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Title: Engineer Port Repair Ship - War Department Technical Manual TM 5-362
Author: Department, United States War
Language: English
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Transcriber’s notes:

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for apparent typographical errors, which have been corrected.

  Italic text is denoted _thus_.
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  _WAR DEPARTMENT TECHNICAL MANUAL
  TM 5-362_

  ENGINEER PORT
  REPAIR SHIP

  [Illustration: United States of America War Office logo]

  _WAR DEPARTMENT  .  OCTOBER 1944_

  =RESTRICTED.= _DISSEMINATION OF RESTRICTED MATTER._—The information
  contained in restricted documents and the essential characteristics
  of restricted material may be given to any person known to be in the
  service of the United States and to persons of undoubted loyalty
  and discretion who are cooperating in Government work, but will not
  be communicated to the public or to the press except by authorized
  military public relations agencies. (See also par. 23_b_, AR 380-5,
  15 Mar 1944.)

  _United States Government Printing Office
  Washington: 1944_



  WAR DEPARTMENT,
  WASHINGTON 25, D. C., 31 October 1944.

TM 5-362, Engineer Port Repair Ship, is published for the information
and guidance of all concerned.

  [A.G. 300.7 (13 Sep 44).]

  BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:

  G. C. MARSHALL,
  _Chief of Staff_.

  OFFICIAL:

  J. A. ULIO,
  _Major General,
  The Adjutant General_.

DISTRIBUTION:

  As prescribed in paragraph 9a, FM 21-6:

  Armies (10); Corps (10); SvC (10); Depts (10); IB 5 (10); IBn 5 (5);
  IC 5 (20) (10), 55 (2); T of Opn (CG) (10); T of Opn (Engr) (25).

  IB 5: T/O 5-510S.

  IBn 5: T/O 5-535S.

  IC 5 (20): T/O 5-500, Engr Sv Orgn—Engr Port Rep Ship Crew NC; Engr
  Port Rep Ship Crew NF.

  IC 5 (10): T/O 5-52.

  IC 55: T/O 55-47; 55-110-1; 55-116; 55-117; 55-177.

  Distribution to European Theater of Operation will not be made.

  For explanation of symbols, see FM 21-6.



CONTENTS


                                      _Paragraph_  _Page_

  SECTION I. GENERAL.

  Purpose and scope                            1      1

  Mission                                      2      1

  Relationship to other units                  3      1


  II. ORGANIZATION AND DUTIES OF PERSONNEL.

  Organization                                 4      4

  Duties of personnel                          5      4

  Ship maintenance and repair                  6      4


  III. SHIP SPECIFICATIONS, EQUIPMENT, AND SUPPLIES.

  Ship specifications                          7      6

  Equipment for ship operation                 8      8

  Supplies for ship operation                  9     19

  Equipment for performing mission            10     19

  Supplies for performing mission             11     32


  IV. TRAINING OF SHIP’S CREW.

  Individual training                         12     34

  Shipboard training                          13     38


  V. OPERATIONS.

  Condition of captured ports                 14     40

  Operations of port repair ship in a
    captured port                             15     41



RESTRICTED



SECTION I

GENERAL


=1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE.= This manual is a general reference on engineer
port repair ship crew units. It covers their mission, organization,
equipment, training, and operations. It stresses the use of the ships
and describes their equipment.


2. MISSION.

=a.= Engineer port repair ship crews are military units organized
to assist in the opening and rehabilitation of captured ports. They
operate from engineer port repair ships which are ocean-going steam
or Diesel-powered vessels. (See fig. 1 and sec. III for the ships’
specifications.)

=b.= In performing this mission, a port repair ship crew might be
required to assist in removing obstructions and debris from harbor
entrances, harbors, docks, and areas alongside wharves, quays, and
piers; repair underwater structures; make and repair parts for damaged
port facilities and equipment; and salvage cargos and small craft.
Large salvage operations are a naval function and are handled by the
Navy’s salvage ships.


3. RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER UNITS.

=a. Port construction and repair groups.= The engineer port repair ship
operates as the offshore arm of the port construction and repair group
(FM 5-5) and is under the group commander’s authority.

(1) The group’s mission is to return captured ports to operating
condition. It repairs such port facilities as power and water-supply
plants, communications, wharves, docks, warehouses, and cargo-handling
equipment. (See fig. 2.)

[Illustration: _Figure 1. General view of an engineer port repair
ship._]

[Illustration: _Symbols: S = engineer port repair ship. G = port
construction and repair group._

_Figure 2. Schematic view of a typical captured port showing jobs
done by the port construction and repair group and those done by the
engineer port repair ship._]


(2) Usually, the engineer port repair ship is the first large vessel
to enter the port; it carries in supplies and equipment to help the
port group start its work. Some of this equipment such as portable
generators, pneumatic drills, paving breakers, hammers, and saws, may
be put ashore and used by the group’s personnel. In addition, the
facilities of the various shops on the ship are used for making or
repairing parts for damaged port machinery and equipment.

=b. Transportation Corps.= After the harbor has been cleared, the
engineer port repair ship may be called on to assist harbor craft
units of the Transportation Corps in heavy towing or cargo-handling
operations.

=c. Navy.= Naval minesweepers precede the engineer port repair ship
into the harbor, clear the harbor of mines, and report dangerous areas
to the engineer port repair ship.



SECTION II

ORGANIZATION AND DUTIES OF PERSONNEL


4. ORGANIZATION.

The engineer port repair ship crew is composed of
specialists. The classifications include master mechanic, electrician,
boatswain, diver, radio operator, Diesel mechanic, welder, blacksmith,
cook, and able-bodied seaman. The crew consists of commissioned
officers, warrant officers, and enlisted men. (See fig. 3.)


5. DUTIES OF PERSONNEL.

=a. General.= Members of the crew are assigned to one of four sections:
deck, engine, operating, or headquarters. However, all personnel must
be trained to assist in performing tasks besides those specifically
assigned. For instance, additional deckhands may be needed in bad
weather or in making fast to a wharf, or extra riggers may be required
to move heavy materials or load or unload equipment or supplies.

=b. Ship’s master.= The ship’s master is responsible for everything
done by his ship and crew. He must be a technical specialist as well as
a military leader. His principal responsibilities are:

(1) Safe navigation and efficient handling of his ship at all times.

(2) Direction of operations in carrying out the ship’s mission.

(3) The condition and appearance of his ship.

(4) Administrative duties and the discipline and morale of his crew.

=c. Deck section.= Crew members of the deck section are primarily
responsible for:

(1) Sea-detail duties specified by the deck officer.

(2) Outward appearance of the ship. This includes painting, rust
prevention, and general ship-shape condition.

(3) Handling lines in mooring and docking.

(4) Navigation of the ship.

(5) Weighing or dropping anchor.

=d. Engine section.= The engine section operates, maintains, and
repairs the ship’s main and auxiliary engines, compressors, pumps,
generators, motors, and electrical systems.

=e. Operating section.= The personnel of the operating section are
under the supervision of the salvage officer and are responsible for:

(1) All diving operations, including underwater inspections,
construction, repairs, and demolitions.

(2) Operation and maintenance of machine, welding, blacksmith, pipe,
and carpenter shops.

