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Title: History of Atchison County Kansas
Author: Ingalls, Sheffield
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Internet Archive)



[Illustration:

  _Sheffield Ingalls_
]



                                HISTORY

                                   OF

                            ATCHISON COUNTY
                                 KANSAS

                                   BY

                           SHEFFIELD INGALLS

                              ILLUSTRATED

                      STANDARD PUBLISHING COMPANY
                            LAWRENCE, KANSAS
                                  1916

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                PREFACE.


In the preparation and compilation of this history, no effort has been
made to interpret the logic or spirit of events that surrounded the
birth and progress of Atchison county. The work was undertaken with the
idea of compiling a narrative plainly told, of the people and the
institutions here. I was interested in putting in permanent form
chronologically the events that have transpired in the past sixty years,
that have made for the political, social, moral and commercial
development of the county, but, had I realized in advance the many hours
of labor and patient study it required, the work of completing the task
in six months would not have been attempted. I am very deeply conscious
of the imperfections of the completed work, but had there been more time
for research and study, much might have been included that does not
appear.

It would be ingratitude if no acknowledgment were made at the outset, of
the obligation I am under to George J. Remsburg for the assistance he
has rendered me. Without his unfailing courtesy, kindness and help I
should never have been able to do the work at all. His ability as a
local historian is truly marvelous. He wrote two chapters of the history
and contributed most of the matter touching upon the founding of cities
and towns. It is to be regretted that the condition of his health
prevented him from undertaking the work which I have so imperfectly
done.

Acknowledgment is also due George A. Root of the State Historical
Society, who has rendered me invaluable assistance, and to the _Atchison
Daily Globe_, from whose files I gathered much important data. Nor can I
fail to give proper credit to Andreas’ History of Kansas, from which a
wealth of information has been secured. D. Anna Speer, county
superintendent, collected for me most of the historical matter relative
to the schools of the county and Professor Nathan T. Veatch was more
than kind in preparing for me a sketch of the Atchison city schools.

And my dear mother, a loyal resident of Atchison since July, 1859,
intimately identified with its history and growth for fifty-seven years,
has visualized to me as no other could, the story of the early days.
Remarkable as a mother, loved and adored by all her children, she is no
less remarkable

as a woman, stalwart, rugged and buoyant. She lived her young life with
the pioneers of Atchison, and now in the fullness of her years she looks
over the past, so full of pleasures, tribulations and sorrows, with
gladness and resignation, and faces the future with a determined spirit
and a brave heart.

To the ministers of the various churches of Atchison and to Professor
Erasmus Haworth and Charles H. Taylor, the county farm agent, and to
many other good people of Atchison, I entertain sentiments of the
deepest appreciation, and if any of them ever undertakes the work of
writing a history, I shall gladly render them any service in my power.

                                                      SHEFFIELD INGALLS.

 Atchison, Kan., March 6, 1916.



                             ILLUSTRATIONS.


          Abell, P. T.                                     295
          Adams, John P.                                   488
          Adams, Mary A.                                   584
          Adams, William                                   584
          Adams, S. W.                                     520
          Atchison County Court House                       57
          Atchison County High School, Effingham           274

          Ballinger and Wife, S. E.                        648
          Ballinger, Julia H.                              600
          Ballinger, Thomas E.                             600
          Barber, Moses                                    672
          Barber, Mary                                     672
          Beard and Family, Frank                          704
          Blodgett, Thomas L.                              624
          Boyington, Home of Frank W. and Julia            584
          Burbank, E. G.                                   520
          Burrows, C. H.                                   544
          Bush, William H.                                 464
          Buttron, Henry and Family                        472

          Carnegie Library, Atchison                       289
          Challis, William L.                              307
          Cheseborough, Ellsworth                          193
          Christian Church, Atchison                       249
          Cirtwill, Jennie                                 712
          Cochrane, Dr. W. W.                              307
          Commercial Street, Atchison                       66
          Conlon, Charles J.                               488

          Deutsch, Julius                                  520
          Dorssom, George                                  464
          Du Bois and Wife, Lewis P.                       768

          Eagles’ Home, Atchison                           330
          Effingham Street Scene                           111
          Elks’ Club House, Atchison                       329

          Falk, Charles H.                                 464
          First Church of Christ, Scientist                255
          Forest Park, Atchison                             80
          Fox, Jared C.                                    408

          Glick, George W.                                 351
          Graner’s Annual Sale                             785
          Graner, Gottlieb                                 784
          Graner, H. C.                                    785
          Graner Homestead                                 784
          Graner, Martha                                   784
          Graner, W. H.                                    785
          Griffin, L.                                      680
          Gundy, Charles T.                                560

