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Title: A Manual of Conchology - According to the System Laid Down by Lamarck, With the - Late Improvements by De Blainville. Exemplified and Arranged - For the Use of Students.
Author: Wyatt, Thomas
Language: English
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                                   A
                         MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY,
                               ACCORDING
                        TO THE SYSTEM LAID DOWN
                              BY LAMARCK,
                       WITH THE LATE IMPROVEMENTS
                           BY DE BLAINVILLE.
           EXEMPLIFIED AND ARRANGED FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS.


                          BY THOMAS WYATT, M.A.

 ILLUSTRATED BY THIRTY-SIX PLATES CONTAINING MORE THAN TWO HUNDRED TYPES,
                      DRAWN FROM THE NATURAL SHELL.


                                NEW-YORK:

                     HARPER & BROTHERS, CLIFF-STREET.

                                  1838.



      Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1838, by

                             THOMAS WYATT,

     in the Clerk’s Office of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             INTRODUCTION.


Conchology or Testaceology is a numerous and beautiful branch of Natural
History, treating of the testaceous covering of animals; perhaps none
but the department of Flora can vie with it in variety, symmetry of
form, and rich colouring. It has ever excited admiration, and obtained a
prominent situation in the cabinet; and so great are the facilities
afforded at the present day to procure specimens and obtain a knowledge
of this science, that it has become one of the requisites of a finished
education. Shells are found in all parts of the world, both on land and
in water; but the most beautiful and valuable species are found between
the tropics.

At first they were regarded as pleasing curiosities, and prized only on
that account; but the investigations of scientific men have proved that
the study of this science is not only interesting, but useful. Much
valuable information has already been obtained, and, from the
investigations of modern naturalists, much more may be anticipated.

So intimate is the connexion between Conchology and Geology, that a
knowledge of the one is indispensable to the study and acquirement of
the other. The geologist will draw much advantage from a close study of
the testaceous covering of molluscous animals to aid him in determining
the identity or the superposition of the different strata of the earth
and the extraordinary changes it has undergone; for, as Bergman
elegantly says, “fossil shells, coral, and wood are the only three
remaining medals of Creation.” He will see in the innumerable quantity
of these animals, succeeding each other from generation to generation in
the depth of the seas, one of the evident causes of the growth and
increase of islands and continents.

But man may find in the knowledge of Mollusca applications still more
direct to his well being in society, both as to the advantages and
disadvantages to be derived from them: thus a great number of species
are proper for food, as oysters, mussels, &c., which are objects of
commercial speculations. The Pinna furnishes the Italians with materials
for a rich dress, and the pearl, so much prized by the Orientals, by
princes, and particularly by the ladies, as a modest and beautiful
shells. It was this knowledge which made the celebrated Linnæus imagine
that it was possible to form an artificial pearlery in the rivers of
Sweden. The mother of pearl, so much employed as an ornament in articles
of luxury, is only the interior lining of certain univalve or bivalve
shells. Painting draws from some of these animals many colours, valuable
not so much for their beauty as their usefulness, as Chinese ink and
sepia.

The brightest and richest colour known by the ancients, and used by them
for the celebrated Tyrian purple dye, is produced by animals at this
time known by the name of Purpura.

The Teredo attacks the wood of our vessels, and often does much injury;
therefore the knowledge of its manners, habits, and customs must be of
great importance in countries infested with them, so as to be able to
provide a remedy against them. Snails and slugs are also enemies much to
be dreaded in our gardens.

Lamarck, in his last work, the result of the successive and continual
labours of his whole life and those of his contemporaries, has rendered
a very great service to science, but especially to conchology, by
describing, or, at least, characterizing the numerous species of shells
in his own splendid cabinet. It may be proper here to remark, that a
part of Lamarck’s cabinet is now in the possession of Isaac Lea, Esq.,
of Philadelphia, to whom we are much indebted for valuable assistance.
To Dr. Comstock, and the Rev. W. Turner, of Hartford, Conn., we are much
indebted for kind favours; their aid has greatly facilitated our
labours.

In this Manual of Conchology we have endeavoured to give a free
translation of Lamarck’s system, as simplified by De Blainville; and, in
order to facilitate as much as possible the study of this beautiful and
interesting science, we have divested it of numerous technicalities, and
divided it into four classes: Annelides, Cirrhipedes, Conchifera, and
Mollusca.

To each class we have assigned its various families, to each family its
genera, and to each genus its living species; thereby making it plain
and within the reach of the meanest capacity. A type of almost every
genus is given, excepting only those shells which, from their similarity
to other genera, may easily be classed.

It was deemed advisable, as this is intended for an easy introduction to
the science, to omit many divisions and subdivisions, which would only
serve to perplex and render the attainment more difficult.

As the Naiades, or shells of this country, are given in several valuable
scientific works lately published, we have only slightly touched them in
the place they are intended to occupy.

We cannot expect that the work now presented to the public is free from
imperfections; but we ask for their lenity and kind forbearance to
excuse whatever defects there may be in our humble attempts to advance
the cause of science. Conchology, like other departments of natural
history, is progressing; and that which is given to-day is almost always
susceptible of being modified to-morrow; should this work be well
received, it is our intention to give, as soon as practicable, an
enlarged work, containing even the minute microscopic shells and the
fossils, with plates containing types of as many species of the genera
as can possibly be obtained.

The plates were drawn and coloured with great care and accuracy from the
natural shells in our own cabinet, under the superintendence of Mr.
James Ackerman, artist.

                                                                   T. W.



                              ARRANGEMENT.


                               CLASS I.
                              ANNELIDES.

                            FOUR FAMILIES.

                 Fam.

                   1. _Dorsaliæ._ Two genera.
                        1. Arenicola.      Species   1
                        2. Siliquaria.        “      4

                   2. _Maldaniæ._ Two genera.
                        1. Clymene.        Species   1
                        2. Dentalium.         “     12

                   3. _Amphitritæa._ Four genera.
                        1. Pectinaria.     Species   2
                        2. Sabellaria.        “      2
                        3. Terebella.         “      3
                        4. Amphitrite.        “      6

                   4. _Serpulacea._ Five genera.
                        1. Spirorbis.      Species   5
                        2. Serpula.           “     26
                        3. Vermilia.          “      8
                        4. Galeolaria.        “      2
                        5. Magilus.           “      1


                               CLASS II.
                             CIRRHIPEDES.

                              ONE FAMILY.

                   1. _Cirrhipedes._ Ten genera.
                        1. Tubicinella.    Species   1
                        2. Coronula.          “      3
                        3. Balanus.           “     28
                        4. Acasta.            “      3
                        5. Creusia.           “      3
                        6. Pyrgoma.           “      1
                        7. Anatifera.         “      5
                        8. Pollicipes.        “      3
                        9. Cineras.           “      1
                       10. Otion.             “      2


                              CLASS III.
                              CONCHIFERA.

                           TWENTY FAMILIES.

                   1. _Tubicola._ Six genera.
                        1. Aspergillum.    Species   4
                        2. Clavagella.     Species   1
                        3. Fistulana.         “      4
                        4. Septaria.          “      1
                        5. Teredina.          “      2
                        6. Teredo.            “      2

                   2. _Pholadaria._ Two genera.
                        1. Pholas.         Species   9
                        2. Gastrochæna.       “      3

                   3. _Solenides._ Four genera.
                        1. Solen.          Species  18
                        2. Panopæa.           “      1
                        3. Solecurtus.        “      3
                        4. Glycimeris.        “      1

                   4. _Myaria._ Two genera.
                        1. Mya.            Species   4
                        2. Anatina.           “     10

                   5. _Mactracea._ Seven genera.
                        1. Lutraria.       Species  11
                        2. Mactra.            “     33
                        3. Crassatella.       “     11
                        4. Erycina.           “      1
                        5. Ungulina.          “      2
                        6. Solenimya.         “      2
                        7. Amphidesma.        “     16

                   6. _Corbulacea._ Two genera.
                        1. Corbula.        Species   9
                        2. Pandora.           “      2

                   7. _Lithophagi._ Three genera.
                        1. Saxicava.       Species   5
                        2. Petricola.         “     13
                        3. Venerirupis.       “      7

                   8. _Nymphacea._ Ten genera.
                        1. Sanguinolaria.  Species   4
                        2. Psammobia.         “     18
                        3. Psammotæa.         “      7
                        4. Tellina.           “     54
                        5. Tellinides.        “      1
                        6. Corbis.            “      1
                        7. Lucina.            “     20
                        8. Donax.             “     27
                        9. Capsa.             “      2
                       10. Crassina.          “      1

                   9. _Conchacea._ Seven genera.
                        1. Cyclas.         Species  11
                        2. Cyrena.            “     10
                        3. Galathea.       Species   1
                        4. Cyprina.           “      2
                        5. Cytherea.          “     78
                        6. Venus.             “     88
                        7. Venericardia.      “      1

                  10. _Cardiacea._ Five genera.
                        1. Cardium.        Species  48
                        2. Cardita.           “     21
                        3. Cypricardia.       “      4
                        4. Hiatella.          “      2
                        5. Isocardia.         “      3

                  11. _Arcacea._ Four genera.
                        1. Cucullæa.       Species   1
                        2. Arca.              “     37
                        3. Pectunculus.       “     19
                        4. Nucula.            “      6

                  12. _Trigonacea._ Two genera.
                        1. Trigonia.       Species   1
                        2. Castalia.          “      1

                  13. _Naiades._ Four genera.
                        1. Unio.           Species  48
                        2. Hyria.             “      2
                        3. Anodonta.          “     15
                        4. Iridina.           “      1

                  14. _Chamacea._ Three genera.
                        1. Diceras.        Species   1
                        2. Chama.             “     17
                        3. Etheria.           “      4

                  15. _Tridacnites._ Two genera.
                        1. Tridacna.       Species   6
                        2. Hippopus.          “      1

                  16. _Mytilacea._ Three genera.
                        1. Mytilus.        Species  35
                        2. Modiola.           “     23
                        3. Pinna.             “     15

                  17. _Malleacea._ Five genera.
                        1. Crenatula.      Species   7
                        2. Perna.             “     10
                        3. Malleus.           “      6
                        4. Avicula.           “     13
                        5. Meleagrina.        “      2

                  18. _Pectinides._ Seven genera.
                        1. Pedum.          Species   1
                        2. Lima.              “      6
                        3. Pecten.            “     59
                        4. Plagiostoma.       “     10
                        5. Plicatula.         “      5
                        6. Spondylus.         “     21
                        7. Podopsis.          “      2

                  19. _Ostracea._ Six genera.
                        1. Gryphæa.        Species   1
                        2. Ostrea.            “     48
                        3. Vulsella.       Species   6
                        4. Placuna.           “      3
                        5. Anomia.            “      9
                        6. Crania.            “      1

                  20. _Brachiopoda._ Three genera.
                        1. Orbicula.       Species   1
                        2. Terebratula.       “     12
                        3. Lingula.           “      1


                               CLASS IV.
                               MOLLUSCA.

                         TWENTY-TWO FAMILIES.

                   1. _Pteropoda._ Six genera.
                        1. Hyalæa.         Species   2
                        2. Clio.              “      2
                        3. Cleodora.          “      2
                        4. Limacina.          “      1
                        5. Cymbulia.          “      1
                        6. Pneumodermon.      “      1

                   2. _Phyllidiacea._ Four genera.
                        1. Phyllidia.      Species   3
                        2. Chitonellus.       “      2
                        3. Chiton.            “      6
                        4. Patella.           “     45

                   3. _Calyptracea._ Seven genera.
                        1. Parmophora.     Species   3
                        2. Emarginula.        “      4
                        3. Fissurella.        “     19
                        4. Pileopsis.         “      4
                        5. Calyptræa.         “      4
                        6. Crepidula.         “      6
                        7. Ancylus.           “      2

                   4. _Bullacea._ Three genera.
                        1. Acera.          Species   1
                        2. Bullæa.            “      1
                        3. Bulla.             “     11

                   5. _Aplysiacea._ Two genera.
                        1. Aplysia.        Species   3
                        2. Dolabella.         “      2

                   6. _Limacinea._ Five genera.
                        1. Onchidium.      Species   2
                        2. Parmacella.        “      1
                        3. Limax.             “      4
                        4. Testacella.        “      1
                        5. Vitrina.           “      1

                   7. _Colimacea._ Eleven genera.
                        1. Helix.          Species 107
                        2. Carocolla.         “     15
                        3. Anostoma.          “      2
                        4. Helicina.          “      4
                        5. Pupa.              “     27
                        6. Clausilia.      Species  12
                        7. Bulimus.           “     34
                        8. Achatina.          “     20
                        9. Succinea.          “      3
                       10. Auricula.          “     14
                       11. Cyclostoma.        “     28

                   8. _Lymnæcea._ Three genera.
                        1. Planorbis.      Species  12
                        2. Physa.             “      4
                        3. Lymnæa.            “     11

                   9. _Melanides._ Three genera.
                        1. Melania.        Species  16
                        2. Melanopsis.        “      3
                        3. Pirena.            “      4

                  10. _Peristomides._ Three gen.
                        1. Valvata.        Species   1
                        2. Paludina.          “      7
                        3. Ampullaria.        “     11

                  11. _Neritacea._ Five genera.
                        1. Neritina.       Species  21
                        2. Navicella.         “      3
                        3. Nerita.            “     17
                        4. Natica.            “     31
                        5. Janthina.          “      2

                  12. _Macrostomides._ Four gen.
                        1. Sigaretus.      Species   4
                        2. Stomatella.        “      5
                        3. Stomatia.          “      2
                        4. Haliotis.          “     15

                  13. _Plicacea._ Two genera.
                        1. Tornatella.     Species   6
                        2. Pyramidella.       “      5

                  14. _Scalarides._ Three genera.
                        1. Vermetus.       Species   1
                        2. Scalaria.          “      7
                        3. Delphinula.        “      3

                  15. _Turbinacea._ Seven genera.
                        1. Solarium.       Species   7
                        2. Trochus.           “     69
                        3. Monodonta.         “     23
                        4. Turbo.             “     34
                        5. Planaxis.          “      2
                        6. Phasianella.       “     10
                        7. Turritella.        “     13

                  16. _Canalifera._ Eleven genera.
                        1. Cerithium.      Species  36
                        2. Pleurotoma.     Species  23
                        3. Turbinella.        “     23
                        4. Cancellaria.       “     12
                        5. Fasciolaria.       “      8
                        6. Fusus.             “     37
                        7. Pyrula.            “     28
                        8. Struthiolaria.     “      2
                        9. Ranella.           “     14
                       10. Murex.             “     66
                       11. Triton.            “     31

                  17. _Alata._ Three genera.
                        1. Rostellaria.    Species   3
                        2. Pteroceras.        “      7
                        3. Strombus.          “     32

                  18. _Purpurifera._ Eleven gen.
                        1. Cassidaria.     Species   5
                        2. Cassis.            “     25
                        3. Ricinula.          “      9
                        4. Purpura.           “     50
                        5. Monoceros.         “      5
                        6. Concholepas.       “      1
                        7. Harpa.             “      8
                        8. Dolium.            “      7
                        9. Buccinum.          “     58
                       10. Eburna.            “      5
                       11. Terebra.           “     24

                  19. _Columellaria._ Five genera.
                        1. Columbella.     Species  18
                        2. Mitra.             “     80
                        3. Voluta.            “     44
                        4. Marginella.        “     24
                        5. Volvaria.          “      5

                  20. _Convoluta._ Six genera.
                        1. Ovula.          Species  12
                        2. Cypræa.            “     68
                        3. Terebellum.        “      1
                        4. Ancillaria.        “      4
                        5. Oliva.             “     62
                        6. Conus.             “    181

                  21. _Nautilacea._ Two genera.
                        1. Spirula.        Species   1
                        2. Nautilus.          “      2

                  22. _Heteropoda._ Two genera.
                        1. Argonauta.      Species   3
                        2. Carinaria.         “      3



                              CONCHOLOGY.



                                CLASS I.
                               ANNELIDES.
                        CONTAINS FOUR FAMILIES.


                               FAMILY I.
                         DORSALIÆ. Two genera.


                1. Arenicola. Has no shell. One species.

                            A. piscatorium.


                      2. Siliquaria. Four species.

Shell very thin, conical, tubular, involuted in a loose and irregular
spiral manner; aperture circular, edges sharp, interrupted in the middle
by a notch prolonged like a slit through nearly all its length, stopped
abruptly at some distance from the summit.

                          Siliquaria anguina.
                          S. muricata.
                          S. lævigata.
                          S. lactea.

_S. anguina._ The Snake Siliquaria. Pl. 33, fig. 4.

Shell tapering, undulating, spiral at the extremity.

_S. muricata._ The Prickly Siliquaria.

Species armed with short spines or prickles; aperture sometimes
margined; usually of a rosy or pink colour.


                               FAMILY II.
                         MALDANIÆ. Two genera.


                        1. Clymene. One species.

_C. amphistoma._ The double-mouthed Clymene.

Tube thin and slender, open at both ends; incrusted externally with sand
and fragments of shells.


             2. Dentalium. The Tooth Shell. Twelve species.

This genus took its name from its resemblance to an elephant’s tooth. It
is an attenuated conical tube, slightly bent, and open at both ends.

Shell tubular, regular, symmetrical, lightly curved longitudinally,
conic, attenuated insensibly posteriorly, and open at each extremity by
a round orifice.

                        Dentalium elephantinum.
                        D. aprinum.
                        D. fasciatum.
                        D. entale.
                        D. Tarentinum.
                        D. corneum.
                        D. octoganum.
                        D. novemcostatum.
                        D. dentale.
                        D. nigrum.
                        D. politum.
                        D. eburneum.

_D. elephantinum._ The Elephant’s Tooth Shell.

Species in which the tube is striated or ribbed longitudinally; the ribs
are generally ten in number; green colour.

_D. entale._ The common Dentalium. Pl. 33, fig. 1.

Species very minutely striated; white or yellowish colour.

_D. pellucidum._ The pellucid Dentalium.

Species narrow and thin; pale topaz colour.

_D. politum._ The ring-striated Tooth Shell.

Species finely pointed, solid, striated annularly; generally rosy or
pink colour.

_D. rectum._ The straight Tooth Shell.

Species entirely straight, with longitudinal ribs.

_D. eburneum._ The Ivory Tooth Shell.

Species of a reddish or pale yellow colour, with the tip frequently
tinged with orange or pink.


                              FAMILY III.
                       AMPHITRITÆA. Four genera.

The similarity of the four genera comprising this family is such, that
it was thought sufficient to give only one type (the sabellaria
crassissima), as the student may easily recognise the others.


                      1. Pectinaria. Two species.

A membranous or papyraceous tube, in the form of a reversed cone;
unfixed; exterior covered with sandy adhesions.

                          Pectinaria Belgica.
                          Pectinaria capensis.

_P. Belgica._ The Belgic Pectinaria.

Tube inversely conic, membranous, and covered with sand.


                      2. Sabellaria. Two species.

The covering of the animal belonging to this genus is composed of
fragments and particles of marine substances, adhering to a tubular
membrane; some are detached and others are fixed. The tubes are cellular
at the base, and the orifice expanded.

                        Sabellaria alveolata.
                        Sabellaria crassissima.

_S. alveolata._ The Honeycomb Sabellaria.

Consists of numerous parallel tubes, nearly straight, communicating by
an aperture, forming when in mass the appearance of a honeycomb; it
adheres to rocks in clusters.

_S. crassissima._ The very thick or strong Sabellaria. Pl. 33, fig. 2.

Species incrusted with small stones; sometimes found thick and of a
large size.


                      3. Terebella. Three species.

Tube elongated, cylindrical, membranous, attenuated and pointed at the
base, with adhesions of sand.

                         Terebella conchilega.
                         T. cristata.
                         T. ventricosa.

_T. conchilega._ The shelly Terebella.

Tube covered with numerous fragments of broken shells.


                      4. Amphitrite. Six species.

Nearly the same as the Terebella, but of a tougher membranous texture,
and generally without adhesions.

                        Amphitrite ventilabrum.
                        A. penicillus.
                        A. magnifica.
                        A. vesiculosa.
                        A. volutacornis.
                        A. infundibulum.

_A. ventilabrum._ The Fan Amphitrite.

Tube subulate, smooth, of a yellowish colour.


                               FAMILY IV.
                        SERPULACEA. Five genera.


                      1. Spirorbis. Five species.

Tube testaceous, spirally twisted on a horizontal plane, with terminal
aperture rounded or angular, attached by the lower part to marine
substances.

                         Spirorbis Nautiloides.
                         S. spirillum.
                         S. carinata.
                         S. lamellosa.
                         S. tricostalis.

_S. Nautiloides._ The Nautilus-shaped Spirorbis.

White, transversely wrinkled and minute.


            2. Serpula. The Worm Shell. Twenty-six species.

The name of this genus is derived from the Latin word serpo, to creep,
on account of the vermiform character of some of its species.

They are invariably tubular, sometimes solitary, but more frequently in
clusters spirally entwined, adhering to marine substances. In colour
they are brown, purple, yellow, tawny, pink or white, and sometimes
tinged with green.

Tube solid, calcareous, irregularly twisted, fixed to other substances.

                         Serpula vermicularis.
                         S. fascicularis.
                         S. intestinum.
                         S. contortuplicata.
                         S. plicaria.
                         S. glomerata.
                         S. decussata.
                         S. protensa.
                         S. infundibulum.
                         S. annulata.
                         S. cereolus.
                         S. filograna.
                         S. vermicella.
                         S. filaria.
                         S. pellucida.
                         S. intorta.
                         S. cristata.
                         S. spirulæa.
                         S. quadrangularis.
                         S. minima.
                         S. echinata.
                         S. sulcata.
                         S. costalis.
                         S. dentifera.
                         S. sipho.
                         S. arenaria.

_S. vermicularis._ The wormlike Serpula.

White, cylindrical, tapering, rugged, variously curved and twisted.


                      3. Vermilia. Eight species.

Tube testaceous, cylindrical, more or less twisted, gradually attenuated
posteriorly; opening round, the margin with one, two, or three teeth;
shell adhering by the side to other substances; provided with a convex
operculum.

                           Vermilia rostrata.
                           V. triquetra.
                           V. bicarinata.
                           V. eruca.
                           V. subcrenata.
                           V. plicifera.
                           V. scabra.
                           V. tæniata.

_V. triquetra._ The three-sided Vermilia.

White or reddish, rugged, twisted and triangular, carinated along the
back.


                      4. Galeolaria. Two species.

Distinguished from the Vermilia by a very peculiar operculum. Found in
groups, adhering together at the base.

Tube open at the summit; aperture orbicular, terminated on the side by a
spatulous tongue; operculum orbicular, squamose, consisting of from five
to nine testaceous parts or valves, all attached to one side of the
operculum; the middle one dentated at the truncated part of its summit,
the others a little toothed on their internal edge.

                         Galeolaria cæspitosa.
                         Galeolaria elongata.

_G. elongata._ The elongated Galeolaria.

Whitish, existing in congregated masses; operculum as above.


                        5. Magilus. One species.

A very singular shell, greatly resembling a petrified body, composed of
a testaceous white substance like alabaster. The base is bent into a
short spire, with about four contiguous whorls; the last prolonged and
nearly straight. The animal, as it increases in size, abandons the
spiral part by increasing the tubular part, filling up the part it quits
with calcareous matter, which proves that it advances gradually.

Tube partially involuted, convex in its upper exterior part, the lower
side flattened, platted, carinated, and somewhat angular; the spire
short, helix-formed, and prolonged through the rest of its extent in
nearly a right line; aperture entire, oval, with a sort of sinus or
gutter in the middle line, producing the keel of the shell.

_M. antiquus._ The antiquated Magilus.

Answers to the above description; colour pale yellowish brown,
transversely wrinkled.



                               CLASS II.
                              CIRRHIPEDES.
                          HAS BUT ONE FAMILY.


                        CIRRHIPEDES. Ten genera.

Lamarck divided the Lepas of Linnæus into the various genera which
compose this family. The term lepas is derived from the Greek word
λεπας, a rock, alluding to its custom of adhering to rocks and marine
bodies. The shell often varies in shape, covering, and colouring; it is
generally conical, but sometimes hemispherical; some of the valves are
placed perpendicularly on a base, broad at the lower margin and tapering
towards the summit, which is closed by small horizontal valves forming
the operculum. The number of valves is indefinite, from four to
twenty-four; but all are diversified with striæ, ridges, and grooves.
The striæ are mostly transverse, and the ridges longitudinal.

The valves which compose the operculum or lid vary in shape, and are in
number two, three, four, or more; they are generally attached to a
ligament.

They are seldom, if ever, found detached, but adhere in groups to rocks,
shells, anchors, marine animals, &c. Those that fix themselves to ships
are generally called barnacles; they rapidly increase in size and
number, do great damage, and greatly impede the progress of the vessel.
Some of this family are affixed at the base of the shell to other
substances, and are therefore called sessile; others are attached to a
fleshy peduncle or stem, and are said to be pedunculated. The peduncle
or stem, proceeding from the base of the shell to the substance which
sustains it, is sometimes smooth, fine in texture, and tinged with
bright red or orange; sometimes it is of a dark or brownish colour, with
a texture much coarser and granulated.


                      1. Tubicinella. One species.

Has the form of a cylindrical tube, slightly curved, and open at both
ends; one extremity closed by four trapezoidal valves attached to the
inner margin, the other end closed by a membrane. The annular ribs which
separate the compartments show its progressive growth. Found buried so
deeply in the fat of marine animals, particularly whales, that only the
operculum and the upper part of the tube are visible. Shell rather
elevated, sub-cylindrical, the partitions rather small and indented; the
spaces or compartments almost quadrilateral; the inferior much more
narrow than the others; the apertures equal and circular; the membrane
which closes the superior forming a tube between the four almost equal
valves of the operculum.

_T. balænarum._ The Whale Tubicinella.

Tubular, with transverse ribs, and a ring-shaped margin; operculum
bottle-shaped.


                      2. Coronula. Three species.

Found imbedded in the skin of whales and other marine animals, though
not generally at so great a depth as the Tubicinella. Shell in form a
little variable and without trace of support; the coronary part formed
of six pieces, as in those properly called _Balanus_, but more regularly
disposed in a manner to imitate a kind of crown or tube; spaces
alternately hollowed and saliant; operculum not articulated, composed of
two pairs of small, level, delicate valves, joined at the aperture of
the tube by a considerable membranous part, leaving a passage for the
cirrhous appendages of the animal.

                         Coronula testudinaria.
                         C. balænarum.
                         C. diadema.
                         C. quinquevalvis.

_C. testudinaria._ The Tortoise Coronula.

Very depressed, circular, as if radiated by the disposition of marked
spaces, striated transversely, forming six rays diverging from the
centre to the circumference; aperture oval and hexagonal.

_C. balænarum._ The Whale Coronula.

A little more elevated; the spaces prominent, equal between them, much
larger than the excavated; the aperture subcircular; the operculum of
four valves, almost equal, occupying but a small space of the membranous
part which forms between them a sort of tube.

_C. diadema._ The Crown Coronula.

More elevated, sub-hexagonal; the spaces almost equal, the hollow parts
larger than the saliant; the superior aperture very large and hexagonal;
the inferior much smaller, of the same form, and communicating in a
round excavation by radiated plates; the operculum bivalve.

_C. quinquevalvis._ The five-valved Coronula. Pl. 4, fig. 3.

Species irregular, having only five valves, of a purple hue.


           3. Balanus. The Acorn Shell. Twenty-eight species.

So named from its resemblance to an acorn. Shell conical; the coronary
part formed of six very distinct valves, one dorsal, one ventral, and
two pairs of laterals, with or without a calcareous support; operculum
of four articulated pieces, forming a sort of pyramid in the superior
aperture of the tube.

                           Balanus angulosus.
                           B. sulcatus.
                           B. tintinnabulum.
                           B. nigrescens.
                           B. cylindraceus.
                           B. calycularis.
                           B. roseus.
                           B. palmatus.
                           B. stalactiferus.
                           B. plicatus.
                           B. duploconus.
                           B. patellaris.
                           B. semiplicatus.
                           B. galeatus.
                           B. ovularis.
                           B. miser.
                           B. amphimorphus.
                           B. perforatus.
                           B. lævis.
                           B. spinosus.
                           B. radiatus.
                           B. subimbricatus.
                           B. rugosus.
                           B. placianus.
                           B. crispatus.
                           B. punctatus.
                           B. fistulosus.
                           B. latus.

_B. sulcatus._ The furrowed Balanus.

White; valves nearly smooth; operculum strongly ridged transversely,
with longitudinal, nearly obsolete striæ.

_B. tintinnabulum._ The little Bell Balanus. Pl. 4, fig. 1.

Shell conical; valves strongly and irregularly ribbed; interstices
delicately striated transversely; colour purple.

_B. spinosus._ The spiny Balanus.

Either has no support or a membranous one; armed with spines exteriorly.


                       4. Acasta. Three species.

Found in sponge, from which, when detached, it cannot stand erect on
account of the convexity of the base.

Shell oval, sub-conic, shaped like a Patella, with six lateral unequal
valves slightly connected; operculum with four valves.

                            Acasta Montagui.
                            A. glans.
                            A. sulcata.

_A. Montagui._ Montague’s Acasta.

Valves erect, triangular, acute, with muricated ascending spines.


                       5. Creusia. Three species.

The shells of this genus are generally small; found in the seas of hot
countries attached to madrepore and other marine substances.

Shell sessile, thin, Patella-shaped; aperture oval, rather large, closed
by a large sub-pyramidal bivalve operculum; a considerable calcareous
support, funnel-shaped, penetrating the bodies to which the animal is
attached.

                            Creusia stromia.
                            C. spinulosa.
                            C. verruca.

_C. spinulosa._ The spiny Creusia.

Very depressed, striated, sometimes with marks of division into four
pieces; operculum bivalve.

_C. verruca._ The warted Creusia. Pl. 4, fig. 2.

Whitish, slightly depressed, with interwoven obliquely striated valves;
the margin at the base irregularly serrated.


                        6. Pyrgoma. One species.

The principal difference between this genus and the Creusia is in form.

Shell sessile, rather globular appearance on account of the valves being
more closely united, ventricose, convex above, apex perforated, aperture
small and elliptical; operculum bivalve.

_P. cancellata._ The cancellated Pyrgoma.

Thick, conical, Patella-shaped, ribs radiating from the summit to the
base; aperture very small, closed by an operculum of which the two
pieces are long and narrow on each side; pale violet colour.


                      7. Anatifera. Five species.

The shells of this genus and the three following genera are affixed to
marine bodies by a tough membranous peduncle, varying in length.

Shell flat, with five valves imbricating more or less on the edges,
united by a thin membrane.

                            Anatifera lævis.
                            A. villosa.
                            A. dentata.
                            A. striata.
                            A. vitrea.

_A. lævis._ The smooth Anatifera. Pl. 4, fig. 5.

Five smooth valves; the dorsal one rounded at the sides, and slightly
carinated; peduncle long, naked, of a scarlet colour.


                     8. Pollicipes. Three species.

Easily distinguished by the numerous small valves situated at the base.

                         Pollicipes cornucopia.
                         P. mitella.
                         P. scalpellum.

_P. cornucopia._ The Cornucopia Pollicipes. Pl. 4, fig. 6.

Peduncle covered with imbricated scales, the lower ones rounded and
turned upward.

_P. mitella._ The Mitre Pollicipes. Pl. 4, fig. 4.

Valves indefinite in number, from six to twenty-four; almost equal, and
open like tulips; colour bluish, purplish, brownish, or reddish cast.


                        9. Cineras. One species.

Shell composed of five testaceous oblong valves, separate, not covering
the whole of the body; two at the sides of the aperture, the others on
the back; peduncle of a greenish colour, with six longitudinal stripes.

_C. vittata._ The filleted Cineras.

Answers to the above description.


                        10. Otion. Two species.

Shell composed of two testaceous valves, enclosed in a mantle or
membranous bag, which is prolonged and terminated in two fleshy tubes
formed like ears, one of the two having a lateral opening.

                           Otion Cuvierii.
                           Otion Blainvillii.

_O. Cuvierii._ Cuvier’s Otion.

Answers to the above.

_O. Blainvilli._ Blainville’s Otion.

Ash coloured; the body and ears spotted with black.



                               CLASS III.
                              CONCHIFERA.

                       CONTAINS TWENTY FAMILIES.


                               FAMILY I.
                         TUBICOLA. Six genera.


         1. Aspergillum. The Watering-pot Shell. Four species.

A well-known but rare shell; the larger end closed by a convex disk,
with numerous small perforations, and encircled by a dilated margin of
elegant papyraceous tubes, resembling a beautifully plaited ruff; the
smaller end open. Found in sandy places at low water.

Shell oval, slightly elongated, striated longitudinally,
sub-equilateral; adhering, more or less confounded with the coats of a
rather thick calcareous tube, conic, club-shaped, open at its attenuated
extremity, and terminated at the other by a convex disk pierced by a
great number of sub-tubular, rounded holes, and by a fissure in the
centre.

                          Aspergillum Javanum.
                          A. vaginiferum.
                          A. Novæ Zeylandiæ.
                          A. agglutinans.

_A. Javanum._ The Java Aspergillum. Pl. 33, fig. 3.

Species smooth, in which the circumference of the disk is bordered with
a waved testaceous fringe.

_A. Novæ Zeylandiæ._ The New-Zealand Aspergillum.

Species in which the circumference of the disk is without a fringe.


                      2. Clavagella. One species.

An irregular tube, with branches or projecting tubes at the closed end;
within it is one free or moveable valve, united by a ligament to
another, which is blended with the tube; this distinguishes it from the
Aspergillum. Found in sand and coral.

Shell oval, very slightly elongated, striated longitudinally, slightly
irregular; equivalve, inequilateral; hinge a little variable; ligament
exterior; two well-marked distant muscular impressions; a calcareous
sub-cylindrical tube, more or less completely surrounding the shell, and
terminated before by a single orifice.

_C. aperta._ The open Clavagella.

Tube erect, adhering; aperture waved, entire, expanding, funnel-shaped,
leaving the two valves open or uncovered in all their anterior part;
with an ovate face valve.


                      3. Fistulana. Four species.

Lamarck asserts that the tube and shell of this genus are quite
distinct. It so greatly resembles the Teredo that it is with difficulty
distinguished. It is found in sand, wood, stone, and sometimes shells.

Shell annular or very short, not sharp nor angular anteriorly, but in
other respects much like that of the Teredo.

Tube generally shorter, thicker, more solid, more club-shaped than that
of the Teredo, always closed at its anterior extremity in such a manner
as to contain and entirely hide the shell; the posterior extremity open,
and divided interiorly into two syphons by a partition.

                            Fistulana clava.
                            F. corniformis.
                            F. gregata.
                            F. lagenula.

_F. corniformis._ The horn-shaped Fistulana.

Answers to the above description.

_F. gregata._ The gregarious Fistulana.

Sheath or tube doubly club-shaped, congregating; shell angularly
arcuated, with double angulated serrated wings.

_F. Clava._ The Club Fistulana. Pl. 33, fig. 5.

Species with one end clavate, the other incurved, narrower, obtuse, and
perforated in the middle; shell generally flexuous, of a brownish
colour; exterior rough, interior smooth.


                       4. Septaria. One species.

The tube of this genus unquestionably contains a bivalve shell; but, as
no perfect specimen has yet been found, nothing decisive is known
respecting it.

Tube calcareous, thick, conically elongated, more or less flexuous, as
if composed of pieces placed on the ends of each other, or as if
articulated, with a ring or projection more or less marked at the place
of the joints, but without traces of partitions; terminated on one side
by an inflation, oftentimes with some interior partitions, and on the
other by two tubes, distinct and sub-articulated.

_S. arenaria._ The Sand Septaria.

The type of this genus.


                    5. Teredina. Two fossil species.

A genus without a living species, given here to preserve the family
entire, having a shell thick, oval, short, very gaping posteriorly,
equivalve, inequilateral; summits well marked; a spoonlike cavity in
each valve.

Tube or sheath testaceous, cylindrical; anterior end open; posterior end
closed, but exhibiting the two valves of the shell.


                6. Teredo. The Ship Worm. Three species.

This genus derived its name from the faculty it possesses of boring
wood. The T. navalis can penetrate the stoutest oaken planks of a ship’s
sides by means of two valves affixed to the head of the animal. The
effects produced would be much more destructive but from the fact of
their generally perforating the wood in the direction of the grain. Sir
E. Home wrote a very scientific and interesting description of a species
not mentioned by Lamarck, called the T. gigantea, found imbedded in
indurated mud in the Island of Sumatra. It is the largest species known,
some having been seen four or five feet long.

Shell thick, solid, very short or annular, open at both extremities;
equivalve, equilateral, angular and sharp anteriorly, only slightly
touching by the opposite edges; hinge obsolete; a considerable internal
spoonlike cavity; one slightly sensible muscular impression.

Tube more or less distinct from the substance in which the animal lives,
cylindrical, straight or flexuous, closed with age at the oral extremity
so as to envelop the animal and its shell; always open at the other end,
and divided interiorly into two syphons by a middle partition.

                            Teredo navalis.
                            T. palmulata.
                            T. gigantea.

_T. navalis._ The common Ship Worm.

Species very thin, cylindrical, and smooth; slightly twisted, white,
finely striated longitudinally.


                               FAMILY II.
                        PHOLADARIA. Two genera.


              1. Pholas. The Stone Piercer. Nine species.

This genus is without any tubular sheath; it derives its name from the
Greek word φωλεω, to hide, alluding to the custom of its inhabitant in
forming cells in rocks, wood, &c.

In form the Pholas is generally oblong, having two large valves opposite
to each other, with a number of smaller ones attached to the back as a
substitute for a hinge. The two large valves never shut close; they are
open at one end, and sometimes at both.

The exterior of the shell is usually of a pure or dusky white, but
sometimes of a brownish cast. In some species the shell is adorned with
beautiful delicate reticulations, like the finest lace; in others the
texture is coarser, like small basket-work. They are found in the
American, Indian, and European seas, each shell in a separate habitation
formed in limestone, sandstone, wood, coral, &c.; often discovered
completely imbedded in the oak planks of ships traversing those seas; as
they advance in growth they enlarge the space within, and leave the
aperture by which they entered of its primitive size.

Shell thin, sub-transparent, finely striated, elongated oval, bivalve,
equivalve, inequilateral; the valves only touching in the middle of
their edges; the summits but little marked, and concealed by a callosity
produced by the expansion of the dorsal lobes of the mantle; near the
hinge are often developed one or more accessory calcareous pieces; an
incurved tooth interior beneath the hinge.

                            Pholas dactylus.
                            P. orientalis.
                            P. candida.
                            P. dactyloides.
                            P. silicula.
                            P. costata.
                            P. crispata.
                            P. callosa.
                            P. clavata.

