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Title: Hawaiian Flowers
Author: Kuck, Loraine E., Tongg, Richard C.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                            HAWAIIAN FLOWERS


                                  _By_
                            LORAINE E. KUCK
                                 _and_
                            RICHARD C. TONGG

                            _Illustrated by_
                              TED MUNDORFF


                   TONGG PUBLISHING COMPANY, HONOLULU
                                  1943

                          By the same authors
                          THE TROPICAL GARDEN
             Its design, horticulture and plant materials.

                            _Copyright 1943
                By Loraine E. Kuck and Richard C. Tongg
                          All rights reserved.
                  Printed in Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A._



                                Preface


The working title of this book during its preparation was that question
so often on the lips of tourists in Hawaii,

  “What flower is that?”

Had there still been tourists in Honolulu, it is likely that that name
would have been used on the cover, for the book is designed to help
answer it. Now that the islands are filled with visitors intent on more
serious business than pleasure, it has seemed best to call it simply
“Hawaiian Flowers.” It is published at this time in the hope that some
of these visitors may find in it an hour’s escape from the strain and
pressure of war. For, in spite of war, the flowers still bloom in
Honolulu, often right over the bomb shelters that fill gardens and
parks.

In using the book to help identify the island flowers, it is hoped that
the color plates and descriptions together, will make it fairly easy for
the layman. Persons interested in more serious study will know how to go
to more technical works for information. Care has been taken to have
each name accurate to aid those going to the accepted authorities.

In making the color plates the attempt has been made to have them both
artistic and scientific, a difficult undertaking under any
circumstances. In striving to present pictures of individual flowers so
they may be identified, it has been necessary, at times, to sacrifice
the gorgeous effects presented in nature by masses of these flowers;
such, for instance, as is seen on the Shower trees. The writers wish to
take this opportunity to thank Ted Mundorff, the artist, for his trouble
in making the reproductions as accurate as possible.

They wish, also, to express appreciation to Mr. Edward L. Caum, botanist
with the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Experiment Station, for reading the
manuscript and checking the botanical information it contains. Mrs.
Arthur Silverman, in the Library of Hawaii, has been most helpful in
looking up obscure references.

Works consulted in preparing the book include Rock’s “Ornamental Trees
of Hawaii,” and his “Indigenous Trees of Hawaii”; Marie Neal’s book, “In
Honolulu Gardens” and Bailey’s Cyclopedia of Horticulture.

Honolulu, 1943



                                Contents


                                                                    PAGE
                              _Introduction_
Where to See Hawaiian Flowers                                         11
                               _Chapter I_
Hawaii’s Own Flower, The Hibiscus                                     17
                               _Chapter II_
The Blossoming Trees                                                  23
                              _Chapter III_
Native Trees                                                          39
                               _Chapter IV_
Tropical Shrubs                                                       47
                               _Chapter V_
Colored Foliage Shrubs                                                65
                               _Chapter VI_
Flowering Vines                                                       71
                              _Chapter VII_
Ginger Blossoms                                                       87
                              _Chapter VIII_
Special Tropical Flowers                                              93
Index                                                                103



                         List of Illustrations


                                                           OPPOSITE PAGE
                                _Plate I_
Hibiscus                                                              16
                                _Plate II_
Flowering Trees                                                       16
                               _Plate III_
Flowering Trees                                                       16
                                _Plate IV_
Flowering Trees                                                       16
                                _Plate V_
Native Trees                                                          48
                                _Plate VI_
Tropical Shrubs                                                       48
                               _Plate VII_
Tropical Shrubs                                                       48
                               _Plate VIII_
Tropical Shrubs                                                       48
                                _Plate IX_
Tropical Shrubs                                                       64
                                _Plate X_
Colored Foliage Shrubs                                                64
                                _Plate XI_
Flowering Vines                                                       64
                               _Plate XII_
Flowering Vines                                                       64
                               _Plate XIII_
Flowering Vines                                                       80
                               _Plate XIV_
Ginger Blossoms                                                       80
                                _Plate XV_
Special Tropical Flowers                                              80
                               _Plate XVI_
Special Tropical Flowers                                              80



                              Introduction
                     WHERE TO SEE HAWAIIAN FLOWERS?


If you are already in Hawaii, this question will seem purely rhetorical,
since the answer is so obviously, “Anywhere.” There are few places
indeed, in the islands, where flowers of some sort are not in sight.
Mostly, of course, these are the Hibiscus, but you will soon notice
others and the quest for new ones is apt to develop into a full-sized
hobby. For the benefit of newcomers, a few of the gardens, parks and
drives where you will find many Hawaiian trees and flowers are given
here. By the time you have covered these places, you will know how to go
on by yourself.


                      ROYAL HAWAIIAN HOTEL GARDEN

Few finer, tropical gardens can be found in the Islands than the one
which forms a setting for the Royal Hawaiian Hotel at Waikiki. Not only
does it contain a very large assortment of trees, shrubs and special
tropical plants, many of them rare, but it has been laid out to make the
very most of the charm inherent in the words “tropical garden.” There
are cool, green, jungle depths, gorgeous blossoms and wide shady lawns,
all beautifully maintained.

To see these gardens it is best to start at the hotel steps, facing the
coconut grove. This particular group of palms probably contains the
oldest ones in Honolulu, some of the tallest, slender trees being
estimated at well over a hundred years in age. Hawaiian kings kept their
surf boards in the shade of these trees. In the early days, indeed, they
were almost the only trees of any kind in the city. Old pictures show a
dusty, sun-baked expanse between Honolulu harbor and Waikiki, with this
grove standing up conspicuously. The luxuriant green growth of gardens
which now mantles Honolulu is something comparatively recent in its
existence, the result of a water system and an interest in gardens.

Near the steps and terrace of the hotel you will find plants with
colored foliage including Crotons, red-leaved Tis and the Beefsteak
plant. The fountain is surrounded with Lauae fern (_Polypodium
phymatodes_) and near it grow the heart-shaped leaves of Caladiums and
A’pes, (pronounced ah-pays). This is the Hawaiian word for various
plants of the Taro family.

To the left of the fountain stands a magnificent specimen of a Monkeypod
tree, throwing out its giant branches over a wide expanse of lawn.
Beyond it is a Bengal banyan, (_Ficus bengalensis_), with bunches of
aerial roots dangling from the branches. When they touch the ground they
develop into secondary trunks.

The arbor is covered with Crimson Lake Bougainvillea. In the plantings
around it you can find the shrubs illustrated on Plate VI, for the
flowers pictured on it were gathered at this spot.

Further along, to the right, is a Pink and White Shower tree, a Golden
Shower and an Octopus tree. The latter, (_Brassaia actinophylla_), can
be identified by its radiating, octopus-like arms, covered with dark red
buds or blossoms. There is also a Hala or Pandanus in this area.

Walking across the lawn and turning left, you pass the thick border of
Oleander and Hibiscus shrubs which screen out the street. In this
section may be found a Royal Poinciana, a Potato tree, a Kukui and some
Breadfruit trees, (_Artocarpus incisa_). You can tell the latter by
their very large, deeply lobed, oblong leaves, and the rough, round,
green fruit, about the size of a muskmelon, which grows on the ends of
the branches. This fruit, when baked, tastes something like a sweet
potato. Here is also a Pomegranate tree and beyond are Bananas.

Turning again to the left you enter the real tropical garden, a cool,
green, jungle under the second coconut grove. Some of the trunks of
these palms are enwrapped in the great green and gold leaves of the
Pothos or Philodendron vine. Growing under the tall palms are lesser
ones, along with bamboos and tree ferns. The latter have soft, fibrous,
brown trunks with three or four very large, typical, fern-leaves growing
out of the top. The paths hereabouts are bordered with more of the Lauae
fern and with Begonias and Anthuriums, while green and red Ti plants and
A’pes fill in the background. If you keep somewhat to the left, you
approach the hotel building again, where you will find the Torch Gingers
and Red Gingers serving as a base planting.

As you pass beyond the building you can see a Tiger’s Claw tree and over
to the right, near the road, a Plumeria. Planted around here are Spider
Lilies and Shell Gingers. Near the side door of the hotel are Tecomarias
or Cape Honeysuckle, and nearby is a glowing African Tulip tree.

The wide grassy cove that fills the curve of the building beyond is
bordered by a very fine collection of Hibiscus. Trees in this area
include the Yellow Poinciana, more Shower trees and, across the lawn, an
old specimen of the Papaya. This has a smooth trunk marked by the leaf
scars. The leaves grow out stiffly, on long stems, near the top. The
fruit grows directly out of the main trunk.

If you cross the driveway and follow the walk, starting near the
entrance, that leads to the tennis courts, you will pass a different
assortment of trees and shrubs, those that like sun and not too much
water. Date palms have thick, grey-green fronds and rough, stubby
trunks. There are pink Plumerias, a Chinese Rice Flower tree, a Milo and
Be-still trees. Near the tennis court is a Jacaranda and some Lime
trees, and at the very end are both purple and white flowering Orchid
trees. Near the Sports Office you can find Jatropha shrubs, the
Caricature plant and the red and yellow Pride of Barbadoes.

Returning to the hotel you pass one of the most common trees in the
island, the Kiawe or Algaroba, (_Prosopis chilensis_). It is a
spreading, light-foliaged tree, often twisted picturesquely. It has
fine, bipinnate leaves, small spikes of tiny, yellow flowers and yellow,
bean-like pods. These trees now cover large areas of the island,
although the seed of the original tree was brought here in 1828 by the
Catholic missionary, Father Bachelot. They are natives of tropical
America.

Bordering the drive at the rear of the hotel you can find the Lobster
Claw, (_Heliconia_), and a specimen of the Kou tree. Growing on the
large old Monkeypod trees that shade the motor turn-around are examples
of the curious Staghorn fern.


                      DRIVING FROM WAIKIKI TO TOWN

The ride from Waikiki to the center of Honolulu provides an opportunity
to see many more trees and flowers. If you go by the Ala Moana, you pass
by Moana Park bordering the shore. It holds a building, with a large
inclosed court, where the Flower Shows usually take place, and where the
Park Board has its office.

If you go by way of Kalakaua avenue and King street, you will be
interested in knowing that the line of trees growing in the parkway down
the middle of Kalakaua for some blocks before reaching King, are
Mahogany trees. At the corner of King and Keeaumoku is a park-like
square with some fine, very old trees, including some of the Kapok,
(_Ceiba pentandra_) which produces the kapok floss of commerce. This has
huge surface roots, almost like flying buttresses. The building in this
square is the office of the Territorial Board of Agriculture and
Forestry.

A few blocks farther down King street is Thomas Square. In peace times
you can watch the fountain in the center of this park as you sit under
the shade of the four giant Banyans. There are specimens of the false
Wili-wili here, which scatter their red seeds on the ground in early
spring. Facing Thomas Square on the makai side is the private estate of
the Wards known as the Old Plantation, closed to the public. On the
other is the Honolulu Academy of Arts, which is open to the public.

The Academy has two delightful court gardens in the building, one an
Oriental, Chinesque garden, the other a Persian courtyard. At the back
are a series of small formal gardens. There are always unusual flower
arrangements in the Academy building.

Near the center of Honolulu is Iolani Palace, former home of royalty and
now the capitol of the Territory. In the park around this building are
many fine old trees and some interesting shrubs.

A short distance from the palace, up Punchbowl street, stands the
Queen’s Hospital. Years ago some unusual trees were planted in its
grounds, including the Bombax. There is a good example of the curious
Bottle tree or Baobab, (_Adansonia digitata_), near the entrance by the
Emergency hospital. You can recognize it by its trunk, which quickly
tapers from about five feet in diameter to hardly more than one foot, as
various limbs branch off.

If you go straight out King street, past Fort Shafter, you will come to
Moanalua Gardens, a park-like area at the foot of the hill. This is a
private estate belonging to the Damon family, but the public is invited
to visit it. There is a pond with tropical water lilies and some
extremely large trees. There are also greenhouses filled with Orchids
and Anthuriums which visitors are sometimes invited to enter.


                             NUUANU AVENUE

A ride out Nuuanu avenue, will reveal a wealth of trees and flowers. On
the left hand side, shortly before reaching School street, you come to
Foster Park. This old estate is now a public park, presented by Mrs.
Mary Foster, but originally it was the garden of Dr. William Hillebrand.
He was an early botanist and lover of flowers, who imported many new
things into the islands and planted them here. The size of some of his
old trees is now tremendously impressive. Besides this, the city has
collected here many unusual plants. It also maintains a greenhouse in
which visitors can see Orchids in bloom and many other unusual, exotic
plants.

Farther out, Nuuanu avenue is bordered by the fine homes of some of
Honolulu’s well-to-do citizens. From the road you can catch many
glimpses of charming gardens. Farther up Nuuanu valley you run into a
wild, natural growth. Here you can find Koa trees, yellow Gingers and
green Tis.


                              MANOA VALLEY

Another interesting ride is through Manoa Valley, where there are many
more homes and gardens. This takes you past the campus of Punahou school
which holds a large number of interesting trees. Along its lower wall is
the famous hedge of Night Blooming Cereus. These flowers have their
blossoming period in July, August, and September.

If you follow Manoa Road, you will come to Waioli Tea Room, run by the
Salvation Army Girls’ Home. In the garden there is a real Hawaiian grass
house.

Returning down Oahu Avenue you come to a small square, called Kamanele
Park, which holds an unusual Rainbow Shower tree. A turn to the left
here will take you into the grounds of Mid-Pacific School; at the back
is the nursery of the Mid-Pacific Horticultural Establishment to which
visitors are welcome.

A short distance beyond Kamanele Park is the campus of the University of
Hawaii. This holds many unusual plants and trees, including the famous
Sausage tree (_Kigelia pinnata_). It grows in the lower corner, across
from the fountain.


                        DIAMOND HEAD AND KAHALA

Still another interesting drive is to go toward Diamond Head from
Waikiki, passing through Kapiolani Park, with its row of Ironwood trees
(_Casuarina equisetifolia_), like mainland evergreens. The road around
Diamond Head passes many more fine gardens, and farther on you come to
the residential area known as Kahala.

                         [Illustration: Plate I
                          HIBISCUS—CHAPTER 1]

  Identification key
    (1) Coral Hibiscus
    (2) Double Yellow Hybrid
    (3) Waterfall Hybrid Hibiscus
    (4) Turk’s Cap
    (5) Rose of Sharon
    (6) Common Red Hibiscus
    (7) Hawaiian Native White


                        [Illustration: Plate II
                      FLOWERING TREES—CHAPTER II]

  Identification key
    (1) Gold Tree
    (2) Royal Poinciana
    (3) Potato Tree
    (4) Tiger’s Claw
    (5) Plumeria
    (6) Be-still
    (7) African Tulip


                        [Illustration: Plate III
                      FLOWERING TREES—CHAPTER II]

  Identification key
    (1) Golden Shower Tree
    (2) Pink and White Shower
    (3) Orchid Tree
    (4) Coral Shower
    (5) Rainbow Shower
    (6) Yellow Poinciana


                        [Illustration: Plate IV
                      FLOWERING TREES—CHAPTER II]

  Identification key
    (1) Monkeypod Tree
    (2) Bottlebrush Tree
    (3) Jacaranda
    (4) Chinese Rice Flower
    (5) Wong-lan
    (6) Bombax



                               Chapter I
                    HAWAII’S OWN FLOWER—THE HIBISCUS


What is that flower seen everywhere, you may ask, the one with five,
stiff, papery petals, and a column rising in the center? Such blossoms
are seen tumbling in cascades of pink from small trees, spangling hedges
with red polka dots and decorating green shrubs in an artificial way,
looking like something designed for an old-fashioned stage set.

The answer, of course, is Hibiscus, Hawaii’s own flower, and the
outstanding flower of all the South Seas. You will see these blossoms
worn in the hair of Hawaiian women, or tucked over the ear of Samoan men
when they dance the native _siva-siva_. You will find them strewn down
the length of leaf-covered tables prepared for a native feast or laid
out in colorful exhibition on counters of staid Island banking houses.
You may run into them formed into huge fountaining bouquets, the flower
heads fastened to long, artificial stems, or, at shows and
entertainments, you may see them covering walls and other objects
solidly.

All these uses and more are possible because the Hibiscus possesses the
unique trait of not wilting for a day after it is picked. These flowers
open at dawn and live but a single day. Whether they be left on the
shrub, picked and put in water, or laid out dry on a table top, they
remain fresh and crisp until nightfall, when they suddenly close. Fresh
buds open every day, so the Hibiscus is always in bloom.

Individual Hibiscus flowers follow a plan of five, with five petals,
five stigmas, five lobes to the calyx and the like. The stigma is
branched into five parts and is usually a bright crystalline red, like a
bit of coral at the top of the central column. Stamens grow on the sides
of this column, yellowing it with their pollen. This central column is
like the one seen in hollyhocks, a flower which is a relative of the
Hibiscus. Usually it is stiffly upright, but sometimes it sweeps outward
in a graceful curve. When this is the case it is good indication that
the flower is a hybrid and had in its ancestry the Coral Hibiscus, which
has a very long pendulous column.

Hibiscus also form double flowers, the pink ones sometimes suggesting
old fashioned cabbage roses or peonies. They are formed when the stamens
are modified into petals. Both single and double flowers appear in all
hues but blue. Color tones vary from clear white through palest pink and
yellow to glowing scarlet, orange and gold, deepening to richer tones
and dark crimson. In recent years hybrids have been produced which bring
several hues into a single flower, one with a red center, for instance,
may have yellow petals bordered in pink. Some of these polychromes are
more interesting than attractive. The size and shape of the flowers vary
also. Average diameter of a blossom may be five or six inches but some
are dwarfs of an inch, while selection has produced some a foot across.
These large ones seem even more artificial than most of the Hibiscus,
almost requiring to be touched before their reality is established.

The Hibiscus shrub is rather undistinguished in appearance, growing
sometimes into a tall tree twenty feet high, but usually nearer eight or
ten. The leaves are opposite, roundly pointed and often slightly
scalloped.

The Hibiscus is the floral emblem of the Territory of Hawaii. It was so
decided in 1923 by a joint resolution of the Legislature which
designated it as “a beautiful, indigenous blossom which grows
luxuriously on all the islands, appearing to be most generally
representative, no other flower having so great a variety of color or
form, or such continuous blooming.” Botanists point out that in making
this statement the legislature conveniently overlooked the 150 or so
species of Hibiscus which are not native of Hawaii, in favor of the six
or seven which are. Hawaiians called the native blossoms “Kokio.”

There are two species of white Hibiscus native to Hawaii, the commonest
being _Hibiscus arnottianus Gray_. It is found on Oahu and Molokai.
During long periods of time this species grew in isolated areas in the
islands until it developed varieties which appear to be quite different
from each other. These are known by such names as the Tantalus White,
the Waianae White, the Punaluu White and so on. Another native white
Hibiscus is _H. Waimeae_ called the Kauai White, (which may, however, be
only a form of the other.) These two are the only ones of all the
Hibiscus which are fragrant, having a faint, delicate scent. This
characteristic has sometimes been transmitted to its descendents, so
scented hybrids will occasionally be found. These native whites also
remain open longer than the single day which most Hibiscus flowers live,
_Hibiscus Waimeae_ sometimes lasting even three days. Occasionally,
therefore, a hybrid will also be found which stays fresh for several
days. Both of these characteristics are sought by hybridists.

Other native species of Hibiscus are _H. kokio_, which occurs in red or
coral colors on Hawaii, Oahu, Molokai and Maui. _Hibiscus kahili_ grows
on Kauai in several forms colored red or pink, although this may be a
variation of _H. kokio_. _H. brackenridgei_ is a yellow species,
sometimes with a purplish center, growing on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai and
Maui, while _H. youngianus_ is pink or purplish.