          Ham and Wife, Martin W.                          608
          Hansen, H. C.                                    520
          Hart, C. C.                                      792
          Harvey, Albert B.                                440
          Harwi, Alfred J.                                 416
          Hazel, Ernest C.                                 744
          Highfill, Thomas                                 704
          Hines, Michael J.                                464
          Hooper, Daniel E.                                616
          Hospital, Atchison                                57
          Hughes, Bela M.                                  193

          Ingalls, John J.                                 392
          Ingalls School, Atchison                         279
          Ingalls, Sheffield                      Frontispiece

          Jackson, William A.                              488
          Jackson Park, Entrance                           172
          Jewell, L. M.                                    536
          Johnson, George H. T.                            456

          Kaaz, Julius                                     688
          Keirns, Gail Maxine                              568
          Keith, U. S.                                     544
          Keithline, Andrew                                432
          King, S. S.                                      560
          Kingman, S. C.                                   295
          Kuhn, Julius                                     592

          Laird, Britamore                                 736
          Laird, Marcus J.                                 736
          Lane, Jim                                        189


          Mangelsdorf Building                             312
          Martin, Col. J. A.                               297
          Masonic Temple, Atchison                         327
          Million, George                                  200
          Morrow, James G.                                 384
          Mt. St. Scholastica’s Academy, Atchison          286
          Muscotah School Building                         108
          Muscotah Street Scene                            107

          Newcomb, Don C.                                  424
          Newcomb, D. C., Residence of                     426

          Old High School Building, Atchison               268
          Orr, James W.                                    360
          Orr, J. W., Residence of                         362
          Orphans’ Home, General View                       23
          Orphans’ Home, Main Building                      19
          Overland Freighting                               16

          Perdue, Edward                                   576
          Plummer and Wife, T. O.                          696
          Pomeroy, S. O.                                   189
          Potter Street Scene                              124
          Potter School House                              126
          Post Office, Atchison                             35
          Presbyterian Church, Atchison                    250
          Presbyterian Church, Effingham                   112

          Remsburg, George                                 504
          Remsburg, John E.                                504

          Sanders, B. F.                                   568
          Scarborough, William                             200
          Seaton, John                                     376
          Sharp, Harry L.                                  512
          Sharpless, U. B.                                 560
          Simmons, O. A.                                   800
          Speer, D. Anna                                   776
          Stringfellow, Gen. B. F.                         297
          St. Benedict’s Abbey, Atchison                   263
          St. Benedict’s College, Atchison                 291
          Storch, George                                   448
          Sutter and Wife, Fred                            752
          Sutter, Fred, Residence of                       753
          Sutter Homestead                                 840

          Thompson and Wife, George W.                     664
          Thompson, Matilda                                720
          Trimble, Roy C.                                  488

          Voelker, C. M.                                   560

          Waggener, Balie P.                               368
          Walker, Claudius D.                              400
          Wards of the State                                29
          Wilson, Charles                                  544
          Wilson, Mary K.                                  544
          Wolf, Rt. Rev. Innocent                          264

          Y. M. C. A. Building, Atchison                    57



                               CONTENTS.


                               CHAPTER I.

                                GEOLOGY.

 Fossils—Evidences of Early Animal and Plant Life—
   Geological Ages—Rock Formation—Glacier Period—Minerals    Pages 17–20


                               CHAPTER II.

                          PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD.

 Evidences of Paleolithic Man—An Ancient Fortification—
   Aboriginal Village and Camp Sites—The Ingalls and Other
   Mounds                                                    Pages 21–24


                              CHAPTER III.

                             INDIAN HISTORY.

 Harahey, an Indian Province of Coronado’s Time—The Kansa
   Nation—Bourgmont’s Visit in 1724—Council on Cow Island
   in 1819—The Kickapoo Indians                              Pages 25–30


                               CHAPTER IV.

                           EARLY EXPLORATIONS.

 Coronado in 1541—The Bourgmont Expedition in 1724—Perin
   Du Lac—Lewis and Clark—First Fourth of July
   Celebration—Major Stephen H. Long—Cantonment Martin—
   Isle au Vache—Other Explorers—Paschal Pensoneau—The Old
   Military Road—The Mormons                                 Pages 31–36


                               CHAPTER V.

                           TERRITORIAL TIMES.

 Territory Acquired From France in 1803—Organization of
   the Territory—Kansas-Nebraska Act—Immigration to
   Kansas—Territorial Government—Free State and Pro-
   Slavery Conflict—First Election—Secret Political
   Organizations—Border War Activities and Outrages—
   Contests Over Adoption of Constitution—Kansas Admitted
   to the Union                                              Pages 37–63


                               CHAPTER VI.