(3) Clearing harbor areas of debris and obstructions and restoring
navigational aids.

=f. Headquarters section.= This section is responsible for general
administrative, housekeeping, and radio-communication duties aboard
ship. These duties include operation and supply of the ship’s galley
and cold-storage compartments, and supply and storage of all food,
silverware, clothing, and linens.

=g. Attached armed guard.= A Navy gun crew operates and maintains the
ship’s antiaircraft (AA) armament. (See par 7e.) Each member of the gun
crew takes his turn at standing watch.


6. SHIP MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR.

The ship’s crew is responsible for
maintenance of the vessel, its engines, and all machinery, within the
limits of the vessel’s tools and spare parts and the ability of the
crew. Higher echelons of maintenance, including routine overhauls, are
requested through higher authority. As a guide to maintenance required
of the ship’s crew, all personnel will familiarize themselves with
chapter 4, “Keeping Shipshape,” FM 55-130.

[Illustration: ORGANIZATION OF ENGINEER PORT REPAIR SHIP CREW[1]

[1] See T/O & E 5-500

                      +-----------------+  +----------------+
                      |    COMMANDING   |  | ATTACHED NAVAL |
                      |     OFFICER     |->| ARMED GUARD[2] |
                      | (SHIP’S MASTER) |  |    ENSIGN      |
                      +--------+--------+  |    GUNNERS     |
                               |           |   SIGNALMEN    |
                               |           +----------------+
                               |
               +---------------+--------------+
               |               |              |
  +------------+------------+  |  +-----------+-------------+
  |    DECK SECTION         |  |  |     ENGINE SECTION      |
  | · FIRST MATE            |  |  | · CHIEF ENGINEER        |
  | · SECOND MATE           |  |  | · FIRST ASS’T ENGINEER  |
  | · THIRD MATE            |  |  | · SEC’ND ASS’T ENGINEER |
  | · BOATSWAIN             |  |  | · THIRD ASS’T ENGINEER  |
  | · SHIP’S CARPENTER      |  |  | · MARINE FIREMEN        |
  | · QUARTERMASTER         |  |  |   (STEAM VESSEL)        |
  | · SEAMEN                |  |  | · MARINE OILERS         |
  +-------------------------+  |  |   (DIESEL VESSEL)       |
                               |  +-------------------------+
                               |
            +------------------+--------------+
            |                                 |
  +---------+---------------+     +-----------+-------------+
  |   OPERATING SECTION     |     |   H’DQ’T’RS SECTION     |
  | · SALVAGE OFFICER       |     | ADMINISTRATION          |
  | · CHIEF DIVER           |     | · FIRST SERGEANT        |
  | · MASTER MECHANIC       |     | · CLERK                 |
  | · FOREMAN, MACHINE SHOP |     | · ORDERLY               |
  | · DIVERS                |     | · RADIO OPERATORS       |
  | · DIVERS’ TENDERS       |     | MEDICAL                 |
  | · BLACKSMITH            |     | · SERGEANT              |
  | · ELECTRIC MOTOR        |     | MESS & SUPPLY           |
  |     REPAIRMAN           |     | · MESS SERGEANT         |
  | · MECHANICS             |     | · COOKS                 |
  | · DIESEL MECHANIC       |     | · BAKER                 |
  | · RIGGER                |     | · COOK’S HELPER         |
  | · PIPEFITTER            |     | · ASSISTANT STEWARDS    |
  | · MACHINISTS            |     +-------------------------+
  | · WELDERS               |
  | · TOOLROOM KEEPER       |
  | · DEMOLITION SPECIALIST |
  +-------------------------+

[2] The naval armed guard is attached only when the ship is in convoy
or in an extremely active theater of operations

_Figure 3. Organization chart of engineer port repair ship crew showing
functional setup of ship’s personnel._]



SECTION III

SHIP SPECIFICATIONS, EQUIPMENT, AND SUPPLIES


7. SHIP SPECIFICATIONS.

=a. General external characteristics.= An engineer port repair ship
is similar in external appearance to the average sea-going commercial
cargo carrier. Two ready means of identification are the cathead on the
ship’s prow and the number and arrangement of the cargo booms. These
features are discussed in detail in paragraph 10. (See figs. 4 and 5.)
The ship’s superstructure begins at the mainmast and continues aft to
the stern. Forward of the superstructure are the two masts, the three
hatches, and the forecastle deck.

=b. Principal dimensions and capacities.=

(1) For principal dimensions and capacities see table I and figure 6.

(2) For location and capacities of fuel-oil, fresh-water, and
salt-water tanks, see table II and figure 7.

[Illustration: _Figure 4. Cathead welded on ship’s prow._]

[Illustration: _Figure 5. View looking aft from forecastle deck showing
masts and cargo booms._]


_Table I. Principal dimensions of engineer port repair ship_

  ====================================================
                  Principal Dimensions
  ----------------------------------------------------
  Length over-all                  291 feet, 1 inch.
  Length between perpendiculars    255 feet, 0 inches.
  Breadth, molded                   42 feet, 6 inches.
  Depth, molded                     25 feet, 3 inches.
  Gross tonnage                  2,483.70
  Net tonnage[3]                 1,577.15
  ----------------------------------------------------
                Weights and Volumes Used
  ----------------------------------------------------
  1 ton                          2,240 pounds.
  1 ton fresh water                 36 cubic feet.
  1 ton salt water                  35 cubic feet.
  1 ton Diesel oil                  41.98 cubic feet.
  ----------------------------------------------------

[3] Net tonnage is gross tonnage less deductions for space occupied
by main engines, crew’s quarters, etc. It indicates approximate cargo
capacity of the ship.

_Table II. Capacities of Diesel-oil, fresh-water, and salt-water tanks_

  =================================================================
                           Capacities of Tanks
  ----------------------------+--------+-----+---------------------
                              |        |     |        Tons
          Compartments        | Frames |Cubic+------+--------+-----
                              |        |feet |Diesel| Fresh  |Salt
                              |        |     | oil  | water  |water
  ----------------------------+--------+-----+------+--------+-----
  Double-bottomed tank No 1,  |        |     |      |        |
    P[4]                      | 79-106 |2,798| 66.6 |        |
  Double-bottomed tank No 1,  |        |     |      |        |
    S[4]                      | 79-106 |2,752| 65.6 |        |
  Double-bottomed tank No 2,  |        |     |      |        |
    P and S                   | 57-71  |4,288|102.2 |        |
  Double-bottomed tank No 3,  |        |     |      |        |
    P and S                   | 23-51  |5,760|137.2 |        |
  Deep-wing tank No 4, P and S|  9-23  |5,635|134.2 |        |
  Forepeak tank, single       |115-stem|4,500|      | 126.4  |
  Deep tank No 1, P and S     |115-115 |5,405|      | 150.1  |
  Deep tank No 2, P and S     |107-11  |7,296|      | 202.7  |
  Deep-wing tank No 5, P and S|  2-8   |  900|      |   25.0 |
  Afterpeak tank, single      |  2-stem|1,141|      |   31.7 |
  Forepeak tank, single       |115-stem|4,550|      |        |130
  Deep-wing tank No 3, P and S| 79-107 |6,276|      |        |179.4
                              |        |     +------+--------+-----
        Total                 |        |     |505.8 |535.9[5]|309.4
  ----------------------------+--------+-----+------+--------+-----

[4] P stands for port; S, for starboard.

