the newspaper press and our periodicals. Dr.
Burns has travelled a good deal, and has visited Great Britain, Ireland,
France, Germany, and various other places in Europe, and is very
familiar with Canada and the United States. He was married on the 1st of
July, 1852, at Belleville, Ontario, to Elizabeth, second daughter of
Rufus Holden, M.D., a much esteemed physician, and elder of the
Presbyterian church, in Belleville. Dr. Burns has eight children—four
sons and four daughters.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Bullock, Joseph=, Oil Merchant, St. John, New Brunswick, is a native of
Springfield, Ohio, and was born on September 6th, 1833. His father was
William Bullock, a native of Staffordshire, England, who came to the
United States a few years prior to the birth of Joseph. His mother’s
maiden name was Ann Clark Peacock, she being of the Yorkshire family of
that ilk. His mother’s parents came out to Ohio about the same time as
Mr. Bullock, sr. Mr. Peacock went there to accept the position of
engineer for the state of Ohio. Joseph Bullock’s parents removed to
Hamilton, Ontario, in the spring of 1834, he then being only a few
months old. Two years later they removed to what is now known as
Bullock’s Corners, near Dundas, the place taking its name from his
father. It was here Mr. Bullock spent his boyhood, and got what
education could in those days be procured in the public school of the
vicinity. On leaving school he helped his father in his business, which,
by the way, was that of lumberman. During the time he was so engaged, he
married when in his 25th year, Elizabeth, daughter of Isaac Duffield, a
farmer of the township of Glanford, South Wentworth. Two years after his
marriage, the lumber business declining, he commenced business as
general store-keeper at Bullock’s Corners, which he continued for about
three years. After this he settled upon a farm he owned in West
Flamboro’, and worked it for two years. His father having died in the
meantime, he left West Flamboro’ and took up his residence at the old
homestead. Here he remained about three years, travelling occasionally
for his brothers-in-law, Duffield Bros., of London, oil refiners. In the
year 1869, Confederation being an accomplished fact, Mr. Bullock removed
to St. John, New Brunswick, to engage in the oil business, which has now
assumed such large proportions. His original intention was to handle
Canadian oil exclusively, but as the years rolled on, American products
had also to be handled, and he is now the largest dealer in oils in the
maritime provinces. In politics, Mr. Bullock is thoroughly independent,
voting more on the character of the man than from purely party motives.
It is, however, in the religious world that Mr. Bullock is most
conspicuous. As a boy he was identified more particularly with the
Church of England, but at the age of about twenty years he became a
member of the Methodist church, of which he is a consistent and earnest
member. Prior to the great fire of 1877, Mr. Bullock was a trustee of
the old German Street Methodist Church, the oldest church in the city,
and after its destruction by that fire, was chairman of the building
committee of the present Queen Square Methodist Church, and of which he
still continues a trustee. It was largely to his energy and liberality
that the erection of this church was due. He is also a member of the
quarterly board of his church, and is one of the board of directors of
the British and Foreign Bible Society for the city of St. John. He is a
total abstainer, and has been for the most of his life, and is
pronounced in favour of the prohibition of the liquor traffic. When Gen.
Booth visited St. John, he was the guest of Mr. Bullock. Mr. Bullock has
had a family of three children, one of whom is deceased, and the
remaining ones, two sons, are associated with him in business.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Binney, Irwine Whitty=, Collector of Customs, Port of Moncton, New
Brunswick, was born on the 10th of July, 1841, at Halifax, Nova Scotia.
He is a son of the late Stephen Binney, who for many years was a leading
merchant in Halifax, and who, when the city was incorporated, was
elected its first mayor. Mr. Binney, sr., acting as mayor, on the
occasion of the birth of the Prince of Wales, visited England, and
presented an address to Her Majesty the Queen, signed by a large number
of the citizens. This gentleman was grandson of the late Hon. Hibbert N.
Binney, who for a period of nearly forty years, filled the office of
collector of customs and excise at Halifax, and was also a member of the
Legislative Council; and great-grandson of the late Hon. Jonathan
Binney, one of the first residents of Halifax, who was a member of the
first Legislative Assembly (1758) of the province. He and Frederick des
Barras met the Indian chiefs at Arichat, New Brunswick, in 1761, and
concluded a lasting peace, and was appointed to the Legislative Council
in 1768; second judge at St. John’s Island (near Prince Edward Island);
and also collector of customs for the island. I. W. Binney, the subject
of this sketch, is brother to William Pryor Binney, Her Britannic
Majesty’s consul at Syra, Greece, and was educated at various schools,
including the Sackville Academy, New Brunswick, receiving a commercial
education. In his younger days he found employment as a clerk in several
commercial houses; and from 1861 to 1864, he was in the old established
and well known lumber firm of Gilmour, Rankin & Co., Miramichi, New
Brunswick. He also carried on a wholesale business at Chatham, New
Brunswick, for a few years, and afterwards engaged in mining operations
in Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, in company with the late Sir A. J. Smith
and others. He was appointed a clerk in Her Majesty’s customs in 1874,
and promoted to the collectorship at the port of Moncton, New Brunswick,
in 1883. He joined the Freemasons in 1862; was made a Royal-Arch-Mason
in 1866, and Knight Templar in 1870. At present he is a past master of
Keith lodge of Moncton, New Brunswick. He is an Episcopalian in his
religious views. Mr. Binney’s father moved to Moncton, New Brunswick,
from Halifax, in 1845, and died there in 1872. Mr. Binney is unmarried,
and his mother and widowed sister reside with him.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Berthelot, Hon. Joseph Amable=, Judge of the Superior Court of
Montreal. This learned judge was born on the 8th of May, 1815, at St.
Eustache, county of Two Mountains, by the marriage of Joseph Amable
Berthelot, notary, and Dame Marie M. Hervieux. Mr. Berthelot’s father
was from Quebec, where he finished his classical studies in 1796, having
been the classmate of the late Hon. Judge Thomas Taschereau, the father
of his eminence the Cardinal, and also that of the late Hon. Judge
Vanfelson, who died in Montreal. Judge Berthelot began his Latin course
in 1824, and finished it on the 9th of June, 1832, when at the age of
seventeen. The course that year was suddenly terminated, on account of
the cholera, the professors having deemed it prudent to send back the
scholars to their families in the month of June. In the month of October
of the same year he began his legal studies, being indentured with the
late Hon. Sir. L. H. Lafontaine, who had married his cousin in 1830. Sir
George E. Cartier, who was his classmate at college, also commenced
studying law in 1832, in the office of the late Etienne E. Rodier,
advocate, M.P.P. for the county of l’Assomption. After being admitted to
the bar in November, 1836, he became the partner of Mr. Lafontaine, and
continued to practise his profession in such partnership until July,
1853, when Mr. Lafontaine was appointed chief justice of the province of
Lower Canada on the demise of the late Sir James Stuart. A few days
after, Mr. Berthelot entered into partnership with his friend, the late
Sir George E. Cartier, and continued this partnership until he was
appointed assistant judge of the Superior Court, succeeding the late
Hon. C. D. Day, who was appointed codifier in February, 1859. On Justice
Day’s resignation having been accepted by the government, in 1860, Judge
Berthelot was immediately appointed permanent judge of the Superior
Court. On this occasion, in December, 1860, the bar of Montreal held a
meeting in order to express publicly their satisfaction of the
appointment of Judge Berthelot to the bench, and adopted resolutions,
copies of which were transmitted to the judge, and also published in the
newspapers of the day, amongst others in _La Minerve_. These resolutions
read as follow:

    At a special meeting of the members of the bar of Lower Canada
    section of this district, which was held on Wednesday, the 12th
    of December instant, it was unanimously resolved:

    1. Moved by Henry Stuart, seconded by Gédéon Ouimet, M.P.P.,
    That the bar of Montreal has seen with real pleasure the
    promotion of the Honourable J. A. Berthelot, whose talents, high
    sense of honour, integrity, conscientious work and services
    already rendered as assistant judge, are a sure guarantee of the
    faithfulness with which he will fulfil the difficult duties of
    the new office which he has just entered as permanent judge of
    the Superior Court.

    2. Moved by Andrew Robertson, seconded by C. A. Leblanc, That as
    citizens, and with due regard to public interest, the barristers
    of Montreal cheerfully greet the appointment of Mr. Justice
    Berthelot, and as his _confrères_, they are highly honoured as a
    body by this new appointment.

    3. Moved by the Honourable T. J. J. Loranger, seconded by J. C.
    Daly, That copies of the foregoing resolutions be transmitted by
    the _bâtonnier_ and secretary to Mr. Justice Berthelot, and that
    the secretary be authorized to publish them in the city papers.

          (Signed)         ROBERT MACKAY, _Bâtonnier_,

          (Signed)         MEDERIC MARCHAND, _Secretary_.

The French paper, _L’Ordre_, made the following comments on the
foregoing resolutions:

    We have already fully expressed our opinion on this subject, and
    to-day we are happy to see the bar of Montreal confirming our
    appreciation of this appointment.

During the time that Mr. Berthelot practised at the bar, his _confrères_
elected him twice to the dignity of _bâtonnier_, in 1858 and 1859.
Whilst he exercised his duties of judge in Montreal, in the space of
fifteen years, he was called upon to perform the same duties of judge at
Ste. Scholastique, district of Terrebonne. In February, 1872, he was
invited by the members of the bar of that district, numbering seventeen,
to a complimentary public dinner by the following resolutions, which
were then published in the press:

    At the meeting of the bar of the district of Terrebonne, held at
    Ste. Scholastique on the 7th of February, 1872, it was resolved:

    1. Moved by J. H. Filion, seconded by Mr. Boisseau, that Mr.
    Burroughs be appointed chairman, and Mr. Rochon be requested to
    act as secretary.

    2. Moved by Mr. Wilfrid Prévost, seconded by J. A. H. Mackay,
    That a public dinner be given to the Hon. J. A. Berthelot, by
    the bar of the district of Terrebonne, as an acknowledgment of
    our esteem and respect for his honour.

    3. Moved by J. A. H. Mackay, seconded by J. H. Filion, That the
    chairman and Mr. Wilfrid Prévost be delegated to interview his
    honour, and express the desire of the bar to give him a dinner,
    and in order that he may fix the date that he will find
    convenient.

          (Signed)         C. S. BURROUGHS, _Chairman_,

          (Signed)         A. ROCHON, _Secretary_.

Judge Berthelot regretted that he could not accept a demonstration which
would be so creditable for himself from the bar of the district of
Terrebonne, being on the eve of sailing for Europe, during a leave of
absence which had been granted to him by the Government for recuperating
his health, which was slightly impaired by his strict attendance to his
judicial duties. Before his appointment to the bench in 1859, he had
been called upon to fulfil the office of assistant judge in Montreal for
six months, in 1855 and 1856, during which time the judges of the
province had to act as such during the sittings of the Seignorial Court
for Lower Canada. On the 28th of November, 1875, his Lordship Archbishop
Bourget, intimated to Judge Berthelot that he had just received from
Rome a letter from his Excellency Monsignor Roncetti, Ablegate,
informing him that His Holiness Pius IX. had been pleased to appoint him
Commander of the Order of St. Sylvestre, by an apostolical writ, dated
the 24th of September then last, enclosed with the Ablegate’s letter,
adding that His Holiness had been so kind and so generous that through
the agency of His Eminence Cardinal Antonelli, he had consented to give
to Mr. Berthelot himself the decoration of the Commandery of the Order
of St. Sylvestre, which he had confided to the care of Mr. Harel,
procurator of the archbishop. The newspaper _Le Monde_, of Paris,
France, on the 28th of December, 1875, noticed this honour granted to
Judge Berthelot in the following terms:

    We do not doubt that the appointment of Judge Berthelot will be
    hailed with pleasure by the numerous friends that he has in
    France, who have had occasion to appreciate, during his several
    visits to our continent, how he was worthy in all respects, of
    the high distinction which had been conferred upon him.

His Excellency, Monsignor Roncetti, in a letter bearing date of
February, 1876, wrote as follows to Judge Berthelot:

    MY DEAR AND HONOURED COMMANDER,—With your very kind letter of
    the 20th of January, for which I am very thankful, I have also
    received, through the agency of Mr. Harel, your letter for his
    Eminence Cardinal Antonelli, who entrusted me with his answer,
    which you will find herewith:—In renewing my sincere
    congratulations, I beg to present my homage to the most
    excellent lady, Madame Berthelot, to your dear children, and to
    accept at the same time the assurance of my most perfect esteem
    and profound respect. Expecting with the greatest impatience the
    day when I will see you in Rome, I have the honour to be, my
    dear and honoured Commander,

                            Your most humble and devoted servant,
                                                    CESAR RONCETTI.

In the same month of February, 1876, Judge Berthelot was in receipt of a
letter from his Eminence, Cardinal Antonelli, in Italian, which read as
follows:

    ILLUSTRISSIME SIGNOR,—I have presented, with great pleasure, to
    the Holy Father the expressions of gratitude which your
    illustrissime lordship has given me in his letter of the 20th of
    January last, because our Holy Father had conferred upon you the
    Commandership of St. Sylvestre, which you acknowledged to be
    entirely due to the apostolic benevolence. His Holiness was
    raptured when he saw these expressions of veneration and love
    for his venerable person, and could not refrain from answering
    to them by words of gratitude, and by giving you, from the
    bottom of his heart, his apostolic benediction. Having thus
    accomplished the wishes which you expressed to me, I have the
    honour to be, your illustrissime lordship,

                                                  Yours,
                                            Sec. GIACOMO ANTONELLI.

The following particulars about the knighthood are found in the
supplement of “Bouillet’s Dictionary,” page 42:

                       ORDER OF THE GOLDEN SPUR.

    A Roman order founded by Paul III., in 1554, or by Pius IV. in
    1559, has been established, according to some writers, by
    Constantinus, as far back as 312, to commemorate his victory
    over Maxencius, and approved since then by the Pope St.
    Sylvestre. Its object was to reward civil merit, admitting only
    noblemen; it could also be conferred on foreigners. Some
    princely families of Rome and a few high dignitaries could
    confer the order, which soon occasioned serious errors. Gregory
    XVI. reformed the order in 1841, and gave the name of St.
    Sylvestre, or the Reformed Golden Spur. The knights wore a
    golden cross with eight points, and white enamelled, showing the
    portrait of St. Sylvestre. It is worn with a ribbon striped red
    and black; between, the branches of the cross hangs a golden
    spur. Before the Reformation, when England was Catholic, and
    when the relations of that country with the court of Rome were
    uninterrupted, as soon as a chief justice of the Court of King’s
    Bench, was appointed, the writ of commandership of the order of
    St. Sylvestre was forwarded to him by the Pope, and he wore on
    his chain of office the letters S. S. Since England has become
    Protestant, the writ is not sent to that country; nevertheless,
    when a new chief justice is appointed, and when he orders at the
    court goldsmith the chain of office which he wears on his neck,
    he receives it still with the same initials S.S., as in olden
    times.

This fact is warranted by photographs of Chief Justices Bovill and
Campbell, which Judge Berthelot has in his possession, and which were
given him by his friend, Judge Mackay. In a legal review, entitled
_Albany Law Journal_ for 1874, in the issue of the 8th of August, we
find an article headed, “Article on Campbell’s Lives of Chief Justices,”
with the following comments:

    And while there were among the wearers of the collar of S. S.,
    men whose lives are neither helpful nor inspiring, there were
    many of whom it is good to read.

In Canada the first person who received a writ of commandership of St.
Sylvestre, was the late Sir L. H. Lafontaine, chief justice, in the year
1853. Judge Berthelot was appointed in 1875, as above mentioned. In
1876, after eighteen years of judicial services, he asked and obtained
his superannuation, and on this occasion the _Montreal Gazette_, of the
28th of August, 1876, published the following:

    The Ottawa Government has at last come to a determination which
    enables it to accept the resignation of Mr. Justice Berthelot.
    Nearly a year has elapsed since it was generally understood that
    Mr. Justice Berthelot desired to obtain that relaxation from
    judicial duties to which twenty years service had fairly
    entitled him, but as our readers are aware, ministers were
    seriously embarrassed in the disposal of this piece of
    patronage, and the learned judge was requested to defer his
    proposed relinquishment of official duties. Before reference is
    made to his successor, it is but justice to say a word or two
    respecting Hon. Judge Berthelot. If the hon. judge has not
    obtained the first rank of judicial fame, no one will venture to
    deny that he has occupied a most honourable position on the
    bench of this province, or that his services have been of a
    highly beneficial character. It were scant justice to say that
    his character has been constantly honourable, his impartiality
    unchallenged, and his intelligence of the most vigorous type.
    Laborious without complaining, diligent without ostentation, Mr.
    Justice Berthelot has never proved unequal to the arduous
    demands of his position. His knowledge of real estate and
    insurance law, extensive and profound, and his decisions upon
    these, as well as many other branches of the law, were received
    with the utmost respect and confidence. In determination of
    cases in which juries are more or less liable to be influenced
    by sympathy for the sufferers, he did not hesitate to adhere to
    those leading principles which have been consecrated by time and
    experience, in preference to yielding to impulses which might
    create a dangerous precedent. In fine, Mr. Justice Berthelot’s
    judicial career has been conscientious, able and upright, and
    entitles him to the gratitude of his countrymen.

_Le Nouveau-Monde_, on 29th of August, 1876, reprinting the above
article from the _Gazette_, accompanied it with the following remarks:

    This testimony is corroborated by all those who had occasion to
    appreciate personally the talents, the carefulness, the
    integrity, and the knowledge displayed by this hon. judge in the
    exercise of his judicial duties. Some of his decisions in cases
    of the highest importance fully demonstrated the fact, that he
    was imbued with a sound judgment and a knowledge of
    jurisprudence and statutory laws sufficient to make his
    reputation and authority cope with that of the most
    distinguished judges who have illustrated our Canadian bench.
    Liberated from the toils and fatigues of the important position
    which he has just vacated, Judge Berthelot, we hope, will not
    withdraw entirely from public life, and the population of this
    province could still benefit by his great experience, his
    serious studies, and his deep knowledge of men and things, which
    he has acquired during more than twenty years on the bench.

Judge Berthelot has since remained in private life, without an occasion
to make himself useful to his country. Whilst he was practising at the
bar, he had been often requested to enter parliament by several counties
of the district of Montreal, and in 1858, when the division of Alma was
to elect its first representative in the Legislative Council, he had
been requested to be a candidate by a great number of the citizens of
the division, one of the two candidates at that time being willing to
withdraw in his favour if he accepted the candidature. But Mr. Berthelot
had always refused, in order that his partners and friends, Sir L. H.
Lafontaine and Sir George E. Cartier, be not deprived of the services he
was rendering them, while these statesmen were engaged in political
life, with so much credit to themselves and satisfaction for the
country. Mr. Berthelot since that time has travelled several times in
England, France and Italy, where he has made several friends, with whom
he still keeps an active correspondence. In conclusion, we may say that
during the second rebellion, in November, 1838, Mr. Berthelot was
arrested and sent to gaol without cause or warrant, with many of the
best citizens of Montreal, viz., Messieurs Lafontaine, the two Messieurs
Viger, M. Papineau, a brother of the speaker, Dr. Lusignan, Mr. Fabre,
Mr. DeBoucherville, sr., Amable Badeaux, his cousin, and his young
friend Dr. Perreault. The latter was soon let free to attend his young
wife. Mr. Berthelot, having inquired, by a letter addressed to Colonel
Goldie, secretary of his Excellency the Governor, Sir John Colborne, for
the cause of his arrest, expressing by his letter his readiness to be
brought to trial, received no written answer, but a few days after was
invited to leave the gaol and go to his home. At the same time he had
also written to the late Andrew Stuart, solicitor-general, residing at
Montreal, with whom he was well acquainted, representing in proper terms
against his unjust detention, and always thought that he owed much to
the interest of Mr. Stuart for his immediate release. Of Mr. Stuart, the
solicitor-general, much can be said; that he was at least equal, if not
superior to his brother, the late Sir James Stuart, chief justice of
Quebec.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=MacLeod, Rev. John M.=, Presbyterian minister of Zion church,
Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. This greatly respected divine was
born at the West River of Pictou, in the province of Nova Scotia, on the
25th of August, 1827. His father, Ebenezer MacLeod, was also a native of
the West River of Pictou. He was a man of fair education, of sound
judgment, of extensive information, and of deep and fervent piety. He
was for many years an elder in the congregation of Salem, Green Hill,
and was secretary of what is claimed to have been the first temperance
society in this Dominion. His parents were from Scotland. He was married
to Barbara Benvie, daughter of James Benvie, of Musquodoboit, and died
in the 82nd year of his age. The subject of this brief sketch, having
received a good English education in the common schools of the country,
entered a printing office in the town of Pictou, and served a regular
apprenticeship to the printing business. He, however, in compliance with
the earnest wish of his parents, resumed his studies with a view to the
ministry. He entered the Pictou Academy, where for two years he studied
Latin, Greek, natural philosophy, and mathematics, under Professors Bell
and Hay. About this time the Presbyterian church of Nova Scotia, for the
purpose of training a native ministry, opened what was known as the West
River Seminary, the head teacher of which was the Rev. James Ross, D.D.,
afterwards principal of Dalhousie College, Halifax. Mr. MacLeod was one
of twelve students who entered the first year this institution was
opened. Here he took the regular arts course of four years, and studied
theology three years under Rev. John Keir, D.D., and Rev. James Smith,
D.D. He was licensed in the spring of 1853, was called to the
congregation of Richmond Bay during the following summer, and after
taking another term in the Theological Hall, was ordained and inducted
into the pastoral charge of the above named congregation on the 9th
Nov., 1854, where he laboured with much success for nearly seven years.
During the fourth year of his ministry he was married to Amelia Parker,
daughter of Francis R. Parker, of Nova Scotia, who for many years was a
member of the Provincial legislature. He was married to his present
wife, Mrs. L. G. Taylor, in 1879. In 1860 Rev. Mr. MacLeod accepted a
call to Newport, Hants county, Nova Scotia, where he continued to labour
with acceptance and success for ten years. While in Newport he declined
a call to Boston, Massachusetts, and in 1870 accepted one to New
Glasgow, Pictou, Nova Scotia. But there being at this time four
Presbyterian congregations in the small town of New Glasgow, and Rev.
Mr. MacLeod, believing that his labours were more required elsewhere,
accepted a call to his present charge, into which he was inducted on the
19th of July, 1871. His labours in this field have been crowned with a
fair measure of success. On two different occasions additions of over
one hundred and twenty, mostly young persons, were made to the communion
roll. Mr. MacLeod is at present clerk of the presbytery. He has held
that position for twenty-one years in the Presbytery of Prince Edward
Island, and for seven years in the Presbytery of Halifax, Nova Scotia.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Sifton, Hon. John Wright=, Brandon, Manitoba, was born in the township
of London, county of Middlesex, Ontario, on the 10th August, 1833. He is
the youngest son of Bamlet and Mary Sifton, who came from the county of
Tipperary, Ireland, in 1832, and settled in London township. His
ancestors on both sides were English. He received his education in the
public and grammar schools of London. Up until 1860 he devoted his time
to farming and other business, when he removed to Oil Springs, in
Lambton county, and engaged in the oil business as producer and refiner.
Here he purchased a large tract of oil lands immediately surrounding the
famous gum beds, and afterwards sold them to an American company. This
was the first foreign company that invested in Canadian oil property,
and they continued to develop the resources of their territory until the
enormous yield of oil at Petrolia made it impossible for them to
successfully compete with this more productive locality. In 1870, Mr.
Sifton removed to Paris, Brant county, with the object of having his
children educated at the grammar school there; and in 1872, in company
with his brother, contracted for and built forty miles of the track of
the Canada Southern Railway. In 1873, he moved to London, and was
appointed secretary of the Oil Association, and this office he held
until the association ceased operations. In 1874, in company with two
other gentlemen, whose interests he soon after bought out, he was
awarded the contract for building and maintaining for five years a
telegraph line from the city of Winnipeg to Fort Pelley, and clearing
the track a hundred feet wide, for a distance of about three hundred
miles, for the then contemplated Canadian Pacific Railway. Although this
contract, when it was entered into, appeared to be one likely to give a
fair profit, yet it afterwards turned out the opposite way. The fearful
wet seasons of 1876, ’77, and ’78, flooded the country for forty miles
east of Lake Manitoba, and sixty miles west along the line to, in some
places, a depth of six feet, making it impossible to keep the line up,
and as the Government refused to make any allowance for this, the loss
was very great. Some idea may be formed of the difficulty of performing
work in this country at that time, when we state that, one winter,
provisions having ran out at one of Mr. Sifton’s camps, he had to send
supplies by dog-trains 160 miles, and then have it carried on men’s
backs, 60 miles further, making it to cost twelve cents per pound
freight from Winnipeg to the camp, and at no time during the best part
of the season could he deliver the same goods at their destination for
less than five cents per pound freight. In 1875, the firm of Sifton,
Ward & Co. were awarded the contracts for sections thirteen and fourteen
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and Mr. Sifton, the senior member of
the firm, undertook charge of section fourteen, which commenced at Red
River, and extended a distance of seventy-seven miles to Cross Lake.
During this time he removed to Manitoba, settling at Selkirk, and here
he remained until the completion of his telegraph and railroad
contracts. The money involved in these two operations amounted to about
a million and a half dollars. In 1879, he took up his abode in Winnipeg,
where he purchased some real estate outside the city limits, and erected
for himself a fine residence. Taking advantage of the “boom of 1881,” he
sold out this property and moved to Brandon, where he now resides. Here
he has invested a considerable sum of money in farming lands, and for
four years succeeded in raising in each year from 10,000 to 18,000
bushels of grain. But the years of frost (1883, ’84, ’85) having made
the raising of wheat or grain in large quantities a risky business, and
the collapse in values of all kinds of property, especially real estate,
have forced Mr. Sifton to suspend business operations in this direction
for the present. However, from his experience of over twelve years in
the North-West country, and a thorough practical knowledge of farming,
he thinks that although extensive farming has been in the past, and may
prove in the future from certain causes, a failure, when compared with
Ontario, yet he is impressed with the idea that it cannot be equalled on
this continent for fertility; always providing, however, that the
present hindrances to its prosperity be removed. What Mr. Sifton wants
for his country is fair competition in freights; the abolition of all
monopoly; readjustment of our present tariff, so that it may have the
same chance as Ontario; a reasonable homestead law that will not be
changed every year, and pre-emptions at such a price that the settler
can meet it in a reasonable time. If these concessions were made, he
thinks the North-West would make such strides onward that the most
sanguine of us would fail to realize. Mr. Sifton, during his busy life,
has devoted time to other things besides purely business matters. In
1852, he became a member of the Order of the Sons of Temperance, and in
1854, he also joined the Good Templars, and has kept up his connection
with these active temperance organizations to the present time. In 1867,
he became one of the United Templars, and from 1876 to 1883 he acted in
the capacity of president of their Grand Lodge in Manitoba. He was grand
worthy chief templar of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba of the Independent
Order of Good Templars in 1884, and is at present president of the
Manitoban Branch of the Dominion Alliance for the suppression of the
liquor traffic, and has been since its formation in 1879. He took the
leading part in the contest for the Scott Act, when it was passed in the
counties of Lisgar and Marquette. These counties extend over about three
quarters of the old province of Manitoba. The act was carried by very
large majorities,—more than two to one voting in its favour; but on
account of the vagueness of the meaning of some of its provisions in
reference to counties in Manitoba, and the impossibility of getting it
amended, it still remains a dead letter. In politics, Mr. Sifton is a
Liberal. In 1878, he received the unanimous nomination of the Liberal
party for the Commons for the county of Lisgar, and organized and
carried on the campaign up to the memorable day, the 17th of September,
1878. The 18th being nomination day in Manitoba, and the news reaching
there of the defeat of the Mackenzie government, his committee had a
hurried meeting on the morning before nomination, and decided that it
would be better for the county if he would withdraw, and allow a
supporter of the Macdonald government to be elected by acclamation, and
this he consented to do. In the fall of the same year he received the
nomination for the Local House for the electoral division of St.
Clemens, and was elected by a large majority, and on the assembling of
the house he was elected speaker. During the sitting of this parliament
a redistribution bill was passed, giving the new settlers something like
fair representation, which they had not hitherto enjoyed. At the next
general election he ran for one of the new electoral divisions, and was
defeated. In 1881, when the province was enlarged, he ran for the
division of Brandon and was elected. In the general election of 1883 he
was defeated; and again at the last general election for the division of
West Brandon he met the same fate by a small majority. Mr. Sifton was
reeve of Oil Springs and a member of the County council of Lambton
during the years 1867, ’68 and ’69. He was chairman of the school board
of same place in 1868-69, and was reeve of the municipality of
Cornwallis for 1885-86, but declined the nomination in 1887. He has been
a justice of the peace for the province since 1875. He has travelled
over the whole of the Dominion of Canada, and is familiar with all parts
of the United States north and south, and as far west as Omaha. Mr.
Sifton is a member of the Methodist church from choice. Before the union
he was a Wesleyan Methodist, and since then his opinions have not
changed much on religious subjects, except that he has more confidence
in those who differ from him in church affairs than he had in his
younger days, and now has a greater love for and confidence in the
teachings and doctrines of the church of his choice. He was a member of
the General conference of 1882, and a member of the committee appointed
by that conference to confer with committees appointed by other branches
of the Methodist church on union. He was strongly in favour of union,
and was a member of the conference held in Belleville when the union was
consummated. At the conference in 1882, he took the leading part in
having Manitoba and the North-West set apart as a separate annual
conference, which was agreed to at that conference. He was also a member
of the General conference held in Toronto in 1886. He is now a member of
the general board of missions of the Methodist church, and has been a
member of the local board of missions in the Manitoba and the North-West
conference since its formation. He has also been a member of Manitoba
and North-West annual conference since the admission of laymen, and is
president of the Brandon branch of the Upper Canada Bible Society. He
has always been actively engaged in Sabbath school and church work, and
is superintendent of the Brandon Sabbath-school. And as for temperance
work, he has spent much time and labour in this direction, and has
spoken in almost every section of the country on the subject. He was
married 1st October, 1853, to Kate, third daughter of James and Sarah
Watkins, of Parsonstown, King’s county, Ireland, and has three children
living. His oldest and only daughter, Sophia, was educated at Hamilton
Female College, and is married to A. N. Molesworth, civil engineer, now
construction engineer for the St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba
Railway Co. His oldest son, Arthur Lewis, graduated from Cobourg
University in arts, studied law in Manitoba, was called to the bar in
1882, and is now practising law in Prince Albert. His youngest son,
Clifford, graduated from Cobourg, and is a gold medallist; he studied
law in Manitoba, was called to the bar in 1882 in his twenty-second
year, and is now practising law at Brandon.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Armstrong, Rev. W. D.=, M.A., Ph. D., Pastor of St. Paul’s
(Presbyterian) Church, Ottawa, Ontario, was born at Cavan, Durham
county, Ontario, on the 28th of July, 1845, and is the son of John D.
Armstrong, yeoman, of that place. After a preliminary education in the
schools of his native place, he entered Upper Canada College, and soon
attained to a front place in his classes. At the close of his term he
carried off the Governor-General’s prize, and the classical, the
mathematical, and modern language prizes. He then entered the Toronto
University, and graduated from that institution in 1870, the silver
medallist in metaphysics and ethics, and prizeman in Hebrew, Chaldee and
Syriac. During his course in the university he also obtained a number of
scholarships and prizes in various departments. After leaving Toronto
University he took a course in theology in Knox (Presbyterian) College,
Toronto, where he likewise distinguished himself. On the 14th of May,
1874, he was ordained pastor of his present charge, and has continued
ever since (with one short break, when he was sent to Great Britain in
1883 for a few months, in the interest of the French Canadian missions),
as the faithful exponent of Christ’s message of love to the world,
greatly appreciated and esteemed by his congregation. In 1886, the
Boston University conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Rev. Dr. Armstrong has a strong liking for literature, and amidst his
various arduous parish cares and duties, has found time to contribute a
good many articles to the newspaper press, and publish several sermons.
On the 29th of September, 1886, he married Jean W., daughter of Henry J.
Johnston, of Montreal, a very accomplished lady, and one who has proved
a true helper to him as minister of a large congregation.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Guthrie, Donald=, Q.C., M.P.P. for South Wellington, Guelph, Ontario,
was born on the 8th May, 1840, in Edinburgh, Scotland. His father was
Hugh Guthrie, and his mother, Catharine Macgregor, sister of Patrick
Macgregor, M.A., barrister-at-law, Toronto, a distinguished Gaelic and
general scholar. Mr. Guthrie received his early education in his native
city, and, when about fourteen years of age, he left his fatherland. He
reached Toronto in August, 1854. Here he entered the office of the Hon.
Oliver Mowat, as a junior clerk; and afterwards became managing clerk
for John Helliwell, barrister. In 1859 he left Toronto and settled in
Guelph as managing clerk for Fergusson & Kingsmill, barristers. The Hon.
Fergusson-Blair, one of the partners of the firm, having retired in
December, 1863, Mr. Guthrie was admitted into partnership, and the name
of the firm was changed to Kingsmill and Guthrie. Under this style the
business was carried on until Mr. Kingsmill was appointed judge of the
County Court of Bruce, in January, 1867, when Mr. Guthrie became head of
the firm, and has continued such ever since, the firm now being known as
Guthrie and Watt. Mr. Guthrie was admitted an attorney in 1863;
barrister in 1866, passing his examinations with distinction; and, in
March, 1876, was created a Queen’s counsel by the Lieut.-Governor of
Ontario, and by the Governor-General of Canada, October, 1885. In
December, 1882, he was elected a bencher of the Law Society, and was
re-elected for five years in April, 1886. Since 1863 he has been
solicitor for the county of Wellington, and also for the same period he
has been solicitor for the city of Guelph, and acts in this capacity for
several other municipalities, banks, etc. He has been president of the
Guelph Gas Company since its incorporation in 1870; is a director of the
Guelph Junction Railway Company, and of the Wellington Hotel Company. He
occupied the position of treasurer of the St. Andrew’s Society of
Guelph, from 1862 to 1869, and in 1870 was chosen its president. Mr.
Guthrie was elected a member of the House of Commons in 1876, as
representative for South Wellington, and served until the general
election in 1878, when he presented himself for re-election, and was
returned by 303 majority. He continued in the House of Commons until the
general election of 1882, when he voluntarily retired from active
political life, with the view of devoting his whole attention for some
years to his professional duties. However, in 1886, he once more sought
parliamentary honours, and the sturdy Liberals of South Wellington sent
him to the Ontario legislature as their representative on the 28th of
December in the same year, by the handsome majority of 671. Mr. Guthrie
was selected in February, 1877, to move the reply to the speech from the
throne in the House of Commons; and on the 2nd March, 1887, he moved the
reply to the Lieut.-Governor’s address in the Ontario legislature. While
in the House of Commons—1876-78—Mr. Guthrie was a supporter of Mr.
Mackenzie’s government, and was an active member of the special
committee appointed to inquire into the affairs of the Northern Railway
Company. This committee sat for several weeks, took an immense mass of
evidence, and made an exhaustive report, which enabled the government to
secure from the railway company a large sum in place of moneys
improperly expended in elections, etc. Mr. Guthrie was also an active
member of the Committee of Privileges and Elections at the time when it
investigated the charges against Mr. Speaker Anglin, and other members,
for alleged breaches of the Independence of Parliament Act. After the
defeat of Mr. Mackenzie’s government in 1878, Mr. Guthrie, with his
political friends, went into opposition. He actively opposed the new
government on the tariff, the Letellier matter, the Canadian Pacific
Railway contract, the disallowance of the Streams Bill, the Gerrymander
Act, etc. Mr. Guthrie is a member of the Presbyterian church. On the
17th of December, 1863, he was married in Montreal to Eliza Margaret
MacVicar, youngest daughter of John MacVicar, formerly of Dunglass,
Argyleshire, Scotland, and latterly of Chatham, Ontario. Mrs. Guthrie is
a sister of the Rev. D. H. MacVicar, D.D., LL.D., principal of the
Presbyterian College, Montreal, and of the Rev. Dr. Malcolm MacVicar,
professor of theology in the Toronto Baptist College (McMaster Hall),
Toronto.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Hinson, Rev. Walter=, Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Moncton, New
Brunswick, was born at Chesham, England, on the 14th of May, 1858, and
came to Canada in 1879. His father, Thomas Hinson, and mother, Mary
Benwell, are both alive, and are residing in Hertfordshire, Eng.; he has
a brother and sister in London. Rev. Mr. Hinson was educated at Hulme
Cliff College in Derbyshire, and Harley House, East London, England. He
studied for the ministry, and was ordained in 1880. He is a member of
the Eastern New Brunswick Baptist Association, and the church of which
he is pastor is one of the most important centres of religious activity
in the district. It has a membership of between six and seven hundred,
and over four hundred scholars in its Sunday-school. For general
benevolence and Christian aggressiveness its record is good. Rev. Mr.
Hinson has always been a total abstainer, and from early youth connected
with temperance societies. He is at present a member of the Moncton
Division, Sons of Temperance, and is considered one of the most
aggressive of the temperance army in New Brunswick. Mr. Hinson was
brought up among the Baptists, and very naturally feels greatly at home
in, and is one of the leading lights of, the denomination. In the pulpit
he possesses a peculiar power, his manner and matter being forcible and
original, and we have no doubt there is a great future of usefulness
before this young and rising divine. He was married in July, 1886, to
Jennie A. Austin, of Herts, England.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Allison, Charles F.=—The late Charles F. Allison, of Sackville, New
Brunswick, who was born on the 25th of January, 1795, and died the 20th
of November, 1858, at the age of sixty-three years, was the second son
of James Allison, whose father, Joseph Allison, of Newton Limavady,
county of Londonderry, Ireland, emigrated to Nova Scotia in 1769, and
settled at Horton, Kings county, where he continued to reside until his
death in 1794. James Allison married and settled at Cornwallis, where he
lived and died at the ripe age of ninety years. Here Charles F. was
born, and received his education at the Grammar school, and in 1812
moved to Parrsboro’, where he found employment as a clerk in the
establishment of James Ratchford until 1817, when he went to Sackville,
New Brunswick, and entered into partnership with the late Hon. William
Crane, in a general mercantile business, and in this he continued until
1840. On the 4th of January, 1839, Mr. Allison addressed a letter to the
chairman of the New Brunswick district of Wesleyan ministers, in which
he proposed “to purchase an eligible site and erect suitable buildings
in Sackville, in the county of Westmoreland, for the establishment of a
school, in which not only the elementary, but the _higher_ branches of
education may be taught, and to be altogether under the management and
control of the British conference in connection with the Wesleyan
missionaries in these provinces;” and he proposed to give £100 ($400)
per annum for ten years towards the support of the school. This generous
offer having been accepted, he made arrangements to proceed with the
erection of a suitable edifice for the academy—the corner-stone of
which was laid on the 9th of July, 1840, and from that time to the close
of his life in 1858, he devoted a large share of his time and business
talent to watching over and promoting the financial interests of the
educational enterprise which, under his fostering care, developed
wonderfully. In addition to the $20,000 which he had given to establish
the older branch of the institution, he gave $4,000 to aid in the
erection of the ladies’ branch, which was opened in 1854; and in his
will he left $2,000 for the academies, and $1,000 for the college
whenever it should be organized. So that of the moderate fortune which
he had accumulated before retiring from mercantile life in 1840, at
least $30,000 were employed in founding and establishing the educational
institutions which bear his name, and which stand as the enduring
monument of the far-seeing wisdom and liberality of this unselfish
Christian patriot. Mr. Allison was married to Milcah, daughter of John
and Anne Trueman, on June 23rd, 1840. Mrs. Allison survived him, but
died on the 14th of June, 1884. Mary, their only child, was born 1st
Sept., 1847, and died 1st Jan., 1871. At the date of Mr. Allison’s
demise, _The Borderer_, a local weekly paper, thus kindly alluded to
him:

    “Our sheet this week appears in mourning, because we are called
    to record the death of one whose removal is indeed a public
    loss, and one, too, of no ordinary magnitude. Almost every
    individual in our community feels the death of Charles F.
    Allison as a public bereavement. But far beyond the circle of
    personal acquaintanceship, everywhere throughout the lower
    British American colonies, Mr. Allison’s name has been known and
    his influence felt, as the most munificent public benefactor who
    has yet arisen in these provinces, to bless his country and
    benefit the world. Mr. Allison was a native of Cornwallis, Nova
    Scotia, but came to this place when a young man, and here
    carried on, in connection with his partner, the late Hon. Wm.
    Crane, an extensive business until 1840. In all his business
    transactions he was remarkable for diligence, promptitude,
    punctuality, and rigid honesty. He did not make haste to be rich
    by embarking in any rash speculation, being, doubtlessly, more
    inclined to the _safe_ than to the _rapid_ mode of acquiring
    wealth. He was, however, quite successful, so that when he was
    led, many years since, to the more earnest consideration of the
    fundamental doctrine of the Christian system of practical
    ethics, ‘_Ye are not your own, but bought with a price_,’ etc.,
    he found himself in possession of a considerable amount of
    property, of which he evidently, thenceforward to the end of his
    life, considered himself but the steward; and as such he was
    eminently wise and faithful, so that, we doubt not, he has been
    greeted by his Divine Master with the commendation, ‘_Well done,
    good and faithful servant._’ A large portion of the last
    eighteen or twenty years of his life was most unostentatiously
    employed in various works altogether unselfish. The noble
    educational institutions which he founded, and which he has so
    largely helped to build up to their present state of pre-eminent
    usefulness, have occupied a great deal of his time and
    attention, for he not only cheerfully paid six thousand pounds
    and upwards to ensure their establishment, but without fee or
    reward discharged the onerous duty of treasurer, and watched and
    labored with parental kindness, solicitude and devotion, to
    promote their prosperity. These, we believe, will long stand,
    monuments of the wisdom as well as of the benevolence of the
    Christian patriot and philanthropist. We have not room to
    enlarge upon the modesty, gentleness, affability, and other
    traits of character which so endeared him to all who had the
    privilege of his personal acquaintance. Nor yet can we speak of
    the many ways in which his quiet influence will be so much
    missed in our neighborhood. ‘_He rests from his labors, and his
    works do follow him._’”

In _The Provincial Wesleyan_, of the same week, published at Halifax,
Nova Scotia, a similar notice of Mr. Allison’s death appeared, in which
the writer said:

    “He was a benefactor to his race, a blessing to his country, an
    ornament to the age in which he lived. He lived not for himself,
    but for his generation and for generations yet unborn. Fortune,
    this world’s wealth, he sought and won; but lavished it not on
    personal pleasures or selfish aggrandizement. His time and his
    means were freely given to the noble cause of securing to the
    youth of these provinces a sound, liberal, and religious
    education. His humility equalled his munificence. He thirsted
    not for fame. But he has left a monument for himself more noble
    than sculptured stone in the institutions he has reared, and
    with which his worthy name must be forever associated.”

The Mount Allison _Academic Gazette_, in its first issue after the death
of Mr. Allison, said:

    “The relation which Mr. Allison sustained to the institution,
    and to all who were connected with it, was such as no other
    individual can ever sustain. His removal is, therefore, to it
    and to them an irreparable loss. The feeling of sadness and
    anxiety induced by this event must, therefore, with those who
    understand the matter, be altogether other than an evanescent
    one. But although we are sure that we shall find everywhere many
    to sympathise with us in our abiding sorrow as we think of the
    deep affliction which befell us and the institution when its
    father was taken from us, we think it more becoming for us to
    ask them to rejoice with us in gratefully acknowledging how much
    he was allowed to accomplish for it whilst he yet lived. Nearly
    nineteen years were added to his life after he had formed the
    noble design of founding such an institution, and during all
    these years he labored and studied and prayed for its
    prosperity, as its father only could do. The value of the
    services which he rendered to the institution, ‘not grudgingly,
    as of necessity,’ but ever most cheerfully, and, be it
    remembered, entirely gratuitously, cannot be estimated. Probably
    if an accurate account had been kept of them, charging for each
    item its fair business value, they would be found to amount to
    scarcely less than the sum of his princely money benefactions to
    the founding and establishing this institution. Certainly it may
    well be questioned whether the devotion of twice the six or
    seven thousand pounds, which he gave, would without such
    personal attention and services, have secured the establishment
    of such an institution as he has left to perpetuate the blessed
    memory of his name.”

The board of trustees of the institution, at a special meeting held on
6th Jan., 1859, passed the following resolutions, among others:

    “1. That although we are deeply conscious that the academy has
    sustained an irreparable loss in the decease of Charles F.
    Allison, Esq., and although the remembrance that his work on
    earth is done, that the invaluable services which, as treasurer,
    chairman of building, furnishing, and executive committees of
    the institution, he has ever been wont so ungrudgingly to
    render, have now ceased, and that the board can no more hope to
    be aided in its deliberations by his eminently sage counsels,
    induces a feeling of sadness almost overwhelming; yet the board
    would recognize as ground for profound gratitude to Him without
    whom ‘_nothing is wise, nothing good_,’ the magnitude of the
    work which our departed brother was enabled and allowed so
    wisely to undertake and successfully to accomplish in founding,
    and so essentially helping to build up to its present eminently
    prosperous condition, the Mount Allison Wesleyan Academy in its
    two affiliated branches.

    “2. That in the judgment of this board, Mr. Allison, in devoting
    so large a portion of his time and wealth to the establishment
    of an educational institution which is of such wide-spread
    influence and usefulness, acted as a truly wise Christian
    steward, and fairly entitled himself to the pre-eminently
    honourable position which has been assigned to him as ‘_the
    noblest public benefactor which has yet arisen in these
    provinces to benefit his country and bless the world_;’ and
    believing that so long as this institution may continue in
    operation true to his design and worthy of its past history, it
    will stand the monument of the distinguished Christian patriot
    and philanthropist, perpetuating the memory alike of his wisdom
    and his benevolence, this board will, as performing a sacred
    duty, earnestly endeavour to maintain in ever increasing
    efficiency.”

Resolutions of a similar character were passed by the Wesleyan Methodist
Conference of Eastern British America at its next ensuing annual
session. See published minutes for the year 1859, pp. 21-22.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Senkler, William Stevens=, Judge of the County Court of the County of
Lanark, Perth, is an Englishman by birth, having been born at Docking,
Norfolk county, England, on the 15th of January, 1838. His father was
the Rev. Edmund John Senkler, M.A., of Cains College, Cambridge, a
clergyman of the Church of England; and his mother was Eleanor Elizabeth
Stevens, daughter of the Rev. William Stevens, M.A., Oxon, of Sedberg,
Yorkshire, England. The parents of Judge Senkler, with their family of
nine children, came to Canada in May, 1843, and resided in the city of
Quebec, where the Rev. Mr. Senkler occupied for some time the position
of rector of the High School. He then moved to Sorel, and in September,
1847, to Brockville, at which place he died on the 28th of October,
1872, Mrs. Senkler following him to the grave on the 16th of March,
1873. Judge Senkler was educated by his father, and commenced life in
mercantile pursuits; but afterwards studied law with the Hon. A. N.
Richards, late lieutenant-governor of British Columbia, and also with
the Hon. Edward Blake. During the Michaelmas term of 1860, he was
admitted as solicitor; and was called to the bar in Trinity term, 1861.
He then began the practice of the law in Brockville, first, with J. D.
Buell, then with Hon. A. N. Richards, and lastly, with his brother,
Edmund John Senkler (now county judge of Lincoln), down to December,
1873, when he was appointed by the Mackenzie government, judge of the
County Court of the county of Lanark. On the 15th of October, 1875, he
was appointed master in chancery at Perth, by the judges of that court.
On the 10th of October, 1877, referee of titles by the judges of the
Court of Chancery. On the 14th of March, 1882, he was made local judge
of the High Court of Justice for Ontario; and on the 26th of October,
1885, he was appointed to the position of revising officer for the south
riding of Lanark by the Macdonald government. Judge Senkler has taken an
active interest in military matters, and helped to organize the
Brockville Light Infantry Company, which now forms part of the 42nd
battalion. He held the rank of ensign in his company. True to the
traditions of his house, the judge is a member of the Church of England,
and served as church warden in St. Peter’s Church, Brockville, and St.
James’ Church, Perth, for several years. He has also acted in the
capacity of lay delegate to the Synod of the diocese of Ontario from St.
James’ Church, Perth. Judge Senkler was married on the 21st of May,
1862, by the late Rev. Dr. Adamson, in the Episcopal Cathedral, Quebec,
to Honor Tett, daughter of the late Benjamin Tett, of Newboro’, Ontario,
who at that time represented South Leeds in the parliament of Canada,
and who sat for the same riding in the first parliament of Ontario. The
issue of this marriage has been two daughters and one son. Judge Senkler
is a hale and hearty man, and we predict for him a long life of
usefulness.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Hill, Andrew Gregory=, Police Magistrate, Niagara Falls, was born on
the 23rd of September, 1834, in the township of Clinton, county of
Lincoln, Ontario. His ancestors were among the pioneers of the province.
They came to this country immediately after the revolutionary war of
1776, and took up land as U. E. loyalists. The township of Clinton was
then an unbroken wilderness, without a habitation, and without a road,
save the track of the red man. Newark, now Niagara, about twenty-five
miles distant, was the nearest village, and the only practicable means
of reaching it was by boat down the lake. It is difficult for us now to
realize the privations that the early settlers had to undergo,
especially when we consider the severity of the winters, the proximity
of the Indian bands, and the inaccessible condition of the country. Even
in later years when small plots of land were reduced to a state of
cultivation, they were compelled to manufacture their own meal by the
most primitive methods. Solomon Hill was one of the second generation
after these pioneers, and in 1833 he married Eleanor Gregory, also the
descendant of a U. E. loyalist family. Andrew Gregory Hill was the
eldest child of this marriage. Both his grandsires bore arms in the war
of 1812, and were both severely wounded. Solomon Hill, his father,
served with the militia in the rebellion of 1837, but privately
sympathized with the patriot cause, and in later years became a great
admirer of William Lyon MacKenzie, the patriot leader. Andrew was
brought up to farm life, attending the public school in winter, and
assisting his father in summer. At the age of eighteen he was sent to
Victoria College, Cobourg, where he subsequently graduated in arts and
in law, having in the meantime taught school for nearly two years in
order to provide funds with which to prosecute his studies. He
subsequently studied law in Cobourg, and afterwards in St. Catharines,
and lastly with the late Adam Crooks, at one time minister of education
for the province of Ontario, in Toronto. Mr. Hill was admitted to
practice in 1862, and called to the bar in 1864. He commenced practice
in St. Catharines, but only continued there a few months, when he
entered into partnership with Warren Rock, late of London, and removed
to Welland. Here he practised for more than ten years. He took an active
interest in all local matters, being for many years in succession a
member of the school board, the village council, the county council, and
the county board of education. In 1864, Mr. Hill became identified with
the local press, and shortly afterwards started _The Welland Tribune_,
which paper at once became, and has since continued to be, the organ of
the Reform party in the county. In 1872 Mr. Hill, being an active
politician, was nominated by the Reform party of the county of Welland
for the House of Commons, in opposition to the late Mr. Street, a tory,
who had held the county for many years, but was defeated. In 1874 he was
appointed police magistrate for the town of Niagara Falls, under the
special “Act to provide for the better government of that part of
Ontario situate in the vicinity of the Falls of Niagara,” which position
he has held since that time. His administration in that capacity has
been prompt and vigorous—some of his judgments being regarded by many
as severe—but in consequence of the bold stand he took as a magistrate,
he soon brought about a beneficial change in the locality, and drove
away large numbers of the criminal class who formerly infested the
neighbourhood. Notwithstanding his appointment as police magistrate, he
still continued to practise his profession, and in 1886 was appointed
solicitor for the town of Niagara Falls, for the Imperial bank of Canada
at Niagara Falls, and for the Niagara Falls Street Railway Company. In
1865 Mr. Hill married Isabel Thompson, daughter of Archibald Thompson,
of Stamford, who was for many years treasurer of the county of Welland,
and whose ancestors were among the earliest settlers of this county.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Anderson, Alexander=, Principal of the Prince of Wales College,
Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, was born at Aberdeen, Scotland,
30th September, 1836. His father, Alexander Anderson, and his mother,
Margaret Imray, belonged to families residing in the adjacent parishes
of Banchory Ternan and Midmar. Until 1854, he attended school in the
town of Aberdeen. The six or seven years prior to that date were passed
under the tuition of William Rattray, an educationist of considerable
repute in the north of Scotland. Government grants and inspection were
then in their infancy, and Mr. Rattray was one of the first in that
quarter to hail the advent of a system which, sooner or later, was bound
to develop into a national scheme of education. From Aberdeen, Mr.
Anderson proceeded to Edinburgh to the Training College at Moray House,
having gained the first scholarship at the annual competition held in
that city. At this institution he remained two years. Moray House was
then under the able rectorship of James Sime, one of the best scholars
and most enthusiastic teachers of whom Scotland could then boast, and
was, during his incumbency, several times reported as the best college
of its kind in Great Britain. When Mr. Anderson finished his course at
the Training College, he was selected as an assistant master in the
public school in connection with it. He held this position for more than
two years, and only resigned it to complete his studies at the
university. At the University of Edinburgh, whose classes he attended
for four years, his career was distinguished. In the classes of
mathematics and natural philosophy he took the first place, and in both
was bracketed with another for the Straton gold medals, at that time the
highest mathematical honours conferred by the university. In the spring
of 1862, the proposal was made, through the rector of the Training
College, that he should take the second professorship in the Prince of
Wales College. This appointment he accepted, and proceeded to Prince
Edward Island in November of that year. In 1868 he was appointed
principal, and on the amalgamation of the Prince of Wales College and
Normal School, principal of the united institutions, and a member of the
Board of Education. On the schools of Prince Edward Island, Mr. Anderson
has made a marked and lasting impress, which is every year deepening.
His remarkable accuracy of information, his thorough scholarship, and
his enthusiastic devotion to the cause of education, have had a most
astonishing effect in arousing an interest in the public schools
throughout the province. In addition to this, his integrity of purpose,
his high sense of honour, and his love of truth, have been instilled
into the minds of his pupils, and made effective through that
extraordinary force of character which has rendered all his teaching so
impressive. He has a wonderful tact in finding out and developing talent
in his pupils, and many a young man has been started by him in a career
of usefulness and distinction, who might otherwise have remained
unknown. Two of Mr. Anderson’s pupils won, successively, the Gilchrist
scholarship. The highest honours in the Maritime provinces are generally
gained by students from his classes. During the twenty-four years Mr.
Anderson has been in the province, he may be said to have taken the
leading part in every forward movement in the cause of education.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Reddin, James Henry=, Barrister, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island,
was born at Kew, Surrey, England, on the 9th January, 1852. He is the
eldest son of James Reddin, formerly a merchant in Charlottetown, but
now holding the position of Government inspector of weights and measures
for Prince Edward Island. His mother, Louisa Anna Matthews, was a
daughter of John Matthews, a retired London merchant, and a freeman of
that city, related through his marriage with the widow of Henry Monk, a
scion of the family of Monk, of Albemarle, to the Kershaws, Millers,
Chadwicks, and other well known commercial families of Liverpool and
Manchester. James Reddin’s father, Dennis Reddin, was the son of a
manufacturer in Carrick-on-Suir, Tipperary county, Ireland, by his
marriage with Miss O’Meara, a daughter of an old established family in
the south of Ireland. Dennis Reddin emigrated to Prince Edward Island
during the latter portion of the eighteenth century, and having been
possessed of a better education than most Irish settlers of his day, he
taught school for some time on the island. He afterwards became engaged
in mercantile pursuits, notably in the building of ships, in which he
was very successful until the year 1847, when a great fall took place in
this class of property, and he, like many other shipbuilders, became
involved in the common ruin that ensued. The Reddin family have been for
nearly a century the leading Irish Catholic family of Prince Edward
Island, and one of the sons of the late Dennis Reddin has successively
held the position of solicitor-general and attorney-general of the
province, and is at present a county court judge,—he being the first
Roman Catholic in Prince Edward Island appointed to a judicial office.
James Henry Reddin, the subject of this sketch, was educated at a
private school, and then at the Prince of Wales and St. Dunstan’s
Colleges. After leaving school he occupied for some time the position of
clerk in his father’s office, and when that gentleman gave up business,
he commenced the study of law with his uncle, Richard Reddin, and
continued it in the office of the Hon. Neil McLeod. In July, 1885, he
was admitted an attorney of the supreme court, and a barrister the
following year. Mr. Reddin has been connected with several literary
societies, has written on various occasions for the press, and delivered
before the public lectures on literary and other subjects. Mr. Reddin’s
father is a Roman Catholic, and he has followed in his footsteps; his
mother, however, was a member of the Episcopal church. In politics he is
a Liberal-Conservative. In conclusion, we may add that Mr. Reddin’s
father for many years filled the position of president of the Benevolent
Irish Society, established by Lieut.-Governor Ready in 1825, and on his
retirement from office was elected patron of the society in the room of
the deceased Hon. Daniel Brenan.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Galbraith, Rev. William=, B.C.L., LL.B., Pastor of the Methodist
church, Orillia, was born in the township of North Monaghan, three miles
from Peterboro’, on 13th of July, 1842. His parents, William Galbraith
and Mary MacGlennon, were both natives of Ireland. His mother is a woman
of strong mind and great force of character, and her son has inherited
from her those qualities which have made him a power in the church. The
subject of this sketch was converted at the age of eleven years, and
united himself with the Wesleyan Methodist church, and has continued
connected with that body of Christians ever since. He received his
education for the ministry at Victoria College, Cobourg, and when only
seventeen years of age was licensed as a local preacher. In June, 1861,
before he was nineteen years old, he entered the ministry, and was
ordained in June, 1865. While doing the work of a heavy city
appointment, he took up the law course in McGill College, Montreal, and
in 1875 received the degree of B.C.L. In 1881 he received the degree of
LL.B. from Victoria College. Rev. Mr. Galbraith has been delegate at
four general conferences; chairman of a district for seven years; was
the last president of the Montreal Conference of the Methodist church of
Canada, and the first president of the Montreal Conference of the
Methodist church after the union in 1884. Apart from his pulpit duties,
the Rev. Mr. Galbraith has taken a deep interest in the educational work
of the church, and has contributed liberally to the support of Victoria
College, Stanstead Wesleyan College, and the Wesleyan Theological
College, Montreal. He has been twice married. His first wife was Hettie
Howell, the only child of Isaac Reid and Nancy Howell, of Jerseyville,
Ontario. She died when only thirty years of age, leaving three children.
His second wife is Kate Breden, daughter of John Breden, Kingston,
Ontario.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Craig, James=, B.A., Barrister, Renfrew, Ontario, was born at
Inveraray, Scotland, on the 31st of July, 1851. He is son of George
Craig, of Arnprior, Ontario. This gentleman was born at Ellon,
Aberdeenshire, Scotland, and his wife, Annie Clark, was born at Daviot
in the same county, and Mrs. Craig, sen., is sister of the Rev.
Professor William Clark, of Trinity College, Toronto. Mr. Craig, sen.,
came to Canada in 1854, and after residing in Ottawa city for about
three years, settled in Arnprior in 1857, where he has since resided.
For many years he has been a prominent justice of the peace there. James
Craig studied in McGill College, Montreal, and graduated in arts in
1874. In the same year he was articled to W. A. Ross, then barrister in
Ottawa, and now county court judge for the county of Carleton, and was
called to the bar and sworn in as solicitor in May 1878. In this year he
began to practise his profession in Pembroke, but shortly afterwards
moved to Renfrew, where he has since resided and practised with
considerable success. Mr. Craig has always taken an active interest in
public affairs, and was for over four years president of the Mechanics’
Institute, and occupied a similar position in the Curling Club. He is
now master of Renfrew Masonic lodge. Mr. Craig is a Presbyterian, and in
politics a Reformer, and is likely some day to sit in one of our
legislative assemblies. He was married in New York city on the 22nd of
May, 1879, to Lizzie Olivier, daughter of the late Judge E. S.
Macpherson, and Elizabeth Balmer Penton, who was a daughter of William
Penton, of Pentonville, England. Mr. Penton, the grandfather of Mrs.
Craig, was a man owning considerable property in England, and occupied a
good social position, but having taken a strange dislike to the
monarchical form of government that the people of Great Britain are so
proud of, he embarked in 1835 with all his family, servants, and effects
to the United States of America. After residing there for some time he
was induced by Lord Gosford, then governor-general of Canada, and an old
friend of his, to come and settle in Her Majesty’s possessions. To this
he consented, and took up his abode in Port Hope, on Lake Ontario; but
feeling dissatisfied, he again returned to his favourite republic, and
fixed his home at Utica, New York State, where he died. His descendants
are very numerous, and during the late war many of them were found
fighting on opposite sides. His grandson, a Federal officer, on one
occasion chased his uncle, a Confederate colonel, with a view of taking
him prisoner.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Smith, John H.=, Manager of the Mercantile Agency of R. G. Dun & Co.,
Buffalo; though a resident of that city, may be fairly claimed as a
Canadian, and one who has done honour to his country. Born in
Portsmouth, England, June, 1840, when but five years of age he came with
his parents to Canada, and the family settled in Kingston on their
arrival. Scarcely had ten summers passed over his head, when both
parents died, leaving behind them very little means. Until he was
seventeen years of age he resided in the Limestone City, in the meantime
attending the public school, which he left when he had attained his
thirteenth year, and then made a living by acting in the capacity of
clerk in various stores and in a law office. In 1857 he came to Toronto,
and having resolved to learn a trade of some kind, he decided on
becoming a printer, and apprenticed himself to the _Globe_ office. In
this establishment he acted in the capacity of compositor and
proofreader until 1863, when he gave up printing, and accepted a
position in the mercantile agency of R. G. Dun & Co. (now Dun, Wiman &
Co.). At this time Erastus Wiman was the manager of the Toronto branch
of the firm, and Mr. Smith first met Mr. Wiman in the _Globe_ office,
where, like himself, he had been an employee, and since then the warmest
friendship has continued to exist between them. Mr. Smith, through
strict attention to his duties, soon won the respect of his employers,
and in 1866 he was sent to the city of Buffalo to open a branch office
there. Since then he has managed the business so well that it has grown
to large proportions, and not only does he continue to take charge of
the Buffalo office, but he has nine other branches under his
superintendence. Mr. Smith, having a large capacity for work, and
realizing the great truth that the world had claims upon him outside the
narrow walls of his office, took an active interest in the welfare of
his adopted city, and we now find him greatly interested in several
public projects. Among others in two land companies that have for their
object the development and settlement of several hundred acres of land
in the northern part of Buffalo, just adjoining the beautiful park the
citizens of Buffalo are so justly proud of. This piece of land is now
being laid out in villa park lots, under the supervision of Frederick
Law Olmsted, the celebrated Boston landscape architect and surveyor, and
it is expected that in a very few years this section of the city will be
taken up and built upon by the more wealthy of the inhabitants. Mr.
Smith is also interested with Mr. Wiman in his Staten Island
enterprises, and his movement for bringing the Baltimore and Ohio
Railway into the city of New York. Through his business ability and
tact, Mr. Smith has acquired a large amount of wealth, and is now
reckoned as one of the rich men of Buffalo; yet he does not forget the
land in which his early days were spent, and where he struggled so hard
to get on. We, therefore, find him spending a month with his family each
summer among the islands and lakes of the Muskoka district, or at
Gananoque and the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence, where he enjoys
the sports that those regions so abundantly supply. Mr. Smith is still a
favourite among his Canadian friends, and whenever he finds time to pay
a visit to Toronto or other city where he is well known he is always
heartily welcomed by them. He is a member of several clubs in Buffalo,
among others the “Idlewood” and the “Oakfield,” and is also an honorary
member of several of our Canadian clubs. Mr. Smith has been an
industrious and hence a successful man, and his example cannot fail to
prove an incentive to many a young Canadian now setting out to battle
with the world. He married, in 1863, Jane Reeves, of Toronto, and has
now a family of eight children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Cairns, Thomas=, Postmaster, Perth, county of Lanark, Ontario, is an
Irishman by birth, having been born on the 4th of May, 1828, in the
county of Fermanagh. He was educated in a private school in his native
place, and in 1851 he came to Canada, and settled in Perth. Shortly
after his arrival he took a position in the _British Standard_ newspaper
office, in which place he remained for some time. In 1861 he established
the _Perth Expositor_. This paper he managed for about five years, when
as a reward for his industry as a public man, he was appointed
postmaster of Perth in January, 1866. Mr. Cairns is a member of the
Board of Education of Perth, and is a member of the Methodist church. It
is almost needless to add that Mr. Cairns is highly respected by the
people among whom he has lived for over thirty-five years, and is a
faithful public servant.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Cairns, George Frederick=, Barrister and Solicitor, Smith’s Falls,
county of Lanark, Ontario, was born in Perth, county of Lanark, on the
27th October, 1857, and is a son of Thomas Cairns, postmaster of Perth,
his mother being Jane Meuary. He received his education in the High
School of Perth, his native place. After leaving school he decided to
make law his profession, and with this object in view he entered, in
1879, the office of F. A. Hall, barrister, Perth, where he spent a few
years. Then in 1882 he went to Toronto, and entering the office of
Watson, Thorne & Smellie, barristers, of that city, he finished his
legal education with them, and was called to the bar in February, 1884.
The same year he went to Smith’s Falls, where he now successfully
practises his profession. Mr. Cairns is a rising man, and we have no
doubt he will soon reflect great credit on his country. He is a member
of the Methodist church.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Wright, Aaron A.=, of the firm of Barr & Wright, General Merchants,
Renfrew, Ontario. This gentleman, who is one of the bulwarks of the
Reform party in Central Ontario, was born near Farmersville, county of
Leeds, June 6th, 1840. He comes of U. E. loyalist stock, his grandfather
and grandmother on both sides being U. E. loyalists. His father, Israel
Wright, was a native of Leeds county, and his mother as well, her maiden
name being Stevens, a daughter of Abel Stevens. Our subject was educated
in a public school of his native country, and also in a select school
under John B. Holmes. In 1864 Mr. Wright entered the Normal School,
Toronto, and obtained a first-class certificate there. After this he
became head master of the Gananoque Public School. In 1866 he entered
the Military College at Montreal, and obtained a first-class military
certificate of the highest grade. Soon afterwards he succeeded in
obtaining a first-class Model School certificate for French and English
for Lower Canada. Late in the same year he was appointed principal of
the Model School at Lachine, and the Fenian troubles of that time
impelled him to organize the Lachine company of light infantry, of which
he was gazetted captain. These positions he held until his removal to
Renfrew, in 1870, where he entered mercantile pursuits, which still
engage his attention. Mr. Wright, ever since his settlement in Renfrew,
has always taken an active interest in all matters relating to the
welfare of the village and county. When he first came the place was
entirely without railway communication, and he soon became prominent in
an agitation to extend the line of the Canada Central to that point; the
terminus at that time being at Sand Point, some sixteen miles distant.
Mr. Wright addressed meetings, organized deputations, &c., until the
point was carried and Renfrew was made the terminus of the road. Since
that time, however, the Canada Central has become merged in the vast
system of the Canadian Pacific. This was not by any means all of Mr.
Wright’s railroad experience, for when the Kingston and Pembroke line
was mooted, he took a lively interest in the scheme, which is now
completed from Kingston to Renfrew. In politics, Mr. Wright is an ardent
supporter of the Mowat government and of Mr. Blake. When the Reform
Association for the south riding of Renfrew was organized, in 1875 or
1876, Mr. Wright was elected first vice-president, which position he
holds to this day. He has often been urged to allow his name to be used
for parliamentary honours, but, unfortunately, has persistently refused,
business men of his calibre being sadly lacking in our legislative
halls. Mr. Wright is the president of the County of Renfrew
Horticultural Society, and has held that office since its inception four
years ago; he is also director for division No. 2 of the Fruit Growers’
Association of the province of Ontario. For the past twelve years he has
been chairman of the High School Board of Renfrew, his earlier
experiences eminently fitting him for the position. His partner in
business is David Barr, and it needs scarcely be said it is the most
important and wealthy firm in this locality. They have recently built
what is probably the finest brick block for business purposes in Central
Ontario, which they occupy exclusively for the carrying on of their
extensive trade. To facilitate their extensive and largely increasing
grain trade, they have also erected the finest and best equipped grain
elevator in the Ottawa valley. And in addition to all this, they were
not only the first to introduce gas into the town, but were also the
first to put it out, and introduce the system of lighting by
electricity, being the proprietors of the electric light plant, with
which they light their own building, besides furnishing it to other
private firms, as well as to the corporation for lighting the streets of
the town. Mr. Wright’s busy life has precluded the possibility of
extensive travel, save that connected with business. In this regard,
however, he has on many occasions visited the markets of Europe and this
continent. In religion Mr. Wright is a Baptist, and as might be
expected, believes in water as opposed to whisky in the warfare now
being waged against the latter, in fact, was an ardent supporter of the
Canada Temperance Act, and favours the still more radical measure, viz.,
total prohibition. In 1871 he married Jane, a daughter of Theophilus
Harvey, of Lachine, by whom he has issue five boys and one girl.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Stratford, John H.=, Brantford, Ontario, is a native of New York state,
having been born in Oswego, on the 30th May, 1840, came over with his
parents and settled in Brantford in 1844, where he has since resided.
Mr. Stratford’s father, who died in 1884, was born at Sheerness, Kent,
England, and was a gentleman of the old school. He was educated at Eton
and Trinity College, Dublin, and was highly respected by the citizens of
Brantford, for his charity and the strict sense of honour he had
practised from the day he first took up his residence among them to the
day of his death. When he retired from business in 1875, he divided his
large fortune among his three sons, retaining a life annuity. His
mother, who died in 1875, was also greatly respected and beloved for her
charitable deeds. She belonged to an Irish family, and was niece of the
late Colonel George Hamilton, for many years manager of the Canada
Company at Toronto. John H. Stratford’s grandfather, Dr. John Stratford,
and his uncle, Dr. Samuel John Stratford, both members of the Royal
College of Surgeons, London, England, were known as eminent physicians
in Canada. The latter, who was assistant surgeon in the 72nd
Highlanders, sold his commission, and with a number of other British
officers, settled at Woodstock, Ontario, where they received grants of
land from Sir John Colborne, the then military governor of Upper Canada.
In this town he successfully practised his profession for many years,
and subsequently left this country, having received the appointment of
emigration agent for the British government in New Zealand, where he
died. Another member of the family, Elizabeth Stratford, his sister,
married in 1839 Mr. Davidson, a celebrated lawyer in New York, who was
appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, but
died just before being sworn into office. Joseph and Charles, brothers
of John H. Stratford, still reside in Brantford, Joseph being a wealthy
merchant, and owner of “Stratford’s Opera House,” one of the handsomest
in the province. John, the subject of this sketch, received his
education in Brantford; and after leaving school, for a number of years
up to 1871 he managed first the retail and afterwards the wholesale drug
business of his father. In 1865, he formed with the late C. Gilbert a
partnership, the object of which was the carrying on of a wholesale oil
business; and this firm was the first to introduce on our Canadian
railways the use of natural petroleum as a lubricant for car wheels. In
1868, Henry Yates was admitted into the partnership, and it then
operated under the style of John H. Stratford & Co. The following year
Mr. Gilbert withdrew, and since then the firm has been known as Yates &
Stratford, wholesale oil and lumber merchants. In 1870, Mr. Stratford
formed, with Donald Nicholson, since deceased, and Robert Chisholm, of
Hamilton, a special partnership for the construction of that section of
the Great Western Railway, from Glencoe to Simcoe, a distance of
seventy-five miles. This piece of work, a very difficult one, owing to
the Canada Southern Railway being in course of construction at the same
time, almost parallel, was completed in 1872, to the entire satisfaction
of the Great Western Railway authorities. In 1884, Mr. Stratford
purchased seven acres of land, beautifully situated, overlooking and
within the limits of the city of Brantford, on which he erected, under
his own superintendence, an hospital capable of accommodating fifty
patients and a regular staff of nurses, etc., at a cost of over $20,000.
And on the 10th February, 1885, it was formally opened by His Honour,
John Beverley Robinson, lieutenant-governor of Ontario, and Mrs.
Robinson, in the presence of a large assembly of citizens, when Mr.
Stratford handed it over as a free gift to the city of Brantford. Mrs.
John H. Stratford and Mrs. Arthur S. Hardy also took a deep interest in
the hospital, and through their united exertions, collected from friends
$4,000, wherewith to equip it with suitable furniture, instruments, etc.
It is called “The John H. Stratford Hospital,” and is without
doubt,—being perfect as to heating, light, ventilation, laundry,
stables, and other modern improvements—one of the finest institutions
of its kind in the Dominion. When of age Mr. Stratford joined the
Masonic body, and has continued to keep up his connection with it ever
since. He is a member of the St. James Club, Montreal. He married in
1868, Sara Juson Harris, fifth daughter of the late T. D. Harris, at one
time a prominent wholesale hardware merchant in Toronto. Mr. Stratford
is a member of the Episcopal church; a thorough business man of strict
integrity, and has been eminently successful in all his undertakings.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Benson, Rev. Manly=, Pastor of the Central Methodist Church, Bloor
street, Toronto, was born in Prince Edward county, Ontario, in 1842. His
parents, Matthew R. and Nancy Ruttan, were of U. E. loyalist stock, and
were among the early founders of Canadian nationality on the beautiful
shores of the Bay of Quinté. To this, doubtless, may be attributed the
sturdy mental and moral, as well as physical fibre, which characterizes
the so worthy a son of so worthy parents—the subject of our sketch. His
parents removed to the town of Newburgh, and here Manly received a good
education at the academy, and prepared himself for the work of a
teacher. At the age of ten years he was converted to God at a special
service held by the late Rev. Joseph Reynolds, the superintendent of the
Demorestville circuit, and he grew up under the fostering influence of
the Sunday-school and the class-meeting, both of which had a marked
influence on his young life, and spared him from the many bad influences
that are apt to surround young men. For a few years Mr. Benson applied
himself as a teacher, at the same time continuing his studies with the
principal of the Newburgh Academy. The piety and cultivated talent of
the young teacher attracted the attention of the members of the
Methodist church of the town in which he lived; and having undergone the
preliminary training in Christian work as a local preacher, he was
recommended by the official board of the Newburgh circuit for the
ministry. He was received on trial in 1863, and made his first
acquaintance with the activities of the work in the western extremity of
the province. For four years he travelled successively as junior
preacher on the Romney, Chatham, Windsor, and Sarnia circuits; and
having given full proof of his ministry, passing with credit all the
prescribed examinations, he was received into full connexion, and
ordained at the Hamilton conference in 1867. He then travelled, as
superintendent, the Ridgetown, Newbury, and Cooksville circuits. After
one year on the latter circuit, he was invited to the Centenary Church,
Hamilton, as colleague of the Rev. W. J. Hunter, D.D. At the end of his
first year in this charge, which date also completed the full pastoral
term of the superintendent of the circuit, he was invited by the
official board to take Dr. Hunter’s place as superintendent of the
church and circuit; but instead of accepting, suggested the name of the
Rev. Hugh Johnston, M.A., who was appointed superintendent, and with
whom he was associated for the balance of his pastoral term of two
years. The closing year of his three years’ term in this city was
signalized by the building of the elegant and commodious Zion
Tabernacle. From Hamilton he went to Stratford and St. Thomas, and spent
three years in each of these places. When closing his pastoral term at
St. Thomas, in 1881, he was invited to the pastorate of the Central
Methodist Church (Bloor Street), Toronto. No transfers were made that
year, and, on this fact becoming known, he was immediately and
unanimously invited to the Brant Avenue Church, Brantford. On the
closing of his three years’ pastoral term in that city he was again
invited by the same church in Toronto, and entered upon his duties in
the Central Methodist Church, Toronto, in June, 1855. Since he took
charge of the Central Church it has greatly prospered under his care,
both spiritually and financially. Its membership has increased from two
hundred and seventy to four hundred and fifteen, and the congregation
has also doubled in attendance. By special collections taken on the
first Sabbath of each of the three years of his pastorate, $6,000 was
contributed, being $2,000 at each collection, and, with other moneys in
hand, $7,000 has been paid off the church debt, and the regular Sunday
collections and pew rents also show a very large increase. In
recognition of Rev. Mr. Benson’s services as pastor, the official board
raised his salary from $1,500 to $2,000, and in addition to this have
furnished and provided him with a comfortable parsonage free. It is
almost needless to say that Rev. Mr. Benson is not only a favourite with
the people of his own church, but with others of the same denomination
in the city, in proof of which he has been unanimously invited, at the
close of his term in the Central Church, to take charge of the large
congregation worshipping in Berkeley Street Methodist Church. Rev. Mr.
Benson has largely enjoyed the advantages of travel, both throughout the
Dominion of Canada and in foreign countries. In 1871, in company with
the late illustrious Rev. Dr. Punshon, he crossed the continent, and
beheld the wonders of the Rocky mountains, and the Sierra Nevadas, the
Geyser springs, the Yosemite Valley, and Salt Lake City. He also enjoyed
the pleasure, or perhaps, endured the pain, of a sea voyage, and visited
Victoria, New Westminster, Fort Yale, and places on the Pacific coast.
In 1879 he crossed the Atlantic and made a still more extended tour
through France, Italy, Switzerland, South-eastern Germany, Belgium,
Great Britain, and Ireland; and during his stay in London was the guest
of Rev. Dr. Punshon, who kindly helped him to see London in all its
phases. After his return to Canada, Rev. Mr. Benson communicated the
many spirit-stirring scenes he had witnessed in distant lands to
appreciative audiences throughout Ontario, by eloquent lectures on “The
Wonders of the Yosemite,” “Across the Continent,” “British Columbia,”
and more recently, on “Memories of Rome,” “Switzerland,” “In Rhineland,”
and on London, Paris, and some of the Italian cities he had visited. He
is an earnest worker in the Sunday-school, and is always ready to labor
for the Master. As a teetotaller he is most pronounced, and is strongly
impressed with the idea that nothing short of the total prohibition of
the liquor traffic will save this Canada of ours from becoming like many
of the places he has visited in Europe—slaves to the intoxicating cup.
Rev. Mr. Benson is one of the directors of the Grimsby Park Company, and
has been director of services for the past four years. Under his able
management this park has been an extraordinary success, and year after
year it is becoming one of the most favourite resorts for those who seek
quiet, with a moderate amount of physical and intellectual excitement,
during the summer months. On the 9th of July, 1867, he was united in
marriage to Julia, third daughter of the Hon. Walter McCrea, judge of
Algoma county, Ontario, and has had a family consisting of nine
children, seven of whom are now living, five daughters and two sons.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Tilley, Sir Samuel Leonard=, K.C.M.G., Lieutenant-Governor of the
Province of New Brunswick, Fredericton, one of the most prominent of our
Canadian statesmen, is the son of Thomas M. Tilley, of Queen’s county,
New Brunswick, and great-grandson of Samuel Tilley, of Brooklyn, New
York, a U. E. loyalist, who, at the termination of the American
revolutionary war, came to New Brunswick, and became a grantee of the
now city of St. John in that province. Sir Leonard was born at
Georgetown, Queen’s county, on the 8th May, 1818, and received his
education at the Grammar school of his native village, and when he had
attained his thirteenth year, went to St. John, and became apprenticed
to an apothecary. Before beginning business for himself, Mr. Tilley was
for a time in the employ of William O. Smith, druggist, a gentleman of
superior intellectual parts, and who took an active interest in all the
political movements of the day. It was probably from him that the future
lieutenant-governor of the province derived his first lessons in
political economy, and which served him so well when he was minister of
finance for the Dominion of Canada, and we say, without being far
astray, that Mr. Smith plainly saw that his lessons were not likely to
be wasted on this clear-headed and enthusiastic young man. Young Tilley
too, being sprung from loyalist stock, it is only fair to assume that
whenever, if ever he should bring himself before the public, he would
find a prepossession in his favour. He became a prominent member of a
debating society when seventeen, and took a leading part in political
discussions, and shortly afterwards became an able advocate of the cause
of temperance. It may be said here that from that far-past day to this
Mr. Tilley has always been loyal to his temperance principles, has
always seized the opportunity to forward the movement, and upon all
occasions has shown the sincerity of his character by the practice of
his precepts. In recognition of his distinguished services in the cause,
the National Division of the Sons of Temperance of America, in 1854,
elected him to the highest office in the order, namely, that of Most
Worthy Patriarch, and which position he held for two years. In enlarged
politics the first heard of Mr. Tilley was in 1849, when he was the
seconder on the paper of B. Ansley, who was returned by a good majority.
He was one of the foremost promoters of the Railway League, organized to
secure the construction of a railway from St. John to Shediac. In 1850
he was elected to the New Brunswick legislature for the city of St.
John. Mr. Tilley was at this time a Liberal. The following year the Tory
manipulators began to undermine the foundations of their opponents, and
they seduced from allegiance the Hon. J. H. Gray and the Hon. R. D.
Wilmot [Mr. Gray was afterwards appointed a judge, and Mr. Wilmot a
lieutenant-governor], and these two leading gentlemen entered the
government. On the day that their secession became known, the Liberal
party was naturally shocked and pained at the treachery, but closed up
their ranks and resolved still to fight the enemy. Messrs. Tilley,
Simonds, Ritchie and Needham thereupon published a card to the people,
declaring that if Mr. Wilmot, who had accepted office, was re-elected,
they would resign their seats in the house, as they could not, in that
case, represent their views. The electors, however, returned Mr. Wilmot,
and all the parties on the card, except W. H. Needham, resigned their
seats. Mr. Tilley then returned to private life. But he was not long to
remain “a mute, inglorious Milton.” In 1854 the Liberals were
triumphant, and Mr. Tilley obtained a portfolio in the new
administration. From that time up to 1885, when he resigned his seat in
the House of Commons at Ottawa, with the exception of a couple of
breaks, he had enjoyed a remarkable lease of power, having been a member
of the New Brunswick and Dominion governments during many long years,
except the session of 1851, and part of the extra session of 1854. In
1856 he was beaten on the liquor question, but in 1857 regained power,
and became leader of the administration in 1860, which position he
retained till March, 1865. He attended the conference held in Prince
Edward Island to discuss maritime union, and subsequently appeared at
the Quebec conference, where he made a telling speech on the importance
of the province he represented. The proceedings of the Quebec conference
were kept from the public with the most zealous care, but one member
belonging to a sea province told his wife one day that “it was no use,”
he was unable “to keep it any longer.” He unburthened himself to a
newspaper editor, when with the speed of the wind intelligence of the
affair was spread through the British North American provinces. At once
in the lower provinces a storm of opposition was raised to the scheme,
and presses rolled out tons of pamphlets, placards, circulars and open
letters, denouncing the scheme, and calling upon the people to rise and
thwart Tilley and other enemies of his country. The ministry fell. The
Irish were all the time rampant and unappeasable. They all remembered
how Ireland had once been sold, and their representative newspaper
became so bitter as to eventually overreach its aim. To help along the
scheme and defeat the great booming of the Irish, fate brought along the
Fenian scare. The government resigned, and Mr. Tilley was sent for to
form an administration. A new election took place in 1866, and the
_antis_ got a still worse drubbing than had fallen to the lot of the
supporters of confederation. A short time afterwards Mr. Tilley attended
the conference in England, formed to procure a Chart of Union, and he
was, in July, 1867, made a C.B. (civil), in recognition of his
distinguished services. He resigned his seat in the New Brunswick
legislature and government to become minister of customs in the new
Canadian cabinet. From November, 1868, to April, 1869, he acted as
minister of public works, and on the 22nd of February, 1873, he was made
minister of finance. This office he held until the downfall of the
administration on the 5th of November of the same year. He then became
lieutenant-governor of his native province, which office he held till
1878, when he took the field again, with the triumphant result so well
known. In the new Conservative administration he became once again
finance minister, and shortly afterwards framed the legislation with
which his name will be connected so long as the history of Canada is
read, namely the National Policy. On May 24th, 1879, he was created a
Knight of the Order of St. Michael and St. George by the
Governor-General, acting for the Queen. During the session of 1885, at
Ottawa, Sir Leonard’s health having given way, he was compelled to
relinquish his parliamentary duties, and seek comparative rest and
recreation by a visit to London, England, where he gave attention to
some matters relating to the finances of the dominion, and also
considerably improved his health. On his return to Ottawa in the fall,
he however suffered a relapse, and it became very evident to his
friends, that he could no longer successfully cope with his departmental
duties, and if he would prolong his usefulness, he must abandon
parliamentary life. He accordingly sent in his resignation, which was
accepted at a meeting of the Cabinet held on the 31st October, at which
meeting Sir Leonard was appointed lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick
for a second time, the term of lieutenant-governor Wilmot having expired
several months before. On his return to his native province, he was
accorded a hearty reception by the people among whom he had grown up who
gladly welcomed him back to the position he had so worthily filled from
1873 to 1878. He was sworn into office in the legislative council
chamber at Fredericton, on the 13th November, by the chief justice of
the province, in the presence of a large number of prominent persons,
who had assembled to witness the ceremony. It may here be stated that in
December following, the Liberal-Conservative Club of St. John, N.B., was
presented by Mr. Rogerson, with a bust of Sir Leonard, on which occasion
C. A. Everett, then M.P. for the city, who had known him from boyhood,
delivered an address in which he sketched his career, and spoke in the
most complimentary terms of his great public services. It may also be
stated that before Sir Leonard entered upon his duties as
lieutenant-governor, he sent the following farewell letter to his
constituents, addressed to the Hon. T. R. Jones, M.L.C., chairman of the
Conservative Election Committee, in St. John, in the following kindly
tones:—

    =St. Andrews, Nov. 9, 1885.—My Dear Mr. Jones=,—I
    understand there is to be a meeting of our friends in the city
    to-morrow night, to select a candidate for the vacancy caused by
    my resignation. I avail myself of the opportunity thus offered
    to address a few words to the electors who may there be present.
    When in 1882 the electors of the city returned me to parliament
    for another term, I then intimated to them that it was probably
    the last time that I would be a candidate for their suffrages,
    but I then hoped that I would be spared, and my health permit of
    my remaining in parliament and in the government until the next
    general election. But I had not taken into account the _wear and
    tear_ to body and mind, to which I would necessarily continue to
    be subjected in the discharge of my parliamentary and
    departmental duties. My health was completely broken down last
    winter, but after a serious operation there was a hope that I
    might continue my work for a short time longer. I regret that my
    symptoms of late have been such that I have been forced to the
    conclusion that my only chance of a measure of health, and
    possibly a few more years of life, is in taking comparative rest
    and relief from the mental strain to which I have of late years
    been subjected. I feel certain that my many indulgent friends
    would cheerfully, in view of my long service, accord me that
    rest. It is difficult to find words to express the very great
    regret that I have felt, and still feel, at being compelled to
    take that course. I took great pleasure in the work of my
    department, and I flatter myself that I have been able to
    perform it in a way that was acceptable to a majority of the
    people. My relations with my constituents were pleasant, and I
    may be pardoned if I at this time remark that recent events have
    given evidence that my regard for them is reciprocated. To say
    good-bye to the men who have been so true and faithful to me for
    more than a third of a century is not pleasant, but it must be
    said. My colleagues in the government have placed me in a
    position where my responsibilities are not great, but where I
    hope I may still be able to do something for my native province
    and for my country. Thanking one and all for their unwavering
    confidence in the past, I still wish to be considered as their
    friend. By causing this to be read you will much oblige,

                                               Yours sincerely,
                                               (Sd.) S. L. TILLEY.