              ORGANIZATION OF COUNTY AND CITY OF ATCHISON.

 One of the Thirty-three Original Counties—City of
   Atchison Located—Town Company—Sale of Lots—
   Incorporation of Town—Early Business Enterprises—
   Organization of County—Commercial Growth—Freighting—
   First Officers—Free State and Pro-Slavery Clashes—
   Horace Greeley Visits Atchison—Abraham Lincoln Makes a
   Speech Here—Great Drought of 1860—City Officials          Pages 64–83


                              CHAPTER VII.

                        TOWNS, PAST AND PRESENT.

 Sumner, Its Rise and Fall—Ocena—Lancaster—Fort William—
   Arrington—Muscotah—Effingham—Huron—Old Martinsburg—
   Bunker Hill—Locust Grove—Helena—Cayuga—Kennekuk—
   Kapioma—Mashenah—St. Nicholas—Concord—Parnell—Shannon—
   Elmwood—Cummingsville—Eden Postoffice—Potter—Mt.
   Pleasant—Lewis’ Point—Farley’s Ferry                     Pages 84–128


                              CHAPTER VIII.

                             THE CIVIL WAR.

 The Issue Between Early Settlers—Influx of Free State and
   Pro-Slavery Partisans—Early Volunteering—Military
   Organizations—Threatened Invasion from Missouri—
   Political Societies—Jayhawkers—Cleveland’s Gang—
   Lynchings—Atchison County Troops in the War—Price’s
   Attempted Invasion                                      Pages 129–150


                               CHAPTER IX.

                               NAVIGATION.

 Pioneer Transportation—Early Ferries and Rates—Famous
   River Boats—Steamboat Lines to Atchison—Steamboat
   Registers                                               Pages 151–157


                               CHAPTER X.

                          OVERLAND FREIGHTING.

 Atchison as an Outfitting Point—Freighting Companies—
   Principal Routes—Stage Lines—Overland Mail Routes—Ben
   Holladay—“Butterfield’s Overland Dispatch”—Time to
   Denver—Tables of Time and Distances on Various Routes—
   Statistical                                             Pages 158–173


                               CHAPTER XI.

                               RAILROADS.

 Early Railroad Agitation—The First Railroad—Celebrating
   the Advent of the Railroad—Other Roads Constructed—The
   Santa Fe—The Atchison & Nebraska City—The Kansas City,
   Leavenworth & Atchison—The Rock Island—The Hannibal &
   St. Joseph—The First Telegraph—Modern Transportation    Pages 174–185


                              CHAPTER XII.

                    REMINISCENCES OF EARLY PIONEERS.

 D. R. Atchison—Matt Gerber—J. H. Talbott—William Osborne—
   John W. Cain—W. L. Challiss—George Scarborough—Samuel
   Hollister—John Taylor—John M. Cromwell—Luther
   Dickerson—Luther C. Challiss—George W. Glick—W. K.
   Grimes—Joshua Wheeler—William Hetherington—William C.
   Smith—John M. Price—Samuel C. King—Clem Rohr—R. H.
   Weightman—Case of Major Weightman                       Pages 186–212


                              CHAPTER XIII.

                    AGRICULTURE AND ITS DEVELOPMENT.

 An Agricultural Community—Scientific Farming—Farmers, the
   Aristocracy of the West—Modern Improvement—Topography—
   Soil—Statistics                                         Pages 213–216


                              CHAPTER XIV.

                               THE PRESS.

 Influence of Newspapers—Part Played by the Early Press—
   _Squatter Sovereign_—_Freedom’s Champion_—_Champion_
   and _Press_—Pioneer Editors—Later Newspapers and
   Newspaper Men                                           Pages 217–233


                               CHAPTER XV.

                           BANKS AND BANKING.

 Early Day Banking—Pioneer Financiers—The Oldest Bank—
   Private, State and National Banks—Atchison County
   Bankers and the Development of Banking Institutions     Pages 234–244


                              CHAPTER XVI.

                                CHURCHES.

 Methodist—Christian—Presbyterian—Baptist—Salem Church—
   German Evangelical Zion Church—First Church of Christ.
   Scientist—St. Patrick’s, Mt. Pleasant—Trinity Church,
   Episcopal—St. Mark’s, English Lutheran—St. Benedict’s
   Abby—First German Evangelican Lutheran Church           Pages 245–265


                              CHAPTER XVII.

                        EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS.