[5] 249,500 gallons.


=c. Displacement.=

(1) The dead-weight scale (fig. 10), shows the ship’s capacity
for carrying dead weight, the difference between light and loaded
displacement.

(2) Figure 10 also shows the ship’s load-line marks[6] and their
relation to the decks. These marks establish the safe load line for the
ship in different waters, allowing a measure of reserve buoyancy. Load
lines are established and assigned by the American Bureau of Shipping.
The center of the circle is located exactly amidships on the vessel’s
load waterline, and the horizontal line through the circle corresponds
to the summer load line. The letters _AB_, used where the horizontal
line cuts the circle, indicate the American Bureau of Shipping. The
letter _F_ to the left of the vertical line is the fresh-water marking,
and _S_ to the right of the vertical line is the salt-water marking.

[6] Sometimes called Plimsoll mark; Plimsoll mark indicates maximum
allowable draft.

=d. Power.= The ship is propelled by a high-power, low-speed Diesel
engine. Other engines may be substituted as required.

=e. Armament.= For AA protection, the ship carries six 20-mm AA machine
guns. Mounted on the after end of the poop deck is a Navy 3″/50 (3-inch
bore, 150 inches long) dual-purpose AA gun.


8. EQUIPMENT FOR SHIP OPERATION.

=a. General.= This paragraph describes briefly the major items of
equipment required for the operation of the ship.

=b. Navigation equipment.=

(1) _Compasses._

(_a_) The ship is equipped with magnetic and gyrocompasses. The master
gyrocompass is located below decks in the gyro-room. The readings
of this compass are transmitted to repeaters, which are similar in
appearance to magnetic compasses and are placed in the pilot house and
at other points where knowledge of the ship’s heading is required.
Gyrocompass equipment includes the master compass and its supports,
batteries, a motor-generator set for supplying power in case of failure
of the ship’s supply, instrument panel, and a panel for fuses and
switches for the repeaters.

(_b_) The magnetic compass is in the pilot house. It is mounted in
a compensating binnacle that neutralizes or compensates for errors
introduced into the compass by the magnetic materials on the ship. (See
figs. 8 and 9.)

(2) _Pelorus._ A pelorus is mounted on each wing of the navigating
bridge. The pelorus is a graduated circle mounted in gimbals with an
alidade pivoted over its center. It is used to measure directions to
some distant point like another ship or an object on land. It gives the
bearing relative to the ship’s heading or, if set to the ship’s true
course, the true bearing to the object.

[Illustration: INBOARD PROFILE

_Figure 6. Inboard profile of engineer port repair ship showing
location of main installations._]

[Illustration: INNER BOTTOM PLAN

_Figure 7. Inner-bottom plan showing location of Diesel-oil,
fresh-water, and salt-water tanks._]

[Illustration:

  _1. Wheel._
  _2. Compensating binnacle._
  _3. Magnetic compass._
  _4. Telephone._
  _5. Speaking tube._
  _6. Gyrocompass mounted on binnacle._
  _7. Engine room control._

_Figure 8. View of pilot house._]

[Illustration: _Figure 9. Drawing of navigating bridge showing location
of equipment in pilot house, chart room and radio room._]

[Illustration: LIGHT SHIP WITH 418 TONS BALLAST—2204 TONS

 _Figure 10. Dead-weight scale and load-line marks._]

(3) _Radio direction finder._ Located on the navigating bridge is the
ship’s radio direction finder. This instrument receives radio signals
and establishes the bearing of the sending station. It consists
essentially of a loop antenna for receiving the signals connected to a
radio receiver that makes the signals audible. The position of the ship
may be determined from radio bearings by taking cross bearings on two
or more stations, by two bearings on the same station and the distance
run between bearings, and by a bearing and a sounding.

(4) _Fathometer._

(_a_) A fathometer is installed on the navigating bridge to determine
the depth of water under the ship. This instrument works on the echo
depth-finding process. Briefly, it consists of a submarine oscillator
in the bottom of the ship that produces a sound of sufficient intensity
to travel to the ocean floor and reflect back to a sensitive receiver
also located in the ship’s bottom. The difference between the time of
sending the sound and receiving the echo is measured by the fathometer,
translated into depth, and flashed on the dial as a red light opposite
a numeral corresponding to the depth in fathoms.

(_b_) Near the fathometer is a fathometer recorder that records on
a paper chart the depths indicated by the fathometer. This gives a
continuous depth profile of the ocean bottom along the ship’s course.

(5) _Chartroom equipment._ In the chartroom are sextants, protractors,
dividers, parallel rules, chronometer, hydrographic charts, and a chart
table.

=c. Communications.=

(1) _Radio._ The radio equipment consists of a main receiver and
transmitter with emergency sets and a short-wave receiver and
transmitter. The radio sets presently used are shown in figures 9 and
11. The manuals describing this equipment are listed in ASF Catalog Sig
10-1.

(2) _Radio telephone._ Radio telephone communication is handled
by the short-wave transmitter and receiver. (See fig. 11.) They
operate on frequencies between 2 and 3 million cycles per second with
separate channels designated for specific purposes. For ship-to-shore
communication, frequencies range between 2,100 and 2,200 kilocycles.
Direct ship-to-ship communication is on 2,738 kilocycles. The sets thus
send and receive on different frequencies.

(3) _Visual signal equipment._

(_a_) _Flashing light signals._ Flashing light signals are made with a
dot-and-dash blinker light. The light is on top of the pilot house for
greater visibility and is mounted so it can be shone in any direction.

(_b_) _Flag signaling._ The ship carries complete sets of International
flags and pennants and hand flags for signaling by semaphore.

=d. Main engine.=

(1) The main engine is an 8-cylinder, supercharged 4-cycle Diesel
capable of developing 1,300 hp. (See fig. 12.)

(2) The engine has an air starting system; pressure lubrication for all
running parts except the pistons, which are lubricated by oil thrown
into the cylinder walls by the cranks; and an indirect cooling system
in which clean soft water is circulated in a closed circuit and cooled
by sea water in the heat exchangers. The fuel system uses a manifold
in which fuel is maintained at constant pressure but in which there is
no pressure on the injection valves except during the actual time of
injection.

=e. Auxiliary engines.= Diesel and gasoline auxiliary engines furnish
power for the ship’s generators, compressors, and pumps. Typical of the
auxiliary engine installations are the 120-hp Diesels used to drive the
fire pumps. (See fig. 13.)

=f. Electrical systems and generators.= Electricity for the ship’s
lighting system and for the electrically operated equipment are
furnished by Diesel or gasoline-driven generators. In case the main
generator fails, an emergency generator starts automatically. If all
generators should fail, batteries supply the power. (See fig. 14.)

=g. Lifeboats.= The ship carries two 26-foot power whaleboats, two
oar-propelled lifeboats, life rafts, and a number of small rubber
floats. (See figs. 1, 15 and 16.)

The two life rafts (figs. 1 and 16) are mounted on skids at an angle of
about 45°. Each skid has a releasing device that permits quick release
of the raft into the water or will let it float free if the ship sinks.