Sir Leonard and Lady Tilley visited Toronto, the Queen City of the West,
in May, 1887, and spent a week among their many friends there, who were
overjoyed at Sir Leonard’s improved health, and while here they took
part in the festivities so lavishly bestowed on the Governor-General,
Lord Lansdowne, and his party, who, at the time, were enjoying the
hospitality of the citizens. Sir Leonard Tilley has been twice married,
first to Julia Ann, daughter of James T. Hanford, of St. John, N.B.; and
second, in 1867, to Alice, eldest daughter of Z. Chipman, of St.
Stephen, N.B. Sir Leonard Tilley’s career has been an honour to his
country, and one that young men who aim to do well in public life should
seek to remember and imitate.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Cluxton, William=, Peterboro’, Ontario, was born in Dundalk, county of
Louth, Ireland, on the 31st of March, 1819. When but six years of age
his father died, and six years later his mother was also removed by
death. His education had been carefully looked after by his mother. On
the break-up of the family, William, the subject of this sketch, went to
reside with an uncle and aunt who was in business in Cootehill, Cavan
county, and this worthy couple soon afterwards, having determined to
improve their condition, emigrated to America, taking with them the
orphan lad. Arrived in Canada, the family located themselves on a farm
near the then small village of Peterboro’, but now one of the most
thriving towns in the province. Here he soon discovered that nature
never intended him to spend his life on a farm. Therefore, with the
consent of his relatives—long deceased, and of whom he still speaks
with the utmost affection—young as he was, and without a single cent in
the world, he sought and obtained a very humble situation in the
employment of the late John Hall, father of the late Judge Hall, who was
then the leading merchant in the village; and in this place he remained
for some time, gradually acquiring knowledge. In 1835, after having
given the utmost satisfaction to all who had reposed trust in him, Mr.
Cluxton accepted a position in the dry goods store of John R. Benson,
and subsequently became the sole manager of his store on Aylmer street.
Here, after business hours, he devoted himself so earnestly and
labouriously to the cultivation of letters and of music, that he soon
became remarkable for his attainments, especially in the latter. In
1836, such flattering offers had been made to him, that he was induced
to leave Peterboro’ and take charge, in Port Hope, of the business of
the late John Crawford, a wealthy and well-known merchant. In this
place, however, from indisposition, being then only seventeen years of
age, he remained but one month, and again returned to Peterboro’ to take
sole charge of a branch of that gentleman’s business which had been
established there, and that was not, it seemed, succeeding so well as
desired. Here his management became so successful, that in three years
he found himself the sole buyer for all of Mr. Crawford’s
establishments, and this position he held until the death of that
gentleman, when he was appointed by the trustees of the estate to wind
up the business, which he did to their entire satisfaction. In 1842, and
after some years of the most unwearied and honourable toil, Mr. Cluxton
purchased a stock of general goods, and launched forth his bark in
Peterboro’ on his own account. From that time to the present, his
success has been of the most marked character, although it may be fairly
supposed that he has met, like all others in business, with occasional
reverses by the way. In 1872, considering his means sufficiently ample,
he retired from the drygoods business. One of its branches established
in Lindsay he disposed to a clerk, who had come to him a mere lad, but
who now, under his strict and able training, has become one of the
wealthiest and best business men in that town. To two of his sons and
another clerk he sold the Peterboro’ establishment; but he continued his
operations in produce, and of late years has only done sufficient to
occupy his mind, so as to prevent the change from an active business
life to one of leisure having an injurious effect. For thirty years or
more he moved the principal part of the grain along the whole line of
railway from Lindsay to Lake Ontario, his transactions amounting to half
a million annually. In 1852 he became manager of the Peterboro’ branch
of the Commercial Bank of Canada, which position he held for eight
years, without having lost a single dollar to the institution, resigning
it only because of its wear and tear, and because of his desire to visit
Europe for the sake of his health—which visit he made in 1862,
accompanied by his wife and a portion of his family. When he did
withdraw from this post, however, the estimation in which he was held by
the directors may be gathered from the fact that he was appointed
confidential adviser to the new manager. Few men in Canada have ever
held so many offices of important public trust as Mr. Cluxton, and no
man in the whole Dominion can boast of a more honourable record or name.
He was for years president of the Midland Railway Company, and has been
president of the Marmora Mining Company, the Little Lake Cemetery
Company, the Port Hope and Peterboro’ Gravel Road Company, and the
Peterboro’ Water Works Company. He has in his time occupied seats in the
town and in the county council, and is at present one of the
commissioners of the town trust. He took a lively interest in the
education of the young, and for twenty-five years was an active member
of the school board. He is captain in the Sedentary militia, and in 1872
he was chosen to represent the people of West Peterboro’ in the House of
Commons. Mr. Cluxton is a Liberal-Conservative in politics. In private
life he is neither banker, merchant nor politician, but simply one of
the great brotherhood of mankind, who makes common cause with his
numerous tenants and his friends, as well as with the fatherless
children and the widow.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Falconbridge, William Glenholme=, M.A., Q.C., Barrister, Toronto, was
born on 12th May, 1846. He is the eldest son of John Kennedy
Falconbridge, J.P., of Richmond Hill, in the county of York, a very well
known and highly respected retired merchant, who for many years carried
on a large and successful business in the counties of York and Simcoe.
The subject of this sketch received his chief preliminary training at
the Barrie Grammar School, and at the Model Grammar School for Upper
Canada, and matriculated with a general proficiency scholarship in the
University of Toronto in 1862. His course at the University was one of
rather unusual distinction, inasmuch as there was hardly any department
in the curriculum in which he did not at some period obtain first-class
honours. After winning college prizes and university scholarships in
each year, he graduated B.A. in 1866, with a gold medal. He then filled
for a year the chair of professor of modern languages in Yarmouth
College, N.S., and returned to Toronto on being appointed lecturer on
Italian and Spanish in University College, which position he occupied
for one year. In 1868, he commenced the study of law in the office of
Patton, Osler and Moss, and was called to the bar in 1871. (While he was
a student at law he entered the Military School, which was then
established in Toronto, as a gentleman cadet, and in due course obtained
his certificate of fitness for a captain’s commission in the active
militia—under the instructions of the officers of Her Majesty’s 29th
regiment of foot). On the 1st of July, 1871, the firm of Harrison, Osler
and Moss was formed, the members of which were the late Chief Justices
Harrison and Moss; the present Justice Osler, Charles Moss, Q.C., W. A.
Foster, Q.C., and Mr. Falconbridge. He was examiner in the University of
Toronto for several years, and was elected registrar in 1872, and held
that office until 1881, when he resigned and was immediately elected by
his fellow graduates a member of the senate of that institution, and
again elected at the head of the poll in 1886. In 1885, he was elected a
bencher of our only Inn of Court—the Law Society of Upper Canada,—and
was re-elected at the general election in 1886, ranking No. six, out of
the thirty successful candidates, those who received a larger number of
votes being W. R. Meredith, Charles Moss, Dalton McCarthy, C. Robinson,
and B. M. Britton. He was gazetted as one of Her Majesty’s counsel in
1885. Mr. Falconbridge is a pronounced and steadfast Conservative in
politics, and has frequently been solicited to enter public life,
particularly at the general elections for the House of Commons of the
Dominion in February, 1887, when he was offered the nomination for
Centre Toronto. His friends think that his abilities and personal
qualities eminently fit him for the political arena, but he has hitherto
felt obliged by the pressure of professional engagements to decline the
honour. But he has never been chary of rendering gratuitous public
services when called on to do so. He was a prominent member of the
Citizens’ Committee appointed at the time of the terrible accident at
the Humber, in January, 1884, when twenty-nine men were killed outright
or died of their injuries, and fifteen were more or less injured, the
other members of the Committee being the then mayor, A. R. Boswell, J.
H. Morris, Q.C., T. McGaw, Jno. Livingstone, H. E. Clarke, M.P.P., and
John Hallam. Largely through the intervention and efforts of these
gentlemen, more than one hundred thousand dollars were received by way
of compensation from the Grand Trunk Railway, and about fifteen thousand
dollars collected from the general public. For their services in this
connection, given ungrudgingly over a period of nearly two years, they
were publicly thanked by resolution of the City Council. Mr.
Falconbridge is now a member of the firms of Moss, Falconbridge and
Barwick, and Moss, Hoyles and Aylesworth, a strong association,
representing the survival of the numerous judicial appointments which
have been made from their ranks. In religion he has always adhered to
the Church of England, and has been for years an officer of the Irish
Protestant Benevolent Society. He is a keen sportsman and a skilful and
enthusiastic angler, and he is very popular within the circle of his
acquaintance. In 1873, he married Mary, youngest daughter of the late
Hon. Mr. Justice Sullivan, and step-daughter of the late Hon. Sir
Francis Hincks, C.B., K.C.M.G., by whom he has issue one son and five
daughters.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Sanderson, Rev. Dr. G. R.=, Pastor of the Methodist church, Sarnia.
This worthy and greatly respected minister was born in the city of
Kingston, in the year 1817, so that he is now seventy years of age. He
is of English parentage. With his parents he attended the church of the
Wesleyan Methodists in Kingston, and in the year 1834, through the
ministry of the Rev. Dr. Stinson, was converted, and at once connected
himself with the church. Having a fair English education, possessing a
good voice, good judgment, and above all, a renewed heart, he was by the
quarterly official board made a local preacher in connection with the
Kingston circuit. Engaged in this relation and realizing his need of
better qualification for the work, he entered the Upper Canada Academy,
which formed the nucleus out of which Victoria University has risen,
where he completed his education. He then left the college to enter the
full work of the ministry. The late Rev. Dr. Carroll writes of him: “His
going out as chairman’s supply, one year before his formal reception on
trial, was at the conference of 1836, and his introduction into his
ministerial work was under circumstances which entitle him to rank among
the pioneer preachers. He was first sent to the extensive boundaries,
miry roads and miasmatic atmosphere of the old Thames circuit; and
received a fitting seasoning for its toils by a ride on horseback from
Kingston to Chatham. In the course of this journey the writer first met
and admired the pluck and heroism of the boy of twenty.” A list of the
circuits on which Dr. Sanderson has travelled since entering the
ministry will no doubt interest many readers. In 1837, he travelled the
old Thames circuit, going thence to Newmarket, Grimsby and Hamilton
respectively. In 1841 he was ordained and sent to Stamford, where he
remained for two years, then to St. Catharines for two years, and thence
to Toronto, where he was elected and ably performed the duties of editor
of the _Christian Guardian_. Upon relinquishing the editorial chair,
which position he held for five years, he was appointed to Cobourg for
three years, during which period he was elected secretary of the
conference, and was thence sent back to Toronto to take charge of the
Methodist Book and Publishing House. From the successful discharge of
these important interests of the church he came to the city of London,
where he remained for three years. In the year 1861 he was elected
representative from the Canadian Conference to the Wesleyan Conference
of Great Britain. In 1860 he was elected chairman of the London
district, which position he has held without a break on the several
districts on which he has been placed from that period until the
present. From London he went to the following places in order, remaining
in each the full allotted time of three years: Port Hope, Picton,
Belleville, Kingston, St. Catharines, London (Wellington street), London
(Dundas street east), and Strathroy. In 1876 he was elected president of
the Conference of the Methodist church of Canada, for which position his
many years’ experience as chairman well qualified him. The honorary
degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by his _alma mater_,
Victoria University, in May, 1876. Victoria has never honoured a more
worthy son, and Dr. Sanderson has always been a noble representative of
the claims of this university upon the Methodist people of this
dominion. Dr. Sanderson is a fine specimen of the Christian minister.
During his long period of service there has been no time that he has
been laid aside from work by illness, and no year that there has not
been a revival of religion on his circuit. The statement may be ventured
that Dr. Sanderson has been the instrument in God’s hands of winning
more souls to Christ than any other minister in the regular work in the
Methodist church. He is now the oldest man in the active work of the
ministry, and at a conference lately held in St. Thomas, a testimonial
in the shape of a purse of $120 was presented to him in honour of his
advent upon the 50th year of his ministry. Dr. Sanderson as a preacher
is at times eloquent, always practical and strictly evangelical. As a
speaker he is chaste, polished and powerful, and when in debate he waxes
warm with his theme he invariably carries his hearers with him. As a man
he is sympathetic and tender and withal firm and unflinching in what he
believes to be right. To quote Dr. Carroll again—“He has not been
without difficult positions to keep, and has had his trials; yet he has
proved faithful to his trust, and has usually triumphed. He is
self-contained, manly and enduring, and has never failed in a
connexional trust.”

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Hunter, Rev. Samuel James=, D.D., Pastor of the Centenary Church,
Hamilton, Ontario, one of the leading preachers in connection with the
Methodist denomination, is a Canadian by birth, having been born in the
village of Phillipsburg, province of Quebec, on the 12th April, 1843. He
is of Irish parentage, his father and mother having been born and
married in Strabane, county Tyrone. The subject of our sketch removed,
with the other members of the family, to Upper Canada, and settled in
East Gwillimbury, which was then almost a wilderness. He early developed
an unconquerable thirst for knowledge, and when a mere lad had reached
the limit of the common school teacher’s power to instruct. The few
books in scanty libraries here and there amongst the neighbours were
read with avidity and studied with care. The first money he ever earned
was invested in three works that opened to him the vast world of
thought, namely: Dick’s works, Rollin’s Ancient History, and a Latin
grammar and reader combined. When seventeen years of age he was led into
a religious experience through the ministry of the Methodist church,
which he subsequently joined. At the age of eighteen he was received as
a probationer for the ministry, and began his labours in the township of
Walpole. Four years afterwards he was publicly ordained in London,
Ontario. For many years he did the hard work of a Methodist preacher,
and at the same time pursued secular study under private masters. His
fields of labour have been—one year in Walpole, two in Oakville, two at
Thornhill, one at Bowmanville, six in Montreal, twelve in Toronto (six
of which were in Elm street, three in Queen street, and three in
Sherbourne street Church). He is now completing his second year in
Centenary Church, Hamilton, one of the largest and most important
congregations in the Dominion. At the convocation of 1886 the Senate of
Victoria University conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity.
Dr. Hunter, though a member of every general conference that has been
held, has no taste for debate, and seldom enters the arena. He is
regarded as orthodox in his teachings, but never takes things on trust
merely. He thinks for himself, and never burkes his opinions, even when
they seem to be out of harmony with the generally accepted creeds. He
married, in 1871, Miss Ruston, of Montreal, and has a family of two
children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Mathison, George=, Senior Past Grand Worthy Patriarch of the Grand
Division of the Sons of Temperance of the Province of Quebec, was one of
the most energetic and enthusiastic temperance advocates in that section
of our country. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on the 1st May, 1801, he
received his education there, and after leaving school was apprenticed
to the baking business. Having faithfully served the prescribed term, he
worked for a short period as a journeyman, and wishing to see the world,
enlisted in His Majesty’s 70th regiment of foot, and soon attained the
position of colour-sergeant. Seeing the evil effects of drink on his
comrades, he soon became convinced that a life of total abstinence was
the safest and best for him to secure success in his profession, and
accordingly adopted the principle. At that time very few had abandoned
the entire use of intoxicating liquors as a drink, and those who had
were looked upon with suspicion by the “moderate drinkers,” but his
example soon began to tell upon his comrades, and many of them were
induced to abandon liquor-drinking. In due course of time, with the
permission of his commanding officer, he established a total abstinence
society in the regiment. He soon afterwards attained to the rank of
quarter-master-sergeant, and still continued to use his influence to
further the good work he had begun. In the year 1842, having served his
country for twenty-one years in Gibraltar, Malta, West Indies and
Canada—proving the practicability of the principles of total abstinence
in all these varied climes—he was discharged with a pension, and at the
same time received a situation in the Commissariat department as keeper
of the government woodyard in Quebec. This gave him greater
opportunities to work in the temperance cause, and shortly afterward he
and several other citizens started the first total abstinence society in
that city, and it proved a great blessing to many. In October, 1850,
having heard of the order of the Sons of Temperance, which was then
making rapid strides in enrolling men in the total abstinence ranks, he
and other members of the society secured a charter from the National
Division, and Gough Division, No. 3, of Canada East, was organized. This
division continued to prosper, and the order to increase in the
province, when in January, 1852, the Grand Division of Canada East (now
Quebec) was organized, Mr. Mathison being one of the charter members,
and in October, 1854, he was elected its Grand Worthy Patriarch. In
February, 1852, St. Lawrence Division was organized under very
favourable auspices, and in the following year he left Gough Division
and joined St. Lawrence, in the hope of extending his usefulness among
the military men who had joined in large numbers the younger division.
In June, 1867, he was initiated into the National Division of North
America, at the session held at Providence, Rhode Island, and continued
to attend the meetings of that body as opportunity offered, the last
time being at the session held in Halifax, N.S., in 1884. In 1859 he was
removed to Halifax to fill another position in the Commissariat
department, and later on to Prince Edward Island. In each place he was
well known as an enthusiastic worker in the cause of temperance, and
other good works. In the year 1866, after serving twenty-four years in
Her Majesty’s service, he was superannuated, with another pension, and
took up his residence in the city of Quebec, and again associated
himself with St. Lawrence Division, and continued to work persistently
in the cause he had so much at heart up to the last month of his life,
not only in connection with the order of the Sons of Temperance, but in
the formation of Cadets of Temperance, Bands of Hope, and other kindred
societies. He was ever ready to help, and very few of the youth of the
city of Quebec have failed in being influenced to a certain extent by
his efforts. He was a consistent member of the Methodist church for over
fifty years, and for several years superintendent of the Sabbath school.
The class meetings and prayer meetings were always faithfully attended
by him and highly appreciated. He passed away after a few days’ illness
on the 30th October, 1886, in the eighty-sixth year of his age and the
sixtieth of his temperance work, deeply regretted by all his co-laborers
in the church, as well as in the cause of total abstinence. George
Mathison earned the benediction: “Well done, good and faithful servant.”

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Flewelling, William Pentreath=, Accountant and Lumber Agent, Crown
Lands department, Fredericton, New Brunswick, was born at Clifton, Kings
county, New Brunswick, on the 31st of May, 1850. His father, William
Puddington Flewelling, was a native of New Brunswick, and resided most
of his life-time in Kings county, where for a long time he carried on a
large ship-building business. He also represented Kings county in the
New Brunswick legislature for a number of years, and part of the time he
was a member of the government, and held the office of surveyor-general.
His mother, Esther Ann Merritt, was a native of Marlborough, Ulster
county, New York state. William received his early education in the
public school of his native place, and at a later period attended the
superior school at Studholm, Kings county. While preparing for a
collegiate course, ill health overtook him, and he was obliged to give
up further study and betake himself to out-door pursuits. He having
become as a boy familiar with the use of tools in his father’s
ship-yard, he betook himself to the lumber regions of New Brunswick, and
joined a lumbering party; and after a winter spent in the forest he
became restored to his usual ruggedness, and returned to civilization.
In the spring of 1869 he removed from Clifton to Fredericton and entered
the service of the government as a clerk in the Crown Lands department.
In 1873, some changes occurring in the staff, he was promoted to the
position of accountant; and in 1881, in addition to this office, he was
made lumber agent. This dual office he has since held—the first having
put him in charge of all the financial matters in connection with the
Land department, and the second the general supervision of the lumbering
on the Crown lands throughout the province, and the collection of the
revenue therefrom. As a young man, Mr. Flewelling took an active
interest in military matters. Having joined a local militia corps as
private he gradually rose in the ranks, and when he retired from the
service in 1874 he held the rank of paymaster of the 74th battalion,
Kings county militia. He has been an active member of various societies,
especially temperance societies, in all of which he has held offices.
For about fifteen years he has belonged to the Independent Order of
Oddfellows, and is a past-grand master of Victoria lodge, No. 13, of
Fredericton. He has always been connected with the Episcopal church, but
is, nevertheless, a strong believer in freedom of opinion, especially in
religion. On the 17th of January, 1874, he was married to Harriet E.
Lugrin, daughter of the late Charles S. Lugrin, editor of _The Colonial
Farmer_, and for a number of years secretary of the Board of Agriculture
for New Brunswick, and grand-daughter of the late George K. Lugrin, for
many years Queen’s printer in New Brunswick.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Le Pan, Frederick Nicholas D’Orr=, Owen Sound, Ontario, is the son of
Louis Noailles Le Pan and Mary Anne Brown, of Belfast, Ireland, and was
born in the year 1819. His father was a native of Paris, France, and was
a professor of French in the Royal Academy of Belfast, and other
colleges in that city. Mr. Le Pan emigrated to the United States at the
age of nineteen, and was for some time employed in a large flouring mill
as head book-keeper in St. Louis, Missouri. Being anxious to get on and
push for himself, he bought a farm in the state of Illinois, and lived
there until his health failed him. He then sold out his property and
moved to Canada and settled in Picton, Prince Edward county. After
living here for some time he went to Owen Sound, in the county of Grey,
where he opened a general store, and succeeded well. He occupied the
position of treasurer for the county of Grey for over twenty years, and
on his resignation was presented with a handsome present by the county
in recognition of his services. He was local director for the Molsons
bank in Owen Sound, and is a justice of the peace for the county. Though
now well up in years, Mr. Le Pan is still hale and hearty, and living a
retired life.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Shaw, Lieutenant-Colonel James.= The late Senator Shaw was born in New
Ross, county Wexford, Ireland, in the year 1798, so famous in Irish
history. He was descended from two ancient and honourable families, and
took pride in tracing his lineage back many generations to persons of
distinction, being Scotch on his father’s side, and on his mother’s he
was of French extraction, her family, the d’Ouselys, being Huguenots,
who fled to Ireland, the name being corrupted to Dowsley in the course
of years. In the year 1820, after completing his education in Dublin,
Mr. Shaw, in the twenty-second year of his age, came to Canada with
letters of introduction to Lord Dalhousie, who attached him to his
household, with an officer’s pay and rations for the following six
months, where he was treated with great kindness by Lord and Lady
Dalhousie, and in after days often referred to this pleasant portion of
his life. Subsequently the government appointed him first clerk in the
Lanark military settlement of Upper Canada, under the late Colonel
William Marshall, the superintendent, and this situation Mr. Shaw filled
for nine years. At the commencement of the work on the Rideau Canal,
through Lord Dalhousie’s influence, he was appointed overseer of the
works under the late Colonel John By, from Smith’s Falls to Bytown, now
the city of Ottawa. After the completion of the canal, Mr. Shaw married
Ellen Forgie, daughter of Mr. Forgie, of Glasgow, and carried on at
Smith’s Falls a successful and extensive mercantile business up to the
time of his entering parliament. He was one of the first promoters and
directors of the Brockville and Ottawa Railway. During the Canadian
rebellion of 1837 and 1838 he was stationed at Brockville as major of
the third Leeds Light Infantry, and in later years he was made
lieutenant-colonel of the militia of Canada. In his early days he was a
member of what was known as the Johnstown District Council, and when the
municipal system was adopted he filled the position of reeve of the
municipality, which office he held until higher duties obliged him to
resign. He was also a justice of the peace, but did not often act in
that capacity. Mr. Shaw was a Free Mason, having joined the order as a
young man in Ireland. He was a member of the Church of England—not
extreme in his views, but unswerving in his support and allegiance to
his church. In 1851 he was elected to represent the united counties of
Lanark and Renfrew in the Legislature of Canada in the Conservative
interest, and was again returned for the South Riding of Lanark in 1854.
In 1860 he was elected for the Bathurst division by a large majority to
a seat in the upper house, which he held until the confederation of the
several provinces, when he was called by Royal proclamation to the
Senate of the Dominion of Canada, which position he filled with honour
to himself and credit to his country until his death. Mr. Shaw was a
gentleman of fine physique and commanding appearance, of sterling
principle, unswerving integrity, and by his genial disposition and
urbanity of manner, endeared himself to all with whom he became
acquainted. He died suddenly at his residence in Smith’s Falls, on the
6th of February, 1878, regretted and revered by all who knew him. His
funeral was attended by a large deputation from both branches of the
legislature.

        “In social haunts the ever welcome guest,
         So generous, noble, and of portly mien;
         ‘One of a thousand’ has been well expressed—
         No finer type of gentleman was seen.”

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Saint-Pierre, Henri C.=, Advocate, Montreal, was born in the parish of
Rigaud, county of Vaudreuil, province of Quebec, on the 13th of
September, 1844, but was brought up at Isle-Bizard, in Jacques-Cartier
county. He is the last child but one of a family of nine, composed of
seven girls and two boys. His father, Joseph Saint-Pierre, a farmer of
Isle-Bizard, died, when his son Henri was only two years old. His
mother, Domithilde Denis, is still living. His first ancestor on his
father’s side in Canada was Pierre Breillé-Saint-Pierre, who was usually
called Pierre Saint-Pierre. He had emigrated from Normandy, and on his
arrival in Canada settled at Isle-Bizard. In 1741 he was married to
Françoise Thibault, by whom he had a large family. He was killed at the
battle of Carillon in 1758. His eldest son, bearing the same name, was
married to Marie Josephte Tayon, and from that marriage was born, on the
23rd of August, 1772, Guillaume, the father of Joseph, and the
grandfather of the gentleman who is the subject of this sketch.
Domithilde Denis, the mother of Mr. Saint-Pierre, belonged to a family
of farmers from La Pointe Claire, which traces its origin in Canada as
far back as the days of the first French settlements, the first colonist
of that name, Jacques Denis, having settled at Lachine in 1689. After
the death of his father, Mr. Saint-Pierre was adopted by a near
relative, C. Raymond, a merchant at Isle-Bizard, who took charge of his
education. At twelve years of age he entered the Montreal College, where
he went through a brilliant classical course of study. He was the
college mate of the unfortunate patriot, Louis Riel. From his childhood
Mr. Saint-Pierre had always exhibited a strong liking for military life;
but as he grew older, this liking ripened into an uncontrollable
passion; so much so, that on leaving college one of the first things he
did was to solicit from his mother and his adopted father the permission
to enlist in the United States army. At this time the war between the
North and South was raging at its highest pitch. It is almost needless
to say that his request was unhesitatingly and peremptorily refused.
With no small degree of disappointment and reluctance, he at last chose
the study of the law, and was sent to Kingston in Ontario, in order that
he might improve his knowledge of the English language. At Kingston he
was articled to James Agnew, one of the leading lawyers of that city. He
soon got tired of the law, however, and on the very day when he was to
undergo his preliminary examination at Osgoode Hall, in Toronto,
yielding to his passion for military life, he crossed over to Niagara
Falls, and thence took the first train to New York. On his arrival there
he enlisted in the 76th New York volunteers, which was then forming part
of the first corps in the Potomac army. To his honour be it said, it was
only after considerable hesitation that General Johnson, the chief
recruiting officer, consented to enlist the runaway school-boy. Mr.
Saint-Pierre of course entered the service as a private, but in less
than two months he rose to the rank of sergeant. During General Meade’s
retreat towards Centreville, in the fall of 1863, he was wounded at the
crossing of the Rapahannock, and had only recently resumed duty when in
the fight at Mine Run, near Fredericksburg, he was again wounded. He was
picked up by a detachment of General Stewart’s rebel cavalry on the
field of battle, and was brought to Gordonsville during the night, and
on the following day sent to Richmond as a prisoner of war. In his
regiment he had been reported as dead, and some time afterwards his name
was published in the list of those who had been killed in that fight.
The result of this information was that funeral services were held both
in the Montreal College and in his native parish, and prayer asked for
the salvation of his soul. To give a detailed and circumstantial account
of the suffering which Mr. Saint-Pierre had to endure, and all the
adventures he had to go through in his numerous attempts to escape from
starvation and death in the southern stockades, would require a
narrative which could hardly be comprised within the compass of a whole
volume; but one may form some idea of it, however, when the names of the
following prisons wherein he was successively detained are mentioned:
Bell Island and Parmenton building at Richmond, Andersonville in
Georgia, and Charleston’s race ground and Florence in South Carolina.
After thirteen months of indescribable sufferings, he at last found
himself free at Charleston on the day when the city was evacuated by the
Southern troops in the spring of 1865. After the war was over, Mr.
Saint-Pierre returned to his native country, where he was greeted as one
who had risen from the dead. In March, 1866, he resumed his legal
studies, and was first articled to the late Sir George Etienne Cartier,
but a year afterwards he became a student in the office of the Hon. J.
J. C. Abbott, where he remained up to the time of his admission to the
bar on the 12th of July, 1870. In 1871 Mr. Saint-Pierre entered in
partnership with the Hon. Gédéon Ouimet, then attorney-general, and some
time afterwards prime minister for the province of Quebec; and on that
gentleman’s appointment as superintendent of education, after his having
resigned his office as prime minister, Mr. Saint-Pierre found himself at
the head of his law office and the sole possessor of his large
_clientèle_. Mr. Saint-Pierre soon reached the foremost rank in his
profession, and to-day the firm of Saint-Pierre, Globensky & Poirier, is
one of the leading firms in the district of Montreal. But it is more
particularly as a criminalist that Mr. Saint-Pierre has distinguished
himself. Few lawyers have been so successful in the practice of that
branch of the law; and whether it be in the often arduous task of
bringing conviction to the minds of juries, or in that no less difficult
one of unravelling a knotty point of law, he has few equals and no
superior in his native province. He has frequently acted as Crown
attorney and as substitute of the attorney-general for the province of
Quebec, both in Montreal and in the adjoining districts. In politics Mr.
Saint-Pierre is a Liberal. He was selected to run as the Liberal
candidate in Jacques-Cartier, in 1878, for the local house, but was
defeated by the former member, L. N. Lecavalier, who succeeded in
securing his re-election by a small majority. Since that date Mr.
Saint-Pierre has taken very little part in active politics. At the
general elections for the federal house in 1887 he was selected as the
_Candidat National_, first in the county of Laprairie, in opposition to
Mr. Tassé, the Conservative nominee, and afterwards in the county of
Jacques-Cartier, in opposition to Mr. Girouard, but declined in both
instances. Mr. Saint-Pierre was married in 1874 to Adeline Albina
Lesieur, eldest daughter of Adolphe Lesieur, merchant, of Terrebonne.
She is a niece of the late Hon. Thos. Jean-Jacques Loranger, of the Hon.
L. O. Loranger, a judge of the Superior Court, and of J. M. Loranger,
Q.C. Mrs. Saint-Pierre is a handsome and accomplished lady and an
excellent musician. She is often seen at charity concerts, contributing,
by her distinguished talent as a pianist, to the enjoyment of the
evening; whilst her husband, Mr. Saint-Pierre, who is the possessor of a
splendid bass voice, and a cultured singer, varies the entertainment by
his singing. Mr. and Mrs. Saint-Pierre were both born and brought up
Roman catholics, and they have a family of five children, the eldest of
whom, Master Henri, is only nine years old. In 1856 Mrs. Saint-Pierre,
the elder, was married to John Wilson, a wealthy farmer of Isle-Bizard.
He was a widower and the father of several boys. Two of those boys were
married to two of Mrs. Saint-Pierre’s daughters. The youngest of those
gentlemen was recently elected deputy-reeve of the county of Prescott,
in Ontario. Mrs. Saint-Pierre has survived her second husband, who died
in 1858. She has now reached the ripe old age of seventy-nine. She is
yet strong and hearty, and lately was invited to the christening of an
infant (a girl) who was the grand-daughter of her own grand-daughter.
She was thereby given an opportunity seldom offered, even to very aged
grand-mothers, that of seeing her fourth generation.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Hemming, Edward John=, D.C.L., ex-M.P.P., Advocate, etc.,
Drummondville, province of Quebec, is the third son of the late Henry
Keene Hemming, estate agent, and for many years lessee of extensive
brick-fields at Gray’s, Essex on the Thames; and Sophia Wirgman,
daughter of Thomas Wirgman, from Stockholm, Sweden, and aunt to
Lieut.-Colonel Wirgman, late of the 10th Hussars, in their lifetime of
London, England, and Lismore, Ireland (in connection with the Duke of
Devonshire estates), and latterly (where they died and were buried), of
Great Marlow, Bucks, having previously lived farming near Drummondville,
P.Q., for a few years, when they returned to England. There is every
reason to believe that his father was directly descended from John
Hemming, Shakespeare’s associate and literary executor. An uncle of his
father, the Rev. Samuel Hemming, D.D., was chaplain to the Royal Lodge
of Free and Accepted Masons, and as such intimate with all the then
royal dukes, the Duke of Sussex standing godfather to two of his
children. His father was also uncle to the late Hon. Judge Dunkin,
member of the Privy Council of Canada, etc., etc. (his sister being the
judge’s mother), and also cousin to the late Charles F. Smithers,
president of the Bank of Montreal. After the lapse of about a hundred
years, the two families of Hemming and Smithers have intermarried again,
Walter G. A. Hemming, of Toronto, a nephew of the subject of this
sketch, having lately married a daughter of Charles F. Smithers. Edward
John Hemming was born on the 30th August, 1823, in London, England, that
is to say Clapham, Surrey, and was educated at the Clapham Grammar
School, under the Rev. Charles Pritchard, M.A., a Cambridge wrangler.
Among his schoolmates who have since achieved distinction may be
mentioned the Rev. Dr. Bradley, dean of Westminster Abbey; Sir George
Groves, of Sydenham Palace fame; and his brother, George Wirgman
Hemming, of Lincoln’s Inn, Q.C., lately of Hyde Park, now of South
Kensington, London, late fellow of St. John’s College, Cambridge, senior
wrangler of the university—one of the commissioners named by the
Imperial Parliament for revising the statutes of Cambridge
University;—editor of the “Equity Law Reports” under the council of the
English bar, etc., who married his second cousin, a grand niece of Sir
David Baird, the hero of Seringapatam and Corunna. To show the heredity
of genius we may mention that one of his sons, now in the Royal
Engineers, not only came out first at the final examination at the Royal
Military College, Woolwich, but surpassed the one next to him by more
than a thousand marks. On leaving school in 1839, Mr. Hemming went to
sea as a midshipman, making his two last trips to India in the old East
Indiaman, _Herefordshire_, commanded by Captain Richardson, a cousin. He
left her at Bombay in 1843, to join the _Seyd Khan_, opium clipper
trading to China with a Lascar crew, as second officer, under Captain
Horsburgh, a nephew of the famous Captain Horsburgh of East India
Directory fame. During his voyages, he visited the Cape of Good Hope,
Isle of France, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, Batavia, Hong Kong, Canton,
Amoy, Chusan, Woosing and St. Helena, this latter before the removal of
the great Bonaparte. After remaining in China a couple of years, he
returned home to his father in Ireland in 1845, where he remained
studying farming till 1851. During his residence at Lismore, the Smith
O’Brien rebellion broke out, and he then made acquaintance with Nicholas
O’Gorman, once secretary to the Catholic Emancipation League, under
O’Connell, but then a loyal subject; also of Richard O’Gorman, his
nephew, one of the Young Irelanders; who had to flee the country in
order to escape prosecution for his action in that rebellion. Richard
O’Gorman is now a judge in New York. Liebig’s work on agricultural
chemistry, then lately published, having caused a great sensation, he
turned his attention to the subject, and the Royal Agricultural Society
of England having offered a prize open to all the world on the occasion
of the International Exhibition of 1851, for the best essay on chemistry
applied to agriculture, Mr. Hemming entered the competition and carried
off the prize. This essay may be found in the Parliamentary library at
Ottawa. While attending the International Exhibition in 1851, he met his
cousin, afterwards Judge Dunkin, who prevailed upon him to enter his
office in Montreal as a law student, and he commenced his legal studies
in the office of Bethune & Dunkin in the fall of that year. Among his
fellow students were the Judges Ramsay, and Papineau, and Julius
Scriver, the M.P. for Huntingdon; and he also entered the law course of
McGill College, and in 1855, took his degree of B.C.L., being first in
honours; and in 1871, took his degree of D.C.L. in course. While he was
a law student he was elected president of the Law Students’ Society,
succeeding the late Judge Ramsay of the Court of Queen’s Bench; Judge
Baby, now of the same court, being elected secretary-treasurer. Shortly
after, in May, 1855, he was admitted to the bar, and immediately
returned to England, where, on the 19th July, 1855, he was married to
Sophia Louisa Robinson (a cousin), eldest daughter of the late Thomas
Robinson, of London and Norwood, merchant, and returned to Montreal the
same year, and commenced practising law in partnership with A. H. Lunn.
He was employed by G. W. Wickstead, Q.C., law clerk of the Legislative
Assembly of Canada, on behalf of the government, to compile a digested
index of all the statute law in force from the conquest to that date,
preparatory to a consolidation of the statutes, which work he
accomplished to his satisfaction. In 1851, he entered the active militia
force by joining the Montreal Light Infantry Battalion as second
lieutenant, and served therein for seven years, until he was gazetted
out on leaving limits as unattached, retaining his rank of captain. In
1858, at the suggestion of Judge Dunkin, who, at that time, was member
for Drummond and Arthabaska, and who intended residing in Drummond
county (and his father having just arrived from England and purchased a
farm in the neighbourhood of Drummondville), he left his practice in
Montreal and came to Drummondville, which was then nothing but a
deserted village in the middle of the woods and out of the world,
although practically the _chef-lieu_ of the then newly constituted
district of Arthabaska, the only resident lawyers living there; now,
thanks to the railroad, Drummondville is a thriving village of two
thousand inhabitants, with flourishing manufactures and magnificent
water powers, but has lost its pre-eminence in law since the erection of
a court house at the _chef-lieu_, and the formation of a resident bar at
Arthabaskaville. Mr. Dunkin, however, being defeated afterwards by J. B.
E. Dorion, _l’Enfant Terrible_, obtained a seat in Brome county and
permanently settled in that county at Knowlton. In 1867, on the death of
_l’Enfant Terrible_ (the then member for Drummond and Arthabaska),
shortly before confederation, Mr. Hemming was invited by a large number
of the electors to become a candidate for the Quebec legislature under
confederation, and although he was opposed by the late Judge Dorion (a
brother of _l’Enfant Terrible_), on the Liberal side, and by N. Hébert,
as a French Conservative, he had a majority over both candidates
combined, and stood at the head of the poll with nearly two hundred
majority, and this, notwithstanding that the constituency was
five-sixths French. During that parliament he took a prominent part in
inaugurating the railway fever of that time and the government policy of
subsidizing the railways consequent thereon. He obtained a charter for
what is now the northern branch of the South Eastern Railway, under the
then name of the Richelieu, Drummond and Arthabaska River Railway, one
hundred miles in length; successfully (for every one but himself)
promoted the scheme and constructed the road, was elected president of
the company and gave to L. A. Sénécal the first railway contract he ever
had, and finally transferred the road to the South Eastern Company on
certain conditions which, we regret to say, were never fully carried
out. He also greatly developed the two counties by opening up
colonization roads; and took an active part in revising the municipal
code. During this time he was elected president of the Agricultural
Society of the county of Drummond, No. 1, and held the office until the
society was constituted for the whole county. In 1870, a vacancy
occuring in the lucrative office of prothonotary for the district of
Arthabaska, the Hon. M. Chauveau, the then premier, nominated him to the
same, but a difficulty arising in connection with the Hon. G. Irvine,
who was then solicitor-general in the Chauveau administration, and who
represented a portion of the district, in order to oblige Hon. M.
Chauveau, he finally consented to decline the nomination, and to present
himself once more in 1871 for re-election against the Hon. W. Laurier,
the Liberal candidate, but was defeated by a large majority, principally
on the ground of nationality and railway difficulties. Shortly
afterwards, Mr. Hemming was elected warden of the county of Drummond,
which office he resigned, when two years afterwards, he was appointed
district magistrate (the equivalent of county judge in the other
provinces) for the districts of Arthabaska and St. Francis, in
conjunction with G. E. Rioux, but practically the two districts were
divided, Mr. Hemming taking the former, and Mr. Rioux the latter. About
the same time it was commonly reported in the press and elsewhere, that
he was to be the new Superior Court judge, for the district, as the
representative of the Protestant element among the six new judges, but
at the end the Protestant element was eliminated altogether. While
holding the office of district magistrate he was named sole commissioner
by the Quebec government to investigate and report on the management and
working of the prothonotary’s and other offices in the Montreal
court-house, including the police office. Mr. Bréhaut (a Protestant)
having resigned his office of police magistrate, and received another
appointment in consequence of this report, it was again positively
reported that Mr. Hemming was to be appointed police magistrate in his
stead, but at the very last moment Judge Desnoyers was substituted. In
1878, during Mr. Joly’s short _régime_, when great efforts were made to
introduce the American system, “to the victors belong the spoils,” Mr.
Hemming and thirteen other district magistrates had their commissions
revoked, on the ground of economy, without receiving any indemnity
whatever for the loss of their office, and Mr. Rioux, being a Liberal,
was awarded Mr. Hemming’s district in addition to his own, thus
eliminating the only Protestant on the police bench in the whole
province of Quebec. Strange to say, the succeeding Conservative
administration in Quebec never took any steps either to reinstate or
indemnify Mr. Hemming for the loss of his office, although nearly all
his French colleagues were provided for one way or the other. As he had
to commence his practice anew he retired from public life for some
years; but in 1881, at the urgent request of the local government,
consented to run against the Hon. George Irvine in the Conservative
interest in Megantic, but was again defeated, not having received the
support promised him, and having entered into the contest only a week
before the polling. In this year he was named census commissioner for
the county of Drummond by the Dominion government; and in 1885 revising
officer for the same county under the Franchise Act. Having a short time
previously consented to take a part in municipal matters again, he was
elected mayor of Drummondville and warden of the county for the second
time. He was also elected syndic of the Bar of Arthabaska, which office
he held until his recent appointment as joint prothonotary and Clerk of
the Crown for that district. Mr. Hemming has for some years past been an
associate member of the Protestant Committee of the Council of Public
Instruction for the province of Quebec, where he has been working for
some time past to procure the introduction of religious teaching in the
Protestant public schools, and has so far succeeded as to have the Bible
placed upon the list of authorized text books. In religious matters Mr.
Hemming is a member of the Church of England, and has acted for many
years past as lay reader whenever his services have been required. And
on one occasion in the absence of a clergyman after the church at
Drummondville was destroyed by fire, conducted the services for nearly a
year, and thereby kept the congregation together. He was churchwarden of
St. George’s Church, Drummondville, for eighteen years, and has been
elected a delegate to the Diocesan Synod of Quebec and to the Provincial
Synod since 1862 without any intermission, and during these 25 years has
never failed attending a single session of either of these synods. Mr.
Hemming is old-fashioned enough to believe in the Bible, and
consequently has no faith in Darwinism, secular education or
prohibition. With regard to the latter, he says he cannot bring himself
to believe that the Saviour was a criminal when he made and drank wine
at the marriage feast, nor when he commanded his disciples to drink wine
in his memory at the Lord’s Supper. In politics, he is and has always
been a Conservative, and does not believe in the principles of the
French or American revolutions, nor in the divine right of the people,
and he believes that authority ought to come from above and not from
below. Mr. Hemming cannot understand the theory of allowing the fools to
elect the wise men, nor why a majority should have the right to utterly
crush out the minority, and still less why a small minority that happens
to hold the balance of power under our constitution, should have the
power of controlling the overwhelming majority of the nation. Neither
does he believe in Adam Smith. He has been a protectionist ever since
the times of Sir Robert Peel, D’Israeli and Lord George Bentinck, and
has never seen any occasion to change his opinion, notwithstanding it
was considered rank heresy to say so. After a lifetime he begins to see
signs that the British are beginning to discover that our social system
is founded on the family, each with its own interest (the nation being
merely an extension of that idea), and that until the whole world
becomes one family, the theory of free trade which is based on that idea
must be inapplicable. It will be seen by the foregoing that Mr. Hemming
has led a pretty active life, which may be considered as decidedly
professional, having been a sailor, soldier, farmer, lawyer, legislator,
judge, doctor (in law) and (lay) parson. His sons are taking different
branches of the professions. His eldest son being a law student, another
is in the Canadian army, being a lieutenant in the Infantry School
corps, and a third in the Canadian marine, being second officer on board
of one of the government cruisers for the protection of the fisheries.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=McCosh, John=, Barrister, Orillia, Ontario, was born in Paris, Brant
county, Ontario, on the 6th September, 1844. His father, Robert McCosh,
M.D., was a native of Beith, Ayrshire, Scotland, who graduated at the
University of Edinburgh, and came to Canada in 1834. Shortly after his
arrival he located in Paris, and in a very few years gained a large
medical practice in the county of Brant. He died in 1862. His mother was
a Miss Irwin, of Welland. She was from the north of Ireland, and
emigrated with her mother and brothers about the year 1836. Her brothers
became merchants, and carried on a large business, one in Paris, and the
other in Galt. John McCosh received his education in the Paris High
School, and subsequently studied law in the office of Clark Gamble,
Q.C., Toronto, and afterwards in the office of the present Chief Justice
Cameron. He was enrolled as a solicitor in 1868, and called to the bar
in 1874. Mr. McCosh then opened a law office in Paris, where he
continued to practise his profession for about two years, and in 1871
removed to Orillia, where he has since resided, and has succeeded in
building up a lucrative business. Apart from his professional duties,
Mr. McCosh has found time to devote a good deal of his time to the
public good, and in appreciation of his disinterested services, his
fellow-townsmen elected him, on different occasions, to the highest
office in their gift, and he accordingly filled the office of mayor in
the years 1881, 1882, and in 1886. He was also, in 1886, nominated for
the Ontario legislature by the Liberal-Conservatives of East Simcoe, but
afterwards withdrew from the canvass, he having failed to agree with the
party on the “Protestant” and “Prohibition” cries. Mr. McCosh is a
rising man, and we hope to see him some day in the legislature of his
country. He is married to Mary Stanton, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel
Stanton, postmaster of Paris.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Norman, Rev. Richard Whitmore=, M.A., D.C.L., Christ Church Cathedral,
Montreal, was born at Southborough, Kent, England, on 24th April, 1829.
His father was Richard Norman, merchant, of London, son of George
Norman, a large landed proprietor of Bromley, Kent, England; and his
mother, Emma Stone, was a daughter of George Stone, of Chiselhurst,
Kent, head of the oldest private banking house in London, now Martin &
Co., 68 Lombard street. The subject of our sketch, Rev. Dr. Norman, was
educated at King’s College, London, and afterwards at Exeter College,
Oxford; and was, in 1852, ordained deacon, and priest in 1853. He was
curate of St. Thomas, Oxford, in 1852; fellow of Radley College, 1853;
fellow and head master of St. Michael’s College, Tenbury, 1857; and
warden of Radley College, 1861 to 1866. In consequence of hard work his
health became impaired, and he left England in 1866, in the hope that a
short sojourn in Canada would do him good. He had not been long on this
side the Atlantic when his health began to improve, and family
circumstances prompted him to make Canada his future home. Previous to
his coming here he had but slight experience in strictly ministerial
work, his principal labours in England having been connected with higher
education; but since then he has heartily thrown himself into pastoral
work, without having entirely abandoned education. In 1868 he was
appointed assistant at St. John the Evangelist’s Church, Montreal;
assistant at St. James the Apostle’s Church, 1872; rector of St.
Matthias Church, 1883; and is now (1887) canon assistant of Christ
Church Cathedral. Rev. Dr. Norman was, in 1878, a member of the council
and vice-chancellor of the University of Bishop’s College; a member of
the Protestant School Board in 1879, and chairman of the same in 1880;
vice-president of the Montreal Art Association in 1882, and president in
1887; vice-president of the Montreal Philharmonic Society in 1879;
member of the Protestant Committee of Public Instruction in 1883; hon.
clerical secretary of the Anglican Provincial Synod in 1880; and in 1882
was elected a fellow of McGill College, Montreal. Rev. Dr. Norman
belongs to the Masonic fraternity, and occupied the position of
worshipful master of Apollo University lodge, Oxford, in 1861-1863, and
the same office in Abingdon lodge in 1864. He was also eminent commander
of encampment Cœur-de-Lion, Oxford, 1858. Rev. Dr. Norman has published
several volumes of sermons, and various pamphlets, which have been well
received by the public. He is still in the prime of life, and we hope
has many years of usefulness still before him. He has always been a
member of the Anglican communion, and is unmarried.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Rice, Charles=, Registrar of the High Court of Justice, etc., Perth,
Ontario, was born on the 7th of November, 1822, in the township of
Drummond, in the county of Lanark, about two miles from the town of
Perth, which then contained but a few log buildings used chiefly for
government stores, the settlement being composed of discharged soldiers
and their families located by the government at the close of the
American war of 1812. His father, John Rice, was born in the county
Down, Ireland, at or near Newry, and was descended from a collateral
branch of the Monteagle family. Returning home from school one afternoon
when about sixteen years old, he was kidnapped by the press-gang and
forced on board a British man-of-war bound on a cruise for the coast of
Newfoundland and Gulf of St. Lawrence. He continued on board ship doing
duty as a sailor, until the American war broke out, when he left the
vessel and enlisted as a private soldier in the Newfoundland Fencibles
and took part in the battles of Chrysler’s Farm, Stoney Creek,
Burlington Heights, and other engagements. He was promoted to the rank
of sergeant, was wounded at Burlington Heights, and at the close of the
war got his discharge with a pension and a grant of land. He had married
Hannah Van Boeler, then the widow of John Woodlands, who had been killed
in battle. She was born at Annapolis, Nova Scotia, of Dutch parents who
had emigrated from the Netherlands and settled at Annapolis. They were
descended from those sturdy and brave Dutchmen who had battled for their
liberty for forty years against the colossal power of Spain under
Phillip II. John Rice, through hard work, had effected a considerable
clearance on his lot, and was prospering apace, when one summer, at the
latter end of August, the barn in which all the produce of the farm had
been stored, took fire and was burned down with all its contents, and he
had to run in debt to the late Hon. R. Matheson for supplies to support
the family for an entire year. This debt accumulated in Matheson’s books
at compound interest at ten per cent., and in a few years Matheson got a
deed of the farm, with a verbal understanding to re-convey when the debt
should be paid off, which was never done in the lifetime of John Rice.
Born and brought up in a log shanty, in what was then the backwoods, the
subject of this sketch, Charles Rice, had but a poor chance of getting
any education. There were no public schools, no free schools, in those
days; and at intervals he was sent to a private school kept in Perth by
the late Mr. Hudson, and afterwards to another kept by the late Dawson
Kerr. On arriving at the age of fourteen Mr. Rice had been at school for
about two years in all, and had only acquired some knowledge of reading,
writing, and arithmetic. When about twelve years old, in the month of
November, he hired out at six dollars a month to burn coal to earn money
to buy himself a pair of boots for the winter. The following year, in
the beginning of December, he hired as bookkeeper with Aaron Chambers,
who had a lumber shanty, taking out oak timber near Peter McArthur’s, in
the township of Beckwith. He started on foot and walked to Franktown,
fifteen miles, and arrived there at dark only to find that he had five
miles farther to go to reach the shanty, through a section of country
and bush roads that he knew nothing about; but by following closely the
directions given him, he succeeded in finding the place some two or
three hours after dark. This was Saturday night. Chambers had hired him
to keep his books, and on Sunday informed him that besides keeping the
books he would have to cook for the men and chop the fire-wood. This he
refused to do, and on Monday morning left the shanty and footed it home.
He continued to work on the farm until about sixteen years old, when he
was apprenticed to James Thompson (the present sheriff), to learn the
printing business in the old _Bathurst Courier_ office (now the _Perth
Courier_). This was in May, 1839. About two years and a half after this,
in the beginning of winter, he left the _Courier_ office, took the stage
to Brockville, thence by stage to Kingston (there were no railroads in
those days), and arrived there at night penniless but not despairing.
The Kingston _News_ had just been started by S. and J. Rowlands, and he
got work on this newspaper. The following summer he returned home, his
father having died in the meantime, and worked for about two years
longer in the _Courier_ office. Ere he had been a year in the _Courier_,
for the first time, he became convinced that if he was to succeed in the
printing business, he must acquire a better education than he then had.
A young lawyer in town, Henry Sache, who was sometimes hard up through
nobody’s fault but his own, offered to sell him a Latin dictionary
cheap. He closed the bargain and bought it, and at once determined to
study Latin. The reader will no doubt smile when informed that he
commenced his studies by committing the Latin dictionary to memory! A
few evenings afterwards Mr. Sache, coming in and finding him intent at
the dictionary, asked what he was doing. He replied that he had
commenced to study Latin, and was learning the dictionary off by heart.
His visitor smiled, and informed him that he would never learn the
language that way—that he must get a Latin grammar, study that, and
then commence to translate. But where was he to get a Latin grammar?
Sache had sold his, and there was none for sale in Perth. The nearest
place was Brockville; and so he got the stage-driver on his next trip to
buy him one and bring it out, and how he exulted over the possession of
that book! Every spare moment was thenceforth devoted to study, and with
some assistance that he got from Ephraim Patterson, who was then
studying for the church, he made pretty rapid progress. This intercourse
with Patterson had induced in him a desire to study for the Church of
England ministry. He talked the matter over with the late Rev. Michael
Harris, and on a confirmation visit to Perth, he had an interview with
Bishop Strachan on the subject. They both approved his decision, and
while offering words of encouragement, pointed out the great
difficulties that would have to be overcome, the subjects that would
require to be studied and mastered before he could take a college degree
and qualify for holy orders. Nothing daunted, the young man determined
to persevere—what others had done he could do—it was only a question
of time. He now reduced his course of studies to a system. He had to
work ten hours a day in the printing office to support himself; so he
rose at four o’clock in the morning, winter and summer, and studied
Greek till six, when work commenced at type-setting. Of the breakfast
hour and dinner hour he devoted forty minutes of each to the study of
Euclid. From seven till ten p.m. was devoted to the study of Latin. Of
course, his health occasionally broke down under this severe strain and
compelled a short cessation, but only to be resumed again. Kingston was
the seat of government when young Rice went there the second time and
got work in the _News_ office. Parliament opened in the fall, and Dr.
Barker, of the _British Whig_, secured the contract for the government
printing; and as he offered higher wages than the _News_ was paying,
young Rice entered the _Whig_ office on the parliamentary work. Lord
Metcalfe was governor at the time, and quarrelled with his ministers
(Baldwin, Lafontaine, Rolph, etc.), on the question of responsible
government. The ministry resigned, parliament was dissolved, the work in
the _Whig_ office stopped, and a lot of journeyman printers, young Rice
among the rest, were thrown out of work, and he concluded to return to
Perth, which at that time and at that season of the year was no easy
matter. A small steamer, the last of the season, was advertised to leave
Kingston for Brockville, and on this steamer he took passage and left in
the afternoon, arriving in Brockville about four o’clock the next
morning; the steamer’s paddle-wheels having got so coated with ice as to
render progress difficult and slow. From Brockville he took the stage to
Perth, a two-wheeled cart drawn by two horses, and the journey to Perth
in that cart over rough and hard frozen roads, on a cold December day,
was one not soon to be forgotten. Once more in Perth, he engaged with
Mr. Thompson to work on the _Courier_ half time, an arrangement which
just suited him, as it gave him means enough to live on, and afforded
ample time to pursue his studies. And here it may be as well to mention
that while living in Kingston, a Frenchman from Paris, who was giving
private lessons in French in the city, came to board in the same house.
This was an opportunity not to be lost, and young Rice at once entered
on the study of the French language, and worked at it diligently every
evening after tea; and when he left Kingston six months after, he could
read, write, and speak French with tolerable fluency. The arrangement
with Mr. Thompson was only temporary, as Mr. Thompson entered upon the
study of law in the office of the late W. O. Buell, and took Mr. Rice
into partnership to manage and conduct the _Courier_ business, as Mr.
Thompson’s name had to be dropped from the paper on signing articles as
a law student. At this time Mr. Rice entered upon his career as a
journalist, his political articles, however, being revised by Mr.
Thompson. The partnership continued until the first of January, 1852,
when Mr. Thompson, having been appointed sheriff of the county of
Lanark, sold out the _Courier_ printing office to Mr. Rice, who
continued to publish and edit the paper, having changed the name to the
_Perth Courier_, until the first of January, 1863, when he sold out to
the late G. L. Walker, brother of the present publisher and editor, Jas.
M. Walker, and thenceforth ceased all connection with political
journalism. In May, 1862, the Canadian parliament was in session in
Quebec, and Sir John A. Macdonald’s ministry was defeated by a small
majority, and the late John Sanfield Macdonald was called upon to found
a new ministry, which he succeeded in doing. At this time the office of
County Court clerk, deputy-clerk of the Crown, and registrar of
Surrogate Court was vacant by the death of the late C. H. Sache. On the
change of government, and the reform party coming into power, Mr. Rice
at once applied for the office, and on the 10th of June was appointed to
fill the vacancy, and which office he still holds (May, 1886). In 1864
Mr. Rice was appointed by the Hon. John Sanfield Macdonald to the
commission of the peace. In 1856 he bought out the book and stationery
store of Wm. Allan, but after continuing the business for two years, and
finding it did not succeed to his satisfaction, wound it up and again
confined his attention exclusively to the newspaper business. During his
connection with the press, Mr. Rice was a strong and pronounced advocate
of reform principles and responsible government, his political
editorials on the questions of the day being often copied into other
journals. The legislative union between Upper and Lower Canada did not
work well, owing to differences in sectional interests, race and
religion. Among the many schemes proposed to make the machinery of
government work more smoothly, and allay sectional jealousies, was the
one known as the “double majority” principle, advocated by John Sanfield
Macdonald, and opposed by George Brown and the _Globe_. Mr. Macdonald’s
scheme was that all measures purely local to Lower Canada should be
dealt with by Lower Canadian members exclusively; and those purely local
to Upper Canada, by Upper Canada members exclusively; while general
measures affecting the whole province should be dealt with by the united
parliament as a whole. Mr. Rice, in the editorial columns of the
_Courier_, supported Mr. Macdonald’s scheme. Confederation came shortly
after, and partly solved the problem. During his connection with the
press, Mr. Rice took an active part in all the election contests and
political movements in the county of Lanark. He gave the influence of
the paper in supporting the Brockville and Ottawa Railway scheme, which
has since developed into the great Canadian Pacific Railway. He was the
first to advocate the construction of plank roads in the county of
Lanark, resulting in the formation of a company, and making the plank
road from Perth to Lanark, which has since become macadamised. He was
ever foremost in advocating schemes of public enterprise and
improvement. Since his retirement from journalism, Mr. Rice has
contributed several articles on various subjects of a non-political
nature to the public press, which have appeared in the _Liberal_, the
_National_, the _Week_, the _Globe_, _Canadian Monthly_, and local
papers. Probably those that have attracted most attention are his
articles against prohibitory liquor laws, and notably, the Scott Act.
Mr. Rice was brought up in the Church of England faith, was baptized by
the Rev. M. Harris, and confirmed by Bishop Strachan. He was a constant
attendant at that church, but his outspoken advocacy of reform
principles in his newspaper exasperated some of the more hot-headed
tories; and one Sunday morning, on going to church, he was confronted
with a placard stuck up on the church door denouncing and libelling him
on account of his political opinions. He never entered the church again,
and joined the Presbyterian Free church. While pursuing his studies for
the ministry he had access to the theological library of the Rev. M.
Harris, and read the best standard works on church history and Christian
evidences, as well as the doctrinal standards of the church. The
evidence and arguments contained in these works, however, did not
satisfy him—he felt that there was a weakness and a want running
through them—something ignored that ought to have appeared; and he
determined to see and know the other side and sift the matter to the
bottom. With this view, he purchased and read the latest modern works on
Christian evidences and Biblical criticism—Strauss, Renan, the Jubingen
school, Dr. Davidson, Mackay, Kimberly, Greig, and many others; and the
scientific works of Darwin, Spencer, Huxly, Lyell, Tyndall, Buchner,
Heckel, Combe, Lubbick, Fiske, and many others, and finally, after many
years of study and research, settled down into a confirmed Agnostic. The
knowledge he had acquired of the Latin, Greek, and French languages was
of great service to him in his reading and studies. On the 18th of
April, 1848, he married Grace Murray, daughter of the late James Murray,
a native of Paisley, Scotland, who had emigrated to this country and
settled in the township of Lanark. Brought up in the backwoods like
himself, her educational acquirements were not much, and, like himself,
she was chiefly self-taught; but she naturally possessed more than an
average share of strong, sound, practical common sense—invaluable
qualities in a woman; and her sound, sensible advice prudently given and
judiciously acted upon many times proved of great value to her husband
in surmounting business difficulties. Five children were born of the
marriage, two sons and three daughters. The oldest son, John Albert,
grew up to be a young man of promise. At the age of eighteen he was
attending the Military School at Toronto, when the Fenian raid occurred,
and accompanied the volunteers to Ridgeway. On their return to Toronto
he was presented by the volunteers with a silver-headed cane, with
suitable inscription, as a token of their appreciation of the services
he had rendered. He afterwards published and edited the _Paris
Transcript_, in the county of Brant, for about two years, but failing
health compelled him to abandon it, and shortly after his return home he
died. One daughter, Jeanetta, died at the age of fourteen of heart
disease. The oldest daughter, Carrie Elizabeth, married Joseph Lamont,
proprietor of the Headquarters hotel in the city of Fargo, Dakota, where
the youngest daughter, Ida, in November, 1883, died from accidental
poisoning, on the eve of her marriage to Charles Scott, now mayor of the
city of Fargo. The youngest son, James M., is working at the printing
business in Chicago. So that all Mr. Rice’s posterity seem destined to
be citizens of the United States. Unaided and unassisted from any person
or any quarter, by indomitable perseverance and a determination to
succeed, Mr. Rice worked his way up from a log shanty in the woods to
his present position of local registrar of the High Court of Justice. He
never wholly failed in anything he undertook to do. If he had to cross a
mountain and could not climb it, he would go around. Although it is
twenty-three years since he retired from journalism, Mr. Rice’s name is
still retained on the books of the Canadian Press Association.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Taylor, Henry=, Hardware Merchant, Perth, Ontario, one of our young and
pushing business men, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on the 9th of
June, 1845. His father was Robert Taylor, merchant, Edinburgh; and his
mother, Margaret, eldest daughter of William Darling, also a merchant in
Edinburgh. Mr. Taylor, jr., was educated at private schools in his
native city, and received a sound mercantile education. His father died
when he was about ten years of age, and on the death of his mother in
the spring of 1863 he, along with his brother William (now a merchant in
Toronto), arrived in Montreal. Until 1872 he held positions in several
of the leading hardware houses there, when he purchased the hardware
business in Perth, county of Lanark, which he is now successfully
carrying on. Mr. Taylor, for six years, belonged to the Victoria Rifles,
Montreal, and served with his corps at Huntingdon, Quebec province,
during the Fenian troubles of 1866. In politics Mr. Taylor is a
Reformer; and in religion an adherent of the Presbyterian church. He was
married, in Montreal, on the 5th November, 1868, to Sarah A., eldest
daughter of Rev. Samuel Massey, and has a family of seven children, five
daughters and two sons.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Milligan, Rev. George Macbeth=, B.A., Pastor of Old St. Andrew’s
Presbyterian Church, Toronto. This rising and popular divine was born at
Wick, Caithnessshire, Scotland, on the 11th of August, 1841, and when a
mere lad came to Canada, and shortly after his arrival the family made
Kingston their home. His parents were William Milligan and Catharine
Macbeth. George received the first rudiments of his education at
Pulteney Academy, Wick, and for some time after his arrival in this
country he devoted himself to mechanical pursuits, but finding his
inclinations lay in another direction, resolved to educate himself for
the ministry, and with this object in view he entered Queen’s College,
Kingston, and from this seat of learning he graduated in 1862, taking
the first place in all his classes, and highest honours as a B.A. On the
4th of February, 1868, he was ordained to the ministry, and his first
charge was at English Settlement, about fourteen miles distant from
London, Ontario, and in this charge he remained until July, 1869, when
he was called to Detroit. Here he laboured until the fall of 1876, doing
good work for the Master, and making for himself many friends in the
church, which in a great degree was built up under his pastorate. In
1876 Old St. Andrew’s Church, Toronto, was without a pastor, and the
members invited the young preacher to cast in his lot with them. He
therefore left Detroit and came to Toronto, and in October of that year
he took charge of the congregation. At this time Old St. Andrew’s Church
was in a weak condition, the greater part of its members having left the
old building and gone with the Rev. Mr. Macdonnell, who for several
years had preached in it, to the new St. Andrew’s Church, erected on the
corner of King and Simcoe streets. Therefore Mr. Milligan had a hard
task before him but he resolved to do his best to keep together the
members that remained in the old church edifice, which was situated on
the corner of Church and Adelaide streets. At this time the membership
only numbered forty-eight persons, but he went to work, and in a very
short time enthused his people to such an extent—the membership and
congregation having considerably increased in the meantime—that they
resolved to abandon the old building and erect a more handsome one on
the corner of Jarvis and Carlton streets, which was soon done, and the
Rev. Mr. Milligan had the satisfaction of taking possession of the new
pulpit in March, 1878. Since then everything has progressed most
satisfactorily, and he can now boast of having one of the largest and
most influential congregations in the city. Its present membership is
500, and last year the congregation raised, for all purposes, $15,000.
But Rev. Mr. Milligan did not confine himself entirely to his duties as
pastor. He found the Ministerial Association in a very languid
condition, and he resolved to raise it to more vigorous action. He was
elected its president during the second year of its existence, and under
his presidency it began to be recognised as a power for good in the
community, and to-day it exerts an influence far beyond its narrow city
bounds. He has also been connected in Toronto with various other public
associations, such as temperance, and that for the suppression of crime.
He was for years one of the examiners in connection with the
intermediate examinations; has been invited by the trustees of Queen’s
College, Kingston, to become lecturer on Church history; and for a long
time has occupied a position in the Senate of Knox College, and taken a
prominent part as an examiner in the same institution. During the
election campaign in Ontario, in 1886, he took a prominent part in the
discussion then raging with regard to Roman Catholic interference in the
Central prison, and in educational matters in our public schools, and
helped to clear the atmosphere, to a considerable degree, of the fog
some of our politicians attempted to introduce into the controversy.
Rev. Mr. Milligan, though a busy man, often finds time to communicate
his thoughts through the columns of the newspapers and magazines, and a
short time ago the Executive committee of the Foreign Mission Board of
his church induced him to write a series of letters to the _Globe_ on
the foreign mission work of the Presbyterian Church, which attracted
considerable attention at the time. Several of his sermons have been
published, and have been well received, and his articles on scientific
and ecclesiastical subjects in the magazines always find readers. During
his summer vacations he frequently visits Britain. In 1881 he made an
extensive tour through Europe, first visiting Britain, and penetrating
as far north as John o’ Groat’s, which, by the way, is not very far from
where he was born, and then travelled through France from Dieppe to
Marseilles, along the shores of the Mediterranean through Cannes to
Geneva, where he remained some time, and afterwards visited Paris, Pisa,
Florence, Venice and Milan. While on this trip he took copious notes of
what he saw, and afterwards embodied them in a course of lectures which
he delivered in Toronto, and other places in Ontario, to large and
appreciative audiences. He is also familiar with the greater portion of
the Dominion from Prince Edward Island to Calgary in the North-West
Territory. Rev. Mr. Milligan, it is needless to say, has been from his
youth up a Presbyterian, and is conservative in some of his views on
theology; yet he is in deep sympathy with many of the other branches of
the Christian church. On the 19th November, 1867, he was married to
Harriet Eunice Rowse, of Bath, Ontario. This lady is descended from the
U. E. loyalists, who settled on the Bay of Quinté, and her grandfather
was one of the elders of the Rev. Mr. McDowell, the founder of
Presbyterianism in Western Canada. The fruit of the union is one son and
three daughters.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Wilson, Rev. Robert=, St. John, New Brunswick, was born on the 18th of
February, 1833, in Fort George, Scotland. His father, Peter Wilson, was
a sergeant in the 93rd Highlanders, and saw service during the reigns of
Kings George IV., William IV., and Queen Victoria. He came to Canada
with his regiment previous to the rebellion of 1837-38, and helped as a
true British soldier to suppress it. At Toronto, in 1841, he got his
discharge, and then went to Prince Edward Island, where he resided until
his death. He was for many years a Methodist local preacher, and died on
the 24th of April, 1883. Robert received his educational training at the
public school, New Glasgow Road, and at the Central Academy,
Charlottetown (now the Prince of Wales College). After leaving school he
adopted the profession of teacher, and taught a district school for some
years. During this time, and since, he has taken an active part in
everything that has a tendency to elevate his fellow man—politics,
temperance, and religion. He was foremost in the advocacy of the
confederation of the provinces, using the platform and the press in its
advocacy; of temperance, in divisions and the lodge-room, having held
the position of W. P. in the Sons of Temperance, and W. C. and chaplain
in the Order of Good Templars; and of religion by his pulpit
ministrations and practical Christian life. Rev. Mr. Wilson is a warm
advocate of Imperial federation, having been one of the first, if not
the very first, in the Maritime provinces to press it upon the public
attention. As a writer and lecturer on secular subjects he occupies a
front position. His lectures rank high as thoughtful literary efforts,
and his sermons are generally admired. In short, there is no minister of
any denomination down by the sea who has more friends within and beyond
his own church, or who so frequently and cheerfully responds to the
calls of lecture committees. In politics, Mr. Wilson is a
Liberal-Conservative, and had editorial charge of _The New Brunswick
Reporter_, of _The Albert County Advocate_, and _The Maple Leaf_. He has
also for years been a regular contributor to several newspapers. He has
written and published several books, among others, “Tried but True,” 300
pages; and “Never Give Up,” 300 pages (works well spoken of by the
provincial press), besides, “Judea and the Jews,” “British North
America,” and “Britain among the Nations,” in pamphlet form. He has
travelled extensively through Canada, New England, and as a Dominion
immigration agent in Great Britain. Mr. Wilson was brought up in the
faith of the Kirk of Scotland, but since 1851 he has been connected with
the Methodist church. He entered the ministry in 1853, and has been
chairman of the Sackville and St. John districts of the New Brunswick
Conference, Secretary of the conference for five sessions, and first
delegate in the General conference held in Toronto in 1886. He was
strongly opposed to the basis of union by which the various Methodist
bodies were made one, especially to the general superintendency, because
of its tendencies to Prelacy, and its curtailment of the privileges of
the Annual conference. He believed in the unification of the
non-Episcopal Methodist churches, but thought it wiser to allow the
Episcopal to work out their destiny in their own way, than to grant the
concession demanded, which meant the complete revolutionizing of the
Wesleyan economy. Rev. Mr. Wilson was married on the 7th of February,
1856, to Mary Anne Lane, daughter of William Ford, Prince Edward Island,
formerly of Ring’s Ash, Devonshire, England. The fruit of this marriage
is five daughters and one son. The latter, Albert Edward, is an officer
in the postal service at Fredericton, New Brunswick. We may add that the
Rev. Mr. Wilson was elected president of the New Brunswick and Prince
Edward Island Conference in June, 1887.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Wallis, Herbert=, Montreal, Mechanical Superintendent of the Grand
Trunk Railway of Canada, was born at Derby, England, on March 10th,
1844, and comes of a family long resident in Derby, whose head was for
several generations engaged in the business of stage-coaching. His
father, William Wallace Wallis, abandoned the business on the advent of
railways, and became one of the carriers or cartage agents of the
Midland Railway, from which he retired, in favour of one of his sons,
some years prior to his death. Herbert Wallis was educated at the
Commercial College, near Halifax, England, and here he was specially
trained in that branch of the engineering profession which he now
follows. On the completion of his education he entered the service of
the Midland Railway Company as a pupil of Matthew Kirtley, then
locomotive superintendent, and was engaged in the drawing office and
workshops of that railway at Derby till August, 1866, at which date he
was appointed foreman of the locomotive and carriage departments at
Bradford, Yorkshire. In March, 1871, he accepted the position offered to
him by Mr. Richard Potter (the then president), of assistant mechanical
superintendent of the Grand Trunk Railway Company, and sailed for
Montreal on May 4th of that year; and in January, 1873, he was appointed
chief mechanical superintendent. Mr. Wallis is a member of the
Institution of Civil Engineers, and of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers of England, and one of the council of the Canadian Society of
Civil Engineers. He is a staunch supporter of the Church of England. He
married Mary Ellen, eldest daughter of the late Thomas Walklate,
formerly goods manager of the Midland Railway Company, in August, 1870.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Long, Thomas=, Merchant, Collingwood, county of Simcoe, Ontario, was
born in the county of Limerick, Ireland, on the 7th of April, 1836, and
is the son of Thomas and Margaret Long. After procuring such education
as he was able at the national school of his native village, he
emigrated to this country when he was fourteen years old, arriving in
the year 1850, and apprenticed himself to the general mercantile
business with P. O’Shea, of Mono Centre, for a term of three years,
during which he acquired such further educational advantages as could be
obtained from time to time by attendance at the public school and by
private study. On the expiration of his engagement with Mr. O’Shea, in
the spring of 1853, Mr. Long came to Nottawasaga, and worked on the
Northern Railway, then under construction, for about twelve months,
after which he obtained another situation in a general store, which he
held up to the 1st of December, 1858, when he embarked on his own
account as a general merchant and buyer of grain and produce. In 1865 he
was joined by his brother, John Joseph Long, and the firm thus formed
traded under the style of T. Long & Brother. In 1868 a branch store was
opened at Stayner, Simcoe county, and the business was carried on in
this place under the name of Long Brothers & Gartlan, and in 1870
another branch was opened at Thornbury, Grey county. This enterprising
firm, of which Thomas Long is now the senior partner, soon developed a
wholesale trade, and they became large direct importers, which has since
necessitated frequent visits of Mr. Long and his partners to the markets
of Europe. In 1871 they erected fine new premises at Collingwood, which
were unfortunately destroyed by fire in September, 1881, only, however,
to be replaced by more commodious premises, in which the firm now
carries on its principal business. In 1874 the firm erected, in
connection with their business operations at Stayner, a flour mill,
which proved a successful venture. Mr. Long has always taken the lead in
all local enterprises carried on with the view of developing the
business of the town and port of Collingwood. He was associated as
stockholder and director with the late F. W. Cumberland, W. E. Sandford,
and others in the establishment of the Lake Superior Navigation Company,
which built the first steamer—_The Cumberland_—which traded with the
Lake Superior ports. He was also one of the leading promoters of the
Georgian Bay Transportation Company, and has otherwise greatly helped to
promote the lake trade of his adopted country. Mr. Long served seven
years in the town council, and eight years as a member of the Ontario
legislature, in the Conservative interest, and is at present president
of the North Simcoe Conservative Association. In addition to his
business connection with the firm of T. Long & Bro., he has also the
honours and responsibilities of the following public offices:
vice-president and managing director of the Merritton Cotton Mill
Company, Merritton; director of the Bank of London in Canada;
secretary-treasurer of the Great Northern Transit Company; president of
the Farmers’ North-West Land and Colonization Company; and president of
the Great Northern Exhibition Company. Mr. Long is a member of the Roman
Catholic church. He was married on the 13th of May, 1861, to Ann Patton,
daughter of the late Charles Patton, builder, of Collingwood, by whom he
has had fourteen children, of whom six are now living—three sons and
three daughters.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Hall, Francis Alexander=, Barrister, Perth, Ontario, was born in the
town of Perth, county of Lanark, Ontario, on 9th August, 1843. His
father, Francis Hall, was a native of Clackmannanshire, Scotland, who
came to Canada in 1831, and settled in Lanark. His mother, Mary
McDonnell, was also a native of Scotland, having been born in Greenock.
Francis Alexander Hall received his education at the Perth Public and
Grammar schools. After leaving school he spent about a year and a-half
as a clerk with a general merchant, but disliking the business he
resolved to make law his profession, and with this object in view
entered, in 1860, the law office of the late W. M. Shaw, of Perth. Here
he prosecuted his studies, and in August, 1866, was admitted as an
attorney, and in May, 1868, was called to the bar. In November, 1867, he
entered into partnership with Mr. Shaw, but this gentleman having died
in December 30, 1868, Mr. Hall continued the business. In October, 1875,
he formed a partnership with Edward Elliott, under the name of Hall and
Elliott; but this arrangement only continued until October, 1878, when
Mr. Elliott retired. In April, 1885, he took J. W. Berryman into
partnership, but this partner dying in November, 1885, he once more
conducts the business on his own account. Mr. Hall was made a Mason in
True Britains’ lodge, No. 12, A. F. and A. M., in April, 1872. He is one
of the charter members of Perth lodge, No. 190, A.O.U.W., and was
elected master this year (1887). Mr. Hall has taken a deep interest in
educational matters, and was elected a High School trustee in 1870. He
has been a member of the Board of Education of Perth since 1870, and is
now chairman of that board. He has also taken an interest in municipal
matters, and occupied a seat in the town council in 1873, 1874, 1875 and
1876, and was mayor of Perth in 1881 and 1882. Mr. Hall has always been
a Conservative in politics; and in religion he belongs to the Episcopal
denomination. He is married to Harriet Frances, daughter of Lewis
Dunham, a descendant of a U. E. loyalist who settled near Maitland.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Wild, Rev. Joseph=, M.A., D.D., Pastor of Bond street Congregational
Church, Toronto, was born at Summit, Littleborough, Lancashire, England,
on the 16th of November, 1834. He was the youngest of five children. His
father, Joseph Wild, was one of the best of men—a thorough practical
Christian, who was respected by all classes of the community in which he
lived. It was a notable fact that no one passed from time to eternity
without the prayers of Joseph Wild first being sought, and no funeral
was considered complete without his being present at the ceremony. He
dressed plainly, following the style of Bourne and Clowes, and other
noted founders of the Primitive Methodist church. In manner he was
simple, easily approached, kind, sympathetic, generous, and
affectionate. His greatest concern seemed to be for children and aged
people, and on all occasions he had a kind word to say to them as he
passed through the streets or from his home to the chapel. As a preacher
he was plain and conversational, his object seeming to be to show the
best and nearest way to Heaven without the interposition of too many
stiles. When he died his funeral was the largest ever seen in the
village, and to this day his memory is revered. Rev. Dr. Wild’s mother
was a kind and quiet woman, and lived to do her duty to God and her
household, set her children a good example, and died in the favour and
affection of her neighbours and kinsfolk. Coming from such a stock, we
need not wonder that the doctor should now possess such a power in the
pulpit and among the people. At an early age he began to earn a
livelihood, and was apprenticed to the business of iron moulder and
machinist. It is perhaps in consequence of the knowledge acquired in the
workshop that he is now enabled to give occasionally such plain and
practical illustrations, as the following will show: While he resided in
Belleville, a fire having broken out, the fire engine would not work,
and every one in the neighbourhood got alarmed and feared an explosion
of steam—even the engineer deserted his post, and left the machine to
its fate. The doctor, however, felt no alarm, and going to the engine
made an examination and found that the piston rod had stuck, and at once
put it to rights amidst the applause of the multitude, and for this the
mayor and corporation passed him a hearty vote of thanks. Rev. Dr. Wild,
although he had not all the educational advantages the young people of
this country have, yet he was always considered sharp and intelligent,
and when first licensed as a local preacher, was able to give the people
something worth listening to. He was possessed of indomitable
perseverance, and early adopted the motto, “What man has done, man can
do again.” Possessed of an active brain, quick perception, a strong
physical constitution, and a warm heart, England became too contracted
for him, and he felt that Canada alone would be sufficient to satisfy
his wishes and desires for thorough usefulness in the cause of God and
humanity. Therefore, in 1855 he left fatherland, and made his home among
strangers. Few men have landed in America under more unfavourable
circumstances. He had no friends to meet him, and very little money in
his pocket when he landed in New York. Shortly after his arrival he
started on a tramp through some of the western and southern states, and
having satisfied his curiosity with regard to those places, he resolved
to see what Canada was like, and visit some friends who had lately
arrived from the old country. With this desire he started, and soon
reached the country of his successes and his triumphs. Here he became
the subject of impressions convincing in their tendency, that it was his
duty to thoroughly consecrate himself to the work of the ministry, and
from that time he resolved to devote himself to the preaching of the
gospel. He was denominationally connected with the Methodist Episcopal
Church in Canada, and received from it his first station in the city of
Hamilton. After having served about a year in this place, he began to
feel the great importance of the “high calling”—wished to be a minister
of power, “rightly dividing the word of truth,” and believed that God’s
work was a grand work calling for good, holy, and educated men. Being
poor, he had not the means at his disposal to enable him to carry out
his aspirations, but a friend kindly aided with money. He then made all
the necessary arrangements, and went to the Boston Theological
Institute, where he remained several years, and completed his course of
literary, classical, and theological studies, graduating from that
institution. On leaving college, he made arrangements to enter the
Methodist church, South, but in consequence of the breaking out of the
southern rebellion he was forced to abandon the idea. He then returned
to Canada, and after having preached at Goderich for a year, he sailed
for Europe, determined to gather up information from the various learned
institutes of the eastern continent, and thereby prepare himself for a
wider sphere of usefulness. In England, after his return there, he
lectured and preached on many occasions, and was a wonder to the friends
who had known him before he went to America. On his return from Europe,
he received a station at Orono, where he preached for two years, and
from this place he moved to Belleville, the seat of Albert University,
where he remained about eight years. At this time the Genesee College
conferred upon him the degree of M.A., and the Ohio Wesleyan University
that of D.D. While stationed at Belleville, Rev. Dr. Wild did double
work, acting as pastor of the Methodist Church and professor of Oriental
languages in the university. At the time he went to Belleville the
university was greatly embarrassed for want of funds, but he undertook
the position of treasurer, and through preaching and lecturing succeeded
in raising $20,000, and put the institution on a firm footing. During
the years he was engaged at this work he refused to take one cent as
remuneration for his services as professor or treasurer. Belleville to
this day remembers him with pride, and the poor of the place with
gratitude for the many kindnesses he showed them while he went in and
out among them. Too close application to his many duties, and the loss
of his valuable library and manuscripts by fire, wrought heavily on his
mind, and he resolved to leave Belleville and re-visit Europe. In 1872,
while preparing to leave, he was appointed a delegate from the Church in
Canada to the conference of the Methodist church of the United States,
which was to be held in the city of Brooklyn the same year. While
attending this conference the doctor was invited to preach in the
Seventh avenue Methodist Episcopal Church, and having done so, the
congregation decided on giving him a call, which he accepted. Having
served them three years, he then accepted a call from the Union
Congregational Church, remaining with them for nearly six years. During
the years he occupied the Brooklyn pulpit he was honoured with
overflowing congregations. In 1880 he was invited to take charge of the
Congregational Church, Bond street, Toronto, and decided once more on
making Canada his home. When the Rev. Dr. Wild took charge of this work
the congregation was small, an immense debt was on the handsome edifice
which graces the corner of Bond street and Wilton avenue, and things
generally wore a very discouraging aspect, but he had no sooner put
himself at the head of affairs than a new impulse was given, and to-day
it is one of the most thriving churches in Toronto—having a membership
of nearly eight hundred, about a thousand seat-holders, the Sunday night
congregations numbering often three thousand souls, and the debt on the
sacred edifice reduced to a minimum. Without doubt the Rev. Dr. Wild is
the most popular preacher at this moment in the Queen City of the West,
and it is wonderful how he succeeds in holding the attention of the
great numbers of people who come to hear him. The grand secret, however,
is that the doctor never enters his pulpit unprepared. He honours his
audience by refusing to foist on them a subject at hap-hazard. His very
tread indicates confidence in his preparations, and his voice and
gesture indicate the force of his own convictions upon himself. Rev. Dr.
Wild is a little above the medium height, is very strongly built, has an
erect and dignified carriage. His face is a remarkable one, and his
features easily play to the run of his thoughts. He has a large brain,
and a high and prominent forehead, and with his hair worn long and his
flowing whiskers, he presents the picture of a man of careful thought
and great physical endurance. He loves his friends, and is most kind,
free and open to all, and, it may be added, he is the friend of all and
enemy of none.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Kelly, Thomas=, Judge of the County Court of Prince county, Summerside,
Prince Edward Island. His Honour Judge Kelly is of Irish parentage, and
was born at Covehead, in Queens county, Prince Edward Island, in 1833.
His parents were Thomas Kelly and Mary Grace, who emigrated from the
county of Kilkenny, Ireland, about the year 1824. Judge Kelly received
his education in the old Central Academy of his native place, and at St.
Dunstan’s College, Charlottetown, and pursued his law studies with His
Honour Judge Watters, in St. John. He was called to the New Brunswick
bar in Trinity term, 1865, and to that of Prince Edward Island the same
year, and immediately thereafter began the practice of his profession as
barrister and notary public at Summerside, where he has since resided.
While a law student, he was for two years president of the Irish
Friendly Society of St. John, N.B. Before accepting a position on the
bench, Judge Kelly for many years took an active interest in the
politics of his native province, especially in connection with the party
controversies arising out of the education, railway, and confederation
questions, as they existed in Prince Edward Island. He was twice elected
a representative from Prince county to the Island legislature. In 1870
he was appointed a master in Chancery, and in 1871, a Railway
commissioner, to which office he was again elected in 1872, but resigned
it a few weeks subsequent to the overthrow of the Pope administration.
In 1873 he was offered the chairmanship of the Railway board, and in
1874 the speakership of the House of Assembly, both of which positions
he declined in consequence of a misunderstanding on the school question.
In 1876 he retired temporarily from public life; but in a couple of
years thereafter he again entered it, and in 1879 was an unsuccessful
candidate for the legislature, at the general election of that year. For
several years Judge Kelly was a director of the Summerside Bank, and
afterwards became solicitor for that institution. He was elected license
commissioner in 1877, and the same year was chosen recorder for the town
of Summerside. He is a commissioner for Quebec, Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, for taking affidavits for use in
those provinces, and is also commissioner _dedimus_ to administer oaths
of office to Dominion appointees. He was appointed to the bench, as
successor to the late Judge Pope, on the 24th October, 1879, and
revising officer under the Electoral Franchise Act on the 26th October,
1886. Judge Kelly is a Roman Catholic, and was married, first, in
September, 1867, to Mary Emeline, daughter of Henry Eskildson, of New
York (she died October, 1868); and, secondly, in November, 1871, to
Marianne H., daughter of the late William A. Campbell, barrister,
Toronto, Ontario. Judge Kelly’s family consists of four children—one
boy and three girls.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Reddy, John=, M.D.—This distinguished medical man, who successfully
practised his profession in Montreal for over thirty years, was born on
the 31st of March, 1822, at Athlone, county of Roscommon, Ireland, and
died on the 23rd of January, 1884. In accordance with the custom of that
day, he was apprenticed to a local surgeon in the year 1839, and
remained with him until 1842. In April, 1847, he appeared before the
Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, and received their license in
April of that year. Owing to some demands which he considered
unreasonable, he would not go up for the degree in Dublin, but preferred
crossing to Glasgow, at which university he received the degree of M.D.
in 1848. It was now the intention of Dr. Reddy to enter upon the career
of an army surgeon, and he was actually gazetted to a commission in the
line. His regiment was just at this time, however, ordered to the Gold
Coast for service; and the young surgeon believing that he had not been
born only to fill a premature grave in that most unhealthy station, at
once resigned. He then for a short time held some dispensary
appointments in Ireland, and came to Canada in 1851. Through the
influence of some friends in Montreal he had been appointed house
surgeon of the Montreal General Hospital, and immediately entered upon
the duties of that office. He remained in the hospital for three years,
fulfilling the responsibilities of this position to the great
satisfaction of the then medical officers, Drs. Crawford, Arnoldi,
Jones, and others, and on leaving the hospital, he began private
practice in the city. The year 1854 will be remembered as the last
during which a severe epidemic of Asiatic cholera swept over this
country. Dr. Reddy at once devoted himself with unremitting attention to
the care of the many sufferers who were falling on every hand. His
unvarying kindness to his patients, his cheerful, warm-hearted Irish
manners, his already considerable skill and experience soon led to his
finding himself surrounded by a large and daily increasing _clientèle_.
During Dr. Reddy’s thirty years’ practice of his profession in Montreal,
his perseverance and assiduity knew no rest; he was constantly and
busily employed from morning till night, and very often from night till
morning, until 1883, when to the regret of his many friends, it was
observed that his health was beginning to fail. He went to Europe for
change of air, and the much needed rest, but unfortunately no return to
health was to come to him, and he died in Dublin on the 23rd of January,
1884. Dr. Reddy held many offices of the highest trust and honour in
this community. In 1856 he was appointed one of the attending physicians
of the Montreal General Hospital, which post he held until he retired
upon the consulting board. In 1856 he received the degree of M.D. _ad
eundem_ from McGill College, and for many years served as representative
fellow in medicine in the corporation of that university. He was a
constant attendant at the meetings of the Medico-Chirurgical Society and
was elected president, and he was a long-service officer in the
volunteer militia, having been surgeon of the Montreal Garrison
Artillery. His was a quiet, unostentatious, busy, blameless life. His
high moral character and strict professional integrity, his broad
benevolence and universal goodness of heart, with kind and obliging
manners, procured for Dr. Reddy the respect and esteem of all his
professional friends and _confrères_, his numerous patients, and the
general community. His memory will long be cherished and his character
and good deeds held in warm remembrance. He was married on the 1st July,
1851, to Jane Fleming, daughter of William Fleming, of Cloondra, county
Longford, Ireland, and when he died he left six children, three sons and
three daughters, the eldest of whom, H. L. Reddy, B.A., M.D.C.M.,
L.R.C.P., London; L.S.A., London; L.R.C.S., Edinburgh; professor of
obstetrics in the medical faculty, Bishop’s College University,
physician accoucheur to the Western Hospital, Montreal, succeeds him in
his practice. His second son, William B. S. Reddy, B.C.L., is a notary
public practising in Montreal.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Harris, Christopher Prince=, Merchant, Moncton, New Brunswick, was born
at Moncton, county of Westmoreland, New Brunswick, on the 29th of May,
1837. He is the third son of Michael Spurr Harris and Sarah Ann Troop.
Mr. Harris, jr., received his education in his native town, and for the
past thirty years has been a member of the firm of J. & C. Harris,
general merchants. In 1877 he took an active part with his brother and
partner, J. L. Harris, and others, in organizing the Moncton Gaslight
and Water Company, and also in the construction of the works. He has
held the position of a director and also treasurer of the company until
the present time. In 1880 he took a similar part in the organization and
erection of the works of the Moncton Sugar Refining Company, and has
been its treasurer ever since. In 1882 he helped to promote the Moncton
Cotton Manufacturing Company, and the construction of its works, and is
now one of its leading directors. Although a busy mercantile man, he has
found time to devote some of his leisure to Masonry, and has been
connected with the order for over twenty-one years. He is a past-master
and honorary member of Keith lodge; past-principal Z of Botsford Royal
Arch Chapter; a member of the Union De Molay Commandery, of St. John,
New Brunswick, and also of other Masonic orders. In religion Mr. Harris
is an adherent of the Reformed Episcopal church; and in politics a
Liberal-Conservative. He was married on the 8th of October, 1867, to
Mary Landon Cowling, eldest daughter of Eben Landon Cowling, justice of
the peace. Mr. Harris is a live business man, and has a bright future
before him.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Beckwith, Adolphus George=, Civil Engineer, Fredericton, New Brunswick,
was born at Fredericton, on December 28th, 1839. His parents were the
late Hon. John A. Beckwith, M.L.C., and Maria A. Beckwith. (See sketch
life of Hon. Mr. Beckwith, in another part of this volume.) Mr. Beckwith
was educated at the Collegiate School, Fredericton, and took a partial
course at King’s College (now University of New Brunswick), where he
studied civil engineering, and received his diploma from Professor
Thomas Cregan. He joined the volunteers as a private on their first
formation in Fredericton, in 1858, was gazetted ensign in 1st York
Battalion, under Lieut.-Colonel Minchin, in 1861, was lieutenant in
1863, and captain in 1867. He was appointed adjutant of the 71st York
Battalion in 1867, and held that position, with the rank of major, from
July, 1876, until the retirement of Capt. J. W. Smith, paymaster, in
1881, when he exchanged to the position of paymaster, which he now
holds. He holds first and second class certificates from the School of
Instruction. Mr. Beckwith is a deputy surveyor of Crown Lands, and was
draughtsman in the Crown Lands office from 1866 to 1871, when he was
appointed engineer of Public Works, which position he now holds. He
performed the duties of Provincial government engineer for two or three
years, in addition to his other works. Is at present City engineer of
Fredericton. He joined the Free Masons in 1861, in Solomon’s lodge, No.
764, E.R., was master of the lodge in 1865, and secretary of the same,
and Hiram lodge, No. 6, N.B.R., for ten years, and on retiring from that
office, was presented with a handsome piece of plate by the members. He
is also a frater of the encampment of Knights Templar of St. John; a
past grand senior deacon of the Grand Lodge of New Brunswick, A. F. & A.
M. Mr. Beckwith has travelled throughout Canada, the United States and
Europe. He is a member of the Church of England. He was married at
Brooklyn (New York), in 1865, to Mary Elizabeth, daughter of the late M.
B. Marckwald, a merchant of New York. He has only one child
living—Freeman Berton, who is in an office in New York.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Sutherland, Rev. Alexander=, D.D., Toronto. No man is more widely known
throughout this Dominion as an able preacher, a keen debater, a leader
in the church courts of his own denomination, and a man of general
sympathies and influence in the community, than the subject of this
sketch. And his high position he owes to no favouritism of friends or
fortune, but, under God, to the native abilities which his strong will
and consecrated heart have guided into channels of general usefulness.
Alexander Sutherland was born in the township of Guelph, Ontario,
September 17th, 1833. His father was Captain Nicholas Sutherland, born
in Dundee, Scotland; and his mother, Mary Henderson, a native of Port
Glasgow. The family settled in the township of Guelph in 1832. Amid the
hardships of pioneer life, opportunities for scholarships were few, and
the now learned doctor’s early education was confined to a few terms in
a backwood’s school. His good Scotch parents, however, early planted
within him a love of learning, and that process of self-culture was
begun which has continued through life. As a child he was able to read
fluently before ever going to school. When he was nine years of age his
father died; and, at thirteen years of age, he was forced to leave home
and earn his own living. For seven years he was a printer, and during
those years, as indeed from earliest boyhood, he read with avidity
whatever came in his way. Thus were those stores of information
accumulated which have helped to make their possessor a ready speaker
and a formidable opponent on so many diverse subjects and occasions.
When about sixteen years old he became connected with a Methodist
Sunday-school, and also with temperance organizations, in which he was
repeatedly presiding officer. “The child” was indeed “father of the
man.” In his nineteenth year he was converted and became a member of the
Methodist church. His ability soon displayed itself in connection with
the class-meeting and other services of the church, and before long he
was licensed as an “exhorter” and then as a “local preacher.” In the
year 1855 there was urgent demand for ministers in the Methodist church,
and Alexander Sutherland was persuaded to go out “under the chairman,”
Rev. L. Warner. He was sent to Clinton, at that time an old-fashioned
circuit, thirty miles in length by perhaps eighteen in width, including
about twenty preaching services every month. Travelling such an
extensive round, preaching so frequently, and at the same time pursuing
the Conference course of study requisite before ordination, the young
preacher found written preparation for the pulpit impossible, but gained
in this hard practical school of oratory an invaluable training in
extempore utterance. The next two years were spent on the Berlin
circuit. In 1858, young Sutherland enjoyed one year of college training
at Victoria College, Cobourg. In 1859 he was received into full
connection with the Conference and ordained. In June of the same year he
was married to Mary Jane, eldest daughter of Hugh Moore, of Dundas. Of
this happy union four sons and three daughters have been the issue. Of
the sons, two died in early boyhood. After his marriage, Dr.
Sutherland’s pastoral charges were in order—Niagara, Thorold,
Drummondville, Hamilton, Yorkville, Richmond street, Toronto, and St.
James street, Montreal. During his residence in Toronto he took a very
active and efficient part in Sunday-school and temperance work. For some
time he was president of the Ontario Temperance and Prohibitory League.
His temperance sermons and other efforts in behalf of this cause will
not be soon forgotten by those who came under their influence. In 1869
he was elected secretary of Conference, and was re-elected the following
year. In 1871 he was appointed, with the Rev. Dr. Sanderson, fraternal
delegate to the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in
the United States, which met in Brooklyn in 1872. On this occasion, and
on all similar occasions, Dr. Sutherland has done great credit to his
church and to his country. In 1873 he was appointed pastor of the St.
James street Church, Montreal, and at the Conference of 1874 was elected
chairman of the Montreal district. But the Montreal pastorate was brief.
At the first General Conference of the Methodist church of Canada,
September, 1874, Dr. Sutherland was elected general secretary and
clerical treasurer of the Missionary Society, as successor to the Rev.
Lachlin Taylor, D.D. This is one of the highest honours in the gift of
the Methodist church; the office is one of arduous toil, but affords
scope for high abilities. Since that day, Dr. Sutherland has travelled
from Newfoundland and the Bermudas to British Columbia, superintending
the missionary work and stimulating the missionary zeal of the Methodist
church; has for several years published that admirable missionary
journal _The Missionary Outlook_, and has succeeded in increasing the
annual income of the society from $118,000 to nearly $200,000. The
increased labours of his office have not prevented the missionary
secretary from taking an active interest in all the enterprises of the
church, and his voice has rung out clear and loud on every great
question that has recently agitated the Methodist community. To him more
than to any other man does the church owe the success of that mighty
movement which culminated in 1883 in the union of all branches of
Methodism in this dominion. With tongue and pen he eloquently, earnestly
and constantly pleaded for consolidation; and, when all seemed hanging
in the balance, his admirable generalship and eloquence in the memorable
Union debate in the Toronto Conference, Peterborough, June, 1883,
constrained victory to the union side. To have played such a part at
such a crisis is no mean claim to grateful and unfading memory. In 1882
Dr. Sutherland was elected president of the Toronto Conference, and
again in 1884. In 1881 he was one of the Canadian representatives at the
great Methodist Œcumenical Conference, London, England, and was made one
of the joint secretaries of that august body. In 1886 he was appointed
fraternal delegate to the British Wesleyan Conference, in place of Rev.
Dr. Rice, general superintendent, deceased. Dr. Sutherland’s literary
activity has been, so far, confined to newspaper and magazine articles
and brief pamphlets on questions of the day. His incisive style, his
permeating humour, his wide information, his keen insight, render his
writing and his speaking alike powerful. A man of immense energy, he has
done much to mould the thought and guide the work of his church already,
and bids fair to remain one of her most influential leaders for years to
come. In May, 1879, the University of Victoria College conferred upon
him the well deserved degree of Doctor in Divinity.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Beckwith, Hon. John Adolphus.= The late Hon. Mr. Beckwith was born at
Fredericton, New Brunswick, on December 1st, 1800, and died November
23rd, 1880. His father, Nehemiah Beckwith, was a loyalist, settled in
Fredericton, and built sloops in partnership with the celebrated
Benedict Arnold, who, at that time, also resided in Fredericton.
Nehemiah Beckwith was married at Fredericton, to Julie Louise LeBrun, a
daughter of Jean Baptiste LeBrun, barrister, and proctor at law, etc.,
of Quebec. Miss LeBrun came to Fredericton from Quebec with the family
of Sir Guy Carleton, in the capacity of companion and French governess
to Miss Carleton. About 1813, Nehemiah Beckwith purchased a large tract
of land in the suburbs of Montreal from Count du Chaillu (father of the
great explorer and historian), but his death very soon after, before the
deeds were completed, lost him the property and purchase money. This
property is now a valuable part of the City of Montreal. Mrs. Beckwith
(neé LeBrun) was cousin to Cardinal Richelieu, and aunt to L’Abbé
Ferland, professeur d’Histoire, University Laval, Quebec. Hon. John A.
Beckwith was cousin to l’Abbé Ferland. Hon. Mr. Beckwith commenced his
studies in the old Fredericton Grammar School, and completed them in
Montreal and Quebec, graduating as a surveyor and engineer. He was
connected with the militia from early manhood, and was for some years in
command of the 1st battalion York Militia. For several years he was
deputy surveyor general, before responsible government, and was
commissioner of the N.B. & N.S. Land Company, from 1860 till his death.
He served as mayor of Fredericton in 1863 and 1864, and represented York
county in the local legislature from 1866 to 1873, holding the office of
provincial secretary and receiver general from 1868 to 1873, when he was
appointed to a seat in the Legislative Council. Mr. Beckwith ever took
an active interest in the advance of agriculture, and was always one of
the committee in Provincial exhibitions. He was at one time grand master
of the Orange body of New Brunswick. In religious matters he was a
member of the Church of England. He was first married in 1822, to Ann
Jewett; and married a second time in 1837, to Maria Ann Berton, whose
father, a son of a loyalist, was the first sheriff of York county. His
second wife survived him four years.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Macfarlane, Thomas=, Chief Analyst, Inland Revenue Department, Ottawa,
Ontario, was born on the 5th March, 1834, at Pollokshaws, parish of
Eastwood, county of Renfrew, Scotland. His father, Thomas Macfarlane,
was a native of Pollokshaws, and his mother, Catherine, was born in the
adjoining parish of Mearns. Mr. Macfarlane, jr., was educated in
Pollokshaws, at the Andersonian University, Glasgow, and at the Royal
Mining School of Freiberg, in Saxony. In the latter school he studied
chemistry, metallurgy, mineralogy, and geology. After leaving Freiberg
in 1857, he travelled through the Erzgebirge and Bohemia, and then went
to Norway, as director of the Modum smelting works and Cobalt mines.
During his stay in Norway he visited most of the southern part of that
country, including Ringerike, Nummedal, Thelemarken and Saetersdal. In
1860 he emigrated to Canada, and took charge of the Acton, and
afterwards of the Albert mine in the Eastern Townships, province of
Quebec. In 1865-6 Mr. Macfarlane became field-geologist under the late
Sir William Logan, and helped that illustrious gentleman on the
geological survey of Canada. In the volume of geological reports
published in 1866, Mr. Macfarlane supplies reports on Hastings county
and the Lake Superior district. In 1868 he explored the Montreal Mining
Company’s locations on Lake Superior, and was the discoverer of the
celebrated Silver Islet mine. In 1871 he paid a visit to the mining
districts of Colorado, Utah, and Nevada; and in 1873 he revisited
England, and then travelled through Germany and Norway. On his return to
Canada, in 1876, he visited Nova Scotia and Cape Breton; also Ecuador
and Peru, and published a description of the latter journey under the
title of “To the Andes.” In 1879 he spent six months smelting in
Leadville, Colorado. In 1881, visited mining districts on the Lower
Colorado and in Southern Utah, travelling from Fort Yuma to Salt Lake
City. In 1884 he revisited England and Germany; and here we say, Mr.
Macfarlane speaks the German, French and Danish languages fluently. In
1886 he was appointed by the Dominion government chief analyst for
Canada, and is now settled down at Ottawa. In 1882 he was appointed a
member of the Royal Society, Canada, and elected president of the
Chemical section in 1886. In 1885 he became a member of the Imperial
Federation League, and in February, 1886, and January, 1887, contributed
articles to its “Journal.” Mr. Macfarlane has devoted nearly all his
life to science, and as a chemist, metallurgist, miner, and explorer, he
stands very high. His scientific papers are numerous, and by referring
to the pages of _The Canadian Naturalist_, will be found there on:
“Primitive Formation in Norway,” “Acton Copper Mine,” “Eruptive Rocks,”
“Copper Extraction,” “Production of Soda and Chlorine,” “Copper-beds of
Portage, Lake Michigan,” “Geological Formations of Lake Superior,”
“Silver Ore of Wood’s Location,” “Origin of Crystalline Rocks,”
“Canadian Geology.” In the pages of “Transactions of the Institute of
Mining Engineers,” papers on “Slag Densities,” “Classification of
Original Rocks,” “Silver Islet.” And some others in the “Proceedings of
the Royal Society of Canada.” Mr. Macfarlane was reared a Presbyterian
in the U. P. Church of Scotland, and while a young man adopted
materialistic views, but has since abandoned them, and is now a member
of the Anglican church. He married in September, 1858, Margaret Skelly,
niece of Dr. John Litster, Pollokshaws, Scotland, and they have nine
children, all living.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Currey, Lemuel Allan=, M.A., Barrister-at-law, St. John, New Brunswick,
was born at Gagetown, Queens county, on 11th July, 1856. He belongs to a
very ancient family, and one of the founders being the Earl Currey, who
lived in the time of Cromwell, and owned large estates in Leeds and
vicinity, England. His son, John Currey, was born in Leeds in 1688, and
came to the city of New York about the year 1700, where he married, and
died young of an epidemic, leaving one son, Richard Currey, who was born
4th November, 1709. Richard married a lady of the name of Elizabeth
Jones, and removed to Peekskill, on the Hudson, New York state, where he
died on March 20, 1806. By this marriage there were three sons and seven
daughters born. The eldest son was Joshua Currey, who married Eunice
Travis at Peekskill. At the breaking out of the Revolutionary war,
Joshua Currey sided with the British, but the rest of the family
sympathised with the colonists. During these troublesome times Mr.
Currey had several narrow escapes for his life. At one time he had to
hide himself under the floor of his house to escape the fury of the
revolutionists, and his son David was nearly killed by them by being
buried in a sandpit. Joshua and his family managed to make good their
escape, and, joining a band of loyalists, reached St. John, New
Brunswick, in October 23, 1783, where he remained one year, and then
removed to Gagetown, where he died in 1802. He left large estates in New
York state, but he, however, succeeded in carrying away with him in his
flight a large sum of money. He had a family of five sons and two
daughters. His second son, David Currey, who was born at Peekskill,
April 27, 1767, died at Gagetown, August 12, 1827. This gentleman
married Dorothy Estey, by whom he had twelve children, one of whom,
James Robert Currey, who was born in 1817, was the father of the subject
of our sketch, and was by profession a barrister in Gagetown, and
registrar of probates, and clerk of the Queens county court. His mother
was Sarah Amelia, daughter of Reuben Hoben. Lemuel Allan Currey received
his literary education at the Queens County Grammar School, and at the
University of New Brunswick, where he graduated in 1876, with honours in
the first division, taking a special prize for general proficiency.
After graduating he entered as a student-at-law with his father, with
whom he studied till 1880, and during said period taught the Queens
County Grammar School for two and a-half years. In 1880 he entered
Harvard Law School, where he remained one year, taking a special course.
He then entered the office of S. Alward, D.C.L., barrister, St. John.
Mr. Currey was admitted an attorney in 1882, and a barrister the
following year. Since his enrolment he has practised law at St. John. In
1873-4 he attended the Military School at Fredericton, and took a
certificate. He is a member of the Young Men’s Liberal-Conservative
Club, of St. John, a member of St. George’s Society, and belongs to
Union lodge, of Portland, A. F. and A. M. In religion he belongs to the
Episcopal church, and in politics is a Conservative.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Burwash, Rev. Nathaniel=, S.T.D., Professor of Biblical and Systematic
Theology, and Dean of the Faculty of Theology, Victoria University,
Cobourg, Ontario, was born in Argenteuil, province of Quebec, on the
25th July, 1839. His father, Adam Burwash, was a descendant of an
English family from Burwash, in Sussex; and his mother, Ann Taylor, was
from Argyleshire, Scotland, and was the eldest sister of the late Rev.
Lachlin Taylor, D.D. His great-grandfather was a United Empire loyalist.
Nathaniel received his rudimentary education in the schools of his
native place, and then entered Victoria University, where he took the
arts course, and graduated B.A. in 1859. He then devoted his time for
two years as a Public and Grammar school teacher; and in 1860 entered
the ministry of the Methodist church. From this year to 1866 he filled
the position of pastor in churches in Belleville, Toronto, and Hamilton.
In 1866 he left Canada for a time, and entered Yale College, New Haven,
U.S., for the purpose of studying the natural sciences, and having
completed his course, he returned home in 1867, and was appointed
professor of natural sciences in Victoria University, Cobourg. In 1873
he was promoted to the professorship of Biblical and Systematical
Theology, and was also made dean of the faculty of theology in the same
institution. This important position he still occupies, and since his
appointment fully one-fifth of the entire ministry of the several
Western conferences of the Methodist church have been his students.
Professor Burwash some years ago took an active interest in the
Volunteer movement, and was one of those who risked his life at
Ridgeway, in repelling the Fenian hordes who attempted to desecrate
Canadian soil. He has travelled a good deal, and has visited several of
the universities and educational institutions of Great Britain, France
and Germany. The professor has not been an idle man, as the record of
his life amply testifies, and to those who would like to peruse some of
his literary productions, we recommend them to examine his works on:
“Nature, Genesis and Results of Sin”; “Relation of Childhood to the
Fall, the Atonement and the Church”; “Wesley’s Doctrinal Standards”; and
his “Commentary on Romans.” On the 25th December, 1868, he was married
to Margaret Proctor, only daughter of E. M. Proctor, registrar of
Lambton, a graduate of the Ladies’ College, Hamilton.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Currie, John Zebulon,= A.B., M.D., &c., Fredericton, New Brunswick, was
born at Keswick, parish of Douglas, York county, New Brunswick, January
3, 1847. He is the second son of Thomas Gilbert and Patience Currie.
Both parents belonged to old loyalist families. His father’s family is
descended from John Currie (Currey), who came from Leeds, Yorkshire,
England, and settled in New York about A.D. 1700. At the outbreak of the
American revolution, Joshua, a son of Richard, refusing to join the
insurgents, escaped to the British army, served as a lieutenant in that
force, and at the close of the war came to St. John, New Brunswick, with
the fall fleet. He brought three sons with him, of whom Richard, the
eldest, having married Barbara Dykeman, became the founder of this
family in New Brunswick. Dr. Currie’s mother is a daughter of the late
Major Abraham Yerxa, who lived at Keswick, York county, N.B. John Yerxa,
father of Abraham Yerxa, came from Holland to New York, with his
parents, at the age of fourteen years. He was married to Katie Gerow,
and throughout the American revolutionary war served as a volunteer in
the British army. At the close of the war he came to St. John, N.B.,
being a member of one of the two regiments that were disbanded and given
lands in New Brunswick. When he came to St. John there was but one house
where the city now stands. Subsequently he settled upon lands on the
Keswick stream, York county, and remained there until his death. Dr.
Currie remained at Keswick until about fifteen years of age, and
received his preliminary education in the schools of his native parish.
When in his sixteenth year he attended the Provincial Normal School in
St. John, and at the close of the term of study there, received a second
class teacher’s certificate. In 1864, he became a student at the Baptist
Seminary, Fredericton, New Brunswick, where he remained two years. In
September, 1867, he matriculated at the University of New Brunswick, and
pursued the regular course of study there. During his undergraduate
course at this institution he was the successful competitor for the
scholarship in English Language and Literature, besides taking honours
in this and other departments. Having completed the course of study he
received the degree of Bachelor of Arts in June, 1870. He at once began
the study of medicine, entering the medical department of Harvard
University, Boston, the same year. Having completed the regular course
of study in this institution he received the degree of Doctor of
Medicine (M.D., Harvard) in 1873. At the same time he passed the
required examination for, and was admitted a fellow of, the
Massachusetts Medical Society. He then went to Scotland to complete his
professional studies, and matriculated at the University of Edinburgh,
and at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Edinburgh. At the
completion of the course in the University of Edinburgh he was awarded
the first medal in midwifery and diseases of women and children, with
the highest standard which had at that time been attained. He also
received a special license in the same department. In the College of
Physicians and Surgeons he was the successful competitor for the second
prize in surgery under Prof. Patrick Heron Watson. He then went to
London, England, where he spent some time in visiting the different
hospitals and in further professional study. In the latter part of 1874
he returned to Fredericton, N.B., began the practice of his profession,
and has remained there ever since. Dr. Currie’s student life was marked
by careful study and constantly advanced standing. On June 15, 1881, he
was appointed assistant surgeon of the 71st York battalion of the Active
Militia of Canada, and on the 25th of December, 1883, was promoted to be
surgeon of the same corps, which office he still holds. Dr. Currie is
secretary and registrar of the Council of Physicians and Surgeons of New
Brunswick, and has constantly held this office since the organization of
the council in July, 1881. He is a member of the Provincial Board of
Health of New Brunswick, and also secretary of the board; both
appointments date from June 1st, 1887, when the Public Health Act went
into operation. In virtue of his position as secretary of the Provincial
Board of Health, he is chief health officer for the province. Dr. Currie
is at present a member of the council of the Associated Alumni of the
University of New Brunswick, and has been since June, 1885. He is also a
coroner for York county, N.B. This appointment dates from October 17,
1882. He is a member of the New Brunswick Medical Society and of the
Canada Medical Association, and at present is vice-president for New
Brunswick of the Canada Medical Association. In 1886 he was appointed a
delegate from this association to the meeting of the American Health
Society, held in Toronto, October, 1886. He is also a member of several
secret societies. He became associated with the Independent Order of
Oddfellows, August 22, 1881; with the Independent Order of Foresters,
October 1, 1881; and with the American Legion of Honour, September 28,
1880. He still continues his membership in, and is physician to, each of
these societies. His travels were not important, and only such as were
necessary in the prosecution of study or on business. His religious
views have always been those held by the Baptist church, but he was not
united with any religious society until 1867, when he became a member of
the Fredericton Baptist Church. On the 5th of June, 1877, he was married
to Helen M. Estey, second daughter of the late Harris S. Estey. The
first representative of this family in New Brunswick was Zebulon Estey,
who came to New Brunswick from Newburyport, Mass., about 1765. Before
leaving Newburyport he was married to Mollie Brown. After coming to New
Brunswick they had a large family, one member of which, Nehemiah B.
Estey, was great-grandfather of Harris S. Estey. Dr. Currie has been
eminently successful in every respect in the practice of his profession.
He was the originator and one of the principal promoters of the movement
which led to the passage of the New Brunswick Medical Act. He is devoted
to his profession, giving his whole time to it, and taking a lively
interest in everything which pertains to its well-being.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Elliott, Andrew=, Almonte, one of the most enterprising of our woollen
manufacturers, was born on the 3rd April, 1809, at Stanishwater, parish
of Westerkirk, Eskdale, Scotland. His father, William Elliott, and his
mother, Jane Jardine, were both natives of Dumfriesshire, Scotland. Mr.
Elliott received his education at the Langholme and Corrie school, near
Lockerby, which he left at the age of thirteen, and began the battle of
life unaided. In 1834 he came to Canada, and two years after his arrival
he began business as a grocer in Galt, Ontario. Here he did a good
business, built a distillery, ran it for several years, sold it out, and
joined Robert Hunt, of Preston, in the woollen business. In 1853 they
changed the factory into a four-set mill, and worked it very
successfully for about ten years. About 1864, while Mr. Elliott was in
Great Britain buying wool, the mill was burnt down, but on his return he
rebuilt it, and associated with him in his new venture (the old
partnership having been dissolved) J. L. Hunt and George Stephen (now
Sir George Stephen, bart.). The new firm abandoned the manufacture of
cloth, and went into that of flax and linseed oil. After spending a
great deal of money in importing first-class machinery from Great
Britain, Ireland and the United States, and pushing the business for
about four years, they found that Canada was unsuited for such an
enterprise, and parted with the concern, having lost a considerable sum
of money by the venture. Mr. Elliott then sold out all his property in
Preston and Galt, and purchased a woollen mill in Almonte, where for the
past seventeen years he has successfully prosecuted his business. Mr.
Elliott was elected district (Gore district) councillor for the township
of Dumfries (Upper Canada), and in 1840 he was chosen the first reeve
for the village of Galt, and occupied the position for several years.
The late Hon. Robert Baldwin made him a magistrate, and in this capacity
he acted for about ten years; and was sent as a delegate from the
village of Galt and the township of Dumfries with an address to Lord
Elgin, in Montreal, shortly after the destruction of the Parliament
buildings by a mob. Mr. Elliott took an active interest in railway
extension, and did his share in getting the Great Western Railway
Company to build a branch line from Harrisburg to Galt. In his younger
days he was a strong supporter of the Baldwin administration, and even
supported the late Hon. George Brown, but refused longer to follow him
as a party leader when he left the government of the day and formed the
“Grit” party; and he has ever since been an opponent of the Reform
party. Mr. Elliott has been a Presbyterian from his youth up. In 1839 he
married Mary Hanley, a native of the county of Longford, Ireland. He has
been a busy man, and now enjoys the fruits of his industry.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Morson, Walter Augustus Ormsby=, Barrister, etc., Charlottetown, Prince
Edward Island, was born on the 24th December, 1851, at Hamilton, Prince
Edward Island. His father, Richard Willock Morson, formerly of the
island of Montserrat, in the West Indies, now of Upton, Dundas, Prince
Edward Island, was a son of the late Richard Willock Morson, of
Montserrat, and nephew of the Hon. Walter Morson, M.D., physician to the
late Princess Sophia, daughter of George III. His mother, Elizabeth
Codie, daughter of the late Hon. Patrick Codie, of Cascumpec, P. E.
Island, and Annabella Stewart, his wife, daughter of the late Dugald
Stewart, of Hamilton, P. E. Island. Mr. Morson, jr., received his
education at Hamilton, and in 1866 removed to Charlottetown, where he
secured employment in the “City Hardware Store.” In this situation he
remained until 1872, when he gave up mercantile pursuits, and began the
study of law with the Hon. W. W. Sullivan, the present attorney-general
and premier of Prince Edward Island. In February, 1877, he was admitted
as an attorney of the Supreme Court, and became a member of the firm of
Sullivan, Maclean & Morson. In February, 1878, he was called to the bar
of the Superior Court and admitted as solicitor of the Court of
Chancery. In March, 1877, he was made a notary public. Mr. Maclean
having retired from the above firm in 1878, it then became Sullivan &
Morson, and so continued until December, 1882, when it was dissolved.
Mr. Morson then entered into partnership with the Hon. Neil Macleod,
M.A., and this arrangement continued until October, 1883, when Neil
Macquarrie, the stipendiary magistrate of Sommerside, was admitted a
partner, when the name was changed to MacLeod, Morson & Macquarrie, with
offices at Summerside Charlottetown. Mr. Morson was appointed master in
Chancery in 1885. In April of the same year, on the death of the Hon.
John Longworth, he was appointed clerk of the Crown and prothonotary of
the Supreme Court of Prince Edward Island, and also registrar of the
Court of Chancery, all of which positions he resigned in June, 1885. On
the formation of the Prince Edward Island Provisional Brigade of
Garrison Artillery, Mr. Morson was appointed adjutant, with rank of
lieutenant, 2nd June, 1882; and on the 8th November, 1884, he obtained a
first class special course certificate from the Royal School of
Artillery in Quebec. He volunteered with two batteries of the brigade
for the North West Territory on the outbreak of the rebellion in 1885.
Mr. Morson is a busy man, yet he finds time to devote his attention to
Masonry. He has been a member of Victoria lodge, No. 383, of the
Registry of Scotland, since April 1870, and has held several important
offices in his lodge, and been depute master. In religion Mr. Morson is
a member of the Episcopal communion, and in politics belongs to the
Conservative party. He is a rising man, and has a grand future before
him.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Gray, James=, Manager of the Merchants Bank of Canada, Perth, Lanark
county, Ontario, was born on the 3rd of September, 1820, at Black Hills,
parish of Elgin, Morayshire, Scotland. Arthur Gray, the father of the
subject of this sketch, was a native of Morayshire, Scotland, and joined
the active militia in 1809, and in 1811 was gazetted ensign in the 2nd
battalion of the 24th Regiment of the line. In November of the same year
he proceeded with his regiment to the Peninsula, where he joined the
army under the command of the late Duke of Wellington, and served till
the end of the war, during which he was present at the following battles
and sieges: In the covering division at the siege and capture of
Badejoz; the battle of Salamanca (where he carried the colours); the
capture of the Retiro and the siege of Burgos, where he was engaged in
the storming of the outer line, on which occasion the battalion suffered
so severely that it became necessary to incorporate it in a provisional
battalion with the 58th Regiment; on the raising of the siege of Burgos
he was the last officer to quit the trenches, having been left with a
piquet to see the works blown up at all hazards, and at the imminent
risk of being taken prisoner, being fortunate enough, however, to regain
his regiment after executing the orders he had received; he commanded a
company during the rest of the retreat into Portugal, and suffered great
hardships consequent upon such retreat. He was also engaged in the
battle of Vittoria, and the actions in the Pyrenees for four successive
days, including the attack on the heights of Echellar, where the
battalion in which he was serving received on the grounds the thanks of
Lord Dalhousie for their gallant conduct. He was also at the battles of
Nevelle and Orthes, the investment of Bayonne, besides a great number of
affairs of outposts and skirmishes, and was not absent from his
battalion for one day during the whole period of these memorable events.
On the return of the battalion he was removed to the 1st Battalion of
the 24th Regiment, and proceeded to join it in the East Indies in
February, 1815. He served with this corps in the Nepaul war, the
campaigns of 1815 and 1816, including the battle of Harriagrove; and in
the Mahratta campaigns of 1817 and 1818. During the Indian campaign he
fell a victim to severe liver disease, and was compelled to return to
England in 1819, and on the expiration of his leave in 1820, still being
disabled from active duty from this cause, he was retired on half-pay.
His health having been restored, in 1839 he was appointed to the first
battalion Royal regiment, with which he served at Gibraltar to August,
1841, when Lord Hill removed him to the Royal Canadian rifle regiment.
In 1847 he was appointed by His Grace the Duke of Wellington captain in
the Ceylon rifle regiment, and proceeded to Ceylon. An insurrection
breaking out there he was placed second in command, and shortly after
the commander of a corps to scour the jungle and disperse the rebels. In
consequence of exposure while on this mission he was attacked with
dysentery, and being carried along with his column to Kandy he there
died. James Gray received an English and classical education in the St.
Andrew’s school of his native shire, and came to Canada in 1844, and
settled in Montreal. The same year he entered the service of the Bank of
Montreal, in that city. He was over a quarter of a century in the employ
of this great monetary institution, and during this time resided in
Kingston, Picton, and Perth. In 1868 he resigned his position in the
Bank of Montreal, and was appointed manager of the branch of the
Merchants Bank in Perth, which position he still occupies with credit to
himself and satisfaction to his employers. Mr. Gray is connected with
the Presbyterian church; but in politics he takes little interest. He is
married to Mary Robinson, a daughter of the late Dr. Moore, of Picton,
who, during his lifetime, was a staunch supporter of the late lamented
Hon. George Brown, and in sympathy with the political reforms advocated
by that great man.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=La Mothe, Guillaume Jean Baptiste=, Postmaster, Montreal, was born in
Montreal on September 24th, 1824. He is the son of Capt. Joseph Maurice
La Mothe, who married Marie J. Laframboise, in Montreal, on the 1st
February, 1813. Captain Joseph Maurice La Mothe was superintendent of
the Indian Department from 1816 until his decease in 1827. He was also
captain and in command of the Indian allies at the battle of
Chateauguay, and was favourably reported in the orders of the day for
gallant conduct. His grandfather was Captain Joseph La Mothe, who was
born 26th January, 1742, and married 24th November, 1777, to Catherine
Blondeau. In March, 1776, the military commandant in Montreal entrusted
Captain J. La Mothe with most important despatches for General Guy
Carleton, then besieged in Quebec by the American army. Accompanied by
Mr. Papineau (father of the Hon. L. J. Papineau), he started from
Montreal on foot, and after a long and dangerous tramp, managing to
cross the American lines at night, safely delivered the despatches in
proper time, which contributed to the salvation of Quebec. His
great-grandfather was Pierre La Mothe, married first to Marie Anne St.
Ives, and in January, 1740 (being then a widower), he married Angélique
Caron, in Montreal. His father and mother were Bruno La Mothe and Jeanne
Le Valois, who came originally from the diocese of Bordeaux, France. The
family, whose correct name is de La Mothe (as mentioned in old family
documents), was residing in Montreal as early as 1673, and in 1689
Pierre de Saint Paul de La Mothe had the command of the town and island
of Montreal. The subject of our sketch received his education at St.
Hyacinthe College and at Montreal College. In September, 1852, he
received a commission as lieutenant in the Montreal Sedentary Cavalry,
but this position he resigned in March, 1854. On the 17th of January,
1856, he was appointed lieutenant in No. 2 troop Militia Cavalry,
Montreal, and on the 23rd of April, 1857, was retransferred to and
promoted captain in the Sedentary Cavalry of Montreal. On the 7th of
November, 1862, he was transferred to and promoted major commanding the
Rifle Companies (Police) Active force in Montreal. On the 26th of
November, 1861, Captain La Mothe was appointed chief of police for
Montreal. This office he held until the 30th January, 1865, when he
resigned. He effected the capture of the famous St. Albans raiders a few
months previous. And on the 15th of July, 1874, he was appointed to the
postmastership of his native city, and this important position he fills
to-day. Mr. La Mothe has been actively connected with the development of
gold mines in Nova Scotia; copper mines in the Eastern Townships, and
iron mines in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where he discovered the magnetic
iron ore deposit at Moisie. Upon report made to friends respecting the
value of the ore and extent of the deposit, the Moisie Iron Company was
formed. This company has manufactured malleable iron pronounced in
England and France equal to the best. During the years from 1846 to 1851
inclusive, Mr. La Mothe travelled extensively through England, France,
Switzerland, and Italy; and while in England he joined the expedition
against Ecuador (South America), which, after putting to sea, was
overtaken by a British man-of-war, and brought back to London. He also
took part in the French Revolution of 1848, and at the storming of the
Tuileries he was one of the first to enter the place. After this event
he travelled through Switzerland on foot, then on to Italy, where he
married, and then returned to Canada. For fifteen years of his life, Mr.
La Mothe was actively engaged in politics on the Liberal side. In
religion he is a respected member of the Roman Catholic church. He was
married in Florence, Italy, in 1850, to Marguerite de Savoye, and his
family consists of one son and four daughters, all living. The son,
Henri, is married to Marie, youngest daughter of the late Hon. Judge
Bossé, of Quebec. The eldest daughter, Marguerite, is married to Hon. J.
R. Thibaudeau, senator for division of Rigaud. His second daughter is
married to Henri Hamel, of the firm of J. Hamel & Frère, Quebec. The two
youngest daughters, Juliette and Marie, are unmarried.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=MacColl, Evan=, Kingston, Ontario, was born at Kenmore, Lochfyne-side,
Scotland, on the 21st of September, 1808, where he is well-known as the
“Mountain Minstrel.” He early developed a taste for poetry, and in 1837
contributed to the Glasgow _Gaelic Magazine_. The poet gives a very
striking account of his first attempt at Gaelic verse. He took into his
confidence a young friend, a capital singer, taught him a song without
mentioning that he was the author of it, and got him to sing it the same
evening at a neighbour’s house at Kenmore. It was received with great
applause. From that hour Evan MacColl felt himself a bard and became
supremely happy. Some time after he published a small volume of poems in
Gaelic, and another in English, which were reviewed by Dr. McLeod, Hugh
Miller, the celebrated geologist, and other British critics, in the
highest terms of admiration. In 1831 Mr. MacColl’s father, with the rest
of his family, emigrated to Canada, but Evan remained behind, and eight
years afterwards he accepted a position in the Customs at Liverpool. In
1846 he published a second volume of poems which was even more highly
appreciated than the first. Of this work, Dr. Norman McLeod wrote: “Evan
MacColl’s poetry is the product of a mind impressed with the beauty and
grandeur of the lovely scenes in which his infancy has been nursed. We
have no hesitation in saying that this work is that of a man possessed
of much poetic genius. Wild, indeed, and sometimes rough are his rhymes
and epithets; yet there are thoughts so new and striking—images and
comparisons so beautiful and original—feelings so warm and fresh—that
stamp this Highland peasant as no ordinary man.” In 1850, in consequence
of ill-health, he visited Canada, and while here received an appointment
to the Customs at Kingston. He never solicited any favour from the
Conservatives, and the overthrow of the Mackenzie government in 1878
effectually quenched his hopes of preferment, and two years afterwards
he was superannuated. No man ought to know Mr. MacColl better than his
friend, Charles Sangster, a poet of considerable repute, who speaks thus
of him in his article in Wilson’s work on Scottish, bards:—