_P. dactylus._ The prickly Pholas. Pl. 3, fig. 3.

Answers to the general description, but is beset with small calcareous
spiny nodules on the ribs, which run widening and enlarging from the
summit to the margin; colour white or very light brown.

_P. striata._ The striated Pholas. Pl. 3, fig. 5.

Oval, the dorsal callosity leaving the summit free, and extending
towards the anterior and inferior extremity in such a manner that each
valve seems to be formed of three parts, because of an oblique furrow
from the summit to the margin; a tooth running down in the inside from
the summit; one pair of accessory pieces at the posterior extremity of
the shell.

_P. candida._ The white Pholas. Pl. 3, fig. 2.

Elongated, wedge-shaped; muscular impression almost medial; a kind of
oblique tooth parting from the summit; no accessory pieces.

_P. costata._ The ribbed Pholas. Pl. 3, fig. 4.

Elongated, wedge-shaped, covered with regular elevated jagged or
scalloped ribs, elegantly disposed; three dorsal accessory pieces;
muscular impression almost medial.

_P. crispata._ The curled Pholas.

Somewhat oval, truncated behind, and as if divided into two parts by an
oblique furrow from the summit to the base; anterior part reticulated,
the other parts plain; muscular impression marginal.

_P. clavata._ The clubbed Pholas.

Short, wedge-form, little gaping, with many accessory pieces.


                     2. Gastrochæna. Three species.

Always without accessory pieces, and, therefore, easily distinguished
from the Pholas.

Shell equivalve, somewhat wedge-shaped, with a very large, oval,
oblique, anterior opening between the valves; the posterior extremity
nearly close; hinge linear, marginal, without teeth; two distant
muscular impressions; sometimes with a kind of tube or calcareous
general envelope.

                        Gastrochæna cuneiformis.
                        G. mytiloides.
                        G. modiolina.

_G. modiolina._ The Modioliform Gastrochæna.

Oval, thin, brittle, gaping at the side; light reddish brown, with a
bluish white interior.

_G. cuneiformis._ The wedgelike Gastrochæna. Pl. 3, fig. 1.

Species with a smooth shell, and without distinct tube. (Represented as
imbedded in wood.)


                              FAMILY III.
                        SOLENIDES. Four genera.


                      1. Solen. Eighteen species.

There are many species belonging to this genus differing considerably in
form and appearance. Its name is derived from a Greek word signifying a
pipe or tube. It is a bivalve whose breadth sometimes exceeds its
length; some species have a resemblance to the sheath of a razor or a
knife handle; others are curved like the scabbard of a cimeter.

The Solen is found in the sand of the seashore, which it sometimes
penetrates to the depth of one or two feet. Most of the species are
covered with an epidermis, which renders their colours more or less
obscure. In general they present but little beauty, though some are of a
bright pink colour, and some are beautifully and delicately radiated
with purple and white.

The principal characteristic of this genus is the hinge, which generally
has one subulate tooth, though sometimes two or three.

Shell equivalve, extremely inequilateral, transversely elongated, open
at both ends; the apices very small, and entirely at the commencement of
the dorsal line; one or two teeth in the hinge; ligament external; two
distant muscular impressions; the anterior one very long and narrow, the
posterior one sub-angular.

                            Solen vagina
                            S. corneus.
                            S. ensis.
                            S. pygmæus.
                            S. ambiguus.
                            S. Dombeii.
                            S. Javanicus.
                            S. Caribæus.
                            S. antiquatus.
                            S. vaginoides.
                            S. siliqua.
                            S. cultellus.
                            S. planus.
                            S. minutus.
                            S. constrictus.
                            S. coarctatus.
                            S. rostratus.
                            S. violaceus.

_S. vagina._ The Razor Sheath. Pl. 31, fig. 5.

Valves equal, truncated at both ends; straight or slightly curved;
summit terminal.

_S. cultellus._ The kidney-shaped Solen.

Species a little curved lengthwise; summit not terminal.

_S. rostratus._ The violet-beaked Solen.

Species with longer and narrower valves, flatter at the extremities;
callosity at the hinge very visible; cardinal teeth or hinge nearer the
middle than the anterior side.

_S. ensis._ The Sabre Solen.

Species linear, sabre-shaped; a single compressed tooth in each valve;
olive brown at the base, and of a purple hue near the apex.

_S. siliqua._ The podlike Solen.

Species linear, straight; two teeth in one valve and one in the other;
covered with a glossy brown epidermis; striated transversely.

_S. antiquatus._ The Antiquated Solen.

Species thin, white, and almost transparent; striated concentrically;
ends rounded; hinge near the centre; a tooth in one valve locking into
two in the other; the teeth erect and projecting beyond the margin;
covered with a dark-coloured epidermis.


                        2. Panopæa. One species.

Distinguished from the Mya by the prominency of the apex and the
situation of the ligament.

Shell regular, elongated oval, gaping at the two extremities, equivalve,
inequilateral; summit but little marked, and anterodorsal; hinge very
complete, similar, formed by a conical primary tooth before a short,
compressed, ascending callosity; ligament exterior, attached to the
callosity; two muscular impressions.

_P. Aldrovandi._ The Panopæa of Aldrovandus. Pl. 5, fig. 2.

The type of this genus, transversely elongated, undulated;
concentrically wrinkled; of dark green colour, almost black.


                     3. Solecurtus. Three species.

Shell oval, elongated, equivalve, sub-equilateral, edges almost straight
and parallel; the extremities equally rounded, and as if truncated;
summits but little marked; hinge toothless, or formed by some
rudimentary primary teeth; ligament projecting, affixed to the thick
nymphal callosities; two distant, rounded muscular impressions.

                          Solecurtus radiatus.
                          S. strigilatus.
                          S. legumen.

_S. radiatus._ The radiated Solecurtus.

Species flat, small, with an interior ridge running down obliquely from
the summit to the abdominal margin.

_S. strigilatus._ The strigilated Solecurtus.

Species more cylindrical, without interior ridge.

_S. legumen._ The Pease-pod Solecurtus. Pl. 31, fig. 6.

Species still more elongated and sub-cylindrical.


                      4. Glycimeris. Two species.

Distinguished from the Solen by being without teeth at the hinge.

Shell covered with epidermis, slightly irregular, elongated, gaping at
the two extremities, equivalve, inequilateral; the summits but little
marked; hinge toothless; a longitudinal callosity; ligament exterior,
affixed to very projecting callosities on the shortest side of the
shell; two distinct muscular impressions.

                        Glycimeris margaritacea.
                        Glycimeris siliqua.

_G. siliqua._ The podlike Glycimeris.

Transversely oblong, covered with a black epidermis; umbones
decorticated; internal disc of the valves white, thick, and callous.


                               FAMILY IV.
                          MYARIA. Two genera.


           1. Mya. The Trough Shell, or Gaper. Four species.

This term is derived from the Greek word μυω, to close, alluding to the
animal’s custom of closing the valves. The principal characteristic of
the Mya is its gaping at one end; it is likewise distinguished by having
a large spoonlike tooth proceeding from beneath the beak. Its form is
greatly varied, but generally covered with a greenish epidermis, which
may be removed; and the shell, when polished, will display beautiful
prismatic colours. The Mya is found on the seashore or on the banks of
large rivers, partially concealed in the sand and mud.

Shell transverse, inequilateral, surrounded with a thick epidermis;
rather solid; edges thin and sharp; summits but little marked; hinge
dissimilar; one or two large, compressed, spoon-shaped teeth rising
perpendicularly from the plane of the left valve, and fitting into the
entrance of a primary cavity in the right valve; ligament interior,
attaching the tooth and cavity; two distant muscular impressions; the
anterior long and narrow, the posterior rounded; the mantle impression
narrow, with a large sinus or hollow.

                            Mya truncata.
                            M. arenaria.
                            M. erodona.
                            M. solenimyalis.

_M. arenaria._ The Sand Mya. Pl. 5, fig. 1.

Regular species.

_M. erodona._ The Erodona Mya.

Irregular species, in which the cavity of the right valve is bordered by
strong projections.

_M. truncata._ The truncated Mya. Pl. 5, fig. 3.

Sub-oval, truncated; small end gaping; large end rounded; covered with a
dark yellowish epidermis; inside white; wrinkled transversely.


               2. Anatina. The Duck’s Bill. Ten species.

Shell elongated oval, very thin, fragile, semipellucid; much inflated at
one end like a duck’s bill, whence it derives its common name;
equivalve, very inequilateral; hinge toothless; the anterior side
rounded and much longer than the posterior; ligament interior affixed to
a bony spoonlike process in each valve, and sustained by a lateral plate
running obliquely into the interior of the shell.

                            Anatina laterna.
                            A. truncata.
                            A. subrostrata.
                            A. longirostris.
                            A. globulosa.
                            A. trapezoides.
                            A. rugosa.
                            A. imperfecta.
                            A. myalis.
                            A. rupicola.

_A. subrostrata._ The beaklike Anatina.

Species equivalve and regular.

_A. myalis._ The Mya-like Anatina.

Species inequivalve.

_A. trapezoides._ The trapezium-shaped Anatina. Pl. 12, fig. 5.

Species with a moveable tooth or calcareous piece upon the right valve,
lodged in the angle formed by the spoonlike process.


                               FAMILY V.
                        MACTRACEA. Seven genera.


                      1. Lutraria. Eleven species.

This genus was taken from the Mactra, and is perfectly distinct, as it
wants the lateral teeth. It is called Lutricola by De Blainville, from
its lurking in sand or mud at the mouths of large rivers.

Shell inequilateral, orbicular, sub-triangular or transversely oval,
gaping at the extremities; hinge with one cardinal tooth folded in two,
or two teeth, one of which is plain, with an opposite hollow to receive
it; no lateral teeth; ligament interior and fixed in the hollow cavity
of the primary tooth.

                          Lutraria solenoides.
                          L. rugosa.
                          L. compressa.
                          L. piperata.
                          L. tellinoides.
                          L. elliptica.
                          L. papyracea.
                          L. plicatella.
                          L. crassiplica.
                          L. complanata.
                          L. candida.

_L. solenoides._ The Solen-like Lutraria.

Species oblong, sub-cylindrical, very gaping, two very strong cardinal
teeth; the spoonlike cavity of the ligament vertical.

_L. compressa._ The compressed Lutraria.

Species oval or orbicular, almost equilateral, very compressed, little
gaping; hinge similar; internal ligament inserted in the pit of a
vertical spoonlike cavity; two distinct tubes, without longitudinal
striæ.

_L. rugosa._ The rugged Lutraria.

Species ovate, closed at both ends; striæ from the summit to the base.

_L. elliptica._ The oval Lutraria.

Oblong oval, nearly smooth, having a few concentric striæ, and some
diagonal striæ at the ends of the valves; colour yellow or greenish
brown; inside white.


         2. Mactra. The Kneading-trough. Thirty-three species.

The name given to this genus was derived from the Greek word μακτρα,
from its resemblance to a trough used for kneading bread.

In all species of this genus a similarity of colouring and form pervades
the whole. In shape they are sub-triangular or oblong, with a smooth,
striated, or transversely-ribbed exterior. In some species the valves
gape at both ends, and in others at the anterior only. The most general
colour is lilac, or white tinged with blue or yellow; some have purple
rays on a brown ground.

A singularity in the form of the hinge of the Mactra distinguishes it
from all other genera. It is of a triangular form, has a bent or angular
compressed tooth on each valve, with a small oblique cavity on each side
to which the ligament is attached. There are also two lateral teeth, one
near the ligament and the other near the primary tooth. These teeth are
thin and fragile; the primary tooth is sometimes indistinct, but the
lateral teeth always exist.

The Mactra is found buried in the sand at a little distance from the
seashore. Shell generally thin and brittle, covered with epidermis, of a
triangular form, transverse, equivalve, inequilateral; beaks prominent;
one compressed, folded, cardinal tooth, with an adjoining pit in each
valve, projecting inward; lateral teeth thin, lamellous, entering,
placed near the hinge; exterior ligament small; an interior ligament
inserted in the cardinal pits; two muscular impressions, united by a
narrow marginal tongue.

                            Mactra gigantea.
                            M. Spengleri.
                            M. striatella.
                            M. carinata.
                            M. straminea.
                            M. Australis.
                            M. violacea.
                            M. fasciata.
                            M. turgida.
                            M. plicataria.
                            M. rufescens.
                            M. maculata.
                            M. subplicata.
                            M. triangularis.
                            M. lactea.
                            M. abbreviata.
                            M. Helvacea.
                            M. grandis.
                            M. stultorum.
                            M. maculosa.
                            M. ovalina.
                            M. alba.
                            M. solida.
                            M. castanea.
                            M. rufa.
                            M. squalida.
                            M. Brasiliana.
                            M. donacina.
                            M. depressa.
                            M. lilacea.
                            M. trigonella.
                            M. deltoides.
                            M. crassatella.

_M. gigantea._ The gigantic Mactra.

Species in which the cardinal teeth are almost obsolete, in consequence
of the enlargement of the pit of the ligament.

_M. stultorum._ The fool’s Mactra. Pl. 9, fig. 6.

Species in which all the teeth are very large, lamellous, striated
longitudinally; colour reddish brown.

_M. solida._ The solid Mactra.

Species thick, solid, without epidermis; lateral teeth finely striated.

_M. trigonella._ The three-cornered Mactra.

Species in which the lateral teeth are almost obsolete; exterior surface
smooth.

_M. triangularis._ The triangular Mactra.

Species very small, strong, opaque, white; inside white; margin strongly
crenated.

_M. crassa._ The thick Mactra.

Species very thick, solid, striated longitudinally; the cardinal teeth
obsolete, or almost so; the lateral very thick, very close, and
reflected; an external ligament as well as an internal one.


                    3. Crassatella. Eleven species.

May be easily known from the Mactra and Lutraria, as the valves, when
closed, fit exactly, and do not gape. It is remarkable that all the
living species contained in this genus only exist in the seas of
Australasia, while at least seven species in a fossil state are found in
France.

Shell inequilateral, sub-orbicular, close, equivalve, sometimes
attenuated at one end; two divergent primary teeth, with a cavity at the
side; lateral teeth obsolete; ligament internal, inserted in the cavity
of the hinge.

                         Crassatella Kingicola.
                         C. donacina.
                         C. sulcata.
                         C. subradiata.
                         C. contraria.
                         C. cuneata.
                         C. rostrata.
                         C. glabrata.
                         C. erycinæa.
                         C. cycladea.
                         C. striata.

_C. sulcata._ The furrowed Crassatella. Pl. 6, fig 4.

Shell ordinarily thick, striated transversely, denticulated,
sub-triangular, equivalve, inequilateral, summits well marked and
evidently turned forward; hinge very large, subsimilar, formed by two
diverging cardinal teeth, separated by a large pit; ligament almost
entirely interior, and inserted in the pit.

_C. Kingicola._ The King’s Island Crassatella.

Ovate, orbicular; yellowish white, with obsolete rays; very minutely
striated transversely; the umbones somewhat plicated.


                        4. Erycina. One species.

The only living species of this genus is found on the sand in
New-Holland, but there are many fossils in France. It is so equivocal in
character that it is difficult to judge of their hinge.

_E. cardioides._ The cardium-shaped Erycina. Pl. 6, fig. 5.

Shell rather longer than high, sub-triangular, regular, equivalve,
inequilateral, rarely gaping; the summits well marked and a little
anteriorly inclined; hinge subsimilar; two unequal cardinal teeth,
converging at the summit, and leaving a pit between them; two lateral
teeth, not distant, lamellous, inserted; ligament interior, fixed in the
cavity between the primary teeth.


                       5. Ungulina. Two species.

This genus is very remarkable for having the pit or cavity divided into
two parts, the one at the end of the other; the ligament is partially
seen from the outside.

                          Ungulina oblonga.
                          Ungulina transversa.

_U. transversa._ The transverse Ungulina.

Shell vertical or longitudinal, rather irregular, not gaping, equivalve,
inequilateral, with summits little marked and decorticated; hinge
dorsal, formed by one short, primary cleft tooth, before an oblong pit,
divided by a small ligament, in which is inserted a sub-interior
ligament; colour yellowish brown.


                       6. Solenimya. Two species.

This genus, which at first sight is confounded with the Solens, differs
from them particularly by the singular disposition of the ligament
placed at the short side of the shell.

                        Solenimya Australis.
                        Solenimya Mediterranea.

_S. Australis._ The Australian Solenimya. Pl. 6, fig. 2.

Shell covered with a thick brownish epidermis, regular, thick, elongated
oval, edges straight and parallel, equally rounded at both extremities;
valves equal, very inequilateral.

_S. Mediterranea._ The Mediterranean Solenimya.

Transversely oblong; dark brown, ribbed longitudinally, with imbricated
projecting foliations; inside white.


                    7. Amphidesma. Sixteen species.

This genus was constituted by Lamarck on account of the peculiar
characters which distinguished it from those genera which it most
resembles; particularly in having the valves connected by two ligaments.

Shell generally small, transverse, sub-oval or rounded, occasionally a
little gaping at the sides; hinge with one or two cardinal teeth, and a
narrow cavity for the interior ligament; exterior ligament short.

                         Amphidesma variegata.
                         A. donacilla.
                         A. lactea.
                         A. cornea.
                         A. albella.
                         A. flexuosa.
                         A. prismatica.
                         A. phaseolina.
                         A. corbuloides.
                         A. glabrella.
                         A. lucinalis.
                         A. Boysii.
                         A. tenuis.
                         A. purpurascens.
                         A. nucleola.
                         A. physioides.

_A. glabrella._ The smooth Amphidesma. Pl. 6, fig. 9.

Species lenticular or oval, with or without a lunated depression.

_A. lactea._ The milky Amphidesma.

Sub-orbicular, sub-pellucid, compressed, reticulated; yellowish white.


                               FAMILY VI.
                        CORBULACEA. Two genera.


                       1. Corbula. Nine species.

This genus approximates the Crassatella and Ungulina, but is
distinguished from them by the inequality of the valves and the strong
primary tooth.

Shell rather solid, a little irregular and triangular, inequivalve, more
or less inequilateral, rounded and enlarged before, attenuated and
prolonged behind; summits well marked, one projecting behind the other;
hinge anomalous, formed by a large, conical, recurved cardinal tooth,
with a cavity at its base for the reception of the tooth of the other
valve; ligament very small; two muscular impressions little distant.

                           Corbula Australis.
                           C. sulcata.
                           C. erythrodon.
                           C. ovalina.
                           C. Taitensis.
                           C. nucleus.
                           C. impressa.
                           C. porcina.
                           C. semen.

_C. nucleus._ The kernel Corbula.

Strong, sub-triangular, under valve larger than the upper one;
transversely striated; covered with a thick brownish epidermis.

_C. ovalina._ The ovate Corbula. Pl. 6, fig. 6.

Regular species.

_C. Australis._ The Australian Corbula.

Irregular species, living in stone.


                        2. Pandora. Two species.

Closely allied to the Corbula.

                           Pandora rostrata.
                           Pandora obtusa.

_P. rostrata._ The beaked Pandora. Pl. 6, fig. 3.

Shell white, regular, elongated, inequivalve, inequilateral; right or
upper valve entirely flat, with a plait or fold; much produced towards
the beak; hinge anomalous, formed by a transverse cardinal tooth on the
right valve, entering into a corresponding cavity on the left; ligament
internal, oblique, triangular, inserted in a pit rather deep, with edges
a little projecting on each valve; two rounded muscular impressions.


                              FAMILY VII.
                       LITHOPHAGI. Three genera.


                       1. Saxicava. Five species.

This genus is taken from the Mytilus, and, like the Pholas, possesses
the faculty of penetrating calcareous rocks, from which it cannot be
extracted without breaking the substance in which it is imbedded.

Shell bivalve, thick, covered with epidermis, rather irregular,
elongated, sub-cylindrical, obtuse at the two extremities; summits
little marked; hinge toothless, or with a very small rudimentary tooth;
ligament external, a little inflated.

                            Saxicava rugosa.
                            S. Gallicana.
                            S. pholadis.
                            S. Australis.
                            S. veneriformis.

_S. Australis._ The Australian Saxicava. Pl. 7, fig. 6.

Answers to the above description.

_S. Gallicana._ The Gallic Saxicava.

Oblong, wrinkled, truncated at the posterior extremity, one valve larger
than the other; pale horn colour.


                    2. Petricola. Thirteen species.

This genus possesses the same faculty of boring rocks as the Saxicava;
it is distinguished from the latter genus by the hinge having one or two
teeth in each valve.

Shell sub-trigonal, transverse, inequilateral; upper side narrowed and a
little gaping; lower side rounded.

                          Petricola lamellosa.
                          P. ochroleuca.
                          P. semilamellata.
                          P. lucinalis
                          P. striata.
                          P. costellata.
                          P. rocelaria.
                          P. exilis.
                          P. ruperella.
                          P. chamoides.
                          P. pholadiformis.
                          P. labagella.
                          P. linguatula.

_P. lamellosa._ The lamellous Petricola. Pl. 7, fig. 3.

Species oval, trigonal, radiated; two teeth on one valve, and one on the
other.

_P. pholadiformis._ The Pholas-shaped Petricola.

Species transversely elongated.


                     3. Venerirupis. Seven species.

Another lithophagous shell, taken from the genus Venus, from which it is
distinguished by the different disposition of the teeth, having three
primary in one of the valves at least.

Shell more or less irregular, sub-trigonal, striated or radiated,
equivalve, inequilateral, the anterior side shorter and rounded, the
posterior sub-truncated; summits well marked; hinge sub-regular, more or
less dissimilar, formed by slender, narrow, cardinal teeth, variable in
number on each valve, sometimes two on the right and three on the left,
and sometimes three on both; these teeth are small, contiguous,
parallel, and but little, if at all, divergent exterior; very weak.

                         Venerirupis perforans.
                         V. nucleus.
                         V. irus.
                         V. exotica.
                         V. distans.
                         V. crenata.
                         V. carditoides.

_V. perforans._ The perforating Venerirupis.

Sub-rhombic, transversely striated, wrinkled on the anterior side;
exterior brown, interior white, sometimes tinged with purple.

_V. irus._ The foliated Venerirupis. Pl. 7, fig. 2.

Species longitudinally striated; cardinal teeth two, sometimes three on
the right and three on the left.


                              FAMILY VIII.
                         NYMPHACEA. Ten genera.

This family is divided into N. Solenaria and N. Tellinaria, from their
resemblance to the Solen and the Tellina.


                      N. SOLENARIA. Three genera.


                    1. Sanguinolaria. Four species.

This genus may be distinguished from the Solen by never having the
transverse oblong shape, or the edge of the valves parallel to the base.

                        Sanguinolaria occidens.
                        S. rosea.
                        S. livida.
                        S. rugosa.

_S. rosea._ The rosy Sanguinolaria.

Semi-orbicular, smooth, shining and convex; near the umbones of a
beautiful rose colour, which becomes paler as it descends; acute
transverse striæ.

_S. occidens._ The setting-sun Sanguinolaria. Pl. 7, fig. 4.

Oval, a little elongated, very compressed, slightly gaping, valves
elliptical, equally rounded at the two extremities, without mark of
posterior keel; summits slightly indicated; hinge formed by one or two
contiguous cardinal teeth on each valve; ligament projecting, convex;
margins not parallel.


                    2. Psammobia. Eighteen species.

Taken from the Tellina, which it much resembles in form, but from which
it differs by not having the irregular plait on the anterior part.

Shell ovate, transverse, slightly gaping; summits projecting; hinge
formed by two teeth on one valve, and only one inserted on the other.

                           Psammobia virgata.
                           P. Ferroensis.
                           P. vespertina.
                           P. florida.
                           P. muculosa.
                           P. cærulescens.
                           P. elongata.
                           P. flavicans.
                           P. squamosa.
                           P. alba.
                           P. Cayennensis.
                           P. lævigata.
                           P. tellinella.
                           P. pulchella.
                           P. aurantia.
                           P. fragilis.
                           P. livida.
                           P. Galathea.

_P. virgata._ The striped Psammobia. Pl. 7, fig. 1.

Species rather gaping, striated longitudinally, the teeth of the hinge
considerably effaced.

_P. Ferroensis._ The Ferro Psammobia.

Oblong oval; white, radiated with crimson; finely striated transversely;
valves obliquely truncated.


                      3. Psammotæa. Seven species.

Of the same form as the Psammobia, but differing in the number of teeth,
as the left valve of the Psammotæa has only one tooth; sometimes one
valve is toothless, while the other has two teeth.

Shell transverse oval or oblong; gaping a little at the sides; one
primary tooth on each valve, though sometimes on only one of them;
ligament exterior, attached to callosities at the hinge, and without an
irregular plait.

                          Psammotæa violacea.
                          P. zonalis.
                          P. pellucida.
                          P. serotina.
                          P. candida.
                          P. Tarentina.
                          P. donacina.

_P. violacea._ The violet Psammotæa. Pl. 7, fig. 5.

Transversely ovate-oblong, sub-ventricose; transversely striated; purple
radiations.


                       TELLINARIA. Seven genera.

The first five of these genera have one or two lateral teeth, the
remaining two have none.


              4. Tellina. The Tellen. Fifty-four species.

This genus differs but little from the Donax; its species are numerous,
especially in the seas of hot countries; they are found sunk deep in the
sand.

There are but few genera that can vie with the Tellina in beauty,
variety, or number; some are smooth and polished, some are remarkable
for their beautiful radiations, and others are covered with minute striæ
and undulations; occasionally the whole surface is covered with
imbrications or scales.

They are produced abundantly in almost every sea and in many rivers, but
the finest species are found in the pearl-fisheries of Ceylon.

The usual form of the Tellina is broad at one end and gradually tapering
towards the other. It derives its name from the Greek word τελειω, to
bring to a termination.

Shell of variable form, generally striated longitudinally and very
compressed; equivalve, more or less inequilateral; anterior side longer
and more rounded than the posterior; offers a flexuous plait or twist at
the inferior margin; summits little marked; hinge similar; one or two
cardinal teeth; two distant lateral teeth, with a pit at their base in
each valve; ligament external.

                            Tellina radiata.
                            T. unimaculata.
                            T. semizonalis.
                            T. maculosa.
                            T. virgata.
                            T. staurella.
                            T. crucigera.
                            T. Spengleri.
                            T. rostrata.
                            T. lutirostra.
                            T. elliptica.
                            T. albinella.
                            T. margaritina.
                            T. strigosa.
                            T. planata.
                            T. punicea.
                            T. depressa.
                            T. pulchella.
                            T. fabula.
                            T. tenuis.
                            T. sulphurea.
                            T. foliacea.
                            T. operculata.
                            T. rosea.
                            T. chloroleuca.
                            T. remies.
                            T. sulcata.
                            T. crassa.
                            T. lævigata.
                            T. linguafelis.
                            T. rugosa.
                            T. lacunosa.
                            T. gargadia.
                            T. pristis.
                            T. multangula.
                            T. polygona.
                            T. capsoides.
                            T. exilis.
                            T. donacina.
                            T. nitida.
                            T. scalaris.
                            T. psammotella.
                            T. striatula.
                            T. scobinata.
                            T. decussata.
                            T. Brasiliana.
                            T. obliqua.
                            T. umbonella.
                            T. deltoidalis.
                            T. nymphalis.
                            T. solidula.
                            T. bimaculata.
                            T. sexradiata.
                            T. ostracea.

_T. radiata._ The radiated Tellen. Pl. 8, fig. 5.

Shell elongated; posterior side shorter and more narrow than the
anterior.

_T. foliacea._ The foliaceous Tellen.

Species transversely oblong; upon the edge of the front side of either
valve are rows of serrated teeth, running from the apex to the margin.

_T. bimaculata._ The double-spotted Tellen.

Species orbicular, easily known by answering to its common name.

_T. fabula._ The false Tellen.

Shell very thin, pellucid, and oval; yellowish colour, darker towards
the umbo, which is nearly central, pointed and turned a little to one
side; anterior side slopes to an obtuse point; posterior side large and
rounded; hinge with three teeth in one valve and two in the other.

_T. scobinata._ The rasp Tellen.

Species oval or sub-orbicular, sub-equilateral.

_T. donacina._ The Donax-like Tellen. Pl. 9, fig. 5.

Sub-oval, flattish, semi-striated and semipellucid; hinge with two teeth
in one valve and one in the other; pale yellow, radiated longitudinally
with pink.

_T. depressa._ The depressed Tellen.

Oval, flat, pointed at the smaller end and slightly reflected; pale
yellowish colour, faintly striated concentrically; covered with a pale
brown epidermis.


                      5. Tellinides. One species.

Though this genus bears a great affinity to many others, it cannot be
united with any; having lateral teeth, it differs from the Psammobia; by
not having the valves twisted, it differs from the Tellina; the valves
closing, and having muscular impressions in the interior, render it
distinct from the Lucina.

Shell equilateral, rather elongated, almost without the flexuous plait;
two cardinal teeth diverging, and two remote lateral teeth, of which the
anterior is but little distant from the summit.

_T. Timorensis._ The Tellinides of Timor. Pl. 8, fig. 3.

The only type and species of this genus.


                        6. Corbis. One species.

This genus was at first classed by Lamarck with the Lucina; but Cuvier,
having discovered that the organization of the animals differed, made
this a distinct genus, which was adopted by Lamarck.

Shell transverse, equivalve, no flexuosity; apices curved inward,
opposed to each other; two primary and two lateral teeth, the posterior
one nearest to the hinge; muscular impression simple, valves sometimes
convex, strongly ribbed transversely, striated longitudinally, margins
serrated and closely interlocking.

_C. fimbriata._ The fringed Corbis. Pl. 8, fig. 1.

Species white, rather thick, oval, a little elongated, almost
equilateral; the cardinal and the lateral teeth well marked; the
muscular impression anterior, rounded.


                       7. Lucina. Twenty species.

In the hinge and lateral teeth it much resembles the Tellina, but
differs from it in never being flexuous. This genus is more easily
characterized by the orbicular, compressed, general form of the shell,
than by the dental system, which is sometimes entirely effaced.

Shell compressed, regular, orbicular, sub-equilateral; summits small and
pointed, inclined anteriorly; hinge similar, but variable; two divergent
cardinal teeth, little marked, and sometimes entirely effaced; two
remote lateral teeth, with a pit at the base, sometimes obsolete;
posterior ligament more or less sunk; two widely-separated muscular
impressions, of which the anterior is narrow and long.

                          Lucina Jamaicensis.
                          L. Pennsylvanica.
                          L. edentula.
                          L. mutabilis.
                          L. radula.
                          L. squamosa.
                          L. lactea.
                          L. undata.
                          L. circinaria.
                          L. columbella.
                          L. concentrica.
                          L. divaricata.
                          L. carnaria.
                          L. scabra.
                          L. reticulata.
                          L. sinuata.
                          L. pecten.
                          L. lutea.
                          L. digitalis.
                          L. globularis.

_L. Jamaicensis._ The Jamaica Lucina. Pl. 8, fig. 8.

Species lenticular, striated concentrically; the teeth of the hinge
variable, and sometimes obsolete.

_L. undata._ The waved Lucina.

Orbicular, thin, convex, undulated with fine irregular striæ; exterior
pale yellow, interior white; margin glossy and plain.


            8. Donax. The Wedge Shell. Twenty-seven species.

The singularity of form that gave rise to its common name renders it
easily distinguished. It very much resembles a wedge, being very broad
and thick at one extremity, and gradually tapering towards the other.
They vary in colour, but the most general is purple radiated on a white
ground, diverging from the beak to the margin; many have an orange
tinge, and others a pink hue; the interior generally partakes of the
colour of the exterior. There are not, perhaps, two species that have
absolutely the same hinge.

The Donax is found buried deep in the sand of the seashore, with the
short side uppermost.

Shell sub-trigonal, greater in length than in height, equivalve, very
inequilateral; posterior side much shorter than the anterior; summits
almost vertical; hinge complex, similar; two cardinal teeth in one or
both valves; one or two remote lateral teeth on each valve; ligament
posterior, short, and inflated; two rounded muscular impressions.

                           Donax scortum.
                           D. pubescens.
                           D. compressa.
                           D. cuneata.
                           D. deltoides.
                           D. radians.
                           D. abbreviata.
                           D. triquetra.
                           D. ringens.
                           D. rugosa.
                           D. Cayennensis.
                           D. elongata.
                           D. denticulata.
                           D. granosa.
                           D. columbella.
                           D. veneriformis.
                           D. Australis.
                           D. epidermia.
                           D. bicolor.
                           D. vittata.
                           D. meroe.
                           D. scripta.
                           D. trunculus.
                           D. flabagella.
                           D. cinatinum.
                           D. Martinicensis.
                           D. cardioides.

_D. scortum._ The beaked Donax. Pl. 8, fig. 4.

Species oval, of which the posterior side is sub-truncated; with
decussated and muricated striæ.

_D. trunculus._ The common Donax.

Oblong, glossy, finely striated longitudinally, transversely banded and
radiated with purple; white, clouded with purple within; internal margin
of the valves distinctly dentated or crenulated.

_D. denticulata._ The denticulated Donax.

Species of which the posterior side is truncated; furrowed from the
summit to the base.


                         9. Capsa. Two species.

This genus was separated by Lamarck from the Donax on account of the
peculiarity of the hinge.

                          Capsa lævigata.
                          Capsa Braziliensis.

_C. lævigata._ The smooth Capsa.

Triangular, sub-equilateral, obsoletely striated transversely; covered
with a greenish yellow epidermis; inside violet towards the umbones.

_C. Braziliensis._ The Brazilian Capsa. Pl. 8, fig. 7.

Shell elongated, covered with epidermis; equivalve, close; the cardinal
teeth reduced to one large sub-bifid tooth on the right valve, placing
itself between two very thin ones on the left; ligament external, on the
short side.


                       10. Crassina. One species.

Distinguished from the Crassatella by the position of the ligament, and
from the Venus by having only two teeth on each valve; one of them on
the left valve projects very slightly.

_C. Danmoniensis._ The Devonshire Crassina. Pl. 6, fig. 1.

Solid, thick, sub-orbicular, sub-equilateral; two very large divergent
teeth on one valve, and two very unequal ones on the other; regular
parallel grooves and ribs; covered with a yellowish epidermis; inside
white; margin broad and plain.


                               FAMILY IX.
                        CONCHACEA. Seven genera.

This family is divided into Conchæ fluviatiles, fresh-water shells, and
Conchæ marinæ, sea shells.


                     C. FLUVIATILES. Three genera.


                       1. Cyclas. Eleven species.

The shells of this genus are very small, and are found buried in the mud
of fresh waters; the apices or summits are never eroded, and some
species are so thin as to be transparent.

Shell covered with a brown epidermis, oval or sub-orbicular, regular,
equivalve, inequilateral; summits blunt, contiguous, or turned
anteriorly; hinge similar, complex, formed by a variable number of
cardinal teeth, and by two remote lateral teeth with a cavity at the
base; ligament exterior, posterior, and convex; two distant muscular
impressions, without posterior sinus.

                            Cyclas rivicola.
                            C. cornea.
                            C. lacustris.
                            C. obliqua.
                            C. calyculata.
                            C. obtusalis.
                            C. fontinalis.
                            C. Australis.
                            C. sulcata.
                            C. striatina.
                            C. Sarratogea.

_C. cornea._ The horny Cyclas. Pl. 9, fig. 7.

Species sub-orbicular, convex, thin, pellucid, with fine concentric
striæ; cardinal teeth a little variable, always very small, and
sometimes obsolete; summits not eroded, covered with a horn-coloured
epidermis; interior bluish white.


                        2. Cyrena. Ten species.

This genus of shells is found in rapid rivers and streams; it was
formerly classed with the Cyclas, from which, however, it greatly
differs in having three cardinal teeth on each valve, and also lateral
teeth. They are thick, solid shells, sometimes of a large size; the
apices always eroded or carious.

Shell rounded and trigonal, ventricose, inequilateral; hinge with three
teeth on each valve; two lateral teeth, one of which is near the primary
ones; ligament exterior, placed on the largest side; in some species the
lateral teeth are crenulated, in others they are entire.

                           Cyrena trigonella.
                           C. orientalis.
                           C. cor.
                           C. depressa.
                           C. Caroliniensis.
                           C. fuscata.
                           C. fluminea.
                           C. violacea.
                           C. Bengalensis.
                           C. Ceylanico.

_C. fluminea._ The river Cyrena. Pl. 6, fig. 7.

Species sub-trigonal or elongated oval; summits decorticated, more
anterior; three cardinal teeth, of which the two posterior are forked;
exterior greenish brown, interior variegated with white and violet;
sulcated transversely.


                       3. Galathea. One species.

This beautiful shell is found in fresh waters, and is distinguished from
the Cyrena by the divergent form of the primary tooth.

_G. radiata._ The radiated Galathea. Pl. 6, fig. 8.

Shell equivalve, sub-trigonal, covered with a greenish epidermis,
beneath which the surface is of a milky white, highly polished, with
several violet or pale chestnut rays diverging from the apex to the
margin; primary teeth furrowed, two on the right valve joined at the
base, three on the other valve placed triangularly, the intermediate one
being advanced, separate, thick, and callous; the muscular impressions
are lateral, and appear double on each side.


                        C. MARINÆ. Four genera.


                        4. Cyprina. Two species.

This shell is generally large, resembling the Venus, from which it may
be distinguished by having on the front side one impressed lateral
tooth, which is sometimes obsolete; the nymphæ or callosities of the
hinge large, arched, and terminated near the apices by a cavity,
sometimes very deep.

De Blainville says that this genus is intermediary to the Cyclas and the
Venus, and contains but one living species; Lamarck makes two, though at
first he characterized eight.

                          Cyprina tennistria.
                          Cyprina Islandica.

_C. Islandica._ The Icelandic Cyprina. Pl. 9, fig. 2.

Shell thick, regular, heart-shaped, covered with dark brown epidermis;
white interior; sub-striated longitudinally; apices very strongly
recurved anteriorly, and often contiguous; hinge thick, sub-similar,
formed by three cardinal teeth but little convergent, and by one remote
posterior lateral tooth, sometimes obsolete; ligament very thick,
convex, fixed to large, arched, nymphal callosities, preceded by a
cavity more or less deep, hollowed immediately behind the summits;
muscular impressions subcircular and very distant.


                  5. Cytherea. Seventy-eight species.

This genus was taken from the Venus, and is easily defined as distinct
from it by having four primary teeth on one valve, and only three united
on the other, with an isolated cavity, oval and parallel to the margin;
the lateral teeth divergent to the summit. In some species the internal
margin is entire, having the anterior cardinal tooth with a striated
canal or uneven sides; in others the anterior cardinal tooth is entire,
without a striated canal; sometimes the internal margin is crenulated or
dentated.