One of the best places to see many varieties of Hibiscus is the garden
of the Halekulani Hotel. Mrs. Clifford Kimball has made the flower her
hobby for years and achieved remarkable results.


                    COMMON RED HIBISCUS. CHINA ROSE
                   _Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linnaeus_

The species of Hibiscus which seems to have the greatest number of
variants is, botanically, _Hibiscus rosa-sinensis_, sometimes called the
China Rose. The type flower is scarlet, usually with a deeper colored
throat and about five inches in diameter. It is the one oftenest seen in
hedges, since the shrub serves admirably for this purpose.

These plants seem to have innumerable variations in color and shape, the
former running in hue from yellow to crimson and appearing in both
single and double forms. In fact, it seems that most of the plants
brought into Hawaii, which were not themselves hybrids, were forms of
rosa-sinensis. Although, most of these imported forms have usually been
classed as variants of rosa-sinensis, it is now believed that many of
them were hybrids. The remarkable variation which occurs when these
forms are crossed points to a mixed ancestry. (Plate I)


                             CORAL HIBISCUS
                    _Hibiscus schizopetalus Hooker_

A species which stands out as markedly different from the usual Hibiscus
is _H. schizopetalus_ which has been given the name in Hawaii of Coral
Hibiscus. This is doubtless because its deeply cut, turned-back petals
suggest branches of red coral. The flower stem is very slender, so the
weight of the head causes it to fall over and hang down, bell-like. And
since the central column of this flower is extremely long and slender it
sways far beneath the flower, giving an effect of peculiar grace. This
plant has leaves that are small and fine. It is tall and slender, almost
vine-like, so that it has been used to make arbors. The Coral Hibiscus
has been a parent of many island hybrids, imparting to them its grace,
its lengthened column and its frilled petals. (Plate I)


                     HAWAIIAN INTEREST IN HIBISCUS

While the Hawaiians had always loved their flower and the Common Red
seems to have been brought in at an early date, probably direct from
China, real interest in Hibiscus culture began about the turn of the
century. Around 1902, Walter M. Giffard began crossing different strains
and getting some of the spectacular results for which this plant is
noted. Interest grew and as Island people traveled, they often sent or
brought home new varieties. One of the persons who became interested in
the plant was Gerrit Wilder, who seems to have held the first Hibiscus
show. This was in 1914, and he was able then to exhibit some 400
different varieties. In the years following, interest was very
widespread and many people made crosses, until there were literally
thousands of different forms and colors.


                                HYBRIDS

Crossing is very easy. The pollen of one flower is dabbled on the pistil
of another, after its own pollen has been removed. Precautions are taken
to keep the bees from stepping into the experiment, by protecting the
crossed flower with a bag. The seeds ripen in a month or so and when
planted may be expected to blossom in about a year.

The outcome is a grab bag of mixed and unexpected characteristics. By
selection and care, some hybrids have been produced that are amazing.
New shades and tints come into being, and mixtures of colors. Doubles
become larger and curlier. No one knows how many thousands of these
hybrids have been produced in Hawaii. Some of them are fairly well
established and widespread by propagation through cuttings; others never
existed in more than one plant. The only color no one has ever produced
is blue. It is the hope of all hybridists.


                    WATERFALL OR BUTTERFLY HIBISCUS

One of the most conspicuous of the hybrids because of its prolific
blooming is that sometimes called the Butterfly or Waterfall Hibiscus
from its graceful form. This is believed to be a cross between the
Native White and Coral. The plant often grows into a small tree and is
usually a mass of pink flowers. As a rule, it is the only one of all the
Hibiscus plants that carries enough color to be outstandingly
conspicuous in the garden. On others, the flowers are scattered. (Plate
I)


                            YELLOW HIBISCUS

Among the most beautiful and sought after Hibiscus are those with yellow
or orange blossoms. The range of tone is wide, the colors appearing from
palest lemon to rich yellow, gold and brilliant orange. The yellow
flowering plants are usually rather small and carry only a few blossoms
at a time. (Plate I)


                         ROSE OF SHARON. ALTHEA
                     _Hibiscus syriacus, Linnaeus_

A close relative of the true Hibiscus is the lavender or white Althea or
Rose of Sharon. The central column is white and the center of the flower
usually dark red. It is a native of Syria and the Holy Land. (Plate I)


                               TURK’S CAP
                   _Malvaviscus arboreus Cavanilles_

Another close relative of the true Hibiscus is the little red Turk’s
Cap. This looks like a small Hibiscus flower which has not opened. It
never does open widely, but sometimes the number of the half furled
flowers is so great the shrub appears quite red from them. (Plate I)

Other relatives of the Hibiscus are the Hau tree (_Hibiscus tiliaceus_)
and the changeable mallow, (_Hibiscus mutabilis_) not to mention the
Okra and Roselle among edible plants.



                               Chapter II
                          THE BLOSSOMING TREES


Hawaii’s most impressive floral displays are the flowering trees which
line the streets and fill the gardens. They rival, in the masses of
their flowers, the fruit trees of the mainland, but they possess
colorings of tropical brilliance which have no rivals outside of warm
countries. Moreover, instead of blooming for a few brief days, or at
most, weeks, these trees continue in bloom for months at a time. Some of
them never cease. About the middle of June, there is a period when the
display is at its best. This is when all the shower trees are out, the
early ones still lingering, the later ones coming on, and when the red
of the Poinciana, and the blue of the Jacaranda, add their hues to the
galaxy of yellows and pinks. At this time, too, the Plumerias bring
white and rose to the scene. Midwinter finds most of these gone, but the
African Tulip flowers are then a fiery crown on many trees and some
trees, like the canary colored Be-still, continue their flowering all
the year round.


                        GOLD TREE. SUNSHINE TREE
                     _Tabebuia donnell-smithi Rose_

One of the very special events in Honolulu’s floral calendar is the
blooming of the Gold or Sunshine tree which grows on School Street, near
Nuuanu. The time of year at which this takes place is highly uncertain,
being sometimes in midwinter, again late in the spring. Certain other
specimens of the tree are just as erratic, and none seems to have any
relation to another, so that if the flowering period of one is missed,
another may be found in bloom.

When not in bloom the Gold tree is rather ungainly in appearance, its
smooth, slender, light grey trunk lifting the branches high in the air
far beyond reach. But when the flowers suddenly appear on the bare
branches, it seems like the touch of Midas, for they are shining masses
of the purest gold, or like crystallized sunshine. The breathtaking
color is intensified by the necessity of looking up at them against the
vivid blue of a spring sky.

The tree is a member of the Bignonia family, and individual flowers are
of typical Bignonia form, a slightly irregular tube with five lobes,
irregularly margined. The leaves which appear after the flowers fall
are, on older specimens, of compound form made up of opposite leaflets.
On young trees the leaflets radiate from a common center.

The chief specimen of this tree grows in the Foster Gardens, now a
public park, but originally the home of Dr. William Hillebrand, who must
have planted it along with the many other novelties which he introduced.
A second tree now grows across School street in a small nursery garden
and a fine specimen is found in Moanalua gardens. Still another grows in
the school grounds across from the Nuuanu YMCA.

It is a native of tropical America. (Plate II)


                      ROYAL POINCIANA. FLAMBOYANT
                        _Poinciana regia Bojer_

Of all Hawaii’s flowering trees, the Royal Poinciana is easily the most
stunning and conspicuous for sheer color and brightness. A solid mass of
red, it is, nevertheless, not merely gaudy, but one of the most graceful
and picturesque of trees, a flat umbrella of color in small specimens,
or composing into long sweeping curves in larger ones. It suggests the
massive regalia of some magnificent Oriental potentate. The color is
most dramatic if viewed against a grey, valley raincloud in the late
afternoon, touched by the level yellow rays of the declining sun.

The tree may become forty feet high, if growing under favorable
conditions, but if the roots are cramped it remains quaintly dwarfed.
Although bare for a short season in winter, the general flowering season
of the Poinciana is long, for some trees begin to bloom early in spring,
while others wait until late summer to open. June is the month when most
of them are in bloom and the streets are consequently most gorgeous.

Individual Poinciana flowers, which have to be looked for closely to be
distinguished in the masses of bloom at the end of the branches, have
five petals. One of these is white, on the flag-red trees, or yellow on
those tending toward scarlet coloring. These light touches give a
piquant effect to the mass of color. Long, curved, brown pods hang on
the tree for months after flowers and leaves have gone, and show that
this tree is a member of the legume family.

The flowers usually appear on the bare tree before the new foliage comes
out, but in a short time the leaves appear and for some weeks the green
and red colorings remain together. The leaves are fernlike, bipinnate in
form, with very small leaflets. Even when the flowers have fallen to
form a carpet of red underneath the green tree, it is graceful and
attractive.

It is a native of the island of Madagascar and was named for de Poinci,
a governor of the Antilles in the 17th century. The French have given it
another name, Flamboyant, by which it is widely known all over the
tropical world and one which is particularly appropriate.

No visitor to Hawaii can miss the Poinciana, but the row that grows
along Wilder avenue is perhaps the most effective, although individual
large trees elsewhere may be more impressive for size and form. (Plate
II)


                              POTATO TREE
                      _Solanum macrophyllum Dunal_

The nightshade family, to which the potato belongs, is one of the most
widespread of botanical groups. It contains however, but few trees. One
of these is usually called the Potato tree, because its flower is
similar in form to that of the common potato. It grows in Hawaii, but is
not common although it grows in some gardens and in the Mid-Pacific
Horticultural Establishment. While similar in form to the ordinary
potato blossom, the flower of the Potato tree is comparatively large,
being about two inches across. It has five joined segments which give it
almost a pentagonal outline. The color is a rich purple-blue when it
first opens, but this fades to a pale blue and then almost white. In the
center is a golden yellow column made of the thick anthers.

The tree grows very rapidly. Its leaves are large, about a foot long,
and irregularly lobed. They carry a few sharp thorns along the back of
the midrib. The plant is a native of Mexico. (Plate II)


               TIGER’S CLAW. CORAL TREE. INDIAN WILI-WILI
                       _Erythrina indica Lamarck_

Tall trees, bursting into pointed red blossoms in midwinter and early
spring, are appropriately called Tiger’s claw or Coral trees. The
flowers are a deep, rich, red, very striking on the bare trees at this
season. They grow in long clusters which radiate horizontally on woody
stems from the ends of the branches. Individual flowers break out of the
split side of a pointed calyx. Fundamentally of the pea-type, these
flowers have one petal much larger than the others, the general effect
being that of a pointed claw or feline toe-nail.

The leaves, which appear soon after the flowers, are made up of three
triangular leaflets. The pod is black and contains dark red seeds. The
branches are thorny.

This tree is a native of tropical Asia and a member of the legume
family. There is a fine specimen growing in the grounds of Iolani Palace
which blooms in January or February. Others grow on Punchbowl street
near Beretania, and in the grounds of the Central Intermediate School.

A closely related tree, which is native to the Hawaiian islands, is
called the Wili-wili by the native people. Botanically it is _Erythrina
monosperma_. It grows in dry places on the islands where it is
conspicuous for its pale red, orange or yellowish flowers, similar in
form to the Indian Tiger’s claw. The bright red seeds of this Wili-wili
were made into leis by the Hawaiians, but nowadays most of the red
seed-leis are made from the _Adenanthera pavonina_, known as false
Wili-wili. Adenanthera trees, which have unusual, curling pods filled
with the bright red seeds, grow in Thomas Square where the seeds may be
picked up in the Spring.

The wood of the Hawaiian Wili-wili is very light, and so was used for
making the outrigger log of canoes. (Plate II)


                 PLUMERIA. GRAVEYARD FLOWER. FRANGIPANI
                      _Plumeria acutifolia Poiret_

One of the most popular of Hawaiian flower leis is made up of the thick,
waxy flowers of the Plumeria. They are particularly successful for this
purpose because they remain fresh for a long time and have a fine
fragrance. The common name in Hawaii, Plumeria, or, as the lei-women
say, Pumeli, is derived from that of Plumier the French botanist, but a
mistake was made in spelling it so the genus is now properly designated
as _Plumeria_, not _Plumiera_. Although this tree is a native of
tropical America, it grows in India and in the temple gardens of Ceylon,
where it is known by the romantic name of Frangipani. In Honolulu it is
extensively planted in cemeteries, from which it is known as the
Graveyard flower.

The flower varies from almost white to yellow, with yellow centers.
Another species with rich, cerise, colored flowers is the _Plumeria
rubra_. These two have crossed and produced a wide range of flowers with
pink or peach colorings. One hybrid, of particularly striking apricot
color was produced by Gerrit Wilder. A specimen may be seen on Manoa
Road near the top of Punahou hill.

The Plumeria tree has a few stiff, blunt branches. At their tips, the
clusters of flowers appear in early spring, when the tree is still bare,
creating a highly picturesque effect. A little later the foliage appears
and the tree continues to bloom the rest of the year. The flowers have
five, waxy petals joining in a short tube. The leaves, which also
cluster toward the tips of the branches, are very long and pointed at
each end, hence the name acutifolia. When cut, the stems exude a milky
juice.

This tree is a member of the Periwinkle family.


                       BE-STILL. YELLOW OLEANDER
                     _Thevetia nereifolia Jussieu_

A small tree, holding a scattering of trumpet-shaped, yellow flowers and
marked by shimmering, narrow, light green leaves, is popularly called
the Be-still tree. There seems to be no reason for this name, unless it
is that the slender leaves are never still and the name is a sort of
invocation. The flowers are a clear, satiny, yellow, with a delightful
fragrance. They grow here and there all over the tree, and at all times
of the year. A less common variety has pale, orange-colored flowers. The
fruit is a nut which is poisonous. Green at first it turns brown, then
black.

The tree never becomes very large, twenty feet being about its maximum
height. It always has a fresh look, even when growing in dry places, due
to the light color of the leaves. The slender foliage suggests that of
the Oleander (Nerium), accounting for its specific name of _nereifolia_,
and this association also accounts for the common name of Yellow
Oleander, which, however, is entirely wrong.

The tree is a member of the Periwinkle family and a native of tropical
America. (Plate II)


                           AFRICAN TULIP TREE
                    _Spathodea campanulata Beauvois_

Large, fiery red flowers, like cups of molten metal, crown the high
branches of the African tulip tree. This tree differs from many of the
flowering trees in Hawaii by producing its flowers all the year round.
There is a season in midwinter when they seem to be brightest and most
numerous, but this may be due merely to lack of competition.

Individual flowers suggest a lopsided cup, with five irregular, frilled
lobes. The edges of the corolla are a vivid yellow, and the inside of
the cup is yellowish also, with red streaks. The flowers grow in
circular masses of closely crowded buds, a few developing at a time, so
that the tree seems to be ever-blooming. The flowers grow out of a
spathe-like calyx from which is derived the generic name of _Spathodea_.
They are followed by boat-shaped pods, some two feet long, which split
open and spill out masses of shining, flaky, winged seeds.

The leaves are large and compound in structure, made up of three or four
pairs, and an end leaflet. The leaves are dark green in color, leathery
and with conspicuous veining.

The tree is a member of the Bignonia family and a native of tropical
Africa. Specimens grow in Kamanele Park, Manoa. (Plate II)


                           GOLDEN SHOWER TREE
                       _Cassia fistula Linnaeus_

Immense pendant clusters of large, yellow blossoms, hanging in grapelike
bunches among the leaves explain the popular name of the Golden Shower
tree. Although the foliage does not fall, the yellow blooms sometimes
cover the tree so completely they overwhelm the leaves and make it look
as if this tree were the only thing in the landscape which is standing
in sunshine, all else being shadowed.

Leaves are very large and compound in structure, each leaflet being two
to six inches long.

The bright, golden, yellow flowers have five petals, clearly veined.
Like all the shower trees, which belong to the Pea family, the yellow
flowers are built on the general plan of a pea blossom, but the five
petals are very nearly of the same size and shape. From the center of
the flower project the long curving pistil and some stamens. This pistil
develops into a straight, cylindrical, black pod, sometimes three feet
in length. It has given the name of Pudding-pipe to the tree in India.
This long “pipe” is the Cassia pod of commerce, a cathartic being made
out of its sticky brown pulp. The tree is a native of tropical Asia.

Golden Shower trees line both sides of Pensacola street between Lunalilo
and Wilder avenues. They are at their best in June and July. (Plate III)


                       PINK AND WHITE SHOWER TREE
                       _Cassia javanica Linnaeus_
                     (_Cassia nodosa Hamilton_)[1]

Great feathery masses of unevenly tinted, pink flowers cover this small
tree, suggesting in their luxuriance and variable coloring the apple
blossoms of the temperate zone. The flowers grow on short branchlets, in
what seem to be tufts of reddish stems, the tufts growing out of the
main branches so close together these branches are completely enwrapped.
The splendid effect of such inflorescence makes the Pink and White
Shower tree one of the most important in Hawaii’s annual procession of
blossoms. The tree is deciduous and flowers often precede the leaves,
but these shortly appear, adding contrast to the total effect, with
their fresh green. The leaves are of feather form with many pairs of
rounded, medium sized, leaflets.

Each flower is made up of five petals, from the center of which grows a
tuft of stamens. The calyx and stem is dark red. Each petal is palest
pink or white, with deeper pink veinings, giving the name of Pink and
White shower. Eventually, too, the pale pink fades adding to the
variegated effect. The tree remains in bloom for months, with June as
its peak. It never becomes very large and is often quaintly irregular in
form. Long, cylindrical, brown, seed pods hang on when flowers and
leaves have fallen. It is a native of tropical Asia.

This tree is grown widely as a street tree in Honolulu, Piikoi street
between Wilder and Lunalilo being a good place to see it. There are,
also, some fine specimens along Nuuanu avenue. (Plate III)


                              ORCHID TREE
                     _Bauhinia variegata Linnaeus_

Exquisite lavender or white orchids, as beautiful as Cattleyas, seem to
grow on the small Orchid tree. It is not, however, related to the real
orchids, but is a member of the legume family. When covered with pure
white flowers the tree is a splendid sight, but the lavender variety,
which blooms more sparsely, shows more beauty when the individual
flowers are examined. They resemble strikingly the real orchid, with a
large main petal marked with purple, and four crepy side-petals. A bunch
of white stamens grows from the center. The flowers appear in the cooler
months, with spring as the finest season. They are scentless.

The leaves of this Bauhinia, as of others, are peculiarly shaped being
deeply cleft into two rounded lobes, so that they suggest the wings of a
green moth. Insects find the leaves very succulent, so they are usually
full of holes, or completely eaten.

The tree is a native of India where its bark is used for tanning and
dyeing, while its leaves and flower buds are used as a vegetable. (Plate
III)

A pink-flowering member of the Bauhinia family is called the St. Thomas
tree and is _Bauhinia monandra_. This has similar lobed leaves and pink
flowers, both being smaller than on the Orchid tree. The main pink petal
is dotted with crimson and the tree is very gay when in bloom. After the
flowers fall it hangs full of pods.


                     CORAL SHOWER TREE. PINK SHOWER
                       _Cassia grandis Linnaeus_

Earliest of the shower trees to bloom is the one which has come to be
known in Honolulu as the Coral Shower, or sometimes as the Pink Shower.
(But not to be confused with the later-blooming Pink and White Shower.)
The Coral Shower flowers during March, April and May, its soft rose
color and general appearance somehow suggesting pink coral. In effect
this tree is strikingly like the blossoming cherries with loose upright
limbs covered with pink flowers.