    “In private life he is, both by precept and example, all that
    could be desired. He has an intense love for all that is really
    good and beautiful, and a true and manly scorn for all that is
    false, time-serving, or hypocritical; there is no
    narrow-mindedness, no bigotry in his soul. In the domestic
    circle, all the warmth in the man’s heart—the full flow of
    genuine feeling and affection—is ever uppermost. He is a
    thoroughly earnest man, in whose daily walks and conversation as
    well as in his actions, Longfellow’s ‘Psalm of Life’ is acted
    out in verity. In his friendship he is sincere; in his dislikes
    equally so. He is thoroughly Scottish in his leanings. His
    national love burns with intensity. In poetry, he is not merely
    zealous, but enthusiastic, and he carries his natural force of
    character into all he says and does.”

All his virtues he inherited from his parents. Among Evan MacColl’s old
country friends have been John Mackenzie, of “The Beauties;” the late R.
Carruthers, LL.D., Hugh Miller, the brothers Sobeiskie Stewart, at
Eilean-Aigais, and drank with them out of a _cuach_, once the property
of Prince Charlie; Dugald Moore, author of “Scenes before the Flood,”
and “The Bard of the North;” Alexander Rogers, the author of “Behave
yourself before Folk,” Rev. Dr. Norman McLeod, Dr. Chambers, Bailey, the
author of “Festus;” Leighton, author of “The Christening of the Bairn;”
J. Stuart Blackie, the great Edinburgh professor; James Logan, author of
“The Scottish Gael;” Fraser, of _Fraser’s Magazine_, and Hugh Fraser,
the publisher of “Leabhar nan Cnoc.” He is a member of the Royal
Canadian Literary and Scientific Society, founded by the Marquis of
Lorne, and was the guest several times of his lordship and the Princess
Louise at Rideau Hall, Ottawa. MacColl has been twice married. Of a
family of nine sons and daughters, Evan, the poet’s eldest son, has been
educated for the ministry, and is now pastor of the Congregational
Church at Middleville, Ontario. His eldest daughter’s productions have
merited a very high admiration, and the more youthful members of his
family give promise of proving worthy of the stock from whence they
sprang. John Massie, of Keene, a brother poet, not having heard from the
“Bard of Lock Fyne” for over six weeks after having written him a
letter, thus addressed the Limestone City:—

        Say, Kingston, tell us where is Evan?
        Thy bard o’ pure poetic leaven!
        And is he still amang the livin’?
                  Or plumed supernal,
        Has taen a jink and aff to heaven,
                  There sing eternal!

        Or if within your bounds you find him,
        A’ bruised and broken, skilfu’ bind him;
        Or sick, or sair, O! carefu’ mind him,
                  Thy darling chiel!
        And dinna lat him look behind him
                  Until he’s weel.

        But if he’s gane, ah, wae’s to me!
        His like we never mair shall see,—
        Nae servile, whinging coof was he,
                  Led by a string,
        But noble, gen’rous, fearless, free,
                  His sang he’d sing.

        Hech, sirs! we badly could bide loss him,
        For should this world vindictive toss him.
        Or ony hizzie dare to boss him.
                  Clean gyte he’d set her;
        The deil himsel’, he daur’dna cross him,
                  Faith, he ken’d better!

        Let any man, o’ any station,
        But wink at fraud, or wrong the nation,
        E’en gowd, nor place, ’twas nae temptation
                  To sic a chiel,—
        He’d shortly settle their oration,
                  And drub them weel.

        Or let them say’t, be’t high or low,
        Auld Scotia ever met the foe,
        That laid her in the dust fu’ low,
                  Right at them see him!
        Professor George still rues the blow
                  MacColl did gie him.

        Is history in Fiction’s grip,
        Does Falsehood let her bloodhounds slip,
        Crack goes his castigating whip,
                  With patriot scorn!
        Macaulay laid upon his hip.
                  Amidst the corn.

        Does English critic meanly itch,
        To cast old Ossian in the ditch,
        And trail his laurels through the pitch
                  Of mind benighted;
        Our bardie gies his lugs a twitch
                  And sees it righted.

        In a’ this warld, there’s no a skellum,
        Nor silly self-conceited blellum,
        But Evan, lad, wad bravely tell ’em
                  The honest truth;
        E’en if he kend that they should fell ’im
                  Withouten ruth.

        Ye feathered things in mournfu’ tune,
        Come join my waesome, doleful croon;
        Ye dogs that bay the silver moon,
                  Your sorrow show it;
        And a’ ye tearfu’ starns aboon,
                  Bewail our poet.

        What though this grasping world, and hard,
        May barely grant him just reward,
        Still shall his genius blissful starred,
                  Effulgent shine,
        And endless ages praise the bard
                  Of fair Loch Fyne.

Mr. MacColl has many admirers in Canada, in proof of which he has lately
issued the third edition of his poems here, and they are having a good
sale. His Gaelic Lyrics, lately issued in Edinburgh, is also attracting
attention among his countrymen on this side of the Atlantic.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Lake, John Neilson=, Stock Broker, Toronto, was born on the fourth
concession of the township of Ernesttown, county of Addington, Ontario,
on the 19th August, 1834. His great-grandfather and grandfather owned
part of Staten Island, New York state, and when the war of independence
broke out they took sides with the British, and with sons and
sons-in-law fought for their king and country. The family removed to
Upper Canada about 1782, and as U. E. loyalists received a grant of
15,000 acres of land, and settled near the village of Bath, west of
Kingston. James Lake, the father of the subject of our sketch, was born
near Bath in 1791, and with the exception of a short period, he resided,
until his death, in the township of Ernesttown. His mother was Margaret
Bell, daughter of John Bell, of Ernesttown, who, though a U. E.
loyalist, did not remove to Canada until 1810. John, until his sixteenth
year, attended school, when he joined his brothers in the carriage
business, and at the same time he learned drafting and architecture. At
twenty-one he gave up this profession and entered the ministry of the
Wesleyan Methodist church as a probationer, and spent the years 1855-6
in the town of Picton; 1857 in Aylmer; 1858 in Ingersoll; 1859 in
Hullsville; 1862 in Markham; 1865 in Pickering, followed as stations in
succession; but in 1866, in consequence of a peculiar affection of the
eye producing double vision, and preventing all study, he was compelled
to relinquish the ministry for awhile. In 1869, his health being
somewhat improved, he again attempted the ministerial work, and was
stationed at the town of Niagara; but in less than twelve months
thereafter it became evident that this mode of usefulness could not be
continued, and he was reluctantly compelled to abandon the ministry. He
moved to Toronto, and in 1870 opened a real estate and loan office, just
at the time when the value of property was beginning to improve, and
when there were only two real estate brokers in the city. In 1875 he was
joined by J. P. Clark, of the town of Brampton, and soon the firm of
Lake & Clark became widely known and highly trusted. In 1882 Mr. Lake
retired from the firm, and four years later Mr. Clark gave up business,
when the firm of Lake & Clark ceased to be longer known as dealers in
real estate. During all these years Mr. Lake was very intimately
associated with church work, and the Sherbourne Street Methodist Church
owes not a little of its success to his labours and generous
contributions. In 1881 he was induced by his numerous friends to permit
himself to be put in nomination as alderman for St. Thomas ward, and
having surrendered his standing as a minister, he consented, and was
elected a member of the city council. One year in the council seems to
have satisfied Mr. Lake, for although next year he was strongly urged by
his St. Thomas ward constituency to again act as their representative,
he refused to concede to this request, and retired from municipal
politics. Politically Mr. Lake has always been a Reformer, but he is not
a person who would support a party without a good and sufficient reason.
He has been a member of the Toronto Stock Exchange, and of the Toronto
Board of Trade, for many years, and is president of the American Watch
Case Company; secretary of the Ontario Folding Steel Gate Company;
director of the North American Life Assurance Company, and chairman of
the agency committee. He is also treasurer of the Union Relief Fund, and
of the Church and Parsonage Aid Fund of the Methodist church; has been
treasurer from the beginning of the Sherbourne Street Methodist Church,
and was organizer and superintendent of its Sunday school for the first
eleven years. Mr. Lake was lately elected chairman of the committee on
plans for the new Victoria College buildings to be erected in the
Queen’s Park, Toronto, for the Methodist Church, at a cost of about
$200,000. We may add that Mr. Lake has done a good deal to improve
Toronto during the past fifteen years, having built residences worth
about $200,000, in the most improved style of architecture, and his own
residence,—286 Sherbourne street—is a model of completeness and
convenience. In June, 1859, he was married to Emily Jane, youngest
daughter of S. V. R. Douglas, of Burford, Brant county, and
granddaughter of the Rev. Thomas Whitehead, a gentleman who occupied a
prominent position in the Methodist church from 1790 to 1840.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=De Sola, Abraham=, LL.D.—The late Dr. de Sola was one of the most
distinguished scholars who ever graced an American-Jewish pulpit. His
reputation as an Orientalist, theologian and linguist, was not confined
to his own people; the profundity and extraordinary intellectual acumen
which characterized his numerous writings and researches having won for
him wide renown among the _savants_ both of this continent and of
Europe. He was descended from a very ancient and celebrated Jewish
family, his ancestors having, in their migration from Judea, gradually
moved across Northern Africa, until, crossing the Straits of Gibraltar,
we find them settled in Spain as early as the close of the sixth
century. Here the de Solas became very distinguished in the higher walks
of life. They assisted the Saracens, when the mighty sons of the desert
overran the Iberian Peninsula, and in return were received in high
favour at the court of the Caliphs. The Gothic princes also treated them
with distinction; and in Navarre, where a branch of the family settled,
Don Bartolomé de Sola attained to such influence as to be ennobled and
created a minister of state, and at one time exercised the functions of
Viceroy. Another de Sola won renown by his prowess in battle, when
fighting under the Infante of Aragon, in the fourteenth century. For
several centuries they continued to flourish in Spain, the family being
famed for the large number of illustrious men it produced, eminent as
authors, rabbis, physicians, and courtiers. In 1492, in consequence of
their adherence to Judaism, they suffered the fate of all Spanish Jews,
being condemned to exile by the edict of the bigoted Ferdinand and
Isabella. They fled to Holland, where they soon again rose to
distinction in the world of letters. One member of the family, however,
lingered behind in Portugal, eluding the vigilance of his persecutors by
professing to become a New Christian (as Jewish converts to Christianity
were styled), while he secretly continued to follow Judaism. During
several generations some of his descendants continued to reside in
Lisbon, where they possessed much wealth, remaining ever true to their
ancestral faith, and all resorting to the same hazardous expedient to
escape the notice of the Inquisition. But the fact that they often sent
their children to Holland, that they might be the better able to follow
Judaism, at length aroused the suspicions of the Holy Office; and
towards the close of the seventeenth century David de Sola was suddenly
pounced upon and incarcerated in the cells of the Inquisition-House. He
bore the most frightful tortures heroically, and, as no confession could
be forced from his lips, nor aught proved against him, he was released;
but his shattered frame never recovered from the terrible agonies he had
suffered. Years afterwards the suspicions of the Inquisition were again
aroused, and two members of the family were seized, tortured, and having
been found guilty of secret adherence to Judaism, suffered death at an
_Auto-da-Fé_. Aaron de Sola (son of the above-mentioned David) was then
the head of the Lisbon branch of the family, and, alarmed at the
frightful fate of his two relatives, took refuge with his wife and
children on an English man-of-war, which then lay at the mouth of the
Tagus, only just in time to escape the officers of the Holy Office, who
were in pursuit of him. Landed safely in London, by the friendly English
captain, Aaron de Sola had no sooner put foot upon free soil, than he
openly proclaimed his adherence to the faith which he and his fathers
had so long followed in secret. This was in 1749. He proceeded shortly
after with his family to Amsterdam, where he took up his abode. His
eldest son, David, was the ancestor of the Abraham de Sola who forms the
subject of this sketch; while his youngest son, Benjamin, became one of
the most eminent practitioners in Holland, and was Court Physician to
William V., and the author of numerous medical works. Another son of
Aaron de Sola settled in Curaçao, and was the progenitor of that General
Juan de Sola who won such high military distinction fighting under
Bolivar and Paez in the revolt of the South American Colonies from
Spain. In 1690 another member of the family, Isaac de Sola, became famed
in London as a preacher and author. Some volumes of his writings are
still to be seen among the rare collections of European libraries.
Abraham de Sola was born on the 18th September, 1825. His father, David
Aaron de Sola, was a very prominent rabbi, celebrated for his
theological writings, and had removed from Amsterdam to London, England,
early in the present century, where the subject of this sketch was born.
His mother was of the illustrious Meldola family, who had furnished
leading rabbis to the Jews of Europe for twelve consecutive generations.
From childhood Abraham de Sola betrayed a strong inclination for study,
and having received a thorough training in those branches which form the
usual curriculum of higher education, he turned his attention to
theological and linguistic studies, and early laid the foundation of
that deep acquaintance with oriental languages and literature which
afterwards won him such renown. In 1846 he was offered the position of
minister of the Congregation of Portuguese Jews of Montreal, and, having
accepted this call, arrived in Canada early in 1847. Here began the
great work of his life. Shortly after his advent to Montreal his
eloquent sermons in the Synagogue attracted the attention of the
Mercantile Library Association, and upon invitation he delivered before
this body a series of lectures upon the history of the Jews of England.
The interest evoked by these efforts led to his delivering a further
course of lectures upon Jewish history before this association the
following year, and also before the Mechanics’ Institute. In 1848 he
published his “Notes on the Jews of Persia, under Mohammed Shah.” This
was followed by “A History of the Jews of Persia,” and within the same
year he published his “Lectures on Scripture Zoology” which was
succeeded by his “Lectures on the Mosaic Cosmogony.” Shortly afterwards
he gave to the world “The Cosmography of Peritsol,” a work which at once
attracted great attention and brought its author prominently to the
front. It received such favourable notice from leading reviews as to be
republished in part by the _Occident_ and other magazines, and
translations in various languages were brought out by publishers in
foreign countries. As late as 1881 we find it attracting the attention
of the learned Chevalier Pesaro, of Italy, in the columns of an Italian
review. His next important work “A Commentary on Samuel Hannagid’s
Introduction to the Talmud,” displayed a deep and broad acquaintance
with rabbinical literature, and was received with marked approbation by
the _literati_ of this continent and Europe. His literary labours had
now made him a prominent figure among the learned bodies of Montreal,
and in 1853 he was appointed Professor of Hebrew and Oriental literature
at McGill University, Montreal, a position which he continued to fill
with marked ability during the rest of his life, and for which his deep
knowledge of Semitic tongues particularly adapted him. He was also a
co-labourer of Sir William Dawson in the Natural History Society, as
well as at McGill, and did much towards vitalizing and extending the
usefulness of that body. In 1853, in conjunction with the Rev. J. J.
Lyons, of New York, he published his work on “The Jewish Calendar
System,” containing a very exhaustive and abstruse treatise upon the
Jewish mode of calculating time by the lunar system. Some years after
this he completed one of his greatest and most learned productions, “The
Sanitory Institutions of the Hebrews;” a work containing a most
elaborate and critical consideration of the rabbinical dietary and
hygienic laws, as based upon the Jewish traditional exposition of the
hygienic statutes of the Bible, viewed in the light of modern scientific
discoveries. The work excited alike the applause of scientists and of
rabbinical scholars, and the eminence to which its author had now
attained resulted in his having the degree of LL.D. conferred upon him
in 1858. Shortly after the publication of “The Sanitory Institutions of
the Hebrews,” Dr. de Sola published a supplemental work to it, entitled,
“Behemoth Hatemeoth;” and in 1860, when Dr. Hall founded the _British
American Journal_, devoted to the advancement of medical and physical
sciences, Dr. de Sola accepted an invitation to assist the publication,
and among many others of his writings that appeared in this journal his
articles “Upon the Employment of Anæsthetics in cases of Labour, in
connection with Jewish Law,” is specially worthy of notice. During the
succeeding decade he was particularly active with his pen, bringing out
in rapid succession numerous works and treatises, besides constantly
lecturing before various literary and scientific associations. Of his
writings and lectures at this period the principal ones were: “Scripture
Botany,” “Sinaitic Inscriptions,” “Hebrew Numismatics,” “Philological
Studies in Hebrew and the Aramaic Languages,” “The Ancient Hebrews as
Promoters of the Arts and Sciences,” and “The Rise and Progress of the
Great Hebrew Colleges.” For several years he occupied the position of
President of the Natural History Society, and in that capacity he
received Prince Arthur (now Duke of Connaught) when His Royal Highness
visited the society in 1870. His address upon “The Study of Natural
Science,” delivered before the Prince upon this occasion, called forth a
letter of approbation from Queen Victoria. In 1869 Dr. de Sola completed
his valuable historical work entitled, “The Life of Shabethai Tsevi, the
Jewish False Messiah.” This was followed by two other important
historical works: “The History of the Jews of Poland,” published in
1870, and “The History of the Jews of France,” published one year later.
Ever since his arrival in Canada Dr. de Sola had been labouring
zealously in every movement that tended to the advancement of the Jewish
people. His eloquence as a preacher, added to his intimate knowledge of
rabbinical learning, placed him among the very foremost exponents of
Jewish thought of the day, and he was recognized as one of the chief
leaders of the orthodox Jews of America. Broad-minded and tolerant in
all things, he was at the same time strictly orthodox in his Judaism.
His deep studies in the paths of science, literature and philology all
tended the more to confirm him in his abiding faith in the Book of
Books; hence we find that throughout his career he was constantly
engaged, both in the pulpit and press, in giving battle to those who
would assail the Hebrew Scriptures. Scarcely a work ever left his hands
that did not contain many a well directed shaft at the infidel teachings
of certain modern sceptics. In the columns of the Jewish press he was
particularly active in this respect, and for many years he was a very
regular contributor to various Jewish journals, particularly to the
_Occident_ of Philadelphia (edited by the gifted Isaac Leeser), with
which he was closely identified. He also frequently visited the United
States, where his lectures invariably attracted large audiences and
brought him into great prominence. In 1872 Dr. de Sola was invited by
General Grant’s administration to open the United States Congress with
prayer, and for the first time in history the extraordinary spectacle
was witnessed of one who was not a subject of the United States nor of
the dominant faith—one who was a British subject and a Jew—performing
the opening ceremonies at the assembling of Congress at Washington. This
high example of liberality upon the part of the government of the United
States was generally looked upon as one of the earliest indications of
the birth of a more friendly feeling between the United States and
Britain, whose relations had then been but recently strained by the
_Alabama_ Claims; and Sir Edward Thornton, the British Minister at
Washington, as well as Mr. Gladstone—who was then premier,—extended to
Dr. de Sola the special approbation and thanks of the British
Government. Having purchased the stereotype plates and copyright of
Isaac Leeser’s works, Dr. de Sola published about this time a new and
carefully revised edition of that author’s English translation of the
Bible, according to Jewish authorities. He also brought out a new
translation of the Jewish Forms of Prayer, based upon the editions of
his father (D. A. de Sola) and of Leeser. These were heavy undertakings,
and their completion entailed several years of severe work. In addition
to his other arduous duties, Dr. de Sola had now been appointed Hebrew
Lecturer at the Presbyterian College, Montreal, and also Lecturer in
Spanish Literature at McGill—a literature with which he was
particularly familiar. But the heavy strain of such intense application
to work at length undermined his naturally strong constitution, and in
1876 his health suddenly gave way. After a year’s rest in Europe he was
so far recuperated as to be enabled to partly resume his duties, and in
1878 and 1879 he was again an active contributor to the Hebrew press.
Among other of his writings at this time one of the most noteworthy was,
“Yehuda Alcharizi, and the Book Tachkemoni.”—In 1880 he produced his
last great work, “Saadia Gaon”—a book which gives a vivid picture of
the political struggles and literary labours of one who played so
important a part at the court of a Prince of the Captivity. But Dr. de
Sola’s health was now rapidly failing, and, while in New York, on a
visit to his sister, he was prostrated by an attack of illness which
finally culminated in his death on June 5th, 1882. The remains were
removed to Montreal, and there interred. In his decease the _literati_
of Canada felt that they had been bereft of one of their brightest
luminaries, while the Israelites throughout the Dominion mourned the
loss of one who had literally _built up_ Judaism in Canada. As his
remains were being consigned to their earthly tenement with truth indeed
did the officiating rabbi exclaim, “If respect be attached to the name
of Jew throughout these Canadas, to Abraham de Sola belongs the chief
glory of having gained it.” For thirty-five years he had ruled his
co-religionists in his adopted country with a sway that was almost
absolute—for his influence extended far beyond his own immediate flock.
He had bent every energy to improve and advance his people, and in his
death it was felt that there had passed away one who above all others
had energized and elevated the Jewish community in Canada. Dr. de Sola
was married to Esther Joseph, in 1852, and had several children. His
eldest son succeeded him as minister to the Portuguese Jewish
congregation at Montreal. His wife’s father—Henry Joseph—was one of
the earliest Jewish settlers in Canada, while her brothers stand among
the most prominent and most respected citizens of Montreal and Quebec;
one of them, Jesse Joseph, being president of the Montreal City Gas
Company, president of the Montreal Street Railway Company, and director
of the Montreal Telegraph Company; while another brother, Abraham
Joseph, of Quebec, was president of the Dominion Board of Trade, first
president of the Stadacona Bank, and a director of the St. Lawrence
River Navigation Company and of the Gulf Ports Steamship Company. He was
nominated for mayor of Quebec some years ago and generally claimed to
have been elected. Another brother, J. H. Joseph, has long been director
of the Montreal Elevating Company.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Carleton, John Louis=, Barrister, St. John, New Brunswick, was born at
St. John on 1st October, 1861. His father was William Carleton, and
mother, Bridget O’Connor. Mr. Carleton received his education in the
schools of the Christian Brothers in his native city, and studied law in
the offices of Weldon & McLean, and Allen & Chandler, St. John. He was
admitted an attorney in October, 1882, and called to the bar the
following year. Mr. Carleton having made the study of criminal law a
specialty, he has in consequence been engaged on all the principal
criminal cases tried in the province since he began practice, besides
many important civil cases. In November, 1886, he was appointed Official
Referee in Equity by the Provincial government. For several years he has
been an active member and held office in the Father Matthew Association,
and in the Irish Literary and Benevolent Association. He is also a
member of the Young Men’s Liberal Club. Mr. Carleton is a respected
member of the Roman Catholic church, and was married on the 22nd of
September, 1886, to Teresa G. Sharkey, of St. John. He is a rising man
in his profession, and has a promising future before him.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Finnie, John Thom=, M.D., L.R.C.S., Edin., Montreal, was born on the
14th September, 1847, at Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. His father,
Robert Finnie, carried on business for many years in Peterhead as tailor
and clothier. Dr. Finnie was educated partly in the parish school of his
native town, and after coming to Canada continued his studies at the
High School and McGill University, Montreal, and graduated from the
latter institution as doctor of medicine early in 1869. He then went
over to Britain and prosecuted the study of his profession in the
hospitals of Edinburgh, London and Paris, and in October, 1869, passed
the necessary examination at the Royal College of Surgeons, of
Edinburgh, and received from that college the degree in surgery and
midwifery. In 1870 he returned to Montreal, and since that time he has
successfully practised his profession. The doctor has for many years
taken an active part in various societies, national and other kinds, and
has on two occasions been elected president of the Montreal Caledonia
Society. He has been for several years and now is the president of the
Montreal Swimming Club. His large and increasing practice has prevented
him from taking any active part in either municipal or provincial
politics; yet he is a man of large and liberal ideas, and we have no
doubt, if time permitted him, he could be of great practical use to any
party with whom he might choose to connect himself. He is an adherent of
the Episcopal church. He was married on the 9th of April, 1874, to
Amelia, daughter of the late Christopher Healy, and has a family of four
children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Alward, Silas=, A.M., D.C.L., M.P.P., Barrister-at-Law, St. John, New
Brunswick, was born at New Canaan, Queens county, N.B., on 14th April,
1841. His father, John Alward, a successful agriculturist, was the son
of Benjamin Alward, a U. E. loyalist, who emigrated with his family from
the state of New Jersey, at the close of the American revolution, and
made his home in Queens county, New Brunswick, and there he died at the
age of ninety years. The mother of Silas Alward was Mary A. Corey, whose
family also settled in New Brunswick, at an early date. Silas received
his education at Acadia College, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, and graduated
B.A. in 1860, standing at the head of his class. The following remarks
may be seen on the records of Acadia College, with regard to Mr. Alward:

    “I now come to probably the most brilliant class that ever took
    the prescribed course at Acadia, the class of 1860. * * * There
    is Silas Alward, one of the most persevering, indefatigable,
    attentive students who ever attended college. Of strong physical
    frame, with great aptitude for study, a good linguist, an
    ambitious young man, it is not improbable that in his daily and
    terminal reckoning he stood in his class where the alphabet has
    placed him dux.”

In 1871, he received the degree of A.M., from Brown University,
Providence, Rhode Island. After getting through with his college course,
he began the study of law in the office of the Hon. Charles N. Skinner,
Q.C., now Judge of Probate in St. John; was admitted to practice in
1865, and called to the bar in 1866, since which time he has steadily
applied himself to his professional duties, and is now noted for his
high legal attainments, and is without doubt an ornament to the bar of
New Brunswick. He has been on two occasions president of the St. John
Mechanics’ Institute, and is a trustee of the St. John School Board. In
1867, Mr. Alward took a tour through Europe, and spent some time in the
cities of Rome and Naples. He afterwards wrote for a St. John newspaper
some very interesting articles, descriptive of the various places of
note he visited on this occasion. He has since then twice visited the
old world. He is well versed in general literature, and occasionally
takes the platform as a lecturer. Amongst his favourite lectures we may
mention: “Our Western Heritage,” “A Day in the Heart of England,” “The
Permanency of British Civilization,” and “The Great Administration.” In
February, 1887, Dr. Alward was elected by acclamation to the legislature
of New Brunswick, for the city of St. John. In politics, Mr. Alward is a
Liberal, and in religious matters, he belongs to the Baptist
denomination. On October 12th, 1869, he was married to Emilie, daughter
of Peter Wickwire, of Nova Scotia, and sister of Dr. Wickwire, of
Halifax. Mrs. Alward died in 1879, leaving no children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Kellond, Robert Arthur=, Solicitor and Attorney for Inventors, Toronto,
Ontario, was born in Montreal, Quebec province, on 6th November, 1856.
His father belonged to an old Devonshire (England) family, and was the
only son of the name who emigrated to Canada about 1850. His grandfather
had the honour of fighting under Lord Nelson on board the _Victory_ at
the battle of Trafalgar. Robert Arthur received his education at McGill
Normal School, and under private tutors in Montreal, and also in
England. He was also a pupil of the late Charles Legge, C. E., and was
engaged with him in the preliminary surveys and work upon the lines of
railway between Montreal and Ottawa, now known as the Canadian Pacific
Railway and the Canada Atlantic Railway, of which Mr. Legge was chief
engineer. Mr. Kellond studied law while in the office of Charles Legge &
Co., and paid particular attention to the patent soliciting branch of
that firm, and on the death of Mr. Legge, he and his partner, F. H.
Reynolds, succeeded to the business of the firm. Mr. Kellond has now in
successful operation offices in Montreal, Toronto, and Washington, D.C.,
United States, and has representatives in nearly all the capitals of
Europe. By this means he does a large business as a solicitor and
attorney for inventors, and as counsel and expert in patent and trade
mark causes, his _clientèle_ including many of the largest manufacturing
firms and corporations throughout Canada. He served eleven years in the
3rd battalion Victoria Rifles, of Montreal, and retired in 1886 with the
rank of captain. As a Mason he stands high in the order, being past
master of Hochelaga lodge, No. 57, Q.R., Montreal; past grand orator of
Sovereign Sanctuary of Canada and Newfoundland, 33°, 96°, 90°; is a
member of Carnarvon Chapter Royal Arch Masons; Delta Rose Croix Chapter,
and Richard Cœur-de-Lion and Odo de St. Amand perceptories of Knights
Templar; and is a member of the Rosicrucian Society, and Baltimore Unity
of Oddfellows. Politically Mr. Kellond is a Liberal, but since 1878 he
has been a supporter of the National Policy and protection to home
industries. He has declined several public offices on account of
professional duties. In religious matters he is a supporter of the
Episcopal church, but nevertheless is an admirer of many of the methods,
and social efforts of the Methodist and other independent bodies. He has
travelled through most of the southern and western states of the
neighbouring Union, and also in England, having a large number of
clients and professional associates in both countries. He has two
brothers, the eldest of whom was an officer under Lord Wolseley when he
went to Fort Garry, and is now a resident of Kentucky, U.S. The other
brother is a prominent railroad official in Louisville, Kentucky state.
Mr. Kellond was married in 1880 to a daughter of the late Henry Ryan
Hurlburt, barrister, Prescott, Ontario.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Maunsell, Lieut.-Col. George J.=, Deputy-Adjutant General district No.
8, New Brunswick, Commandant of Royal School of Infantry, Infantry
School corps, Fredericton, was born at Bally-William House, Rathkeale,
county of Limerick, Ireland, on the 25th of August, 1836. His father was
George Meanes Maunsell, J.P., of Bally-William House, Limerick county,
_vide_ “Burke’s Irish Landed Gentry.” His mother was M. Maunsell,
daughter of Rev. J. Stopford, son of the Bishop of Cloyne and Ross, Cork
county, and was a descendant of the Lord Courtown family, “Burke’s
Peerage.” Lieut.-Col. Maunsell, was educated at home and afterwards
studied for the profession of arms, and passed his final examination at
Sandhurst Royal Military College in May, 1855, and was gazetted ensign
in her Majesty’s fifteenth regiment on the 15th of the same month. He
attended a course of instruction in military engineering (branch of
senior department of the Royal Military College) at Aldershot in 1857,
and was subsequently employed, temporarily, on the staff at Aldershot in
connection with this course of instruction. On November 27th, 1857, he
was gazetted lieutenant in his regiment, and in 1858-9 attended the
course of instruction at the School of Musketry, Hythe, receiving a
certificate of the first class, on January 26th, 1859; and on February
10th following was gazetted as instructor of musketry. He was promoted
to a captaincy of the Fifteenth regiment on March 12th, 1861, and in
1861-2 was acting adjutant and instructor of musketry at the Eighth
Depot Battalion. He sailed for Halifax _en route_ to New Brunswick in
January, 1864, and soon embraced an opportunity that offered to see
active service in the field, for he was with the army of the Potomac
during the whole of the spring campaign of 1865, ending with the capture
of Richmond, and was at that time temporarily attached to General
Grant’s staff. On Nov. 22, 1865, he was gazetted adjutant-general of
militia of New Brunswick, and besides the organizing work was speedily
called upon to more arduous duties, for in 1866 came the Fenian
invasion, and Colonel Maunsell was engaged in the defence of the western
frontier of New Brunswick. In 1868, after confederation, the Militia Act
was passed and under it, on Jan. 1st, 1869, Colonel Maunsell was
gazetted adjutant-general of the military district No. 8, province of
New Brunswick. Between 1871 and 1880 he commanded tactical brigade corps
at Fredericton, Woodstock, and Chatham, and attended course of studies
at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich (certificate granted). On the 1st April,
1881, Colonel Maunsell was transferred from the command of military
district No. 8 to No. 4, with headquarters at Ottawa, and commanded the
brigade camps at Ottawa and Brockville, and the School of Instruction
(infantry) at Ottawa. On the 21st July, 1883, the Colonel sailed for
England, to be attached to her Majesty’s forces at Aldershot for
instructional purposes, and while in Europe he visited various towns in
Belgium, Germany and France, and also examined several of the battle
fields connected with the Franco-German war, in search of information.
He returned to Canada in November of the same year, and on 31st December
was gazetted commandant of the School of Infantry, Infantry School
corps. On the 16th May, 1884, he was re-appointed deputy adjutant
general district No. 8, New Brunswick, holding at the same time command
of the school and corps which he had successfully organized. In May,
1885, Colonel Maunsell formed a temporary battalion, composed of the
School corps and companies (6) active militia of New Brunswick, and (2)
of Prince Edward Island for immediate active service in the North-West
Territory, and proceeded with this battalion _en route_ to the
North-West, but on the 18th of that month was ordered into camp at
Sussex, to await further orders. On the 25th May he received the thanks
of the authorities, and the different companies were sent to their local
headquarters, their services not being further required. In addition to
the above Colonel Maunsell served with the fifteenth regiment in several
Mediterranean stations, when his regiment was sent to reinforce troops
during the Crimean war; and in the years 1855-6 he travelled on foot and
on horseback throughout Spain. He has been from youth up an adherent of
the Episcopal church. On the 9th August, 1862, Colonel Maunsell married
Miss Moony, elder daughter of the late F. E. Moony, J.P., D.L., of “The
Doon,” King’s county, Ireland, and has a family of seven children, four
sons and three daughters. His eldest son is captain in the 8th regiment
P.L. cavalry, New Brunswick, and his eldest daughter is married to J. W.
de Courcy O’Grady, of the Bank of Montreal, Ottawa.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Baxter, Robert Gordon=, M.D., Moncton, New Brunswick, was born on 28th
April, 1847, at Truro, Nova Scotia. His father was John Irving Baxter,
born in Annan, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, in 1803; educated in Pictou,
Nova Scotia, and for years was the Presbyterian minister at Onslow, N.S.
His mother, Jessie Gordon, was a daughter of the Rev. Mr. Gordon, of
Prince Edward Island, whose mother afterwards married the Rev. Dr.
McGregor, Presbyterian minister of Pictou, N.S. Dr. Baxter received his
early education in Truro, and pursued his medical studies in New York
and Philadelphia, and in London, England. In 1868 he began the practice
of his profession in Philadelphia, and in the following year removed to
Tatamagouche, N.S., and in the summer of 1870 to Moncton, where he has
resided since. He has held a lieutenant’s command in the third regiment
Colchester County Militia since June 21st, 1865; and was the first
chairman of the Board of Health of Moncton. He takes a great interest in
public enterprises, especially in agriculture, and was the first to
introduce into New Brunswick and bring to public notice the system of
ensilage, now so popular in Great Britain, and of so much advantage to
stock raisers. He has travelled over the greater part of Canada and the
United States, and has visited England, Scotland and several of the
continental cities. The doctor is in religion a Presbyterian. On the
29th January, 1872, he was married to Jean McAlister, of Moncton, and
has two children, a son and a daughter.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Branchaud, Moise=, Q.C., Beauharnois, Quebec province, was born at
Beauharnois, on the 6th March, 1827. His father, Jean Baptiste
Branchaud, _bourgeois_, of Beauharnois, and his mother, Louise Primeau,
were both descendants of two of the earliest colonists of the Seigniory
of Beauharnois. His father died in 1883, at the advanced age of
eighty-three, enjoying the esteem and respect of his fellow citizens.
Mr. Branchaud was sent, at an early age, to the College of Sainte
Thérèse de Blainville, where he made a brilliant course of classical
studies. On leaving college he entered the office of the Hon. Lewis T.
Drummond, to study law, and he was admitted to the bar on the 27th
February, 1849. Immediately after his admission he took up his residence
in Beauharnois, where he has practised his profession to this day. At
that time there was only a circuit court sitting in the district of
Beauharnois, with a jurisdiction of $80.00; this was increased, in 1851,
to the sum of $200.00. In consequence of this limited jurisdiction, his
professional advancement was but slow. However, when the “Act relative
to the division of Lower Canada into districts for the administration of
justice” came into force, there was a decided change. By virtue of said
act, a Superior Court was established in the district of Beauharnois,
with an unlimited jurisdiction in all civil and commercial cases; as
well as a criminal court and a circuit court. His practice then took
such an extension that, after a few years of assiduous toil, he
possessed a competency which enabled him to look tranquilly to the
future of his young family. His zeal and honesty in the exercise of his
profession was never challenged, either by his numerous clients or his
_confrères_. In 1858 he formed a partnership with Sir John Rose, for the
administration of the legal business of the seigniory of Beauharnois,
which was then very important and extensive. This partnership existed
until the departure of Sir John for London, England. The following
letter, written by Sir John before his departure, shows the high esteem
in which the baronet held his young partner:

                                 “MONTREAL, 30th September, 1869.

    “MY DEAR BRANCHAUD,—A thousand thanks for your kind note, the
    contents of which affect me very deeply. Every recollection
    associated with our intercourse is, I can assure you, of the
    most pleasant character, and I look with great regret at having
    to say good-bye to so many attached friends. I would have been
    deeply gratified to have seen you at the dinner, but the
    expression of your kind wishes will long be remembered by me.
    That every good thing may attend you is the earnest wish of your
    sincere friend—=John Rose=.”

