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Title: Luncheons - A Cook's Picture Book
Author: Ronald, Mary
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Luncheons - A Cook's Picture Book" ***

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                               LUNCHEONS


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               LUNCHEONS

                         A COOK’S PICTURE BOOK



                          A SUPPLEMENT TO THE
                           CENTURY COOK BOOK

                                   BY


                      [Illustration: Mary Arnold]


                    AUTHOR OF THE CENTURY COOK BOOK



                         ILLUSTRATED WITH OVER
                        TWO HUNDRED PHOTOGRAPHS


                    [Illustration: Publisher’s Logo]


                                NEW YORK
                            THE CENTURY CO.
                                  1902


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                          Copyright, 1902, by

                            THE CENTURY CO.

                                -------

                        Published October, 1902



                           THE DEVINNE PRESS


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                THE BOOK


This book is intended as a supplement to the “Century Cook Book,” hence
no general rules for cooking are given.

It is a book of illustrated receipts, a cook’s picture-book, intended to
be very useful in the way of suggestion. It is arranged so that
housekeepers may more readily make up a menu, often a difficult task, or
may easily find new dishes to vary the routine of the daily fare.

Instead of various menus, which are impracticable because they seldom
suit the convenience of the moment, lists of dishes are given which can
be quickly read over and those suitable for the occasion selected. These
lists are placed at the heads of the sections, each section representing
a single course, and each list comprising a number of dishes, any one of
which is suitable for that course.

The receipts will meet the requirements of luncheons, but the majority
of them are equally appropriate for dinner.

Attention has been given to the garnishing and manner of dishing, in
order to make the dishes pleasing to the sight; for pretty dishes are
attractive and recommend themselves, while carelessly served ones are
sometimes refused on account of their appearance.

The illustrated dishes, though apparently elaborate, are in fact quite
simple, the pastry-bag and tube, the use of which is easily acquired,
being the means employed to decorate many of them.

The illustrations will serve as suggestions, and the taste of the cook
will lead her to use such other combinations as are suited to her
convenience.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                CONTENTS


                               CHAPTER I
                              (Pages 1-34)

          LUNCHEONS            FONTAGE CUPS

          GARNISHING AND       DIFFERENT WAYS OF PREPARING
          DISHING              BUTTER

          THE PASTRY-BAG       MEASURES AND TERMS

          ORDER OF COURSES


                               CHAPTER II
                             (Pages 35-42)

                               FRUITS

          First Course         OYSTER AND CLAM COCKTAILS

                               OYSTERS AND CLAMS ON THE HALF
                               SHELL

                               CANAPÉS


                              CHAPTER III
                             (Pages 43-48)

          Second Course        SOUPS


                               CHAPTER IV
                             (Pages 49-58)

          Third Course         EGGS


                               CHAPTER V
                             (Pages 59-68)

          Fourth Course        SHELL-FISH   LOBSTERS   FISH


                               CHAPTER VI
                             (Pages 69-82)

          Fifth or Seventh     ENTRÉES
          Course


                              CHAPTER VII
                             (Pages 83-106)

                               MEATS

          Sixth Course         VEGETABLES AND CEREALS USED AS
                                 VEGETABLES

                               CHICKEN

                               SAUCES FOR MEATS   SWEET
                                 SAUCES


                              CHAPTER VIII
                            (Pages 107-111)

          Seventh Course       FROZEN
                               PUNCHES   FRUITS   CHEESE
                               DISHES

                               CHAPTER IX
                            (Pages 113-131)

          Eighth Course        GAME   SALADS   COLD
                                 SERVICE   CHEESE    SALAD
                                 DRESSINGS


                               CHAPTER X
                            (Pages 133-163)

          Ninth Course         HOT DESSERTS   COLD
                                 DESSERTS   PIES AND TARTS


                               CHAPTER XI
                            (Pages 165-171)

          Tenth Course         ICES


                              CHAPTER XII
                            (Pages 173-176)

          Eleventh Course      FRUITS


                              CHAPTER XIII
                            (Pages 177-195)

               LOAF CAKES  SMALL FANCY CAKES   ICINGS


                              CHAPTER XIV
                            (Pages 197-211)

                                 BREADS


                                 INDEX
                            (Pages 213-223)



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               LUNCHEONS



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               ERRATA[1]


    Page 20, line 16, for “gelatines” read “galantines.”

    Illustration No. 10, 2, read “Purée Sieve”; 3, read “Fontage or
       Swedish timbale irons.”

    Page 31, line 8, for “will rise and cover” read “will rise when put
       in the hot fat and cover.”

    Page 47, last title, for “Creamed Soups” read “Cream Soups.”

    Page 71, 4th line from bottom, for “usual” read “original.”

    Page 71, 7th line from bottom, for “dilute it” read “diluted.”

    Page 73, 2d line from bottom, for “flour” read “water.”

    Page 91, 8th line from bottom, for “browned” read “brown.”

    Page 119, for “Salads Nos. 6-7-8-9” read “Illustrations Nos. 94, 95,
       96, 97.”

    Page 135, line 3, for “and moisten” read “moistened.”

    Page 143, 2d line from bottom, for “thick” read “whipped.”

    Legend of illustration No. 134 read “Strawberry Charlotte No. 2.”

    Legend of illustration No. 137 read “Chestnut Purée.”

    Page 155, line 6, for “cupful” read “pound.”

    Page 162, line 10, for “by placing” read “and.”

    Page 168, 7th line from bottom, for “lemon” read “melon.”

    Page 169, to receipt for Lemon Ice add, “1 quart of water.”

    Page 170, line 4, for “cupful” read “quart.”

    Page 175, after title, “Pineapple,” add “Illustration No. 158.”

    Page 184, 5th line from bottom, for “icing” read “tracing.”

    Page 189, 5th line from bottom, for “box with” read “box and serve
       with.”

    Page 192, 9th line from bottom, for “coloring” read “covering.”

    Page 199, 11th line from bottom, for “double its bulk” read “doubled
       in bulk.”

    Page 201, 8th line from bottom, for “one quarter of an inch” read
       “one and a quarter inches.”

Footnote 1:

  Transcriber’s note: these Errata have been applied to this text.
  (2018-08-15)


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER I

                               LUNCHEONS


The midday meal, called luncheon, varies in character from a very
informal service, where the dishes are placed on the table and the
servants leave the room, to one of equal elaboration and formality with
that of a dinner. As this meal is made to conform to convenience, it is
difficult to give general rules, as rules are conventions of ceremony,
and ceremony is sometimes disregarded, as in the case where a larger
number of guests are received than the service of the house admits of
entertaining in other than an informal manner.

Luncheon proper corresponds to what in foreign countries is called the
second breakfast, or _déjeûner à la fourchette_, where people are seated
at the table and served as at dinner. The French breakfast hour,
however, is usually twelve o’clock, while luncheon is an hour or more
later.

[Sidenote: The company]Entertaining at luncheon is as customary as
dinner giving, but ordinarily the company is composed of women alone,
men as a rule not being entertained at this hour, except on holidays or
special occasions.

[Sidenote: Seating the guests]A card with the name of the guest
distinctly written on it designates the place at the table to be
occupied by that guest, and each one finds her place without being
otherwise directed, as the hostess is the last one to enter the
dining-room. If, for any reason, one lady has precedence over the
others, she is placed at the right of the hostess; otherwise the hostess
selects for that seat the one whom she wishes particularly to
compliment. If a stranger is being especially entertained, the other
guests having been invited to meet her, she is given this seat of honor.
The hostess in this case presents her as a new acquaintance to her
friends, who afterward may call upon and extend to her other courtesies.

[Sidenote: Invitations]The invitations for luncheon are the same in form
as for dinner; if the luncheon is a formal entertainment they are
usually written in the third person, or conventionally expressed in the
first person. An informal note is written for informal occasions. Under
no circumstances should a verbal invitation be given.

It is polite to answer an invitation within twelve hours. People who are
in the habit of entertaining are seldom remiss in the courtesy of a
prompt reply, for they have probably experienced the inconvenience of
uncertainty, and the embarrassment of having to fill places at the last
minute, and so are better able to understand the significance of this
social convention.

[Sidenote: Dress]Women wear street costumes or afternoon gowns; they lay
off their wraps, but do not remove their hats. Men should wear afternoon
dress.

[Sidenote: The table]At luncheon a table-cloth is not used if the table
is handsome enough to permit its omission, but often leaves are put in
which have not the same polish as the main table and must be covered
with a cloth. The use of a cloth is, however, a matter of taste, not of
rule.

The polished table requires care to keep it clean and free from stains
and scratches. It should be very frequently rubbed hard with a soft
cloth, and occasionally a little kerosene or furniture polish should be
used; but what is particularly needed is plenty of hard rubbing. A
varnish polish is easily defaced, especially by hot dishes, which leave
white marks that are difficult to eradicate. The table top should have
what is called hand polish. This can be washed without injury, does not
easily stain, heat does not affect it, and with daily care it constantly
grows handsomer. It is better for young housekeepers to start with a
dull mahogany, or oak, than with a shellacked table, which needs
frequent redressing.

[Sidenote: Mats]To protect the table when no table-cloth is used, mats
are placed under the dishes. The plate mats, either square or round, are
seven to nine inches across. Mats are sometimes lined with asbestos,
felt, or other thick material to protect the table better from the heat
of the plates. The mats, as a rule, match the centerpiece, but this is
not obligatory. There is no limit to the variety of centerpieces and
mats. They range from crochet work and embroidered linen to beautiful
laces.

[Sidenote: Decorations]Except the mats, the decorations used are the
same as for the dinner-table, flowers being the chief and always the
most beautiful resource. The decorations should be kept low in order not
to obstruct the view across the table and so make general conversation
impossible.

A large table is more imposing with high centerpieces, and at buffet
luncheons high decorations can be indulged in. The cold dishes used on
such occasions are susceptible of much garnishing, and are made to form
a part of the decoration.

Where a large number of guests are being entertained, as at wedding
breakfasts, or where the luncheon is accessory to some other
entertainment, the guests are frequently seated at small tables placed
throughout the room. In this case, no ornamentation is attempted other
than a few flowers on each table, as anything more would be an
inconvenience.

[Sidenote: Lighting]The lighting of the table requires careful
consideration. Artificial light is not used unless necessary; but a
dark, gloomy table should always be avoided, and if the room is dark
candles should be lighted. Sometimes half the guests face bright
windows, while the faces of those sitting with their backs to the
windows are in shadow. Shaded lights in the chandelier will often remove
this shadow; and, if carefully managed, the gas-lights will not be
disagreeably noticeable. This, together with a careful adjustment of the
curtains, will often equalize the light; but if a blinding glare cannot
thus be overcome, it is better to draw the shades and curtains and light
the candles. In city houses this is frequently done.

[Sidenote: Laying the table]The table is laid as for dinner, except that
bread-and-butter plates are placed at the left of the dinner plates,
each bread-and-butter plate having a small knife laid across it. These
plates are small, and are used for the breads and hors d’oeuvres.

[Sidenote: The food and courses]At luncheon the soup is served in cups,
and, where the guests are seated at the table, roasts are seldom
presented, the meats being served in the form of chops, or individual
portions; otherwise, the service is the same as at dinner.

At buffet luncheons large cold roasts are used, and ordinarily not more
than one or two hot dishes are served, such as bouillon, creamed
oysters, or croquettes. Cold fish, cold joints, gelatines, and salads
make the substantial part of the luncheon. All the dishes, including the
ices, are placed on the buffet table at once, and no order is observed
in respect to courses, each person making his own selection. On these
occasions the gentlemen serve the ladies, and but little extra household
service is needed.

Where the guests are seated at small tables the service is the same as
if all were seated at one table, and a number of servants are required.
There should always be enough waiters to serve the meal quickly. An hour
and a half is the extreme limit of time that guests should be kept at
the table. Seven or eight courses are all that should be presented, and
these should be served quickly, but without apparent haste. The days of
long feasting are passed. People of to-day value their health and time
too much to sit for hours at a time at the table. The meal should be
over before there is any fatigue or dullness; but on the word of
Brillat-Savarin, an accepted authority on gastronomic subjects, it is
safe to detain guests at the table for one hour. He says:

“La table est le seul endroit où l’on ne s’ennuie jamais pendant la
première heure.”


                      GARNISHING AND DISHING MEATS

One celebrated French chef says: “Il faut viser a charmer les yeux des
gourmet avant d’en satisfaire le goût”; and another, in giving advice to
beginners, says: “A cook should have that artistic feeling which imparts
to everything, great and small, that harmony of style which captivates
the eye.”

This necessity is well recognized by every good cook, and such a one
tries to give dishes the inviting appearance justly demanded by
epicures. It is not necessary that the dish belong to the category which
in cooking parlance is termed “high class,” for the simplest one comes
under the same rule and is capable of being raised to a higher rank by
careful dishing and tasteful garnishing. The greatest cooks are renowned
for such specialties.

It is said of Soyer, “for dishing up he was entitled to celebrity”; and
of Carême, “he excelled in everything requiring perfect taste, and dealt
in a new and very effective manner with the ornamentation of large cold
dishes.”

There is nothing which so quickly indicates the grade of the cook as the
manner in which she serves her dishes. One who has no pride in her work
seldom takes time for ornamentation, though garnishing is the simplest
part of her duty. When, however, attention is given to this branch, even
though the result may not be perfect, it gives promise of better things,
and one may confidently predict for the cook who thus shows desire to do
well that she will attain a higher degree of excellence in her
profession. There is no class of dishes, from breads to desserts, which
are not more appetizing when made attractive in appearance. It has been
said that “eyes do half the eating,” and as no expense need be incurred
in the indulgence of tasteful arrangement of the dishes, there seems to
be no reason why the simplest table should not share with the most
expensive one this element of success. Care, taste, and ingenuity will
do much to remedy the lack of money, and may change the standard of the
table from coarseness to refinement. Many suggestions for decorations
may be found in the show-windows of bakers, pastry-cooks, fishmongers,
and of delicatessen shops. Many of the pieces displayed there may seem
elaborate and difficult to the novice, but they are, in reality, simple
enough when the use of materials is understood.

The word garnishing is used here in a broad interpretation of the term,
meaning the general ornamentation of dishes, whether it be obtained by
form, color, dishing, or by dressing them with those articles called
garnishes.


[Illustration: NO. 198. SODA BISCUITS CUT WITH FLUTED STAMP.]


For example, beginning with breads, embellishment is accomplished by
means of form and color. The form is gained by molding and cutting; the
color, by glazing with egg or sugar. A universal expedient, when short
of bread, is the soda biscuit. These biscuits, when cut in very small
rounds of uniform size, will tempt the scoffer of hot breads; while
large or small crusty rolls, all of exactly the same size, and baked a
golden color, will also make him forget his prejudices and find excuse
in the delicious crust for eating them. But these same biscuits
carelessly cut or molded or baked would offer him no excuse for inviting
dyspepsia. Toast looks more inviting when cut into strips or triangles,
or with the corners neatly cut off if served in whole slices. Any little
thing which indicates care on the part of the cook recommends the dish
to favor and almost guarantees its excellence—on the principle that
straws show which way the wind blows.

For soups, there is to be found, in any cook book, a long list of
garnishes which may be used. Certainly a clear soup is more beautiful
when a few green peas or a few bits of celery increase its brilliancy; a
cream soup is greatly improved by a few small croutons; and so on
through the various classes of dishes.

The garnishes for meat dishes are so various, it may be said that their
only limit is the ingenuity and resources of the cook.

It should be remembered that dishes which are served hot do not permit
of as much garnishing as cold ones. The first requisite in the former is
heat, and this must not be lost by time given to elaborate garnishing.
It does not, however, exclude them from the privilege of being
embellished; for if the garnishes are prepared and ready at hand, it
takes but a minute to put them in place. Hot meat dishes can also rely
on other things to improve their appearance, such as shapeliness and
uniformity; therefore, strict attention should be given to the cutting
and trimming of meats, to the molding of croquettes, of meat-balls, or
of anything served in pieces, and also to the dishing of the same.

After meat is well cut, if a joint, it should be divested of all points
and irregularities, and of cartilage which will interfere with the
carving, and then should be trimmed into a well-balanced and symmetrical
form, attention being given to the matter of its standing squarely and
solidly upon the platter.

Chops and cutlets should be trimmed into uniform size and shape. This
can be done without waste, as the trimmings have their uses. Careful
dressing and trussing is essential for poultry, as the appearance of an
untrussed fowl is enough to destroy the appetite and condemn the dinner.
A fowl should be pressed into a rounded and smooth surface in order to
dissociate the article served from the thing of life.

Meat should be placed exactly in the center of the platter, except in
certain instances where studied irregularity is given for special
garnishing. To place chops or cutlets neatly overlapping one another,
either in rows or in a circle, requires some dexterity, perhaps, but
this is acquired by a very little practice, and such an arrangement not
only helps to keep the meats hot, but is in itself ornamental. The
platter should be in right proportion to the article served upon it. A
large joint on too small a platter gives the same sense of
unsuitableness that an outgrown garment gives to a boy or a girl, and
the carving of this seemingly overgrown joint usually results in
accidents to the table-cloth. Again, too small a platter affords no room
for garnishing.

The color given meat in cooking may be called its secondary garnish,
space being the first. Care should be taken, if it is roasted, that it
be well browned; if it is boiled, that it be white and clean-looking; if
it is fried, that it be not blackened, but a clear lemon color. Poultry
should have a golden color that suggests crispness. It is difficult to
make the mediocre cook understand these points.

Larding also serves an ornamental purpose. Dry meats, like veal, and
oftentimes fowls, are improved in flavor by being larded; and it should
be so done as to make it an ornamental feature. There is no part in the
preparation of dishes easier to perform than larding, and no novice need
hesitate to undertake it.

Hashes and minces can, with very little trouble, be made attractive in
appearance as well as in taste. Hash pressed into a mold, giving it a
ring or a dome shape, then masked or not with a sauce, or simply turned
upon a platter, can be prettily garnished with eggs and greens. Plain
meat-balls and potato- or hominy-balls can be placed together on a
platter with such regard to effect that the dish assumes the character
of an entrée, instead of appearing like a makeshift from left-over
pieces.

The next means after larding in what may be called natural garnishing is
in the employment of gravies and sauces. No article should ever swim in
sauce, but a little can be used with good effect on many dishes. A
venison steak wet with a currant jelly sauce, and just enough of the
sauce poured on the bottom of the platter to color it, gives a glaze and
juicy look to the steak which improves its appearance. A very little
tomato sauce under breaded veal chops or croquettes gives color and
emphasis to the dish. White sauce poured over boiled dishes gives
greater whiteness and often covers defects. In French cooking, much use
is made of masking, which is often done by glazing and by the use of
sauces. As white sauces will make white foods whiter, so brown ones will
make brown ones browner. Fitness must of course be observed. If
crispness is a part of the excellence of a dish, it would not do to
destroy that quality by using a moistening garnish.

Vegetables as garnishes come next in order of suitableness and
convenience. When vegetables are placed on the same platter with meats,
they not only ornament the dish, but contribute to the ease of serving a
dinner. When they are used the dish is called à la jardinière or à la
printanière. Probably every cook knows how to serve mashed or fried
potatoes or green peas in the center of a circle of chops. Similar
combinations can be made in various ways and of many things. Spinach,
beans, carrots, purées, macaroni, spaghetti, or rice may be placed so as
to form a base, raising the chops like a crown, or grouped with them in
rows, or alternating with the individual pieces. Macedoine is a mixture
of any number of vegetables, such as peas, beans of various kinds,
carrot and turnip balls, flowers of cauliflower and any other vegetable
obtainable. They may be mixed together, or each vegetable may be kept
distinct and placed in small piles around the platter. Small portions of
vegetables left over may be used to advantage in this way. Very little
need be used of any one, and any number may be combined on the same
dish. Potatoes boiled or fried can be prepared in many fancy ways to
make them suitable for garnishing. Well-seasoned spinach is excellent
with chops, steaks, or roasts. Browned onions are often used. Meats with
onion garnishes make dishes called à la soubise. Brussels sprouts, hot,
are a suitable garnish for corned beef; or cold, with a French dressing,
are an excellent salad to serve with cold beef. They should not be
over-cooked or they will lose their shape. Stuffed tomatoes may be used
with almost any meat dish.

Vegetable purée, in fancy form, is useful for embellishment, and may
take the place of a fresh vegetable. Purée is made of any vegetable
mashed and seasoned in the same manner as potato. Navy beans, lima
beans, flageolets, and peas, either fresh or dried, are so used. The
purée can be pressed through a pastry-bag into forms simulating roses,
or placed in piles on rounds of toast. Vegetables intended to be eaten
with the meats they garnish should be well seasoned before being placed
on the platter; but where they are to serve only an ornamental purpose,
they may sometimes, as in the case of carrots and turnips, be used
uncooked, as they have a better color and more firmness when raw. These
two vegetables are very useful, as they are obtainable all the year
round. Carrots are particularly pretty when small. Large ones sliced and
then stamped into fancy shapes, combined with turnips treated in the
same way, are frequently used for making designs. Sometimes they are cut
into balls, sometimes are carved into forms simulating roses. It is easy
to make them into cups, using a fluted knife to shape the outside, and
hollowing the center with a potato-scoop. These cups are good for
holding any vegetable or for vegetable salads.

Rice is generally used for borders which are intended to keep creamed
dishes and fricassees in shape. Sausages cut in halves or quarters, or
fried bacon, make a good relish as well as a garnish for many meats;
they are particularly good with egg dishes. Paper frills on protruding
bones serve the excellent purpose of concealing these unsightly ends.
They are easily made by folding a strip of paper lengthwise, then
cutting it down about one and a half inches at intervals of one-eighth
inch on the folded side, thus making a double fringe; next slip one side
up a little, making the fringe round out; and, finally, roll this around
a stick, leaving the openwork in a close spiral. These frills are used
on the bones of a leg of mutton, on ham, on chops, and on drumsticks.

The green garnishes are parsley, watercress, small crisp lettuce leaves,
green lettuce cut into ribbons, chicory, and celery tops. These are all
edible, and all have places where they are especially appropriate.
Parsley, which is most commonly used, is preëminent for convenience,
beauty of leaf, and freshness. In many cases, however, greens which can
be eaten with the dish are preferable, such as watercress with broiled
or fried meats or fish. Parsley may be used with almost everything in
its purely ornamental function, but it can be chopped and sprinkled over
foods for both its flavoring and decorative qualities. A woman who has
mastered the art of making an omelet will usually give it this finishing
touch. Parsley should be very green and crisp, well washed, and dried
with a cloth before being used; it may then be broken into sprigs and
placed at intervals, or formed into a wreath. Sometimes a large bunch,
like a bouquet, may be used with good effect.


[Illustration: NO. 1. LEMONS CUT FOR GARNISHES.]


Lemons, like parsley, have convenience to recommend them, and, like
watercress, are acceptable with fried meats. The acid of lemon is the
best condiment for veal. When they serve the double purpose of garnish
and condiment, they should be cut so the pieces can be taken in the hand
and pressed without soiling the fingers. This is effected by cutting
them in quarters lengthwise, or in halves and then in quarters. In some
instances a half lemon is not too much to serve with one portion, but
ordinarily quarters are sufficient. Slices are useless with meats,
except as ornaments. Illustration No. 1 shows a lemon ready to be
sliced. It has been channeled so as to give the notched edges which make
the slices more ornamental. The illustration also shows a lemon made to
simulate a pig. This form can be used with propriety on a ham or pork
dish. The ears are formed by cutting and raising a triangular slice on
each side of the pointed end, the eyes are made of cloves, the legs and
tail of wooden toothpicks.


[Illustration: NO. 2. EGGS CUT FOR GARNISHES.]


Hard-boiled eggs ornament in a variety of ways. They should be boiled
very hard, then cut with a thin, sharp knife so the slices will be
smooth and the edges clean. Illustration No. 2 shows plain slices, rings
made by slipping the yolk out of slices, an egg cut into quarters and
eighths, a whole yolk set into a ring, and a stuffed egg. Yolks pressed
through a colander and sprinkled over creamed meat and fish dishes,
cream toast, and some other dishes make a beautiful golden covering.
Chopped whites in conjunction with crumbed yolks are used for tracing
designs over salads, minces, and cold pieces.

Pickled beets are a useful and effective garnish. The color gives
decided contrast, and the flavor is a good relish. Sliced beets can be
stamped with vegetable-cutters into fancy shapes, or cut with a knife
into diamonds, cubes, or strips. One can easily have them always at
hand. Two or three boiled beets sliced thin and put into vinegar will
last until all are used, and should be among the stores in the dresser
awaiting the convenience of the cook. Cucumber pickles and gherkins are
equally useful in point of color effects, and in giving piquancy to many
foods. They are used in slices stamped into fancy shapes, or chopped and
arranged in lines or in little heaps. Gherkins are usually left whole,
but may be sliced, giving buttons of color. Capers and olives complete
the list of condiment garnishes, though any pickle may be used with
propriety on cold meat dishes. Illustration No. 3 shows various
garnishes as explained in legend.

Croutons are an indispensable part of hot minced meat dishes, creamed
mixtures, and eggs cooked in various ways. They serve also to ornament
these dishes, which especially require garnishing to make them
presentable. Croutons are pieces of bread browned in butter in a
sauté-pan, or moistened with butter and browned in the oven. Care should
be taken to cut them exactly, the shape depending on the dish with which
they are to be used. For soups they should be quarter-inch cubes; for
minced meats, triangles more or less acute. Circles, squares, and strips
also have their places. The color should be light golden, not dark
brown; the latter color betrays inexperience or carelessness.


[Illustration: NO. 3. GARNISHES.]

1. A carrot cut into cup shape with a fluted knife and filled with
tomato.

2. A lemon cut into basket shape, the center covered with chopped
parsley.

3. A turnip cut into cup shape with fluted knife and filled with green
peas.

4. A carrot cup holding parsley.

5. Graduated slices of carrot holding a sprig of parsley.

6. Olives.

7. Strips of the white of a hard boiled egg arranged in a circle, the
whole yolk placed in the center. The white is cut lengthwise of the egg,
the strips pointed at the ends and sliced so they will lie flat. A small
slice is taken off the yolk to make it stand firm.

8. Cranberries.

9. Slices of celery that are crescent shaped.

10. Sliced pickled beet stamped into various shapes.

11. A gherkin sliced nearly to the end, the slices then spread out to
resemble a leaf.

12. Chopped pickled beet.

13. A bottle of capers.

14. Aspic jelly cut into triangular, square, and diamond shaped pieces
and into small dice.

On the front edge of the board are three pieces of chicken aspic which
is so transparent that the pattern of the paper shows through it.]


Fontage cups holding vegetables are useful for garnishing.

The articles in the following list are used for garnishing meats:

    Parsley
    Lettuce
    Watercress
    Chicory
    Hard-boiled eggs
    Lemons
    Pickles
    Capers
    Olives
    Beets
    Croutons
    Fancy skewers
    Paper frills
    Vegetables
    Mushrooms
    Macaroni
    Spaghetti
    Rice
    Potato or purée forms
    Sauces
    Sausages
    Bacon

A cook who has a desire to ornament her dishes can make an infinite
variety of garnishings by combining various things, or by changing the
form and arrangement of any one of them. Most of the articles used are
within the reach of all. It is even not necessary to buy articles
especially for this purpose, for odds and ends left over, or those
standard stores always in the larder, will afford enough material
tastefully to ornament the dishes.

It must be borne in mind that decorations should not be such as will
embarrass the carver.


                               VEGETABLES

With very few exceptions, vegetables should be served _au naturel_.
Meats require all the aids of skilful handling and tasteful adornment.
Vegetables, on the contrary, have great beauty in themselves, and the
art of the cook cannot rival that of nature. Therefore a few sprigs of
parsley so arranged as to give a finish to the dish are ordinarily
sufficient garnishing. In those cases, however, where the vegetables
lose form and color in cooking, the skill of the cook may be employed to
restore these qualities as far as possible. The more a cabbage can be
made to look like itself, the more attractive it will be. This, at first
thought, may seem a difficult thing to do, but the boiled vegetable can
easily be placed in a cup made of the outside green leaves of the
cabbage, and so, in a measure, present its own beautiful form and color.
Illustration No. 4 shows a plain boiled cabbage mixed with a white sauce
and so arranged.


[Illustration: NO. 4. SAVOY CABBAGE LEAVES HOLDING CREAMED BOILED
CABBAGE.]


The color of this vegetable in its natural state appeals to the esthetic
sense of every artist, and many a beautiful picture has been made of a
field of cabbages; yet the farmer who sees a man sit down with canvas
and brush before his cabbage patch usually regards him as a crank, for
to his untutored mind cabbages are associated only with their utility.
Many housekeepers are equally mistaken in their views about this
vegetable, and consider it coarse food fit to serve only garnished with
apologies. Such opinions are based on error, however, for the cabbage is
both beautiful to look at and delicious to eat. There are many receipts
for cooking cabbage which make it as delicate a dish as cauliflower.


[Illustration: NO. 5. SPINACH GARNISHED WITH WHITE OF HARD BOILED EGG
AND CROUTONS.]


In the case of spinach, since the form cannot be preserved, recourse is
had to molding; the color also may be heightened by contrast with other
colors. Illustration No. 5 shows spinach molded by being pressed into a
basin decorated with the whites of hard-boiled eggs, and with croutons
placed around the form after it is unmolded. Both the eggs and the
croutons improve the taste of the spinach. The basin was first buttered
to hold the egg in place while the design was being arranged. Crumbed
yolk of hard-boiled egg sprinkled over spinach is another garnishing for
this vegetable which enhances its green color and gives the dish a
better appearance.


[Illustration: NO. 6. ASPIC OF GREEN PEAS.]


There are many ways of cooking any vegetable. These various ways may
serve for change, but few of them are better than the simple one of
boiling and serving with a suitable sauce. Attention should be given to
dishing vegetables so that there is no appearance of their having been
turned carelessly on to the platter. A neatly folded napkin can be used
under dry, unseasoned vegetables, like asparagus, artichokes, or corn.
The napkin gives daintiness to the dish, and in the case of corn, when
folded over it, helps to keep it hot.


                              COLD DISHES

It has been said above that discrimination should be made in garnishing
dishes; those to be served hot, for instance, should go directly from
the fire to the table, and not be allowed to become cool while being
elaborately garnished; on the other hand, cold dishes demand no haste
and permit of so much elaboration that at suppers and buffet luncheons
they are depended upon largely for table decoration.

The accomplished cook considers the work on cold pieces an opportunity
for giving examples of his skill, and the ornamentation of molds and
chaud-froids a kind of fancy work which requires nicety and taste. Under
the head of cold dishes come all the salads, the pâtés, galantines, cold
fish dishes, ices, and sweets. In each of these there is range in which
to display culinary accomplishments. The skill requisite for moderate
adornment of these dishes is not so great that one need hesitate to
undertake them. Cold dishes are often more gratefully received in summer
than hot ones, therefore it is desirable that every cook should be able
to serve them in attractive forms. Again, from an economic point of view
they are desirable, as meats can be served a second time in cold forms
quite as acceptably as before.

Many meats, when served cold, require to be boned and pressed into good
shape. Ordinary kitchen boards weighted down serve very well for a
press. The meat, while hot, is put into molds, or is rolled in cloth,
the ends tied, and then placed in the press. Small muffin-rings can be
used for sweetbreads, bread-tins or oval molds for other meats.
Chaud-froid sauce is often spread over galantines, and jellied
mayonnaise over cold fish. On this smooth surface the decoration is laid
in some design traced in fancy cuts of truffle, or in a combination of
white of egg with truffles, cold tongue, olives, and other suitable
things which give color. See illustration No. 114.

Aspic jelly is a principal reliance for covering cold pieces. It is not
masking in this case, for the jelly should be perfectly transparent,
while masking conceals the material of which the dish is composed. Aspic
is also cut into small triangles or in squares to make borders, and is
sometimes chopped and used for decoration. See illustration No. 3. Aspic
is no longer one of the difficult preparations reserved for the hand of
the very experienced cook. Any of the beef or chicken extracts stiffened
with gelatine, and seasoned and cleared if necessary, make good aspic.
The preparation is as simple as that of any jelly. A little care,
however, in molding and handling is requisite for good results. Jellied
vegetables are appropriate to use with jellied or other cold meats.
Small cups are used for molding them, and the pieces can be made very
ornamental. See illustration No. 6. The small forms placed around meat
and served with a green salad make an attractive cold course.


[Illustration: NO. 7. FANCY SKEWERS FOR GARNISHING COLD MEAT OR FISH
DISHES.
1. Mushroom, Cranberry, or Olive, whole Hard Boiled Egg, Cranberry,
Mushroom.
2. Cranberry or Olive. Prawn, Quarter of Lemon. Prawn, Cranberry, or
Olive.
3. Mushroom with Stem. Notched Slice of Lemon. Cranberry or Olive.
Lemon, Cranberry, or Olive.]


Fancy skewers are much employed on cold meats. Their office is purely
ornamental, so when they are used trouble is not to be considered. A
fancy-headed skewer is run through, perhaps, a fine red cockscomb, then
a truffle, then a fancy cut of lemon, or a mushroom, or a carved
vegetable. Truffles in combination with vegetables molded in aspic and
quenelles also are often used. If all these things are impracticable,
one can devise combinations more easily obtained. A trussing needle can
be utilized, concealing the head in a section of lemon and building down
with carrot and turnip in alternating colors and shapes, and perhaps
using a crawfish, an egg, or an olive in the combination. See
illustration No. 7. French authors recommend that these skewers be
employed only occasionally, so that they may not lose the attraction
which novelty gives them.

Cracked, crushed, or ground ice can often be used with good effect. It
gives crispness to olives, celery, radishes, and cucumbers, and enhances
the beauty of the dish as well. With raw oysters it is indispensable,
and with melons very desirable. A free use of ice on the summer
breakfast table will go far toward inviting an appetite for that meal.

It is well to remember that although great elaboration is possible in
cold dishes, it is not necessary, and dishes can be made very attractive
without chaud-froid, aspic, or traced designs. If the pieces are
shapely, they will look well if simply sprinkled with chopped parsley,
chopped white of egg, or the crumbed yolks, and dressed with any of the
green salads. Flowers also can be used to aid in adornment.


[Illustration: NO. 8. BOILED FISH IN SWIMMING POSITION.]


                                  FISH

As fish dishes rank with any other kind in point of attractiveness, and
are open to almost as great a variety of garnishing as are meats, the
same general remarks apply to them. The matter of shape and color here,
too, has to be considered. A boiled fish dropping to pieces from
over-cooking, or bereft of its head or tail, is an unsightly dish. It is
permitted to serve fish _au naturel_, even going so far as to simulate
swimming. This is done by propping it with a whole carrot laid inside,
which gives the fish enough rigidity to stand upright. Illustration No.
8 shows a fish served in this way. The garnishing is white rings of
hard-boiled egg, holding sprigs of parsley, laid along the back. A slice
of lemon sprinkled with and surrounded by parsley, giving the effect of
a medallion, is placed against the side of the fish. A fish to be baked
may be twisted like the letter S to make it stand upright. A boiled
fish, whether served whole or in part, should appear clean. No scum from
the kettle should be suffered to remain on it, and no water should drip
from it into the platter. A folded napkin is usually placed under boiled
fish to insure dryness.

Boiled potatoes are ordinarily served with boiled fish, and may be used
for garnishing, if cut into balls and cooked so that they are very white
and mealy. Parsley gives color and also a sense of freshness. It may be
used in large bunches, especially when the fish is cut, or on creamed
fish dishes.


[Illustration: NO. 9. BOILED SECTION OF FISH COVERED WITH WHITE SAUCE
AND GARNISHED WITH CHOPPED PARSLEY AND POTATO BALLS.]


Illustration No. 9 shows a middle cut of fish with potato and parsley
decoration. The fish being cod, the flesh is not sufficiently white to
be attractive, and so it is masked with white sauce, then sprinkled with
chopped parsley. Had the fish been halibut, the sauce would have been
omitted. Hard-boiled eggs are an excellent accompaniment for boiled
fish, and when not used in the sauce may be supplied in the garnishing.
Creamed fish is pretty with the top made golden with crumbed yolks.