=h. Mooring and towing.=

(1) Installed on the main deck at the ship’s stern is a combination
towing machine and anchor windlass. It hoists and lowers the two
3,000-pound Danforth anchors.

When used for towing, it carries the towline on a reel and pays it out
and hauls it in automatically to keep towing tension constant.

(2) For handling the two bow anchors, a windlass is installed on the
forecastle deck. (See fig. 17.)

[Illustration:

  _1. Mackay 156.4 short-wave transmitter._
  _2. Federal 125AY emergency receiver._
  _3. Scott SLR-7 main receiver._
  _4. SCBC 779-A short-wave receiver._
  _5. Federal 149-A emergency transmitter._
  _6. Radiomarine ET 8010C main transmitter._

_Figure 11. Radio transmitting and receiving sets in radio room._]

[Illustration: _Figure 12. High-power, low-speed, supercharged Diesel
engine._]

[Illustration: _Figure 13. One of the 120-hp Diesels to run the ship’s
fire pumps._]

[Illustration: _Figure 14. View of generator room showing the three
electrical generators that can be run singly or in series and are
driven by three 90-hp 2-cycle Diesel engines._]

=i. Fire fighting.=

(1) The principal fire-fighting equipment consists of four motor-driven
pumps, each with a capacity of 3,000 gallons per minute (gpm) and
capable of 125 pounds pressure. (See fig. 13.) They are connected
to an 8-inch fire main arranged on a loop circuit around the main
deck. Spaced equally along this circuit are eight 2-1/2-inch
hydrants equipped with fog or spray nozzles. Throughout the ship are
twenty-eight 1-1/2-inch connections.

(2) There are two 1,000-gpm fire monitors. One is located forward on
the forecastle head and the other is abaft the stack. (See figs. 1, 18,
and 19.)

(3) A fixed carbon-dioxide smothering system is used in engine and
tank compartments, bilges, and galley. Hand-operated extinguishers are
located in all parts of the vessel.

=j. Crew’s quarters.=

(1) Quarters for most of the enlisted members of the crew are located
on the first platform deck. Also on this deck are the laundry room,
linen lockers, and the ship’s post exchange.

(2) On the main deck, the rest of the enlisted men and the Navy gun
crew are quartered. Also on this deck are the ship’s galley and pantry,
mess rooms (fig. 20), shower rooms, and diving-gear compartment.

(3) On the boat deck are officers’ quarters, the ship’s company office,
dispensary (fig. 21) and a four-bed hospital.

[Illustration: _Figure 15. View of two of the ship’s lifeboats swung
on two different types of davits. The davit A in the foreground is the
quadrantal davit and is rapidly replacing the round bar or radial davit
B, because fewer men are required to work it._]

(4) On the bridge deck are the staterooms and offices of the ship’s
master, salvage officer, chief engineer, and the naval gunnery officer.

=k. Refrigerators.= Located on the second platform deck are the fruit
and vegetable, meat, and dairy refrigerators. These refrigerators hold
a 30-day supply of perishable foods.


9. SUPPLIES FOR SHIP OPERATION.

=a. Diesel oil.= The Diesel oil tanks hold 506 tons of fuel. (See table
II.) Normal consumption is figured at one-half pound per 1 hp per hour.
There is enough oil for approximately a 60-day cruise.

=b. Fresh water.= The ship’s tanks hold 536 tons (249,500 gallons)
of fresh water. This supply is maintained by the evaporator which is
capable of supplying 3,000 gallons of fresh water every 24 hours.

=c. Food.= The ship usually carries enough food for a 30-day period.
Dry stores, such as canned goods, flour, sugar, etc., are stowed in
storage bins on the second platform deck.

=d. Linens.= The ship’s laundry facilities are adequate only for the
ship’s personnel. The linen lockers hold a 30-day supply of linens.


10. EQUIPMENT FOR PERFORMING MISSION.

=a. General.= This paragraph describes the more important items of this
equipment and tells how it is used. To perform its mission of starting
port repairs, the ship contains completely equipped machine, carpenter,
blacksmith, pipe, and welding shops in addition to a large assortment
of miscellaneous equipment for various jobs.

[Illustration: _Figure 16. One of the life rafts mounted on skids. Each
can accommodate 20 persons, and carries rations, water, and signaling
devices. (See FM 21-22.)_]

=b. Machine shop.= The machine shop is located below the number 2
hatch (fig. 6) and contains lathes, drills, milling machine, shaper,
punch and shear machine, cutters, and grinders. (See fig. 22.) All
this equipment has complete sets of accessories and tools. The I-beams
athwartship at number 2 hatch are removable, permitting portable
equipment to be hoisted from or lowered to the machine shop.

Here are brief descriptions of the more important items of the
machine-shop’s equipment.

(1) _The DOALL machine._ This machine (fig. 23) is used for contour
metal sawing, filing, and polishing. It is a highly adaptable machine
tool for jig work and for making dies. It does the work of a shaper
or milling machine and replaces such operations as nibbling, drilling
holes to make a cut, and torch cutting. Twenty assorted saws, 3/32
to 1/2 inches wide; three flat filebands, 1/4-inch, 3/8-inch, and
1/2-inch; and three file guides are standard equipment. The machine is
equipped with a 3/4-hp, 208-volt, 3-phase, 60-cycle motor.

(2) _Toolroom lathe._ The 10-inch toolroom lathe (fig. 24) has
a 4-1/2-foot bed and 1-inch collet capacity. It is driven by an
underneath, 3/4-hp, 3-phase, 60-cycle motor. It is equipped with
collet, milling and keyway-cutting, and telescopic-taper attachments,
boring and turning cutters, fine and coarse diamond knurls, tool
holders, and a large and small face plate.

(3) _Extension-bed gap lathe._

(_a_) This 20-by 40-inch gap lathe has a 14-foot bed and a special,
large face plate. With the gap closed, it is used as a regular engine
lathe. (See fig. 25.)

(_b_) The tools and accessories for the lathe include telescoping
taper attachment, boring and cutting bars, end caps, bits, chucks, and
centers. Also, there is a set of metric thread-cutting gears for use
where the metric system is standard. The lathe is driven by a 7-1/2 hp,
3-phase, 60-cycle motor.

(4) _Engine lathe._ The 16-by 54-inch engine lathe (fig. 26) also can
be equipped with special threads including metric, by using special
gearing in the endworks. It is driven by a 3-phase, 60-cycle, 208-volt
motor and is equipped with telescoping taper attachments, boring bars,
cutters, bits, chucks, tool holders, and metric thread-cutting gears.

[Illustration: _Figure 17. Windlass for handling bow anchors._]

(5) _Shaper._

(_a_) This 24-inch universal shaper is used for facing surfaces,
notching, keyseating, and the production of flat surfaces on small
parts. (See fig. 27.)

(_b_) The shaper is equipped with bits, holders, table, vise, and
wrench set, and is driven by a 208-volt, 3-phase, 60-cycle motor.

(6) _Radial drill._

(_a_) The radial drill has a 4-foot arm, 11-inch column, and 12 spindle
speeds. (See fig. 28.) It has a range of 15 to 1,200 rpm and is driven
by a 5-hp, 208-volt, 3-phase motor.