This affectionate letter, coming from such an eminent man as Sir John
Rose, who attained such a high position among the most eminent men in
England, is preciously preserved by Mr. Branchaud, and the feelings of
friendship and esteem he always held towards the baronet are still warm
in his heart. During his sojourn in Beauharnois, in the summer of 1858,
the Right Honourable Edward Ellice, then proprietor of the seigniory of
Beauharnois, showed special marks of honour to Mr. Branchaud. He was
invited to all the dinners which he gave, whether to the principal
citizens of the place, or to his distinguished visitors from England. On
one of these occasions he met Lord Frederick Cavendish, the victim of
the Phœnix Park murder, Dublin, and Lord Grosvenor, now Duke of
Westminster. They were both very young then, and were going on a hunting
expedition to the western prairies. On returning home Mr. Ellice tried
to induce him to accompany him, and made him very flattering promises,
but the extended practice Mr. Branchaud had acquired did not permit him
to accept such an agreeable invitation. He regrets having declined now,
for he will never have an opportunity, if he should take a trip to
Europe, of forming acquaintances which the high position of Mr. Ellice
could have facilitated. He nevertheless keeps a grateful remembrance of
the old gentleman, who had so much regard for him. In 1859 Mr. Branchaud
married Marie Elizabeth Henrietta Mondelet, a daughter of the Hon. Judge
Charles Mondelet, of the city of Montreal, one of the judges of the
Superior Court for Lower Canada, and of Dame Maria Elizabeth Henrietta
Carter, a daughter of the late Dr. Carter, of Three Rivers. Madame
Mondelet was the niece of Captain Brock, a nephew and _aide-de-camp_ to
General Brock, and of Dr. Johnston, in his lifetime inspector general of
military hospitals in the Ionian Islands; and a first cousin of the late
Judge Short, of Sherbrooke. Mr. and Madame Mondelet died many years ago.
The Hon. Dominique, Mondelet, a judge at Three Rivers, was the elder
brother of Mr. Branchaud’s father-in-law. They were the sons of
Dominique Mondelet, a member of the old Legislative Assembly of Lower
Canada, and also a member of the Executive Council under the
administration of Lord Aylmer. In politics M. Branchaud was an advanced
liberal in his youth, but his opinions have greatly changed during the
last few years. Experience and age always exert a soothing influence on
the ideas and sentiments of the generality of men, and Mr. Branchaud did
not form an exception to the rule. He would not be so willing, to-day,
to endorse the political and social principles formulated in the
programme of _L’ Avenir_, and which were so enthusiastically adopted by
the young men who founded that paper. However, Mr. Branchaud thinks one
may be liberal without sharing the opinions of the nineteenth century
philosophers, and without believing in the omnipotence of universal
suffrage to save society—such safety being more certain in the hands of
the few than in those of the greater number of its members. The
democratic ideas carried to extreme limits will cause the fall of modern
empires, as they have produced the fall of the older ones, and what is
happening to-day in Europe is only their natural consequences. The
actual opinions of Mr. Branchaud do not find favour with either party.
His independence of character and his well-known frankness are obstacles
which would prevent his success in politics. So for many years he has
not engaged actively in them. However, he does not conceal his opinions
when called upon to express them. Thus he desires the continuation of
Sir John A. Macdonald’s administration because he thinks the national
policy would run great dangers in the hands of Mr. Blake, and the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company would find very little sympathy with
him, in case of necessity. This company, being still in its infancy, may
yet want the support of the government, and Mr. Branchaud thinks it
would be to the interest of the country to grant such help. It is hardly
to be expected that a man who has tried to arrest its progress in each
phase of its existence would be kindly disposed towards it at a given
moment. At all times he has repudiated the Rielite movement in Lower
Canada, as tending to arouse prejudices and race hatreds, and to retard
the progress of the country, and the conduct of the government in
letting the law take its course, has had his entire approbation, as the
only practical way of restoring peace and harmony, which would have been
threatened as long as Riel would have lived. In conclusion we may state
that Mr. Branchaud has been the promoter of the Beauharnois Junction
Railway Company. The road is intended to run from Ste. Martine to
Dundee, where it will connect with the American system. The building of
this railway will place Beauharnois—undoubtedly a town of future
importance, on account of the beauty of her site on the St. Lawrence,
and the extent of her water powers—in the first rank among the
important cities of the Dominion. Mr. Branchaud has worked for several
months to organize the company, and he is confident that his efforts
will soon be crowned with success. He was ever ambitious to see his
native place prosperous, and in the evening of his life he is happy in
the hope that the earnest wish of his heart will soon be gratified. The
Hon. James Ferrie is president of the new company, and Mr. Branchaud
vice-president.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Irving, James Douglas=, Major, and Brigade-Major of Military District
No. 12, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, was born at Charlottetown,
on the 12th February, 1844. His father, Robert Blake Irving, was born in
Annan, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, and emigrated to Prince Edward Island
about the year 1832. Here he engaged in the profession of teaching, and
in addition took an active interest in politics on the Liberal side
until the confederation of the provinces, when party lines having been
broken, he became a supporter of the Liberal-Conservative party. He was
of a literary turn of mind, and contributed largely to the columns of
the _Examiner_ newspaper when it was under the editorial management of
the late Hon. Edward Whelan, writing strongly in support of responsible
government, free schools, the settlement of the land question by the
government purchasing from the proprietors and reselling to tenants, and
for confederation. He married in 1843 Joanna Charlotte, a daughter of
Thomas Rhodes Hazzard, a U. E. loyalist, who came to Prince Edward
Island from Providence, Rhode Island, with his father and family at the
conclusion of the war with the revolted colonists. Major Irving received
his education in his native parish in the private school taught by his
father. On the 26th of March, 1867, he was appointed a lieutenant in the
Active Militia of P. E. Island, and was shortly afterwards promoted to a
captaincy. After confederation he was given a commission in the Canadian
Artillery Militia, and subsequently commanded the P. E. Island
provisional brigade of Garrison Artillery. On the 1st of April, 1885, he
was appointed brigade-major of Military District No. 12, and this
position he at present holds. He was deputy-prothonotary of the Supreme
Court of P. E. Island from 1st March, 1871, to 1st April, 1885;
registrar of the Court of Chancery, and also that of the Vice-Admiralty
Court from 28th March, 1876, to 1st April, 1885; and Clerk of the Crown
for P. E. Island from 1st August, 1883, to 1st April, 1885. For many
years Major Irving has been an active member of the Caledonian Society,
and in general takes a deep interest in all that appertains to his
native island.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Creed, Herbert Clifford=, Fredericton, was born at Halifax, Nova
Scotia, September 23rd, 1843. His father, George John Creed, of
Faversham, Kent, England, was clerk in the Royal Engineer department
(with rank of lieutenant), at Halifax, N.S., for thirty-five years. He
was the eldest son of Richard Creed, who also was in Her Majesty’s
service, as clerk of works, R. E. D., with the rank of captain. Both
father and son were, at the time of their decease, retired from active
service upon ample pensions. Richard Creed’s youngest daughter was the
wife of the late Hon. Jonathan McCully, senator of Canada, and
afterwards judge of the Supreme Court. The mother of the subject of this
sketch was Susan, eldest daughter of John A. Wellner, of Halifax, N.S.,
a manufacturer and at one time owner of extensive property in that city
and in the county of Hants. He was of a family that came out from
England among the original settlers of Halifax, with Governor
Cornwallis. Herbert Clifford Creed received his academic education
chiefly in the High School connected with Dalhousie College, Halifax. He
matriculated in the earliest class of undergraduates in Dalhousie
College in 1857, studying till 1860, the college proper having in the
meantime been discontinued. In 1861 he entered Acadia College,
Wolfville, N.S., and took the regular four years’ course there under the
presidency of the late Rev. J. M. Cramp, D.D. He graduated in 1865 with
honours in classics, having also held the highest place in his class
throughout the whole course. From August, 1860, to June, 1864, Mr. Creed
was teacher of French at the Collegiate Academy and Ladies’ Seminary at
Wolfville, N.S.; from the autumn of 1865 till the spring of 1869, he
filled the position of head master of the County Academy at Sydney, C.
B.; and from 1869 till June, 1872, was principal of the Seminary at
Yarmouth, N.S. In 1869 the degree of A.M. was conferred upon him. In the
following autumn he accepted the principalship of the English High
School, Fredericton, N.B., but resigned it at the close of 1873, in
order to take a position offered him in the Provincial Normal School of
New Brunswick, and here he has continued, with various changes of work,
down to the present time. His position now is officially designated as
“Mathematical and Science Master, and Instructor in Industrial Drawing,”
the term “Professor” not being applied to the instructors or teachers in
this Normal school. Mr. Creed was elected a member of the Board of
Governors of Acadia College in 1883; a senator of Acadia College in
1882, and secretary of the Senate in 1883; all of which offices he now
holds. In 1871 he was made one of the examiners of the college, and
filled the position for several years. He is secretary of the
Educational Institute of New Brunswick, having been re-elected every
year from its organization in 1877; vice-president of the Baptist
Convention of the Maritime provinces for the current year; a director of
the Baptist Annuity Association of New Brunswick and of the Maritime
Baptist Publishing Co. He was at one time president of the Associated
Alumni of Acadia College; president of the Fredericton Young Men’s
Christian Association, and for eight years secretary of the Fredericton
Auxiliary Bible Society. Mr. Creed has been connected with the following
among other Temperance societies:—The Sons of Temperance since 1857,
and is a P.W.P.; the Temple of Honour and Temperance from 1871 to 1875,
and is a P.W.C.T. and past deputy G.W.C.T.; the Temperance Reform Club;
the New Brunswick Branch of the Dominion Prohibitory Alliance. He has
also been connected with the Masonic order, in which he is a past
master; the Independent Order of Oddfellows as a P. G. and a P.D.D.G.M.,
Independent Order of Foresters, and is at present H.C.R. (presiding
officer) of the High Court of New Brunswick; and is a past commander in
the American Legion of Honour. Mr. Creed has written largely for the
press, for the most part anonymously, on educational topics; on the
temperance question; on matters of Christian doctrine and practice, etc;
and has also prepared a variety of matter for school texts and other
books. On November 4th, 1867, he was married to Jessie S., third
daughter of John F. Marsters, of St. John, N.B., customs broker and
forwarding agent, and has a family of four children, three sons and a
daughter. Mr. Creed has been a member of the Baptist church since he
attained his seventeenth year.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Harrison, Thomas=, LL.D., President of the University of New Brunswick,
Fredericton, was born at Sheffield, New Brunswick, on the 24th October,
1839. He is son of Thomas Harrison, by his wife Elizabeth Coburn, and
grandson of James Harrison, of the county of Antrim, Ireland, who
emigrated to South Carolina in 1767. During the Revolutionary war
Lieutenant James Harrison, with his elder brother, Captain Charles
Harrison, fought under Sir Henry Clinton, on the British side, and in
1783 these gentlemen came among the loyalists to New Brunswick. Charles
Harrison was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the militia of the county
of Sunbury, by Governor Thomas Carleton, in 1784, and the two brothers
settled at Sheffield, Sunbury county. James Harrison married Charity
Cowperthwaite, of a Quaker family from Philadelphia, and in 1806 died,
leaving five sons and four daughters. Their descendants are numerous,
and are mostly settled in New Brunswick. Thomas Harrison, the subject of
our sketch, was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, under the tutorship
of Dr. Salmon, F.R.S., whose works have for many years been the standard
treatises for advanced students in some of the highest branches of
modern mathematical science. He was a first honour man in mathematics,
and was elected a mathematical scholar in Trinity College in 1863. He
also attended law lectures, and took the degrees of B.A. and LL.B. in
the University of Dublin in 1864, and afterwards the degrees of M.A. and
LL.D. in the same university. In June, 1870, he was appointed professor
of the English language and literature and of mental and moral
philosophy in the University of New Brunswick. In 1874 he was made, by
the Dominion government, superintendent of the meteorological chief
station at Fredericton, and in August, 1885, president of the University
of New Brunswick, and professor of Mathematics by the Provincial
government. Mr. Harrison is a member of the Episcopal church. He
married, in 1865, Susan Lois Taylor, daughter of the late John S.
Taylor, of Sheffield, N.B., and niece of Sir Leonard Tilley, K.C.M.G.,
lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick. The fruit of this marriage is two
sons and a daughter. The eldest son, John Darley Harrison, is a member
of the graduating class of 1887 in the University of New Brunswick.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Blanchet, Hon. Joseph Goderic=, Collector of Customs, Quebec, is a
descendant of one of the first families that came from France to Canada,
and is a son of Louis Blanchet, of St. Pierre, Rivière du Sud, and
Marguerite Fontaine, whose family came from Picardy, in France. Joseph
G. Blanchet, the subject of our sketch, was born at St. Pierre, on the
7th June, 1829, and received his education in the arts at the Quebec
Seminary and at the Ste. Anne College. He afterwards studied medicine
with his uncle, Jean Baptiste Blanchet, M.D., and for many years
practised his profession at Levis, during which time he stood high among
his _confrères_ of the medical fraternity. Dr. Blanchet, jr., took an
active interest in the militia of his native province, and in 1863 he
raised the 17th battalion of Volunteer Militia Infantry, which he
commanded, holding the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He had command of the
3rd administrative battalion on the frontier during the St. Albans raid
in 1865, and the active militia force on the south shore of the St.
Lawrence river, in the Quebec district, during the Fenian raid of the
next year, and also in 1871. Dr. Blanchet, during his residence in
Levis, occupied many prominent positions. For six years he was its
mayor. In 1870 he was elected president of the _Cercle de Québec_; in
1872 president of the Levis and Kennebec Railway; and in 1873 he was
appointed a member of the Catholic section of the Council of Public
Instruction for the province of Quebec. Though a busy man, Dr. Blanchet
did not neglect the interests of his country. He took an active part in
politics, and as early as 1857 he presented himself as a candidate for
Levis in the Legislative Assembly of Canada; but, although he made a
good run, in the end he was unsuccessful in securing his election. Four
years later he again presented himself as a candidate in the same
constituency and succeeded, and sat from 1861 until confederation in
1867, when he was returned by acclamation to the House of Commons. There
he continued to sit until 1874, being meantime speaker of the House of
Assembly of the province of Quebec, from the meeting of the first
parliament after confederation, until the dissolution of the second
parliament in 1875. The year before this latter date, in consequence of
the passing of the law respecting dual representation, he resigned his
seat in the House of Commons in order to continue to hold one in the
provincial assembly, which he did, as representative for Levis, until
the general elections in 1875, when he was defeated. In November of that
year, a vacancy having occurred in the representation for Bellechasse,
in consequence of the elevation of the sitting member, Mr. Fournier, who
had been made a justice of the Supreme Court of the Dominion, he
presented himself for election, and was secured this seat; and in
September, 1878, he was once more returned for Levis. At the general
election held in 1882 he was again returned by his old constituency, but
only held the seat for about a year, when he resigned to accept the
collectorship of the port of Quebec, and this office he still holds.
When the Hon. Mr. Blanchet was speaker of the Quebec House of Assembly,
he showed fine talents in that capacity, and made an admirable presiding
officer, and some time before the fourth parliament had met, his name
was again mentioned in connection with the speakership, he being a
Conservative and his party once more in power. On the meeting of the
House of Commons in February, 1879, he was unanimously elected speaker
of that august body, and the choice proved a wise one, for he soon
showed himself an adept in parliamentary rules and tactics, was prompt
and impartial, and on his retirement from office carried with him the
good will and respect of both sides of the House. In August, 1850, Hon.
Mr. Blanchet was married to Emilie, daughter of G. D. Balzaretti, of
Milan, Italy, and the fruit of this marriage has been six children, four
of whom are dead, three having died in infancy.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Harris, Michael Spurr.=—The late Michael Spurr Harris, of Moncton, New
Brunswick, who was born at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, September 22nd,
1804, and married, May 11th, 1826, Sarah Ann Troop, of Granville,
Annapolis county, N.S., was descended from a long line of ancestors. One
of these, Arthur Harris, came from England, and was among the earliest
settlers in Duxbury, Plymouth county, Massachusetts. In 1640 he moved to
Bridgewater, Mass., and a few years afterwards, about 1656, he took up
his residence in Boston, where he died on the 10th June, 1674, leaving a
widow and five children. Samuel Harris, a direct descendant of Arthur
Harris, married, in 1757, Sarah Cook, in Boston, from whence, about
1763, they emigrated to Nova Scotia, and settled in Annapolis county at
a place called Mount Pleasant, near Bridgewater, and here Samuel Harris
died in 1801, leaving several children, among others the father of the
subject of our sketch, Christopher Prince Harris, who died in Annapolis
county, near Digby, 30th January, 1853, and his widow at the same place
in 1862. Sarah Cook, wife of Samuel Harris, was a grandchild of Francis
Cook, who came with the first Pilgrims from Plymouth, England, to
Plymouth, America, in 1620. Six years afterwards her grandfather, on her
mother’s side, came out to the Plymouth settlement, and he it was who,
in 1676, captured the celebrated Indian chief “Annawan.” Michael Spurr
Harris received his early education in the parish schools of Nova
Scotia, and passed his boyhood at his father’s home in Digby county,
N.S. When quite young he went to St. John, N.B., and entered the employ
of Mr. Peterson, a carriage-builder, where, after serving his
apprenticeship, he began business; and in 1826 married Sarah Ann Troop,
and settled in St. John, continuing his trade of carriage-making. A few
years later moving to Norton, Kings county, N.B., he extended his
business, and remained there until the fall of 1836, when he moved with
his family to Moncton, N.B., then called the Bend of Petitcodiac. Here
he became largely interested in the lumber trade and shipping, building
and owning vessels and sawmills. He was one of the earliest prominent
business men, and foremost in promoting the social, commercial, and
industrial welfare of Moncton. Comparatively self-educated, his manner
of life did not throw him in conflict with others in political
questions; but he held liberal and advanced views on the leading
questions of his day, and supported the policy of provincial responsible
government, the union of the provinces, and the encouragement of
manufactures. He was a magistrate, and held a justice’s court for many
years. From about 1840 to 1862 he was very actively engaged in
shipbuilding and the shipment of lumber to England, which at that time
were the leading industries of the province. His business called him
frequently to Great Britain, and he was known among shipping men in
Liverpool as a man of strict business integrity. The town of Moncton
elected him its mayor in 1859, a position which he filled with much
ability. Possessed of strong natural powers, a fine physique, a kindly
and courteous manner, and a strong belief in the orthodox Christian
faith, he lived a useful and exemplary life, and died at his home in
Moncton, January 26th, 1866, of paralysis, a malady which had for some
years previous deprived him of the active use of his limbs. His remains
are in the family lot at Moncton cemetery.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Bell, Andrew Wilson=, Carleton Place, Ontario, was born in the town of
Perth, county of Lanark, Ontario, on the 14th February, 1835. His
grandfather, the Rev. William Bell, who came from Scotland in 1817, and
was the first Presbyterian minister in Perth, died in 1857. His father,
John Bell, carried on business in the same town as a merchant from 1828
until 1849, when he died. A. W. Bell received his education in the old
district grammar school in Perth, and after leaving school began a busy
and useful career. In March, 1885, he commenced business at Douglas,
Renfrew county, with Charles Coulter, under the name of Bell, Coulter &
Co., general merchants, and next year having admitted into the
partnership Thomas Coulter, of Clayton, Lanark, they traded in the
villages of Douglas and Eganville under the name of Bell & Coulter, and
in Clayton as Coulter & Bell. The partnership was dissolved in the
spring of 1858, each partner taking the branch he then had in charge.
Mr. Bell was then a resident of Eganville, and in the spring of 1859 he
sold out his stock to the Coulters, and removed to Carleton Place for a
few months. In the fall of the same year he again began business in
Douglas, and in 1862 entered into partnership with Donald Cameron. The
new firm did a large local mercantile trade, and sent several rafts of
square timber to the Quebec market in 1863-4. This partnership was
dissolved in 1864. Mr. Bell, in the years 1858, 1865 and 1866, carried
on saw-mills at Eganville and Douglas; and in 1864 and 1865, having
joined William Halpenny, in Renfrew, under the name of A. W. Bell & Co.,
they carried on a general mercantile business. In 1867 Mr. Bell removed
from Douglas to Newboro’, Leeds county, and where he bought out the
business belonging to John Draffin. In this place he remained until
April, 1872, and then took up his abode at Carleton Place. Here he
prosecuted his mercantile business until 1875, and then, selling it out
to a partner he had admitted in 1873, he retired into private life. In
addition to his other business enterprises, Mr. Bell has dealt
considerably in real estate in the counties of Lanark and Renfrew, and
has bought and sold many thousand acres of farm lands, and built several
shops and dwellings in Carleton Place, which he still owns. In 1856 he
was appointed postmaster in Eganville, Renfrew county, which position he
held until 1859, when he resigned; again, in 1862, he was appointed
postmaster of Douglas, in the same county, and resigned in 1867. In
March, 1862, he was made clerk of the Seventh Division Court for Lanark
and Renfrew, but when these counties were separated in October, 1866, he
gave up the position. In 1862 he was made a notary public, and also
commissioner for taking affidavits and an issuer of marriage licenses.
In 1863 the Government conferred upon him the commission of a justice of
the peace. In 1873 the Board of Trade of Ottawa appointed him official
assignee for the county of Lanark, and in 1875 the Government appointed
him to the same office, and this office he held until the repeal of the
Insolvency Act. Mr. Bell also acted in the capacity of creditors’
assignee in the counties of Lanark, Renfrew and Pontiac, and was
arbitrator for the Canada Central Railway at Renfrew and at Pembroke,
and purchased part of the right of way for the railway company. Mr. Bell
was the originator of the Winnipeg and Hudson Bay Railway and Steamship
Company,—his name being first in the charter as passed by
parliament,—and he also had a hand in procuring two other North-West
charters. Mr. Bell is a member of the Masonic fraternity, having joined
in June, 1859. He held a commission as lieutenant, and afterwards
captain, in the militia, dating from July, 1856. Though brought up as a
Presbyterian, Mr. Bell now attends the Episcopal church, his wife being
a member of that communion. He married, 27th July, 1857, Jane Andersen,
daughter of the late James Gibb, merchant, of Glasgow, Scotland. Mrs.
Bell died on 2nd June, 1886.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=McIntyre, Right Rev. Peter=, D.D., Bishop of Charlottetown, was born at
Cable Head, in the parish of St. Peter, Lot 41, Kings county, Prince
Edward Island, on the feast of SS. Peter and Paul, June 29th, 1818. His
parents, Angus McIntyre and Sarah McKinnon, Scotch Highland Catholics,
emigrated from Southwest Inverness-shire to Prince Edward Island,
towards the close of the last century. Providence blessed their industry
and integrity; and they were enabled not only to have “full and plenty”
for a large family of sons and daughters, but also to extend the sacred
rites of hospitality to all who came in the way. Mr. McIntyre’s house at
Cable Head was one of the principal stations of the late Bishop
McEachern in that part of the country—before there was a church at St.
Peter’s—and his children were naturally enough brought to the notice of
the pious and discerning bishop. The bishop, it is needless to say,
entertained a very high regard for Angus McIntyre and his family, and
his lordship insisted that the youngest son, little Peter, should be
sent to college to be educated for the church. Mr. McIntyre was well
aware that the proposed undertaking would be exceedingly heavy, at a
time when schools were few and means were not easily obtained. But out
of respect for the wishes of his bishop, he generously acted upon the
suggestion, and his son Peter was accordingly among the first students
at the opening of old St. Andrew’s College. After the death of the good
Bishop McEachern, in 1835, young McIntyre expressed a strong desire to
be sent to Canada to pursue his studies. This wish was complied with by
his kind father, who placed him in the college of St. Hyacinthe, where
he remained for five years, entering the Grand Seminary of Quebec in
1840. After a three years’ course at the Grand Seminary he was, on the
26th of February, 1843, ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Signay in
the Cathedral of Quebec, and returned to his native diocese the same
year. We have been told by an old friend of the family that when young
McIntyre first went to college, his father had accumulated quite a large
sum in Spanish dollars, and so was enabled to promptly make generous
remittances to his son and pay the college bills on presentation. The
same good friend also tells us that by the time young “Father McIntyre”
returned from Quebec the Spanish dollars were pretty low, but not
exhausted. May it not be that the generous manner in which his venerable
father furnished him with ample funds until he was able to provide for
himself, materially helped to form and develop those generous,
hospitable and princely traits of character which we all admire in
Bishop McIntyre. The first missionary duties of Father McIntyre were
performed as assistant to Father Perry. After a short time, however, he
was appointed to the charge of Tignish, Lot 7, the Brae and Cascumpec,
with his principal residence at Tignish. There he lived and laboured for
seventeen years; and it was there that he first gave evidence of his
talent for building. The Acadian French, who form the largest proportion
of the Catholic congregation at Tignish, were, at that time, neither
rich in this world’s goods nor counted enterprising. Yet to them belongs
the very great credit of building, under the direction of Father
McIntyre, the first brick church—if we mistake not, the first public
building of brick—ever erected in this province—a church which, at
this day, is one of the finest on the island. Inspired by their
enthusiastic priest, the poor French people made the bricks, hauled them
to the site, laid the foundation, and built the church. They had little
money, but much zeal; and they were led by a man of rare administrative
ability. To the church at Tignish was added a handsome parochial house
and a fine convent, both of brick. A church and parochial house were
also about the same time built at Brae. The talents and zeal of Father
McIntyre were soon recognized by a church which—whatever her faults—is
not slow to see and reward true merit. On the death of Bishop Macdonald,
he was appointed to preside over the Roman Catholic diocese of
Charlottetown, comprising Prince Edward Island and the Magdalen Islands;
and on the 15th of August, 1860, he was solemnly consecrated Bishop of
Charlottetown. The ceremony was performed by the late Archbishop
Connolly, of Halifax, assisted by the late Bishop McKinnon and Bishop
Sweeney—the late Bishop Mullock, of St. John’s, Newfoundland, and
Bishop Dalton, of Harbour Grace, being also present. Under the
administration of Bishop McIntyre great attention has been given to the
education of the youth of the Catholic people and to the erection of
buildings in which to carry on the work of the church; and the bishop’s
talent for building has found scope. The first work of consequence which
he undertook was the rebuilding of St. Dunstan’s College. The Catholic
population of the island at the time of Bishop McIntyre’s consecration
was 35,500. There were only thirteen priests to minister to their
spiritual wants. The Catholic population is now about 55,000, and there
are thirty-seven priests with well organized missions. The new parishes
established by Bishop McIntyre are Cardigan Bridge, Montague Bridge,
Cardigan Road, Morrell, South Shore, Hope River, Lot 7, Lot 11, Brae,
Palmer Road, Little Pond, Bloomfield, Alberton, Summerside, in Prince
Edward Island, and Bassin in the Magdalen Islands, which form part of
the diocese. Besides the splendid episcopal residence in Charlottetown,
which was much required for the diocese, he has built St. Patrick’s
School (one of the finest buildings in the city); St. Teresa’s Church,
Cardigan Road; St. Francis’, Little Pond; St. Mary’s, Montague Bridge;
St. Andrew’s, St. Peter’s; St. Lawrence’s, Morell; St. Michael’s, Corran
Ban Bridge; St. Patrick’s, Fort Augustus; St. Joachim’s, Vernon River;
St. Lawrence, South Shore (the first stone church built on the island);
St. Anne’s, Hope River; St. Charles, Summerside; St. Mark’s, Lot 7; St.
Mary’s, Brae; St. Bridget’s, Lot 11; St. Anthony’s, Bloomfield; SS.
Simon and Jude, Tignish; St. Thomas’, Palmer Road; Sacred Heart,
Alberton; and in the Magdalen Islands, Notre Dame de la Visitation,
Amherst; Etang du Nord, St. Pierre; Bassin, St. François Xavier. This is
work enough, one would say, for one prelate and an indefatigable staff
of clergymen for one generation; but besides these churches, many of
them splendid specimens of architecture, there have been eight
conventual establishments erected and founded within the last
twenty-five years in various parts of the province, which educate
annually thousands of pupils. The chief part of the labour of the
churches was done by the zealous people in several of the parishes. In
1877 Bishop McIntyre organized the Central Council of the Catholic Total
Abstinence Union, with affiliated societies in every parish of the
diocese. He has accomplished a great work in the suppression of
intemperance in many parts of the island. In 1878 he founded the City
Hospital, which has already done a vast amount of good, and has
stimulated others to found another hospital for the sick. His lordship
has visited Rome four times since his consecration, and on one occasion
extended his journey to the Holy Land. He took part in the Œcumenical
Council of 1870, where it was generally conceded that no more imposing
figure was seen in the grand procession of churchmen, than that of the
venerable and stately Bishop of Charlottetown. In person his lordship is
above the medium height, his carriage is stately and his step elastic.
His activity is remarkable; few young persons could endure the amount of
travelling and fatigue which is constantly undergone by Bishop McIntyre,
upon whom it has no ill effect whatever. His voice, which is low and
sweet, is so clear that he is easily heard even at a great distance. His
prepossessing appearance and courtly manner, no less than his genuine
kindness of heart, have made him hosts of friends. He is highly esteemed
by Protestants throughout the province, from whom his blameless life and
fearless advocacy of what he deems to be right command respect. The
bishop takes a great interest in education, and is invariably present,
when his duties allow him, at the examinations in his Catholic schools.
It is to his lordship’s unflagging energy and zeal that St. Dunstan’s
College owes its present hopeful position. Besides providing for their
secular instruction, the bishop has always been much interested in the
spiritual welfare of the little ones of his flock; it is his delight to
preach at the children’s mass on Sundays, when the large congregation of
young folk listen to his clear and practical instructions with profit
and pleasure. He is a clear, forcible speaker, impressive if not
eloquent, with a perfect command of good Anglo-Saxon. Though a zealous
prelate, he has never been known to give utterance to any intolerant
expression against those differing from him in religious matters. He has
been to Charlottetown, and the island generally, a public benefactor.
Though drawing close to the seventies, his eye is bright, his lip is
firm, and his face fresh. He has a fine constitution, rises between four
and five a. m., and has a day’s work done before most Charlottetown
folks are out of bed. He has many years of usefulness ahead of him, and
hopes not to complete his labours until he shall have built a
magnificent cathedral in the metropolis of his province. That such a
great worker deserves and receives the gratitude of his own people might
be expected, that he should and does command the admiration of all
classes is only reasonable; and that he enjoys the esteem of his peers
is witnessed by the number of bishops and archbishops who did him honour
on the occasion of his silver jubilee, which was celebrated in
Charlottetown, on the 12th of August, 1885, amid the congratulations and
good wishes of all classes, creeds and nationalities in the community.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Fitzgerald, Rev. David=, D.D., Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island.
This reverend and highly respected divine was born at Tralee, in the
county of Kerry, Ireland, on the 3rd of December, 1813. He is the eldest
surviving son of William Fitzgerald, barrister-at-law of Adrivale,
county of Kerry, who married Anne, sole daughter and heiress of the Rev.
Robert Minnitt, of Blackfort, county of Tipperary, and rector of Tulla,
county of Clare, whose ancestor, Captain John Minnitt, came to the
country in the reign of Charles II. One of Mr. Fitzgerald’s ancestors
was a captain in King James’ army. This gentleman lived during the reign
of six English monarchs, and died at the advanced age of 116 years. Rev.
Mr. Fitzgerald was educated at schools in Clonmel and Limerick, and
obtained his A.B. degree and divinity testimonium at Trinity College,
Dublin. In February, 1843, he married Cherry Christina, second daughter
of Rowan Purdon, M.D., a physician of established reputation and
extensive practice in Kerry, his native county. His brother, Richard,
was a fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, and his son, George, was a
scholar in the same university. In June, 1845, after a creditable
examination by Rev. I. T. Russel, archdeacon of Clogher, he was ordained
deacon at Tuam by Lord Plunket, bishop of the diocese, and in 1846 was
ordained priest by Lord Riversdale, bishop of Killaloe, on letters
dimissory from the bishop of Clogher. He began his ministry as curate to
Rev. Geo. Sidney Smith, D.D., ex-fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, at
Cooltrain, county of Fermanagh. He then had charge of the district
church, at Maguire’s Bridge, in the same county, where as secretary to
the Poor Relief Committee of that place, he established a soup kitchen
for its famine-stricken inhabitants, and was the means by obtaining
subscriptions from absentee landlords and other benevolently disposed
persons, with a ton of rice from the Quakers, of providing daily
suitable cooked food for four hundred families for several months, and
left on his departure over £100 in the hands of the committee to carry
on the work. In June, 1847, he came out to Prince Edward Island as
assistant minister to Rev. Dr. Jenkins, then rector of St. Paul’s
Church. On the retirement of Dr. Jenkins and that of his successor, Rev.
C. Lloyd, in 1857, he was appointed rector of the parish, which he
served without intermission for thirty-eight years, when in 1885 he
retired from active duty. For upwards of twenty years he was a member of
the board of education, and a trustee of the Lunatic Asylum, and for
some time was chaplain of the Legislative Council. He is the author of
several printed sermons and pamphlets, and has delivered lectures on
various subjects for several years. In 1881 he took the degrees of A.M.,
B.D., and D.D., at King’s College, Windsor. On several occasions since
his retirement, he has occupied the pulpit in the parish church and in
other churches in the province, and hopes while he has the power of
utterance to speak a word for the Master and for the edification of his
followers. Three of his children have been called from this world, and
three remain, viz., Rowan Robert, Q.C., stipendiary magistrate and
recorder of Charlottetown; Sidney David, chemist and druggist, now
residing at Kansas, U.S.; and Minnitt John, for many years connected
with the Union Bank of Charlottetown, now amalgamated with the Nova
Scotia bank of Halifax. Mr. Fitgerald’s religious views have undergone
no change. He is to-day what he was fifty years ago, an Evangelical
churchman. He has been a member of the L. O. A. since 1832, when he
became secretary to Calvin lodge, No. 1509, then established in Dublin.
In 1848 he joined the order of the Sons of Temperance, and is a member
of the National division. He has seen some service and undergone some
labour, and trusts that the years already past have not been spent in
vain.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Brock, Major-General Sir Isaac=, K.B., was the eighth son of John
Brock, and was born in the parish of St. Peter’s, Port Guernsey, on the
6th of October, 1769, the same year which gave birth to Napoleon and
Wellington. He entered the army as ensign in the 8th Regiment of
Infantry by purchase, on the 2nd of March, 1785. In 1790 he was promoted
to the rank of lieutenant, and at the close of the same year obtained
his captaincy and exchanged into the 49th regiment. In June, 1795, he
purchased his majority, and on the 25th of October, 1797, he was
gazetted lieutenant-colonel. In a little more than seven years he had
risen from the rank of ensign to that of lieutenant-colonel. He served
with his regiment in the expedition to Holland under Sir Ralph
Abercrombie in 1799. He greatly distinguished himself at the battle of
Egmont-of-Zee, where he was wounded. He was second in command of the
land forces in the celebrated attack on Copenhagen by Lord Nelson in
April, 1801. On its return from Copenhagen the 49th was stationed at
Colchester till the spring of 1802, when it was ordered to Canada, where
its distinguished commander earned the fame and performed the gallant
services which have so endeared his memory to the Canadian people. At
Fort George, shortly after his arrival in Canada, Brock quelled an
attempted mutiny with great firmness and tact. His regiment soon became
one of the most reliable in the service. In 1806 Brock succeeded to the
command of the troops in Canada, and took up his residence in Quebec. In
1811 Lieutenant-Governor Gore went to England on leave, and
Major-General Brock was appointed administrator of the government,—and
thus happened to be the civil as well as the military head of the
province of Upper Canada on the outbreak of the war with the United
States in 1812. He at once threw himself with great vigour, and with the
full force of his soldierly instincts, into preparations for the war.
Upper Canada then had a population of only some seventy thousand; the
United States had a population of about ten millions. In Upper Canada
many of the settlers were aliens from the States—half-hearted, if not
absolutely disloyal. The timid viewed the outlook with grave misgivings.
In fact, the surroundings were enough to discourage the stoutest heart.
It was in these circumstances, entering upon what seemed almost a
hopeless struggle, that the noble courage, the unfaltering
determination, and the perfect faith in his country, of General Brock
shone out with such striking brilliancy. Our Canadian poet, Charles
Mair, in his drama of “Tecumseh,” has given fine expression to the
spirit which animated Brock, when he puts in his mouth these words:—

                       BROCK.

        “’Tis true our province faces heavy odds:
        Of regulars but fifteen hundred men
        To guard a frontier of a thousand miles;
        Of volunteers what aidance we can draw
        From seventy thousand widely scattered souls.
        A meagre showing ’gainst the enemy’s,
        If numbers be the test. But odds lie not
        In numbers only, but in spirit too—
        Witness the might of England’s little isle!
        And what made England great will keep her so—
        The free soul and the valour of her sons;
        And what exalts her will sustain you now,
        If you contain her courage and her faith.
        So not the odds so much are to be feared
        As private disaffection, treachery—
        Those openers of the door to enemies—
        And the poor crouching spirit that gives way
        Ere it is forced to yield.”

Brock’s first step on the outbreak of the war was to ask the House of
Assembly to suspend the _Habeas Corpus_ Act, which they refused to do by
a majority of two votes. He therefore prorogued the House and took
prompt measures to resist General Hull, who, with an army of two
thousand five hundred men, had invaded the province at Sandwich. The
militia were called out, a few disaffected people were ordered out of
the country, and at the head of a small force of regulars and Canadian
volunteers, only seven hundred in all, with a force of nine hundred
Indians under the celebrated chieftain, Tecumseh, Brock crossed the
Detroit river and captured Detroit with General Hull’s whole force. His
movements were wonderfully rapid. He left York on the 6th of August,
1812, embarked at Long Point on the 8th in small boats for Amherstburg,
a distance of two hundred miles, where he arrived on the 13th at
midnight. On the 14th he moved to Sandwich; on the 15th demanded Hull’s
surrender; opened fire from batteries erected that day; crossed the
river during the night, and before mid-day on the 16th Hull surrendered
with two thousand five hundred men, thirty-three cannon, a brig-of-war,
and immense military stores. This prompt and vigorous action of General
Brock was the turning point of our Canadian fortunes. The success was so
complete, so brilliant, that it produced an electrical effect throughout
Canada. It was the first enterprise in which our militia were engaged,
and it aroused the enthusiasm of the loyal, inspired the timid, fired
the wavering, and over-awed the disaffected. From that moment Brock
became the idol of the Canadian people, and on his return to York, which
he reached after an absence of only nineteen days, he was received with
heartfelt acclamations. Shortly after, Brock went to Fort George, on the
Niagara frontier, where a large hostile force was being gathered to
invade the province. On the morning of the 13th of October, 1812, the
enemy effected a landing at Queenston Heights. Brock hurried at once to
the spot with a very small force he had hurriedly gathered, and with
that impetuous and indomitable energy which was his most striking
characteristic, made a vigorous attack upon the enemy without waiting
for the reinforcements which were hurrying up to his support. He was
killed while gallantly leading a charge up the heights. Although this
for the moment checked the advance, the loss so roused the feelings of
his troops that in a few hours a second attack was made, and one of our
most glorious victories won, the whole force of the enemy being killed,
wounded, or captured. This ended the campaign in the west, and still
further encouraged our people and made possible the final result of the
war. No man was ever so mourned by the Upper Canadians as General Brock.
A handsome monument was erected to his memory on the field where he gave
up his life for Canada. This was destroyed by an act of vandalism on the
17th of April, 1840, but has been replaced by a far more imposing and
stately monument which was completed in 1859, and now stands one of the
most striking features of the Niagara frontier. General Brock was
forty-three years old when he died. He was tall, erect, and well
proportioned. In height about six feet two inches. His fine and
benevolent countenance was a perfect index of his mind, and his manners
were courteous, frank, and engaging, although both denoted a fixedness
of purpose which could not be mistaken. As an evidence of the high
opinion formed of him by the Canadians, the following extract is quoted
from a letter of the late Chief Justice Robinson, who knew the general
personally, and served under him at Detroit and Queenston:—

    “I do most sincerely believe that no person whom I have ever
    seen could so instantly have infused, under such discouraging
    circumstances, into the minds of a whole people the spirit
    which, though it endured long after his fall, was really caught
    from him. His honesty, firmness, frankness, benevolence, his
    earnest warmth of feeling, combined with dignity of manner, and
    his soldier-like appearance and bearing, all united to give him
    the ascendancy which he held from the first moment to the last
    of his command. It seemed to be impressed upon all, and at once,
    that there could be no hesitation in obeying his call, and that
    while he lived all was safe. The affection with which the memory
    of General Brock has ever been regarded in this province is as
    strong as the feeling of admiration, and these feelings still
    pervade the whole population.”

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Johnson, Hon. Francis Godschall=, Judge of the Superior Court of the
Province of Quebec, and senior Judge for the district of Montreal, with
duties of Chief Justice at the court in Montreal, was born at Oakley
House, in Bedfordshire, England, on the 1st of January, 1817. His
father, Godschall Johnson, was an officer in the 10th Royal Hussars
(then known as the Prince of Wales regiment), and his mother Lucy
Bisshopp, was a daughter of Sir Cecil Bisshopp, a prominent man in his
day, and a sister of Colonel Cecil Bisshopp, who lost his life in the
war with the United States in 1812-14, and was buried at Niagara,
Ontario, where his grave can now be seen. The Hon. Judge Johnson
received his education at St. Omer, in France, and at Bruges, in
Belgium, and came to Canada in 1834. He studied law in the office of the
Hon. Justice Day, and was called to the bar in 1839. He began the
practice of his profession in Montreal, and in 1846, before he was
thirty years of age, was appointed a Queen’s counsel. While practising
at the bar this learned judge was noted for his eloquence, and while
acting as Crown prosecutor, his splendid talents showed to the best
advantage. In 1854, he was appointed recorder of Rupert’s Land, and
governor of Assiniboine (now Manitoba), and took up his residence at
Fort Garry, where he resided until 1858, when he returned to Montreal.
Here he resumed the practice of his profession and continued until 1865,
when he received the appointment of judge of the Superior Court, in
which position his fine abilities continue to be shown. Being peculiarly
fitted for the task in consequence of his previous acquaintance with the
country, he was, in 1870, selected by the Dominion government to go to
Manitoba, to assist in the organization and establishment of a regular
system of government there. He did good service to the state, and
remained for about two years—special leave of absence from Quebec
province having been given him—acting as recorder of Rupert’s Land,
until new courts were established, and as commissioner in hearing and
determining the claims made for losses caused during the Riel rebellion
of 1869-70. He returned in 1872, and was appointed lieutenant-governor
of Manitoba, but declined the honour, considering the position
incompatible with the retention of the office of judge. During the time
Judge Johnson was practising in Montreal, he held several offices, and
was secretary of the commission that revised the Statutes of Lower
Canada. He is a member of the Church of England; and was married in
September, 1840, to Mary Gates Jones, daughter of Nathaniel Jones, of
Montreal. This lady died in July, 1853, and left three children. His
second marriage was in March, 1857, to Mary Mills, daughter of John
Melliken Mills, of Somersetshire, England, by whom he has also a family
of three children. Judge Johnson resides in Montreal.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Desjardins, Dr. Louis Edouard=, Montreal, was born at Terrebonne, on
the 10th of September, 1837. According to the “Dictionnaire
Généalogique” of l’Abbé Tanguay, his ancestors came to the country more
than two hundred years ago. He married Mademoiselle Emilie Zaïde Paré,
second daughter of Hubert Paré, a partner in the large commercial firm
founded by F. Souligny, one of the most important firms of Montreal at
that period. Dr. Desjardins entered upon his classical studies at the
College Masson, Terrebonne, and terminated them at the Seminary of
Nicolet. After practising medicine in Montreal during seven or eight
years, he took a first trip to Europe to study ophthalmology. On his
return, a year after, he established at the Hôtel-Dieu, of Montreal, a
special department for the treatment of eye diseases. In 1872, he made a
second voyage to Europe to complete his ophthalmic studies. He followed
the clinics of Bowman and Critchett, in London; and of Giraud-Teulon,
Wecker, Sichel and Meyer, in Paris. During his sojourn in London, he was
admitted a member of the International Congress of Ophthalmology. When
he returned to Montreal in 1873, he founded the ophthalmic institute of
the Nazareth Asylum, for the gratuitous treatment of the poor suffering
from diseases of the eye, and at the same time to give clinics on those
diseases to the medical students. It is the first institution of the
kind founded in Montreal. He was one of the founders of the “Société
Médicale,” and of the journal _L’ Union Médicale_, to which he was a
contributor for many years. This year (1887), in concert with the Hon.
Dr. Pâquet, Dr. Hingston, and Dr. Beausoleil, he founded the _Gazette
Médicale_, of Montreal. Since 1870, he has been surgeon-oculist to the
Hôtel-Dieu, and professor of ophthalmology at the School of Medicine and
Surgery of Montreal. He is one of the founders and one of the supporters
of the newspaper, _L’Etendard_. He advocated, and was chiefly
instrumental in bringing about, the nomination of a Royal Commission, in
1883, to institute an inquiry into the affairs of the Catholic schools
of Montreal; and before that commission he energetically took the
defence of the fathers of families against the encroachments of the
school commissioners of that city. In the difficulties which arose
between the School of Medicine (Victoria) and Laval University, from
1876, he took an active part in the struggle the school had to sustain
for the maintenance of its rights. In consequence of an erroneous
interpretation of the decrees of Rome, in relation to the establishment
of Laval at Montreal, the Archbishop of Quebec (now Cardinal Taschereau)
and nearly all the bishops of the province of Quebec, undertook to
destroy the School of Medicine, in order to give more scope to the Laval
branch. The school tried, but vainly, to defend its cause with the
episcopacy; and in June, 1883, Mgr. Taschereau fulminated against this
institution his famous sentence of rebellion against the church. Dr.
Desjardins was then delegated to Rome, to appeal from the sentence.
Despite this, the bishops of Montreal, St. Hyacinthe, and Sherbrooke in
their turn hurled sentences of excommunication against the professors
and pupils of the school, and even against the parents who should
continue to send their children to it. Once in Rome, Dr. Desjardins was
enabled to lay his appeal at the feet of the Holy Father, and obtained a
favourable judgment. The order “_Suspende omnia_,” was sent by a
telegram of the Cardinal-Prefect of the Propaganda to the Bishop of
Montreal, on the 24th of August, 1883. In the month of September
following, Mgr. Smeulders was delegated by Leo XIII., as Apostolic
Commissioner to Canada, with power to definitely settle the difficulties
existing between Laval and the school. At the present day the School of
Medicine is doing its noble work as in the past, and has more than two
hundred pupils.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Dickson, William Welland=, M.D., Pembroke, Ontario, was born on the 9th
of January, 1841, at Pakenham, county of Renfrew. His father, Samuel
Dickson, and mother, Catherine Lowe, were both natives of Ireland. When
but eighteen years of age, Mr. Dickson, sen., came to Canada, and like
many a young man in those days, was without money, but possessed of a
great deal of faith in his own right arm. Shortly after his arrival he
married and began to make for himself a home in the township of
Pakenham, in Lanark county. Things succeeding, he commenced the
manufacture of square timber, and after a while became a successful
lumber manufacturer and exporter. He lived and died in the township in
which he first settled. William received his education at the Perth
Grammar School, Ontario, at Bishop’s College, Lennoxville, Quebec, and
pursued his medical studies at McGill College, Montreal, where he
graduated. He began the practice of his profession at Portage du Fort,
in June, 1863, and in 1866 removed to Pembroke, where he has since
resided, and succeeded in building up a paying business. He is also
principal in the business conducted by the Dickson Drug Company in the
same place. From 1870 to 1874, Dr. Dickson held the position of captain
of No. 7 company, 42nd Battalion of Volunteers, and from 1873 to the
present time, he has acted as coroner for the county of Renfrew. During
the years 1877, ’78, ’79, he had a seat in the town council of Pembroke,
and in 1880, ’81, ’82, he was mayor of the same town. From 1881 to 1886,
he was one of the examiners of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of
Ontario. Dr. Dickson’s parents were Presbyterians, and he has followed
in the same safe path. In 1869, he was married to Jessie Rattray,
daughter of D. M. Rattray, of Portage du Fort, province of Quebec.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Stockton, Alfred Augustus=, Barrister-at-Law, D.C.L., Ph.D., LL.D.,
M.P.P. for the city and county of St. John, New Brunswick, residence,
St. John, was born November 2nd, 1842, at Studholm, Kings county, N.B.
His father is William A. Stockton, of Sussex, Kings county, N.B., and
his mother, Sarah, daughter of the late Robert Oldfield, who came to
this country from Stockport, England. He is descended on the paternal
side from Richard Stockton, who emigrated from Cheshire, England, some
years prior to 1660, settled for a short time in Long Island, New York,
and afterwards removed to Princeton, New Jersey, where he became the
grantee of extensive tracts of land. His great-great-grandfather was
Richard Witham Stockton, who was born at Princeton, N.J., in 1733, and
was a cousin of his namesake who signed the Declaration of Independence.
Richard W. Stockton served under the Crown with the rank of major during
the war of the revolution. His son, Andrew Hunter Stockton (Mr.
Stockton’s great-grandfather), also served under the Crown, with the
rank of lieutenant, throughout the revolutionary war, and at its close
they both, with other members of the family, came with the U. E.
loyalists to St. John, then known as Parr Town. They were among the
original grantees of that city. They subsequently removed to Sussex,
Kings county, and became grantees of extensive tracts of land there. His
great-grandfather, Lieutenant Andrew Hunter Stockton, was married at St.
John (Parr Town) on the 4th day of April, 1784, to Hannah Lester. It was
the first marriage which took place at Parr Town. Alfred A. Stockton was
educated at the Academy and at the University of Mount Allison College,
Sackville, N.B.; graduated B.A. there in 1864, being the valedictorian
of his class, and M.A. in 1867. He also graduated LL.B. at Victoria
University, Cobourg, Ontario, in 1869; Ph.D., on examination at Illinois
Wesleyan University in 1883, and received the degree of D.C.L. from the
University of Mount Allison in 1884; also LL.D. in course from Victoria
University in 1887. He studied law with his uncle, the late C. W.
Stockton, and was admitted to the bar of New Brunswick in Trinity term,
1868, and was for some years senior member of the law firm of A. A. and
R. O. Stockton, of St. John, N.B. This legal firm having been dissolved,
he is now practising law on his own account. As an advocate and as a
speaker, Mr. Stockton stands high, and has done good service for his
profession in compiling the rules of the Vice-Admiralty Court of New
Brunswick, and editing in 1882, with very extensive notes, “Berton’s
Reports of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick.” He is an examiner for
degrees at the University of Mount Allison in political economy and
constitutional history, and in law at Victoria University; is also
registrar of the Court of Vice-Admiralty of New Brunswick; a director of
the Provincial Building Society of New Brunswick, and legal adviser of
the same; a member of the Board of Governors of the University of Mount
Allison College and secretary of the Board; president of the Historical
Society of New Brunswick; a member of the Council of the Barristers’
Society of the province; a director of the Society for the Prevention of
Cruelty to Animals, and also its legal adviser and prosecuting counsel.
He was at one time a director of the St. John Mechanics’ Institute and
corresponding secretary of that corporation. In July, 1883, a vacancy
having occurred in the New Brunswick Assembly, in consequence of the
death of the Hon. Wm. Elder, LL.D., the provincial secretary, on the
23rd of August following, Mr. Stockton was elected to the House of
Assembly to represent the city and county of St. John, to fill the
vacancy caused by Mr. Elder’s death. He was returned again for the same
constituency at the last general election in April, 1886. He was
appointed in June, 1887, by the government of New Brunswick, an advisory
and honorary member of the commission to report upon the amendment of
the “Law and Practice and Constitution of the Courts of that Province.”
Mr. Stockton was opposed to the confederation of the provinces under the
terms of the Act of Union, but favoured a union of the Maritime
provinces. Having been brought up in the old school of New Brunswick
Liberals, he is naturally opposed to the policy of protection so-called.
He is a Liberal in Dominion politics, and in favour of manhood suffrage,
and thinks the lieutenant-governors of the different provinces should be
elected by the people of the province at large, and that the Senate of
Canada should be elected for a specific term either by the direct vote
of the constituencies or by the Provincial legislatures. He has always
taken an active interest in higher education, and has written
considerable for publication on different subjects. At one time was one
of the editors of the _Maritime Monthly_, since ceased publication, and
also a correspondent of _La Revue Critique_ of Montreal, which has also
stopped publication. Mr. Stockton for a number of years took an active
interest in military affairs, and held a commission as captain in the
militia of the province at the time of the union in 1867. He is a past
master of the Masonic order, and a member of the Grand Lodge of New
Brunswick. He is also prominently identified with the temperance reform
movement. In religious matters he is a member of the Methodist
denomination, and has always belonged to that church, and at present is
one of the trustees of the Centenary Methodist Church in St. John. He
was married on the 5th September, 1871, to Amelia E., second daughter of
the Rev. Humphrey Pickard, D.D., of Sackville, N.B., who was for over a
quarter of a century president of the educational institutions at
Sackville, and one of the most prominent educationists of the Maritime
provinces of Canada.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Cram, John Fairbairn=, Wool Merchant and Farmer, Carleton Place,
Ontario, was born on October 13, 1833, in the township of Beckwith,
county of Lanark, Ontario. His grandfather, Peter Cram, in the year
1820, with his wife, five of his sons and two daughters, left their
native village of Comrie, in Perthshire, Scotland, and set out for
Canada, to seek their fortune as farmers. After a tedious journey by sea
and land, extending over two months, they reached the township of
Beckwith, in Lanark, Ontario, where their eldest son John had settled
two years before, and had prepared for them a primitive shanty in the
woods. Here the family took up their temporary abode, and shortly
afterwards, the father and several of his sons selected lands in the
eleventh concession of Beckwith. The lots they selected were of good
quality, and though heavily timbered, these sturdy Scotch pioneers did
not feel the least dismayed, but soon succeeded in making a clearing in
the forest, and establishing a comfortable home for themselves. In 1830,
James, one of the sons of Peter Cram, and the father of the subject of
our sketch, married Janet, daughter of John McPhail, of the township of
Drummond, and settled on a lot adjoining his father’s farm, and in
course of time this worthy couple were blessed with a family of six sons
and three daughters, all of whom are still living, though they and their
descendants are now scattered throughout Canada and the United States.
The old couple passed away a few years ago, Mr. Cram at the age of
eighty-seven years, and Mrs. Cram about ten years younger, both greatly
respected and regretted by their numerous relatives and neighbours. John
Fairbairn, who was the second eldest son of James Cram, was at the age
of seven years sent to a school about three miles from home, and was
able to attend pretty regular until May, 1846, when unfortunately his
father’s dwelling house, with barn and all other outbuildings, were
destroyed by fire, when he had to give up attending school and go to
work on the farm. After this he had few opportunities presented him in
the way of school learning; and at the age of seventeen left home and
apprenticed himself to John Murdock, of Carleton Place, as a tanner, for
three years. He honourably served his apprenticeship, and in the spring
of 1853, joined in a partnership with his brother, Peter, when they
built for themselves a tannery at Appleton, about three miles from
Carleton Place. The brothers carried on the tanning business pretty
extensively for about sixteen years, when John sold out his interest in
the business to Peter, and removing to Carleton Place, erected a wool
and pelt establishment for himself. In 1872, Mr. Cram was elected a
member of the Board of Education of Carleton Place, and was re-elected
continuously for the following twelve years. He occupied a seat in the
Municipal Council of the village for eleven years, three of which he
presided as reeve. At the end of this period, finding the position too
onerous, he declined re-election. Mr. Cram is a total abstainer, and has
been connected with the order of the Sons of Temperance, the Good
Templars, and the County Temperance Alliance. In religious matters, he
is an adherent of the church of his fathers—the Presbyterian church.
Twenty-seven years ago he became a member of this church, and for the
last eighteen years has been one of its managing committee, and six
years ago was elected a deacon of the church. In politics, he is a
staunch Reformer, and is president of the Reform Association of Carleton
Place. Mr. Cram has been fairly successful in business, and although
like many another self-made man, has had his trials and difficulties,
yet he can afford to look back on his struggles and say that with the
help of God and an indomitable will, I have succeeded in making enough
of this world’s goods to enable me to spend the remainder of my days in
comfort. In 1865, Mr. Cram was married to Margaret, only surviving
daughter of William Wilson, of Appleton. This estimable lady died on the
21st of November, 1886. The fruit of the union was one daughter
(deceased) and three sons.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Ross, Alexander Milton=, M.D., Montreal, the eminent Canadian
philanthropist, scientist and author, has had a career of striking
interest. He was born on December 13th, 1832, in Belleville, Ontario.
His father, William Ross, was a grandson of Captain Alexander Ross, an
officer of General Wolfe’s army of invasion. Captain Ross took part in
the battle on the Plains of Abraham, which resulted in the defeat of the
French and the conquest of all Canada. He subsequently received a grant
of lands from the Crown, and settled in Prince Edward County, Upper
Canada, where he lived until his death, which occurred in 1805. Captain
Alexander Ross was a grandson of Alexander Ross, laird of Balnagown,
Ross-shire, Scotland, who descended in a direct line from Hugh Ross, of
Rariches, second son of Hugh, the sixth and last Earl of Ross, of the
old family. Dr. Ross’s grandmother, on his father’s side, was Hannah
Prudence Williams, a descendant of Roger Williams (1595-1683), the
famous liberal preacher, and apostle of freedom, of Rhode Island. His
mother, Frederika Grant, was the youngest daughter of John Grant of the
British army, who died from wounds received at Niagara, in the war of
1812-1814. His maternal grandmother was Mary Jenks, a daughter of Joseph
Jenks, colonial governor of Rhode Island. Governor Jenks has left a
famous record of public services. He was speaker of the House of
Representatives of Rhode Island, from Oct., 1698, to 1708; deputy
governor from May, 1715, to May, 1727; governor from May, 1727, to May,
1732. He was a staunch and persistent friend and advocate of political
and religious liberty. In his boyhood Dr. Ross made his way to New York
city, and after struggling with many adversities, became a compositor in
the office of the _Evening Post_, then edited and owned by William
Cullen Bryant, the poet. Mr. Bryant became much interested in young
Ross, and ever after remained his steadfast friend. It was during this
period that he became acquainted with General Garibaldi, who at that
time was a resident of New York, and employed in making candles. This
acquaintance soon ripened into a warm friendship, which continued
unbroken down to Garibaldi’s death in 1882. It was through Dr. Ross’s
efforts in 1874 that Garibaldi obtained his pension from the Italian
government. In 1851 Dr. Ross began the study of medicine, under the
direction of the eminent Dr. Valentine Mott, and subsequently under Dr.
Trall, the celebrated hygienic physician. After four years of
unremitting toil, working as compositor during the day and studying
medicine at night, he received his degree of M.D. in 1855, and shortly
after received the appointment of surgeon in the army of Nicaragua, then
commanded by General William Walker. He subsequently became actively and
earnestly engaged in the anti-slavery struggle in the United States,
which culminated in the liberation from bondage of four millions of
slaves. Dr. Ross was a personal friend and co-worker of Captain John
Brown, the martyr. Although Dr. Ross’s sphere of labour in that great
struggle for human freedom was less public than that of many other
workers in the cause, it was not less important, and required the
exercise of greater caution, courage and determination, and also
involved greater personal risks. Senator Wade, vice-president of the
United States, said, in speaking of the abolitionists:—“Never in the
history of the world did the same number of men perform so great an
amount of good for the human race and for their country as the once
despised abolitionists, and it is my duty to add that no one of their
number submitted to greater privations, perils or sacrifices, or did
more in the great and noble work than Alexander Ross.” He has received
the benediction of the philanthropist and poet, Whittier, in the
following noble words, which find their echo in the hearts of
thousands:—

                  DR. A. M. ROSS.

        For his steadfast strength and courage
          In a dark and evil time,
        When the Golden Rule was treason,
          And to feed the hungry, crime.

        For the poor slave’s hope and refuge,
          When the hound was on his track,
        And saint and sinner, state and church,
          Joined hands to send him back.

        Blessings upon him!—What he did
          For each sad, suffering one,
        Chained, hunted, scourged and bleeding,
          Unto our Lord was done.
                                JOHN G. WHITTIER,
            _Secretary of the Convention in 1833,_
        _which formed the American Anti-Slavery Society._

The sincere radical abolitionists, with whom Dr. Ross was labouring,
were despised, hated and ostracised by the rich, the powerful and the
so-called higher classes; but Dr. Ross always possessed the courage of
his opinions, and prefers the approval of his own conscience to the
smiles or favours of men. During the Southern rebellion he was employed
by President Lincoln as confidential correspondent in Canada, and
rendered very important services to the United States government. For
this he received the special thanks of President Lincoln and Secretary
Seward. When the war ended, with the downfall of the Confederacy, Dr.
Ross offered his services to President Juarez, of Mexico, and received
the appointment of surgeon in the Republican army. The capture of
Maximilian, and the speedy overthrow of the empire, rendered Dr. Ross’s
services unnecessary, and he returned to Canada and to the congenial and
more peaceful pursuits of a naturalist. The object of his ambition now
was to collect and classify the fauna and flora of his native country, a
labour never before attempted by a Canadian. He has collected and
classified five hundred and seventy species of birds that regularly or
occasionally visit the Dominion of Canada; two hundred and forty species
of eggs of birds that breed in Canada; two hundred and forty-seven
species of mammals, reptiles, and fresh water fish; three thousand four
hundred species of insects; and two thousand species of Canadian flora.
The _Montreal Herald_ of August 19, 1884, says:—“Dr. Ross has been a
member of the British Association of Science for the last fourteen
years, and of the French and American Associations for the past ten
years. The following brief sketch will, therefore, prove doubly
interesting in view of the approaching gathering of scientific men
(meeting of the British Association, Sept., 1884), in this city. He has
devoted special attention to the ornithology, ichthyology, botany and
entomology of Canada; has personally made large and valuable collections
of the fauna and flora of Canada; has enriched by his contributions the
natural history museums of Paris, St. Petersburg, Vienna, Rome, Athens,
Dresden, Lisbon, Teheran and Cairo, with collections of Canadian fauna
and flora. He is author of “Birds of Canada” (1872), “Butterflies and
Moths of Canada” (1873), “Flora of Canada” (1873), “Forest Trees of
Canada” (1874), “Mammals, Reptiles, and Fresh water Fishes of Canada”
(1878), “Recollections of an Abolitionist” (1867), “Ferns and Wild
Flowers of Canada” (1877), “Friendly Words to Boys and Young Men”
(1884), “Vaccination a Medical Delusion” (1885), and “Natural Diet of
Man” (1886). He received the degrees of M.D. (1855), and M.A. (1867);
and was knighted by the Emperor of Russia (1876), King of Italy (1876),
King of Greece (1876), King of Portugal (1877), King of Saxony (1876),
and received the Medal of Merit from the Shah of Persia (1884), the
decoration of honour from the Khedive of Egypt (1884), and the
decoration of the Académie Française from the government of France
(1879). He was offered (and declined) the title of baron by the King of
Bavaria, in recognition of his labours as a naturalist, and was
appointed consul to Canada by the King of Belgium and the King of
Denmark. Dr. Ross was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of
Literature and the Linnean and Zoological Societies of England; the
Royal Societies of Antiquaries of Denmark and Greece; the Imperial
Society of Naturalists of Russia; the Imperial Botanical and Zoological
Society of Austria; the Royal Academy of Science of Palermo, Italy; a
member of the Entomological Societies of Russia, Germany, Italy, France,
Switzerland, Belgium, Bohemia and Wurtemburg; member of the Hygienic
Societies of France, Germany and Switzerland; honorary member of the
Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, and member of the European Congress of
Ornithology. For several years past Dr. Ross has laboured with his
characteristic zeal and energy in behalf of moral and physical reform.
He is the founder (1880) of the Canadian Society for the Diffusion of
Physiological Knowledge, and enlisted the sympathy and active support of
the Archbishop of Canterbury, Earl Shaftesbury, the Archbishop of
Toronto, and two hundred and forty clergymen of different denominations,
and three hundred Canadian school-teachers in the work of distributing
his tracts on “The Evils Arising from Unphysiological Habits in Youth”;
over one million copies of these tracts were distributed among the youth
of Britain and Canada, calling forth thousands of letters expressing
gratitude from parents and friends of the young. Dr. Ross is one of the
founders of the St. Louis Hygienic College of Physicians and Surgeons,
in which he is professor of hygiene, sanitation and physiology. He is
always on the side of the poor and the oppressed, no matter how
unpopular the cause may be. He does his duty as he sees it, regardless
of consequences to himself. The philanthropic Quakeress, Lucretia Jenks,
thus speaks of Dr. Ross:—

        No, friend Ross! thou art not old;
        A heart so true, so kind, so bold,
        As in thy bosom throbs to-day,
        Never! never! will decay.

        Some I know, but half thy years,
        Are quite deaf to all that cheers;
        They are dumb when they should speak,
        And blind to all the poor and weak.

        There are none I know, in sooth,
        Who part so slowly with their youth,
        As men like thee, who take delight
        In helping others to live right.

                   LUCRETIA JENKS.
           Rhode Island, 22, 11mo., 1885.

When Dr. Ross had attained his fiftieth birthday, he was the recipient
of many tokens of regard and congratulations from friends and
co-workers. From the poet Whittier the following:—

    DEAR FRIEND—Thy fifty years have not been idle ones, but filled
    with good works; I hope another half century may be added to
    them.

From Wendell Phillips:—

    MY DEAR ROSS—Measured by the good you have done in your fifty
    years, you have already lived a century.

From Harriet Beecher Stowe:—

    DEAR DR. ROSS—As you look back over your fifty years, what a
    comfort to you must be the reflection that you have saved so
    many from the horrors of slavery.

During the small-pox epidemic in Montreal in 1885 Dr. Ross was a
prominent opponent of vaccination, declaring that it was not only
useless as a preventive of small-pox, but that it propagated the disease
when practised during the existence of an epidemic. In place of
vaccination, he strongly advocates the strict enforcement of sanitation
and isolation. He maintains that personal and municipal cleanliness is
the only scientific safeguard against zymotic diseases. When the
authorities attempted to enforce vaccination by fines and imprisonment,
Dr. Ross organized the Anti-Compulsory Vaccination League, and
successfully resisted what he considered an outrage on human rights. Dr.
Ross is a radical reformer in religion, medicine, politics, sociology
and dietetics, and a total abstainer from intoxicants and tobacco. He is
a graduate of the allopathic, hydropathic, eclectic and botanic systems
of medicine, and a member of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of
the provinces of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Ellis, William=, Superintendent of the Welland Canal, St. Catharines,
Ontario, was born near London, England, on the 31st August, 1826, and
came to Canada in 1853, to take charge of the construction of an
eighty-two mile section of the Grand Trunk Railway. His father and
mother, Thomas and Margaret Ellis, were members of two old Yorkshire
families. William Ellis received his education in Cheshunt, Herts, and
London, England. Before coming to Canada, he acted in England as
engineer and contractor’s agent on various railway works, and in Canada
on the Grand Trunk Railway; and during the last seven years he has been
superintendent of the Welland canal. While a resident of Prescott in
1861, he was elected town councillor; and in 1864, he was chosen mayor.
For three years in succession he was president of the Prescott
Mechanics’ Institute, the Grenville County Agricultural Society, the
Prescott Board of School Trustees, and the Prescott Choral Society. At
present he is and has been for the past three years president of the St.
Catharines Philharmonic Society. Mr. Ellis belongs to the Episcopal
church, and occupies a prominent position in the denomination. He was
for three years churchwarden while in Prescott, and for twenty-one years
lay delegate for that parish. For St. Catharines, he has been lay
delegate for six years, and is also churchwarden of St. George’s Church,
and warden of St. George’s Guild. During the Fenian troubles in 1866,
Mr. Ellis served as lieutenant in the Garrison Artillery in Prescott,
and retired from military service on the disbandment of his company. He
has travelled a good deal, and has twice visited France. He has been
married twice. First, in October, 1855, to M. E. A. Jessup, of Prescott,
daughter of Edward Jessup, formerly M.P., for the Johnstown district.
This lady died, leaving a family of two children. The son has graduated
M.D. in McGill University. He married the second time in May, 1886, to
M. A. A. Bryant, daughter of Shettelworth Bryant, of Blackheath (Eng.),
and cousin of Colonel Bryant, St. Leonards, England.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Call, Robert Randolph=, Newcastle, New Brunswick, was born in
Newcastle, Miramichi, N.B., September 12, 1837. His father, Obadiah
Call, was a native of the state of Maine, having been born in the
village of Dresden, August 1, 1800, and is still alive. Margaret Burke,
his mother, was born in Limerick, Ireland, in 1810, and came to
Miramichi with her father, who was a house-carpenter, shortly after the
great fire in 1825. She died on the 10th of May, 1877. Robert, the
subject of this sketch, was educated at the Grammar School of Newcastle,
and soon after leaving this institution developed an aptitude for
business. In 1871, in company with John C. Miller, he built the
side-wheel steamer _New Era_, and established the first line of
passenger steamers that ran on the Miramichi river. During the past
twenty-five years he has been interested in the steamboat business, and
occupied the position of agent for the Quebec and Gulf Ports Steamship
Company, and for other lines of steamers that have called at the port of
Newcastle. On November 26, 1866, he received the appointment of United
States Consular Agent at Newcastle. In June, 1867, was elected chairman
of the Northumberland County Almshouse Commissioners; and in January,
1874, was made a member of the board of Pilotage Commissioners for the
Miramichi district of New Brunswick, under the Pilotage Act, which then
came into force, and was chosen its secretary-treasurer. Mr. Call is
owner of the gas works in his native town, and they are operated under
his own immediate direction. On the 9th September, 1865, he was
appointed a lieutenant in the 2nd battalion Northumberland County
Militia; and on October 1st, 1868, at a public meeting held in the town
of Newcastle for the purpose of organizing a battery, was chosen captain
of the Newcastle Field Battery of Artillery, and was gazetted as such on
the 18th December of the same year. On the 18th December, 1873, he was
made major, and lieutenant-colonel on the 4th February, 1885. He still
retains the command of this battery, which he was mainly instrumental in
raising. In 1875 this corps was called into active service during the
school riots in Caraquet, Gloucester county. Lieutenant-Colonel Call,
with Lieutenant Mitchell second in command, and part of the battery, in
all forty-six persons, with horses, sleds, two nine-pounder guns,
ammunition, etc., left Newcastle on the afternoon of the 28th January
for Bathurst, the shire town of Gloucester county, and had to traverse a
distance of fifty-five miles through a comparatively desolate country.
The weather was very unsettled, and more severe than it had been for
years. The snow was fully four feet deep on the level, while in many
places it was drifted so badly that the men had to shovel for hours
before the teams could pass. They, however, after experiencing great
fatigue, and with hard labour, succeeded in reaching their destination
on the evening of the 29th, having accomplished the journey in
twenty-eight hours, without resting, except while the horses were being
fed on the road, the men in the meantime keeping their seats on the
sleds, and eating the provisions they had brought from home with them.
On their arrival in Bathurst they found that twenty-six of the leading
rioters had been safely lodged in the jail there. The infantry that
followed them proceeded to Caraquet. Here the battery remained for about
six weeks, making the court house their barracks, until the excitement
was calmed down and quiet was restored. Mr. Call became a member of
Northumberland lodge, A. F. and A. Masons, in 1863, and in the years
1866 and 1867 was master of the lodge. In 1873 he was appointed
representative to the Grand Lodge of New Jersey. He is also a member of
the Northumberland Highland Society, and one of its vice-presidents. He
has travelled a good deal, having visited England for his health in
1863, going over and returning in a sailing vessel. In 1881 he went,
_via_ Lake Superior, to Rainy River, Lake of the Woods, Winnipeg, etc.,
to Portage la Prairie, then the extreme end of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, for the purpose of having a look at this wonderful country, and
has taken an occasional trip to the United States. Mr. Call is a
Presbyterian, is one of the Trustees of St. James’ Church, and has been
its secretary and treasurer since 1874. He was married, May 21st, 1862,
to Annie Rankin Nevin, who was born in Stonehaven, Kincardineshire,
Scotland, on 5th December, 1836.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Dowdall, James.=—The deceased, James Dowdall, who for many years
practised as a Barrister-at-Law in the town of Almonte, Ontario, was
born at Perth, county of Lanark, on the 31st December, 1853, and died on
the 27th October, 1885. His father, Edward Dowdall, was a son of the
deceased Patrick Dowdall, a reputable and well-educated magistrate of
the township of Drummond, in the county of Lanark; and his mother, Mary
O’Connor, was a daughter of an equally respected and literary farmer of
Drummond township,—Denis O’Connor, who was successful in life, and died
February, 1887. James Dowdall received his education at the Public and
High schools of Almonte, to which town his parents removed when he was
four years of age. In 1872 he commenced his law course with Joseph
Jamieson, M.P., Almonte, and concluded his studies in the office of Hon.
Edward Blake, at Toronto, and was called to the bar in 1877. He then
formed a partnership with D. G. Macdonell, and the firm in a very short
time attained to a high position in the legal fraternity, and secured a
large share of public support. He was president of several literary,
debating, benevolent and other societies, from his seventeenth year
continuously until his death in 1885. He also occupied the position of
president of the local Reform Association; was founder and president of
the Almonte branch of the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association; chairman
of the Separate School Board; had a seat on the High School Board; and
for years sat in the town council. He had a very large law practice, and
for years previous and up to his demise was Crown counsel for the
counties of Lanark and Renfrew. Mr. Dowdall was a public spirited man,
and took an active part in everything that went to improve his native
place and the surrounding district. He was a staunch Reformer, and took
an intelligent interest in politics. As a speaker, he was eloquent and
argumentative, and travelled through Lanark and other counties in
Ontario during several local and federal election campaigns, and did
good work for his party. In 1879 he married Onogh T. Nogle, daughter of
the late William Nogle, and left a family of children. The _Almonte
Gazette_ thus alludes to his death:—“Mr. Dowdall was an able antagonist
in court, quick to see the weak points in an opponent’s case, and no
less expert in concealing his own. These qualities, as well as his
careful study of the law in each case, made him a generally successful
lawyer in court, while his knowledge of human nature gave him great
advantage in cross-examination. Had his life been spared there is no
doubt he would have risen to the highest point in his profession. His
many good qualities more particularly demand our grateful recognition.
Many a battler with the world can tell of a hand stretched out and aid
given just at a time when a friend in need was a friend indeed. Many a
struggling tradesman can tell how often he has mounted the office stairs
to ask for help to meet a note or some other similar emergency, and that
he did not ask in vain. Many a poor and perplexed one took up his time
by recounting some act of another’s from which they were or had been
suffering, and from him obtained as much attention and as carefully
considered advice as though they had carried a large fee in their hands.
The blank caused by the death of Mr. Dowdall will be a wide one: not all
at once will it be discovered how much he is missed, but as the days and
weeks glide by there will be many occasions when parties will long for
the sound of a voice that is still, and it is safe to say in his case
that take him for all and all it will be long before we look upon his
like again. Mr. Dowdall was a Roman Catholic, and the Roman Catholic
church of this town will miss his counsel and assistance greatly, but it
can be said to his credit that though himself a devoted Catholic he was
as broad-minded and liberal as he was zealous in religious matters.
Throughout his career he always showed a warm feeling for his
co-religionists, while nothing ever prevented his doing justice to those
who differed from him. The Reform party, too, will greatly miss him.”
The _Central Canadian_, of Carleton Place, also spoke of him in this
kindly manner:—“As a member of the corporation of Almonte, he
contributed of his judgment, knowledge, energy, and life to make
everybody happy and everything prosperous. Mr. Dowdall’s prominent play
in politics and his long sphere of operations as a lawyer of much
discretion and accuracy brought out his innermost self in a way few
other professions do, and showed what manner of man he was. Yet though
thus so fiercely exposed to hostile criticism, he made iron-bound
friends where-ever he went. He had a personality so attractive, a
character so disarming in its tenderness and self-abnegation; he was so
clear and candid that he broke down all barriers of prejudice. Moreover,
among his intimates he possessed that mysterious gift of attraction
which in colloquial symbolism is called magnetism. On the 28th
September, Mr. Dowdall first complained and was advised by his physician
to take rest, which he did, but contrary to advice he went out on
Tuesday and drove up to the Reform meeting, and died on the 27th
October, 1885.” Richard J. Dowdall, barrister, has succeeded to the
practice of the late James Dowdall. He had just completed his law course
at the time of his brother’s death, and at once commenced practice in
the old offices at Almonte.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Crocket, William=, A.M., Chief Superintendent of Education for New
Brunswick, Fredericton, was born in Brechin, in the north of Scotland,
on the 17th of May, 1832. His parents were James Crocket and Martha
Procter. William received his elementary education at the High School of
his native parish, and then went to King’s College, Aberdeen, where he
took the university course. His professional training he received at the
Established Church Normal School in Glasgow. He came to New Brunswick in
1856, and from this date to 1861, filled the position of principal of
the Superior School at Campbellton, New Brunswick. In 1861, he was
appointed rector of the Presbyterian Academy, at Chatham, New Brunswick,
and acted as such until 1870, when he was appointed principal of the
Normal School of New Brunswick, and this office he held until 1883. On
the 13th November of that year, he was appointed by the government of
New Brunswick, its chief superintendent of education for the province,
and this office he now holds, and is greatly respected by all with whom
his official position brings him in contact. Mr. Crocket has been
faithful to his profession; has laboured zealously to improve the method
of teaching in the Public schools of the province, and has the
satisfaction of knowing that his efforts have not been barren of
results. He has also taken a deep interest in the higher education of
the province, and has been for over ten years one of the examiners for
degrees in the University of New Brunswick, and is likewise a member of
the University Senate. He belongs to the church of his fathers, the
Presbyterian; and was married to Marion, daughter of William M.
Caldwell, of Campbellton, New Brunswick, on the 13th of April, 1858.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Barclay, Rev. James=, M.A., Pastor of St. Paul’s Presbyterian Church,
Montreal, is a native of Paisley, Scotland, having been born in that
town on the 19th June, 1844. His parents were James Barclay and Margaret
Cochrane Brown. He received his primary education in Paisley Grammar
School, and Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh, and then went to the
University of Glasgow, where he graduated with high honours. He was then
called to St. Michael’s Church, Dumfries. On the occasion of his
ordination, the Rev. Dr. Lees, of St. Giles, Edinburgh, who was present,
spoke in the most kindly manner of the young minister, and said that
during Mr. Barclay’s college course the presbytery of Paisley had great
cause to be proud of him; he had carried off one prize after another—in
fact, his name was seen on every list of honours published by the
university. Rev. Mr. Barclay’s next charge was Canobie, Dumfriesshire;
then he preached for some time in Linlithgow, and was afterwards induced
to seek a wider field for his talents, and was chosen colleague of the
Rev. Dr. McGregor in St. Cuthbert’s Church, Edinburgh. Here he soon won
for himself a name, and became one of the most popular preachers in the
Scotch metropolis. St. Paul’s Church, Montreal, being without a pastor,
it extended a unanimous call to Mr. Barclay, asking him to come to
Canada and take charge of this church, which he consented to do, and was
inducted as its minister on the 11th of October, 1883. Since then his
ministry in Montreal has been eminently successful, and his influence
among the young men of that city is greatly marked, so much so that they
flock to his church in great numbers, and regard him in a special sense
as their friend. The Rev. Mr. Barclay has great mental qualities, is an
independent thinker, and never hesitates to enunciate the scientific and
theological thoughts of the times we live in. His sermons are prepared
with great care, and are delivered with earnestness and force. He is a
good reader, an impressive platform speaker, and his prayers are solemn,
reverential and spiritual, leading man up from self and earth and sin
into the presence of God, the Father of all. Physically the Rev. Mr.
Barclay is tall and muscular, giving one an idea of strength and power.
He belongs to the Charles Kingsley school, and is a lover of outdoor
pastimes and sports, a champion cricketer and golf player, and a great
admirer of the “roaring game”—curling. The Edinburgh _Scotsman_ has
spoken of him as being the best all round cricketer in Scotland, and a
terrifically fast bowler who has won victory after victory for the west
of Scotland. He was captain of the Glasgow University cricket and
football clubs for some years, and also captain of the “Gentlemen of
Scotland.” We are glad that in this matter of out-door recreation, and
also in some other matters, he has shown the courage of his convictions,
and we do not think he has lost anything by it. There is such a thing as
being too professional and too priestly, and there can be little doubt
but that this has done its full share in creating the somewhat general
prejudice that exists among young men against religion. This popular
divine has been honoured by being called on to preach before Queen
Victoria on several occasions, and he stands high in her Majesty’s
estimation as an expounder of the gospel of Christ. The congregation of
St. Paul’s Church is large and influential. Its ministers have always
been men of commanding intellect and gentlemanly bearing, and who held
their several pastorates for a considerable number of years. Their names
and good deeds are kindly remembered by the citizens and the members of
the church and congregation. The regular communicants of the church
number about six hundred, and the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper is
administered three times a year. The several organizations of the church
are doing good work for humanity, and there is a large and flourishing
Sunday school. The Victoria mission, at Point St. Charles, is supported
and carried on by this church; and it also supports a missionary in
Central India. Its annual revenue amounts to about $22,000.00, and the
pastor’s salary is $7,300.00, the largest paid to any minister in the
dominion.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Watson, George=, Collector of Customs, Collingwood, Ontario, was born
on the 2nd of December, 1828, in the parish of Strathdon, near Aberdeen,
Scotland, on a farm that had been occupied by his forefathers for over
two hundred years, and which one of the family still occupies. The first
of the Watson family, an aunt of the subject of our sketch, came to
York, Upper Canada, in 1816, at the solicitation of Bishop Strachan, who
came to Canada in 1812 from the same parish. His uncle-in-law, William
Arthurs (father of the late Colonel Arthurs), was one of the first city
councillors of Toronto, William Lyon Mackenzie, mayor. His father,
Alexander Watson, emigrated to Upper Canada in 1832, and settled on a
farm in the township of Chinguacousy, about twenty miles from Toronto,
and died at Collingwood on the 30th of November, 1877, at the ripe old
age of eighty-four years and six months. His mother was named Annie
Watt, and died at the family homestead in Scotland when only twenty-nine
years and nine months old. George received his early education in the
parish school of Strathdon, and coming to Canada in 1843, finished his
course of studies in the Grammar School at Toronto. He went on his
father’s farm and continued there until 1855, when he took the position
of passenger conductor on the Northern Railway, and continued as such
for nearly twelve years. In October, 1866, in consequence of ill health,
he gave up railroading, and in November of the same year received the
government appointment of sub-collector at the port of Collingwood. In
1873, when the port was made an independent one, he was made collector,
and this position he still holds. He has now resided in Collingwood over
thirty-two years, and occupied the position of government officer of
customs over twenty years. In 1867 Mr. Watson was elected mayor of
Collingwood, and held the office for five consecutive years, and at the
end of this time he declined to serve any longer; but in 1877, however,
he was again induced to accept the office, and served another term. He
is a justice of the peace; and has been chairman of the board of license
commissioners for West Simcoe since the passing of the Ontario License
Law in 1876. He is an enthusiastic Scot, and has filled the office of
president of the Collingwood St. Andrew’s Society since its organization
in 1880. Mr. Watson is also surveyor and registrar of shipping for the
Collingwood district. He is an adherent of the Presbyterian church, and
in politics a Reformer, as were his forefathers. In June, 1865, Mr.
Watson was married to Joanna, daughter of the late John Watson, of
Chinguacousy, and has a family of three sons, George, aged twenty years,
Lorne Mackenzie, aged four years, and Norman, aged four months. Mr.
Watson is one of Nature’s noblemen, and has through life manifested a
thoroughly independent spirit, and one well worthy of imitation by any
young man starting out in life. He has earned for himself a competency
“for the glorious privilege of being independent.”