Fried fish should have a lemon color and look clean, dry, and bright,
not black or greasy. The color is secured by dipping them in milk, then
rolling in flour and frying in smoking-hot fat; or, if eggs and crumbs
are used, having white, fresh crumbs grated from the stale loaf. Fish to
be fried is often cut into slices, or into fillets, but small fish need
not be cut and so lose their character. Smelts are sometimes turned into
rings, or are laid open and the head drawn through a slit cut in the
back. Different ways of dressing them give variety, and make dishes
ornamental from form alone. If potatoes are served with fried fish, they
should be cut into balls and fried. Lemons are indispensable with fried
or broiled fish. They are frequently sliced, but are better cut in
quarters so as to give more of the juice, which is needed for condiment.
Lemon sprinkled with chopped parsley is very pretty.

Broiled fish is improved by being spread with maître d’hôtel butter.
This gives it a moist appearance, and is the best possible sauce for it;
at the same time the parsley in the sauce helps to garnish the dish.
Watercress placed around the fish completes the garnishing and makes the
dish perfect. Lemon and watercress are the best condiments for any fried
or broiled dish. Baked fish will not bear more than a few sprigs of
parsley as garnishing.

Lobster coral is much esteemed on account of its brilliant color, and
when lobster is served it is well to use it as a garnish. It may be
sprinkled over the whole surface of a lobster dish, or be arranged in
lines or dots as the circumstances suggest. Shrimps, prawns, and
crawfish make good garnishes for any fish, whether it is served hot or
cold.

When dishes are to be passed, the dishing and garnishing should be such
that the portions are easily distinguishable.

An amusing story is told by a scientist of the predicament in which he
was placed when the guest of honor at an English table. He was a man of
simple habits in his home, and was very near-sighted. Elaborately
garnished dishes were passed to him first, as he sat at the right of the
host, and he had to break the construction of what he was pleased to
call architectural or master-builder’s dishes, and this without knowing
where their keystone lay, or of what they were composed. He was thus
obliged to make public exhibition of his awkwardness, as well as betray
ignorance in that branch of his own business, which left him unable to
recognize biological specimens when they had evolved into their highest
development in the hands of the cook. This story serves as an important
hint that no dish should be entirely disguised. A lobster should still
be a lobster in form or suggestion, however it is prepared. For example,
should it be served in chops, a claw pressed into one end would not only
carry out the form of a chop, but would also designate the dish. There
is generally something that can be reserved from an article which loses
its shape in cooking that may be used to garnish the dish and act as a
kind of label.

The garnishes are:

FOR VEGETABLES

    Parsley
    Hard-boiled eggs
    Croutons

FOR COLD MEATS

    Parsley
    Leaves of any of the salads
    Cold vegetables in fancy cuts
    Hard-boiled eggs
    Stuffed eggs
    Pickles of any kind
    Capers
    Olives
    Lemons
    Jellied vegetables
    Aspic jelly
    Truffles
    Chaudfroid sauce
    Fancy skewers
    Flowers
    Ice

FOR FISH

    Parsley
    Lettuce
    Watercress
    Croutons
    Hard-boiled eggs
    Lemons
    Pickles
    Capers
    Potato purée and balls
    Lobster coral and claws
    Crawfish
    Prawns
    Shrimps


                                POTATOES

Potatoes are a universal dish, and there are an infinite variety of ways
of cooking them: boiling, baking, frying, all manner of ways to suit all
manner of people, and to accompany all kinds of meats. Yet, strange as
it may seem, it is the food usually the worst cooked of any that is
presented. The potatoes are too often soggy, greasy, blackened, burned.
The poor cook seems determined to destroy both the favor and flavor of
this useful vegetable. The potato is mostly starch, and it is not as
well known as it should be that the principle of cooking starch is to
cook it only until the starch grains burst, and then remove it from
moisture, for the starch grains, when open, readily absorb moisture and
become soggy. Hence we see this vegetable a most delicious dish or one
unfit to eat, according to the skill of the cook. Mashed potato is
served from the simplest kitchen, but betrays the poor cook as quickly
as a greasy soup. Sometimes one sees an attempt made to improve the
appearance of this dish by pressing and smoothing it over the top. This
makes a hard and compact mass of what ought to be a light and flaky
substance. Often it is served in a deep dish, which is another mistake;
for the potato, when light and white, is tempting enough to serve on a
flat dish where it may be seen. Potatoes that are to be served in this
way should be mashed the moment they are cooked, and not set aside for a
more convenient time. They may then be moistened with milk or cream and
be seasoned with butter, pepper, and salt, in measure to the richness
desired, and whipped until, like the whites of eggs, they become white
and spongy from the air imprisoned in the cells. Mashed potato may be
served in a great variety of ways. It can be run through the menu from
soup to salad; can be used for entrées, and can make ornamental fancy
dishes out of even minces and stews. It is invaluable as a mask for
broken dishes; for instance, a leg of mutton can be made a presentable
dish to serve a second time by filling the cut with mashed potato. In
this case it must be molded to the shape of the roast and be painted
with egg over the top, so it will take color and not betray the patch.
Such expedients are at times admissible and should not be scorned. It
has been wisely said that “if there is not economy in the kitchen there
will soon be no kitchen.”

When potato is made into cakes, timbales, or croquettes, it must have
egg mixed through it, else it will lose its form when cooked the second
time. When used as borders for minces or creamed dishes, it can be
turned into shape with a knife, be lightly pressed into a mold to give
it form, or be pressed through a pastry-bag and tube into fancy forms.

Frying is perhaps the method of cooking potatoes which requires the most
skill. Fried balls, slices, or straws are always excellent with broiled
meats, and at the same time are the best garnish for them. The height of
skill is reached in the soufflé. These small balloons are something of a
marvel, and are seldom seen except from the hand of a French cook. The
amateur seldom succeeds with this dish, yet it is one worthy of the
practice which makes perfect. To prepare the delectable soufflé, the
potato is cut lengthwise, or with the grain; the slices must be one
eighth of an inch in thickness and taken off with one clean, sharp cut,
then trimmed to uniform shapes, either elliptical or round. The slices
are soaked in cold water and dried with a cloth at the moment of
cooking. They are immersed in fat just below the smoking-point, and
cooked for five minutes, or until softened; are then drained and allowed
to cool for a little time in an open oven, and then immersed a second
time in fat which is very hot, when the slices at once puff and brown.
They should be served at once.


[Illustration: NO. 10. UTENSILS. 1. Baking sheet. 2. Fontage or Swedish
timbale irons. 3. Purée sieve. 4. Pastry brush. 5. Two pastry bags made
of rubber cloth, the larger one holding a star tube. 6. Tubes for pastry
bags with plain, round, and star openings of different sizes. The last
four on the right are small tubes for icing cake in ornamental designs.]


[Illustration: NO. 12. CUTTERS AND MOLDS. 1. A nest of long vegetable
cutters making pencil-shaped pieces of different sizes. 2, 3, 4. Bread
and cake cutters in the forms of a heart, a spade, and a clover leaf. 5.
Individual timbale molds. 6. Pastry cutter for vol-au-vents. 7. Form for
molding lobster or fish chops. 8, 9. Small plain round, and fluted
cutters for tiny biscuits or for garnishes. 10. A group of fancy cutters
for sliced vegetables to be used in macedoine, in soup, or as garnishes.
11. A smaller cutter used for truffles and hard boiled eggs. 12. Cake
cutter in form of crescent. 13. Three vegetable scoops. 14. Fluted knife
for cutting fluted slices of vegetables, turnip cups, etc. 15. A
spatula, or dull edged flexible knife. 16. Small molds for aspics or
other jellies used for garnishing.]


[Illustration: NO. 13. RING MOLDS.]


Potato straws are very attractive and seem so light and harmless that
those who ordinarily reject fried dishes are tempted by them. They are
cut lengthwise of the tuber, first in slices about one eighth of an inch
in thickness, and then into straws the length of the slices. They cook
very quickly in smoking-hot fat, and must not be left in so long as to
become brown and dry. They should be crisp and of a lemon color. The
straws can be cut of a larger size if desired, and are especially pretty
if cut with a fluted knife.

It seems desirable to suggest to housekeepers the feasibility of making
a specialty of cooking potatoes, and with them to give variety, which is
so acceptable to those who sit at their board. Perhaps no other one
thing is susceptible to so many changes, and is so simple to prepare, is
so satisfactory when properly served, and withal so nutritious. It
answers both the substantial and the esthetic requirements of the
perfect meal; it can be suitably served for breakfast, dinner, supper,
and luncheon; it is within the reach of all.


                                 CREAM

Whipped cream often makes the best sauce for a dessert dish, and can be
used as a garnish. Its use need not be considered an extravagance. A
half-pint of double cream is all that is usually called for, this costs
but ten cents, and often the use of cream saves the use of butter, in
the same way that water can sometimes be substituted for milk if a
little butter is added to the receipt to give the richness which milk
imparts.


                                  CAKE

Decorating cakes takes a little time, but facility is soon acquired, and
the time is not misspent, as the cakes, before being served, can be used
to ornament the table.


                             THE PASTRY-BAG

The pastry-bag is a cornucopia-shaped pocket made of rubber cloth, of
duck, or of any closely woven fabric like ticking. The point of the
cornucopia is cut off and a tin tube pressed into the small opening. The
bags made of rubber cloth are the best, as they do not allow moisture to
come through, and are easily cleaned. They cost fifteen cents each, and
can be bought at house-furnishing stores, but bags can be easily made at
home.

The tubes cost ten cents each, are of graduated sizes, and have
various-shaped openings.

The pastry-bag is easy to handle, and is of great utility where
ornamental dishes are desired. It is used for mashed vegetables,
meringues, whipped cream, drop cake mixtures, icing, etc.

A tube, with opening of suitable size, is fitted into the small end of
the bag, the mixture is then put in, and the bag, gathered over close to
the material, is held and pressed with one hand while the tube is guided
with the other, leaving the material squeezed through it in the forms
desired. It needs but very little practice to make ornamental designs.
It is well to have at least two bags, one of them large, with a large
tube, to hold mixtures used in quantity, and one small for decorating
with icing.


                              FONTAGE CUPS

    1 cupful of flour,
    ½ teaspoonful salt,
    Yolks of 2 eggs,
    Milk or water.

Add enough milk to a cup of flour to make a thin batter, then add the
salt and the beaten yolks. The batter must be smooth and quite thin. Use
a small bowl deep enough to immerse the fontage iron.

Have deep fat smoking hot. Place the iron in the fat to heat it. Dip the
hot iron into the batter, covering it to within a quarter of an inch of
the top; the batter will rise when put in the hot fat and cover the
whole iron. Hold the iron in the batter for a minute, or until a little
of the batter has hardened around it, then lift it carefully, holding
the iron so the batter will not slip off. Immerse it in the hot fat and
cook until light-colored.

After a few trials one will be able to make the cups even and thin. They
are also called Swedish timbales, and are used for holding any kind of
creamed mixtures, or for holding vegetables. They can be used as an
entrée, or for garnishing other dishes. The cups will keep for some
time, but in this case should be freshened by heating before being used;
and, as they soften quickly, the mixture should not be replaced in them
until the moment of serving. Illustration No. 10 shows fontage irons.


[Illustration: NO. 11. DIFFERENT WAYS OF PREPARING BUTTER.]


                   DIFFERENT WAYS OF PREPARING BUTTER

Numbers one, two, and three are made by pressing butter through a
pastry-bag with star-tube. In No. 1 it is cut in three-inch lengths; in
No. 2 it is pressed into long pencils and cut when cold into one-inch
lengths; and in No. 3 it is made into rosettes by holding the tube still
until the butter has piled up to the size desired. These are good forms
for fresh butter, and they should be made as soon as the butter is
churned and worked, as it is soft enough then to pass through the tube.
If salted butter is used, it must be whipped with a fork until it is
soft and light before being pressed through the bag. The forms must be
dropped at once into ice-water to harden them. Serve the pieces in a
dish with cracked ice and green leaves. Parsley will do if nothing
better is at hand. Rose leaves are especially pretty, or a lettuce leaf
may be used as a kind of basket.

No. 4 are shell-shaped pieces made with a bent, fluted utensil made for
the purpose (see illustration No. 5, opposite page 256, “Century Cook
Book”). The utensil is dipped in hot water, wiped dry, and then drawn
lightly over the butter, making a thin shaving which curls over as the
utensil is drawn along. The crook must be dipped in hot water and wiped
clean each time.

Butter molded into fancy shapes and served in this way is very
attractive.


                           MEASURES AND TERMS

1 cupful means half a pint.

1 teaspoonful of salt or spices means an even teaspoonful.

1 tablespoonful of flour, butter, etc., means a rounding spoonful.

Sauté means to cook in a pan with a little butter or drippings.

Frying means cooking by immersion in hot fat.

Blanching almonds means taking off the skins.

This is done by letting them lie in boiling water until the skins are
loosened.


[Illustration: NO. 14. PAPER FRILLS. PAPER BOXES. CAKE DECORATIONS.
1. Pleated paper frill for concealing a baking dish.
2. Frill for leg-of-mutton bone.
3. Frills on wooden toothpicks for croquettes.
4. Frills for chop bones.
5. Board holding on a lace paper confectioners’ roses, of different
colors, and other flowers for decorating cake.
6. Paper box holding silvered candy pellets for decorating cake.
7. Paper boxes for ices, or mixtures of creamed meats, or eggs.
8. Paper boxes for holding small iced cakes or candied fruits.]


[Illustration: NO. 15. CASSEROLES AND BAKING DISHES. 1. A white china
dish for holding creamed oysters, etc., or to hold a smaller dish which
has been in the oven.
2, 3. Oblong and round baking dishes of glazed pottery, brown on the
outside, white in the inside, which can be sent to the table.
4. Pipkin, to use the same as a casserole.
5. Casserole.
6, 7. Brown-ware dishes for shirred eggs.
8. China cups for individual creamed dishes.
9. Small casserole.]


[Illustration: NO. 16 ICE PLANE.]


[Illustration: NO. 17. HORS D’OEUVRES. Hors d’oeuvres are relishes which
are passed between the courses.
1. Olives.
2. Small heart stalks of celery and radishes in the same dish.
3. Curled celery. The celery is cut in two-inch lengths, which are
scored across the ribbed side and then cut in narrow strips down to a
quarter of an inch of one end. The pieces are then placed in cold water
to make them curl.
4. Radishes cut in fancy shapes.
5. Pim-olas (olives stuffed with red peppers).]


Blanching sweetbreads means whitening them by pouring cold water on them
immediately after the hot water is poured off. A scale and a half-pint
tin cup are indispensable cooking utensils, as the success of many
dishes depends on exact weight and measurements.

Except in a few cases, receipts given in “Century Cook Book” are not
repeated here.


                            ORDER OF COURSES


          _First Course_       Fruits

                               Cocktails

                               Canapés

                               Oysters on the half shell

                               Clams on the half shell

          _First or Second     Soup
            Course_

          _First, Second, or   Eggs
            Third Course_

          _Fourth Course_      Shell-fish

                               Lobsters

                               Fish

          _Fifth or Seventh    Entrées
            Course_

          _Sixth Course_       Meats

                               Vegetables

                               Cereals used as vegetables

                               Chicken

          _Seventh Course_     Punches

                               Fruit

                               Cheese dishes

                               Entrées

          _Eighth Course_      Game

                               Salads

                               Cold service

                               Cheese

          _Ninth Course_       Hot desserts

                               Cold desserts

                               Pies

                               Tarts

          _Tenth Course_       Ices

                               Cake

          _Eleventh Course_    Fruits

                               Candies

          _Twelfth Course_     Black coffee

                               Tea

                               Liqueurs


                      BEVERAGES SERVED AT LUNCHEON

                              Table waters
                              Cups
                              Wines


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER II

                              FIRST COURSE

                                 FRUITS



------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                 FRUITS


    Oranges
    Salpicon of fruits on glass plate
    Salpicon of fruits in glasses
    Grape-fruit
    Strawberries on individual plates
    Individual pineapples
    Currants on individual plates
    Frosted currants
    Muskmelon


                   COCKTAILS, CANAPÉS, OYSTERS, CLAMS


    Clam cocktails
    Oyster cocktails
    Anchovy eggs
    Salmon canapés, heart-shaped
    Anchovy canapés
    Canapés of caviare
    Oysters on the half shell
    Clams on the half shell
    Bread and butter sandwiches with oysters and clams


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 FRUITS

No. 1. =Oranges.= Cut off the tops of the oranges. Scrape out the pulp
      and draw a narrow ribbon through each top, passing the two ends
      through with a bodkin and tying them on the under side. Drawing
      through the ribbon soils it. Tie a bow on top.

      Loosen the pulp of the orange, using a silver knife, so it can be
      eaten with a spoon. Add a little sugar if necessary, and a
      teaspoonful of sherry, if desired.

No. 2. =Salpicon of fruits.= Place in the center of a glass plate some
      pieces of the pulp of an orange or grape-fruit, or both mixed
      together. Arrange around them a double row of white grapes cut in
      halves and with the seeds removed.

      =Salpicon of fruits in glasses.= This is a mixture of fruits such
      as grape-fruit, grapes, oranges, bananas, and pineapple, or any
      combination convenient. Divide the oranges and grape-fruit into
      sections, then carefully take off the skins and remove the seeds.
      Leave the pulp in large pieces; add enough sugar to sweeten and a
      little sherry if desired. Cut the grapes in halves and remove the
      seeds. Place the mixture in individual glasses and add two or
      three candied cherries to each glass.

      =Grape-fruit.= Prepare grape-fruit as directed above. Sweeten it
      and make it very cold. Place it in individual glasses with a
      candied cherry in the center. At the last moment add a teaspoonful
      of cracked ice to each glass.


      [Illustration: NO. 18. 1. SALPICON OF FRUIT ON GLASS PLATE. 2.
      ORANGE.]


      [Illustration: NO. 19. INDIVIDUAL DISH OF STRAWBERRIES.]


      =Strawberries.= Press powdered sugar into a small cup or glass to
      mold it. Turn the sugar into the center of a dish and arrange
      around it carefully selected strawberries. Leave the hulls on the
      berries and serve in individual portions.

      =Individual pineapples.= Cut small pineapples in two. Cut the ends
      so the pieces will stand straight. Cut out the centers and tear
      the pulp into pieces, then return it to the cups formed by the
      skins. Sweeten with powdered sugar; add a tablespoonful of sherry,
      if desired, to each portion. Let them stand a little while to
      extract the juice. At the moment of serving add a teaspoonful of
      cracked ice to each cup. Serve as a first course at luncheon, or
      before the game at dinner.

      A variety called strawberry pines are best suited for this dish.
      They are sometimes so small that a whole one may be used as one
      portion.


      [Illustration: NO. 20. INDIVIDUAL DISHES OF STRAWBERRY
      PINEAPPLES.]


      =Currants.= Make a mound of sugar as directed for strawberries.
      Place around the sugar bunches of cherry currants, as in No. 1, or
      pile them on grape leaves as in No. 2. White and red currants may
      be placed in the same dish. Serve in individual portions as first
      course at luncheon or at breakfast.


      [Illustration: NO. 21. INDIVIDUAL DISHES OF CURRANTS.]


      [Illustration: NO. 22. FROSTED CURRANTS.]


      =Frosted currants.= Stem large cherry currants. Put them in a dish
      with a quantity of granulated sugar and shake them together. The
      moisture of the currants will cause enough sugar to adhere to
      completely cover them. Turn them off the sugar and serve at once
      before the sugar loses its dryness. Serve them on leaves in
      individual portions, or pass them as a first course at luncheon or
      breakfast. This is a very pretty way of serving currants.


      [Illustration: NO. 23. MUSKMELON.]


      =Muskmelon.= The muskmelon should be very ripe and very cold. Cut
      the melons in two and serve with cracked ice in each half. If the
      melon is not too large serve a half as one portion. Serve on
      individual plates, or pass as first course for breakfast,
      luncheon, or dinner. Pass salt and sugar.

      For other arrangements of fruits see “Century Cook Book,” page
      529.


                        CLAM OR OYSTER COCKTAILS

Use small Little Neck clams or small Blue Point oysters.

    To each 8 or 10 clams or oysters use:
    One tablespoonful of tomato catsup,
    Two tablespoonfuls of Chili sauce,
    One half teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce,
    A dash of tabasco or of paprika,
    One tablespoonful of clam or oyster liquor,
    The juice of one quarter of a lemon.

Mix the sauces and let the clams or oysters stand in them for an hour
before serving.

Serve in small glasses as a first course.


[Illustration: NO. 24. ANCHOVY EGGS.]


                              ANCHOVY EGGS

Cut hard-boiled eggs in two lengthwise, using a thin-bladed, sharp
knife. Have the eggs boiled twenty-five minutes so the yolks will be
crumby.

Remove the yolks, mash them, and mix them with mayonnaise and the
trimmings of the anchovies. Just before serving, fill the white halves
with the yolk mixture, covering the whole top, heaping it in the middle
and leaving a rough surface. Trim anchovies to the right length and lay
two of them crossed over the top of each egg. Set each piece on a round
of bread sautéd in butter. Slice a little piece off the bottom of the
egg to make it stand firm.

Serve on individual plates.

Anchovies preserved in oil are put up in small bottles and can be
purchased from a grocer.


[Illustration: NO. 25. HEART-SHAPED SALMON CANAPÉS.]


                      HEART-SHAPED SALMON CANAPÉS

Cut very light bread into slices one quarter of an inch thick. Stamp
them with a cutter into heart shapes. Spread them thinly on both sides
with butter and put them in the oven to brown; or sauté them in butter.
Let them cool, then lay on each one a slice of Nova Scotia smoked
salmon, cut as thin as possible. Place around the edges of the heart a
border of chopped white of hard-boiled eggs, and a little crumbed yolk
just at the upper point of the heart, making a round spot. The salmon
must not be entirely covered with egg, so that the hearts may show three
colors. Serve on individual plates, with a small piece of parsley at the
rounded end.

Nova Scotia salmon can be bought at delicatessen stores.


[Illustration: NO. 26. OYSTERS AND CLAMS ON THE HALF SHELL.]


                            ANCHOVY CANAPÉS

Cut fresh bread into slices quarter of an inch thick, then into rounds
two and a half inches in diameter. Spread the rounds of bread with
butter, season with a little salt, pepper, and mustard.

Split and trim the anchovies to uniform length and arrange them on the
bread in rosette form. Fill the spaces between the anchovy fillets with
the chopped white and the crumbed yolk of hard-boiled eggs and make a
border around the bread with the white. Use a little chopped parsley in
the decoration.

For other canapés, see “Century Cook Book,” page 368.


                           CANAPÉS OF CAVIARE

Cut very light bread into slices quarter of an inch thick, then into
rounds or squares two inches across. Sauté them in butter on one side.
When they are cold spread them with a thin covering of caviare moistened
with a little oil and lemon juice. Place on the top of each one a very
thin slice of lemon.

Caviare is the fermented roe of the sturgeon. It is a dish much esteemed
in Russia, but the taste for it is not very general in other countries,
so discretion should be used in serving it.

It comes in small jars and can be obtained at grocers’.


                   OYSTERS OR CLAMS ON THE HALF SHELL

Raw oysters and clams are served on the “half shell” for a first course.
Blue Point oysters and Little Neck clams are the varieties preferred.
The smallest ones, and those uniform in size, should be selected. They
should be opened only a short time before serving. The muscle holding
the mollusk to the shell is cut and the oyster or clam is served on the
deep valve.

Arrange the clams or oysters symmetrically in a circle, the beaks turned
to the center, on a bed of cracked ice. Place in the middle a quarter of
a lemon cut lengthwise, the top edge shaved off and the seeds extracted.
Rest the piece of lemon on a sprig of parsley or any green leaf.

Condiments, thin brown bread and butter sandwiches, and biscuits are
passed with this course.

The condiments (horseradish and tomato catsup, black and red pepper) may
be placed on a dish, and the bread and biscuits arranged around them as
in illustration.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER III

                             SECOND COURSE

                                 SOUPS



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 SOUPS

      Consommé of Beef
      Consommé of Chicken
      Clam Broth
      Clam Bisque
      Cream of Clams
      Cream of Oysters
      Cream of Spinach
      Cream of Celery


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 SOUPS

Soups used for luncheon are served in cups. Any kind of soup can be
used, but those given below are the ones generally employed. For other
soups, see “Century Cook Book,” page 97.


[Illustration: NO. 27. BOUILLON CUP WITH SIPPETS OF TOAST AND ITALIAN
BREAD STICKS.]


                            CONSOMMÉ OF BEEF

Cut into pieces four pounds of beef taken from the under part of the
round, and the meat cut from a knuckle of veal. Put them into a soup pot
with two tablespoonfuls of butter and let them brown on all sides. Then
add a cupful of water and let it fall to a glaze. This is to give color
to the soup. Add five and a half quarts of cold water. Let it boil
slowly for five to six hours. An hour before removing it add soup
vegetables, a tablespoonful of salt, fifteen peppercorns, three cloves,
two bay-leaves, a little thyme, marjoram, and summer savory.

Strain the soup through a cloth and let it cool without covering. When
it is cold take off the grease. As no bones were boiled with the soup,
it will be clear; and as the meat was browned, it will have a good
color.

It can be made perfectly clear as follows: Pour the soup off the
sediment which has fallen to the bottom of the dish. Stir into it while
it is cold the whites of two eggs beaten enough to break them. Place it
on the fire and stir it until it comes to the boiling-point; the egg
will then be cooked and have imprisoned any particles which clouded the
soup. Let it boil violently for a few minutes, then draw it to the side
of the range. Strain it again through a cloth. Heat it again before
serving it.

In summer this soup is sometimes served cold in the form of jelly. In
this case the bone of the knuckle of veal must be cooked with it in
order to make it jelly. Care must be taken that during the cooking the
water only simmers, for if it boils lime will be extracted from the bone
and it will be impossible to have a clear soup.


                          CONSOMMÉ OF CHICKEN

Place a fowl in a soup pot with four quarts of cold water and let it
come slowly to the boiling-point, then draw it to the side of the range
and let it simmer for five or six hours. If it is allowed to boil the
soup will be clouded by lime extracted from the bones.

An hour before removing it add an onion, a branch of celery, a
tablespoon of salt, and six peppercorns. Strain it through a cloth, and
when cold remove the grease. Clear it the same as the beef consommé.

A knuckle of veal may also be used with this soup if a jellied stock is
wanted to serve cold.


                               CLAM BROTH

Boil clams in their own liquor for twenty minutes. Let the liquid settle
before pouring it off. Season it with pepper and serve it very hot in
cups, with a teaspoonful of whipped cream on the top of each cupful.
About two dozen clams will give a quart of liquor.


                              CLAM BISQUE

Boil a pint of clams in their own liquor. Chop the clams very fine and
return them to the fire with the clam liquor, a quart of soup stock
(chicken or veal stock preferred), half a cupful of uncooked rice, a
sprig of parsley, and a bay-leaf. Boil until the rice is tender, then
strain the soup through a purée sieve, pressing through as much of the
clams and rice as possible. Strain a second time. Just before serving,
heat it, add a cupful of cream, and beat the whole with an egg-whip.


                             CREAM OF CLAMS

Steam twenty-five clams and as soon as they open remove them from the
shells and strain off the liquor. Chop the clams, pound them in a
mortar, and rub as much of them as possible through a purée sieve. Put
three cupfuls of milk into a double boiler, cook two tablespoonfuls of
butter and two tablespoonfuls of flour together, but do not let them
brown, then add to the cooked butter and flour a little of the milk from
the boiler to make a smooth paste, put the paste into the milk in the
double boiler, and stir the mixture until it is a little thickened. When
ready to serve add two cupfuls of clam liquor and the pulp which has
passed through the sieve. Let it get hot, but do not let it boil or it
will curdle. Season with salt, if necessary, pepper, and a dash of
nutmeg. At the moment of serving add a cupful of cream and beat the
whole well with an egg-whip. This receipt makes a quart and a half of
soup.


                            CREAM OF OYSTERS

Prepare the same as the Cream of Clams.


                              CREAM SOUPS

Any vegetable pulp can be used for creamed soups after the rule given
for Cream of Spinach.


                            CREAM OF SPINACH

Boil spinach until tender, then drain it. Chop it and rub it through a
purée sieve. To two cupfuls of vegetable pulp add a quart of soup stock,
or a quart of milk, or half stock and half milk. Rub together a
tablespoonful of butter and two tablespoonfuls of flour. Put this into
the soup on the fire and stir all together until the soup is a little
thickened. Season it with pepper and salt and add a half or a whole
cupful of cream. Beat it well with an egg-whip and serve at once. If the
soup is too thick dilute it with a little stock or milk. It should have
the consistency of cream.


                            CREAM OF CELERY

This is prepared in the same manner as the Cream of Spinach, using
celery pulp instead of spinach. The roots of the celery as well as the
stalks should be boiled to make the pulp.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER IV

                              THIRD COURSE

                                  EGGS



------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                  EGGS

    Plain French Omelet
    Beaten Omelet
    Omelet Chasseur
    Eggs à la Romaine
    Eggs baked in Tomatoes
    Eggs baked in Green Peppers
    Scrambled Eggs with Tomato
    Creamed Poached Eggs
    Creamed Egg Baskets
    Poached Eggs with Greens
    Eggs in Nests
    Eggs Farci, No. 1
    Eggs Farci, No. 2
    Eggs with Giblet Sauce
    Eggs à l’Aurore
    Scrambled Eggs with Brains


------------------------------------------------------------------------


[Illustration: NO. 29.
1. EGGS À LA ROMAINE.
2. EGGS BAKED IN TOMATOES.
3. EGGS BAKED IN GREEN PEPPERS.
4. SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH TOMATOES.]


                                  EGGS

Egg dishes are especially useful for luncheon, as they are easily and
quickly prepared, are always liked, and can be served in a great variety
of ways. They may be used as a first course, or in the order named in
the list.


                             TO POACH EGGS

Drop the eggs into water just off the boiling-point. Let them cook
slowly until the whites are like jelly, but not until hard. Muffin-rings
may be used to keep them in good shape.


                     TO POACH EGGS IN FRENCH STYLE

Use a large saucepan and have it two thirds full of water. Add a
tablespoonful of vinegar. When the water boils stir it with the handle
of a wooden spoon until it whirls, then drop quickly a fresh egg into
the depression or eddy of the whirling water. This will give the egg a
rounded shape. When the white is set and before the yolk has hardened,
remove the egg with a skimmer and place it on a dish to drain. Only one
egg at a time can be cooked in this way. Trim the eggs carefully,
cutting away all the ragged white.


                            TO SCRAMBLE EGGS

Add a tablespoonful of milk, a saltspoonful of salt, and a dash of
pepper for every two eggs. Beat them just enough to break them, but not
enough to make them smooth or frothy. Put a tablespoonful of butter into
a sauté-pan, and when it bubbles turn in the eggs. With a fork scrape
the cooked eggs from the bottom of the pan, giving flakes of cooked egg.
If the butter is not allowed to brown, the eggs will have a clean,
bright yellow color.


                          PLAIN FRENCH OMELET

Add a tablespoonful of milk, a half teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of
pepper to three or four eggs. Beat them just enough to break them. Put a
tablespoonful of butter into a clean, smooth sauté-pan. When the butter
bubbles turn in the eggs. When the eggs are a little set on the bottom,
tip the pan a little towards the handle, and with a fork stir the
mixture on the handle half of the pan, lifting the cooked portion off
the bottom in large flakes. When the mixture is all cooked, but still
soft, pile the scrambled part on to the smooth half, making it high in
the center. Turn the omelet on to a hot dish. This should give a smooth
outside surface of egg, covering the softer inside portion, which is
scrambled in large flakes. It is not well to make an omelet of more than
three or four eggs. If more is needed, make a second omelet.


                             BEATEN OMELET

Beat the whites of three or four eggs to a stiff froth. Add to the yolks
a half teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, and a tablespoonful of
milk. Beat them well together, then fold in lightly the whipped whites.
Put a teaspoonful of butter in a sauté-pan and let it run all over the
bottom. When it bubbles turn in the egg mixture and spread it evenly
over the pan. Let it cook slowly without stirring until it seems cooked
through, then place it in the oven for a few minutes to harden the top
surface. Fold one half over the other and turn the omelet on to a hot
dish.


[Illustration: NO. 28. OMELET CHASSEUR.]


                            OMELET CHASSEUR

Make either a French or a beaten omelet. Before folding it, place in the
center some well-seasoned or creamed minced chicken, or other meat. Fold
the omelet and turn it on to a dish. Cover the top with well-seasoned
tomato. The tomato should be dry enough to hold its place, leaving a
border of yellow egg between the tomato and the meat.

No. 1. =Eggs à la romaine.= Cut sliced bread into rounds and sauté them
      in butter. Place on each one an artichoke bottom which has been
      heated in hot water. On the artichoke place an egg poached in the
      French style (see page 51). Arrange the eggs around a mound of
      green peas, and pour over the eggs a white sauce made partly of
      chicken stock, with the yolk of an egg beaten in the last thing.

No. 2. =Eggs baked in tomatoes.= Select round tomatoes of uniform size.
      Cut off the stem ends and take out enough of the pulp to leave a
      space as large as an egg. Sprinkle the inside with salt and
      pepper. Drop into each one an egg. Place the filled tomatoes in a
      baking-dish with a little hot water, and bake them about fifteen
      minutes, or until the eggs are set and the tomatoes are a little
      softened. Serve the eggs on rounds of bread browned in butter. No
      sauce is required with this dish.

No. 3. =Eggs baked in green peppers.= Select green peppers of uniform
      size and shape. Cut off the stems close to the peppers so they
      will stand firmly. Take off the tops and remove the seeds and
      ribs. Parboil them. Remove them from the water as soon as they are
      a little tender, and before they become limp. Break an egg into
      each one. Set them in a baking-pan with a little hot water, and
      bake them slowly about fifteen minutes, or until the eggs are set.
      Arrange them on rounds of browned bread with white sauce in the
      dish.

No. 4. =Scrambled eggs with tomato.= Place scrambled eggs on rounds of
      browned bread, and on the top of each piece place a slice of
      broiled tomato (see page 97). Serve with or without a white sauce.


[Illustration: NO. 30. CREAMED POACHED EGGS.]


                          CREAMED POACHED EGGS

Poach eggs, the French style preferred. Lay them on rounds of bread
sautéd in butter. Arrange them symmetrically and pour over them a
plentiful amount of white sauce made partly of stock, and having the
yolk of one or two eggs stirred in after it is taken from the fire.
Garnish the dish with a large bunch of parsley, or a bunch of
nasturtiums.

The dish may be varied by placing a very thin slice of broiled ham under
each egg; or the eggs may be covered with a tomato sauce.


[Illustration: NO. 31. CREAMED EGG BASKETS ON BEAN PURÉE.]


                          CREAMED EGG BASKETS

Boil the eggs hard. Cut them in two lengthwise and remove the yolks.
Drop the whites into hot water so they will be warm when needed for use.
Mash the yolks and mix them with a little white sauce, or with stock, or
with cream and a little butter and salt. Beat the mixture until it is
smooth and light. Press the paste through a pastry-bag and star tube
into the hollows of the white halves, and insert handles made of thin
slices of celery cut from the green ends. Arrange the little baskets on
a bed of any kind of well-seasoned vegetable.

In illustration the center is bean purée (see page 98) pressed through a
pastry-bag.


[Illustration: NO. 32. POACHED EGGS WITH GREENS.]


                        POACHED EGGS WITH GREENS

Boil green leaves of lettuce until tender, drain them, chop them fine,
and season with a little white sauce. Cover rounds of bread, which have
been browned in butter, with the lettuce; or, if more convenient, with
well-seasoned creamed spinach. Make nests of the green, leaving the
edges of the toast clean, with a border one half inch wide around the
depression. Place in each one an egg poached in the French style; or
break an uncooked egg into each hollow, and place them in the oven until
the eggs are set.


                             EGGS IN NESTS

Whip to a stiff froth the whites of as many eggs as are needed. Pile it
irregularly on a flat, buttered baking-dish, and make depressions in it
here and there. Sprinkle the hollows with salt and pepper and drop into
each one the yolk of an egg. Put a small piece of butter on each yolk.
Place the dish in a moderate oven for five to eight minutes. Serve at
once.

The yolks can be conveniently kept in the half shells until needed.


[Illustration: NO. 33. SPANISH EGGS.]


                              SPANISH EGGS

Cover the bottom of an earthen baking-dish with well-seasoned tomato
purée. Arrange on it poached eggs, leaving spaces to show the red color.
Lay between the eggs whole small sausages, already cooked, or sausages
cut in inch lengths. Place a bit of butter on each egg and set the dish
in the oven to heat it only.


[Illustration: NO. 34. EGGS FARCI, NO. 1.]