 Establishment of the Public School System—Pioneer Schools
   and Early Teachers—Districts—Statistics—Atchison County
   High School—County Superintendents of Public
   Instruction—Atchison City Schools—Private Schools—Mt.
   St. Scholastica’s Academy—Parochial Schools—Midland
   College and Western Theological Seminary—St. Benedict’s
   College                                                 Pages 266–292


                             CHAPTER XVIII.

                             BENCH AND BAR.

 Early Mecca of Legal Talent—Organization of Judicial
   District—Early Judges—Prominent Pioneer Lawyers—Members
   of the Atchison County Bar                              Pages 293–301


                              CHAPTER XIX.

                           MEDICAL PROFESSION.

 First Physicians—Early Practice—Pioneer Remedies—Modern
   Medicine and Surgery—Prominent Physicians and Surgeons—
   Atchison County Medical Society                         Pages 302–310


                               CHAPTER XX.

                       INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL.

 Much Wealth and Enterprise Abound—Manufacturing—Milling—
   Extensive Wholesale Hardware and Grocery
   Establishments—Planing Mills—Various Jobbing and Retail
   Interests                                               Pages 311–317


                              CHAPTER XXI.

                   PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS.

 Atchison Postoffice—Court House—County Hospital—Young
   Men’s Christian Association—State Orphans’ Home—
   Atchison Public Library—Atchison Hospital—Masonic
   Temple                                                  Pages 318–327


                              CHAPTER XXII.

                          SOCIETIES AND LODGES.

 Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks—Fraternal Order
   of Eagles—Atchison County Protective Association—Secret
   Societies—Catholic Societies                            Pages 328–333


                             CHAPTER XXIII.

                         THE AFRO-AMERICAN RACE.

 Early-day Conditions—Their Advancement—Prior Dickey—Henry
   C. Buchanan—Eugene L. Bell—Charles Ingram—Charles J.
   Ferguson—Henry Dickey—Dr. Frank Adrian Pearl, M. D.—Dr.
   W. W. Caldwell, M. D.                                   Pages 334–344


                              CHAPTER XXIV.

                               OFFICIALS.

 County, Township and School Officers                      Pages 345–350


                              CHAPTER XXV.

                          BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY.



                                 INDEX.