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Crisp, Rev. Robert S.=, Pastor of the Methodist Church, Moncton, New
Brunswick, is one of two brothers (Robert S. and James Crisp), who came
to the Maritime provinces during the years 1871 and 1872, for the
purpose of entering the Methodist ministry. Robert S., the elder of the
two brothers and subject of this sketch, was born near Norwich, England,
July 1st, 1848. He is the eldest son of James and Sarah Crisp, and is
descended on his mother’s side from a junior branch of the Walpole
family, some members of which occupied important positions in English
politics during the reigns of George I. and George II. Many interesting
traditions and relics, as well as valuable estates in Norfolk, still
remain in this branch of the family. After receiving a general education
in the public schools and in a private school of his native place, Mr.
Crisp took theological studies under the direction of the Rev. Thomas G.
Keeling, M.A., well known in certain divinity circles in the old
country, purposing to offer himself for the Methodist ministry in
connection with the English conference. A letter from the late Rev. Dr.
Geo. Scott, urging him to go to America, decided him, however, in an
early purpose he had formed of some time offering himself for the work
under the control of the (then) Eastern British American conference,
which he accordingly did in October, 1871, and on arriving in this
country was appointed assistant to the Rev. F. W. Harrison, in a large
country charge on the banks of the St. John river, in New Brunswick.
Among other charges held by Mr. Crisp, have been Charlottetown, P.E.I.,
Chatham, Portland, and Moncton, N.B. Mr. Crisp’s especial aim has been
to adapt himself as far as possible to the actual needs and tastes of
the people among whom he has laboured in word and doctrine. As a result
of this he has been successful in his work, and the church to which he
belongs has been extended and consolidated in his various charges. He is
also well known as a lecturer and enthusiastic temperance worker. In the
latter capacity he has sometimes aroused much opposition. He was chosen
to deliver an address of welcome at the annual meeting of the Sons of
Temperance in Moncton in 1886, and as a result of remarks he made
regarding the appointment of a man who was transacting business in
liquor, to the office of justice of the peace in a town in which the
Scott Act had been adopted, he was sued for libel with damages laid at
$10,000. Rev. Mr. Crisp, however, kept on steadily in his course, and
soon after the local government appointed a commission to enquire into
the charges preferred. Mr. Crisp is still a young man (1887), and hopes
to have very many years of labour before him in various departments of
Christian work.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Harris, Joseph A.=, Barrister-at-law, Moncton, New Brunswick, is the
fifth son of Michael S. Harris, and was born at Moncton, New Brunswick,
on the 23rd of August, 1847. He received his educational training at the
Mount Allison Academy, New Brunswick, and in the Liverpool Collegiate
Institution, England. After leaving school he followed mercantile
pursuits until 1872, when he began the study of law in the office of the
late Albert J. Hickman, barrister, Dorchester, New Brunswick, and
continued here until September of 1873, when he entered Harvard
University, Massachusetts. In this university he remained for over two
years. He then returned to his native province, and entered the office
of the Hon. John J. Fraser, Q.C., J.S.C., at Fredericton, New Brunswick,
as a student, and continuing there until October, 1876, when he was
admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick. In 1877 Mr.
Harris became a member of the Suffolk bar in Massachusetts, and
practised his profession in Boston until 1885, when he returned to
Moncton, was re-sworn in a barrister, and is now in active practice in
that town being counsel for several leading corporations. On the 29th of
April, 1879, Mr. Harris was married at Warren, Rhode Island, U.S., to
Isabel F. E. Brown, daughter of the late Hon. Charles Frederick Brown,
of Rhode Island.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Hunt, Henry George=, St. Catharines, Ontario, was born on the 16th of
June, 1846, at Sheerness, Kent, England. He is the eldest son of Harvey
Hunt, of Poole, Dorsetshire, England, and Sarah Tucker, of Horne, in the
same county, daughter of W. Tucker, the Swedish and Danish consul at
Poole. Henry George Hunt, the subject of this sketch, spent the first
six years of his life in Sheerness, and in 1852, his father having
received an appointment in her Majesty’s dockyards at Portsmouth, the
family removed to that place. Here Henry received his education at the
Grammar School of that town, and at the age of fourteen years he went
before the Civil Service commission and passed a most creditable
examination, being first out of one hundred and thirteen for a
scholarship in the Royal College of Naval Architecture at Portsmouth. At
the end of a three years’ course in this institution he was in 1863
promoted from the lower to the upper college. Two years later he was
appointed by the Imperial government to the Peninsular and Oriental
Company’s service in the East Indies, and left England on the 29th of
September, 1865, in H.M.S. _Octavia_, fifty-one-gun frigate, commanded
by Rear-Admiral Sir James Hilyar, K.C.B., for India. This ship on her
way out called at Madeira, Sierra Leone, Ascension, St. Helena, and
remained some weeks at each of these ports, arriving at the Cape of Good
Hope in the early part of 1866, and remained there about a month,
visiting Port Natal, Simonstown, and other places. He afterwards visited
Zanzibar, the island of Madagascar, etc. In 1867 he sailed for Bombay,
and entered upon his duties with the Peninsular and Oriental Company.
During the years 1867-8-9 he visited every stores depot owned by this
company in the east, among them being Suez, Aden in the Red Sea; Muscat
in the Persian Gulf; Kurachee, Bombay, Goa, Pondicherry, Madras,
Calcutta, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Canton in China; and Yokahama in Japan.
In the summer of 1869 he was taken down with the jungle fever, having
caught a severe cold when out shooting with some brother officers in
Ceylon, and when it was discovered to be a very serious case, he was
conveyed to the Madras Hospital, where, after a hard fight, he pulled
through. He then resigned his appointment and started for home by the
long sea-route round the Cape of Good Hope, having taken passage in
H.M.S. _Lyra_. On his arrival in England he was appointed landing waiter
in her Majesty’s customs, and was stationed at Portsmouth. He remained
in this service until the fall of 1871, when the Hon. Mr. Gladstone’s
“free breakfast-table policy” caused a great reduction in the staff of
customs officers at the out-ports, and Mr. Hunt, with many other
officers around the coast of Great Britain, received a few hundred
pounds cash as compensation for the loss of their commissions, and left
the service. In the spring of 1872 Mr. Hunt was married to Eleanor
Fanny, eldest daughter of Arthur Charles Lansley, of Andover, Hants; and
in the fall of the same year he sailed for America to visit a wealthy
uncle who lived in Alabama. Having taken his passage _via_ Quebec, on
his westward journey, he was induced to stay over at St. Thomas,
Ontario, and take a position in the Canada Southern Railway Company. Not
having realized his expectations, he abandoned this service, and for the
next two or three years he was engaged in various pursuits, such as
bookkeeper for Rich & Mitchell, wholesale druggists, St. Thomas, and for
Messrs. Kain, of the same place. In 1877 he bought out a jobbing
business, and in the following year sold this out and removed to St.
Catharines, to take charge in that city of the extensive piano-forte
business of A. & S. Nordheimer, of Toronto. On this branch being closed,
Mr. Hunt received the appointment of city ticket agent for the Great
Western Railway Company in St. Catharines; and since he has extended his
business of ticket-selling so that he now represents every railway and
steamboat line in Canada and the United States, and the extensive
tourist system of Thomas Cook & Sons, of New York and London, England.
Mr. Hunt has been prominently identified with the Masonic order for many
years. In 1866, while at the Cape of Good Hope, on his way to India, he
was initiated in Royal Alfred lodge of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, a
very aristocratic lodge, Prince Alfred, after whom it was named, with
many officers of the military and civil service, being members. While in
St. Thomas he was instrumental in forming a company that built one of
the finest Masonic halls in Canada. He established Elgin lodge, and was
its first worshipful master; was also first principal of De Warrene
chapter of Royal Arch Masons, and assisted in establishing Nineveh
Council of Royal and Select Masters, and was one of its Illustrious
masters. Since his residence in St. Catharines he has taken an active
part in city improvements, and helped in getting an electric light
company established, and is now the manager and secretary-treasurer of
this company. Mr. Hunt has also been for the past five years manager of
the Grand Opera House; and is manager of Hendrie & Co’s. cartage agency
for the collection and delivery of freight for the Grand Trunk Railway.
He represents the Baltimore & Ohio Telegraph Company, the Commercial
(Mackay-Bennett) Cable Company, and all the transatlantic steamboat
companies, as well as the Canadian Pacific Telegraph Company, and
Dominion Express Company. Mr. Hunt is a strong supporter of the
Episcopal church. He has been twice married, his first wife having died
a few years after his arrival in Canada, leaving two children. Six years
afterwards he married the second daughter of the late Charles Norton, of
St. Catharines, and by this marriage he has had two sons and two
daughters.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Cooke, Thomas Vincent=, Moncton, New Brunswick, General Storekeeper of
the Intercolonial Railway of Canada, was born at Pictou, Nova Scotia,
August 6th, 1848. He is a son of Dr. William Edward Cooke and Euphemia
Turnbull. Dr. Cooke was a son of Thomas Cooke, of Garryhill, county of
Carlow, Ireland, and Mary Mallow. Miss Mallow was a daughter of John
Mallow, mayor of Dublin, in the stirring days of ’98. Mr. Cooke, sen.,
came to Halifax when a boy, and studied medicine under the late Dr. Head
of that city, and graduated at Jefferson College, Philadelphia. He
married Miss Turnbull, a daughter of William Turnbull, ex-M.P. for the
county of Richmond, Cape Breton, and shortly afterwards moved to Pictou
and practised his profession in that town until his death in 1879. He
was a man of the most kindly and genial disposition, and was widely
known and universally beloved throughout the county of Pictou. His son,
Thomas Vincent Cooke, the subject of this sketch, was educated at Pictou
Academy and the Normal School, Truro, and studied medicine for a time
under the late Dr. Samuel Muir, of Truro, but having a dislike for the
medical profession, entered the service of the Nova Scotia Railway
Company as clerk in the freight department at Richmond, Halifax, in
January, 1865. On the opening of the line to Pictou in 1867, he was
appointed agent at Pictou Landing. Was appointed agent at Truro in 1870,
and reappointed at Pictou Landing in 1872. On the reorganization of the
service in 1879, he was appointed assistant auditor of the Intercolonial
Railway Company, and removed to Moncton, where he was appointed general
storekeeper in October, 1880. Mr. Cooke has always taken a deep interest
in Masonic matters. He joined the order in Truro in 1871, and is a past
master of Cobuquid lodge, No. 37, Truro, and past high priest of Keith
Chapter, Truro, and of St. John’s Chapter, Pictou, Royal Arch Masons.
Holds past rank as past grand king of the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia,
and is representative of the Grand Chapter of Nevada in that body. Is
eminent preceptor of Malta Preceptory of Knights Templar, Truro, under
the Great Priory of Canada. He was married in 1867 to Annie Curry,
daughter of Captain John Curry, of Pictou, N.S., and has one son and
three daughters. He is a member of the Church of England.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Rottot, Jean Philippe=, M.D., Montreal, was born at L’Assomption,
county of L’Assomption, July 3rd, 1825. His grandfather, Pierre Rottot,
who had been gazetted captain of the Canadian _Voltigeurs_ in 1812, was
killed at the battle of St. Régis, on the 20th October of the same year.
After his death, his son, Pierre Rottot, the doctor’s father, was
appointed lieutenant to the “Chasseurs Canadiens,” commanded by
Lieutenant-Colonel de Courci, and was present at the different
engagements which took place between the English and American troops
during the war of 1812, among others at the expedition to the Salmon
river, and at the battles of Plattsburg and Chrysler’s Farm. Dr. Rottot
received his education at the College of Montreal. He studied medicine
at the School of Medicine and Surgery of Montreal, and was admitted to
practice on the 16th November, 1847. After practising a few years in the
country, he took up his residence in Montreal. In 1856 he was elected,
without opposition, a member of the City council of Montreal. At the
expiration of his term of office he declined re-nomination, in order to
devote himself wholly to his profession. About 1860 he was appointed
physician to the Hôtel-Dieu, and professor of the School of Medicine and
Surgery of Montreal, where he occupied successively the chairs of
botany, toxicology, medical jurisprudence, and internal pathology. In
1872 he became editor-in-chief of _L’Union Médicale du Canada_, which
was just being founded. He was president of the St. Jean Baptiste
Society of Montreal in 1877 and 1878. About the same time he was elected
president of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the province of
Quebec. In 1878 he resigned his chair at the School of Medicine and
Surgery, and was appointed professor of internal pathology and dean of
the faculty of medicine of Laval University at Montreal. Dr. Rottot was
one of the founders of the Notre Dame Hospital. During his medical
career he has been the physician of the greater number of the charitable
institutions of Montreal, and is at present physician to the reverend
gentlemen of the Seminary of Saint Sulpice, and the reverend ladies of
the General Hospital. Dr. Rottot was twice married; the first time to S.
O’Leary, daughter of Dr. O’Leary, and the second time to the widow of N.
Migneault, in his lifetime registrar of Chambly county. Mrs. Migneault
is a sister of P. B. Benoit, ex-member of the House of Commons. By his
first wife he had three children, the eldest of whom belongs to the
order of the Reverend Jesuit Fathers, and is professor of philosophy in
St. Mary’s College, Montreal.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Wanless, John=, M.D., Montreal.—This famed homœopathic physician is a
Scotchman by birth, having been born at Perth road, Dundee, near St.
Peter’s parish church, where the celebrated Rev. R. M. McCheyne was
pastor, on May 26th, 1813. He is the second son of the late James
Wanless, a man who was in his day very much respected by his fellow
townspeople, and who for many years carried on business as a
manufacturer of green cloth in Dundee. His mother, Agnes Sim, is still
alive (August, 1887) at the age of ninety-six years, in full possession
of her mental faculties, and can see to read without spectacles. Dr.
Wanless much resembles this wonderful woman in many respects. Dr.
Wanless’s father intended that his two sons should succeed him in his
own business, but after his death, which took place when the doctor was
only ten years old, the executors of the estate, when he had reached his
thirteenth year, apprenticed him to Dr. James Johnston, one of
themselves, a leading physician in Dundee. This gentleman having died
shortly afterwards, James Hay, merchant and ship-owner, another of the
executors, and one of the governors of the Dundee Royal Infirmary,
discovering the boy’s aptitude for medical study, was induced to secure
for him the position of dresser and clinical clerk in the above
hospital, which for three years he filled to the entire satisfaction of
the governors and medical men of the institution. While he was here he
was a great favourite with the celebrated lithotomist, Dr. John
Creighton, of Dundee, and this gentleman often asked young Wanless to
assist him in his private operations, as well as in the hospital, and on
the eve of his leaving to prosecute his studies in Edinburgh, he bore
high testimony to his ability and diligence as a student, and as to his
practical knowledge of his profession. It may be as well to mention here
that young Wanless, like all other boys on the Scotch sea-board, was
very fond of paddling in the water, and on several occasions narrowly
escaped drowning. When about ten years of age he and some other boys
were amusing themselves on some logs that had got adrift from the ship
_Horton_, of Dundee, just arrived from America, and had floated up the
river into a small bay, which at its mouth had a sort of pier with
arches on it. While astride a piece of this timber it capsized, and our
young hero was soon at the bottom of the river. On coming to the
surface, he found himself immediatetly below a raft, and considering
that his time had not yet come to be drowned, he struck out boldly from
under, and gasping for breath, he was hauled on the raft by his
terrified comrades. On getting ashore he dried his clothes and made for
home; but his father nevertheless discovered that he had had a ducking,
and gave him a sound thrashing and confined him in doors for some time
for his boyish escapade. The doctor now thinks that if his father—who
was a very loving man—had not been imbued with the idea that “he that
spareth the rod hateth the child,” he would have done better had he
given him some dry clothes, or sent him for a time to a warm bed. In
1831 John Wanless left Dundee and went to Edinburgh, as a student in the
Royal College of Surgeons, under the then celebrated professors
McIntosh, Liston, Lizars, Ferguson, and others, fellows of the college,
all of whom are now gone to their final rest. During the college session
of 1831, his friend, Mr. Hay, offered him the position of surgeon on
board the whaling ship _Thomas_, which office he cheerfully accepted,
although he was then only seventeen years of age. This good ship sailed
from Dundee in March, 1832, and returned with a full cargo in time to
permit the young surgeon to attend the opening of the college session of
1832-3. Subsequently during college vacation he went three times to
Davis Straits in the same ship, and thereby greatly invigorated his
previously rather slender physical frame. While on one of his whaling
voyages he one day was out in a boat shooting loons, which are very
numerous in Davis Straits, and a good many can be killed by one
discharge from a gun. In the act of gathering the killed he espied a
wounded bird at a short distance, and in his endeavour to reach it he
leaned too far over the gunwale, lost his balance, and went head first
into the Arctic sea. His shipmates were alarmed, and waited in dread
suspense for some time, but at length he came up, holding on to the loon
by one of its legs. The mate afterwards remarked “that the doctor should
always be taken with the shooting parties, for he could dive for the
wounded fellows.” It may be here mentioned that the doctor was a good
swimmer, and as a youth practised swimming in the Tay at Dundee, and was
in the habit, sometimes, of carrying younger boys on his back out into
the stream, and then throwing them off; but before doing this, however,
he always gave them instructions how to swim on their “own hook.” He has
been known to swim for three miles on a stretch, resting occasionally on
his back. At Pond’s Bay he one time fell out of a boat, while steering
with a long oar, amongst a lot of whales. There were about fifty ships’
boats and their crews in a crack in the land ice, which extended about
twenty miles from the shore, and in some places the rent was about one
hundred yards wide. In this opening the whales were so numerous that the
harpooners only selected the largest fish for capture. During the
excitement, and when passing another boat, the blade of one of their
side oars unshipped the doctor’s steering oar while he was pushing it
from him, and, losing his balance, he fell into the water. He however
did not feel the least alarmed, but at once struck out for the ice, and,
drying his clothes as well as he could, walked to his ship, which was
anchored about two miles away, in the field ice, and soon found himself
on deck, not much the worse for his ducking. In the spring of 1835,
having passed his examination before the Faculty of Physicians and
Surgeons of Glasgow, he returned to Dundee and married Margaret
McDonald, the only daughter of Duncan McDonald, a well-known
manufacturer of that town, and Margaret Rose, his wife. To Miss McDonald
he had been betrothed for several years. He then became house surgeon in
the Dundee Royal Infirmary, and having filled this position for about
two years, gave it up, and entered into private practice, his office
being in the same house in which he was born and married. In 1843 Dr.
Wanless, accompanied by his wife, mother, brother, and sisters, with
their husbands, emigrated to Canada, and ultimately settled in London,
Ontario. While in this city the doctor built up a good practice, and as
coroner for the city of London and county of Middlesex he was highly
spoken of by the press for the luminous and logical way in which he
presented evidence to his jurors. In 1849 he received his license from
the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Lower Canada. One day, in
1859, as he was walking along a street in London to visit a patient, he
observed Dr. Bull, a homœopathist, give some pellets to a man who had
fallen out of a two-story window. Having a prejudice against homœopathy,
he accosted Dr. Bull in these words, “Don’t you think shame of yourself
in giving that useless trash to a man in that condition?” Dr. Bull rose
up, in a defensive attitude, and said, “I have always taken you for a
sensible man, and instead of acting as you have done in your
persecutions of us, why don’t you try to test our remedies according to
the law of cure? I will give you some of our books to read, and also
some of our medicines for that purpose.” Dr. Wanless accepted the offer,
and took the books and medicines, thinking that he would be able to
expose what he then thought was a humbug. After studying the principle
of homœopathy for some time he gave the medicines to some of his
patients, strictly according to the principles of homœopathy, beginning
with some cases which had resisted the allopathic treatment under his
own care, and that of some of the ablest men in the country, keeping a
strict account of the symptoms and disease, and the symptoms and
pathogenesy of what the medicine would produce on the healthy body, and
after carefully testing this method of practice for nearly two years, he
found that, instead of persecuting the homœopathists, he would have to
become a homœopathist himself. After thorough conviction of its benefits
to his patients, like Paul with the Christians, and in order to carry
out the practice of homœopathy with more efficiency, he ceased from
practice in London, and devoted himself to renewed study at the age of
fifty years, and obtained the degree of Bachelor of Medicine from the
University of Toronto in 1861, and the degree of Doctor in Medicine from
the same University in the following year, 1862. He then, in order to
have a wider field to labour in, went to Montreal (but before leaving
having been complimented by the press of London upon his previous
professional attainments), where he now resides, enjoying a good
practice. In politics, as in medicine, Dr. Wanless has sought to
conserve the good, and set aside the effete and worthless. Both in
London and Montreal, by his spirited and able contributions to the
press, he has done much to popularize homœopathy, and establish its
prime tenets. He was instrumental in procuring an act of the Provincial
parliament of Quebec, in favour of homœopathic education, and with power
to grant licenses to those who had studied according to the curriculum
specified by the act, and who had passed a satisfactory examination
before the appointed board of examiners, as he always upheld that
homœopaths, as well as allopaths, should be able to show that they
possessed a thorough medical education and training. Dr. Wanless is
nominal dean of the Faculty of the College of Homœopathic Physicians and
Surgeons of Montreal, and professor of the practice of physic and one of
the examiners of the college. He attained the license of the Faculty of
Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow in 1835; College of Physicians and
Surgeons of Lower Canada in 1849; M.B. of the University of Toronto,
1861; M.D. of the University of Toronto in 1862, and is a member of the
Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario and Quebec. He has a son,
Dr. John R. Wanless, who now practises in Dunedin, New Zealand. This
gentleman is a graduate M.D.,C.M. of McGill University, Montreal, and,
like his father, has adopted the homœopathic principle from conviction.
In religion, as in politics and medicine, the doctor is thoroughly
liberal, and belongs to the Congregational body of worshippers. He is
broad in his views, giving liberty of opinion to all, and exhibits no
desire to scold and burn those who differ from him, except to show them
their error by fair reasoning.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Boswell, George Morss Jukes=, Q.C., Judge of the County Court of the
United Counties of Northumberland and Durham, Cobourg, Ontario, was born
at Gosport, England, in June, 1804. His father, John Boswell, of London,
England, solicitor, was the youngest son of James Boswell, an officer in
the Royal Navy, whose four elder brothers were also officers in the same
service, and a descendant of the Boswells of Balmuto, Scotland, the
elder branch of the family of the celebrated biographer. Judge Boswell,
the subject of our sketch, was educated at the Grammar School,
Buntingford, Herts, England, came to Canada in 1822, and was one of the
earliest settlers in Cobourg. He was called to the bar in Michaelmas
term, 1827, and is the premier Queen’s counsel in Canada, being the
first created by commission in August, 1841. He was an unsuccessful
candidate for the Upper Canada Assembly in 1836, but was returned at the
first election after the union of Upper and Lower Canada, and sat from
1841 to 1844, in the then Parliament of Canada. While in parliament he
took a prominent part in constitutional debate, was a staunch advocate
of responsible government, and although a Conservative in principle,
worked with the Reform party until constitutional government was
conceded. During the discussion on this question, he forced Mr. Draper,
then attorney-general, to admit the principle, “That if the government
cannot command the majority of the house, so that its measures may be
carried on harmoniously, if they do not find by the whole proceedings of
the house that they have the confidence of a majority of its members,
then that a dissolution of the house shall follow, or that the
government resign.” This then settled this important question of
responsible government, though dragged out of Attorney-General Draper
against his will (see _Cobourg Star_, June 11th, 1841). Before accepting
a judgeship, Mr. Boswell was one of the leading lawyers in Canada, and
as such was specially retained to defend Hunter, Morrison, Montgomery,
and others, who were tried for high treason in connection with the
rebellion in 1837. The two former were acquitted. In 1845, he was
appointed Judge of the County Court of the United Counties of
Northumberland and Durham, and accepted superannuation in 1882. In 1837,
he served under Colonel Ham as brigade major with the volunteers in
suppressing the rebellion, and was on the frontier at Chippawa, at the
time the rebels under McKenzie took possession of Navy Island. Judge
Boswell was married first in 1829, to Susannah, daughter of James
Radcliffe, by whom he had a numerous family; and last to Mary, daughter
of the late Rev. Thomas Wrench, rector of St. Michael’s Church,
Cornhill, London.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Ogilvie, Hon. Alexander Walker=, Montreal, Lieutenant-Colonel, member
of the Senate of Canada for Alma division, was born at St. Michael, near
the city of Montreal, on the 7th of May, 1829. The Ogilvie family is
descended from a younger brother of Gilchrist, Earl of Angus, a valiant
soldier who in the thirteenth century was rewarded with the land of
Ogilvie, in Banffshire, Scotland, and assumed the name of the estate.
The family is celebrated in history for having long preserved the Crown
and sceptre of Scotland from the hands of Oliver Cromwell. The parents
of Senator Ogilvie came from Stirlingshire, Scotland, to Canada in 1800,
and Mr. Ogilvie, sr., served his adopted country as a volunteer cavalry
officer during the war of 1812-14 against the Americans; and took up
arms against the so-called patriots during the Canadian rebellion of
1837-8. To this couple were born a large family of sons and daughters,
and all have made their mark in the country. In 1854 Alexander and his
brothers, John and William, founded the firm of A. W. Ogilvie & Co., as
millers and dealers in grain, and built extensive mills on the banks of
the canal at Montreal, now known as the Glenora mills. Since that time
the business has grown to such dimensions that the firm’s mills and
business operations are carried on at Montreal, Goderich, Seaforth,
Winnipeg and other parts of the North-West, and they are now the most
extensive millers in the Dominion. In 1874 Alexander retired from the
business. In 1867 he first entered political life, and at the general
election of that year he was chosen by acclamation to represent Montreal
West in the Quebec legislature, when on the dissolution of the house in
1871 he declined re-nomination. He, however, was induced again to enter
the political field in 1875, and was elected for his old seat. This he
occupied until the legislature was dissolved in 1878, when he retired
from local politics. On December 24, 1881, he was called to the Senate
to represent the Alma division in that body. Senator Ogilvie has been an
alderman for the city of Montreal, president of the Workingmen’s, Widows
and Orphans’ Benefit Society, and of the St. Andrew’s Society, and a
lieutenant-colonel of the Montreal Cavalry (now on the retired list). He
is president of the St. Michael Road Company, chairman of the Montreal
Turnpike Trust, and of the Montreal Board of Directors of the London
(England) Guarantee Company, a director of the Sun Life Insurance
Company, the Edwardsburg Starch Company, the Montreal Loan and Mortgage
Company, and the Montreal Investment Company. He is also a justice of
the peace. Senator Ogilvie is a Conservative in politics, and in
religion is a Presbyterian. He is married to a daughter of the late
William Leney, of Montreal, and has a family of four children, one son
and three daughters.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Campbell, Rev. Robert=, M.A., D.D., Pastor of St. Gabriel Presbyterian
Church, Montreal, was born on a farm near the town of Perth, Lanark
county, Ontario, on the 21st June, 1835. Peter Campbell, father of the
subject of this sketch, was born at Rein-a-Chullaig, Loch Tayside,
Breadalbane, Perthshire, Scotland, and belonged to the Lochnell branch
of the Campbell clan. One of his ancestors having taken part in the
Jacobite rising in 1715, and thus having incurred the displeasure of
Argyll, who was at the head of the Hanoverian forces, did not return to
his native district, but placed himself under the protection of his
other great kinsman, Breadalbane, who was neutral in that contest, and
who assigned him the property called Rein-a-Chullaig. Peter Campbell was
a man of high character and intelligence. He had for a time been a
teacher in Scotland, and this gave him much influence with his Highland
countrymen who accompanied him to Canada in 1817, and settled in the
Bathurst district. He brought some money with him to Canada, and owned
the first yoke of oxen in the settlement; although during the first
season he had to carry a bag of flour on his back through the woods from
Brockville, a distance of about fifty miles, having no road to follow
but guided only by the blazes on the trees. He was chosen an elder of
the first Presbyterian church, which was under the ministry of Rev.
William Bell, shortly after his arrival in the country. But as he was
born and bred in the Church of Scotland, he united with that branch of
the Presbyterian communion as soon as it was established in Perth under
the ministry of the late Rev. T. C. Wilson, of Dunkeld, Scotland, and
was installed an elder in it too, which office he retained till his
death in 1848. Margaret Campbell, Rev. Dr. Campbell’s mother, was of the
Gleno and Inverliver branch of the clan Campbell. She was born in
Glenlyon, Scotland, her mother being a MacDiarmid, one of the oldest
families in Scotland. Mrs. Campbell ably seconded her husband in all his
aims and efforts; and one of the results of their joint influence and
instruction was that three of their sons became ministers of the
Presbyterian Church of Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland,
and a fourth studied for the ministry of the Baptist church, but his
health broke down before he was able to complete his course of
preparation. Robert was the seventh son, and eleventh child of the
family, his youngest brother being Rev. Alexander Campbell, B.A., of
Prince Albert, North-West Territory. He was educated at the common
school, near his birth place; but as it happened that the school was
taught by a succession of able masters, one of them being an admirable
scholar in both classics and mathematics, he enjoyed considerable
advantages, and he, with his youngest brother, made very rapid progress
in study. He himself became a common school teacher at the age of
sixteen; and the desire he had to perfect himself in the subjects which
he had to teach was the best master he was ever under, and he learned
more always while teaching than while avowedly only a student under the
direction of others. In 1853 he entered as a student at Queen’s
University, taking the only open scholarship for the year. This
scholarship he retained by competition every year all through his
course. In 1855 he obtained the first medal ever offered in Queen’s
College for a special examination in English history and ancient
geography. In 1856 he graduated B.A., and in 1858 M.A., in the same
university. He taught the public school near Appleton in 1852, and the
next year the school at Leckie’s Corners, near Almonte. In 1856 he was
appointed headmaster of the Queen’s College Preparatory School, where he
had under his care, at a time when High schools were few and inefficient
throughout the country, students from all parts of Canada, and even from
Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, who had it in view to matriculate
in Queen’s University. A great many of the youth of Kingston also took
advantage of the educational facilities afforded by the school. This
position he held till 1st October, 1860, when he quitted it with a view
to entering the ministry of the Presbyterian Church of Canada in
connection with the Church of Scotland. In the autumn of 1860, after
having received license as a preacher in Canada, he went abroad with a
view to seeing a little of the world, and becoming familiar with men and
things in the older civilized communities, and he remained thirteen
months in Great Britain and the Continent, taking advantage of access to
the museums, art galleries, and learned societies of Edinburgh
particularly, where he spent most of the winter, as well as giving
occasional attendance at lectures in the university. He returned to
Canada late in the autumn of 1861, and accepted a call in April, 1862,
to St. Andrew’s Church, Galt, Ontario, having declined overtures from
Melbourne, Beckwith, and one or two other charges. He remained in Galt
till 1st December, 1866, when called to his present sphere of labour as
minister of the oldest Presbyterian church in the inland provinces. The
centennial celebration of the founding of the congregation that built
this church was held on the 9th of March, 1886, and was an occasion of
great interest to the entire community. The University of Queen’s
College conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity upon him at the
convocation in April, 1887. Rev. Dr. Campbell is chairman of the Board
of Management of the Widows’ and Orphans’ Fund of the Presbyterian
Church of Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland; a member of
the Executive Committee of the Temporalities Board of the same church; a
trustee of Queen’s University, and a member of the Senate of the
Presbyterian College, Montreal. He held the office of lecturer in
Ecclesiastical History for two sessions in Queen’s University, Kingston,
and was a vice-president of the Natural History Society of Montreal. He
has maintained steadfastly his early religious convictions. But while
orthodox himself, he has always exercised toleration towards those that
could not see exactly as he did. Rev. Dr. Campbell won the prize for the
best essay on Presbyterian Union offered by a committee of gentlemen in
Quebec and Montreal in the year 1866, which was afterwards published,
and greatly helped to leaven public opinion on that question. He is now
engaged on a history of the St. Gabriel St. Church, Montreal, which will
shortly be published, and cannot fail to prove of great interest to
every Presbyterian in Canada. Rev. Dr. Campbell was married on the 29th
of December, 1863, to Margaret, eldest child and only daughter of Rev.
George Macdonnell, minister of St. Andrew’s Church, Fergus, a faithful,
useful, and highly respected minister of the Presbyterian Church of
Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland. Rev. D. J. Macdonnell,
B.D., of Toronto, and G. M. Macdonnell, Q.C., of Kingston, are her
brothers. Her mother was Elizabeth Milnes, of the same stock as Moncton
Milnes, Lord Houghton.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Inches, Peter Robertson=, M.D., M.R.C.S., England, St. John, New
Brunswick, was born on the 19th of February, 1835, at St. John, New
Brunswick. He is a son of James Inches, of Dunkeld, and Janet Small, of
Dirnanean, Perthshire, Scotland, who emigrated to America in 1832, and
settled in St. John. Dr. Inches received his early education in the
Grammar School of his native city, and studied medicine in New York
city, at the University College, and from this institution he graduated
in 1866. He then went to Great Britain and further prosecuted his
studies at the University of Edinburgh, and at King’s College, London.
In 1868 he was elected a member of the Royal College of Surgeons of
England, and then returned to St. John, New Brunswick, and commenced the
practice of his profession, and here he has ever since resided. Dr.
Inches was brought up in the faith as taught by the Presbyterian church,
and has continued his connection with that body of Christians. In 1876
he was married to Mary Dorothea, daughter of Dr. C. K. Fiske, from
Massachusetts, who for many years practised his profession in St. John.
The doctor has had five children born to him, four of whom survive.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Leach, The Ven. Archdeacon.=—The late William Turnbull Leach, D.C.L.,
LL.D., Archdeacon of Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal, was born in
Berwick-on-Tweed, Scotland, on the 1st of March, 1805, and died at
Montreal, on the 13th of October, 1886. He was of English descent, his
grandfather having removed to Berwick from the previous home of the
family in Lincolnshire, England. Archdeacon Leach was educated in
Edinburgh, and took the degree of M.A. in the university of that city in
1827. In 1831, he was ordained a minister of the Presbyterian church,
but shortly afterwards came to Canada, and was appointed to the charge
of St. Andrew’s Church, Toronto, and was also chaplain to the 93rd
Highlanders, stationed in that city, about the time of the rebellion in
1837-8. He subsequently entered the Church of England, to which he was
ordained by Bishop Mountain in 1841, and was appointed to the incumbency
of St. George’s Church, Montreal, which position he retained for nearly
twenty years. He took the warmest interest in educational matters, was
one of the founders of Queen’s College, Kingston, and was for many years
an honoured member of the Council of Public Institution for Lower
Canada, afterwards the province of Quebec. He was one of the little band
who brought McGill University to its present position. His connection
with McGill dates from 1845, and he may be said to have been the last
survivor of the original staff. From the earliest years of the college,
he was one of the professors of the Faculty of Arts, and as the work of
the university extended, he relinquished his ministerial duties to
devote himself exclusively to college work. During his active connection
with the college, he held the Molson chair of English language and
literature, was professor of logic and of mental and moral philosophy,
dean of the Faculty of Arts, and vice-principal of the University. He
was created D.C.L. of McGill in 1849, and LL.D. of McGill in 1857, and
in 1867, the University of Lennoxville conferred upon him the degree of
D.C.L. The Venerable Archdeacon Leach married three times. Shortly after
his arrival in Canada, he returned for a short visit to Scotland, where
he married Miss Skirving, daughter of Mr. Skirving, of Haddington, and
granddaughter of Adam Skirving, author of “Johnnie Cope,” and other
songs very popular at the time in Scotland. Of this marriage there were
four children, two of whom are living, viz.: David S. Leach, of
Montreal, and Mrs. Howell, of London, England. He afterwards married
Miss Easton, daughter of the Rev. Robert Easton, a lady well known and
much beloved, who previous to her marriage had conducted one of the
principal establishments in Canada for the education of young ladies.
His widow (daughter of the late Francis Gwilt), with her young unmarried
daughter, reside in Montreal.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=St. George, Percival Walter=, Civil Engineer, Montreal, was born at
Forres, Morayshire, Scotland, on the 22nd October, 1849. He is a son of
Lieutenant-Colonel James D. N. St. George, who was a lieutenant-colonel
in her Majesty’s Ordnance Staff Corps, and had charge for many years of
the clothing establishment of the British army in London, England.
Walter was sent to France by his parents to be educated, and spent seven
years of his boyhood days in that country, and then finished his
educational course in Edinburgh University, where he took honours in
mathematics. He came to Canada in 1866, and began the practice of his
profession. From 1866 to 1868, two years, he was the pupil of Alexander
McNab, chief engineer for the province of Nova Scotia; from 1868 to
1872, four years, he acted as assistant engineer on construction and
survey of the Intercolonial Railway of Canada; in 1872-73 he was
engineer on survey of the North Shore Railway of Canada; in 1873-74,
engineer maintenance of way on the Intercolonial Railway, in charge of
one hundred and eight miles; in 1874-75 engineer on survey of the
Northern Colonization Railway, from Ottawa to the Mattawan; in 1875-76
he was assistant engineer of Montreal; and from 1876 to 1883, eight
years, deputy city surveyor of the same city; from July to December, in
1883, he was engineer in charge of three hundred miles of line on the
Norfolk and Western Railway in Virginia; and in December of 1883 he was
appointed city surveyor of Montreal, and this position he has occupied
ever since. He was also one of the members of the Royal Flood Commission
of Montreal, appointed in 1886. Mr. St. George has been an associate
member of the Institute of Civil Engineers of England since 1877; and is
now a member of the Council of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers.
He is a master Mason, and a member of the Royal Arch Chapter. He has
travelled a good deal, and his profession has made him familiar with the
greater part of Canada. He is a member of the Church of England. On the
11th July, 1872, he was married to Flora Stewart, daughter of the Rev.
Canon Geo. Townshend, rector of Amherst, Nova Scotia, and Elizabeth
Stewart, daughter of the Hon. Alexander Stewart, C.B., master of the
Rolls, and judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court, and has issue five
children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Palmer, Caleb Read=, Justice of the Peace, Moncton, was born at
Dorchester, Westmoreland county, New Brunswick, on the 13th February,
1834. His father, John Palmer, grandson of Gideon Palmer, a U. E.
loyalist, who came to New Brunswick from Staten Island, New York, is a
veteran of 1812, and is now (1887) in his ninety-ninth year, and
regularly draws his pension for services during the war. His mother,
Elizabeth Cole, was a daughter of Ebenezer Cole. Caleb received his
education at the Wesleyan Academy, in Sackville, N.B., taking a course
in the higher mathematics and languages, and then for some time adopted
teaching as his profession. From 1859 to 1870 he taught the Superior
School in Sussex, Kings county, and from January, 1870, to September,
1882, he acted in the capacity of station master at Dorchester for the
Intercolonial Railway Company. In July, 1883, he became manager of the
Moncton Publishing Company, and this position he occupied until
February, 1885, since which time he has confined himself to the duties
of justice of the peace, and secretary to the Board of School Trustees
of the town of Moncton. Mr. Palmer is interested in shipping, and is
also a stockholder in the Moncton Cotton Factory. He is a member of the
Royal Arcanum, and in politics is a Liberal. Although brought up in the
Episcopal church, he found it more congenial to his taste to attend the
Methodist church, and is now a member of that denomination. He was
married on the 21st of December, 1865, to Agnes Murray, daughter of John
Murray, of Studholm, Kings county, N.B.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Ferguson, Hon. Donald=, M.P.P., Provincial Secretary and Commissioner
of Crown Lands of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, was born at East
River, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, on the 7th of March, 1839.
His father, John Ferguson, and mother, Isabella Stewart, were
descendants of thrifty Scotch farmers, who emigrated from Blair Athol,
in Perthshire, Scotland, in 1807, and settled near Charlottetown, Prince
Edward Island. Donald was reared on the farm and received the rudiments
of education in the Public school of his native parish, and subsequently
pursued his studies in English and mathematics by private tuition. He
became interested in politics when quite a young man, and was a strong
advocate of the confederation of the provinces. He was a contributor to
the press, and in 1867, wrote a series of letters over the signature of
“A Farmer,” which attracted considerable attention, and was replied to
by the Hon. David Laird, one of the leading politicians of the island,
and subsequently lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories. At a
later date, he engaged, over his own signature, in a discussion with the
Hon. George Beer, on the union question, and became at once known as one
of the champions on the island for a Canadian nationality. He was also a
strong supporter of the interests of the tenantry, an advocate of
railway construction, and was the mover of the resolutions in favour of
the railway which were adopted at the mass meeting of the electors of
Queens county, held at Charlottetown, in the winter of 1871. In 1872,
Mr. Ferguson was appointed a justice of the peace, and he held the
position of collector of inland revenue for Charlottetown for a short
time in 1873. In 1873, the great question of confederation, for which
Mr. Ferguson had for years contended, having been settled, he offered
himself as a candidate for the Legislative Council of Prince Edward
Island, for the second district of Queens county, where the Hon. Edward
Palmer had been returned in 1872, to the Council, as an anti-railway and
an anti-confederate, by a majority of nearly eight hundred votes—and he
succeeded, after a spirited canvass and good fight against great odds in
reducing the anti-railway majority to two hundred and fifty votes. A
vacancy occurring next year in the same constituency, Mr. Ferguson was
again brought out by his friends, and this time succeeded in reducing
the anti-railway majority to seventy. In 1876, the question of
denominational education came prominently before the electors, and Mr.
Ferguson and other leading politicians pronounced in favour of a system
of payment by results, by which the state would recognize and pay for
secular education in schools in towns, in which religious education
might also be imparted at the expense of parents. Religious bitterness
was introduced, the Protestants became alarmed, the people decided
largely according to their creeds, and the “payment by results”
candidates were defeated in all except Roman Catholic constituencies.
Believing that almost any settlement of this vexed question was better
than a prolonged political-religious agitation, he accepted the
situation. In 1874, Mr. Ferguson was appointed secretary of the Board of
Railway Appraisers, which office he held until 1876. In 1878, he was
invited by the leading electors of the Cardigan district, in Kings
county, to offer himself for parliamentary honours; he consented and was
returned by acclamation. In March, 1879, on the meeting of the
legislature, the government, under the leadership of the Hon. L. H.
Davis, was defeated, and the Hon. W. W. Sullivan, who had been entrusted
with the formation of a new administration, offered Mr. Ferguson a seat
in his cabinet, with the portfolio of public works, which office he
accepted. A dissolution of the house having immediately followed, Mr.
Ferguson was returned by acclamation. In 1880, he resigned his position
as head of the Public Works department, and became provincial secretary
and commissioner of Crown Lands, and this position he occupies to-day.
In 1882, Mr. Ferguson was elected to represent Fort Augustus, and again
in 1886, he had the same honour conferred upon him. Hon. Mr. Ferguson is
a member of the Board of Commissioners for the management of the
Government Poor-House; a commissioner for the management of the
Government Stock Farm, and a trustee for the Hospital for the Insane, at
Falconwood. He was a delegate to Ottawa, on the Wharf and Pier question
in 1883, in conjunction with the Hon. Messrs. Sullivan and Prowse, and
also a delegate to England, with Hon. Mr. Sullivan, on the question of
the communication between the island and the mainland. Mr. Ferguson is
an enthusiastic agriculturist, and has a farm in a high state of
cultivation, four miles from Charlottetown. Besides having published
several useful official reports, Mr. Ferguson gave to his
fellow-citizens in 1884, an excellent paper on “Agricultural Education,”
and another in 1885, on “Love of Country.” He has been a lifelong total
abstainer, and became connected with the Good Templars in 1863, and held
the office of grand secretary for two years, 1863-5, and that of grand
worthy chief templar the following two years, 1865-7. He is a
Conservative in politics, and in religion a member of the Baptist
denomination. In 1873, he was married to Elizabeth Jane, daughter of
John Scott, Charlottetown, and has a family consisting of three sons and
two daughters.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Ross, James Duncan=, M.D., Moncton, New Brunswick, was born at Pictou,
Nova Scotia, in October, 1839, and is a son of the Rev. James Ross,
D.D., principal of Dalhousie College, and grandson of the late Rev.
Duncan Ross, one of the first Presbyterian ministers who came to Nova
Scotia from Scotland. His mother was Isabella Matheson, a daughter of
William Matheson, who through industry and perseverance accumulated a
fortune at farming, lumbering, and trading, sufficient to enable him to
leave the handsome sum of $35,000 to the institutions of the church in
the province, and $35,000 to the British and Foreign Bible Society.
James Duncan Ross received his elementary training in the public schools
in his native town, and then took the arts course in the West River
Seminary. He then spent three years in the office of the late Dr. Muir,
of Truro, N.S., and afterwards studied medicine and surgery in
Philadelphia and Harvard, graduating from Harvard University in 1861,
when he moved to Londonderry, in Nova Scotia, and began the practice of
his profession, and continued here until 1865; then he went over to
Britain and took a course of medicine and surgery in the University and
in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Edinburgh, and while in
that city he was for a time a student in the office of Sir J. Y.
Simpson. He then went to London, and became for a time a dresser in St.
Bartholomew’s Hospital; and afterwards, returning to Nova Scotia, he
resumed his practice. Dr. Ross occupied the position for some time of
assistant surgeon to the 2nd battalion of the Colchester Militia, and
also surgeon of the Caledonian (Highland) Society of Nova Scotia. He has
been since 1863 a coroner for the county of Westmoreland. He took a deep
interest in the establishment of the Medical School in Halifax, and was
demonstrator of anatomy in it for the first two years of its existence.
The doctor has now practised medicine and surgery continuously for
twenty-five years, the first eleven years of his medical career having
been spent in Nova Scotia, and the remaining fourteen in Moncton, N.B.
His work has been continuous and laborious, and very varied, and he
stands high in the profession, especially for surgery. In him the poor
always find a kind and sympathizing friend, who dispenses medicine to
them gratuitously as well as his best skill. In religion the doctor
holds all the doctrines of the second reformation, and believes the
Presbyterian form of church government scriptural. He has experienced no
change in his views since his youth, except a deeper conviction of the
duty which nations owe to Christ, and a more scriptural constitution for
nations. He married, in 1870, Ruth, daughter of the late R. N. B.
McLellan, merchant, of Londonderry, N.S. The McLellan family are north
of Ireland Scotch, and have been closely connected with the political
and mercantile interests of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick for many
years. Issue, one son, who died in infancy.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=McLeod, Rev. Joseph=, D.D., Fredericton, was born in St. John, New
Brunswick, June 27, 1844. His father, the Rev. Ezekiel McLeod,—born in
Sussex, New Brunswick, Sept. 17, 1815, died in Fredericton, New
Brunswick, March 17th, 1867,—was the leading minister in the Free
Baptist denomination of Canada, and the founder and, till his death, the
editor of _The Religious Intelligencer_. He was an earnest and
influential advocate of the confederation of the British American
provinces; a strong advocate of prohibition; and widely known and highly
regarded both for intellectual qualities and godly character. His mother
was Amelia Emery, born in Boston, Massachusetts, and survived her
husband till June, 1887. Joseph McLeod was educated in the public
schools, and in the Baptist Institution in Fredericton, New Brunswick,
and in July, 1868, was ordained to the ministry. In the same month he
was called to the pastorate of the Free Baptist Church in Fredericton,
which he has held ever since. In 1875 the Rev. Mr. McLeod was chosen
chaplain to the New Brunswick legislature, and still holds the office.
He is a very active worker in the temperance army, and has held the
office of grand worthy chief of the British Templars; president of the
National lodge of the United Temperance Association of Canada, and is
now, and has for several years been president of the New Brunswick
Prohibitory Alliance. He is an ardent advocate of the prohibition of the
liquor traffic, and has for years been a leader in this cause in New
Brunswick, and has had much to do with introducing the Canada Temperance
Act into New Brunswick. In addition to his strong advocacy of temperance
measures, he has been an earnest advocate of the establishment of the
free, unsectarian school system in his native province. In the Free
Baptist denomination he also stands high as a leader in all progressive
movements. He is an advocate of the union of the Baptist denominations
in Canada, and by voice and pen has done much to promote the union
feeling. He is a member and vice-chairman of the joint committee of the
Baptist and Free Baptist bodies which now (1887) have the question of
union under consideration, and are authorized to arrange a basis of
union. He was secretary and a director of the Free Baptist Education
Society for many years, till, in 1883, the Baptist and Free Baptist
Education Societies were united by act of the legislature; since then he
has been a director of the united Education Society. He has also been
corresponding secretary of the Free Baptist Foreign Mission Society of
New Brunswick for fifteen years; was for three years president of the
American Foreign Mission Society, which includes representatives of all
the free communion Baptist bodies in the United States and Canada, and
is now a member of the managing board of the society. Has been moderator
of the New Brunswick Free Baptist Conference twice within ten years.
Since 1867 Dr. McLeod has owned and edited the _Religious_
_Intelligencer_. In May, 1886, Acadia College conferred the well-earned
degree of D.D. on Mr. McLeod. He is active in all matters pertaining to
the welfare of the public, and is frequently called upon to do pulpit
and platform service outside his own charge. He has not found time for a
European tour, but has made two trips to the western states; spent the
winter of 1882-3 in Florida for the benefit of his health; and in the
summer of 1886 made the trip across the continent _via_ the Canada
Pacific Railway, spending several weeks in British Columbia, the
North-West, and in Manitoba. Dr. McLeod’s parents were Free Baptists,
and in this faith he was brought up. He at a very early age became a
communicant in that church, and is now one of the most respected of its
clergy. In December, 1868, he was married to Jane Fulton Squires, and is
blessed with a family of five children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Chesley, John Alexander=, Manufacturer, Portland, New Brunswick, was
born in Portland, N.B., in May, 1839. He is the eldest son of William
Ambrose and Mary Ann Chesley, of U. E. loyalist descent. He received his
educational training in the Public school in Portland, and at the
Grammar School in Albert county, N.B. Mr. Chesley began his business
career in Portland, N.B., in 1862, as a manufacturer of ships’ iron
knees, and conducted the business on his own account until 1869, when he
took his brother, W. A. Chesley, into partnership, and thus formed the
firm of “J. A. & W. A. Chesley,” of which he is the head and senior
partner. Since then the firm has had a very successful career, and is
very well and favourably known throughout the Maritime provinces for its
locomotive frames, piston and connecting rods, truck, engine and car
axles, shafting, ships’ iron knees, etc., and all kinds of heavy
forgings. The firm has also a large interest in shipping. In 1876 Mr.
Chesley was elected alderman for No. 1 Ward in Portland city, and
occupied a seat in the city council continuously until April, 1885,—a
period of nine years,—when he was elected mayor of the city. He also
sat as one of the representatives of the city of Portland in the
municipal council of the city and county of St. John from 1880 to 1886,
a period of five years. In 1881 he was appointed a commissioner for
taking the census in the county of St. John; and was a liquor license
commissioner for St. John county in 1883 under the Dominion Liquor
License Act. At the general elections of 1882 and 1886 Mr. Chesley was
an unsuccessful candidate for the representation of the city and county
of St. John in the legislature of New Brunswick, but received such
support that we think he will be justified in running again for
parliamentary honours when the occasion offers. In 1872 he was made a
Mason, and now holds the rank of past master in the Blue lodge, and also
that of past principal in the Royal Arch chapter. He is a member of the
Encampment of St. John Knights Templars, and a member of the Ancient and
Accepted Scottish rite of Masonry; also a member of the Royal Order of
Scotland. He is an active politician, and is a member of the Young Men’s
Liberal Conservative Club of the city and county of St. John, and at the
present time is the vice-president of the Club for the city of Portland.
Mr. Chesley was a supporter of confederation, and worked hard to carry
the measure, and has ever since taken an interest in all public
questions—Dominion, provincial, and municipal—brought before the
people of the city and county of St. John. He also took an active
interest in, and laboured very hard in the election held to decide the
free school system in New Brunswick, and had the satisfaction of seeing
his party win in the contest, and secure for his province a school law
that every lover of his country should be proud of. He is a
Liberal-Conservative in politics, and a strong supporter of the national
policy. He was married, first in December, 1860, to Mary Frances, eldest
daughter of Albert Small, of Portland, Maine; and some time after her
death he was again married in September, 1872, to Annie, eldest daughter
of James S. May, of St. John, N.B.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=MacCallum, Duncan Campbell=, M.D., M.R.C.S., Eng., Fellow of the
Obstetrical Society, London, Foundation Fellow of the British
Gynecological Society, and Professor Emeritus, McGill University,
Montreal, was born in the province of Quebec, on the 12th November,
1825. By descent Dr. MacCallum is a pure Celt, being the son of John
MacCallum and Mary Campbell. His maternal grandfather, Malcolm Campbell,
of Killin, during his lifetime widely known and highly esteemed through
the Perthshire Highlands, was a near kinsman and relative, through the
Lochiel Camerons, of the Earl of Breadalbane. Dr. MacCallum received his
medical education at McGill University, at which institution he
graduated as M.D. in the year 1850. Immediately on receiving his degree,
he proceeded to Great Britain, and continued his studies in London,
Edinburgh and Dublin. After examination he was admitted a member of the
Royal College of Surgeons, England, February, 1851. Returning to Canada,
he entered on the practice of his profession in the city of Montreal,
and was appointed demonstrator of anatomy in the medical faculty of
McGill University, September, 1854. From that time to the present he has
been connected with the university, occupying various positions in the
faculty of medicine. In August, 1856, he was preferred to the chair of
clinical surgery. In November, 1860, he was transferred to the chair of
clinical medicine and medical jurisprudence, and in April, 1868,
received the appointment of professor of midwifery and the diseases of
women and children, which position he held until his resignation in
1883, on which occasion the governors of the university appointed him
professor emeritus, retaining his precedence in the university. For a
period of twenty-nine years he has been actively engaged in the teaching
of his profession. Elected visiting physician to the Montreal General
Hospital in February, 1856, he discharged the duties of that position
until the year 1877, when he resigned, and was placed by the vote of the
governors of that institution on the consulting staff. From 1868 till
1883 he had charge of the university lying-in hospital, to which he is
now attached as consulting physician, and for a period of fourteen years
he was physician to the Hervey Institute for children, to which charity
also he is now consulting physician. He has always taken a warm interest
in the literature of his profession, and articles from his pen have
appeared in the _British American Medical and Surgical Journal_, the
_Canada Medical Journal_, and the “Transactions of the Obstetrical
Society of London, Eng.” In the year 1854 he, in conjunction with Dr.
Wm. Wright, established and edited the _Medical Chronicle_ which had an
existence of six years. He was vice-president for Canada of the section
of Obstetrics in the ninth International Medical Congress, which was
held at Washington during the week commencing September 5th, 1887. Dr.
MacCallum married in October, 1867, Mary Josephine Guy, second daughter
of the late Hon. Hippolyte Guy, judge of the Superior Court of Lower
Canada. The Guy family, of ancient and noble origin, supposed to be a
branch of the Guy de Montfort family, has been distinguished for the
valuable services, military and civil, which its members have rendered
to the province of Quebec, both under the old and new _régimes_. Pierre
Guy, the first of the name to settle in Canada, joined the French army
under M. de Vaudreuil, in which he rose rapidly to the rank of captain.
He took an active part in the engagements which were then so frequent
between the French in Quebec and the English in Massachusetts and New
York. He died at the early age of forty-eight. His son Pierre, who was
sent to France and received a thorough and careful education, also
joined the French army and distinguished himself under General Montcalm
at the battle of Carillon, and in the following year at Montmorency. The
battle of the Plains of Abraham having annihilated the power of France
in Canada, young Guy with others left for France after the capitulation
of the country, where he remained till 1764. Returning to Canada, he
accepted the situation, entered into business at Montreal, and became a
loyal subject of Great Britain. Shortly after, when General Montgomery
invaded Canada, he took up arms for the defence of the country, and this
so exasperated the Americans that they sacked his stores after the
capitulation of Montreal. In 1776 he received from the Crown the
appointment of judge, which at that time was considered a signal mark of
favour; and in 1802 he was promoted to the rank of colonel of militia. A
man of great attainments and scholarly parts, he was an ardent promoter
of all educational projects. He was one of the most active in the
foundation of the College St. Raphae, under the control of the gentlemen
of the Seminary of the Sulpician order, and which still exists and
flourishes under the name of the “College of Montreal.” He died in 1812
and left several sons and daughters. Louis, who by the death of his
brother became the eldest of the family, was an intimate friend and
adviser of Sir James Kempt, and subsequently of Lord Aylmer. He was made
a councillor by King William in February, 1831. He died in 1840. Of his
family, Judge Hippolyte Guy was the second son. The eldest son, named
Louis, received a commission as lieutenant in the British army through
the influence of the Duke of Wellington, in consideration of the bravery
he had displayed at the battle of Chateauguay, where he gallantly led
the advanced guard of the Voltigeurs. Several years before entering the
British army he served as a member of the body guard of Charles X. of
France, into which no one was admitted who was not of proved noble
origin. Judge Guy married the adopted daughter of Chief Justice
Vallières, and had four children, a son who died in youth, and three
daughters. The eldest of the latter is married to Chief Justice Austin,
of Nassau, Bahamas, and the youngest to Gustave Fabre, brother to
Archbishop Fabre, Montreal. Dr. MacCallum’s family consists of five
children,—four daughters and one son.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Williams, Thomas=, Accountant and Treasurer of the Intercolonial
Railway, Moncton, New Brunswick, was born at Handsworth, near
Birmingham, England, on the 3rd of June, 1846. He is the youngest son of
Joseph and Hannah Williams. His father’s ancestors can be traced back
several centuries as farmers and occupiers of land in the adjoining
parish of Perry Barr. His mother’s ancestors, the Coulburns of Tipton,
in South Staffordshire, have been connected with the development of the
iron industries there for several generations past. Thomas Williams was
educated at the parish schools, and subsequently at the Bridge Trust
School—a grammar school founded from the proceeds of a legacy for
repairs of bridges in the parish, for which after the organisation of
the Highway Board, its existence for its original purposes was not
necessary, and the accumulated funds were devoted to the erection and
endowment of a superior school. In 1868, he entered the service of the
London and North-Western Railway of England as freight clerk, and was
subsequently appointed freight agent at Sutton Coldfield, near
Birmingham, and station master at Marton, near Rugby. He resigned in
June, 1870, to come to Canada, and in December, 1870, entered the
service of the New Brunswick and Canada Railway, at St. Andrews, New
Brunswick, as clerk to the general manager. Mr. Williams left the
service of that railway in August, 1873, to enter upon duties of clerk
in accountant’s office of the Intercolonial (Government) Railway, at
Moncton, New Brunswick, and was subsequently appointed chief clerk in
mechanical department of the same railway. In November, 1875, he was
sent to Charlottetown, to organise the system of accounts of the Prince
Edward Island Railway, and was appointed accountant and auditor of that
railway. And on the 1st of July, 1882, he was appointed chief accountant
and treasurer of the Intercolonial Railway at Moncton, which position he
at present holds. Mr. Williams was a member of the Church of England
until December, 1873, but in consequence of Ritualistic practices having
been introduced into the church he was in the habit of attending, he
left it, and was among the first to join the then newly organized
Reformed Episcopal Church, St. Paul’s, in Moncton. He has held the
office of vestryman and warden in this church, almost continuously
since. On the 12th of January, 1875, he married Analena, daughter of the
late John Rourke, merchant, St. John, New Brunswick, and has a family of
seven children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Pickard, Rev. Humphrey=, D.D., Methodist Minister, Sackville, New
Brunswick, was born at Fredericton, New Brunswick, June 10th, 1813. His
parents, Thomas Pickard, was the son of Deacon Humphrey Pickard, and was
born at Sheffield in 1783, and Mary Pickard, daughter of David Burpee.
Mrs. Pickard was also born at Sheffield in 1783. Both Deacon Pickard and
Squire Burpee, came, while yet mere youths, from Massachusetts, New
England, with a party of the earliest English settlers on the Saint John
river, about the year 1762. The subject of this sketch, after receiving
a fair English education in Fredericton, was sent to the Wesleyan
Academy, North Wilbenham, Massachusetts, United States, in 1829, where
he commenced a classical course of study, and having prepared for
matriculation, he entered the Freshman class in the University at
Middletown, Conn., in 1831. He, having completed the Freshman course of
study, retired from the university in 1832, and spent the following
three years in mercantile pursuits. In 1835, he entered the Methodist
ministry, as an assistant to the Rev. A. Des Brisay, in the Sheffield
circuit. In 1836, he was received on trial as a Wesleyan missionary, by
the British Methodist Conference, and laboured for a year as such on the
Miramichi mission and Fredericton circuit. In 1837, he resumed his
course of university study at Middletown; in 1839, he graduated,
receiving the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and re-entered the work of the
Methodist ministry, being stationed at Richibucto, until 1841, when he
was appointed to St. John. In 1842, he was ordained and received into
full connection with the English Conference as a Methodist minister, and
appointed editor of the _British North American Methodist Magazine_,
which was published at St. John. In November of the same year, he was
elected principal of the Mount Allison Academy, and removed with his
family to Sackville at the close of the year. The academy was opened on
the 19th of January, 1843, with a very few students, but under his
skilful management, it rapidly rose into importance in public
estimation, and attracting students from all parts of the Maritime
provinces, soon took position in the very front rank of the educational
institutions of Eastern British America. The catalogue for the term from
January to June, 1855, contains 250 names of students in actual
attendance, viz.: of 134 in the male branch, and 116 in the female. In
1862, the Mount Allison College was organized at Sackville, by the
authority of an Act of the Legislature of New Brunswick, and Mr. Pickard
was appointed its president, and he continued to act as president of the
college and principal of the academy until 1869. At the annual meeting
of the Board of Governors of the united institutions, held May 26, 1869,
the following resolution was unanimously adopted: “That the board,
having received intimation from Rev. Dr. Pickard, that in consequence of
the action of the conference in assigning to him another portion of
connexional service, his resignation of the office of president of the
institution is deemed necessary, though reluctantly accepting that
resignation, would express in strongest terms its regret at the removal
of Dr. Pickard from the field of usefulness for which he has special
qualifications, and at which for upwards of a quarter of a century, he
has with fidelity and honour served the church and his generation. The
board is also assured that the great work of education in connection
with the Wesleyan Conference of Eastern British America is greatly
indebted to the retiring president of the institution, and that its
success is largely to be attributed to the indomitable application and
perseverance—the high business ability, and the earnest Christian aim
by which Dr. Pickard has been animated during the whole period of his
service in the government of the institution.” The _Provincial
Wesleyan_, in a notice of the Mount Allison Academy, June 15, 1870,
says: “The college established in 1862, under a charter from the
Legislature of New Brunswick, mainly through the exertions of the Rev.
Dr. Pickard, is the latest of the foundations at Sackville. * * * The
first president of the college was the Rev. H. Pickard, D.D., president
also of the Wesleyan Conference. Dr. Pickard’s name is so intimately
associated with the Sackville institutions as almost to rival that of
its benevolent founder. To them he gave the flower of his life. And
although retired from the responsible office of president, and engaged
in another sphere of usefulness, the doctor is still one of its ablest
friends and supporters. His address at the recent celebration was
received with the warmest demonstrations.” Dr. Pickard, having been
elected to the office of editor of _The Wesleyan_ and book steward,
became resident in Halifax, from 1869 to 1873, but in this latter year
he returned with his family to Sackville. From 1873 to 1875, he acted as
agent for the college, and was largely instrumental in securing the
first endowment fund; and in 1876 he was superintendent of the Sackville
district. In 1877, he became a supernumerary, and has since so remained
resident at Sackville, except during the years 1879-80, when, at the
call of the General Conference of the Methodist Church of Canada, he
acted as book steward at Halifax. He was elected secretary of the
Wesleyan Methodist Conference of Eastern British America in 1857, 1858,
1859 and 1860, and co-delegate of the same conference in 1861, and
president in 1862 and 1870. He was appointed representative of the
conference of Eastern British America to the Canada Conference, which
met in the city of Kingston, June, 1860; and again to the conference
which met in the city of Hamilton, June, 1867. He was appointed
representative of his conference to the British Conference, first, in
1857, secondly in 1862, and thirdly in 1873. He was a member of the
joint committee on the Federal union of the Wesleyan Methodist church in
British America, which met in Montreal, October, 1872; and of the joint
committee which met in Toronto in 1882, and formulated the basis of
union by which the four separate Methodist bodies in Canada united to
form the one Methodist church. Rev. Mr. Pickard was a member of the
first and second general conferences of the Methodist Church of Canada,
and served in both as chairman of the committee on discipline. He was
also a member of the second general conference of the Methodist church,
which met in Toronto, in September, 1886, and was appointed a member of
the court of appeal and of the book committee for the quadrennium,
1886-1890. Mr. Pickard received the degree of Master of Arts in 1842,
from the University at Middletown, and had the honorary degree of Doctor
of Divinity conferred on him by his _alma mater_ in 1857. At the late
session of the annual conference of New Brunswick and Prince Edward
Island of the Methodist church, the following address, beautifully
engrossed and elegantly framed, was presented to Dr. Pickard:—

    _To the Reverend H. Pickard, D.D._:

    DEAR BROTHER,—The members of the New Brunswick and Prince
    Edward Island Conference, assembled in annual session, desire to
    express to you their hearty congratulations upon the completion
    of FIFTY YEARS in the honourable work of your ministry. We also
    express our gratitude to GOD, that he has so long spared you to
    see the growth, prosperity, and influence of the church to whose
    interests you have given such rich qualities of learning,
    wisdom, and piety.

    We rejoice that through all these years your moral and
    ministerial character has been preserved without a stain. We are
    profoundly conscious of the far-reaching influence of your life
    in our ACADEMIC AND COLLEGE WORK. The ministry of this and other
    churches, as well as the business and professional life of our
    provinces, have been enriched by the ripe scholarship and godly
    zeal of those who owe much to you for their culture and their
    ability in their callings. We are not unmindful that other
    departments of our church work have been benefited by your
    consecrated zeal and wisdom. As early life directs and tinges
    the thoughts of advanced age, we fail not to discern in you the
    earnestness of purpose, the singleness of aim that mark the
    years of the early itinerant. Your company has almost gone
    before, and while with the few venerable men whom we lovingly
    call FATHERS, you wait the summons of the Master, you say—

        “In peace and cheerful hope I wait,
            On life’s last verge quite free from fears,
        And watch the opening of the gate,
            Which leads to the eternal years.”

    We desire that your day, as it draws to its close, may be
    brightened by the glory of the sunset, full of the golden
    promise of the eternity of light.

     Signed by order of the Conference,

    C. H. PAISLEY,         ROBERT WILSON,
    _Secretary_.                _President_.

    Marysville, N.B., June, 1887.

Mr. Pickard was twice married, first at Boston, on October 2nd, 1841, to
the daughter of Ebenezer and Hannah M. Thompson, by whom he had two
children—Edward Dwight and Charles F. Allison, who died in early
childhood and infancy. Mrs. Pickard died at Sackville, the 11th of
March, 1844. She was a lady of superior ability, and much literary
talent, her memoirs and selections from her writings were published at
Boston, by the Rev. Edward Otheman, A.M., in a duodecimo volume of
upwards of 300 pages, in 1845, which is now out of print. He was married
again on the 5th of September, 1846, to Mary Rowe Carr, who was born at
Portland, Maine, United States, the daughter of John and Avis Preble
Carr. This second wife bore him two daughters, the first, Mary Emarancy,
is the wife of Andrew M. Bell, hardware merchant in Halifax, Nova
Scotia, and the mother of two boys, Winthrop P. and Ralph P. The second,
Amelia Elizabeth, is the wife of A. A. Stockton, D.C.L., M.P.P., of St.
John, New Brunswick, and mother of six living children, three daughters
and three sons. The second Mrs. Pickard died on the 24th of January,
1887, in the 77th year of her age.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Kennedy, George=, M.A., LL.D., Barrister, Toronto, was born on 1st
March, 1838, at Bytown, now the city of Ottawa, Ontario. His father,
Donald Kennedy, was born near Blairathol, in Scotland, and came with his
father to Canada in 1818, the family settling in the township of
Beckwith. About the time of the building of the Rideau canal the father
of the subject of this sketch removed to Bytown, engaged in business as
a contractor and builder, was employed for some time as surveyor for the
district of Dalhousie, now the county of Carleton, and for many years
carried on, in partnership with John Blyth, an extensive cabinet-making
business. An ancestor of his took part in the battle of Culloden, on the
side of Bonny Prince Charlie, by some called the “Pretender,” and the
dirk he used on the occasion is still in the possession of the family.
Dr. Kennedy’s mother, Janet Buckham, was born in 1807, in Dunblane,
Scotland, and came, with her father, to this country in 1828. This
family settled in the township of Torbolton, and Mr. Buckham went into
farming on a large scale at the head of Sand Bay, where he planted one
of the finest orchards in that part of the country. The Buckhams were
descended from an old Border family that have resided in Jedburgh from
the time of Queen Mary, of Scotland. Mrs. Kennedy died in 1856; but Mr.
Kennedy is still alive, and resides about three miles from Ottawa city,
on a picturesque spot overlooking the Rideau river. George received his
education at the Carleton county Grammar School (now the Ottawa
Collegiate Institute), and at University College, Toronto, where he
matriculated in 1853, taking the first-class scholarship in classics,
and in his subsequent course held first-class honors also in
mathematics, metaphysics and ethics, natural sciences, modern languages,
logic, rhetoric and history. In 1857 he graduated B.A. with gold medal
in metaphysics and ethics; took M.A. in 1860; LL.B. in 1864, and LL.D.,
in 1877. In 1859 Dr. Kennedy occupied the position of master of the
Grammar School of Prescott; and during the years 1860-1 he was second
master in the Ottawa Grammar School, and had charge of the branch
Meteorological Observatory at Ottawa. In 1862 he began the study of the
law in the offices of Crooks, Kingsmill and Cattanach, Toronto, and was
admitted as an attorney and solicitor, and was called to the bar of
Ontario in Hilary term, 1865. He then began the practice of his
profession in Ottawa, and for six years carried on his business in his
native place. In February, 1872, he received the appointment of law
clerk to the Crown Lands Department of Ontario, and moved to Toronto,
where he has ever since resided. During the years 1878-9-80 the doctor
was examiner in law at the University of Toronto. He was one of the
founders of the Ottawa Literary and Scientific Society, formed by the
amalgamation of the Mechanics’ Institute and Natural History Society,
and was secretary for some years, and as a recognition of his labours in
connection therewith was made a life member. He was also one of the
original members of the University College Literary and Scientific
Society, and is a member of the Canadian Institute, of which he was for
three years a vice-president, and is now editor of “The Proceedings.”
For some time he has been secretary to the Toronto St. Andrew’s Society,
and as such prepared a history of the Society as a memorial for its
jubilee year, 1886. Dr. Kennedy is an omnivorous reader, and as a
consequence has a large and well-selected library—indeed he considers a
library the most important part of any home—and few men are better
posted in book-lore than he. He, too, has seen a good deal of Canada and
the United States, and is familiar with the principal places in North
America, ranging from the Southern states, the Western states, the
Maritime provinces, the Muskoka district, and the regions beyond Ottawa.
As might be expected, Dr. Kennedy was brought up a Presbyterian, but
when quite young he began to entertain doubts as to the correctness of
the Calvinistic faith of his church. For several years he was greatly
troubled about this matter, and finding he could no longer stifle his
convictions, he broke away from the church, and became almost an
Agnostic. After a while, however, he joined the Unitarian church, and no
one has now a firmer faith than he in the Divine Fatherhood, and the
infinite possibilities of human progress. On the 6th June, 1883, he
married Sarah, daughter of the late Henry Jackson, a well-known
jeweller, and once resident of Toronto.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Turnbull, William Wallace=, Merchant, of the firm of Turnbull & Co.,
Flour Dealers, Commission Merchants, and Importers of West India Goods,
St. John, New Brunswick, was born on the 23rd of May, 1828, at Bear
River, Annapolis county, Nova Scotia. His father was William Baxter
Turnbull, and his mother, Relief Ann Tucker. His father’s grandparents
emigrated from Edinburgh, Scotland, in the last century, and settled at
a small place now known as Bay View, about three miles distant from the
town of Digby, N.S., and here the father of the subject of our sketch
was born. His mother’s grandparents were U. E. loyalists, and came to
Nova Scotia from the United States shortly after, or during, the
revolutionary war between Great Britain and that country. Mr. Turnbull,
sen., was characterized by his keen sense of humour, his cheerfulness,
and his affectionate nature, his sympathy for the weak and suffering,
his strong religious convictions, and by his fealty to whatever he
believed to be just and right. He died at the comparatively early age of
forty-five years, and was buried at Bear River, greatly respected and
beloved by all who knew him. William’s education was confined to the
English branches, and was obtained at the Grammar School at Bear River,
and also by attendance, for a short time, at the Grammar School at
Albion Vale, a place about one mile distant from Annapolis, N.S. The
school at Albion Vale was taught by the late Andrew Henderson, and it
was at the time a somewhat celebrated place of instruction. Mr.
Turnbull, sen., died, in July, 1845, leaving a widow and nine children
(two sons and seven daughters), William being the younger of the two
brothers. On the winding up of his estate, and the payment of all just
debts, what remained for the family did not much exceed $1,000. For some
time previous to this event William’s health was in such a precarious
condition that it created a good deal of anxiety to the family, and it
may be readily supposed he could do little towards the support of his
mother and sisters, and to add to their troubles one of the younger
sisters, eight years old, died. In the following spring (1846) all of
the family except the brother removed to St. John, and shortly after
their arrival in that city William obtained a situation as clerk with W.
D. W. Hubbard, auctioneer. In this office he remained for about eighteen
months, when he became book-keeper for G. & J. Salter, a firm then
largely engaged in the West India trade, and as shipbuilders and
shipowners. On the 1st May, 1851, he left their employ and struck out
for himself as a wholesale flour, provision, and grocery merchant,
adding thereto a few years afterwards shipowning and sailing, and in
this business he is engaged at this time. When he started business he
had a capital of about $200.00, very small indeed, but he had himself
earned this money, and therefore knew its value. Owing, perhaps, to his
youth and inexperience, for many years his progress was very slow, he
having made a good number of bad debts and unwise ventures, yet
notwithstanding these drawbacks he managed to meet all his liabilities
as they matured, and now the reflection that throughout his business
career he has been able to meet every honourable obligation, affords him
the greatest satisfaction. Since his removal from Bear River he has
always lived in St. John. The changes or experiences that he has had are
perhaps such as are common to men engaged in business for so long a
period as thirty-six years, particularly during a time when railroads,
steamships and telegraphs have wrought such great changes in the methods
of business, and to which we may add the change resulting from the
confederation of the provinces into the Dominion of Canada. When Mr.
Turnbull was about twenty-four years of age he became a member of the
order of Sons of Temperance, but after a few years he withdrew, not
because he had ceased to believe in the soundness of total abstinence
principles, but because he became so immersed in business that his mind
seemed to be wholly absorbed by it, and he felt, owing perhaps to the
limitation of his capacity, unable to keep up his interest in the
organization. He has always been, and still is, a total abstainer, but
is not at present associated with any society having for its object the
dissemination of temperance principles. During his connection with the
Sons of Temperance he held a number of offices in the division, and
afterwards became its presiding officer; and still later a member of the
Grand Division of the province of New Brunswick. In May, 1884, Mr.
Turnbull was elected president of the St. John Protestant Orphan Asylum,
and also a director of the Bank of New Brunswick, which positions he
still holds. He, with about a dozen other persons, built a railway from
Gibson (opposite Fredericton) to Edmundston, a distance of about one
hundred and sixty miles, with branches in addition to Woodstock, N.B.,
and Fort Fairfield, Maine, and he continued to be connected with this
enterprise until the road was sold in 1880 to a number of capitalists in
Montreal. He is a member of the Board of Trade of the city of St. John.
In 1883 he took a trip to the Old World, and spent some time abroad,
visiting Britain, Germany, and Switzerland. Mr. Turnbull’s father was a
Presbyterian of the old school, and of course the son was brought up in
the same faith; but he now attends the Episcopal church with his family.
He, however, is not a member of this or any other church, not that he
objects to churches, but simply that his mind is unsettled as to what is
really the orthodox doctrine of faith and practice. One thing is
certain, however, Mr. Turnbull finds great pleasure in relieving the
wants of the deserving poor, and in doing all the good he can to his
fellow-men. He does not consider himself in any sense a politician, yet
nevertheless he holds decided opinions on most of the political
questions that now agitate the country. He is strongly opposed to what
is known as the national policy, for he believes it wrings large sums in
taxes from the pockets of the people, without its being able to give
them in return any compensating advantages. He is also strongly opposed
to the expenditure of large sums of money on public works of an
unremunerative character, and on public works which exist, as he is
satisfied many in Canada do, only by reason of sentiment or false pride.
While he recognizes that free trade, in its entirety, owing to the
enormous debt of the Dominion, is not now practicable, he holds that it
is thoroughly sound in principle, and being so would work the greatest
good to the greatest number of our people, he would therefore favour its
adoption to as large an extent as might seem to be practicable. He
believes in the fullest individual liberty and freedom, consistent with
a just regard for the rights of others, and is in favour of all measures
having for their object the elevation of the masses. He is, in its true
sense, a Liberal, but with enough conservatism in his composition to
cause him to oppose any change in the laws of our country that he did
not feel firmly convinced would be for the better. Mr. Turnbull was
married at Maugerville, Sunbury county, on June 6, 1854, to Julia
Caroline, daughter of the late Calvin L. Hatheway, of that place. Mr.
Hatheway was of loyalist stock, his father having taken a somewhat
prominent part in the revolutionary war between Great Britain and the
United States. Mr. Turnbull’s wife’s mother was a daughter of Lieutenant
James Harrison, who was also a loyalist, and who came to this province
from the United States. He has a family consisting of five children
living, namely, three daughters and two sons.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Sprague, Thomas Farmer=, M.D., Woodstock, New Brunswick, was born on
the 30th of August, 1856, at Brigus, island of Newfoundland. He is a son
of the Rev. S. W. Sprague and Jean Manson Sprague. Thomas was educated
at Mount Allison Academy, Sackville, New Brunswick, and at the
Provincial Normal School. After leaving school he adopted the profession
of teaching, which he successfully followed for some years, and then, in
1877, moved to the city of New York, and began the study of medicine. He
entered the medical department of New York University, and successfully
graduated in the spring of 1880 from this institution. Dr. Sprague then
removed to Welsford, in New Brunswick, in April of the same year, and
began the practice of his profession. He remained in that place for two
years, and in June, 1882, went to Hartland, New Brunswick, where he
stayed until June, 1883, and then took up his abode in Woodstock, county
of Carleton, New Brunswick, where he has been successfully practising
ever since. The doctor was brought up in the faith as taught by the
Wesleyan Methodists—his father being a clergyman of that church—and he
has seen no reason to change his religious belief since growing up into
manhood. He married on the 17th of June, 1884, Loella Nourse, of Boston,
Mass.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Gaynor, John Joseph=, M.D., St. John, New Brunswick, was born of Irish
parents, at Chatham, New Brunswick, on the 19th of March, 1854. They
were educated Irish Catholics, his father being a native of the county
Meath, and his mother of the county Clare, Ireland. They might well be
classed as Irish-Americans, as they were both brought by their
respective parents to this country while yet infants. Dr. Gaynor’s
father, Thomas Gaynor, was educated at the Grammar School, Chatham; and
his mother, Catharine Buckley, at a seminary for young ladies, conducted
by a Mrs. Merry at Newcastle, New Brunswick. This privilege, so
exceptional for Irish Catholics in those early days, was doubtless the
reason which determined the doctor’s parents to bestow in turn a liberal
education on their own offspring. On his father’s side Dr. Gaynor comes
of the best blood of historic Meath, being a descendant of the same
family that in the last century produced General Hand, of revolutionary
fame as adjutant-general to Washington during the war of American
Independence, and that in the present century gave birth to such eminent
churchmen as the late Father Hand, founder of All Hallows College,
Dublin, and the present patriotic Bishop of Meath, the illustrious Dr.
Nulty. According to family tradition also, one of Dr. Gaynor’s ancestors
fought under King James at the ill-fated battle of the Boyne, and was
killed while defending the “Bridge of Slane.” His name, the same
tradition says, was Thomas Gaynor. While on his father’s side Dr. Gaynor
is thus descended from a liberty-loving race, on his mother’s side he is
connected with that aristocratic class known in Ireland as “Castle
Catholics.” His mother, who was born at Ferhill Castle, Blackwater,
county Clare, was also closely allied by ties of blood to the famous
fighting “Goughs of Clare,” whose name is historical through General
Gough, of India fame. Dr. Gaynor is the eldest member of a family of
twelve, eight of whom are still living. One of his brothers, the Rev.
William C. Gaynor, is Roman Catholic pastor of Richmond, in Carleton
county, New Brunswick. Father Gaynor is a writer of great power on
theological questions, and is the author of “Papal Infallibility,”
published in 1885, and of a Commentary in Latin on the _Summa
Theologica_, of Thomas Aquinas, now in press in Paris. Another brother,
P. A. Gaynor, is a member of a large lumbering house in Pennsylvania,
and is now in the Redwood district of California, where he has
established a branch firm. Dr. Gaynor was educated partly at St.
Michael’s College, Chatham, and partly at St. Joseph’s College,
Memramcook. In the former institution he studied mathematics and the
exact sciences under the most distinguished teacher of his day in New
Brunswick, Thomas Caulfield, M.A., of Trinity College, Dublin. His
subsequent studies in logic and metaphysics were pursued at St. Joseph’s
College, Memramcook. In this institution he taught the higher
mathematics. It was here also that in 1877 he began the study of
medicine under the preceptorship of Dr. H. E. Boissy, resident physician
to St. Joseph’s, and leading medical practitioner among the Acadians of
New Brunswick. From St. Joseph’s Dr. Gaynor went in 1878 to Buffalo, New
York. There he attended the lectures in the medical department of
Buffalo University. He followed also the different courses of the newly
established College of Physicians and Surgeons in the same city.
Graduating in 1881, after a four years’ course, he carried off the
honours of his class, and was immediately offered the chair of chemistry
and toxicology in his _alma mater_. This honourable position he declined
at the insistance of his friends in New Brunswick, and immediately
returned to his native province. Shortly after his return he read by
invitation a paper on “Chloroform as an Anæsthetic,” before the Medical
Society of New Brunswick. Establishing himself at DeBec, Carleton
county, he soon acquired a lucrative practice. It was here that for the
first time in the history of medicine in New Brunswick nitro-glycerine
was employed, by Dr. Gaynor, for remedial purposes. Finding that his
sphere of labour was too circumscribed, and desirous of entering into a
larger field, Dr. Gaynor removed, in 1884, to St. John city, where he
has since resided. On February 20, 1884, he was united in the bonds of
holy wedlock to Nora Costigan, of St. John, a relative of the Hon. John
Costigan, Minister of Inland Revenue. By her he has three
children—Walter and Frederick, born February 16, 1885, and James, born
August 28, 1886. During his vacations, while yet a medical student, Dr.
Gaynor travelled extensively through the Northern, Western, and Middle
states, spending some time in the Oil regions of Pennsylvania, and at
the watering places on the Atlantic coast. In politics he is a
Liberal-Conservative, with no love, however, for toryism as it exists in
the mother country. The descendant of a family that fought and bled for
human liberty, he is naturally a liberal in sentiment and aspiration. It
is his belief, however, that so far as principles are concerned, there
is no essential difference between the Conservative party led by Sir
John Macdonald and the Liberal party led by Edward Blake. It is
tweedle-dum and tweedle-dee; and in the end the people always rule. Such
being his opinion of the two great political parties into which the
Canadian people are divided, Dr. Gaynor has pronounced views as to the
position which his Irish Catholic co-religionists should take in
dominion politics. They should, he believes, adopt Parnell’s famous
motto, _Support the party which does the most for you_. They would thus
as a body be bound to neither political party, and would gravitate from
one to the other consistently with the fair or unfair, just or unjust,
treatment they might receive from either party. Outside his native
province Dr. Gaynor is best known as a writer on _materia medica_. He
has made a specialty of the study of new drugs; and his articles in the
“Investigator”—a medical monthly of Buffalo—on this and kindred
subjects, have attracted unusual attention from the medical profession
in America. He also wrote and published in the same journal a series of
articles in explanation and defence of the Catholic doctrine on
craniotomy. In those articles he triumphantly refuted all the objections
brought forward by his adversaries, and abundantly proved, in defence of
the Catholic position, that the rational soul animates the human fœtus
from the very first moment of conception, and that consequently it is as
great a violation of divine law to destroy the living embryo as it would
be to murder the new-born child. Dr. Gaynor’s views of medical practice
are wide and comprehensive. His motto as regards remedial agents is:

        “Seek the best where’er ’tis found,
         On Christian earth or pagan ground.”