Shell solid, regular, equivalve, inequilateral; apices equal, recurved,
and slightly projecting; four primary teeth on one valve, of which three
are divergent and approximating at the base, and one remote; three
primary divergent teeth on the other valve, with a distant cavity
parallel to the edge.

                           Cytherea lusoria.
                           C. petechialis.
                           C. impudica.
                           C. castanea.
                           C. zonaria.
                           C. graphica.
                           C. morphina.
                           C. purpurata.
                           C. casta.
                           C. corbicula.
                           C. meretrix.
                           C. gigantea.
                           C. erycina.
                           C. lilacina.
                           C. impar.
                           C. erycinella.
                           C. pectoralis.
                           C. planatella.
                           C. florida.
                           C. nitidula.
                           C. Chione.
                           C. maculata.
                           C. citrina.
                           C. albina.
                           C. lata.
                           C. mactroides.
                           C. trigonella.
                           C. sulcatina.
                           C. Hebræa.
                           C. castrensis.
                           C. ornata.
                           C. picta.
                           C. tigrina.
                           C. scripta.
                           C. numulina.
                           C. muscaria.
                           C. pectinata.
                           C. gibbia.
                           C. ranella.
                           C. testudinalis.
                           C. divaricata.
                           C. cuneata.
                           C. placunella.
                           C. rugifera.
                           C. tripla.
                           C. Venetiana.
                           C. juvenilis.
                           C. rufa.
                           C. Guiniensis.
                           C. Dione.
                           C. Arabica.
                           C. trimaculata.
                           C. immaculata.
                           C. pellucida.
                           C. hepatica.
                           C. lucinalis.
                           C. lactea.
                           C. exoleta.
                           C. lincta.
                           C. concentrica.
                           C. prostrata.
                           C. interrupta.
                           C. tigerina.
                           C. punctata.
                           C. umbonella.
                           C. undatina.
                           C. pulicaris.
                           C. mixta.
                           C. abbreviata.
                           C. plicatina.
                           C. flexuosa.
                           C. macrodon.
                           C. lunularis.
                           C. squamosa.
                           C. lunaris.
                           C. cardilla.
                           C. cygnus.
                           C. dentaria.

_C. Chione._ The Chione Cytherea.

Thick, solid, heart-shaped, covered with a smooth brown epidermis,
beneath which the shell is of a beautiful purple; radiated
longitudinally, faintly wrinkled transversely, anterior cardinal tooth
entire, and without a striated canal; apex turned sideways, with a
cordiform depression.

_C. mactroides._ The Mactra-like Cytherea. Pl. 9, fig. 4.

Species thin, convex, triangular; summits very marked; margins sharp;
anterior cardinal tooth entire.

_C. pectinata._ The pectinated Cytherea.

Species oval, thick, solid, more or less compressed, costated,
pectinated upon the edges.


                    6. Venus. Eighty-eight species.

This genus of shells is numerous and varied. It surpasses all bivalve
shells in beauty, and is in form very like the Cytherea, but easily
distinguished by the hinge, which almost invariably contains three
approximate teeth, and a lateral tooth diverging to the summit. The
internal margin of the valves is crenated or dentated, with or without
lamellar striæ.

The shells are of the most beautiful and lively tints; the exterior as
well as the interior colouring is of almost every possible shade and
hue. They are found buried a little below the surface on the sandy
shores of most parts of the world, particularly in warm climates.

Shell solid, thick, regular, perfectly equivalve and close, more or less
inequilateral; summits well marked, inclined anteriorly; hinge
sub-similar; the middle cardinal tooth forked, or three cardinal teeth
more or less contiguous and convergent towards the summit; ligament
thick, often arched, convex, and exterior; two distant muscular
impressions; cordiform depressions beneath the beaks.

                           Venus puerpera.
                           V. reticulata.
                           V. pygmæa.
                           V. corbis.
                           V. verrucosa.
                           V. rugosa.
                           V. casina.
                           V. crebiscula.
                           V. crenulata.
                           V. discina.
                           V. granulata.
                           V. marica.
                           V. cingulata.
                           V. cardivides.
                           V. grisea.
                           V. elliptica.
                           V. Dombeii.
                           V. mercenaria.
                           V. lagopus.
                           V. gallina.
                           V. gallinula.
                           V. pectinula.
                           V. sulcata.
                           V. lamellata.
                           V. exalbida.
                           V. rufa.
                           V. dorsata.
                           V. hiantina.
                           V. crassisulca.
                           V. corrugata.
                           V. Malabarica.
                           V. papilionacea.
                           V. adspersa.
                           V. punctifera.
                           V. turgida.
                           V. literata.
                           V. florida.
                           V. petalina.
                           V. bicolor.
                           V. floridella.
                           V. catenifera.
                           V. pulchella.
                           V. sinuosa.
                           V. tristis.
                           V. plicata.
                           V. cancellata.
                           V. pectorina.
                           V. sulcaria.
                           V. textilis.
                           V. texturata.
                           V. geographica.
                           V. rariflamma.
                           V. decussata.
                           V. pullastra.
                           V. glandina.
                           V. truncata.
                           V. retifera.
                           V. anomala.
                           V. galactites.
                           V. exilis.
                           V. scalarina.
                           V. Scotica.
                           V. aurea.
                           V. virginea.
                           V. marmorata.
                           V. ovulæa.
                           V. laterisulca.
                           V. callipyga.
                           V. opima.
                           V. nebulosa.
                           V. phaseolina.
                           V. carneola.
                           V. flammiculata.
                           V. conularis.
                           V. strigosa.
                           V. aphrodina.
                           V. Perronii.
                           V. aphrodinoides.
                           V. elegantina.
                           V. flammea.
                           V. rimularis.
                           V. vulvina.
                           V. vermiculosa.
                           V. subrostrata.
                           V. undulosa.
                           V. pumila.
                           V. ovata.
                           V. inquinata.

_V. Casina._ The Casina, or broad-ribbed Venus. Pl. 8, fig. 2.

Sub-orbicular, with transversely acute recurved ridges; lamellar striæ;
crenulated on the hind margin; slightly channelled behind the
depression.

_V. decussata._ The intersected Venus. Pl. 9, fig. 3.

Species sub-rhomboidal, with decussated striæ; margin not denticulated;
umbo placed near one end; the three teeth of the hinge very contiguous
and very weak; exterior brownish and marked with purple lines.

_V. aurea._ The golden Venus.

Sub-orbicular, inequilateral, transversely and concentrically striated;
yellow golden colour.

_V. corbis._ The basket Venus.

Species sub-rhomboidal, deeply latticed; teeth very thick, ligament
entirely concealed, margin dentated.

_V. puerpera._ The convex or spotted Venus.

Species thick, solid, orbicular or sub-orbicular, with concentric striæ,
or, rather, laminæ; teeth very thick; margin dentated.

_V. granulata._ The granulated Venus.

Species thick, solid, cardium-shaped, radiated from the summit to the
base.


                     7. Venericardia. One species.

This genus resembles the Venus, but has only two oblique cardinal teeth
on each valve.

Shell equivalve, inequilateral, sub-orbicular, sides generally with
longitudinal rayed ribs; hinge with two oblique cardinal teeth in each
valve, turned in the same direction.

_V. imbricata._ The imbricated Venericardia. Pl. 9, fig. 1.

Species almost round, having convex longitudinal ribs, covered with
imbricated rough scales; inferior margin rounded and dentated; more and
more equilateral; the two teeth short and oblique.


                               FAMILY X.
                        CARDIACEA. Five genera.


        1. Cardium. Cockle, or Heart Shell. Forty-eight species.

This genus received its name from its resemblance to a heart (καρδια).
It is so well defined by Linnæus that no alteration was made by Lamarck,
except in making two divisions of them; the first distinguished by
having the anterior side as large or larger than the posterior, and no
distinct angle at the apex; the second by possessing carinated or
angular umbones, and the posterior side often much larger than the
anterior. These shells are found at a small depth in the sand on almost
every seashore.

Shell inflated, equivalve, sub-cordiform (when seen anteriorly),
generally costated from the summit to the circumference; summits very
evident; slightly recurved forward; hinge complex, similar, formed by
two oblique cardinal teeth, articulating with the corresponding teeth on
the other valve; two distant lateral teeth on each valve; ligament
dorsal, posterior, and very short.

                           Cardium costatum.
                           C. Indicum.
                           C. ringens.
                           C. Asiaticum.
                           C. tennicostatum.
                           C. fimbriatum.
                           C. pseudolima.
                           C. aculeatum.
                           C. erinaceum.
                           C. tuberculatum.
                           C. Brasilianum.
                           C. apertum.
                           C. papyraceum.
                           C. bullatum.
                           C. ciliare.
                           C. echinatum.
                           C. lævigatum.
                           C. biradiatum.
                           C. eolicum.
                           C. pectinatum.
                           C. isocardia.
                           C. muricatum.
                           C. angulatum.
                           C. marmoreum.
                           C. elongatum.
                           C. ventricosum.
                           C. rugosum.
                           C. sulcatum.
                           C. serratum.
                           C. unedo.
                           C. medium.
                           C. fragum.
                           C. retusum.
                           C. tumoriferum.
                           C. rusticum.
                           C. edule.
                           C. Groenlandicum.
                           C. latum.
                           C. crenulatum.
                           C. exiguum.
                           C. minutum.
                           C. roseum.
                           C. scobinatum.
                           C. hemicardium.
                           C. cardissa.
                           C. inversum.
                           C. Junoniæ.
                           C. lineatum.

_C. edule._ The edible Cardium, or common Cockle. Pl. 10, fig. 2.

Species not gaping, with about twenty-six depressed ribs and transverse
obsolete scales; of a cream colour; beaks protuberant.

_C. cardissa._ Venus’s Heart.

Species heart-shaped, valves angularly flattened, umbones alternating.

_C. lævigatum._ The smooth Cardium.

Species smooth or nearly so, anterior side as large as the posterior.

_C. hemicardium._ The half-heart Cardium.

Species ribbed, with elevated rough striæ; the anterior side is very
short and almost flat.

_C. costatum._ The high-ribbed Cardium.

No angle at the umbones; anterior side at least as large as the
posterior; rows of white, hollow, elevated ribs, situated at regular
distances, proceeding from the umbones to the margin, with the spaces
between them of a reddish brown colour.

_C. unedo._ The Strawberry Heart.

Species with ribs armed with small crescent-shaped scales.

_C. tuberculatum._ The tuberculated Cardium.

Species not gaping, with large ribs armed with nodules.


                    2. Cardita. Twenty-one species.

Lamarck took this genus from the Chama on account of several
peculiarities in the shell as well as in the animal. It is not affixed
to other bodies by its lower valve, but, according to De Blainville,
lies exposed on the rocks. There is some difficulty in distinguishing
this genus from the Venericardia, without carefully examining the
position of the two teeth.

Shell regular, thick, solid, equivalve, more or less inequilateral;
summit dorsal, always very recurved anteriorly; hinge similar, formed by
two oblique teeth; one short cardinal placed beneath the umbo, the other
oblique, arched, marginal, and prolonged; ligament elongated,
sub-exterior, and inserted; two very distinct muscular impressions.

                           Cardita sulcata.
                           C. ajar.
                           C. turgida.
                           C. squamosa.
                           C. phrenetica.
                           C. crassicosta.
                           C. rufescens.
                           C. calyculata.
                           C. subaspera.
                           C. nodulosa.
                           C. intermedia.
                           C. trepezia.
                           C. bicolor.
                           C. depressa.
                           C. concamerata.
                           C. sinuata.
                           C. aviculina.
                           C. citrina.
                           C. sublævigata.
                           C. corbularis.
                           C. lithophagella.

_C. crassicosta._ The thick-ribbed Cardita.

Species elongated, a little gaping at the inferior margin; ligament
concealed.

_C. sulcata._ The furrowed Cardita. Pl. 10, fig. 3.

Sub-cordiform or oval, more transverse than longitudinal; colour white,
tesselated with brown; posterior depression heart-shaped; longitudinal,
convex, transversely-striated ribs.


                     3. Cypricardia. Four species.

Distinguished from the Cardita by having three teeth beneath the apices,
and a callous lengthened tooth or ridge.

Shell obliquely elongated, equivalve, inequilateral; valves striated,
but never ribbed; hinge with three teeth beneath the umbo, and one
lateral elongated tooth.

                         Cypricardia Guinaica.
                         C. angulata.
                         C. rostrata.
                         C. coralliophaga.

_C. Guinaica._ The Guinea Cypricardia. Pl. 10, fig. 6.

Species elongated, very inequilateral; summit rounded and recurved
anteriorly; two short divergent cardinal teeth, besides a lamellous
tooth; ligament very long, projecting or not; yellowish white, covered
with decussated striæ.


                       4. Hiatella. Two species.

Established by Daudin; classed by Linnæus with the Solen, but Lamarck is
of opinion that it more nearly approximates the Cardita.

Shell thin, sub-rhomboidal, equivalve, very inequilateral, gaping at its
inferior margin and posterior extremity; the summit very anterior and
recurved in front; dorsal hinge formed by a single tooth on one valve
corresponding to a semicircular slope on the opposite valve, or by a
small tooth with a cardinal cavity in each valve; ligament probably
exterior and dorsal; muscular impressions unknown.

                           Hiatella Arctica.
                           Hiatella biaperta.

_H. Arctica._ The Arctic Hiatella.

Shell small, transversely oblong; apices truncated, with two divergent
spring ridges; a small tooth on each valve; cream colour, with
decussated striæ; inside pearly.

_H. biaperta._ The double-clefted Hiatella. Pl. 10, fig. 4.

Species that has only a single tooth on one valve; yellowish white.


                      5. Isocardia. Three species.

Taken from the Chama of Linnæus on account of a peculiarity in the shape
of the cardinal teeth, and the singular curvature of the umbones.

                            Isocardia cor.
                            I. semisulcata.
                            I. Moltkiana.

_I. cor._ The heart Isocardia. Pl. 12, fig. 4.

Shell free, regular, heart-shaped, equivalve, very inequilateral;
summits diverging, strongly recurved spirally, forward, and outward;
hinge dorsal, long, similar, formed by two flat cardinal teeth, with an
elongated lateral one behind the ligament, which is dorsal and exterior,
diverging towards the summits; muscular impressions very distinct and
rather small; slightly wrinkled longitudinally; exterior reddish
chestnut colour, interior white.

The Isocardia Moltkiana is a very rare shell, and the most elegant
species of this genus.


                               FAMILY XI.
                         ARCACEA. Four genera.


                       1. Cucullæa. One species.

Distinguished from the Arca by the muscular impression within, to one
side of which is an ear-shaped testaceous appendage; the shell is more
trapeziform, and the hinge by age becomes obsolete, giving the teeth a
more horizontal appearance.

Shell equivalve, inequilateral, trapeziform, heart-shaped; beaks
distant, and separated by the angular groove of the ligament, which is
altogether external; hinge linear, straight, with small transverse
teeth, having at its extremity from two to five parallel ribs; valves
marked with minute and strong longitudinal striæ, and sometimes one
valve overlaps; margins crenulated.

_C. auriculifera._ The eared Cucullæa. Pl. 10, fig. 1.

Species navicular or obliquely heart-shaped, with decussated striæ;
hinge completely straight, with two parallel ribs at each end, the
terminal teeth longer and more oblique than the others; exterior
chestnut colour, interior white, tinged with violet.


                2. Arca. The Ark. Thirty-seven species.

This genus is easily known by its resemblance to the hull of a ship; the
hinge is peculiar, being composed of numerous sharp teeth alternately
inserted between each other. The Arca of Linnæus was divided by Lamarck
into the four genera that compose this family, each possessing a strong
distinctive character. All the shells of this family are found in the
sea at a little distance from the shore; they are covered with a dark
greenish lamellar or velvet-like epidermis, frequently ending in a deep
fringe at the margin.

Shell a little varied in form, but most generally elongated, and more or
less oblique at the posterior extremity; sometimes very inequilateral;
summits more or less distant, and a little recurved forward; hinge
anomalous, straight, or a little curved; long, and formed by a line of
short vertical teeth decreasing from the extremities to the centre;
ligament exterior, broad; sometimes the margin is crenated.

                            Arca tortuosa.
                            A. semitorta.
                            A. Noæ.
                            A. tetragona.
                            A. umbonata.
                            A. sinuata.
                            A. avellana.
                            A. cardissa.
                            A. ventricosa.
                            A. retusa.
                            A. sulcata.
                            A. ovata.
                            A. Helbingii.
                            A. scapha.
                            A. barbata.
                            A. fusca.
                            A. Magellanica.
                            A. Domingensis.
                            A. lactea.
                            A. trapezina.
                            A. pistachia.
                            A. pisolina.
                            A. cancellaria.
                            A. callifera.
                            A. irudina.
                            A. bisulcata.
                            A. Indica.
                            A. senilis.
                            A. antiquata.
                            A. rhombea.
                            A. granosa.
                            A. auriculata.
                            A. Brasiliana.
                            A. corbicula.
                            A. squamosa.
                            A. Cayennensis.
                            A. inequivalvis.

_A. Noæ._ Noah’s Ark. Pl. 10, fig. 5.

Species boat-shaped, oblong, striated transversely and ribbed
longitudinally; umbones remote and incurvated; margins entire and
gaping; hinge straight; whitish, with divergent zigzag chestnut stripes;
inside bluish white.

_A. tortuosa._ The twisted Ark.

A rare species; shell elongated, close, twisted; hinge completely
straight.

_A. barbata._ The bearded Ark.

Species with the hinge straight, not hollowed or not gaping inferiorly,
and of which the muscle is not adherent.


                   3. Pectunculus. Nineteen species.

This genus has the ligament partially inserted internally, and has no
exterior angular groove. The valves never gape, often have rayed
longitudinal ribs, are compressed, and the shell by age becomes thick
and ponderous, sometimes attaining a large size. The teeth in the hinge
are not so numerous as in the Arca and Cucullæa; the centre teeth appear
worn down.

Shell close, orbicular, doubly convex, equivalve, sub-equilateral;
summits almost vertical, and more or less distant; hinge formed on each
valve by a rather numerous series of small teeth, disposed in a curved
line, sometimes broken under the summit; ligament external and large.

                        Pectunculus glycimeris.
                        P. pilosus.
                        P. undulatus.
                        P. marmoratus.
                        P. scriptus.
                        P. angulatus
                        P. stellatus.
                        P. pallens.
                        P. violacescens.
                        P. zonalis.
                        P. pennaceus.
                        P. rubens.
                        P. castaneus.
                        P. pectiniformis.
                        P. striatularis.
                        P. nummarius.
                        P. pectinatus.
                        P. radians.
                        P. vitreus.

_P. glycimeris._ The delicious Pectunculus.

Sub-orbicular, umbones produced; finely striated transversely and
longitudinally; covered with epidermis, under which it is marked with
reddish chestnut spots or bands; inside white; margins crenulated.

_P. pilosus._ The hairy Pectunculus.

Species convex, more or less smooth and hairy.

_P. pectiniformis._ The Pecten-shaped Pectunculus. Pl. 11, fig. 6.

Species lenticular, more compressed, pectinated, and more or less rough.


                        4. Nucula. Six species.

Shell small, more or less thick, sub-triangular, equivalve,
inequilateral; summits contiguous and turned forward; hinge similar,
formed by a numerous series of very pointed teeth, pectinated and
disposed in a line interrupted under the summit; ligament internal,
short, inserted in a small oblique cavity in each valve; two muscular
impressions; valves more or less pearly within.

                           Nucula lanceolata.
                           N. rostrata.
                           N. pella.
                           N. Nicobarica.
                           N. obliqua.
                           N. margaritacea.

_N. rostrata._ The beaked Nucula.

Species of which the margin is entire.

_N. margaritacea._ The pearly Nucula. Pl. 11, fig. 7.

Species of which the margin is crenated; numerous regular pectinated
teeth; obliquely ovate, trigonal; striæ minute and almost obsolete;
covered with a greenish epidermis; inside silvery, pearl-like.


                              FAMILY XII.
                        TRIGONACEA. Two genera.


                       1. Trigonia. One species.

Supposed to be in very deep places in the sea; it is a strong,
beautiful, pearly shell, sub-trigonal or sub-orbicular; thick, regular,
equivalve, inequilateral; summits slightly prominent, recurved,
anterodorsal; hinge complex, dorsal, dissimilar; two large oblong teeth
laterally compressed, joined angularly under the summit, strongly
furrowed on the right valve, penetrating into two excavations of the
same form, equally furrowed on the left valve; ligament exterior and
marginal; two distinct muscular impressions.

_T. pectinata._ The pectinated Trigonia. Pl. 11, fig. 4.

Species sub-orbicular, with radiated or divergent, prominent, and
somewhat scaly ribs; inside pearly; margin crenellated.


                       2. Castalia. One species.

This genus is found in fresh waters, and differs from the Trigonia in
the number and position of the lamellar teeth. The substance of the
shell is pearly.

Shell sub-trigonal, equivalve, inequilateral; umbones eroded, covered
with epidermis, and inflected anteriorly; hinge with two lamellar teeth,
transversely striated, one of them posterior, distant, and shortened,
the other anterior, lengthened, and lateral; ligament exterior.

_C. ambigua._ The ambiguous Castalia. Pl. 11, fig. 5.

Short, sub-trigonal; umbones truncated; longitudinally ribbed, with
distant transverse striæ; covered with epidermis, under which the shell
is of a pale chestnut brown, inside pearly; the lamellar and præ-apicial
teeth are well marked, more regular, and all striated perpendicular to
their length.


                              FAMILY XIII.
                         NAIADES. Four genera.


                     1. Unio. Forty-eight species.

The species of this genus become every day more numerous; they are found
in all countries, but particularly in North America. The Unio is a
fresh-water shell, and therefore, with great propriety, removed from the
Mya, which consists entirely of marine shells. The substance is pearly;
the exterior covered with a brown or green epidermis; the apices eroded.
They are found in the mud of rivers, with their apices downward; some
are slightly gaping, and some species produce fine pearls.

Shell generally very thick, pearly within, covered with epidermis;
summits eroded, dorsal, and sub-interior; besides a long lamellous tooth
under the ligament, the hinge is formed by a double precardinal tooth,
more or less compressed, and dentated irregularly on the left valve,
simple on the right valve; ligament external, dorsal, and post-apicial;
muscular impressions well marked.

                           Unio sinuata.
                           U. elongata.
                           U. crassidens.
                           U. Peruviana.
                           U. rariplicata.
                           U. pupurata.
                           U. ligamentina.
                           U. obliqua.
                           U. retusa.
                           U. rarisulcata.
                           U. coarctata.
                           U. purpurascens.
                           U. radiata.
                           U. brevialis.
                           U. rhombula.
                           U. carinifera.
                           U. Georgina.
                           U. clava.
                           U. recta.
                           U. naviformis.
                           U. glabrata.
                           U. nasuta.
                           U. ovata.
                           U. rotundata.
                           U. littoralis.
                           U. semirugata.
                           U. nana.
                           U. alata.
                           U. deladonta.
                           U. sulcidens.
                           U. rostrata.
                           U. pictorum.
                           U. Batava.
                           U. corrugata.
                           U. nodulosa.
                           U. varicosa.
                           U. granosa.
                           U. depressa.
                           U. Virginianum.
                           U. luteola.
                           U. marginalis.
                           U. angusta.
                           U. manca.
                           U. cariosa.
                           U. spuria.
                           U. Australis.
                           U. anodontina.
                           U. sub-orbiculata.

_U. pictorum._ The Painter’s Unio. Pl. 8, fig. 6.

Species oval, not auriculated, strong, anterior side rhomboid and
attenuated; the opposite side obtusely acute; the umbones somewhat
warted; concentrically wrinkled; covered with a dusky green epidermis.

_U. sinuata._ The crooked Unio.

Species oval, sub-auriculated; cardinal tooth short, not lamellar or
sub-striated.

_U. sub-orbiculata._ The sub-orbicular Unio.

Species round or almost round; cardinal tooth compressed, elongated, and
often lamellar.


                         2. Hyria. Two species.

Easily distinguished from the Unio by a compound cardinal tooth, which
slopes in an inclined position towards the posterior side. They are more
found in lakes than in rivers.

Shell solid, pearly, equivalve, obliquely triangular, auriculated; base
truncated and straight; hinge with two projecting teeth; the cardinal
divided into numerous divergent parts; anterior ones smaller, the others
long and lamellar.

                           Hyria avicularis.
                           Hyria corrugata.

_H. avicularis._ The little bird Hyria. Pl. 5, fig. 4.

Umbones smooth and polished; ears large, with pointed terminations;
finely striated; interior pearly, exterior of a rich reddish
golden-yellow colour; covered with a greenish brown epidermis.


                     3. Anodonta. Fifteen species.

A fresh-water shell, found in ponds and lakes, difficult to be
distinguished from the Unio but by the hinge, which wants the cardinal
and lateral tooth, and merely presents a smooth internal rim round the
edge terminated by a sinus or notch, in which the anterior extremity of
the ligament is sunk; the substance is pearly, covered with a false
epidermis.

Shell ordinarily rather thin, regular, close, equivalve, inequilateral;
summit anterodorsal; hinge linear, without teeth; ligament external,
dorsal, and post-apicial; two well-marked muscular impressions.

                           Anodonta cygnæa.
                           A. anatina.
                           A. sulcata.
                           A. fragilis.
                           A. cataracta.
                           A. trapezialis.
                           A. exotica.
                           A. rubens.
                           A. crispata.
                           A. uniopsis.
                           A. Pennsylvanica.
                           A. intermedia.
                           A. glauca.
                           A. sinuosa.
                           A. Patagonica.

_A. cygnæa._ The Swan Anodonta. Pl. 11, fig. 2.

Species oval, thin, elongated, hinge straight, and only auriculated
anteriorly; beaks small and ventricose; concentrically wrinkled; covered
with a greenish epidermis, which is frequently of a brown tinge towards
the umbo.

_A. rubens._ The ruddy Anodonta.

Species oval, hinge arched, without trace of auricula or ear.

_A. trapezialis._ The trapezium Anodonta. Pl. 11, fig. 3. Species oval
or rounded, auriculated on both sides the summit.


                        4. Iridina. One species.

A very rare shell, separated from the Anodonta on account of the hinge
being attenuated in the middle, and having small tubercles distributed
along its length. The substance is thicker and more solid than the
Anodonta, and of a brilliant rose-coloured pearly hue; it is found in
the rivers of warm countries.

Shell equivalve, inequilateral, transverse, with small apices; recurved,
but nearly erect; not auriculated; hinge very long, linear, crenulated
through all its length; ligament external and marginal; two well-marked
muscular impressions.

_I. exotica._ The exotic Iridina.

The only species of this genus answering to the above description.


                              FAMILY XIV.
                        CHAMACEA. Three genera.


                    1. Diceras. One fossil species.

Only found in a fossil state; distinguished from the Chama by the hinge,
which is dissimilar, formed by a large thick tooth, concave in the
greater valve; summits very projecting; almost regular spiral
contortions.

_D. arietina._ The ram’s-horn Diceras.

Shell irregular, inequivalve, inequilateral, somewhat heart-shaped, with
divergent beaks.


            2. Chama. The Clam or Gaper. Seventeen species.

In this genus are now comprehended only such as have a thick oblique
transverse tooth, resembling a lengthened callosity, generally
crenulated or grooved, fitting into a corresponding cavity in the lower
valve. The animals inhabiting these shells have the faculty of affixing
themselves to other bodies by the lower valve.

The Chama received its name from its gaping; it is found in most seas,
particularly in the Southern; sometimes its colours are elegantly
blended.

Shell irregular, adherent, inequivalve, inequilateral; summits more or
less twisted spirally, especially in the lower valve; some from left to
right, others from right to left; hinge dissimilar, large, formed by one
lamellous, arched, sub-crenulated, post-cardinal tooth, articulating
into a furrow of the same form; exterior, post-apicial, slightly
inserted; two large and rather distant muscular impressions.

                             Chama Lazarus.
                             C. damæcornis.
                             C. gryphoides.
                             C. crenulata.
                             C. unicornis,
                             C. arcinella.
                             C. radians.
                             C. cristella.
                             C. florida.
                             C. limbula.
                             C. æruginosa.
                             C. asperella.
                             C. decussata.
                             C. albida.
                             C. ruderalis.
                             C. croceata.
                             C. Japonica.

_C. Lazarus._ Lazarus’s Chama. Pl. 12, fig. 2.

Species of which the summits twist from left to right; imbricated,
dilated, waved foliations; striated obsoletely; exterior white, orange,
red, or yellow; interior white.

_C. arcinella._ The hedgehog Chama.

Species of which the summits twist from right to left; the pink-coloured
ones of this species are the most prized.


                       3. Etheria. Four species.

Distinguished from the Chama by the want of teeth in the hinge, and
being of a pearly substance. It is a rare shell, only found in deep
water, where it is attached to the rocks by the lower valve. Its
irregular form is perhaps occasioned by the lower valve adapting itself
to the form of the body to which it is affixed. Two species are
fluviatile and two marine.

Shell adhering, irregular, thick, pearly, inequivalve, inequilateral;
summits thick, little evident; hinge toothless, callous, thick,
irregular; longitudinal, sub-dorsal ligament, partly exterior and partly
penetrating into the shell; two oblong muscular impressions, one
inferior and anterior, the other superior and sub-posterior; with or
without an oblong incrusted callosity on the base of the valve.

                           Etheria elliptica.
                           E. semilunata.
                           E. trigonula.
                           E. transversa.

_E. elliptica._ The oval Etheria. Pl. 11, fig. 1.

Species with an oblong callosity on the anterior part of the shell;
oval, depressed, dilated towards the umbones; summits distant.

_E. semilunata._ The semilunar Etheria.

Species without callosity at the base.


                               FAMILY XV.
                        TRIDACNITES. Two genera.


               1. Tridacna. The Clam Shell. Six species.

The most ponderous shell known, sometimes measuring several feet in
length, and sometimes weighing five hundred pounds.

By Linnæus this genus was classed with the Chama, but the characteristic
distinctions are so great that they are easily known. The Chama is
irregular, has but one tooth, and is fastened to other substances by the
lower valve; the Tridacna is equivalve, has but two teeth, and is
affixed to other bodies by a byssus consisting of filiform tendons.

The animal inhabiting this shell is said to produce very fine pearls,
but there is no pearly appearance on the valves.

Shell thick, solid, varying in size; some are very small and some very
large; regular, triangular, more or less inequilateral; the summits
inclined backward; hinge dissimilar, entirely anterior to the summits;
one lamellous precardinal tooth, and two distant lateral teeth on the
left valve, corresponding to two lamellous precardinal teeth and one
remote lateral tooth in the right valve; ligament anterior, elongated;
one forked sub-median muscular impression, almost marginal and
oftentimes nearly obsolete; valves with broad, rounded longitudinal
ribs, armed with vaulted scales, more or less elevated; posterior slope
heart-shaped, and widely gaping.

                            Tridacna gigas.
                            T. elongata.
                            T. squamosa.
                            T. crocea.
                            T. mutica.
                            T. serrifera.

_T. gigas._ The giant Tridacna. Pl. 12, fig. 3.

Species of which the shell is sometimes very large, white, transversely
ovate or elongated; the anterior side longer than the posterior; broad
ribs covered with vaulted scales; when of a pink or orange colour,
greatly valued.


                       2. Hippopus. One species.

Similar to the Tridacna, but distinguished from it by having its
posterior slope closed with a dentated margin; its ribs are never arched
or vaulted, and its anterior side is shorter than the posterior side.

_H. maculatus._ The spotted Hippopus. Pl. 12, fig. 1.

Shell transversely ovate, ventricose, with scaly ribs; lunule,
heart-shaped, and oblique; margins deeply crenulated; reddish purple
spots.


                              FAMILY XVI.
                        MYTILACEA. Three genera.


              1. Mytilus. The Muscle. Thirty-five species.

As arranged by Lamarck, now comprises only such shells as are regular,
equivalve, and longitudinal; solid in substance, and attached to other
bodies by a short thick byssus.

In colour and appearance they greatly vary, some being smooth and
beautifully variegated with delicate colours, or radiated with purple
and white; some are coarsely ribbed or granulated, and have only one
colour, as black, blue, yellow, brown, or green; all are covered with an
epidermis, to which oftentimes the colour is confined.

Shell of a close texture, elongated, more or less oval, sometimes
sub-triangular, equivalve, summits anterior, more or less curved, a
little sloping inferiorly; hinge generally without teeth, or with two
very small rudimentary teeth; ligament dorsal, linear, sub-interior,
inserted in a long and narrow furrow; two muscular impressions, of which
the anterior is very small, with or without longitudinal grooves or
furrows.

                         Mytilus Magellanicus.
                         M. erosus.
                         M. crenatus.
                         M. decussatus.
                         M. hirsutus.
                         M. elongatus.
                         M. latus.
                         M. zonarius.
                         M. ungulatus.
                         M. violaceus.
                         M. opalus.
                         M. smaragdinus.
                         M. corneus.
                         M. edulis.
                         M. retusus.
                         M. Hesperianus.
                         M. perna.
                         M. exustus.
                         M. bilocularis.
                         M. ovalis.
                         M. ustulatus.
                         M. Domingensis.
                         M. Senegalensis.
                         M. Afer.
                         M. achatinus.
                         M. ungularis.
                         M. planulatus.
                         M. borealis.
                         M. Galloprovincialis.
                         M. angustanus.
                         M. lineatus.
                         M. lacunatus.
                         M. canalis.
                         M. incurvatus.
                         M. abbreviatus.

_M. incurvatus._ The incurvated Mytilus.

Nearly smooth, elongated oval, valves inflated and curved near the
ligament; apex acute.

_M. Afer._ The African Mytilus.

More or less compressed and sub-triangular, without grooves; byssus very
large and much developed; summit entirely terminal and anterior; smooth
and radiated with blue or purple, covered with a dark brown epidermis;
inside margin blue, shade decreasing to the centre.

_M. crenatus._ The crenated Mytilus.

Species longitudinally grooved, radiated, or striated.

_M. hirsutus._ The bearded Mytilus.

Species with grooves; covered with a shaggy or bearded epidermis.


                   2. Modiola. Twenty-three species.

Taken by Lamarck from the Mytilus, as it differs by being more
transverse than longitudinal, and the beaks, instead of being terminal,
are placed beneath the apex.

Shell smooth, sub-transverse, equivalve, regular, sub-triangular, the
posterior side short; summits almost lateral; hinge lateral and linear,
without teeth; ligament partly interior, placed in a marginal furrow;
one sub-lateral elongated muscular impression in each valve.

                            Modiola Papuana.
                            M. tulipa.
                            M. albicosta.
                            M. vagina.
                            M. picta.
                            M. sulcata.
                            M. plicatula.
                            M. semifusca.
                            M. securis.
                            M. purpurata.
                            M. barbata.
                            M. Guyanensis.
                            M. Adriatica.
                            M. pulex.
                            M. discrepans.
                            M. discors.
                            M. trapezina.
                            M. cinnamomea.
                            M. silicula.
                            M. plicata.
                            M. semen.
                            M. lithophaga.
                            M. caudigera.

_M. discors._ The discordant Modiola.

Shell elongated oval, very convex, narrowest at the anterior end;
striated at the two extremities; summit oblique; exterior greenish;
interior white, with sometimes a pink-tinge, and somewhat pearly;
crenulated margin.

_M. Papuana._ The Papuan Modiola. Pl. 12, fig. 6.

Species smooth, more or less triangular; summit near the anterior
extremity; byssus obsolete in adults.

_M. sulcata._ The furrowed Modiola.

Species striated longitudinally.


               3. Pinna. The Wing Shell. Fifteen species.

This genus is the same as constituted by Linnæus; the shell is marine,
generally very brittle and fragile, in form resembling an acute angled
triangle; usually covered with longitudinal ribs and elevated transverse
striæ; generally horn coloured.

This genus is remarkable for the production of an abundant byssus of a
fine brown silky texture, which the Italians frequently fabricate into
articles of dress, equal in appearance to the finest silk.

The Pinnæ often grow to a large size; they are sometimes found standing
erect in the smooth-water bays, with the base of the shell uppermost,
but generally affixed by the byssus to rocks and other sub-marine
bodies. The filaments that compose the byssus are so tough and strong
that the shells are not easily detached.

Shell fibrous, fragile, regular, equivalve, longitudinal, triangular,
base gaping and as if truncated; summit pointed and straight; hinge
dorsal, longitudinal, linear, and without teeth; marginal ligament
occupying almost the whole of the dorsal edge of the shell; one very
broad muscular impression behind a trace of the anterior in the summit.

                             Pinna rudis.
                             P. flabellum.
                             P. seminuda.
                             P. angustina.
                             P. nobilis.
                             P. squamosa.
                             P. marginata.
                             P. muricata.
                             P. pectinata.
                             P. saccata.
                             P. varicosa.
                             P. dolabrata.
                             P. ingens.
                             P. vexillum.
                             P. nigrina.

_P. squamosa._ The scaly Pinna.

Species very close and rounded at the posterior extremity; valves
convex, covered with vaulted imbricated scales.

_P. flabellum._ The fan Pinna. Pl. 13, fig. 2.

Species gaping at the posterior extremity, which is as if truncated;
valves rather rounded at the upper end, and in the shape of an expanded
fan; light fawn colour.

_P. pectinata._ The pectinated Pinna. Pl. 13, fig. 1.

Thin, pellucid; longitudinally ribbed and spinous for half its width,
obliquely striated transversely on the other half.


                              FAMILY XVII.
                        MALLEACEA. Five genera.


                      1. Crenatula. Seven species.

There is one peculiar distinction between this genus and the Perna; the
hinge of the Crenatula is composed of slightly concave callous
crenulations, which receive the ligament; while in the Perna it consists
of parallel truncated linear teeth (or, rather, riblike joints),
corresponding and opposed to the opposite ones, the ligament being
inserted only in their interstices.

Shell thin, very delicate, irregular, valves flattened, foliaceous,
sub-rhomboidal, sub-equivalve; hinge longitudinal, dorsal, without
teeth; ligament sub-multiple, and inserted in a series of rounded
cavities corresponding with the dorsal margin; one sub-central muscular
impression.

                         Crenatula avicularis.
                         C. modiolaris.
                         C. nigrina.
                         C. bicostalis.
                         C. viridis.
                         C. mytiloides.
                         C. phasianoptera.

_C. avicularis._ The avicular Crenatula. Pl. 14, fig. 2.

Answers to the above description.

_C. mytiloides._ The muscle-shaped Crenatula.

Oblong, ovate, oblique; base acute; violet coloured, with obscure
radiations.


                         2. Perna. Ten species.

In speaking of the Crenatula, we gave the characteristic distinction,
which regarded it natural and expedient to make the Perna form a
different genus.