[Illustration: NO. 35. EGGS FARCI, NO. 2.]


                               EGGS FARCI

No. 1. Boil until hard as many eggs as are needed. Cut them in two
      lengthwise. Remove the yolks and mash them. To six yolks add four
      tablespoonfuls of crumb of bread, softened with water, one half
      teaspoonful of onion juice, and two tablespoonfuls of chopped
      parsley. Mix well. Put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan on
      the fire, add the egg mixture with enough milk or stock to moisten
      it, but not enough to make it lose consistency. Season with salt,
      pepper, and a dash of nutmeg. A mushroom or a chicken liver
      chopped fine added to the farce improves its flavor. Fill the
      whites of the eggs with the farce, and with what is left make a
      mound on the serving-dish. Pour a white sauce over it and arrange
      the stuffed eggs on it; or cut the eggs in two crosswise and fill
      the cups with farce, molding it to look like whole yolks. Cut a
      small slice off the ends so they will stand. Arrange them on a
      dish with white sauce around them.

No. 2. Boil until hard a dozen eggs, cut them in two lengthwise and
      remove the yolks. Place the whites in cold water to keep them
      white until ready to use them. Put in a chopping-bowl the breast
      of a fowl which has been boiled for chicken stock, the yolks of
      the boiled eggs, two fresh mushrooms sautéd, one half of a
      truffle, two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley, and two
      tablespoonfuls of crumb of bread. Chop all together to a fine
      mince. Place in a saucepan two tablespoonfuls of butter and a
      teaspoonful of onion juice. When the butter bubbles add the
      chopped mixture moistened with enough chicken stock to make it of
      the right consistency for filling the egg cups. Season it with two
      teaspoonfuls of salt, one half teaspoonful of pepper, and a dash
      of nutmeg, and stir until it is hot. Place the whites in hot water
      to heat them, then fill each one with the hot farce, rounding it
      to look like a whole yolk.

      Make a sauce as follows. Beat the yolks of two eggs enough to
      break them, stir them into a cupful of cream, and add this to the
      farce left after filling the cups. Stir it over the fire long
      enough to set the eggs. If not soft enough, add stock to make it
      the consistency of thick cream. Pour this sauce on a platter and
      arrange the stuffed eggs on it in lines or in circles.


[Illustration: NO. 36. EGGS WITH GIBLET SAUCE.]


No. 3. =With giblet sauce.= Prepare eggs as in No. 1. Add chopped
      giblets to a brown sauce. Spread the sauce on a dish and place the
      stuffed eggs upon it.


[Illustration: NO. 37. EGGS À L’AURORE IN CUPS.]


                            EGGS À L’AURORE

Chop the whites of hard-boiled eggs into fine dice. Mix them with enough
white sauce to make them creamy. Crumb the yolks by pressing them
through a coarse sieve or a colander, and spread them over the creamed
whites.


                   SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH CALVES’ BRAINS

To a pair of calves’ brains use three or four eggs. Scald the brains by
letting them lie in scalding water six or eight minutes. Trim them and
cut them into half-inch dice. Put them in a sauté-pan with a
tablespoonful of butter and cook them until they look white, then add
the beaten eggs and stir them all together, using a fork, until the eggs
are cooked. Add one half teaspoonful of salt and one quarter teaspoonful
of pepper.

For other egg dishes, see “Century Cook Book,” page 261.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER V

                             FOURTH COURSE

                        SHELL-FISH—LOBSTERS—FISH



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                        SHELL-FISH—LOBSTERS—FISH


    Sautéd Oysters
    Fried Oysters with Cold Slaw
    Oysters à la Newburg
    Fried Scallops
    Scallops on the Shell
    Creamed Lobster
    Broiled Lobster
    Broiled Smelts
    Broiled Shad Roe
    Shad Roe Croquettes
    Fillets of Fish, Fried
    Rolled Fillets of Flounder
    Baked Fillets of Fish with Sauce
    Fillets of Fish with Mushrooms
    Creamed Fish Garnished with Potatoes
    Fish à la Japonnaise


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             SAUTÉD OYSTERS

Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into a sauté-pan; when it is hot add as
many drained oysters as will make two cupfuls. Add a little salt and
pepper and a tablespoonful of lemon juice. Shake them in the pan until
the gills are curled, then add a tablespoonful of parsley chopped very
fine. Turn them upon slices of toasted bread on a hot platter.


[Illustration: NO. 38. FRIED OYSTERS WITH COLD SLAW.]


                      FRIED OYSTERS WITH COLD SLAW

Use box oysters. These are large in size and cost two cents each.

Lay the oysters on a cloth to dry them. Roll them in cracker dust, then
in egg diluted with a little milk and seasoned with pepper and salt,
then again cover them with cracker dust. Lay them in a frying-basket and
fry them in smoking-hot fat just long enough to give them a light-brown
color. Oysters toughen if cooked too long. Prepare only four at a time,
as more lower the temperature of the fat too much, and if they are
rolled before the moment of frying they moisten the cracker dust. Place
them on a paper on the hot shelf until all are done.

Fold a small napkin and place it in the center of a cold platter. Pile
the oysters on the napkin and make a wreath around them of cold slaw.


                               COLD SLAW

Cut cabbage into fine shreds. Put in a saucepan a half cupful of weak
vinegar, the yolks of three eggs, a half teaspoonful of English mustard,
a dash of pepper, a teaspoonful of salt and of sugar. Beat them
together, then place them on the fire and stir until the mixture is
thickened. Pour it, while hot, over the cabbage and set it away to cool.


                          OYSTERS À LA NEWBURG

Place twenty-five large oysters in a saucepan with one and one half
tablespoonfuls of butter, half a cupful of white wine or a tablespoonful
of lemon juice, and a little pepper and salt. Cook until the oysters are
plump, then add half a cupful of mushrooms cut into quarters, and a
chopped truffle, if convenient. Beat the yolks of four eggs into a
cupful of cream, turn it into the oyster mixture, and let it get hot and
a little thickened, without boiling. Turn it into a hot dish and garnish
with croutons.

Oysters toughen if cooked too long, and cream curdles easily when added
to a mixture which has acid in it, so it is necessary to prepare this
dish quickly and to serve it at once.


                                SCALLOPS

Scallops are the adductor muscle of a large pecten, a mollusk commonly
known as scallop.


                             FRIED SCALLOPS

Marinate the scallops in a mixture of oil, lemon juice, salt, and
pepper. Roll them in cracker dust, then in egg, and again in cracker
dust or white bread crumbs. Fry them in smoking-hot fat to a golden
color.

Prepare but a few at a time so the covering will not be dampened, serve
on a napkin with quarters of lemon, and sprinkle over them parsley
chopped very fine.


                         SCALLOPS ON THE SHELL

Discard the black ring. Cut the scallops into quarters. Place them in
the scallop shells. Dredge them with salt, pepper, and chopped parsley,
then cover them with a layer of chopped fresh, or canned, mushrooms,
some bits of butter, a teaspoonful of white wine or of lemon juice, for
each shell, and lastly with bread crumbs moistened with butter. Place
them in a hot oven for ten or fifteen minutes.


[Illustration: NO. 39. CREAMED LOBSTER.]


                            CREAMED LOBSTER

Cut the meat of boiled lobster into inch dice. Put a tablespoonful of
butter in a saucepan with a teaspoonful of grated onion, let them cook a
minute, then add a tablespoonful of flour. Stir for a few minutes to
cook the flour, and then add slowly a cupful of stock and a
tablespoonful of lemon juice, or a quarter of a cupful of white wine.
When all this thickens add the lobster meat, turning it carefully so as
not to break it. When the meat is heated remove it from the fire and mix
in a quarter of a cupful of cream which has the yolk of an egg beaten in
it. Replace it on the fire for just a minute.

Serve in fontage cups or as in illustration No. 39.

For Lobster Newburg and other lobster dishes, see “Century Cook Book,”
page 136.


                            BROILED LOBSTER

Parboil a lobster. As soon as it begins to turn red take it out. Split
it in two down the back. Remove and discard the stomach and intestine.
Remove the green and the coral.

Broil it fifteen to twenty minutes with the shell side to the fire, but
turn the flesh side to the coals for a minute before removing it, then
at once season it with butter, pepper, and salt.

Mix the green, which is the liver, and the coral with melted butter and
use it as a sauce.


                             BROILED SMELTS

Select large smelts of equal size. Have them split down the back, the
head and tail left on. Dip them in melted butter and broil them until
they are tender. Lay them evenly on a hot dish and spread them with
maître d’hôtel butter (see page 103).

If convenient, arrange a wreath of watercress around the dish.


                            BROILED SHAD ROE

Wash and dry the roes, then broil them very slowly and keep them
moistened with butter to prevent the skin from breaking. They may also
be cooked by sautéing them in butter; or they may be baked in the oven
with a little stock or water in the pan to baste them with. Cook them
brown. Cover the top with butter, pepper, salt, and a little lemon
juice, and sprinkle them with chopped parsley. Garnish with lemon and
watercress and serve some of the watercress with each portion. Serve
them with maître d’hôtel butter.


                          SHAD ROE CROQUETTES

Boil shad roes in salted, acidulated water for fifteen minutes, letting
the water simmer only, so that the skin will not break. When they are
cold cut them, using a sharp knife, into slices one and one half inches
thick. Sprinkle them with salt, pepper, and lemon juice. Roll them first
in egg, then in bread crumbs or cracker dust, and fry them in
smoking-hot fat to a light brown color. Garnish with watercress and
serve them with maître d’hôtel butter.


[Illustration: NO. 40. BROILED SMELTS.]


[Illustration: NO. 41. BROILED SHAD ROE.]


[Illustration: NO. 42. SHAD ROE CROQUETTES.]


                            FILLETS OF FISH

Fillets of fish are the flesh of the fish freed from the skin and bones.
(See “Century Cook Book,” page 112.) The fillets of flounder are used to
imitate sole, a variety of fish much esteemed in France and England.
Sheepshead and other smaller fish also make good fillets.


                         FRIED FILLETS OF FISH

Marinate the fillets by letting them lie in a mixture of oil, salt,
pepper, lemon juice, and chopped parsley. Take the fillets from the
marinade, roll them first in flour, then in egg, and then in white bread
crumbs grated from the loaf. Fry them to a lemon color in smoking-hot
fat. They must not be cooked too long or they will become dry. They may
also be cooked by sautéing, using half butter and half lard. Prepare one
fillet at a time, for the covering of flour and crumbs will become damp
if it stands long, and then will not crisp. If the fillets are small,
serve them piled in crossed layers on a napkin and garnish with quarters
of lemon. If they are large, serve with maître d’hôtel butter or with
tartare sauce and garnish with watercress.


                       ROLLED FILLETS OF FLOUNDER

Sprinkle each fillet with salt and pepper. Spread it with a mixture made
of butter, lemon juice, and parsley cut in pieces, not chopped fine.
Fold the fillet over, roll it, and fasten it with a wooden toothpick or
small skewer. Stand the rolled fillets on end in a baking-pan, put a
piece of butter on the top of each one, and pour over the whole a half
cupful of white cooking wine (California sauterne). Bake them in a
moderate oven for twenty minutes, or until tender, and baste them
frequently. Arrange the fillets symmetrically on a platter. Put a piece
of parsley in the top of each one, and place in the center of the dish a
lemon cut into the shape of a basket. Sprinkle the exposed pulp of the
lemon with chopped parsley.

Make a sauce to serve with the fish as follows: Add to the drippings, in
the pan in which the fish was cooked, a tablespoonful of flour, stir
constantly until the flour is cooked, then add enough stock to make a
creamy sauce. Add pepper and salt if necessary.


                    BAKED FILLETS OF FISH WITH SAUCE

Arrange evenly on a baking-platter fillets of flounder or of sheepshead,
or slices of halibut or codfish cut one quarter of an inch thick.
Sprinkle them with salt and pepper.

Make a sauce as follows: Put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan,
add to it a half teaspoonful of onion juice, cook until the butter has
browned, then add a tablespoonful of flour and stir until the flour has
browned. Take it off the fire and add very slowly one and a half cupfuls
of soup stock, stirring constantly to keep the mixture smooth. Add a
tablespoonful of parsley chopped very fine, a teaspoonful of lemon
juice, a teaspoonful of salt, one half teaspoonful of pepper, and, if
convenient, a teaspoonful of mushroom catsup, or a half cupful of liquor
from a can of mushrooms, or a half cupful of juice strained from a can
of tomatoes. Pour the sauce over the fish, lifting the fillets a little
to let the sauce run under them. Place the dish in the oven and cook for
thirty minutes, or until the fish is tender. If the sauce dries away too
much, baste the fish with stock. The cooked sauce should have the
consistency of cream.

When taken from the oven sprinkle the top with bread crumbs browned in
butter and ornament with mashed potato pressed through a pastry-bag and
star tube, making a design that will cover the edges of the platter
where the sauce has stained it. Set the hot platter on a second platter
to serve.


[Illustration: NO. 43. ROLLED FILLETS OF FLOUNDER. A PIECE OF PARSLEY
PLACED IN THE TOP OF EACH ONE; A LEMON BASKET IN CENTER AND QUARTERS OF
LEMON BETWEEN THE FILLETS.]


[Illustration: NO. 44. BAKED FILLETS OF FISH WITH MUSHROOMS.]


[Illustration: NO. 45. CREAMED FISH GARNISHED WITH POTATO.]


[Illustration: NO. 46. FISH À LA JAPONNAISE, PREPARED FOR BAKING AND
SHOWING HOW IT MAY BE GARNISHED.]


[Illustration: NO. 47. SLICED CUCUMBER AROUND A MOUND OF ICE. TO SERVE
WITH FISH.]


Creamed hashed fish can be served in the same manner. After the fish has
been mixed with the sauce spread it smoothly on the baking-platter,
cover the top with buttered bread crumbs, and set it in the oven to
brown.


                     FILLETS OF FISH WITH MUSHROOMS

Take fillets of flounder, season them with pepper and salt. Take half a
can or more of mushrooms, a slice of onion, and a sprig of parsley, and
chop them all fine; add a cupful of stock and a tablespoonful of sherry.
Spread a part of this mixture on the bottom of a platter that can be
used in the oven. Lay the fillets of fish on the mixture. Cover them
with the rest of the mixture, then with bread crumbs and with small
pieces of butter. Bake forty minutes or until the fillets are tender.
Heat the rest of the mushrooms in a little stock. Place them around the
edges of the dish and pour the stock over the whole if the fillets are
at all dry. This dish should be very moist.


                  CREAMED FISH GARNISHED WITH POTATOES

Make a good white sauce, or any other sauce preferred. Cut cold boiled
fish in pieces one or two inches across and heat them in the sauce
without breaking them. Use a plentiful amount of the sauce. Turn the
fish mixture on to a platter and sprinkle over the top a little parsley
chopped very fine.

Season some mashed potato with salt, butter, and milk, and beat it until
it is light and white. Press it through a pastry-bag with star tube into
rosettes, forming a wreath around the creamed fish.


                          FISH À LA JAPONNAISE

Make a creamed mince of any kind of fish, or use a fish forcemeat.
Canned salmon is very good for the purpose.

Place the creamed fish on a piece of stiff paper and mold it into the
form of a fish. Roll some pie paste very thin. Lay a piece of the paste
on one end of the mince and shape it into the form of a fish’s tail. Cut
the paste into circles of half an inch diameter, using a pastry-tube if
a small vegetable-cutter is not at hand. Beginning at the tail, cover
the molded fish with little rounds of paste, placing them in even
overlapping layers to imitate scales, and mold a piece of pastry to
imitate a head and fins. Use half a cranberry or a turned vegetable to
imitate an eye. Brush the paste over lightly with yolk of egg and place
it in the oven to brown. Slip it carefully off the baking-sheet on to
the serving platter. Trim off the paper that projects and garnish.

Illustration No. 46 shows a fish ready to bake and the manner in which
it may be garnished.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER VI

                        FIFTH OR SEVENTH COURSE

                                ENTRÉES



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                ENTRÉES


    Rissoles
    Vol-au-vent
    Sweetbreads, Baked
    Sweetbreads, Glazed
    Sweetbreads, Coquilles of
    Calf’s Brains à la Poulette
    Calf’s Brains à l’Aurore
    Calf’s Brains with Hollandaise Sauce
    Calf’s Brains with Black Butter
    Croquettes
    Timbales of Chicken
    Timbales of Liver
    Mushrooms, Baked
    Mushrooms, Stuffed
    Tomatoes, Stuffed
    Green Peppers, Stuffed
    Baked Tomatoes and Fontage Cups
    Jardinière
    Vegetarian Dish


------------------------------------------------------------------------



[Illustration: NO. 49. RISSOLES.]


                                RISSOLES

Roll puff paste about one eighth of an inch thick. Put a teaspoonful of
meat of any kind at intervals on the paste, about three inches from the
edge. Moisten the paste around the meat-ball, fold over the paste, and
press it lightly around the meat. Stamp it with a fluted biscuit-cutter
into half circles, leaving the meat on the straight side and an inch of
paste around the meat on the round side. Egg the top and bake from
fifteen to twenty minutes in a hot oven.


[Illustration: NO. 50. VOL-AU-VENT.]


                              VOL-AU-VENT

Roll puff paste (see page 154) three quarters of an inch to an inch in
thickness. Stamp it with a cutter, or if this is not convenient use a
tin, of the size desired, for a gage; lay the tin lightly on the paste,
and with a sharp knife cut around it with a quick, firm stroke so as to
press the paste as little as possible; then with a sharp-pointed knife
cut a ring around the form, leaving a border about an inch wide, and do
not let the knife penetrate the paste more than an eighth of an inch.
Brush the top with the yolk of an egg, diluted with a little water, and
set it away to cool. Bake it in a hot oven as directed for puff paste
for thirty minutes, and do not open the oven door during the first
fifteen minutes. It should rise to about three times its original
thickness. When it is well dried and a good light-brown color, remove it
from the oven and let it stand for a few minutes, then carefully lift
out the centerpiece and remove all the uncooked paste. Set it in the
oven again to dry the inside. The uncooked pieces can also be returned
to the oven for a few minutes, and when dry be put back into the shell.

Although puff paste is better when used at once, it will keep very well
for several days, and will be perfectly crisp and tender if well heated
in the oven just before being used.

When ready to serve fill the center with any salpicon, place the little
cover on top, and set the vol-au-vent on a lace-paper. The filling must
not be put in until just before sending it to the table, as it will
soften the pastry if it stands in it for any length of time.


                                SALPICON

For filling vol-au-vent or patty shells.

Salpicon is made of cooked chicken, sweetbreads, veal, or calf’s brains
cut into small dice, mixed with mushrooms, a little chopped truffle and
chopped tongue. One meat alone, or a combination of two or more, may be
used. The mixture is then combined with enough good sauce to make it
creamy. A white sauce should be used with white meats; a brown sauce
when the dark meat and livers of chicken are used. (See “Century Cook
Book,” pages 80-299.)

A plain white sauce is made as follows: Put a tablespoonful of butter in
a saucepan. When the butter is hot add a tablespoonful of flour and cook
them together for a few minutes, not letting them brown; remove from the
fire and add a cupful of stock. Add the liquor very slowly at first,
stirring constantly to keep it smooth. Return the sauce to the fire, add
a teaspoonful of salt, a quarter teaspoonful of pepper, and a little
cream, if convenient. Stir constantly until the sauce is thickened.
Lastly, add the beaten yolks of one or two eggs to the sauce after it
has been taken off the fire.


                              SWEETBREADS

Sweetbreads are the thymus gland and the pancreas of calves and lambs.
They are commonly called by butchers the throat and the stomach, or
heart, sweetbreads. The former is the larger, the latter is the whiter,
rounder, and more delicate.


                         TO PREPARE SWEETBREADS

Soak the sweetbreads in cold water for two hours, changing the water
several times. Put them on the fire in cold water. When they are
whitened and firm to the touch, or parboiled, remove and immerse them
again in cold water to blanch them. Remove all the pipes, fibers, and
fatty substance. Roll each one in a piece of cheese-cloth, draw the
cloth tight and tie it at the ends, pressing the sweetbread into an oval
shape. Place them under a light weight for several hours.


[Illustration: NO. 51. BAKED SWEETBREADS WITH SALT PORK ON TOP.]


                           BAKED SWEETBREADS

Parboil and blanch the sweetbreads. Marinate them by standing them for
two hours in a mixture of one beaten egg, a teaspoonful of onion juice,
one half teaspoonful of salt, one quarter teaspoonful of pepper, and one
tablespoonful of chopped parsley. Turn them in the marinade occasionally
so they will absorb the seasoning. Roll them in cracker dust and place
them in a pan on very thin slices of salt pork, and place a thin slice
of pork on top of each one. Bake in a hot oven fifteen or twenty
minutes, or until they are tender and brown. The pork will crisp and the
sweetbread will brown around it.

Serve with a sauce made as follows: Brown a little flour in the
drippings left in the pan, then add a little water or stock, a little
lemon juice, and what is left of the marinade. Stir it until it has the
consistency of thick cream and strain it on to the platter. Place the
sweetbreads upon the sauce.


[Illustration: NO. 52. GLAZED SWEETBREADS.]


                           GLAZED SWEETBREADS


Place sweetbreads, prepared as directed on page 73, in a sauté-pan with
butter and a few slices of onion. Sauté them for a few minutes on both
sides, then place them in the oven to finish cooking. Put a little stock
in the baking-pan and baste them frequently to brown and glaze them.
Serve them as in illustration, or place them around a pile of green
peas.


                        COQUILLES OF SWEETBREADS

Parboil one pair of sweetbreads. Trim and put them under a light weight
to cool. When they are cold and firm cut them into dice. Sauté them in a
tablespoonful of butter for a few minutes, then add a cupful of button
mushrooms cut in quarters, a tablespoonful of white wine or of lemon
juice, a dash of pepper, a saltspoonful of salt, and cook them until
tender, then add a white sauce as given below, and turn over the mixture
until it is creamy. Fill shells with the mixture, cover the tops with
white bread crumbs wet with melted butter, and place them in the oven to
brown.


[Illustration: NO. 53. COQUILLES OF SWEETBREADS.]


Chicken, turkey, or veal can be used instead of sweetbreads in the same
way.

Sauce: Put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan; when it bubbles, add
a tablespoonful of flour. Cook the flour a few minutes, but do not let
it brown. Remove it from the fire and add, while stirring all the time,
a half cupful of stock, chicken stock preferred, a dash of nutmeg and of
pepper, and a saltspoonful of salt. Put the saucepan on the fire again
and stir until the sauce has thickened, then add two tablespoonfuls of
cream.

Any pretty bivalve shell of suitable size may be used for holding this
or other creamed mixtures. The illustration shows pecten and cardium
shells.


                        TO PREPARE CALF’S BRAINS

Calf’s brains, in whatever way they are to be served, must be prepared
in the following manner: Soak the brains in cold water for some time to
extract all the blood. Trim them, removing the membranes and fibers,
without breaking the brains apart. Place them in hot water with a
bay-leaf, soup vegetables, a few peppercorns, a teaspoonful of salt, and
a tablespoonful of vinegar. Cook them for half an hour, letting the
water simmer only. When done immerse them in cold water to blanch them.


                             CALF’S BRAINS

No. 1. =À la poulette.= Cut the brains in halves or quarters. Arrange
      them in a circle around mushrooms and pour over the whole a white
      sauce made partly of stock, and the beaten yolks of two eggs with
      a little cream added after the sauce is taken from the fire.
      Garnish with croutons or cut the brains into large dice, mix them
      with the same sauce, and serve them in individual cups.

No. 2. =À l’aurore.= Cut the brains into dice; add the chopped whites of
      three or four hard-boiled eggs to each pair of brains. Add a
      teaspoonful of parsley chopped very fine, and a saltspoonful of
      salt. Moisten with white sauce and place the mixture in a
      baking-dish. Cover the top with crumbed yolks, and over the yolks
      spread a thin layer of white bread crumbs wet with butter. Set the
      dish in the oven to brown the crumbs.

No. 3. =With Hollandaise sauce.= Cut the brains in halves. Place each
      piece on a round of bread which has been browned in butter. Pour
      over the whole a Hollandaise sauce, or a white sauce to which has
      been added, after taking it from the fire, the beaten yolk of an
      egg and a tablespoonful of parsley chopped very fine.

No. 4. =With black butter.= Cut the brains into thick slices. Cook two
      tablespoonfuls of butter in a sauté-pan until it is brown. Lay in
      the slices of brains and color them on both sides. Arrange them in
      a dish, sprinkle them with chopped parsley, pepper, and salt. Add
      a teaspoonful of vinegar to the butter, and strain it over the
      brains.


                               CROQUETTES

Croquettes can be made of chicken or turkey or veal, alone, but are much
nicer when the meat is mixed with sweetbreads or calf’s brains and
mushrooms. The meat mixture must be chopped very fine.

Make a sauce as follows:

Put a tablespoonful of butter and a half teaspoonful of onion juice into
a saucepan. When it bubbles add two tablespoonfuls of flour and cook it
a few minutes without browning, then add slowly, so as to keep it
smooth,

      A cupful of jellied stock,
      1 teaspoonful of salt,
      1 saltspoonful of pepper,
      A dash of paprika,
      A dash of celery salt,
      A dash of nutmeg.

Cook until the sauce has thickened a little. Remove it from the fire,
stir in a beaten egg and two cupfuls of minced meat. Turn it on to a tin
platter and place it on the ice to set.


[Illustration: NO. 54. CHICKEN CROQUETTES.]


[Illustration: NO. 55. TIMBALES OF CHICKEN.]


When the mixture is set mold the croquettes into shapes pointed at one
end. Cover them with egg diluted with a very little water, to break the
stringiness of the whites, then cover them with bread crumbs. Crumbs
grated from the loaf give a better color than dried crumbs composed
partly of crusts. Fry the croquettes in smoking-hot fat to a light-brown
color, and until a thin crust is formed. Place them on paper in the open
oven to dry and keep hot until all are fried. Arrange them symmetrically
on a platter and stick a paper frill into the pointed end of each one.
These frills are fastened to a little stick. They can be bought at
confectioners’.

It is important to use for the sauce stock which jellies, as it hardens
the mixture and makes it easy to mold, while it softens when the
croquettes are fried, making them very creamy. Stock will jelly if a
knuckle of veal is used in making it. If jellied stock is not at hand,
put a level teaspoonful of soaked gelatine into a cupful of any stock or
of milk.


                            CHICKEN TIMBALES

Lay raw chicken breasts on a board and scrape off the meat, thus
separating it from the large fibers. Put the scraped meat in a mortar
with the white of an egg and pound it to separate it still more from the
fibers, then rub it through a purée sieve.

Soak some crumb of bread with milk, stir it to a smooth paste, and cook
it until it leaves the sides of the pan. This makes a panada.

Take a half cupful of the fine chicken meat, a quarter of a cupful of
panada, one egg, a half teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper and of
nutmeg. Beat them all well together, then fold in lightly a half cupful
of cream whipped to a stiff froth.

This quantity of material will make six individual timbales.

Butter the timbale molds well, ornament them with slices of truffle cut
into fancy shapes, or with chopped truffle sprinkled over the surface.
Put the mixture into the molds carefully with a small spoon so as not to
disarrange the decoration, and fill them to within a quarter of an inch
of the top. Set them in a pan of hot water. Cover them with a greased
paper and poach them in the oven for five to eight minutes, or until
they are firm to the touch.

Turn the timbales on to a flat dish and pour around them a white sauce
made with chicken stock and the yolks of two eggs diluted with two
tablespoonfuls of cream added the last thing. (See Allemande and
Poulette sauces, “Century Cook Book,” pages 279-280.)


                             LIVER TIMBALES

Cut two pounds of liver into large pieces and rub them through a grater.

Moisten a half cupful of crumbs of bread and a half cupful of flour with
a cupful of milk.

Fry the slices of half an onion in a tablespoonful of butter until they
are tender, then remove them and turn into the pan the mixture of bread,
flour, and milk. Stir until it is cooked to a smooth paste.

Put into a bowl two cupfuls of liver pulp, the bread paste, a
teaspoonful of salt, a saltspoonful of pepper, and a dash of paprika.
Mix them well together and add, one at a time, four eggs, beating in
each one well, then add enough cream to make rather a thin batter. Pass
the whole through a purée sieve. Beat it well again and turn it into
molds.

This amount of mixture will fill twelve individual timbale molds and one
pint mold, the latter to be used cold (see page 127).

Fill the individual timbale molds to within a quarter of an inch of the
top, set them into a pan of hot water, cover them with a greased paper,
and poach them in the oven for fifteen to twenty minutes, or until firm
to the touch.

Turn the timbales on to a flat dish and pour around them a little good
brown sauce. The molds may be ornamented, if desired, the same as
chicken timbales, using the white of hard-boiled eggs instead of
truffles.

For other timbale receipts, see “Century Cook Book,” page 296.


[Illustration: NO. 56. BAKED MUSHROOMS ON TOAST. THE BREAD STAMPED IN
LEAF SHAPES.]


                            BAKED MUSHROOMS

Cut the mushroom stems off even with the caps. Peel the caps and stand
them on a dish with the gills up. Sprinkle them with pepper and salt and
let them stand until moisture gathers on them. Cut sliced bread with a
biscuit-cutter into rounds, or if convenient use a fancy cutter.
Illustration shows bread cut with a leaf-shaped stamp. Dip the pieces of
bread into water to moisten them, but do not let them get soggy. Place
them on a baking-tin and sprinkle with pepper and salt and bits of
butter. Arrange the mushrooms on them, one or more according to size,
with the gills up. Bake about thirty minutes, or until tender.

Watch them carefully so they will not get overdone or too dry. Baste
with melted butter, if necessary, while they are baking.


                           STUFFED MUSHROOMS

Cut the stems off close to the gills. Peel the caps. Cut the stems fine.
Sauté all the parts together in butter. Remove the caps when they are
tender and before they lose shape. After the caps are removed add six
drops of onion juice and a teaspoonful of flour. Let the flour cook a
few minutes and then add a quarter of a cupful of stock and a
tablespoonful of minced chicken or livers, pepper, and salt, and stir
until the mixture is thickened.

Place a little of this mixture on the gills of each mushroom. This
quantity is enough for six or eight large caps. Use the stuffed
mushrooms for garnishing meat dishes, or serve them separately as an
entreé on rounds of bread which have been browned in butter.


[Illustration: NO. 57. STUFFED TOMATOES.]


                            STUFFED TOMATOES

Select smooth, round tomatoes of equal size. Cut a slice off the stem
end. Remove carefully the pulp and fill the shells with any of the
mixtures given below. Cover the top of the stuffing with bread crumbs
moistened with melted butter. Bake them about one half hour, or until
they are tender, but not fallen out of shape. Have a little water in the
bottom of the baking-pan. Use them for garnishing meat dishes, or serve
them on rounds of browned bread as an entrée.


                         STUFFING FOR TOMATOES

No. 1. Chop fine a half cupful of canned mushrooms, add a half or three
      quarters of a cupful of crumb of bread and the pulp taken from six
      tomatoes, a tablespoonful of chopped ham or of chicken, if
      convenient, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, six drops of onion
      juice, a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, and a teaspoonful
      of melted butter. If the mixture is not sufficiently moistened by
      the tomato juice add enough stock to make it quite wet.

No. 2. Use equal parts of minced meat (chicken or veal preferred) and
      crumb of bread, add the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs. Season with
      chopped parsley, a little onion juice, pepper, and salt. Moisten
      with the pulp taken from the tomatoes, or with stock, or with both
      of them.

No. 3. Use boiled rice mixed with chopped green peppers, a few drops of
      onion juice, pepper, and salt. Moisten with the pulp taken from
      the tomato, or with stock.

No. 4. Boil macaroni, broken into half-inch lengths, until tender.
      Moisten it with well-seasoned white sauce, and add some grated
      cheese, a little pepper and salt, and a dash of paprika.


                         STUFFED GREEN PEPPERS

Select green peppers of equal size. Cut a piece off the stem end, or cut
them lengthwise. Remove the seeds and ribs. Parboil them, stuff them
with any of the mixtures given for stuffed tomatoes, using stock instead
of tomato-pulp for moistening. Bake with a little water in a pan for
fifteen to twenty minutes, or until they are tender, but not so long as
to allow them to lose their shape. Sprinkle a little parsley chopped
fine over the tops just before serving them.


[Illustration: NO. 58. BAKED STUFFED TOMATOES AND FONTAGE CUPS.]


                    BAKED TOMATOES AND FONTAGE CUPS

Place in the center of the dish stuffed tomatoes (see page 80) and place
around them fontage cups filled with eggs à l’aurore, as in
illustration, or with any well-seasoned vegetable, or minced meat. Put a
handle made of celery in each cup, to resemble a basket.

Eggs à l’aurore are chopped hard-boiled eggs moistened with white sauce.


[Illustration: NO. 59. JARDINIÈRE.]


                               JARDINIÈRE

The illustration shows a variety of vegetables served together, or à la
jardinière.

This dish can be used as a course or vegetable entrée, and is
particularly appreciated where one has an abundance of fresh vegetables
from the garden. The vegetables should be well seasoned and arranged
with regard to color so as to give a pleasing effect.

The combination used in the illustration is a cauliflower, green peas,
string beans, lima beans, corn, macedoine, and baked tomatoes.


[Illustration: NO. 60. VEGETARIAN DISH. RING OF RICE FILLED WITH CORN.
FONTAGE CUPS HOLDING LIMA BEANS.]


                            VEGETARIAN DISH

After boiling enough rice to fill a ring mold, steam it until it is
quite dry, and until the grains are separated. Mix the rice with enough
thick white sauce to moisten it. Butter a ring-mold well and sprinkle it
thickly with white bread crumbs (crumbs grated from the loaf). Put in
the prepared rice and place the ring in a pan, the bottom of which is
covered with a very little water. Cover the top with greased paper, and
bake for half an hour, or until the crumbs are brown. Turn the browned
ring on a platter. Fill the center with any vegetable, and place around
the outside fontage cups holding a second vegetable. In the illustration
the ring is filled with corn, and the cups hold small lima beans.

A good combination is baked tomatoes alternating with fontage cups
holding macedoine of vegetables, the ring holding green peas.

The same style of dish may be made with meat. The ring may be made with
mashed potato and hold minced creamed meat.



------------------------------------------------------------------------

                              CHAPTER VII

                              SIXTH COURSE

                                 MEATS



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 MEATS


      Casserole of Beef
      Fillet of Beef
      Filets Mignons
      Filets Mignons with Tomatoes and Mushrooms
      Mutton Chops à la Soubise
      Mutton Chops with Horseradish Sauce
      Mutton Chops Boned, with Artichokes
      Mutton Chops Boned, with Mushrooms
      Leg of Mutton à la Jardinière
      Leg of Mutton Slices
      Cottage Pie
      Meat and Potato Pie
      Minced Meat with Potato Rings
      Minced Ham and Eggs
      Veal Chops
      Veal à l’Italienne
      Veal Cutlets, Small
      Grenadines of Veal
      Pork Tenderloins with Fried Apples

               VEGETABLES AND CEREALS USED AS VEGETABLES

      Potatoes, Stuffed Baked
      Potatoes, Purée of
      Rice à la Milanese
      Baked Hominy
      Quenelles of Cornmeal
      Boiled Lettuce
      Tomato Farci
      Broiled Tomatoes
      Spinach
      Bean Croquettes

                                CHICKEN

      Casserole of Chicken, No. 1
      Casserole of Chicken, No. 2
      Chicken, Panned    } Can be used in place of
      Chicken, Smothered } game in ninth course.
      Chicken Fried in Cream
      Chicken Joints
      Chicken en Surprise
      Forcemeat

                                 SAUCES

      White Sauce
      Brown Sauce
      Supreme Sauce
      Tomato Purée
      Hollandaise Sauce
      Maître d’Hôtel Butter
      Glaze
      To Make Glaze
      Hard Sauce
      Liquid Sauces


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                           CASSEROLE OF BEEF

Sauté three or four sliced onions in a tablespoonful of butter. Put them
when soft into the casserole. Cut a steak, taken from the upper side of
the round, into pieces suitable for one portion. Put them in the
sauté-pan and sear them on all sides, then put them in the casserole.
Add a tablespoonful of flour to the sauté-pan, let it brown, then add
slowly a cupful and a half of water and stir until it is a little
thickened, season with a teaspoonful of salt, a half teaspoonful of
pepper, and a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. Add, if convenient, a
little Worcestershire sauce and a little mushroom catsup. The sauce
should be highly seasoned, and such condiments as are at hand may be
used. The sauce will be richer if stock is used instead of water. Turn
the sauce over the meat, cover the casserole, set it in the oven and
cook slowly until the meat is tender, then cover the top with parboiled
sliced potato and return it to the oven for a few minutes to finish
cooking the potatoes. The sauce should be of the consistency of cream,
and there should not be a great quantity of it. Serve in the casserole.