Yet he is not an eclectic in the narrow sense of the word, which is now
practically synonymous with homœopath. A thorough knowledge of anatomy,
a complete acquaintance with the physiological effect of every drug or
remedy, a no less complete acquaintance with pathology, and a virility
of character sufficient to elevate the mind above the crude ideas of
past generations, whether sanctioned by usage or made sacred by great
names, must in future, he contends, be characteristics of the successful
medical practitioner. A determined opponent of everything irrational or
unintelligent in medicine, Dr. Gaynor has ever raised his voice against
that hit-or-miss method, facetiously yet correctly styled “shot-gun
practice,” which combines, for example, in one prescription three, four,
or six different remedies, with the hope that if one misses some of the
others will touch the target. He is, by consequence, a strong believer
in the single remedy in every prescription. Dr. Gaynor is also a
specialist in gynecology, his practice in St. John being almost limited
to this department of his profession. He resides at number 2 Germain
street.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=de Martigny, Adelard Le Moyne=, Notary and Cashier of _La Banque
Jacques Cartier_, Montreal, was born at Varennes, on the 25th of
December, 1826. He is the son of Jacques Le Moyne de Martigny, seigneur
of de Martigny, St. Michel and La Trinité, and of Dame Suzanne Eléonore
Perrault, daughter of the late François Perrault, prothonotary of the
Superior Court at Quebec. Mr. de Martigny is descended from that
distinguished family of Le Moyne, who arrived in this country in 1611,
of whom were the de Longueuil, de Ste. Hélene, d’Iberville, de
Bienville, de Chateauguay, de Sévigny, and de Maricourt; one of his
ancestors, J. B. Le Moyne de Martigny, was at the capture of Fort
Bourbon by d’Iberville, and was left there as commander of that fort.
Having terminated his classical studies at the Montreal College, under
the gentlemen of the Seminary of St. Sulpice, he studied law under J. N.
A. Archambault, notary, at Varennes, and was admitted to practice in
January, 1848. In August, 1856, he was appointed registrar of the county
of Beauharnois; and in 1871 manager of the branch of the Merchants Bank
of Canada, established in the town of Beauharnois. He, however, resigned
these different positions to accept the one as manager of _Le Crédit
Foncier du Bas Canada_ in 1875; and finally he was offered the position
of cashier of _La Banque Jacques Cartier_ in Montreal in 1877, which he
accepted and still occupies. He is one of the executors of the estate of
the late Hon. Charles Wilson. Mr. de Martigny is one of the owners of a
large asbestos estate in Coleraine, Megantic county, and one of the
proprietors of a pulp and paper mill in Sorel, and was president of the
Joliette Railroad Company at the time of the sale of that road to the
government. In 1855 he married Aglaé Globensky, daughter of
Lieut.-Colonel Globensky, one of the officers under Colonel de
Salaberry, at the battle of Chateauguay. He has four sons by this
marriage, one of them, the oldest, Louis Le Moyne de Martigny, is
manager of the Jacques Cartier Bank at Salaberry de Valleyfield. He was
married again to his first cousin, Marie Malvina Le Moyne de Martigny,
daughter of Hugues Le Moyne de Martigny, seigneur of de Ramezay and
Bourgchemin.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Rogers, Henry Cassady=, Postmaster, Peterboro’, Ontario, was born at
Grafton, Northumberland county, Ontario, on the 16th of July, 1839. He
is the second son of the late Lieut.-Col. James G. Rogers and his first
wife, Maria Burnham. His father died at his residence in Grafton on the
27th of November, 1874, in his seventieth year, greatly regretted by all
who knew him. He (J. G. Rogers) came to Grafton with his parents from
the village of Brighton, his birthplace, when he was only five years of
age, and his life was spent amidst a people many of whom were the
contemporaries of his youth. He was an upright magistrate and a sincere
Christian. His grandfather, David McGregor Rogers, was a U. E. loyalist,
who came to this country from New England with the first loyalists after
the termination of the revolutionary war in 1776. He settled first on
the Bay of Quinté, afterwards moving to Presqu’Isle, and finally to the
township of Haldimand (now the village of Grafton), where he opened the
first post-office between Kingston and York (now Toronto), and where
three generations of the family have been born. The homestead is now
occupied by his brother, Lieut.-Col. R. Z. Rogers, commanding the 40th
battalion. He (D. McG. Rogers) was for twenty-four years a member of the
Upper Canada legislature; and died on the 13th July, 1824, in the
fifty-third year of his age. In his political opinions he was a warm
admirer of the British constitution, and during the time he sat in the
legislature no member guarded the rights and interests of the people
more zealously than he did. His great-granduncle was the famous Col.
Rogers of “Roger’s Rangers,” who was a man of note during the last
century,—best known as Major Rogers. He first became famous as a scout
in the Indian troubles. His exploits furnished Fenimore Cooper with the
ground-work of his tales of the “Leather-stocking,” and “Horrors of the
Backwoods.” He was commissioned to raise and organize a regiment of
scouts during the French war. This corps rendered valuable service at
the taking of Canada from the French, and on its surrender Rogers was
entrusted by the commander-in-chief with the arduous duty of proceeding
west from Montreal, and taking possession in the name of the king of
Great Britain, of the country including forts Frontenac (Kingston),
Niagara, Detroit, Pittsburgh, Mackinaw, etc., as far as the Mississippi
in the west and Lake Superior north. He had therefore the honour of
commanding the first British expedition that passed through the great
chain of lakes, interesting accounts of which may be found in his
“Journal,” published in London, England, in 1765; “Heely’s Wolfe in
Canada,” “Parkman’s Conspiracy of Pontiac,” chap. vi.; and many others.
The Rangers were re-organized on the breaking out of the rebellion in
1765, by a brother of the first commanding officer Colonel James Rogers
who was the great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch, commanded
at St. John’s, Quebec (the key of Canada as it was then called), and
were called the “Queen’s Rangers,” but many of the leading spirits
joined the rebels, among others Putnam and Stark, who were lieutenants
in the Rangers, and who became celebrated generals in the American army.
Great inducements were offered the Rogers to join Washington, but they
remained staunch to the Crown, for which they not only lost their homes
and possessions (some 30,000 acres of land in New England), but had
their good name calumniated, being called traitors and spies by the
partisan press of the revolutionists. The mother of H. C. Rogers was
third daughter of the late Hon. Zaccheus Burnham, of Cobourg, who came
to Cobourg with his four brothers from New Hampshire at the end of the
last century, and who carved out homes and affluence from the forest,
and left a large circle of descendants who are filling many positions of
trust and honour throughout the Dominion. Henry Cassady Rogers, the
subject of our sketch, received his primary education in the public
school at Grafton; then when twelve years of age he was sent to the
Model School at Toronto, and finally to the Grammar School at Kingston
where he graduated. He then apprenticed himself to his uncle, the late
Lieut.-Colonel R. D. Rogers, of Ashburnham, who learned him how to
conduct a commercial business, and with this uncle he remained from 1855
to 1860. He then went into business in Peterboro’ with his
brother-in-law, Harry Strickland, son of Colonel Strickland, of
Lakefield, and for ten years they carried on a successful mercantile
lumbering and mining business under the name of Strickland & Rogers. In
1871 Mr. Rogers retired from the firm and was made postmaster of
Peterboro’, which office he now fills with satisfaction to the public.
Mr. Rogers has inherited from his illustrious ancestors a love of
military life, and when only sixteen years of age, on the Rifle company
being formed at Peterboro’ in 1855, he joined that corps; and in 1866,
on the promotion of Captain Poole, he was given command of the company,
and acted as its captain during the various Fenian raids of that period.
In 1867, when the 57th battalion was formed, he and his companions
became No. 1 company of the battalion. In this connection, we may here
say, that his brother, Lieut.-Colonel Robert Z. Rogers, commands the
40th (Northumberland) battalion; and his cousin, Lieut.-Colonel James Z.
Rogers, the 57th battalion Peterboro’ Rangers. In 1872 he raised and
commanded the Peterboro’ Cavalry troop, which now forms C troop of the
3rd Prince of Wales Canadian Dragoons. Mr. Rogers is an active member of
the Masonic brotherhood, and belongs to Corinthian lodge, No. 101,
Peterboro’. He crossed the Atlantic in 1862, and made himself familiar
with many cities of the old world. In politics he is a
Liberal-Conservative; and in religious matters he is an adherent of the
Episcopal church. In 1863 he was married at Smith’s Falls, to Maria,
eldest daughter of Dr. W. H. Burritt, a scion of an old U. E. loyalist
family of the Rideau, who settled at Burritt’s Rapids many years ago.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Wilson, J. C.=, M.P. for Argenteuil, Manufacturer, Montreal, was born
on the 19th of July, 1841, near Rasharkin, county of Antrim, Ireland,
and came to Montreal with his parents in September, 1842, and near this
city the family settled. His father, Samuel Wilson, belonged to a
numerous family of farmers and artisans in Antrim county; and his
mother, Elizabeth Crocket, was descended from similar stock. Her
forefathers were of a roving disposition, and their descendants are
scattered all over the British colonies. Both Mr. Wilson’s parents were
religious people, and held a prominent position in the church. His
mother died at an early age from the excessive hardships she had to
endure in the vicinity of Montreal, as a pioneer settler. His father, as
a youth, received no training as an artisan, yet having a natural talent
for using tools, he adopted the trade of carpenter, and in a very few
years thereafter became an expert mechanic. He designed and made the
first railway snow-plough used in Canada, and from his model the plough
now used is still made. He entered the employ of the Grand Trunk Railway
Company, and up to the time of his death was engaged by that company in
building their cars. He was a very industrious man, and in the evenings,
after leaving his usual work, frequently spent hours in his own workshop
in his house at his lathe and bench, making furniture for himself and
his neighbours. James, the subject of this sketch, was educated by an
old-fashioned schoolmaster in the rudiments of learning, and had to work
for a living at a very early age. He was apprenticed to mechanical
engineering in 1853, and until 1856 he worked at his trade, when, having
met with an accident that injured his right arm, he had to give up the
trade of a mechanical engineer. Mr. Wilson now shows with pride some
fine machinist’s tools he made when he was an apprentice. On recovering
from his injuries, a kind friend observing the talents and perseverance
of the lad, sent him to the Model School, and from there to the McGill
Normal School in Montreal, and in July, 1859, he graduated as a teacher.
In 1859 he removed to Beauharnois, and taught the dissentient school in
that town until 1862, when he moved west to Belleville, where he clerked
until December of that year, when he moved to Toronto, and accepted the
position of clerk in the office of a wholesale news company. In 1863 he
went to New York, and from November of that year until January, 1867, he
had the management of the publishing house of T. W. Strong, of that
city, and through his perseverance and industry gained the highest rung
of the ladder of fortune in Mr. Strong’s establishment. While Mr. Wilson
resided in New York he was a great favourite among the Canadians
visiting there, and helped many of them when they were in need. A
deep-seated love for Canada, and a special inducement brought him again
back to Montreal in January, 1867, and he at once assumed the position
of cashier and bookkeeper in the office of Angus, Logan & Co., paper
manufacturers (now the Canada Paper Co.) He remained with this firm
until September, 1870, when he went into business on his own account. He
began the manufacture of paper bags by machinery, and was the first in
Canada to supply the grocers all over the Dominion with this very useful
article. This proving, by energy and ability, a prosperous business, in
1880 he built a large paper mill at Lachute, province of Quebec, and in
1885 had to double its power so as to be able to make six tons of paper
per day. In 1880 Mr. Wilson was elected an alderman for the city of
Montreal, and was again returned by acclamation in 1883. For six years
he represented St. Lawrence ward in the city council, and for four years
was chairman of the light committee. He was president of the Fish and
Game Protection Club of the province of Quebec for two years; president
of the Irish Protestant Benevolent Society for two years; and has
occupied the principal chairs in several other societies in Montreal.
Mr. Wilson is a life governor and vice-president of the Montreal
Dispensary; a governor of the Protestant Insane Asylums of the province
of Quebec; one of the board of Protestant School Commissioners of
Montreal; principal and head of the firm of J. C. Wilson & Co., paper
and paper-bag makers, Montreal; and at the general elections held
February 22, 1887, he was elected to represent the county of Argenteuil,
province of Quebec, in the House of Commons at Ottawa. Mr. Wilson is an
ardent fisherman, fond of lakes and brooks, and never hesitates to drive
thirty or forty miles over a rough road to enjoy a few hours’
trout-fishing, and thoroughly enjoys camp life. In business he is
active, pushing, hard-working, and far-seeing in his plans, and never
puts off until to-morrow what can be done to-day. With his employees he
is a favourite, and is looked upon by them as most generous and kind.
Mr. Wilson has adopted as his motto, “It pays to think.” In politics he
is a Liberal-Conservative, and in religion an adherent of the
Presbyterian form of worship. On the 6th of November, 1865, he married
Jeanie, third daughter of the late William Kilgour, of Beauharnois,
province of Quebec, and has a family of five children—three sons and
two daughters.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Wedderburn, Hon. William=, Q.C., Hampton, Judge of the County Courts of
Kings and Albert counties, New Brunswick, was born at St. John, October
12, 1834. He is a son of the late Alexander Wedderburn, of Aberdeen,
Scotland. Imperial emigration agent at St. John, New Brunswick, and Jane
Heaviside, of London, England. His father was the author of several
pamphlets and letters on important public affairs. Judge Wedderburn was
educated at the St. John Grammar School, and entered as a student for
the profession of the law in the office of the Hon. John H. Gray, (now
judge of the Supreme Court of British Columbia); was called to the bar
in 1858, and created a Queen’s counsel in 1873. Until he entered
political life he enjoyed a very large and leading law practice. For
several years he was intimately connected with the press as a
contributor and editor, and in both capacities, as well as on the
platform, took a very prominent and pronounced stand in favour of the
confederation of the provinces. At the general elections of 1870 he
first presented himself for parliamentary honours, and was returned for
the city of St. John to the New Brunswick legislature. In 1874 he was
re-elected by a very large vote; and again in 1878 he was honoured by
re-election. While in parliament he took a very prominent part in the
discussions before the house, and was the author and promoter of a
series of resolutions in favour of “better terms” for New Brunswick, and
was afterwards delegated on several occasions to go to Ottawa on this
subject. The result of the agitation was a very large increase to the
income of the province, secured with other advantages when the delegates
pressed the matter finally and with effect upon the settlement of the
export duty question during the discussion of the Washington treaty. Mr.
Wedderburn was also the author and mover of the famous
resolutions—known and published throughout the election as the
“Wedderburn resolutions”—on which the School bill contest in 1874 was
conducted, re-affirming the principle of the School law, and protesting
against any interference by the parliament of Canada on the subject.
Very many laws were added to the Statute Book upon his motion. On
February 18, 1876, he was elected speaker of the House of Assembly by
acclamation, and while holding this office he was requested to report a
code of laws for the government of the house during business and in
committee. The rules at this time were very few and incomplete, and
quite behind the age. At the following session he reported to the house.
Taking the practice of the Imperial and Canadian Houses of Commons, and
the rules of parliament, and of the different legislatures of the
provinces,—the report provided a full and complete course of procedure.
After full discussion during that and the following session the whole of
the rules were adopted with very little, if any, material amendment. The
committee reported a grant of five hundred dollars to the speaker for
his work—which had, of course, been prepared without charge. Mr.
Wedderburn ranked high as a parliamentary authority, and is thought not
to have been excelled in the chair. At the close of the term of the
Assembly, the leader of the opposition, in a very complimentary speech,
moved the thanks of the House to Mr. Speaker for his ability, etc., in
the government of the house. The premier (now Judge King) seconded the
motion, and highly eulogized the Speaker, and concluded by saying that
“if he (Mr. Wedderburn) had not been so good a Speaker, he (Mr. King)
would have been a better parliamentarian.” Immediately after this, Hon.
Mr. Wedderburn was appointed to the office of provincial secretary, and
this office he held until he accepted the position of judge of the
County Courts of Kings and Albert. He twice refused a seat in the
government of 1870, and the appointment of commissioner to consolidate
the provincial statutes. He has been prominently identified with the
temperance movement, and has filled various important positions in this
army of moral reform, among others that of grand worthy patriarch of the
Grand Division of the Sons of Temperance of New Brunswick. He was
president of the Mechanics’ Institute of St. John for three years
consecutively, 1869-72, as well as holding other offices in the
institute. He was first president of the Provincial Board of
Agriculture, created by a law passed by the government of which he was a
member, and the address delivered by him at the inauguration of the
board was greatly complimented, and published or largely quoted in
English and French throughout Canada and in the United states. And it
was largely through his means that the stock farm was undertaken by the
government. Hon. Mr. Wedderburn has been speaker, orator, and lecturer
on many important public and private occasions, commanding the close
attention of his auditors at all times by his eloquent, powerful and
ornate deliverances. Among his efforts in this direction may be
mentioned his address at the memorial services held in the city of St.
John for President Lincoln; his oration as provincial secretary at the
memorial services of President Garfield; at the laying the corner stone
of the Masonic Temple in St. John; at the ceremonial in celebration of
the Centennial of the introduction of Freemasonry into New Brunswick;
his great lecture on “Colin Campbell,” in the Mechanics’ Institute, on
behalf of the volunteers during the Fenian troubles; and his brilliant
oration, delivered by request of the city corporation of St. John, upon
the Centennial celebration of the landing of the loyalists in New
Brunswick. Many others might be mentioned. Judge Wedderburn has always
been prominently identified with the fraternity of Free and Accepted
Masons. He was initiated in St. John’s lodge, of St. John, June 19,
1857, and was senior warden in 1860, and worshipful master in 1862 and
1863. The capitular degrees were received in the New Brunswick Royal
Arch Chapter. He was the first of, and the most prominent among, those
who advocated the erection of an independent Grand Lodge in and for New
Brunswick; promoting the movement by his voice and pen, particularly by
the latter in the columns of the _Masonic Mirror_, the organ of the
order, and of which he was the editor. At the formation of the Grand
Lodge, October, 1867, he was unanimously elected deputy grand master, in
which position he continued up to 1870, when he was elected grand
master, and occupied the latter office for two years. Although the
removal of his residence to his villa at Hampton, Kings county, and the
prosecution of his judicial functions have drawn him away from active
participation in the work of the craft, nevertheless he continues to
retain his membership in the lodge, and to preserve a warm interest in
the prosperity of the brotherhood. The editor of the _Parliamentary
Practice_ thus refers to him when he was provincial secretary:—“Upon
the floor of the House he was a leading spirit; eloquent and
argumentative, a keen debater, and a master of sarcasm.” Judge
Wedderburn is married to Jeannie, daughter of the late C. C. Vaughan, of
St. John, New Brunswick.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Steeves, James Thomas=, M.D., Superintendent of the Provincial Lunatic
Asylum, St. John, New Brunswick, was born at Hillsborough, Albert
county, N.B., on the 25th of January, 1828. He is a brother of the late
Hon. W. H. Steeves, senator, and one of the delegates or founders of
Canadian confederation; and is of German ancestry. His great-grandfather
was born in Osnaburgh, Germany, whence he removed to Philadelphia, and
his grandfather, the Rev. Henry Steeves, removed thence to Albert
county, N.B., about the beginning of the present century. Dr. Steeves is
a Baptist in religion, as all his fathers were; in fact “his fathers”
were the pioneers in disseminating Baptist doctrines over a large
portion of the province. His literary education was obtained at the
Grammar School at Hillsborough, at Sackville Academy, and finally at the
Baptist Seminary, Fredericton, under the late Dr. Spurden. After the
completion of his literary course, he entered upon the study of medicine
at the Pennsylvania Medical College,—attracted by the famous surgeon,
Valentine Mott,—the following year he matriculated at the University of
New York, and graduated in the class of 1853. From the medical faculty
of the university he received a certificate of honour for proficiency
and for having pursued a more extended course of instruction than that
required by the college curriculum. In June, 1854, the doctor
established himself in Portland, St. John, N.B., and entered upon the
practice of his profession. After the lapse of a few weeks Asiatic
cholera made its appearance there in all its terribleness, spreading
dismay and death on every hand. During the prevalence of this fearful
scourge, extending over a period upwards of four months, Dr. Steeves, by
his unswerving fidelity to his professional duties under every
circumstance, and his good measure of success, fairly placed himself
among the leading physicians of New Brunswick. In 1864 he removed to the
city of St. John and erected the fine block of four brick and stone
buildings situated on the corner of Wellington Row and Union street,
which escaped the great fire of 1877, and still stand as a monument to
his success and enterprise, and where he resided until 1875. On the
opening of the General Public Hospital in 1864, the doctor was appointed
upon the staff of visiting surgeons, and was the last of the original
staff retiring. When the late Dr. J. Waddell was about retiring from the
superintendency of the Provincial Lunatic Asylum, Dr. Steeves was
recommended by his professional brethren almost as a body, as a suitable
successor for the position. Under the management of Dr. Waddell the
asylum for the insane had attained a high position for successful work;
and since under the present administration it has not lost a whit, but
has kept fully abreast with the various modern improvements incident to
asylum treatment everywhere. Dr. Steeves is a strong advocate for
segregation, pavilion accommodation, and employment for the insane. By
means of his advocacy with pen and voice, he has induced the government
of New Brunswick to purchase a large farm, and to erect thereon a group
of pavilions for the care and employment of a suitable number and class
of the most healthy, indigent and pauper insane. The establishment is in
full working condition, and is regarded as a complete success, in that
it is far better than the old hospital system for this class of
patients, giving them more freedom and out-door work, and that it is far
more economical both in buildings and maintenance. Dr. Steeves was
elected a member of the first medical council of New Brunswick on the
introduction of the English Medical Registration Act in 1860. He has
occupied the position of vice-president of the Canada Medical
Association; he is an honorary member of the American Medical
Association; he was elected unanimously first president of the New
Brunswick Medical Society under the New Brunswick Medical Act of 1880;
and is past president of the New Brunswick Medical Council. The Dr. was
married to M. A. McMann, daughter of the late Captain L. McMann, of the
city of St. John, in May, 1856; by whom he had born nine children. The
eldest son, Frank H. Steeves, M.D., a very promising young man,
graduated in medicine at Bellevue Hospital College, N.Y., and soon after
went to St. Thomas Hospital College, London, England, in 1880, to
further pursue medical studies. There he contracted acute phthisis, to
which disease he succumbed in March, 1882. The second son, J. A. E.
Steeves, A.M., M.D., is the assistant physician in the Provincial
Lunatic Asylum, St. John, at the present time.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Van Wyck, Rev. James=, Pastor of the Euclid Avenue Methodist Church,
Toronto, was born in Stamford village, in the county of Welland,
Ontario, on the 16th of May, 1846. He is descended on his father’s side
from an old Dutch family, who many centuries ago were seigniors of Wyck
in Holland, but through political intrigue lost their feudal rights. The
first Van Wyck in America emigrated from Holland in 1660, and he and his
son Theodoras took the oath of allegiance to the British government in
1681. Since then the family has multiplied considerably, and is now
scattered throughout the United States, many of them filling important
positions, both in church and state. Rev. Mr. Van Wyck’s grandfather was
the only one of this name who came to Canada, to make for himself a
home, and he settled in the Niagara peninsula, where Daniel Van Wyck,
the father of the subject of our sketch, was born, on the 7th of
October, 1812, his mother being Nancy Kilman. Daniel Van Wyck was a
farmer, a man of good judgment and sterling integrity, and was
invariably sought after in cases of arbitration. During the Mackenzie
rebellion, he stood by the “old flag.” He took a deep interest in
education—filling the position of school trustee for many years, and
was an ardent supporter of free schools. In politics he was a
Conservative. James Van Wyck, like a great many boys in their days, had
to help his father on the farm or in the workshop, and got very little
time to attend the public school after he was ten years of age, except a
few months in winter, and not even that after he was fifteen years of
age. Misfortune had befallen his father, and the son worked hard to help
him to regain his former position. When he had reached his nineteenth
year, having despaired of getting what his mind craved after, an
education, he apprenticed himself to an elder brother in the town of
Welland, to learn the carpenter trade, and having served the usual time,
he left Welland and went to Lockport, New York state, where he remained
for about eighteen months. During these years he had been improving his
mind, and had united himself with the Methodist Episcopal church. On his
return to Canada in 1869, he entered the ministry of that church, and
after preaching four years, and pursuing the required course of study,
he was ordained to the work of the ministry in 1873, by the late Bishop
Richardson. In the fall of that year he entered Albert College,
Belleville, where he remained for four years, and graduated in arts in
June, 1878. He was also valedictorian of the year, besides receiving the
silver medal. He was then invited to a church in Strathroy, where he
remained for nearly five years by special request (it being a privilege
at that time to those who were preferred). Next he went to Hamilton,
where he remained for three years, and in 1886 he was invited to take
charge of the church in Euclid avenue, in Toronto, the pastorate he now
fills, with honour to the Master and satisfaction to his people. Rev.
Mr. Van Wyck has always taken an active part in temperance work, and
from 1879 to 1882 occupied the office of president of the branch of the
Dominion Alliance, for the suppression of the liquor traffic in the
county of Middlesex. He is a member of the Independent Order of
Oddfellows, and he has also been connected with the Sons of Temperance,
and the Good Templars for a number of years. He is one of the board of
management of Alma College, St. Thomas, and also one of its board of
examiners. He occupied a seat on the board of examiners of the Albert
College, Belleville, from 1878 up to the time of the union of the
Methodist churches a few years ago. He has also been associated with the
board of examiners in the Annual Conference of the Methodist church
since 1878. Rev. Mr. Van Wyck has been repeatedly appointed a delegate
to the General Conference of the Methodist church, and when the question
of union was discussed, he supported the union with all his ability. He
has been very happy in his church relations, and in all his charges has
enjoyed great prosperity. In his earlier years, Mr. Van Wyck was
somewhat prejudiced in favour of the denomination in which he was
brought up, and thought John Wesley infallible, but Ephraim has now
somewhat modified his views. Although he is a firm Arminian, and
believes in the genuineness, authority and inspired character of the
divine revelation contained in the Bible, yet he sometimes wishes that
the creeds of the Evangelical church had more specified articles of
faith in them, and that they were more liberally interpreted. He was
married on the 24th of August, 1866, to Maria Fares, who was educated in
Toronto and Belleville, and is a daughter of Isaac Fares, of
Humberstone, Welland county, Ontario.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Bronson, Erskine Henry=, M.P.P., for the city of Ottawa, was born on
the 12th of September, 1844, at Bolton, Warren county, New York state.
He is a son of Henry Franklin Bronson, and Edith E. Pierce, of Bolton,
and a member of the firm of Bronsons & Weston, lumber manufacturers,
Ottawa city. Mr. Bronson, senr., came to Canada in 1849, when Erskine
was a mere child, and visiting the Ottawa valley became greatly
impressed with the idea that the Chaudière Falls was a splendid place to
begin lumbering operations. The timber supply in the neighbourhood
seemed inexhaustible, and the water power magnificent. After a short
stay, however, he returned to his home in the state of New York, and
thought little more of the matter until 1852, when he persuaded J. J.
Harris, an extensive lumberman, with whom he was associated, to go with
him to Ottawa. Arrived at their destination, the river experts tried to
persuade them that the Ottawa river was not suitable for the safe
driving of saw logs. But Mr. Bronson thought differently, and persuaded
Mr. Harris to purchase certain water lots at the Chaudière Falls, which
he accordingly did, from the Crown, and here, under the personal
superintendence of Mr. Bronson, were erected mills, portions of which
still exist and form part of the splendid works since erected by
Bronsons & Weston. Shortly after the erection of the first mill, Mr.
Bronson removed his family to Canada, in the fall of 1853, and made his
permanent home at Ottawa. Erskine was brought up here, and received his
education in the best schools in the place, and at Sandy Hill, New York
state. After finishing his education, he took a position in the
business; and in 1864, on the retirement of Mr. Harris, he was admitted
a partner into the new firm, which was then established, and which
consisted of Henry Franklin Bronson, who with Mr. Harris originated the
business, Erskine H. Bronson and Abijah Weston, of Painted Post, New
York, and which has since traded under the name of Bronsons & Weston.
This firm owns two mills at Ottawa, running ten gates, with a capacity
of producing 60,000,000 feet of lumber during the season. They have also
close business relations with John W. Dunham, of Albany, New York, and
Herman K. Weaver, of Burlington, Vt., and have also a yard in Albany,
for the sale of lumber in the rough. Though in the building up of this
great concern, the Liberal member for Ottawa has played no
inconsiderable part, he has also done something to prove himself a good
and useful citizen. He has been a member of the School Board for the
last fourteen years, during the past four years of which he has been
chairman of the committee on school management. He was first elected to
the city council by acclamation in 1871, and served continuously until
the close of 1877. During the last year he was in the council he
prepared the act consolidating the city debt, and secured its passage in
the Ontario Legislature in the session of 1878. This act relieved the
city by the extension of the time of the payment of its bonds of a large
annual levy for a sinking fund, and fixed the maximum of taxation at one
and a half per cent., instead of two per cent. as before, under the
general municipal law. Mr. Bronson in politics is a Reformer, and in
religious matters an adherent of the Presbyterian church. He is one of
our rising men, and we feel that Ottawa in electing him as one of its
representatives in the Ontario Legislature, has done something that
shall redound to its credit. Mr. Bronson was married in 1874, to Miss
Webster, the only daughter of Professor Webster, a Southern gentleman,
at one time a resident of the capital, by whom he has two children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=McPherson, R. B.=, Thorold, Ontario, was born in 1817, in Kingussie,
Inverness-shire, Scotland. His father was a merchant; and having a
family of twelve children, he considered it would be to their interest
if he emigrated to Canada. He therefore left his native country in 1822,
and located himself in Glengarry, about twenty miles east by north of
Cornwall. Here R. B. McPherson was brought up, and received the very
scant education given in the back township schools in those days, the
principal being the reading of the Bible and the committing to memory
the Shorter Catechism and the Paraphrases. At the age of thirteen he
left home, and found employment in a country store, the proprietor of
which was in the habit of purchasing timber for the Quebec market. Here
Mr. McPherson remained for some time, and frequently had to act in the
capacity of raftsman, and help bring his employer’s timber down to
Quebec. He often ran the risk of losing his life in the St. Lawrence
river rapids before the rafts were safely anchored in the timber coves
at Quebec. During the rebellion of 1837-8, Mr. McPherson took sides with
the loyalists, and had command at one time of a guard at the river
Beaudette bridge near Coteau Rapids, Province of Quebec, whose duty it
was to intercept rebels coming or going over it, more especially the
late Sir George E. Cartier, for whose head a large sum of money had been
offered, and who it was thought would endeavour to escape across the St.
Lawrence at this point. In 1840 Mr. McPherson left Lower Canada and came
to Toronto, where he remained a short time, and then crossed over to
Rochester. From this place he travelled through the Genesee country to
Buffalo and the Falls of Niagara, and when at the latter point, he saw
Mr. McLeod, of _Caroline_ steamer notoriety, a prisoner, surrounded by a
strong guard at the hotel. He again returned to Canada, and found
employment near the town of Simcoe. In this place he remained for a
short time, and then left for New York, intending to sail from that port
to Buenos Ayres, South America, and try his fortune there. On his
arrival at New York, he learned that Buenos Ayres was blockaded by a
French squadron, and being advised to abandon his southern trip, he
remained in New York until his means were exhausted, and then, in the
month of January, he left with the idea of tramping his way to New
Orleans by way of the Mississippi. On his route he passed through
Philadelphia and Baltimore. At Baltimore he took the turnpike road to
Pittsburg, but after a while got so tired and footsore with travelling
in the snow that he turned off the main road, and took the road right
across the state of Pennsylvania through the coal mines, making his way
towards Lake Erie. When he reached the Alleghany river he followed its
course for a long distance, and then struck off to Jamestown, just then
starting into existence, and then on to Buffalo. From this point he
walked across Lake Erie on the ice to Port Colborne and then on to St.
Catharines. Here he found employment as bookkeeper, paymaster, etc., in
the office of Thompson, Haggert & Burford, contractors engaged in
building the Welland canal. Frank Smith (now senator) was at this date
employed by this former firm and was in charge of a store that shipped
goods to the labourers’ employers on the works. After the completion of
this famous Welland canal contract Mr. McPherson went to Toronto, and
meeting a Mr. Logan, a then prominent merchant in that city, who
controlled about a dozen stores in various country parts north and east
of Toronto, he entered into an engagement with him to take charge of a
store at Oshawa; and while here Mr. Logan’s storekeeper in the village
of Markham was murdered (the murderer being afterwards executed in
Toronto), and Mr. McPherson was transferred to that village leaving the
employ of Mr. Logan, he went to the village of Bradford and took charge
of a store for Mr. Cameron, son of the late Colin Cameron, of
Hogshollow, Yonge street. In the spring of 1849 Mr. McPherson again got
restless and left Bradford with the intention of going to California,
but on his way, at Buffalo, he met the late Mr. Brown, who had a large
contract in the Welland canal, and abandoning his California trip, he
arranged with that gentleman to become his general manager, and once
more returned to Canada. Mr. Brown was a large contractor, and shortly
after Mr. McPherson joined him, he secured a contract amounting to about
two million dollars on the new canal; but before he had half completed
the work, he met with an accident which caused his death. Dying without
a will, Mr. Brown’s affairs were put into Chancery, and Mr. McPherson
was appointed administrator of the estate. He went to work and completed
Mr. Brown’s contracts. When the estate was wound up, it was found that
Mr. McPherson had faithfully done his duty, and that the sum of six
hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars had been realized for Mr.
Brown’s heirs. In 1869 Mr. McPherson built a grist flouring mill, and
another in 1878, to supply flour, etc., to the men building the canal,
both ventures turning out fairly. From 1856 to 1862 he was a member of
the town council, and for two years a member of the county council, and
when acting as county councillor he had the pleasure of taking part in
the reception given the Prince of Wales at Chippawa. Mr. McPherson was a
Liberal in politics ever since he knew the meaning of the term, and
always took a lively interest in political matters. In 1881, on the
death of his wife, he took a tour through the Southern States, and in
his rambles visited Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina,
Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee and Kentucky, returning
through some of the Northern States; and came to the wise conclusion
that Ontario suited him best, and in this province he spent the
remainder of his days. Although Mr. McPherson’s parents were, in the old
country, Baptists, and in Canada attended the Presbyterian church, and
were very strict observers of Sunday and all the doctrines held by that
church, yet as a young man he began to wonder why God was so particular
about Sunday. Being of an inquiring turn of mind and not afraid to think
for himself, he began reading philosophical works, and works on the
religions of antiquity, and comparing them with the writings of the
Jews, he gradually relinquished the Christian dogmas, and became an
Agnostic. Mr. McPherson was married in 1855, to Miss Secord, whose
parents reside near St. David’s, a few miles from Queenston. Her
grandmother gained considerable renown during the war of 1812, having
walked from Queenston in the night through the enemy’s lines to give
important information to the British general stationed about twenty
miles west of that place. While on a visit to Buffalo, Mr. McPherson was
suddenly taken ill, and died on the 1st December, 1886, in that city,
aged sixty-nine years, leaving behind him an honourable record for
integrity and usefulness.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Cameron, Sir Matthew=, Chief Justice of Ontario, who died at Toronto,
Ontario, on the 25th June, 1887, was a son of John McAlpine Cameron, a
descendant of the Camerons of Fassifern, Scotland, who emigrated from
Inverness-shire to Upper Canada in 1819, settling at Dundas, where he
engaged in business, and subsequently discharged the duties of deputy
postmaster under Thomas Allan Stayner, then the Imperial
Postmaster-General for Canada, at Hamilton. He also acted as deputy
clerk of the Crown for Gore district. Later, however, he was a student
at law with Sir Allan McNab, with whom he remained until he was
appointed to the first permanent clerkship of committees in the
parliament of Upper Canada, from which office he went to the Canada
Company’s office in Toronto, where he held an important position for
many years. Coming to this part of the country, as he did, when it was
yet undeveloped and sparsely settled, and engaging in active life, Mr.
Cameron became well and widely known. He died in Toronto in November,
1866, aged seventy-nine years. His mother was Nancy Foy, a native of
Northumberland, England. The deceased chief justice received his primary
education at a school in Hamilton, under a Mr. Randall, and afterwards
at the District School in Toronto, which he attended for a short time.
In 1838 he entered Upper Canada College, where he studied until 1840,
when, in consequence of an accident while out shooting, he had to
retire. Two years later he entered the office of Campbell & Boulton, of
Toronto, as a student-at-law, where he remained until Hilary term, 1849,
when he was called to the bar of the province of Ontario. He engaged in
Toronto in the practice of his profession, first with Mr. Boulton, his
former master. This firm continued until the law partnership of Cayley &
Cameron was formed, the senior member being the Hon. William Cayley, an
English barrister, and at one time inspector-general of the province,
afterwards registrar of the Surrogate Court. In 1859 Dr. McMichael
entered the firm, which then became Cayley, Cameron & McMichael. Later
Mr. Cayley retired, and E. Fitzgerald became a partner in the business,
and his name was added to the name and style of the firm, remaining so
for several years. Alfred Hoskin subsequently became a partner, and on
the retirement of Mr. Fitzgerald, the firm became Cameron, McMichael &
Hoskin, and remained so until the senior member’s elevation to the bench
in November, 1878. He was elected a Queen’s counsel in 1863, and elected
a bencher in November, 1878. He first came into public notice as a
counsel in the famous case of Anderson, the fugitive slave, the refusal
to surrender whom, on the part of the British government, nearly caused
war between that country and the United States. Mr. Cameron represented
Anderson in this case, and made a defence which for burning eloquence
and closely reasoned logic has scarcely ever been equalled at the bar in
this country. It was over the magnificence of this effort that he got
the title which he retained for some time of the silver-tongued orator
of the Ontario bar. Partly as a result of this case he obtained a very
large practice, and travelled from assize to assize, putting in an
immense amount of work, though nearly all the time enduring great
personal agony, as the result of an accident suffered some years before.
This accident occurred while he and another gentleman were shooting in
the marsh near this city. One of the guns went off prematurely, shooting
Mr. Cameron in the thigh. The wound took a bad turn, and the injured leg
had to be amputated. The stump never healed properly, and during the
remainder of his life he was almost continually in pain from this
accident. The physical suffering never prevented him from doing such a
day’s work that few men in the country would have performed in the same
time. In his early days, when he was a practising barrister, he would
work through one assize court, and then travel all night across country
roads thirty or forty miles, take up the business at another court and
after going through it travel to the next court, and so on. At the
assizes, as a judge, he would go to the bench early in the morning,
would sit there all afternoon, and would not adjourn till four or five
in the morning if necessary to get through with a case. He has worn out
three juries in a day. His legal acquirements and great talents caused
him to be looked up to with profound respect by the bar, the members of
which also entertained much personal affection for him. His summing up
of a case was a masterpiece of lucidity and force. The first public
office held by the late Sir Matthew Cameron was on a commission with
Colonel Coffin, appointed in 1852, to inquire into the causes of
accidents which had been of frequent occurrence on the Great Western
Railway. In 1859 he went into the City Council of Toronto, representing
St. James ward, and thenceforward he figured prominently in public life.
In 1861, and again a few years later, at the solicitation of many
citizens, he contested the mayoralty unsuccessfully. In 1861 he entered
the arena of national politics, and sat for North Ontario in the
Canadian Assembly from the general election of that year until the
general election in 1863, when he was defeated. But in July, 1864, he
was re-elected for the same seat, which he continued to hold until
confederation, when he was again unsuccessful. At the general Provincial
elections in 1867 he was returned to the Ontario legislature for East
Toronto, and re-elected in 1871 and 1875. He was a member of the
Executive Council in Ontario in the Sandfield Macdonald administration
from July 20, 1867, until the resignation of the ministry, December 19,
1871, and, with the exception of the last five months of this period,
when he was commissioner of Crown Lands, he held the offices of
Provincial Secretary and Registrar. He was also leader, and a very able
one, too, of the opposition, from the general elections in December,
1871, until appointed to the judgeship in the Queen’s Bench, in
November, 1878, which position he held until he rose to the chief
justiceship of the Common Pleas in 1884. He aided in forming the
Liberal-Conservative Association of Toronto, became its first president,
and held that office until his elevation to the bench. He was also
vice-president of the Liberal-Conservative convention which was
assembled in Toronto in 1874. He was a member of the Caledonian and St.
Andrew’s societies. He was created a Knight Bachelor on April 5th last,
at the same time Chief Justice Stuart, of Quebec, received a similar
honour. As a lawyer Sir Matthew had few equals either among his
predecessors or his contemporaries; and as a citizen he was generous
almost to excess. As a minister of the Crown, and as leader of the
opposition, he was a prodigious worker, an able tactician, and a most
formidable, though always courteous, enemy. As a judge he had the
confidence and respect of the bar to the utmost extent, while his
immense knowledge of law and the clearness of his decisions made him a
most valuable public servant. Chief Justice Cameron belonged to the
Episcopal denomination, and for about thirty years was a member of
Trinity Church, Toronto. In politics he was a Liberal-Conservative. On
December 1st, 1851, he was married in Toronto to Charlotte Ross,
daughter of William Wedd, who immediately prior to his death resided in
Hamilton, Ontario. Mrs. Cameron died January 14th, 1868. She was a
sister of William Wedd, first classical master at Upper Canada College,
and also of the late Mrs. Dr. McMichael, Mrs. Dr. Strathy, Toronto, and
Mrs. Scadding, of Orillia. Sir Matthew left three sons and three
daughters. His sons are, Dr. Irving H. Cameron, Ross McAlpine Cameron,
and Douglas W. Cameron. His daughters are Mrs. Darling, the widow of the
late son of the Rev. W. S. Darling, Mrs. A. Wright, and a young
unmarried daughter.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Talbot, Hon. Thomas=, was born at Malahide, on the 17th July, 1771. His
father was Richard Talbot, of Malahide, and his mother, Margaret,
Baroness Talbot. The Talbots of Malahide trace their descent from the
same stock as the Talbots who have been earls of Shrewsbury, in the
peerage of Great Britain, since the middle of the fifteenth century. The
subject of our sketch spent some years at the Public Free School of
Manchester, and received a commission in the army in the year 1782, when
he was only eleven years of age. In 1787, when only sixteen, we find him
installed as _aide-de-camp_ to his relative, the Marquis of Buckingham,
who was then lord lieutenant of Ireland. His brother _aide_ was the
Arthur Wellesley, who afterwards became the illustrious Duke of
Wellington. The two boys were necessarily thrown much together, and each
of them formed a warm attachment for the other. Their future paths in
life lay far apart, but they never ceased to correspond, and to recall
the happy time they had spent together. In 1790 he joined the 24th
regiment, which was then stationed at Quebec, in the capacity of
lieutenant. Upon the arrival of Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe at Quebec, at
the end of May, 1792, Lieutenant Talbot, who had nearly completed his
twenty-first year, became attached to the governor’s suite in the
capacity of private secretary. Governor Simcoe, writing in 1803, says,
“he not only conducted many details and important duties incidental to
the original establishment of a colony, in matters of internal
regulation, to my entire satisfaction, but was employed in the most
confidential measures necessary to preserve the country in peace,
without violating, on the one hand, the relations of amity with the
United States, and on the other, alienating the affections of the Indian
nations, at that period in open war with them. In this very critical
situation, I principally made use of Mr. Talbot for the most
confidential intercourse with the several Indian tribes, and
occasionally with his Majesty’s minister at Philadelphia, and these
duties, without any salary or emolument, he executed to my perfect
satisfaction.” It seems to have been during his tenure of office as
secretary that the idea of embracing a pioneer’s life in Canada first
took possession of young Talbot’s mind. On the 4th of February, 1793, an
expedition which was destined to have an important bearing upon the
future life of Lieutenant Talbot, as well as upon the future history of
the province, set out from Newark, now Niagara village, to explore the
pathless wilds of Upper Canada. It consisted of Governor Simcoe himself
and several of his officers, and the subject of our present sketch. The
expedition occupied five weeks, and extended as far as Detroit. The
route was through Mohawk village, on the Grand River, where the party
were entertained by Joseph Brant; then westward to where Woodstock now
stands; and so on by a somewhat devious course to Detroit. On the return
journey the party camped on the present site of London, which Governor
Simcoe then pronounced to be an admirable position for the future
capital of the province. One important result of this long and toilsome
journey was the construction of Dundas Street, or as it is frequently
called, “the governor’s road.” Lieutenant Talbot was delighted with the
wild and primitive aspect of the country through which they passed, and
expressed a strong desire to explore the land farther to the south,
bordering on lake Erie. His desire was gratified in the course of the
following autumn, when Governor Simcoe indulged himself, and several
members of his suite, with another western excursion. During this
journey the party encamped on the present site of Port Talbot, which the
young lieutenant declared to be the loveliest situation for a dwelling
he had ever seen. “Here,” said he, “will I roost, and will soon make the
forest tremble under the wings of the flock I will invite, by my
warblings, around me.” Whether he was serious in this declaration at the
time may be doubted; but, as will presently be seen, he ultimately kept
his word. In 1793 young Talbot received his majority. In 1796 he became
lieutenant-colonel of the fifth regiment of foot. He returned to Europe
and joined his regiment, which was dispatched on active service to the
continent. He himself was busily employed during this period, and was
for some time in command of two battalions. Upon the conclusion of the
peace of Amiens, on the 27th March, 1802, he sold his commission,
retired from the service, and prepared to carry out the intention
expressed by him to Governor Simcoe nine years before, of pitching his
tent in the wilds of Canada. Why he adopted this course it is impossible
to do more than conjecture. He never married, but remained a bachelor to
the end of his days. The work of settlement cannot be said to have
commenced in earnest until 1809. It was no light thing in those days for
a man with a family dependent upon him to bury himself in the remote
wilderness of Western Canada. There was no flouring mill, for instance,
within sixty miles of his abode, which was known as Castle Malahide.
During the American invasion of 1812-13-14, Colonel Talbot commanded the
militia of the district, and was present at the battles of Lundy’s Lane
and Fort Erie. Marauding parties sometimes found their way to Castle
Malahide during this troubled period, and what few people there were in
the settlement suffered a good deal of annoyance. Within a day or two
after the battle of the Thames, where the brave Tecumseh met his doom, a
party of these marauders, consisting of Indians and scouts from the
American army, presented themselves at Fort Talbot, and summoned the
garrison to surrender. The place was not fortified, and the garrison
consisted merely of a few farmers, who had enrolled themselves in the
militia under the temporary command of a Captain Patterson. A successful
defence was out of the question, and Colonel Talbot, who would probably
have been deemed an important capture, quietly walked out of the back
door as the invaders entered at the front. Some of the Indians saw the
colonel, who was dressed in homely, everyday garb, walking off through
the woods, and were about to fire on him, when they were restrained by
Captain Patterson, who begged them not to hurt the poor old fellow, who,
he said, was the person who tended the sheep. The marauders rifled the
place, and carried off everything they could lay hands on, including
some valuable horses and cattle. Colonel Talbot’s gold, consisting of
about two quart pots full, and some valuable plate, concealed under the
front wing of the house, escaped notice. The invaders set fire to the
grist-mill that the colonel had built in the township of Dunwick, which
was totally consumed, and this was a serious loss to the settlement
generally. Mrs. Jameson, who travelled in Upper Canada in 1837-38, has
left us the following description of her visit to Port Talbot. Speaking
of the colonel, she says, “this remarkable man is now about sixty-five,
perhaps more, but he does not look so much. In spite of his rustic
dress, his good-humoured, jovial, weather-beaten face, and the primitive
simplicity, not to say rudeness, of his dwelling, he has in his
features, air, deportment, that _something_ which stamps him gentleman.
And that _something_, which thirty-four years of solitude has not
effaced, he derives, I suppose, from blood and birth, things of more
consequence, when philosophically and philanthropically considered, than
we are apt to allow. I had always heard and read of him as the
‘eccentric’ Colonel Talbot. Of his eccentricity I heard much more than
of his benevolence, his invincible courage, his enthusiasm, his
perseverance; but, perhaps, according to the worldly nomenclature, these
qualities come under the general head of ‘eccentricity’ when devotion to
a favourite object cannot possibly be referred to self-interest. Of the
life he led for the first sixteen years, and the difficulties and
obstacles he encountered, he drew, in his discourse with me, a strong, I
might say a _terrible_, picture; and observe that it was not a life of
wild, wandering freedom—the life of an Indian hunter, which is said to
be so fascinating that ‘no man who has ever followed it for any length
of time, ever voluntarily returns to civilized society!’ Colonel
Talbot’s life has been one of persevering, heroic self-devotion to the
completion of a magnificent plan, laid down in the first instance, and
followed up with unflinching tenacity of purpose. For sixteen years he
saw scarce a human being, except the few boors and blacks employed in
clearing and logging his land; he himself assumed the blanket coat and
axe, slept upon the bare earth, cooked three meals a day for twenty
woodsmen, cleaned his own boots, washed his own linen, milked his own
cows, churned the butter, and made and baked the bread. In this latter
branch of household economy he became very expert, and still piques
himself on it. To all these heterogenous functions of sowing and
reaping, felling and planting, frying, boiling, washing and wringing,
brewing and baking, he added another, even more extraordinary—for many
years he solemnized all the marriages in his district. Besides natural
obstacles, he met with others far more trying to his temper and
patience. ‘He had continual quarrels,’ says Dr. Dunlop, ‘with the
successive governors, who were jealous of the independent power he
exercised in his own territory, and every means were used to annoy him
here, and misrepresent his proceedings at home; but he stood firm, and
by an occasional visit to the colonial office in England, he opened the
eyes of ministers to the proceedings of both parties, and for a while
averted the danger. At length, some five years ago, finding the enemy
was getting too strong for him, he repaired once more to England, and
returned in triumph with an order from the colonial office, that nobody
was in any way to interfere with his proceedings; and he has now the
pleasure of contemplating some hundreds of miles of the best roads in
the province, closely settled on each side by the most prosperous
families within its bounds, who owe all they possess to his judgment,
enthusiasm, and perseverance, and who are grateful to him in proportion
to the benefits he has bestowed upon them, though in many instances
sorely against their will at the time.’ The original grant must have
been much extended; for the territory now under Colonel Talbot’s
management, and bearing the general name of the Talbot country,
contains, according to the list I have in his own hand-writing,
twenty-eight townships, and about 650,000 acres of land, of which 98,700
are cleared and cultivated. The inhabitants, including the population of
the towns, amounted to about 50,000. ‘You see,’ said he, gaily, ‘I may
boast, like the Irishman in the farce, of having peopled a whole country
with my own hands.’ He has built his tower, like the eagle his eyry, on
a bold cliff overhanging the lake. It is a long wooden building, chiefly
of rough logs, with a covered porch running along the south side. Here I
found suspended, among sundry implements of husbandry, one of those
ferocious animals of the feline kind, called here the cat-a-mountain,
and by some the American tiger, or panther, which it more resembles.
This one, which had been killed in its attack on the fold or
poultry-yard, was at least four feet in length, and glared at me from
the rafters above ghastly and horrible. The farm consists of six hundred
acres. He has sixteen acres of orchard-ground, and has a garden of more
than two acres, very neatly laid out and enclosed, and in which he
evidently took exceeding pride and pleasure. He described the appearance
of the spot when he first came here as contrasted with its present
appearance. I told him of the surmises of the people relative to his
early life and his motives for emigrating, at which he laughed.
‘Charlevoix,’ said he, ‘was, I believe, the true cause of my coming to
this place. You know he calls this the “Paradise of the Hurons.” Now I
was resolved to get to paradise by hook or by crook, and so I came
here.’ He added more seriously, ‘I have accomplished what I resolved to
do—it is done; but I would not, if any one was to offer me the
universe, go through again the _horrors_ I have undergone in forming
this settlement. But do not imagine I repent it; I like my retirement.’”
He lived long enough to see the prosperity of his settlement fully
assured. For many years prior to his death it appears to have been his
cherished desire to bequeath his large estate to one of the male
descendants of the Talbot family, and with this view he invited one of
his sister’s sons, Julius Airey, to come over from England and reside
with him at Port Talbot, which he did, but rusticating without
companions or equals in either birth or education did not suit him, so
he returned to England. Some years later a younger brother of Julius’,
Colonel Airey, military secretary at the Horse Guards, came out with his
family to reside at Port Talbot. The uncle and nephew could not get on
together, so the uncle determined to leave Canada, and to end his days
in the old world. He transferred the Port Talbot estate, valued at
£10,000, together with 13,000 acres of land in the adjoining township of
Aldborough, to Colonel Airey. Acting on his determination to leave
Canada, he started, in his eightieth year, for Europe. He was
accompanied on the voyage by George McBeth. Colonel Talbot remained in
London somewhat more than a year, but finding London life somewhat
distasteful to him, he once more bade adieu to society, and repaired to
Canada, where he died on the 6th, and was buried on the 9th of February,
1853, leaving his estate, valued at £50,000, to George McBeth, and an
annuity of £20 to Jeffrey Hunter’s widow. He was interred in the
churchyard at Tyrconnel. A plate on the oaken coffin bore the simple
inscription:

         THOMAS TALBOT,
FOUNDER OF THE TALBOT SETTLEMENT,
   _Died 6th February, 1853_.

We take leave of our worthy hero, in the words of an English
song-writer:—

        “God speed the stalwart pioneer!
          Give strength to thy strong right hand!
        And aid thee in thy brave intent
          To clear and till the land.
        ’Tis men like thee that make us proud
          Of the stubborn Saxon race:
        And while old England bears such fruit
          We’ll pluck up heart of grace.”

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Barrett, M.=, B.A., M.D.—The late Dr. Barrett, who died on the 26th
February, 1887, at Toronto, was the son of an English barrister, and was
born in London, England, on 16th May, 1816. He was educated at Caen,
Normandy, France. Coming to Canada in 1833 he engaged in the fishery
business in the Georgian Bay, where he owned a fishing station and a
vessel. In the spring of 1837 he accepted a position in a school at
Newmarket. On the breaking out of the rebellion he joined the Queen’s
Rangers, in which he filled the post of quartermaster of the regiment.
Shortly after this he was married to Ellen McCallum, a sister of C.
McCallum, of London. When the Queen’s Rangers disbanded he went to the
Southern States, where he remained for three years. Returning to Toronto
he was offered and accepted the position of second English master in the
Upper Canada College, and was afterwards promoted to the position of
first English master in the same institution. While pursuing his
important duties in connection with the college, Dr. Barrett took a
double course in the University of Toronto, and succeeding in obtaining
the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Doctor of Medicine. He was after
this added to the professoriate of Rolph’s Medical School, which was
subsequently merged into the Toronto School of Medicine. After being
connected with the college for over thirty years, he was pensioned by
the government. Up to the time of his death he was a lecturer in the
Toronto School of Medicine, the Veterinary College, and the Women’s
Medical School. His name is prominently connected with the latter school
as one of the principal promoters of its institution and most ardent and
active workers for its success. Dr. Barrett was a man of exceptional
intellectual attainments and occupied an eminent and enviable position
in his profession. He was highly esteemed by the members of the medical
profession, and loved and respected by many friends.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Nettleton, John=, Mayor of Collingwood, Simcoe county, Ontario, was
born at Lofthouse, Yorkshire, England, on the 12th of November, 1832,
his father, William Nettleton, and grandfather before him, carrying on
the business of merchant tailors in that village. After learning the
business with his father, Mr. Nettleton, jr., worked at the trade in the
following places, viz.: Leeds, London, Manchester and Liverpool, and at
the latter place he was married to Elizabeth Boardman Womersley, on the
9th May, 1853, in St. Peter’s Church. On the 4th of April, 1857, he and
his wife and one child emigrated to Canada, arriving in Toronto on the
23rd of the same month. After staying there and at Markham village for a
short time, he finally settled down in Collingwood, then a town only in
its infancy. In 1859 he commenced business for himself, and has lived
there continuously ever since. In 1867 he was elected by acclamation as
town councillor for the Centre ward, and for sixteen years he has held
the position of either councillor or deputy reeve. He was elected to the
mayoralty in 1886, and re-elected in 1887. He has been connected with
and has taken an active part in almost everything that has been advanced
for the improvement of the town since the time he took up his abode in
it. In February, 1862, he was initiated into Free Masonry, in Manitou
lodge, No. 90, G.R.C., and after having passed through all the
subordinate offices, he was elected Master in 1867, which position he
held for two years. After being out for a short time, he subsequently
was re-elected, and held the office for three years more. In 1870 he was
appointed by the Grand Lodge of Canada a grand steward; in 1873 he was
elected grand registrar, and in 1879 district deputy grand master for
the Georgian district, which position he held for two years. He was also
the means of instituting Caledonia lodge, No. 249, Angus, and Granite
lodge, No. 352, Parry Sound. In both instances he was elected their
first master, and now holds the position of honorary member in each
lodge. He was also presented by these lodges with a full set of Grand
Lodge regalia, in recognition of his services. In Royal Arch masonry he
has taken the same interest as in the Blue lodge, having been elected
first principal Z in Manitou chapter, No. 27, which office he has held
for several years. He is also past eminent commander of Hurontario
Encampment of Knights Templars, and was elected honorary member of Mount
Calvary Preceptory, No. 12, G.R.C., Barrie. He has also taken an active
part in other benevolent societies as well as Masonic, and was mainly
instrumental in organizing the Ancient Order of United Workmen, the
Select Knights, and also the Sons of England Benevolent Society, in all
of which he was their first master. Mr. Nettleton has also taken an
active part in every political movement that has taken place in the
county during his residence in Collingwood, and has always worked for
and voted with the Liberal-Conservative party. He is a member of the
Church of England and has held the position of church warden in All
Saints’ Church. His family consists of eight children, six boys and two
girls, the former all being grown up and established in business.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Fowler, Rev. Robert.=—Rev. Mr. Fowler was born in Chester, England, in
1823, and died in London, Ontario, on the 4th March, 1887. He first
acquired the training of an apothecary and then studied medicine,
graduating with the degree of M.R.C.S. Subsequently he became a
Methodist minister, and began to preach in 1853, filling many posts in
the Toronto Conference. Afterwards he was appointed to the Ingersoll
circuit in the London Conference, thence going to Clinton, Listowel, and
lastly to London West. Three years before his death he was superannuated
on account of ill-health, and took up his residence in London. Rev. Dr.
Fowler was a man of ability and originality, with a strong sense of duty
which he faithfully laboured to fulfil, and was highly respected by all
who had the pleasure of his acquaintance.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=McEachran, Professor Duncan McNab=, F.R.C.V.S., Principal of Montreal
Veterinary College, chief inspector of stock, &c., was born at
Campbeltown, Argyleshire, Scotland, on the 27th of October, 1841. He is
the oldest son of the late David McEachran, who for many years was a
member of the town council, and for five years preceding his death was
senior bailie of Campbeltown. The family is one of the oldest in
Kintyre, descended from McEachran of Killellan and Penygowan. The Ionic
cross of Campbeltown, one of the oldest in Scotland, bears the names of
Edward and Malcolm McEachran, and the family tombstones, which are found
within the ruins of the old church of St. Kiarian, date back as far as
the fourteenth century. David McEachran is also buried here. Duncan
received his earlier education in the schools of his native place, and
at the age of seventeen entered in his professional studies at
Edinburgh, under the late Professor Dick. In the autumn of 1862, he came
to Canada, and took up his abode in Woodstock, Ontario, where he
practised his profession for nearly three years with marked success, at
the same time being engaged during part of the winter in giving lectures
at Toronto, and by this means rendered valuable service in the
establishment of the Veterinary College in that city. During his
residence in Woodstock, he contributed in various ways to the
advancement of his profession, by lectures at farmers’ meetings, by
contributions to the agricultural press, and by the publication of a
manual of veterinary science. The work on the “Canadian Horse and his
Diseases,” under the joint editorship of himself and his friend,
Professor Andrew Smith, of the Toronto Veterinary College, soon ran
through two editions, and although a third edition is now called for,
Professor McEachran will not consent to its issue, as he fondly hopes to
find time in the near future, to publish a larger work on the same
subject. In 1866, he left Ontario and settled in Montreal, but before he
left for that city, the Board of Agriculture for Upper Canada passed a
very complimentary resolution, expressing regret at his departure, and
he was entertained by a large number of his friends at a public dinner
at Woodstock. On his arrival in Montreal, thanks to his good reputation
which had preceded him, and the influence of his numerous friends, his
success was speedily assured. Through the influence of the late Major
Campbell, president of the Board of Agriculture, aided by principal (now
Sir) J. W. Dawson, and the late G. W. Campbell, dean of the medical
faculty of McGill University, an arrangement was made for Professor
McEachran to deliver a course of lectures on veterinary science, in
connection with the medical school, which was the commencement of the
now widely-known Montreal Veterinary College. In 1875, the present
commodious college buildings were erected on Union Avenue, at the
expense of the founder and principal, the government guaranteeing $1,800
per annum toward its expenses for ten years, with the privilege of
sending to it thirteen French and seven English students annually free.
This college is now considered the first of its kind in America, and
justly ranks high, even when compared with many of the schools in
Europe, owing to the appreciation of its head for thorough education.
While the veterinary schools at Toronto and New York admitted students
without matriculation, and graduated them in two sessions, here a
matriculation is required, and the course extends over three sessions of
six months each. This plan was adopted by the Montreal College before
the English schools; even the Royal Veterinary College of England was
led by the Montreal school in this very important matter. Professor
McEachran has associated with him in teaching the learned Principal and
Professors of McGill University, whose classes his students attend for
collateral studies. Year by year since the establishment of this
college, its progress has been most marked in the number and educational
standing of the pupils, and students have been attracted to it from all
parts of the United States and Canada. A veterinary medical association
has been established in connection with the college, for the reading of
papers and the discussion of professional and kindred subjects, and a
well-furnished library, containing most of the old works, and all the
new ones, embraced in veterinary literature, has been added to the
college, mainly through the efforts of its energetic principal.
Professor McEachran, during the past few years, has contributed many
valuable articles to professional journals and the agricultural press as
well as by public lectures, on his favourite theme. In 1875, he
earnestly pressed upon the attention of the Dominion government, the
necessity for the establishment of a quarantine system, to prevent the
importation of certain cattle diseases from Europe, where they were then
prevailing to a deplorable extent. Acting on his advice, the government
created, in April, 1876, a quarantine station at Point Levis, Quebec,
and made the professor chief inspector for the Dominion, and this
position he still continues to occupy. In January, 1879, he was sent by
the Dominion government to the United States, to investigate the
lung-plague—pleuro-pneumonia—and visited New York, Long Island, New
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and the district of Columbia;
and on his return he reported the prevalence of this serious disease in
all the states he had visited. The result was that shortly afterwards an
embargo was placed on the importation of cattle from the United States
to Canada and Great Britain, requiring that they should be slaughtered
at the port of debarkation, within fourteen days after landing. This
action of the British government entailed a heavy loss on cattle
exported from the United States, but Canada, owing to her freedom from
the diseases, and the perfect condition of her quarantine system, became
a gainer in proportion to a large amount. Professor McEachran’s name
will ever be associated with the early history of the export cattle
trade of Canada, as one, who at the proper moment gave sound advice to
the government, which, being promptly acted upon, helped in these early
days to assist a trade that has since grown to vast proportions. The
efficiency of the quarantine for cattle under his management has been
thoroughly tested on two occasions, viz., 1885, when the contagious
disease, “foot and mouth,” or vessicular epizootic, was twice brought
into the quarantine from Great Britain, so thorough was the quarantine
that not only did it not extend beyond, but it did not even affect any
other cattle, of which there were several hundreds within the enclosure.
The prompt and effective manner in which pleuro-pneumonia was dealt with
in 1886, when that fell destroyer was imported in a herd of Galloways,
proved beyond doubt the efficiency of the quarantine, and the ability of
the inspectors to deal with contagious diseases. If Canada to-day is
free from contagious disease, it is due in a great measure to his energy
and knowledge of disease. In acknowledgment of his professional
attainments he was elected one of the original Fellows of the Royal
College of Veterinary Surgeons, on that body being raised to the rank of
a university in 1875, being the only one in Canada on whom that honour
was conferred. He has been intimately connected with the cattle ranching
business in the district of Alberta, Senator Cochrane and he being the
pioneers in that business on a large scale in Canada. Together they
visited Alberta in 1881, going _via_ the Missouri river to Fort Benton,
thence driving across the plains to where Calgary is now built. On his
return he published a series of interesting letters, being a narrative
of his trip, and description of the country. He was vice-president of
the Cochrane Ranche Co. till 1883, when he became general manager of the
Walrond Cattle Ranche Co., of which Sir John Walrond, Bart., is
president, and which is now the largest and one of the most successful
ranches in Canada. Professor McEachran was married on the 9th of June,
1868, to Esther, youngest daughter of the late Timothy Plaskett, Esq.,
St. Croix, West Indian Islands, to whom two children were born, viz.,
Evelyn Victoria, born 24th May, 1869, who died May, 1874, and Jeanie
Blackney, born 19th September, 1871. In politics, Professor McEachran is
a Conservative, but in consequence of his devotion to professional work
he has never taken a very active part in politics. He served in the
militia force for ten years as Veterinary Surgeon to the Montreal Field
Battery of Artillery. He became a justice of the peace in 1886, with
jurisdiction over the entire Province of Quebec.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Holmes, Hon. Simon H.=, Prothonotary of the Supreme Court of Nova
Scotia, Halifax, was born near Springville, East River township, Pictou
county, N.S., on the 30th July, 1831. His father, Hon. John Holmes, came
from Ross-shire, Scotland, where he was born in 1783, to Nova Scotia,
and settled in the province in 1803, and represented Pictou county in
the Nova Scotia legislature, from 1839 to 1847, and from 1851 to 1855,
and was called to the Legislative Council in 1858. At the time of
Confederation in 1867 he was made a member of the Senate of the Dominion
of Canada. His mother, Catherine Fraser, was a native of Nova Scotia.
Simon H. Holmes received his educational training at the New Glasgow
Grammar School and at the Pictou Academy. He adopted law as a
profession, and studied in the office of the Hon. James McDonald, now
chief justice of Nova Scotia, and was called to the bar of Nova Scotia
in August, 1864. He practised for a number of years as a barrister in
Pictou, and during that time acquired the honourable distinction of
being a logical and able speaker, and one who always made a favourable
impression on a jury. Mr. Holmes entered political life in 1867, and yet
though he failed to carry Pictou county at the general election of that
year, he was successful in 1871; and in 1874 he was re-elected by
acclamation, and chosen leader of the opposition. After the contest in
1878, he was called upon to form an administration, of which he became
premier and provincial secretary, which position he occupied during the
four years following, when he accepted the office of prothonotary of the
Supreme Court for Halifax, which office he now holds. Hon. Mr. Holmes
was for twenty-four years editor and proprietor of the _Colonial
Standard_, Pictou, an outspoken Liberal-Conservative paper, which he
conducted with marked ability, and which exercised a great influence in
shaping the politics of the province. When quite a young man he took an
active interest in the volunteer movement, and rose to the rank of
captain; subsequently he held the same rank in the militia, and was,
before severing his connection with the corps on entering public life,
promoted to the rank of major.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Archibald, Hon. Sir Adams Geo.=, K.C.M.G., D.C.L., P.C., Q.C.,
ex-Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia. This illustrious statesman was
born at Truro, Nova Scotia, on the 18th May, 1814. His father was Samuel
Archibald, grandson of one of two brothers who came from the North of
Ireland, though of Scottish descent, settled at Truro, Colchester
county, N.S., in 1761, and both of whom married and had families, and
from these brothers sprung most of the families of that name now
scattered over the Maritime and other provinces of the Dominion, some of
whom honoured the liberal professions, and filled nearly every position
of responsibility and trust in the legislature and government of Nova
Scotia. His grandfather, James Archibald, was, on the 23rd June, 1796,
appointed judge of the Court of Common Pleas for Colchester, Nova
Scotia, and held this position till his death. The mother of Sir Adams
Archibald was Elizabeth, daughter of Matthew Archibald, who was
appointed coroner of Colchester in 1776, and represented Truro in the
local parliament for many years. Adams George Archibald was educated at
Pictou College under the late Dr. McCulloch, who had at that time the
training of many young men who now fill various high positions in public
life. He studied law in Halifax in the office of the late William
Sutherland, afterwards recorder of the city; was admitted in Nova Scotia
and Prince Edward Island as an attorney in 1838, and as barrister to the
bar of Nova Scotia in 1839; and for many years practised his profession
successfully both at Truro and Halifax, during which time he filled some
very important positions. In 1851 he entered public life, and was
elected to represent the county of Colchester in the Nova Scotia
assembly, and sat as such until 1859, when the county was divided, and
he was returned for South Colchester, which constituency he continued to
represent until Confederation in 1867. During three years he occupied
prominent positions in the government of Nova Scotia. In 1856 he was
appointed solicitor-general of his native province, and in 1857 was sent
as a delegate, in company with the late Hon. J. W. Johnstone, to England
to arrange the terms of settlement with the British government and the
General Mining Association, in regard to the mines of the province, and
to ascertain the views of that government on the question of the union
of the provinces. And one of the happy results of their labours was to
effect a settlement of a long standing dispute between the province and
the company, whereby certain collieries were allotted to the company on
their surrendering all other collieries and all mines and minerals to
the province, except the coal in the areas so allotted. In 1860 he was
made attorney-general, and the following year (1861), he was a delegate
to the Quebec Conference to discuss the question of an Intercolonial
Railway. In 1862 he was appointed advocate-general of the Vice-Admiralty
Court. Mr. Archibald being one of the foremost among the advocates of
Confederation, he attended as a delegate the Charlottetown Union
Conference in June, 1864; the Quebec Conference, held a few months later
in the same year, and the final conference held in London (England),
during the winter of 1866-7 to complete the terms of confederation. In
1867 he was made secretary of state for the provinces in the Dominion
government. In 1869 he was elected to a seat in the Dominion parliament
at Ottawa, by the county of Colchester, but resigned the next year
(1870), on his being appointed lieutenant-governor of Manitoba and the
North-West Territories. In 1872 he was created a companion of the Order
of St. Michael and St. George by her Majesty the Queen for his services
in Manitoba, and in 1886 was advanced a step in the order, being created
K.C.M.G. On his return from the North-West he was appointed, on the 24th
June, 1873, judge in equity for Nova Scotia; but only held the office
until the 4th of the next month, when, on the death of the late
lieutenant-governor, Joseph Howe, he was appointed lieutenant-governor
of Nova Scotia, and this high office he filled with great dignity and
satisfaction to all concerned from the 4th July, 1873, to 4th July,
1883, when he was succeeded by Mr. Matthew Henry Richey. Governor
Archibald was one of the directors of the Canadian Pacific Railway in
1873; and in 1884 he was chosen chairman of the Board of Governors of
Dalhousie College; and in 1885 he was elected president of the Nova
Scotia Historical Society, of which he has been an active member from
the time of its formation in 1878 to the present. In conclusion, we may
add that the Hon. Mr. Archibald is a man of broad views and generous
impulses, and a statesman whom the country is pleased to honour. In
religious matters he has followed in the footsteps of his ancestors, and
is a staunch Presbyterian. He was married on the 1st June, 1840, to
Elizabeth Archibald, daughter of the Rev. John Burnyeat, an able and
accomplished Anglican divine, the first clergyman of the Church of
England, in the parish of St. John, Colchester, whose wife was Livinia,
daughter of Charles Dickson, and sister of Elizabeth, wife of the late
Hon. S. G. W. Archibald, and mother of the late Sir Thomas and Sir
Edward Archibald.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=McCaul, Rev. John=, D.D., late President of University College,
Toronto, was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1807, and died at Toronto, on
the 16th of April, 1887, in the eighty-first year of his age. He was
educated at Trinity College in his native city, and after a very
successful university career, graduated with the highest honours in
classics. At the request of the authorities of Trinity College, he for
some time filled the post of classical tutor and examiner in that
institution. While occupying this position, he devoted himself
passionately to the pursuit of classical literature, and edited several
editions of recognized value of various Greek and Latin texts. In 1838,
Dr. Harley, then archbishop of Canterbury, hearing of his repute as a
scholar, offered him the principalship of Upper Canada College, in
Toronto, and Mr. McCaul having accepted the office, entered upon its
duties the following year. In 1843, he became the president and
professor of classics, logic, rhetoric and belles-lettres in King’s
College, which by the Act of 1849, became the University of Toronto, and
was freed forever from sectarian control. From that time up to the date
of his retirement, some years ago, from all literary work, Dr. McCaul
uninterruptedly filled the chair of classics in the university, of which
for some years he was also the president. While zealously maintaining
the pre-eminence of his own department, he actively assisted in
introducing into the university curriculum the subjects of modern
languages and natural sciences. His individual work is seen on every
hand in the distinguished men who are to be found in every part of the
province, and who cheerfully acknowledge their indebtedness to the late
lamented president of University College, for the accuracy and
thoroughness of their academic training. Among the works which have been
issued from Dr. McCaul’s pen are exhaustive treatises on the Greek
Tragic Metres and the Horatian Metres; on the Scansion of the Hecuba and
Medea of Euripides; lectures on Homer and Virgil; an edition of
Longinus, of selections from Lucian and Thucydides. His edition of the
Satires and Epistles of Horace has long been looked upon as a standard
one of this favourite author. His researches in Greek and Roman
Epigraphy, and his work on “Britanno-Roman Inscriptions,” and “The
Christian Epitaphs of the First Six Centuries,” entitle him to take high
rank among the greatest classical scholars which the century has
produced. Dr. McCaul married in 1840, Emily, the second daughter of the
late Hon. Justice Jones. His wife, three sons and three daughters
survive him.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Cross, Hon. Alexander=, Judge of the Court of Queen’s Bench, Montreal,
was born on a farm situated on the banks of the Clyde, in Lanarkshire,
Scotland, on the 22nd of March, 1821, and came to Montreal with his
parents when only a boy of five years of age. His father, Robert Cross,
was a gentleman farmer, and was a scion of the Cross family who for many
generations lived in Old Monklands, and were among the well-to-do
farmers in that part of Scotland. His mother, Janet Selkirk, was from an
adjoining parish. Mr. Cross, sr., died about a year after his arrival in
Canada, and this sad event rendered it necessary for the family to
remove to a farm on the Chateauguay river, the land on which the
celebrated battle of that name was fought between a handful of Canadian
militia and a strong force of United States troops—the Canadians coming
off victorious—during the war of 1812-14. Alexander, who was the
youngest son of the family, as he grew up to manhood, showed a strong
leaning towards literary pursuits instead of towards agriculture; and in
his laudable desire for knowledge he was encouraged by his elder
brother, who had been educated for the Scottish bar, and who, while he
lived, helped him in every way possible to gratify his literary
aspirations. In 1837, at the age of sixteen, he left the farm and went
to Montreal to study. Here he entered the Montreal College as a pupil,
but after being a short time in this institution he found the classes
did not progress fast enough to suit his restless craving for knowledge,
when he left and put himself under private tutors. He also entered the
office of John J. Day, of Montreal, to study law; and the rebellion at
this time breaking out, he enlisted as a volunteer in Colonel Maitland’s
battalion, and served in this corps until the close of the rebellion in
1838, retiring with the rank of sergeant. When the rebels were defeated
at Beauharnois, Sergeant Cross was among the first to enter the village.
And in this connection we may say that while a law student he was chosen
clerk of the first municipal council of the county of Beauharnois, then
embracing three or four times its present area, and so well did he
perform his duties at the first meeting of the council that he was
highly complimented for the ability he displayed, by such gentlemen as
Lord Selkirk and Edward Gibbon Wakefield, who were guests at the
Seigniory house, staying there to observe the working of the new
institution. Mr. Cross was called to the bar in 1844, and practised his
profession in Montreal more than thirty years, at first with the late
Duncan Fisher, Q.C., and subsequently with Attorney-General Smith (who
afterwards became the Hon. Judge Smith). During this long period Mr.
Cross had an extensive and remunerative practice, and on several
occasions he represented the Crown while connected with the
distinguished gentlemen mentioned above. During the administration of
Viscount Monck, in 1864, he was created a Queen’s counsel. On the 30th
of August, 1877, he was appointed one of the judges of the Queen’s Bench
for the province of Quebec, and took his seat the first of the following
month, at a session of the court held in the city of Quebec. Judge
Cross, while in practice at the bar, held a foremost position among the
legal fraternity. On the bench he has met the expectations of his many
admirers, and his judicial opinions have been received by the Supreme
Court and the Privy Council with marked consideration. He has been
identified with Montreal since his boyhood days, and has seen the great
progress that city has made since he first entered it at his mother’s
side. In 1837-8, as we have seen, he helped to quell the rebellion, and
in 1849 he was present at the burning of the parliament houses incident
on the passing of the Rebellion Losses Bill, and assisted the late Sir
Louis H. Lafontaine and some others of the notable politicians of that
day in making their escape from the burning building, escorting them
unmolested through the turbulent crowd of rioters, among whom he
exercised a certain amount of influence. Judge Cross seems always to
have had an aversion to public life, and even in his younger days when
he was offered political positions of honour, he always declined them.
In 1863 he was offered by the Liberal government then in power the
position of secretary to the commission for the codification of the laws
of Canada, and at a later date the office of attorney-general in the de
Boucherville administration, but he refused to accept either of these
important offices. He has, nevertheless, suggested and assisted in
framing legislative measures of general utility, among which may be
mentioned the first statute passed in Canada for the abolition of the
Usury laws. He is also the inventor of a new and ingenious method of
rotation of numbers. In politics the judge leans to the Liberal side,
and his ideas, as well on the subject of finance as on the theory of the
popular principle in the election of representatives, are noted for
their originality and depth of thought. In religion he is a member of
St. Andrew’s (Presbyterian) Church, and has been an office bearer in
that church. He is a man of good impulses, and is very generous to the
poor. In 1848 he married Julia, daughter of the late William Lunn, in
his day a prominent citizen of Montreal, and they have five sons and one
daughter living, and have buried three children, the last, an
exceedingly promising youth, in his sixteenth year.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Baillairgé, Chevalier Chas. P. F.=, M.S., Quebec. The subject of this
who is a Chevalier of the Order of St. Sauveur de Monte Reale, Italy,
was born in September, 1827, and for the past forty years has been
practising his profession as an engineer, architect and surveyor, in the
city of Quebec. Since 1856 he has been a member of the Board of
Examiners of Land Surveyors for the province, and since 1875 its
chairman; he is an honorary member of the Society for the Generalization
of Education in France; and has been the recipient of thirteen medals of
honour and of seventeen diplomas, etc., from learned societies and
public bodies in France, Belgium, Italy, Russia, Japan, etc. Mr.
Baillairgé’s father, who died in 1865, at the age of sixty-eight, was
born in Quebec, and for over thirty years was road surveyor of that
city. His mother, Charlotte Janverin Horsley, who is still living, was
born in the Isle of Wight, England, and was a daughter of Lieutenant
Horsley, R.N. His grandfather on the paternal side, P. Florent
Baillairgé, is of French descent, and was connected, now nearly a
century ago, with the restoration of the Basilica, Quebec. The wife of
the latter was Cureux de St. Germain, also of French descent. Our
subject married, in 1845, Euphémie, daughter of Mr. Jean Duval, and
step-daughter of the Hon. John Duval, for many years chief justice of
Lower Canada, by whom he had eleven children, four of whom only survive.
His wife dying in February, 1878, he, in April of the following year,
married Anne, eldest daughter of Captain Benjamin Wilson, of the British
navy, by whom he has two sons and a daughter. Mr. Baillairgé was
educated at the Seminary of Quebec, but, finding the curriculum of
studies too lengthy, he left that institution some time before the
termination of the full course of ten years, and entered into a joint
apprenticeship as architect, engineer and surveyor. During this
apprenticeship he devoted himself to mathematical and natural science
studies, and received diplomas for his proficiency in 1848, when only
twenty-one years of age. At that period he entered upon his profession,
and for the last twenty years has filled the post of city engineer of
Quebec, manager of its water works, engineer of its new water works
under the Beemer contract of 1883; engineer, on the part of the city, in
and over the North Shore, Piles and Lake St. John railways during their
construction. Mr. Baillairgé has held successive commissions in the
militia, as ensign, lieutenant, and captain; and in 1860, and for
several years thereafter, was hydrographic surveyor to the Quebec Board
of Harbour Commissioners. In 1861 he was elected vice-president of the
Association of Architects and Civil Engineers of Canada. In 1858 he was
elected, and again in 1861 unanimously re-elected, to represent the St.
Louis ward in the City Council, Quebec. In 1863 he was called for two
years to Ottawa, to act as joint architect of the Parliament and
Departmental buildings then in course of erection. Interests of
considerable magnitude were then at stake between the government and the
contractors, claims amounting to nearly half a million of money having
to be adjusted. In connection with his employment by the government, Mr.
Baillairgé found that to continue his services he must be a party to
some sacrifice of principle, which, rather than consent to, he was
indiscreet enough to tell the authorities of the time. This excess of
virtue was too moral for the appointing power and more than it was
disposed to brook in an employé of the government. The difficulty was,
therefore, got over by giving Mr. Baillairgé his _feuille de route_, a
compliment to his integrity of which he has ever since been justly
proud. He shortly afterwards returned to Quebec. During his professional
career, Mr. Baillairgé designed and erected numerous private residences
in and around Quebec, as well as many public buildings, including the
Asylum and the Church of the Sisters of Charity, the Laval University
building, the new Gaol, Music Hall, several churches, both in the city
and in the adjoining parishes—that of Ste. Marie, Beauce, being much
admired on account of the beauty and regularity of its interior. The
“Monument des Braves de 1760” was erected in 1860, on the Ste. Foye
road, after a design by him and under his superintendence. The
government, the clergy and others have often availed themselves of his
services in arbitration on knotty questions of technology, disputed
boundaries, builders’ claims, surveys and reports on various subjects.
In 1872, Mr. Baillairgé suggested, and in 1878 designed and carried out
what is now known as the Dufferin Terrace, Quebec, a structure some
1,500 feet in length, overlooking the St. Lawrence from a height of 182
feet, and built along the face of the cliff under the Citadel. This
terrace was inaugurated in 1878 by their Excellencies the Marquis of
Lorne and H.R.H. the Princess Louise, who pronounced it a splendid
achievement. In 1873 Mr. Baillairgé designed and built the aqueduct
bridge over the St. Charles river, the peculiarity about which is that
the structure forms an arch as does the aqueduct pipe it encloses,
whereby, in case of the destruction of the surrounding wood-work by
fire, the pipe being self-supporting, the city may not be deprived of
water while re-constructing the frost-protecting tunnel enclosure. At
the age of seventeen the subject of our sketch built a double cylindered
steam carriage for traffic on ordinary roads. From 1848 to 1865 he
delivered a series of lectures, in the old Parliament buildings and
elsewhere, on astronomy, light, steam and the steam engine, pneumatics,
acoustics, geometry, the atmosphere, and other kindred subjects, under
the patronage of the Canadian and other institutes; and in 1872, in the
rooms of the Literary and Historical Society, Quebec, under the auspices
of that institution, he delivered an exhaustive lecture on geometry,
mensuration, and the stereometricon (a mode of cubing all solids by one
and the same rule, thus reducing the study and labour of a year to that
of a day or an hour), which he had then but recently invented, and for
which he was made honorary member of several learned societies, and
received the numerous medals and diplomas already alluded to. The
following letter from the Ministry of Public Instruction, Russia, is
worthy of insertion as explanatory of the advantages of the
stereometricon:

                                 DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION,
                                    St. Petersburg, Feb. 14th, 1877.

    To M. BAILLAIRGÉ, architect, Quebec,

    SIR,—The Committee on Science of the Department of Public
    Instruction (of Russia) recognizing the unquestionable
    usefulness of your “Tableau Stéréométrique,” for the teaching of
    geometry in general, as well as its practical application to
    other sciences, is particularly pleased to add its unrestricted
    approbation to the testimony of the _savants_ of Europe and
    America, by informing you that the above “Tableau,” with all its
    appliances, will be recommended in the primary and middle
    schools, in order to complete the cabinets and mathematical
    collections, and inscribed in the catalogues of works approved
    of by the Department of Public Instruction. Accept, sir, the
    assurance of my high consideration.

                                                   E. DE BRADKER,
                      Chief of the Department of Public Instruction.

And the _Quebec Mercury_ of the 10th July, 1878, has the following in
relation to a second letter from the same source: “It will be remembered
that in February, 1877, Mr. Baillairgé received an official letter from
the Minister of Public Instruction, of St. Petersburg, Russia, informing
him that his new system of mensuration had been adopted in all the
primary and medium schools of that vast empire. After a lapse of
eighteen months, the system having been found to work well, Mr.
Baillairgé has received an additional testimonial from the same source,
informing him that the system is to be applied in all the polytechnic
schools of the Russian empire.” Mr. Baillairgé has since that time given
occasional lectures in both languages on industrial art and design, and
on other interesting and instructive topics, and is now engaged on a
dictionary or dictionaries of the consonances of both the French and
English languages. In 1866 he wrote his treatise on geometry and
trigonometry, plane and spherical, with mathematical tables—a volume of
some 900 pages octavo, and has since edited several works and pamphlets
on like subjects. In his work on geometry, which, by the way, is written
in the French language, Mr. Baillairgé has, by a process explained in
the preface, reduced to fully half their number the two hundred and odd
propositions of the first six books of Euclid, while deducing and
retaining all the conclusions arrived at by the great geometer. Mr.
Baillairgé, moreover, shows the practical use and adaptation of problems
and theorems which might otherwise appear to be of doubtful utility, as
of the ratio between the tangent, whole secant, and part of the secant
without the circle, in the laying out of railroad and other curves
running through given points, and numerous other examples. His treatment
of spherics and of the affections of the sides and angles is, in many
respects, novel, and more easy of apprehension by the general student.
In a note at foot of page 330, Mr. Baillairgé shows the fallacy of
Thorpe’s pretended solution of the trisection of an angle, at which the
poor man had laboured for thirty-four years, and takes the then
government to task for granting Mr. Thorpe a patent for the discovery.
In February, 1874, he visited Europe, and it was on the 15th of March of
that year that he received his first laurels at the “Grand Conservatoire
National des Arts et Métiers,” Paris. Some of Mr. Baillairgé’s annual
reports on civic affairs are very interesting and instructive; that of
1878, on “The Municipal Situation,” is particularly worthy of perusal.
His report of 1872 was more especially sought after by almost every city
engineer in Canada and the United States, on account of the varied
information it conveyed. It may also be remembered, as illustrative of
the versatility of his talent and of his humouristic turn of mind, that
a comedy, “Le Diable Devenu Cuisinier,” written by him in the French
language, was, in 1873, played in the Music Hall, Quebec, and again in
the Salle Jacques Cartier, Quebec, by the Maugard Company, then in the
city, to the great merriment of all present. Nor will the members of “Le
Club des 21,” composed as it is of the _literati_, scientists and
artists of Quebec, under the presidency of the Count of Premio Real,
consul-general of Spain for Canada, soon forget how, in March, 1879, Mr.
Baillairgé, in a paper read at one of the sittings of the club, around a
well-spread board, successively portrayed and hit off the peculiarities
of each and every member of the club, and of the count himself, while at
the same time doing full justice to the abilities of all. Mr. Baillairgé
is a close and industrious worker, devoting fourteen hours out of the
twenty-four to his professional calling, and again robbing the night for
the time to pursue his literary and scientific pursuits. In politics, if
he may be said to have any, he is inclined to liberalism, but he is of
too independent a character to be tied to a party, preferring to treat
each question on its merits, irrespective of its promoters. The subject
of this sketch is brother to G. F. Baillairgé, deputy minister of Public
Works of the Dominion, and grand nephew to François Baillairgé, an
eminent painter and sculptor “de l’Académie Royale de Peinture et
Sculpture, France,” who carved some of the statues in the Basilica, and
whose studio in St. Louis street, Quebec (the quaint old one-story
building, now Campbell’s livery stable), was at that time so often
visited by Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria, during
his sojourn in Quebec. A portrait of Mr. Baillairgé, accompanied by a
brief biographical notice, appeared in “L’Opinion Publique,” of the 25th
April, 1878. The “Rivista Universale,” of Italy, also published his
portrait and a biographical sketch of Mr. Baillairgé’s career in
February of 1878. Since 1879 Mr. Baillairgé has been the recipient of
the following additional testimonials:

                                  ROYAL CANADIAN ACADEMY OF ARTS,
                             Grenville St., Toronto, Jan. 7th, 1880.

    DEAR SIR,—I am commanded by His Excellency the Governor-General
    (Marquis of Lorne), to inform you that he has been pleased to
    nominate you as an associate of the New Canadian Academy.

                                    (Signed),      L. N. O’BRIEN,
                                                          President.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                                          ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA,
                                          Montreal, March 7th, 1882.

    SIR,—I have the honour to intimate to you by request of the
    Governor-General (Marquis of Lorne), that His Excellency hopes
    you will allow yourself to be named by him as one of the twenty
    original members of the Mathematical, Physical, and Chemical
    Section of the New Literary and Scientific Society of Canada,
    the first meeting of which will be held at Ottawa on the 25th of
    May. Should you accept be good enough to state what work you
    wish associated with your name. I have the honour to be, sir,
    your most obedient,

                                                  T. STERRY HUNT,
      President of the Mathematical, Physical, and Chemical Section.

    C. Baillairgé, Esq.

In July, 1882, Mr. Baillairgé was unanimously elected president of the
newly incorporated body of Land Surveyors and Engineers of the province
of Quebec, which position he continued to fill till 1885.

                                                GOVERNMENT HOUSE,
                                            Quebec, 18th June, 1877.

    SIR,—As President of the Canadian Commission at Philadelphia, I
    have had occasion to show your “Tableau Stéréométrique” to the
    representatives of Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia,
    Spain, and Portugal, and, with a single exception, it was known
    and highly appreciated by all of them. Monsieur Lavoine,
    engineer of roads and bridges, with whom I became acquainted in
    Philadelphia, where he was in charge of the exposition of models
    of the Public Works of France, spoke to me about it then, and
    also during a visit he paid me in Ottawa last fall, in the most
    flattering manner for you and for Canadians generally. I am
    happy, sir, to hear of such a testimony which does you credit,
    and also to know that your works, which have been crowned so
    often, both in your own and foreign countries, have just been
    duly appreciated at the Universal Exposition of 1876 at
    Philadelphia. I remain, sir, your obedient servant,

                                                    L. Letellier,
                           Lieut.-Governor of the Province of Quebec

    M. C. Baillairgé, C.E., Quebec.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                                                GOVERNMENT HOUSE,
                                            Quebec, June 18th, 1887.