Shell irregular, very compressed, foliaceous, sub-equivalve, rather
variable form, gaping at the anterior part of the lower extremity;
summit very small, hinge straight, vertical, without teeth; ligament
multiple, and inserted in a series of longitudinal parallel furrows.

                            Perna ephippium.
                            P. obliqua.
                            P. isognomon.
                            P. avicularis.
                            P. femoralis.
                            P. canina.
                            P. marsupiom.
                            P. sulcata.
                            P. vulsella.
                            P. nucleus.

_P. femoralis._ The femoral Perna. Pl. 14, fig. 1.

Species elongated, and with appendages like ears.

_P. vulsella._ The tweezer Perna.

Species elongated, without earlike appendages, or having very small
ones.

_P. ephippium._ The saddle Perna.

Species round, compressed, very pearly in the interior; very slightly,
if at all, auricled; margin acute; exterior purplish brown.


                  3. Malleus. The Hammer. Six species.

A shell of a singular form, resembling a pickaxe, found only in the
Indian and Australian Seas; there are two species, the white and the
black, both of which, when in fine preservation, are highly esteemed,
but the white is more rare and valuable.

Shell sub-nacreous, irregular, rugged, sub-equivalve, inequilateral,
generally auricled before and prolonged behind, so as to be in form like
a hammer; summit entirely anterior; between them and the inferior
auricle, an oblique cut or slope for the passage of the byssus; hinge
linear, elongated, without teeth; ligament simple, triangular, inserted
in a conical oblique cavity, partly exterior; one rather large
sub-central muscular impression.

                            Malleus albus.
                            M. vulgaris.
                            M. normalis.
                            M. vulsellatus.
                            M. anatinus.
                            M. decurtatus.

_M. vulgaris._ The common Malleus. Pl. 14, fig. 4.

Species with two earlike appendages; trilobate, colour blackish brown.

_M. albus._ The white Malleus.

Species trilobate; base of the lateral lobe prolonged, without a sinus;
the base and the pit of the ligament not distinct; colour white, with
transverse undulations.

_M. vulsellatus._ The tweezer Malleus.

Species slightly auricled.

_M. normalis._ The square Malleus.

Species without earlike appendages.


                     4. Avicula. Thirteen species.

Remarkable for the form of its shell, which resembles, when partially
expanded, a bird flying.

Shell foliaceous or not, thin and very fragile, always pearly,
sub-equivalve; form sub-regular, but rather variable; summit anterior;
valves oblique, the left one with a little notch, through which the
byssus passes; sometimes unequally and obliquely auricled; hinge linear,
toothless, or with two small rudimentary teeth; ligament more or less
exterior, placed in a narrow groove, sometimes enlarged towards the
summit; one very large posterior muscular impression; and one very small
anterior.

                          Avicula macroptera.
                          A. lotorium.
                          A. semi-sagitta.
                          A. heteroptera.
                          A. falcata.
                          A. crocea.
                          A. Tarentina.
                          A. Atlantica.
                          A. squamulosa.
                          A. papilionacea.
                          A. costellata.
                          A. physoides.
                          A. virens.

_A. macroptera._ The rounded Avicula. Pl. 14, fig. 3.

Species oval, oblique, the earlike appendages very developed, especially
the superior; one tooth at the hinge.

_A. Atlantica._ The Atlantic Avicula.

Obliquely curved, yellowish fawn colour, with dark reddish-brown stains;
interior pearly.


                      5. Meleagrina. Two species.

The form of the shell is orbicular and equivalve, without the elongated
transverse base on the cardinal tooth, and the sloping sides of the
opening for the passage of the byssus are perceptible on both valves;
these peculiarities distinguish it from the Avicula.

Shell sub-equivalve, rotundate, nearly square, externally squamose; the
inferior cardinal margin straight, not caudate anteriorly; a sinus at
the posterior base of the valves for the passage of the byssus; the left
valve being at this place narrow and channelled; hinge linear, without
teeth.

                       Meleagrina margaritifera.
                       Meleagrina albina.

_M. margaritifera._ The pearl-bearing Meleagrina, sometimes called the
mother-of-pearl oyster.

Species slightly oblique, somewhat square, pearly, very thick,
compressed; undulated and transversely striated, with a series of
lamellated longitudinal scales; exterior greenish, interior pearly. This
shell is celebrated for its irridescent colours, and is valued for the
beautiful and costly pearls it produces. These pearls are formed from a
deposition of the substance destined to line the shell upon sand or
other bodies, casually or purposely introduced within the mantle of the
animal; the shell itself is the mother-of-pearl used for inlaying, or
making various elegant trinkets.


                             FAMILY XVIII.
                       PECTINIDES. Seven genera.


              1. Pedum. The Shepherd’s Crook. One species.

The common name was given to this genus from the resemblance to a French
shepherd’s crook. The shell is of a regular form; its lower valve, in
which is a sinus for the byssus, is turned up at the edges, and the
upper valve falls within it.

Shell inequivalve, a little eared; apices unequal, distant, rounded,
little evident; hinge without teeth; ligament inserted in an oblique
groove, prolonged to the summit, and carried within in a kind of
spoonlike cavity.

_P. spondyloideum._ The spondylus-shaped Pedum. Pl. 15, fig. 5.

Ovate, wedge shaped, flat; superior valve with longitudinal striæ;
white, granulated, and rough; slightly tinged with purple near the beak.


                 2. Lima. The File Shell. Six species.

No sinus or notch; the valves, thick and gaping, form a lateral opening;
the ears are small, but distinct.

Shell oval, more or less oblique, almost equivalve, with small ears,
regularly gaping at the anterior part of the lower edge; summits
anterior and distant; hinge longitudinal, without teeth; ligament
rounded, almost exterior, inserted in a cavity of each valve; central
muscular impression divided into three very distinct parts.

                             Lima inflata.
                             L. squamosa.
                             L. glacialis.
                             L. annulata.
                             L. fragilis.
                             L. linguatula.

_L. squamosa._ The scaly Lima. Pl. 15, fig. 3.

Answers to the above description, with valves ventricose, armed with
vaulted scales.

_L. fragilis._ The fragile Lima.

Oblong ovate, very pellucid, delicately white, with longitudinal
distinct striæ; lower margin denticulated, closely interlocking when the
valves are closed.


              3. Pecten. The Scallop. Fifty-nine species.

The shells constituting this genus are found in all seas; they are well
known, and many of them are very beautiful.

The form is usually regular; their surface is adorned with elevated
divergent ribs, varying in number from five to thirty, proceeding from
the beaks and terminating at the margins in a scalloped outline.

Some are equivalve, others have one valve flat and the other convex; the
colours of the upper valve are brighter than those of the lower.

There is considerable variation in the size and form of the ears, which
in some species are equal or nearly so, but in others are unequal; some
are so small as to be nearly indistinct. The ribs are variously
diversified with beautiful colours and delicate checker-work; the
margins are mostly crenated, and oftentimes beautifully coloured.

These shells were formerly worn by Pilgrims on their hat or coat, as a
mark of having been to the holy shrine in Palestine.

Shell free, regular, thin, solid, auricled, equivalve, equilateral;
summits contiguous; hinge without teeth; a ligamental membrane through
all the length of the hinge, besides a short, thick ligament, almost
entirely internal, which fills a triangular cavity under the summits;
one sub-central muscular impression.

                           Pecten maximus.
                           P. medius.
                           P. Jacobæus.
                           P. bifrons.
                           P. ziczac.
                           P. Latirentii.
                           P. rastellum.
                           P. turgidus.
                           P. flagellatus.
                           P. aspersus.
                           P. flavidulus.
                           P. plica.
                           P. pleuronectes.
                           P. obliteratus.
                           P. Japonicus.
                           P. Magellanicus.
                           P. purpuratus.
                           P. lineolaris.
                           P. radula.
                           P. nodosus.
                           P. pallium.
                           P. pes-felis.
                           P. tigris.
                           P. imbricatus.
                           P. histrionicus.
                           P. sauciatus.
                           P. opercularis.
                           P. asperrimus.
                           P. senatorius.
                           P. aurantius.
                           P. florens.
                           P. varius.
                           P. sanguineus.
                           P. sinuosus.
                           P. ornatus.
                           P. glaber.
                           P. sulcatus.
                           P. virgo.
                           P. unicolor.
                           P. griseus.
                           P. distans.
                           P. Isabella.
                           P. lineatus.
                           P. flabellatus.
                           P. irradians.
                           P. flexuosa.
                           P. dispar.
                           P. quadriradiatus.
                           P. Islandicus.
                           P. inflexus.
                           P. pellucidus.
                           P. Tranquebaricus.
                           P. gibbus.
                           P. miniaceus.
                           P. pusio.
                           P. hybridus.
                           P. sulphureus.
                           P. lividus.

_P. glaber._ The glabrous Scallop. Pl. 15, fig. 4.

Species of which the two valves are ribbed and almost equally convex,
the right a little less, and having its inferior ear less broad than the
left, so as to produce a kind of groove for the passage of the byssus.

_P. Jacobæus._ The scallop of St. James.

Species very inequivalve; the left valve being very flat, the right
convex; ears equal.

_P. pleuronectes._ The sole Scallop.

Species equivalve, not closing; surface smooth and ribbed within; one
valve perfectly white, the other of a brownish or reddish colour.


                  4. Plagiostoma. Ten fossil species.

Only known as fossils; probably introduced here by Lamarck to serve as a
connecting link for the genera Lima, Pecten, Spondylus, and Podopsis.

Shell rather thick, regular, free, sub-equivalve, sub-auriculated; the
two valves almost equally convex, both provided with a distinct summit,
recurved in the middle of a level surface, with a great triangular slope
in the middle; the cardinal base transverse, straight; hinge without
teeth; a conical cardinal pit situated below the beak, partly internal,
opening outward, and receiving the ligament.

_P. spinosa._ The thorny Plagiostoma.

Subarcuated, the umbo of one shell higher than that of the other, with
longitudinal ribs and remote concentric rings.


                      5. Plicatula. Five species.

Separated from the Spondylus of Linnæus on account of its distinct
structure. The ligament is altogether internal; it is without ears, and
the prolonged beak so conspicuous in that genus. The Plicatula has the
faculty of affixing itself to another body, so that many are found
grouped together in clusters. The valves are strongly plaited within and
without, closely interlocking with each other.

Shell solid, adhering, sub-irregular, without ears, inequivalve, pointed
at the summit, rounded and plaited behind; hinge with two strong teeth
in each valve, with a cavity between them, in which the ligament is
internally inserted.

                           Plicatula ramosa.
                           P. depressa.
                           P. cristata.
                           P. reniformis.
                           P. Australis.

_P. ramosa._ The branched Plicatula. Pl. 15, fig. 2.

Oblong, trigonal, very thick; strong longitudinal plaits; exterior
brown, with a yellow tinge, with reddish arrow-shaped markings; interior
white.


          6. Spondylus. The thorny Oyster. Twenty-one species.

The valves of this genus greatly resemble those of the common oyster,
but have ears, and are covered with long recurved or straight-pointed
spines.

The lower valve is much larger than the upper, and has foliaceous
laminæ, by which it is attached to the other substances. They are found
in all seas of hot countries, but particularly in the Indian; they
adhere to rocks, coral, &c., oftentimes in large groups.

The usual colours are red, purple, white, brown, or orange, several of
which are sometimes blended in the same shell.

Shell solid, adhering, sub-regular, more or less spined,
sub-auriculated, inequivalve; the right or inferior valve fixed, much
more excavated than the other, and having behind, at the summit, a
triangular face, which enlarges and elongates with age; hinge
longitudinal, provided in each valve with two strong teeth entering into
corresponding cavities; ligament short, almost medial, partly exterior;
one sub-dorsal, muscular impression.

                          Spondylus gædaropus.
                          S. Americanus.
                          S. arachnoides.
                          S. candidus.
                          S. multilamellatus.
                          S. coccineus.
                          S. crassisquama.
                          S. spathuliferus.
                          S. ducalis.
                          S. longitudinalis.
                          S. costatus.
                          S. variegatus.
                          S. longispineus.
                          S. regius.
                          S. avicularis.
                          S. microlepos.
                          S. croceus.
                          S. aurantius.
                          S. radians.
                          S. zonalis.
                          S. violacescens.

_S. gædaropus._ The thorny red Spondylus. Pl. 15, fig. 1.

Upper valve red, under one white, with longitudinal striæ or ribs; rough
granulations, and somewhat tongue-shaped; rather short truncated spines.

_S. longispineus._ The long-spined Spondylus.

Thickly spined, longitudinally sulcated and ribbed; alternate spines
arcuated and tongue-shaped; valves of a reddish colour; umbones orange.


                    7. Podopsis. Two fossil species.

Only introduced here to fill up the family and keep up the chain of
connexion. It approximates the genus Gryphea.

Shell rather thick, sub-regular, symmetrical, equilateral, inequivalve,
adhering by the extremity of the shorter valve; the other terminated by
a summit pointed, a little recurved and medial; articulation very
angular, by means of two very distant condyles.


                              FAMILY XIX.
                         OSTRACEA. Six genera.


                        1. Gryphæa. One species.

This genus resembles the Ostrea, with which it was formerly classed, but
from which it is distinguished by the peculiar character of the lower
valve. It is very deep and carinated, with a summit terminating in a
long spirally recurved beak, slightly turned to one side; the edge sharp
and angular.

It is seldom, if ever, attached to other bodies. Shell more finely
lamellated than that of the oyster, free or slightly adherent,
sub-equilateral, very inequivalve; the lower valve very concave, with a
summit more or less recurved like a hook; the upper valve much smaller,
and formed like a lid; hinge without teeth; ligament inserted in an
oblong arched cavity; one single muscular impression on each valve.

_G. angulata._ The angulated Gryphæa. Pl. 16, fig. 2.

Oblong ovate, with three long longitudinal carinated ribs below; summit
of the inferior valve is subvolute. This is a rare shell.


              2. Ostrea. The Oyster. Forty-eight species.

As given by Lamarck, is a natural and well-defined family. It is too
well known to require description. It fixes itself to other bodies by
the laminæ of the whole surface of one valve, and generally remains
immoveable, exhibiting no other signs of life other than that of opening
its valves to receive nutriment.

Shell irregular, inequivalve, inequilateral, exterior roughly
foliaceous, interior somewhat pearly; the left or inferior valve larger,
deeper, and adhesive, its summit prolonging with age in a sort of heel,
the right or superior valve smaller, more or less in the form of a lid;
hinge without teeth; ligament short, sub-interior, inserted in an oblong
cardinal cavity, increasing with the summit; muscular impression single
and sub-central.

                            Ostrea edulis.
                            O. hippopus.
                            O. borealis.
                            O. Adriatica.
                            O. cochlear.
                            O. cristata.
                            O. gallina.
                            O. numisma.
                            O. lingua.
                            O. tulipa.
                            O. Brisiliana.
                            O. scabra.
                            O. rostralis.
                            O. parasitica.
                            O. denticulata.
                            O. spathulata.
                            O. cornucopiæ.
                            O. cucullata.
                            O. doridella.
                            O. rubella.
                            O. limacella.
                            O. ruscuriana.
                            O. Virginica.
                            O. Canadensis.
                            O. excavata.
                            O. mytiloides.
                            O. sinuata.
                            O. trapezina.
                            O. tuberculata.
                            O. rufa.
                            O. margaritacea.
                            O. gibbosa.
                            O. Australis.
                            O. elliptica.
                            O. haliotidæa.
                            O. deformis.
                            O. fucorum.
                            O. plicatula.
                            O. glaucina.
                            O. fusca.
                            O. turbinata.
                            O. crista-galli.
                            O. erucella.
                            O. folium.
                            O. labrella.
                            O. imbricata.
                            O. hyotis.
                            O. radiata.

_O. edulis._ The eatable Oyster. Pl. 16, fig. 5.

Species orbicular, and not plaited; rugged, with undulated, imbricated
scales; one valve flat and the other convex; variable in size; outside
greenish brown, inside pearly white, sometimes with a bluish tinge.

_O. Virginica._ The Virginian Oyster.

Species longitudinal and not plaited.

_O. imbricata._ The imbricated Oyster.

Species orbicular and plaited.

_O. crista-galli._ The Cock’s-comb Oyster.

Species strongly plaited longitudinally.


                3. Vulsella. The Tweezers. Six species.

This genus has several characteristics which distinguish it from the
Ostrea; they are free; the valves and the apices are nearly equal, with
a projecting callosity on each valve, depressed underneath, and
obliquely arched for the reception of the ligament.

Shell sub-nacreous, sub-regular, sub-equivalve, inequilateral; upper
valve finely granulated, or striated longitudinally from the apex to the
margin; summits anterior, distant, recurved below; hinge without teeth;
ligament undivided, thick, inserted in a rounded cavity, made in a
slightly projecting callosity on each valve; muscular impression
sub-central, rather large, and two very small ones entirely anterior.

_V. lingulata._ The tongue-like Vulsella. Pl. 15, fig. 6.

Elongated, depressed, transversely striated; pale yellowish brown, with
longitudinal darker stripes.


          4. Placuna. The Chinese Window Shell. Three species.

This genus received its common name from the thin, transparent nature of
the valves of the shell, particularly of the species _placenta_, which
by the ingenious Chinese are often polished and used as a substitute for
window-glass.

The hinge of the shells of this genus is so peculiar as to make it
perfectly distinct; entirely interior, fastened by a ligament shaped
like a V on one of the valves.

Shell free, sub-irregular, very thin, almost entirely transparent, flat,
sub-equivalve, sub-equilateral, slightly auricled; hinge entirely
internal, formed on the superior less valve by two elongated, unequal,
oblique ribs converging at the summit, to the interior side of which a
ligament like the letter V is inserted in two equally converging, rather
deep cavities of the lower valve, which is more convex; one rather
small, sub-central muscular impression.

_P. placenta._ The glassy Placuna. Pl. 16, fig. 3.

Sub-orbicular, flat, white, and transparent; finely striated
longitudinally, slightly decussated.


               5. Anomia. The Antique Lamp. Six species.

When Linnæus formed this genus and named it Anomia, he probably did so
from its having no determinate character. Its common name was given it
by the fancied resemblance of some of its species to an antique lamp.
Like the oyster, they seldom leave their place; they are always affixed
to marine bodies by an osseous operculum, formed by the thick extremity
of the animal’s muscle. The lower valve is perforated and smaller,
conforming to the shape of the substance to which it is affixed.

Shell adhering, irregular, inequivalve, inequilateral, ostraceous;
inferior valve rather more flat than the superior, divided at the summit
into two sloping branches, whose approaching together forms a large oval
hole, through which protrudes a muscle, the extremity of which becomes
ossified and adheres to extraneous bodies; one sub-central muscular
impression divided into three.

                           Anomia ephippium.
                           A. patellaris.
                           A. cepa.
                           A. electrica.
                           A. pyriformis.
                           A. fornicata.
                           A. membranacea.
                           A. squamula.
                           A. lens.

_A. ephippium._ The Saddle Anomia. Pl. 16, fig. 1.

Shell sub-orbicular, irregularly wrinkled and waved; upper valve convex,
under flat and perforated at the hinge, through which passes the
ligament by which it is affixed to other bodies; inside pearly, and of
various changing colours, such as green, purple, violet, and yellow.


                   6. Crania. The Scull. One species.

So called from the appearance caused by three holes or cavities on the
surface of the lower valve.

Shell irregular, orbicular, inequivalve; the inferior valve almost flat,
and marked on the interior with four muscular impressions, sometimes
very deep, and of which the two sub-central are sufficiently connected
to form but one; the superior valve like a Patella, more or less convex,
with four very distinct muscular impressions, rather distant.

_C. personata._ The masked Crania. Pl. 16, fig. 4.

Orbicular; upper valve gibbous and conical, lower valve flat, with three
perforations.


                               FAMILY XX.
                       BRACHIOPODA. Three genera.


                       1. Orbicula. One species.

Greatly resembling a Patella, for which it is often mistaken on account
of the lower valve being very thin, flat, and adhering.

Shell sub-orbicular, very compressed, inequilateral, very inequivalve;
the inferior valve very thin, adherent, and imperforated; the superior
valve like a Patella, with a summit more or less inclined towards the
posterior side.

_O. Norwegica._ The Norwegian Orbicula. Pl. 17, fig. 4.

Upper valve in the form of a depressed cone, with a summit produced and
pointed.


                    2. Terebratula. Twelve species.

Taken from the Anomia, and with great propriety, as its characteristic
differences are very great; the perforation of the Anomia is always in
the smaller valve, which is attached to the larger by a cardinal
ligament, while in the Terebratula the perforation is always in the
larger valve, which is connected to the smaller by teeth at the hinge.
In some the valves are smooth, and in others grooved longitudinally.

Shell thin, equilateral, sub-triangular, inequivalve; one of the valves
larger and more convex than the other, prolonged behind by a sort of
heel, sometimes recurved, and pierced by a round hole at its extremity;
frequently sloped more or less by a cleft of variable form; the opposite
valve smaller, more flat, sometimes formed like a lid, having in the
interior a system of support variable in form and complication in every
true species; hinge limited, prominent, and formed by two articulating
surfaces of one valve placed between corresponding projections of the
other; a kind of tendinous ligament issuing from the sloping cleft of
the shell, by which it is attached to marine bodies.

                          Terebratula vitrea.
                          T. dilatata.
                          T. rotunda.
                          T. flavescens.
                          T. dentata.
                          T. dorsata.
                          T. pisum.
                          T. globosa.
                          T. sanguinea.
                          T. caput-serpentis.
                          T. truncata.
                          T. psittacea.

_T. dorsalis._ The dorsal Terebratula. Pl. 17, fig. 1.

The summit of the large valve pierced with a round hole, very
circumscribed; grooved longitudinally; valves as if cut sloping in the
middle line.

_T. globosa._ The globose Terebratula.

Species smooth, with the valves rounded at their anterior edge.

_T. caput serpentis._ The Serpent’s-head Terebratula.

Species grooved, with the summit or heel of the large valve deeply
hollowed even to the edge of the articulation; the slope rounded; the
valves sub-bilobate by the apparent slope of the anterior edge.


                        3. Lingula. One species.

The valves of this genus are united by means of a tubular, fleshy, or
membranous peduncle surrounding the narrow part of them, and of which
the base is affixed to marine substances.

Shell covered with epidermis, sub-equivalve, equilateral, depressed,
elongated, truncated anteriorly, summit middle and posterior, without
trace of ligament, but supported at the extremity of a long
fibro-gelatinous peduncle, which attaches it vertically to sub-marine
bodies; multiple muscular impression.

_L. anatina._ The Duck’s-bill Lingula. Pl. 17, fig. 2.

Covered with a green, shining epidermis, shaped like a duck’s bill, and
having a cylindrical peduncle.



                               CLASS IV.
                               MOLLUSCA.
                          TWENTY-TWO FAMILIES.


                               FAMILY I.
                         PTEROPODA. Six genera

Some genera of this family are without a testaceous covering, and are
mentioned only for the sake of preserving the family entire.


                1. Hyalæa. Venus’s Chariot. Two species.

This genus derives its common name from a fancied resemblance to a
miniature triumphal car.

Shell very thin, transparent, symmetrical, convex below, flat above,
valves unequal, form tricuspidated, cleft at the sides, open like a
cleft anteriorly, and tridentated posteriorly; summit truncated.

                           Hyalæa tridentata.
                           Hyalæa cuspidata.

_H. tridentata._ The three-toothed Hyalæa.

Transparent, horn-coloured, globular; tridentated posteriorly; summit
and two posterior sides open; finely striated transversely.


                  2. Clio. Has no Shell. Two species.

                            Clio Borealis.
                            Clio Australis.


                       3. Cleodora. Two species.

Shell gelatinous, cartilaginous, transparent, in shape of a reversed
pyramid or lanceolate truncated, only open at the summit.

                          Cleodora pyramidata.
                          Cleodora caudata.

_C. pyramidata._ The pyramidal Cleodora.

Like a pyramid, triangular, thin, transparent; aperture obliquely
truncated.


                       4. Limacina. One species.

Shell papyraceous, very fragile, planorbis form, sub-carinated,
involuted rather obliquely, in such a manner as to be deeply and largely
umbilicated on one side, and the spine slightly projecting and pointed
on the other; aperture large, entire.

_L. helicialis._ The Helix-like Limacina.

Thin, fragile, spiral; the volutions united in a discoid form.


                 5. Cymbulia. The Slipper. One species.

Shell or case cartilaginous, transparent, conical posteriorly where the
animal adheres, and prolonged above like a long hollow semi-cylinder,
under which the animal can take shelter.

_C. Peronii._ Peron’s Cymbulia.

Shell shaped like a shoe, somewhat gelatinous or cartilaginous, very
transparent crystalline, oblong pointed at the vertex, truncated at the
base.


              6. Pneumodermon. Has no shell. One species.

                              P. Peronii.


                               FAMILY II.
                       PHYLLIDIACEA. Four genera.


                      1. Phyllidia. Three species.

The animals of this genus are covered with a coriaceous skin, but
without a shell.

                          Phyllidia varicosa.
                          P. pustulosa.
                          P. ocellata.


                      2. Chitonellus. Two species.

Formerly classed with the Chiton; but as the testaceous plates of this
genus are never joined, the two may be easily distinguished.

Shell elongated, multivalve; alternate pieces generally longitudinal;
sides naked.

                        Chitonellus striatus.
                        Chitonellus larvæformis.

_C. striatus._ The striated Chitonellus.

Striæ radiating from the apex of each valve; margin serrated; base of
the last valve obtuse.

_C. larvæformis._ The Caterpillar Chitonellus.

More or less cylindrical, almost naked; the valves of the shell very
small, and almost entirely concealed under the skin; tufts hairy or
silky between the parts of the valves near the margin.


                        3. Chiton. Six species.

This genus was so called from the resemblance of its testaceous covering
to a coat of mail. The form of the Chiton is very similar to a
well-known insect called the woodlouse, found in decayed timber; it
generally adheres to rocks, or lies rolled up like a ball among seaweed
and stones. In length it seldom exceeds an inch, except in tropical
climates, where they are sometimes three or four inches long. In general
there are eight valves, the termination of which is surrounded by a
scaly or rough ligament, which enables the animal to expand or contract
its shell freely. It presents a great variety of colour; in general it
is dark brown, overcast with a shade of green, but some are beautifully
variegated with pink, yellow, blue, or red; interior green or whitish.

Shell more or less elongated, consisting of a longitudinal series of
eight very symmetrical calcareous pieces, more or less curved, and round
at both extremities; summit more or less marked, and when imbricated,
always from front to rear.

                            Chiton gigas.
                            C. squamosus.
                            C. Peruvianus.
                            C. spinosus.
                            C. fascicularis.
                            C. marginatus.

_C. squamosus._ The scaly Chiton. Pl. 1, fig. 1.

Depressed, valves large, carinated, well imbricated; the interstices
offering well-marked lateral spaces; the border of the mantle regularly
scaly.

_C. marginatus._ The marginated Chiton. Pl. 1, fig. 2.

Valves carinated and projecting over each other; finely shagreened, with
a dusky reddish-brown margin.

_C. fascicularis._ The fasciculated Chiton. Pl. 1, fig. 3.

Valves more narrow, imbricated, without distinct spaces; lateral parts
of the skin naked or hairy, but always provided with silky or hairy
tufts disposed in pairs between the junctions of the valve.

_C. spinosus._ The spiny Chiton. Pl. 1, fig. 4.

Shell beset with long, thin, curved, tubular, hairy, blackish spines.


     4. Patella. The Limpet or Dishlike Shell. Forty-five species.

The Patella of Linnæus was divided by Lamarck into several distinct
genera, and now comprehends only such shells as are of a conical form,
with an imperforated summit. The anterior is that part to which the
summit inclines, and is always more narrow than the posterior part.

It derives its name from its resemblance to a little dish; the colour
and structure are various; some are smooth, others granulated, and many
are covered with elevated tuberculated ribs. The exterior is sometimes
of a pale fawn colour, and the interior of a bright pink; some have a
silvery hue, but the more general colour is bluish white or light brown.

This genus of shells is very numerous in all seas, but chiefly in hot
countries, where they are found of a larger size; they generally adhere
by their base to rocks, stones, and marine substances, from which it is
difficult to detach them.

Shell oval or circular, sub-conic; summit right or more or less recurved
anteriorly; the cavity simple, entire, more or less deep; the margin
complete and entirely horizontal; a narrow muscular impression.

                           Patella apicina.
                           P. granatina.
                           P. oculus.
                           P. barbara.
                           P. plicata.
                           P. laciniosa.
                           P. saccharina.
                           P. angulosa.
                           P. barbata.
                           P. longicosta.
                           P. spinifera.
                           P. aspera.
                           P. luteola.
                           P. pyramidata.
                           P. umbrella.
                           P. plumbea.
                           P. cærulea.
                           P. radians.
                           P. scutellaris.
                           P. viridula.
                           P. pectinata.
                           P. Galathea.
                           P. Safiana.
                           P. testudinaria.
                           P. cochlear.
                           P. compressa.
                           P. granularis.
                           P. decaurata.
                           P. Magellanica.
                           P. stellifera.
                           P. vulgata.
                           P. mammillaris.
                           P. lineata.
                           P. leucopleura.
                           P. notata.
                           P. Tarentina.
                           P. punctata.
                           P. puncturata.
                           P. Javanica.
                           P. tuberculifera.
                           P. miniata.
                           P. pellucida.
                           P. tricostata.
                           P. Australis.
                           P. cymbularia.

_P. vulgata._ The common Patella. Pl. 2, fig. 1.

Conic, summit obtuse and vertical; sometimes ribbed from the vertex to
the margin with divergent striæ, sometimes striated without ribs;
exterior dark brown or greenish, internal blue or purple radiations.

_P. compressa._ The compressed or flat-sided Patella. Pl. 2, fig. 2.

Oval, elongated, compressed on the sides, having the summit
sub-anterior, well marked, and curved; exterior fawn colour, interior of
a silvery hue.

_P. deaurata._ The golden red Patella. Pl. 2, fig. 3.

Sub-conic, summit more anterior, with a slight forward inclination;
colour yellowish red.

_P. cochlear._ The spoonlike Patella. Pl. 2, fig. 4.

Depressed, the summit hardly marked, and much more narrow in front than
behind; exterior brownish, interior light blue.

_P. scutellaris._ The buckler Patella. Pl. 2, fig. 5.

Depressed, summit sub-anterior, radiated from the summit to the margin;
brown colour, with a yellowish band parallel to the margin.

_P. pectinata._ The pectinated Patella. Pl. 2, fig. 6.

Oval, summit well marked and anteriorly inclined; ribbed from the summit
to the margin, which is slightly convex in the middle.

_P. cymbularia._ The cymbular Patella. Pl. 2, fig. 7.

Oval, thin, pearly, with a festooned margin; summit nearly marginal;
colour white, shaded with very light brown.


                              FAMILY III.
                       CALYPTRACEA. Seven genera.

The genera that constitute this family were separated by Lamarck from
the Patella of Linnæus.


         1. Parmaphora. The Duck’s-bill Limpet. Three species.

The characteristic distinctions of this shell were first pointed out by
De Blainville.

Shell elongated, very depressed; the summit greatly post-medial, and
evidently inclined behind; aperture as large as the shell; the lateral
edges straight and parallel, the posterior rounded, the anterior sharp
and notched in the middle; muscular impression large, elongated oval,
slightly open in front.

                         Parmophora Australis.
                         P. brevicula.
                         P. granulata.

_P. Australis._ The Australian Parmophorus.

Shell oblong, depressed; vertex slightly recurved; striated
concentrically; one margin rounded, and the other truncated.


             2. Emarginula. The Slit Limpet. Four species.

Most of the shells of this genus are small; some are elevated, and
others of a widely-depressed conical form.

Shell conical, recurved; summit entire; slit, or more or less hollowed
on the anterior side; a muscular impression in form of a horseshoe, open
behind and thicker at the beginning.

                        Emarginula Blainvillii.
                        E. marginata.
                        E. fissura.
                        E. rubra.

_E. Blainvillii._ Blainville’s Emarginula.

Shell with the notch or slit in the middle of the back, and not
extending to the margin.

_E. fissura._ The slit Emarginula. Pl. 32, fig. 5.

Oval, compressed, summit well marked, with reticulated striæ and ribs;
fissure extending half way from the margin to the summit; exterior light
brown, interior white.

_E. marginata._ The marginated Emarginula.

More compressed than the preceding; summit distinct, anterior margin
formed like a gutter.


          3. Fissurella. The Keyhole Limpet. Nineteen species.

The perforation not being perfectly round, but generally ovate oblong,
procured for this genus its common name, by which it is easily
distinguished.

Shell simple, conical, depressed, recurved; summit perforated a little
anterior in an oblong or oval manner, like a keyhole; the exterior
surface ribbed longitudinally, slightly striated transversely.

                           Fissurella picta.
                           F. nimbosa.
                           F. crassa.
                           F. Græca.
                           F. nodosa.
                           F. Cayennensis.
                           F. lilacina.
                           F. rosea.
                           F. Barbadensis.
                           F. radiata.
                           F. viridula.
                           F. hiantula.
                           F. pustula.
                           F. fascicularis.
                           F. Javanicensis.
                           F. depressa.
                           F. Peruviana.
                           F. gibberula.
                           F. minuta.

_F. nimbosa._ The scaly-ribbed Fissurella.

Species of which the middle part of the edges of the aperture is
hollowed in such a manner that, when placed on a level surface, they
touch only at the extremities.

_F. rosea._ The rosy Fissurella.

Species more depressed, edges bent up lengthwise, forming a kind of
canal.

_F. Græca._ The Greek Fissurella. Pl. 32, fig. 1.

Conical, ovate oblong; striæ cancellated and elevated; sections
tuberculated; exterior yellowish brown or clouded, interior white or
light blue.


            4. Pileopsis. The Caplike Limpet. Four species.

Easily distinguished by its form, which gave rise to the common name.

Shell oblique, sharp pointed; cone bent forward, with a recurved, almost
spiral summit, finely striated longitudinally and slightly wrinkled
transversely; aperture a round oval; the margin at the base nearly
round, more or less regularly crenated and indented, interior with a
lengthened, arched, transverse muscular impression.

                          Pileopsis ungarica.
                          P. mitrula.
                          P. intorta.
                          P. subrufa.

_P. ungarica._ The Fool’s Cap.

Conical, vertex slightly spiral, pointed, and recurved; exterior pale
fawn colour, and the outer margin bordered with a fringed epidermis;
interior sometimes of a very bright pink or rose colour.


         5. Calyptræa. The Cup and Saucer Limpet. Four species.

This genus of shells is remarkable for having in the interior cavity a
transverse funnel or tongue-shaped testaceous appendage, from which
originated its common name.

Shell conic, base orbicular; summit vertical and imperforated; cavity
deep, having at its interior summit a tongue-like appendage. This
appendage is sometimes vertical and sometimes like a horseshoe, having
on it a muscular impression of variable form.

                        Calyptræa extinctorium.
                        C. lævigata.
                        C. equestris.
                        C. tectum-sinense.

_C. extinctorium._ The extinguisher Calyptræa.

Species in which the internal appendage is horn-shaped; colour brownish.

_C. equestris._ The equestrian Calyptræa. Pl. 32, fig. 4.

Species in which the internal appendage is like a horseshoe, open in
front.

_C. tectum-sinense._ The Chinese roof Calyptræa.

Shell formed of separate, transverse, irregular round laminæ of uniform
size, attached to each other by the summit on the exterior of each,
presenting the appearance of a number of small flat Patellæ piled one on
the other; colour yellowish, margin entire, very glossy within.


             6. Crepidula. The Slipper Limpet. Six species.

Very similar to the Navicella, but distinguished from it by not having
an operculum.

Shell irregular, form very variable, depressed or compressed; spire
obliquely inclined to one side; margin entire; cavity large, divided by
a horizontal partition, which gives it the form of a half-decked boat.

                          Crepidula fornicata.
                          C. porcellana.
                          C. aculeata.
                          C. unguiformis.
                          C. dilatata.
                          C. Peruviana.

_C. porcellana._ The brown-spotted Crepidula.

Shell thick, flat, summit not spiral.

_C. aculeata._ The prickly Crepidula.

Oval, brown, roughly striated, vertex recurved, interior blue or purple.

_C. sub-spirata._ The sub-spiral Crepidula. Pl. 32, fig. 2.

Species almost round, summit sub-spiral; colour yellowish white, with a
bluish tinge towards the summit.


               7. Ancylus. The Lake Limpet. Two species.

This is a fresh-water shell, found in the lakes of Europe.

Shell thin and brittle, obliquely conical; summit pointed and recurved;
margins simple, base oval and smooth.

                          Ancylus oblongus.
                          Ancylus fluviatilis.

_A. oblongus._ The oblong Ancylus.

Aperture elongated, vertex turned to one side, striated concentrically;
exterior pale yellowish colour, interior light blue.

_A. fluviatilis._ The river Ancylus. Pl. 32, fig. 3.

Simple, oval, almost symmetrical; summit pointed, compressed, very
distinct; bent back a little to the right, but not marginal; the edges
of the aperture entire and effuse.


                               FAMILY IV.
                        BULLACEA. Three genera.


                  1. Acera. Has no shell. One species.

                             Acera Carnosa.


                        2. Bullæa. One species.

Formerly classed with the Bulla, but separated from it on account of the
shell being entirely covered by the animal, and never externally
visible.

Shell oval, thin, fragile, more or less involuted on one side, rendering
the aperture more or less wide.

_B. aperta._ The open Bullæa. Pl. 17, fig. 5.

Shell interior and very incompletely involuted, without spire or
columella; sub-orbicular, white, transparent, faintly striated, and
slightly wrinkled; almost entirely open.


                 3. Bulla. The Bubble. Eleven species.

The great confusion that existed in this genus, as classed by Linnæus,
has been elucidated by the division and classification of Lamarck. This
genus derived its name from the resemblance which some of the smaller
species have to a bubble of water. Its shells are found in almost all
parts of the world.

Shell external, oval, involuted; aperture very large, open the whole
length of the shell, and generally wider at the base; outer edge sharp
and smooth; summit umbilicated.

                            Bulla lignaria.
                            B. ampulla.
                            B. striata.
                            B. naucum.
                            B. physis.
                            B. fasciata.
                            B. aplustre.
                            B. hydatis.
                            B. cornea.
                            B. fragilis.
                            B. solida.

_B. aplustre._ The streamer-like Bulla. Pl. 17, fig. 7.

Species completely involute; the spire very distinct, visible, but not
projecting, with a kind of thickening at the anterior part of the
columellar edge.

_B. lignaria._ The woodlike Bulla.