 Abner, John W., 534

 Adams, John P., 488

 Adams, Stark W., 524

 Alkire, Charles L., 726

 Allen, Edmond W., 755

 Allen, Joseph W., 476

 Allison, Ralph A., 751

 Anderson, George V., 836

 Arensberg, L. C., 611

 Armstrong, James L., 733

 Arthur, Joseph N., 422

 Atkin. Paul, 859


 Babcock, O. M., 591

 Bailey, Willis J., 882

 Baldwin, Royal, 830

 Ballinger, Thomas E., 600

 Ballinger, Samuel E., 648

 Barber, Herbert J., 672

 Barker, Charles E., 682

 Barker, O. O., 761

 Barnes, Asa, 715

 Barry, John H., 481

 Bean, John H., 708

 Beard, Frank, 704

 Beckman, Carl L., 382

 Behen, James E., 796

 Belz, John, 884

 Best, Aaron S., 379

 Beyer, David, 822

 Beyer, John, 731

 Bilderback, Allen T., 738

 Binkley, Fred, 852

 Bishop, Frank W., 876

 Bishop, Robert F., 596

 Blair, Albert H., 454

 Blair, John L., 586

 Blodgett, Thomas L., 624

 Boos, Nicholas, 699

 Boyington, Julia E. A., 584

 Bradley, Lewis, 819

 Brockett, Benton L., 637

 Brown, George L., 837

 Brown, Thomas, 452

 Brown, Walter E., 519

 Bullock, Edmund, 847

 Burbank, E. G., 520

 Burrows, Charles H., 547

 Bush, William H., 464

 Bushey, Calvin, 871

 Buttron, Henry, 472

 Buttron, Jacob, 728


 Calvert, Alexander H., 747

 Calvert, Presley H., 848

 Chalfant, W. D., 727

 Chandler, Charles A., 716

 Cirtwill, Jennie, 712

 Clapp, Alva, 447

 Clem, William J., 406

 Cleveland, Richard B., 834

 Cline, Thomas L., 656

 Cloyes, Marshall J., 571

 Collett, W. B., 612

 Collins, Davis W., 832

 Conlon, Charles J., 494

 Conlon, John F., 495

 Cortelyou, Luther, 757

 Coupe, Joseph, 375

 Cummins, Barney, 445

 Curtis, Benjamin P., 531


 Davis, Cyrus E., 470

 Dawdy, Drennan L., 808

 Deutsch, Julius, 523

 Donnellan, William R., 538

 Dooley, James, 613

 Dorssom, George, 468

 Drimmel, John, 854

 Du Bois, Lewis P., 768

 Duncan, John E., 620

 Dunlap, Rienzi M., 767

 Dysinger, Holmes, 724


 Evans, Aaron B., 749


 Falk, Charles H., 467

 Fankhanel, John, 635

 Ferguson, Charles W., 581

 Ferris, John, 734

 Fiechter, Samuel E., 711

 Finnegan, Thomas, 647

 Fleming, John, 604

 Flynn, J. F., 743

 Forbriger, Robert, 658

 Fox, Jared C., 408

 Frable, Thomas, 359

 Fuhrman, Charles H., 460

 Fuhrman, Rinhold, 502


 Garside, James H., 880

 Gault, Thomas O., 495

 Gibson, George W., 823

 Gibson, Joseph E., 529

 Gigstad, Knud G., 439

 Gigstad, Ole G., 480

 Gilmore, Earl A., 415

 Glattfelder, Henry, 741

 Glick, George W., 351

 Goodwin, George, 833

 Gragg, James R., 542

 Graner, Henry C., 787

 Graner, William H., 784

 Greenawalt, Joseph C., 778

 Griffin, John, 821

 Griffin, Lawrence, 680

 Grimes, Robert L., 642

 Gundy, Charles T., 565

 Guthrie, Warren W., 483


 Hackney, Hiram H., 660

 Ham, Bishop K., 608

 Ham, W. Perry, 702

 Hamon, Alferd J., 820

 Hansen, H. C., 521

 Harvey, Albert B., 440

 Harwi, Alfred J., 416

 Harwi, Frank E., 419

 Hart, Charles C., 792

 Hartman, Fred, 797

 Hartman, William, 828

 Hastings, Z. S., 436

 Hawk, John D., 670

 Hawk, Lafayette T., 539

 Hawk, Rutherford B., 868

 Hazel, Ernest C., 744

 Hekelnkaemper Brothers, 804

 Hendee, George E., 429

 Henderson, William, 535

 Hetherington, Wirt, 510

 Highfill, Thomas, 706

 Higley, Clem P., 806

 Hines, Michael J., 465

 Hixon, Charles L., 577

 Holmes, James I., 841

 Hooper, Abraham, 616

 Hooper, George R., 867

 Horan, Michael J., 501

 Horner, Thomas E., 527

 Howe, Edgar W., 844

 Hubbard, Lewis H., 815

 Hubbard, William E., 807

 Hubbard, William S., 759

 Hulings, Mark H., 605

 Hunn, Frank J., 824

 Hutson, William T., 730


 Ingalls, John J., 392

 Ingalls, Sheffield, 632

 Intfen, Theo, 645


 Jackson, Horace M., 353

 Jackson, William A., 490

 Jackson, Zaremba E., 356

 Jewell, Lumas M., 536

 Johnson, Charles H., 458

 Johnson, George H. T., 456

 Jones, Earl V., 582


 Kaaz, Julius, 688

 Kammer, Karl A., 570

 Kanning, Christ, 644

 Kaufman, Fred W., 781

 Keith, Uri S., 544

 Keithline, Andrew, 432

 Keithline, Charles J., 630

 Kelly, Edward J., 635

 King, Richard E., 788

 King, Samuel S., 564

 Kistler, William D., 430

 Klein, Martin, 442

 Kloepper, Louis, 580

 Koester, Frederick W., 551

 Kramer, John A., 883

 Kuehnhoff, Henry, 513

 Kuehnhoff, Louis R., 567

 Kuhn, Julius, 592


 Laird, Marcus J., 736

 Lange, Arnold, 783

 Lange, Charles, 725

 Lilly, C. A., 818

 Lincoln, Frederick W., 692

 Linley, Charles, 461

 Linley, Charles H., 610

 Loudenback, Henry H., 653

 Low, Hal C., 775

 Loyd, Samuel L., 686