The flower buds are particularly attractive being rounded, velvety balls
of delicate, pinkish lavender. The flowers hang in short racemes from
the branches completely covering them in good specimens. Like the pink
and white they have five petals, but are smaller and more evenly
colored. Stamens and pistils project from the center. The leaves follow
the first blossoms closely, the new foliage being pinkish. Leaves are
pinnate, with the leaflets rather large. The pods are cylindrical and
dark brown.

Unlike the other showers, which come from Asia, this tree is a native of
tropical America.

Liholiho street, between Wilder and Lunalilo is bordered with these
trees and a fine specimen stands on Punahou campus. (Plate III)


                             RAINBOW SHOWER
                            _Cassia hybrida_
                 (_Cassia javanica_ × _Cassia fistula_)

It probably was inevitable that sooner or later someone should try to
cross the Golden Shower with one or the other of the two pinks.
Fortunately this first took place some years ago, so that today the many
“Rainbow Showers” resulting from this cross may be seen in all their
breathtaking loveliness. They are among the most beautiful of all the
flowering island trees, and no two are alike, unless propagated by
grafting. In general, the inflorescence of these hybrids seems more
numerous than on either of the parents, a result, no doubt, of combining
the numerous flowers of the Pink and White with the spreading growth of
the Golden Shower. At the height of their bloom, some of these trees
appear to be almost solid with great fluffy masses of color.

Hues vary from palest cream and lemon yellow through all manner of peach
and apricot tints to some that are a rosy orange. Flowers of individual
trees often hold two tones, resulting in this variety of coloring. This
is an effect that is enhanced frequently by the difference between the
inside and outside of the petals, the buds being of a different color
from the full blown flowers. There is a great difference, also, in the
form of individual flowers.

There is considerable variation in the blooming period, but on the whole
the Rainbow Shower trees come out later than the others, with July and
August as the months of greatest bloom. They may be seen on Farrington
street between Wilder and Beretania, and there are some fine individual
specimens, one on Lunalilo street between Pensacola and Kapiolani,
another on Makiki above Nehoa. A fine, clear, yellow flowering tree,
sometimes mistaken for a pure Golden Shower, stands in Kamanele Park.
(Plate III)


                            YELLOW POINCIANA
                     _Peltophorum inerme Roxburgh_

A tree with many upright spikes of small, deep-yellow flowers, bright
against the greenery of the fine-cut leaves is called the Yellow
Poinciana, because it was once classed as a Poinciana. At the same time
it is in bloom, it hangs full of reddish-brown pods which are one of its
characteristic features. The flowers appear in the late summer and
autumn, although there may be a second blooming period at some other
time of year.

The flower buds are round and covered with brown, velvety down. This
same down also covers the young growth and the midrib of the leaves.
Individual flowers have five crepe petals of about the same size. The
larger, triangular heads of bloom, are made up of smaller clusters. The
reddish brown pods which follow the flowers remain on the tree for a
long time. They are thin and flat and hold three or four seeds. The
leaves are bipinnate, composed of many small rounded leaflets. There is
no period when the tree is bare.

This tree, a member of the legume family, is a native of Malaya and the
East Indies. It grows widely in Honolulu, with several fine specimens in
the grounds of Iolani Palace. (Plate III)


                             MONKEYPOD TREE
                 _Samanea saman_ (_Bentham_) _Merrill_

Those huge, wide-spreading trees—the largest trees in Honolulu—which in
spring and summer are often covered with a thin film of pink flowers,
are Monkeypod trees. Stately and massive, with rough, dark bark, the
branches of these trees support a rounded canopy of leaves. It is a
single layer thick and casts a light shade over an immense area of
ground. There is a giant specimen in Moanalua Gardens; others grow in
front of the Library of Hawaii, and traffic passes around another great
tree in the middle of Vineyard street, near Nuuanu.

The flowers are like short tassels made up of tufts of silky, pink
stamens. They grow on short stems in bunches near the ends of the
branches, and cover the tree lightly during the spring and summer. They
are followed by the thick, dark, pods, which hang on the tree until the
following spring. Leaves are compound in structure, made up of opposite
pairs of pointed leaflets which fold together in the late afternoon. The
leaves fall in spring, and, together with the drift of falling flowers,
which comes a little later, and the hail of old seed pods, give the
Monkeypod the name of being the dirtiest of Hawaii’s trees. Owners who
never finish sweeping up under them always remark, however, that the
beauty of the giant tree is worth the trouble.

This tree is a legume, a native of Central America and the West Indies,
where its native name is _zaman_, from which its scientific name is
derived. (Plate IV)


                            BOTTLEBRUSH TREE
                 _Callistemon lanceolatus De Candolle_

Long, cylindrical spikes of red flowers, very like the round brushes
used to clean test tubes or bottles, have given its common name to this
tree. The effect is created by tufts of red stamens. In most varieties
the flower spikes grow upright, but on some, as shown on Plate IV, they
hang in swaying pendants. Their color is a fine, pinkish red, which
contrasts strikingly with the greyish green of the foliage. The latter
is narrow, pointed and fine.

The tree belongs to the Myrtle family and is a native of Australia. It
is not yet very common in Hawaii, but examples may be seen on the
University of Hawaii campus near Dean Hall. (Plate IV)


                               JACARANDA
                    _Jacaranda ovalifolia R. Brown_

Since blue is the rarest color in the flower world, a tree which is a
mass of blue is something that will hardly be overlooked. Yet the rarity
of the blue coloring in the Jacaranda is but little more important than
the beauty of the tree as a whole. It becomes a large tree, with light
grey bark, and is covered with foliage, each leaf of which is almost as
attractive as a fern. These bipinnate leaves are symmetrical in form
with many tiny leaflets. They usually fall in late winter and early
spring, and the tree is bare for a short time.

The flowers, which appear in large, loose, clusters at the ends of the
branches, are individually shaped like bells, with two lips, one with
two lobes, the other with three. Their color is a soft, lavender blue.
The blossoming period is erratic, varying from midwinter to early
autumn, but on the whole it is most conspicuous in spring. On individual
trees, this blooming period is not very long, but different trees vary
as to the season when the flowers appear, so that one may usually be
found in flower. The blossoms fall in masses, repeating their color on
the ground like a reflection of the tree above.

The seed pods are of curious shape, round and rather flat. They have
been worn as costume jewelry, when lacquered in gay colors and attached
to ribbons.

Jacaranda belongs to the Bignonia family and is a native of Brazil,
where it got its name. A fine specimen grows on Punahou campus. Others
are along Nehoa street, near Makiki, and on Manoa road at Kamehameha
avenue, and also on Makiki Heights Road. (Plate IV)


                    CHINESE RICE FLOWER. MAI SUI LAN
                       _Aglaia odorata Loureiro_

The tiny, round, yellow blossoms of the Chinese Rice flower tree
probably suggest rice to the Chinese, although each floweret is
considerably smaller than a grain of rice. They occur in clusters of
hundreds, near the ends of the branches, each tiny flower a minute
yellow ball which looks like a bud, but never opens wide. The blooming
period is spring and summer.

The tree is rather small, spreading, and very attractive, being covered
closely with glossy leaves of compound form. It is a member of the
China-berry family and a native of China, from which it was undoubtedly
brought directly to Hawaii by some returning traveler. It is still found
growing mostly in the gardens of Chinese residents. There is a good
specimen in the Mid-Pacific Horticultural Establishment. (Plate IV)


                                WONG LAN
                      _Michelia champaca Linnaeus_

The intense fragrance and heavy, ivory-colored, waxen quality of the
petals, indicates the relationship of the Michelia to the Magnolia
family. Brought to Hawaii by the Chinese, it is still a great favorite
with them. Older women wear a blossom in their hair, like a bit of
carved ivory, and men may slip a few buds into their shirt pocket where
the fragrance can be enjoyed.

The pointed buds, about two inches long, grow upright in leaf axils near
the ends of the branches. Each is encased in a “nightcap” type of calyx,
which slips off as the flower opens. The narrow waxen petals are
numerous and grow around the greenish pistil. The flowers are rather
inconspicuous but easily found by the scent, which is heavy, sweet and
rather musky.

The tree grows upright and never attains great size. Its leaves are
glossy, leathery, rather pointed and about eight inches in length.
(Plate IV)


                                 BOMBAX
            _Bombax ellipticum Humboldt, Bonpland and Kunth_

A Bombax tree growing in the Queen’s Hospital grounds presents such a
striking appearance when blooming that it has become almost as well
known as the Gold tree on School street. Unlike the latter, however,
which blooms at erratic times, the Bombax can be depended on to put out
its blossoms in March and April. They appear on the bare tree, a few at
a time, suggesting a bunch of pink egret plumes.

The bud, growing upright on the bare branch, is like a stubby cigar,
rising from the calyx which is like the cup of an acorn. The bud splits
into five parts, which peel backward like a banana, and curl into a
spiral. These are the petals, purplish brown outside, silky white
within. The conspicuous part of the flower is the great pompon of pink
stamens, an exploding rocket of color. The stamens are about five inches
long.

Except when in bloom the tree is inconspicuous. Its foliage is made up
of five radiating leaflets. The tree is a native of South America and a
member of the Bombax family.

The species is said to produce pods in which the seeds are embedded in a
cotton wool. It is, indeed, closely related to the Kapok tree which
produces the kapok of commerce. (For an example of this tree, _Ceiba
pentandra_, see the Foster gardens.) But in Honolulu the single specimen
of Bombax has never produced seeds nor has it been propagated by other
means, so that the tree in Queen’s Hospital grounds has no rivals in
interest although others are known to be growing in the Islands. (Plate
IV)



                              Chapter III
                              NATIVE TREES


Long before the first human being landed on Hawaii, these islands were
covered with a thick growth of trees, shrubs and smaller plants. Land
which first rose above the surface of the ocean as hot lava, or as
coral, slowly deposited on undersea volcanic rocks, gradually became
covered with plant life. It was brought ashore by ocean currents, by
birds and by the wind. Among the first plants, doubtless, was the
coconut. The huge nuts of this tree, covered with their tough, thick
husks, can float on the ocean for months, and after finally washing
ashore will take root and grow. The roots are tolerant of brackish water
so that they can become established near salt water lagoons.

In spite of what we know of the way in which such isolated bits of land
as Hawaii became covered with plants, it remains a constant wonder that
so many different ones arrived here without the help of men. For Hawaii
has a very rich native flora that has been of great interest to
botanists. Many of the plants found growing here are common to all the
South Sea islands. Others have so changed, through mutation and
self-selection, that totally new species have been created, unique to
Hawaii. Trees are among the finest of these native plants, some of them
attaining huge size. A few of those most often seen, are illustrated and
described here.


                                  HAU
                     _Hibiscus tiliaceus Linneaus_

One of the strangest of the native trees is the Hau (pronounced “how”).
It is found on all the South Sea islands and is, indeed, cosmopolitan in
the tropics everywhere. This tree is often grown on Hawaiian beaches to
cast shade on the sand by training it over an arbor. It is normally a
creeping or procumbent tree, spreading along the ground. Its long,
sinuous branches interlock, if not trained, and eventually form jungles
too thick to penetrate except by cutting. When this mass of branches is
lifted off the ground, by being trained over some strong support, they
form a thick green roof which keeps out light showers. These arbors are
called _Hau lanais_ in Hawaii. They have been made at many places along
Waikiki beach, one of the best being on the seaward side of the
Halekulani hotel. Here the central tree is very old, its trunk, gnarled
and twisted and several feet through, creating an unusually impressive
specimen.

The Hau is a true Hibiscus, its flowers having the typical form with a
central column rising from the center of the five petals. When the
petals unfold they are a bright yellow color, usually with a dark spot
at the base. As they grow older during the day they turn to an apricot
color and when they finally fall, they are a deep red. The leaves are
heart-shaped, green and leathery above, whitish and silky with hairs,
beneath.

The bent branches of the Hau furnish the crooked sticks used to attach
the outrigger log to native canoes. And as might be expected of such a
unique tree, many legends cluster around it. (Plate V)


                    HALA. LAUHALA. PUHALA. SCREWPINE
                   _Pandanus odoratissimus Linnaeus_

Another plant of strange and curious appearance is the Hala, or
Screwpine. It might be taken at first sight for a palm, since its leaves
have the tough, fibrous quality of palm leaves. Actually it belongs to a
family which takes its name from this genus, the Pandanaceae. It grows
all over the South Seas and the East Indies, and India.

The descriptive name of Screwpine comes from the way in which the long,
narrow, spiny-edged leaves grow out of the branches, in winding whorls.
On young specimens they often create curious spirals. On older trees the
leaves have a tendency to form tufts at the ends of the branches. These
branches divide in pairs, the tree forming a series of ascending Y’s.

The most striking feature of this tree is the way in which it sometimes
puts out aerial roots to support the main trunk. These roots grow out
and downward, as stiff and straight as a stilt, propping up the tree in
what seems an entirely artificial manner. Such roots seem to appear only
when the plant needs them, when it is old and heavy or when the soil is
moist and loose and does not offer a firm hold.

Male and female flowers grow on different Hala trees. The male flowers,
called _Hinano Hala_, appear as a long, white, pendulous cluster of
blossoms, the showy portion being the bracts. They have many stamens and
the flower is extremely fragrant. In Hawaii these male flowers are not
so frequently seen as the female. The latter appear as a solid, round
ball at the ends of the branches, looking a good deal like the fruit of
a pineapple, (see Plate V). It is a standard joke to point these out to
tourists as proof that pineapples grow on trees.

The Hala fruit is a drupe, the various sections colored orange and very
smooth and shining. When separated, the sweet scented fleshy part is
strung into leis by the Hawaiians, making one of the most curious of
these native garlands.

The long, fibrous leaves are called Lauhala and are split and woven into
many products. Lauhala floor mats are frequently seen, while finer work
is done in making purses, hats and fans.

A relative of the Hala tree is a vine (_Freycinetia arnottii_), called
_Ie-ie_ in Hawaiian. Its male flowers are a bright scarlet, and form a
conspicuous sight in the cooler mountain forests where it grows wild.


                               OHIA LEHUA
                  _Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudichaud_

The favorite flower of old Hawaiian song and legend is the _Ohia Lehua_.
It is not found commonly at the warm levels of Honolulu, and never
becomes more than a shrub there, but it may be seen in upper Nuuanu
valley and on Tantalus. This plant reaches its greatest perfection, as a
magnificent tree, often a hundred feet high, at the cool level of the
volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii. The Lehua blossom is the special
flower of that island.

The flowers appear as bright red pompons of stamens; sometimes however,
they are white, pink or yellow, for the plant is extremely varied. The
leaves are small and often reddish when young.

The Hawaiian people believe that this beautiful red flower is sacred to
Pele, the goddess of the volcano. If a flower is picked she may show her
anger by sending rain, but if an offering of a flower is first made to
her, then others may be taken safely. The flowers are made into leis—the
Sweet Lei-Lehua of the song—which are highly regarded.

The Ohia wood is dark, hard and very beautiful, much used for floors and
fine carving. The early Hawaiians made images of their gods from it, as
well as spears and other implements.

The Lehua is a member of the Myrtle family and found on various South
Sea islands. (Plate V)

Another shrub, (_Calliandra haematoma_) has been introduced into Hawaii
and is now known as the _Haole Lehua_, that is, the foreign Lehua. It
has tufts of red flowers, very like those of the native plant, but they
are larger and even more showy than the true Lehua. During the winter
and spring, leis are made of these and are often seen, being casually
called Lehua leis.


                                 KAMANI
                   _Calophyllum inophyllum Linnaeus_

A tree that grows wild along the seashore is given the name of _Kamani_
by the Hawaiians. It has large, thick, leathery leaves, very smooth and
shining, and clusters of waxy, white flowers. These flowers have four
white petals and in the center is a mass of golden stamens surrounding a
red pistil. They are fragrant.

The flowers are followed by round, reddish fruits which contain an oily
nut. In other parts of the tropics, especially Fiji and India, this oil
has important uses, but it is not extracted in Hawaii. The tree belongs
to the Mangosteen family and is found widely through the tropics. The
nut may have floated to the shores of Hawaii or possibly some early
Polynesian voyager brought it in his double canoe.

True Kamani trees grow on the campus of the University of Hawaii. They
may also be seen on a ride around the island, growing near the beach.
(Plate V)

A tree called locally False Kamani, is the _Terminalia catappa_. Its
large leaves and the fact that it, too, grows near the sea probably
caused it to be given this name. The special characteristic of this tree
is the way its large leaves turn red before they fall in winter. A
scattering of these big red leaves on the tree is very noticeable, and
when the whole tree finally turns red it becomes a conspicuous object.
New, shining green leaves shortly follow the old. A fine example of this
tree grows in the grounds of Iolani Palace.


                                  KOA
                           _Acacia koa Gray_

Like the Ohia, the Koa tree does not grow well at lower altitudes, but
at proper elevations, such as near the volcano, on the Island of Hawaii,
it becomes Hawaii’s largest and finest tree. It is, perhaps best known
to town dwellers by its wood, known as Hawaiian mahogany, which has been
extensively used in furniture. In cooler sections of Honolulu, such as
Tantalus, and upper Nuuanu, Koa trees may be found growing. They seldom
attain much size, but are often of very picturesque form.

The most characteristic thing about the Koa is its sickle-shaped leaf,
like those found on many other members of the Acacia group. It is not a
true leaf, however, but the flattened, grayish-green petiole, or leaf
stem, modified to serve as a leaf. Such a modification is called a
phyllode. The true leaves grow on young trees and sometimes appear on
new growth. They are bipinnate, or fernlike, with many small leaflets.
Both true and modified leaves are shown in Plate V, but no flowers. Koa
flowers are very inconspicuous, being small, creamy balls of stamens and
pistils, like so many of the other Acacia flowers. They are followed by
numerous small, brown pods.

The tall straight trunk of the Koa tree was used by the early Hawaiians
to make canoes. A fine tree growing in the mountain was selected by the
_kahuna_, or wise man of the village, and laboriously cut down with
stone adzes. Then the whole village turned out to help drag it to the
water’s edge. Here it was hollowed and shaped with stone implements.
Finally, it was colored and the out-rigger attached, the entire process
taking months, perhaps years.


                                  MILO
                  _Thespesia populnea_ (_L._) _Correa_

A tree which has heart-shaped leaves, like those of the Hau, and
Hibiscus-shaped flowers, but is of upright, normal form, is the Milo.
The flower is a paler yellow than the Hau blossom, and has a red spot at
the base of the petals. As it fades, it turns from yellow to a purplish
pink. It is followed by a five-parted green capsule, which turns dark
brown and hangs on the tree a long time.

The Milo is a member of the Mallow family and closely related to the
true Hibiscus. Like the Hau, it is at home over a wide area in the South
Seas and the Asiatic tropics. It is found growing on the beaches and is
said to have shaded the grass hut home at Waikiki of the first King
Kamehameha. (Plate V)


                                  KOU
                      _Cordia sebestena Linnaeus_

A native tree with bright orange colored blossoms is called _Kou_ by the
Hawaiians. Botanically it is _Cordia subcordata_. Though found on other
South Sea islands, it is now rare in Hawaii, while a close relative, the
_Cordia sebestena_, is generally called Kou. This foreign Kou, which has
been introduced from tropical America, is quite similar in general
appearance to the native species. Its flowers are a rich, orange-red,
about an inch across. They are tubular, with six broad lobes, frilled
and crepe-like in texture. Opening in clusters of three or four at a
time, they make a gay showing over the small tree on which they grow.
The leaves are very rough and shaped like a heart. Several trees grow on
Young street between Piikoi and Pensacola streets. (Plate V)

The wood of the native Kou was highly prized for making the wooden bowls
from which the Hawaiians ate.