(_b_) The drilling capacity of this machine is approximately 2-inches
diameter in cast iron and 1-1/2-inches diameter in steel. Its tapping
capacity is a 2-inch tap in cast iron and 1-1/2-inch tap in steel.

(_c_) Its accessories include a coolant attachment, universal drill
table, drill vise, chuck, and taper shank.

(7) _Milling machine._ The milling machine is used for gear cutting and
jig and die work. The work is done with cutters instead of by sawing
as the DOALL machine does. It is equipped with a 208-volt, 3-phase,
60-phase motor and has slotting and milling attachments, chucks, vise,
arbors and adapters, and a complete set of cutters. (See fig. 29.)

(8) _Punch and shear machine._

(_a_) This combination punch and shear machine has a punch capacity
1-by 1/2-inch or 7/8-by 5/8-inch. Its shear capacity is 1/2-inch
plates, 6-by 5/8-inch flats, 1-5/8-inch rounds, and 1-1/2-inch squares.
(See fig. 30.)

(_b_) It is driven by a 3-hp, 3-phase, 60-cycle, 208-volt motor, and
its accessories include punches, dies, shear blades for plates and
flats, and bar-cutter blades for rounds, squares, angles, and tees.

[Illustration: _Figure 18. Fire monitor showing the power nozzle and
hose connections. The monitor rotates and the power nozzle tilts at any
desired degree._]

(9) _Drill._ This column-type drill (fig. 31) has a 1-inch capacity in
steel and is driven by a 2-hp, 3-phase, 60-cycle, 208-volt motor. Its
accessories include a Jacobs three-jaw ball-bearing chuck, reducing
sleeves, and a combination drill and countersink set.

[Illustration: _Figure 19. View showing the fire monitor in operation.
The water is being forced through the power nozzle at 100-pound
pressure._]

[Illustration: _Figure 20. View of enlisted men’s mess room. The tables
accommodate 32 men._]

(10) _Combination tool and cutter grinder._

(_a_) This grinder has a 10-inch-diameter swing and 24 inches between
head and footstock. It is driven by a 3/4-hp, 3-phase, 60-cycle,
208-volt motor and has attachments for all forms of milling cutters,
taps, and reamers. (See fig. 32.)

(_b_) For grinding, this machine is run by a 1/8-hp, 1-phase, 60-cycle,
110-volt motor, and has 3-inch to 8-inch wheels for dressing and
grinding.

(11) _Pedestal grinder._ This grinder for tool sharpening operates
at 1,750 rpm and is driven by a 3-phase, 208-volt, 60-cycle motor.
The grinding wheels are 14 inches in diameter and 2-1/4 inches in
thickness. (See fig. 33.)

(12) _Power hacksaw._ This power hacksaw is used for metal sawing and
has a blade-cooling system for high-speed cutting. Its capacity is 9
by 9 inches, it has 3 speeds, and is driven by a 3-phase, 60-cycle,
208-volt motor. It comes equipped with 24 molybdenum steel blades. (See
fig. 34.)

(13) _Miscellaneous machine-shop equipment._ Miscellaneous machine-shop
equipment includes small hand and electric drills, bench lathe,
portable grinders, electric soldering sets, hydraulic press, chain-saw
sharpener, mechanic and master mechanic tool sets, jacks, vises, and
tap and die sets.

=c. Blacksmith shop.=

(1) The blacksmith shop is adjacent to the machine shop and is equipped
to handle all smithing operations. These operations include heating for
forging, annealing, hardening, and tempering metals. (See fig. 35.)

(2) The forge has an electric blower, and the hood mounted over it has
an exhaust fan to expel fumes and smoke from the forge.

(3) For working metal, there is a pneumatic, 200-pound forging hammer.
(See fig. 36.) This hammer is of the self-contained type and the
blacksmith can operate it and manipulate the work between the dies at
the same time.

(4) Other blacksmith equipment in the shop include engineer blacksmith
equipment set No. 1, sledges, tongs, and swages.

[Illustration: _Figure 21. Ship’s dispensary showing portable operating
table, operating lights, and shelves and cabinets for medical
supplies._]

=d. Carpenter shop.=

(1) The carpenter shop is on the first platform deck on the starboard
side of number 2 hatch. (See fig. 6.) The main equipment of this shop
consists of a universal woodworking machine, a 32-inch band saw, and a
portable electric saw.

(2) The universal woodworking machine (fig. 37), is powered by a 5-hp,
3-phase, 60-cycle, 208-volt motor, developing 3,425 rpm and is equipped
with 14-and 16-inch blades.

(3) The 32-inch band saw (fig. 38) is powered by a 3-hp, 3-phase,
60-cycle, 208-volt motor, developing 600 rpm. It is supplied with
general-purpose blades, a ripping fence, and a resaw guide.

(4) The portable circular saw is run by a 110-volt universal motor.
(See fig. 39.) It is equipped with two combination blades for sawing
wood; when abrasive discs are used, it will cut brick, stone, concrete,
steel, and cast iron.

=e. Pipe shop.=

(1) The pipe shop adjoins the machine shop and its main equipment
consists of a portable pipe bender and a pipe and bolt threading
machine. (See fig. 40.)

(2) The hydraulic portable pipe bender has a maximum piston pressure of
50,000 pounds and will bend up to 3-inch pipe.

(3) The pipe-and bolt-threading machine will handle 1/8-to 2-inch pipe
and 3/8-to 1-1/2-inch bolts.

=f. Welding shop.=

(1) The welding shop is on the first platform deck on the port side of
number 2 hatch. (See fig. 6.) The welding shop contains equipment for
electric-arc and oxyacetylene welding and cutting.

[Illustration:

  _1. Extension-bed lathe._
  _2. Engine lathe._
  _3. Toolroom lathe._
  _4. Universal milling machine._
  _5. Radial drill._

_Figure 22. View of machine shop showing a part of the equipment and
overhead monorail system capable of handling 5 tons._]

[Illustration: _Figure 23. This DOALL machine is used for contour metal
sawing and jig work._]

(2) For electric-arc welding there are two stationary and four portable
sets. All of the sets are driven by gasoline engines and have complete
sets of accessories.

(3) The portable sets are mounted on four-wheel dollies and have a
welding range of 50 to 400 amperes and a generator rating of 300
amperes at 40 volts. The accessories include a welding-rod assortment,
50-foot electrode and ground cables, gloves, helmets, lenses, and
mittens.

(4) For oxyacetylene work, there are three oxyacetylene welding and
cutting sets and three portable acetylene generators. The sets include
cutting and welding torches and tips, 50-foot lengths of hose, tip
cleaners, oxygen and acetylene regulators, spark lighters, gloves, and
goggles.

(5) There is also a portable, preheating torch of the atomizing type
operated by compressed air.

(6) Miscellaneous equipment in the welding shop includes a brazing
and soldering set, ten 225-cubic-foot acetylene cylinders, and fifty
220-cubic-foot oxygen cylinders.

=g. Diving gear and equipment.=

(1) The diving equipment room is located on the main deck just aft the
number 3 hatch. (See fig. 6.) In this room are lockers for diving gear,
the recompression chamber, hangers for holding the diving suits, and a
work table for repairing suits.