 Lukens, Charles M., 762


 McAdam, William, 399

 McCullough, Edward B., 599

 McInteer, John, 651

 McKelvy, William A., 865

 Mangelsdorf, Albert H., 852

 Mangelsdorf, August, 856

 Mangelsdorf, Frank A., 858

 Mangelsdorf, William, 850

 Markwalt, Amel, 556

 Martin, Sidney, 393

 Mayhew, Albert E., 372

 Miller, John O. A., 791

 Moeck, John, 790

 Moore, June E., 701

 Morrow, James G., 384

 Myers, Charles, 552


 Nass, John H., 722

 Newcomb, Don C., 424

 Niemann, Henry, 780

 Nitz, William M., 740

 North, Howard E., 698

 Nusbaum, Leo, 629


 Oliver, John R., 626

 Orr, Louis C., 381

 Orr, James W., 360


 Parsons, Peter, 861

 Peery, Rufus B., 557

 Pennington, James E., 411

 Perdue, Edward, 576

 Pfouts, Ralph U., 479

 Pike, Napoleon B., 516

 Pinder, Robert, 675

 Pitts, E. P., 634

 Plummer, Thomas O., 696

 Potter, Thomas J., 677

 Power, Grace C., 718

 Price, John M., 811


 Raterman, John L., 559

 Redmond, George W., 689

 Remsburg, George J., 508

 Remsburg, John E., 504

 Reynolds, John A., 838

 Robinson, Charles W., 650

 Royer, Boyd, 814

 Rudolph, Harrison W., 598

 Ryan, William, 879


 Sanders, Benjamin F., 568

 Schaefer, George H. T., 554

 Schapp, William, 622

 Schiffbauer, Henry, 862

 Scholz, George, 526

 Scholz, John A., 517

 Schrader, George, 729

 Schurman, Arthur S., 816

 Scoville, Orlando C., 389

 Seaton, John, 376

 Sharp, Harry L., 512

 Sharpless, Ulysses B., 560

 Shaw, Benjamin F., 679

 Shelly, Edwin T., 843

 Shortridge, Alfred, 589

 Simmons, Oscar A., 800

 Smith, Albert J., 618

 Smith, W. H., 473

 Smith, Wilson R., 427

 Snyder, Mark D., 574

 Speck, A. S., 640

 Speer, Andrew, 710

 Speer, D. Anna, 776

 Speer, William F., 846

 Stanley, Wilfull A., 497

 Stever, Abram, 434

 Stoddard, John, 748

 Storch, George, 448

 Stutz, Christian W., 499

 Stutz, Gustave, 695

 Stutz, John, 639

 Sullivan, John E., 684

 Sullivan, John Edward, 765

 Sullivan, Roger P., 602

 Sutter, Frank, 607

 Sutter, Fred, 752

 Sutter, William, 840

 Symns, Andrew B., 365


 Thomas, Robert M., 397

 Thompson, George W., 664

 Thompson, William H., 720

 Tomlinson, B. F., 668

 Treat, Thomas C., 458

 Trimble, James M., 764

 Trimble, Roy C., 492

 Trompeter, Joseph, 421

 Trueblood, Alva C., 405

 Tucker, Thomas W., 742


 Valentine, John C., 693

 Vansell, Martin C., 873

 Veatch, Nathan T., 733

 Voelker, Conrad M., 562


 Waggener, Balie P., 368

 Wagner, Frank J., 827

 Walker, Claudius D., 400

 Walter, H. B., 803

 Warren, William T., 849

 Watowa, Frank J., 818

 Watowa, Joseph H., 732

 Weber, Peter, 594

 Wehking, William, 828

 Wertz, Frank P., 655

 Wheeler, D. N., 514

 White, George E., 663

 Wilson, James E., 549

 Wolf, August J., 826

 Woodworth, Edwin S., 772

 Woodford, Frank M., 723


 Young, William, 794

[Illustration:

  TRANSPORTATION FIFTY YEARS AGO

  Overland Emigrant and Freight Train, Operated by Sprague & Digan,
    Leaving West Main Street, Atchison, Kan., April 1, 1866, en route to
    the Far West.
]



                       History of Atchison County



                               CHAPTER I.
                                GEOLOGY.

  FOSSILS—EVIDENCES OF EARLY ANIMAL AND PLANT LIFE—GEOLOGICAL AGES—ROCK
      FORMATION—GLACIER PERIOD—MINERALS.


The oldest citizens of Atchison county are the animals and plants whose
fossil remains now lie buried in the solid rocks. These denizens of long
ago, by their lives, made it possible for later and better citizens to
live and flourish in the happy and contented homes of her best citizens
of the present day. Long before man ever saw Atchison county—long before
man lived anywhere upon this earth, the seas swarmed with animal life
and the dry lands supported a fauna and a flora substantially as great
as those of the present time.

In character the animals and plants of those early days were very
different from those of the present time. Almost all of their kind long
ago became extinct. It is only the few who have living representatives
anywhere in the world today, and they are degraded in form and size as
though they had long outlived their usefulness. Some of the animals live
in the waters of distant oceans, such as the brachiopods and other shell
fish; the crinoids or sea lilies, and others of like character. On the
dry land we find a few insects of the cock-roach type and other creeping
things which inhabit dark and damp places, animals of gloom on whose
forms the sunshine of day rarely falls.