                         KUKUI. CANDLENUT TREE
                _Aleurites moluccana_ (_L._) _Willdenow_

Conspicuous for its light colored foliage, groves of the Kukui tree are
easily seen on the mountain side, from a long distance. The trees grow
best in sheltered ravines and gullies, so that from a distance, the
shadow of such ravines is usually lightened by the blotches of greyish
green which mean Kukui trees. The trees grow down to sea level, however,
and may be found at many places in Honolulu, among others in the Royal
Hawaiian Hotel garden.

Leaves of the Kukui tree vary greatly. One type has pointed lobes,
another has lobes which have flattened into almost regular form. The
leaves are covered with a grayish down, which is particularly heavy on
the under side, giving the tree its light appearance.

The white flowers are very small with five petals. They come in soft,
massed clusters, male and female flowers growing separately on the same
tree. The male appear on the upper branches, the female on the lower.
They are not very different in appearance, but the male (illustrated on
Plate V) has slightly broader petals. The Kukui is the special flower of
Molokai.

The round green fruit contains a nut which was very useful to the early
Hawaiians. Containing a high percentage of oil, it was used to make a
candle-like torch, by stringing the nuts on the slender midrib of a
coconut leaflet. Sixty or seventy nuts would burn an entire evening. The
nut is also edible, although purgative in its action especially when not
roasted. A pinch of ground, roasted Kukui nut is always served at luaus.

This tree is a member of the Euphorbia family. It grows widely over the
South Seas.



                               Chapter IV
                            TROPICAL SHRUBS


Hawaii has a wealth of flowering shrubs, most of them introduced from
other tropical regions to augment the few which are native. These shrubs
make up the larger portion of island gardens, since many of the annuals
and perennials of the temperate zone do not grow well in a warm climate.
Many of the shrubs have unusual flower forms and others create
spectacular effects with masses of color.


                             PAGODA FLOWER
                     _Clerodendron squamatum Vahl_

Brilliant scarlet flowers, in large, loose, upright heads, proclaim the
Clerodendron. The blooming period is winter and spring. Individual
flowers are slenderly tubular, widening into five narrow lobes which
turn back against the tube. The stamens and pistil curve beyond the
flower in a small red tuft. Stems of the flower head are also red and
hold this color even when the green berries turn blue-black.

The shrub grows about ten feet tall. Its large, heart-shaped leaves are
thick and velvety, with wavy margins and prominent venation. The stems
and pedicels are downy, and the latter have a tendency to turn red as
the leaf matures.

This exotic looking shrub comes from South China and India. It is a
member of the Verbena family. Specimens grow in the Royal Hawaiian Hotel
garden and Thomas Square. (Plate VI)


                             GOLDEN DEWDROP
                       _Duranta repens Linnaeus_

The popular name, Golden Dewdrop well describes the clusters of small,
bright, yellow berries which hang on this shrub a large part of the
year. They are so plentiful they usually cause the slender, grey-stemmed
branches to droop gracefully. They lend themselves to interesting
arrangements. The shrub may attain ten feet in height. Its small,
light-green leaves are pointed at either end.

The flowers are a delicate, lavender-blue, or white, very small and
formed as minute tubes, with five lobes. They grow as spreading clusters
at the ends of the branches.

This shrub, a member of the Verbena family, is a native of tropical
America. It is grown in the Royal Hawaiian Hotel garden. (Plate VI)


                              SHRIMP PLANT
                     _Beloperone guttata Brandegee_
                        (_Beloperone nemorosa_)

Rosy or yellowish bracts, overlapping with scale-like precision to form
a curving tube, are highly suggestive of the curved tail of a shrimp and
explain the popular name of this plant. The true flowers appear, one or
two at a time, from beneath the colored bracts, near the tip. They are
small, white, tubular, with purplish dots on the larger of the two
lobes.

The plant is herbaceous and sprawling, growing at most to five feet. Its
leaves are slightly rough to the touch, opposite, and of medium size. It
is a native of tropical America and a member of the Acanthus family. It
grows in the garden of the Royal Hawaiian hotel. (Plate VI)

                         [Illustration: Plate V
                       NATIVE TREES—CHAPTER III]

  Identification key
    (1) Hau
    (2) Hala
    (3) Ohia Lehua
    (4) Kamani
    (5) Koa
    (6) Milo
    (7) Kou
    (8) Kukui


                        [Illustration: Plate VI
                      TROPICAL SHRUBS—CHAPTER IV]

  Identification key
    (1) Pagoda Flower
    (2) Golden Dewdrop
    (3) Shrimp Plant
    (4) Flowering Eranthemum
    (5) Madagascar Periwinkle
    (6) Rondeletia
    (7) Star Jasmine
    (8) Galphimia
    (9) Plumbago
    (10) Ixora


                        [Illustration: Plate VII
                      TROPICAL SHRUBS—CHAPTER IV]

  Identification key
    (1) Candle Bush
    (2) Coral Plant
    (3) Lipstick Plant
    (4) Brunfelsia
    (5) Cotton
    (6) Ilima
    (7) Thunbergia
    (8) Mock Orange
    (9) Justicia


                       [Illustration: Plate VIII
                      TROPICAL SHRUBS—CHAPTER IV]

  Identification key
    (1) Dwarf Poinciana
    (2) Chenille Plant
    (3) Cape Honeysuckle
    (4) Crepe Myrtle
    (5) Crown Flower
    (6) Beach Naupaka
    (7) Purple Lantana
    (8) Pikake
    (9) Crown of Thorns
    (10) Singapore Holly


                          FLOWERING ERANTHEMUM
                _Pseuderanthemum reticulatum Radlkofer_

Conspicuous for its yellowish leaves and small white and purplish
flowers is this Eranthemum. The yellow color appears extensively on the
young leaves and survives on the older ones as yellow venations, making
the plant appear very bright and sunny. The tubular flowers grow in
small spikes, the tubes broadening into four lobes. These are spotted
with purple dots where they begin to broaden.

The plant grows about six feet high. It belongs to the Acanthus family
and possibly comes from Indo-Malaya or Polynesia. Specimens may be seen
in the Royal Hawaiian Hotel garden. (Plate VI)


                   VINCA ROSEA. MADAGASCAR PERIWINKLE
                 _Lochnera rosea_ (_L._) _Reichenbach_

Rosy pink or pure white flowers, on a short, herbaceous plant which
looks like a temperate zone annual, is the Periwinkle. It is a cousin of
the blue myrtle, or periwinkle of the mainland, but resembles the latter
only in the general form of the flowers. Known elsewhere as Madagascar
periwinkle (although not a native of that island) it is called in Hawaii
simply Periwinkle or Vinca.

The flowers are flat, five-petalled and ever-blooming. Some of the white
ones have a cerise eye in the center. The leaves are greyish, long,
narrow, with blunt tips. It is a cosmopolitan in the tropics and can be
found growing on the University of Hawaii grounds. (Plate VI)


                               RONDELETIA
                      _Rondeletia odorata Jacquin_

Small, round, heads of many bright, red and yellow flowers mark the
Rondeletia. It is a shrub which is not common in Hawaii but may be found
in the Royal Hawaiian and Foster gardens. The flowers are tubular, with
a bright yellow throat and orange-red lobes. The leaves are opposite and
sessile. The shrub grows to about six feet high. It is a native of
Mexico and a member of the Coffee family. (Plate VI)


                              STAR JASMINE
                      _Jasminum pubescens Willde_
                        (_Jasminum multiflorum_)

The Star Jasmine takes its name from the starry, white flowers which
cover the plant at all seasons. Each has from four to nine, pointed
lobes, radiating from the mouth of the slender tube. Ordinarily, they
are scentless, but a variety with faint fragrance is now becoming
popular. When the flowers fall, they leave a group of coarsely hairy,
green calyxes like small green pompons. The plant is at first a
sprawling shrub, but later becomes a vine. Its leaves grow in opposite
pairs along the length of the shoots. They are pointed and slightly
velvety. This plant is widely used in Honolulu. It is a native of
tropical Asia, and like all the Jasmines, belongs to the Olive family.
(Plate VI)


                               GALPHIMIA
                       _Thryallis glauca Kuntze_
                          (_Galphimia glauca_)

Small, terminal, clusters of bright, yellow, little flowers with red
stamens, characterize the Galphimia shrub. It grows about five feet high
and has small, glossy, opposite leaves. The yellow flowers bloom most of
the year, making the plant popular in gardens.

The word Galphimia, by which it is popularly known, is an anagram of
Malpighia, the name of the Italian physician for which the family to
which it belongs was named. It is a native of southern Mexico. (Plate
VI)


                                PLUMBAGO
                      _Plumbago capensis Thunberg_

The pale blue flowers of the Plumbago are frequently seen especially in
dry places where the plant thickly covers the ground or grows over walls
and trellises, often with a heavy undergrowth of dead branches below.
The flowers have a long tube and five lobes, and grow in short clusters.
Their blue color varies from a soft azure to palest tints, and there is
a pure white variety. The species with pink blossoms is _Plumbago
rosea_.

The blue flowering plant is a native of South Africa, near the Cape of
Good Hope, as its name indicates. It gives the name of Plumbago to its
family. (Plate VI)


                                 IXORA
              _Ixora macrothyrsa Teijsmann and Binnendijk_

Large, round “snowball” heads of scarlet bloom make the Ixora a very
conspicuous shrub. Sometimes it seems almost like a small tree for it
can reach fifteen feet in height. The small individual flowers have four
petals growing at the end of a slender tube that appears to be a red
stem. These flowers are sometimes laboriously strung by the Hawaiians
into leis, which become solid red cylinders, two to three inches in
diameter. There are also plants with pale red or with white flowers, the
latter scented. The shrub has fine, large, glossy foliage suggestive of
that of the Coffee, of which family it is a member. It is a native of
Malaya.

There is a tendency in Honolulu to mispronounce the name as if it were
spelled Exoria. (Plate VI)


                          CANDLEBUSH. ACAPULCO
                        _Cassia alata Linnaeus_

Upright stalks of bright yellow flowers, almost cylindrical in form,
explain the popular name of this shrub. When first opening, the
individual flowers are closer together on the stalk than shown on Plate
VII, heightening the suggestion of golden candles growing over the
shrub. The flowers are at their best in winter, although they may be
found later. The individual flowers are pea shaped, as the plant is a
member of this family.

The leaves are luxuriant, each one from eighteen inches to two feet
long. The leaf is made up of many pairs of large leaflets, which
increase in size from the base to the tip. The plant is probably a
native of tropical America, but is widely grown in the tropics.


                              CORAL PLANT
                      _Russelia juncea Zuccarini_

Tiny, tubular red flowers, growing loosely over the drooping sprays of a
graceful bush have again suggested coral and given the name of Coral
plant to this shrub. The sprays may grow to six feet, with stems and a
few leaves of greyish green. Individual flowers are about an inch long,
tubular, and hang loosely on slender angular stems. The plant is a
native of Mexico and belongs to the Figwort family. (Plate VII)


                             LIPSTICK PLANT
                        _Bixa orellana Linnaeus_

Seedpods of the lipstick plant are extremely ornamental and are often
used as dried floral material. They are covered with heavy soft, dark
hairs, deep red when fresh and turning to stiff brown as they dry. The
pointed pod splits to reveal rows of seeds covered with a red powdery
material. This red covering provides the annotto dye of commerce, used
among other things for coloring oleomargarine, butter and cheese. It is
not produced commercially in Hawaii, but the plants are grown for this
purpose in tropical America, where they are native. The name Lipstick
plant was produced locally on the spur of the moment when a name was
needed, based on the way the red material smeared the skin.

Flowers of this plant, which appear in summer, are pale orchid pink, the
five petals surrounding a central mass of lavender stamens. The foliage
is dark green and prominently veined. The shrub may attain almost the
proportions of a small tree. Specimens grow in Iolani Palace grounds
across from the Library of Hawaii. The plant is a member of the Bixa
family. (Plate VII)


                               BRUNFELSIA
                      _Brunfelsia hopeana Bentham_

A shrub curiously covered in spring with both blue and white flowers,
superficially suggesting pansies in form, is the Brunfelsia. The two
colorings are due to the fact that the flowers are a soft lavender blue
when they open but fade to almost pure white before they fall. They have
five velvety petals, which are actually the lobes of a slender tube, and
they give off a delicate fragrance.

The shrub is woody, with light grey bark and sparse dark green leaves.
This species is a native of Brazil. A specimen grows on Metcalf street
near Hunnewell. (Plate VII)

Another Brunfelsia grows in Honolulu with white flowers which turn a
deep cream as they grow older. This is _B. americana_, a native of
tropical America. It is almost scentless by day, but develops fragrance
after dark. Both are members of the nightshade family.


                                 COTTON
                    _Gossypium barbadense Linnaeus_

The cotton plant is a cousin of the Hibiscus and in Hawaii grows to be a
tall shrub which is often used in gardens. The yellow flowers are formed
like Hibiscus, but do not open widely. As they fade, they become tinged
with purple, a color change which suggests the related Hau and Milo
blossoms. The seed case is large, round and pointed and partly covered
by three fringed bracts. When it opens the boll of white cotton, in
which are the seeds, breaks out. This fluff of white fiber remains on
the plant for a long time, suggesting a different kind of blossom. In
Hawaii the local cotton is sometimes gathered and used for homemade
mattresses, but it is inferior in quality.

Cotton leaves are heart-shaped and velvety, due to whitish hairs which
cover them and give a greyish green appearance to the plant. (Plate VII)


                                 ILIMA
                         _Sida fallax Walpers_

Another close relative of the Hibiscus is the Ilima, a native plant
which has orange flowers about an inch across, looking like miniature
Hibiscus blooms. The color ranges in tone from light yellow through
orange and buff, to brownish red, but the orange color is the most
popular. Leaves and stems are covered with whitish hairs creating a
velvety effect. The plant grows as a small shrub, rather straggling in
appearance. It is seldom cultivated except by the lei makers, but is
found wild in dry places. It also grows on other South Sea islands.

Leis made of these thin, silky flowers are the originals of the
often-seen orange paper leis, like paper ropes about an inch in
diameter. The paper leis, which are so artificial looking, are
nevertheless really very much like the flower originals. The true Ilima
lei has the soft texture of flesh, created by great numbers of the
flowers being strung flatly together. In early days such leis were
reserved for royalty and they are still called the royal lei. The Ilima
is the flower of the Island of Oahu. (Plate VII)


                               THUNBERGIA
                    _Thunbergia erecta T. Anderson_

Rich purple-blue flowers with golden throats are Thunbergias, closely
related to the white and blue flowering vines of the same name. The
velvety purple petals are lobes expanding a tube that is whitish without
and bright yellow within. The flowers grow singly in leaf axils,
emerging from a pair of whitish bracts. The blossoms are thin and
delicate and fade almost at once after being picked.

There is a pure white flowering form with yellow throat.

The plant is an open, rather straggling shrub, about five feet high. Its
slender branches bear small opposite leaves, rather pointed at either
end. It is a native of tropical west Africa and belongs to the Acanthus
family. (Plate VII)


                              MOCK ORANGE
                       _Murraya exotica Linnaeus_

The Mock Orange bears flowers several times a year in sporadic outbursts
which cover the plant with clusters of small snowy blossoms. At such
times the fragrance nearby is so intense that no one in the vicinity can
miss it. The Mock Orange is a true member of the Citrus family and has
the delightful scent which they all possess. Individual flowers are five
petaled, and waxy, like a very small orange blossom. When these petals
fall they cover the ground with white. The fruit is a small red ball
filled with a large seed. It is not edible, but very bitter.

Between periods of bloom the shrub, which may become a small tree,
remains attractive in its small, glossy, dark green foliage. Leaves are
compound, the leaflets being about two inches long and pointed. This
shrub is a native of tropical Asia and widely grown. (Plate VII)


                                JUSTICIA
                      _Odontonema strictum Kuntze_
                          (_Justicia carnea_)

The Justicia bears stiff, upright spikes of red flowers, each one a waxy
little cornucopia with five small lobes. The flower stalk is a mass of
buds, of which only a few, up and down its length, develop at a time
giving it a rather ragged and irregular appearance, but prolonging its
blooming season almost indefinitely. The open flowers fall quickly.

The plant is herbaceous and grows about five feet high. Its leaves are
bright green and glossy, large, pointed, and with prominent veins. It is
a native of tropical America and belongs to the Acanthus family. (Plate
VII)


                  DWARF POINCIANA. PRIDE OF BARBADOES
               _Caesalpinia pulcherrima_ (_L._) _Swartz_

Bright clusters of fiery scarlet and yellow flowers growing on the
higher branch tips of a tall shrub or small tree, announce the Dwarf
Poinciana. While not a true Poinciana, it is a close relative, so that
its common name is not far amiss. Individual flowers are smaller, but
quite similar in form to those of Royal Poinciana, with five crepy
spreading petals and a colored calyx. The petals are sometimes margined
with yellow which gives added brilliance to the effect. Very long
stamens and pistil project from the center. Unlike Poinciana, the plant
blooms most of the year. Flat seedpods follow the flowers. There is an
all-yellow flowered form.

The leaves are doubly compound, with many small rounded leaflets along
the pinnae. It is a legume, and widely grown in the tropics. In India it
is the sacred flower of Siva. Specimens grow in the University of Hawaii
grounds. (Plate VIII)

A similar plant with flowers of bright yellow but with conspicuous,
long, red stamens is _Caesalpinia gilliesii_, sometimes called Bird of
Paradise.


                             CHENILLE PLANT
                       _Acalypha hispida Burmann_

One of the strangest looking of tropical shrubs bears long, thin velvety
tails of dark red, which well deserve the common name of Chenille plant,
or sometimes, Redhot Cat-tails. The shrub will attain eight feet and
presents a striking appearance with these long, crimson, flower spikes
hanging from among the large green leaves. The tails are made up of the
staminate flowers, which have no petals; pistillate flowers are
inconspicuous. A fine plant grows in front of Gumps at Waikiki. The
shrub is a member of the Euphorbia family and a native of the East
Indies. (Plate VIII)


                            CAPE HONEYSUCKLE
               _Tecomaria capensis_ (_Lindley_) _Seemann_

The orange red flowers of this shrub have the typical trumpet form of
the Bignonias, to which family it belongs. The slightly curving tube
broadens into five lobes, beyond which extend the yellow stamens. The
flowers appear in small clusters at the branch ends.

The shrub is sprawling and vinelike, often used as a ground cover. It
may be seen at the University of Hawaii. It has small, compound leaves
notably dark green in color, each leaflet having a serrated margin. Its
specific name, capensis, reveals its native home to be South Africa.


                              CREPE MYRTLE
                    _Lagerstroemia indica Linnaeus_

In midsummer there is a sudden burst of bright, pink blossoms in
Honolulu, due to the flowering of the Crepe Myrtle. Most of these plants
are shrubs, but sometimes they attain the size of a small tree. The
exceedingly frilled, fringed and crepy petals, five to a flower, occur
in such fluffy masses that individual blossoms are often hard to
distinguish. There is a white variety and some vary in color to
lavender.

Leaves are small, leathery, smooth above, but rough beneath. The stems
are brown. The bark, when the plant attains tree size, is so smooth that
in some Oriental countries, where it is native, it is called a “monkey
slide” tree. (Plate VIII)

A large tree in the Foster Garden bears heads of lavender bloom in
summer, making a very striking appearance. This tree is _Lagerstroemia
speciosa_.

Crepe myrtles belong to the Henna family and are natives of the Far
East.