                             FILLET OF BEEF

The fillet or tenderloin of beef is taken from the under side of the
loin. It is the most tender and the most expensive cut of the beef,
costing from eighty cents to a dollar a pound. The whole fillet is used
as a roast. When sliced it is given different names. Cuts from the
middle, which is the thickest part, are Chateaubriands. The
Chateaubriand is cut one and a half to three quarters of an inch thick,
trimmed, tied into a neatly rounded shape, and struck lightly with the
flat side of the cleaver to smooth the top and reduce the thickness to
one and a quarter or one and a half inches. It is cooked and served as a
steak.

The next pieces are the mignon fillets. These are prepared in the same
way as the Chateaubriand and should be about one inch thick and from two
and a half to three inches across when finished. They may be broiled or
cooked on a hot pan.

Cuts from the small ends are noisettes and turnedos; the former are cut
one half of an inch thick and cooked in a sauté-pan; the latter are cut
one quarter of an inch thick, and are cooked in a sauté-pan for five
minutes only. The noisettes and turnedos should be brushed with glaze
before serving (see Glaze, page 104).

Grenadines are cut lengthwise from the thin end of the fillet and
trimmed into chop-shaped pieces. They are larded, sautéd in a little
butter, and cooked five to eight minutes.


[Illustration: NO. 61. FILLETS MIGNONS ARRANGED IN CIRCLE. HALF A SLICE
OF LEMON ON EACH FILLET. FRIED POTATOES IN CENTER.]


                             FILETS MIGNONS

Prepare and cook the fillets as directed above. Arrange them in a circle
overlapping one another and fill the center of the circle with fried
potatoes. Lay on each fillet a half slice of lemon sprinkled with
chopped parsley.

The center of the circle may be filled with potato, mashed, balls,
puffed, straws, etc., or with a vegetable such as peas, beans,
macedoine, etc.

The fillets may also be served with a bearnaise or a mushroom sauce.


[Illustration: NO. 62. FILLETS MIGNONS. EACH FILLET COVERED WITH A SLICE
OF BROILED TOMATO AND A STUFFED MUSHROOM. FANCY SKEWER ON RIGHT OF
DISH.]


               FILETS MIGNON WITH TOMATOES AND MUSHROOMS

Prepare the fillets as directed on this page. Have them of uniform size.
Broil them over coals or on a hot pan. Turn them very often so they will
cook slowly and when done have an even red color all through. The
broiling will take eight to ten minutes. Cover the tops with maître
d’hôtel butter (page 103), or butter, pepper and salt, and chopped
parsley. Arrange them in a circle on one end of a platter. Place on each
one a slice of broiled tomato (see page 97), and on the tomato a stuffed
mushroom (page 79).

On one side of the platter place an ornamental skewer stuck into a
shaped piece of uncooked vegetable of sufficient size. The skewer in
illustration has a mushroom on top, then a slice of lemon, then a row of
small carrots strung on a thread, a slice of lemon to hold the carrots
in place, and then the foliage of the carrots. It is stuck into a raw
parsnip cut so it stands firm. The skewer is for ornamenting the dish
only.


                           CHOPS À LA SOUBISE

Put soubise sauce in the center of the dish and arrange broiled French
chops standing in a ring around it. Place a ring of fried onion over
each chop bone.

French chops are cut from the rack and trimmed so as to leave the upper
half of the bone bare.


[Illustration: NO. 63. CHOPS À LA SOUBISE.]


                             SOUBISE SAUCE

Boil six white onions for ten minutes. Cut them in pieces, put them in a
saucepan with one quarter of a pound of butter and cook them very slowly
indeed for a long time or until they are soft. The onions must cook so
slowly that they do not color. Add a tablespoonful of flour. After the
flour is cooked remove the onions from the fire, add one cupful of
cream, and pass the whole through a sieve. Add a very little pepper and
salt.

This sauce should be white and have the consistency of thick cream.


[Illustration: NO. 64. MUTTON CHOPS WITH HORSERADISH SAUCE.]


                      CHOPS WITH HORSERADISH SAUCE

Arrange French chops down the middle of the platter, with the chops
overlapping and the bones crossing. Place a piece of bread under the
first two to support and lift the bones off the dish; the rest are then
easily arranged in a symmetrical manner.

Garnish the dish with spoonfuls of horseradish sauce, or serve the sauce
in a separate dish.


                           HORSERADISH SAUCE

Grate fresh horseradish root and mix with it enough whipped cream to
make it light and to reduce sufficiently the sharpness of the
horseradish. The horseradish absorbs the cream, and a few more spoonfuls
of the cream are needed than of the grated horseradish. The sauce should
not be mixed until just before serving.


[Illustration: NO. 65. BONED MUTTON CHOPS WITH ARTICHOKE BOTTOMS HOLDING
GREEN PEAS.]


                    CHOPS GARNISHED WITH ARTICHOKES

These chops are cut from the rack. They are cut an inch thick, the bones
removed, and the meat turned and tied into round pieces. They are then
struck with the flat side of the cleaver to smooth and flatten them a
little.

Broil the chops, spread them with butter, and sprinkle them with chopped
parsley, pepper, and salt. Arrange them symmetrically on a platter and
place on each one an artichoke bottom holding a little good sauce, such
as bearnaise or Hollandaise, or even melted butter, and a few green
peas.

Artichoke bottoms come in cans and can be purchased from a grocer. The
French ones are the best. They do not need any more cooking, but should
be heated by placing them in hot water.


[Illustration: NO. 66. BONED LOIN CHOPS WITH MUSHROOMS AND PEAS.]


                       BONED CHOPS WITH MUSHROOMS

These chops should be cut an inch and a quarter thick from the loin, the
bone then carefully removed, some of the fat taken out, and the thin end
piece drawn around and fastened with a wooden skewer, giving a perfectly
round chop. Have them uniform in size. Cook them on a hot pan. Turn them
frequently after the surfaces are seared so they will cook evenly and
slowly. If preferred, they can be broiled over hot coals, but are then
more likely to lose their shape and the skewers will be burned.

Arrange the chops flat on the dish in a circle with the skewers pointing
out. Cover the top of each chop with a sauce made of the chopped
mushroom stems, and place in the center of each chop a large mushroom
cap. Place a paper frill on each skewer. Fill the center of the ring of
chops with green peas or any small vegetable, or with mashed or fried
potatoes.


                        TO PREPARE THE MUSHROOMS

Select large mushrooms, those not fully opened preferred, as they stand
higher. Cut the stems off even with the caps. Peel the caps. Chop the
stems. Put all in a pan with butter and sauté them until tender. Remove
the caps as soon as they are tender, and before they have flattened out.
Add a little stock, or water, to the pan, and a little flour. Stir until
the sauce is thickened to the consistency of cream, season with a little
salt and pepper. Use this sauce for the tops of the chops.


[Illustration: NO. 67. CARVED LEG OF MUTTON À LA JARDINIÈRE.]


LEG OF MUTTON À LA JARDINIÈRE


[Illustration: NO. 68. SLICES OF MUTTON À LA JARDINIÈRE.]


Cut a roasted leg of mutton in thick slices and run the knife under the
slices to free them, but leave them in place. Conceal the bone with a
paper frill. Arrange around the dish a variety of vegetables. In
illustration No. 67 the vegetables are boiled potato balls, macedoine,
and string beans cut in two ways, lengthwise and across diagonally into
one half inch pieces.

Arrange slices cut from a roasted leg of mutton on one end of a large
platter. Cover the rest of the dish with a variety of seasoned
vegetables. The vegetables used in illustration No. 68 are cauliflower,
string beans, lima beans, and green peas.


[Illustration: NO. 69. COTTAGE PIE.]


                              COTTAGE PIE

Peel a good-sized onion, stick into it half a dozen whole cloves, and
place it in the center of an earthenware baking-dish, or a granite-ware
basin, or, best of all, the baking-pan of a double pudding-dish. Cut any
cold meat into small and rather thin slices. Roll each piece in flour
mixed with pepper and salt. Arrange the pieces of meat around the onion,
filling the dish three quarters full.

Put the bone of the meat and all of the scraps into a saucepan, cover
them with cold water, add a bay-leaf and soup vegetables, and simmer the
whole for an hour or longer. Strain off the stock.

Put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan with a teaspoonful of onion
juice, let it brown, then add a tablespoonful of the flour used for
rolling the meat, let the flour brown, then add one and a half cupfuls
of the stock and stir until it becomes a little thickened. Add more
pepper and salt if necessary, and a dash of mustard and of nutmeg, also
a few drops of Worcestershire sauce, if convenient. Let this sauce
become a little cooled, then pour it over the meat, and cover the whole
with mashed potato. The potato should be seasoned by adding to it a
little hot milk, with melted butter in it, and a little salt, and then
be whipped with a fork until it is smooth, light, and white. The potato
may be put through a ricer over the meat, or be piled on it roughly and
scratched with a fork into cone shape, or be put through a pastry-bag
with star tube as in illustration. In the latter case it must have the
white of an egg mixed with it in order to hold its form when baked.
Touch the potato lightly over the top with yolk of egg diluted with milk
to make it brown well. Put the dish in the oven for ten to fifteen
minutes, or long enough to brown the potato a little and heat the meat.
When the sauce begins to bubble through the potato at the edges it is
done.

The meat, having been cooked already, will be toughened if cooked a
second time and needs only to be heated.

Wrap a folded napkin around the dish before sending it to the table in
case a kitchen basin has been used. This is a presentable dish and will
be well liked.


                          MEAT AND POTATO PIE

Butter a pie-plate, spread over it like an under-crust well-seasoned
mashed potato. Spread it about a quarter of an inch thick on the bottom.
Make a border two inches wide, and thick enough to rise a little above
the dish. Score the top of the potato border with a fork and touch it
lightly with egg. Fill the center with rare cold beef or mutton cut into
dice. Pour over the meat well-seasoned brown sauce and sprinkle the top
with a few buttered bread crumbs. Do not let any of the sauce get on the
potato border. Place it in the oven for a few minutes to brown.


                     MINCED MEAT WITH POTATO RINGS

Mince any kind of meat. Make it creamy with brown sauce for dark meat,
or with white sauce for veal or chicken; or moisten the minced meat with
stock, add pepper and salt, a few drops of onion juice, and, if
convenient, a little tomato. Chopped mushrooms added to the mince
improve it very much. Spread the creamed mince flat on the dish, or form
a mound as in illustration. Sprinkle the top with crumbs browned in
butter.

Mash some boiled potatoes, season them with butter, salt, and enough
milk to moisten them well, and one or two beaten eggs; one egg is enough
for a pint of potato. Beat the potato until it is light and white. Press
it through a pastry-bag with star tube into rings. Paint the rings with
yolk of egg diluted with a little milk and put them in the oven to
brown. The potato will not hold its form unless the egg is added.
Arrange the rings around the minced meat and fill the centers with corn
and spinach alternately, as in illustration, or with any other
vegetables.


[Illustration: NO. 72. MINCED HAM AND EGGS.]


                          MINCED HAM AND EGGS

Mince boiled ham very fine. Moisten it with white sauce. Form it into a
mound and cover it with crumbed yolks of hard-boiled eggs. Cut the
whites of the eggs into strips and arrange them around the ham.


                               VEAL CHOPS

Cut thin chops from the rack and trim them like French mutton chops.
Leave the bone two and a half inches long. Strike the meat with a
cleaver to flatten it out to two and a half inches in diameter. Chop the
trimmings very fine, season them with pepper and salt and a few drops of
onion juice. Spread the mince over the chops in an even layer. Egg and
bread-crumb them and sauté them until thoroughly cooked. Serve on a dish
with a little sauce made from the drippings in the sauté-pan, or with a
tomato sauce.

Serve spinach with this dish.


[Illustration: NO. 70. MINCED MEAT GARNISHED WITH POTATO RINGS HOLDING
VEGETABLES.]


[Illustration: NO. 71. MINCED MEAT OR FISH GARNISHED WITH MASHED
POTATOES.]


[Illustration: NO. 73. VEAL À L’ITALIENNE.]


                           VEAL À L’ITALIENNE

Divide a veal cutlet into uniform small pieces and tie them to make the
pieces round and keep them in shape until cooked, when the strings are
cut and removed.

One cutlet from the top of the leg of veal will cut into eight pieces.

Dredge the small cutlets with salt and pepper. Dip them into egg, and
then cover them with bread crumbs. Sauté them in the fat tried out of
thin slices of salt pork. It will take from ten to fifteen minutes to
cook them. Veal should be thoroughly cooked, but not dried. The meat
will be white when cooked. Put a little lemon juice on each cutlet.

Boil the required amount of spaghetti in salted water until it is
tender, then steam it until dry so the sauce will adhere to it. Mix it
with tomato purée and a few thin strips of boiled ham cut into straws
one and a half inches long. Pile the spaghetti in the center of the dish
and arrange the cutlets around it. Place the crisp slices of salt pork
on the dish.


[Illustration: NO. 74. SMALL VEAL CUTLETS.]


                           SMALL VEAL CUTLETS

Cut and tie the cutlets into rounds as directed in above receipt. Dredge
them in salt and pepper and roll them in flour.

Put a tablespoonful of butter in a sauté-pan, when it is hot add half a
teaspoonful of grated onion, let it cook for a minute, then add the
cutlets and cook them until done and well browned, turning them several
times.

Remove the cutlets. Sprinkle in the pan a teaspoonful of flour, let it
cook a minute, then add slowly half a cupful of stock, stirring all the
time to keep it smooth. Remove it from the fire and stir in a small bit
of butter and the yolks of one or two eggs mixed with a tablespoonful of
hot water; season with salt and pepper. If the sauce is too thick,
dilute it with a little hot water or stock. It should have the
consistency of cream. Strain it on to the serving dish. Place the
cutlets upon the sauce, arranging them in a line in the center of the
dish, one on top of another, and place around them hard-boiled eggs cut
in two lengthwise.


[Illustration: NO. 75. GRENADINES OF VEAL.]


                           GRENADINES OF VEAL

Cut a thin veal cutlet into small pieces and tie the pieces into rounds
about two inches in diameter. Lard them. Put them in a baking-pan with a
few trimmings of the larding pork, a sliced onion, and enough stock to
half cover them. Place them in the oven and cook until the stock has
fallen to a glaze. Baste them frequently so they will be well glazed.
Arrange them on a dish and pour around them a sauce made from the
drippings in the pan, as follows: Add a little stock or water to the pan
and a little browned flour, if necessary, to thicken it. Then strain it.
A little ham cut into thin strips an inch long improves the sauce.


[Illustration: NO. 76. PORK TENDERLOINS GARNISHED WITH SLICES OF APPLE
SAUTÉD.]


                            PORK TENDERLOINS

Sauté tenderloins of pork until cooked and browned. Arrange the
tenderloins evenly on a dish and place around them sautéd slices of
apples.

Cut apples across into slices quarter of an inch thick, stamp out the
cores with a small biscuit-cutter, but do not remove the skin. Sauté the
rings of apple in the drippings of the pork until they are tender, but
not until they have lost shape.


[Illustration: NO. 79. INDIVIDUAL MOLDS OF SPINACH GARNISHED WITH
CHOPPED WHITE OF EGG.]


[Illustration: NO. 80. SPINACH, NO. 2.]


               VEGETABLES AND CEREALS USED AS VEGETABLES


[Illustration: NO. 77. STUFFED BAKED POTATOES.]


                         STUFFED BAKED POTATOES

Select potatoes of the same size and shape. After carefully washing
them, bake them until tender, then cut them in two lengthwise and remove
the pulp of the potato, leaving the skins uninjured. Season the potato
with butter, salt, and a little milk. Beat it well and replace it in the
potato skins. Smooth the top with a knife, brush them with yolk of egg,
and set in the oven to brown.


[Illustration: NO. 78. POTATO PURÉE.]


                              POTATO PURÉE

Mash and season the potatoes and add enough milk or hot water to make
them quite soft. Take up a spoonful of potato at a time and place it on
a flat dish in a regular order. Place a small sprig of parsley on each
spoonful.


                           RICE À LA MILANESE

Put two tablespoonfuls of butter in a saucepan with a teaspoonful of
onion chopped fine. Cook for a minute, but do not brown. Add half a
cupful of clean, unwashed rice, and stir until it is a light yellow,
then add two cupfuls of stock and cook without stirring for twenty
minutes. The rice should be tender and the stock should be absorbed. Add
a tablespoonful of grated cheese and a little salt. Turn it lightly
together, using a fork, so as not to break the rice. Cover the top with
grated cheese.

Serve as a vegetable-dish or as a course for luncheon. In the latter
case brush the inside of a ring-mold with glaze, add to the rice a
teaspoonful of butter in small bits, and a dash of paprika. Press it
lightly into the mold and set it in the oven for a few minutes.

A brown or a tomato sauce may be served with it if desired.


                              BAKED HOMINY

To two cupfuls of cold boiled hominy add a beaten egg, three quarters of
a cupful of milk, and a half teaspoonful of salt. Beat it until
perfectly smooth. Put it into a baking-dish, smooth the top, pour over
it a teaspoonful of melted butter, and bake it until it forms a golden
surface.

Serve it in the baking-dish in place of a vegetable.


                         QUENELLES OF CORNMEAL

Put a cupful of milk and a cupful and a half of water in a saucepan and
add a teaspoonful of salt. When it boils stir in slowly half a cupful of
yellow meal and cook for fifteen to twenty minutes, and until the
mixture is well thickened. Then take it off the fire. When it is cold
and stiffened take it up in spoonfuls and lay the egg-shaped pieces
formed by the spoon in a baking-dish. Place the pieces in the dish
symmetrically. Pour over them a little melted butter and set them in the
oven to brown slightly. Serve as a vegetable.


                             BOILED LETTUCE

Wash thoroughly whole heads of lettuce. Tie the tops so the leaves will
lie together. Place the heads in a large pan so they do not touch and
boil them in salted water until tender. Remove them carefully and let
them drain on a sieve, pressing each one to free it of water. Lay them
in a row on a flat dish and pour over them a sauce made of melted
butter, pepper and salt, and a little vinegar; or use a plain white
sauce.


                              TOMATO FARCI

Select tomatoes of equal size, and if they are small use them whole, if
large cut them in two. Peel them. Arrange them close together in a flat
earthen baking-dish which can be sent to the table. Sprinkle them with
salt and pepper. Spread over the top a mixture of chopped mushrooms,
bread crumbs, chopped parsley, and sufficient butter to moisten the
bread. Bake about thirty minutes, or until the tomatoes are softened.
Set the hot baking-dish on a second dish when serving.


                            BROILED TOMATOES

Without removing the skin, cut fresh tomatoes into slices three eighths
of an inch thick. Sprinkle the slices with pepper and salt and dip them
first in melted butter or in oil and then in cracker or bread crumbs,
then broil them over hot coals until they are softened. Do not let them
cook so much that they fall apart.


                                SPINACH

Boil carefully washed and carefully picked over spinach until it is
tender, drain it, chop it very fine, and press it through a purée sieve.
Season it with white sauce made of half milk and half stock (page 102).
Use enough of the sauce to make it quite creamy. If it is to be molded
it cannot be quite as soft as when it is to be served in a
vegetable-dish.

No. 1. Fill thoroughly buttered individual timbale molds with spinach
      and press it down quite hard. After a few minutes, turn the
      spinach out of the molds on to rounds of browned bread. Cover the
      tops with chopped whites of hard-boiled eggs and place in the
      center a spot of the crumbed yolks.

      Serve alone or use as a garnish on a meat-dish.

      This is a good way to utilize a small amount of leftover spinach.
      Spinach is improved rather than injured by recooking.

No. 2. Make a mound of spinach by pressing it into a buttered bowl.
      Ornament the top with a hard-boiled egg, the whole yolk standing
      on slices of the white cut lengthwise.

No. 3. Ornament a thoroughly buttered tin basin or any mold with half
      rings of hard-boiled eggs as shown in illustration No. 5. The egg
      will stick to the butter and be held in place. Fill the mold with
      spinach, putting it in carefully with a spoon so as not to
      displace the ornamentation, and press it down firmly. After a few
      minutes turn it out of the mold and garnish it with croutons.

      Croutons are slices of bread browned (sautéd) in butter.


[Illustration: NO. 81. BEAN CROQUETTES.]


                            BEAN CROQUETTES

Boil until tender a pint of dried beans which have been soaked
overnight. Boil an onion in the water with the beans. Press the beans
through a purée sieve. Season the purée with two tablespoonfuls of
melted butter, two beaten eggs, a little pepper and salt, and a
tablespoonful of parsley chopped very fine. If the mixture is still too
dry add a little stock. Mold the purée into small croquettes. Cover the
croquettes with egg and bread crumbs and fry them in smoking-hot fat.
Serve with tomato sauce.


                                CHICKEN


                      CASSEROLE OF CHICKEN, No. 1

Cut tender chicken into joints. Remove the skin, put a tablespoonful of
butter into a casserole. Lay in the pieces of chicken loosely with bits
of butter between them, add the sautéd slices of one onion and a bouquet
of herbs consisting of a small bunch of parsley, a bay-leaf, and a
little thyme, wrap the parsley around the others and tie them together.
Add also a few raw potato balls and, if convenient, a few fresh
mushrooms. Sprinkle with salt. Lay two or three very thin slices of salt
pork over the top. Cover the casserole and put it in the oven. At the
end of half an hour turn the chicken carefully and return it to the oven
to finish the cooking.


                      CASSEROLE OF CHICKEN, No. 2

Cut a chicken into joints, remove the skin, sprinkle the pieces with
pepper and salt, and roll them in flour. Sauté the slices of one onion
and a tablespoonful of butter; when they are tender remove and put them
in the casserole, then put in the sauté-pan the pieces of chicken with a
little more butter and sauté them to a golden brown on all sides. Place
the chicken in the casserole. Add half a tablespoonful of flour to the
sauté-pan; after it has cooked a minute stir in slowly one and a half
cupfuls of water, or, preferably, stock, and stir until it is slightly
thickened. Season with a saltspoonful of pepper and a half teaspoonful
of salt. Turn the sauce over the chicken, add a bay-leaf, a few potato
balls, and, if convenient, a tablespoonful of sherry and a few
mushrooms. Cover the casserole, put it in the oven, and cook slowly
until the chicken is tender. If the sauce becomes too dry add enough
water or stock to make it the consistency of cream. If it is too thin
leave off the lid and continue cooking until it is reduced. There should
not be a great quantity of sauce.


                             PANNED CHICKEN

Split a spring chicken down the back, double the flippers under the
back, and cross the legs as shown in illustration No. 82.

Put a little butter all over the chicken and dust it with pepper, salt,
and flour. Place it in a baking-pan with a cupful of water and bake it
for thirty minutes, basting it frequently.


                           SMOTHERED CHICKEN

Put a chicken prepared as above in a pan, cover it with a second pan,
and set it in a hot oven for fifteen minutes, or until browned, then
turn it over, add a cupful of water, cover it again with the pan, and
cook until tender.


                         CHICKEN FRIED IN CREAM

Fry a few pieces of salt pork until crisp. Remove them from the pan and
put in the chicken, which has been cut into pieces and the skin removed.
Sauté the chicken in the pork fat until it is cooked and browned, then
turn over it a cupful of cream in which has been mixed half a
teaspoonful of mustard and the chopped white and crumbed yolk of a
hard-boiled egg. Stir them together for a minute and serve.


[Illustration: NO. 82. CHICKEN PREPARED TO BROIL.]


[Illustration: NO. 83. CHICKEN JOINTS GARNISHED WITH POTATO.]


                             CHICKEN JOINTS

Take the drumsticks and second joints and the wings of cooked chicken or
turkey. Remove the skin and trim them so they are smooth and shapely.
Rub them with salt and pepper. Dip them in batter and fry them in
smoking-hot fat to a light golden color. Arrange them on a platter with
the points in, and ornament the tops with a line of mashed potato
pressed through a pastry-bag and star-tube.

Use a plain pancake batter, omitting the baking-powder; or use the
batter given for fontage cups (page 30), but a little thicker. Have it
of a consistency to coat the spoon evenly and let it be very smooth.


[Illustration: NO. 84. CHICKEN EN SURPRISE.]


                          CHICKEN EN SURPRISE

Bone a chicken without removing the leg or wing bones. Spread the boned
chicken on a board, lay a roll of forcemeat on it, draw it together,
giving it the shape of the chicken, and sew the skin together. Put the
legs and wings into the positions of a trussed fowl, roll it in a piece
of cheesecloth, and secure the ends well. (See Boning and Braising,
pages 181-182, “Century Cook Book.”)

Put it in a pot with enough water to cover it, add soup vegetables,
herbs and spices, and let it simmer for four hours.

Let the chicken cool before removing the cloth, then lard it, rub it
over with a little melted butter, and dredge with salt, pepper, and
flour. Place it in the oven to brown and to heat it if it is to be used
hot. Baste with a little butter and water so it will not get too brown
while it is heating through. Place paper frills on the leg bones, and
garnish with fried potato balls and a few sprigs of parsley, as shown in
the illustration.


                               FORCEMEAT

Chop very fine the meat of a fowl, or use veal or pork or a mixture of
them both. Add to the meat a cupful of the crumb of bread, a
tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a teaspoonful each of salt, thyme, and
onion juice, and a quarter teaspoonful of pepper; a little ham or
tongue, some dice of larding-pork and truffle improve the forcemeat, but
are not essential when the chicken is to be served hot. Moisten the
whole with stock and mix it well.


                                 SAUCES


                              WHITE SAUCE

Put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan; when it bubbles add a
tablespoonful of flour and cook them together for a few minutes, but do
not let them brown. Remove from the fire and add a cupful of milk, very
slowly so as to keep it smooth; stir all the time. Add a half
teaspoonful of salt and a saltspoonful of pepper. Return it to the fire
and cook until it is thickened to a creamy consistency. The sauce is
richer if half stock and half milk are used. It is also improved for
some uses by adding the yolks of one or two eggs. If yolks are used they
are stirred in after the sauce is taken from the fire, as it is still
hot enough to cook the egg sufficiently. (See Sauces, “Century Cook
Book,” pages 275-277.)


                              BROWN SAUCE

This is made in the same way and with the same proportions as the white
sauce, but the butter with a few drops of onion juice in it is browned
before the flour is added. The flour is also allowed to brown. It is
then diluted with stock instead of milk.


                             SUPREME SAUCE

FOR CHICKEN BREASTS, SWEETBREADS, CROQUETTES, ETC.

Put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan; when it is hot add a
tablespoonful of flour and let it cook a few minutes without coloring,
then add slowly a cupful of chicken or veal stock, half a teaspoonful of
salt, and a dash of paprika; stir until it thickens, then remove it from
the fire, and after a few minutes add slowly a mixture of quarter of a
cupful of cream and the yolks of three eggs. Return it to the fire for a
minute to cook the eggs. Just before serving add a tablespoonful of
lemon juice.


                              TOMATO PURÉE

Put a canful of tomatoes in a saucepan with half an onion sliced, a
bay-leaf, a sprig of parsley, three cloves, one half teaspoonful of
salt, and a saltspoonful of pepper. Cook uncovered until reduced one
half, then strain it through a purée sieve. Return it to the fire and
add, a little at a time, a tablespoonful of butter.


                           HOLLANDAISE SAUCE

                    FOR FISH, VEGETABLES, AND MEATS

Put in a saucepan the yolks of four eggs, one half cupful of butter, one
half teaspoonful of salt, a dash of paprika, and one half cupful of cold
water or stock. Mix them together. Place the saucepan in a pan of hot
water and stir the mixture over the fire until it has thickened to the
consistency of cream. When ready to serve remove it from the fire, and
after it has cooled a little add very slowly the juice of half a lemon.


[Illustration: NO. 48. MAÎTRE D’HÔTEL BUTTER.]


                         MAÎTRE D’HÔTEL BUTTER

Whip, with a fork, a quarter of a cupful of butter until it is very
light, add a tablespoonful of parsley chopped very fine, one half
teaspoonful each of salt and pepper, and lastly add slowly a
tablespoonful of lemon juice. Smooth it over and set it in the ice-box
to harden. Dip a teaspoon in hot water, wipe it quickly, and then draw
it lightly over the hardened butter, taking up a thin layer which will
curl over as the spoon is drawn along. Turn it off the spoon in
egg-shaped pieces. Heat the spoon again and repeat the operation, laying
the pieces in a pile as they are made. Place them in the ice-box to
harden.

Serve with any broiled meats or fish.


                                 GLAZE

Glaze is a clear soup stock boiled down to the consistency of thick
cream. It is applied with a brush to the surface of meats to give them a
smooth and shining surface. It is used also for adding richness to
sauces. A very little glaze often improves a sauce and does not thin it
as stock would do. The prepared extract of beef which comes in small
jars can be used as a glaze.


                             TO MAKE GLAZE

Put in a soup pot bits of fat cut from meat and let them try out enough
to moisten the bottom of the pot; or use a tablespoonful of butter for
this purpose. Add four pounds of lean beef cut into pieces and let them
brown, turning them a few times, then add a half cupful of hot water and
let the whole cook until the juices are reduced to a glaze in the bottom
of the pot. This is to give color to the stock. Add six quarts of cold
water and the knuckle of veal, and let the mixture simmer for six hours.
If the water is allowed to boil the lime will be extracted from the bone
and the stock will be clouded. After three hours’ simmering add the soup
vegetables, consisting of two stalks of celery, one onion, a few sprigs
of parsley, a piece of carrot, three cloves, a bay-leaf, a saltspoonful
each of thyme and marjoram, fifteen peppercorns, and a tablespoonful of
salt. After six hours’ simmering strain the stock through a cloth laid
on a colander, and let it cool. You have now a soup stock. The next day
remove the grease, turn the stock into a saucepan carefully so that no
sediment goes in, and let it boil, uncovered, until reduced to a thin
paste. The stock is now glaze. Be careful toward the end of the cooking
that the stock does not burn. Turn the glaze into a small jar and put a
little melted butter over the top to exclude the air. When ready to use
it heat a little of the glaze to soften it and apply it with a brush.


                       SWEET SAUCES FOR PUDDINGS


                               HARD SAUCE

Hard sauce is made of butter, sugar, and flavoring.

Use twice the quantity of sugar that you have of butter. Beat them
together for a long time, or until they are very light and white, then
add the flavoring and put it in the ice-box to harden. The yolk of an
egg or the whipped white of an egg may be added to white sauce.

To half a cupful of butter and a cupful of sugar add for flavoring one
tablespoonful of wine, or two teaspoonfuls of lemon juice, and one
teaspoonful of grated lemon-rind, or six drops of vanilla.

                             LIQUID SAUCES


No. 1. Use the same proportions of butter and sugar as for hard sauce.
      Add a little wine, or milk, or hot water. Stir the whole over the
      fire until the sugar and butter are melted.


No. 2. Use yolks of eggs with wine and sugar.

      4 yolks,
      4 tablespoonfuls of wine,
      4 tablespoonfuls of sugar.

      Cook in a double boiler until a little thickened.


No. 3.

      1 cupful of sherry,
      ½ cupful of sugar,
      1 egg.

      Beat together and cook in a double boiler until a little
thickened.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER VIII

                             SEVENTH COURSE


                      PUNCHES—FRUIT—CHEESE DISHES



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                      PUNCHES—FRUIT—CHEESE DISHES


      Frozen Punches
      Brandy Peaches
      Individual Pineapple. See page 38.
      Cheese Croquettes
      Cheese Patties
      Gnocchi à l’Italienne
      Gnocchi à la Romaine
      Gnocchi à la Française
      Entrées given in Fifth Course


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                             FROZEN PUNCHES

Any of the water-ices can be made into punches by adding to them when
half frozen the whipped whites of two eggs which have had a
tablespoonful of hot sugar syrup stirred into them to cook the eggs. The
eggs must be cold when added to the ice, and the freezing continued
until the ice is sufficiently stiff. At the moment of serving pour over
each glassful a teaspoonful or a tablespoonful of liquor.

The liquor may be rum or kirsch, or a liqueur.


                             BRANDY PEACHES

Serve brandied peaches in individual glasses before the game course.
Keep the jar of peaches on ice for several hours before serving them, so
they will get very cold. Serve one peach in a glass.


[Illustration: NO. 85. CHEESE CROQUETTES.]


                           CHEESE CROQUETTES

Grate half a pound of American cheese. Mix in it a scant tablespoonful
of butter, a tablespoonful of milk, an egg beaten enough to break it,
half a teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of paprika. Mix to a smooth paste
and mold into small croquettes, using a tablespoonful of the paste for
each croquette. The above proportions will make eight croquettes.

Add a little milk to the yolk of an egg and roll the croquettes in this
and then in cracker dust. Then fry them for a minute in smoking-hot fat.
They should have a delicate brown color and be soft inside. Serve them
as soon as they are fried or the cheese will harden.

This is a delicious cheese dish and very easily made.


[Illustration: NO. 86. CHEESE PATTIES.]


                             CHEESE PATTIES

Cut slices of bread one inch thick. Stamp the slices into rounds with a
biscuit-cutter. With a smaller stamp cut a round half through the center
of each one of the large rounds and take out the bread, leaving a box of
bread. Spread these with butter and put them in the oven to brown. Fill
the centers with the same cheese mixture as given for cheese croquettes
and place them in the oven just long enough to soften the cheese. Serve
at once.


[Illustration: NO. 87. GNOCCHI À L’ITALIENNE.]


                         GNOCCHI À L’ITALIENNE

Put into a saucepan one cupful of milk, one cupful of water, one
tablespoonful of butter, one half teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of
paprika. When this boils add a cupful of hominy and stir until it is
thickened a little, then set the saucepan into a second one containing
hot water and continue cooking until the hominy is soft. Add a little
more hot water if the mixture gets dry before the hominy is cooked. Take
it off the fire, add a tablespoonful of grated cheese, and spread the
mixture in a smooth layer one half inch thick on a buttered tin. Set it
aside to cool. When the layer of hominy has hardened cut it into rounds
with a small biscuit-cutter. Place the rounds, overlapping, in a
baking-dish which can be sent to the table. Moisten the tops with melted
butter, sprinkle them with grated cheese, and set them in the oven to
brown.


                          GNOCCHI À LA ROMAINE

Put two tablespoonfuls of butter in a saucepan; when it is melted add
four tablespoonfuls of flour, one half teaspoonful of salt, and a cupful
of milk gradually. When it is well thickened add the beaten yolk of one
egg and two tablespoonfuls of grated cheese. Pour the mixture into a
baking-dish, making a layer half or three quarters of an inch thick. Let
it get cold. Sprinkle the top with grated cheese and put it in the oven
to brown. Serve it hot.


[Illustration: NO. 88. GNOCCHI À LA FRANÇAISE.]


                         GNOCCHI À LA FRANÇAISE

Add to a quart of boiling milk four tablespoonfuls of farina and half a
teaspoonful of salt. Cook it about thirty minutes, or until soft. Turn
it on to a dish, making a layer about half an inch thick. When it is
cold and hardened cut it into sharp, triangular pieces. Arrange the
pieces on a flat, round dish in a double circle as in illustration. Add
to two tablespoonfuls of the hot boiled farina, one tablespoonful of
butter, two tablespoonfuls of grated cheese, and a dash of paprika or
red pepper. Pile this mixture in the center of the dish, filling the
vacant space in the middle of the pieces of farina, and sprinkle it with
grated cheese, not letting any cheese get on the farina. Place the dish
in the oven to brown and serve at once.

This dish is made to resemble a sunflower.