[Illustration: _Figure 24. Ten-inch toolroom lathe with 4-1/2-foot
bed._]

(2) The recompression chamber (fig. 42) is used for testing divers’
ability to withstand pressure before diving and to decompress divers if
they develop compressed-air illness (bends).

[Illustration: _Figure 25. Extension-bed gap lathe, 20-by 40-inch with
14-foot bed._]

[Illustration: _Figure 26. Engine lathe, 16-by 54-inch._]

[Illustration: _Figure 27. Twenty-four inch universal shaper for
facing, notching, keyseating, and die making._]

[Illustration: _Figure 28. Radial drill with 4-foot arm and 11-inch
column._]

(3) For deep-sea diving, there are two No. 1 diving outfit sets. (See
fig. 41.)

(4) Other equipment in the No. 1 set includes an air compressor,
descending and stage lines, decompression stage, telephone, diving
lamp, air and telephone hose, and diving weights.

(5) For shallow-water diving in depths up to 36 feet, there are four
No. 2 diving outfit sets. (See figs. 43 and 44.)

(6) The rest of the diving equipment includes a canvas workers set No.
1, carpenter equipment set No. 2, gasoline-engine-driven, skid-mounted
air compressor with a capacity of 60 cubic feet of air per minute,
electrodes for underwater cutting, a pneumatic tugger hoist for the
diving stage, and a portable air lock.

[Illustration: _Figure 29. Universal milling machine No. 2,
horizontal._]

=h. Compressed-air equipment.=

(1) An assortment of compressed-air equipment is carried for doing
jobs both on and off the ship. This equipment includes rock drills
for drilling in rock or concrete; paving breakers used in breaking
out concrete, breaking up rock, and in general demolition work;
rivet busters for cutting out rivets; woodboring drills for boring
various-sized holes in timbers; rotary drills for drilling holes in
steel plates and beams; grinders for general grinding; pneumatic
hammers for cleaning castings, beveling seams on ships, and chipping
holes in concrete; riveting hammers for driving rivets; pneumatic
wrenches for tightening and loosening nuts and bolts; nail drivers;
chain saws adapted for cutting pilings underwater; and circular saws.

[Illustration: _Figure 30. Combination punch and shear machine._]

(2) For operating this equipment, there is a 315 cfm, Diesel-driven,
skid-mounted air compressor and a 280 cfm, electric-driven air
compressor.

=i. Beach gear.=

(1) The beach gear carried on the ship is used primarily to salvage
stranded vessels. This type of salvage differs from raising sunken
wrecks, where all the work in preparing the vessel for raising is
done by divers. For beach salvage work, divers ordinarily are needed
only for examining the stranded vessel’s hull and the nature of the
underwater terrain, and beach gear and the towing power of other craft
are used to refloat the ship.

(2) The main items of the beach gear are two 8,000-pound anchors,
blocks of various types, hooks, clips, chains, manila and wire rope,
shackles, cable stoppers, and rope thimbles.

[Illustration: _Figure 31. Column-type drill. This drill has a 1-inch
capacity in steel._]

=j. Portable salvage pumping equipment.= The portable salvage pumping
equipment consists of one 10-inch, two 6-inch, and two 3-inch salvage
pumps, complete with spare parts, hose, metal suctions, and adapters.

[Illustration: _Figure 32. Combination tool and cutter grinder._]

[Illustration: _Figure 33. Pedestal grinder for tool sharpening._]

=k. Portable fire-pumping equipment.= The portable fire-pumping
equipment consists of a two-wheeled trailer pumper with a capacity of
500 gpm and four 50-foot lengths of 2-1/2-inch hose.

=l. Hoisting equipment.=

(1) The hoisting equipment consists of the 40-ton cathead mounted on
the prow, one 50-ton and four 10-ton booms on the foremast, and two
5-ton booms on the mainmast, together with the winches for operating
them. (See fig. 45.)

(2) The cathead (fig. 46) is used to raise debris and sunken small
craft that are hazards to navigation or prevent vessels from coming
alongside wharves or piers. It is operated by a two-speed winch
installed in the forecastle peak on the shelter deck.

(3) The 50-ton boom is operated by a two-speed winch and the four
10-ton and the two 5-ton booms are run by single-speed winches. (See
fig. 47.)

[Illustration: _Figure 34. Power hacksaw for metal cutting._]

[Illustration: _Figure 35. View of blacksmith shop showing 48-inch
forge and 200-pound anvil._]

=m. Floating equipment.= In addition to the life-boats and rafts,
the ship carries a steel pontoon barge, a plane-rearming boat, and a
utility boat.

(1) The barge is made up of 21 sections (fig. 48) and has a capacity
of 50 tons. It is propelled by a 115-hp outboard engine and carries a
5-ton crawler crane for diving and salvage operations. The sections of
the barge are stowed in the number 1 hold of the ship.

(2) The plane-rearming boat is 33 feet long and is powered by a 100-hp
inboard, Diesel engine. It is used for diving, general utility work,
and light towing.

[Illustration: _Figure 36. Pneumatic, 200-pound forging hammer._]

[Illustration: _Figure 37. Universal woodworking machine with steel
table and two extension roller tables._]

(3) The utility boat is 26 feet long and is propelled by a 95-hp
gasoline or Diesel engine. It is used to tow the barge and floats and
for general errand work.

=n. Miscellaneous equipment.= Miscellaneous equipment includes:

  Clamshell bucket, 3/4-cubic-yard.
  Jacks, including a 50-ton hydraulic jack.
  Cargo nets.
  Demolition, rigging, and tinsmith equipment.

[Illustration: _Figure 38. Woodworking 32-inch band saw._]

11. SUPPLIES FOR PERFORMING MISSION.

The ship’s cargo capacity does not permit carrying large quantities of
supplies. Limited amounts of the most essential items are carried. They
are listed by types as follows:

=a. Machine-shop stock.= Supplies for the machine shop include 13-inch
bronze-alloy round bars of various diameters, 11-foot cold-rolled steel
bars of different sizes, square-and round-tool-steel bars, and 5-foot
lengths of keystock steel from 1/8 to 3/4 inches wide.

[Illustration: _Figure 39. Portable electric saw._]

[Illustration: _Figure 40. View of pipe shop showing supply of pipe in
racks._]

=b. Carpenter shop supplies.=

(1) Lumber for the carpenter shop is structural-grade fir in 16-foot
lengths and varying in size from 2-by 1-inch to 12-by 12-inch.

(2) There are 800 pounds of nails that range in size from 2d to 60d,
and a supply of wood screws.

=c. Pipe stock.= The pipe varies in size from 1/4 inch to 6 inches and
comes in 12-foot lengths. There is a supply of nipples, elbows, tees,
valves, and unions for the different sizes of pipe.

=d. Ammunition.= The ship’s magazines hold 32,400 rounds of 20-mm and
312 rounds of 3″/50 cal. ammunition.

[Illustration: _Figure 41. Diver in No. 1 diving dress ready to go
down._]

=e. Miscellaneous supplies.= Miscellaneous supplies include gasoline,
lubricating oils and greases, cement, canvas, roofing, chicken wire,
hardware, plugs, and structural steel.