                  CROWN FLOWER. GIANT INDIAN MILKWEED
                     _Calotropis gigantea R. Brown_

The Crown Flower derives its name from its oddly shaped blossoms which
rise in clusters at the branch ends. The flowers are a grayish lavender
or a greenish white, the latter being more popular for lei making than
the former. Above the five thick, starlike, greenish petals rises a
miniature crown which looks as if it had been carved from white jade. It
is tipped by the stamens and the five pointed style. These “crowns,”
when stripped from the flower, are strung into leis which appear like
carved beads; indeed, they have been imitated in carved ivory, perhaps
the best of all the imitation flower leis.

The shrub grows rather tall. It is whitish, the stems and thick leaves
being covered with down. When cut, the stems give off a milky juice as
do other members of the Milkweed family. This plant is a native of
India, where, like the Caesalpinia, it is sacred to Siva. (Plate VIII)


                             BEACH NAUPAKA
               _Scaevola frutescens_ (_Miller_) _Krause_

A quaint little flower, which seems to have been torn in half, since the
white petals radiate in only half of a circle, is called Naupaka-kai by
the Hawaiians. It is a native plant, found wild on the beaches of these
islands, and others in the South Seas. It has been adopted here for
seashore planting, since it is resistant to wind and salt spray. There
are other species of Scaevola growing in Hawaii, some of them preferring
a mountain habitat, but all are characterized by the half blossom. The
five petals have purple streaks. Leaves of the Beach Naupaka are thick
and grey-green because of a velvety down. They become broader toward the
tips than toward the base.

A plant with such an odd flower would be certain to have had legends
created about it. They are several in Hawaii, usually on the theme of
lovers parted, typified by the incomplete blossom.

The plant belongs to the Goodenia family. It may be seen growing along
the seawall of the Halekulani hotel or along the shore lines of the
Islands. (Plate VIII)


                      PURPLE, OR TRAILING LANTANA
                   _Lantana sellowiana Link and Otto_

A low, covering plant, dotted with small clusters of rosy lavender
flowers is the purple Lantana. The flower heads are an inch or so
across, each made up of flowerets which are little tubes with five
lobes. The foliage is small, stiff and rough, with prominent veins, each
leaf minutely scalloped. The plant is woody and firm, by which it can be
distinguished from an annual, herbaceous Verbena which is sometimes
grown as a ground cover and has flowers of somewhat similar form and
color. The Lantana belongs to the Verbena family, accounting for the
similarity. The trailing purple Lantana comes from South America. (Plate
VIII)

The familiar red and yellow _Lantana camara_ is often seen in Hawaii
growing wild beside the road. It is an “escape” from gardens. At one
time it threatened all island agriculture, for without natural checks in
the new territory to which it had been introduced it formed dense
thickets which could hardly be eradicated. It was finally controlled by
introducing parasites from tropical America, where it is native.


                                 PIKAKE
                       _Jasminum sambac Solander_

The Pikake flower is seldom seen growing, for the shrub is rather
ungainly, with large stiff paired leaves, and the blossoms make little
show. It is when these flowers are strung into leis, however, that they
become universally recognized, through their magnificent fragrance. It
is regarded by many people as the most enchanting flower scent in the
world. The individual flowers are small, waxy, white, usually double.
One lei strand is enough to scent a room, but several are usually worn
in order to make an attractive showing.

It is this Jasmine that is grown commercially in China and added to tea
leaves to make Jasmine tea.

Its peculiar Hawaiian name (pronounced peacocki), was probably derived
from association with the white peacocks which used to wander through
Ainahau, the beautiful estate at Waikiki where the Princess Kaiulani
lived in the nineties. The lei of Jasmine flowers was the favorite of
this young heiress to the Hawaiian throne and by a natural association
of favorites, her lei and her birds were called by the same name. (Plate
VIII)


                            CROWN OF THORNS
                      _Euphorbia splendens Bojer_

Quantities of very long, sharp thorns on a low shrub bearing small, red
flowers is the Crown of Thorns. The little, rosy-scarlet flowers grow in
small clusters on longish stems. What appear to be two red petals are
really a pair of bracts. The leaves are few, bright green, and appear on
the new growth.

The plant, which is usually less than three feet high, forms a dense
mass of thorns with its bare, brownish stems. It is sometimes planted in
areas from which it is desired to keep people, as in the parking strip
before the Advertiser building. The plant is a native of Madagascar, and
a member of the Euphorbia family. (Plate VIII)

It is a cousin of the Poinsettia, _Euphorbia pulcherrima_ from Mexico,
which grows very luxuriously in Hawaii.


                            SINGAPORE HOLLY
                     _Malpighia coccigera Linnaeus_

Miniature, holly-like leaves, crisp, shining and thorny, mark this
charming little plant which is not a native of Singapore but of the West
Indies. Nor is it a true holly, but a member of the Malpighia family.
The plant is covered occasionally with dainty pink flowers, their five
petals around the yellow stamens, very fringed and crepy and suggesting
in form their cousins, the Orchid vine (Stigmaphyllon). They have a
slight fragrance. The plant grows rather stiffly and is often seen in
pots. (Plate VIII)


                                DOMBEYA
                 _Dombeya wallichii Bentham and Hooker_

The Dombeya is a shrub or small tree with large leaves among which hang
showy round, drooping heads of many pink flowers. The flower clusters
grow at the end of long, downy pedicels and are so heavy that they hang
far over. Individual flowers have five pink petals, and the stamens are
united into a short tube in the center. Even when these flowers are
brown and dried the cluster still hangs on the plant.

The leaves are big and velvety, roundly heart shaped, with lobes. The
plant is a native of Madagascar and a member of the Cocoa family. A
white flowering shrub of similar appearance is the _Dombeya
spectabilis_. A specimen grows in the University of Hawaii grounds.
(Plate IX)


                                KALAMONA
                        _Cassia glauca Lamarck_

A very commonly seen shrub or small tree bearing numerous clusters of
bright yellow flowers and, at the same time, bunches of brown pods, is
the Kalamona. A native of tropical Asia, this plant has become
naturalized in Hawaii and is often seen growing wild, especially in dry
places. Its yellow flowers are similar in general form to those of its
cousins, the Shower trees, and like them also, the foliage is compound.
Each leaf is made up of many medium-sized leaflets. The flowers appear
most of the year, but are best in spring and early summer. (Plate IX)
The Hawaiian name has been transferred to this plant from a native
Cassia of similar appearance, _C. gaudichaudii_.


                              HAOLE LEHUA
                    _Calliandra grandiflora Bentham_

Flowers which are pompons of pink or white stamens, blooming in winter
and spring, announce the Haole Lehua. This name, meaning foreign Lehua,
is applied also to a closely related species, _Calliandra haematoma_
which has similar flowers of a bright pinkish red. Resemblance of these
flowers to those of the native Ohia Lehua has resulted in this name
being transferred. At the present time they are more commonly seen in
leis than the true Lehua. Such leis are particularly beautiful
suggesting a garland of marabou feathers. The shrub has small compound
leaves and grows twelve feet tall. The flowers are followed by brown
seedpods, showing the plant to be a member of the bean family. It is a
native of tropical America. (Plate IX)


                  CUP AND SAUCER PLANT. CHINAMAN’S HAT
                     _Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz_

Tall sprays of the Holmskioldia are lined with quaintly shaped little
flowers, of tawny orange or deep scarlet color. They are well described
by the names of Cup and Saucer, or Chinaman’s hat. Each is made up of a
saucer-shaped bract, which is the most conspicuous part, from the center
of which rises a small tubular flower. They bloom the year round and may
be found in many gardens.

The shrub is sprawling or half climbing, with small opposite leaves,
usually with irregular margins. It is a native of Burma and a member of
the Coffee family. (Plate IX)


                      KONA COFFEE. ARABIAN COFFEE
                       _Coffea arabica Linnaeus_

The shrub or small tree that produces the coffee bean of commerce is
sometimes grown in Hawaii as an ornamental plant. It is conspicuous for
its rich, dark, shining, leaves, strongly veined and for its bright red
berries and the fragrance of its small, white flowers. The flowers are
starlike, and grow rather inconspicuously in the leaf axils, a few in a
cluster. They are followed by the green berries which turn bright red
when ripe. These berries usually contain two seeds which are the coffee
“beans” of commerce.

The Arabian coffee plant grows best at levels cooler than the average in
Honolulu, so the plant is seen on Tantalus and in the high valleys. It
is grown commercially in the Kona district, on the Island of Hawaii and
the product has been given the name of Kona coffee. Most of the world’s
coffee is made from this species, which was originally native to
tropical East Africa, but was introduced very early into Arabia. (Plate
IX)

Another coffee plant grown in Honolulu is _Coffea liberica_, also a
native of tropical Africa. It grows under slightly warmer conditions
than the other and so does better in Honolulu. It is larger than _C.
arabica_, becoming a small tree. Coffee plants are related to the
fragrant Gardenias, and give their name to the family.


                               CORAL BUSH
                     _Jatropha multifida Linnaeus_

Again the similarity of a flower to coral has given the name of Coral
Bush to a plant. In the case of the Jatropha, the likeness is not
far-fetched, for the Jatropha flower head is very curious and strangely
like a small bunch of red coral. Stems and rounded buds are red and
glossy. A few flowers open at a time, showing five small petals and
yellow stamens. The fruit which follows is a green capsule holding
several seeds.

The leaves of the plant are palmate, and deeply divided in seven to
eleven slender parts, giving a lacy appearance to the shrub. It grows
about ten feet high. (Plate IX)

Flowers of almost identical form grow on a related plant called
_Jatropha podagrica_. This plant, however, is small and usually grown in
pots. It is characterized by a greatly thickened stalk which seems to be
a large bulb rising from the ground. Flowers and a few leaves grow from
the top of this stem. The leaves of this plant are not divided, as in
the shrub, but are either entire or lobed. Both are natives of Central
America, and belong to the Euphorbia family.


                  LASIANDRA. PLEROMA. PRINCESS FLOWER
                   _Tibouchina semidecandra Cogniaux_

Flowers of rich royal purple, a regal and exciting color, make the
Lasiandra conspicuous wherever it blooms. It is not commonly seen in
Honolulu, because it prefers slightly higher altitudes, but on the road
to the Volcano on Hawaii, or at Kokee on Kauai, it has escaped and makes
conspicuous purple masses of bloom. The flowers have five velvety
petals, and in the center a group of pinkish stamens, which are
peculiarly angled.

The leaves are almost as attractive as the flowers being thickly piled
with velvety green hairs which create a silver sheen. They are marked
laterally by several conspicuous veins. Old leaves scattered over the
plant turn bright scarlet and are as noticeable as flowers.

The plant grows as a spreading shrub. It is a native of Brazil and a
member of the Melastoma family. (Plate IX)


                               NATAL PLUM
                   _Carissa grandiflora De Candolle_

The Natal plum, (a native of Natal, in South Africa) is characterized by
its long sharp thorns, its fragrant white flowers and its bright red
fruits which shine conspicuously among the leaves. The plant may attain
almost the size of a small tree but is usually smaller and is often used
as a hedge. Its thorns make it practically impenetrable.

The flowers have five, waxy, white petals which always twist slightly to
the right. They are very fragrant. The red fruits are edible but
sub-acid in flavor. The leaves are very glossy and thick, growing
opposite each other on the stem. The plant is a member of the Periwinkle
family. It may be seen growing along the Makiki side of the Round Top
road. (Plate IX)

                        [Illustration: Plate IX
                      TROPICAL SHRUBS—CHAPTER IV]

  Identification key
    (1) Dombeya
    (2) Cup and Saucer
    (3) Kalamona
    (4) Haole Lehua
    (5) Coral Bush
    (6) Lasiandra
    (7) Kona Coffee
    (8) Natal Plum


                         [Illustration: Plate X
                   COLORED FOLIAGE SHRUBS—CHAPTER V]

  Identification key
    (1) Snow Bush
    (2) Assorted Croton Leaves
    (3) Purple Eranthemum
    (4) Golden Eranthemum
    (5) Panax
    (6) Spiral Leaved Croton
    (7) Beefsteak Plant
    (8) Caricature Plant


                        [Illustration: Plate XI
                      FLOWERING VINES—CHAPTER VI]

  Identification key
    (1) Yellow Allamanda
    (2) Pink Allamanda
    (3) Baby Morning-glory
    (4) Orange Trumpet Vine
    (5) “Mauna-loa”
    (6) Pink Bignonia
    (7) Wooden Rose


                        [Illustration: Plate XII
                      FLOWERING VINES—CHAPTER VI]

  Identification key
    (1) Cat’s Claw Vine
    (2) Galphimia Vine
    (3) Phanera
    (4) Giant Potato Vine
    (5) Sandpaper Vine
    (6) Orchid Vine
    (7) Garlic Vine
    (8) Mexican Creeper
    (9) Cup of Gold



                               Chapter V
                         COLORED FOLIAGE SHRUBS


If Hawaii does not have an autumn season when all the leaves turn red,
it has, nevertheless, certain plants which suggest autumn all the year
round, with their gorgeously colored foliage. Brilliant tones of red,
orange and gold appear perennially in the leaves of many shrubs, while
others are more delicately colored in tints of pink, cream and
yellow-green. Still others hold very dark shades of maroon, crimson and
purple. On most of these plants the flowers are small and inconspicuous,
as if the colored leaves took their place in interest.


                               SNOW BUSH
                       _Phyllanthus nivosus Bull_
                         _Variety roseo-pictus_

A mass of small, delicate leaves, pale pink and light green in color, on
a loose, graceful shrub, is the Snow bush. It is well named, the effect
of the frosty coloring being as if a light fall of snow had touched the
leaves. While some plants carry only the light and dark green leaves,
others show a rosy coloring in the new growth. This variety is
appropriately known as roseo-pictus. The color is strongest in the young
parts, the leaves tending to turn to a more even green as they become
older. In some, the pink color turns to a dull red. The leaves are
rounded in form, about an inch and a half or two inches in length, and
grow alternately on the stem. The latter is dark red, with a tendency
toward angularity.

Small greenish flowers sometimes hang from long stems in the axils of
the leaves, the male and female flowers being separate.

The plant is a native of the South Seas and a member of the Euphorbia
family. It is one of Hawaii’s most attractive and colorful shrubs being
often used as a hedge plant. (Plate X)


                                 CROTON
                      _Codiaeum variegatum Blume_

Leading in interest among the colored foliage shrubs in Hawaii is a
large group of plants commonly called the Crotons. This name, however,
properly belongs to a quite different plant but is used generally by
nursery men for this Codiaeum.

Although these Crotons have an almost endless variety of leaf form and
color, they all belong to a single species, the difference in appearance
being only a matter of horticultural variation. The plants are natives
of Malaysia and the Pacific islands, and are members of the Euphorbia
family.

To illustrate the wide variations in the Croton leaves, specimens of
seven different plants are shown in the upper right hand corner of Plate
X and one more, with spiral leaves, is shown in the lower left hand
corner. These eight are perhaps the ones most often seen in Honolulu,
but they do not exhaust the local list, and botanical books name many
more varieties.

Croton shrubs vary in size, but most of them grow ten or twelve feet
tall. Their colors are brightest when growing in full sunlight. Croton
leaves remain fresh for some time after they are cut, so that they lend
themselves to unusual decorations. The proper name, Codiaeum, may have
been derived from the Greek word for head, suggesting that the leaves
were used to make crowning wreaths.

The Croton flowers are small and white, growing in slender racemes in
the axils of the leaves. There are separate male and female flowers.


                               ERANTHEMUM
          _Pseuderanthemum atropurpureum_ (_Bull_) _Radlkofer_
                        (_Erantbemum purpureum_)

A shrub which might be casually mistaken for one of the Crotons, because
of the rich coloring of its leaves, is called Eranthemum. The leaf
colors are, however, purplish, rose and pink, hues that do not occur in
the Crotons. These plants vary greatly among themselves, some having
leaves that are mottled in green and white, others with colors that
range through the pinkish purples to dark maroon. There is a tendency
for the young leaves to have the brightest colors and to turn green as
they grow older. The leaves are opposite, strongly veined and rather
unevenly margined. The plant belongs to the Acanthus family, and is a
native of the South Sea islands. (Plate X, 3)

A variety of the purple is the _eldorado_, a horticultural variation, as
bright and sunny in its green and gold coloring as the former is dark
and rich, deserving its name of eldorado, the golden. The pointed leaves
are margined and blotched in bright yellow, usually with yellow veins.
They grow in opposite pairs and have a tendency to appear in bunches
near the ends of the stem. The new leaves are in two tones of yellowish
green, the more striking coloration of clear yellow developing as they
age. (Plate X, 4)

There is another Eranthemum, bearing purple and white flowers,
illustrated in plate VI.


                                 PANAX
                     _Polyscias guilfoylei Bailey_
            (_Nothopanax guilfoylei, Cogniaux and Merrill_)

Visitors to Hawaii are always interested in knowing the name of the
commonest hedge plant, a tall slender shrub with grey perpendicular
stems and leaves that usually are edged in white or pale green. This is
the Panax, a native of the Pacific Islands and a member of the Aralia
family.

This shrub is probably one of the most successful hedge plants in the
world, since it has few branches and these tend to grow almost straight
upward and the foliage is carried right down to the ground. There are
several varieties, differing slightly in the form and coloring of
leaflets. Some are a flat green, others are edged in white or yellow, or
the reverse. All tend to have irregular toothed margins. The leaves are
compound, the leaflets opposite, the stems clasping the branch.

Besides the common hedge plant there are a number of Panax varieties in
Hawaii, usually grown as specimen or greenhouse plants. One is very fine
and dainty, with deeply cut, irregularly shaped leaves. Another is curly
and still another is a giant, with leaves eight inches across.

The Panax very rarely flowers. (Plate X)


                            BEEFSTEAK PLANT
             _Acalypha wilkesiana J. Mueller_ (_of Aargau_)

A plant with bright red foliage, which might easily be taken for one of
the Crotons is really an Acalypha, a relative of the striking Chenille
plant illustrated in Plate VIII. The leaves of this plant are large and
tend to a triangular form. They are basically a bronzy green color, with
spreading blotches of pink, red and brown, but the total effect of the
plant is one of bright red. These shrubs grow ten feet high and are
sometimes used for hedges, being always conspicuous objects on the
street. There are a number of other varieties besides the one with the
bright foliage, one having dull rose patches on bronzy leaves.

Insects are attracted to these leaves so that often they are full of
holes and sometimes they are reduced to lacy outlines.

Flowers are rather inconspicuous but of two kinds, the male and female.
The former appear as small upright spikes of reddish tufts which are the
pistils; staminate flowers are brownish and drooping and suggest little
rat-tails.

The Acalyphas are members of the Euphorbia family and _A. wilkesiana_ is
a native of the Pacific Islands. (Plate X)


                        CARICATURE PLANT. MORADO
                    _Graptophyllum pictum Griffiths_

People with good imaginations can see pictures in the yellow or white
markings on the green leaves of the Caricature plant. No two leaves are
ever quite alike but the “picture” appears always in the center of the
leaf rather than along the margins. The leaves are a pointed oval in
shape, smooth and rather leathery. They grow in opposite pairs. This
plant, too, often is taken casually for one of the Crotons. The shrub
will become six or eight feet high.

The flowers are small, tubular and dark red. The original home of the
Graptophyllum is not known, but it grows widely in the tropics and is
popular in India. It belongs to the Acanthus family. (Plate X)

There is another variety with leaves of deep, purplish red and bronze,
on which the markings are in a lighter shade.


                      OTHER COLORED FOLIAGE PLANTS

In Chapter VIII will be found described a number of other plants with
colored foliage which are not, however, shrubs.