The plants, likewise, are degraded in size and form. The modern bull-
rushes of our swamps are descendants of ancient giants of their kind
which grew to ten or twenty times the size of their modern
representatives. The little creeping vines sometimes found in the shaded
forest are lineal descendants of the mighty trees of the forests in the
long ago while materials were gathering for the rock masses constituting
Atchison county.

In order to converse rationally about geological time it has been found
most convenient to divide time into periods in accordance with great
natural events, and to give a name to each period that in some way
expresses something desirable to be known and remembered. Usually
geographic names of areas where rock masses are exposed to the surface
of the ground are chosen, or some favorite geographic term may be used,
and in rare instances some quality name expressive of the character or
composition of the rocks.

Following the best usage of geologists the rocks exposed at the surface
all belong to the age known as the Carboniferous, which lies at the top
of the Palaeozoic, or ancient life rocks. The Carboniferous is divided
and subdivided into a number of divisions, the lowermost of which has
been named the Mississippian on account of their great abundance
throughout the Mississippi valley. Above the Mississippian we find a
mass of alternating beds of shale and limestone and sandstone
aggregating about 2,500 feet in thickness, called the Pennsylvanians, a
term borrowed from the State of Pennsylvania, where rocks of the same
age so abound. Rocks formed during the remainder of geologic time are
not found in Atchison county, except the covering of soil and clay so
abundant throughout the county. An old-time name for the Pennsylvanian
rocks is the coal-measures, a term now on the decline because the newer
names—well, it is newer.

It appears that from the close of the Pennsylvanian time to the present
Atchison county has been dry land. At one time, quite recently, as
geologists reckon time, climatic conditions changed so that the snow
falling during the winter could not be melted during the summer, so that
to the far north great quantities of snow and ice accumulated and
gradually spread over the surface of a large part of North America. One
limb of this ice mass moved slowly southward and covered all of Atchison
county, and much adjacent territory, and brought with it vast quantities
of soil and clay and gravel that the ice sheet, as a great scraper,
picked up from the surface as it came along. When the ice finally melted
this debris was left, like a mantle of snow, covering the entire surface
of Atchison county.

The rocks of Pennsylvanian age have within them much of value
economically. Here and there inter-stratified with the sandstone and
shale are large and valuable beds of coal, as is abundantly shown by the
drilled wells and coal shafts within the county. It is probable that
almost the entire county is underlaid with this same bed of coal, and if
so it is worth substantially as much to the county as is the surface
soil. It lies at so great a depth that it may be mined without any
danger whatever of disturbing the surface.

[Illustration:

  Main Building State Orphans’ Home, Atchison, Kan.
]

The large amount of good hard limestone in the county guarantees an
everlasting supply of stone for road making, railroad ballast, crushed
rock for concrete works and all other uses to which such limestone may
be put. With the Missouri river on the eastern boundary carrying
unlimited amounts of sand Atchison county is well supplied with every
material needed for unlimited amounts of mortar construction of all
kinds. Recently, since Portland cement construction has so effectually
replaced stone masonry, this becomes a very important matter.

Should market conditions ever become favorable it is also possible to
manufacture the best grades of Portland cement by properly combining the
limestones and shales of the county. Their chemical and physical
properties are admirably suited for such purposes.

There is a possibility that somewhere within the county oil and gas may
be found by proper prospecting. As no search for these materials has yet
been made it is impossible to say what the results might be. Atchison
county, however, lies within the oil zone that has been proven to be so
much farther south, and until proper search has been made no one can say
that oil and gas cannot be found here also.



                              CHAPTER II.
                          PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD.

  EVIDENCES OF PALEOLITHIC MAN—AN ANCIENT FORTIFICATION—ABORIGINAL
      VILLAGE AND CAMP SITES—THE INGALLS AND OTHER BURIAL MOUNDS.