    MY DEAR SIR,—If you could possibly call at my office, I would
    have the pleasure to know if you would consent to join the
    Society of Canadian Authors, whom I should be pleased to see now
    and then at Spencer Wood. Yours truly,

                                                    L. LETELLIER.

    M. C. Baillairgé, Quebec.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Gilpin, Rev. Edwin=, D.D., Senior Canon of St. Luke’s Cathedral and
Archdeacon of Nova Scotia, Halifax. This learned divine was born in
Aylesford, Nova Scotia, on the 10th of June, 1821. His parents were
Edwin and Eliza Gilpin. On his father’s side he is descended from a long
line of illustrious ancestors, among others Richard De Guylpyn, to whom
in 1206 the Baron of Kendal gave the manor of Kentmore, in Westmoreland,
England. There fourteen generations of the family lived, and there was
born, in 1517, Bernard Gilpin, well known as the “Apostle of the North.”
The manor was lost in consequence of the loyalty of the family to King
Charles the First. The Rev. Edwin Gilpin, the subject of our sketch, was
educated at King’s College, Windsor, N.S., and in 1847 received the
degree of B.A., in 1850 the degree of M.A., in 1853 that of B.D., and in
1863 the degree of D.D. was conferred upon him. In 1848 he received the
appointment of master of the Halifax Grammar School; then he was made
master of the Halifax High School, and then followed his promotion to
the principalship of the Halifax Academy. In 1864 he was inducted as
canon of St. Luke’s Cathedral (Episcopal); and in 1874 he was made
archdeacon. He has taken an active interest in education, and done a
good deal to place the public schools of his native province on a
satisfactory footing. Rev. Mr. Gilpin is a firm adherent of the Church
of England, and belongs to the so-called High Church party. He is
married to Amelia, daughter of the late Hon. Justice Haliburton, of
Windsor, N.S., who is well known as an author under the _nom de plume_
of “Sam Slick.” Rev. Mr. Gilpin’s eldest son is a gentleman of
considerable literary ability, and has prepared for and read before the
North British Society of Engineers and the Royal Society of Canada,
papers on the mining industries of the Dominion.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Lambly, William Harwood=, Registrar of the County of Megantic,
Inverness, Province of Quebec, was born on the 1st December, 1839, at
Halifax, Megantic county, Quebec, and has resided in the same county
ever since. His parents were John Robert Lambly and Anne Mackie. Mr.
Lambly, senr., was for nearly twenty years registrar of deeds for the
county of Megantic, and his father, the grandfather of the subject of
our sketch, was for more than a quarter of a century harbour master of
the port of Quebec, and in his day published a complete guide, with
descriptive charts, of the river St. Lawrence, from Quebec to the Gulf.
The family removed, when William was a child, to Leeds, in which place
he lived until 1861, when the _chef-lieu_ of the county was established
at Inverness, whither he removed. He commenced his education in the
village school, then attended the seminary at Newport, Vermont, and
afterwards took a special course at Victoria College, Cobourg, Ontario,
including some branches of the higher mathematics, French, and the
classics. In 1862 he was appointed registrar of the county of Megantic
by the Hon. Charles Stanley, Viscount Monck, then governor-general of
Canada, and has held the office ever since. He has been returning
officer at every election in the county, local and federal, since that
time, and although many of the elections have been contested, no
complaint has ever been made of partiality or irregularity. He was
appointed a justice of the peace in 1863, and has held the appointment
ever since. Since that time he has tried over two hundred cases, many of
them being for infractions of the license law, and no judgment of his
has ever been set aside on certiorari or appeal. He is also a
commissioner of the Superior Court, and a commissioner _per dedimus
potestatem_. He was elected a municipal councillor for Inverness on an
anti-license ticket, in 1866, by a large majority, and was appointed
mayor of the township at the first meeting of the council thereafter,
and continued in the office of mayor during his term of office as
councillor. In 1868 he declined re-election, and was appointed
secretary-treasurer of the council, and also of the school commissioners
of Inverness, and has held these offices ever since. Under the Dominion
License Act of 1863, he was appointed first commissioner of the county
of Megantic, and then president of the license board and by his vote and
influence not a single license was issued in the county from the time he
became president of the board until the law was declared _ultra vires_,
and was abandoned. He is a member of the Association of Registrars of
the Province of Quebec, and in 1866 was unanimously elected president of
the association, and has been re-elected unanimously in 1887. He joined
the Sons of Temperance in 1855, and has held various offices in his
division, and the Good Templars in 1869, and was rapidly promoted in his
lodge. In 1878 he first attended the Grand Lodge of the Province of
Quebec, and was unanimously elected grand worthy councillor. In the
following year he was unanimously elected grand worthy chief templar of
the province, and held that office by unanimous elections for seven
consecutive years, declining the election for the eighth term. In 1879
he was elected representative to the Right Worthy Grand Lodge, and has
since attended every session of that body. In the Right Worthy Grand
Lodge he was appointed right worthy grand marshal in 1881, and again in
1882; right worthy grand messenger in 1883, and right worthy grand
councillor, being the second highest position in the body, in 1885, and
again in 1886, and which office he still holds, and he has this year
(1887) been appointed deputy right worthy grand templar for the Province
of Quebec. He was one of the representatives of the R. W. G. Lodge in
Boston, in 1886, at the conference on union of all Good Templars in the
world, and was one of the signers of the original basis of union. He has
organised a number of Good Templar lodges in the Provinces of Quebec and
Nova Scotia, and has given many lectures and addresses on temperance and
prohibition in various parts of the Dominion, and in New York,
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Richmond, Va.; Charlestown, S.C.,
Chicago and other places. He is a vice-president of the Quebec branch of
the Dominion Alliance for the total suppression of the liquor traffic,
and has successfully fought and stamped out every grog shop in
Inverness, although there were nearly a score of them in the place when
he came there to live in 1861. He is not a politician, and never takes
part in any political discussions. He has travelled considerably in
Canada, having visited the chief cities from Halifax, N.S., to Sarnia,
Ont., besides many of the great cities in the United States. He is a
Methodist with broad Armenian views, but claims every man as a brother,
no matter what church he belongs to, if he loves the Lord Jesus Christ.
It will be seen that Mr. Lambly is an enthusiastic temperance man. He
totally abstains from all intoxicants and narcotics, and has never
tasted any kind of spirituous liquors, wine, or cider. Consequently he
is an out and out prohibitionist, will never consent to license, in any
shape or form, for the sale of liquors. He has an undying hate to what
he calls the thrice accursed traffic in strong drink, and deals it
deadly blows on every opportune occasion. He hopes to see the bright and
glorious day dawn on this fair Dominion when we shall have prohibition
pure and simple from the Atlantic to the Pacific. On the 25th June,
1863, he was married at Lachute, P.Q., to Isabella D. Brown, daughter of
the Rev. W. D. Brown, a Methodist minister now in his 79th year, yet
actively engaged preaching the gospel. The fruit of this marriage has
been four sons and three daughters, one of whom died in infancy, and the
two eldest sons are now studying for the ministry of the Methodist
church.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Jarvis, Frederick William=, late Sheriff of the county of York,
Ontario, was born at Oakville, on the 10th February, 1818. His
grandfather was a devoted U. E. loyalist, and after the American
revolution, left the state of Connecticut for New Brunswick, from which
province he afterwards moved with his family, then including as boys,
the late Sheriff W. B. Jarvis of Toronto, the late Judge Jarvis of
Cornwall, and the late Frederick Starr Jarvis, father of the sheriff now
deceased, to Toronto, in 1808. Frederick Starr Jarvis afterwards settled
at Oakville, then a wilderness, with no road through the bush, and with
few of the modern appliances for the ordinary pursuits of forest life.
Here William Frederick, the eldest of a family of eight sons and four
daughters, was born, and here he remained on the paternal farm until
1849, when he removed to Toronto to take charge of his uncle’s business
as deputy sheriff. In 1856, on the death of his uncle, he was appointed
sheriff of the counties of York and Peel, and when the sheriffdom was
divided he was made sheriff of York, and this office he held until his
death, in Toronto, on 16th of April, 1887. During the rebellion of 1837,
Sheriff Jarvis served in the Queen’s Rangers. Before coming to Toronto
he married a daughter of Captain John Skynner, R.N., who, with three
sons and one daughter, survive him. He was a much respected citizen, and
as highly esteemed as he was well known. He filled the position of
Sheriff of York—the richest shrievalty at the disposal of the Ontario
government—with dignity and ability. He was a member of St. Peter’s
Episcopal Church, Carlton street, in whose welfare he always took a deep
interest, as well as of the Industrial School at Mimico, and of a number
of city charities.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Church, Hon. Charles Edward=, Commissioner of Public Works and Mines,
of Nova Scotia, Halifax, was born on Tancook Island, Lunenburg county,
Nova Scotia, on the 3rd of January, 1835. He is a son of Charles Lot
Anthony Church, whose ancestors came to America with the Pilgrim Fathers
in 1625. His great grandfather, Charles Church, was a United Empire
loyalist, who left New England on the breaking out of the rebellion, and
settled at Shelburne, Nova Scotia. His grandfather, Charles Lot Church,
who was only five years of age when he came to Nova Scotia with his
parents, on growing up into manhood, settled in Chester, Lunenburg
county, Nova Scotia, and afterwards represented that county for ten
years in the House of Assembly. This gentleman was one of the early
Reformers of the province. His mother, Sarah Hiltz, is of German
descent, her ancestors having emigrated from Germany to Lunenburg in
1753, and was amongst its first settlers. Their descendants are noted
for their mechanical skill, especially in shipbuilding. Charles Edward
Church, the subject of this sketch, received a fair English education at
the schools in Chester and Truro, and afterwards followed for about ten
years the profession of teacher. He then went into mercantile pursuits
at La Have River, and for several years was interested in the fisheries.
In 1871, Mr. Church was appointed a justice of the peace. He was, in
1872, elected to represent Lunenburg in the Liberal interest, in the
House of Commons, at Ottawa; and again at the general election in 1874,
he was returned by acclamation, and sat in the Dominion parliament until
1878. In 1882, Mr. Church was elected a member of the Nova Scotia
legislature, and again in 1886, he was returned to the same position by
a large majority. He was appointed provincial secretary in 1882, and
held the office until 1884, when he was appointed Commissioner of Public
Works and Mines, and this office he still holds. Mr. Church is a Liberal
in politics, and for the past twenty years, has taken an active interest
in both federal and provincial questions, and stands high as a
progressive statesman. He also takes an interest in all moral reforms,
and was formerly a member of the order of Sons of Temperance and of the
Good Templars, and held office in the Grand Division of Sons of
Temperance, of Nova Scotia, and also in the Grand Lodge of British
Templars of the same province. Though not taking as warm an interest in
the temperance movement as formerly, he is still a strict total
abstainer. Mr. Church has travelled over a considerable portion of the
Dominion of Canada, and through parts of the United States. He is a
Protestant, holding broad and liberal views respecting religion as well
as politics. On the 24th of June, 1884, he was married to Henrietta A.
Pugsley, of Halifax. Her father, Henry Pugsley, was a native of England,
and her mother a native of Halifax, Nova Scotia.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Buller, Frank=, M.D., Professor of Ophthalmology and Otology in McGill
University, Montreal, was born near Cobourg, Ontario, on the 4th May,
1844. He is the fourth son of Charles G. Buller, of Campbellford,
Ontario, who was educated for the Church of England ministry, but,
declining holy orders, came to Canada in 1831, and settled near the town
of Cobourg, preferring agricultural life to any other means of earning a
livelihood. His mother, Frances Elizabeth Boucher, is the second
daughter of the late R. P. Boucher, of Campbellford; both his parents
are still living, and have attained an advanced age. We may say that the
Buller family has for centuries occupied a prominent position in the
south of England, and it is a well-known fact that many of its members
have distinguished themselves by their energy and ability in the service
of their country. Dr. Buller received the foundation of a liberal
education under the paternal roof, and subsequently continued his
studies in the High School at Peterborough. Having chosen medicine as a
profession, he entered the Victoria School of Medicine, of Toronto, and
graduated from that institution in 1869. Shortly afterwards he went to
England to perfect himself in his profession, where he soon won the
diploma of membership of the Royal College of Surgeons. While in London
he spent considerable time in the further study of general medicine and
surgery in St. Thomas’s Hospital, and satisfied himself that there was
no such thing possible as the attainment of perfection in all the
branches of a science so far-reaching as that of medicine. He resolved
to devote himself to the study of a specialty, having reason to believe
that the medical profession in Canada would be willing to sustain any
specialist who could bring evidence of having received a sufficiently
thorough training to merit public confidence. Keeping this idea steadily
in view, he spared no pains to become thoroughly proficient in the
specialty he had chosen. At that time the renowned Von Gräfe was still
living, and shedding the lustre of his great fame over the University of
Berlin; Helmholtze, too, the discoverer of the ophthalmoscope, honoured
the chair of physical science in the same place of learning. To receive
instruction from two such men was to drink from the very source of the
fountain of knowledge; and to Berlin Dr. Buller went in 1870; nor was he
disappointed in his anticipations of the benefit to be derived from the
instructions of these illustrious preceptors. About this time the
Franco-German war broke out, and the services of every available medical
man having been called for, Dr. Buller, like many other foreigners,
volunteered his services; and during eight months he acted as
assistant-surgeon in the military hospitals of North Germany. After the
termination of the war he continued his studies in Berlin, and served
for one year as assistant in the Gräfe-Ewers Ophthalmic Hospital of that
city. Early in 1872 he returned to England, and was appointed clinical
assistant to the Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital, from which position
he was promoted to the office of junior, and soon afterwards to that of
senior house surgeon, a situation which he held with credit to himself
and to the entire satisfaction of the governors and staff of that
institution for nearly three years. Having thus acquired, in a few
years, an amount of special knowledge and experience that under less
favourable circumstances could not have been gained in a lifetime, he
was prepared to take advantage of the first opportunity that offered for
establishing himself in the practice of his profession. He then returned
to Canada, and chose the city of Montreal as the field of his future
operations. Early in 1876 he commenced practice there, and, owing to the
cordial goodwill of his professional _confrères_, obtained a lucrative
practice from the very outset. In the month of May of the same year he
was appointed ophthalmic and aural surgeon to the Montreal General
Hospital, and lecturer on diseases of the eye and ear in McGill
University—positions which he still holds; and, judging from the past,
we anticipate for him a long career of honour and great usefulness to
suffering humanity. To his credit it should be said, that Dr. Buller has
been the arbitrator of his own fortune, he having in a great degree bore
his own expenses while securing his education. He is a good example to
our Canadian youth, and shews plainly what a young man can accomplish
though starting with a capital consisting only of determination and
pluck. Dr. Buller, in religious matters, is an adherent of the Episcopal
church, and in politics may be classed among the liberals. He married
Lillie Langlois, daughter of the late Peter Langlois, of Quebec, and has
a family of two children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Willmott, James Branston=, M.D.S., D.D.S., Toronto, is a native of the
province of Ontario, having been born in the county of Halton, on 15th
June, 1837. His parents, William and Ann Willmott, were both natives of
England, but came to this country when children. After a few years’
sojourn in Little York, now Toronto, they removed with their parents to
the very verge of settlement in the central part of Halton county, where
they did faithfully and well their part in converting the wilderness
into a fruitful field. Dr. Willmott’s early life was spent on the farm,
and his education was obtained mainly at the common school in the
neighbourhood. In 1854-5 he was a student in Victoria College, Cobourg,
intending to take a university course in arts, but was prevented by
failing health. Having determined to devote himself to the practice of
dentistry, he entered the office of W. C. Adams as a student in 1858. On
completing his pupilage in 1860, he commenced practice in the town of
Milton, near his birthplace. Allying himself with the Liberal party,
from a profound conviction that the principles advocated by it were best
calculated to advance the material and moral interests of the country,
he took an active interest in the affairs of the town, and was soon
called upon to occupy positions of trust. In 1863 he was appointed a
justice of the peace, and for several years had considerable experience
in that capacity. Besides minor offices, he served his fellow-townsmen
for three years in the municipal council, and for two years of that time
was chairman of the finance committee. In 1870 he entered the
Philadelphia Dental College, graduating doctor of dental surgery in
March, 1871. Although a foreigner, he was chosen by his classmates to
deliver the valedictory on commencement day. Desiring a wider field for
practice, he removed in July, 1871, to the city of Toronto, where by
diligence and skill he has built up an extensive and lucrative practice.
In the year 1866, Dr. Willmott was actively engaged in the movement to
place the dental profession of Ontario on a better footing, which
resulted in the incorporation of the profession as the Royal College of
Dental Surgeons by the legislature of the province in its first session,
the act being assented to March 3rd, 1868. From that date the doctor has
been very closely identified with the development of dentistry. In the
year 1870 he was elected by his fellow practitioners a member of the
Board of Examiners constituted under the provisions of the Dental Act,
and on the organization of the board he was chosen secretary. At each
succeeding biennial election he has been re-elected, and has also
continuously filled the position of secretary of the board. In 1875 the
dental practitioners of the province assembled in convention, adopted a
resolution requesting the board of examiners to establish a dental
college in Toronto. Acting upon this resolution the board requested Dr.
Willmott to undertake the organization of the college, associating with
him L. Teskey, M.D., M.R.C.S. The first session of the college opened in
November, 1875, with Dr. Willmot as senior professor occupying the chair
of operative and mechanical dentistry. This position he has continued to
hold to the present time. During the twelve years which have elapsed he
has been largely instrumental, in his capacity of teacher, in developing
the very creditable degree of skill which distinguishes the dental
profession of Ontario. Since his removal to Toronto the pressure of
practice and his duties in the college have prevented him from giving
much attention to public matters. What leisure he has been able to
command has been devoted mainly to church work. Born of Methodist
parents, in early youth he became a member of the Methodist church, and
has filled nearly every office open to a layman. Soon after settling in
Toronto he connected himself with the Metropolitan Church, and has been
deeply interested in its prosperity. He now discharges the duties of
Bible-class teacher, leader, trustee, and treasurer of the Trust Board,
besides being local treasurer of several important connexional funds. He
was a member of the Toronto Methodist Conferences of 1885 and 1886 and
of the General Conference of the Methodist church which met in Toronto
in September, 1886. Dr. Willmott married in September, 1864, Margaret
Taylor Bowes, niece of the late J. G. Bowes, ex-mayor of the city of
Toronto, a lady estimable in every relation of life, and his zealous
helpmate in every good work.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Patton, Hon. James=, Q.C., LL.D., Collector H.M. Customs, Toronto, was
born at Prescott, Ontario, on the 10th of June, 1824. He is the fourth
son of the late Andrew Patton, of St. Andrews, Fifeshire, Scotland, and
formerly major of her Majesty’s 45th regiment of the line. Mr. Patton’s
eldest brother (for some years rector of Cornwall and Belleville and
archdeacon of the diocese of Ontario) died in Belleville in 1874. The
family having removed from Prescott to Toronto in 1830, James was sent
to Upper Canada College, where he received the rudiments of a sound
education; and in 1840, having resolved to follow the legal profession,
he entered the office of the late Hon. John Hillyard Cameron, who then
carried on business with the late Chancellor Spragge, to study law. In
1843, on the opening of King’s College (now the University of Toronto),
he matriculated in arts, and graduated in law, and in 1858 took the
degree of LL.D. In 1845 he was called to the bar, and took up his abode
in the town of Barrie, Simcoe county, where in a very few years he
acquired an extensive practice. At an early period of his career Mr.
Patton took a deep interest in politics. The agitation consequent upon
the passage of the Rebellion Losses Bill, and the burning of the
Parliament buildings in the city of Montreal, seem to have acted as a
stimulus to his conservative instincts. Therefore, in 1852, he started
the _Barrie Herald_ as the mouth-piece of his party, and conducted it
with great energy for several years. At this time there was only one
other paper published north of Toronto, whereas now there are nearly
forty. In the meanwhile he was also engaged in legal literature,—having
published the “Constable’s Assistant”—and in 1855 aided in the
establishment and publication of the “Upper Canada Law Journal.” In 1859
he was elected a bencher of the Law Society, and having afterwards been
a solicitor-general, is now a life bencher by statute. In 1862 he was
created a Queen’s counsel. In 1853 Mr. Patton took into partnership
Hewitt Bernard, and the year following the late Sidney Cosens, and in
1857 William D. Ardagh, the Barrie firm changing to Patton & Ardagh on
Mr. Bernard being appointed deputy Minister of Justice. In 1860 he
opened a branch office in Toronto, and the year following was joined by
a former pupil, Featherston Osler, now one of the hon. justices of the
Court of Appeal, and subsequently by the late Chief Justice Moss, the
firm being known as Patton, Osler & Moss, and soon obtained a prominent
position. In 1864 Mr. Patton having been invited by Sir John A.
Macdonald to take charge of his large business, left for Kingston, but
returned again to Toronto in 1872, on the removal of the Trust and Loan
Company’s office to that city, Macdonald and Patton being the company’s
solicitors. This partnership continued until 1878, when Mr. Patton
retired from the active practice of his profession, in which he had been
engaged for thirty-three years, and took charge of the English and
Scottish Investment Company of Canada. This important position he held
until 1881, when the Dominion government appointed him Collector of
Customs for Toronto. Since that period he has faithfully performed the
duties of this responsible trust, and has done a great deal to improve
and simplify this branch of the civil service. Although in his younger
days Mr. Patton was an active politician, yet he did not seem to aspire
to parliamentary honours though often asked to become a candidate.
However, when in 1856 the Legislative Council (now the Senate) was made
an elective body and Upper and Lower Canada were mapped out into
forty-eight electoral divisions, with twelve members to be elected every
two years, he presented himself as a candidate, and was one of the six
returned that year for what is now Ontario, for the group of counties
consisting of Grey, Bruce and North Simcoe, known as the Saugeen
Division. As a member of the Legislative Council Mr. Patton was a
staunch Conservative, and he, without consulting the government, moved
(seconded by the late Sir E. P. Taché) in 1858 in that body the
resolution condemning the Brown-Dorion government—the same being taken
up by Sir Hector Langevin, seconded by Hon. John Beverly Robinson, the
next day in the Legislative Assembly—and carried it by sixteen to
eight. In 1862 he became a member of the Cartier-Macdonald ministry,
with a seat in the Executive Council (now the Privy Council) as
solicitor-general for Upper Canada—Sir John A. Macdonald being
attorney-general—but was defeated when seeking re-election, and with
the fall of the government a few weeks later, he retired from public
life. While in parliament the Hon. Mr. Patton carried through among
other measures the Debentures Registration Act, and the act that has
elevated the _status_ of attorneys, by requiring the passage of
examinations in addition to the mere service under articles; also
amendments to the Grand Jury law, but was unsuccessful in his attempt to
introduce the Scotch system of doing away with the required unanimity of
twelve petit jurors—the bill, though passed by large majorities in the
Council in four consecutive sessions, was invariably thrown out by the
Legislative Assembly. The Hon. Mr. Patton assisted at the formation of
the University Association, and was its president for several years,
holding the office until his election as vice-chancellor of the
University of Toronto. This latter office he held from 1860 to 1864,
when he was succeeded by the late Hon. Adam Crooks, Minister of
Education. In 1861-2 he was chairman of the University Commission issued
by the Crown. In 1886 he occupied a seat in the council of the Board of
Trade of Toronto, and did good service as such in helping to prepare the
laws that govern that important and influential body. In 1853 he was
married to Martha Marietta, the eldest daughter of the late Alfred
Hooker, of Prescott.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Harrison, Hon. Archibald=, Member of the Executive Council of New
Brunswick, Maugerville, New Brunswick, was born at Cambridge, Queens
County, New Brunswick, on the 27th May, 1834. He is a son of the Hon. C.
Harrison, at one time member of the Legislative Council of New
Brunswick, and Mary, daughter of Jeremiah Burpee, of Sheffield, one of
the first English inhabitants of the province. His grandfather, James
Harrison, was a United Empire loyalist. Archibald removed with his
parents from Cambridge to Maugerville, Sunbury county, in 1847, and here
the family has continued to reside ever since. He received his education
at Cambridge and Maugerville, and after leaving school adopted farming
as a profession. In 1868 he was elected a member of the Provincial Board
of Agriculture, and for the two following years occupied the same
position. At the bye-election in 1868, he contested Sunbury for a seat
in the legislature, but failed to secure a majority vote. In 1870 he was
chosen warden of his county, and at the general election held during
this year was elected to represent Sunbury county in the Legislative
Assembly of New Brunswick, and on the 8th April, 1874, he was called to
the Legislative Council; on the 3rd of March, 1883, he was made a member
of the Executive Council, and shortly afterwards was appointed a member
of the Lunatic Asylum Commission. In 1886 he was appointed a member of
the board of works. In 1873 he was made a member of the senate of the
University of New Brunswick, and on the expiry of his term of office, in
1885, he was re-appointed to the same position. Politically, Hon. Mr.
Harrison sides with the Liberals; while religiously he belongs to the
Congregational body of Christians. On the 5th November, 1862, he was
married to Amy, daughter of W. S. Barker, who at one time represented
Sunbury county in the New Brunswick legislature.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Gilmour, John Taylor=, M.D., M.P.P. for West York, residence West
Toronto Junction, was born in the township of Clarke, county of Durham,
Ontario, on the 3rd March, 1855. His father was a farmer and
manufacturer of lumber, and his mother, was descended from the United
Empire loyalists. He received his education at Port Hope High School,
and after leaving this institution he practised the profession of
teaching for two years. Tiring of this, he resolved to adopt the medical
profession, and entered Trinity Medical College, Toronto, from which
college he graduated in 1878. He then opened an office in Durham county,
and continued his practice here until 1884, when he removed to West
Toronto Junction, county of York, and here he has since resided, and has
met with a fair measure of success. Early in 1886 Dr. Gilmour was chosen
by the Reformers of West York to become their candidate, and when the
general elections came on in December of that year he succeeded, with
the aid of his friends, in redeeming the riding for the Liberals. In
politics he is strongly democratic, and is destined to make his mark in
the political arena. He is an adherent of the Methodist church. He was
married on the 18th March, 1878, to Emma Hawkins, of Canton, Ontario;
but death claimed this estimable lady on the 18th March, 1886.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Williams, Rev. William=, D.D., Pastor of the Division Street Methodist
Church Cobourg. The Rev. Mr. Williams is the eldest son of William and
Margaret P. Williams, and was born in Stonehouse, Devon, England,
January 23rd, 1836. His mother was a daughter of Robert Pearse, of
Camelford, Cornwall, England. In 1842 the subject of this notice removed
with his parents to Toronto. During the four years of his residence in
that city he attended school, and the latter part of the time he was
engaged in preparing to enter Upper Canada College. Before he had
completed his preparatory studies he removed with his parents to Weston,
and some time later to the township of Holland, where his father settled
upon a farm. Though removed from school at a comparatively early age, he
steadily pursued a carefully prepared course of reading and study, and
in his nineteenth year he entered the ministry of the Methodist New
Connexion church. His record in that community was that of a successful
minister of the gospel. Before the union he was during four years
chairman of a district; was one year president of the Methodist New
Connexion Conference, and was acting president during the greater part
of the following year, filling the place left vacant by the lamented
death of the president, the Rev. Samuel P. Gundy. The Rev. W. Williams
took an active part in promoting the union of the New Connexion and
Wesleyan Methodist churches in this country, being on both committees;
and in 1874 he was sent by his conference, with the late Robert Wilkes,
M.P. of Toronto, as a deputation to the New Connexion Conference of
England to obtain the consent of that body to the contemplated union in
Canada. In this he and his companion were completely successful. Not
only was the requested consent given, but Mr. Wilkes and Mr. Williams
were heartily thanked for the manner in which they had presented the
matter before the conference. In 1875, after this union had been
consummated, and while he was in charge of the church in Simcoe, Rev.
Mr. Williams was sent with W. H. Gibbs, of Oshawa, by the Central Board
of Missions as a deputation to attend the missionary services in the
leading Methodist Churches in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince
Edward Island. In 1876, in response to the special request of the
Centenary Church, Hamilton, Rev. Mr. Williams was sent to that charge,
then the largest and most influential in the London conference. He
remained there for the full term of three years. A leading member of
that church speaks of his ministry in that place:—“His discourses
showed him to be a man of culture, of extensive reading, of careful
thought, and of sound judgment. The Centenary Church never, I believe,
had a better expounder of the Word of God, or a more faithful preacher
of the gospel. Conscientious in the discharge of his duty, whatsoever he
seemed to feel should be said he spoke boldly whether it was likely to
please or displease. At the same time he evinced such qualities of
heart, such sympathy, such desire to do his people good, as secured for
him their affection, and made him very influential. As a man, Mr.
Williams was liked by all who knew him. He was pleasant and unassuming,
easy to approach, and was ready to lend a helping hand.” In 1879 Rev.
Mr. Williams became pastor of Norfolk Street Church, Guelph. He remained
there during the full term of three years, was acceptable and useful,
and during his ministry there the membership of the church and
congregation was largely increased; the debt upon the building in which
they worshipped reduced by several thousand dollars; and the financial
condition of the church greatly improved in other respects. He was also
chairman of the Guelph district during the three years of his pastorate
in that city. The following three years were spent by him in Woodstock,
where he ministered to a very large congregation in one of the finest
church edifices in the province. The first year of his pastorate in
Woodstock was marked by his elevation to the presidency of the London
Conference. This position he filled with acceptance and ability. He was
chairman of the Woodstock district during the full term of his ministry
in that rapidly rising town. At the request of the Cobourg (Division
street) Church Rev. Mr. Williams was, in 1885, transferred to the Bay of
Quinté conference, and appointed to Cobourg. There he preaches to a
large and intelligent congregation, comprising, in addition to the
general hearers, the principal, professors and students of Victoria
University. Mr. Williams is also chairman of the Cobourg district. In
May, 1887, the senate of Victoria University conferred upon him the
honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Glackmeyer, Charles=, City Clerk, Montreal, was born in Montreal on the
22nd June, 1820. He is of German extraction, and belongs to a family
noted for its longevity, his father, Frederick Glackmeyer, having died
in 1875, aged eighty-four years. His mother was Sophie Roy Portelance, a
French-Canadian lady, who died about 1854. His grandfather came to
Canada as bandmaster with one of the British regiments, and settled in
the city of Quebec, where he was a professor of and taught music for
many years, and died at an advanced age. Charles was educated at the
Montreal College, taking a full course, and afterwards studied law with
Peltier and Bourret. In 1843 he was admitted to the bar, and after
practising his profession for three years, entered the service of the
City Corporation as assistant city clerk. This position he held until
1859, when he was elected city clerk, and this office he still holds.
Mr. Glackmeyer is a model official, is rarely absent from his post, and
one in whom the citizens have the fullest confidence, and whom they
delight to honor. He is a member of the Roman Catholic church, and
people who know him best speak most highly of his moral and religious
character and the purity of the life he leads. On the 30th May, 1848, he
was married to M. R. Josephine Duvernay, of Montreal, eldest daughter of
Ludger Duvernay, founder of the _Minerve_ newspaper, and of the St. Jean
Baptiste Society of Montreal. The fruits of this marriage has been ten
children, only three of whom now survive.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Gilpin, Edwin, jr.=, Deputy Commissioner of Public Works and Mines, and
Chief Inspector of Mines for the Province of Nova Scotia, Halifax, was
born at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on the 28th of October, 1850. His father,
the Rev. Edwin Gilpin, D.D., is the senior canon of St. Luke’s
Cathedral, and archdeacon of Nova Scotia (see sketch of Archdeacon
Gilpin in another part of this volume), and his mother is Amelia McKay,
daughter of the late Hon. Justice Haliburton. Edwin Gilpin received the
rudiments of his education at the Halifax Grammar School, and then
entered King’s College, Windsor, where he graduated A.B., in 1871. He
then took the arts course, with special courses in mining, geology, and
chemistry, and received the degree of A.M., in 1873, and at the same
time won the “Welsford,” “General Williams,” and “Alumni” prizes. After
leaving college he began the practical study of mining-engineering in
Nova Scotia, and especially in the Albion collieries of the General
Mining Association in Pictou county, and extended his observations in
the leading mining districts in Great Britain. On the 1st of March,
1874, he was elected a fellow of the Geological Society of London,
England; and in April, 1873, a member of the Nova Scotia Institute of
Natural History. On the 21st of April, 1879, he was appointed by the
government of Nova Scotia, inspector of mines for the province, which
position he now occupies. In September, 1881, he was appointed a member
and made secretary of the Board of Examiners of Colliery Officials; and
in September, 1885, was elected a member of the American Institute of
Mining Engineers. In October, 1886, he received the appointment of
deputy commissioner of Public Works and Mines for the province. Mr.
Gilpin is one of the original members of the Royal Society of Canada.
For a number of years he has acted in the capacity of consulting
engineer in the Maritime provinces, and has done good service to his
county in this direction. He is the author of a popular work on the
“Mines and Mineral Lands of Nova Scotia,” published in Halifax in 1883;
and has also contributed valuable papers on the “Sub-marine Coal Fields
of Cape Breton;” “Nova Scotia Iron Ores;” “The Manganese of Nova
Scotia;” “The Carboniferous and Gold Fields of Nova Scotia;” “The
Geology of Cape Breton;” and various other papers on the geology and
economic mineralogy of Nova Scotia, which have been published in the
Transactions of the following societies: The North of England Institute
of Mining Engineers; The Geological Society of London; The Nova Scotia
Natural History Institute; The Royal Society of Canada; and The American
Institute of Mining Engineers. He has also written several annual
reports to the government of Nova Scotia, on the progress and
development of the Crown minerals of the province. Mr. Gilpin takes no
particular part in politics; but in religious matters, he is a staunch
adherent of the Church of England. He was married on June 29th, 1875, to
Florence Ellen, daughter of Lewis Johnstone, surgeon, Albion Mines, Nova
Scotia. Mrs. Gilpin’s father is a nephew of the late Equity Judge
Johnstone, and provincial grand master of the Masonic order. Three
children have been born of this union.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Bégin, Rev. Louis Nazaire=, D.D., Principal of the Laval Normal School,
Quebec, member of the Academy of the Arcades of Rome, and of the Royal
Society of Canada, was born at Levis, on the 10th January, 1840. His
father, Charles Bégin, farmer, died in August last, 1887, in his
ninety-first year; his mother, Luce Paradis, died about eighteen months
ago, in her eighty-second year. After attending the Levis Model School,
then under the direction of M. N. Lacasse, at present a professor at the
Laval Normal School, Rev. Abbé Bégin followed, for one year, the
mathematical course of the Commercial College of St. Michel
(Bellechasse). That course was ably given by Professor F. X. Toussaint.
His parents sent him, in 1857, to the Little Seminary of Quebec, to
follow the classical course of that institution. As he had already
commenced to study Latin with M. Lacasse, he was enabled to terminate
his course in five years, in 1862. He then obtained the degree of
Bachelor of Arts at Laval University, and was the first to carry off the
Prince of Wales prize. He resolved to adopt a religious life, and
entered the Grand Seminary of Quebec, in September, 1862, where he
studied theology, while teaching the class of syntax at the Little
Seminary. The Seminary of Quebec was at that time thinking seriously
about organizing a faculty of theology in connection with Laval
University, and it was the earnest desire of the authorities that all
the professors of that faculty should be educated in Rome itself. In
May, 1863, his Eminence Cardinal Taschereau, then superior of the
Seminary of Quebec, and rector of Laval University, proposed to Abbé
Bégin to go and pass a few years in Rome, in order to study theology,
take his degree, and then return to Quebec as professor of its
university. This proposition was accepted, and on the 4th September of
the same year, Abbé Bégin left Quebec to take his passage at Boston. He
had as travelling companions Abbés Louis Pâquet and Benjamin Pâquet (now
Domestic Prelate to his Holiness Leo XIII.), who were also sent to Rome
to study the sacred science. Abbé Bégin was absent five years and
returned to Quebec only in July, 1868. He followed the course of the
Gregorian University of the Roman College, including dogmatic and moral
theology, sacred scriptures, history of the church, canonic law, sacred
oratory, and the Hebraic language. His professors were the Rev. Fathers
Ballerini, Cardella, Sanguinetti, Patrizi, Angellini, Armellini,
Tarquini and Franzelin; the two last named became, a short time
afterwards, cardinals of the holy Roman Church, and died a short time
ago. He received all the minor and major orders in Rome, and was
ordained a priest in the Major Basilica of St. John de Latran on the
10th of June, 1865, by His Eminence Cardinal Vicar Patrizi. In the
following year (1866), he succeeded in obtaining the degree of Doctor in
Theology at the Gregorian University. The Seminary of Quebec granted the
request of Abbé Bégin, and gave him permission to remain some time
longer in Rome to make a special study of ecclesiastical history and
Oriental languages: the Hebrew, the Chaldean, the Syriac, and the
Arabic. The scholastic year 1866-67 was given to these interesting
occupations. While at Rome he resided at the French Seminary, _via Santa
Chiara_. After the great Roman festival in connection with the centenary
of the death of St. Peter and the canonization of the saints, in 1867,
he went to Innsbruck, in the Austrian Tyrol. During the summer holidays
of the preceding years he had visited Italy, Savoy, Switzerland,
Prussia, Belgium, and chiefly France, but he spent the summer of 1867 in
studying the German language, so rich in scientific works on history and
holy scripture. On the 30th September of the same year he started for
Palestine, in order to get thoroughly acquainted,—as he had long
desired,—with certain biblical and historical facts. He spent more than
five months in this trip through Austria, Hungary, Roumania, Servia,
Bulgaria, the two Turkeys, the islands of Tenedos, Lesbos, Rhodes and
Cyprus, Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, Phœnicia, Palestine, Egypt, and
Sicily. He then returned to Innsbruck to continue his studies in history
and languages at the Catholic University, under the celebrated
Professors Wenig, Jungmann, Hurter, Kobler, Nilles. He left Tyrol on the
2nd July, 1868, crossed France and England, and arrived at Quebec on the
27th of the same month, by the steamer _Moravian_, of the Allan line. He
brought with him several Egyptian mummies and archæological curiosities
he had acquired for the museum of the Catholic University of Quebec. In
September he commenced to teach a portion of dogmatic theology and
ecclesiastical history, as professor of the Faculty of Theology of Laval
University. He taught from 1868 until 1884, having also, during the last
seven or eight years, charge of the pupils of the University, or of
those of the Little or Grand Seminary; he was also prefect of studies of
the Little Seminary. During four or five winters he gave numerous public
lectures at Laval University on the most controverted and interesting
questions of the history of the Church. A select gathering filled the
hall to hear these lectures given every week from the Christmas vacation
till Easter. The first year (1870) he spoke about the prerogatives of
Papacy, and refuted the objections raised, at the time of the Council of
the Vatican, against the infallibility of the Pope, considered from an
historical standpoint. These lectures were published in a volume of over
400 pages, entitled, “La Primauté et l’Infaillibilité des Souverains
Pontifes.” In 1874 he published a second work entitled “La Sainte
Ecriture et la Règle de Foi.” This work was translated into English:
“The Bible and the Rule of Faith,” in 1875, and printed in London by
Burns & Oates. In the same year (1874) an eulogy of Saint Thomas Aquinas
was published. Abbé Bégin had delivered it at Saint Hyacinthe, in the
church of the Rev. Dominican fathers, on the occasion of the sixth
centennial anniversary of the death of Dr. Angélique. In 1875 he
published another work entitled “Le Culte Catholique.” After passing six
months (October, 1883, to April, 1884) at Pont Rouge, Portneuf county,
to recruit his health, Abbé Bégin accompanied to Rome the Archbishop of
Quebec, who was going to sustain the rights of Laval University and the
division of the diocese of Three Rivers, before the Holy See. The voyage
was prosperous, and lasted over seven months. On his return from Rome,
on the first of Dec., 1884, he found his friend, Abbé Lagacé,
dangerously ill. Death carried away, five days later, this distinguished
priest, who had consecrated the best part of his sacerdotal career to
the education of youth. Abbé Bégin was chosen by the Catholic Committee
of the Council of Public Instruction to occupy the important post of
principal of the Normal School, hitherto filled by Abbé Lagacé, and this
choice was ratified by an order-in-council on the 22nd January, 1885.
Since that time Abbé Bégin has fulfilled the functions of principal of
the Normal School, comprising the department of male and female pupil
teachers. Last year (1886) he published a small “Aide-Mémoire,” or
“Chronologie de l’Histoire du Canada,” designed, as indicated by its
name, to help the memory of pupils and facilitate their preparations to
the examinations on the history of our country.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Anderson, Capt. Edward Brown=, Sarnia, was born at Oakville, in the
county of Halton, Ontario, on the 24th January, 1838. His father, Edward
Anderson, was born at a farm known as “Stenrie’s Hill,” near the town of
Moffat, in Dumfriesshire, Scotland, and died at Oakville, in December,
1840. His mother, Sarah Ann Williams, was born at Port Dover, Lake Erie
shore, and died at Barrie, in January, 1878. Captain Anderson’s father
having died before his son had reached his third year, very little
schooling fell to his lot, as he was in consequence obliged to face the
world at a very early age. When only about ten years old he commenced
sailing on the lakes, and from that time to this he has steadily risen
in his profession, and has now the proud satisfaction of knowing that he
is considered second to none as an inland sea navigator and is in
command of one of the finest steamers—the _Alberta_—of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company, on Lake Superior. Previous to his taking charge
of the _Alberta_ he commanded for seven years the steamer _Quebec_, of
the Beatty Sarnia & Lake Superior line, and for two years was captain of
the _Campana_, of the Collingwood line, and for the last four years he
has sailed the _Alberta_. Captain Anderson left Oakville in 1875, and
took up his residence in Sarnia, where he has made his home ever since.
In 1867 he joined the Freemasons, and since then has taken a deep
interest in that ancient organization. He crossed the Atlantic and spent
the winter of 1885-6 seeing the sights in Europe. The captain is a
Presbyterian, and is a firm supporter of his church; but in politics he
takes very little interest. In August, 1885 he was married to Lucretia
Waggoner, whose parents at that time resided in Oakville, but in 1860
they removed to Ballard, Kentucky, where they both died.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Robb, Alexander=, Iron Founder, Amherst, Nova Scotia, was born at
Leicester, Cumberland county, Nova Scotia, on the 4th of March, 1827.
His parents, Alexander Robb and Annie Brown, were natives of Bangor,
Ireland, and settled in Nova Scotia a great many years ago. Alexander
was only about eight years of age when he came to Amherst, and received
his education in the public schools of the place. After leaving school
he acquired a knowledge of the tin and sheet metal business. In 1848 he
commenced business on his own account, and was among the first to
introduce cast-iron stoves into the country. In 1866 he built a foundry
and machine shops, and his business has grown steadily ever since, until
his works, including salesroom and offices, now cover a space of about
two acres. In outside industries, Mr. Robb has taken a great interest,
having assisted in the development of the Boot and Shoe Tanning Company,
which is now the most extensive manufactory of its kind in the province;
and previous to his health breaking down in 1872, he was an active
promoter of the Spring Hill collieries. Mr. Robb has always been a
strong advocate of total abstinence, and has the honour of being one of
the original members of the Amherst Division of the Sons of Temperance,
the pioneer temperance organization in Nova Scotia. He took an active
interest in the passage of the Free School Act for Nova Scotia, and was
also an advocate of the confederation of the provinces. He had strong
faith in the benefits to be derived from these measures for some years
previous to their enactment, arising from a conversation he had had with
the late Hon. Joseph Howe. Mr. Robb is a Presbyterian, and for the past
twenty-five years has been a consistent member of that church. In 1855
he married Emeline Logan, daughter of David D. Logan, of Amherst Point,
whose father, Hugh Logan, originally came from the North of Ireland, and
was one of the first settlers of the county. His surviving children
are:—David W. and Frederick B., who have managed the business of the
firm of A. Robb & Sons since the failure of their father’s health in
1872; Walter R., who is associated with his father in farming and other
private business; Maggie A. and Aubrey G., who are both at home, the
latter still pursuing his studies. Mr. Robb has won for himself the
character of being a man of perseverance and strict integrity, and is
greatly respected by all who have the pleasure of his acquaintance.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=McNeill, John Sears=, Barton, M.P.P. for Digby, Nova Scotia, was born
at St. Mary’s Bay (now called Barton), in the county of Digby, N.S., on
the 15th June, 1829. His parents were John McNeill and Freelove Sabean.
His great grandfather, Neil McNeill, emigrated from the north of Ireland
to New York, where he married a Miss Sears, an American lady, and
engaged in mercantile business. After the close of the revolutionary war
he and his family came, with other U. E. loyalists, and settled in Long
Island, then in the county of Annapolis, now in the county of Digby.
John Sears McNeill attended the public school in his native place, but
only at intervals, where he learned the rudiments of reading, writing,
arithmetic, and English grammar. He spent his youthful days on a farm,
and had, when a mere lad, to work in the fields with the farm labourers
and do his share of hard work. On his sixteenth birthday he gave up
farming, and entered the store of George Bragg, of Digby, as a clerk,
and in this situation he continued for three years, when he returned to
Barton, and commenced business on his own account. His capital was very
small, but he determined to succeed, and consequently worked hard to
increase his means. After a few years, having succeeded remarkably well,
he resolved to extend his operations, and in the fall of 1867 opened
another store at Maitland, Yarmouth county, in connection with Cyrus
Perry, to whom he sold out his share in the business a few years
afterwards. In 1871, in connection with several other gentlemen, he
engaged extensively in the tanning business, but this venture not
proving a success, in a few years it was abandoned. In 1875, in company
with some others, he engaged in the manufacture of shingles and lumber
at Berwick and Factorydale, in the county of King, N.S., but this, from
lack of personal oversight, proved unremunerative, and was given up. In
the fall of 1878 he handed over his business at home to his eldest son,
and since that time has devoted all his energies to public affairs. Mr.
McNeill was appointed a justice of the peace in May, 1864, and a
commissioner of schools in 1867. On the 17th January, 1873, he was made
a member of the Board of Health. He was clerk and treasurer of Poor
District No. 2, Weymouth, from its creation into a separate district in
1851 until 1865, and re-appointed in 1868, and still holds the position
(1887); and he has also been county treasurer for the years 1881, 1883,
and 1884. He took the temperance pledge in 1842, when he was only
thirteen years of age, and became a member of the Total Abstinence
Society. On the introduction of the order of the Sons of Temperance into
Nova Scotia, he joined Union Division, No. 6, Digby, on the 30th
January, 1848, and continued in this division several years, when he
transferred his membership to General Inglis Division, on its
institution at Barton, in March, 1859. He has held nearly all the
offices in the gift of his division. In 1860 he was initiated into the
Grand Division of Nova Scotia, at its session held at Yarmouth, in 1860,
and ever since then has been a faithful member of the order. Mr.
McNeill’s father was a staunch Conservative, and his son received his
political training in that school of politics. During the election
contests held in 1851 and 1855 he worked and voted with that party; but
in 1859 he gave his vote to the Liberals. He was opposed to the
confederation of the provinces, and disapproved of the manner in which
Nova Scotia was forced into the union, contending that a vote of the
people should have been taken before the compact was entered into. In
1867 he was urged to allow himself to be nominated as a candidate for
the Nova Scotia legislature, but declined the honour. He, however,
presented himself for parliamentary honours at the general election in
June, 1882, and was elected to a seat in the legislature of his native
province, and was again returned to the same house in 1886. Mr. McNeill
was brought up in the Episcopal church, and adhered to that church until
1862, when he united with the Methodist church, and has remained in that
communion ever since. In politics Mr. McNeill is a Liberal and a
Repealer, but, above both, a lover of his country, and a gentleman who
has done a good deal to foster its industries and improve the social
condition of its people. He was married, first at Barton, on 25th
December, 1852, to Ann Eliza, daughter of William Thomas. This estimable
lady died 1st October, 1869. His second marriage was solemnised at
Bloomfield, Digby county, 24th January, 1870, when he united with Alice
Maria, second daughter of Edwin Jones. His family consists of two sons
and two daughters living, all of whom are married, except the youngest
son, who is attending college at Sackville, New Brunswick.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=DesBrisay, Theophilus=, Q.C., Bathurst, New Brunswick. The subject of
this sketch is a son of the late Theophilus DesBrisay, naval officer of
Miramichi and the eastern ports of New Brunswick, and grandson of the
Rev. Theophilus DesBrisay, graduate of Magdalen College, Oxford, and the
first rector of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, who died in 1824.
He is of Huguenot descent, his ancestors having fled from France to
Ireland at the time of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes; the
pioneer in the Dominion of Canada being Thomas DesBrisay, captain Royal
Artillery, who, was sent out as lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward
Island, in 1777. The mother of our subject, before her first marriage,
was Lucy Wright, daughter of the Hon. Thomas Wright, first
surveyor-general of Prince Edward Island, and was the widow of Captain
and Adjutant Colledge, who died in the first decade of this century
while in the service of the king at the fortress of Quebec. Mr.
DesBrisay was born at Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, on the 13th
of December, 1816, educated at the Grammar School, Miramichi, studied
law with the late Hon. John Ambrose Street, at Newcastle; was admitted
an attorney in 1839, and to the Charlottetown bar at Hilary term, 1841,
and has ever since been in practice in all the courts in New Brunswick
and also as barrister of the Supreme Court of Prince Edward Island. He
was appointed clerk of the peace for the county of Gloucester, N.B., in
1850; and is also clerk of the County Court and clerk of the Circuits.
He was created a Queen’s counsel by the Dominion government in 1881, and
appointed Judge of Probates for the county of Gloucester in 1883. Mr.
DesBrisay is a past master of St. John’s lodge of Freemasons, Bathurst.
He is a member of the Church of England, and has served as warden of St.
George’s Church, Bathurst, for many years, and also as delegate to the
Diocesan Synod. He is a lawyer of excellent moral character as well as
legal standing. He married, in 1851, Jemima Swayne, daughter of David
Swayne, of Dysart, Scotland, and has five children—four sons and one
daughter. Lestock, the eldest, is a clergyman and rector of Strathroy,
Ontario; Andrew Normand, is in mercantile business in Minneapolis; T.
Swayne, is an attorney and barrister practising with his father; Charles
Albert is a graduate of the Royal Military College, Kingston (class
1880, the first that graduated), and a civil engineer now practising his
profession in Minnesota, and Lucy Isabella is at home.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Simcoe, John Graves=, Lieutenant-General, the first Governor of Upper
Canada, was born in the town of Cotterstock, Northamptonshire, England,
in 1752, and was the eldest son of Captain John Simcoe, commander of
H.M.S. _Pembroke_, who was killed at Quebec, in the execution of his
duty, in the year 1759, while assisting Wolfe in his siege of that city.
On young Simcoe first going to school, at Exeter, at a comparatively
early age, he attracted considerable notice from all with whom he came
in contact for his proficiency in everything that the school taught; and
he was, undoubtedly, the _dux_ of the school. At the age of fourteen he
was removed to Eton, where he acquired new honours. After remaining at
Eton a short time, he was removed to Mereton College, Oxford. From
college, in his nineteenth year, he entered the army, either he or his
guardians having selected that profession for him. He was appointed to
an ensigncy in the 35th regiment of the line; and as hostilities had
already commenced with the United States of America, he was despatched
to the seat of war to join his regiment. He arrived at Boston on the day
of the battle of Bunker Hill, and took an active part afterwards, as may
be seen, in the great American war, when the American colonists threw
off their allegiance to Great Britain, and declared themselves
independent. Ensign Simcoe, having served some time as adjutant to his
own regiment, purchased the command of a company in the 48th, with which
he fought at the battle of Brandywine, and where he displayed (although
very young) his courage and professional attainments by the active part
he took in the day’s proceedings. Unfortunately he was severely wounded
at this engagement. Captain Simcoe was always a soldier in his heart,
and attentive to every part of his duty. He already saw that regularity
in the interior economy of a soldier’s life contributed to his health,
and he estimated the attention of the inferior officers by the strength
of a company or a regiment in the field. His ambition invariably led him
to aspire to command; and even, when the army first landed at Staten
Island, he went to New York to request the command of the Queen’s
Rangers (a provincial corps then newly raised), though he did not obtain
his desire till after the battle of Brandywine, in October, 1777. The
Queen’s Rangers, under command of Simcoe, acquired new laurels, and were
justly celebrated, as was their leader, for their several gallant deeds
and exploits. During the rest of the American war, or until their
disbandment, they bore part in nearly every engagement which took place;
but, unfortunately, being situated at Gloucester Point, opposite
Yorktown, when the latter place was besieged by the allied French and
American army, the Rangers, as well as the other portions of the British
army under Lord Cornwallis’s command, were surrendered by that nobleman
to the victorious insurgents. With the surrender of Gloucester Point the
active existence of the Rangers terminated. The officers were afterwards
put upon half-pay, and their provincial rank retained to them in the
standing British army. The war for independence virtually ceased with
the capture of Yorktown, and Colonel Simcoe returned to England, greatly
fatigued by his late arduous duties, and greatly impaired in his
constitution. The king received him in a manner which plainly shewed how
grateful his Majesty was for the great services he had rendered; and all
classes of society received him with the most affectionate regard, and
shewed him every demonstration of their attachment. Not long after his
return he entered into the marriage state with Miss Guillim, a near
relation to Admiral Graves, a distinguished officer engaged in the
American war. He was elected to represent, in 1790, the borough of St.
Maw’s, Cornwall, in the House of Commons, which place he continued to
represent, with equal honour to himself and his county, until the
passing of the bill dividing the province of Quebec into two provinces,
to be called Upper and Lower Canada, when he was selected as the first
governor of Upper Canada, whither he proceeded, in 1791, with his wife
and family, and took up his quarters at Niagara, then called Newark,
where he held his first parliament in September, 1792. Upper Canada was
then in a comparative state of wilderness. We cannot picture to
ourselves a more dismal or a more thoroughly dejected colony than was
the province at the time of which we speak. Governor Simcoe, however,
entered upon his duty with a resolute heart. Newark, now Niagara, was
made the seat of government, which consisted of a Legislative Assembly
and Council, the former containing sixteen members only, while the
latter was still smaller; and a parliament was convened so early as the
17th September of the same year. He also appointed an Executive Council,
composed of gentlemen who had accompanied him out, and some who already
resided in the province. He had the whole country surveyed and laid out
into districts, and invited as much immigration as possible, in order to
swell the population. For this purpose, those parties who so nobly
adhered to the cause of Britain in the revolted colonies, and which are
chiefly known by the sobriquet of United Empire loyalists, removed to
Canada, and received a certain portion of land free. Also, discharged
officers and soldiers of the line received a certain portion of land
gratuitously; and all possible means were employed to further the
projects of the governor. A provincial corps was raised, by command of
the king, and Colonel Simcoe was appointed colonel of it. This corps he
called the “Queen’s Rangers,” after his old regiment. Becoming
dissatisfied with the position of Newark as the provincial capital, he
travelled westward as far as Detroit, and back, without having come to
any fixed conclusion. He resolved to inspect the northern shore of Lake
Ontario, and for that purpose set sail from Newark on Thursday, the 2nd
May, 1793, and on the morning of Saturday, the 4th, entered the harbour
of Toronto. A short distance from the entrance to the harbour were
several wigwams, inhabited by Mississaga Indians. This was the “town” of
Toronto, which Governor Simcoe determined was to be the future capital
of Upper Canada. He quartered a number of the Queen’s Rangers there, and
improved the site and vicinity of the projected city to a great extent.
Roads were constructed, so that a proper communication could be kept up
between town and country. A schooner ran weekly between Newark and York,
and couriers were sent, overland, monthly to Lower Canada. Of course the
population increased, and the young province began to consider itself
wealthy. In 1794, Simcoe was promoted to the rank of major-general; and
in 1796 he was appointed to be commandant and governor of the important
island of St. Domingo. Thither he, with his family, proceeded, and there
he held the local rank of lieutenant-general. Though he remained only a
few months, he greatly endeared himself by his kind and considerate
government of the island, not only to all the residents, but to the
natives themselves; and a contemporary justly remarks that, “short as
was his stay, he did more than any former general to conciliate the
native inhabitants to the British government.” In 1798 he was created a
lieutenant-general; and in 1801, when an invasion of England was
expected by the French, the command of the town of Plymouth was
entrusted to him. We do not hear of him again until 1806, when the last
scene in this great man’s life was to come to a close. France had long
been suspected of a design to invade Portugal, and, the affair being
apparent to England, public attention was called to the critical
situation of that country; and as Portugal was the only surviving ally
of Britain upon the continent, means must necessarily be employed to
assist her. In this critical juncture, Lieutenant-General Simcoe and the
Earl of Rosselyn, with a large staff, were immediately sent out to join
the Earl of St. Vincent, who, with his fleet, was in the Tagus; and they
were instructed to open, in concert with him, a communication with the
court, so that they would ascertain whether danger was very imminent,
and, if so, employ means to guard against it. But, alas, in such a
glorious undertaking, which probably would have crowned him with fame
and honours, Simcoe was never destined to participate to any extent. On
the voyage thither he was taken suddenly ill, and had to return to
England, where he had only landed when his eventful life was brought to
a close. He breathed his last at Torbay, in Devonshire, at the
comparatively early age of fifty-four, after having honourably served
his country during many years in a variety of occupations—regretted by
all, from the simple soldier whom he had commanded to the friend of his
heart and his boon companion.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Robb, David W.=, Manager of the Foundry and Machine Shops of A. Robb
and Sons, Amherst, Nova Scotia, was born at Amherst on the 9th May,
1856. His father, Alexander Robb, the founder of the works he manages,
is a gentleman very much respected by his fellow citizens. His mother is
Emmeline Logan, daughter of David D. Logan, of Amherst Point. David
received his educational training at the County Academy at Amherst, and
had begun the study of mechanical engineering when his father’s health
gave way in 1872, in consequence of which he had to assume business
responsibilities, and since that time has been actively employed in the
foundry and machine business, which has now grown to large proportions
under his careful management. Mr. Robb is a member of the order of
Freemasons, having joined this organisation in 1882. In 1881 he
reorganized the fire department in his native town, and has been its
chief engineer ever since. He is a member of the Liberal-Conservative
Association of Amherst, and an active supporter of Sir Charles Tupper,
minister of finance, who represents the county in the Dominion
parliament. Mr. Robb, like his father, is a member of the Presbyterian
church, and, like him, a public spirited gentleman. He was married on
the 15th June, 1872, to Ida S., daughter of Dr. Nathan Tupper, and niece
of Sir Charles Tupper. The fruit of this marriage is three children—two
boys and a girl. Frederick B., second son of Alexander, we may add, is
the financial manager of the firm of A. Robb and Sons.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Fraser, Hon. Judge John James=, Q.C., Fredericton, New Brunswick, was
born in Nelson, Northumberland county, N.B., on the 1st of August, 1829.
His father, John Fraser, was a native of Inverness, Scotland, who
emigrated to New Brunswick in 1803. He first settled in Halifax, Nova
Scotia, and remained there until 1812, when he moved to Miramichi, New
Brunswick, where he went into business as a lumber merchant and
shipbuilder on Beanbear’s Island, and carried on these branches of trade
for a number of years. He was also extensively engaged in the
exportation of salmon, which at that time was a very profitable
enterprise. John James Fraser received his early educational training at
the Newcastle Grammar School, and adopted law as his profession. In
October, 1845, he entered the office of the late Hon. John Ambroise
Street, and in 1850 passed his examination as an attorney. In January,
1851, on the appointment of the Hon. Mr. Street to the office of
attorney-general, Mr. Fraser removed to Fredericton, and remained with
that gentleman until 1854. He was admitted to the bar in 1852, and made
a Queen’s counsel in 1873. Mr. Fraser devoted his attention closely to
his profession until 1865, when he entered the political arena, and was
returned to the Provincial parliament as representative for York county,
in conjunction with Messrs. Allen, Hatheway, and Needham, as champions
of the anti-confederation movement, confederation being the then burning
question of the day. In 1866, the Smith government having been compelled
to resign, a general election ensued, and on Mr. Fraser presenting
himself for re-election, a strong feeling was manifested against him,
and at the close of the poll he found that his opponent had carried the
day. In June, 1871, he was appointed a member of the Legislative Council
and president of the Executive Council in the Hatheway-King
administration, and held both positions until the death of the Hon. Mr.
Hatheway in 1872, when he resigned. He was afterwards offered the
position of provincial secretary to the government led by the Hon. Mr.
King, and this he accepted. He then again appeared before his
constituents, and was re-elected by acclamation, and the county of York
he continued to represent until May, 1878, when the Hon. Mr. King
retired from provincial politics. Hon. Mr. Fraser then became
attorney-general and leader of the government, and this position he held
until the 24th May, 1882, when he resigned, and offered himself as a
candidate for the representation of York in the House of Commons, but
was defeated. In December, 1882, he was, on the decease of Mr. Justice
Duff, appointed a judge of the Supreme Court. He was married in
September, 1867, to Martha, eldest daughter of the late Alexander
Cumming, a merchant of Fredericton, and had by her two children, both of
whom are dead. Mrs. Fraser died in March, 1871. In May, 1884, he was
married to Jane M. P., daughter of the late Mr. Justice Fisher, of
Fredericton.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Green, Harry Compton=, Postmaster, Summerside, Prince Edward Island,
was born at North Street, Eleanor, P.E.I., on the 30th April, 1817. He
is the second son of the Hon. Samuel Green, and Elizabeth, his wife, who
emigrated to Prince Edward Island from London, England, in 1808. Henry
received his first educational training in the village school, and
afterwards studied in the Charlottetown Academy, under Professor Brow
Waddle. After leaving school he devoted himself to farming, and from
1839 to 1856 he farmed extensively on his freehold estate on North
Street, Eleanor. In 1841 Mr. Green was appointed road commissioner and
commissioner of small debts, and in 1842 he was created a justice of the
peace. In 1851 he was appointed high sheriff of Prince county. In 1857
he went into mercantile business, and continued in this line until 1866,
when he was appointed collector of customs for the port of Summerside.
From 1858 to 1868 he occupied the honourable position of mayor of
Summerside; and in 1871 he was appointed postmaster, which position he
still holds. He joined the ancient and honourable order of Freemasons in
1858, and has been treasurer of his lodge, King Hiram, for nearly seven
years. He was brought up and has always continued to be an Episcopalian
in his religious views, and has frequently held the office of
churchwarden, both in St. John’s Church, Eleanor, and St. Mary’s Church,
Summerside. In March, 1850, he was married to Elizabeth C. Ellis,
daughter of Robert Ellis, formerly of Bideford, Devon, England.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Fogo, Hon. James=, Pictou, Nova Scotia, Judge of Probate for the county
of Pictou, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, on the 30th June, 1811. His
father, James Fogo, senior, came to Pictou in 1817, and died there in
1868, aged eighty-one years. His mother was Elizabeth McClure, who was
born in Edinburgh, Scotland, and died in Pictou, in 1879, aged
eighty-nine years. Judge Fogo received his education at the Pictou
Academy, under the tuition of that celebrated teacher and educator, the
Rev. Thomas McCulloch, D.D., and was the classmate of Governor
Archibald, Sir William Ritchie, now chief justice of the Dominion of
Canada, and other gentlemen who have attained celebrity in different
walks of life. He studied law in the office of Jotham Blanchard, then
one of the most eminent practitioners at the bar in eastern Nova Scotia,
and was admitted as an attorney of the Supreme Court in May, 1837, along
with Charles Young, now the Hon. Dr. Young, LL.D., judge of the
Surrogate Court for the province of Prince Edward Island, both of whom
obtained _optimes_ on their examinations. This, therefore, is the year
of Judge Fogo’s professional jubilee. In 1838, according to the practice
then existing, he was admitted as a barrister of the Supreme Court.
Judge Fogo obtained the judicial appointment which he now holds on the
30th December, 1850, and has ever since, with the exception of a short
interregnum which took place on a change of government in 1864,
discharged the duties of his office with marked ability and satisfaction
to the public. He is well read in the learning of his profession, and
his judgments have almost invariably been sustained by the Supreme Court
in cases of appeals from his decisions. In 1851 he was offered the
solicitor-generalship of an adjoining colony, but an indisposition to
sever his connection with Nova Scotia induced him to decline the
acceptance of the offer. In his early years, before accepting his
judicial position, Judge Fogo was an active politician in the Liberal
interests, and on several occasions was urged by his friends to accept a
nomination as a candidate for the representative branch of the
legislature, but a regard to his personal interests prompted otherwise,
as he preferred the active duties of his profession to the turmoil and
uncertainty of political life. He was at one time connected with the
provincial militia, and on the 23rd July, 1864, obtained the commission
of major, having previously held the commission of first and second
lieutenants in the service. He was created a Queen’s counsel by the
Local government in 1878, his commission giving him precedence as such
in all courts of the province over all other Queen’s counsels appointed
after 23rd October, 1833. He was also, on the 27th July, 1879, appointed
a master in Chancery, now called a master in the Supreme Court. On the
11th October, 1880, he obtained the appointment of Queen’s counsel from
the Dominion government, when such appointments were ruled _ultra vires_
of the Provincial government, and since the date of his commission he
has been appointed by the presiding judge to conduct the criminal
business at each and every sitting of the Supreme Court at Pictou. Judge
Fogo was first married in December, 1846, to Jane, daughter of the late
Rev. John McKinlay, A.M., of Prince Street Presbyterian Church, Pictou,
who died in 1848, leaving one daughter, Charlotte Jane, who, on the 27th
of April, 1870, was united in marriage to the Hon. John F. Stairs, then
of Dartmouth, now of Halifax, and ex-M.P. of the House of Commons, and
who, to the great grief of her family and friends, died of that dreadful
malady, diphtheria, on the 28th May, 1886, leaving five children, her
son Walter, of the age of two and a half years, or thereabouts, having,
two days previously, fallen a victim to the same disease. This
dispensation of Providence naturally inflicted much mental suffering to
the subject of our sketch, as his daughter was an only child, gifted
with superior abilities, of a joyous and happy disposition, and
consequently a great favourite in the social circle wherever she moved,
and though the healing salve of time may cicatrize the wound occasioned
by her early and unexpected death, the scar will still remain. The judge
was married the second time to Elizabeth Ives, daughter of the late
James Ives, of the city of Halifax, architect. The judge has the
comforts of life in a liberal measure, and the mind and heart to enjoy
them. He is said by his friends to be a pleasant and effective speaker.
His mode of address is full of life and animation, and being gifted with
a luxuriant imagination and playful fancy, his public exhibitions afford
gratification to his auditors. He is a member of the Presbyterian
church. Though advanced in life, his age rests lightly upon him, and
none, to look at him and mark his quick and agile step, would dream that
he is now in the seventy-sixth year of his age. He has a delightful
residence at Belleville, opposite the railway station on the Pictou side
of the harbour, and which is thus described in “Meacham’s Illustrated
and Historical Atlas of the County of Pictou”:—“The building
represented to our view is a classical villa, after the Tuscan manner,
and was built by its proprietor in 1854. It is very beautifully
situated, and affords a most commanding view of the surrounding country.
The scene which is presented to the spectator on a summer day, when
shipping in the harbour is brisk, and vessels of all descriptions are
plying to and fro upon its waters, is one of an exceedingly pleasing and
animated character, and presents a panorama which is rarely equalled,
and difficult to surpass. The property is noted for the valuable free
stone in which it abounds, and which is now commanding an extensive sale
beyond the limits of the county, many thousands of tons having been
disposed of to rebuild the bridges on the Intercolonial Railway, by a
gentleman to whom the owner sold a few acres some years ago, leaving
untouched, however, extensive areas of superior stone for building
purposes, which brisker times would soon call into requisition.”

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Fothergill, Rev. Matthew Monkhouse=, Rector of St. Peter’s Church,
Quebec city, was born in Cefnrhychdir, Monmouthshire, Wales, England, on
the 11th November, 1834. His father was a leading agriculturist in South
Wales, and frequently carried off valuable prizes at Lord Tredegar’s
agricultural show for short-horns, thorough-bred horses, and mountain
sheep. Rev. M. Fothergill received his education at Ottery St. Mary,
Devonshire, King Edward’s Grammar School, Ely, and at St. Augustine’s
College, Canterbury, England. In 1857 he came to Canada, and made Quebec
his home, and here he was ordained by the late Bishop Mountain. He was
then appointed travelling missionary, and did good service for the cause
of the Master in this capacity. For twelve years he was a rural dean,
and was the first incumbent of the new mission of Danville. After having
built St. Augustine’s Church at Danville, he was called to Quebec city,
and made rector of St. Peter’s Church, which position he now occupies.
Rev. M. Fothergill is an active man, and outside his ministerial duties
he has found time to help in other directions. For fourteen years he has
held the position of secretary to the Church Society, is chaplain to the
Marine and Emigrant Hospital, and Government inspector of public
schools.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Longley, Hon. James Wilberforce=, M.P.P., M.E.C., Attorney-General of
Nova Scotia, Halifax, was born on the 4th January, 1849, at Paradise,
Annapolis county, Nova Scotia. His father, Israel Longley, who was of
English descent, was grandson of James Longley, a United Empire
loyalist, who settled in Annapolis county at the end of the American
revolutionary war. This gentleman took an active part in all the
political questions of his day, and was twice a candidate in Annapolis
for parliamentary honours in the Liberal interest, but failed on both
occasions to secure his election. His mother, Frances Manning, was the
youngest daughter of the Rev. James Manning, a pioneer Baptist minister,
who came from the north of Ireland, and settled in Annapolis county, and
laboured there in the cause of his divine Master until his death.
Attorney-General Longley was educated at Acadia College, where, in June,
1871, he received the degree of B.A., and in 1875 the degree of M.A. In
1871 he began the study of law in Halifax, finished his law studies at
Osgoode Hall, Toronto, Ontario, and was admitted to the bar of Nova
Scotia 10th September, 1875. In 1875 he was appointed a commissioner of
the Supreme Court, and a notary public, and in 1878 he was chosen law
clerk of the House of Assembly of Nova Scotia. On the 20th June, 1882,
he was elected to represent Annapolis county in the House of Assembly of
Nova Scotia, and in October of the same year he was made a commissioner
for revising and consolidating the statutes of the province. In July,
1884, Mr. Longley was sworn in as a member of the Executive Council, and
on the 25th June, 1886, was appointed attorney-general for his native
province. On the 15th June, 1886, he again contested Annapolis county
for a seat in the legislature, and was re-elected. Attorney-General
Longley is a member of the Alumni of Acadia College, and an
ex-president; has been an active member of all the liberal organizations
in the province for the past fifteen years, and is ex-president of the
Young Men’s Liberal Club of Halifax. He takes a great interest in
literary matters, and since 1872 has been a regular contributor to the
editorial columns of the _Acadian Recorder_, a regular daily Halifax
paper, and also writes on political subjects in various magazines. In
politics he is an ardent Liberal, and an uncompromising opponent of the
government led by Sir John A. Macdonald. He believes in unrestricted
trade relations with the United States as a substitute for the national
policy; is opposed to Imperial federation for the reason that the
interests of Canada are more closely identified with this continent, and
is in favour of the complete abolition of the Senate and all second
chambers whatever. In religious matters, though brought up in the
Baptist faith, he prefers to give his adhesion to the Episcopal church,
with no very high denominational preference. He was married on the 3rd
September, 1877, to Annie Brown, of Paradise, and has issue four
children, two boys and two girls.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Humphrey, John Albert=, M.P.P. for Westmoreland, New Brunswick,
Moncton, was born at Southampton, Nova Scotia, in 1823, and is the
second son of William and Mary Trueman Humphrey. The father and mother
of William Humphrey, the grandparents of the subject of this sketch,
came from Yorkshire, England, in 1775, to Halifax, and purchased a farm
at Falmouth, near Windsor, Nova Scotia, and remained there until 1797,
when William Humphrey died. Three years afterwards his widow and five
children removed to Sackville, New Brunswick, where William, her second
surviving son, married in 1821, Mary, daughter of William Trueman, who
emigrated from Yorkshire, England, in 1775, and settled at Pointe du
Bute. The young couple resided at Sackville after their marriage until
1822, when they removed to Southampton, Nova Scotia, and here John
Albert first saw the light. Here, and subsequently at Amherst, and at
the Mount Allison Wesleyan Academy, Sackville, he received his
education. After leaving school he went into business, and from 1845 to
1849 conducted a general milling business for his father, when he
purchased what is now known as the Humphrey’s Mills, at Moncton, and
removed there. In 1872 he was elected to represent Westmoreland county
in the legislature of New Brunswick, and again in 1874 he was returned
by the same constituency, but in 1878 he was defeated. He, however,
again presented himself for parliamentary honours in 1882, and was
elected, and at the general election in 1886 he was honoured once more
by being made a member of the Provincial parliament. Mr. Humphrey is
now, and from the inception has been, a director in and one of the
largest stockholders of the Moncton Gas Light and Water Company,
organized in 1878; is a director in and one of the largest stockholders
of the Moncton Sugar Refining Company, organized in 1880, and a director
and large shareholder in the Moncton Cotton Manufacturing Company,
organized in 1883. Mr. Humphrey is also the chief owner of the Moncton
woollen manufactory, at Humphrey’s Mills, started in 1884. In religion,
he is an adherent of the Methodist church, as nearly all his father’s
family have been for the past three generations. In politics he is a
Liberal-Conservative, and a strong supporter of the school system, of
the union of the provinces, and of the national policy. In 1855, Mr.
Humphrey married Sarah Jane, eldest daughter of Michael S. Harris,
shipbuilder and merchant, of Moncton.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Garneau, Hon. Pierre=, Quebec, Member of the Executive Council, and
Commissioner of Crown Lands for the province of Quebec, was born at Cap
Santé, Quebec province, on the 8th May, 1823. His ancestors came from
France in 1636, and were a family held in high estimation. Hon. Mr.
Garneau received his education in his native parish, and shortly after
leaving school removed to Quebec city, where he entered into business,
and after some years became a leading merchant and public spirited
citizen. In 1870 he was elected mayor of the city, and performed the
high and important duties of the office so faithfully that on the
expiration of his two years’ term he was unanimously re-elected for
another two years. He was chief promoter, and became president, of the
Quebec and Gulf Ports Steamship Company (now the Quebec Steamship
Company); was president of the Quebec Street Railway for fifteen years,
when he resigned in 1878; was a government director of the North Shore
Railway for many years; and a member of the Canal Commission in 1870. He
is a director of the Quebec and Lake St. John Lumber and Trading
Company; of the Deléry Gold Mining Company; of La Banque Nationale; of
the Quebec Fire Assurance Company; vice-president of the Quebec and
Levis Electric Light Co.; and a member of the Quebec Board of Trade. In
September, 1874, Hon. Mr. Garneau was appointed a member of the
Executive Council, and became commissioner of Agriculture and Public
Works for Quebec province; and shortly afterwards held the portfolio of
Crown Lands. In March, 1878, the de Boucherville government, of which he
was a member, having been defeated, he resigned with his colleagues. He
was first elected to the Quebec legislature on the 11th March, 1873, for
the county of Quebec, on the resignation of the sitting member; and was
re-elected at the general election in 1875. He was an unsuccessful
candidate at the general election of 1878, and remained out until 1881,
when he was again returned by acclamation. At the general election, held
in 1886, he was again forced to retire; but in January, 1887, he was
appointed a member of the Legislative Council for De la Durantaye, and
became commissioner of Crown Lands in the Mercier administration. Hon.
Mr. Garneau was the head and only surviving partner of the well-known
wholesale dry goods firm of P. Garneau et Frère, a firm that has been
held in the highest repute for years throughout Canada and Europe, and
is now senior partner of the firm of P. Garneau, Fils & Cie. In politics
he is a Conservative, and in religion a member of the Roman Catholic
church. In September, 1857, he was married to Cecilia Burroughs,
daughter of the late Edward Burroughs, a well-known and highly respected
prothonotary of Quebec. Two sons have been the issue of this marriage.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Beaton, Alexander H.=, Medical Superintendent of the Asylum for Idiots,
Orillia. The province of Ontario makes generous provision for the part
of its population that are unable to provide for themselves. The
provincial asylums for idiots, for the insane, the deaf, the dumb, and
the blind, are a credit to this young country. The proper management of
these institutions entails heavy responsibilities, not only upon the
government but upon the public servants who have them in charge. The
subject of this sketch, Dr. Alexander H. Beaton, has for ten years
occupied the position of superintendent of the Asylum for Idiots, at
Orillia, and deserves a full share of the credit due to our asylum
officials for the manner in which they discharge duties that are always
responsible and often trying and difficult. He was born on the 20th of
April, 1838, in the township of Pickering, county of Ontario, on the
farm on which the village of Whitevale now stands. His father, Colin
Beaton, emigrated from the Island of Mull, Scotland, in 1832, and was
one of the pioneer settlers of what is now the splendid county of
Ontario. His mother, Christina McKinnon, came from the same part of
Scotland in 1820. In those early days Canadian boys usually worked on
the farm during summer, and attended school in winter. Alexander H.
Beaton was no exception to this rule. His parents, like many of the
early settlers, could not afford to give their family a better education
than that which could be obtained in their own school section.
Fortunately for the Beaton family, the teacher in their section was
generally one of the best in the township. Alexander and his younger
brother, Donald, were among the best scholars in the school, and were
usually found in a prominent place when the teacher wished to “put his
best foot forward” on examination days. Both boys had resolved that
farming was not to be their life work. At the age of eighteen Alexander
obtained a second-class certificate and proceeded to take a place on
that “stepping stone” about which so much used to be said by those who
complained that many who are now among the most useful and prominent men
in the province, merely taught school as a way into some other vocation.
His first school was in the township of Vaughan, near Thornhill. In 1857
he taught at Duffin’s Creek, and in the following year entered the
office of Ross, Crawford & Crombie, barristers, Toronto, with the
intention of studying law. The way to the legal profession was, however,
soon blocked. He had not sufficient means to maintain himself in Toronto
for five years, and his father had suffered severely in the financial
storm which swept over the country at that time. It became necessary to
leave Toronto, mount the “stepping stone” again and earn more money. In
1860 and 1861 he taught in Claremont, in the township of Pickering, and
in the following year in Ashburn, township of Whitby. During these years
the intention of entering the legal profession was abandoned, and he
prepared himself for the study of medicine. In the session of 1862 and
1863 he entered the Toronto School of Medicine, and attended the Rolph
School in the summer of 1863, there being no summer session in the
Toronto School. Continuing his studies in the Rolph School, he was
graduated by that institution in April, 1864. Soon after graduation he
began the practice of his profession, and continued in practice for
twelve years. Nine years of the twelve were spent in Stayner, county of
Simcoe, where he enjoyed a large and lucrative practice, when appointed
by the Ontario government to his present position. By birth and choice
Dr. Beaton is a Presbyterian. Though in favour of wise progress in all
proper directions, he is at the same time wisely conservative in
ecclesiastical matters, and would readily be classed among the many
“solid men” of the Presbyterian family communion. He has for many years
been an office-bearer of his church, and takes a deep interest in all
matters affecting the welfare of Canadian Presbyterianism. He is liberal
in his support of the educational and other institutions of his church,
his contributions always ranking with the highest given in his locality.
In all his church relations Dr. Beaton is vigorously assisted by Mrs.
Beaton, who, along with the family to which she belongs, is devotedly
attached to Presbyterianism. Previous to his appointment to his present
position, Dr. Beaton took an active part in politics. By birth, training
and conviction he is a Liberal. Having a natural aptitude for public
speaking and no special dislike to the “roar around the hustings,” as
the late D’Arcy McGee once happily put it, his services were always in
demand at election times, and were freely given. He took an active part
in the exciting contests of 1872 and 1874, and whilst in political life
was always ready to do his full share of work and take his full share of
responsibility. In January, 1877, he was appointed to his present
position, the duties of which have been quietly but faithfully and
efficiently discharged. For the proper discharge of these duties Dr.
Beaton has many excellent qualifications. He is firm yet kind-hearted,
and has the faculty of seeing and appreciating honest worth and real
ability in his assistants. The success of an asylum superintendent often
depends as much on his tact in dealing with his assistants as on his
ability to care for the unfortunates placed under his charge. He readily
recognizes real worth, however humble the position of the employee who
manifests it, and nothing affords him more pleasure than to see
faithfulness and efficiency in his subordinates. In his dealings with
the patients under his care he is uniformly kind, his intercourse with
them savouring more of the paternal than of the official. He holds the
theory that almost any idiot can be educated, at least, to a certain
extent, and that it is the duty of the government, which in Ontario
simply means the people, to give the idiot population all the education
they are capable of receiving. It is assumed, Dr. Beaton argues, that
the province should provide a free education for the children that have
the proper use of their faculties of mind and body. How much more urgent
and binding is the duty of educating those who have impaired bodily
powers and the mere germ of an intellect? It is expected that in the new
asylum buildings now in course of erection at Orillia, ample provision
will be made not only for the care, but also for the training of the
patients. The superintendent will then have ample facilities for
carrying out his theory, and the unfortunates under his care will, in
addition to the comforts of a well-managed home, receive such an
education as their faculties permit. In 1870 Dr. Beaton was united in
marriage with Margaret Ann McNiven, daughter of Donald McNiven, then a
resident of Bradford, county of Simcoe, but at present residing in
Harriston, county of Wellington.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Ross, Hon. William=, Collector of Customs, Halifax, was born at
Boulardarie, Victoria county, Cape Breton, on the 27th December, 1825.
His parents, John Ross and Robina Mackenzie, emigrated from
Sutherlandshire, Scotland, in 1816, and settled in Pictou, Nova Scotia,
and after remaining there five years removed to Boulardarie, Cape
Breton. William received his primary education in the public school of
his native place, and afterwards was sent to Halifax, where he completed
his studies in the Normal School of that city. In 1848 he began business
as a merchant in Englishtown, Cape Breton, and in this he continued
until 1874. During this period he was extensively engaged in prosecuting
the mackarel, herring, cod, and salmon fisheries, and also did a large
business in the cattle trade between Cape Breton and Newfoundland. For
several years he was postmaster of Englishtown. In 1861 he passed his
military examination, and was appointed colonel of the 30th regiment
Victoria Militia of Nova Scotia, and retired from active service in
1874. In 1859 Mr. Ross entered politics as a Liberal, and was returned,
under universal suffrage law, as a member of the Nova Scotian
legislature by a majority of 516. Again, in 1863, when the property
qualification law came into force, he was elected by a large majority,
and conscientiously opposed the Johnstone-Tupper government from that
time up to 1867, when he retired from local politics, and was elected by
acclamation for the county of Victoria, Cape Breton, to the House of
Commons at Ottawa, after having sat for eight years in the Nova Scotian
legislature. In 1872, on the occasion of a general election, he was
again returned by acclamation by his native county; and on the downfall
of the Sir John A. Macdonald administration in November, 1873, and on
the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie assuming the government, Mr. Ross was made
Minister of Militia. After his acceptance of this responsible office,
and on his presenting himself for re-election, he was stoutly opposed by
the Conservatives in his county, but, nevertheless, he was returned for
the third time, in February, 1874, to the Dominion parliament by
acclamation. Shortly afterwards the Hon. Mr. Ross retired from active
political life, and was appointed collector of customs for the port of
Halifax, and this important and responsible position he still continues
to fill. In 1852 he joined the Masonic fraternity, and for two years was
worshipful master of Virgin lodge, No. 3, Halifax; and was also twice in
succession elected high priest of Royal Union Chapter of Halifax. He is
now past deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia; and
although he has been repeatedly nominated as grand master, he has
refused the honour. He has occupied the position of vice-president and
president of the North British Society. He has travelled through
Newfoundland, part of the United States, and has visited every important
point in Canada as far west as Lake Harno. Hon. Mr. Ross is an adherent
of the Presbyterian church, and in politics is a Liberal. In March,
1855, he was married to Eliza H. Moore, daughter of P. H. Moore, of the
firm of Gammell and Moore, of North Sydney. The fruit of this marriage
was eight children, six of whom now survive.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Labelle, Captain Jean Baptiste=, Montreal, M.P. for the county of
Richelieu, was born at Sorel, province of Quebec, on 27th May, 1836. He
is descended on the paternal side from a very old French-Canadian
family, the first of whom came from France as a soldier, and after
getting his discharge settled in the country. On the maternal side the
family also came from France, and has been many years in the country.
His father, Toussaint Labelle, was a navigator, and his mother was named
Marguerite Genton Dauphine. Captain Labelle received his education in
the parish school at Sorel; and as he grew up took to sailing craft on
the St. Lawrence river. He soon became an expert navigator, and for over
twenty-five years commanded one of the finest of the Richelieu and
Ontario Navigation Company’s passenger steamers, sailing between
Montreal and Quebec. In 1880 Captain Labelle gave up sailing, and
received the appointment of passenger agent at Montreal, of the Quebec,
Montreal, Ottawa and Occidental Railway Company; and in 1883 he was made
general manager of the Richelieu and Ontario Navigation Company, which
position he still holds. In 1868, at the general election then held, Mr.
Labelle presented himself as a candidate for the Quebec Legislature for
Richelieu county, but was defeated by the small majority of nine against
him. At the general election held in 1887, he again presented himself to
the same constituency, and was returned as a member of the House of
Commons at Ottawa. As a commander, Mr. Labelle was one of the most
popular who ever sailed the St. Lawrence. He was noted for his courtesy
and forbearance; his ability, and his coolness and intrepidity, which he
exhibited on several occasions, especially during the inundation of the
Island of Sorel in 1865, and on the occasion of the burning of the
steamer _Montreal_, in 1857. In politics, Captain Labelle is a
Conservative; and in religion, a member of the Roman Catholic church. In
1856, he was married to Delphine Crébassa, daughter of Narcisse
Crébassa, notary, of Sorel, a remote descendant of a Spanish family that
at first emigrated to Holland, and from thence came and settled in
Canada.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=MacCoy, William Frederick=, Q.C., Barrister, M.P.P. for Shelburne, Nova
Scotia, Halifax, is a native of Ireland, he having been born at Lysrian,
in the county of Longford, on the 15th May, 1840. His father, Thomas
MacCoy, emigrated to Nova Scotia when William was only eight years of
age. His mother, of whom he has no personal knowledge, died a few hours
after giving birth to her boy; and his father died about twenty-four
years ago. William Frederick MacCoy commenced his educational studies at
the National School in Halifax, and graduated at Sackville Academy, New
Brunswick. He adopted law as a profession, and was called to the bar of
Nova Scotia, in 1864. On the 11th October, 1880, he was appointed a
Queen’s counsel. He practised his profession in Shelburne for about nine
years, and then removed to Halifax, and is now the head of the firm of
MacCoy, Pearson, Morrison, and Forbes, barristers, notaries and
solicitors in Admiralty. The firm does a large and lucrative law
business. He was elected one of the aldermen of the city of Halifax, in
1881, and in 1882 was offered the position of attorney-general in the
Liberal government of that day, but declined the honour, considering
that his colleague had a prior claim. Mr. MacCoy was an unsuccessful
candidate for a seat in the Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia at the
general election of 1878, but at the next general election, he succeeded
in securing his election by 247 of a majority, and in January, 1887, he
was again elected to his old seat. He is a Liberal in politics, and in
religion an adherent of the Methodist church. In 1864, he received a
commission as captain in the militia, and takes a lively interest in our
citizen soldiers. The year after he joined the Masonic order, and is now
a past master of St. Andrew’s lodge, Halifax. He, we are glad to say, is
a strong temperance man, and for years, has taken a deep interest in the
advancement of temperance legislature, and is the author of the present
Temperance Act of Nova Scotia. He is a member of the Independent Order
of Good Templars, and his eminent legal knowledge renders him a very
useful member of his lodge, when constitutional questions come up for
discussion. In the legislature he has won a position of prominence, and
has aided in shaping to a great extent the progressive measures
introduced of late years, and is one of the recognized leaders of his
party. On the 14th July, 1868, he was married to Maud L., daughter of
Robert P. Woodill, merchant, Shelburne, and has a family of two
children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Whidden, Charles Blanchard=, ex-M.P.P. for Antigonish, Nova Scotia, was
born at Antigonish, on the 5th June, 1831, and still resides in the
place of his birth. He is the youngest son of John Blair Whidden, who
was born in Stewiacke, Colchester county, N.S., in 1791, and great
grandson of James Whidden, who immigrated from New Hampshire and settled
in Truro in 1760. His mother, Harriet Elizabeth Symonds, was a daughter
of Nathaniel and Elizabeth Symonds, who came from New Hampshire in 1804,
and were among the first settlers in Antigonish. Mr. Whidden, sen., when
a lad of ten years of age, having lost his father, spent some years with
an elder sister in the district of St. Marys, and afterwards came to
Antigonish in 1807, where he purchased a small property in what is now
the town of Antigonish, and in December, 1816, married the mother of the
subject of this sketch, the lady alluded to above. C. B. Whidden’s
father was ordained to the Baptist ministry in 1834, and continued to
labour for that denomination in the destitute parts of Nova Scotia until
his death, which occurred on the 19th July, 1864. His wife survived him
a number of years, and passed away to the higher life in May, 1878,
wanting only two months of reaching her eightieth year. Charles was
educated at the Grammar School and at the Academy in Antigonish. After
leaving school, he continued on a farm for some time; but in 1863 he
began business on his own account on a small scale, and devoting all his
energies to what he had undertaken, soon became independent. He at one
time was largely interested in shipping, and is still to a limited
extent. In 1883 he retired from active business pursuits in favour of
his two sons, David Graham and Charles Edgar. Mr. Whidden is a member of
the Baptist church, and in politics a Liberal-Conservative. He ran as a
candidate for a seat in the House of Commons at Ottawa in 1878, but was
defeated by a small majority. Again, in June, 1882, he made another
attempt to gain a seat in the Commons, but met with defeat. However, in
September of the same year, he became a candidate in the local election,
and was chosen to represent his native county in the House of Assembly
of Nova Scotia. In this house he sat for four years, until the general
election in 1886, when he suffered defeat on presenting himself for
re-election, in consequence of the repeal cry, he being opposed to any
change in the political status of his province so far as the Dominion is
concerned. In 1866 and 1867 he showed himself strongly in favour of the
confederation of the provinces, and worked hard in its favour. He is a
strong believer in our common country, and predicts a great future for
it. He always places country above and beyond all minor interests. In
December, 1856, he was married to Eunice C. Graham, second daughter of
the late Captain David Graham, and Mary Bigelow, his wife. The fruit of
this marriage has been seven children, four of whom have been carried
away by death. Two of his sons, as will be seen above, have succeeded
their father in business, and his youngest son, Howard P., is now taking
a college course at Wolfville.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Cuthbert, Edward Octavian J. A.=, Seignior of Berthier, ex-M.P. for the
county of Berthier, province of Quebec, was born at the Manor House,
Berthier (_en haut_), on the 3rd December, 1826. His father, the late
Hon. James Cuthbert, was a scion of the Cuthberts of Castle Hill,
Inverness-shire, Scotland; seignior of Berthier, province of Quebec; for
many years a member of the Special Council of Lower Canada; and in his
lifetime rendered valuable service to the state. His mother was Mary
Louise A. Cairns. His grandfather, the first Hon. James Cuthbert, was
seignior of the seigniories of Lanoraie, Berthier, and Maskinongé, and
in his early days served in the Royal navy as a lieutenant. He was on
board the flagship at the bombardment of Carthagena, and was selected to
carry home to Britain the tidings of the capture of that stronghold. On
his retirement from the navy he was appointed to the command of one of
the independent military companies formed in Inverness, which afterwards
was called the “Black Watch,” and is now known as the 42nd Highlanders,
and for some time served in that regiment. While in Inverness he was
presented with a handsome piece of plate by the citizens for special
services. He afterwards joined the 15th regiment of foot, and assisted
at the taking of Louisburg. He was also with General Wolfe at the battle
of the Plains of Abraham, and had the honour of being selected by
General Murray, to whom he acted as _aide-de-camp_, to carry to Britain
the news of the fall of Quebec. On his return to Canada he again joined
General Murray’s staff, and in this position he remained until peace was
fully restored, when he retired from the army. He was then appointed by
Lord Dorchester one of the members of the first Legislative Council
formed after the conquest, and became one of the first permanent British
settlers in Lower Canada. During the American revolutionary war he was
particularly active in suppressing insurrection, and instilling into the
minds of the Canadians sentiments of loyalty and attachment to the
British Crown. Edward, the subject of our sketch, received his first
education at the Berthier Academy, and then at Chambly College, at
Chambly. Soon after leaving college he began to take an interest in
public affairs, and was afterwards elected mayor of Berthier, and
president of the County Agricultural Society. In 1867 Mr. Cuthbert
entered the field of politics, and at the general election held in 1872
he ran in the Conservative interest, but was defeated. A few years
afterwards his political opponent, Mr. Pâquet, having been called to the
Senate, he again presented himself to the electors, and was returned by
them as their representative in the House of Commons at Ottawa. From
this time until the dissolution of the house in 1886 he occupied a
prominent position in the legislature, when he was forced, through
failing health, to abandon political life, and retire to his quiet home
at Berthier. Mr. Cuthbert took a lively interest in the construction of
the North Shore Railway; and has also done a good deal to improve the
live stock in his native county. In politics he always sided with the
Conservative party; and in religion is a member of the Roman Catholic
church. On the 1st December, 1853, he was married to Mary, eldest
daughter of Augustus Bostwick, who in his lifetime was an advocate and
Queen’s counsel at Three Rivers, province of Quebec, and Georgiana
Cuthbert (Mr. Cuthbert’s cousin), who was a daughter of the late Hon.
Ross Cuthbert, seignior of Lanoraie and Maskinongé. Mrs. Cuthbert died
in February, 1885, leaving two sons and twin daughters.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Baby, Hon. Judge Louis François Georges=, Judge of the Court of Queen’s
Bench of the Province of Quebec, was born in the city of Montreal, on
the 26th August, 1834, and is descended from one of the oldest and most
respected families in Quebec province. The founder of the family in
Canada was Jacques Baby de Ranville, a nobleman from the south of
France, who was an officer of the celebrated regiment of
_Carignan-Salieres_, and arrived here in 1662. By the family records and
papers it can be traced up to 1375 without interruption. Representatives
of the family have distinguished themselves on the battle-field, as well
as in the councils of the state both here and in France. Several of them
have been knights of Malta and of St. John of Jerusalem. The last
governors under the French régime, had many a time occasion to call the
special attention of the king of France to the meritorious deeds and
gallant actions of members of this notable family. Several of the
distinguished men who bore this name were killed in these early days in
battle. The grandfather of Judge Baby was the Hon. François Baby, an
executive and legislative councillor of the province of Quebec, and in
1775, adjutant-general of the same province, who with his brother-in-law
Charles Tarieu de Lanaudière, then _aide-de-camp_ to Lord Dorchester,
took a very active part in the stirring events of the time. His
grandmother was Marie Anne de Lanaudière, a descendant of M. de
Lanaudière, governor of Montreal in 1664, and of Madelon de Verchères,
the heroine of “La Nouvelle France.” Judge Baby’s father was Joseph
Baby, a colonel in the militia and long a notary public and prominent
citizen of Joliette, where he died in 1871. His mother, Caroline Guy,
was a daughter of the Hon. Louis Guy, in his lifetime king’s notary, and
a member of the Legislative Council of the province of Quebec. The
subject of our sketch, Judge Baby, was educated in St. Sulpice College,
in his native city, and also at Joliette College. After leaving school,
where he had attained high distinctions, he chose the law as a
profession, and studied in the office of Drummond and Loranger, of
Montreal, both of whom became ministers of the Crown and were afterwards
made judges. However, previous to his admission to the bar, he entered
the civil service of Canada, in the attorney-general’s department for
Lower Canada and for several years occupied the position of clerk, under
the government, but was invited by the late Sir G. E. Cartier to
relinquish this position for a more extended field of usefulness. He was
a particular friend of the late Chief Justice Harrison, who was also a
clerk in the civil service at the same time as he. In 1857 he was called
to the bar, and practised his profession in Montreal, in partnership
with the Hon. Louis T. Drummond, when his health becoming impaired, he
removed to Joliette, where he continued his practice with considerable
success, in partnership with the late Hon. L. A. Oliver, who was
appointed a judge in the superior court, in 1875, having been previously
a legislative councillor and a senator, and was also mayor of that place
for four or five terms. Though long deeply interested in politics, Mr.
Baby did not enter public life until 1867, when he became a candidate
for Joliette in the Dominion parliament. At this time, however, through
the over confidence of his friends and supporters, he failed to be
elected. Five years later, at the general election of 1872, he was
returned by acclamation; was re-elected in 1874; unseated on petition on
the 28th October of that year; was re-elected on the 10th December
following, by a much larger majority; and again, at the general election
in September, 1878, he was returned by a still increased majority. On
the 26th of the next month, on the return of the Conservatives to power,
he entered the cabinet with his friend the Hon. L. R. Masson, and was
made minister of Inland Revenue. During the time he held this portfolio,
he displayed great tact and firmness, and gave great satisfaction to the
public. In 1875 he had the honour of introducing the bill for the
abolition of the death penalty in cases of assault with intent to commit
rape—a bill which was subsequently taken up by the Hon. Mr. Blake, the
then minister of Justice, and carried through parliament. During his
term of office, he successfully carried through the House of Commons
acts for the consolidation and amendment of the weights and measures,
the excise laws, stamp act, tobacco laws, etc., and took generally a
very active and patriotic part in the affairs of the nation; in 1880 he
retired from political life, and was made judge of the Superior Court of
Quebec, and subsequently, in September, 1881, promoted to the Court of
Queen’s Bench, which position he fills with dignity, and is very much
respected by his _confrères_ on the bench. Among the many praiseworthy
deeds of Judge Baby’s life is the valuable assistance he rendered in the
founding of the Montreal Historical Society, of which he has been an
efficient member since its formation. He is himself a historian of some
repute, having, like the late Chief Justice Lafontaine, devoted a good
deal of his time in researches of a historical character, particularly
with reference to Canada, and has brought together, not however without
considerable expense and trouble, one of the finest collections of
Canadian manuscripts in existence, and the historical department of his
extensive library is especially rich and attractive in Canadian
literature. He is an honorary member of the Institut-Canadien of Quebec,
and also of Ottawa, and a member and the president of the Antiquarian
and Numismatic Society of Montreal. For this last branch of study Judge
Baby seems to have a passion,—having devoted more or less time to it
for a number of years—and his collection of coins and medals, foreign
and domestic, is one of the best in Canada. He is a member of the Roman
Catholic church, a prominent and much respected citizen, and a notable
figure in literary and religious circles, and appears never to forget
his family motto, “_Dire vrai; faire bien_.” In July, 1873, he was
married to Maria Helene Adelaide, daughter of the late Dr. Berthelet of
Montreal (knight of the order of St. Sepulchre of France), and Dame
Helene Guy. They have no children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Ritchie, Hon. Joseph Norman=, Judge of the Supreme Court of Nova
Scotia, Halifax, was born on the 25th May, 1834, at Annapolis Royal,
Nova Scotia. His parents were Hon. Thomas Ritchie, judge of the Court of
Common Pleas of Nova Scotia, and Anne, daughter of I. N. Bond, M.D.,
Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. Judge Joseph Norman Ritchie was educated at
King’s College, Windsor, Nova Scotia, where he took the degree of M.A.
He afterwards studied law, and was called to the bar of Nova Scotia on
the 30th November, 1857; was made a Queen’s counsel on 26th September,
1872; and was raised to the bench as a judge of the Supreme Court on the
26th September, 1885. For several years previous to his elevation to the
bench he acted in the capacity of recorder for the city of Halifax. In
1859, on the organization of the volunteer militia in Nova Scotia, Judge
Ritchie joined the force and continued in it and the active militia of
Canada until 1879. He holds a lieutenant-colonel’s commission, bearing
date 17th March, 1876. For several years he was also one of the
directors of the Merchants Bank of Halifax. In religion the judge is and
always has been an adherent of the Church of England. He has for wife
Mary, daughter of John Cochran, of Newport, U.S.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Lorrain, Right Reverend Narcisse Zephirin=, Bishop of Cythera and Vicar
Apostolic of Pontiac, with his residence at Pembroke, Ontario, was born
the 13th June, 1842, at St. Martin, county of Laval. His father,
Narcisse Lorrain, is a descendant of that sturdy stock of pioneers who
settled the northern district of the province of Quebec, and have
representatives in the counties of Terrebonne, Two Mountains,
Argenteuil, etc., and is considered one of the well to-do farmers of the
rich county of Laval. Mr. Lorrain, sr., was married to Sophia Goyer. In
1855 Mgr. Lorrain was sent to the seminary of Ste. Thérèse, in the
county of Terrebonne, where he commenced his classical studies. That
institution, which had been founded some forty years before by the Rev.
Messire Charles Ducharme, a venerable priest whose memory will for ever
live in the hearts of the people of that district, was then under the
direction of Messire Dagenais, superior, and Messire Nantel (an elder
brother of the M.P.P. for Terrebonne), as prefect of studies. Messire
Nantel is well known as a _littérateur_ of no mean order, one of his
principal works being a translation into French of Ollendorf’s English
Grammar. These gentlemen soon discovered that the youth was an unusually
bright pupil, and they resolved to spare no endeavour to further his
studies, thinking, and not without good grounds, that in the future he
would be an honour to the seminary. The career of Mgr. Lorrain has
proved that they were not wrong, as he has taken a prominent place among
the scores of other men of note who have graduated at that institution;
among others the Hon. Théodore Robitaille, ex-lieutenant-governor of the
province of Quebec; Hon. Gédéon Ouimet, superintendent of public
instruction, Quebec, and many members of parliament and senators,
besides many lawyers and doctors. To a quick and perceptive mind, Mgr.
Lorrain joined a sound judgment, with more than his share of energy, the
latter quality being in fact one of the distinguishing traits of his
character. It is to the knowledge of the writer of this sketch, who was
a school mate of Mgr. Lorrain, that at the end of each month, when the
notes were read by the director of the seminary, his conduct was always
marked down as “exemplary.” One year he carried eighteen prizes in his
class. He entered on the study of theology at the end of his classical
course, teaching a class at the same time, and was beloved by the pupils
under his charge on account of his kindly disposition and gentle
manners, which were not, however, without an admixture of firmness. He
knew how to instil the love of discipline which he himself possessed in
such an eminent degree. In 1864, Mgr. Lorrain graduated at Laval
University, where he received the degree of Bachelor of Sciences, and he
was ordained priest on the 4th of August, 1867, being then appointed
assistant director at the Seminary of Ste. Thérèse, which position he
filled until the 15th of August, 1869, when he was appointed pastor to
the congregation of Redford, Clinton county, in the state of New York.
On the 3rd of August, 1880, he was promoted and appointed vicar-general
of the diocese of Montreal. His appointment caused some surprise to a
great many people who did not know him intimately; but the ability he
displayed in the management of the affairs, and in the liquidation of
the debts of the episcopal corporation, then in financial troubles, soon
justified the choice the bishop of the diocese of Montreal had made of
his person for such an important position as that of vicar general. And
the surprise changed to wonder when two years later, being barely forty
years of age, on the 21st of September, 1882, he was consecrated
titulary bishop of Cythera and vicar apostolic of Pontiac, with place of
residence at Pembroke, he being the first bishop of that diocese. In
this new field of labour Mgr. Lorrain has distinguished himself, doing
his utmost to concentrate the scattered elements of his extended but
sparsely-settled diocese, and the energy and strong will which had
characterised his student life were displayed on a larger scale, an
instance of which may be cited from the fact of his having travelled, in
1884, a distance of 1,500 miles, in a bark canoe. And here we cannot do
better than reproduce the account of this trip, which appeared shortly
after his lordship’s return, in the Pembroke _Standard_, and is of great
interest:

    His lordship’s tour has been an extended one of some sixty-four
    days. His up voyage to Abbitibi has already been described in
    our columns. The story of the trip from Abbitibi northwards will
    be narrated in a series of articles containing, besides the
    description itself, copious and reliable information on the
    agricultural, mineral and timber interests of this vast expanse
    of virgin soil. Suffice it to say now that the Temiscamingue
    region is represented as waiting colonization; and that from the
    height of land northwards, a stretch of 150 miles across,
    extending indefinitely east and west, gains, by lowness of the
    situation, a mildness of temperature that probably lasts long
    enough to mature the luxuriant growth of early vegetation.
    Around Hudson Bay and for a considerable distance southwards,
    the land is low, swampy, and impoverished; the soil unproductive
    and the timbers dwarfed. Geological specimens have been brought
    back by the party, and sketches of the more picturesque points
    have been taken by the master hand of Father Paradis. Travelling
    through these northern wilds, while it may have its interest for
    the geologist or the artist, is by no means the embodiment of
    physical happiness. On water and on land the inconveniences are
    many and annoying. To paddle over rough waves and through
    beating rain, to portage a hundred rapids, some of them three
    miles in length, over rocks and ravines and fallen trees,
    through wet and tangled grass and brushwood; to camp in swarms
    of mosquitoes and sand-flies, on swampy ground, where more than
    once after the tents had been beaten through by nights of
    falling rain, a half a foot of water has flooded the tent-floor,
    branches and blankets; to wade knee deep for a mile or even two
    miles through sharp cut stones and slough and water, in the
    endeavour to reach the shore and wait the tide that alone can
    give sufficient depth on certain parts of James Bay, to bear
    along a laden canoe; to endure all this and more, is but a
    specimen of the hardships gone through by travellers to these
    northern districts. Though the Indians are cool intrepid guides,
    the most provoking shortcomings have to be accepted from their
    hands, no matter how reluctantly, still with silence and
    patience. On the water they work well, but once on shore, to
    camp for the night, or to get out of catching gales, or at the
    posts where missions are given, it is almost impossible to get
    them under way again; teasing disappointments and delay, an axe,
    a blanket, a tin pan left behind prolong the stay, and time is
    killed, and programmes spoiled, and patience tried. The fiercest
    storm encountered, perhaps, was on the 24th of June, the day
    after the party left Abbitibi, when the thermometer fell 43°,
    and the north-western extremity of the lake rolled mountain high
    before the sweeping hurricane. To advance was impossible; the
    camp was pitched, and beneath the swaying trees, and storming
    rain, the day was passed wretchedly beyond description.
    Disappointments like this have often to be encountered on the
    trip. They are annoying in more ways than one. Even the
    provisions stand a chance of running short, the more so as the
    Indians, during these delays, pass the time in gorging, being
    content with nothing less than half a dozen meals each day. The
    portages from Abbitibi to Moose Factory are twenty-one in
    number; some of them may be run in a canoe, but the greater
    number have to be footed. From the 25th to the 27th of June the
    voyage was agreeable enough, excepting that at times, and for a
    distance, during these days, of fifteen miles, the oft repeated
    feat of wading waist deep through water and struggling along
    rugged banks, had to be resorted to through sheer necessity of
    making any headway. On the 28th the hair-breadth escape of the
    journey occurred. It was the _Rapide de L’Île_. Ordinarily the
    rapid is run without imminent risk by keeping aloof from the
    whirling eddy half way down its course; but the bowsman did
    slovenly work, and before the approach of danger was realized
    the canoe was sucked into the engulfing seething pool, and was
    spun twice around as on a pivot, in the very centre of the rapid
    where the broken waves leaped high, and the foam splashed
    fiercely, blinding the paddlers and filling the boat. Two feet
    more and the canoe was beyond all rescue. It was a thrilling
    moment. Death, swift and sure, was but the moiety of a minute
    off; but the long-made resolves of coolness in case of such an
    accident stood well to the occupants of the boat. The
    steersman—the most intrepid perhaps on the northern
    waters—muttered one short monosyllable, and in the twinkling of
    an eye every paddle was in its position, and the canoe leaped
    forward, rocked in the hollows of the waves and forced sideways
    up the billows to be hurled down again below, till the main
    current was reached, one stroke of the brave steersman swung it
    half round and sent it dashing down to the more placid waters at
    the foot of the rapids. “God be blessed,” went up from the
    hearts of the bishop and his missionaries; and flowing bowls of
    strong tea rewarded the proud Indians. On the 29th June the
    party arrived at New-Post, a fort of the Hudson Bay Company,
    some 150 miles from Abbitibi, and 120 from Moose Factory. Here a
    mission was given during the day, and at evening the start was
    made for Moose Factory. Four portages more are passed ere the
    party reaches Moose Factory on the 2nd July. This fort is the
    headquarters of the company, and is by far the most important on
    the whole route. The following morning the canoe heads for
    Albany, another post of the H. B. Company, situated on the river
    Albany, which flows into James Bay. But neither the heavens nor
    the sea was propitious, and nine miles from the Factory the
    canoe was brought to a stand-still by a face-beating wind, and
    by a low tide, whose influence is felt even twenty-five miles up
    the Moose river. For three days the camp is pitched on the river
    bank, the wind blows, the rain pours down, a tempest rages, it
    hails and even snows; till a consultation being held, the whole
    party picked up their effects and put back to Moose. This was on
    Sunday, the 6th July. On Tuesday a new and more successful
    departure is made for Albany, which is reached on the 11th of
    the month. A mission, most gratifying in its results, was given
    here till the 15th, when the home trip was begun. At Albany
    there is a magnificent wooden church, 50 feet by 26;
    tower-crowned, gothic style, and bell-decked. Some 500 Indians
    are attached to this mission church. On the 18th July, Moose
    Factory was reached on the home voyage. The next day the canoe
    is off again for New-Post, but more disappointment is ahead. A
    high tide coming in at night submerges the canoe and cargo lying
    on the river shore; and for the following days so strong is the
    current that 15 miles have to be tramped on foot before New-Post
    comes in sight. To walk 15 miles is nothing in itself, but to
    walk 15 miles, up to the waist in cold water, piercing one’s
    feet with the sharp cornered pebbles of the river bottom, and to
    drag along a boat and its effects through the opposing stream,
    all this is something. New-Post is entered on the 25th, and is
    left the next evening, a large number of Indians accompanying to
    15 miles from the post, where, after a portage of three miles in
    length has been made, mass is celebrated for the crowd on Sunday
    morning. On the 2nd August the return party arrives at Abbitibi,
    where a large congregation of Indians are assembled to attend
    divine services on the following Sunday. On Monday, the 4th
    August, the prow points towards Temiscamingue, which gives glad
    welcome to the party on the 7th. The three following days are
    devoted to the mission; and on Monday afternoon a start is made.
    The next day, after running five rapids and portaging over
    three, the party paddled into Mattawa at 8 o’clock in the
    evening. The voyage home, and reception, we have referred to in
    the beginning of this article. The trip has been fraught with
    spiritual blessings for 1,400 Indians, that are proud to be the
    subjects of the zealous and hard-working bishop of Pembroke.
    _Non recuso laborem_, “I flee not work,” we read on his
    coat-of-arms two years ago, when he took possession of his See
    in this town. His heart, even then, when he devised this motto,
    must have beat love for the poor Indians of Hudson Bay.

In 1887, Mgr. Lorrain travelled 1,700 miles on his pastoral visit to the
Indian missions on the Upper Ottawa, Rupert’s Land and the Upper St.
Maurice. His route was from Ottawa, _via_ Pembroke, to Lakes
Temiscamingue, Obaching, Kepewa, etc., thence to the source of the River
du Molhe; from here through a chain of lakes to the “Lac Barrière”
mission, now on Lake Wapous; thence to Lake Wassepatebi, lying between
the province of Quebec and Rupert’s Land; through Cypress Lake, River
Pekeskak, by a chain of five lakes, the Laloche river to Lake Waswanipi.
The return trip was made by the same route as far as Lake Waswanipi, to
the Mekiskan river and the upper waters of the St. Maurice; thence
through various lakes, Lake Long, Lake Coucoucache and others to the
Grand Piles. This involved a trip of 1,700 miles, mostly by water in
bark canoe, occupying two months and six days, and 1,172 miles being
travelled by canoe. The portages were from an arpent to four miles long,
and there were 157 of them. During the five years Bishop N. Z. Lorrain
has been in Pembroke he has paid an old debt of $11,000 on the church;
built a magnificent episcopal residence at a cost of $18,000, upon which
sum $8,000 has been paid; bought twenty-nine acres of land for a
graveyard; purchased plots of sixteen acres of ground in the most
beautiful part of the town, as sites for charitable institutions in the
future. Mgr. Lorrain is an eminent English scholar. There is no doubt he
is destined to do a great work for his country, and that his wise
counsel will always have weight in the periodical councils of his
church.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Coleman, Arthur Philemon=, Ph.D., Professor of Geology and Natural
History, Victoria University, Cobourg, was born on the 4th of April,
1852, at Lachute, province of Quebec. His father was the Rev. Francis
Coleman, a minister of the Methodist Church of Canada, and his mother,
Emmeline Maria Adams, was a descendant of John Quincy Adams. His early
education was obtained in various public and high schools of Ontario,
according to the station occupied by his father, as an itinerant
Methodist minister; and this ended in a course of two years in Cobourg
Collegiate Institute. In 1872, he matriculated in Victoria University,
Cobourg, and after four years’ residence, graduated in 1876 as Bachelor
of Arts, taking honours and a gold medal. On the advice of Dr. Haanel,
whose eloquence and ability as a professor had inspired him to study
science, he sailed for Europe, and in 1880, matriculated in the
University of Breslau, in Prussia, Dr. Haanel’s _alma mater_. During
four semesters he studied geology, mineralogy, botany, histology,
chemistry, etc., under such distinguished men as Roemer, Cohn, Goeppert,
Dilthey, Poleck, Liebisch, and others. His dissertation which was on the
“Melaphyres of Lower Silesia,” and demanded hard work in microscopic
petrography, as well as some months geologizing in the Giant Mountains,
on the border between Silesia and Bohemia, was accepted, and after
examination he was admitted to the degree of Doctor Philosophiae (_cum
laude_) in 1882. While in Europe, Professor Coleman made numerous
geological expeditions in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy and
Scandinavia, and most of one summer he spent in Norway, wandering on
foot over the mountains and fields collecting specimens, and observing
the results of glacial action. The most notable points in this journey
were the ascent of Galdhoepig, the highest mountain in Norway, and a
voyage along the coast to Hammerfest and the North Cape, to see the
Lapps and the midnight sun. At Knivskjaerodden, a few miles from the
North Cape, the ship on board of which he was, _The Nordstjern_, went
ashore in a fog, and became wrecked on that bleak coast. The misfortune
occurred at about two o’clock in the morning, but aided by the perpetual
daylight, the passengers and crew succeeded in reaching shore, and
within twenty-four hours thereafter, they were rescued by another
steamer and landed at Hammerfest. After a short visit to France and
England, he returned to Ontario, and towards the end of 1882, was
inaugurated as professor of geology and natural history in Victoria
University, Cobourg. Since that date he has continued in the same
position, varying his life by journeys with geological ends in view; in
this way he visited the Rocky Mountains, the valley of the Columbia, and
the Selkirks, before the Canadian Pacific Railway was built, travelling
by pack pony, canoe or on foot. The professor belongs to the Methodist
church, and in politics is a Liberal.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Macdonnell, Rev. Daniel James=, B.D., Pastor of West St. Andrew’s
(Presbyterian) Church, Toronto. This popular minister was born at
Bathurst, New Brunswick, on the 15th January, 1843. His father, the Rev.
George Macdonnell, who was born in Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire, Scotland, came
in childhood to Halifax, Nova Scotia, received his early educational
training in the schools at Halifax, and finished his course of studies
at the Edinburgh University. He afterwards was minister of St. Luke’s
Church, (Church of Scotland), at Bathurst, from 1840 to 1851; spent two
years in Scotland; came to Upper Canada in 1853, and was settled
successively in Nelson and Waterdown, Fergus and Milton, and died at the
latter place in 1871. His mother was Eleanor Milnes, who was born at
Pictou, Nova Scotia, and belonged to a branch of the family of Milnes,
of Derbyshire, England. Daniel James Macdonnell, the subject of our
sketch, began his education at Bathurst when but a lad of six years of
age,—the study of Latin being included in his course at this
unreasonably early age. He was afterwards sent to Scotland, and pursued
his studies for some time at Kilmarnock and Edinburgh, and on his return
to Canada, at Nelson, under the care of the late Dr. Robert Douglas, of
Port Elgin, who taught at “The Twelve,” while he was prosecuting his
studies. Mr. Macdonnell was then taken in hand by the late Dr. Tassie,
then head master of the Galt Grammar School, who prepared him for the
university. In October, 1855, when in his thirteenth year, he entered
Queen’s College, Kingston, and he held the first place in classics and
mathematics during his course there. In 1858 he graduated B.A., and two
years later M.A. Some time after he took a portion of his theological
course in the Queen’s Divinity Hall, Kingston, under Principal Leitch
and Professor Mowat, and spent the session of 1863-64 in Glasgow, where
Dr. Caird was professor of divinity. He completed his course in
Edinburgh, having attended the classes of the late Professor Crawford
and Robert Lee, and received the degree of Bachelor of Divinity. The
winter of 1865-66 he spent in Berlin in acquiring some knowledge of the
German language, and picking up whatever theological instruction he
could gather from the imperfectly understood lectures of Professors
Dörner and Hengstenberg. On the 14th June, 1866, he was ordained by the
Presbytery of Edinburgh (Church of Scotland); and returning to Canada he
was inducted to the charge of St. Andrew’s Church, Peterboro’, Ontario,
on the 20th November, 1866, where he spent four years. He was then
called to St. Andrew’s Church, Toronto, and inducted on the 22nd
December, 1870. The advent of Mr. Macdonnell was the signal for an
immediate revival of the condition of the church. He was young,
energetic, and more than all, earnest and original in his preaching.
Within a few years it was found that the old building was inadequate for
the purpose, and a new and imposing structure was built at the corner of
King and Simcoe streets, at the cost of $86,000 for building and $14,000
for additional ground. It is one of the finest and most complete in all
details of the many fine church edifices in Toronto, and is built of
stone in the Norman style, with a massive tower on the south-west angle.
Mr. Macdonnell’s popularity has steadily increased year by year since he
came to Toronto, and although some are inclined to consider him, from
“the Westminster Confession” standpoint, rather liberal in his
theological views, yet his large congregation listen with great
satisfaction to his gospel of common sense, and are most sincerely
attached to him. Rev. Mr. Macdonnell was one of the most cordial
supporters of Presbyterian union, and contributed largely to its
consummation in 1875. He is a member of the Senate of Toronto
University, having been appointed by the Ontario government. He also
takes an active part in works of charity, and indeed in everything that
has a tendency to help and elevate humanity. During his college career,
Rev. Mr. Macdonnell taught for about three years; was head master of
Vankleek Hill Grammar School for six months, when only seventeen years
of age; was assistant to Mr. Campbell (now Rev. Robert Campbell, D.D.,
minister of St. Gabriel street Church, Montreal) for a year in the
Queen’s College Preparatory School, and head master of the Wardsville
High School for a year and a half. While a student in Scotland, Mr.
Macdonnell, during vacation, took a couple of walking tours with fellow
students through Switzerland and parts of Germany, and since he settled
in Canada he has taken several trips to Great Britain. On the 2nd of
July, 1868, he was married to Elizabeth Logie Smellie, eldest daughter
of the Rev. George Smellie, D.D., of Fergus. Rev. Dr. Smellie was one of
the pioneer Presbyterian ministers of Western Ontario, and although now
in his seventy-sixth year, he still preaches every Sunday to the people
to whom he has ministered for forty-four years. There are four sons and
a daughter in St. Andrew’s manse. Mr. Macdonnell’s eldest boy, George
Frederick, aged fifteen, is attending Upper Canada College, and, taking
after his father, occupies the position of head boy in his form.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Hunton, Sidney Walker=, M.A., Professor of Mathematics in the
University of Mount Allison College, Sackville, New Brunswick, was born
in the city of Ottawa, Ontario, on the 4th July, 1858. His father,
Thomas Hunton, was for a long time a leading merchant at the capital,
and died a few years ago. His mother, Amelia Hunton, is still alive and
resides at Ottawa. Professor Hunton was educated at the Collegiate
Institute, Ottawa, where, in 1875, he won the two medals offered by Lord
Dufferin for mathematics and classics. In September, 1876, he entered
McGill College, Montreal, where he studied for two years, and won first
scholarship in each year. In September, 1878, he won the Canadian
Gilchrist scholarship of the value of £100 stg. per annum, tenable for
three years, and then proceeded to London, England, where he studied at
University College, making a specialty of mathematics. In June, 1881, he
won the Rothschild scholarship of the value of £56, which was awarded
for the greatest proficiency in mathematics in University College. He
graduated at the University of London, in Oct., 1881, and was appointed
assistant to the professor of mathematics in University College, and
held the position for two years. In 1882 he became lecturer on
mathematics in the Electrical Engineering College, London, which
position he resigned in 1883, on being appointed to the professorship of
mathematics at Mount Allison College, N.B. During his stay in Europe he
also studied at Cambridge, England, and Heidelberg, Germany. He was
married on December 25th, 1884, to Annie Inch, daughter of J. R. Inch,
LL.D., president of Mount Allison College. Professor Hunton is a credit
to “Young Canada,” and we hope many will be found imitating his example.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Kay, Rev. John=, Pastor of the First Methodist Church, Hamilton, was
born in the town of Napanee, Ontario, on the 20th of May, 1838. His
father was Enoch Kay, who was born in the county of Wicklow, Ireland, in
1812. His mother, Elizabeth Coulson, was a native of Stockton, near
Hull, England, and was born in 1815. His grandfather, Joshua Kaye (the
family name was originally spelled _Kaye_) emigrated with the family
from Ireland many years ago, and settled in the eastern part of Ontario,
where he followed the same occupation as he had done in his native
country, namely, that of wheelwright. He was a man of small stature, but
of marked intelligence and great amiability of character, and a leader
among the Methodists of his day. The wife of this worthy man was a
Fitzhenry, a name of some considerable note in Ireland. She was tall and
fine looking, and evidently had her early training in an advanced circle
of society. Both died in the village of Newburg, and their bodies rest
in the small rural cemetery near the village of Napanee Mills. His
maternal grandfather was a miller from his youth up, and for several
generations some of the Coulson family have been engaged in this
business, and in that of shipbuilding in England. The father and mother
were married in 1837, the year of the coronation of Queen Victoria, and
took up their residence on a farm a short distance north of Napanee
Mills. Here Mr. Kay, sen., farmed, and also carried on the trade of
carriage-building and blacksmithing, employing a number of workmen. The
farm he afterwards sold, and moved into the village of Newburg, where he
engaged in the lumber business. Here young Kay received the rudiments of
his education, first in a private school and afterwards in the Newburg
Academy. When he had scarcely reached his fourteenth year his father
died at the early age of thirty-nine, leaving a widow and three children
in poor circumstances, the subject of our sketch being the oldest. This
necessitated his giving up school and entering on the battle of life for
an existence, his mother with the other children returning to her
father’s home until he could provide for them elsewhere. After a hard
struggle of several years he succeeded so well as to be able to bring
the family again together, and he made a home for them at Cramborne, a
small village about five miles north of Cobourg. Here he was led to
think more seriously of religious matters, and made up his mind to
consecrate himself to the work of the church. He at once set about
preparing himself, and acted in the capacity of local preacher for some
time. Having been relieved soon afterwards of much business anxiety, he
gave himself up to labour and study. After a hard struggle he succeeded,
and to his surprise and satisfaction, in the spring of 1862, he was
informed by the officials of the Methodist New Connexion Church of
Baltimore, Ontario, with which he had connected himself a few months
before, that they would gladly recommend him to the work of the
ministry, and on his case being brought before the conference he was
appointed to assist the late Rev. S. B. Gundy, in the town of St.
Mary’s. This was a fortunate circumstance for the young preacher, for
the Rev. Mr. Gundy was a man of excellent ability and one of the finest
preachers in the denomination. The death of the superintendent some time
afterwards was a great loss to Mr. Kay. He then took up the course of
study prescribed for his work, which by no means was a light one. His
studies were now chiefly directed by the late Rev. William McClure, who
was appointed at that time to the chair of theology, philosophy and
literature, for the student probationers of the church, and under his
able tuition he succeeded in mastering the curriculum appointed by the
Board of Education of the conference. Since then he has been successful
in gaining some knowledge of Latin and Greek, with a little of German,
but still thirsts for more knowledge, as he considers all possible lines
of study are needed by the efficient and progressive Christian minister.
The Rev. Mr. Kay first began his ministry, as will have been observed,
at St. Mary’s, and here he spent one year; next he went to Manvers,
where he preached for two years; then he went to Ingersoll, and spent
two more years; in Milton he preached for three years; in Waterdown for
three years; Tilsonburg, two years; London, two years; then he again
spent two years in Ingersoll; and then moved to Waterford, where he
spent three years; in Thorold, three years, and for the last three years
he has been in Hamilton. In 1872, when the subject of Methodist union
was a live topic in the churches, Rev. Mr. Kay was secretary of
conference, and contributed by both voice and pen to bring about union,
and when this great movement was accomplished he was removed from
Tilsonburg to London by the conference of 1875, and during his stay
there he helped to build the Wellington Street Church and parsonage,
which is now one of the most prosperous churches in the denomination.
This reverend gentleman has been several times financial secretary of
the districts in which he has been stationed; and in 1886 he was a
representative at the General Conference which was held in Toronto. He
has found time, also, to attend to the temperance movement. From boyhood
he has been a teetotaller, having joined the Cadets of Temperance in
Newburg, and subsequently entered the orders of the Sons of Temperance
and Good Templars; and later held for two years the office of grand
counsellor, and for three years that of chaplain in the Supreme Lodge of
the Royal Templars,—which holds its annual sessions in the city of
Buffalo, where the order was first organized in 1870. As a natural
consequence he is a firm and uncompromising prohibitionist, holding that
the only way to elevate the masses and improve the financial condition
of the country is the entire abolition of the traffic in intoxicating
drinks. Mr. Kay also belongs to the United Order of Workmen, and did for
some time belong to the orders of Oddfellows and Foresters, but a few
years ago found it necessary to retire from them. As we have seen, the
subject of our sketch was brought up in the Methodist fold, and he has
seen no reason since to change his belief in the doctrines that were
taught him at his mother’s knee; but, nevertheless, he is not opposed to
a progressive theology, and can see no reason why a person should be
compelled to follow all the old methods of reasoning and forms of
expression. The words of modern use are often as expressive as those
used aforetime, and some of the old ones are none the worse for being
used before. The Augustinian school of theology finds no favour with
him. He believes in a free will—without the necessitarian adjuncts of
such limitations as affords it only to a few favoured persons—the free
and full salvation for all, and the kindest and most gracious invitation
to all to come to the fountain and drink. The gospel freely offered is
God’s expression of love. He has also devoted some time to literature,
and in 1871 published a very interesting “Biography of the Rev. William
Gundy,” his father-in-law. This volume was very favourably received, and
highly praised by the press. He is a diligent student, and has also on
several occasions contributed to the columns of our newspapers and
periodicals. On the 20th of October, 1864, he was married to Eliza,
second daughter of the Rev. William Gundy, who for more than half a
century was a preacher of the gospel, and though now dead for over
sixteen years, yet speaketh. Six of a family have been born of the
union, four of whom survive, two sons and two daughters.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Macdonald, Rev. James Charles=, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, is
descended from an old Highland family, who emigrated to Prince Edward
Island in the last century. His ancestors formed part of the gallant
band brought out by the Laird of Glenaladale, in the _Alexander_ in
1772. His father, John Macdonald, of Allisary, and his mother, Ellen
Macdonald, of Garahelia, were natives of Prince Edward Island. Their son
was born at Allisary, in the parish of St. Andrew, in that province, on
the 15th July, 1840, and was baptised in the old St. Andrew’s Church,
built in that mission, by Bishop McEachern, in the early days of
Catholicity in Prince Edward Island. After preliminary studies in a
district school, Mr. Macdonald entered St. Dunstan’s College in 1866. He
remained there for four years, and in 1870, went up to the Grand
Seminary, at Montreal. After a three years’ course, he was ordained by
the Bishop of Charlottetown, and at once proceeded to St. Dunstan’s
College, to fill a vacant professorship in that institution. In 1875,
Mr. Macdonald was appointed to the missions of St. James, Georgetown,
and All Saints, Cardigan Bridge. In 1876, the mission of St. Theresa,
Baldwin’s Road, was added to these; but in 1878, it was placed in the
charge of another priest. In 1881, the late Very Rev. Dr. Macdonald was
associated with Father Charles Macdonald, in the care of the missions of
St. James and All Saints, to which was annexed St. Paul’s, Sturgeon. In
September, 1884, to the great regret of his parishioners, Father
Macdonald was removed from Georgetown, and installed as rector of St.
Dunstan’s College, Charlottetown. During the period in which he has
presided over that institution, St. Dunstan’s has prospered exceedingly,
and now boasts a staff of eight professors, three clerical and five lay,
and a roll of eighty-six students, several of whom give promise of doing
great credit to their _alma mater_.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Macpherson, Henry=, Braeside, Owen Sound, Ontario, Judge of the County
Court of the county of Grey, Local Judge of the High Court of Justice,
Surrogate Judge of the Maritime Court, was born 17th August, 1832, at
Picton, county of Prince Edward, province of Ontario. He was son of
Lowther Pennington Macpherson, late of Picton, barrister-at-law, and of
Eliza Isabella Louisa McLean, his wife. Lowther was the son of
Lieut.-Colonel Donald Macpherson, of the 10th Royal Veteran Battalion,
who commanded at Kingston at the commencement of the war with the United
States in 1812; and was afterwards ordered to Quebec, where he remained
till the close of the war in 1814, when he returned to his property of
Cluny, near Kingston. Colonel Macpherson was the son of Evan Macpherson,
chief of the clan Macpherson, who joined the standard of Prince Charles
Edward Stuart at the time of the rebellion in Scotland in 1745. Lowther
was born on shipboard, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, when his father was
coming out to Canada with his regiment, and died at sea near the West
India Islands, where he had gone for his health in 1836. Eliza
Macpherson was the youngest daughter of Lieut.-Colonel Allan N. McLean,
of “The Grove,” Kingston, and who practised law there. In 1812 he closed
his office, and was greatly instrumental in raising the Incorporated
Militia, which regiment he commanded until he was superseded by an
officer of the line. One of his sons was a lieutenant in the Glengarry
Fencibles, and was killed at Queenston Heights, and his son-in-law,
Captain Walker, commanded a company of the Incorporated Militia, and was
killed at Lundy’s Lane. Colonel McLean represented the county of
Frontenac in the Provincial parliament for many years, in the early part
of the present century, and was for sixteen years Speaker of the House
of Assembly. Eliza Macpherson died in 1885 in her eightieth year. Henry
Macpherson was educated at the Grammar School, Kingston, and afterwards
at Queen’s College, where he graduated as Bachelor of Arts in April,
1851. He studied law in the office of Thomas Kirkpatrick, Q.C., of
Kingston, who was afterwards M.P. for the county of Frontenac. He was
admitted as an attorney in Easter term in 1854, after which he entered
the law office of George A. Phillpotts, of Toronto, afterwards Junior
Judge of the county of York, where he remained until called to the bar,
in Hilary, term 1855. In March of that year, he commenced the practice
of his profession at Owen Sound, in the county of Grey, where he
continued until appointed judge of the County Court of that county in
January, 1865. Owen Sound was at that time a portion of the township of
Sydenham, but in 1856 it was incorporated as a town, having a population
of about 2,000. It was the county town of the county of Grey, which,
with the adjoining county of Bruce, was then comparatively a new
settlement, the population of Grey, according to the census of 1852,
being something over 13,000 and that of Bruce being between 2,000 and
3,000. The peninsula north of Owen Sound, between Georgian Bay and Lake
Huron, was then a wilderness and not yet surrendered by the Indians. The
roads through the counties were in a very bad condition, and until the
opening of the Northern Railway to Collingwood in the winter of 1854-5,
everything had to be brought to Owen Sound by vessel from Coldwater, or
teamed up from Guelph. A few years after this, the county of Grey
expended $200,000 in building about 180 miles of gravel roads through
the country, on which no toll gate was ever placed, and the county of
Bruce a few years after followed the example thus set of building a
number of leading gravel roads through the county without placing toll
gates on them. The population of the county of Grey at the last census,
in 1881, was over 75,000, and that of Bruce over 65,000. A number of
railways are now running through the counties, the Canadian Pacific
Railway having a lake terminus at Owen Sound, which has a population of
about 6,000, a dry dock capable of receiving very large steamers (the
first built in Canada above the Welland Canal), an excellent system of
waterworks, is lighted by electric lights, and to and from its harbour a
large fleet of steamers (including the Canadian Pacific Railway’s steel
steamships), and sailing vessels run to all the various ports on the
upper lakes. Besides the position of county judge to which Mr.
Macpherson was appointed in 1865, he holds the position of local judge
of the High Court of Justice, to which he was appointed in March, 1882;
of surrogate judge of the Maritime Court of Ontario, to which he was
appointed in February, 1879, and of revising officer of the North Riding
of Grey, to which he was appointed in October, 1885. Judge Macpherson
has long taken a great interest in Freemasonry, into which he was
initiated in June, 1857, in the city of Toronto, and in the fall of that
year, assisted by other brethren, he opened a lodge in Owen Sound under
a dispensation from Sir Allan Napier MacNab, grand master of the Ancient
Grand Lodge of Canada, and of which lodge he was the first worshipful
master. He is the only survivor of the original members of that lodge.
The Ancient Grand Lodge was in July of the following year merged in the
Grand Lodge of Canada. He has been a regular attendant at the meetings
of the Grand Lodge, and in 1863 was elected grand senior warden. He has
been, with the exception of two years, continuously a member of the
Board of General Purposes since its formation in 1861, has frequently
been and is at present vice-president of that board, and is also
chairman of the sub-committee on jurisprudence. He is also the
representative of the Grand Orient of Uruguay, and of the Grand Lodge of
Maryland, near the Grand Lodge of Canada. He has also taken an active
part in Capitular Masonry. He was exalted in February, 1858, and in
1866, assisted in the formation of a chapter in Collingwood, of which,
in 1867, he became first principal. In 1873, he assisted in the
formation of a chapter in Owen Sound, of which, at the commencement he
was first principal. In Grand Chapter, after filling the chairs of 3rd
and 2nd principal, he was, in 1883, elected grand first principal, which
office he held two years. He is also representative of the Grand Chapter
of California, near the Grand Chapter of Canada. He has also been
instrumental in the formation or carrying on of many local and other
societies. Judge Macpherson was the first secretary and afterwards
president of the Mechanics’ Institute. He has been president of the
North Riding of Grey Agricultural Society, and has been several times
and is now president of the Horticultural Society, and has been
vice-president of the Fruit Growers’ Association of Ontario. He was the
first captain and several years president of the Cricket Club, was
several years president and is now patron of the Curling Club, and has
been president of the Ontario branch of the Royal Caledonian Curling
Club. He also, in 1874, assisted in the formation of a joint stock
company to build a curling and skating rink, of which he was the first
president. This was the first company formed for this purpose under the
Ontario Act. He has also been president of the First Canada Rifle Club,
of the Gun Club, and of the Fish and Game Protection Society, and is now
chairman of the managing committee of the Owen Sound Club. In this age
of locomotion his travels can hardly be considered important, yet he has
travelled through Canada from Manitoba to Newfoundland, and through all
the great lakes. He has been through most of the states east of the
Mississippi from Minnesota to Florida; and has visited a number of
cities of the United States from St. Paul and Minneapolis to New
Orleans, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi. He was at the
Paris Exhibition of 1867, the Centennial Exhibition held at Philadelphia
in 1876, the Colonial Exhibition at London, and the International
Exhibition at Liverpool in 1886. He has visited the Bahama Islands, and
last winter travelled by sea from New York to New Orleans, up the
Mississippi to Memphis, and across home by rail, paying visits to the
different cities on the way, and also visiting the mammoth cave of
Kentucky, his journey being nearly 5,000 miles. He has also visited most
of the important cities and other points of interest in England and
Scotland, including the islands of Skye, Staffa, Iona, Man, Wight, etc.
During last summer, he also visited Egypt, including the Suez Canal, the
Nile, Cairo, the Pyramids, the battle field of Tel-el-Kebir, etc., going
by way of the Mediterranean and calling at Gibraltar and Malta,
travelling in all nearly 15,000 miles. He is a member of the Church of
England. In May, 1875, he married Eliza McGill McLean, second daughter
of Allan N. McLean, formerly of Toronto, now of London, England, and
grand-daughter of the late John McLean, formerly sheriff at Kingston,
who was a brother of the late Hon. Chief Justice McLean, of Toronto;
Mrs. Macpherson died in April, 1880, leaving two children, only one of
whom still survives.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Campbell, Rev. Kenneth A.=, Orillia, Ontario, was born in the township
of Thorah, Ontario county, on the 30th of November, 1837. His father,
Kenneth Campbell, was born in the county of Glengarry, Ontario, and was
one of the earliest settlers in the township of Thorah, and rendered
most valuable assistance to the Scottish immigrants, who afterwards
settled in that and neighbouring townships. Mr. Campbell was captain of
militia. Rev. Mr. Campbell received the rudimentary part of his
education in a public school of his native section, and afterwards made
a full course, preparatory to ordination, in St. Michael’s College,
Toronto, and was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Lynch, in St.
Joseph’s Church, Beaverton, on the 21st of September, 1854. He was
appointed assistant to the Very Rev. G. R. Northgroves, in the parish of
Barrie, and in April, 1856, he was appointed parish priest of Mara and
Orillia. In this charge he laboured with zeal for eight years. He built
a neat substantial brick church in the village of Brechin; attended to
the wants of the settlers of his faith in the district of Muskoka, and
discharged efficiently the duties of local superintendent of schools in
the townships of Mara and Rama. In June, 1872, he built the Church of
the Angels Guardian, in Orillia, a solid structure of fine architectural
design, and an ornament to the town. The interest of the congregation of
Orillia requiring a resident priest, the village was erected into a
separate parish, and Father Campbell was appointed to the charge in
1874. Upon his removal to Orillia, he set to work to erect the handsome
presbytery in which he now resides. Subsequently he built a solid,
well-planned, well-appointed separate school-house, and a tasteful brick
church in the village of Warminster. He not only attends to the
elementary instruction of the children under his care, but takes a deep
interest in higher education. Four years ago he was appointed by the
county council of Simcoe trustee of the High School Board, and on that
board he has held the position of chairman for the four years that he
has been a member thereof. Father Campbell has left his imprint for good
in the various important positions he has held, and we hope he may be
long spared to bless mankind.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Bruce, Rev. George=, B.A., Pastor of St. David’s (Presbyterian) Church,
St. John, New Brunswick, is a Scotchman by birth, having been born near
Aberdeen, Scotland, on 6th of September, 1837. His parents were John
Bruce and Elspeth Cadger. The family is an old one and can be traced far
back in the annals of Scotland. The Simpsons (Sir George and Thomas), of
Hudson Bay notoriety, were relatives, and Mr. Bruce, sen., remembers
when young George Simpson came to bid them good-bye before leaving for
America. Alexander Bruce, the eldest brother of John Bruce, was educated
in King’s College, Aberdeen. When the Rev. George Bruce was only four
years of age he was brought to Canada. The family settled in Markham,
near Toronto, and there they have been extensively engaged in various
kinds of business ever since, chiefly, however, in farming and milling.
George, the subject of this sketch, after receiving the usual public
school training, attended the Normal School in Toronto for some time;
and in 1863 he went to Whitby, where, under Thomas Kirkland, now
principal of the Toronto Normal School, he prepared himself for the
university. In September, 1864, he matriculated in the University of
Toronto, and four years afterwards he graduated from the same
institution. While attending the university he devoted himself to
general study, principally, however, in the direction of mathematics,
metaphysics, political economy and natural science (especially in regard
to its more modern developments, in which he took an exceptional
interest). He then entered Knox College, in the same city, and from this
college he graduated in 1871. While a student, Mr. Bruce became deeply
impressed with the great loss sustained by the church through the
frequent removal of student missionaries from their fields, on account
of their return to college every winter to pursue their studies, leaving
the fields unsupplied to the manifest and serious loss of the interest
and organization which had resulted from the labours of the missionary
during the summer. As licentiates were almost always settled in
congregations at once upon the completion of their studies, the smaller
and more sparsely settled mission fields were left almost entirely to
the student supply in the summer vacation. It seemed to him that the
only relief for this lay in getting students to give from one to two or
more years of voluntary work to these fields after they were licensed,
so as to bring them up to a stable and self-sustaining position. He
wrote a considerable number of articles calling attention to this
matter, and brought it before the General Assembly. In order to make
practical trial and do, himself, what was recommended, he took such work
for four years after he was licensed, declining to be ordained, though
he is not sure of the wisdom of that part of his course now, as
ordination gives additional fitness for the work falling to the hand of
the missionary. The system, however, gradually gained favour, and is now
almost universally put in practice in such fields, as far as young men
can be found willing to undertake such work. Rev. Mr. Bruce’s field lay
in the region of Newmarket and Aurora, Ontario, which, though old and
prosperous settlements, had suffered very much so far as the
Presbyterian church was concerned, from the system he had spoken of. Two
brick churches were built during the four years he resided there, and
the congregations were separated soon after and are both prosperous. In
September, 1876, he was ordained over the First Presbyterian Church in
St. Catharines, Ontario, where he remained seven years. This charge had
been one of the congregations established by the American Church, and
retained its name as such and its connection with the Presbytery of
Buffalo till immediately before his ordination. He was, therefore, the
first minister in the new relation, although it was a very old
congregation. During his ministry a brick church, the one now in use,
was erected. Rev. Mr. Bruce was for six years convener of the Home
Mission Committee of the Presbytery of Hamilton, and member of the
General Home Mission Committee of the church. In 1881 he was sent out
with the Rev. Dr. Cochrane by the Home Mission Committee to visit the
churches in Manitoba, and to meet with the presbytery and arrange for
the designation of the Rev. James Robertson as superintendent of
missions, as well as for the settlement of various other questions which
had been before the committee. On his way up to fulfil this appointment
he was on the steamer _City of Winnipeg_ when she was burnt at Duluth.
The fire took place at night and five lives were lost, the others
escaping with difficulty. Besides church work he has always had a deep
interest in educational matters, and has written a good deal in
connection with our system from time to time. In January, 1883, he was
inducted into his present charge, St. David’s Church, St. John, New
Brunswick. The congregation was one formed at the disruption as the Free
Church, and is a large and active one. Here as formerly he has taken a
deep interest in home mission work. Within the bounds of the large
presbytery there is a vast field. He is convener of an “Augmentation
Committee” for enlarging the salary of ministers in weak charges. Rev.
Mr. Bruce’s travels have not been great, although somewhat extended on
this continent, and almost incessant at times in church work. His trip
in 1881 to the North-West was an interesting experience of the “trail
and tent” life, as the Canadian Pacific Railway was only commenced, and
he passed the men at work several times. They had then attained a rate
of one mile per day, which was considered a wonder, although this speed
of track-laying was afterwards increased to three or even four miles per
day. His religious views have continued much the same in general
principles. He is a Presbyterian, and therefore, of course, a Calvinist
in doctrine. He has gone over all the ground carefully in connection
with scientific difficulties and other new phases, and with a mind, so
far as he knows, open to receive impressions and conviction. He believes
much enlargement has come from the study of Science in connection with
Religion, but has seen nothing to cause him to change his faith in the
“old doctrines.” It has been, he thinks, man’s narrow, mistaken, and
prejudiced construction of Bible teaching which has been the source of
the weakness, wherever there has really been a weakness. What is needed
is practical adaptation of teaching, preaching, and modes of work to the
requirements of the age. Broad sympathy and charity is the very pith and
marrow of the Gospel, and unswerving loyalty to the truth where it is
perceived. He has read extensively in rationalistic literature, the “new
theology” and evolutionary theories of revelation and man. He admires
the scientific spirit and patient research, but is deeply impressed with
the rash and superficial nature of much of the theorising so confidently
asserted. It is unscientific and unreliable. On the 18th June, 1884,
Rev. Mr. Bruce was married to Catherine Emily, third daughter of the
late John R. Dickson, M.D., president of the Royal College of Physicians
and Surgeons, Kingston, Ontario, and medical superintendent of the
Asylum for the Insane there. Dr. Dickson’s name is widely known in the
medical profession. He was especially celebrated as a surgeon, and in
the midst of a very extensive practice he found time to keep himself
abreast of the scientific progress of the age, and to take an active
interest in many matters of moral beneficence and religion. He came from
Ireland when quite young, part of the family remaining at home.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Stewart, John=, Superintendent of the Northern Division of the New
Brunswick Railway, Woodstock, New Brunswick, was born at St. Andrews,
N.B., on the 2nd February, 1845. His father, Duncan Stewart, was in
early life a colour-sergeant in the rifle brigade, and afterwards became
an officer in the Customs department, and served in that capacity at St.
John and at St. Stephen. John was educated at the St. Stephen and Calais
High schools. Some time after leaving school he entered the Customs
service, and acted as weigher and gauger at St. Stephen in 1864-5, when
he was appointed to the position of conductor on the New Brunswick and
Canada Railway, and acted as such until 1874, when he was promoted to a
superintendency. In 1882, after the consolidation of the line with the
New Brunswick Railway Company, he was appointed to and filled the office
of general superintendent until 1885, and then was made superintendent
of the Northern division, which office he now fills. Having a taste for
military affairs, he joined the volunteers when a mere youth, and held
the rank of captain in the St. Stephen Infantry School, and saw a good
deal of active service during the Fenian invasion of our frontiers. In
1872 he was made a Freemason, and has ever since taken an interest in
the order. Mr. Stewart is a member of the Presbyterian denomination. In
1874 he was married to Susan A. Haddock, daughter of J. Haddock, of St.
Andrews, and has a family consisting of three children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Workman, Joseph=, M.D., Toronto, was born in Ballymacash, near the town
of Lisburn, Ireland, on the 26th May, 1805. He is descended from an
illustrious ancestry, the first of whom is noticed by Neale in his
history of the Puritans, namely, the Rev. William Workman, who was
lecturer at St. Stephen’s Church, in Gloucester, England, from 1618 to
1633, and whom the historian describes as a man of great piety, wisdom
and moderation. About that time Archbishop Laud had assumed power, and
was addressing himself with great energy to stemming the tide of
reformation which had set in. The images and pictures were restored to
the churches, and the clergy had begun to array themselves in gorgeous
vestments, such as those used by the clergy of the Roman Catholic
church. The Rev. Mr. Workman could not brook this state of things; and
in one of his sermons stigmatized pictures and statues of the founders
of Christianity, the fathers, and other eminent persons, as unfit
ornaments for churches, and declared that to set up images of Christ or
of the saints in the private houses was according to the Homily unlawful
and tended to idolatry. This sermon having been reported to Laud, the
Rev. Mr. Workman was brought before the Court of High Commission, and
after a short trial was convicted of heresy, deposed and excommunicated.
He now opened a school in order to support his family, but as an
excommunicated person he was inhibited from teaching youth. He then
commenced the practice of medicine, in which he had some skill, but the
archbishop forbade, and the result was that not knowing where to turn to
support his family, he fell into a settled melancholy and died. These
circumstances eventually made a deep impression on his children; and
they eagerly joined the parliamentary army, in which William Workman,
from whom the Canadian Workmans spring, held a commission, and was one
of those who met the charge of Prince Rupert on the field of Naseby.
This William served until 1648, when he went over to Ireland with Oliver
Cromwell; and on the close of the Irish campaign he retired from
military life, receiving as a reward for his services a grant of the two
town lands of Merlacoo, and two sizeacks in the county of Armagh. Of
these lands the old soldier held possession for only a short time. He
was in the midst of a hostile population, different in race and
religion, with bitter memories of defeat, and a passionate hunger for
vengeance, born of what they considered great wrongs. During Tyrconnel’s
administration he removed to county Down, near Donaghadee, whence he was
obliged to flee and shelter his old age behind the walls of Derry, soon
to be invested by King James’ army. He must have succumbed to the
appalling privations of the siege, as his name does not appear in the
history of an event which is so familiar in all its details. When at
last the besieging army, a long column of pikes and standards, was seen
retreating up the left bank of the Foyle, William Workman’s two sons and
their wives emerged from the war-scarred walls of Derry and settled in
the county of Antrim. One of the brothers settled at Brookend Mills,
near Coagh, whence he removed to Monymore, to take charge of the mill
there, and for more than a century this mill remained in charge of
successive generations of Workmans. Joseph Workman, the father of the
subject of our sketch, was the last of the family who resided at the
Monymore mill. This gentleman having made a visit of three years to the
United States, returned to Ireland and took up his abode at Ballymacash,
near the town of Lisburn, where his family, nine in number, were born,
all of whom ultimately came to Canada, and have left their mark on its
history. As will be seen from the above, the father of Joseph Workman
was of English descent, but his mother, Catharine Gondy, was descended
from a Scottish family. Joseph received his English education from a Mr.
Shields, and he was taught classics by J. Nealy, in Lisburn, Ulster, and
studied medicine in McGill College, Montreal. In 1836 he came to
Toronto, where he successfully practised his profession until July,
1853, when he was appointed by the government as medical superintendent
of the Asylum for the Insane at Toronto. This position he filled with
entire satisfaction until July, 1875, when he asked to be relieved of
the responsibility. And here we may say, Dr. Workman deserves well of
his adopted country, for no one could possibly have done more to bring
the institution over which he presided for so many years to a
comparative state of perfection, and to make the unfortunates under his
care more comfortable and happy. Dr. Workman is of a literary turn of
mind, and has contributed largely to various journals in the United
States and Canada. He is an associate member of several scientific
societies in Britain, Italy, the United States and Canada. He was one of
the commissioners appointed by the government to enquire into the
affairs of King’s College and Upper Canada College in 1848-50. In
religion the doctor may be styled a progressive liberal, and is willing
that all should search out the truth for themselves. He has generously
supported the Unitarian Church in Toronto from its infancy. In
consequence of close devotion to duty he has not been able to travel
much, yet he is very familiar with all parts of Canada. On the 30th May,
1835, he was married to Elizabeth Wassridge, a native of Sheffield,
England. This estimable lady died 16th May, 1885. The fruit of this
union has been six children, of whom three sons and two daughters now
survive.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Campbell, George W.=, A.M., M.D., LL.D.—The late Dr. Campbell was born
in Roseneath, Dumbartonshire, Scotland, in 1810. He entered early on his
medical studies, which he pursued in the Universities of Glasgow and
Dublin. After graduating with distinction he came to Canada in May,
1833, and settled in Montreal. His marked ability soon placed him in the
front ranks of his profession, and gave him a large share of city
practice. The success following him naturally led to his being very
frequently called in consultation by his _confrères_, and for many years
before his death very few cases of any importance were treated in
Montreal without the advice of Dr. Campbell having been obtained. His
sound knowledge of pathology, and naturally clear insight into the
varying shades of distinction between clinical conditions apt to
resemble each other, made him an expert in diagnosis. Surgery was always
his _forte_, and his great reputation chiefly made by many successful
achievements in operative work. In 1835 Dr. Campbell was appointed to
the chair of surgery in McGill University, which position he continued
to hold with credit to himself and great advantage to the school until
1875—exactly forty years—when, owing to failing health, he resigned.
He was made dean of the faculty in 1860, taking then the place of the
late Dr. Holmes. The duties of this office he fulfilled even after his
resignation of the chair of surgery, and it was only in March, 1882,
that Prof. Howard was appointed acting dean in order to relieve him of
some necessary work and supply his place during temporary absences. For
nearly half a century Dr. Campbell’s name was identified with the
medical faculty of McGill University, and it was largely due to his
ability as a teacher of surgery that this school attained the high
degree of popularity which it has so long enjoyed. As its dean, he
always possessed the fullest confidence of his colleagues, and under his
able management its policy was always dignified and liberal, whilst
internal dissensions were entirely unknown. Dr. Campbell did not write
much for the medical journals. “Deeds, not words,” was his motto. But
his work as a successful teacher, and as a member of the corporation of
the university, led to the appropriate bestowal of the honorary degree
of LL.D. His style of lecturing was free from all oratorical effort, but
it was clear, forcible and impressive. Hundreds of practitioners
throughout this continent and elsewhere owe the foundations of their
surgical knowledge to Dr. Campbell’s early teaching. As the acknowledged
head of the profession in Montreal, he was often called upon to
entertain strangers and professional visitors, and most worthily did he
perform this duty. His house always held for such a true-hearted Scotch
reception, for he was a warm-hearted host, and his pleasant, cheery
manner, his sparkling reminiscences, his stores of learning always
bright, his animated conversation, made an evening spent in his company
always something to be remembered. He took great pleasure in seeing his
friends around him, and all know well the kindly and generous
hospitality which for years has been dispensed from his house by himself
and his talented family. For some years previous to his death Dr.
Campbell suffered from bronchitis, and was obliged to retire from active
practice and give himself more rest. He had also suffered from slight
attacks of pneumonia, and when in London, in 1882, on a visit, pneumonia
again set in, but being somewhat better, he went to Edinburgh, where,
however, more serious symptoms showed themselves, and he expired on the
30th of May of that year. The example of such a man as Dr. Campbell
cannot fail to be productive of great good. An accomplished physician
and skilful surgeon, an upright, honourable citizen, a kind and
considerate friend to the poor, a loved and honoured counsellor of the
rich, zealous in business but scrupulously honourable, a firm protector
of the dignity of his profession, and, above all, a thoroughly
consistent Christian gentleman.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Coburn, George Hayward=, M.D., Physician and Surgeon, Fredericton, New
Brunswick, was born at Sheffield, Sunbury county, N.B., on the 10th
March, 1855. His parents were Moses Henry Coburn and Hepzibah Coburn. He
received his literary education at the Sunbury Grammar School, and at
the University of New Brunswick. Having chosen medicine as a profession,
he spent some years at the University of Pennsylvania, United States, in
study, with that end in view, and graduated from that institution with
honours in 1875. On his return to his native province he began the
practice of his profession, and has succeeded in building up a large
business. In 1883 Dr. Coburn was appointed health officer in
Fredericton, and still retains the position. In 1885 he was chosen a
member of the Board of Health for the same city; and in 1887 he was
chosen chairman of the board. During the same year he was appointed a
member of the Provincial Board of Health. In religion he is an adherent
of the Methodist church; and in politics is a Liberal. On the 19th June,
1878, he was married to Mary Gamble, of Philadelphia, U.S. Their family
consists of two children.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Foster, James Gilbert=, Q.C., Barrister, Halifax, was born on the 13th
of June, 1839, at Aylesford, Kings county, Nova Scotia. His father,
Rufus Foster, was descended from a family of the United Empire
loyalists, who took refuge in Nova Scotia at the time of the American
revolution; and his mother, Christina Foster, was of Scotch descent,
having come when about seven years of age with her parents from
Scotland, and the family settled in the same province. James Foster
received a common school education, and studied law with the Hon.
Alexander James. On the 10th of May, 1864, Mr. Foster was admitted an
attorney-at-law and barrister, of her Majesty’s Supreme Court of
Judicature; and the 20th of May, 1865, he became a partner with Mr.
James in his legal business, and this partnership continued until Mr.
James was elevated, in January, 1877, to the Supreme Court of Nova
Scotia, as judge in Equity, when a dissolution took place. Mr. Foster
then took his brother, William R. Foster, into partnership with him, and
now the old business is carried on by the new firm. On the 23rd
February, 1867, he was appointed a notary public; and on the 9th of
October, 1878, he was made a Queen’s counsel by the Nova Scotia
government. In September, 1863, Mr. Foster was appointed first
lieutenant of the 6th regiment, Halifax county militia; and on the 19th
of June, 1865, was promoted to the captaincy of the 5th company of the
same corps. He attended the Military School of Instruction at Halifax,
and passed an examination, taking a second-class certificate for
candidates for commissions in the active militia, November 12th, 1869.
In August, 1883, he was appointed major in the reserve militia, of the
Nova Scotia regimental division of the county of Halifax, from No. 7
company division. From May, 1879 to May 1882, he held the office of
recorder and stipendiary magistrate of Dartmouth; and on the 29th of
May, 1879, was appointed justice of the peace for the county of Halifax.
On the 6th of July, 1884, he was made a commissioner for arranging and
preparing for the press, and indexing the fifth series of the Revised
Statutes of Nova Scotia; and in August, 1886, was appointed registrar of
the Court of Probate for the county of Halifax. From June, 1877, to
March, 1886, Mr. Foster held the position of vice-consul for the
Netherlands, at Halifax. During the years 1880 and 1881, he negotiated
with several railway syndicates, for the purpose of carrying out the
scheme for the amalgamation and completion of the Nova Scotia railways,
proposed by the Local government of the time; and in 1881, he was
authorized by Cyrus W. Field and associates, who were large owners of
the Pictou coal mines, to negotiate proposals for that purpose with the
Local government and the late Sir Hugh Allan, then owner of the Eastern
Extension Railway in Nova Scotia—one of the railways in question. The
government was, however, pledged to what was known as the Plunkett
syndicate, which, finally fell through, and the government was defeated
in the general elections of the following year, 1882. The policy of the
succeeding government being averse to the scheme for railway
amalgamation, and railway interests becoming in the meantime much
depressed, Mr. Field and his friends did not care to renew their
proposals. Mr. Foster was brought up and has always been a member of the
Church of England. He has represented the parish of Dartmouth, as a lay
delegate in the Synod of the Diocese of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward
Island, since April 13th, 1874; and on the 23rd of April, 1879, was made
one of the executive committee of the Synod. During the years 1877,
1883, and 1886, he represented the same diocese, as one of its delegates
in the Provincial Synod of Canada. Mr. Foster is a Liberal in politics;
and at the general election in 1882, was a candidate for the House of
Assembly of Nova Scotia, but failed to secure his election, having been
defeated by a trifling majority.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Barker, Frederic Eustace=, M.A., D.C.L., Q.C., M.P., St. John, New
Brunswick. F. E. Barker is a native of Sheffield, in the county of
Sunbury, in the province of New Brunswick, where he was born on the 27th
December, 1838. His father, the late Enoch Barker, has been dead for
some years. The family settled in Sheffield at the time of the American
revolution, having before that resided in Massachusetts. Mr. Barker,
jr., was educated at the Sunbury Grammar School, principally under the
tuition of the Rev. George S. Milligan, M.A., now superintendent of
Education in Newfoundland. He matriculated at King’s College,
Fredericton (now the University of New Brunswick), in June, 1853, and
graduated as B.A. in June, 1856. At his degree examination the examiners
voluntarily recommended him for honours, which the College Council
accordingly granted. He was admitted to the degree of M.A. in June,
1858; B.C.L. in December, 1861; and D.C.L. in June, 1866. He took all
these degrees in regular course from the University of New Brunswick, an
institution in which he has always taken an active interest. Mr. Barker
was principally instrumental in the formation of “The Associated Alumni
of the University of N.B.,” was for some time president of that body,
and one of its representatives in the University Senate. He is also one
of the Civil Law Examiners for this University. In June, 1856, Mr.
Barker was entered as a law student with the late Justice Fisher, then a
practising barrister at Fredericton. In June, 1860, he was admitted an
attorney of the Supreme Court, and a year later he was called to the
bar; and in April, 1873, he was appointed a Q.C. by the Dominion
government. Mr. Barker commenced practice at Grand Falls, in New
Brunswick, but only remained there a few months, when he removed to the
city of St. John, where he has since resided and practised. In 1863, he
formed a partnership with the present Justice Wetmore (then one of the
leaders of the N.B. bar), which continued until that gentleman went on
the bench in 1870. In 1875, Mr. Barker was appointed by the Provincial
government one of the commissioners for consolidating the Statutes of
New Brunswick. Mr. Barker at one time took an active interest in militia
matters. In May, 1864, he was gazetted ensign; in August of the same
year lieutenant; in February, 1865, captain, and in July, 1868, major in
the St. John city Light Infantry. He has been for many years one of the
benchers and a member of the council of the Barristers’ Society of N.B.,
and a member of the council of the St. John Law Society. He is now
vice-president of the Barristers’ Society; president of the St. John
Bridge and Railway Extension Company, and one of the directors of the
St. John Gas Company. Mr. Barker has always belonged to what is now
known as the Liberal-Conservative party in politics. When the retirement
of Sir Leonard Tilley, in October, 1885, caused a vacancy in the
representation for the city of St. John in the House of Commons, Mr.
Barker was almost unanimously elected as the Liberal-Conservative
candidate by a large and influential committee nominated to choose a
candidate; and at the election which took place on 24th November, 1885,
he was elected to the House of Commons by a majority of 112, about the
same as that usually obtained by Sir Leonard, his predecessor. Mr.
Barker is a member of the Church of England. He has at times visited the
chief cities in Great Britain, United States and Canada. He was married
(first) at St. John, in October, 1865, to Elizabeth Julia, daughter of
the late Edward Lloyd, of the R. E. civil staff, who died in January,
1874; and (second) to Mary Ann, daughter of the late B. E. Black, of
Halifax, and niece and adopted daughter of the late Justice Wilmot, who
was the first lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick after confederation.
By the first marriage Mr. Barker has one son and two daughters, and by
the latter two daughters.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Murphy, Owen=, Quebec, M.P.P. for Quebec West, was born at Stoneham, in
the province of Quebec, on 9th December, 1829. He is descended from a
long line of illustrious ancestors, as may be seen on referring to the
“Chronicles of Leinster.” This authority says; “The O’Murphys, the
O’Murchoes, or Murphy, are descended from Henry Feling, chieftain of the
Murroes, now called Macamores, in the Barony of Ballaghkeen, in the
county of Wexford. They were in possession of it before the English
invasion. This Feling was son of Cuma-Kinsellagh, King of Leinster, in
the fifth century. The head of the family, in 1634, lived in
Tubberlimmach. He was Connell O’Murchoe, gentleman, the eldest son of
Donnell More, ‘The O’Murchoe,’ son of Art, son of Tiege. This Connell
died in 1634, and was buried in Castle Ellis [the burial-place of Mr.
Murphy’s family in the county of Wexford.—ED.]. He left five sons:
Tiege was the eldest, he remained in Wexford; also James, who possessed
an estate in Killincoolly, taken from him by Cromwell. Art went to
county Louth in 1641; his descendants remained in the north. Another,
named Laughlin, lived in Ballyoughna.” The Murphys of Ballainonlart
House, in Wexford, have been known for generations as one of the most
popular families in that district, and we believe we are correct in
affirming that Owen Murphy’s father was the only member of the family
who settled in this country, which he did in the early part of the
present century. Many people still living in the city of Quebec remember
well the generous and liberal spirit that at all times actuated him, and
this, combined with his peculiarly rich attainments and cultivated mind,
rendered him a highly popular citizen, and when death came, caused him
to be greatly regretted. None the less eminent were his three brothers,
all of whom attained for themselves very high ecclesiastical honors and
dignity, one of whom being for many years bishop of Ferns, in Ireland.
Owen Murphy was educated under Robert H. Scott, of Edinburgh, a
gentleman of high culture, with a reputation far above ordinary as a
tutor. His commercial training was received in the offices of Ross,
Shuter & Co., and H. J. Noad & Co., two of the most important lumber,
ship-owning, produce and milling firms then in the city or province of
Quebec. Mr. Murphy’s aptitude and zeal in his profession gained for him
the commendation of his employers, and the result was that he soon
became not only a favourite with them, but with the public generally. He
was elected to serve in the city council, as representative for St.
Paul’s ward, the most important business section of the city, and for
several years faithfully served the citizens in that capacity. In 1874,
as a mark of the high esteem in which he was held, he was chosen mayor
of the ancient capital; and as a further mark of esteem he was again, in
1876, elected for another term of two years. During the period he
occupied the position of chief magistrate he exhibited such zeal for the
city’s welfare that on his retirement from office he carried with him
the esteem and best wishes of his fellow citizens. And here we may say
that the improvements suggested by Lord Dufferin, when he was
governor-general of Canada, and which have made Quebec one of the most
beautiful places for the tourist in which to spend a few days, were
suggested when Mr. Murphy was mayor, and through combined efforts they
were carried out to a successful conclusion. In August, 1875, while Mr.
Murphy was mayor of Quebec, he paid a visit to Britain, and of course to
the land of his forefathers. The Wexford _Independent_ thus kindly
alludes to the event:

    THE MAYOR OF QUEBEC AT WEXFORD.—This respected functionary,
    accompanied by the mayoress of Quebec, arrived here on Saturday
    last from Dublin. His worship is staying at the West Gate Hotel,
    and is a nephew of the late Right Rev. Dr. Murphy, the estimable
    and lamented bishop of the diocese, the truly apostolic divine,
    the scholar, and in every sense the well-bred Irish gentleman.
    He is also a nephew of the _ci-devant_ pastor of Castlecomer, in
    the diocese of Ossary, the late Very Reverend Lawrence Murphy,
    and of the late Rev. Michael Murphy, for many years the zealous
    collaborateur of Father Corrin in the pastoral charge of
    Wexford. Although born on a foreign soil, Mr. Murphy ardently
    loves the land of his ancestors—not with wild and misdirected
    enthusiasm, but like his estimable uncles, with judgment,
    discretion and sincerity; and in saying that he has inherited
    many of their distinguished characteristics, we pay him the
    highest compliment in our power to bestow. At the great
    international banquet given by the corporation of London
    (England) lately to the great municipal chiefs of the whole
    civilized world, the mayor of Quebec was chosen to return
    thanks, not only for the Dominion of Canada, but for the
    municipalities of the United States, and the other rising
    nations of the western world.

Mr. Murphy is a justice of the peace for the city and district of
Quebec; a director of the Quebec Central Railroad; has been president of
the St. Patrick’s Society; president of St. Patrick’s Literary Society;
for four years president of the Quebec Turf Club, and was one of the
committee of management of St. Patrick’s Church, prior to the change
being made in the temporal administration of that church. In 1880 he was
elected president of the Quebec Board of Trade, and the following year
was again unanimously elected for another term. At the general election
held in 1866 he was elected to represent Quebec West in the local
legislature. In politics he is a Liberal, but is in favour of the
national policy. In religion he is an adherent of the Roman Catholic
church. He was married in 1857 to Elizabeth, daughter of the late James
Loughry.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Smith, Rev. H. Percy W.=, Rector of St. Paul’s Church, Dunnville,
Ontario, was born at Islington, London, England, on the 13th September,
1837. His parents, William and Mary Smith, are both alive, and residing
in Canada. Rev. Mr. Smith received his early education at private
schools in his birthplace, and when thirteen years of age entered a
wholesale drapery establishment, where he continued for about seven
years. This business not being entirely in accordance with his taste, he
abandoned it, and entered St. Augustin’s College, Canterbury, to study
for the ministry. In February, 1864, he bade farewell to England, and
set sail on the _Bohemian_ steamship for Canada. When eighteen days out
the _Bohemian_ struck the rocks near Portland, and became a total wreck,
and through this mishap he unfortunately lost his library and outfit.
Shortly after reaching Canada, in 1864, he was ordained deacon by the
Bishop of Ontario, and two years afterwards, priest by the Bishop of
Montreal. For the past ten years he has been rector of St. Paul’s
Church, at Dunnville, and is very much respected by his parishioners. He
was married in 1866 to Lizzie, third daughter of the late Colonel
Edwards, of March, Ontario.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Mackay, Alexander Howard=, B.A., B.Sc., F.S.Sc. (Lond.), Pictou, Nova
Scotia. Alexander Mackay, the paternal grandfather of the subject of
this sketch, and the progenitor of a numerous family, many of whom are
favourably known in Canada as members of the learned professions, was
born in Sutherlandshire, Scotland, in 1762. He emigrated to Mount
Dalhousie, in the county of Pictou, Nova Scotia, in 1822, took up
several hundred acres of land for farming, and in 1847 died, loved and
revered by a large community who looked up to him as a patriarchal
chief. His second son, John Mackay, was born in Sutherlandshire, in
1810, and emigrated with his father and the rest of the family in 1822.
In 1836 he travelled through a portion of the United States of America,
and Ontario, in Canada, where he took up some land; but finally settled
down on the old homestead. In 1847 he married Barbara Maclean, who was
born at Roger’s Hill, in the county of Pictou, in 1823. Her father, John
Maclean, was born in the west of Scotland, about 1758, and died at
Roger’s Hill in 1848. From this marriage came a family of seven boys and
three girls. The eldest, Alexander Howard Mackay, was born on the 19th
May, 1848. His father was a man of remarkable probity of character, of
very superior intellectual powers, and enthusiastically patriotic. In
addition to the farm, a mechanic’s shop, with a turner’s and
cabinetmaker’s tools and machinery, supplied the ways and means. There
was no luxury, however. Hard manual work, alternated with study, was
used in developing the various and versatile powers of the whole man.
The play of mechanical ingenuity, original constructive effort, and
acute investigation, filled the hours of recreation. This family
discipline was a perfect success. The father, John Mackay, died February
22nd, 1879. The mother is living in good health at the date of writing,
August, 1887. Young Alexander could read and write before he went to the
public school, which was two miles distant. The farm and the school
divided his time; but the leisure hour found him constructing a sextant,
theodolite, or transit instrument, which he never previously saw, and
with which he made remarkably accurate measurements; or making some
apparatus to demonstrate a law in physics or chemistry; or exploring the
natural history of the picturesque glen running through the homestead.
In 1865 the trustees of the school section pressed him to take charge of
their school. Although he had no license, never having thought of
becoming a teacher, he accepted the position. In 1866 he graduated at
the head of his class from the Provincial Normal School at Truro. In
1867 he attended the Pictou Academy, and at the provincial examination
of teachers following, won the first place. In the fall of 1869 he
matriculated in Dalhousie College, and for four years was a leading
prizeman in his classes. He graduated a B.A. in April, 1873, with
special honours in mathematics and physics. He was also the
valedictorian of his class, and was for the last three years of his
undergraduate course an editor of the college paper, _The Dalhousie
Gazette_. He also took classes in the School of Science in the
Provincial Museum, under the provincial geologist, Dr. Honeyman; and in
the Medical College, then affiliated with Dalhousie. After graduation he
was appointed principal of the County Academy at Annapolis Royal, and a
few months later received the unsolicited appointment to the
principalship of the Pictou Academy and public schools of Pictou, which
position he holds at present. He assumed charge of the Pictou Academy,
November 1st, 1873, since which time the staff and attendance of the
institution have been more than doubled. In 1874 he was elected
president of the Education Convention of Nova Scotia, a position to
which he was re-elected. From this time he has taken a very active and
forward part in promoting educational reform through the press and
otherwise. In 1876 he spent a portion of the year in studying the
educational appliances in the leading cities of the eastern United
States. His efforts culminated in 1881, in the erection of the present
Pictou Academy, one of the finest and best equipped academic buildings
in Canada. Its facilities for scientific teaching are greater than are
those of many colleges. In 1880 he graduated a B.Sc. from the University
of Halifax, with first class honours in biology. In addition to his
educational work, he has also found time to engage in original
scientific investigation. His papers or work may be found in the
“Proceedings” of several scientific societies. His popular scientific
writings have been numerous and widely diffused. In 1884 he was elected
a member of committee of the Biological section of the British
Association meeting in Montreal. In 1886 he was elected a fellow of the
Society of Science, Letters and Art, London. And the same year he was
elected president of the Alumni of Dalhousie College and University; and
also, president of the Nova Scotia Summer School of Science. He knows no
rest, for at the same time he is a member of a multitude of local
societies, and in every sense an active citizen. He is a member of the
Kirk Session of St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church in Pictou; but also
contributes to other denominations. He believes in a catholic union of
all Christian effort, and a scientific expansion of religious
philosophy. In local politics he independently supports educational
reform. In Dominion politics he avows a preference for the policy of the
Liberal-Conservative party. He is a Britisher, first, against the whole
world; and a Canadian all the time, and will fight. He has just started
the “Educational Review” (of which he is Nova Scotian editor), in
company with G. U. Hay, Ph.B., of St. John, New Brunswick, and Principal
Anderson, of the Prince of Wales College, Prince Edward Island. In 1882
he married Maude Augusta Johnstone, only daughter of Dr. George Moir
Johnstone, M.R.C.S., London, and his wife, _née_ Sarah Mortimer Smith,
of Pictou town.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Archibald, Abram Newcomb=, was born in Stewiacke, Nova Scotia, June
2nd, 1849, and died in Halifax, November 27, 1883. He was the seventh
son of Daniel Archibald, J.P., and Rebecca Newcombe, his wife, both of
whom are still living (December, 1886). Daniel Archibald is a great
grandson of Samuel Archibald, the second of four brothers from
Londonderry, Ireland, who settled in Colchester county, in 1762. This
family has produced many distinguished men, including among others the
late S. G. W. Archibald, Master of the Rolls, and his two sons, Sir
Thomas D. and Sir Edw