Species sub-involute, no visible spire either within or without, but
narrowed towards the top when it is slightly umbilicated; yellowish
brown colour, with transverse pale striæ.

_B. hydatis._ The watery Bulla.

Species more solid, thicker, almost entirely involute; whorls of the
spire slightly visible in an umbilicus projecting interiorly from the
summit.

_B. naucum._ The sea-nut Bulla.

Species thin; the whorls of the spire visible externally, but without
projection, and with a suture as if caniculated without thickening at
the anterior part of the columellar edge.

_B. fragilis._ The fragile Bulla.

Species very thin, rather involute; the whorls of the spire distinct
within as without; the suture deep, angular, and cleft in a greater or
less part of its length.


                               FAMILY V.
                        APLYSIACEA. Two genera.


                       1. Aplysia. Three species.

This genus may almost be said to have no testaceous covering, as it
appears more like the element of a shell.

                           Aplysia depilans.
                           A. fasciata.
                           A. punctata.

_A. depilans._ The bald Aplysia.

Shell dorsal, semicircular, of a thin yellow cartilaginous substance.


                       2. Dolabella. Two species.

Closely allied to the Aplysia; it is a singularly formed shell,
difficult to describe, as it contains few of the characteristics which
distinguish other shells.

Shell rudimentary, entirely flat, sub-spiral, with a summit thick and
very callous.

                          Dolabella Rumphii.
                          Dolabella fragilis.

_D. Rumphii._ Rumphius’s Dolabella.

Base thick, callous, and sub-spiral; dilated above, thin, and
wedge-shaped.


                               FAMILY VI.
                        LIMACINEA. Five genera.


                1. Onchidium. Has no shell. Two species.

                           Onchidium Typhæ.
                           Onchidium Peronii.


                      2. Parmacella. One species.

Lamarck has given a description of the animal of this genus, but only
mentions that the scutcheon contains a shell or solid crustaceous body.

                          Parmacella Olivieri.


                        3. Limax. Four species.

The animal belonging to this genus is furnished with a coriaceous
shield, wrinkled.

                              Limax rufus.
                              L. albus.
                              L. cinerus.
                              L. agrestis.


                      4. Testacella. One species.

Shell external, very small, ear-shaped; very depressed, summit inclined
posteriorly, not spiral; aperture oval, very large; the left edge sharp,
a little rolled inward, especially behind.

_T. Haliotidea._ The Haliotis-shaped Testacella. Pl. 17, fig. 6.

Answering to the above description; very thin, transparent, and
yellowish.


                        5. Vitrina. One species.

Shell proportionally very small, extremely thin, pellucid, almost
membranous, oval or sub-globular; spire very short, of which the last
whorl is very large; aperture large, semilunar; the edges sharp; the
left edge arched, and extending itself interiorly to the summit.

_V. pellucida._ The pellucid Vitrina. Pl. 17, fig. 3.

Extremely thin, pellucid, and glossy; depressed, spire very short;
aperture large and oval; colour pale yellowish green.


                              FAMILY VII.
                       COLIMACEA. Eleven genera.


          1. Helix. The Snail. One hundred and seven species.

According to the systematic arrangement of Lamarck, this genus now
consists of shells with peculiar characteristic distinctions.

By Linnæus, marine, land, and fresh-water shells were united in this
genus, and so confounded that the naturalist would often look in vain
for the distinguishing characters which would enable him to class and
determine the genus of the object under examination.

Notwithstanding the divisions of Lamarck, its species are numerous; the
shells are terrestrial, and found in all parts of the globe; some are
rare and beautiful.

The term Helix was given to this genus from the spiral form of the
shell.

Shell extremely variable in form, generally globular, sometimes
ventricose, conoid, never turriculated; summit constantly obtuse and
rounded; aperture generally of a medium size, but sometimes very large
or very small, always modified by the turn of the spire; oval,
semilunar, more wide than long, edges disunited, entering but very
little into the formation of the interior; the right lip or margin
thickened or reflected.

                          Helix vesicalis.
                          H. algira.
                          H. pomatia.
                          H. aspersa.
                          H. vermiculata.
                          H. alonensis.
                          H. lineolata.
                          H. picta.
                          H. mutata.
                          H. gigantea.
                          H. polyzonalis.
                          H. monozonalis.
                          H. pulla.
                          H. versicolor.
                          H. Naticoides.
                          H. Madagascariensis.
                          H. galactites.
                          H. hæmastoma.
                          H. melanotragus.
                          H. extensa.
                          H. lucana.
                          H. globulus.
                          H. melanostoma.
                          H. cælatura.
                          H. microstoma.
                          H. maculosa.
                          H. Richardi.
                          H. Bonplandii.
                          H. planulata.
                          H. labrella.
                          H. ungulina.
                          H. pellis-serpentis.
                          H. Senegalensis.
                          H. unidentata.
                          H. cepa.
                          H. heteroclites.
                          H. discolor.
                          H. lactea.
                          H. zonaria.
                          H. serpentina.
                          H. Niciensis.
                          H. variabilis.
                          H. fruticum.
                          H. neglecta.
                          H. cespitum.
                          H. ericetorum.
                          H. intersecta.
                          H. Carthusianella.
                          H. Carthusiana.
                          H. diaphana.
                          H. concolor.
                          H. velutina.
                          H. Javanica.
                          H. Peruviana.
                          H. simplex.
                          H. cidaris.
                          H. citrina.
                          H. guttata.
                          H. verticillus.
                          H. olivetorum.
                          H. planospira.
                          H. Barbadensis.
                          H. sinuata.
                          H. hippocastanum.
                          H. bidentalis.
                          H. argilacea.
                          H. vittata.
                          H. alanda.
                          H. arbustorum.
                          H. candidissima.
                          H. nemoralis.
                          H. hortensis.
                          H. sylvatica.
                          H. pisana.
                          H. splendida.
                          H. crenulata.
                          H. planorbula.
                          H. macularia.
                          H. maritima.
                          H. strigata.
                          H. muralis.
                          H. rugosa.
                          H. cornea.
                          H. linguifera.
                          H. incarnata.
                          H. cinctella.
                          H. cellaria.
                          H. nitida.
                          H. obvoluta.
                          H. Cookiana.
                          H. pileus.
                          H. papilla.
                          H. punctifera.
                          H. plicatula.
                          H. planorbella.
                          H. scabra.
                          H. cariosa.
                          H. plebeium.
                          H. personata.
                          H. hispida.
                          H. rotundata.
                          H. apicina.
                          H. striata.
                          H. conspurcata.
                          H. conica.
                          H. conoidea.
                          H. pulchella.

_H. algira._ The yellow Snail. Pl. 18, fig. 8.

Species shaped like a Planorbis, rough or hairy, more or less largely
umbilicated, margin sharp.

_H. Naticoides._ The Natica-shaped Snail. Pl. 18, fig. 7.

Species ventricose.

_H. obvoluta._ The small white-lipped Snail. Pl. 18, fig. 9.

Species more or less depressed, umbilicated, Planorbis-shaped, the edges
of the aperture thickened, callous, and even toothed.

_H. conoides._ The cone-shaped Snail. Pl. 18, fig. 4.

Species conoidal; the turns of the spire rounded.

_H. pomatia._ The edible Snail.

Species sub-globular, not umbilicated; the margin of the aperture
thickened; aperture covered with a calcareous lid resembling an
operculum.

_H. nitida._ The pellucid Snail.

Species depressed, more or less largely umbilicated; the edges sharp,
but always thin and shining.

_H. nemoralis._ The grove Snail.

Species imperforated, semi-globular, thin, and sub-pellucid; not
umbilicated, with a light inflexion at the place of the junction of the
columella with the margin of the aperture; colour various, inner margin
white or reddish brown; volutions five, with several dark brown bands.

_H. Carthusiana._ The Carthusian Snail.

Species sub-depressed, sub-umbilicated, with a sharp edge, thickened
within by a roll.

_H. arbustorum._ The orchard Snail.

Sub-globular, sub-pellucid, sub-umbilicated, five volutions, finely
striated longitudinally; mottled with greenish yellow, streaked with
deep chestnut, a broad brown band commonly at the edge of the outer lip,
and running round through the volutions to the apex.


                    2. Carocolla. Eighteen species.

All terrestrial shells in this genus, taken from the Linnæan Helix on
account of the peculiarity of the shell, which is orbicular, more or
less flat on the upper part; the circumference of the shells constantly
carinated or sub-carinated; aperture ovate, transverse, contiguous to
the axis of the shells; outer lip sub-angular, sometimes toothed within.

                         Carocolla acutissima.
                         C. albilabris.
                         C. angistoma.
                         C. labyrinthus.
                         C. lucerna.
                         C. inflata.
                         C. Gualteriana.
                         C. bicolor.
                         C. Mauritiana.
                         C. Madagascariensis.
                         C. marginata.
                         C. lychnuchus.
                         C. planata.
                         C. planaria.
                         C. hispidula.
                         C. lapicida.
                         C. albella.
                         C. elegans.

_C. lapicida._ The stone Carocolla. Pl. 19, fig. 1.

Species discoid, very umbilicated; edges thick, but not toothed;
beautiful bands.

_C. elegans._ The elegant Carocolla.

Species with a conical spire a little elevated, the base flat, the
aperture square, with sharp edges.

_C. labyrinthus._ The winding Carocolla.

Species discoid, umbilicated, with the aperture toothed.


                       3. Anostoma. Two species.

An extraordinary shell, sometimes called the antique lamp from its form.

Shell orbicular, the spire convex and obtuse; aperture round, toothed
within, grinning, turned upward to the spire; margin reflected.

                          Anostoma depressa.
                          Anostoma globulosa.

_A. depressa._ The depressed Anostoma.

Sub-globular, depressed and sub-carinated in its circumference, not
umbilicated; aperture round, the margin continued by a callosity,
toothed, thickened, and turned towards the back of the shell.

_A. globulosa._ The globular Anostoma.

Globose, with two small punctures, one on each side of the lip; slightly
carinated, smooth, and white; margin reflected.


                       4. Helicina. Four species.

A terrestrial shell, distinguished from the Helix by its transverse
callous columella; depressed and diminished in thickness at the lower
part.

Shell sub-globular or conoid, spire low, a little depressed; aperture
semi-ovate, modified by the last turn of the spire; the edge of the
aperture sharp or a little reflected in a roll, the left edge enlarged
at its base in a large callosity, which entirely covers the umbilicus
and joins obliquely with the columella, which is twisted and a little
projecting; the operculum horny, complete, sometimes calcareous
externally.

                          Helicina Neritella.
                          H. striata.
                          H. fasciata.
                          H. viridis.

_H. Neritella._ The Nerite-shaped Helicina. Pl. 19, fig. 4.

Species yellowish white, finely striated, the edge reflected in a roll.

_H. striata._ The striated Helicina.

Globular, striated, the right edge sharp, but reflected; the umbilical
callosity rather thick, the operculum calcareous and solidified by a
marginal roll and a vertical crosspiece.


                     5. Pupa. Twenty-seven species.

These shells are generally very small, some not more than an eighth of
an inch in length; chiefly terrestrial.

Shell cylindrical, elongated, or sub-globular, ordinarily ventricose:
summit obtuse; the turns of the spire numerous, almost equal; aperture
round or oval, with margins almost equal, expanded, reflected; one or
two plaits on the columellar edge, and several teeth, varying in number
on the right margin.

                            Pupa mumia.
                            P. uva.
                            P. sulcata.
                            P. candida.
                            P. labrosa.
                            P. fusus.
                            P. tridentata.
                            P. fasciolata.
                            P. quadridens.
                            P. polyodon.
                            P. variabilis.
                            P. frumentum.
                            P. secalis.
                            P. zebra.
                            P. unicarinata.
                            P. maculosa.
                            P. clavulata.
                            P. ovularis.
                            P. Germanica.
                            P. cinerea.
                            P. tridens.
                            P. avena.
                            P. granum.
                            P. fragilis.
                            P. dolium.
                            P. umbilicata.
                            P. muscorum.

_P. Lyonetiana._ Lyonet’s Pupa. Pl. 18, fig. 5.

Species cylindrical, obtuse, aperture compressed and distorted by the
last whorl in its adult state making suddenly a gibbous inflection to
the left.

_P. muscorum._ The moss Pupa.

Species very small, oval or more or less spherical, obtuse, light
brownish colour; aperture large, with one tooth; volutions convex; outer
lip white and reflected.

_P. mumia._ The double-toothed Pupa. Pl. 19, fig. 2.

Species cylindrical, obtuse at both ends, aperture semi-ovate, with two
teeth.


                     6. Clausilia. Twelve species.

Remarkable for having the termination of the lower whorl quite detached
from the base of the shell.

Shell cylindrical, elongated, a little ventricose in the middle,
generally fusiform, summit obtuse, the last turn smaller than the
preceding; aperture small, irregular, oval; at least one plait,
posterior to the columella, increasing with age so as to be separated,
and forming at the posterior angle of the aperture a rounded sinus.

                         Clausilia torticollis.
                         C. truncatula.
                         C. retusa.
                         C. costulata.
                         C. corrugata.
                         C. inflata.
                         C. teres.
                         C. denticulata.
                         C. collaris.
                         C. papillaris.
                         C. plicatula.
                         C. rugosa.

_C. lævis._ The smooth Clausilia. Pl. 19, fig. 3.

A regular type of this genus.

_C. papillaris._ The pimpled Clausilia.

Pellucid, finely striped longitudinally, the margins of the volutions
papillose; aperture with two plaits; brownish colour.


                    7. Bulimus. Thirty-four species.

The shells of this beautiful genus are all terrestrial, and differ from
the Helix and Bulla of Linnæus in never being of an orbicular shape. The
animals inhabiting them are said to be oviparous, and have eggs nearly
as large as those of a pigeon.

Shell oval, oblong, sometimes sub-turriculated; the summit of the spire
obtuse, and the last turn much greater than all the others taken
together; aperture oblong oval, the edge disunited; the right reflected
outward in adults; the columella smooth, with an inflection in the
middle, at the point of junction of the columella with the mouth of the
aperture which it forms.

                          Bulimus ovatus.
                          B. hæmastomus.
                          B. gallina sultana.
                          B. zigzag.
                          B. undatus.
                          B. ovoideus.
                          B. interruptus.
                          B. Peruvianus.
                          B. Favannii.
                          B. Kambeul.
                          B. calcareus.
                          B. decollatus.
                          B. Lyonetianus.
                          B. inflatus.
                          B. radiatus.
                          B. fragilis.
                          B. Guadaloupensis.
                          B. Richii.
                          B. inversus.
                          B. citrinus.
                          B. sultanus.
                          B. Pythogaster.
                          B. Mexicanus.
                          B. multifasciatus.
                          B. Bengalensis.
                          B. Caribæorum.
                          B. octonus.
                          B. terebraster.
                          B. articulatus.
                          B. acutus.
                          B. ventricosus.
                          B. montanus.
                          B. hordeaceus.
                          B. lubricus.

_B. montanus._ The mountain Bulimus.

Ovate oblong, umbilicated, slightly striated longitudinally, with
several convex volutions; aperture semi-oval; brownish colour; outer lip
white and reflected.

_B. hæmastomus._ The rose-lipped Bulimus.

Species oval or of ordinary form.

_B. ventricosus._ The ventricose Bulimus.

Species ventricose, from which circumstance it derived its name.

_B. radiatus._ The radiated Bulimus. Pl. 19, fig. 7.

Species turriculated.

_B. citrinus._ The citron Bulimus.

Species sinistral.

_B. multifasciatus._ The many-banded Bulimus.

Species slightly umbilicated.


                      8. Achatina. Twenty species.

This likewise is an elegant genus of shells, classed by Linnæus with the
Bulla. They are the largest land-shells known, and greatly resemble the
Bulimus, but never have their lips reflected or thickened. Sometimes the
last whorl is compressed and attenuated at the base, and sometimes
ventricose and not compressed.

Shell in form very variable, but generally sub-turriculated, ventricose,
striated longitudinally; the summit papillose; aperture a little
variable, but never thickened or reflected; the right edge always acute,
the columellar margin rather strongly hollowed, entirely formed by the
columella, of which the anterior extremity is constantly open and
truncated.

                           Achatina perdix.
                           A. zebra.
                           A. acuta.
                           A. bicarinata.
                           A. Mauritiana.
                           A. castanea.
                           A. glans.
                           A. Peruviana.
                           A. albo-lineata.
                           A. fusco-lineata.
                           A. immaculata.
                           A. purpurea.
                           A. ustulata.
                           A. vexillum.
                           A. Virginea.
                           A. Priamus.
                           A. fulminea.
                           A. columnaria.
                           A. folliculus.
                           A. acicula.

_A. Virginea._ The Virginian Achatina.

Smooth, conoid, with aperture almost round; very short, grayish white,
with red and black transverse bands; columella rose-coloured, with one
plait; volutions ventricose; inside of the lips bluish; a transverse
callosity in the interior.

_A. zebra._ The zebra Achatina. Pl. 18, fig. 1.

Species thin, oval, sub-ventricose, spire prominent, striped like a
zebra.

_A. glans._ The acorn Achatina. Pl. 18, fig. 2.

Species sub-turriculated, of which the last whorl is attenuated
anteriorly.

_A. columnaris._ The columnar Achatina. Pl. 18, fig. 3.

Species evidently turriculated.


                      9. Succinea. Three species.

A terrestrial shell, though the animal that inhabits it is almost
amphibious; it greatly resembles the Bulimus, but is easily
distinguished by never having the lip reflected or thickened.

Shell very thin, translucid, ovate-oblong, with a conical-pointed spire
formed of a small number of whorls; aperture very large, oval, oblique;
the edges disunited; the right always acute, the left acute and arched,
formed by the columella.

                          Succinea cucullata.
                          S. amphibia.
                          S. oblonga.

_S. amphibia._ The amphibious Succinea. Pl. 24, fig. 4.

Species elongated, very thin and pellucid; spire short; aperture
expanding; amber colour.


                    10. Auricula. Fourteen species.

This genus was so called from the resemblance which the aperture bears
to the shape of an ear; many of the species are named from their
resemblance to the ears of particular quadrupeds. It is a land-shell,
found chiefly in the East and West India Islands.

Shell thick, solid, more or less smooth, oval, oblong, spire short and
obtuse; aperture entire, oblong, enlarged, ear-shaped, much contracted
behind; edges disunited; right lip sometimes thick and outwardly
reflected; the left or columella with one or more teeth or thick callous
plaits.

                             Auricula Midæ.
                             A. Judæ.
                             A. Sileni.
                             A. leporis.
                             A. felis.
                             A. Dombeiana.
                             A. coniformis.
                             A. scarabæus.
                             A. bovina.
                             A. caprella.
                             A. myosotis.
                             A. minima.
                             A. nitens.
                             A. monile.

_A. Judæ._ Judas’s Ear. Pl. 19, fig. 6.

Species thick, oblong, conical, with minute decussated striæ and
granulations; light brown; two plaits on the columella; right outwardly
reflected.

_A. scarabæus._ The Beetle’s Ear.

Species of which the columella has three plaits, and the whole internal
side of the right edge denticulated.

_A. myosotis._ The dwarf Auricula.

Species minute, with two plaits on the columella, and one tooth behind.

_A. Sileni._ Silenus’s Ear.

Species very small, without plaits or teeth.


                 11. Cyclostoma. Twenty-eight species.

A terrestrial shell, varying considerably in form, but distinguished by
a round aperture, reflected lip, and horny operculum.

Shell more or less elevated, volutions rounded, summit papillose;
aperture round, the edges united circularly and reflected; the left
having its origin very detached from the spire.

Operculum calcareous, complete, not spiral; summit sub-central.

                         Cyclostoma planorbula.
                         C. volvulus.
                         C. carinata.
                         C. sulcata.
                         C. unicarinata.
                         C. tricarinata.
                         C. obsoleta.
                         C. rugosa.
                         C. labeo.
                         C. interrupta.
                         C. ambigua.
                         C. semilabris.
                         C. flavula.
                         C. patulum.
                         C. fasciata.
                         C. mumia.
                         C. quaternata.
                         C. ferruginea.
                         C. decussata.
                         C. lineolata.
                         C. mamillaris.
                         C. ligata.
                         C. lincinella.
                         C. orbella.
                         C. fimbriata.
                         C. multilabris.
                         C. elegans.
                         C. truncatulum.

_C. elegans._ The elegant Cyclostoma. Pl. 19, fig. 5.

Species with spire slightly elevated, ovate, conical, umbilicated;
volutions convex; finely striated transversely.

_C. fasciata._ The banded Cyclostoma.

Species with spire very elevated.

_C. Planorbula._ The Planorbis-shaped Cyclostoma.

Species with spire very depressed.


                              FAMILY VIII.
                        LYMNÆCEA. Three genera.


                     1. Planorbis. Twelve species.

Taken from the Helix of Linnæus to distinguish the aquatic from the
terrestrial shells. This genus is found in fresh water, and has no
operculum.

Shell thin, often sinistral, discoid, or involuted almost in the same
vertical plane; the spire not projecting and entirely lateral, so that
the shell is hollowed or depressed on each side; aperture small,
transverse, with edges sharp, not reflected, disunited by the last whorl
of the spire which modifies it; sometimes carinated.

                        Planorbis cornu-arietis.
                        P. corneus.
                        P. carinatus.
                        P. lutescens.
                        P. orientalis.
                        P. spirorbis.
                        P. vortex.
                        P. deformis.
                        P. contortus.
                        P. hispidus.
                        P. nitidus.
                        P. imbricatus.

_P. carinatus._ The keeled Planorbis.

Species with a keel; depressed, upper side concave.

_P. corneus._ The horny Planorbis. Pl. 20, fig. 4.

Species without a keel.


                        2. Physa. Four species.

This genus is generally heterostrophe (that is, with whorls turned to
the left hand); found in fresh water; it greatly resembles the Lymnæa,
but has not a widened aperture.

Shell often sinistral, oval, oblong, or globular, perfectly smooth;
aperture oval, contracted posteriorly; the right edge sharp, advanced
above the plane of the left edge; columella twisting obliquely, and
enlarging to join itself to the anterior part of the columellar margin.

                            Physa castanea.
                            P. fontinalis.
                            P. hypnorum.
                            P. subopaca.

_P. fontinalis._ The fountain Physa. Pl. 20, fig. 2.

Volutions reversed, oval, ventricose, pellucid, horn-coloured; spire
short and acute.


                       3. Lymnæa. Eleven species.

Shell aquatic, oval, turreted or conical, thin, smooth, spire pointed;
aperture oval, entire; edges disunited, the left with a very oblique
plait at the point of junction of the columella with the rest of the
margin.

                           Lymnæa stagnalis.
                           L. palustris.
                           L. Virginiana.
                           L. luteola.
                           L. acuminata.
                           L. auricularia.
                           L. ovata.
                           L. peregra.
                           L. intermedia.
                           L. leucostoma.
                           L. minuta.

_L. stagnalis._ The pond Lymnæa. Pl. 20, fig. 1.

Ovate, ventricose; spire subulate and very acute; aperture large and
ovate; horn coloured.

_L. leucostoma._ The shining Lymnæa.

Species sub-turreted, with the right edge thickened.


                               FAMILY IX.
                        MELANIDES. Three genera.


                      1. Melania. Sixteen species.

Likewise taken from the Helix of Linnæus.

Shell fluviatile, covered with epidermis, oval, oblong; spire slightly
pointed, more or less turreted; the margin of the whorls often
surmounted by spires; aperture oval, entire; columella smooth and
arched; closed by a thin, horny, complete operculum.

                           Melania asperata.
                           M. truncata.
                           M. coarctata.
                           M. punctata.
                           M. corrugata.
                           M. subulata.
                           M. lævigata.
                           M. clavus.
                           M. decollata.
                           M. amarula.
                           M. thiarella.
                           M. spinulosa.
                           M. granifera.
                           M. carinifera.
                           M. truncatula.
                           M. fasciolata.

_M. amarula._ The crowned Melania. Pl. 20, fig. 3.

Covered with a black epidermis, under which the colour is deep chestnut;
ovate oblong, with the whorls transversely keeled and coronated with
triangular tubercles, from which emanate ciliated spines.


                     2. Melanopsis. Three species.

The shells of this genus are fluviatile, and distinguished from the
Melania by having the upper part of the columella callous.

Shell oval or slightly sub-turriculated; aperture oval, without trace of
tube, but hollowed anteriorly, without a posterior sinus; the columellar
edge callous and rather deeply excavated; operculum horny, sub-spiral,
rather complete.

                        Melanopsis Buccinoides.
                        M. costata.
                        M. lævigata.

_M. Buccinoides._ The Buccinum-shaped Melanopsis. Pl. 20, fig. 6.

Species turriculated; colour bluish white, clouded with purple; spiral
whorls dentated.

_M. costata._ The ribbed Melanopsis.

Species sub-turriculated and ribbed.

_M. lævigata._ The polished Melanopsis.

Species ovate, smooth, chestnut colour.


                        3. Pirena. Four species.

This shell resembles the Melania, but is easily distinguished by having
a sinus at the base and another at the summit.

Shell turreted, aperture oblong, closed by a horny operculum; right lip
sharp, with a distinct sinus at the base and another at the summit; base
of the columella inclined towards the right.

                           Pirena terebralis.
                           P. spinosa.
                           P. aurita.
                           P. granulosa.

_P. terebralis._ The wimble Pirena.

Subulate, longitudinally striated, covered with a dark-brown epidermis;
aperture white, outer lip expanded.


                               FAMILY X.
                      PERISTOMIDES. Three genera.


                        1. Valvata. One species.

This genus contains shells found in fresh water. Shell sub-discoid or
conoid, umbilicated, spiral whorls rounded; summit papillose; aperture
round, not modified by the last whorl; the edges completely united,
sharp; operculum complete, horny, and orbicular.

_V. piscinalis._ The Pond Valvata. Pl. 20, fig. 5.

Small, globular, conoid, deeply umbilicated; summit obtuse; wrinkled
longitudinally, covered with a yellowish epidermis.


                      2. Paludina. Seven species.

Generally inhabits fresh water, though some have been found where it is
quite saline.

Shell conoid, covered with epidermis, spiral whorls rounded; rather
longer than broad, edges united, always sharp; the commencement of the
left edge immediately attached to the last whorl of the spire; operculum
horny, complete, or marginal, not spiral, with concentral elements.

                           Paludina vivipara.
                           P. achatina.
                           P. Bengalensis.
                           P. unicolor.
                           P. impura.
                           P. muriatica.
                           P. viridis.

_P. vivipara._ The viviparous Paludina. Pl. 21, fig. 1.

Thin, ovate, ventricose, wrinkled longitudinally; body with three brown
bands: covered with a greenish epidermis; aperture almost round.


                     3. Ampullaria. Eleven species.

This genus is evidently intermediary to the Paludina and the Natica. Its
species are probably all fluviatile; some attain a great size.

Shell thin, globular, ventricose; umbilicus small, forming a compressed
funnel-shaped aperture, without interior callosity; spire very short,
the last whorl much larger than all the others together; aperture ovate,
longer than broad, with margins united; right margin smooth and sharp;
columellar lip thickened, projecting, and reflected over the umbilicus;
operculum horny, rarely calcareous, thin, oval, not spiral, with
concentric elements; summit sub-marginal, inferior, passing obliquely by
the right edge of the aperture, but attached to the left.

                         Ampullaria Guyanensis.
                         A. rugosa.
                         A. fasciata.
                         A. canaliculata.
                         A. effusa.
                         A. Guinaica.
                         A. virens.
                         A. carinata.
                         A. avellana.
                         A. intorta.
                         A. fragilis.

_A. Guyanensis._ The Guiana Ampullaria.

Globular, thick, with unequal longitudinal striæ; covered with brown
epidermis; inside golden colour.

_A. rugosa._ The rough Ampullaria. Pl. 21, fig. 3.

Species dextral.

_A. Guinaica._ The Guinea Ampullaria.

Species sinistral.

_A. carinata._ The carinated Ampullaria.

Species sinistral, with a very large umbilicus, spirally carinated.


                               FAMILY XI.
                        NERITACEA. Five genera.


                    1. Neritina. Twenty-one species.

Formerly classed with the Nerita, but separated from it because the
Nerita is a marine shell, and those of this genus are fluviatile.

They are generally thin, smooth, or very finely striated; the right side
of the aperture is not crenulated or dentated, and the animal dissolves
the interior of the spire.

Shell thin, ovate, not umbilicated; aperture semilunar; inner lip
reflected on the columella, and sometimes crenated; outer lip without
teeth internally; operculum with a lateral tooth.

                           Neritina perversa.
                           N. pulligera.
                           N. dubia.
                           N. zebra.
                           N. zigzag.
                           N. gagates.
                           N. lugubris.
                           N. corona.
                           N. brevispina.
                           N. crepidularia.
                           N. auriculata.
                           N. Domingensis.
                           N. fasciata.
                           N. lineolata.
                           N. semi-conica.
                           N. strigilata.
                           N. meleagris.
                           N. Virginea.
                           N. fluviatilis.
                           N. viridis.
                           N. Bætica.

_N. fluviatilis._ The fresh-water Neritina.

Shell very small, oval; back convex, smooth, white, with black or brown
spots; spire inclined, lateral lip slightly denticulated; right edge
sharp, operculum very oblique.

_N. zebra._ The zebra or striped Neritina. Pl. 21, fig. 2.

Same as N. fluviatilis, but striped instead of spotted.

_N. corona._ The crown Neritina. Pl. 21, fig. 4.

Species provided with long spines, and with the columellar edge
denticulated.

_N. auriculata._ The eared Neritina.

Species with the columellar edge denticulated; the two extremities of
the right edge extending beyond the aperture, and forming with the
callosity, which is reflected over the columella, a kind or ear,
produced by the tentacular lobe of the animal.

_N. perversa._ The perverse Neritina.

Species shaped like a Calyptræa, with the superior summit vertical,
spiral; the last whorl forming all the base of the shell.


                      2. Navicella. Three species.

A fresh-water shell, closely allied to the Neritina; it generally has
the appearance of porcelain.

Shell ovate oblong, covered with epidermis, shaped like a Patella,
summit not spiral, but straight, turned quite to the base, and concave
beneath; no columella; the columellar edge replaced by a kind of sharp
partition, which covers part of the aperture, with a sinus at its left
extremity; muscular impression shaped like a horseshoe, open in front
and interrupted behind; thin, calcareous operculum, with a subulate,
lateral tooth adhering to the posterior margin; the other edges sharp.

                          Navicella elliptica.
                          N. lineata.
                          N. tessellata.

_N. elliptica._ The oval Navicella.

Shell covered with olive epidermis, under which it is smooth, shining,
spotted and streaked with purple, blue, or brown; spire curved,
prominent, extending beyond the margin.


             3. Nerita. The Hoof Shell. Seventeen species.

A marine shell, never spined, but variously striated. Some species of
this genus are very beautiful; they are frequently worn as ornaments by
the Indians.

Shell solid, thick, more or less globular, flat beneath, spire but
little, if at all, projecting, not umbilicated; aperture large,
semilunar, very entire; the external margin very much hollowed; the
internal or columellar straight, sharp, and shaped like a partition,
often dentated; operculum horny or calcareous, sub-spiral; the summit
entirely marginal at its extremity, implanted by teeth more or less
marked, and sunk in the columellar margin, on which it seems
articulated.

                            Nerita exuvia.
                            N. textilis.
                            N. undata.
                            N. peloronta.
                            N. chlorostoma.
                            N. atrata.
                            N. polita.
                            N. albicilla.
                            N. chamæleon.
                            N. versicolor.
                            N. Ascensionis.
                            N. Malaccensis.
                            N. lineata.
                            N. scabricosta.
                            N. plicata.
                            N. tessellata.
                            N. signata.

_N. peloronta._ The bleeding-tooth Nerita. Pl. 21, fig. 5.

Thick, transversely sulcated; inner lip with two crenulations, with a
bloody mark at their base; under lip with two notches near its internal
upper edge; colour yellowish, tinged with red, with variously coloured
bands.

_N. exuvia._ The exuvia Nerita.

Species with the inner lip toothed and tuberculated.

_N. polita._ The smooth Nerita.

Species with both lips toothed; beautifully distinguished by having
three or four bright crimson bands, on a dark mottled ground, running in
a parallel direction with the convolutions of the shell. A favourite
Indian ornament.


                     4. Natica. Thirty-one species.

A marine shell, formerly classed with the Nerita, but distinguished by
being without teeth, and having an umbilicus modified by the callosity.

Shell smooth, rather thin, and not covered with epidermis; the spire
evident, though low, umbilicated; the columellar edge not toothed, more
or less callous, modifying the umbilicus; the right edge thin and not
toothed interiorly; operculum calcareous or horny and smooth,
semi-spiral, with concentric ribs fitting into a slight groove on the
columella.

                           Natica glaucina.
                           N. albumen.
                           N. mamillaris.
                           N. mamilla.
                           N. ampullaria.
                           N. canrena.
                           N. cruentata.
                           N. millepunctata.
                           N. vitellus.
                           N. helvacea.
                           N. collaria.
                           N. monilifera.
                           N. labrella.
                           N. rufa.
                           N. uni-fasciata.
                           N. melanostoma.
                           N. aurantia.
                           N. conica.
                           N. plumbea.
                           N. lineata.
                           N. fulminea.
                           N. maculosa.
                           N. vittata.
                           N. castanea.
                           N. Marochiensis.
                           N. arachnoidea.
                           N. zebra.
                           N. zonaria.
                           N. Chinensis.
                           N. Javanica.
                           N. cancellata.

_N. canrena._ The Canrena Natica.

Sub-globular, smooth, umbilicus deep, bordered anteriorly by a kind of
callous column; spire a little prominent; exterior fawn coloured, with
bands and rays of reddish brown; interior white; operculum calcareous.

_N. castanea._ The chestnut Natica. Pl. 21, fig. 6.

Species with the umbilicus uncovered, and the operculum horny.

_N. mamilla._ The nipple Natica.

Species with the umbilicus entirely covered over by a large callosity;
the spire papillose, and the operculum horny.


                       5. Janthina. Two species.

Formerly classed with the Helix, which it somewhat resembles in form,
but properly separated, as it differs in every other respect.

It is a singular marine shell, often found in great numbers floating on
the surface of the sea, suspended by a vesicular appendage, which stains
the hand of a purple colour.

Shell sub-globular, ventricose, extremely thin and fragile; transparent,
of a beautiful violet colour; the spire low, lateral, pointed, with
sub-carinated whorls; aperture large, sub-angular, greatly modified by
the last whorl of the spire; edges disunited, the left entirely formed
by the columella, which is straight and continued beyond the base, the
right edge sharp, often with a sinus in the middle.

                           Janthina communis.
                           Janthina exigua.

_J. communis._ The common Janthina. Pl. 18, fig. 6.

Very fragile, aperture triangular, with a small notch on the margin of
the outer lip; beautiful violet colour.


                              FAMILY XII.
                      MACROSTOMIDES. Four genera.


                      1. Sigaretus. Four species.

Distinguished from the Natica by the great width of the aperture, and
its short spiral columella.

Shell oval, more or less thick, very depressed, spiral short, little
elevated, lateral; aperture very extended, entire, the left edge
reflected and sharp; two lateral muscular impressions very disunited.

                        Sigaretus Haliotoideus.
                        S. convexus.
                        S. lævigatus.
                        S. cancellatus.

_S. convexus._ The convex Sigaretus. Pl. 22, fig. 2.

Very thin, smooth, back convex, spire white, rather prominent; aperture
very expanded; umbilicus rather deep; yellow, with a reddish tinge,
transversely striated.

_S. Haliotoideus._ The Haliotis-shaped Sigaretus.

Species thick, solid, depressed; spire flattish, aperture exposing the
whole of the interior.


                      2. Stomatella. Five species.

To be easily distinguished from the Stomatia by not having a transversal
rib.

Shell very depressed, orbicular or oblong; imperforate; interior pearly;
aperture very large, oval, longer than wide; the right edge effuse,
dilated, and open; summit pointed and incurved.

                         Stomatella imbricata.
                         S. rubra.
                         S. sulcifera.
                         S. auricula.
                         S. planulata.

_S. imbricata._ The imbricated Stomatella. Pl. 22, fig. 1.

Sub-orbicular, convex, sub-depressed, rough, covered with imbricated
scales; colour grayish brown.

_S. auricula._ The ear-shaped Stomatella.

Species oval, elongated.


                       3. Stomatia. Two species.

Bearing a very great resemblance to the Haliotis, but is never
perforated.

Shell ear-shaped, imperforate; oblong, spire elevated and recurved to
one side; aperture entire, oblong; interior pearly; tuberculated, and
with a transverse sub-carinated rib.

_S. phymotis._ The tumoured Stomatia. Pl. 22, fig. 6.

Elongated oval, striated, tuberculated; spire small, contorted; lip thin
and sharp, colour white, interior pearly.


              4. Haliotis. The Ear Shell. Fifteen species.

This genus is very beautiful, and derived its common name from its
resemblance to the human ear. The exterior is generally tuberculated and
loaded with marine substances, which gives it a rough and uncouth
appearance, but the interior forms a splendid contrast by its natural
iridescence. Each shell is furnished with a row of orifices near the
margin, varying in number from eight upward; of these from three to
seven are generally open, and the others close. These holes are made by
the animal as it increases the size of the shell, to admit the passage
of a short syphon.

They are found adhering to rocks like the Patella, and are detached with
great difficulty.

Shell ear-shaped, pearly, recurving, very depressed, more or less oval,
with spire very small, very low, almost posterior and lateral; aperture
as large as the shell, with margins continued; the right thin and sharp,
the left flat, enlarged, and sharp; a series of holes, complete or
incomplete, parallel to the left margin; one large oval muscular
impression.

                            Haliotis Midæ.
                            H. iris.
                            H. tubifera.
                            H. excavata.
                            H. Australis.
                            H. tuberculata.
                            H. striata.
                            H. asinina.
                            H. glabra.
                            H. lamellosa.
                            H. unilateralis.
                            H. rugosa.
                            H. canaliculata.
                            H. tricostalis.
                            H. dubia.

_H. asinina._ The asinine Haliotis.

Internal margin very broad, inside pearly, smooth, shining, iridescent,
reflecting green, pink, and orange; back clouded with brown and green;
striated longitudinally.

_H. costata._ The ribbed Haliotis. Pl. 22, fig. 4, interior. Pl. 32,
fig. 6, exterior.

Species with disk rounded anteriorly.

_H. canaliculata._ The channelled Haliotis.

Species with disk elevated by a large parallel rib, hollowed interiorly,
and with the anterior margin more or less irregular.

_H. tuberculata._ The tuberculated Haliotis.

Aperture open the whole length of the shell; outer lip irregular,
exterior reddish brown, striated longitudinally and wrinkled
transversely, with a few raised tubercles; interior pearly, reflecting
the most beautiful shades of pink, blue, green, and yellow.