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER IX

                             EIGHTH COURSE

                    GAME—SALADS—COLD SERVICE—CHEESE



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                  GAME


      Quail, Broiled
      Quail, Roasted
      Squabs

                                 SALADS

      Lettuce, Plain
      Lettuce Hearts
      Bouquet Salad, Lettuce and Nasturtium
      or Watercress
      Bouquet Salad, Lettuce and Hard-boiled
      Egg
      Bouquet Salads, Illustrations Nos. 94, 95, 96, 97
      Daisy Salad
      Salad of Asparagus Tips
      Salad of Artichoke Bottoms
      Salad of Vegetables
      Aspic of Vegetables
      Cucumber and Tomato Salad
      Tomato and Green Pepper Salad
      Turnip Cups with Celery
      Celery and Apple Salad
      Individual Apple Salad
      Cabbage Salad
      Mashed Potato Salad
      Shad Roe Salad
      Chicken Salad
      Chestnut Salad
      Fruit Salad

                              COLD SERVICE

      Chicken Aspic
      Aspic of Pâté de Foie Gras
      Chicken Mousse
      Liver Loaf or Cold Timbale
      Cold Cut Meats
      Glazed Tongue
      Boiled Ham
      Boned Ham

      For Buffet Luncheons or Fourth Course in Summer Service:

      Cold Fish, Garnished
      Jellied Cutlets
      Fish in the Garden
      Cold Halibut

                                 CHEESE

      Cream Cheese with Bar-le-Duc Currants
      Camembert
      Gorgonzola
      Roquefort
      Etc.



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                  GAME


                             QUAILS BROILED

Split the quails down the back, and broil them for four minutes on each
side. Spread them with butter, pepper, and salt. Serve them on toast.


                             QUAILS ROASTED

Lay thin slices of salt pork over well-trussed birds. Bake them in a hot
oven for fifteen to twenty minutes. Have in the baking-pan a little
water, pepper, and salt, and baste the quails frequently.

Serve on slices of toast moistened with drippings from the pan.


                                 SQUABS

Cook the same as directed for quails.


                                 SALADS


                            FRENCH DRESSING

      3 tablespoonfuls of oil,
      1 tablespoonful of vinegar,
      ½ teaspoonful of salt,
      ¼ teaspoonful of pepper.

Mix the salt and pepper with the oil, then add slowly the vinegar,
stirring all the time. It will become a little white and thickened.


                          MAYONNAISE DRESSING

To the yolk of an egg add oil very slowly until the mixture becomes very
thick, then add alternately vinegar and oil. Lastly add salt and pepper.

The proportions are one cupful of oil to one yolk, one half teaspoonful
of salt, a dash of pepper, and one and a half tablespoonfuls of vinegar
or lemon juice. More or less oil may be used, but it must be added very
slowly at first or the mixture will curdle. Have all the ingredients
cold before beginning to mix the dressing. (See “Century Cook Book,”
page 288.)


                             CREAM DRESSING

Add whipped cream to mayonnaise or plain cream to French dressing at the
moment of mixing them with the salad. The proportions need not be exact:
a little more or less cream can be used as convenient.

NOTE.—An onion rubbed on the dish in which lettuce is to be served
improves the salad.


                            PREPARING SALADS

It is essential that leaf salads and celery be dry. Oil and water do not
mix, and if the salad is wet the dressing will run off it and also lose
its flavor. They should also be crisp and clean. Divest them of
imperfect portions and wash to free them of dust and grit. Examine
lettuce for a small green insect and celery for a small white worm which
infest them, then place them in cold water to refresh and crisp them.

Dry them carefully, shaking lettuce or watercress in a wire basket, or
carefully dry each piece in a clean napkin. Celery may be drained or
wiped. The salad may be dried sometime before using it, and if kept near
the ice will retain its crispness, but the dressing must not be put on
until the moment of serving, as it wilts the leaves. The same rule
applies to vegetables used as salads: they should be dry and cold.

There need be no waste in lettuce. The imperfect and hard leaves may be
boiled and used as directed on page 55 for green eggs. The rejected
outside leaves of one head will be enough for one or two eggs, or they
may be used with other odds and ends of vegetables to give a macedoine
garnishing to a meat dish.


                                 SALADS

Of the many articles used for salad, lettuce is preëminently first in
favor. It is the king of salads; and, whatever else is used, lettuce
usually forms part of the dish to make it complete. A plain lettuce is
always acceptable and can be served in several forms. Combined with one
or more articles equally common, a number of bouquet salads can easily
be made, giving dishes attractive both in taste and color. The bouquet
salads should be placed on flat dishes in order to show the arrangement,
color, and variety of articles used.

A variety in salads is desirable; and, as they can be eaten every day, a
little change in the combinations will give variety.

The use of nasturtium blossoms is recommended. They are not only
beautiful to look at and decorative, but have a piquant flavor.
Combinations of green such as are obtained by lettuce and watercress are
pleasing.

In the illustrations a number of combinations are given which will
suggest others.


[Illustration: NO. 89. PLAIN LETTUCE SALAD.]


No. 1. =Plain lettuce salad=. The lettuce here is arranged to resemble a
      cabbage. For this a head of cabbage lettuce is used. The leaves
      are taken apart, carefully washed and dried, and the stalks
      flattened by cutting a little slice off the bottom to make them
      stand upright. They are then put together again in the natural
      form, but more spread open, and placed on a round platter. Just
      before serving a French dressing is poured over them with a spoon,
      to have each leaf moistened, care being taken not to disarrange
      the leaves.


[Illustration: NO. 90. HEART OF CABBAGE LETTUCE.]


No. 2. =Lettuce hearts=. Divest a head of Boston cabbage lettuce of the
      outer leaves down to the hard head. With a sharp knife cut the
      head into quarters and arrange them on a dish with the stalk ends
      toward the center. Sprinkle over them, or not, a little celery cut
      into small dice. If celery is used, place a little in the center
      of the dish and between the quarters. At the moment of serving
      pour French dressing, using a spoon, into the lettuce hearts,
      moistening them well.

      The outside leaves taken from the head can be broken into small
      pieces or cut into ribbons and used as shown in other
      illustrations.


[Illustration: NO. 91. BOUQUET SALAD—LETTUCE AND WATERCRESS OR
NASTURTIUMS.]


No. 3. =Bouquet salad=. Break crisp lettuce leaves into pieces, arrange
      them on a flat dish, and place in the center a bunch of watercress
      or of nasturtium blossoms. Just before serving moisten the lettuce
      with French dressing, and the watercress also if it is used.


      [Illustration: NO. 92. BOUQUET SALAD. SHREDDED LETTUCE AND
      HARD-BOILED EGGS.]


No. 4. =Bouquet salad=. Place a number of crisp lettuce leaves together,
      and with a sharp knife cut them across into strips about a quarter
      of an inch wide. Pile the ribbons in the center of the dish and
      place slices of hard-boiled eggs around them. Moisten with French
      dressing at the moment of serving.


[Illustration: NO. 93. BOUQUET SALAD. LETTUCE. TOMATOES. EGGS.]


[Illustration: NO. 94. BOUQUET SALAD. ARRANGED IN FIVE LINES OF COLOR.
RADISHES, CUT TO RESEMBLE ROSES, IN CENTER ON A LAYER OF CELERY CUT INTO
SMALL DICE. AROUND THE CELERY A RING OF WATERCRESS. BOILED BEETS CUT
INTO STRIPS AROUND THE WATERCRESS. LETTUCE CUT INTO RIBBONS AROUND THE
BEETS. THE WHOLE MOISTENED WITH FRENCH DRESSING.]


No. 5. =Bouquet salad=. Use a good head of cabbage lettuce. Arrange the
      white leaves, in a bunch resembling the natural head, in the
      center of a flat dish. Garnish with slices of tomato and
      hard-boiled eggs. Just before serving cover the whole with plain
      French dressing. Use a spoon and pour the dressing on carefully so
      that all the parts will be moistened without being disarranged.

      Mayonnaise may be used on the eggs and tomato if preferred, in
      which case the dressing should be put on the eggs in the cups
      under the yolks.


[Illustration: NO. 95. BOUQUET SALAD. A MOUND OF CELERY, CUT INTO DICE,
IN THE CENTER. RADISHES, CUT TO RESEMBLE ROSES, PLACED AROUND THE CELERY
AND ONE ON TOP. WATERCRESS AROUND THE WHOLE. ALL MOISTENED WITH FRENCH
DRESSING.]


[Illustration: NO. 96. BOUQUET SALAD. PILE OF CUT BEETS IN THE CENTER.
SURROUNDED BY ALTERNATE PILES OF CELERY AND WATERCRESS. A RADISH ON EACH
PILE OF CELERY. ALL MOISTENED WITH FRENCH DRESSING.]


[Illustration: NO. 97. BOUQUET SALAD. HARD-BOILED EGGS ON A BED OF
MAYONNAISE. CIRCLE OF CUT BEETS AROUND THE MAYONNAISE. LETTUCE CUT INTO
RIBBONS AROUND THE BEETS.]


[Illustration: NO. 98. SALAD OF ASPARAGUS TIPS. A PILE OF BOILED
ASPARAGUS TIPS SURROUNDED BY A WREATH OF WHITE LETTUCE LEAVES AND
RADISHES CUT TO RESEMBLE ROSES, PLACED ALTERNATELY. ALL MOISTENED WITH
FRENCH DRESSING.]


[Illustration: NO. 99. SALAD OF ARTICHOKE BOTTOMS, LETTUCE, AND PEAS,
WITH MAYONNAISE.]


      =Illustrations Nos. 94, 95, 96, 97=. Bouquet salads arranged as
      explained in legends under the illustrations.

No. 10. =Daisy salad=. Select tender green leaves of lettuce. Cut the
      stalks so that the leaves will lie straight and keep in place. Put
      a spoonful of mayonnaise in each leaf, then arrange on each one in
      rosette form the white of a hard-boiled egg cut lengthwise into
      strips, and place a whole yolk in the center.

No. 11. =Salad of asparagus tips=. See illustration No. 98.

No. 12. =Salad of artichoke bottoms=. Take artichoke bottoms as they
      come from the can. Rinse them off with cold water. Spread each one
      with mayonnaise and pile on it as many vegetables as it will hold.
      Use green peas, string beans, flowerets of cauliflower, or any
      mixture of vegetables that may be convenient. Place a little
      mayonnaise on top of the vegetables, and place the artichoke cups
      on leaves of lettuce arranged around a bed of mayonnaise. Or a
      glass or cup filled with mayonnaise can be placed in the center of
      the dish and the individual portions arranged around it.

No. 13. =Vegetable salad=. Mix together equal portions of cold boiled
      string beans, cut in half-inch lengths, and lima beans. Pile them
      on a flat dish with a surrounding border of lettuce leaves. Pour
      over them slowly plenty of French dressing.

      This is a good hot-weather salad to serve with cold meats on hot
      days when hot dishes are not acceptable.

No. 14. =Macedoine of vegetables=. Boil small portions of as many
      different kinds of vegetables as convenient, and keep them in
      separate dishes. When they are cold, and shortly before serving,
      moisten them with French dressing. Just before serving mix them
      together, adding some mayonnaise.

      Peas, string beans, lima beans, flageolets, carrots, cut into
      dice, and beets cut into dice, make a good combination.

No. 15. =Aspic of vegetables en bellevue=. Fill individual timbale molds
      with any or with different kinds of vegetables, then turn in
      enough aspic (see page 125) to cover them, and place them in the
      ice-box to set.

      Use these forms on cold fish or meat dishes with mayonnaise under
      them. They require a dressing, but if it were mixed with the
      vegetables it would cloud the jelly.

No. 16. =Cucumber and tomato salad=. Peel the tomatoes, cut them in two,
      and cover each piece with mayonnaise. Place them on one side of a
      vegetable-dish, and on the other side place sliced cucumbers
      moistened with French dressing. Separate the two with crisp leaves
      of lettuce.

No. 17. =Tomato and green pepper salad=. Cut peeled tomatoes into slices
      three eighths of an inch thick. Cover them with a thick layer of
      chopped green peppers. Place them in the center of the dish with a
      border of crisp lettuce leaves. Moisten the whole with French
      dressing.


[Illustration: NO. 100. TURNIP CUPS HOLDING CELERY MIXED WITH
MAYONNAISE.]


No. 18. =Turnip cups with celery=. Select turnips of uniform size and
      not too large. Cut off the tops to give a flat surface for the
      bottom of the cups. Cut a slice about two inches thick from each
      turnip. With a fluted knife pare the outside into rounding shape,
      then with a potato-scoop take out the centers and form a cup.

      Leave the cups in water until ready to use; they will keep
      twenty-four hours or more in this way. Chop some parsley very fine
      and spread it on a board. Moisten the edges of the cups and press
      them on the parsley. This will give a green edge around the tops.
      Fill the cups with celery mayonnaise, or with any vegetable salad.


[Illustration: NO. 101. CELERY AND APPLE WITH CREAM MAYONNAISE.]


No. 19. =Celery and apple salad=. Cut a bunch of crisp white celery into
      small bits, add a chopped green pepper and a teaspoonful of
      chopped pimento. Mix it with mayonnaise. Cut into dice one quarter
      as much apple as you have of celery. Just before serving mix it
      with the celery, and the whole with whipped cream.

      Pile the salad in a mound on a flat dish and garnish it with
      lettuce or other leaves and radishes. For one bunch of celery
      there will be needed two apples and a half pint of cream.

      The celery is quickly prepared by cutting the stalks into strips
      one quarter of an inch thick, then laying them together in a pile
      and cutting them all together into lengths of one quarter of an
      inch or less. Tart apples of good flavor should be used. Remove
      the seeds and ribs of the green pepper and cut it into fine bits.
      Pimentos are Spanish red peppers and are very mild. They come in
      cans and can be bought at the grocer’s.


[Illustration: NO. 102. INDIVIDUAL APPLE SALAD. CELERY AND APPLE MIXED
WITH CREAM MAYONNAISE, SERVED IN APPLES. GARNISHED WITH A WHITE LETTUCE
LEAF.]


No. 20. =Individual apple salad=. Select apples that are best both in
      color and flavor. Take out the core carefully, using a pointed
      knife, and make the hollow on the stem end. An apple-corer can be
      used, in which case the end piece should be put back again to plug
      the bottom. The wall of the apple should be half an inch thick.
      Fill the hollowed out apple with creamed celery and apple mixture,
      as given on page 121, omitting the green pepper and pimento. Serve
      on individual plates with one white lettuce leaf at the side of
      each apple.


[Illustration: NO. 103. CABBAGE SALAD. SERVED IN CABBAGE LEAVES.]


No. 21. =Cabbage salad=. Add to a cupful of cream the beaten yolks of
      two eggs, one teaspoonful of mustard, one half teaspoonful each of
      salt, pepper, and sugar, and half a tablespoonful of celery seeds.
      Put all this in a double boiler and stir until it thickens. Let it
      cool. When ready to serve add to the dressing a tablespoonful of
      vinegar and mix it with cabbage chopped fine. Serve in cabbage
      leaves as shown in illustration. Cold slaw may be served in the
      same way.


[Illustration: NO. 104. MASHED POTATO SALAD.]


No. 22. =Mashed potato salad=. To a quart or a little more of mashed
      potatoes add three tablespoonfuls of oil, a teaspoonful each of
      onion juice and salt, a dash of nutmeg, one half teaspoonful of
      pepper, a tablespoonful of pickled beets chopped fine, a
      tablespoonful of cucumber pickle chopped fine, and a tablespoonful
      of vinegar taken from the pickled-beet jar. Beat all together
      until the potato is light. The beet vinegar will color it pink. If
      a deeper color is wanted add a little more of the red vinegar. The
      potato should be a moist purée. If the salad is too dry after the
      ingredients are in add a little soup stock or water. Shape into a
      mound without pressing it, and garnish it with slices of beets,
      pickles, and lettuce.


[Illustration: NO. 105. SHAD ROE SALAD.]


No. 23. =Shad roe salad=. Wash the roe carefully and place it in salted
      water. The water must not boil or it will break the skin. Simmer
      it for twenty minutes. After cooling cut it with a sharp knife
      into slices quarter of an inch thick. Place the slices,
      overlapping, on a dish. Garnish with lettuce leaves. Pour over the
      roe a plentiful amount of French dressing.


[Illustration: NO. 106. CHICKEN SALAD.]


No. 24. =Chicken salad=. Cut cold chicken into half-inch dice, using
      both white and dark meat. Moisten it with French dressing. Cut
      tender celery into small dice and mix it with the chicken, using
      two thirds as much celery as there is of chicken. Mix the whole
      with mayonnaise. Form it into a mound. Cover it with mayonnaise.
      Decorate the mound as follows:

      Begin at the top and form four lines of chopped pickled beet,
      dividing the form into four sections. Follow the lines of beet
      with lines of chopped white of hard-boiled eggs. This will leave
      triangular spaces. Make another line of beets and fill the spaces
      left with the crumbed yolks of hard-boiled eggs. Outline the small
      triangular spaces with capers and finish the top with an olive and
      sprigs of parsley. Place lettuce leaves and slices of hard-boiled
      egg around the dish. Veal instead of chicken may be used in the
      same way. Lobster salad should be mixed with lettuce instead of
      celery.

No. 25. =Chestnut salad=. Mix together two cupfuls each of tart apples
      cut into half-inch dice, celery cut into small pieces, and boiled
      chestnuts cut into half-inch pieces.

      Put in a double boiler:

      2 tablespoonfuls of butter,
      9 tablespoonfuls of vinegar,
      ½ teaspoonful of sugar,
      1½ teaspoonfuls of mustard,
      1 teaspoonful of salt,
      ¼ teaspoonful of pepper,
        yolks of four eggs.

      Beat all this well together and stir until thickened. After it has
      cooled and just before serving add the dressing and a cupful of
      whipped cream to the salad mixture.

No. 26. =Fruit salads=. Fruits are sometimes mixed with mayonnaise and
      used as a salad.

      The following mixtures may be used: Pineapple, oranges, and
      apples. Grape-fruit, oranges, and canned pears. Pineapple and
      banana. Apple and grape-fruit. Garnish with lettuce leaves.


                              COLD SERVICE


[Illustration: NO. 107. CHICKEN ASPIC.]


                             CHICKEN ASPIC

Make a chicken stock as for chicken consommé, page 46. Use a knuckle of
veal and as many quarts of water as you have pounds of meat. Remove the
breast of the fowl when it is tender. Clarify the stock, and if it has
not made a jelly firm enough to stand add a little gelatine,—a
tablespoonful of granulated gelatine to a quart of stock will perhaps be
more than enough, for the jelly must not be too hard, and the jellied
stock may need but very little extra stiffness to make it hold its shape
when molded.

Ornament the bottom of a ring-mold with slices of the white of
hard-boiled egg cut into diamond-shaped pieces. Lay the pieces, with
thin strips of egg between them, in a manner to imitate a wreath of
leaves. A long pin will be useful in arranging the pieces of egg. Put
the mold in a bowl of cracked ice, and with a spoon add a very little
liquid jelly, taking care not to use enough to float the pieces of egg.
When it has set sufficiently to hold the decoration in place add enough
more jelly to make a layer a quarter of an inch thick. When the layer
has stiffened, put in a layer of chicken breast cut into inch lengths,
so the jelly will not be torn apart when being served, but place the
pieces close together so they appear like large pieces. Add more jelly,
letting it rise a quarter of an inch above the chicken; when that has
stiffened, add another layer of chicken and fill the mold with jelly.
Let the mold be level and have a smooth layer of gelatine on top, so
when unmolded it will stand firm and even.

Fill the center of the ring with celery mayonnaise, or a macedoine
vegetable salad.


[Illustration: NO. 108. ASPIC OF PÂTÉ DE FOIE GRAS.]


                       ASPIC OF PÂTÉ DE FOIE GRAS

Make a chicken aspic as directed above. When a mold is used which has
projections on top, as in illustration, the jelly must be made a little
firmer than for a plain mold. Pour into the mold a layer of jelly, let
it stiffen, and then add a layer of pâté de foie gras and a little jelly
to set it. Then fill the mold with jelly. Care must be taken in
unmolding this form, for if held a moment too long in hot water the
points will fall off or lose shape.


                             CHICKEN MOUSSE

Put through a chopper cooked chicken, using the white or the dark meat,
or both. Grind it a second time, if necessary, to make it very fine. If
a meat-chopper is not at hand, chop it by hand, pound it to free the
meat from the fiber, and rub it through a purée sieve.

Heat a cupful of chicken stock, pour it over the beaten yolks of three
eggs, add a teaspoonful each of salt and celery salt, a dash of pepper
and of paprika. Return it to the fire and stir until it has thickened
like a boiled custard; add two tablespoonfuls of granulated gelatine
which has soaked for an hour in a quarter cupful of cold chicken stock.
When the gelatine has dissolved, remove it from the fire and add one and
one half cupfuls of the fine chicken meat. When the mixture begins to
thicken stir it perfectly smooth and fold in a half pint of cream
whipped to a stiff froth. Turn it into a brick mold. The cream must not
be added until the mixture begins to set, or the ingredients will settle
into layers.

Serve with lettuce or celery salad.


                       LIVER LOAF OR COLD TIMBALE

Line a pint brick mold with thin slices of larding pork. Pour in liver
timbale mixture given on page 78. Fill the mold to within a quarter of
an inch of the top. Cover it with slices of pork. Set it in a pan of
water and cook in a slow oven for one hour, or until firm to the touch.

Serve cold in slices with salad.


[Illustration: NO. 109. SLICED COLD MEATS.]


                           COLD SLICED MEATS

Illustration No. 109 shows an attractive way of serving cold meats. On
the right are overlapping slices of cold tongue; on the left, slices of
beef. A slice of tongue cut round is placed in the center to cover the
spot where they meet. Slices of cold chicken are placed at right angles
to the tongue and beef. Aspic jelly is placed in the four angles. The
garnishing is sliced pickled beets cut into stars and hearts, and small
pickles or gherkins sliced down to nearly the end, then spread into leaf
shapes. The stars are placed on the sliced meat, the hearts on the dish
in front of the jelly, with a slice of pickle on each side, and the
leaf-like gherkins are in the center.

The aspic used in this dish was jellied stock made a little stiffer with
gelatine.

Cold meats may also be attractively served by placing a socle made of
hominy in the center of the dish, the top of the hominy ornamented with
aspic or any garnishes, and the sliced meats laid around and against the
socle.


[Illustration: NO. 110. GLAZED TONGUE, GARNISHED WITH BUTTER.]


                             GLAZED TONGUE

Boil a smoked or a fresh tongue until tender, then skin and trim it.
While it is flexible skewer it into a good shape. Paint it with glaze
(page 104).

Whip some butter with a fork until it is soft and very light. Place the
whipped butter in a pastry-bag with star tube and press it through,
outlining a figure on the sides of the tongue and down the middle.

Garnish the dish with parsley and a hard-boiled egg. Cut the white of
the egg in strips lengthwise, leave the yolk whole, and arrange the
pieces so they resemble a daisy.

Keep the garnished tongue in a cold place until ready to serve, in order
to harden the butter.


[Illustration: NO. 111. BOILED HAM, NO. 1.]


                               BOILED HAM

Soak the ham overnight, with the rind side up. Thoroughly wash and
scrape off any bad parts. Put it in sufficient cold water to cover it
well. Add a bunch of soup vegetables and two bay-leaves. Boil it slowly,
allowing twenty minutes to the pound, counting from the time the water
begins to boil. It is done when the meat around the bone is tender.
Place it on a board, peel off the skin, and by trimming make it smooth
and shapely. Take a slice off the bottom, if necessary, to make it stand
firmly. Serve it hot or cold.

In illustration No. 111 the ham after being trimmed is covered with
cracker dust and sugar and placed in the oven to brown. The bone is
covered with a pleated paper frill, and a lemon cut to imitate a pig
(see page 16) is set on top.


[Illustration: NO. 112. BOILED HAM, NO. 2.]


In illustration No. 112 black pepper is placed in spots on the fat, and
then with the finger is rubbed into regular circles. A whole clove is
stuck in the center of each spot of pepper. If the ham is to be served
cold the parts not covered by fat can be concealed with a layer of
butter; the butter should be whipped until smooth and soft and then
spread evenly with a knife. In this way the whole ham can be made smooth
and the spots of pepper can be extended entirely over it.

The bone is covered with a paper frill (page 14). The dish is garnished
with slices of pickled beets stamped into rounds.


[Illustration: NO. 113. GLAZED BONED HAM GARNISHED WITH WATERCRESS.]


                               BONED HAM

Boil the ham as directed above. While it is still hot strip off the
skin, then turn it over and remove the bone. If the ham is thoroughly
cooked, the bone will come out easily. Make a cut down to and along the
bone in the center of the under side, then work the knife around and
close to the bone until the latter is loosened enough to be pulled out.

Lay the boned ham on a cloth, draw it together and sew the cloth around
it, pressing the ham firmly together, and giving it a good shape. Place
a board and heavy weights on the ham, and let it cool while under this
pressure.

Remove the cloth. Trim it again, if necessary. Cover it with a meat
glaze (see page 104). Garnish with a wreath of watercress.


[Illustration: NO. 114. COLD FISH COVERED WITH JELLIED MAYONNAISE AND
GARNISHED WITH BEETS AND OLIVES.]


                               COLD FISH

Garnished cold fish makes an ornamental and useful dish for buffet
luncheons, and for summer service, when cold dishes of any kind are
acceptable. Illustration No. 114 shows a bluefish boiled in upright
position, covered with jellied mayonnaise and garnished with pickled
beets, cranberries, and gherkins. It is placed on a layer of bread to
raise it on the dish. To prepare the dish, place a carrot inside the
fish to give it stability, then tie and prop it with vegetables on the
kettle-strainer, in the position desired. Boil it slowly, allowing ten
minutes to the pound. Put soup vegetables, a bay-leaf, and two
tablespoonfuls of vinegar in the water. When cooked, lift the fish out
carefully and let it get cold before removing it from the strainer.

Take off the skin and cover it with a mayonnaise made as follows: Heat a
cupful of clear beef or chicken stock, and dissolve in it one and a half
tablespoonfuls of granulated gelatine which has soaked for an hour in
half a cupful of cold water. When it has cooled add half a cupful of
oil, a tablespoonful of vinegar or of lemon juice, half a teaspoonful of
salt, a dash of pepper, and the beaten yolk of an egg. When it begins to
set spread it over the fish with a knife. It will give a smooth,
polished yellow covering. Garnish with slices of pickled beets stamped
into various shapes.

Bass, salmon, bluefish, and halibut are good varieties to serve cold.
They may be masked with the aspic mayonnaise given above, or with a
plain, thick mayonnaise, or with tartare sauce, or with maître d’hôtel
butter. The covering should be spread with a knife to make it smooth,
and the fish kept in a cool place until the time of serving. Hard-boiled
eggs, capers, pickles, lettuce, watercress, and parsley are suitable
garnishes.


                            JELLIED CUTLETS

Cut cold boiled sheepshead or other fish into flat, even pieces, each
piece a size suitable for one portion. Lay them in a pan, leaving spaces
between them. Place on each piece a thin slice of hard-boiled egg, then
pour over them just enough aspic jelly to cover them. The aspic should
have a little lemon juice or vinegar mixed with it to make it tart. When
the jelly is set, cut the pieces apart with a sharp knife and arrange
them on a dish with creamed horseradish sauce.


                           FISH IN THE GARDEN

Skin a cold boiled trout, bass, or other fish. Cover it with mayonnaise,
or with maître d’hôtel butter. Garnish it with aspic jelly and surround
it with vegetables molded in jelly as in illustration No. 6. Use peas,
beans, celery, etc.


                              COLD HALIBUT

Cover a thick piece of boiled halibut with mayonnaise. Sprinkle the top
with chopped capers. Garnish it with potato salad, the potatoes being
cut into balls.


                                 CHEESE


[Illustration: NO. 115. CREAM CHEESE WITH BAR-LE-DUC CURRANTS.]


                 CREAM CHEESE WITH BAR-LE-DUC CURRANTS

Beat with a fork a square of Philadelphia cream cheese, or of domestic
Neufchâtel, until it is light and smooth. Whip three tablespoonfuls of
cream to a stiff froth. Mix the cheese and whipped cream together
lightly and pile the mixture on a dish in which it is to be served. Put
it in a cool place. Just before serving pour over it a glassful of
Bar-le-Duc red currants.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER X

                              NINTH COURSE


                 HOT DESSERTS—COLD DESSERTS—PIES—TARTS



------------------------------------------------------------------------


                              HOT DESSERTS

      Farina Croquettes
      Pudding, Huckleberry
      Pudding, Chocolate Bread
      Pudding, Cocoanut Bread
      Pudding, Fig
      Pudding, Green-Gage
      Pudding, Tapioca, with Prunes
      Bananas, Sautéd
      Bananas, Baked, No. 1
      Bananas, Baked, No. 2
      Quinces, Baked
      Strawberry Soufflé
      Fruit and other Soufflés
      Burning Peaches
      Burning Cherries

                             COLD DESSERTS

      Apples Richelieu
      Apples, Stewed, No. 1
      Apples, Stewed, No. 2
      Apples, Baked
      Figs, Compote of
      Apricots, Compote of
      Pears, Compote of
      Bananas and Cream
      Strawberries and Cream
      Peaches and Cream
      Bread and Jam Tartlets
      Pine Cones
      Pudding, Cornstarch, No. 1
      Pudding, Cornstarch, No. 2
      Pudding, Cornstarch, No. 3
      Pudding, Cornstarch, No. 4
      Pudding, Peach
      Pudding, Tapioca
      Pudding, Rice Prune
      Pudding, Jellied Apple
      Pudding, Pineapple
      Savarins
      Babas
      Coffee Mousse
      Peach Mousse
      Chestnut Purée
      Chestnut Bavarian
      Charlotte Russe
      Charlotte Russe, Strawberry, No. 1
      Charlotte Russe, Strawberry, No. 2
      Meringue Ring
      Meringue Crown
      Meringue Cream Tart, No. 1
      Meringue Cream Tart, No. 2
      Meringues filled with Whipped Cream or Ice Cream
      Chocolate Cream
      Chocolate Sponge
      Sliced Bavarian Cream Garnished with Cream Cakes


                               PIES-TARTS

      Jam Tart of Puff Paste
      Strawberry Tartlets
      Frangipane Tartlets
      Frangipane Cream
      Fruit Tartlets
      Jalousies
      Pie, Cranberry
      Pie, Cocoanut
      Pie, Currant
      Pie, Lemon, No. 1
      Pie, Lemon, No. 2
      Strawberry Cake, No. 1
      Strawberry Cake, No. 2
      Currant Shortcake


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              HOT DESSERTS

                           FARINA CROQUETTES

Put two cupfuls of milk and half a teaspoonful of salt into a double
boiler. When the milk is hot add half a cupful of farina, and moisten
with a little milk to make it smooth. Cook about twenty minutes, or
until it is well thickened, then add the yolk of an egg. When it is cold
mold it into small croquettes. Roll the croquettes in egg and white
bread crumbs, or cracker dust, and fry in smoking-hot fat to a bright
yellow color.

Serve with maple sugar scraped from the cake.

                          HUCKLEBERRY PUDDING

      2 cupfuls of flour,
      ½ cupful of granulated sugar,
      2 cupfuls of berries,
      1 heaping teaspoonful of baking powder,
      ½ saltspoonful of salt,
      1 teaspoonful of butter,
      Milk.

Mix well the sugar, salt, and baking powder with the flour, then rub in
a teaspoonful of butter, and stir in quickly enough milk to make a
batter which will drop from the spoon. Add the berries well floured, and
turn the mixture into a greased quart pudding-mold. Steam or boil it for
half an hour.

It should be mixed quickly and the water should not be allowed to fall
below the boiling-point while the pudding is cooking. Serve with any
pudding sauce.

                        CHOCOLATE BREAD PUDDING

      1 cupful of stale crumb of bread,
      2 cupfuls of milk,
      ½ cupful of sugar,
      3 squares of unsweetened chocolate,
      ½ teaspoonful of vanilla,
      1 egg.

Scald the milk and turn it over the bread, broken into small pieces. Let
it soak until the bread is soft, then beat it with a fork to a smooth
pulp and add the chocolate, melted, the sugar, vanilla, and yolk of the
egg, also a dash of salt. Lastly fold in the white of the egg whipped to
a stiff froth.

Bake in a moderate oven for thirty minutes.

                         COCOANUT BREAD PUDDING

Pour a cupful of scalded milk over a cupful of broken bits of crumb of
bread. Let the bread soak until softened, then beat it to smoothness.
Add a cupful of grated cocoanut, half a cupful of sugar, a teaspoonful
of lemon juice, and the yolks of two eggs. Mix well, and then add the
whites of the eggs whipped to a stiff froth. Bake in a moderate oven for
thirty minutes. Serve hot or cold.

                              FIG PUDDING

Weigh three eggs; take the same weight of butter, sugar, figs, and of
crumb of bread. Chop the figs, put a little hot water on them, and cook
them to a pulp. Grate the bread to very fine crumbs. Mix together the
butter and sugar, add the yolks of the eggs, then the figs and the
crumbs, and lastly the whites of the eggs whipped to a stiff froth. Turn
the mixture into a covered quart mold, and steam for two and a half
hours; or put it into individual timbale molds, set them into a pan of
water, cover them with a greased paper, and cook in an oven for thirty
minutes, or until firm to the touch. At the moment of serving pour over
them a little rum or brandy and light it with a taper.

Serve with wine sauce, or with any other pudding sauce.

                           GREEN-GAGE PUDDING

Butter well a quart granite-ware basin. Arrange on the bottom a layer of
green-gage plums (California canned plums), then fill the dish heaping
full of the crumb of stale bread cut into dice. Beat two eggs enough to
break them, and mix them with two cupfuls of milk. Pour the egg and milk
mixture slowly over the bread with a spoon, so the bread will soak up
the liquid. Set the pudding-dish in a pan of water and bake in a
moderate oven for thirty minutes. Let it stand a few minutes, then
invert it on a dish and do not lift it off the tin for a few minutes
longer. Serve with a sauce made of a cupful of juice from the can, with
a heaping tablespoonful of sugar added to it and then boiled until
clear.

                      TAPIOCA PUDDING WITH PRUNES

Soak three tablespoonfuls of tapioca in cold water for two hours. Use
two and a half cupfuls of water. Stew dried prunes until they begin to
swell. Add to the soaked tapioca (there should be four heaping
tablespoonfuls of it) three tablespoonfuls of sugar, one teaspoonful of
butter, and two cupfuls of milk or water. Spread a layer of prunes over
the bottom of a quart pudding-dish, then fill the dish with the tapioca
mixture and bake it twenty-five to thirty-five minutes in a slow oven.

                             SAUTÉD BANANAS

Select bananas that are not quite ripe. Peel and cut them in two
lengthwise. Put a tablespoonful of butter in a sauté-pan; when it
bubbles add a tablespoonful of sugar and lay in the bananas. When the
bananas are tender take them out carefully and lay them in an even row
on a hot dish. Add half a cupful of cream to the pan and mix it well
with the butter and sugar. The sugar should be cooked enough to give a
caramel flavor. Add two or three tablespoonfuls of sherry, or just
enough to take away the very sweet taste. Pour this sauce over the
bananas.

                          BAKED BANANAS, No. 1

Select bananas that are not quite ripe, detach the skins. Bake the
bananas in the skins for twenty to thirty minutes, or until tender but
not soft. Turn them out of the skins, lay them in an even row on a hot
dish, and pour over them some melted currant jelly.

                          BAKED BANANAS, No. 2

Mix two tablespoonfuls of butter with three tablespoonfuls of sugar and
two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice, and place it on the fire to melt the
butter. Peel bananas and lay them uncut in a baking-pan; pour over them
the buttered mixture and bake them until tender, basting them
frequently. Place them in an even row on a flat dish and pour over them
the liquor from the pan.

                             BAKED QUINCES

Peel and core the quinces, then cut them in halves and bake them in a
pan with a very little water until tender.


[Illustration: NO. 116. GREEN-GAGE PUDDING.]


[Illustration: NO. 117. BAKED QUINCES.]


[Illustration: NO. 118. STEWED APPLES, NO. 1, WITH JAM AND ALMONDS.]


When they are cooked, spread the tops with butter and a plentiful amount
of sugar. Serve hot. Pass butter and sugar.


                                SOUFFLÉS

Soufflés are one of the most elegant dessert dishes. They are esteemed
for their delicacy rather than their richness, and the difficulty in
making them gives them distinction, as they are usually presented only
from the hand of an expert cook. There is no reason, however, that any
one should not succeed in making a perfect soufflé, though it is one of
the popular delusions that they are very difficult to make. With
intelligent care about the heat of the oven, a soufflé can be made with
less trouble than is given to many other simple desserts. The whites of
eggs must be beaten until filled with air. They are then placed in a
moderate oven, where the heated air expands and puffs up the whole mass.
The baking is continued until the air-cells are enough hardened to
support the weight, and the dish must be served at once and before the
imprisoned air cools and the mass collapses.