SECTION IV

TRAINING OF SHIP’S CREW


12. INDIVIDUAL TRAINING.

=a. General.= Most of a port repair ship’s crew will have had training
and experience in civilian life to qualify them for the highly
specialized jobs they are assigned in this military unit. Before
receiving further technical instruction, all personnel are given basic
military training.

[Illustration: _Figure 42. View of interior of recompression chamber.
If divers must be brought up in a hurry they are rushed into this
chamber for decompression to prevent their getting the “bends.”_]

=b. Diving and salvage training.= The diving and salvage training is
given officers and enlisted men with particular emphasis on operations
performed in and around docks, quays, and other waterfront structures,
harbors, inland waterways. Diving and salvage operations are essential
to the rehabilitation of ports. The training should include the
following:

(1) Diving-team problems with timber and steel construction; underwater
concrete construction; underwater demolition of docks, piers, and
ships; and actual salvage operations.

(2) Individual diving problems including underwater reconnaissance,
pipefitting, patching, welding, cutting with hydrogen torch and
oxyelectric machine; survey of underwater conditions in mud, swift
currents, and various tide actions; use of jetting nozzle and siphon.

(3) Use of hand tools, air tools, machine tools, pumps, winches, and
blacksmithing.

(4) Rigging, beach gear, and hi-lines.

(5) Elementary instruction and training in—

(_a_) Diving-gear nomenclature.

(_b_) Diving-gear maintenance.

(_c_) Hazards of diving.

(_d_) Physics of diving.

(_e_) Skin diving.

(_f_) Recompression tanks and tables.

(_g_) Air compressors, air flasks, field expedients.

(_h_) Signals and communications.

(_i_) Ship construction.

(_j_) Mooring and maneuvering.

(_k_) Sketching.

(_l_) Tactical military instruction.

[Illustration:

  _1. Hand pump._
  _2. Rubber sneakers._
  _3. Air hose._
  _4. Diver’s underwear._
  _5. Expansion tank._
  _6. Face mask._
  _7. Weighted belt._

_Figure 43. No. 2 diving outfit set._]

[Illustration: _Figure 44. Diver in No. 2 diving outfit set._]

=c. Diesel engineer training.= This is advanced training for those men
having previous Diesel experience. The operation, maintenance, and
repair of Diesel engines are studied.

=d. Seaman training.= The apprentice seaman is given a basic course in
seamanship. It includes instruction in—

(1) _Nautical terms._ All nautical terms and what they mean, including
the parts of a ship and construction terms.

(2) _Ground tackle and its use._ The various kinds of anchors and how
they are used; rules for anchoring.

(3) _Lifeboat seamanship._ Lifeboats and their handling, surf
seamanship, the sea anchor, use of oil, helmsmanship.

(4) _Safety at sea._ Avoiding accidents, keeping equipment shipshape,
safeguarding against fire, fire-fighting and life-saving equipment,
first aid.

(5) _Marlinespike seamanship._ The common knots, how to make fast to a
cleat, whipping, splicing, the care of rope, handling and use of lines.

(6) _The compass._ Types of compasses, installation and care, boxing
the compass, points and degrees, variation and deviation, compensating
the compass.

(7) _General._ General seaman duties and seaman watches.

=e. Visual signal instruction.= The visual signal training should
include:

(1) International code flags.

(2) Semaphore.

(3) Flashing light signals.

(4) The signal code.

(5) Typical signals.

(6) Special Navy signals.

(7) Signaling Navy and Coast Guard vessels.

(8) Special flags and pennants.

(9) Pyrotechnics.

=f. Degaussing school.= At the Navy degaussing school, complete
degaussing of a ship is taught, including what equipment is required
and how it is used.

=g. Wartime radio procedure.= The wartime radio procedure is that
procedure practiced by the Navy. It includes:

(1) Ship-to-ship, ship-to-shore, and ship-to-plane radio instruction.

(2) Call numbers and identification.

(3) Codes.

(4) Radio discipline.

(5) Operation and maintenance of marine radio equipment.

(6) Operation of radio direction finder.

[Illustration: _Figure 45. Outboard profile showing cathead and cargo
booms._]

[Illustration: _Figure 46. Forty-ton cathead mounted on bow of ship._]

=h. Gyrocompass instruction.= The Navy gyrocompass school teaches:

(1) Basic principles of the action and operation of the gyrocompass.

(2) Cause of gyrocompass errors and how to correct or compensate them.

(3) Maintenance and care of the compass and its equipment.

=i. Convoy communication.= The Navy convoy communication school teaches
the various types of signaling used between ships in a convoy. The
instruction includes:

(1) Naval signal codes and calls.

(2) Procedure signs.

=j. Machine-shop training.= The machine-shop training includes the
operation of drill presses, grinders, lathes, cutters, punch and shear
machines, shapers, forging hammers, and milling machines. The men work
with different types of metals, receive practical experience in various
kinds of machine-shop jobs, and learn how to maintain the equipment and
tools.

=k. Demolition training.= Training in explosives and demolitions
includes the following:

(1) Theory of explosives.

(2) Calculation of charges.

(3) Capping and priming.

(4) Field expedients.

(5) Cutting, cratering, and flattening charges.

(6) Booby traps.


13. SHIPBOARD TRAINING. Training aboard ship involves molding the crew
into an efficient, smooth-running organization. This requires constant
drill, practice, and working out of operational team problems.

[Illustration: _Figure 47. Single-speed winch for operating 10-ton
cargo boom._]

[Illustration: _Figure 48. Fifty-ton barge made up of 21 sections and
propelled by 115-hp outboard engine._]



SECTION V

OPERATIONS


14. CONDITIONS OF CAPTURED PORTS.

=a. General.= Enemy destruction of a port’s facilities generally may be
divided into two classifications.

(1) _Channels and harbors._ Offshore obstructions in the waters of
the harbor include booms and torpedo nets, debris, prepared sunken
obstacles, destruction of navigation aids and moorings, and damage to
underwater pilings and foundations. It is the engineer port repair
ship’s job to remove or destroy these obstacles and to make the
underwater repairs.

(2) _Damage to shore installations._ The destruction of shore
installations includes damage to utilities, shops, warehouses, railway
spurs and yards, roads, bridges, locked basins, cargo-handling
equipment, piers, wharves, and quays. It is the mission of the port
construction and repair groups to repair and put these facilities back
in operation.

[Illustration: _Figure 49. Naples harbor cluttered with wreckage.
Wrecked and capsized merchant vessels line the quays. Note the damaged
warehouses. All cargo-handling equipment has been destroyed._]

=b. Enemy damage to captured ports.= Although the conditions outlined
below will not hold true in all cases, they were found in captured
ports.

(1) _Warehouses and shops._ All warehouses and shops were destroyed by
demolition and fire.

(2) _Utilities._ Electric, water, gas, and communications systems were
put out of commission by demolition and removal of parts.

(3) _Locked basins and docks._ All locked basins and closures were
destroyed; walls of basins were collapsed by explosives.