                               Chapter VI
                            FLOWERING VINES


Vines sprawling over rocks and banks, or climbing high over walls and
trees to hang out floral banners, make up one of Hawaii’s most colorful
and interesting floral chapters. While some vines are ever-blooming,
most have seasons when they suddenly put on a display of color or of
rare beauty, that become, often, the most conspicuous sight of the town.
The vines are rather easy to identify on the whole, for there are only a
few which resemble each other enough to be confusing.


                            YELLOW ALLAMANDA
                    _Allamanda hendersonii Bulliard_

Sprawling green vines, often used as a ground cover, with big yellow
flowers every day in the year, are the Allamandas. They are one of the
most widely used plants in Hawaii.

There are two yellow species commonly seen, the only essential
difference being size. The one with large flowers, about five inches in
diameter, is _Allamanda hendersonii_. Its leaves are smooth on both
sides. The species with smaller blossoms, about three inches in
diameter, is _Allamanda cathartica_. It may be identified, if not in
bloom, by the fact that its leaves are somewhat hairy on the under side.

The bright yellow flowers grow in terminal clusters, two or three of the
buds opening at one time. The buds are pointed, those of the large _A.
hendersonii_ being quite brownish in color and looking as if they had
been varnished. This brown color blotches the back of the opened
flowers. Blossoms are campanulate in form, the tube spreading out into
five large, thick, velvety lobes. The throat of the tube in the large
flower is also streaked with brown and there are whitish spots at the
base of the petals. Flowers of these vines do not last when cut, unless
the stem ends have the sticky juice coagulated by holding in very hot
water.

The leaves usually appear in fours, forming a cross or whorl where they
join the stem. They are a pointed oval in form, thick, smooth and rather
light green.

These plants are natives of Guiana and members of the Periwinkle family.
There is a fine planting at Vancouver drive and Hunnewell street. (Plate
XI)


                             PINK ALLAMANDA
                  _Allamanda blachetti A. De Candolle_

The rose-colored member of the Allamanda group in Hawaii is not so often
found as the yellow. The flowers are about the size of the large yellow
and in color a deep rose, or almost maroon, with the throat a deeper
shade.

The leaves of this species, while they display the whorled growth of the
yellow, are smaller and very rough and hairy on both sides.

The vine comes from Brazil. (Plate XI)


                           BABY MORNING GLORY
                    _Jacquemontia pentantha G. Don_
                      (_Convolvulus mauritanicus_)

Flowers like miniature blue morning-glories, about an inch across, grow
on this slender vine. It is charming because of its petite size, and for
the beautiful color of the flowers. They have a lighter throat, and
white stamens. The buds appear in clusters at the end of the flower stem
and one or two flowers open each morning, closing in the afternoon. The
leaves are slightly heart-shaped, ending in a sharp point. The stems are
reddish. The Jacquemontia, which is a native of tropical America, was
named after a French botanist, Victor Jacquemont. Formerly it was called
_Convolvulus mauritanicus_. (Plate XI)


             ORANGE TRUMPET VINE. FIRECRACKER VINE. HUAPALA
                         _Bignonia venusta Ker_

One of the most spectacular events in Hawaii’s colorful floral calendar,
is the blooming of the Firecracker vine. In late winter, walls of green
foliage turn suddenly into a sheet of flaming orange, the masses of
flowers seeming like small tongues of fire blazing over the entire vine.

The blossoms grow in end racemes. Each individual flower is a long,
slender tube spreading into four or five lobes which curl back against
the tube. They often form the outline of a cross, with the fourth lobe
split, curiously, into two parts to make the five-part flower. The style
and four stamens extend beyond the tube. When the flower begins to fade,
the tube slips loose from the calyx; but it is often caught in its fall
by the enlarged tip of the style, so that the flower hangs on the vine,
to add its color to the mass, for a while longer.

Leaves are glossy and bright green, usually growing as three rather
pointed leaflets. Like so many other vines in Hawaii, it is a native of
Brazil. The Hawaiian name, “Huapala” means Sweetheart. (Plate XI)


                         “MAUNA LOA”. PUA KAUHI
                   _Canavalia microcarpa De Candolle_

Anyone who has remained for long in Hawaii has seen and wondered at the
Maunaloa leis, those strangely formal, almost sculptured floral bands
which have scale-like, overlapping petals in the center, and are
bordered on either edge by rounded projections. The flowers from which
these leis are made are a typical pea blossom. Strung together and
turned right and left alternately, the “banner” or large top petal is
then bent back and held down by being pressed onto the surface of a
narrow strip of adhesive tape stretched along the length of the lei. The
“keel” of the pea flower forms the border projections.

Originally these leis were made from the Maunaloa flowers, which are
botanically _Dioclea altissima_. But these are rarely seen nowadays and
most of the Maunaloa leis are made from a closely related flower, the
_Canavalia microcarpa_. The blossoms of this vine range in color from
white, through orchid pink to lavender and even maroon. They grow in
elongated clusters at the tips of the shoots. The stems of the plant are
dark red, the leaves are made up of three leaflets, triangular in form,
with reddish venetions. This plant is an annual, growing from large,
dark roundish seeds. It is a native of Brazil and grows wild in Hawaii.
(Plate XI)

The true Maunaloa is very similar to it in general form.


                             PINK BIGNONIA
                    _Pandorea jasminoides Schumann_

There are several kinds of vines growing in Honolulu which have clusters
of pink or orchid colored trumpet shaped flowers, often with a dark red
throat. These are usually called vaguely Pink Bignonia, for they are
either members of the Bignonia family or closely related. Their
botanical relationships are not easily straightened out for the layman,
since all are rather similar in appearance. On Plate XI is shown
_Pandorea jasminoides_, a vine from Australia. Others are _Bignonia
jasminoides_ and _Bignonia regina_ from tropical America. All are
attractive with their pinkish bell-shaped flowers and fine green
foliage. _Pandorea jasminoides_ may be seen growing on a wall on the
lower part of Diamond Head Road.


                              WOODEN ROSE
                      _Ipomoea tuberosa Linnaeus_

One of the strangest and most attractive of Hawaii’s plant novelties is
the “Wooden Rose,” which looks indeed like some wonderful bit of
carving, rubbed to an exquisite satiny brown finish. The “rose” however,
is really the dried seed pod of a species of morning-glory, as anyone
familiar with the ordinary morning-glory seed will at once recognize.
The central ball holds the seeds while the enlarged, dried calyx which
surrounds it, appears to be petals.

In Hawaii, the vine is a perennial, grown from seeds. Its strong shoots
spread rampantly during the summer month, climbing high into trees or
covering buildings and fences. The leaf is divided into seven pointed
lobes. The flowers first appear in autumn. They are yellow, small,
rather inconspicuous and tubular, like the small yellow morning-glory
which they really are. After they fall, the calyx begins to develop
until it has enlarged into what looks like an immense pointed,
cream-colored bud. As this begins to dry, it opens, showing the enlarged
seed case. In a few days, the “wood rose” is stiff and brown. About
three months are required from the time the blossom appears until the
seed pod is ready to cut. These pods may be used as a long-lived
decoration; and, since the flowers grow at intervals along the shoot in
the leaf axils, graceful lengths of stem with many roses can be used for
flower arrangements.

The vine grows generally throughout the tropics but is sometimes called
Ceylon Morning-glory. (Plate XI)


                     CAT’S CLAW VINE. HUG-ME-TIGHT
                    _Bignonia unguis-cati Linnaeus_

The three-pointed, claw-like tendrils by which this vine clings closely
to trees, or walls, have given it the two names by which it is commonly
known. But it will be readily recognized and remembered from the cloth
of gold it flings several times a year over everything it covers.
Individual flowers are trumpet shaped, with five spreading lobes, about
two inches across. The color is a clear, canary yellow. (Plate XII)

The leaves are compound, the paired leaflets being pointed and narrow.
The plant is a native of tropical America where it is related to some of
the giant lianas that creep through the Brazilian jungle. Its most
conspicuous relative in Honolulu is the Firecracker vine, _Bignonia
venusta_, illustrated on Plate XI.


                             GALPHIMIA VINE
                  _Tristellateia australis A. Richard_

This yellow flowering vine is rather rare as yet in Honolulu, but is
bound to grow in popularity as its attractive flowers and leaves become
known. The color of the leaves is a light yellow-green. They are
opposite, smooth, thick and waxen, with a tendency to fold along the
mid-rib.

The flowers appear on pendant end-shoots, in long clusters. They have
five, pale, yellow petals and in the center a group of short, red
stamens. Probably this vine can be most readily identified by this touch
of red in the middle of the yellow blossom. It belongs to the Malpighia
family and hence is a cousin of the popular Galphimia shrub. It is a
native of Australasia. (Plate XII)


                           GIANT POTATO VINE
                      _Solanum wendlandii Hooker_

Delicate, pale, periwinkle-blue flowers appear in large, loose, clusters
in early summer and again in autumn on the Giant Potato vine. The petals
of the flowers are not separate, but are connected, curving outward
slightly, making the flower almost pentagonal in outline. The mid-rib of
each petal is of slightly different texture and lighter color than the
rest of the corolla. In the center of the flower is a group of thick
stamens forming a low column.

The leaves of this vine are not all of one shape, but vary in form from
a simple outline to one that is deeply lobed, with the end lobe
sometimes larger than the others. The leaves are smooth in texture but
have occasional prickles. (Plate XII)

Another “Potato vine” in Hawaii is _Solanum seaforthianum_. It has small
flowers of a rich purple-blue, about an inch across, which appear in
loose clusters in summer. They are of the same pentagonal form as the
larger ones and have a bright yellow center created by the stamen.

The foliage of _S. seaforthianum_ is small; but, like the large potato
vine, varies in form.

The giant vine is a native of Costa Rica while the smaller one came from
Brazil. Both belong to the Solanum, or nightshade family.

A close relative is the Giant Potato Tree which has flowers of very
similar form and color. See Plate II.


                                PHANERA
                     _Bauhinia corymbosa Roxburgh_

The Phanera carries large, loose, corymbose clusters of small pale,
pinkish flowers, during the summer months. The flowers are about an inch
across and have five delicately fluted white petals. These may be
flushed with pink. Several long bright red stamens project from the
center and give the flower cluster a pinkish effect.

The leaves seem to be paired, but are really deeply lobed, their outer
edges rounded, the notch cut in deeply. The nerves are almost parallel.
This peculiar leaf shows the relationship of this vine to other members
of the same family, especially the Orchid tree and the St. Thomas tree.
The genus was named for the twin Bauhin brothers who were herbalists in
the 16th century.

The flowers are followed by long, flat, purplish-brown pods, showing
this plant belongs to the legume family. Its native home is China.
(Plate XII)


                     SANDPAPER VINE. PURPLE WREATH
                      _Petrea volubilis Linnaeus_

One of the most exciting experiences in Hawaii is to come upon a plant
of the Petrea in full bloom. The cascading racemes of lavender-blue
flowers cover the plant completely, turning it into a tumbling fall of
lacy blue. The calyx seems like a flower in itself, being starlike, five
pointed and periwinkle blue. The true flower is a rich violet in color
and looks something like a real violet growing in the center of the
calyx. This true blossom falls off the plant in a day or so, leaving the
calyxes to suggest a cluster of Wistaria blossoms. Each raceme is seven
or eight inches long and carries fifteen to thirty flowers. The plant
blooms several times during the year, at least once in spring and again
in summer.

The leaves are yellowish or grey-green and very rough in feeling. They
give the plant its name of Sandpaper vine. It is a native of Brazil and
a member of the Verbena family. A specimen may be seen on Metcalf
street, near Hunnewell. (Plate XII)


                              ORCHID VINE
                  _Stigmaphyllon littorale A. Jussieu_

Clusters of delicate, yellow flowers, suggesting small yellow orchids
have given the name of Orchid to the two Stigmaphyllons which grow in
Hawaii. They are, however, in no way related to Orchids but belong to
the Malpighia family. In recent years they have become very popular in
Honolulu but cannot yet be found widespread in gardens.

Individual blossoms have five unequal petals of a crepy, satiny, texture
and a clear bright yellow color. The flower illustrated in Plate XII is
_Stigmaphyllon littorale_. Its flowers are smaller and more numerous
than the cousin, which is _Stigmaphyllon ciliatum_, but the form of the
two flowers is very much alike. The foliage of the two plants, however,
is different for while both have strong, leathery, shining leaves, those
of _S. littorale_ are oval, while those of _S. ciliatum_ are small,
pointed, quaintly heart-shaped and as the botanist says, they are
“ciliate,” that is, fringed by coarse hairs. From this is derived its
specific name of ciliatum.

These two vines are natives of tropical America.


                              GARLIC VINE
                     _Cydista aequinoctialis Miers_

A vine with charming clusters of orchid-colored, bell-shaped flowers,
radiates a most disagreeable odor of bad garlic, which gives it the
inevitable name of Garlic Vine, or, since it is a species of the
widespread Bignonia family, the name of garlic-scented Bignonia. The
flowers appear most prolifically in autumn and spring, but a few may be
found almost any time. The white-throated tube of the blossom is
slightly flattened and then broadens into five lobes of a
purplish-orchid color. At the bottom of the tube are yellow stamens.

The leaves are a rich, glossy green, growing in opposite pairs, so that
four appear to grow from one point on the stem. A straight tendril
extends from between the pairs near the end of the branch. (Plate XII)


                     MEXICAN CREEPER. CHAIN OF LOVE
                 _Antigonon leptopus Hooker and Arnott_

Lace-like masses of small, bright-pink flowers clambering by curling
tendrils over weeds, rocks or trees, announce the Mexican creeper.
Sometimes the white variety is seen and there are also pale pink
hybrids. In its native Latin America, this plant is called _Cadena del
Amor_, or Chain of Love, since the flowers suggest a string of small
pink hearts. The Mexicans have also given it other sentimental names
such as _Rosa de Montana_, _Corallita_ and _San Miguelito_.

The flower chains branch in a rather angular way giving an effect that
is peculiarly picturesque. They lend themselves to flower arrangements
of special charm. For this purpose the white variety is often more
useful than the bright pink, since it blends better with the average
interior color scheme. The only drawback is that the flowers fall rather
quickly, but they are worth arranging even for a short time.

The leaves are heart-shaped with wavy margins. There are no petals, the
colored portion of the flower being the calyx, with five petal-like
sepals. The seeds form and remain inside the dried calyx. The plant
belongs to the buckwheat family. (Plate XII)

                       [Illustration: Plate XIII
                      FLOWERING VINES—CHAPTER VI]

  Identification key
    (1) Bleeding Heart
    (2) Kuhio Vine
    (3) Porana
    (4) Crimson Lake Bougainvillea
    (5) White Thunbergia
    (6) Wax Vine
    (7) Beaumontia
    (8) Blue Butterfly Pea


                        [Illustration: Plate XIV
                      GINGER BLOSSOMS—CHAPTER VII]

  Identification key
    (1) Shell Ginger
    (2) Yellow Ginger
    (3) Crepe Ginger
    (4) Red Ginger
    (5) Kahili Ginger
    (6) White Ginger
    (7) Torch Ginger


                        [Illustration: Plate XV
                 SPECIAL TROPICAL FLOWERS—CHAPTER VIII]

  Identification key
    (1) Spider Lily
    (2) White Bird of Paradise
    (3) Bird of Paradise
    (4) Golden Heliconia
    (5) Lobster Claw
    (6) White Anthurium
    (7) Red Anthurium
    (8) Flowering Banana
    (9) Spathiphyllum


                        [Illustration: Plate XVI
                 SPECIAL TROPICAL FLOWERS—CHAPTER VIII]

  Identification key
    (1) Dieffenbachia
    (2) Green Ti
    (3) Pothos
    (4) Red Ti
    (5) Caladium
    (6) Monstera
    (7) Rhoeo
    (8) A’pe


                              CUP OF GOLD
                         _Solandra guttata Don_

One of the most magnificent flowers in Hawaii is the great Cup of Gold
blossom. It could be more appropriately called a golden chalice than a
mere cup, for the blossom is nine inches long above its stem-like tube,
and wide and curving in outline. It is the rich golden color of a ripe
banana, and brownish streaks on the petals increase this suggestion. Its
fragrance, however, is the deep, heady scent of ripe apricots. The huge
buds, waxen in texture, when they once start to unfold, move so rapidly
that the backward curving movement may be easily observed. The plant
blooms in the winter and spring months. Its leaves are large and rather
pointed. (Plate XII)

There is a very similar flower which is cream-white in color, hence
called the Silver Cup. This is Solandra grandiflora. These two are
members of the Potato family. They are natives of Mexico and tropical
America, where they are called in Spanish, _Copa de Oro_.


                       BLEEDING HEART. BAG FLOWER
                    _Clerodendron thomsonae Balfour_

The quaint little red and white flowers of this vine appear in clusters
during the winter and spring months. The vine is usually rather small
and is often grown in pots. The crimson portion is the true flower,
while the “heart” or “bag” is the white calyx. The red flower is
composed of a slender tube extending beyond the calyx and spreading into
five lobes. A group of fine stamens protrudes beyond the flower. The
leaves are opposite, oblong-ovate, and slightly rough to the touch.

This Clerodendron, which is a member of the Verbena family, is a native
of West Africa. (Plate XIII)


                       KUHIO VINE. PRINCE’S VINE
                      _Ipomoea horsfalliae Hooker_

A close covering mass of magenta-crimson flowers in autumn, winter or
spring, is almost sure to be the Kuhio Vine. (The Crimson Lake
Bougainvillea, though of about the same color, hangs in long swaying
sprays.) The Kuhio vine, one of the morning-glories, is a native of
India and is found growing widely in the tropics. It was brought to
Hawaii by Prince Kuhio when he was the Territory’s delegate in
Washington. For years, a large vine grew over his house at Waikiki, on
that portion of the beach now known as Kuhio Park. It is natural that
the plant should have been called the Prince’s vine, or Kuhio vine.

Individual flowers are shaped like a long bell with a waxy tube and a
wide mouth, made up of five lobes. The leaves are a dark, rich green and
divided, usually, into five parts. (Plate XIII)


                              PORANA VINE
                      _Porana paniculata Roxburgh_

A mass of tiny white flowers, so small and so numerous they suggest a
drift of smoke, or a light fall of snow, is the Porana vine in bloom.
The flowering period is late summer and autumn. The rest of the year the
plant carries its thick, grey, felt-like leaves along walls and
trellises. The leaves are opposite, either heart-shaped or oval, and
rather large.

Individual flowers are shaped like minute white morning-glories, the
Porana being a member of this family. The tiny white blossoms appear in
huge lacy panicles at the end of the branches. They can be used as cut
flowers for a short period before the blossoms begin to fall, and they
are popular for use in bridal bouquets in Hawaii.

The Porana is a native of India and Malaya, where it grows to a great
height in the jungles. Its name is said to be derived from the native
Javanese name. (Plate XIII)


                       CRIMSON LAKE BOUGAINVILLEA
             _Bougainvillea glabra, var. Sanderiana Choisy_

Long, waving sprays of bright crimson flowers are a conspicuous feature
of Honolulu gardens in winter, spring, and early summer. These sprays
grow on the Crimson Lake Bougainvillea, a close cousin of the purple
flowering species which is so familiar in California and other temperate
areas. The purple forms grow in Hawaii, also. One of them,
_Bougainvillea spectabilis_, is a mass of purple in the spring; its
smaller, ever-blooming form is the variety _parviflora_. This same group
includes, also, the orange and tawny-hued form, which is _B.
spectabilis_, variety _lateritia_.