                           STRAWBERRY SOUFFLÉ

Beat to a stiff, dry froth the whites of as many eggs as needed,
allowing one white for each person and one for the dish, then fold in
lightly enough strawberry jam to sweeten it; or use strawberry pulp and
sugar. Turn it into a pudding-dish and bake in a moderate oven for
twenty minutes. Serve at once. The soufflé must go directly from the
oven to the table.

                        FRUIT AND OTHER SOUFFLÉS

To the whipped whites of eggs may be added half the number of yolks and
powdered sugar enough to sweeten, or chocolate, or any jam, or softened
jelly, or fruit juice, or the pulp of any fruit with the juice drained
off. Fruit must be pressed through a purée sieve to make the pulp fine
and soft.

                            BURNING PEACHES

Place California canned whole peaches and the juice in a deep dish. Just
before serving pour over them some brandy or rum and light it with a
taper.

                            BURNING CHERRIES

Serve California white cherries in the same way as directed above for
peaches.


                             COLD DESSERTS

                            APPLES RICHELIEU

Take out the cores of well-flavored apples and cut them crosswise into
halves. Simmer them in sugar and water until tender. Let them cool. Lay
several pieces of sliced blanched almonds straight, at regular
intervals, upon the flat sides of the apples. Sprinkle them with
powdered sugar and set them in the oven a minute to brown the sugar.
Place candied cherries cut in halves upon the apples between the
almonds. Just before serving put spoonfuls of whipped cream at intervals
on a flat dish and place the cold apples upon the cream; or press the
cream through a pastry-bag in circles around the apples.

                          STEWED APPLES, No. 1

Select apples of uniform size and shape. Remove the cores and peel them
carefully. Put them into hot water with sugar and lemon juice. Cook them
slowly until tender, but not so long that they lose shape. When they are
cold fill the centers with sweetened and flavored boiled rice and cover
them with apricot or any jam. Sprinkle them with blanched almonds cut in
strips.

                          STEWED APPLES, No. 2

Prepare the apples as for No. 1. Fill the centers with well-flavored
apple purée, or with apple jelly mixed with chopped raisins. Sprinkle
them with granulated sugar and stick into them blanched almonds cut into
strips and slightly browned.

Serve with cream, if convenient.

Apple purée and apple jelly can be made from the parings and cores of
the apples. Put these trimmings in a saucepan with a little water and
cook them to a pulp. Press the pulp through a sieve for the purée, or
strain it through a cloth for the juice. Return the juice to the fire,
let it boil a minute, then add half a pound of hot sugar to a cupful of
juice. Stir until the sugar is dissolved, and boil until a few drops put
on a cold plate jelly. Turn it into glasses to set.


                              BAKED APPLES

Peel and core good-flavored, tart apples. Put a small piece of butter in
each one and sprinkle them with sugar so they will brown well. Put them
in a pan with a little water and bake until tender, then remove and put
on each one two drops of almond extract. Add a little sugar to the water
in the pan and cook it down to a thick syrup, then strain it slowly over
the apples to glaze them; or stick three cloves into each apple before
baking them, and omit the almond extract; or fill the centers with the
sugar, lemon peel, and stick cinnamon before baking, or with blanched
almonds and raisins after baking.


[Illustration: NO. 119. COMPOTE OF FIGS.]


                            COMPOTE OF FIGS

Put a pound of pulled figs in a bowl and cover them with water. Let them
soak for several hours, or until they are softened and expanded, then
press each one into natural shape and pile them on a dish. Take the
water in which they were soaked, add enough sugar to sweeten it, and a
thick slice of lemon. Boil it until it is a good syrup, then pour it
over the figs. Let the figs cool before serving. Or to each cupful of
fig water add a cupful of sugar and boil it to the crack, then pour it
slowly over the figs. This will give them a coating of sugar. Serve with
whipped cream flavored with kirsch.

The figs, being very sweet, are improved by using a flavoring which is
sharp like lemon or kirsch. If lemon is used, pour the juice over the
figs, as it will curdle the cream if mixed with it.


[Illustration: NO. 120. COMPOTE OF APRICOTS.]


                          COMPOTE OF APRICOTS

Prepare dried apricots the same as directed for compote of pears. Place
half a blanched almond in the center of each piece to imitate a pit.


[Illustration: NO. 121. COMPOTE OF PEARS.]


                            COMPOTE OF PEARS

Soak dried California pears in water overnight, or for several hours
until they swell to natural shape. Arrange them symmetrically on a dish,
or around a form of rice, as in illustration. To the water in which the
pears were soaked add enough sugar to make it sweet, and boil it down to
a syrup, then add a teaspoonful of lemon juice. Pour the hot syrup over
the fruit. Serve cold.


[Illustration: NO. 122. BANANAS AND CREAM.]


                           BANANAS AND CREAM

Cut bananas into slices one quarter of an inch thick. Arrange them in a
pile in the center of the dish and place around them spoonfuls of
whipped cream. The cream may be flavored with sherry or vanilla, but use
no sugar, as the fruit is sweet enough without it.


                         STRAWBERRIES AND CREAM

Mix enough sugar with cream to sweeten it thoroughly, and then whip it
until it is stiff and dry. A half pint of cream is enough for a quart of
berries. When ready to serve, mix the berries in the cream and serve
them piled on a flat dish.


                           PEACHES AND CREAM

Cut peeled peaches into slices and put them in the ice-box. Add as much
sugar to a half pint of cream as will be needed to sweeten the peaches.
Whip the cream to a stiff froth. At the moment of serving, mix together
lightly the peaches and cream; or an hour or more before serving, mix
the cream and fruit, put it in a covered mold, and pack in ice and salt.
Use but little salt, for the object is to make the peaches very cold,
but not to freeze them.


[Illustration: NO. 123. BREAD AND JAM TARTLETS.]


                         BREAD AND JAM TARTLETS

Cut very light bread into slices one quarter of an inch thick. Stamp
these pieces into rounds with a biscuit-cutter. Put them in a sauté-pan
with a little butter, and brown them on both sides. When they are cool,
spread them with any kind of jam or preserved fruit, and just before
serving ornament them with whipped cream pressed through a pastry-bag
and star tube.


[Illustration: NO. 124. PINE CONES.]


                               PINE CONES

Cut quarter-inch slices of bread into rounds and moisten them with
sherry or maraschino. Pile chopped pineapple in cone shape on each round
of bread. Canned, fresh, or stewed pineapple may be used. Dilute the
juice strained from the fruit with a little water, and sweeten it to
taste. Add a teaspoonful of arrowroot moistened with cold water to a
cupful of pineapple liquor. Boil it until thickened, then with a spoon
pour it slowly over the cones. Serve hot or cold.


[Illustration: NO. 125. INDIVIDUAL CORNSTARCH PUDDINGS WITH CURRANT
JELLY.]


[Illustration: NO. 126. CORNSTARCH PUDDING IN RING MOLD, ORNAMENTED WITH
RAISINS. GARNISHED WITH WHIPPED CREAM.]


[Illustration: NO. 127. CORNSTARCH PUDDING ORNAMENTED WITH CANDIED
CHERRIES AND ANGELICA.]


[Illustration: NO. 128. CHOCOLATE CORNSTARCH PUDDING.]


                          CORNSTARCH PUDDINGS

Dissolve two heaping tablespoonfuls of cornstarch in a little cold water
or milk and turn it slowly, stirring all the time, into a pint of
scalding milk in a double boiler; add three tablespoonfuls of sugar and
a dash of salt. Stir until it is thickened, then let it cook for half an
hour, or until it has lost the raw taste of the starch, then add the
whipped whites of two eggs and a half teaspoonful of vanilla, and cook
it a few minutes longer to set the eggs.

No. 1. The cornstarch is molded in cups; when unmolded a piece is taken
      out of the top of each one, and the holes are filled with currant
      jelly, and jelly is placed on the dish around the individual
      puddings. This gives a good sauce as well as a nice effect of
      color. Any jelly, jam, or preserved fruits may be used in place of
      the currant jelly.

No. 2. Lay a line of seeded raisins on the bottom of a ring-mold before
      turning in the cornstarch; or mix with the cornstarch some chopped
      citron, currants, and raisins. Fill the center of the ring with
      whipped cream, or with plain boiled custard.

No. 3. Mold the cornstarch in a bowl. Decorate it with candied cherries
      and angelica. Serve with it cream, sweetened milk, custard, or
      preserved fruit.

No. 4. Add to the cornstarch two squares of melted chocolate and a
      tablespoonful of sugar. Decorate the mold with split blanched
      almonds. Dip the almonds in a little half-set gelatine to make
      them adhere to the mold. Put the mold into hot water for a second
      to soften the gelatine before unmolding the pudding. Serve with
      whipped cream or sweetened milk.


                             PEACH PUDDING

Cover the bottom of a pudding-dish with canned peaches. Take half the
juice from the can, add to it two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and boil it
to a thick syrup.

Make a custard, using two cupfuls of milk, the yolks of two eggs, and a
heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch. Cook in a double boiler for half an
hour, or until it is quite thick and the raw taste of the cornstarch is
gone, then add a little of the peach syrup to sweeten it, and a few
drops of almond extract. Sprinkle the peaches with blanched almonds cut
in pieces, pour over them the syrup, then the custard. Cover the top
with meringue made of the whites of two eggs and three tablespoonfuls of
powdered sugar. Brown the meringue. Serve the pudding hot or cold.


                            TAPIOCA PUDDING

      1 quart of milk,
      ½ cupful of tapioca,
      4-5 eggs,
      ½ pint of cream,
      4-5 tablespoonfuls of sugar,
      ½ cupful of sherry.

Soak the tapioca in cold water for several hours or overnight. Boil the
soaked tapioca in the milk until it is soft, then add the beaten yolks
of the eggs, the sugar, cream, and wine, and lastly the whipped whites
of the eggs.

Turn the mixture into a pudding-dish. Set the dish in a pan of water and
bake twenty to twenty-five minutes. Serve cold.


[Illustration: NO. 129. RICE PRUNE PUDDING.]


[Illustration: NO. 130. RICE PRUNE PUDDING.]


                           RICE PRUNE PUDDING

Spread stewed prunes over the bottom of a basin or mold, then fill the
mold with boiled rice. Press the rice in just hard enough to make it
hold its shape. Turn it out of the mold and serve it hot or cold, with
the sweetened juice of the prunes as sauce; or press the rice into a
bowl or mold, and arrange the prunes around the form after it is
unmolded, as in illustration No. 129; or arrange it as in illustration
No. 130.


                         JELLIED APPLE PUDDING

Add to one and a half cupfuls of strained stewed apples the juice of an
orange, the grated rind and juice of half a lemon, three tablespoonfuls
of sherry, three quarters of a cupful of sugar, and two tablespoonfuls
of granulated gelatine which has been soaked for an hour in half a
cupful of cold water and then dissolved in half a cupful of hot water.
Stir the mixture until it begins to thicken, then fold in the whites of
three eggs whipped to a stiff froth, or a half-pint of whipped cream.
Turn it into a mold.

Serve it with whipped cream.


                           PINEAPPLE PUDDING

Grate a pineapple fine. Mix well together a cupful of sugar and four
eggs, then mix them with the pineapple pulp. Turn the mixture into a
mold, set the mold into a pan of water and bake it slowly until
stiffened like a baked custard. When cold unmold it and decorate it with
whipped cream.


[Illustration: NO. 131. SAVARINS.]


                                SAVARINS

Take some brioche dough (page 209) and add enough milk to make it almost
soft enough to drop from the spoon. Add sugar, raisins, chopped citron,
and a little lemon juice. Work all well together.

Butter some earthen cups, sprinkle them with sliced blanched almonds,
half fill the cups with the savarin dough, and let it rise to double in
size. Bake in a hot oven.

Turn them out of the molds, and while they are warm dip them in a syrup
made of one cupful of sugar syrup, three tablespoonfuls each of kirsch,
maraschino, and curaçao, or flavor with any other liqueurs preferred.
When the savarins are well soaked place them on a sieve to drain.


[Illustration: NO. 132. BABAS.]


                                 BABAS

Take brioche dough prepared as for savarins, and mix with it candied
fruits cut into small dice. Butter baba-molds, fill them half full of
the mixture, let them rise to double in size, and bake in a hot oven.

Soak the babas in sugar syrup flavored with rum and drain. Place a
candied cherry on each one.

Baba-molds are like large individual timbale cups.


                             COFFEE MOUSSE

    ½ ounce gelatine,
    ¼ cupful of cold water,
    ½ cupful of hot water,
    1 cupful of coffee,
    ½ cupful of sugar,
    1 cupful of cream, whipped.

Soak the gelatine in the cold water for an hour, then dissolve it in the
hot water and add the sugar. When the sugar is dissolved add a cupful of
cold, strong, clear coffee. Put the mixture on ice and whip it until it
becomes light and frothy and has begun to stiffen, then add the whipped
cream and turn it into a mold. The gelatine must be thoroughly whipped,
as for snow pudding, and the liquid drained from the whipped cream must
not go in. This will make about one and one half quarts of mousse.


[Illustration: NO. 133. PEACH MOUSSE GARNISHED WITH WHIPPED CREAM.]


                              PEACH MOUSSE

Use fresh or canned peaches. Mash and rub them through a colander. Add
to a cupful of peach pulp half a teaspoonful of lemon juice, a few drops
of almond extract, and enough sugar to sweeten it. Dissolve in quarter
of a cupful of hot peach juice one and three quarter tablespoonfuls of
granulated gelatine which has been soaked for an hour in half a cupful
of cold water. Add the gelatine to the peach mixture. When it begins to
set, mix it until smooth, then fold in a half pint of cream whipped to a
stiff froth, and turn it into a mold. Serve with whipped cream. The
cream can be used to decorate the dish by pressing it through a
pastry-bag.


[Illustration: NO. 137.CHESTNUT PURÉE.]


                             CHESTNUT PURÉE

Boil for five minutes a pound of French chestnuts, drain off the water
and remove the shells and skins. Return the chestnuts to the fire and
boil them until tender. Put the boiled chestnuts in a mortar, and pound
them to a paste, then add a teaspoonful of vanilla and a teaspoonful of
lemon juice. Make a thick sugar syrup, and beat it into the paste, using
enough to sweeten to taste. Grease a ring-mold with oil, and put into it
a lining half an inch thick of the chestnut paste pressed through a
pastry-bag with a tube of small opening so it will come out
vermicelli-like in form. Fill the rest of the mold with plain paste.
Turn it on to a layer of sponge-cake. Just before serving fill the
center of the ring with whipped cream flavored with almond.


[Illustration: NO. 135. CHESTNUT BAVARIAN.]


                           CHESTNUT BAVARIAN

Prepare chestnuts as directed for chestnut purée. To two cupfuls of the
purée add one ounce of gelatine which has been soaked for an hour in
half a cupful of cold water and then dissolved in half a cupful of hot
water. Mix well, and when it begins to stiffen add a pint of cream
whipped to a stiff froth, and turn the mixture into a ring-mold to
harden. Fill the center with whipped cream, or with chestnuts boiled in
sugar and water until they look clear.


                            CHARLOTTE RUSSE

    1 pint of milk,
    1 pint of cream,
    Yolks of four eggs,
    ½ cupful of sugar,
    ¼ boxful of gelatine,
    1 teaspoonful of vanilla.

Mix the sugar with the yolks of the eggs. Scald the milk and pour it
over them. Place it on the fire and stir until the eggs are cooked, but
not thickened like a custard, then add the gelatine, which has been
soaked for an hour in half a cupful of cold water. When the gelatine is
dissolved remove it from the fire, add the vanilla, and let it get cold.
When the mixture begins to thicken add the cream whipped to a stiff
froth, and turn it into a mold lined with lady-fingers or with slices of
sponge-cake.


[Illustration: NO. 136. STRAWBERRY CHARLOTTE RUSSE GARNISHED WITH
STRAWBERRIES.]


                   STRAWBERRY CHARLOTTE RUSSE, No. 1

    ⅓ box of gelatine,
    ¼ cupful of cold water,
    1½ cupfuls of powdered sugar,
    1½ teaspoonfuls of lemon juice,
    1 quart of berries, crushed and pressed
    through a purée sieve,
    ½ pint of cream, whipped.

Soak the gelatine in the water for an hour, then set it in a pan of hot
water to dissolve. Add to the crushed berries the powdered sugar, lemon
juice, and gelatine. Put it aside for a while. When it begins to
stiffen, beat it until it is light and spongy, then mix in the whipped
cream, being careful not to pour in any of the liquid cream that may
have drained to the bottom of the dish. Turn the mixture into a
charlotte-mold lined with lady-fingers. When it is unmolded garnish it
with whole strawberries.


[Illustration: NO. 134. STRAWBERRY CHARLOTTE RUSSE, No. 2]


                   STRAWBERRY CHARLOTTE RUSSE, No. 2

Line a china or earthen bowl or mold with strawberries cut in halves,
and with the flat side of the berries placed close together against the
mold. Arrange one or two rows at a time, and then turn in the mixture to
keep them in place. Fill the mold with the same mixture used in No. 1;
or fill the mold with plain charlotte-russe filling, or with Bavarian
cream.


                         HOW TO MAKE MERINGUES

Put a dash of salt into the whites of five or six eggs and whip them
until very stiff and dry, then add slowly a quarter of a cupful of
sifted powdered sugar for each egg. The sugar should be placed, a little
at a time, at the end of the platter, and gradually whipped in. Continue
to whip until the mixture is firm enough to stand without spreading, and
any little point left by the beater remains erect. Success depends on
the eggs being sufficiently beaten.

The mixture can be made into various shapes with a spoon, but is better
molded by being pressed through a pastry-bag. The tops can be smoothed
and any irregularities effaced with a clean wet knife. The shapes should
be arranged on paper placed on inverted baking-tins, and set in a
moderate oven to form a thin crust, and to color lightly the tops, and
then placed on the hot shelf of the range to dry. If the meringues stick
to the paper, they can be easily removed by wetting the paper slightly.


[Illustration: NO. 138. MERINGUE RING WITH WHIPPED CREAM.]


[Illustration: NO. 139. MERINGUE CROWN.]


                             MERINGUE RING

Place meringue mixture (see above) in a pastry-bag with star-tube. Draw
on heavy paper two rings four to six inches in diameter, according to
size desired. Any round utensil of right size can be used for guide.
Press the meringue through the tube, following the circles marked on the
paper. One of the rings—the top one—should be made more ornamental than
the other. This is easily done by moving the tube while the mixture is
passing through it. With a wet knife make a narrow, smooth, flat surface
on the top of the under ring. Lay the papers holding the rings on
inverted baking-tins, and put them in a moderate oven for a few minutes
to color them and form a crust. Watch carefully that they do not get too
brown. When lightly colored, remove them to the hot shelf to dry. When
they are sufficiently firm take them carefully off the paper, turn them
over, break in the bottoms, then return them to the shelf to continue
the drying. Place one ring on top of the other, and just before serving
fill the center with whipped cream.

Meringues may be kept for some time, but in that case should be
freshened by heating before being used.

If preferred, the upper piece can be made into a cover as in
illustration No. 139.


[Illustration: NO. 140. MERINGUE CREAM TART, NO. 1.]


                       MERINGUE CREAM TART, No. 1

Make meringues (see page 150) of oblong shape, three inches long and two
inches wide. After the tops are firm, break in the bottoms in order to
dry the insides.

Trim the edges of a round layer of sponge-cake, spread it with jam of
any kind, arrange the meringues around it, and at the moment of serving
fill the center of the tart with whipped cream. Flavor the cream, if
desired. It will take a dozen meringues to make the crown.

Arrange the crown as follows: Put half a cupful of sugar and a quarter
cupful of hot water into a saucepan and stir until the sugar dissolves,
then let it cook, without stirring, until a little dropped into cold
water is brittle; it is then boiled to the crack. Draw the saucepan to
the side of the range, so the sugar will be kept hot without cooking any
more.

Dip the end of a meringue into the sugar and place it on the cake; hold
it in place while you dip a second meringue and place it under the first
one. Proceed in this way until all are placed, then put a drop of the
boiled sugar on the top of each one where it touches the next one. The
whole will then be held firmly in place.


[Illustration: NO. 141. MERINGUE CREAM TART, NO. 2.]


                       MERINGUE CREAM TART, No. 2

Make meringue mixture into small kisses, leaving the point left by the
tube erect.

Spread a layer of cake with jam as in No. 1. Stick a candied cherry on
the point of each kiss and arrange them as shown in illustration. Fill
the center with whipped cream.


[Illustration: NO. 142. MERINGUES FILLED WITH WHIPPED CREAM OR WITH ICE
CREAM.]


         MERINGUES FILLED WITH WHIPPED CREAM OR WITH ICE CREAM

Make oblong-shaped meringues, as for cream tart No. 1. Just before
serving, fill them with whipped cream, or with ice cream, and press two
together. If necessary, use a little white of egg on the edges to make
them adhere.


                            CHOCOLATE CREAM

Scald two cupfuls of milk. Melt on a dry pan two squares of unsweetened
chocolate, add the hot milk slowly to the chocolate, stirring all the
time. Let it come to the boiling-point. Beat two whole eggs and two
yolks with four tablespoonfuls of sugar, stir the milk and chocolate
into the eggs, add half a teaspoonful of vanilla and a dash of salt.
Turn the mixture into a mold, set it into a pan of hot water, and cook
in a slow oven until it is firm. In order to have it smooth and solid it
must bake slowly. Test it by running in the point of a knife; if it is
not cooked, it will coat the knife with milk.

Unmold when cold and serve with whipped cream.


                            CHOCOLATE SPONGE

Make the same mixture as for chocolate cream. Instead of cooking it
slowly, put it into a hot oven and cook it until the whey appears. By
cooking in a hot oven it will be full of holes and have a sponge-like
appearance. When cold, unmold it and let the whey escape. Serve with
whipped cream.


[Illustration: NO. 143. BAVARIAN CREAM GARNISHED WITH CREAM CAKES.]


               BAVARIAN CREAM GARNISHED WITH CREAM-CAKES

Make a Bavarian cream (see “Century Cook Book,” page 400), and turn it
into a flat tin to harden. Have it about half an inch thick. When it is
set, cut it into pieces two and a half to three inches square, and
arrange them, overlapping, in the center of a dish. Place around them
small cream-cakes of one inch in diameter.

Cornstarch pudding, jelly, or any mixture firm enough to be sliced can
be served in this way. Left-over jelly can be melted and molded again in
a layer, or it may be combined with custard, cream, crumbed cake, or
anything suitable that may be at hand, and turned into a layer-tin to
stiffen; then cut and serve as above. Any small cakes or sliced cake cut
into rounds may be substituted for the cream-cakes.

Chocolate Bavarian garnished with small cakes covered with white icing
makes a good combination.


                             PIES AND TARTS


                               PUFF-PASTE

Puff-paste is made of equal weights of butter and flour. The flour is
made into a paste, the butter is worked until it is flexible, and they
are then rolled together and folded several times so that many distinct
layers of butter and paste are obtained. During the rolling air is
imprisoned, and in baking the air-cells expand, separate the layers, and
so inflate the pastry.

In order to effect this result, it is necessary to keep the pastry dry
and cold, and the butter cold, so that they will not mix in rolling, but
be pressed into thin sheets. Careful handling is necessary. Many
failures are the result of pressing the paste in spots with the fingers,
which prevents its rising evenly, if at all. A marble slab is desirable
for rolling the paste on, as it helps to keep it cold.

Either of the following mixtures may be used:

      No. 1. 1 pound of butter,
            1 pound of flour (pastry flour preferred),
            About 1 pound of cold water.

      No. 2. 1 pound of butter,
            1 cupful of flour,
            1 cupful of water,
            White of one egg.

Cut one sixth of the butter into the flour for the paste.

No salt is needed if salted butter is used.

Put the flour on the slab, chop into it, using a knife, one sixth of the
butter, then moisten it with the water into which has been stirred the
beaten white of one egg. The exact amount of water cannot be given, as
that depends upon the dryness of the flour, but care must be taken to
have the paste of the right consistency. It should be neither too hard
to roll easily, nor so soft that it will stick, but have a flexible, dry
consistency. Work it for a few minutes with the hands to a perfect
smoothness. Roll it to a rectangular shape (a little longer than broad),
and about a half inch in thickness. The paste can be handled with
impunity at this stage, and care should be taken to roll it to an even
thickness and to have the edges straight and the corners square. When
just right, fold it over, wrap it in a napkin, put it in a pan, and
place the pan upon ice.

Work the butter with a spoon or a pat until it is smooth and flexible,
and press out as much of the water it contains as possible, as this wets
the paste and may make it sticky. Mold the butter into a smooth,
flattened square cake and set it on ice.

When the paste and the butter are perfectly cold lay the paste on the
slab, place the cake of butter in the center, and fold the paste over
it, first on the sides, and then the ends. The paste should be long
enough to fold the end pieces entirely across the cake of butter. Roll
it out into a strip three times longer than broad. Rolling is made
easier by lightly pounding as well as rolling the paste. Keep the edges
even, and finish by having the corners square and the whole of uniform
thickness. Fold the strip twice, making three even layers, and place it
on the ice again, wrapped in a napkin, to prevent it from gathering
moisture. When it is entirely cold, roll it out again and fold it in the
same way. Strike the edges to keep the folds from separating, and turn
the paste so as to roll it in the opposite direction from the previous
time. Endeavor to keep the edges straight and corners square, so the
layers will be even. After each folding and rolling, it is said to have
one “turn,” and the pastry is not finished until it has had six to eight
turns. The rolling becomes more difficult as the layers get thinner, and
great care must be used not to let the butter break through. This will
happen if it is not kept very cold; so, unless the rolling is done in a
very cold room, it is safer to put it on the ice after each turn. If the
butter shows signs of coming through, cover the spot with flour, and set
it away at once.

The paste should also be very cold when cut into shapes, so that the
edges will not stick together; and again, it should be very cold before
being put into the oven.

The oven should be hot. A simple test of the heat is to place a piece of
writing-paper in the oven for ten minutes. If at the end of that time
the paper is a light yellow, the heat is right for vol-au-vent and large
pieces. If it is a light-brown color, it is about the heat used for
baking bread, and is right for patty-shells.

After a little practice the making of puff-paste becomes an easy matter.
The rolling need not be done all in one day, for if the paste is kept
dry and cold, and not allowed to form a crust, it will keep for several
days. So many high-class dishes can be made of puff-paste, it is
desirable to accomplish the art of making it.


                                JAM TART

Tart cases may be prepared the same as vol-au-vent cases, page 71,
except that the paste should be rolled not more than half an inch thick
when ready to be cut; or, instead of cutting the border in the paste, as
for vol-au-vents, a strip of paste one inch wide may be laid around the
edge. The strips should be cut diagonally on the ends, and these edges
moistened so they will stick together where joined. Lay the strip
carefully around the slightly moistened border of the bottom piece,
paint the top with egg, and bake in a hot oven for thirty minutes.
Remove carefully the top of the center, and take out any uncooked paste,
return it to the oven to dry the inside.

Before using, heat the tart again to make it crisp, and when cool spread
the inside with a layer of any kind of jam or preserved fruit, put on
the center piece, which was taken off to get out the uncooked paste, and
cover the entire center with jam. Serve it on a lace paper.


                             TARTLET SHELLS

Use puff-paste trimmings. Roll the paste thin, shape it to the pans,
being careful to press the paste as little as possible. Trim the edges
with a sharp knife. Put a piece of paper in the bottom of each one, and
fill the tartlet cases with dried peas, beans, or rice, and bake in a
hot oven ten to fifteen minutes. When well browned, remove the filling,
being particularly careful, if rice is used, that every grain is picked
off the crusts. Return the shells to the oven for a minute to dry the
insides.

These shells can be kept for some time, but should be freshened before
using by being heated again. Fill them, just before serving, with any
kind of jam or preserve, or with any freshly stewed fruits, or with
creamed minced meat.


[Illustration: NO. 144. TART OF PUFF-PASTE WITH STRAWBERRY JAM.]


                          STRAWBERRY TARTLETS

Use tartlet shells made of any good pastry, puff-paste trimmings
preferred. Just before serving, freshen the shells by heating them, if
they have been kept some time, and fill with stewed fresh strawberries.
Serve the juice separately in a sauce-dish.

To prepare the strawberries, put them in a saucepan and cover them with
enough sugar to sweeten them. Let them stand in a warm place until the
juice moistens the sugar. Cook them slowly until the berries are
softened, but not so long that they lose their shape.


[Illustration: NO. 146. FRANGIPANE TARTLETS.]


                          FRANGIPANE TARTLETS

Line patty-pans with puff-paste rolled one quarter of an inch thick. Cut
the paste an inch larger than the pans, and fit it as carefully as
possible, pressing it lightly with the broad finger into the flutings.
Prick the bottom crust and lay on it a slice of bread cut to the size of
the bottom of the pan. This is to prevent the bottom crust from rising
and to leave the sides to puff, as the light pastry is an important part
of these tartlets. Bake in a hot oven about fifteen minutes. When done
remove any uncooked paste and fill with frangipane cream. Cover the
whole top with meringue, piling it high in the center, and smooth it
with a wet knife. Make a border one half an inch wide of chopped almonds
which have been blanched and browned. Place in the center a half cherry
and two pieces of angelica to imitate a flower.


                            FRANGIPANE CREAM

      ¼ cupful of cream,
      1 tablespoonful of flour,
      4 tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar,
      1 tablespoonful of sherry,
      1 tablespoonful of brandy,
      1 teaspoonful of orange-flower water,
      1 grated lemon rind,
      1 tablespoonful of chopped citron,
      4 egg yolks.

Put the cream and flour in a small saucepan and stir until smooth, place
on the fire a few minutes to cook the flour, stirring all the time.
Remove from the fire, and when it is a little cooled add all the other
ingredients. Set the saucepan in a second saucepan containing hot water
and cook, stirring all the time, until the mixture has become a thick
cream.


[Illustration: NO. 145. STRAWBERRY TARTLETS.]


                             FRUIT TARTLETS

Prepare tartlet shells as for frangipane tartlets. Half fill the shells
with frangipane cream, cover each one with half a California canned
peach or apricot, and decorate around the outside of the fruit with
meringue pressed through a pastry-bag.


[Illustration: NO. 147. JALOUSIES.]


                               JALOUSIES

Roll puff-paste trimmings into a sheet one eighth of an inch thick. Cut
it into strips three inches wide. Lay half of the strips on a
baking-sheet and spread them with a layer of well-seasoned and quite dry
apple sauce. Cover them with the remaining strips, which have been
slashed into triangular openings by being folded over and cut on the
folded side an inch deep in diagonal lines. Egg the tops and bake in a
hot oven. When done, sprinkle with sugar and return them to the oven for
a minute to glaze. Cut the strips after they are baked into pieces three
inches long.


                             CRANBERRY PIE

Add to half a cupful of hot water a cupful of sugar and a tablespoonful
of cornstarch diluted with a little water. Stir until the water boils,
then add half a cupful of molasses, half a tablespoonful of butter, a
saltspoonful of salt, and a pint of chopped cranberries. Cook for a few
minutes, then turn it into the pastry and bake with or without an upper
crust.


[Illustration: NO. 148. COCOANUT PIE.]


                              COCOANUT PIE

Grate a cocoanut. Mix it with an equal weight of sugar and the beaten
yolks of four eggs. Mix together and scald a cupful of milk and the milk
of the cocoanut. Add a tablespoonful of cornstarch diluted with a little
water, and stir it until it is a little thickened. Remove it from the
fire, add the cocoanut mixture, and lastly the whipped whites of four
eggs. Turn it into a deep pie-paste and bake very slowly for half an
hour, or until firm to the touch. Serve cold.

The cocoanut filling should be one and a half or one and three quarter
inches thick. A kitchen basin may be used for the baking-dish, or the
crust can be built up around a pie-dish to make it deeper.


[Illustration: NO. 149. HUCKLEBERRY PIE.]


                              CURRANT PIE

Add to a cupful of mashed currants a cupful of sugar, half a teaspoonful
of butter, the yolk of an egg, and if there is much juice a
tablespoonful of flour. Bake with an under-crust only, and cover the top
with meringue.


                            LEMON PIE, No. 1

      3 eggs,
      2 cupfuls of milk,
      2 tablespoonfuls of flour, scant,
      1 tablespoonful of butter,
      5 tablespoonfuls of sugar, or to taste,
      Juice and grated rind of one and a half lemons.

Beat together the yolks of three eggs and the white of one egg, then
add, in the following order, the sugar, the flour, the butter, and the
milk. Lastly, add very slowly the juice and grated rind of lemon. Turn
the mixture into a pie-dish lined with a bottom crust and bake it slowly
until it is set like a custard. Do not let it cook too long, or, like
custard, it will become watery.

Make a meringue of the whites of two eggs. Beat them to a stiff froth,
then add slowly two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Spread the meringue roughly
over the pie when it is taken from the oven, and return it to the oven
for a minute to color the meringue. The top may be made more ornamental
by pressing the meringue through a pastry-bag on to the pie.


                            LEMON PIE, No. 2

Put into a saucepan on the fire one cupful of sugar and one cupful of
water. Stir until the sugar is dissolved, then add two cupfuls of grated
crumb of bread and the juice and grated rind of two lemons. Stir until
the mixture is smooth, then add the beaten yolks of two eggs and remove
it from the fire. Turn the mixture into a baked under-crust, and bake
the pie for ten to fifteen minutes.

Cover the top with meringue made of the whites of three eggs and three
tablespoonfuls of sugar.


[Illustration: NO. 150. STRAWBERRY CAKE.]


[Illustration: NO. 151. STRAWBERRY-CAKE WITH WHIPPED CREAM.]


[Illustration: NO. 152. STRAWBERRY-CAKE WITH MERINGUE.]


[Illustration: NO. 153. STRAWBERRY-CAKE WITH MERINGUE.]


                            STRAWBERRY CAKES

Make two layers of sponge-cake, trim the edges, cover them with
well-selected strawberries set close together, sprinkle with sugar, and
place one layer on the other. Pass cream in a pitcher.

Prepare the cake as in No. 1, but cover the top with whipped cream
pressed through a pastry-bag.

Use a single layer of cake, cover it with meringue, then with
strawberries placed close together, and decorate with meringue pressed
through a pastry-bag with star-tube, making a border, or a border and
stars between the berries.

For the meringue use the whites of three eggs and four tablespoonfuls of
sugar. Flavor it with a few drops of vanilla. Prepare the cake just
before serving it.


[Illustration: NO. 154. CURRANT-SHORTCAKE.]


[Illustration: NO. 155. CURRANT-SHORTCAKE CUT.]


                           CURRANT SHORTCAKE

This shortcake will be liked as well as, if not better than, one made of
strawberries. The latter has an established reputation, which is based
largely upon its attractive appearance, but, as a rule, it is
disappointing to the taste. Shortcake can be made quite as inviting with
currants as with strawberries, and the tartness of the fruit gives it a
flavor which is especially grateful in hot weather, when currants are in
season.

Receipt for one currant shortcake which is enough to serve to six
persons:

Make a biscuit dough as follows: Sift together twice two cupfuls of
flour, one and a half teaspoonfuls of baking-powder, and a half
teaspoonful of salt (they must be thoroughly mixed). When this is done,
rub in one rounded teaspoonful of butter or lard or cottolene, then add
enough milk to make a soft dough. Use a fork to stir in the milk. Mix it
lightly and quickly together, making the paste a little too soft to
roll. Turn it into a well-greased pie-tin, smooth the top with a wet
knife, and put it at once into a hot oven to bake for thirty minutes.
When it is taken from the oven trim the edges and split the biscuit in
two, using two forks so as to tear, not cut, it apart. Spread each half
with butter while it is still hot.

Stem a box of currants. Reserve a few of the finest ones to decorate the
top of the shortcake. Put the rest of the currants into a bowl and mash
them, add enough sugar to sweeten to taste, and let them stand an hour
or more before using them.

Spread the mashed currants over one half of the buttered biscuit, lay
the other half on it. Cover the top with meringue made of the whipped
whites of two eggs sweetened with two tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar.
Decorate with whole currants as shown in illustration.

It can be more elaborately decorated by pressing the meringue through a
pastry-bag and tube into ornamental shapes, and placing currants on it
as the fancy dictates.