                              FAMILY XIII.
                         PLICACEA. Two genera.


                      1. Tornatella. Six species.

Shell thick, oval, convolute, the spire very short; the last whorl much
larger than all the others united; the external thin, sharp, dentated
interiorly; one or two large plaits on the columella, of which one
serves to separate the two parts of the foot.

                          Tornatella flammea.
                          T. solidula.
                          T. fasciata.
                          T. auricula.
                          T. nitidula.
                          T. pedipes.

_T. fasciata._ The banded Tornatella.

Spire produced, apex acute, aperture straightened, with one plait on the
columella; finely striated transversely, with two white transverse
bands; colour purplish red.

_T. coniformis._ The cone-shaped Tornatella. Pl. 22, fig. 3.

Species like a cone; the spire entirely flat.


                     2. Pyramidella. Five species.

Shell smooth, not covered with epidermis, conical, elongated or
sub-turriculated; aperture semi-oval, entire; the outer lip sharp,
dentated interiorly, plaited, enlarged over the umbilicus, which it
leaves more or less exposed.

                        Pyramidella terebellum.
                        P. dolabrata.
                        P. plicata.
                        P. corrugata.
                        P. maculosa.

_P. dolabrata._ The dentated Pyramidella. Pl. 22, fig. 5.

Answers to the above description; when placed on its base, it falls on
one side.

_P. terebellum._ The wimble Pyramidella.

Smooth, glossy, white, with reddish-brown bands; columella recurved;
inside of the lip smooth.


                              FAMILY XIV.
                       SCALARIDES. Three genera.


                       1. Vermetus. One species.

Resembling in appearance the shell of a Serpula; but the organization of
the animal caused this to be made a distinct genus.

Its shells are usually found grouped together or intertwined with each
other, and are very remarkable for being attached to marine bodies by
the attenuated and pointed extremity of the spire.

Shell conical, tubular, thin, involute spirally, more or less close,
with whorls almost completely disunited; free or adherent by
intertwining; aperture straight, circular, with edges sharp and
complete; several partitions not perforated towards the summit;
operculum horny and complete.

_V. lumbricales._ The wormlike Vermetus. Pl. 23, fig. 3.

A flexuous shell, with a spiral, acute tip, very much resembling a
corkscrew; colour reddish brown, sometimes clouded with a darker shade.


                      2. Scalaria. Seven species.

A marine shell, with a circular aperture like the Cyclostoma, but easily
distinguished by its turreted form; longitudinal, elevated ribs, never
connected together, rather oblique, and sharp; the shape of the shell is
elegant, being a spiral cone, formed by gibbous whorls, unconnected by a
columella, gradually increasing from the apex to the base. The colour is
generally yellowish or brownish white. When perfect and of good size,
they are of great value and highly prized.

Shell sub-turreted, the whorls of the spire more or less pressed and
garnished with interrupted longitudinal ribs, formed by the successive
preservation of the reflected margin of the aperture, which is small,
perfectly round, with edges united, thickened, and outwardly reflected;
operculum horny and thin.

                           Scalaria pretiosa.
                           S. lamellosa.
                           S. coronata.
                           S. varicosa.
                           S. communis.
                           S. Australis.
                           S. raricosta.

_S. pretiosa._ The precious Scalaria, more commonly called the Wentle
Trap, or Winding Staircase. Pl. 23, fig. 1.

This shell has its spiral whorls separate, and appears like an
attenuated tube evolved round a cone; spire detached, with a deep
umbilicus; volutions connected by longitudinal ribs; body extremely
ventricose; colour cream yellow.

_S. communis._ The common Scalaria, or false Wentle Trap.

More taper and elongated than the S. pretiosa. It has no umbilicus, and
the whorls are closely united.


                     3. Delphinula. Three species.

A marine shell, which, like the Scalaria, has a round aperture, but its
solidity and pearly substance distinguishes it from the Cyclostoma,
which is terrestrial.

Shell thick, pearly in the interior, sub-discoid or conical; the spiral
whorls sometimes detached, rounded, spiny, with a large umbilicus;
aperture round or multrigonal, not modified; edges perfectly united with
a small spire, tuberculated exteriorly.

                         Delphinula laciniata.
                         D. distorta.
                         D. turbinopsis.

_D. laciniata._ The fringed Delphinula. Pl. 23, fig. 5.

Shell depressed, umbilicus large, surrounded by large vaulted scales in
spiral rows; strong waved spiral striæ; colour reddish purple,
variegated with white.


                               FAMILY XV.
                       TURBINACEA. Seven genera.


                      1. Solarium. Seven species.

Some shells of this genus are highly valued for their beauty and rarity.

Shell orbicular, involuted almost in the same plane; Planorbis-shaped;
the spire of the right side very depressed; umbilicus large and conical,
with edges denticulated or not at the entrance; aperture not modified by
the last whorl of the spire, which is entirely flat; no columella.

                         Solarium perspectivum.
                         S. granulatum.
                         S. lævigatum.
                         S. stramineum.
                         S. hybridum.
                         S. variegatum.
                         S. luteum.

_S. perspectivum._ The perspective Solarium. Pl. 23, fig. 4.

Species very carinated in their circumference; the aperture square;
umbilicus large and crenated; colour yellowish, with brown and white
bands on the sutures of the volutions.

_S. variegatum._ The variegated Solarium.

Species sub-carinated, aperture sub-orbicular.


             2. Trochus. The Top Shell. Sixty-nine species.

This genus derived its name from its resemblance to a top.

The shells are marine, found in almost all parts of the world; some are
smooth, but the greater number are covered, with knobs, spines,
tuberculations, or undulations.

The long spines on the margin of the T. Solaris are placed at regular
distances, and resemble the rays of the sun. Many, when decorticated,
look like mother-of-pearl; others have a splendid metallic lustre. The
T. agglutinans possesses the faculty of covering itself with extraneous
substances, such as stones, corals, fragments of shells, &c. Of this
species there are two kinds, which, though conchologically known only by
one name, are familiarly known by two; the Conchologist and the
Mineralogist; the former so called from being loaded with shells, and
the latter with stones, &c. Sometimes the Conchologist is loaded with
corals only, and then is called the Zoologist.

Shell thick, generally pearly, shaped like a top, spire sometimes
depressed, sometimes elevated and pointed at the summit, sharp or
carinated at its circumference, umbilicated or not; aperture depressed,
angular or sub-angular, sometimes heart-shaped, with edges disunited;
the right sharp; the columella arched, twisted, and often projecting
forward; operculum horny, thin, with numerous spiral whorls, narrow, and
increasing a little from the centre to the circumference.

                          Trochus imperialis.
                          T. longispina.
                          T. solaris.
                          T. Indicus.
                          T. radians.
                          T. pileus.
                          T. calyptræformis.
                          T. fimbriatus.
                          T. brevispina.
                          T. rotularius.
                          T. stella.
                          T. stellaris.
                          T. niloticus.
                          T. pyramidalis.
                          T. noduliferus.
                          T. cærulescens.
                          T. obeliscus.
                          T. virgatus.
                          T. asperatus.
                          T. rhodostomus.
                          T. spinulosus.
                          T. costulatus.
                          T. inermis.
                          T. agglutinans.
                          T. cælatus.
                          T. tuber.
                          T. magus.
                          T. merula.
                          T. argyrostomus.
                          T. Cookii.
                          T. conuloides.
                          T. conulus.
                          T. jujubinus.
                          T. Javanicus.
                          T. annulatus.
                          T. doliarius.
                          T. maculatus.
                          T. granosus.
                          T. squarrosus.
                          T. incrassatus.
                          T. flammulatus.
                          T. elatus.
                          T. marmoratus.
                          T. Mauritianus.
                          T. imbricatus.
                          T. triserialis.
                          T. crenulatus.
                          T. asperulus.
                          T. acutus.
                          T. concavus.
                          T. lineatus.
                          T. zizyphinus.
                          T. granulatus.
                          T. granatum.
                          T. moniliferus.
                          T. iris.
                          T. ornatus.
                          T. bicingulatus.
                          T. calliferus.
                          T. umbilicaris.
                          T. undatus.
                          T. Pharaonis.
                          T. sagittiferus.
                          T. carneolus.
                          T. cinerarius.
                          T. excavatus.
                          T. nanus.
                          T. pyramidatus.
                          T. erythroleucos.

_T. imperialis._ The imperial Trochus. Pl. 23, fig. 6.

Species umbilicated, spire very depressed, sharp and radiated at their
circumference by the preservation of an angular canal from the middle of
the right margin. This species is rare and beautiful, found in
New-Zealand.

_T. zizyphinus._ The livid Trochus.

Species with strong transverse striæ; colour livid, with undulated
streaks of red or brownish carnation.

_T. agglutinans._ The agglutinating or Carrier Trochus.

Species umbilicated, with spire very depressed; the base much enlarged,
and as if excavated by the large projection of the angle of the right
edge, which advances much beyond the rounded columellar edge; generally
covered with shells, stones, or coral.

_T. niloticus._ The large marble Trochus.

Species not umbilicated, conical, with base flat and circular; the
columella twisted; the aperture very angular.

_T. obeliscus._ The obelisk Trochus.

Species not umbilicated, conic, elevated, flat and circular base; the
termination of the columella strongly twisted, but passing down by the
margin, appearing sloped by the advance of an internal longitudinal
plait.

_T. iris._ The iris Trochus.

Species not umbilicated, conic, base oblique; aperture large, slightly
angular; the columella twisted, and forming a kind of tooth at its
termination.

_T. granulatus._ The granulated Trochus.

Conic, imperforate at the base, spirally granulated and not marginated
at the edges of the volutions; body swelling out; spire tapering
abruptly; apex acute, flesh-coloured.

_T. umbilicaris._ The umbilicated Trochus.

Shell conico-convex, rather flat, rounded at the top; apex depressed,
volutions sub-marginate; striated spirally; aperture compressed and
angular; umbilicus large, extending to the apex; colour whitish.


                  3. Monodonta. Twenty-three species.

This genus occupies an intermediate space between the Trochus and the
Turbo; distinguished from the former by the aperture being more round
and slightly depressed, and from the latter by the toothlike projecting
angle which the truncated columella occasions at the base of the
aperture.

Shell ovate or conoid, aperture round and entire, with an operculum;
outer lip disunited from the body at the top; columella arched and
truncated at the base.

                          Monodonta bicolor.
                          M. pagodus.
                          M. tectum Persicum.
                          M. papillosa.
                          M. coronaria.
                          M. Egyptiaca.
                          M. carchedonius.
                          M. tectum.
                          M. labio.
                          M. Australis.
                          M. canalifera.
                          M. viridis.
                          M. fragarioides.
                          M. constricta.
                          M. modulus.
                          M. articulata.
                          M. lugubris.
                          M. punctulata.
                          M. tricarinata.
                          M. canaliculata.
                          M. Seminigra.
                          M. rosea.
                          M. lineata.

_M. coronaria._ The crowned Monodonta.

Species in which the columella greatly projects, and the spire is
entirely flat; covered with numerous small tubercles; colour white; the
columella tinged with red.

_M. labio._ The double-lipped Monodonta. Pl. 23, fig. 2.

Species sub-globular, umbilicated, spiral whorls rounded; the columella
terminated by a tooth.

_M. fragarioides._ The strawberry-shaped Monodonta.

Species more or less globular, of which the columella, almost straight,
offers but a little obstacle to its junction with the margin.


            4. Turbo. The Turban Shell. Thirty-four species.

Distinguished from the Monodonta by never having the columella truncated
at the base; and from the Trochus by being solid, with the whorls
constantly convex and never flattened. Like the Trochus, when
decorticated, the Turbo exhibits splendid pearly, gold, or silver
irridescent colours.

Shell thick, pearly in the interior; depressed, conical, or
sub-turreted; umbilicated or not, little or not carinated at its
circumference; aperture round or little depressed; the middle of the
external edge not bent, but sometimes hollowed or sloped in some part;
the edges rarely joined by a callosity; the columella arched, rarely
twisted, and not truncated at the base; operculum calcareous or horny;
the spire visible externally in the latter and interiorly in the former;
the exterior often thickened and curved.

                           Turbo marmoratus.
                           T. imperialis.
                           T. torquatus.
                           T. diaphanus.
                           T. rugosus.
                           T. coronatus.
                           T. sarmaticus.
                           T. cornutus.
                           T. argyrastomus.
                           T. Chrysostomus.
                           T. radiatus.
                           T. margaritaceus.
                           T. setosus.
                           T. Spenglerianus.
                           T. petholatus.
                           T. undulatus.
                           T. pica.
                           T. versicolor.
                           T. smaragdus.
                           T. cidaris.
                           T. crenulatus.
                           T. hippocastanum.
                           T. muricatus.
                           T. littoreus.
                           T. ustulatus.
                           T. Nicobaricus.
                           T. neritoides.
                           T. retusus.
                           T. rudis.
                           T. obtusatus.
                           T. pullus.
                           T. cærulescens.
                           T. cancellatus.
                           T. costatus.

_T. pica._ The Magpie Turbo. Pl. 24, fig. 6.

Species in which the aperture is oblique; the columella losing itself
entirely in its continuation with the margin, the umbilicus always
uncovered; colour black and white.

_T. setosus._ The bristly Turbo.

Thick, transversely and deeply sulcated, longitudinally striated; spire
short, volutions rounded, lip crenulated; inside pearly, variegated with
white, green, and brown.

_T. rugosus._ The rough Turbo.

Species of which the aperture is perfectly round in the direction of the
axis; the operculum horny.


                       5. Planaxis. Two species.

Shell marine, generally small, solid, of an oval conical form, oblong, a
little sloping in front; columella flattened and truncated anteriorly;
right margin furrowed or radiated within, and thickened by a callosity
running to its origin; operculum oval, thin, horny, and sub-spiral.

                           Planaxis sulcata.
                           Planaxis undulata.

_P. sulcata._ The furrowed Planaxis. Pl. 27, fig. 4.

Imperforate, furrowed transversely; outer lip crenulated and striated
internally; colour grayish white, spotted with black, forming oblique
longitudinal bands.


            6. Phasianella. The Pheasant Snail. Ten species.

This genus of shells is celebrated for the beauty and variety of the
colouring, disposed in such a manner as to resemble the plumage of a
pheasant.

They are marine shells, many of which are rare and valuable; they
possess a very distinctive character, that of a slightly projecting
angle running along the columella.

Shell rather thick, oval, smooth, without epidermis, spire pointed;
aperture oval, larger in front, with disunited edges; the right sharp;
the columella uniting itself a little with the left edge, and offering
interiorly a longitudinal callosity; operculum calcareous, oval, oblong,
sub-spiral, the summit at one of its extremities.

                        Phasianella bulimoides.
                        P. rubens.
                        P. variegata.
                        P. elegans.
                        P. Peruviana.
                        P. lineata.
                        P. nebulosa.
                        P. sulcata.
                        P. Mauritiana.
                        P. angulifera.

_P. picta._ The painted Phasianella. Pl. 24, fig. 2.

Species smooth, oval, glossy, volutions inflated; reddish white, with
crimson or reddish brown spots; aperture sub-ovate.


           7. Turritella. The Screw Shell. Thirteen species.

This genus is easily distinguished from all screwlike shells by a sinus
on the right margin of the aperture, not existing in any other shell of
similar form.

Shell marine, turreted, not pearly, rather thin, striated according to
the turning of the spire, which is very pointed, and has numerous
whorls; aperture rounded; the edges disunited posteriorly; the right
extremity thin, and, when perfect, having a light sinus about the
middle; operculum horny.

                         Turritella duplicata.
                         T. terebra.
                         T. imbricata.
                         T. replicata.
                         T. fuscata.
                         T. cornea.
                         T. brevialis.
                         T. bicingulata.
                         T. trisulcata.
                         T. exoleta.
                         T. carinifera.
                         T. Australis.
                         T. Virginiana.

_T. bicingulata._ The twice-girdled Turritella. Pl. 24, fig. 5.

Species that answers to the above description.

_T. terebra._ The auger Turritella.

Taper, pointed, acute transverse striæ, the intermediate spaces
prominent and acute; white, reddish, or cream coloured.


                              FAMILY XVI.
                       CANALIFERA. Eleven genera.


                   1. Cerithium. Thirty-six species.

A beautiful and numerous genus of turreted shells, with an expanded
outer lip and short beak; the greater part are marine; many are found at
the mouths of rivers, and a few in lakes, though none can properly be
called river shells. In appearance they are like an elongated pyramidal
cone, and the spire is at least two thirds the length of the shell. The
exterior is seldom smooth, but striated, tuberculated, granulated, or
spinous.

Shell more or less turreted, generally tuberculated; aperture small,
oval, oblique; the columellar edge hollowed, callous; the right edge
sharp, and dilating a little with age; operculum horny, oval, rounded,
sub-spiral, and striated.

                          Cerithium giganteum.
                          C. palustre.
                          C. sulcatum.
                          C. telescopium.
                          C. ebeninum.
                          C. erythræonense.
                          C. muricatum.
                          C. radula.
                          C. crassum.
                          C. decollatum.
                          C. nodulosum.
                          C. vulgatum.
                          C. obeliscus.
                          C. granulatum.
                          C. aluco.
                          C. echinatum.
                          C. subulatum.
                          C. heteroclites.
                          C. zonale.
                          C. semiferrugineum.
                          C. torulosum.
                          C. tuberculatum.
                          C. morus.
                          C. obtusum.
                          C. semigranosum.
                          C. asperum.
                          C. lineatum.
                          C. vertagus.
                          C. fasciatum.
                          C. ocellatum.
                          C. literatum.
                          C. atratum.
                          C. eburneum.
                          C. punctatum.
                          C. lima.
                          C. perversum.

_C. vertagus._ The curved beak Cerithium. Pl. 24, fig. 3.

Species with evidently a small canal, very short, and recurved obliquely
towards the back.

_C. aluco._ The caterpillar Cerithium.

Species with a canal much smaller, but entirely straight, and a sinus
well formed at the posterior union of the two edges.

_C. semigranosum._ The semi-granulated Cerithium.

Fusiform, turreted; apex acute; the suture with double spiral rows of
large granules; minutely striated transversely, with sulcated
granulations; colour reddish brown.


                  2. Pleurotoma. Twenty-three species.

Distinguished from the Cerithium by having a notch or slit in the right
margin.

Shell fusiform, rather rugged, spire turreted; aperture ovate, small,
terminated by a canal variable in length; the right edge sharp, more or
less notched; operculum horny.

                         Pleurotoma imperialis.
                         P. auriculifera.
                         P. muricata.
                         P. echinata.
                         P. fascialis.
                         P. bimarginata.
                         P. buccinoides.
                         P. cingulifera.
                         P. flavidula.
                         P. interrupta.
                         P. crenularis.
                         P. cincta.
                         P. unizonalis.
                         P. lineata.
                         P. spirata.
                         P. virgo.
                         P. Babylonia.
                         P. undosa.
                         P. marmorata.
                         P. tigrina.
                         P. crispa.
                         P. albina.
                         P. nodifera.

_P. Babylonia._ The Tower of Babel Pleurotoma. Pl. 24, fig. 1.

Species in which the tube is rather long, and the notch is a little
posterior to the middle of the edge.

_P. auriculifera._ The eared Pleurotoma.

Species in which the tube is short, and the notch entirely against the
spire.

_P. nodifera._ The knotty or Javanese Pleurotoma.

Species with outer lip largely notched and deeply crenulated; upper
volution smooth; under volution and body striated transversely, with
angulated oblique nodules at the suture; colour reddish yellow.


                  3. Turbinella. Twenty-three species.

By Linnæus this genus was classed with the Voluta, though they are more
closely allied to the Murex; differing, however, from them by having no
varices.

Shell generally turbinated, but sometimes turreted, rugged, and thick;
spire variable in form; aperture elongated, terminated by a straight
canal, often rather short; the left edge almost straight, and formed by
a callosity which hides the columella; the right edge entire and sharp;
the columella with two or three unequal, almost transverse plaits.

                          Turbinella scolymus.
                          T. rapa.
                          T. napus.
                          T. pyrum.
                          T. pugillaris
                          T. leucozonalis.
                          T. rustica.
                          T. cingulifera.
                          T. polygonia.
                          T. carinifera.
                          T. rhinoceros
                          T. cornigera.
                          T. ceramica.
                          T. capitellam.
                          T. mitis.
                          T. globulus.
                          T. infundibulum.
                          T. craticulata.
                          T. lineata.
                          T. nassatula.
                          T. triserialis.
                          T. variolaris.
                          T. ocellata.

_T. rapa._ The turnip Turbinella.

Species fusiform and almost smooth.

_T. scolymus._ The artichoke Turbinella.

Species turbinated and spinous.

_T. infundibulum._ The funnel-shaped Turbinella.

Species turreted and fusiform.

_T. pyrum._ The pear-shaped Turbinella.

Species with spire short, mucronate; apex mammiliform, beak long;
columella with four plaits; colour yellowish white, with irregular
reddish brown spots.


                    4. Cancellaria. Twelve species.

This genus is not given by De Blainville precisely like Lamarck, as he
has removed those that are greatly canaliculated either to the Murex or
Turbinella. They are all marine shells, and greatly approximate the
last-mentioned genus.

Shell oval, globular, ventricose, rugged; the spire middling, pointed;
aperture ovate, enlarged, grooved, and sometimes sub-canaliculated
anteriorly; the right edge effuse, concave, sharp; the left or
columellar edge almost straight, and marked in the middle by two or
three plaits; operculum horny.

                        Cancellaria reticulata.
                        C. asperella.
                        C. scalaria.
                        C. scalariformis.
                        C. nodulosa.
                        C. cancellata.
                        C. senticosa.
                        C. citharella.
                        C. spirata.
                        C. obliquata.
                        C. rugosa.
                        C. Ziervogeliana.

_C. reticulata._ The reticulated Cancellaria. Pl. 25, fig. 5.

Oval, strong, ventricose; columella with three plaits; distant, coarse,
reticulated striæ; sometimes with yellow or orange bands; aperture
white.


                     5. Fasciolaria. Eight species.

This genus was separated by Lamarck from the Murex of Linnæus on account
of having no varices.

Shell fusiform or sub-fusiform; aperture middling, elongated, almost
symmetrical, terminated by a rather long straight tube; external edge
sharp; the columellar edge with two or three oblique plaits.

                          Fasciolaria tulipa.
                          F. distans.
                          F. trapezium.
                          F. aurantiaca.
                          F. coronata.
                          F. filamentosa.
                          F. ferruginea.
                          F. tarentina.

_F. tulipa._ The tulip Fasciolaria. Pl. 25, fig. 4.

Species fusiform, not tuberculated.

_F. trapezium._ The striped tower Fasciolaria.

Species fusiform, volutions tuberculated, ventricose; reddish fawn
coloured, with transverse double, slightly undulated lines; inside of
aperture with reddish striæ.

_F. filamentosa._ The threaded Fasciolaria.

Species turreted and tuberculated.


                     6. Fusus. Thirty-six species.

Likewise taken from the Murex; they are marine shells, of an elongated
fusiform shape, with whorls ventricose in the middle or at the lower
extremity.

Shell covered with epidermis, rough, fusiform, or ventricose in the
middle; prolonged behind by the spire, but particularly forward by the
canal; aperture oval; the columellar edge straight or nearly so; the
exterior edge sharp; operculum oval, horny, with sub-concentric
elements, and summit lateral.

                          Fusus colosseus.
                          F. longissimus.
                          F. colus.
                          F. tuberculatus.
                          F. Nicobaricus.
                          F. distans.
                          F. torulosus.
                          F. incrassatus.
                          F. multicarinatus.
                          F. sulcatus.
                          F. antiquus.
                          F. despectus.
                          F. carinatus.
                          F. proboscidiferus.
                          F. Islandicus.
                          F. morio.
                          F. coronatus.
                          F. cochlidium.
                          F. corona.
                          F. raphanus.
                          F. filosus.
                          F. polygonoides.
                          F. verruculatus.
                          F. lignarius.
                          F. Syracusanus.
                          F. strigosus.
                          F. varius.
                          F. crebricostatus.
                          F. Afer.
                          F. rubens.
                          F. sinistralis.
                          F. Nifat.
                          F. articulatus.
                          F. buccinatus.
                          F. aculeiformis.
                          F. scalarinus.

_F. colus._ The spindle Fusus. Pl. 25, fig. 3.

Species turreted or sub-turreted, not umbilicated; outer lip entire,
columella smooth.

_F. filosus._ The threaded Fusus.

Species sub-turreted and umbilicated.


                    7. Pyrula. Twenty-eight species.

Distinguished from the Fusus by having a short depressed spire, and the
last whorl very large and ventricose, giving this shell the shape of a
pear.

Shell pyriform by the depression of the spire, the canal conical, very
long or middling, sometimes a little sloped; aperture oval, very large;
columella smooth.

                          Pyrula canaliculata.
                          P. carica.
                          P. perversa.
                          P. candelabrum.
                          P. ternatana.
                          P. bezoar.
                          P. rapa.
                          P. papyracea.
                          P. tuba.
                          P. bucephala.
                          P. vespertilio.
                          P. melongena.
                          P. reticulata.
                          P. ficus.
                          P. ficoides.
                          P. spirata.
                          P. spirillus.
                          P. elongata.
                          P. galcodes.
                          P. angulata.
                          P. squamosa.
                          P. nodosa.
                          P. citrina.
                          P. abbreviata.
                          P. neritoidea.
                          P. deformis.
                          P. lineata.
                          P. plicata.

_P. melongena._ The open-mouth Pyrula. Pl. 25, fig. 6.

Species ventricose, tube or canal short; aperture very large and effuse;
tuberculated, striated longitudinally.

_P. ficus._ The fig Pyrula.

Spire very short; volutions rounded above; very thin and ventricose;
colour yellowish brown, with dark brown spots; covered with decussated
striæ.


                     8. Struthiolaria. Two species.

The shells of this genus are marine, inhabited by mollusca, that, by
frequently moving in and out of the shell while wandering on the shore
in search of food, produce singular callosities on the two edges of the
aperture. They generally resemble the Murex and Buccinum, but are
distinguished by a thickened marginal lip on the right side.

Shell ovate, spire produced; aperture sinuous, terminated at the base by
a very short canal; straight, and without a notch; columellar edge
callous and effuse; right edge with a thickened varix.

                        Struthiolaria nodulosa.
                        Struthiolaria crenulata.

_S. nodulosa._ The nodulous Struthiolaria. Pl. 25, fig 1.

Ovate, grooved and striated transversely; top of volutions flattened and
nodulous; cream-coloured, with undulated, brownish-yellow longitudinal
lines; interior of lip yellowish.


                     9. Ranella. Fourteen species.

This genus of shells has two rows of varices or thickened bands,
arranged on either side in rows, so that it forms a distinct division
between the Struthiolaria and the Murex.

Shell oval, as if depressed by the preservation of each side of a
longitudinal thickened band; aperture oval, almost symmetrical by the
excavation of the columellar edge, terminating anteriorly by a short
canal, often a little sloping; a sinus at the posterior junction of the
two edges.

                           Ranella gigantea.
                           R. leucostoma.
                           R. candisata.
                           R. Argus.
                           R. ranina.
                           R. spinosa.
                           R. bufonia.
                           R. granulata.
                           R. granifera.
                           R. semigranosa.
                           R. bitubercularis.
                           R. crumena.
                           R. anceps.
                           R. pygmæa.

_R. ranina._ The froglike Ranella. Pl. 25, fig. 2.

Species not umbilicated.

_R. granulata._ The granulated Ranella.

Species not umbilicated.

_R. spinosa._ The prickly Ranella.

Species of which the varices have elongated spines; beak sulcated; outer
lip internally crenated; acute, short, distinct muricated tubercles;
fawn coloured.


            10. Murex. The Trumpet Shell. Sixty-six species.

Though so greatly divided by Lamarck, this is a beautiful and numerous
genus, comprehending only such shells as have three or more varices on
each whorl.

These varices show the number of times the animal has increased the size
of its shell, and what proportion is added at each increase.

The shells are generally irregular in form, arising from their surfaces
being usually armed with spines, knobs, striæ, or foliations.

Shell generally oval; the spire always but little elevated, armed with
longitudinal transverse varices or thickened bands; aperture small; very
oval and symmetrical by the excavation of the left edge, formed by a
plate applied on the columella, terminated anteriorly by a middling
sized canal, sometimes very long and close; the right edge more or less
adorned with varices; operculum horny, oval, complete, almost circular,
with sub-concentric partitions; summit terminal.

                           Murex crassispina.
                           M. Haustellum.
                           M. acanthopterus.
                           M. tenuispina.
                           M. rarispina.
                           M. inflatus.
                           M. elongatus.
                           M. palmarosæ.
                           M. brevifrons.
                           M. calcitrapa.
                           M. adustus.
                           M. rufus.
                           M. axicornis.
                           M. cervicornis.
                           M. aculeatus.
                           M. microphyllus.
                           M. brassica.
                           M. saxatilis.
                           M. endivia.
                           M. radix.
                           M. melanomathos.
                           M. hexagonus.
                           M. scorpio.
                           M. secundus.
                           M. Tarentinus.
                           M. scaber.
                           M. costularis.
                           M. cornutus.
                           M. brandaris.
                           M. ternispina.
                           M. brevispina.
                           M. tenuirostrum.
                           M. motacilla.
                           M. asperrimus.
                           M. phyllopterus.
                           M. capucinus.
                           M. tripterus.
                           M. trigonularis.
                           M. uncinarius.
                           M. hemitripterus.
                           M. gibbosus.
                           M. triqueter.
                           M. trigonulus.
                           M. quadrifrons.
                           M. turbinatus.
                           M. trunculus.
                           M. anguliferus.
                           M. melonulus.
                           M. Magellanicus.
                           M. lamellosus.
                           M. erinaceus.
                           M. cinguliferus.
                           M. subcarinatus.
                           M. torosus.
                           M. polygonulus.
                           M. vitulinus.
                           M. angularis.
                           M. crispatus.
                           M. fenestratus.
                           M. cingulatus.
                           M. lyratus.
                           M. concatenatus.
                           M. granarius.
                           M. fimbriatus.
                           M. pulchellus.
                           M. aciculatus.

_M. crassispina._ The thick-spined Murex. Pl. 26, fig. 3.

Species with tube very long and spiny.

_M. adustus._ The burnt Murex. Pl. 26, fig. 1.

Species with three ramified varices.

_M. Haustellum._ The Snipe Murex. Pl. 26, fig. 4.

Species with tube very long, and without spines.

_M. acanthopterus._ The prickly Murex.

Species with three varices on each whorl.

_M. melanomathos._ The black-spined Murex.

Species which have whorls with more than three varices; the tube almost
close.

_M. lyratus._ The lyre-shaped Murex.

Species sub-turreted.

_M. vitulinus._ The young Murex.

Species sub-globular; the spire and the canal rather short, very open;
the aperture sub-effuse.


                    11. Triton. Thirty-one species.

In this genus the varices are in longitudinal rows or series, but
alternating, few in number, sometimes only one on each whorl. They are
never spinous or foliated, though frequently plaited or tuberculated.

The Triton variegatus type of this genus is one of the largest spiral
shells.

Shell oval, with spire and canal straight, middling, generally rough,
garnished with varices, rare, scattered, and preserved in longitudinal
rows; aperture sub-oval, elongated, terminated by a short, open canal;
the columellar edge less hollowed than the right, and covered with a
callosity; operculum horny, oval, rounded, and rather large.

                           Triton variegatus.
                           T. nodiferus.
                           T. Australis.
                           T. lampas.
                           T. scrobiculator.
                           T. Spengleri.
                           T. corrugatus.
                           T. succinctus.
                           T. pilearis.
                           T. lotorium.
                           T. femoralis.
                           T. subdistortus.
                           T. cancellatus.
                           T. maculosus.
                           T. clandestinus.
                           T. pyrum.
                           T. cynocephalum.
                           T. tripus.
                           T. canaliferus.
                           T. retusus.
                           T. clavator.
                           T. tuberosus.
                           T. vespaceus.
                           T. chlorostomus.
                           T. anus.
                           T. clathratus.
                           T. rubecula.
                           T. cutaceus.
                           T. dolarius.
                           T. Tranquebaricus.
                           T. undosus.

_T. variegatus._ The trumpet Triton. Pl. 26, fig. 5.

The smoothest species, oblong, ventricose, tubiform; aperture dilated;
suture of the spire crenulated; pillar lip grooved obliquely; colour
pale purple, clouded and spotted with brown.

_T. cutaceus._ The rough-skin Triton.

Species with spire rather short, always very tuberculated, often
umbilicated; a sinus at the posterior junction of the two edges.

_T. anus._ The grinning Triton.

Species similar to the T. cutaceus, but having the aperture surrounded
by a thin dilated membrane and irregular teeth.


                              FAMILY XVII.
                          ALATA. Three genera.


                     1. Rostellaria. Three species.

Lamarck formed this genus from the Strombus of Linnæus on account of
having a sinus in the lower part of the right margin contiguous to the
canal. The beak is generally curved, and short in comparison to the
length of the spire, but sometimes it is straight, and equal in length
to the other part of the shell.

The R. rectirostris is one of the most rare shells known.

Shell sub-depressed, turreted, with spire produced and pointed; aperture
oval by the excavation of the columellar edge; the right margin dilating
by age, and having a sinus contiguous to the pointed canal which
terminates the shell.

                       Rostellaria curvirostris.
                       R. rectirostris.
                       R. pes-Pelicani.

_R. curvirostris._ The curved beak Rostellaria. Pl. 27, fig. 2.

Species with the right edge digitated.

_R. pes-Pelicani._ The Pelican’s foot Rostellaria.

Species turreted, with four digitations on the right edge; body and
volutions ribbed longitudinally and crowned with papillæ; flesh-coloured
or white.


                     2. Pteroceras. Seven species.

Formed from the Strombus, being distinct from it by not having the canal
at the base shortened or truncated. It greatly resembles the
Rostellaria, but the sinus of the right margin is distant from the body.
From its digitation or long recurved claws it has often been called the
Spider Shell.

Shell oblong-ovate, ventricose, canal elongated, attenuated, and often
closed; right margin dilating by age into an expanded, digitated wing,
attached to and covering a short spire, with a sinus in the lower part
not contiguous to the body.

                          Pteroceras truncata.
                          P. lambis.
                          P. millepeda.
                          P. pseudoscorpio.
                          P. scorpio.
                          P. aurantia.
                          P. chiragra.

_P. chiragra._ The Devil’s Claw. Pl. 28, fig. 3.

Tuberculated, with six digitated, canaliculated rays, closed in the
adult shell; outer lip internally striated.

_P. scorpio._ The Scorpion Pteroceras.

Species with digitations on the external edge, varying in number from
six to ten.


            3. Strombus. The Wing Shell. Thirty-two species.

As now defined and characterized by Lamarck, is easily distinguished by
not having the winged aperture on the right side dentated or digitated,
and the sinus therein always separated from the canal.

In some species the exterior is variously striated, smooth, wrinkled
longitudinally, or tuberculated; the interior presents vivid and
beautiful colours.

These shells frequently attain a large size and great solidity.

Shell thick, sub-involute, diconic, or ventricose, terminated like a
cone before and behind; aperture very long, narrow, terminated
anteriorly by a canal more or less elongated, recurved; the edges
parallel; the external dilating with age, offering behind a gutter at
its attachment to the spire, and before a sinus more posterior than the
canal, through which passes the head of the animal; operculum horny,
long, and narrow, with elements as if imbricated; the summit terminal.

                           Strombus gigas.
                           S. accipitrinus.
                           S. latissimus.
                           S. tricornis.
                           S. Canarium.
                           S. Isabella.
                           S. vittatus.
                           S. epidromis.
                           S. gallus.
                           S. bituberculatus.
                           S. cristatus.
                           S. dilatatus.
                           S. bubonius.
                           S. lentiginosus.
                           S. auris-Dianæ.
                           S. pugilis.
                           S. pyrulatus.
                           S. gibberulus.
                           S. Luhuanus.
                           S. Mauritianus.
                           S. colomba.
                           S. succinctus.
                           S. troglodytes.
                           S. tridentatus.
                           S. urceus.
                           S. plicatus.
                           S. Floridus.
                           S. papilio.
                           S. lineatus.
                           S. marginatus.
                           S. turritus.
                           S. cancellatus.

_S. polyfasciatus._ The many-banded Strombus. Pl. 28, fig. 2.

Species distinguished by its bands, and by having the margin of the
outer lip thickened.

_S. auris-Dianæ._ Diana’s Ear Strombus.

Oblong-ovate; spire acute, tuberculated, and transversely striated; base
recurved, outer lip thick, anterior lobe with a finger-like termination.

_S. pugilis._ The fighting, or thick-spined Strombus.

Anterior lip prominent, rounded, smooth; spire crowned with spines, the
outermost whorl cancellate; columella much reflected; beak three-lobed,
obtuse, flesh-coloured, and polished within.


                             FAMILY XVIII.
                      PURPURIFERA. Eleven genera.


                      1. Cassidaria. Five species.

Marine shell, sometimes confounded with the Cassis, but distinguished by
the canal which terminates the aperture being ascendant, very little
arched, and not suddenly recurved.

Shell sub-globular, ventricose, tuberculated, or fluted; spire short and
pointed; aperture long, oval, sub-canaliculated anteriorly; the right
edge effuse and folded back; the columella covered over with a broad,
smooth callosity, uniting behind to the right edge; operculum horny.

                        Cassidaria echinophora.
                        C. Tyrrhena.
                        C. cingulata.
                        C. striata.
                        C. oniscus.

_C. echinophora._ The tuberculated Cassidaria. Pl. 27, fig. 5.

Species oval, sub-globular, canal sub-ascendant, with tuberculated belts
or ribs.

_C. Tyrrhena._ The Tyrrhenian Cassidaria.

Species ovate, grooved transversely, volutions convex; apex with one
tubercle; tawny colour.


           2. Cassis. The Helmet Shell. Twenty-five species.

This genus was formed from the Buccinum, from which it is easily
distinguished; the latter having only a notch at the base, and the
Cassis with a canal abruptly turned towards the back of the shell.

Shell inflated oval, sub-involute, spire very little projecting;
aperture long, oval, sometimes very narrow, terminated anteriorly by a
very short canal, sloped and recurved obliquely towards the back; the
right edge more or less concave, reflected backward, and often dentated
within; the columella covered with a large callosity, denticulated or
wrinkled in all its length; operculum horny.