(4) _Wharves and quays._ Demolitions destroyed the inshore 100 feet of
quay full width to a depth of 30 feet. Mines destroyed all cranes and
blew out the face of the quay in sections about 40 feet long, 30 feet
back, and 20 feet deep. Cranes usually are spaced about 75 feet apart.

(5) _Miscellaneous._ Delayed-action mines and booby traps were placed
at strategic places, even in sunken boats and ships.

(6) _Channels and harbors._

(_a_) Ships were sunk to block entrances to harbors.

(_b_) All mooring buoys and channel markers were removed.

(_c_) All boats and lighters available to the enemy were sunk adjacent
to quays, wharves, and piers.

(_d_) Wharf cranes and debris were blown into channels alongside
wharves and quays. (See figs. 49 through 53.)


15. OPERATIONS OF PORT REPAIR SHIP IN A CAPTURED PORT.

=a. General.= The port commander is responsible for the restoration of
the port’s facilities. He orders surveys made of the extent and nature
of the damage and from them determines what work is to be done and who
is to do it, sets priorities, and estimates time, personnel, materials,
and equipment required. Before actual repairs can be started, the
following preparatory work usually has to be done by Army and Navy
units:

  (1) Extinguish fires and demolish unsafe structures.
  (2) Sweep mines.
  (3) Remove blockships.
  (4) Remove booms and torpedo nets.
  (5) Neutralize land mines and booby traps.
  (6) Install AA and other protective works.
  (7) Remove debris in water and on quays.
  (8) Remove obstructions from exits to wharf areas.

[Illustration: _Figure 50. Masts of sunken freighter in harbor. The
enemy did a systematic job of sinking ships to block the harbor as much
as possible._]

[Illustration: _Figure 51. Sunken ships and bomb-wrecked quays give
some idea of the huge task of repair and construction in restoring the
port to usefulness._]

[Illustration: _Figure 52. Temporary bridge built on a keeled-over
freighter. Trucks are using it to unload a Liberty ship._]

(9) Install navigation aids and moorings.

=b.= Following are some of the jobs the port repair ship might be
required to do:

(1) _Install navigation aids in entrance channel._ After the harbor
area has been swept of mines by the Navy, the port repair ship marks
the entrance channel with buoys. This is done by soundings and by using
hydrographic charts of the harbor. Soundings are made by the ship’s
fathometer, by lead lines, and by a portable depth finder. The portable
depth finder works on the same principle as the ship’s fathometer
(par. 8) and is installed on one of the two powerboats. The powerboat
operates ahead of the port repair ship, takes continual soundings,
and marks the boundaries of the channel. The crew of the powerboat is
constantly on the alert for underwater obstructions and signals the
ship if any are found and whether the ship must change her course or
stop.

(2) _Blockships._

(_a_) A blockship is a prepared underwater obstacle sunk to prevent
ships from following navigable channels. One or more blockships may be
found in an entrance channel. These ships are often filled with rock or
concrete to make them more difficult to remove.

(_b_) When soundings, intelligence reports, or information received
from the minesweepers indicate the location of a blockship, a diver is
sent down for reconnaissance. The information required to determine the
course of action is—

  1. Position blockship is in. That is, is it on its side, at an angle,
  or resting on its keel.

  2. Approximate size and type of vessel.

  3. Nature and extent of its superstructure.

  4. Would the removal or destruction of the superstructure leave
  enough water between the hull and the surface for large vessels to
  use the channel?

[Illustration: _Figure 53. Two half-sunken ships and the bomb crater
in harbor’s seawall and quay show the results of well-planned
destruction._]

  5. Nature of bottom and effect of currents.

  6. Is ship filled with rock or concrete?

  7. Indications of mines and booby traps.

(_c_) This information determines whether the superstructure can be cut
through or flattened with explosives or if the hull has to be broken up
before the channel is cleared. Destroying the hull is a long, difficult
task and should not be attempted if the removal of the superstructure
affords enough clearance.

(3) _Harbor._

(_a_) _General._ When the port repair ship enters the harbor,
her master reports to the port commander for instructions. These
instructions include—

  1. What jobs the ship is to do and what priorities have been set on
  them.

  2. What materials, equipment, power, tools, and personnel the ship is
  to furnish the port construction and repair group.

  3. Whether temporary construction or repairs are to be made or
  permanent repairs made.

  4. Surveys to be made of underwater damage and obstructions in harbor
  area.

(_b_) _Removal of small sunken craft and debris._ Small boats usually
are sunk alongside wharves and quays to prevent ships from approaching
close enough to unload. Also, cranes and sections of the wharves blown
into the water have to be removed. Divers examine the debris and
determine whether it can be pulled out of the way into deeper water
or if it first must be broken up. Since the use of large quantities
of explosives may further damage adjacent quays and piers, debris too
heavy and bulky to hoist and drag is cut into smaller sections by
underwater cutting. Then these sections are raised by the cathead and
pulled out of the way by the ship. Small, sunken craft often can be
salvaged by sealing up the hulls and pumping out the water with salvage
pumps. This type of salvage work can be done from the 50-ton barge
which leaves the repair ship free for other jobs.

(_c_) _Furnishing materials, power, and equipment._

  _1. Materials._ Materials required by the port group to start its
  work can be furnished in limited quantities by the repair ship.
  However until cargo ships can unload at the port, the group must
  get locally the bulk of the materials it needs. The small amount of
  cement, timbers, and structural steel that the ship carries can be
  put ashore on the ship’s barge.

  _2. Power._ Until local sources of power are restored or floating
  power plants are available, power for lighting and for operating
  equipment is supplied by the ship’s stationary and portable
  generators and compressors.

  _3. Equipment._ Such portable equipment as the clamshell bucket,
  welding and cutting outfits, trailer-mounted fire pumper, and
  pneumatic tools, is turned over to the group as it is needed.
  If necessary, equipment operators are furnished from the ship’s
  personnel.

(_d_) _Use of the ship’s shops._ The ship’s shops are used to make
parts for and to repair port machinery and equipment. Typical jobs are
to repair engines and motors and to construct or repair cargo-handling
equipment.

(_e_) _Underwater construction and repairs._ The ship’s divers may
be required to repair the underwater structures of damaged piers and
quays. Broken or weakened pilings or timbers may have to be cut and
removed so new ones can be placed. Also, the foundations of harbor
breakwaters or sea walls may require strengthening or repairs.

=c. Safety of ship.= While operating in the close waters of the harbor,
especially while threatened with the additional hazards of debris,
mines, underwater obstacles, and enemy air attack, the safety of the
ship is of paramount importance. The master of the ship is responsible
for her safety. He sees that the gun crews are at their stations and
that enough deckhands are available for the extra work required in
mooring and maneuvering.

=d. Summary.= Speed is essential in port repair work to eliminate the
necessity of landing troops, stores, and equipment over beaches for any
length of time. The engineer port repair ship has an important part
in getting this work started by opening the harbor to navigation and
by furnishing power, equipment, and supplies to the port construction
and repair groups. The shops on the ship help prevent stoppages caused
by breakdown of machinery and equipment because they can repair or
manufacture essential parts that may be needed. In short, the port
repair ship is the spearhead in getting port reconstruction work under
way and, by its ability to do many different tasks, helps to speed up
this work and keep it going.


☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1945—628131—TM 1045





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