Serve very fresh.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               CHAPTER XI

                              TENTH COURSE


                                  ICES



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                  ICES

      Ice Cream, Plain
      Ice Cream with Hot Chocolate Sauce
      Ice Cream with Hot Maple Sauce
      Ice Cream, Strawberry
      Ice Cream, Melon
      Ice Cream, Peach
      Water-ice, Lemon
      Water-ice, Orange
      Water-ice, Strawberry
      Water-ice, Apricot
      Water-ice, Pineapple
      Water-ice, Macedoine
      Café Frappé
      Cake


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                            PLAIN ICE CREAM

To serve with or without hot sauces.

      2 cupfuls of milk,
      1 cupful of cream,
      ½ cupful of sugar,
      2 whole eggs,
      1 teaspoonful of vanilla.

Mix the eggs with the sugar, then scald the milk and turn it over them.
Place the whole on the fire in a double boiler and cook for a few
minutes to set the eggs, but not so long that the mixture thickens like
a custard. Remove from the fire and add the cream and vanilla. When it
is cold, freeze and mold it.


                   HOT CHOCOLATE SAUCE FOR ICE CREAM

Put four squares of unsweetened chocolate into a saucepan. Set the
saucepan into a second one containing hot water, let the chocolate melt
on the dry pan, then remove it and stir in first a cupful of sugar and
then half a cupful of hot water. Return it to the fire and stir until
the sugar is dissolved and the mixture is smooth, then cook without
stirring until a little dropped into cold water can be taken up and
rolled into a ball between the fingers. Do not let it cook any farther,
but keep the pan in hot water until ready to serve, then turn it into a
hot sauce-dish. It will harden and form a crust when turned over the
cream.

It is essential to prepare it exactly as directed. If the chocolate is
not first melted on a dry pan it will be grainy, and if the water is
added first it will harden.


                     HOT MAPLE SAUCE FOR ICE CREAM

Mix half a cupful of cream with two cupfuls of maple syrup and let it
cook without stirring until it threads, or a little dropped into water
can be taken up and rolled into a soft ball between the fingers. Do not
let it cook any farther, but set the pan in hot water and keep it warm
until the moment of serving.


                          STRAWBERRY ICE CREAM

      1 pint of milk,
      1 pint of cream,
      1 pound of sugar,
      1 quart of strawberries, or of strawberries and raspberries mixed.

Mix the crushed berries with half of the sugar and let them stand for
several hours, then squeeze out the juice.

Scald the milk with the other half of the sugar, let it cool, half
freeze it, then add the cream and the fruit juice and finish the
freezing.


                            MELON ICE CREAM

      1 pint of milk,
      1 pint of cream,
      1½ pints of melon juice,
      2½ cupfuls of sugar.

Scrape out the soft center of a muskmelon, press it through a colander,
add half the sugar to it, and let it stand several hours, then strain
out the juice.

Scald the milk with the other half of the sugar, let it cool, mix in the
cream and half freeze it, then add the melon juice and finish the
freezing. Serve it in the melon rind or mold it. To mold, line a
melon-mold with a layer one inch thick of the frozen cream, colored
green, and fill the center with the plain cream.


                            PEACH ICE CREAM

      1 pint of milk,
      1 pint of cream,
      1½ pints of peach pulp,
      2½ cupfuls of sugar.

Add half of the sugar to the peach pulp and let it stand for two or
three hours, then press it again through a sieve or colander.

Scald the milk with half of the sugar, let it cool, half freeze it, and
then add the cream and peach pulp and finish freezing.


                               WATER-ICES

Express the juice from any fruit, dilute it with a little water, or
leave it pure, make it very sweet with sugar, or, preferably, sugar
syrup, and add a very little lemon juice. Freeze the mixture.

Syrup from preserve-jars, diluted to the right degree, makes good
water-ice.

Water-ices are difficult to mold, so it is better to serve them in
glasses or in individual dishes.


                               LEMON ICE

      1 quart of water
      Juice of four large lemons,
      Juice of one orange,
      2½ cupfuls of sugar.

Boil the sugar and water for ten minutes, then add the fruit juice,
strain it, and when it is cold freeze it.


                               ORANGE ICE

      1½ cupfuls of orange juice,
      Juice of 1 lemon,
      2½ cupfuls of sugar,
      1 quart of water.

Boil the sugar and water for ten minutes, add the fruit juice, strain
it, and when it is cold freeze it.


                             STRAWBERRY ICE

      1½ cupfuls of strawberry juice,
      2 cupfuls of sugar,
      1 quart of water.

Crush the berries and let them stand in part of the sugar for two to
three hours, then strain out the juice. Boil the water with the rest of
the sugar for ten minutes, add the fruit juice, and when it is cold
freeze it by turning the crank for five minutes, then stopping for five
minutes, and so on until it is frozen. Serve in individual glasses.


                              APRICOT ICE

Chop, mash, and press through a sieve a canful of California canned
apricots. To the pulp add the juice from the can, two cupfuls of water,
and enough sugar to make it quite sweet. Freeze and serve in glasses.


[Illustration: NO. 156. PINEAPPLE ICE.]


                             PINEAPPLE ICE

Cut off the top of a pineapple and take out the center, being careful to
leave the rind uninjured. Grate the pineapple, and to the pulp and juice
add a cupful of water, the juice of a lemon, and enough sugar to make it
very sweet, as it loses sweetness in freezing. Freeze it and serve it in
the shell of the pine.


[Illustration: NO. 157. MACEDOINE ICE.]


                             MACEDOINE ICES

Half fill glasses with mixed fruits cut in pieces, using any combination
of summer or winter fruits that may be convenient, such as oranges,
bananas, grapes, canned peaches, canned cherries, and candied cherries;
or fresh peaches and pears, grapes, and preserved strawberries; or fresh
strawberries and cherries and sweet apples. Cover the fruit with a
water-ice made of any fruit juice.

Serve as an ice for dessert, or serve in small glasses as a sherbet
before the game course. In the latter case a mixture of oranges,
grape-fruit, and grapes with lemon or orange ice would be suitable, and
a teaspoonful of rum or sherry should be poured over the ice just before
serving.


                              CAFÉ FRAPPÉ

To a quart of strong coffee add a pint of cream or milk and a cupful of
sugar; freeze it and serve it in glasses, or freeze the sweetened coffee
and serve it in glasses with whipped cream on top. In the latter case
the coffee must not be quite as strong as when mixed with the cream.

NOTE.—For other ices, parfaits, and directions for freezing, see
“Century Cook Book,” page 488.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XII

                            ELEVENTH COURSE


                                 FRUITS



------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                 FRUITS

      Pineapple, No. 1
      Pineapple, No. 2
      Pineapple, No. 3
      Pineapple, No. 4
      Pineapple, Pulled
      Currants
      Cherries
      Pears


------------------------------------------------------------------------



[Illustration: NO. 159. THE SAME PINEAPPLE AS SHOWN IN NO. 158 DIVESTED
OF ITS COVERING TO SERVE AT DESSERT.]


[Illustration: NO. 160. SLICED PINEAPPLE, NO. 2.]


[Illustration: NO. 161. SLICED PINEAPPLE AROUND A FORM OF RICE, NO. 3.]


[Illustration: NO. 162. SLICED PINEAPPLE, NO. 4.]


                               PINEAPPLE


[Illustration: NO. 158. PINEAPPLE USED AS A CENTERPIECE.]


This is a well-selected pine called the sugar-loaf on account of its
tapering to a point on top. The top and bottom are cut off square, and
then the rind on the sides. The inside is cut into slices quarter of an
inch thick, and left together in natural shape. The rind is then fitted
around it and, if necessary, held in place with wooden toothpicks used
as skewers. These will not show, and can be easily removed at the time
of serving. Use the pine as a table ornament or centerpiece.

No. 1. The rind is removed from the pine shown in illustration No. 158;
      it is then covered with sugar and passed.

No. 2. The pineapple has been cut into slices quarter of an inch thick,
      and then in halves. The half slices are stood on edge and powdered
      sugar is placed in the center of the circle.

      Pineapple is much better in thick slices. The less taste of the
      knife the better. Cut in this way, there is no difficulty about
      the pieces standing in place as shown in illustration.

No. 3. Cut the pineapple into slices quarter of an inch thick, and then
      into quarters. Arrange the quarters, standing on edge, diagonally
      around the mound of boiled rice. Place the sprout of the pine in
      the center of the mound of rice. Have the rice sweetened and
      flavored. Sherry or maraschino are good flavorings to use.

      Cornstarch pudding, blancmange, or any simple jelly, can be used
      instead of the rice.

No. 4. Cut a pineapple into slices quarter of an inch thick. With a
      small biscuit-cutter stamp out the hard centers, leaving the
      pineapple in rings. Arrange the rings, overlapping, in a circle.
      Sprinkle them with granulated sugar, and garnish with a small leaf
      of the pine laid in each hole.


[Illustration: NO. 163. PULLED PINEAPPLE.]


=Pulled pineapple=. This is a delicious way of serving the pine when it
is very ripe.

Cut off the rind, and with a small, pointed knife take out the eyes. Put
a fork in the hard core to hold it, and with a second fork tear off the
soft pulp. Pile the pieces in a glass dish and sprinkle them plentifully
with sugar. Let it stand a few minutes to extract the juice before
serving.


                                CHERRIES

No. 1. Tie the cherries together by the stems into bunches resembling
      bunches of grapes. If convenient, have bunches of red and white
      cherries on the same dish.

No. 2. Turn lace papers into cornucopias and fill them with cherries
      tied into even bunches; let the stems turn to the points of the
      cornucopias, so the fruit only shows in the opening.

      Arrange the cornucopias on center dishes, in cone shape, the
      points in.

NOTE.—For other arrangements of fruits, see “Century Cook Book,” page
529.


[Illustration: NO. 164. STRAWBERRIES SERVED WITH THE HULLS ON.]


[Illustration: NO. 165. PEARS ARRANGED FOR CENTERPIECE.]


[Illustration: NO. 166. CENTERPIECE OF RED AND OF WHITE CURRANTS FOR THE
BREAKFAST- OR THE LUNCHEON-TABLE.]


[Illustration: NO. 167. CENTERPIECE OF RED AND OF WHITE CURRANTS
ARRANGED IN A CIRCLE. THE COLORS ALTERNATING.]


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XIII

                   LOAF CAKES—SMALL CAKES—FANCY CAKES



------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               LOAF CAKES

      Gingerbread with Chocolate Glaze
      Gingerbread with Whipped Cream
      Gingerbread with Preserved Ginger
      Orange-cake, No. 1
      Orange-cake, No. 2, or Plain Cup-cake
      Chocolate-cake
      Cocoanut-cake
      Cocoanut Cream-cake
      Cake Decorated with Star
      Cake Decorated in Two Shades of White Icing
      Iced Cake Decorated with Pink Bow-knot
      Cake Decorated with Candied Violets
      Cake Decorated with Candied Rose-leaves
      Cake-basket Holding Meringue Mushrooms

                              SMALL CAKES

      Jelly-roll
      Daisy Cakes
      Medallion Fruit-cakes
      Cup-cakes with Decoration of Flower Design

                              FANCY CAKES

      Cherry-cakes
      Domino Cakes
      Marble Cakes
      Hemispheres
      Cream-cakes
      Cream-cakes, Iced
      Cream-cakes with Jam and Whipped Cream
      Little Cream-cakes with Caramel Icing
      Meringue Mushrooms
      Cocoanut Meringues
      Galettes
      Pastry Fingers


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                               LOAF CAKES

                    GINGERBREAD WITH CHOCOLATE GLAZE

    No. 1. ¾ of a cupful of butter,
          1 cupful of sugar,
          3 cupfuls of flour,
          1 cupful of dark molasses,
          1 cupful of black coffee,
          1 teaspoonful of ginger,
          ½ teaspoonful of cloves,
          1 teaspoonful of cinnamon,
          1 teaspoonful of bicarbonate of soda,
          3 eggs.

Mix the spices with the molasses. Dissolve the soda in a little boiling
water and add it to the coffee. Cream together the butter and sugar, add
the eggs, one at a time, and beat each one well. Add the molasses, then
the coffee and flour, a little at a time, alternately. Bake in two
bread-tins in a moderate oven forty to sixty minutes, or until the cake
leaves the sides of the pans.

Invert the loaves and cover the tops with a chocolate glaze made as
follows:


                            CHOCOLATE GLAZE

Put into a double saucepan two ounces or squares of chocolate. When it
is melted remove it from the fire and stir into it half a cupful of
sugar, then add a quarter cupful of hot water. Return it to the fire,
stir it until the sugar is dissolved, and continue to cook it without
stirring until a little dropped in water can be taken up and rolled
between the fingers into a soft ball. Pour it over the top of the cake.

No. 2. =With whipped cream=. Use the same receipt as No. 1, substituting
      a cupful of boiling water for the coffee, and using half butter
      and half lard; or two cupfuls of molasses may be used, and the
      sugar omitted. In the latter case two teaspoonfuls of soda instead
      of one should be dissolved in a cupful of boiling water. Serve the
      cake very fresh, and cover the top just before serving with
      whipped cream.

      The cake may be broken into squares, and the pieces fitted
      together and covered entirely with whipped cream. It can then be
      passed with a fork and spoon, as a dessert.

No. 3. =With preserved ginger=.

      1 cupful of black molasses,
      ½ cupful of butter,
      2 cupfuls of flour,
      ½ cupful of boiling water with a teaspoonful
      of soda dissolved in it,
      ½ teaspoonful of ginger,
      2 eggs,
      A dash of salt.

Warm the molasses and mix it with the butter, add the ginger and salt,
then the beaten eggs, and lastly the flour and water, a little at a
time, alternately. Bake in a square pan. Break the cake into square
pieces. Open each piece and spread between the halves some icing, No. 1
or No. 2, mixed with chopped preserved ginger; or use a chocolate icing.

Serve very fresh.


[Illustration: NO. 168. GINGERBREAD.
1. WITH WHIPPED CREAM. 2. WITH CHOCOLATE GLAZE.]


[Illustration: NO. 169. ORANGE-CAKE IN CRESCENTS.]


[Illustration: NO. 170. COCOANUT-CAKE.]


                           ORANGE-CAKE, No. 1

      Yolks of five eggs,
      Whites of three eggs,
      2 cupfuls of powdered sugar,
      2 cupfuls of flour sifted three times with
      1 teaspoonful of baking-powder,
      ½ cupful of water,
      Juice of one orange,
      Grated peel of one half orange.

First beat the yolks and sugar together thoroughly, then add the orange
juice and grated peel, then the flour and water, a little at a time,
alternately, and lastly the whites of three eggs whipped to a stiff
froth.

Make the layer one and a quarter inches thick for crescents.

Bake in a moderate oven about twenty minutes, or until the cake leaves
the sides of the pan. Cut the layer into pieces with a crescent-shaped
cutter, and cover the tops with icing No. 1, page 191, made of
confectioners’ sugar and with water strained from grated peel. Arrange
the crescents as shown in illustration.

The amount of mixture given in above receipt will make a long layer
which can be cut into eight crescents, and two round layers one inch
thick and six inches in diameter. Spread the tops of the round layers
with same icing and place one on top of the other; or use cocoanut cream
filling in place of the icing, as in illustration No. 171.


                 ORANGE-CAKE, No. 2, or PLAIN CUP-CAKE

      ¼ cupful of butter,
      1 cupful of sugar,
      2 cupfuls of sifted flour,
      ½ cupful of milk,
      2 eggs,
      ½ teaspoonful of baking-powder,
      Grated rind and juice of one orange, or of one lemon.

Beat together the butter and sugar, add the yolks of the eggs and the
flavoring, then alternately, a little at a time, the milk and the flour
which has been mixed with the baking-powder by sifting them together.
Lastly fold in the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Bake in a
moderate oven. If flavored with orange, cover the loaf with orange
icing, or bake it in layers and spread the icing between the layers as
well as on top. The icing should be mixed with the juice of an orange
and the part put between the layers should have some of the grated peel
in it.


                             CHOCOLATE-CAKE

Shave four squares of unsweetened chocolate, add half a cupful of milk
and half a cupful of sugar. Boil until thickened, then add a teaspoonful
of vanilla.

Mix half a cupful of butter and half a cupful of sugar, stir them to a
cream, then add the beaten yolks of three eggs and the chocolate
mixture, then alternately, a little at a time, two cupfuls of sifted
flour mixed with a teaspoonful of baking-powder, and half a cupful of
milk. Lastly, fold in the whites of two eggs. Bake in loaves or in
layers in a moderate oven. This amount of mixture will make two loaves.

Cover with chocolate icing No. 13. If in layers, use the same icing
between the layers.


                             COCOANUT-CAKE

Make two layers of cake, using any cake mixture. Spread cream filling
between the layers. Cut the edges even, using a sharp knife. Cover the
whole with icing and before it hardens sprinkle it with a plentiful
amount of grated cocoanut.


[Illustration: NO. 171. COCOANUT-CREAM CAKE.]


[Illustration: NO. 172. LOAF OF CAKE DECORATED WITH POWDERED SUGAR AND
STAR OF POWDERED COCOA.]


[Illustration: NO. 173. LOAF OF CAKE DECORATED WITH ICING IN TWO SHADES
OF WHITE.]


                          COCOANUT CREAM-CAKE

Use any cake mixture for the layers. The orange-cake mixtures are
recommended.

Make a filling as follows: put in a saucepan,

      1 cupful of milk,
      1 cupful of sugar,
      ½ cupful of cocoanut,
      A piece of butter the size of a nutmeg.

Mix them and let them come to the boiling-point, then add slowly a
heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch, moistened with a tablespoonful of
milk, and stir until the mixture is thickened. Remove it from the fire
and add the beaten yolk of an egg. When it cools and is beginning to
set, spread it over the tops of both layers of cake and place one on the
other. Trim the edges. Sprinkle the top with powdered sugar or with
grated cocoanut.

The cake in the illustration has in the center a confectioner’s rose.
Various kinds of sugar flowers can be bought at bakers’ supply stores.


                        CAKE DECORATED WITH STAR

Paint the surface of an inverted loaf of any kind of cake with white of
egg, then sift over it while it is moist enough powdered sugar to whiten
it. Place a star stencil on top, get it exactly in the center, and sift
powdered cocoa into the opening.

The star could be made of granulated sugar, colored pink, if preferred,
or a space could be filled with small candies called “hundreds and
thousands.”


                            TO MAKE STENCIL

Place a piece of stiff paper over the bottom of the inverted pan in
which the cake was baked and crease it enough to indicate the circle.
Outline the circle with a pencil and draw inside of it two other
circles, the first half an inch and the second one and a half inches
inside the outer one. Draw two lines across the circles at right angles,
then two more lines at equal distances between the others, then draw
pointed lines in the eight spaces between the second and third circles.


              CAKE DECORATED IN TWO SHADES OF WHITE ICING

The illustration shows a simple pattern for decorating a loaf of cake.
The cake can be made of any mixture. It is first covered with icing No.
3, page 192, which gives a clear icing and makes a good background for
the white lines. If it does not run evenly dip a knife in water and
smooth it. Most irregularities can be smoothed out with a clean, wet
knife. The lines are made of decorating icing, which is white (No. 16,
page 195), pressed through a pastry-bag with tube of small opening. Each
one of the center figures of the pattern holds a small silvered pellet
of candy.


                 ICED CAKE DECORATED WITH PINK BOW-KNOT

Cover the cake with a smooth, hard icing (No. 2 or No. 4). Put
decorating icing (No. 16), colored pink with cochineal, into a
pastry-bag with tube of plain, small opening, and trace a bow-knot with
it. Fill the space between the outlines with pink icing, and flatten it,
to look like a ribbon, with a wet knife.

If the tracing is not satisfactory, take it off with a knife, wipe the
cake with a dry cloth, and make another trial. A little practice with a
pencil, drawing a knot of the right size on paper, will enable one to
trace more easily the outlines on the cake.


[Illustration: NO. 174. ICED CAKE DECORATED WITH PINK BOW-KNOT.]


[Illustration: NO. 175. 1. ICED CAKE DECORATED WITH CANDIED ROSE-LEAVES.
2. ICED CAKE DECORATED WITH CANDIED VIOLETS.]


[Illustration: NO. 176. LOAF OF CAKE COVERED WITH TUTTI FRUTTI ICING.]


[Illustration: NO. 177. CAKE-BASKET HOLDING MERINGUE MUSHROOMS.]


[Illustration: NO. 178. 1. JELLY-ROLL. 2. DAISY CAKES. 3. MEDALLION
FRUIT-CAKES.]


                  CAKES DECORATED WITH CANDIED VIOLETS
                      AND WITH CANDIED ROSE-LEAVES

No. 1. Cover a loaf of cake with icing flavored with rose-water or
      extract. Scatter over it candied pink rose-leaves.

No. 2. Make a loaf of orange-cake. Cover it with white icing, and
      arrange around it candied violets forming two wreaths.


                 CAKE-BASKET HOLDING MERINGUE MUSHROOMS

Make a loaf of any kind of cake, cup- or sponge-cake preferred. Bake it
in a fluted pan.

Soften a long piece of macaroni in boiling-hot water. It must be pressed
carefully and gradually into the water as the ends soften. When the
macaroni is sufficiently softened, pour cold water over it, lay it on a
board, and bend it into the shape of a handle of suitable size for the
cake. Let it dry, then brush it with the white of egg and sprinkle it
with granulated sugar.

Cut little holes in the top of the cake and insert the handle. Cover the
top of the cake with mushroom-shaped meringues (see page 189).


                              SMALL CAKES

No. 1. =Jelly-roll=. Make a layer of sponge-cake, and while it is still
      hot cut off the edges, spread it with jelly, and roll it together.
      Then roll it in a stiff paper and tie it. If the cake is not
      over-baked and is rolled while hot it will not crack. The paper
      will keep it in shape. Cover the top and ends with icing. Decorate
      it with tracings of icing, candied cherries, and angelica.

No. 2. =Daisy cakes=. Drop separate spoonfuls of sponge-cake mixture at
      intervals on a baking-sheet. Bake in a hot oven for a few minutes
      only, and watch carefully that the edges do not burn. The cakes
      will spread, rising in the center, and be thin on the edges.

      Spread the flat sides with an icing colored green. Blanch some
      almonds, split them, and cut them in strips. Arrange them in a
      circle, and place in the center a little icing mixed with yolk of
      egg to color it yellow; or the icing can be white and the almonds
      colored in the oven to a light yellow.

No. 3. =Medallion fruit-cakes=. Use a sponge- or a cup-cake mixture and
      bake it in gem-pans. If they rise in the center cut off the tops
      to even them. Invert them, and with a small cutter stamp a circle
      in the center of each one and take out a thin layer of the cake.
      Cover the rest of the cakes with icing, or the cakes may be
      moistened with water and then rubbed over with powdered sugar to
      whiten them. Place in the center of each, where the piece was
      removed, a piece of preserved peach or other fruit, cut with the
      same stamp previously used, so the fruit will exactly fit the
      opening.


[Illustration: NO. 179. CUP-CAKES, DECORATION OF FLOWER DESIGN.]


               CUP-CAKES WITH DECORATION OF FLOWER DESIGN

Make a cup-cake mixture and bake it in gem-pans. Invert the cakes and
cover them with icing Nos. 1, 2, or 3. Place on top of each one half a
candied cherry, the flat side down, two pieces of angelica cut into
diamond shape to imitate leaves, and a thin strip of angelica to imitate
a stem.


[Illustration: NO. 180. CUP-CAKES, DECORATION OF FLOWER DESIGN.
1. CHERRY CAKES.  2. DOMINO CAKES.  3. MARBLE CAKES.  4. HEMISPHERES.]


                              FANCY CAKES

=No. 1. Cherry-cakes=. Cut a layer of any kind of cake into pieces three
      inches long and two and a quarter wide. Ice them, lay on candied
      cherries cut in halves, small strips of angelica imitating stems,
      and angelica cut in diamond-shaped pieces imitating leaves.

      The cakes in illustration are made of sponge-cake; the two on the
      outside are covered with icing No. 4, the other two with maple
      icing No. 5.

=No. 2. Domino cakes=. Cut a layer of cake into two pieces. Cover one
      with chocolate icing and the other with white icing. While the
      icing is still soft cut the cake, using a sharp knife, into pieces
      three inches long and one and a half inches wide.

      Put a little decorating icing (No. 16) into a pastry-bag with
      plain tube of small opening, and press it through on to the cakes
      in dots and lines to imitate dominoes. Use white icing for the
      chocolate pieces, and the same icing mixed with cocoa powder for
      the white pieces.

=No. 3. Marble cakes=. Drop any cake mixture from a spoon on to a
      floured baking-sheet, using about a dessertspoonful of mixture for
      each cake, and leaving enough space for the cakes to spread. Place
      on the flat sides icings of three colors and let them run together
      irregularly to give a marble-like appearance.

=No. 4. Hemispheres=. Make a cake mixture, using,

      ¼ cupful of butter,
      ¼ cupful of powdered sugar,
      ¾ cupful of pastry flour,
      ½ teaspoonful of vanilla,
      Yolks of two eggs.

Cream together the butter and sugar, add the yolks and flavoring, and
then the flour. Make it into balls one inch in diameter, by rolling
small portions of the mixture between the hands. Roll the balls in
powdered sugar and place them on a floured tin. They will flatten in
baking and leave the shape of hemispheres. Bake them in a moderate oven
ten to fifteen minutes. Cover the flat sides with icing of different
colors and ornament with decorating icing pressed through a tube of
small opening.

In the illustration some of the cakes have only the decorating icing in
rings with a spot of jelly in the center, others have pistache with
decoration, and others have plain icing with a spot of jelly in the
center.


                              CREAM-CAKES

To a cupful of hot water add a tablespoonful of butter, a tablespoonful
of sugar, and a dash of salt. When the sugar is dissolved and the butter
melted add a cupful and a quarter of flour. Cook it, stirring all the
time, until it is a smooth paste that leaves the sides of the pan. Let
it cool a few minutes and then add three or, if necessary, four eggs,
beating in well one at a time. The paste should have sufficient
consistency to hold its shape without spreading when dropped from a
spoon.

Put the paste into a pastry-bag with a plain tube of half-inch opening
and press it through into balls from three quarters of an inch to two
and a half inches in diameter, according to the size of cakes wanted.
Brush the tops with egg and bake in a slow oven for thirty to forty
minutes, or until the cakes are puffed and feel light.

If they are to be used for plain cream-cakes, open them on one side and
put in a spoonful of cream filling made as follows:


[Illustration: NO. 181. CREAM CAKES, ICED.]


[Illustration: NO. 182. CREAM CAKES WITH JAM AND WHIPPED CREAM.]


[Illustration: NO. 183. MERINGUE MUSHROOMS.]


                             CREAM FILLING

Beat together the yolks of five eggs, half a cupful of sugar, and a
heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch, add a pint of scalding milk and
stir over the fire until it is well thickened, then add half a
teaspoonful of vanilla or other flavoring.


                           CREAM-CAKES, ICED

Make cream-cakes two inches in diameter, fill them with charlotte russe
filling, or with apricot or other jam, and whipped cream. Cover them
with icing No. 1 or 2; or fill them with cream filling flavored with
coffee and cover them with icing No. 1 made with coffee.


                 CREAM-CAKES WITH JAM AND WHIPPED CREAM

Make cream-cakes one to one and a half inches across. Open and spread
the inside with apricot or any jam, and then fill them with whipped
cream. Boil a little sugar and water to the crack; that is, until a
little of the boiling sugar dropped into water will be brittle enough to
break with a snap. Pour this over the cakes, and sprinkle them with
chopped blanched almonds.


                 LITTLE CREAM-CAKES WITH CARAMEL ICING

Make cream-cakes of one inch diameter. Fill them with cream filling, and
cover them with sugar boiled to the crack, as directed above. Place each
one in a little paper box and serve with other fancy cakes.


                           MERINGUE MUSHROOMS

Place meringue mixture (see page 150) in a pastry-bag with a plain tube,
and press it through into shapes like mushroom caps. This is done by
holding the tube still until enough of the egg is pressed through to
form a cap of the size desired and high in the center. With a wet knife
lightly press down the point left by the tube, and, if necessary, smooth
the whole top. On another paper make forms resembling mushroom stems,
and with a wet knife flatten the tops. Place all in a cool oven for a
few minutes to form a crust, but do not let them color. When a little
firm place them on the hot shelf to dry. Sprinkle the tops of the caps
with powdered cocoa, and with the finger darken an edge around the flat
under surface to represent the gills of a mushroom. Moisten the tops of
the stems with white of egg and stick them on the caps.


                           COCOANUT MERINGUES

Place meringue mixture (page 150) in a pastry-bag with plain tube of
one-half inch opening, and press it through on to paper in pieces about
three inches long. Cut the meringue from the tube to give clean ends.
Sprinkle the tops with as much grated cocoanut as will adhere.
Desiccated cocoanut can be used. Place in a moderate oven to color it
lightly, then remove to the hot shelf of the range to dry.

These meringues are also pretty if pressed through a star-tube into
rings.


                                GALETTES

Roll puff-paste trimmings as thin as possible. Stamp it all over with
some rough surface which will pierce the paste (a wooden meat-pounder
was used for those in illustration). Then cut with a plain
biscuit-cutter into round or oblong shapes. Lay these on a baking-sheet,
paint the tops all over evenly with egg, and sprinkle them with powdered
sugar. Bake in a medium oven until lightly colored.

Every scrap of paste can be utilized for these cakes, which are very
nice with ice-cream or for afternoon tea-cakes.


[Illustration: NO. 184. COCOANUT MERINGUES.]


[Illustration: NO. 185. GALETTES.]


There is a utensil for making these cakes, but it is too expensive for
general use. It is a metal plate with raised pattern, and over this the
thin paste is rolled.


                             PASTRY FINGERS

Roll puff-paste to one-eighth inch thickness. Cut it into strips one
inch wide and three inches long. Spread one half of the strips with a
thin layer of any kind of jam, and cover with the remaining strips,
making sandwich-like pieces. Bake in a hot oven for ten minutes, or
until done, then paint the tops with white of egg and sprinkle with
powdered sugar and chopped blanched almonds. Return to the oven to glaze
and slightly color the nuts.

If not used at once place the fingers in the oven a few minutes to
freshen them before serving.


                                 ICINGS

No. 1. =Using confectioners’ sugar=. This is XXXX sugar, and is
      exceedingly fine.

      Mix confectioners’ sugar with enough water to make it spread
      evenly. A little flavoring of any kind may be put in the water,
      but is not necessary. This makes a soft, clear icing, which is
      very nice and is the easiest of all icings to prepare and handle.

      =For orange icing=. Use strained orange juice instead of water, or
      soak the grated peel in hot water for a little while, and then
      strain it through a cloth and use the water.

      =For yellow icing=. Dilute the yolk of an egg with a little water,
      and flavor with mandarin orange extract.

      =For pistache icing=. Color the water with green coloring paste,
      and flavor it with one teaspoonful of orange-flower water and one
      quarter teaspoonful of bitter-almond extract.

      =For pink icing=. Use strawberry juice, or color water with a
      little cochineal.

      =For wine-cakes=. Use sherry instead of water.

No. 2. =Hard, white icing=. Take the unbeaten white of an egg, dilute it
      with a very little water and flavor it. Stir in powdered sugar
      until it is of the consistency to spread.

      This makes a hard, white icing.

No. 3. =Boiled icing=. Put a cupful of granulated sugar and a half
      cupful of hot water into a saucepan and stir until the sugar is
      dissolved, then let it boil without stirring until it threads or,
      if dropped into water, it can be taken up and rolled between the
      fingers into a soft ball. Remove it from the fire and stir until
      it slightly clouds, then immediately pour it over the cake.

      This makes a clear icing, and is a good covering for cakes which
      are to be decorated, as it gives, with the decorating icing, two
      colors.

No. 4. =Boiled icing, No. 2=. Cook, without stirring, after the sugar is
      dissolved, one cupful of granulated sugar and one quarter cupful
      of hot water until it threads, then pour it slowly over the
      whipped white of one egg. Beat the mixture all the time, and until
      it is cool enough to spread.

No. 5. =Maple icing=. Boil to the thread or soft-ball stage a cupful of
      maple sugar with a quarter of a cupful of hot water to dissolve
      it, or use maple syrup. Pour it slowly over the whipped white of
      one egg as in No. 4.

No. 6. =Caramel icing=. Boil a cupful of granulated sugar, a half cupful
      of milk, and a teaspoonful of butter to the thread or soft-ball
      stage. Flavor with a few drops of vanilla and stir until it begins
      to grain.

No. 7. =Crystal icing=. Spread any icing over a cake, and while it is
      still moist sprinkle over it the coarse grains of granulated sugar
      obtained by sifting.

No. 8. =Powdered sugar=. Moisten with a brush the surface of a cake with
      the white of an egg diluted with a tablespoonful of water and
      stirred just enough to break the stringiness; then dust it thickly
      with powdered sugar, using a sifter. After the egg has dried,
      shake off the sugar that does not adhere.

No. 9. =Whipped cream=. Flavor a half pint of cream with a few drops of
      vanilla and whip it until it is stiff and dry. Just before serving
      the cake ornament it with the whipped cream pressed through a
      pastry-bag and star-tube.

      This cream is used with strawberry cake and with molasses
      gingerbread.

No. 10. =Whipped cream with maple flavor=. Heat two tablespoonfuls of
      maple syrup and dissolve in it one teaspoonful of granulated
      gelatine which has been soaked in a tablespoonful of cold water.
      Let the syrup cool so it will not heat the cream, but before it
      sets stir it into a half pint of cream. Whip the cream to a stiff
      froth and press it through a pastry-bag and tube on to the cake in
      an ornamental pattern.

No. 11. =Butter=. Whip a half pound of butter until it is smooth and
      light, sweeten it with thick sugar syrup flavored, and add a level
      tablespoonful of cornstarch. Press it through a pastry-bag and
      tube on to the cake in ornamental designs.

No. 12. =Mocha cream=. Whip half a pound of butter, using a fork, until
      it is smooth and light. Flavor it with syrup made of a half cupful
      of sugar and a quarter cupful of strong coffee. Add a level
      tablespoonful of cornstarch to give the butter more stability.
      Press it through a pastry-bag and tube.

No. 13.= Chocolate icing, No. 1=. Dissolve one and a half ounces of
      unsweetened chocolate in one third cupful of cream or milk, and
      add half a teaspoonful of butter. When this mixture is a little
      cool add the beaten yolk of one egg, one half teaspoonful of
      vanilla, and enough confectioners’ sugar to make it spread.

No. 14. =Chocolate icing, No. 2=. Melt two ounces of unsweetened
      chocolate on a hot pan, remove it from the fire, and add half a
      cupful of sugar, one teaspoonful of butter, and lastly a quarter
      cupful of milk. Replace it on the fire and cook until a little
      dropped into water will form a soft ball. Pour it over the cake.

No. 15. =Tutti frutti icing=. Cook a cupful of sugar and a quarter
      cupful of water to the thread or soft-ball stage. Turn it slowly
      on to the whipped white of one egg. Beat them together and add a
      tablespoonful each of chopped blanched almonds, citron cut in
      small pieces, seeded raisins, candied cherries cut into pieces,
      and angelica cut into bits. Spread it roughly over the cake. Any
      combination of fruits may be used instead of those given above. As
      this is a rich icing, it should be used on a plain cake, such as
      cup- or sponge-cake.

No. 16. =Decorating icing=. Whip the whites of two eggs to a very stiff
      froth, then add slowly powdered sugar until the mixture is so
      stiff that every point and thread left by the beater will hold its
      place. It requires beating a long time. It is the same as meringue
      mixture, except that it is made hard with sugar instead of by
      drying, and takes about a half cupful of sugar to each egg.

NOTE.—Sprinkle a cake that is going to be frosted with flour as soon as
      it is taken from the pan. Before icing, wipe off the flour. This
      prevents the icing from running so much, and makes it easier to
      spread.

NOTE.—Smooth icings with the broad side of a wet knife. Wipe the blade
      clean, and dip it in water each time it is drawn over the icing.
      In this way very rough surfaces can be smoothed.

NOTE.—Icing left over will keep any length of time, if excluded from the
      air and not allowed to dry. Put it in a cup, cover the cup with a
      wet cloth, double several times, and cover the cloth with a
      saucer.