                          Cassis cornuta.
                          C. tuberosa.
                          C. Madagascariensis.
                          C. flammea.
                          C. fascinata.
                          C. glauca.
                          C. rufa.
                          C. pennata.
                          C. testiculus.
                          C. achatina.
                          C. crumena.
                          C. plicaria.
                          C. areola.
                          C. zebra.
                          C. decussata.
                          C. abbreviata.
                          C. sulcosa.
                          C. granulosa.
                          C. saburon.
                          C. canaliculata.
                          C. pyrum.
                          C. Ceylanica.
                          C. semigranosa.
                          C. vibex.
                          C. erinaceus.

_C. tuberosa._ The tuberous Cassis. Pl. 28, fig. 5.

Species in which the aperture is long, the external edge almost
straight, and the spire with thickened bands.

_C. flammea._ The flaming Cassis.

Species in which the aperture is sub-oval, and the external edge
excavated; spire short, base triangular; columella rugose; outer lip
thickened.

_C. areola._ The draught-board Cassis.

Smooth, shiny, white, with square orange tesselated spots; spire short
and conical, with decussated striæ; lower part of columella rugose.


                       3. Ricinula. Nine species.

Shell oval or sub-globular, thick, armed with points or tubercles, with
a depressed spire; aperture narrow, elongated, notched, sometimes
canaliculated anteriorly, and digitated externally; the left edge more
or less callous, sometimes denticulated; operculum horny, oval,
transverse, with elements slightly imbricated.

                           Ricinula horrida.
                           R. clathrata.
                           R. arachnoidea.
                           R. miticula.
                           R. digitata.
                           R. pisolina.
                           R. aspera.
                           R. morus.
                           R. mutica.

_R. horrida._ The horrid Ricinula. Pl. 26, fig. 2.

Species without a canal; exterior covered with strong, obtuse black
tubercles, with the interstices white, striated transversely; interior
rich purple colour; outer lip with five triangular grooved radii,
between which at their base the margin is crenulated.

_R. digitata._ The digitated Ricinula.

Species canaliculated; two long palmated digits at the side of the
aperture.


                       4. Purpura. Fifty species.

This genus has its name from the purple liquid produced by the animal,
from which the ancients extracted the Tyrian purple dye. This is the
last genus that presents the appearance of a canal at the base of the
aperture, and therefore rightly precedes the remaining genera of this
family, all of which are without a canal.

Shell oval, thick, generally tuberculated; spire short; the last whorl
much greater than all the others united; aperture oval, greatly dilated,
terminated anteriorly by a canal short, oblique, and notched at the
extremity; the columellar edge almost straight, covered with a callosity
pointed anteriorly; operculum horny, flat, almost semicircular, with
transverse striæ slightly marked; the summit behind.

                           Purpura Persica.
                           P. Rudolphi.
                           P. patula.
                           P. collumellaris.
                           P. succincta.
                           P. consul.
                           P. armigera.
                           P. bitubercularis.
                           P. hippocastanum.
                           P. undata.
                           P. hæmastoma.
                           P. manicella.
                           P. bufo.
                           P. callosa.
                           P. neritoides.
                           P. planospira.
                           P. callifera.
                           P. coronata.
                           P. sacellum.
                           P. squamosa.
                           P. rugosa.
                           P. textilosa.
                           P. sertum.
                           P. Francolinus.
                           P. limbosa.
                           P. ligata.
                           P. cruentata.
                           P. lapillus.
                           P. imbricata.
                           P. lagenaria.
                           P. cateracta.
                           P. bicostalis.
                           P. plicata.
                           P. fiscella.
                           P. thiarella.
                           P. rustica.
                           P. carinifera.
                           P. scalariformis.
                           P. hystrix.
                           P. deltoidea.
                           P. unifascialis.
                           P. retusa.
                           P. trochlea.
                           P. semi-imbricata.
                           P. echinulata.
                           P. clavus.
                           P. fasciolaris.
                           P. vexillum.
                           P. bizonalis.
                           P. nucleus.

_P. Persica._ The Persian Purpura. Pl. 28, fig. 4.

Transversely sulcated and striated between the ridges; colour
burnt-umber, ridges yellowish, with dark brown spots; upper ridge and
the superior edges of the volutions mucronate; interior sulcated and
striated.

_P. lapillus._ The common Purpura.

Species small, white, sometimes banded with yellow or brown, with a
scaly surface.


                5. Monoceros. The Unicorn. Five species.

Derived its name from the long, conical-pointed, somewhat recurved tooth
in the outer lip, by which alone it can well be distinguished from the
Purpura; and with this characteristic difference the description of the
shell of the Purpura will answer for this genus.

                         Monoceros cingulatum.
                         M. imbricatum.
                         M. striatum.
                         M. glabratum.
                         M. crassilabrum.

_M. cingulatum._ The belted Monoceras.

Cylindrical, columella not smooth, but irregularly plaited or wrinkled,
and the tooth does not extend within the interior of the whorls as in
the other species, but appears affixed only to the edge of the lip;
volutions flattened in their upper edges; transverse spiral brown bands.


                      6. Concholepas. One species.

Formerly considered a Patella, but distinct from it on account of having
an operculum. It is particularly distinguished by having two teeth at
the base of the right side.

Shell wide, rough, oval, spire very short, not projecting; aperture very
large, oval, effuse, sloped anteriorly; the edges united; the right or
external very thick, dentated; the two teeth which limit the slope are a
little larger than the others; muscular impression visible, and almost
in form of a horseshoe; operculum horny and rudimentary.

_C. Peruvianus._ The Peruvian Concholepas. Pl. 28, fig. 1.

The type of this genus; exterior dark brown, interior white.


                7. Harpa. The Harp Shell. Eight species.

This genus of shells is truly beautiful; it was classed by Linnæus with
the Buccinum, but Lamarck considered that they were, for their beauty,
worthy of forming a genus by themselves.

Shell oval, inflated, rather thin, with longitudinal parallel ribs,
formed by the preservation of the thickening of the right margin; the
spire very short, pointed, the last whorl much longer than all the
others together; aperture large, ovate, widely notched anteriorly; the
right edge much excavated and thickened outwardly; the columella smooth,
and terminated in a point anteriorly.

                           Harpa imperialis.
                           H. ventricosa.
                           H. conoidalis.
                           H. nobilis.
                           H. articularis.
                           H. rosea.
                           H. minor.
                           H. striata.

_H. imperialis._ The imperial Harp.

Species in which the number of ribs far exceeds that of any other, and
occasions it often to be called the many-ridged harp; a small spiral
keel round the summit. A rare and valuable species.

_H. nobilis._ The noble Harp. Pl. 29, fig. 2.

A regular species.

_H. rosea._ The roseate Harp.

Oblong-ovate; flesh coloured, with roseate interrupted bands; ribs
remote; columella of a fine rosy hue.


                8. Dolium. The Tun Shell. Seven species.

The shells of this genus are generally large, thin, and globose, with a
wide aperture, and toothed or crenated outer lip; they have a brittle
and light structure, and although some of them grow to a very large
size, they retain their characteristic fragility and thinness.

Shell sub-globular, very ventricose, thin, encircled by decurrent
flutings; the spire very short; the last turn much larger than all the
others together; aperture oblong, very large, by the great excavation of
the right edge, which is crenated through all its length; columella
twisted; operculum unknown.

                             Dolium galea.
                             D. olearium.
                             D. maculatum.
                             D. fasciatum.
                             D. pomum.
                             D. variegatum.
                             D. perdix.

_D. perdix._ The Partridge Dolium. Pl. 29, fig. 4.

Species sub-umbilicated, ovate-oblong, thin, thickly ribbed, and convex;
colour reddish brown, clouded and spotted with white.

_D. galea._ The brown Tun.

Species not umbilicated; sometimes exceeds ten inches in diameter.


              9. Buccinum. The Whelk. Fifty-eight species.

Notwithstanding the divisions of the Linnæan Buccinum into so many
different genera, it still presents a great variety and diversity of
species.

Shell slightly covered with epidermis, oval, elongated; the spire
middling elevated; aperture oblong, oval, notched, and sometimes
sub-canaliculated anteriorly; the right edge thick, not reflected;
columella simple and swelled at the upper part; operculum horny,
complete, oval, with sub-concentric elements; the summit slightly marked
and marginal.

                          Buccinum undatum.
                          B. glaciale.
                          B. Anglicanum.
                          B. papyraceum.
                          B. annulatum.
                          B. lævissimum.
                          B. crenulatum.
                          B. reticulatum.
                          B. Tranquebaricum.
                          B. lineatum.
                          B. fuscatum.
                          B. lineolatum.
                          B. maculosum.
                          B. politum.
                          B. suturale.
                          B. mutabile.
                          B. inflatum.
                          B. retusum.
                          B. ventricosum.
                          B. gemmulatum.
                          B. Coromandelianum.
                          B. fasciatum.
                          B. miga.
                          B. lyratum.
                          B. arcularia.
                          B. coronatum.
                          B. Thersites.
                          B. pauperatum.
                          B. neriteum.
                          B. testudineum.
                          B. achatinum.
                          B. glans.
                          B. papillosum.
                          B. olivaceum.
                          B. canaliculatum.
                          B. tricarinatum.
                          B. Brasilianum.
                          B. semiconvexum.
                          B. fasciolatum.
                          B. vinosum.
                          B. tenuiplicatum.
                          B. sub-spinosum.
                          B. Ascanias.
                          B. lævigatum.
                          B. flexuosum.
                          B. aciculatum.
                          B. corniculatum.
                          B. cribrarium.
                          B. grana.
                          B. coccinella.
                          B. zebra.
                          B. dermestoideum.
                          B. aurantium.
                          B. pedicular.
                          B. gibbolusum.
                          B. pullus.
                          B. marginulatum.
                          B. polygonatum.

_B. undatum._ The common Whelk, or waved Buccinum.

Species oval, slightly ventricose, and sub-carinated on the whorls of
the spire; sulcated obliquely; striated transversely and longitudinally;
volutions convex; aperture white or yellow; covered with a yellowish
epidermis.

_B. papillosum._ The prickly-lip Buccinum. Pl. 29, fig. 1.

Species with the spire elevated, more or less tuberculated, the edges of
the aperture separated posteriorly by a narrow, rather deep sinus; the
right dentated anteriorly.

_B. reticulatum._ The reticulated Buccinum.

Species short, ventricose, sub-globular.

_B. achatinum._ The Agathine Buccinum.

Species smooth, the spire rather elevated; the aperture wider
anteriorly.


                       10. Eburna. Five species.

Shell oval or elongated, smooth; the spire pointed, its whorls as if
rounded; aperture ovate, elongated, effuse, and widely notched
anteriorly; the right margin entire; the columella callous posteriorly,
umbilicated, sub-canaliculated at its external or right side.

                            Eburna glabrata.
                            E. Ceylanica.
                            E. spirata.
                            E. areolata.
                            E. lutosa.

_E. Ceylanica._ The Ceylon Eburna. Pl. 29, fig. 3.

Species smooth, white, with irregular large purplish spots; apex acute,
tipped with blue; sutures with an elevated line; umbilicus filled with
spines.


          11. Terebra. The Needle Shell. Twenty-four species.

This genus of shells is remarkable for their sharp, lengthened, and
spiral form, which obtained for them the common name of Needles.

Shell elongated oval, spire pointed, slightly elevated, or sub-turreted;
aperture wide, oval, strongly notched anteriorly; lower end of the
columella twisted or oblique.

                           Terebra maculata.
                           T. flammea.
                           T. crenulata.
                           T. dimidiata.
                           T. striatula.
                           T. chlorata.
                           T. cerithina.
                           T. raphanula.
                           T. muscaria.
                           T. subulata.
                           T. oculata.
                           T. duplicata.
                           T. Babylonia.
                           T. corrugata.
                           T. Senegalensis.
                           T. cærulescens.
                           T. cingulifera.
                           T. myuros.
                           T. scabrella.
                           T. strigilata.
                           T. lanceata.
                           T. aciculina.
                           T. granulosa.
                           T. vittata.

_T. Buccinoides._ The Buccinum-shaped Terebra. Pl. 27, fig. 3.

Answers to the above description.

_T. vittata._ The filleted Terebra.

Species smooth, pale fawn coloured; transversely striated, with
transverse purplish fillets.

_T. maculata._ The spotted Terebra. Pl. 27, fig. 1.

Species very long, spire pointed; aperture oval, small, widely notched
anteriorly; the external edge thin and sharp, the left with an oblique
thickening at its extremity.


                              FAMILY XIX.
                       COLUMELLARIA. Five genera.


                    1. Columbella. Eighteen species.

The shells of this genus are short, small, and rather thick; found in
the seas of hot countries.

The C. mercatoria is very common on the shores of the Atlantic in warm
latitudes, and was formerly used as money.

Shell thick, turbinated; spire short, obtuse; aperture narrow,
elongated, terminated by a very short canal or notch, rendered narrow by
an inflation at the inner side of the right edge, and by some plaits on
the columella; a very small horny operculum.

                       Columbella strombiformis.
                       C. rustica.
                       C. mercatoria.
                       C. Hebræa.
                       C. flavida.
                       C. semipunctata.
                       C. bizonalis.
                       C. reticulata.
                       C. pardalina.
                       C. scripta.
                       C. ovulata.
                       C. nitida.
                       C. zonalis.
                       C. fulgurans.
                       C. mendicaria.
                       C. turturina.
                       C. punctata.
                       C. unifascialis.

_C. strombiformis._ The Strombus-shaped Columbella. Pl. 29, fig. 6.

The type of this genus, partly characterized by its name.

_C. mercatoria._ The merchant Columbella.

Ovate, white, sulcated, transversely clouded with brown or yellow; outer
lip dentated internally.


               2. Mitra. The Mitre Shell. Eighty species.

A numerous and elegant genus of shells, separated by Lamarck from the
Voluta on account of possessing several strong distinctive characters.
The spire is always pointed, and the columellar plaits, diminishing in
size, are always transverse and parallel to each other.

The exterior is sometimes most beautifully marked with transverse
grooves, striæ, punctures, or granulations; the colour of almost every
hue.

Shell turreted, sub-fusiform, and oval; the spire always pointed at the
summit; the aperture small, triangular, wider and strongly notched
anteriorly; the external edge sharp, almost straight, always longer than
the columella, which is formed by a very thin callosity, and marked with
oblique parallel plaits, of which those anterior are the shortest.

                          Mitra episcopalis.
                          M. papalis.
                          M. pontificalis.
                          M. puncticulata.
                          M. millepora.
                          M. cardinalis.
                          M. archiepiscopalis.
                          M. versicolor.
                          M. sanguinolenta.
                          M. pediculus.
                          M. lactea.
                          M. cornicularis.
                          M. lutescens.
                          M. striatula.
                          M. subulata.
                          M. cornea.
                          M. tringa.
                          M. melaniana.
                          M. ferruginea.
                          M. terebralis.
                          M. adusta.
                          M. granulosa.
                          M. crocata.
                          M. casta.
                          M. nexilis.
                          M. olivaria.
                          M. scabriuscula.
                          M. granatina.
                          M. crenifera.
                          M. serpentina.
                          M. tæniata.
                          M. plicaria.
                          M. corrugata.
                          M. costellaris.
                          M. lyrata.
                          M. melongena.
                          M. cinctella.
                          M. vulpecula.
                          M. Caffra.
                          M. sanguisuga.
                          M. stigmataria.
                          M. filosa.
                          M. fissurata.
                          M. arenosa.
                          M. clavulus.
                          M. literata.
                          M. Peronii.
                          M. obliquata.
                          M. oniscina.
                          M. scutulata.
                          M. dactylus.
                          M. fenestrata.
                          M. crenulata.
                          M. texturata.
                          M. conulus.
                          M. limbifera.
                          M. aurantiaca.
                          M. amphorella.
                          M. coronata.
                          M. paupercula.
                          M. cucumerina.
                          M. patriarchalis.
                          M. muriculata.
                          M. torulosa.
                          M. ebenus.
                          M. harpæformis.
                          M. semifasciata.
                          M. retusa.
                          M. microzonias.
                          M. ficulina.
                          M. nucleola.
                          M. unifascialis.
                          M. bacillum.
                          M. conularis.
                          M. plumbea.
                          M. larva.
                          M. pisolina.
                          M. dermestina.
                          M. granulifera.
                          M. tabanula.

_M. episcopalis._ The episcopal Mitre. Pl. 31, fig. 7.

Species turreted, with spiral whorls very wide and entire; the aperture
effuse anteriorly.

_M. papalis._ The papal Mitre.

Species with coronated whorls.

_M. pontificalis._ The pontifical Mitre.

Species covered with a yellowish epidermis, beneath which are
interrupted fillets of orange coloured spots; spire crowned with
tubercles.

_M. micozonias._ The small white-banded Mitre.

Species sub-ovate, spire very short, generally tubercled.

_M. dactylus._ The six-plaited Mitre.

Species oval, spire very short, and generally latticed.

_M. tæniata._ The riband Mitre.

Species flaring, turreted, ribbed; spire more than half the length of
the shell; aperture very narrow, long, sub-canaliculated, with one
plait.


              3. Voluta. The Volute or Wreath. 44 species.

This genus, as established by Linnæus, included shells of different
families, promiscuously blended together, rendering it difficult to
determine satisfactorily respecting shells under examination. As
arranged and classified by Lamarck, it is still a numerous and beautiful
genus, containing some of the most rare and costly shells, particularly
V. Junonia or Peacock Volute, of which very few are known. They vary
considerably in size; some are very minute, and others large; they are
found chiefly in the seas of the torrid zone or southern hemisphere.

Shell oval, more or less ventricose; the first whorls of the spire
mamillose; aperture in general much more long than wide, strongly and
obliquely notched anteriorly; the right edge a little reflected, entire;
the columellar edge excavated, and adorned with great plaits, more or
less oblique, and a little variable in number with age.

                          Voluta nautica.
                          V. diadema.
                          V. armata.
                          V. ducalis.
                          V. tesselata.
                          V. Neptuni.
                          V. cymbium.
                          V. olla.
                          V. proboscidalis.
                          V. porcina.
                          V. Æthiopica.
                          V. melo.
                          V. imperialis.
                          V. pellis-serpentis.
                          V. vespertilio.
                          V. Hebræa.
                          V. musica.
                          V. chlorosina.
                          V. lævigata.
                          V. polyzonalis.
                          V. nodulosa.
                          V. magnifica.
                          V. ancilla.
                          V. Magellanica.
                          V. Pacifica.
                          V. fulminata.
                          V. Junonia.
                          V. scapha.
                          V. Brasiliana.
                          V. mitis.
                          V. nivosa.
                          V. serpentina.
                          V. thiarella.
                          V. carneolata.
                          V. Guinaica.
                          V. fulva.
                          V. sulcata.
                          V. nucleus.
                          V. undulata.
                          V. lapponica.
                          V. vexillum.
                          V. volvacea.
                          V. festiva.
                          V. mitræformis.

_V. Æthiopica._ The Æthiopian Volute. Pl. 30, fig. 2.

Species large, oval, convex, ventricose; spire papillary, with whorls
coronated with elevated hollow spines.

_V. musica._ The music Volute.

Species oval, marked like musical notes set in scores on its surface;
spire sub-tuberculated.

_V. Magellanica._ The Magellan Volute.

Species sub-fusiform, elongated, and sub-turreted; no spines or
tubercles on the whorls.


                  4. Marginella. Twenty-four species.

Distinguished from the Voluta, from which it was taken, by having the
outer lip thickened.

Shell smooth, polished, ovate, oblong, sub-conic, spire short and
papillary; aperture narrow, sub-ovate, by a light curve of the right
edge, which is inflated or reflected, slightly notched anteriorly; the
columellar edge marked with three distinct oblique plaits.

                         Marginella glabrella.
                         M. radiata.
                         M. quinqueplicata.
                         M. limbata.
                         M. rosea.
                         M. lifasciata.
                         M. faba.
                         M. dentifera.
                         M. dactylus.
                         M. bullata.
                         M. cornea.
                         M. avellana.
                         M. nubeculata.
                         M. cærulescens.
                         M. aurantia.
                         M. bivaricosa.
                         M. longivaricosa.
                         M. muscaria.
                         M. eburnea.
                         M. formicula.
                         M. persicula.
                         M. lineata.
                         M. tessellata.
                         M. interrupta.

_M. lineata._ The lineated Marginella. Pl. 30, fig. 3.

Species with aperture as long as the shell; spire not projecting,
sometimes sunk or umbilicated.

_M. faba._ The Bean Marginella.

Species with aperture shorter than the shell, and the spire projecting.

_M. cærulescens._ The cerulean Marginella.

Species with surface bluish white; spire short and acute; four plaits on
the columella; interior lip brownish purple.


                       5. Volvaria. Five species.

The connecting genus between those shells that have a columella and
those that are evolved upon their own axis. Distinguished from the
Marginella by not having a thickened outer lip. The shells are marine,
and generally very small.

Shell cylindrical, convolute; spire obsolete or concealed; aperture
narrow, the whole length of the shell, with one or more plaits on the
columella at the lower part.

                           Volvaria monilis.
                           V. pallida.
                           V. triticea.
                           V. oryza.
                           V. miliacea.

_V. monilis._ The Necklace Volvaria. Pl. 29, fig. 5.

Species greatly involuted; aperture very narrow and very long; plaits on
the anterior part of the columellar edge; the exterior edge thin.


                               FAMILY XX.
                         CONVOLUTA. Six genera.


                     1. Ovula. The Egg. 12 species.

This is the first genus of Lamarck’s arrangement of convoluted shells;
it is nearly allied to the Cypræa, but easily distinguished from it by
the want of spire, and by not having teeth on the columellar lip; the
right lip is reflected inwardly, sometimes wrinkled and sometimes
smooth.

Shell oblong, convex, resembling the Cypræa in form, with the two
extremities of the aperture notched, and more or less prolonged like a
tube; the left margin dentated.

                            Ovula oviformis.
                            O. angulosa.
                            O. verrucosa.
                            O. hordacea.
                            O. spelta.
                            O. birostris.
                            O. lactea.
                            O. carnea.
                            O. triticea.
                            O. gibbosa.
                            O. acicularis.
                            O. volva.

_O. volva._ The Weaver’s Shuttle. Pl. 34, fig. 4.

Species in which the right edge is not thickened or dentated, and with
each extremity elongated, producing a long, straight tube, which
increases with age. One of the most rare shells of this genus.

_O. oviformis._ The egg-shaped Ovula. Pl. 34, fig. 1.

Species ovate, much inflated, ventricose in the centre, very glossy and
white; right edge dentated, the tube of each extremity very prominent;
interior of aperture reddish purple.

_O. gibbosa._ The belted Ovula. Pl. 34, fig. 2.

Species gibbous, neither end dentated; tubes little marked, and with the
body of the shell encircled by a blunt keel.

_O. verrucosa._ The warty Ovula. Pl. 34, fig. 3.

Species in which the right end is dentated, with a notch and a knob
above at each extremity.


                   2. Cypræa. The Cowrie. 68 species.

This genus derived its name from the Cyprian goddess, on account of the
beauty of its polished shells. They are generally smooth, of great
brilliancy of colour, and elegantly marked with dots, zigzag lines,
undulations, or stripes, and covered with an enamel-like glaze. They are
found buried in the sand at the bottom of the sea, and are covered by
the animal with a thin membrane, which preserves the polish and prevents
other testaceous bodies from adhering to them. This membrane consists of
two parts, and arises on both sides of the shell in the form of wings,
furnishing the testaceous and colouring matter; in some species they do
not quite meet on the back of the shell, and the uncovered space is
marked by a coloured dorsal line; when these membranous wings overlap
each other, this line is nearly obsolete.

These shells often differ much with age; at first in thickness, then
because the edges are thin, sharp, hardly dentated, unless internally;
and, lastly, sometimes in the outline; this is because the two lobes of
the mantle, by turning over the primitive shell during the creeping of
the animal, deposite new calcareous matter. De Blainville cannot admit
the hypothesis of Bruguiere, that these animals can completely abandon
their shell to form a new one.

Shell, when full grown and mature, is solid, oval, convex, very smooth,
involute; the spire entirely posterior, very small, often concealed by a
calcareous layer deposited by the lobes of the mantle, leaving in some
species a small cavity like an umbilicus; aperture longitudinal, very
narrow, slightly curved, as long as the shell, with edges internally
dentated, and notched at each extremity.

Shell, when young and immature, is very thin, the edges of the aperture
not dentated; the right margin sharp and not reflected.

                          Cypræa cerina.
                          C. exanthema.
                          C. tigris.
                          C. tigrina.
                          C. Argus.
                          C. testudinaria.
                          C. Mauritiana.
                          C. mappa.
                          C. Arabica.
                          C. histrio.
                          C. scurra.
                          C. rattus.
                          C. stercoraria.
                          C. mus.
                          C. ventriculus.
                          C. Aurora.
                          C. lynx.
                          C. adusta.
                          C. erosa.
                          C. caurica.
                          C. Isabella.
                          C. ocellata.
                          C. cribraria.
                          C. turdus.
                          C. olivacea.
                          C. stolida.
                          C. hirundo.
                          C. undata.
                          C. zigzag.
                          C. flaveola.
                          C. sanguinolenta.
                          C. poraria.
                          C. ursellus.
                          C. asellus.
                          C. moniliaris.
                          C. stercus-muscarum.
                          C. talpa.
                          C. carneola.
                          C. lurida.
                          C. vitellus.
                          C. caput-serpentis.
                          C. cinerea.
                          C. zonata.
                          C. sordida.
                          C. icterina.
                          C. miliaris.
                          C. variolaria.
                          C. rufa.
                          C. cicercula.
                          C. lota.
                          C. globulus.
                          C. ovulata.
                          C. helvola.
                          C. Arabicula.
                          C. staphylæa.
                          C. pustulata.
                          C. nucleus.
                          C. limacina.
                          C. moneta.
                          C. obvelata.
                          C. annulus.
                          C. radians.
                          C. oniscus.
                          C. pediculus.
                          C. oryza.
                          C. coccinella.
                          C. Australis.
                          C. albella.

_C. exanthema._ The measly Cypræa.

Species oblong-ovate, brown, with round white spots; dorsal line
grayish; marginal teeth brown; spire not quite concealed.

_C. Pantherina._ The Panther Cypræa. Pl. 31, fig. 4.

Species regular, beautifully spotted like a panther.


                      3. Terebellum. One species.

Shell convolute, thin, shining, sub-cylindrical, pointed behind,
truncated before; aperture longitudinal, edges entire, columella
truncated.

_T. subulatum._ The awl-shaped Terebellum. Pl. 31, fig. 3.

Answers to the above description, being the only living species known.


                      4. Ancillaria. Four species.

An intermediate genus between the Terebellum and the Oliva;
distinguished from the former by a callous oblique band at the base of
the columella; and from the latter by not having the spiral whorls
separated by a groove.

Shell smooth, oval, oblong, pointed behind, enlarged and truncated
before; the columella covered anteriorly by a callous oblique band; the
right lip obtuse.

                         Ancillaria cinnamomea.
                         A. ventricosa.
                         A. marginata.
                         A. candida.

_A. cinnamomea._ The cinnamon Ancillaria. Pl. 30, fig. 5.

Species with spire nearly obsolete; shell chestnut colour, with white
bands; varix of the columella reddish and somewhat striated.


                5. Oliva. The Olive. Sixty-two species.

An oval, involuted, internal shell, distinguished from the Ancillaria by
a narrow canal continued from its upper angle around the sutures of the
spiral whorls. It was formerly classed with the Voluta, which genus has
not the canal, so that they cannot be mistaken for each other. There is
a callosity uniting with the spiral canal, and another at the base of
the columella.

Shell thick, solid, smooth, oval, elongated, sub-cylindrical; the spiral
whorls very small, separated by a canal; aperture long, narrow; the
columellar edge reflected anteriorly by a callosity, and striated
obliquely through all its length. The shells are generally clouded or
covered with waved lines of a brownish colour, more or less dark.

                           Oliva porphyria.
                           O. textilina.
                           O. erythrostoma.
                           O. pica.
                           O. tremulina.
                           O. angulata.
                           O. maura.
                           O. sepulturalis.
                           O. fulminans.
                           O. irisans.
                           O. elegans.
                           O. episcopalis.
                           O. venulata.
                           O. guttata.
                           O. leucophæa.
                           O. undata.
                           O. inflata.
                           O. bicincta.
                           O. harpularia.
                           O. hepatica.
                           O. ustulata.
                           O. avellana.
                           O. tessellata.
                           O. carneola.
                           O. espidula.
                           O. oriola.
                           O. candida.
                           O. volutella.
                           O. tigrina.
                           O. Brasiliana.
                           O. utriculus.
                           O. reticularis.
                           O. flammulata.
                           O. granitella.
                           O. araneosa.
                           O. literata.
                           O. scripta.
                           O. tricolor.
                           O. sanguinolenta.
                           O. mustelina.
                           O. lugubris.
                           O. funebralis.
                           O. glandiformis.
                           O. Peruviana.
                           O. Senegalensis.
                           O. fusiformis.
                           O. auricularis.
                           O. acuminata.
                           O. subulata.
                           O. luteola.
                           O. testacea.
                           O. hiatula.
                           O. obtusaria.
                           O. Ceylanica.
                           O. nebulosa.
                           O. fabagina.
                           O. conoidalis.
                           O. undatella.
                           O. eburnea.
                           O. nana.
                           O. zonalis.
                           O. oryza.

_O. subulata._ The awl-shaped Olive. Pl. 30, fig 1.

Species elongated, with very projecting spire.

_O. undata._ The waved Olive. Pl. 30, fig. 4.

Species oval, spire hardly projecting.

_O. cruenta._ The bloody Olive.

Species cylindrical, suture canal deep; fawn colour, with triangular
spots of purple, and two dark brown spots on the edge of the outer lip.


        6. Conus. The Cone. One hundred and eighty-one species.

A genus valued on account of the beauty, symmetry, and variety of its
species; some of its shells are very rare and remarkable for their
richness of colouring; some are coronated, and others have a plain
spire. They are all covered with an epidermis, beneath which is
generally a smooth surface, with sometimes a high polish; a few are
granulated and tuberculated. They are found in great abundance in the
seas of warm climates.

Shell conic, covered with a membranous periosteum, thick, solid,
involuted; the summit of the cone anterior; the spire little or not at
all projecting; aperture longitudinal, very narrow, turning towards its
anterior extremity; the external edge straight, with oblique plaits in
its anterior part; operculum very small and horny, sub-spiral, with
summit terminal.

                          Conus marmoreus.
                          C. Bandanus.
                          C. nocturnus.
                          C. Nicobaricus.
                          C. araneosus.
                          C. zonatus.
                          C. imperialis.
                          C. fuscatus.
                          C. viridulus.
                          C. regius.
                          C. tulipa.
                          C. geographicus.
                          C. punctatus.
                          C. tæniatus.
                          C. musicus.
                          C. miliaris.
                          C. mus.
                          C. lividus.
                          C. Barbadensis.
                          C. roseus.
                          C. cedo-nulli.
                          C. aurantius.
                          C. nebulosus.
                          C. minimus.
                          C. sulcatus.
                          C. Hebræus.
                          C. vermiculatus.
                          C. arenatus.
                          C. pulicarius.
                          C. fustigatus.
                          C. obesus.
                          C. varius.
                          C. millepunctatus.
                          C. literatus.
                          C. eburneus.
                          C. tesselatus.
                          C. generalis.
                          C. Maldivus.
                          C. Malacanus.
                          C. lineatus.
                          C. monile.
                          C. centurio.
                          C. vitulinus.
                          C. vulpinus.
                          C. flavidus.
                          C. virgo.
                          C. daucus.
                          C. pastinaca.
                          C. capitaneus.
                          C. classiarius.
                          C. vittatus.
                          C. mustelinus.
                          C. vexillum.
                          C. Sumatrensis.
                          C. figulinus.
                          C. quercinus.
                          C. cardinalis.
                          C. Magellanicus.
                          C. distans.
                          C. pontificalis.
                          C. Caledonicus.
                          C. sponsalis.
                          C. puncturatus.
                          C. Ceylanensis.
                          C. lamellosus.
                          C. pusillus.
                          C. exiguus.
                          C. asper.
                          C. hyæna.
                          C. miles.
                          C. ammiralis.
                          C. genuanus.
                          C. papilionaceus.
                          C. Siamensis.
                          C. Prometheus.
                          C. glaucus.
                          C. Suratensis.
                          C. monachus.
                          C. ranunculus.
                          C. anemone.
                          C. achatinus.
                          C. cinereus.
                          C. stramineus.
                          C. zebra.
                          C. lacteus.
                          C. cingulatus.
                          C. vicarius.
                          C. mercator.
                          C. ochraceus.
                          C. betulinus.
                          C. Mediterraneus.
                          C. puncticulatus.
                          C. Proteus.
                          C. leoninus.
                          C. augur.
                          C. pertusus.
                          C. nivosus.
                          C. fulgurans.
                          C. acuminatus.
                          C. amadis.
                          C. Janus.
                          C. flammeus.
                          C. lithoglyphus.
                          C. testudinarius.
                          C. venulatus.
                          C. quæstor.
                          C. muscosus.
                          C. Narcissus.
                          C. Mozambicus.
                          C. Guinaicus.
                          C. Franciscanus.
                          C. informis.
                          C. rattus.
                          C. Jamaicensis.
                          C. amabilis.
                          C. Omaicus.
                          C. nobilis.
                          C. aurisiacus.
                          C. terminus.
                          C. striatus.
                          C. gubernator.
                          C. granulatus.
                          C. terebra.
                          C. verulosus.
                          C. raphanus.
                          C. magus.
                          C. spectrum.
                          C. bullatus.
                          C. Mauritianus.
                          C. fumigatus.
                          C. eques.
                          C. luzonicus.
                          C. catus.
                          C. verrucosus.
                          C. acutangulus.
                          C. mindanus.
                          C. Japonicus.
                          C. pusio.
                          C. columba.
                          C. madurensis.
                          C. nemocanus.
                          C. cancellatus.
                          C. fusiformis.
                          C. cærulescens.
                          C. Aurora.
                          C. Taitensis.
                          C. Adansonii.
                          C. tinianus.
                          C. Portoricanus.
                          C. crocatus.
                          C. strigatus.
                          C. glans.
                          C. mitratus.
                          C. nussatella.
                          C. aulicus.
                          C. auratus.
                          C. colubrinus.
                          C. clavus.
                          C. auricomus.
                          C. omaria.
                          C. rubiginosus.
                          C. pennaceus.
                          C. prælatus.
                          C. panniculus.
                          C. cervus.
                          C. stercus-muscarum.
                          C. Timorensis.
                          C. nimbosus.
                          C. dux.
                          C. tendineus.
                          C. præfectus.
                          C. melancholicus.
                          C. archiepiscopus.
                          C. canonicus.
                          C. episcopus.
                          C. abbas.
                          C. legatus.
                          C. textilis.
                          C. pyramidalis.
                          C. gloria-maris.
                          C. Australis.

_C. textilis._ The embroidered Cone. Pl. 31, fig. 2.

Species ovate, slightly elongated; the spire rather projecting, pointed,
not coronated.

_C. imperialis._ The imperial Cone.

Species conic, spire coronated, projecting, or flat.

_C. striatus._ The striated Cone.

Species oblong-ovate, gibbous, not coronated, clouded and strongly
striated transversely.

_C. generalis._ The general Cone.

Species conic, spire projecting, not crowned with tubercles; colour
reddish brown, or clouded with orange and interrupted fillets.

_C. mustelinus._ The Weasel Cone. Pl. 31, fig. 1.

Species with base sub-truncated; spire channelled and banded with orange
spots; body whitish, encircled in the middle by orange-spotted bands.


                              FAMILY XXI.
                        NAUTILACEA. Two genera.


                        1. Spirula. One species.

An involute, symmetrical, discoid shell, whose whorls do not touch each
other; the septa or partitions are brilliant pearl, concave externally,
pierced by a tube called the siphon or siphuncle, placed close to the
inner edge of the aperture; covered with a thin epidermis.

_S. Peronii._ Peron’s Spirula. Pl. 36, fig. 2.

Answers to the above description; colour yellowish white.


                       2. Nautilus. Two species.

An elegant, well-known shell, more or less ventricose, discoid, slightly
compressed, umbilicated or not, but never papillose; the septa simple,
transverse, not visible externally, the last deeply sunk and perforated
by a siphon running through them all; edges entire.

The N. Pompilius, when dissected, displays its beautiful pearly
chambers; fine specimens are often converted into drinking-cups by the
Orientals, who sometimes remove the outer coating, so that its whole
appearance is pearly.

The Nautilis varies in size; some are microscopic; and although they
have received different names, and on account of the animal have been
made to form different genera, it was deemed unnecessary to treat of
them here.

                         Nautilus Pompilius.
                         Nautilus umbilicatus.

_N. Pompilius._ The Pompilius Nautilus. Pl. 36, fig. 3.

Species not umbilicated; the back rounded; aperture round and pearly;
siphon sub-central; pale yellow, with chestnut streaks and undulations.

_N. umbilicatus._ The umbilicated Pompilius. Pl. 36, fig. 1.

Species umbilicated, sub-orbicular; pale fawn colour, with chestnut
undated transverse clouds.


                              FAMILY XXII.
                        HETEROPODA. Two genera.


             1. Argonauta. The Paper Sailor. Three species.

The shells of this genus are remarkable for their fragility, delicacy,
and elegance; they resemble a scroll, ornamented with various
canaliculated grooves from the summit to the margin, which is
bicarinated. The colour is usually bluish, but the keel is of a darker
hue; they vary greatly in size.

Shell navicular, symmetrical, very thin, compressed, bicarinated,
sub-involuted longitudinally in the same plane; aperture very large,
entire, symmetrical, square in front, slightly modified by the turn of
the summit, and provided on each side with an earlike appendage, with
thick and smooth edges; lips sharp.

                            Argonauta argo.
                            A. tuberculosa.
                            A. nitida.

_A. argo._ The Portuguese man-of-war. Pl. 35, fig. 1.

Characterized above; shell whitish, fragile, keel rather narrow, with
sharp-pointed tuberculations; sides striated transversely, wrinkled
longitudinally.

_A. tuberculosa._ The tuberculated Argonaut. Pl. 35, fig. 2.

Species more convex at the sides, with nodulous elevations; keel
broader, points more obtuse.


           2. Carinaria. The glassy Nautilus. Three species.

In form and texture greatly resembling the Argonauta, but distinguished
by only having one keel on the whole length of the back.

Shell symmetrical, carinated or not, very thin, slightly compressed,
without spire, but with the summit slightly recurved posteriorly;
aperture oval and very entire.

                           Carinaria vitrea.
                           C. fragilis.
                           C. cymbium.

_C. vitrea._ The glassy Carinaria.

Species very rare and beautiful, thin, papyraceous, very fragile and
semitransparent; a serrated keel rises up its front, and the sides are
decorated with ribs parallel to the base.