Flower shades of all these plants vary considerably, the purple hues
ranging through lavender and pink, while the entire color range in
golden tones appears in the lateritia, varying from a golden buff
through rich terra cotta red, to orange and almost scarlet. All are
practically alike in form. The brilliant color is not due to the true
flower but to modified leaves or bracts, three of which enclose the true
flowers. The latter are small, tubular and pale yellow. The leaves of
the plant are small, rather triangular in shape, with wavy margins.

The stems of Crimson Lake have large thorns. The plant climbs strongly
during the summer months, then in winter, its clusters of flowers appear
at the end of its branches. (Plate XIII)

The orange or terracotta-colored variety makes a gorgeous mass of
flaming color in the winter season while the purples add their exotic
hue to the kaleidoscope. The grounds of St. Louis College make a feature
of purple and red Bougainvillea, while Punahou School has a fine plant
of the orange.

Bougainvilleas are natives of Brazil. They were named for de
Bougainville, a French navigator who lived from 1729 to 1811. The plant
belongs to the four o’clock family.


                            WHITE THUNBERGIA
              _Thunbergia grandiflora Roxburgh Var. alba._

One of the most conspicuous flowers in Hawaii carries starry white
flowers about four inches across against its green wall of leaves, or
dramatically drops these flowers in waving streamers sometimes two or
three feet long.

Rows of buds develop at the branch ends and the flowers begin to open at
the top. As they open, the branch grows also until it nearly doubles its
first length.

The individual flowers are funnel-shaped with a pale yellow throat, the
tube broadening to five lobes. Leaves are roughly oval, or shaped like
an angular heart, and are quite rough to the touch. Because of the
dramatic appearance of the long white streamers, the plant has become
very popular in Honolulu in recent years. It is a native of India, a
member of the Acanthus family. (Plate XIII)

The blue flowering species, _Thunbergia laurifolia_ was established much
earlier than the white variety. The latter however has outstripped the
former in popularity. The blue Thunbergia does not trail its flowers so
conspicuously as does the white and has leaves which suggest the laurel,
giving the specific name, _laurifolia_ to the plant. It is sometimes
called Blue Sky Flower.


                                WAX VINE
                        _Hoya carnosa R. Brown_

Noticeable for its thick, shining, oval leaves is the Wax Vine. Hidden
among the leaves are the clusters of fragrant, waxy, white flowers. They
grow in umbels, the flower stems radiating from a single point on the
main stem. The small blossoms are shaped like creamy-white stars, and
each flower contains a smaller star in its center. This is white against
a pink flush at the base of the petals. In another variety, the flower
is brownish. They give off a strong fragrance, especially in the
evening. (Plate XIII)


                 BEAUMONTIA VINE. NEPAL TRUMPET FLOWER
                    _Beaumontia grandiflora Wallich_

Immense clusters of large, striking, white flowers seen on a strong
rampant vine, mean that the Beaumontia is in bloom. The season is winter
and spring. The flowers are about six inches across, papery in texture
and a dead white in color, except for a pink flush on the back, and pale
green in the center. They are cup shaped, with five wavy lobes. In the
center of the flower rise the five stamens, white and pale green in
color and joined at the tip into a point. The flower has a delicate
fragrance, matching its fragile appearance. If cut early in the morning
and plunged deeply into water for awhile, it will be successful as a cut
flower. The blossoms are often used in wedding bouquets in Hawaii.

The vine grows to a large size with long, large leaves prominently
veined and a shining bright green in color. The plant is a native of
tropical Asia. It is a member of the Periwinkle family. (Plate XIII)


                           BLUE BUTTERFLY PEA
                      _Clitoria ternatea Linnaeus_

Blossoms of a true cerulean blue are exceedingly rare in the flower
world, but those of the Butterfly Pea are of this hue. Though small and
scattered on the vine, these little flowers are delightful for their
gorgeous color and unusual shape. As members of the pea family, they are
shaped like a modified pea blossom, the “banner” or large back petal
being oval, the wings very small. The banner usually has a white mark on
the base. Sometimes the flowers occur double and there is also a white
variety.

The foliage is compound, the leaflets being rounded. The plant, which is
an annual in colder climates, grows rather thickly. The dried pea-like
pods which follow the flowers hang on the vine a long time. The seeds
grow easily.

The plant gets its name from the island of Ternate in the East Indies,
but is considered a cosmopolitan in the tropics. (Plate XIII)



                              Chapter VII
                            GINGER BLOSSOMS


Leading among Hawaii’s special flowers are those of the Ginger family.
They are usually exotic in form, colorful, and often intoxicatingly
fragrant. The name, Ginger, covers several groups or genera, which vary
considerably in appearance although the botanist can distinguish the
similarities which relate them. Gingers are not far removed from the
Cannas and Bananas; hence, they are reedlike plants, with fibrous stalks
and blade-shaped leaves. Some are short, hardly more than a ground
cover, others grow twelve or fifteen feet in height.

A native ginger, called Awapuhi by the Hawaiians, and _Zingiber
zerumbet_, by the botanist, grows in the Hawaiian forests. Its leaves
form a ground cover a foot or two high. In spring the flower heads
spring up, bulbous and reddish, composed of scaly bracts out of which
appear the small, inconspicuous, yellowish flowers.

The plant from whose root is made the dried ginger of gingerbread also
grows in Hawaii. It is called Chinese Ginger or _Zingiber officinalis_.
From its light-skinned rhizome is made the Chinese candied and preserved
ginger, and bits of the fresh root, or the young shoot, often add
piquancy to Chinese cooking.


                  SHELL GINGER. PINK PORCELAIN GINGER
                       _Alpinia nutans Roxburgh_

Like a strand of closely strung shells, the buds of the Shell Ginger
droop gracefully from the ends of the stalks. Each bud is thin and
porcelain-like, white, pointed and tipped with bright pink. These
shell-like buds open, a few at a time, and the flower pushes out. It has
thin, white petals while a larger, ruffled portion is yellow, marked
with red vein-like lines. One of the stamens also has a petal-like
development. The fruit is a yellow ball.

The plant is made up of luxuriant stalks of long-bladed leaves which
grow five to twelve feet high. It is a native of the East Indies. (Plate
XIV)

Another ginger of this genus, _Alpinia mutica_, is conspicuous in Hawaii
not so much for its flowers, which are also yellow and white, as for its
bright, orange-colored fruit—like round balls. These remain on the plant
a long time and make good cut decorations.


                             YELLOW GINGER
                      _Hedychium flavum Roxburgh_

The Yellow Ginger has flowers like slender moths of pale, creamy,
yellow. They rise at the end of narrow tubes above a green head composed
of scaly bracts. One blossom emerges from behind each scale and the buds
of those above it peep out like yellow quills. The flower has three
petals, two paired and wing-like, the third large and looking like a
second pair of wings, folded together. There are three slender sepals
and a long filament of deeper color, holding the pistil and stamen.
Yellow Ginger blossoms have a delicate fragrance, delightful when
perfectly fresh, a little rank when the least bit wilted. Leis made
before the buds open, have the smooth quality of old ivory carvings.

The plant has characteristic canes of long leaves which grow five to
eight feet. It prefers cool locations, growing wild along the Nuuanu
Pali road. Yellow Ginger is a native of India. (Plate XIV)


                          CREPE GINGER. COSTUS
                        _Costus speciosus Smith_
                         (_Costus spicatus_[2])

Ruffled and fringed white flowers of odd form emerge, two or three at a
time, from behind the scales of the large, brownish-red bracts of the
costus. These form a dark head, often so large as to suggest a
pineapple. The white flowers have a curious structure. The three, true
petals are white and rather inconspicuous behind a large, crepy, white
portion which seems to be the petal but is really a greatly modified
stamen, called a staminoidium. This rolls into a bell form, with fringed
and fluted edges and a pale yellow throat. A second modified stamen
carries the anthers and has a yellow tip, making it appear like the
usual center of a flower. The stems of this plant have a tendency to
curve spirally. The leaves are not so long and blade-like as in other
gingers and are arranged spirally on the stem. The plant is a native of
the East Indies. (Plate XIV)


                    RED GINGER. OSTRICH PLUME GINGER
              _Alpinia purpurata_ (_Vieillard_) _Schumann_

Long rosy red heads among the green leaves are sufficiently suggestive
of ostrich plumes to justify this name for the Red Flowering Ginger. The
head is made up of large, thin, petal-like bracts and is the conspicuous
portion. The true flowers are small and whitish and appear occasionally
from behind the bracts. A curious characteristic of this plant is that
adventitious plantlets form in the head. These grow easily when planted.

Red Ginger is a native of Malaya. (Plate XIV)


                             KAHILI GINGER
                    _Hedychium gardnerianum Roscoe_

The local name for this ginger is derived from the _kahili_, an item
that was part of the regalia of early Hawaiian chieftains. A _kahili_
was made from a pole or wand, near the top of which, and at right angles
to it, were affixed long wing or tail feathers from certain large birds,
forming a cylindrical head. This was carried, like a banner, wherever
the chief went, to announce his rank and presence.

The blossoming head of the Ginger called after the _kahili_ shows an
obvious resemblance. The small yellow flowers on long, stem-like tubes
form a cylinder around the top of the stalk, while the resemblance to
feathers is enhanced by long, red, filaments which are very striking
against the yellow of the petals. Individual flowers have the general
form of the Yellow Ginger, but are much smaller and their color is not
creamy, but bright yellow. The flower stalks may be six feet long and
rise above the rest of the plant. This species is native to the lower
Himalayan region. (Plate XIV)


                       WHITE GINGER. GINGER LILY
                     _Hedychium coronarium Koenig_

Most romantic of all the Gingers, because of its white, etherial
delicacy and enchanting fragrance, the White Ginger blossom is larger
and fuller than the yellow, but has the same moth-like form. The petals,
however, hold a shimmering, almost crystalline moon-whiteness which
seems unearthly. The slender filament rises in the center like an insect
antenna. The flowers are lifted in snowy clusters above the lush green
of their long leaves, each flower head centered by a smooth, waxen,
green bulb made up of the scale-like bracts. Behind each bract a flower
bud pushes out. Just before they open these buds are strung into leis
which are one of the favorites in the Islands.

The plant will grow to eight feet if the soil is moist. It is a native
of tropical Asia. (Plate XIV)


                              TORCH GINGER
              _Phaeomeria magnifica_ (_Roscoe_) _Schumann_
                        (_Phaeomeria speciosa_)

If the White Ginger is the most romantic of this group of plants, the
Torch Ginger is the most magnificent and spectacular. The plant is a
clump of tall bamboo-like stalks, fifteen feet high, carrying large leaf
blades. There are two varieties red and pink, the one with red flowers
having bronzy leaves, while the pink has bright green leaves. Under this
clump, in spring, seeming almost like an independent plant, pushes up
the large flower stalk. It grows from three to six feet tall and carries
no leaves, but at the end develops the head which is one of the most
showy things in the flower world.

It is a waxen cone made up of innumerable bracts, pink or red, around
which is a frill-like involucre of the same colors. The head is most
attractive before the small, inconspicuous flowers begin to appear from
behind the bracts, making them rather ragged. The general form of the
flower head suggests a formalized torch. The flowers lend themselves to
arrangements that can be almost monumental.

Torch ginger is a native of the Netherlands East Indies. (Plate XIV)



                              Chapter VIII
                        SPECIAL TROPICAL FLOWERS


Many plants grow out of doors in Hawaii which are only seen in
greenhouses in cooler climates. These include Orchids, which often make
purple cascades from baskets hanging on trees, and other kinds which
grow in the ground. In Hawaii, however, as in other places, the finer
collections of Orchids are grown in greenhouses. This is not for warmth,
since the walls of these houses are partly of wire screening, but to
protect the plants from rain, wind and insects. The best plants of the
island Orchid collections are usually displayed twice a year, at spring
and autumn shows in the Honolulu Academy of Arts, where anyone
interested may view them.

Plants which appear particularly tropical and exotic are those with
large, lush, leaves and strange colorful flowers. Such plants do not
require growing conditions any more tropical than do other things listed
in previous chapters, but they look as if they did and are here grouped
together. The ones selected for description do not exhaust the list by
any means, but they are, perhaps, the ones most frequently seen.

A good collection of tropical exotics grows in the greenhouse at the
Foster Gardens, a city park open to the public.


                             SPIDER LILIES
                            _Crinum species_

In Hawaii the name of Spider Lily is given to a number of liliaceous
plants which have similar flowers, that is, with six, thin, spidery
petals and six stamens. By a stretch of the imagination these flowers
might be thought of as giant white spiders. The botany of these lilies
is much confused and the local ones have never been satisfactorily
straightened out. But there are at least three groups covered by the
popular name, the chief one being Crinum. Others are Hymenocallis and
Pancratium. All are members of the Amaryllis family.

These plants have bulbous roots which send up a clump of long,
blade-like leaves. They vary from one or two feet in length to giants
four to six feet long. The flowers are usually white, although sometimes
tinged with dark red, and sometimes they have red stamens and stems.
Many of these flowers are very fragrant. The Spider lilies are one of
the staples of a Hawaiian garden. (Plate XV)


                           THE BANANA FAMILY

Plants related to the Banana or Musa family, supply some of the most
exotically shaped and colored flowers in Hawaii. The fruiting Banana
does not have conspicuous flowers, but it grows as a graceful tree. The
flowering stalk holds large dark red bracts under which are the small
yellow tubular flowers. These point upward, as do the fruits into which
they develop. The man in the fruit store hangs the bunch upside down.

A relative of the Banana which often attracts attention is the
Traveller’s Palm, _Ravenala madagascariensis_, which is not, of course,
a palm any more than a Banana is a palm. The Traveller’s Palm has the
large leaves of the Banana, but they are arranged in one plane, like the
sticks of a giant fan. Some other members of the Banana family are
included in Plate XV.


                         WHITE BIRD OF PARADISE
                     _Strelitzia nicolai Thunberg_

One of the most curious flowers in Hawaii is the White Bird of Paradise,
so called, no doubt, because of its resemblance to its relative, the
blue and orange colored Bird of Paradise. The resemblance, however, is
not close enough for the white really to look like a bird, as does the
orange. The white flowers grow out of a large boat-shaped sheath or
keel, deep purplish grey in color, of which there are often two or three
in a cluster. The flowers break out of the top of this sheath, one at a
time, like white sails. There are three petals with a pale blue
staminodium. The keel frequently is smeared with a gummy substance which
must be removed before the flower becomes attractive for decoration.

The plant on which they grow is a small tree, with Banana-like leaves,
arranged in several small fans on the order of the Traveller’s Palm. It
is a member of the Banana family and a native of South Africa. (Plate
XV)


                            BIRD OF PARADISE
                       _Strelitzia reginae Banks_

The long stalk of this flower looks like the neck of a bird holding a
head with long beak and a gorgeous crest. The “head” is a pointed
sheath, greyish in color, and the crest of the bird is made up of the
flowers lifting out of this sheath. There are about six of them in the
sheath and since one pushes out every day or so, the cluster becomes
larger and more colorful as it becomes older. Each flower has three
pointed petals, brilliantly orange in color, and a blue staminodium
shaped like an arrow head. The effect is unusual and exotic in the
extreme. The flower is scentless.

The flower stalks grow slightly above the clump of stiff leaves which
compose the plant. The leaves, which may be three or four feet long, are
paddle shaped and heavy, their edges curving together. This plant, too,
is a relative of the Banana and a native of South Africa.

In arranging Bird of Paradise flowers, an effective way is to place them
with all the “heads” turned in one direction, which gives the suggestion
of a flock of birds in flight. (Plate XV)


                            GOLDEN HELICONIA
                     _Heliconia latispatha Bentham_

Other relatives of the Banana are the Heliconias of which there are a
number growing in Hawaii. The plant is made up of a clump of tall,
paddle-shaped leaves, often ten feet high. The flowers of most species
grow below the leaves, but the Golden Heliconia flower pushes above
them.

The inflorescence consists of a series of narrow, pointed keels, a deep
golden yellow in color. The real flowers are inside these sheaths,
inconspicuous and hardly noticeable.

This plant is a native of tropical America. (Plate XV)


                              LOBSTER CLAW
                      _Heliconia humilis Jacquin_

Generally similar to the Golden Heliconia, the keels of the Lobster Claw
are much thicker and closer together, and arranged on opposite sides of
the stem, in one plane. They are the brilliant red of a boiled lobster
and the general form of the keel suggests the claws of the creature. The
inconspicuous flowers are inside. As the keels hold rain water, the
flowers often start to decay while the sheaths are still bright and
fresh, giving a sour, disagreeable smell to the stalk, until it has been
thoroughly washed. This done, they last a long time as decorations. The
plant is a clump of tall leaves. It is a native of tropical America.
(Plate XV)

There are a number of other Heliconias, one of the most commonly seen
having sheaths that are pinkish, edged with yellow and green. This is
_Heliconia elongata_.


                       ANTHURIUM. FLAMINGO FLOWER
                     _Anthurium andraeanum Linden_

Among the most popular of Hawaii’s exotic flowers are the Anthuriums,
for the very good reason that they will last as long as three weeks if
they are cut in their prime. They are, besides, large and exquisitely
waxen, ranging in color from pure white, through all shades of pink to
deep, rich red. They belong to the Arum family, of which the Calla lily
is also a member, and the Anthurium blossom is similar in general form
to the Calla. That is, it possesses a large, heart-shaped bract, called
the spathe, which is thick and waxen, almost artificial in appearance.
From this spathe rises a column, called the spadix, which may be white,
pinkish or yellow in color. Packed tightly together on this column are
the true flowers, usually so small they are hardly noticeable. When
fertilized they may develop small berries with seeds, which grow
readily.

The leaves are heart shaped and rather long stemmed and spring from a
central stalk. Usually they are grown in pots but sometimes are seen in
the ground. (Plate XV)

This Anthurium is a native of Colombo.

There are a number of other Anthuriums, but none with such fine blossoms
grows in Hawaii. The others here are foliage plants with beautiful,
large, velvety leaves, decoratively veined.


                    PINK OR PURPLE FLOWERING BANANA
                         _Musa rosacea Jacquin_

Hawaii has one species of Banana which is grown for its flowers alone,
since the small fruits it bears are not edible. This is the Purple
Flowering Banana which consists of a pointed head of rosy orchid-colored
bracts. These bracts fall open two or three at a time to reveal the
small, upstanding, tubular, yellow flowers which grow in “hands” part
way around the stalk. As in the fruiting Banana, the flowers nearer the
base are female, while those at the tip are male. The flower is one of
the most showy and curious of all Hawaii’s blossoms.

It grows on a small plant, of typical Banana form, about eight feet
high, with large, lush leaves. This species is a native of India. (Plate
XV)

In handling this flower care should be taken not to let the cut stalk
touch clothing, as the juice leaves a permanent stain.


                             SPATHIPHYLLUM
                        _Spathiphyllum species_

A blossom like a small, white Anthurium, but more fragile and with a
large, rough spadix, is the Spathiphyllum. The leaves of this plant grow
about two feet high and are long, pointed, blade-like and a very rich,
dark green. The plant is much used as a low-growing cover in shady
tropical gardens, and in pots. Unfortunately the exquisite white flowers
do not last long when cut, a day being about all that can be expected.