NOTE.—For other icings and directions, see “Century Cook Book,” page
      483.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              CHAPTER XIV

                                 BREADS



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 BREADS

      Stirred Bread
      Water Bread
      Whole Wheat Bread
      Unleavened Bread-chips
      Scotch Oat-cakes
      Pulled Bread
      Lace Toast or Zwieback
      Swiss Rolls
      Luncheon or Dinner Rolls, Braids, Twists
      Striped Bread and Butter
      Checkered Bread and Butter
      Sandwiches, Bread and Butter
      Sandwiches, Rolled or Motto
      Sandwiches, Lettuce
      Sandwiches: Cucumber, Egg, Cheese, Watercress, Pâté de Foie Gras,
         Chicken, Fish or Meat, Nasturtium Flowers, Olives, Nuts, Jam or
         Jellies
      Sandwiches, Toasted Cheese
      Brioche
      Corn-muffins
      Cheese-crackers


------------------------------------------------------------------------



[Illustration: NO. 187. STIRRED BREAD.]


                             STIRRED BREAD

      1½ quarts of water,
      2 tablespoonfuls of sugar,
      1 tablespoonful of butter, lard, or cottolene,
      1 tablespoonful of salt,
      1 cake of compressed yeast,
      Flour enough to make a thick batter, or about two and
         three-quarter quarts.

This quantity of material will make three loaves.

Have the water warm, not hot. Stir into the water the sugar, salt,
softened butter, and the yeast, which has been dissolved in a
tablespoonful of water (yeast is more easily dissolved in a small
quantity of water), then stir in enough flour to make a batter as thick
as can be stirred easily. Stir and beat the batter well for about ten
minutes. Cover the bread-pan and set it in a warm place (eighty degrees
is the right temperature). When the dough is light, or about doubled in
bulk, stir it down, and beat it well for a few minutes. Let it rise a
second time, and again beat it, then turn it into the pans, filling them
half full. The tops of the loaves can be made smooth by brushing them
with a pastry-brush dipped in water.

The stirring gives a fine texture. The dough rises quickly after the
first rising, and must be watched that it does not get light enough to
sour. Let the loaves rise in the baking-pans to double in size, then
bake in a hot oven for one hour.

Bread made in this way is very light and spongy, and is much better than
that which is made so thick with flour that it can be kneaded. It has
also the other advantages of being easier to make, the results are more
reliable, and the objection of too much handling is removed. It requires
an experienced hand to knead bread without making it too heavy with
flour.


[Illustration: NO. 188. WATER BREAD.]


                              WATER BREAD

      2½ quarts of flour,
      1 quart of water,
      1 tablespoonful of salt,
      1½ cakes of compressed yeast.

Place the flour on the hot shelf to get thoroughly warm. Let it be warm
to the hand. Dissolve the yeast in a tablespoonful of water, and add it,
with the salt, to a quart of warm water. Turn the liquid into the flour,
reserving enough flour to use on the molding-board. Mix it thoroughly.
Turn it on to the board and form it into well-shaped loaves. This
quantity of material will make three loaves. Let it rise in the pans to
double in size, which will take about one and a half hours. Bake for one
hour.

This bread is made in about three hours. It is the most simple receipt
possible, and gives excellent results. Some judgment must be used about
the quantity of flour, as it takes a little more or less according to
its dryness.


                           WHOLE WHEAT BREAD

      2½ quarts of whole wheat flour,
      1 teaspoonful of salt,
      ½ cupful of molasses or of sugar,
      ½ cake of compressed yeast,
      About 1 quart of water.

Add the salt to the water. Mix the molasses with part of the water and
with the yeast, which has been dissolved in a little water. Stir the
liquid into the flour, and add enough more water to make a thick batter.
Beat it for some time, or until it is well mixed and the batter is
smooth. Let it rise overnight. Early in the morning stir it down, and
turn it into the pans. Let it rise in the pans to double in size, and
bake for one hour. The above quantities will make two loaves.


[Illustration: NO. 186. BREAD-PAN WITH CLOSE-FITTING COVER.
The cover excludes the air from the dough, so no crust forms while it is
rising.]


[Illustration: NO. 189. ROUND LOAF AND BAKING TIN.]


                       ROUND LOAF AND BAKING TIN

Any bread mixture may be baked in this pan. The fancy form is its only
recommendation. Round slices are attractive for a change, and made into
toast give also an agreeable variety.

The pan is filled barely half full of dough. It is left to rise for one
hour, and is baked for one hour.


[Illustration: NO. 190. 1. UNLEAVENED BREAD CHIPS. 2. SCOTCH OAT-CAKES.]


                         UNLEAVENED BREAD-CHIPS

Mix into a quart of graham, or of white, or of whole wheat flour one
tablespoonful of butter and one level tablespoonful of salt, then add
about one and a quarter cupfuls of milk and water, half and half, or
enough to make a stiff dough. Flour the molding-board and roll the
mixture thin, fold it together twice and roll it again. Again fold it,
and again roll it very thin. Mark it off, using a pastry-wheel, into
strips one and a quarter inches wide and four to five inches long. Bake
it in a moderate oven for twenty minutes, or until the chips are cooked
through and are brittle, but not very brown.

This bread is recommended for dyspeptics and people of delicate
digestion, on the theory that the yeast-plant is not thoroughly
destroyed when baking bread, and that it continues to ferment in the
stomach.


                            SCOTCH OAT-CAKES

These cakes should be made of meal ground finer than any we are able to
get in our markets; therefore, one must resort to the expedient of
pounding in a mortar the finest meal obtainable, and sifting it through
a coarse mesh.

Add to one cupful of fine meal one teaspoonful of salt and enough hot
water to make a stiff dough. Sift some of the meal on to the
molding-board, and roll the mixture into a thin cake. Bake it slowly on
a griddle until it is thoroughly dried.


[Illustration: NO. 191. PULLED BREAD.]


                              PULLED BREAD

Take a loaf of freshly baked bread. Cut through the crust around the
loaf at intervals of two inches, then pull the thick slices apart.
Remove the crumb from the crusts, leaving it in ragged pieces. Place it
in a slow oven to color and crisp, turning it often enough to have it
dry and color on every side.


[Illustration: NO. 192. BREAD-PLANE.]


                            THE BREAD-CUTTER

The bread-plane can be adjusted to cut slices of any thickness. It will
cut fresh bread very thin. Bread which is a day old it will cut as thin
as lace. For cutting bread for sandwiches it is especially useful.


[Illustration: NO. 193. LACK TOAST OR ZWIEBACK.]


                         LACE TOAST OR ZWIEBACK

Use stale bread, and with the bread-plane shave off slices as thin as
lace. Spread the slices on pans and place them in the oven for a minute
to brown, or place them on a toaster on top of the range.

It will take but a minute for them to dry and take an even light-golden
color.

This toast can be served with soup, or at any time in place of cracker
biscuits. It is a form of toast much liked by people who do not eat
starchy foods and so abstain from bread.


[Illustration: NO. 194. SWISS ROLLS IN THE DOUGH.]


[Illustration: No. 195. SWISS ROLLS BAKED.]


                              SWISS ROLLS

Scald one cupful of milk to which have been added one tablespoonful of
sugar and two tablespoonfuls of butter. When it has partly cooled add
one half a cake of compressed yeast. Stir in well about three quarters
of a quart of flour. Put it in a moderately warm place to rise. When it
is light, place it in the ice-box for at least three hours, or
overnight. When ready to use, turn the raised dough on a well-floured
board, and roll it to a half-inch thickness. Spread the top with butter,
and roll the sheet of dough like a jelly-cake roll. See illustration No.
194. Cut from the end of the roll slices three quarters of an inch in
thickness.

Place the slices in pans, leaving plenty of room between each one, so
they will not touch in rising. Let them rise slowly until they are very
light, and more than doubled in size. Bake in a quick oven about twenty
minutes.


[Illustration: NO. 196. LUNCHEON OR DINNER ROLLS AND BRAIDS IN THE
DOUGH.]


[Illustration: NO. 197. LUNCHEON OR DINNER ROLLS AND TWISTS BAKED.]


                LUNCHEON OR DINNER ROLLS, BRAIDS, TWISTS

For these rolls, any bread dough may be used. In order to get the pieces
of uniform size, mold the dough into a roll about one and a half inches
in diameter. Cut the roll into pieces one and a half inches long, giving
pieces the size of an egg, or make the pieces larger, if desired. Turn
each piece into a ball, and then, using both hands, roll it into shape,
making a roll which is thick in the center and pointed at each end. See
illustration No. 196.

Place the rolls in pans, giving them sufficient room to rise without
touching. When they have a little more than doubled in size, brush the
tops with beaten egg diluted with a little milk. Bake them in a quick
oven for fifteen or twenty minutes.

For making braids, roll the dough into pencil-shaped pieces about half
an inch in diameter and five inches long. Brush each one with melted
butter. Press the ends of three pieces together and braid them. Let them
rise to double in size, brush the tops with egg and milk, and bake for
fifteen to twenty minutes.

Twists are made the same as braids, using two instead of three pieces of
dough.


[Illustration: NO. 199. STRIPED BREAD AND BUTTER.]


                        STRIPED BREAD AND BUTTER

             FOR FIRST COURSE WITH OYSTERS AND CLAMS ON THE
                HALF SHELL. FOR FISH AND SALAD COURSES,
                         ALSO FOR AFTERNOON TEA

Cut white and any kind of brown bread into slices from three eighths to
half an inch in thickness. Spread each slice generously with butter
which is soft enough to spread easily. Lay the slices together in
alternating colors, two buttered sides coming together in each layer.
When the pile of buttered slices is three and a half to four inches
high, cut it into good shape, removing the crusts. Place the bread
between two plates under a light weight and set it into the ice-box to
harden the butter. When ready to serve, cut it into slices about as
thick as the original slices, and then into strips.


[Illustration: NO. 200. CHECKERED BREAD AND BUTTER.]


                       CHECKERED BREAD AND BUTTER

Cut, one inch thick, three slices each of white and of brown bread.
Spread a slice of the white bread with a thick layer of soft butter. Lay
on it a buttered slice of brown bread, placing the buttered sides
together. Cover the top of the brown slice with butter, and lay on it a
buttered slice of white bread, the buttered sides together. You have now
three layers of bread, with the brown slice in the middle. Repeat the
operation, reversing the order of the white and brown slices. Trim the
two piles evenly, and place them in the ice-box under a light pressure.
When the butter is well hardened, cut slices an inch thick from the ends
of both piles. Butter these slices as before, placing two buttered sides
together, and arrange them so that the colors will alternate in squares.

The hardened butter holds the pieces together, and if the slices are
evenly cut, a checkered square of bread will be the result.

Put the bread and butter under a light pressure in the ice-box, and when
ready to serve cut it into thin slices.


[Illustration: NO. 201. BREAD AND BUTTER SANDWICHES.
1. CIRCLES OF BROWN BREAD WITH NUTS.
2. CIRCLES OF BROWN AND WHITE BREAD COMBINED.]


                      BREAD AND BUTTER SANDWICHES

It is difficult to butter very thin slices of bread unless the butter is
soft. It is well, when making plain bread and butter sandwiches, to whip
the butter until it is light, soft, and smooth, and then to spread but
one piece of the sandwich. Where filling is used it is not necessary to
butter the bread, as oil or butter is used in the paste.

No. 1. =In circles with nuts=. Thin slices of buttered Boston brown
      bread, or of graham bread, cut with a biscuit-cutter into circles
      one and a half inches in diameter. The meat of one half of an
      English walnut is placed on the top of each one and held in place
      with a little butter.

No. 2. =Brown and white bread combined=. Cut into circles two and a half
      inches or less in diameter thin slices of brown and white bread.
      Use a buttered round of brown and of white bread for each
      sandwich.


[Illustration: NO. 202. 1. LETTUCE SANDWICHES. 2. ROLLED OR MOTTO
SANDWICHES.]


                       ROLLED OR MOTTO SANDWICHES

For rolled sandwiches the bread should be very fresh and moist, and
entirely free from crust. As it is difficult to cut fresh bread with a
knife, use a loaf which is a day old if a bread-plane is not at hand.
Cut it into slices one eighth of an inch thick, using a sharp knife. It
will cut easier if the crust is first removed from the loaf. Arrange the
slices in a pile and cut them all together into good shape. Wrap the
bread in a wet cloth and let it stand in a cool place for two hours. The
bread will then be moist and pliable enough to roll without breaking.
The slices may be simply buttered, or they may be spread with any
mixture desired. If meat or fish is used, it should be reduced to paste
by chopping and pounding, and be well seasoned. (See “Century Cook
Book,” page 364.) Use some butter or oil in the mixture, so the slices
will not need to be buttered. Spread the slices with the paste and roll
them carefully, then roll each one in a piece of paraffin paper, cut
long enough to wrap the sandwich one and a half times, and wide enough
to extend an inch over each end. Twist the ends of the paper.

Keep the sandwiches in the ice-box until ready to use, and serve them
with the papers on. Wrapped sandwiches will keep fresh for forty-eight
hours. They are especially suitable for travelers and for picnics.


                           LETTUCE SANDWICHES

Cut fresh bread into slices a little more than one eighth of an inch in
thickness, using the bread-plane if convenient. Arrange the slices in a
pile, and cut the bread into a shape about four by four and a half
inches. This removes the crusts and leaves all the slices of exactly the
same size. Uniformity in size and shape is one of the points to observe
in making sandwiches. Spread the slices lightly with butter which is
soft enough to spread evenly without tearing the bread. Place on each
buttered slice a leaf of crisp lettuce which is large enough to extend a
little over the ends of the slice, and from which the midrib has been
removed. Sprinkle the lettuce plentifully with salt. Roll the slices
carefully, and tie around each one a piece of paper the width of the
bread.

At the time of serving, this paper is removed and the butter will then
be sufficiently hardened to keep the rolls in shape.

Place the sandwiches on a plate, cover them with a wet napkin, and keep
them in a cool place until ready to serve. In this way sandwiches may be
kept fresh for twenty-four hours.


                           SANDWICH FILLINGS

=Chicken and celery=. Chop chicken and celery in equal quantities until
they are very fine. Mix them to a paste with mayonnaise.

=Egg filling=. Chop hard-boiled eggs until very fine and mix them to a
paste with plain French dressing, or with mayonnaise.

=Ham filling=. Put in a saucepan two tablespoonfuls of butter, one
teaspoonful of mustard, one teaspoonful of sugar, and the yolks of two
eggs. Beat them together, and add slowly, stirring all the time, three
quarters of a cupful of hot vinegar. Place it on the fire and stir until
the mixture is a little thickened, then add one cupful of minced ham and
two thirds of a cupful of tender celery, also chopped very fine. Add
salt and pepper to taste.

This preparation can be kept, to use as needed, if put into preserve
glasses and covered with melted butter or lard.


                               SANDWICHES

            MADE OF CUCUMBER, EGG, CHEESE, WATERCRESS, PÂTÉ
                 DE FOIE GRAS, CHICKEN, FISH OR MEATS,
                   NASTURTIUM FLOWERS, OLIVES, NUTS,
                            JAMS OR JELLIES

Cut the bread into slices one eighth of an inch thick, and remove the
crust as directed above. The filling of a sandwich should be as thick as
one of the slices of bread. After the sandwiches are prepared, using the
whole slices, cut them into the shapes desired. This may be small
squares, fingers, triangles, circles, or hearts, as the fancy or
occasion dictates. Where a variety of sandwiches are being served at the
same time, each variety should be cut alike, but of a different pattern
from the others, and the dish garnished distinctively. For instance, a
hard-boiled egg cut lengthwise, a square of cheese, a few olives, nuts,
flowers, or whatever the filling used, can be placed in the center of
the plate, and the sandwiches arranged in a circle around it. A wishbone
makes a good label for chicken, and parsley or gherkins would indicate
meat mixtures. The brown breads make excellent sandwiches, and help to
give variety. Cucumbers sliced, and watercress freed from the large
stems, may be mixed with French dressing before being placed in the
bread, or they may be only salted.

Nasturtium flowers require no seasoning.

Olives and nuts are sliced or cut into small pieces, but should not be
cut very fine, as it injures their flavor.

Cheese may be sliced or grated.

See “Century Cook Book,” page 364, for further directions about mixtures
for fillings.

When the sandwiches are finished they should be placed between plates
under a light weight, covered with a damp cloth, and kept in a cool
place until the time of serving.


[Illustration: NO. 203. SANDWICHES.
1. ROLLED SANDWICHES FILLED WITH STRIPS OF CELERY.
2. HEART-SHAPED SANDWICHES FILLED WITH CHOPPED GREEN PEPPERS AND
MAYONNAISE.
3. HAM SANDWICHES CUT TO THE SHAPE OF PLAYING-CARDS AND DECORATED WITH
PICKLED BEETS TO IMITATE THE THREE AND FOUR SPOTS OF HEARTS AND CLUBS.
4. CHICKEN SANDWICHES STAMPED WITH CLUB- AND SPADE-SHAPED CUTTERS.
Nos. 3 and 4 are novelties to serve at card-parties.]


[Illustration: NO. 204. SANDWICHES OF VARIOUS SHAPES.]


Sandwiches prepared for a traveler’s luncheon should be made a little
thicker and larger than directed above, as they must be hearty enough to
constitute a meal. If wrapped in paraffin paper, they will keep fresh
for a long time.


[Illustration: NO. 205. TOASTED CHEESE SANDWICHES.]


                       TOASTED CHEESE SANDWICHES

Make a filling of grated cheese, toast the sandwiches on both sides, and
serve them hot.

Many kinds of sandwiches may be toasted. Sandwiches left over may be
utilized in this way.


[Illustration: NO. 206. LOAF OF BRIOCHE.]


                                BRIOCHE

Brioche is a light bun. The mixture is also used for savarins and babas.
See page 147.

Make a leaven as follows:

Add to a cupful of tepid milk a yeast-cake and half a pound of flour.
Mix it well and set it in a warm place to rise until it is very light.
It will take about an hour.

Sift on to a rolling-board one pound of flour, and make a well in the
center. Break seven eggs into a bowl, add a teaspoonful of salt, and
beat the eggs enough to break them thoroughly. Cut three quarters of a
pound of butter into pieces.

Put three tablespoonfuls of milk and two tablespoonfuls of sugar into
the well of flour, add a piece of butter and some of the broken eggs.
Work all these together with the hand, incorporating the flour
gradually. Add the eggs and butter gradually until all are worked in,
and continue the working for some time, then add the leaven and work the
whole mixture for a long time, or until it does not stick. Set it aside
to rise and double in size, work it again, and put it in the ice-box for
twelve hours.


                       TO MAKE A LOAF OF BRIOCHE

Mold the brioche dough into a round ball. Place it in a pan, make a
depression in the top with the hand, brush it with egg diluted with a
little milk, and put into it a small ball of dough. Cut slits around the
large ball. Let it rise, then bake it in a hot oven.


[Illustration: NO. 207. CORNMEAL MUFFINS.]


                              CORN-MUFFINS

      1¼ cupfuls of white flour,
      1¼ cupfuls of yellow meal,
      ½ cupful of sugar,
      2 cupfuls of milk,
      2 tablespoonfuls of butter,
      ½ tablespoonful of salt,
      2 teaspoonfuls of baking-powder,
      2 eggs.

Put a cupful of milk in a saucepan on the fire and let it come to the
scalding-point, then stir in the cornmeal, and continue to stir until
the meal is thoroughly expanded. If a coarse meal is used, it should
cook for a few minutes to destroy the grainy texture. Remove the meal
from, the fire and stir into it the butter and the sugar. Let it stand
until cool, then add the rest of the milk, the eggs, which have been
beaten (yolks and whites together), the salt, and lastly the flour,
which has been thoroughly mixed with the baking-powder by sifting. Stir
the mixture to smoothness and turn it into well-buttered gem-pans. Bake
in a moderate oven for about forty-five minutes.

cornmeal should be thoroughly cooked, and the baking can be continued
until the muffins draw away from the sides of the pans. The baking
should be slow at first, so the muffins will rise evenly, giving a flat
top. This quantity of mixture will make one dozen large muffins.

The receipt may be modified by using less sugar or less butter, or by
changing the proportions of meal and flour.


[Illustration: NO. 208. CHEESE-CRACKERS.]


                            CHEESE-CRACKERS

Spread any biscuits with butter, and put them in the oven to brown
slightly. As soon as they are removed from the oven cover them with
grated cheese, let them stand a few minutes, then shake off all the
cheese that does not stick.

Saltine biscuits are especially good to use with cheese.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 INDEX



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 INDEX



 A

 Anchovy canapés, 41
   Eggs, 40

 Apple and celery salad, 121

 Apple pudding, jellied, 146

 Apple salad, individual, 122

 Apples, baked, 141
   Richelieu, 140
   Stewed, No. 1, 140
     No. 2, 141

 Apricots, compote of, 142
   Water-ice, 170

 Aspic of chicken, 125
   Of pâté de foie gras, 126
   Of vegetables, 120


 B

 Babas, 147

 Baked apples, 141
   Bananas, 138
   Fillets of fish with sauce, 66
   Hominy, 96
   Mushrooms, 79
   Quinces, 138
   Sweetbreads, 73
   Tomatoes and fontage cups, 81

 Bananas, baked, No. 1, 138
     No. 2, 138
   And cream, 143
   Sautéd, 138

 Bavarian cream sliced and garnished with cream-cakes, 153

 Bean croquettes, 98

 Beaten omelet, 52

 Beef consommé, 45
   Casserole, 85

 Boiled ham, No. 1, 128
     No. 2, 128
   Icing, 192
   Lettuce, 96

 Boned ham, 129

 Braids, 203

 Brandy peaches, 109

 Bread braids, 203

 Bread and butter, checkered, 204
   Sandwiches, brown and white combined, 205
   Sandwiches in circles with nuts, 205

 Sandwiches, remarks about, 205

 Striped, 204

 Bread-cutter, 202

 Bread and jam tartlets, 143
   Pulled, 202
   Round loaf of, 201
   Stirred, 199
   Twists, 203
   Unleavened, 201
   Water, 200
   Whole wheat, 200

 Brioche, 209

 Brioche, loaf of, 210
   Remarks about, 209
   To make, 209

 Broiled lobster, 63
   Quails, 115
   Shad roe, 64
   Smelts, 64
   Tomatoes, 97

 Browned sauce, 102

 Burning cherries, 140
   Peaches, 140

 Butter, maître d’hôtel, 104
   Ways of preparing, 31
   Icing, 94


 C

 Cabbage salad, 122

 Café Frappé, 171

 Cake, cocoanut, 182

 Cake-basket holding meringue mushrooms, 185

 Cake, chocolate, 182
   Decorated in two shades of white, 184
     With candied rose-leaves, 185
     With pink bow-knot, 184
     With tutti frutti icing, 195
     With candied violets, 185
   Gingerbread, 179
     With chocolate glaze, 179
     With icing and preserved ginger, 180
     With whipped cream, 180
   Jelly-roll, 185
   Orange, in crescents, 181
     In layers, 181
     No. 2, or plain cup, 181
   Strawberry, No. 1, 162
     No. 2, 162

 Cakes, cream, how to make, 188
   Iced, 189

 Cakes, cherry, 187
   Cup, 181
     Decorated with flower design, 186
   Daisy, 186
   Domino, 187
   Hemispheres, 187
   Marble, 187
   Meringue mushrooms, 189
   Meringues, cocoanut, 190
   Pastry fingers, 191
   With medallion of fruit, 186

 Calf’s brains à l’aurore, 75
   À la poulette, 75
   To prepare, 75
   With black butter, 76
   With hollandaise, 76

 Canapés, anchovy, 41
   Of caviare, 41
   Of salmon, 40

 Caramel icing, 193

 Casserole of beef, 85
   Of chicken, No. 1, 99
     No. 2, 99

 Celery, cream of, 48
   Sandwiches, 207

 Charlotte russe, strawberry, No. 1, 150
   No. 2, 150

 Checkered bread and butter, 204

 Cheese-crackers, 211

 Cheese, cream, with Bar-le-duc currants, 131
   Croquettes, 109
   Patties, 110
   Sandwiches, toasted, 209

 Cherries, 176
   Burning, 140

 Cherry-cakes, 187

 Chestnut bavarian, 149
   Purée, 148

 Chestnut salad, 124

 Chicken aspic, 125
   Casserole, 99
   Consommé, 46
   En surprise, 101
   Fried in cream, 100
   Joints, 100
   Mousse, 126
   Salad, 123
   Smothered, 100
   Timbales, 77

 Chocolate bread pudding, 136
   Cake, 182
   Cream, 153
   Icing, 194
   Sauce for ice cream, 167
   Sponge, 153

 Clam broth, 46
   Bisque, 46
   Cocktails, 39

 Clams, cream of, 47
   On the half shell, 41

 Cocoanut-cake, 182

 Cocoanut cream-cake, 183
   Meringues, 190
   Pie, 160
   Pudding, 136

 Coffee mousse, 147

 Cold cut meats, 127

 Cold fish, garnished, 129
   Halibut, 191

 Cornmeal muffins, 210

 Cold dishes, 20
   Service, 125
   Slaw, 61

 Compote of apricots, 142
   Of figs, 142
   Of pears, 142

 Consommé of beef, 45
   Of chicken, 46

 Coquilles of sweetbreads, 74

 Cornstarch puddings, 144

 Cottage pie, 90

 Cranberry pie, 160
   Cream-cakes, 188
   How to make, 188
   Iced, 189
   Little, with caramel icing, 189
   With jam and whipped cream, 189

 Cream cheese with Bar-le-duc currants, 131
   Dressing, 116

 Cream of celery, 48
   Of clams, 47
   Of oysters, 47
   Of spinach, 48

 Creamed egg baskets, 54
   Fish garnished with potatoes, 67
   Lobster, 63
   Poached eggs, 54

 Croquettes, 76
   Of beans, 98
   Of cheese, 109
   Of farina, 135
   Of shad roe, 64

 Crystal icing, 193

 Cup-cake, 181

 Cup-cakes with flower design, 186

 Currant pie, 160
   Shortcake, 162

 Currants, 38
   Frosted, 38
   On individual plates, 38


 D

 Daisy cakes, 186

 Dinner rolls, 203

 Dishing and garnishing, 7

 Domino cakes, 187

 Dressing, cream, 116

 Dressing, French, 115
   Mayonnaise, 116


 E

 Eggs, anchovy, 40
   À l’aurore, 57
   À la Romaine, 53
   Baked in green peppers, 53
     In tomatoes, 53
   Farci, No. 1, 56
     No. 2, 56
   In nests, 55
   Poached and creamed, 54
   Remarks about, 51
   Scrambled with tomatoes, 54
   Spanish, 56
   To poach, 51
     In French style, 51
   To scramble, 51
   With giblet sauce, 57

 Entrées, 69


 F

 Farina croquettes, 135

 Fig pudding, 136

 Figs, compote of, 142

 Fillets of beef, remarks about, 85
   With tomatoes, 86
   And mushrooms, 87

 Fillets of fish, baked, 66
   Fried, 65
   Remarks about, 65
   With mushrooms, 67

 Fillets of flounder, 65

 Fillings for sandwiches, 207

 Fish à la Japonnaise, 67
   Cold, 129
   Creamed and garnished with potatoes, 67
   Cutlets, cold, 130
   Halibut, cold, 131
   In the garden, 130

 Fontage cups, 30

 Forcemeat, 101

 Frangipane tartlets, 158

 French dressing, 115
   Omelet, 52

 Fried fillets of fish, 65
   Oysters with cold slaw, 61
   Scallops, 62

 Frosted currants, 38

 Frozen punches, 109

 Fruit soufflés, 139
   Tartlets, 159

 Fruits, cherries, 176
   Currants, 38
   Pears, 176
   Pineapples, 175
   Salpicon of, 37


 G

 Galettes, 190

 Garnishing, 7

 Garnished cold fish, 129
   Gingerbread with chocolate glaze, 179
   With icing and preserved ginger, 180
   With whipped cream, 180

 Glaze, 104

 Glazed tongue, 127

 Gnocchi à la Française, 111
   À l’Italienne, 110
   À la Romaine, 110

 Grape-fruit in glasses, 37

 Green-gage pudding, 137

 Green pepper sandwiches, 208


 H

 Ham, boiled, 128
   Boned, 129
   And eggs, minced, 92

 Hard sauce, 105

 Hemisphere cakes, 187

 Hollandaise sauce, 103

 Horseradish sauce, 88

 Huckleberry pudding, 135


 I

 Ice cream, peach, 169
   Melon, 168
   Plain, 167
   Strawberry, 168

 Icing, boiled, 192
   Butter, 194
   Caramel, 193
   Chocolate, 194
   Confectioners’ sugar, 191
     Orange, 191
     Pink, 192
     Pistache, 192
     Wine, 192
     Yellow, 191
   Crystal, 193
   Mocha cream, 194
   Powdered sugar, 193
   Tutti frutti, 195
   Whipped cream, 193
     With maple sugar, 193

 Individual currants, 38
   Pineapple, 38


 J

 Jalousies, 159

 Jam tart, 157

 Jardinière, 81

 Jellied cutlets, 130

 Jelly-roll, 185


 L

 Lace toast, 202

 Leg of mutton à la jardinière, 89
   Slices à la jardinière, 90

 Lemon water-ice, 169

 Lettuce, boiled, 96
   And nasturtium salad, 118
   Sandwiches, 206

 Liquid sauces, 105

 Liver loaf or timbale, 127
   Timbales, 78

 Lobster, broiled, 63
   Creamed, 63


 M

 Macedoine water-ice, 171

 Maître d’hôtel butter, 103

 Maple icing, 193
   Sauce for ice cream, 168

 Marble cakes, 187

 Mayonnaise dressing, 116

 Measures and terms, 32

 Meat and potato pie, 91
   Sauces, 102

 Meats, cold, 127

 Medallion cakes, 186

 Melon ice cream, 168

 Meringue cream tart, 152
   Crown, 152
   Mushrooms, 189
   Ring, 151

 Meringues filled with whipped cream or ice cream, 153
   How to make, 150

 Minced ham and eggs, 92
   Meat with potato rings, 91

 Mocha cream icing, 194

 Motto sandwiches, 206

 Mousse, chicken, 126
   Coffee, 147
   Peach, 148

 Muffins, cornmeal, 210

 Mushrooms, baked, 79
   Of meringue, 189
   Stuffed, 79

 Muskmelon, 39

 Mutton chops à la soubise, 87
   Boned, with artichokes, 88
   With mushrooms, 89
   With horseradish sauce, 88


 O

 Omelet, beaten, 52
   Chasseur, 53
   Plain French, 52

 Orange-cake in crescents, 181
   In layers, 181

 Orange icing, 191
   Water-ice, 170

 Oranges, 37

 Oyster cocktails, 39

 Oysters à la Newburg, 62
   Cream of, 47
   Fried, with cold slaw, 61
   On the half shell, 41
   Sautéd, 61


 P

 Panned chicken, 100

 Pastry-bag, 30

 Pastry fingers, 191
   Burning, 140

 Peaches, brandy, 109
   And cream, 143

 Peach ice cream, 169
   Mousse, 148
   Pudding, 145

 Pears, 176
   Compote of, 142

 Pie, cottage, 90
   Cranberry, 160
   Currant, 160
   Meat and potato, 91

 Pineapple, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 175
   Individual, 38
   Pudding, 146
   Water-ice, 170

 Pine cones, 144

 Pink icing, 192

 Pistache icing, 192

 Plain French omelet, 52

 Playing-card sandwiches, 208

 Poached eggs, 51
   In French style, 51
   With greens, 55

 Pork tenderloins with fried apples, 94

 Potato purée, 95
   Straws, 28
   Salad, 123

 Potatoes, baked, 95
   Mashed, 27
   Puffed, 28

 Pudding, chocolate bread, 136
   Cocoanut, 136
   Cornstarch, 144
   Fig, 136
   Green-gage, 137
   Huckleberry, 135
   Jellied apple, 146
   Peach, 145
   Pineapple, 146
   Sauces, 105
   Tapioca, 145
     With prunes, 137

 Puff-paste, how to make, 154

 Pulled bread, 202

 Punches, 109

 Purée of chestnuts, 148


 Q

 Quails, broiled, 115
   Roasted, 115

 Quenelles of cornmeal, 96

 Quinces, baked, 138


 R

 Remarks about bread and butter sandwiches, 205
   Brioche, 209
   Fillets of fish, 65
   Sandwiches, 208
   Scallops, 62
   Soups, 45

 Rice à la Milanese, 95

 Rice prune pudding, 146

 Rissoles, 71

 Roasted quails, 115

 Rolled fillets of flounder, 65
   Sandwiches, 206

 Rolls, luncheon, 203
   Swiss, 203


 S

 Salad, artichoke bottoms, 119
   Asparagus tips, 119
   Bouquet, 118
     Lettuce and tomato and eggs, 119
   Cabbage, 122
   Celery and apple, 121
   Chestnut, 124
   Chicken, 123
   Cucumber and tomato, 120
   Daisy, 119
   Dressing, cream, 116
     French, 115
     Mayonnaise, 116
   Fruits, 124
   Lettuce and hard boiled egg, 118
   Lettuce hearts, 118
   Mashed potato, 123
   Plain lettuce, 117
   Preparing, 116
   Remarks about, 117
   Shad roe, 123
   Tomato and green pepper, 121
   Turnip cups with celery, 121
   Vegetable, 120

 Salpicon, 72
   Of fruits in glasses, 37
     On glass plate, 37

 Sandwiches, bread and butter, 205
   Brown and white bread, 205
   Celery, 207
   Fillings for, 207
   Green pepper, 208
   In circles with nuts, 205
   Lettuce, 206
   Playing-card, 208
   Remarks about, 205
   Rolled or motto, 206
   Toasted cheese, 209

 Sauce, brown, 102
   Hollandaise, 103
   Horseradish, 88
   Hot chocolate, 167
   Hot maple, 168
   Maître d’hôtel, 103
   Soubise, 87
   Supreme, 102
   Tomato purée, 103
   White, 102

 Sautéd bananas, 138
   Oysters, 61

 Savarins, 147

 Scallops, fried, 62
   Remarks about, 62
   On the shell, 63

 Scotch oat-cakes, 202

 Scrambled eggs with brains, 58
   With tomato, 54

 Shad roe, broiled, 64
   Croquettes, 64
   Salad, 123

 Shortcake, currant, 162

 Smelts, broiled, 64

 Smothered chicken, 100

 Soubise sauce, 87

 Soufflés, fruit and others, 139
   Remarks about, 139
   Strawberry, 139

 Soups, remarks about, 45

 Spanish eggs, 56

 Spinach, 97
   Cream of, 48

 Squabs, 115

 Stewed apples, 140

 Strawberry bavarian, 150
   Ice cream, 168
   Soufflé, 139
   Tartlets, 158
   Water-ice, 170

 Strawberry-cake, 162

 Strawberries and cream, 143
   On individual plates, 38

 Striped bread and butter, 204

 Stuffed green peppers, 81
   Mushrooms, 79
   Tomatoes, 80

 Stuffing for tomatoes, 80

 Supreme sauce, 102

 Sweetbreads, baked, 73
   Coquilles of, 74
   Glazed, 74
   Remarks about, 73
   To prepare, 73

 Swiss rolls, 203


 T

 Tapioca pudding, 145
   With prunes, 137

 Tart, jam, 157

 Tartlet shells, how to make, 157

 Tartlets, bread and jam, 143
   Frangipane, 158
   Fruit, 159
   Pine cones, 144
   Strawberry, 158

 Terms, 32

 Timbale of liver, cold, 127

 Timbales of chicken, 77
   Of liver, 78

 Tomato farci, 97
   And green pepper salad, 121
   Purée, 103

 Tomatoes, baked, and fontage cups, 81
   Broiled, 97
   Stuffed, 80
   Stuffing for, 80

 Tongue, glazed, 127

 Tutti frutti icing, 195

 Twists, 203


 U

 Unleavened bread, 201


 V

 Veal à l’Italienne, 93
   Chops, 92
   Cutlets, small, 93
   Grenadines of, 94

 Vegetable salad, 120

 Vegetables, aspic of, 120

 Vegetarian dish, 82

 Vol-au-vent, 71


 W

 Water bread, 209

 Water-ice, apricot, 170
   Lemon, 169
   Macedoine, 171
   Orange, 170
   Pineapple, 170
   Strawberry, 170

 Water-ices in general, 169

 Whipped cream icing, 193

 White sauce, 102

 Whole wheat bread, 200

 Wine icing, 192


 Y

 Yellow icing, 191


------------------------------------------------------------------------



 ● Transcriber’s Notes:
    ○ Missing or obscured punctuation was silently corrected.
    ○ Typographical errors were silently corrected.
    ○ Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation were made consistent only
      when a predominant form was found in this book.
    ○ Text that was in italics is enclosed by underscores (_italics_);
      text that was bold by “equal” signs (=bold=).





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