_C. fragilis._ The fragile Carinaria.

Species smaller, very thin, striated longitudinally, diverging from the
summit to the margin; no keel.

_C. cymbium._ The minute Carinaria.

Species not larger than a grain of sand.



                                GLOSSARY
                      OF TERMS USED IN CONCHOLOGY.


                                   A.

  Abbreviated, shortened, cut short.

  Abdomen, the belly.

  Aculeated, furnished with, or ending in, prickles.

  Acuminated, ending in a sharp point sharp pointed.

  Adnate, adhering or growing together, adjoining.

  Alated, winged, applied to the expanded lip of the Strombus genus, &c.

  Ambitus, the circumference or outline of the valves.

  Annulated, formed or divided into distinct rings.

  Annulations, rings.

  Antiquated, longitudinally furrowed, but interrupted by transverse
    furrows, as if the shell had acquired new growth at each furrow.

  Aperture, the mouth or opening of the shell.

  Apex, the tip or point of the spire.

  Apophysis, an excrescence.

  Approximating, approaching near to, or near together.

  Arcuated, bent in the form of an arch.

  Arcuations, bendings, curvings.

  Area, the surface contained between lines or boundaries.

  Arenose, sandy.

  Areola, a small area or circle.

  Articulations, junctures, or joinings.

  Ascititious, supplemental, additional.

  Attenuated, thin, slender.

  Aurated, eared, having ears as in the scallops.

  Auricled, having appendages like ears.

  Auriform, ear-shaped.


                                   B.

  Barb, anything that grows in place of a beard.

  Base, in univalves, that part of the shell by which it is affixed to
    rocks, &c., and in multivalves the opposite extremity to the apex.
    In univalves, the opposite end to the apex.

  Beak, the continuation of the body of univalves in which the canal is
    situated.

  Beard, the process by which some bivalves adhere to rocks, &c.

  Bellying, distended in the middle.

  Bi, prefixed to any word, signifies two.

  Biangulated, having two corners or angles.

  Bicuspid, having two points.

  Bidentate, having two teeth.

  Bifid, opening with a cleft.

  Bifarious, parting in opposite directions.

  Bilabiate, furnished both with an outer and inner lip.

  Bilobate, divided into two lobes.

  Bimarginate, furnished with a double margin as far as the lip.

  Biradiate, having two rays.

  Bivalve, consisting of two valves or divisions.

  Blotched, spotted in an irregular way.

  Blunt, obtuse, opposed to acute.

  Borer, a piercer.

  Brinded, streaked.

  Bulging, gibbous, swollen out.

  Bullate, of a blistered appearance.

  Byssus, a beard, common in the Mytilus and Pinna.


                                   C.

  Calcareous, relating to lime, of a limy nature.

  Callosity, a protuberance.

  Callus, is composed of two short ribs, united at the base, and
    converging at the apex towards the hinder part of the shell.

  Campanulate, bell-shaped.

  Canaliculated, made like a pipe or gutter.

  Cancellated, longitudinally and transversely ribbed.

  Carinate, having a longitudinal prominence like the keel of a vessel.

  Carinated, keeled.

  Cartilage, a flexible fibrous substance by which the valves are
    united, situated near the beak.

  Cauda, the elongated base of the venter, lip, and columella.

  Cicatrix, the glossy impression in the inside of the valves, to which
    the muscles of the animal are affixed.

  Ciliate, edged with parallel hairs, bristles, or appendages, like the
    eyelids.

  Cinereous, of ash colour, of the colour of wood ashes.

  Clavate, club-shaped, thicker towards the top, elongated towards the
    base.

  Cochleæ, shells of one piece, univalves.

  Cochleate, twisted like a screw or the shell of a snail.

  Columella, the upright pillar in the centre of most of the univalve
    shells.

  Commissure, a joint or seam.

  Complicated, doubled together.

  Compressed, perpendicularly squeezed together, in opposition to
    depressed, which is horizontally flattened.

  Concamerated, arched over, vaulted.

  Concamerations, divided into compartments, as in the Nautili.

  Concave, hollowed out like a bowl.

  Concentric, running to a centre.

  Conchæ, shells consisting of two or more pieces or valves, bivalves,
    or multivalves.

  Cone, the form of a sugar-loaf.

  Confluent, running together.

  Conoid, a figure like a cone, sugar-loaf-shaped.

  Contorted, twisted, or incumbent on each other, in an oblique
    direction.

  Contracted, shortened, shrunk up.

  Convoluted, rolled upon itself, twisted spirally, like a piece of
    paper rolled between the finger and thumb.

  Cordate, heart-shaped.

  Cordiform, resembling the form of a heart.

  Coriaceous, of a leather-like consistence.

  Corneous, of a horn colour, resembling a horn.

  Coronal, relating to the crown or top.

  Coronated, crowned, or girt towards the apex.

  Costated, ribbed, having large ribs.

  Corpus, the body of the shell, the last or great wreath in which the
    aperture is situated.

  Cortex, the anterior skin or epidermis.

  Crenulated, notched at the margin, scalloped.

  Crispated, rough with waving lines.

  Cuneiform, shaped like a wedge.

  Cylindrical, round like a cylinder or a roller.

  Cymbiform, boat-shaped.


                                   D.

  Decorticated, worn, divested of epidermis or skin.

  Decussated, generally applied to striæ or lines which are crossed, or
    which intersect each other perpendicularly or horizontally.

  Deflexed, bent aside.

  Dentary, of or belonging to the teeth.

  Dentile, a small tooth, such as the tooth of a saw.

  Denticulated, set with small teeth, as in the Arca.

  Depressed, pressed down horizontally, low, shallow, flat.

  Dexter valve, is the right valve.

  Diaphanous, transparent, clear, pellucid.

  Digitated, fingered or clawed, as in the lobes of the outer lip of the
    Strombi, &c.

  Disk, the middle part of the valves, or that which lies between the
    umbo and the margin.

  Divaricated, straddling, spreading out widely.

  Divergent, tending to various parts or directions from one point.

  Dorsum, the back; it generally means the upper surface of the body of
    the shell, when laid upon the aperture or opening. In the genera of
    Patella and Haliotis, the back means the upper convex surface.

  Dotted, punctured like a thimble.

  Duplicated, divided into plaits or folds.

  Duplicature, a fold, anything doubled.


                                   E.

  Echinated, bristled like a hog, set with spines.

  Effuse, spread out.

  Elliptical, having the form of an ellipsis, oval.

  Elongated, lengthened, drawn out.

  Emarginate,  } with the edge or margin notched.
  Emarginated, }

  Ensiform, sabre-shaped.

  Entire, whole, uninterrupted, not divided.

  Epidermis, the outer coating or scarfskin of the shell.

  Equidistant, being at the same distance.

  Equilateral, having all sides alike.

  Equivalve, having both valves of equal dimensions.

  Exolete, worn or faded.

  Exserted, standing out, protruding.

  Extraneous, not belonging to a particular thing.


                                   F.

  Falcated, bent or hooked like a scythe.

  Fasciated, filleted, or covered with bands.

  Fascicled, clustered together as in a bundle.

  Fasciculated, consisting of little bundles.

  Fastigate, flat and even at top.

  Faux, what can be seen of the cavity of the first chamber of the
    shell, by looking in at the aperture.

  Ferruginous, of an iron colour, or rust coloured.

  Filament, a slender threadlike process.

  Filiform, thread-shaped, slender, and of equal thickness.

  Fimbriated, fringed.

  Fissure, a cleft, a little slit, or narrow chasm.

  Flexuous, zigzag, with angles gently winding.

  Flexure, a bending.

  Fluviatic, of or belonging to a river.

  Fluviatile, belonging to fresh water.

  Foliaceous, consisting of laminæ or leaves.

  Foliated, bent into laminæ or leaves.

  Fornix, the excavated part under the _umbo_. It likewise signifies the
    upper, or convex shell in the _Ostrea_.

  Fragile, brittle, easily broken.

  Front, in univalves, when the aperture is turned towards the observer.

  Furcated, forked.

  Furrow, a small trench or hollow.

  Fuscated, darkened, obscured.

  Fusiform, spindle-shaped, intermediate between the conical and oval.


                                   G.

  Gap, an opening in bivalves when the valves are shut as in the
    _Pholades_, _Myæ_, &c.

  Geminated, marked with a double elevated striæ connecting the wreaths.

  Geniculate, keeled.

  Genus, an assemblage of species possessing certain characters in
    common, by which they are distinguished from all others.

  Genera, the plural of genus.

  Gibbous, bulged or bulging.

  Glabrous, smooth, having a smooth surface.

  Globose, globular.

  Granulated, beaded, in small grains or beads.

  Groove, a hollow channel.


                                   H.

  Hemispherical, in the shape of a half globe.

  Hirsute, rough, beset with strong hairs.

  Heteroclitical, synonymous with heterostrophe.

  Heterostrophe, reversed, applied to shells whose spires turn in a
    contrary direction to the usual way.

  Hispid, hairy.


                                 I & J.

  Jagged, denticulated, uneven, toothed like a saw.

  Imbricate, placed like the tiles of a house.

  Imperforated, not pierced with a hole, wanting an umbilicus.

  Inequilateral, when the anterior and posterior sides make different
    angles with the hinge.

  Inequivalve, where one valve is more convex than the other, or
    dissimilar in other respects, as in the common oyster.

  Inarticulate, indistinct, not properly formed.

  Incumbent, one lying over the other.

  Incurved,   } bent inward, crooked.
  Incurvated, }

  Indented, unequally marked, hollowed.

  Inflated, tumid, swollen, as if blown out.

  Inflected, bent inward.

  Indexed, bent towards each other.

  Intercostal, placed between the ribs.

  Internode, the space between one knot or joint and another.

  Interrupted, divided, separated.

  Interstice, space between one part and another, a crevice.

  Intortion, the turning or twisting in any particular direction.

  Involucre, a covering.

  Involution, that part which involves or inwraps another.

  Involute, where the exterior lip is turned inward at the margin, as in
    the Cypræa.

  Isabella-colour, a brownish yellow with a shade of brownish red.

  Juncture, the joining of the whorl in univalve shells.


                                   K.

  Keel, the longitudinal prominence in the Argonauta.

  Knob, a protuberance, any part bluntly arising above the rest.


                                   L.

  Labra, the lips.

  Laciniate, jagged or cut into irregular segments.

  Lacunose, having the surface covered with pits.

  Lamellar, consisting of films on plates.

  Lamellated, divided into distinct plaits or foliations.

  Laminæ, thin plates, laid one coat above another.

  Lanceolate, oblong, and gradually tapering like the head of a lance.

  Lateral, extending to one side from the centre.

  Latticed, having longitudinal lines or furrows, decussate by
    transverse ones.

  Lenticulate, doubly convex, of the form of a lens.

  Ligament, a solid body, softer than a cartilage, but harder than a
    membrane, which connects the valves in bivalves.

  Limb, the margin of bivalve shells.

  Linear, composed of lines.

  Lineate, marked with lines.

  Lip, the outer edge of the aperture of univalves.

  Littoral, of or belonging to the shore.

  Lobated, rounded at the edges.

  Longitudinal, the length of the shell from the apex to the base.

  Lubricity, slipperiness, smoothness of surface.

  Lunated, formed like a half moon.

  Lunulated, crescent-shaped.

  Lunule, a crescent-like mark or spot, situated near the anterior and
    posterior slopes in bivalve shells.

  Luniform, in the shape of a crescent.


                                   M.

  Margin, the whole circumference or outline of the shell in bivalves.

  Marginated, having a prominent margin or border.

  Membrane, a web of several sorts of fibres.

  Membranaceous, consisting of membranes.

  Mottled, clouded or spotted with various colours.

  Mucronate, ending in a sharp rigid point.

  Multilocular, many-chambered, consisting of several divisions.

  Muricated, clothed with sharp spines.


                                   N.

  Nacred, pearly, pearlaceous.

  Nemoral, of or belonging to a wood.

  Nited, glossy.

  Nodose, knotty.

  Nucleus, a kernel.


                                   O.

  Ob, prefixed to words, is used for inversely or inverted; as
    _obconic_, inversely conic; _obcordate_, inversely heart-shaped.

  Oblong-ovate, egg-shaped or oval.

  Obsolete, indistinct, not well defined.

  Ocellated, applied to eyelike spots.

  Ochreous, of the colour of yellow ochre.

  Offuscated, darkened, clouded, dimmed.

  Olivaceous, being of a greenish olive colour.

  Operculum, a lid which closes the aperture of some turbinated
    univalves; and also some of the tops of multivalves.

  Orbicular, spherical, circular, round.

  Order, the second division of the animal kingdom. Orders are made up
    of a plurality of genera.

  Orifice, an opening or perforation.

  Ovate, shaped like the longitudinal section of an egg.

  Ovoid, oval.


                                   P.

  Palmated, webbed, as in the feet of some water-birds.

  Papillæ, small dots or pimples.

  Papillary, } having the surface covered with dots or pimples.
  Papillous, }

  Papillose, pimpled, dotted.

  Papyraceous, thin as paper.

  Parasitical, living on some other body.

  Patulous, with a gap or opening.

  Pearlaceous, of or like mother-of-pearl.

  Partitions, calcareous processes, dividing the shells of the genus
    Nautilus, Serpula, &c.

  Pectinated, resembling the teeth of a comb.

  Pedicle, the support of the Lepas Anatifera, and its corresponding
    species, by which they are attached to wood, &c.

  Peduncle, a foot-stalk or tube on which anything is seated.

  Pediform, foot-shaped.

  Pelagic, belonging to the deep sea.

  Pellicle, the skin or film.

  Pellucid, transparent, clear, bright.

  Pentagonal, having five angles.

  Perforated, pierced with holes.

  Pervious, admitting passage.

  Phosphorescent, emitting light in the dark.

  Pillar, in univalves is the internal continuation of the columella or
    inner lips, and extends from the _base_ to the _apex_.

  Pinnated, winged.

  Plaited, folded.

  Plaits, folds.

  Plicated, folded or plaited, as in the pillar of the volute tribe.

  Plumose, having a feathery appearance.

  Polythalmous, divided into several chambers.

  Porcate, marked with raised longitudinal lines.

  Porrected, projecting.

  Prismatic, generally applied to the colours of shells, being like
    those of the prism; iridescent.

  Produced, lengthened out.

  Protrude, to thrust forward.

  Protuberances, plaits higher or more elevated than the parts
    adjoining.

  Punctuated, with small hollows like the punctures of a thimble.

  Pyriform, pear-shaped.


                                   Q.

  Quadrangular, having four right angles.

  Quadruplicated, having four plaits.


                                   R.

  Radiated, furnished with rays.

  Radicated, is when the shell is fixed by the base to another body.

  Rectangular, having right angles.

  Recurvated, turned backward.

  Recurved, bowed back.

  Reflected, thrown backward, or bent back.

  Reflex,   } the same as _recurvated_.
  Reflexed, }

  Refracted, abruptly bent, as if broken.

  Reniform, kidney-shaped.

  Repand, with a serpentine margin.

  Replicated, folded or plaited, so as to form a groove or channel.

  Reticulated, formed like a piece of network.

  Retroflected, bent backward.

  Retrousse, cocked up, turned up.

  Retroverted, turned back.

  Retuse, ending in an obtuse sinus.

  Rotundated, blunted, or turned at the edge.

  Reversed spire, is when the volutions turn the reverse way of a common
    corkscrew, or to the sun’s apparent motion.

  Revolute, rolled backward.

  Ribbed, having longitudinal or transverse ridges.

  Ridge, the upper part of a slope.

  Rima, the interstice between the valves when the hymen is removed.

  Rostrum, the beak; the extension of the shell, in which the canal is
    situated.

  Rotund, round, circular, spherical.

  Rudimentary, the commencement or first elements of anything; generally
    applied to the indistinct teeth of shells.

  Rufous, of a reddish colour.

  Rugose, rugged, full of wrinkles.


                                   S.

  Sanguinaceous, of a blood colour, or resembling blood.

  Scabrous, rough, rugged, harsh, or like a file.

  Scalloped, indented at the edges.

  Scrobiculate, pitted, having the surface covered with hollows.

  Scorbiculous, a depression or cavity.

  Scutellated,  } shield-shaped.
  Scutelliform, }

  Seam, the line formed by the union of the valves.

  Semi, is used in composition in the sense of half.

  Semi-cordate, half heart-shaped.

  Semi-cylindrical, half cylindrical, cut through lengthways.

  Semi-orbicular, the shape of a half globe.

  Semi-lunar, the shape of a half moon.

  Semi-pellucid, somewhat pellucid or shining.

  Septiform, in the shape of a partition.

  Serrated, like the teeth of a saw.

  Serrulated, very minutely serrated.

  Sessile, sitting or seated.

  Seta, a bristle.

  Setaceous, bristly, covered with bristles.

  Setiferous, bearing bristles.

  Setose, covered with bristles.

  Sinister valve, is the left valve.

  Sinus, a groove or cavity.

  Siphunculus, a cylindrical canal perforating the partitions in
    polythalmous shells; for instance, as in the _Nautilus Spirula_.

  Solitary, generally applied to a single tooth in bivalves.

  Spatulate, rounded and broad at the top, and becoming narrow like a
    spatula or battledore.

  Species, the division of a family or genus, containing such as agree
    with it in general characters, or such as are derived from one
    common parentage.

  Spiny, thorny, covered with thornlike processes.

  Spinous, having spines like a hedgehog.

  Spire, all the whorls of univalve shells, excepting the one in which
    the aperture is situated, which is termed the _body_.

  Spiral, twisted like a corkscrew.

  Squamose, scaly.

  Stellated, starred, consisting of star-like figures.

  Striated, scored, or covered with fine threadlike lines.

  Sub, in composition, means almost, or approaching to; as sub-globose,
    somewhat globular.

  Subarcuated, somewhat arched.

  Sub-conic, somewhat conical.

  Sub-diaphanous, somewhat transparent or clear.

  Sub-rotund, nearly globular.

  Subulate, awl-shaped.

  Sulcated, furrowed.

  Sulci, furrows or ridges.

  Summit, the tip or apex.

  Sature, a hollow line of division in univalve shells, the spiral line
    of which separates the wreaths.


                                   T.

  Tentacula, the feelers of snails which inhabit shells.

  Tesselated, checkered like a chessboard.

  Testacea, the third order of worms, including those which are covered
    with a testaceous shell.

  Testaceous, consisting of carbonate of lime and animal matter.

  Tetragonal, four cornered.

  Torose, swelling into knobs or protuberances.

  Tortuosity, wreath, flexure.

  Tortuous, twisted, wreathed, winding.

  Transverse, placed across or crossways. When the breadth of a shell is
    greater than its length, it is called transverse.

  Trapeziform, shaped like a trapezium.

  Trigonal, having three angles.

  Truncated, stunted, cut short or abruptly off at the end.

  Tubercle, a little knot or pimple.

  Tuberculated, knotted, pimpled.

  Tuberosities, prominent knots or excrescences.

  Tubular, in the shape of a hollow tube.

  Tubulate, tubulous or hollow.

  Tunicated, coated.

  Turbinated, shaped like a top or pear.

  Turgid, swollen.


                                 U & V.

  Valve, the whole of univalve shells, of shells in one piece; and the
    half of bivalves, or shells in two divisions, &c.

  Varices, longitudinal ribs in univalve shells.

  Variety, is when one species differs some little degree from that of
    another.

  Vaulted, like the roof of one’s mouth.

  Venter, the belly, situated in the body of the shell; being the most
    prominent part when the aperture is turned to the observer.

  Ventral, belonging to the belly.

  Ventricose, inflated, swelled in the middle.

  Vermiform, worm-shaped.

  Vertex, in the Patella the top or most prominent part, situated in
    general nearly in the middle. In the genus Bulla it is used for the
    apex.

  Verrucose, warted.

  Verticulated, whorled.

  Umbilicated, having a depression in the centre like a navel.

  Umbo, in bivalve shells, the round part which turns over the hinge.

  Umbonate, bossed, having a raised knob in the centre

  Undulated, waved, having a waved surface.

  Ungulate, shaped like a horse’s hoof.

  Unilocular, with a single chamber or compartment.

  Univalve, shells consisting of one valve or piece.

  Volutions, the wreaths or turnings of the shells of univalves.

  Urceolate, swelling in the middle like a pitcher.

  Vulva, a spatulated mark in several bivalve shells; formed when the
    valves are united on the posterior and anterior slopes.


                                   W.

  Whorl, one of the wreaths or turnings of the spire of univalves.


                                   Z.

  Zigzag, having contrary turnings and windings.

  Zoned, surrounded with one or more girdles.



                                 INDEX
                                 TO THE
                 CLASSES, FAMILIES, GENERA, AND PLATES.


[N.B.—The Classes are printed in Small Capitals, the Families in
Italics, and the Genera in the Ordinary Type.]

        A.       │ Class. │  Fam.  │  Gen.  │ Plate. │  Fig.  │ Page.
 ────────────────┼────────┼────────┼────────┼────────┼────────┼────────
 Acasta          │       2│       1│       4│        │        │      20
 Acera           │       4│       4│       1│        │        │     101
 Achatina        │       4│       7│       8│      18│     1–3│     113
 _Alata_         │       4│      17│       3│        │        │     149
 Amphidesma      │       3│       5│       7│       6│       9│      39
 _Amphitritæa_   │       1│       3│       4│        │        │      13
 Amphitrite      │       1│       3│       4│        │        │      14
 Ampullaria      │       4│      10│       3│      21│       3│     120
 Anostoma        │       4│       7│       3│        │        │     109
 Anatifera       │       2│       1│       7│       4│       5│      21
 Anatina         │       3│       4│       2│      12│       5│      33
 Ancillaria      │       4│      20│       4│      30│       5│     169
 Ancylus         │       4│       3│       7│      32│       3│     101
 ANNELIDES       │       1│       4│        │        │        │      11
 Anodonta        │       3│      13│       3│      11│    2, 3│      68
 Anomia          │       3│      19│       5│      16│       1│      89
 _Aplysiacea_    │       4│       5│       2│        │        │     103
 Aplysia         │       4│       5│       1│        │        │     103
 Arca            │       3│      11│       2│      10│       5│      63
 Arenicola       │       1│       1│       1│        │        │      11
 _Arcacea_       │       3│      11│       4│        │        │      61
 Argonauta       │       4│      22│       1│      35│    1, 2│     176
 Aspergillum     │       3│       1│       1│      33│       3│      23
 Auricula        │       4│       7│      10│      19│       6│     115
 Avicula         │       3│      17│       4│      14│       3│      79
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        B.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Balanus         │       2│       1│       3│       4│       1│      19
 _Brachiopoda_   │       3│      20│       3│        │        │      89
 Buccinum        │       4│      18│       9│      29│       1│     159
 Bulimus         │       4│       7│       7│      19│       7│     112
 Bulla           │       4│       4│       3│      17│       7│     102
 _Bullacea_      │       4│       4│       3│        │        │     101
 Bullæa          │       4│       4│       2│      17│       5│     102
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        C.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 _Calyptracea_   │       4│       3│       7│        │        │      97
 Calyptræa       │       4│       3│       5│      32│       4│     100
 _Canalifera_    │       4│      16│      11│        │        │     138
 Cancellaria     │       4│      16│       4│      25│       5│     142
 Capsa           │       3│       8│       9│       8│       7│      49
 _Cardiacea_     │       3│      10│       5│        │        │      57
 Cardita         │       3│      10│       2│      10│       3│      59
 Cardium         │       3│      10│       1│      10│       2│      58
 Carinaria       │       4│      22│       2│        │        │     176
 Carocolla       │       4│       7│       2│      19│       1│     108
 Cassidaria      │       4│      10│       1│      27│       5│     152
 Cassis          │       4│      18│       2│      28│       5│     153
 Castalia        │       3│      12│       2│      11│       5│      65
 Chama           │       3│      14│       1│      12│       2│      69
 Cerithium       │       4│      16│       1│      24│       3│     139
 _Chamacea_      │       3│      14│       3│        │        │      69
 Chiton          │       4│       2│       3│       1│     1–4│      95
 Chitonellus     │       4│       2│       2│        │        │      93
 Cineras         │       2│       1│       9│        │        │      22
 CIRRHIPEDES     │       2│       1│        │        │        │      17
 _Cirrhipedes_   │       2│       1│      10│        │        │      17
 Clausilia       │       4│       7│       6│      19│       3│     111
 Clavagella      │       3│       1│       2│        │        │      23
 Cleodora        │       4│       1│       3│        │        │      92
 Clio            │       4│       1│       2│        │        │      92
 Clymene         │       1│       2│       1│        │        │      12
 _Colimacea_     │       4│       7│      11│        │        │     105
 Columbella      │       4│      19│       1│      29│       6│     161
 Columellaria    │       4│      19│       5│        │        │     160
 _Conchacea_     │       3│       9│       7│        │        │      49
 CONCHIFERA      │       3│      20│        │        │        │      23
 _Convoluta_     │       4│      20│       6│        │        │     166
 Conus           │       4│      20│       6│      31│    1, 2│     174
 Corbis          │       3│       8│       6│       8│       1│      46
 Corbula         │       3│       6│       1│       6│       6│      39
 _Corbulacea_    │       3│       6│       2│        │        │      39
 Concholepas     │       4│      18│       6│      28│       1│     156
 Coronula        │       2│       1│       2│       4│       3│      19
 Crania          │       3│      19│       6│      16│       4│      89
 Crassatella     │       3│       5│       3│       6│       4│      37
 Crassina        │       3│       8│      10│       6│       1│      49
 Crenatula       │       3│      17│       1│      14│       2│      76
 Crepidula       │       4│       3│       6│      32│       2│     101
 Creusia         │       2│       1│       5│       4│       2│      20
 Cucullæa        │       3│      11│       1│      10│       1│      61
 Cyclas          │       3│       9│       1│       9│       7│      50
 Cyclostoma      │       4│       7│      11│      19│       5│     116
 Cymbulia        │       4│       1│       5│        │        │      93
 Cyrena          │       3│       9│       2│       6│       7│      51
 Cypræa          │       4│      20│       1│      34│       4│     169
 Cypricardia     │       3│      10│       3│      10│       6│      60
 Cyprina         │       3│       9│       4│       9│       2│      52
 Cytherea        │       3│       9│       5│       9│       4│      54
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        D.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Delphinula      │       4│      14│       3│      23│       5│     131
 Dentalium       │       1│       2│       2│      33│       1│      12
 Dolabella       │       4│       5│       2│        │        │     103
 Dolium          │       4│      18│       8│      29│       4│     157
 Donax           │       3│       8│       8│       8│       4│      48
 _Dorsaliæ_      │       1│       1│       2│        │        │      11
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        E.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Eburna          │       4│      18│      10│      29│       3│     159
 Emarginula      │       4│       3│       2│      32│       5│      98
 Erycina         │       3│       5│       4│       6│       5│      37
 Etheria         │       3│      14│       2│      11│       1│      71
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        F.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Fasciolaria     │       4│      16│       5│      25│       4│     142
 Fissurella      │       4│       3│       3│      32│       1│      99
 Fistulana       │       3│       1│       3│      33│       5│      24
 Fusus           │       4│      16│       6│      25│       3│     143
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        G.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Galathea        │       3│       9│       3│       6│       8│      51
 Galeolaria      │       1│       4│       4│        │        │      16
 Gastrochæna     │       3│       2│       2│       3│       1│      28
 Glycimeris      │       3│       3│       4│        │        │      31
 Gryphea         │       3│      19│       1│      16│       2│      85
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        H.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Haliotis        │       4│      12│       4│      22│    4, 6│     127
 Harpa           │       4│      18│       7│      29│       2│     156
 Helicina        │       4│       7│       4│      19│       4│     109
 Helix           │       4│       7│       1│      18│     4–9│     107
 _Heteropoda_    │       4│      22│       2│        │        │     175
 Hiatella        │       3│      10│       4│      10│       4│      60
 Hippopus        │       3│      15│       2│      12│       1│      72
 Hyalæa          │       4│       1│       1│        │        │      92
 Hyria           │       3│      13│       2│       5│       4│      67
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        I.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Iridina         │       3│      13│       4│        │        │      69
 Isocardia       │       3│      10│       5│      12│       4│      61
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        J.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Janthina        │       4│      11│       5│      18│       6│     125
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        L.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Lima            │       3│      18│       2│      15│       3│      80
 _Limacinea_     │       4│       6│       5│        │        │     104
 Limacina        │       4│       1│       4│        │        │      93
 Limax           │       4│       6│       3│        │        │     104
 Lingula         │       3│      20│       3│      17│       2│      91
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        L.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 _Lithophagi_    │       3│       7│       3│        │        │      40
 Lucina          │       3│       8│       7│       8│       8│      47
 Lutraria        │       3│       5│       1│        │        │      33
 _Lymnæcea_      │       4│       8│       3│        │        │     116
 Lymnæa          │       4│       8│       3│      21│       1│     117
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        M.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 _Mactracea_     │       3│       5│       7│        │        │      33
 Mactra          │       3│       5│       2│       9│       6│      36
 _Macrostomides_ │       4│      12│       4│        │        │     125
 Magilus         │       1│       4│       5│        │        │      16
 _Malleacea_     │       3│      17│       5│        │        │      76
 Malleus         │       3│      17│       3│      14│       4│      78
 _Maldaniæ_      │       1│       2│       2│        │        │      12
 Marginella      │       4│      19│       4│      30│       3│     165
 _Melanides_     │       4│       9│       3│        │        │     117
 Melania         │       4│       9│       1│      20│       3│     118
 Melanopsis      │       4│       9│       2│      20│       6│     118
 Meleagrina      │       3│      17│       5│        │        │      79
 Mitra           │       4│      19│       2│      31│       7│     162
 Modiola         │       3│      16│       2│      12│       6│      74
 MOLLUSCA        │       4│      22│        │        │        │      92
 Monoceros       │       4│      18│       5│        │        │     155
 Monodonta       │       4│      15│       3│      23│       2│     135
 Murex           │       4│      16│      10│      26│ 1, 3, 4│     147
 _Myaria_        │       3│       4│       2│        │        │      32
 Mya             │       3│       4│       1│       5│    1, 3│      32
 Mytilus         │       3│      16│       1│        │        │      73
 _Mytilacea_     │       3│      16│       3│        │        │      78
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        N.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 _Naiades_       │       3│      13│       4│        │        │      66
 Natica          │       4│      11│       4│      21│       6│     124
 _Nautilacea_    │       4│      21│       2│        │        │     174
 Nautilus        │       4│      21│       2│      36│    1, 3│     175
 Navicella       │       4│      11│       2│        │        │     122
 Nerita          │       4│      11│       3│      21│       5│     123
 Neritina        │       4│      11│       1│      21│    2, 4│     121
 _Neritacea_     │       4│      11│       5│        │        │     121
 Nucula          │       3│      11│       4│      11│       7│      64
 _Nymphacea_     │       3│       8│      10│        │        │      42
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        O.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Oliva           │       4│      20│       5│      30│    1, 4│     171
 Onchidium       │       4│       6│       1│        │        │     104
 Orbicula        │       3│      20│       1│      17│       4│      90
 Ostrea          │       3│      19│       2│      16│       5│      87
 _Ostracea_      │       3│      19│       6│        │        │      85
 Otion           │       2│       1│      10│        │        │      22
 Ovula           │       4│      20│       1│      34│     1–4│     166
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        P.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Paludina        │        │        │        │        │        │
 Parmacella      │       4│       6│       2│        │        │     104
 Parmophora      │       4│       3│       1│        │        │      97
 Patella         │       4│       2│       4│       2│     1–7│      95
 Pandora         │       3│       6│       2│       6│       3│      40
 Panopæa         │       3│       3│       2│       5│       2│      31
 Pecten          │       3│      18│       3│      15│       4│      82
 Pectinaria      │       1│       3│       1│        │        │      13
 Pectunculus     │       3│      11│       3│      11│       6│      64
 Pedum           │       3│      18│       1│      15│       5│      80
 _Pectinides_    │       3│      18│       7│        │        │      80
 _Peristomides_  │       4│      10│       3│        │        │     119
 Perna           │       3│      17│       2│      14│       1│      77
 Petricola       │       3│       7│       2│       7│       3│      41
 Phasianella     │       4│      15│       6│      24│       2│     137
 Pholas          │       3│       2│       1│       3│     2–5│      27
 _Pholadaria_    │       3│       2│       2│        │        │      26
 Physa           │       4│       8│       2│      20│       2│     117
 Phyllidia       │       4│       2│       1│        │        │      93
 _Phyllidiacea_  │       4│       2│       4│        │        │      93
 Pirena          │       4│       9│       3│        │        │     119
 Pinna           │       3│      16│       3│      13│    1, 2│      75
 Pileopsis       │       4│       3│       4│        │        │      99
 Planorbis       │       4│       8│       1│      20│       4│     116
 _Plicacea_      │       4│      13│       2│        │        │     128
 Planaxis        │       4│      15│       5│      27│       4│     136
 Placuna         │       3│      19│       4│      16│       3│      88
 Pleurotoma      │       4│      16│       2│      24│       1│     140
 Plicatula       │       3│      18│       5│      15│       2│      83
 Plagiostoma     │       3│      18│       4│        │        │      83
 Pneumodermon    │       4│       1│       6│        │        │      93
 Pollicipes      │       2│       1│       8│       4│    4, 6│      22
 Podopsis        │       3│      18│       7│        │        │      85
 Psammobia       │       3│       8│       2│       7│       1│      43
 Psammotæa       │       3│       8│       3│       7│       5│      43
 Pteroceras      │       4│      17│       2│      28│       3│     150
 _Pteropoda_     │       4│       1│       6│        │        │      92
 Pupa            │       4│       7│       5│      18│       5│     110
 Pupa            │       4│       7│      15│      19│       2│     111
 Purpura         │       4│      18│       4│      28│       4│     155
 _Purpurifera_   │       4│      18│       1│        │        │     151
 Pyramidella     │       4│      13│       2│      22│       5│     129
 Pyrula          │       4│      16│       7│      25│       6│     144
 Pyrgoma         │       2│       1│       6│        │        │      21
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        R.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Ranella         │       4│      16│       9│      25│       2│     145
 Ricinula        │       4│      18│       3│      26│       2│     153
 Rostellaria     │       4│      17│       1│      27│       2│     149
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        S.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Sabellaria      │       1│       3│       2│      33│       2│      13
 Sanguinolaria   │       3│       8│       1│       7│       4│      42
 Saxicava        │       3│       7│       1│       7│       6│      40
 Scalaria        │       4│      14│       4│      23│       1│     130
 _Scalarides_    │       4│      14│       3│        │        │     129
 Septaria        │       3│       1│       4│        │        │      25
 Serpula         │       1│       4│       2│        │        │      14
 _Serpulacea_    │       1│       4│       5│        │        │      14
 Sigaretus       │       4│      12│       1│      22│       2│     126
 Siliquaria      │       1│       1│       2│      33│       4│      11
 Solarium        │       4│      15│       1│      23│       4│     131
 Solecurtus      │       3│       3│       3│      31│       6│      31
 Solen           │       3│       3│       1│      31│       5│      29
 _Solenides_     │       3│       3│       4│        │        │      29
 Solenimya       │       3│       5│       6│       6│       2│      38
 Spirorbis       │       1│       4│       1│        │        │      14
 Spirula         │       4│      21│       1│      36│       2│     175
 Spondylus       │       3│      18│       6│      15│       1│      84
 Stomatella      │       4│      12│       2│      22│       1│     151
 Stomatia        │       4│      12│       3│      22│       6│     144
 Strombus        │       4│      17│       3│      28│       2│     126
 Struthiolaria   │       4│      16│       8│      25│       1│     126
 Succinea        │       4│       7│       9│      24│       4│     114
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
        T.       │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Tellina         │       3│       8│       4│       8│       5│      45
 Tellinides      │       3│       8│       5│       8│       3│      46
 Terebella       │       1│       3│       3│        │        │      14
 Terebellum      │       4│      20│       3│      31│       3│     169
 Terebra         │       4│      18│      11│      27│    1, 3│     160
 Terebratula     │       3│      20│       2│      17│       1│      90
 Teredo          │       3│       1│       6│        │        │      25
 Teredina        │       3│       1│       5│        │        │      25
 Testacella      │       4│       6│       4│      17│       6│     104
 Tornatella      │       4│      13│       1│      22│       3│     128
 Trochus         │       4│      15│       2│      23│       6│     133
 Tridacna        │       3│      15│       1│      12│       3│      71
 _Tridacnites_   │       3│      15│       2│        │        │      71
 Trigonia        │       3│      12│       1│      11│       4│      65
 _Trigonacea_    │       3│      12│       2│        │        │      65
 Triton          │       4│      16│      11│      26│       5│     148
 _Tubicola_      │       3│       1│       6│        │        │      23
 Tubicinella     │       2│       1│       1│        │        │      18
 Turbo           │       4│      15│       4│      24│       6│     136
 _Turbinacea_    │       4│      15│       7│        │        │     131
 Turbinella      │       4│      16│       3│        │        │     140
 Turritella      │       4│      15│       7│      24│       3│     139
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
      U. V.      │        │        │        │        │        │
                 │        │        │        │        │        │
 Ungulina        │       3│       5│       5│        │        │      37
 Unio            │       3│      13│       1│       8│       6│      67
 Valvata         │       4│      10│       1│      20│       5│     119
 Venericardia    │       3│       9│       7│       9│       1│      57
 Venerirupis     │       3│       7│       3│       7│       2│      42
 Venus           │       3│       9│       6│       8│    2, 3│      56
 Vermilia        │       1│       4│       3│        │        │      15
 Vermetus        │       4│      14│       1│      23│       3│     129
 Vitrina         │       4│       6│       5│      17│       3│     104
 Voluta          │       4│      19│       3│      30│       2│     164
 Volvaria        │       4│      19│       5│      29│       5│     165
 Vulsella        │       3│      19│       3│      15│       6│      87

[Illustration: _Pl. 1._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 2._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 3._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 4._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 5._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 6._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 7._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 8._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 9._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 10._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 11._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 12._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 13._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 14._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 15._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 16._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 17._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 18._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 19._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 20._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 21._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 22._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 23._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 24._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 25._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 26._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 27._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 28._—Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct.]

[Illustration: _Pl. 29._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 30._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 31._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 32._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 33._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 34._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 35._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

[Illustration: _Pl. 36._—_Lith. of D. W. Kellogg & Co. Hartford, Ct._]

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                          TRANSCRIBER’S NOTES


 1. P. iv, changed “muscles” to “mussels” and “die” to “dye”.
 2. P. 71, changed “Clamp” to “Clam”.
 3. P. 154, changed “die” to “dye”.
 4. P. 174, changed “O. legatus.” to “C. legatus.”.
 5. Silently corrected typographical errors.
 6. Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.
 7. Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.





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