The species commonly grown around Honolulu is called _Spathiphyllum
clevelandii_, but this is a horticultural name and does not appear in
botanical literature. The local species has not yet been satisfactorily
determined. The plant is a member of the Arum family and a native of
tropical America. (Plate XV)


                             DIEFFENBACHIA
                     _Dieffenbachia seguine Schott_

Frequently seen in collections of tropical plants, on porches or in
greenhouses, and sometimes growing in the ground, are the large, green
and white leaves of the Dieffenbachias. The species was named for J. F.
Dieffenbach, a German botanist of the last century. There are a number
of varieties, which differ as to the shape of the leaf blade and the
pattern of white on them. One of these is shown on the plate, the one
most frequently grown in Honolulu. The flowers are small and seldom
seen. They are made up of the spathe and spadix characteristic of the
Arum family.

The plant grows as a thick stalk which often lies on the ground for a
distance before lifting its head of leaves. The leaf stems clasp this
stalk and rings are left when they fall off. The Dieffenbachias are
natives of central and South America. (Plate XVI)


                                GREEN TI
                      _Cordyline terminalis Kunth_

A plant which grows wild and very abundantly in the lower, wet forests
of Hawaii is called Ti by the Hawaiians, (pronounced tea). It is
primarily a leaf plant, the leaf blades being two or three feet long and
very glossy, thick, and strong in texture. They do not wilt easily and
so are useful for many things. Shredded to the midrib and strung
together, they form the green skirt of the modern hula dancer. At native
feasts they are used to cover the table instead of a cloth and sections
of the leaves serve as plates. In some meat markets, sections of Ti leaf
are used instead of waxed paper to wrap up meat, while leis wrapped in a
bundle of leaves remain fresh for a long time. For culinary purposes,
pieces of fish and pork, along with young leaves of the taro which taste
like spinach, are wrapped in Ti leaves and steamed. The resulting dish
is called a lau-lau. The Ti leaf imparts a characteristic flavor to the
food it enwraps.

The Ti plant grows as a tall stalk, often woody at the base, which may
be twelve feet high. The leaves appear in a tuft at the top of the
stalk. From among these leaves in winter and spring comes the flower
cluster. The blossoms are very small and tubular, really minute lilies,
a creamy white in color, with sepals that are mauve or pinkish, so that
the effect is a mass of purplish or pinkish grey and cream. The flower
cluster is much branched and very graceful, being attractive even when
dried. The flowers on the plant sometimes develop seed. The plant is
much used in gardens for hedges and for background plantings. (Plate
XVI)

A section of the old woody stem, several inches in diameter and several
inches long, if placed in a shallow bowl of water will develop new
shoots and become an attractive house plant.

The Ti grows on the South Sea islands, in India and Southern China. It
is a member of the lily family. It enters many Polynesian myths and
stories, for it was widely used by the ancient islanders as well as by
their modern descendents. The thick root stock was used by early white
men in Hawaii to make _okolehao_, the starchy root being boiled,
fermented and distilled.


                                 RED TI
                         _Cordyline terminalis_

The Ti plant varies greatly, many forms having colored foliage, and
variously shaped leaves. The colors are mostly tones of red and whitish
green, the hues ranging from dark maroon to bright pink while there are
some with bronze and golden tones. Usually the coloring appears as
irregular strips along the line of the veins. Such red foliage plants
usually have cerise flowers and red berries. (Plate XVI)


                    POTHOS. TARO VINE. PHILODENDRON
                       _Scindapsus aureus Linden_
                        (_Pothos aureus Linden_)

The huge green and gold leaved creepers which envelop so many coconut
and other trees are called Taro Vine or Pothos by the local people while
they are often called Philodendron by newcomers. The real Philodendron
and Pothos are closely related and once were botanically mixed. Probably
the name Taro Vine was applied because the large leaves suggest those of
the Taro, which is also a relative. Pothos clings to its support with
strong, woody roots which, however, do not draw nourishment from the
host plant, since it is not a parasite. In the sun, under normal
conditions the leaves are marked with gold, but when the vine grows in
the dark they remain green and small, seeming almost a different plant.
In this form it is often grown in water indoors.

It is a member of the Arum family and a native of the Solomon islands.
(Plate XVI)


                   CALADIUM. VARIEGATED-LEAVED A’PES
                      _Caladium bicolor Ventonat_

Shady tropical gardens often make use of the colored Caladiums to give
color and they are also frequently seen growing in pots. The
heart-shaped leaves of these plants are marked with red and light green
in almost endless variations and designs, so that they become a
specialist’s hobby. Some are blotched with red and white; others have
designs that are as fine as lace. The plants grow from tubers, several
leaves pushing up on long slender stems. During part of the year these
leaves die back and the plant rests. Caladiums are members of the Arum
family and natives of tropical South America. (Plate XVI)


                             MONSTERA VINE
                     _Monstera deliciosa Liebmann_

Large curious leaves with many natural holes in them, characterize the
Monstera vine which is often seen in Honolulu. On mature plants the
leaves are very large, thick, green and glossy. They tend to a pinnate
form, and holes in the leaves continue the openings between the veins.
The plant grows slowly, clinging by aerial roots to a support. Some of
these roots hang down string-like, toward the ground.

Under favorable conditions the plant bears large, pinkish flowers, in
general form like those of the A’pe illustrated on Plate XVI. The spathe
is large, pinkish, thick, soft and flesh-like in texture. It covers the
spadix like a tent, but falls off in a few days. The spadix holds the
inconspicuous, densely packed flowers which develop into many small
berries, closely packed together, so that the entire fruit, when mature,
resembles a large greenish cone. Its flavor is thought to be like that
of pineapples and bananas, probably inspiring the specific name of
deliciosa.

This plant is a native of Mexico and Guatemala and a member of the Arum
family. (Plate XVI)


                          RHOEO. TRADESCANTIA
                         _Rhoeo discolor Hance_

Stiff rosettes about a foot and a half high, made up of pointed leaves
which are purplish-red below and green above are the Rhoeo or
Tradescantia. This little plant grows so easily it is seen in many
gardens, adding color to shady corners. In the axils of the leaves
appears a boat-shaped, spathe-like growth in which are the small white
flowers. Each has three sepals and three petals. The Rhoeo is a native
of Mexico and the West Indies. It is a relative of the Wandering Jew and
belongs to the Commelina family. (Plate XVI)


                                  A’PE
                      _Alocasia macrorhiza Schott_

Very large, heart-shaped leaves, some of them on stems four or five feet
high, grow up from the rootstalk of the A’pe plant. The name (pronounced
Ah-pay) is a Hawaiian word first applied to a native species which has
glossy, green leaves and greenish yellow flowers. Another A’pe (the one
illustrated on Plate XVI) has dull leaves and pinkish flowers. The
strange flowers are a foot long and have an unpleasant odor.

The A’pes are closely related to the Taros (Colocasias) which are the
principle food plant of the Hawaiian people. The thick root stalk of the
taro is boiled and mashed, to become _poi_.



                               Footnotes


[1]This is the name by which the tree has been known in Hawaii for many
    years,
    through erroneous determination. C. nodosa is a very different tree.

[2]_Costus spicatus_ is another plant but the name has sometimes been
    mistakenly applied in Hawaii to Crepe Ginger.



                                 Index


                                   A
  Acacia koa, 43
  Acalypha hispida, 56
  Acalypha wilkesiana, 68
  Acapulco, 51
  Adansonia digitata, 15
  Adenanthera pavonina, 27
  African tulip, 13
  Aglaia odorata, 36
  Aleurites moluccana, 45
  Algaroba, 14
  Allamanda blanchetti, 72
  Allamanda cathartica, 71
  Allamanda hendersonii, 71
  Alocasia macrorhiza, 102
  Alpinia mutica, 88
  Alpinia nutans, 88
  Alpinia purpurata, 89
  Althea, 22
  Anthurium, 15
  Anthurium andraeanum, 96
  Antigonon leptopus, 80
  A’pe, 12, 13, 100, 102
  Arabian coffee, 62
  Artocarpus incisa, 12
  Awapuhi, 87

                                   B
  Baby Morning glory, 72
  Bag flower, 81
  Banana, 12, 94
  Banana, purple flowering, 97
  Banyan, Bengal, 12
  Baobab, 15
  Bauhinia corymbosa, 78
  Bauhinia monandra, 31
  Bauhinia variegata, 31
  Beach naupaka, 58
  Beaumontia grandiflora, 85
  Beefsteak plant, 68
  Beloperone guttata, 48
  Beloperone nemorosa, 48
  Be-still tree, 13, 28
  Bignonia, garlic scented, 79
  Bignonia jasminoides, 74
  Bignonia regina, 74
  Bignonia unguis-cati, 76
  Bignonia venusta, 73
  Bird of Paradise, Caesalpinia, 56
  Bird of Paradise, Strelitzia, 95
  Bixa orellana, 52
  Bleeding heart, 81
  Blue butterfly pea, 85
  Bottle tree, 15
  Bottlebrush tree, 35
  Bombax, 37
  Bombax ellipticum, 37
  Bougainvillea, crimson lake, 12
  Bougainvillea glabra, 83
  Bougainvillea spectabilis, 83
  Brassaia actinophylla, 12
  Breadfruit tree, 12
  Brunfelsia americana, 53
  Brunfelsia hopeana, 53
  Butterfly hibiscus, 21

                                   C
  Caesalpinia gilliesii, 56
  Caesalpinia pulcherrima, 55
  Caladium, 12
  Caladium bicolor, 100
  Calliandra grandiflora, 61
  Calliandra haematoma, 42, 62
  Callistemon lanceolatus, 35
  Calophyllum inophyllum, 43
  Calotropis gigantea, 57
  Canavalia microcarpa, 74
  Candlebush, 51
  Candlenut tree, 45
  Cape honeysuckle, 13, 56
  Caricature plant, 13, 69
  Carissa grandiflora, 64
  Cassia alata, 51
  Cassia fistula, 29
  Cassia glauca, 61
  Cassia grandis, 32
  Cassia gaudichaudii, 61
  Cassia hybrida, 32
  Cassia javanica, 30
  Cassia nodosa, 30
  Cat’s claw vine, 76
  Ceiba pentandra, 14, 38
  Ceylon morning-glory, 75
  Chain of love vine, 80
  Chenille plant, 56
  Chinaman’s hat, 62
  China rose, 20
  Chinese ginger, 87
  Chinese rice flower tree, 13, 36
  Clerodendron squamatum, 47
  Clerodendron thomsonae, 81
  Clitoria ternatea, 85
  Coconut, 39
  Codiaeum variegatum, 66
  Coffea arabica, 62
  Coffea liberica, 63
  Colocasia, 102
  Convolvulus mauritanicus, 72
  Copa de Oro, 81
  Coral bush (Jatropha), 63
  Coral hibiscus, 20
  Coral plant (Russelia), 52
  Coral tree, 26
  Cordia sebestena, 45
  Cordia subcordata, 45
  Cordyline terminalis, 99
  Costus speciosus, 89
  Costus spicatus, 89
  Cotton, 53
  Crepe myrtle, 57
  Crimson lake bougainvillea, 83
  Crinum, 93
  Croton, 66
  Crown flower, 57
  Crown of thorns, 60
  Cup and saucer plant, 62
  Cup of gold, 81
  Cydista aequinoctialis, 79

                                   D
  Date palm, 13
  Dieffenbachia seguine, 98
  Dioclea altissima, 74
  Dombeya spectabilis, 61
  Dombeya wallichii, 61
  Duranta repens, 48
  Dwarf Poinciana, 55

                                   E
  Eranthemum eldorado, 67
  Eranthemum, flowering, 49, 67
  Eranthemum purpureum, 67
  Erythrina indica, 26
  Erythrina monosperma, 27
  Euphorbia pulcherrima, 60
  Euphorbia splendens, 60
  Exoria, 51

                                   F
  False kamani, 43
  False wili-wili, 14
  Ficus bengalensis, 12
  Firecracker vine, 73
  Flamboyant, 24
  Flamingo vine, 96
  Flowering Eranthemum, 49
  Frangipani, 27
  Freycinetia arnottii, 42

                                   G
  Galphimia glauca, 50
  Galphimia vine, 76
  Garlic vine, 79
  Giant Indian milkweed, 57
  Giant potato vine, 77
  Ginger blossoms, 87
  Ginger lily, 90
  Gold tree, 23
  Golden dewdrop, 48
  Golden Eranthemum, 67
  Golden Heliconia, 96
  Golden shower, 29
  Gossypium barbadense, 53
  Graptophyllum pictum, 69
  Graveyard flower, 27
  Green Ti, 99

                                   H
  Hala, 12, 40
  Hau tree, 40
  Haole lehua, 42, 61
  Hedychium coronarium, 90
  Hedychium flavum, 88
  Hedychium gardnerianum, 90
  Heliconia, 14
  Heliconia elongata, 96
  Heliconia humilis, 96
  Heliconia latispatha, 96
  Hibiscus, 13, 27
  Hibiscus arnottianus, 19
  Hibiscus brackenridgei, 19
  Hibiscus kokio, 19
  Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, 20
  Hibiscus schizopetalus, 20
  Hibiscus syriacus, 22
  Hibiscus tiliaceus, 40
  Hibiscus Waianae, 19
  Hibiscus youngianus, 19
  Hinano, 41
  Holmskioldia sanguinea, 62
  Hoya carnosa, 85
  Huapala vine, 73
  Hug-me-tight, 76

                                   I
  Ie-ie vine, 42
  Ilima, 54
  Ipomoea horsfalliae, 82
  Ipomoea tuberosa, 75
  Ixora macrothyrsa, 51

                                   J
  Jacaranda ovalifolia, 35
  Jacaranda tree, 13, 35
  Jacquemontia pentantha, 72
  Jasmine, star, 50
  Jasminum multiflorum, 50
  Jasminum pubescens, 50
  Jasminum sambac, 59
  Jatropha, 13
  Jatropha multifida, 63
  Jatropha podagrica, 63
  Justicia carnea, 56
  Justicia strictum, 56

                                   K
  Kahili ginger, 90
  Kalamona, 61
  Kamani tree, 43
  Kapok tree, 14, 38
  Kiawe tree, 14
  Kigelia pinnata, 16
  Koa tree, 16, 43
  Kokio, 19
  Kona coffee, 62
  Kou tree, 14, 45
  Kuhio vine, 82
  Kukui tree, 12, 45

                                   L
  Lagerstroemia indica, 57
  Lagerstroemia speciosa, 57
  Lantana camara, 59
  Lantana sellowiana, 59
  Lasiandra, 64
  Lauae fern, 13
  Lauhala, 40
  Lehua, 42
  Lipstick plant, 52
  Lobster claw, 96
  Lochnera rosea, 49

                                   M
  Madagascar periwinkle, 49
  Malpighia coccigera, 60
  Malvaviscus arboreus, 22
  Mauna Loa vine, 74
  Mai sui lan, 36
  Metrosideros polymorpha, 42
  Mexican creeper, 80
  Michelia champaca, 36
  Milo tree, 13, 44
  Mock orange, 55
  Monkeypod tree, 12, 34
  Monstera deliciosa, 101
  Morado, 69
  Murraya exotica, 55
  Musa rosacea, 97

                                   N
  Natal plum, 64
  Naupaka, 58
  Nepal trumpet flower, 85
  Nothopanax guilfoylei, 68

                                   O
  Octopus tree, 12
  Ohia lehua, 42
  Orange trumpet vine, 73
  Orchids, 15
  Orchid tree (Bauhinia), 13, 31
  Orchid vine (Stigmaphyllon), 79
  Ostrich plume ginger, 89

                                   P
  Pagoda flower, 47
  Panax, 68
  Papaya, 13
  Pandanus, 12, 40
  Pandanus odoratissimus, 40
  Pandorea jasminoides, 74
  Peltophorum inerme, 33
  Periwinkle, Madagascar, 49
  Petrea volubilis, 78
  Phaeomeria magnifica, 91
  Phaeomeria speciosa, 91
  Phanera vine, 78
  Philodendron, 13, 100
  Pikake, 59
  Pink Allamanda, 72
  Pink Bignonia, 74
  Pink flowering banana, 97
  Pink porcelain ginger, 88
  Pink shower, 32
  Pink and white shower, 30
  Pleroma, 64
  Plumbago capensis, 50
  Plumeria, 13, 27
  Plumeria acutifolia, 27
  Plumeria rubia, 27
  Poinciana regia, 24
  Poinciana, Royal, 12, 24
  Poinciana, dwarf, 55
  Poinciana, yellow, 13, 33
  Polypodium phymatodes, 12
  Polyscias guilfoylei, 68
  Porana paniculata, 82
  Porcelain ginger, 88
  Phyllanthus nivosus, 65
  Potato vine, 76
  Potato tree, 26
  Pothos aureus, 13, 100
  Prosopis chilensis, 14
  Pride of Barbadoes, 13, 55
  Prince’s vine, 82
  Princess flower, 64
  Pseuderanthemum atropurpureum, 67
  Pseuderanthemum reticulatum, 49
  Pua Kauhi, 74
  Puhala, 40
  Purple flowering banana, 97
  Purple lantana, 59
  Purple wreath, 78

                                   R
  Rainbow shower, 32
  Ravenala madagascariensis, 94
  Red ginger, 89
  Redhot cat-tails, 56
  Red Ti, 100
  Rhoeo discolor, 101
  Rondeletia odorata, 49
  Rose of Sharon, 22
  Royal poinciana, 12, 24
  Russelia juncea, 52

                                   S
  Samanea saman, 34
  Sandpaper vine, 78
  Sausage tree, 16
  Scaevola frutescens, 58
  Scindapsus aureus, 100
  Screwpine, 40
  Shell ginger, 13, 88
  Shower tree, coral, 32
  Shower tree, golden, 12, 29
  Shower tree, pink and white, 12, 30
  Shower tree, rainbow, 32
  Shrimp plant, 48
  Sida fallax, 54
  Silver cup, 81
  Singapore holly, 60
  Snowbush, 65
  Solandra grandiflora, 81
  Solandra guttata, 81
  Solanum grandifolium, 26
  Solanum macrophyllum, 26
  Solanum seaforthianum, 77
  Solanum wendlandii, 77
  Spathiphyllum, 98
  Spathodia campanulata, 29
  Spider lily, 13, 93
  Staghorn fern, 14
  Star jasmine, 50
  Stigmaphyllon ciliatum, 79
  Stigmaphyllon littorale, 79
  Strelitzia nicolai, 94
  Strelitzia reginae, 95
  St. Thomas tree, 31
  Sunshine tree, 23

                                   T
  Tabebuia donnell-smithi, 23
  Taro, 102
  Taro vine, 100
  Tecomaria capensis, 13, 56
  Terminalia catappa, 43
  Thespesia populnea, 44
  Thevetia nereifolia, 28
  Thryallis glauca, 50
  Thunbergia erecta, 54
  Thunbergia grandiflora, 84
  Thunbergia laurifolia, 84
  Thunbergia shrub, 54
  Ti, 13, 99
  Tibouchina semidecandra, 64
  Tiger’s Claw tree, 13, 26
  Torch ginger, 91
  Tradescantia, 101
  Traveler’s palm, 94
  Tristellateia australis, 76
  Trumpet vine, 73
  Turk’s cap, 22

                                   V
  Variegated-leaved a’pe, 100
  Vinca rosea, 49

                                   W
  Waterfall hibiscus, 21
  Wax vine, 85
  White Bird of Paradise, 94
  White ginger, 90
  White thunbergia, 84
  Wili-wili, 27
  Wili-wili, false, 14, 27
  Wili-wili, Indian, 26
  Wong lan, 36
  Wooden rose, 75

                                   Y
  Yellow allamanda, 71
  Yellow ginger, 88
  Yellow hibiscus, 22
  Yellow oleander, 28
  Yellow poinciana, 13, 33

                                   Z
  Zingiber officinalis, 87
  Zingiber zerumbet, 87



                          Transcriber’s Notes


--Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

--Silently corrected a few palpable typos.

--In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





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