How long the region embraced in Atchison county has been the home of man
is not known, but the finding of a prehistoric human skeleton, computed
by the highest anthropological and geological authorities to be at least
10,000 years old, in the adjoining county of Leavenworth, favors the
presumption that what is now Atchison county was occupied by man at an
equally remote period. Evidences of a very early human existence here
have been found at various times. Near Potter, in this county, the
writer found deep in the undisturbed gravel and clay, a rude flint
implement that unquestionably had been fashioned by prehistoric man,
evidently, of what is known as the Paleolithic period. In drilling the
well at the power house of the Atchison Street Railway, Light and Power
Company, the late T. J. Ingels, of Atchison, encountered at a great
depth, several fragments of fossilized bone, intermingled with charcoal,
evidently the remains of a very ancient fireplace. About 1880, M. M.
Trimmer, an Atchison contractor, in opening a stone quarry at the
northeast point of the Branchtown hill, near the confluence of White
Clay and Brewery creeks, in Atchison, unexpectedly encountered a pit or
excavation, eighty feet long, sixty feet wide, and eighteen feet deep,
in the solid rock formation of the hill. The surface of the hill is
composed of drift or gravel, and the pit had become filled with this
gravel to the original surface, thus obliterating all external evidences
of its existence. The lower layer of stone, about six inches thick, had
been left for a floor in the pit, and in the northwest corner this lower
strata of stone for about four feet square had been removed. Water
issued from the ground at this point indicating that a spring or well,
or source of water supply, had been located here. A careful examination
of the place at the time showed unmistakably that this excavation had
been made by human hands at a very early period and was probably used as
a fortification or defensive work. Prehistoric excavations of this
character, made in the solid rock, are common in Europe, but almost
unknown in America, except in the cases of ancient flint and steatite
quarries, and the absence of either in the Atchison formation, except an
occasional flint nodule, precludes the possibility that this was just an
aboriginal quarry. The Smithsonian authorities at Washington pronounced
the work worthy of careful study, but unfortunately it was obliterated
by the progress of the quarrying. Many weapons and implements of the
stone age have been found in the vicinity of this pit.

Almost the entire surface of Atchison county, particularly where
bordering streams, presents various traces of aboriginal occupancy, from
the silent sepulchers of the dead and the mouldy rubbish of the wigwam,
to the solitary arrowhead lost on the happy chase or the sanguinary war
path. In many places these remains blend into the prehistoric, semi-
historic and historic periods, showing evidences of a succession of
occupancy. For instance we find the Neolithic stone celts or hatchets,
the Neoeric iron tomahawks; fragments of fragile earthenware, mixed and
moulded by the prehistoric potter, and bits of modern decorated
porcelain made by some pale-faced patterner of Palissy; ornaments of
stone, bone and shell; trinkets of brass and beads of glass,
intermingled in confusion and profusion. These numerous relics of
different peoples and periods, showing, as they do, diverse stages of
culture and advancement, warrant the opinion that Atchison county, with
its many natural advantages, was a favorite resort of successive peoples
from time immemorial. Favorably situated at the great western bend of
the Missouri river and at the outskirts of which was one of the richest
Indian hunting grounds in the great wild West, embracing and surrounded
by every natural advantage that would make it the prospective and wonted
haunt of a wild-race, it was a prehistoric paradise, as it is today, a
modern Arcadia.

[Illustration:

  State Orphans’ Home, Atchison, Kan.
]

The writer has personally examined hundreds of ancient Indian village,
camp and workshop sites, and opened a number of mounds in Atchison
county. The first ancient mounds ever opened in the county were on a
very rugged hill known as the “Devil’s Backbone,” bordering Owl creek,
and overlooking the Missouri river, in 1891. There were two of them, and
they contained stone sepulchers in which the Indians had cremated their
dead. Other stone grave mounds have been opened on the farms of John
Myers, on Independence creek, in the northeastern part of the county;
Maurice Fiehley, on Stranger creek, near Potter; George Storch, on
Alcorn or Whiskey creek, just south of Atchison, and in several other
places. The most interesting mound ever excavated in the county,
however, was what is known as the Ingalls Mound, on land belonging to
the estate of the late United States Senator John J. Ingalls, on a bluff
of the Missouri river, at the mouth of Walnut creek, about five miles
below Atchison. This mound was discovered by Senator Ingalls at an early
day, and opened by the writer in 1907. It was fifteen feet in diameter,
and was composed of alternate layers of stone and earth one on top of
the other, the remains of several Indians being imbedded in the earth
between the layers of stone. These remains were in a bad state of decay,
most of the bones crumbling while being removed. The bones of each
person had been placed in the mound in compact bundles, which seems to
indicate that they had been removed from some temporary place of
interment, perhaps from dilapidated scaffold burials, and deposited here
in final sepulture. In some of the layers not only the bones but the
rocks and earth were considerably burned, indicating incendiary funeral
rites, while in others there were not the least marks of fire. The
undermost layer, about three feet from the top, was a veritable cinder
pit, being a burned mass or conglomerate of charcoal and charred and
calcined human remains, showing no regularity or outline of skeletons,
but all in utter confusion. A solitary pearl bead was the only object
that withstood the terrible heat to which the lower tier of remains had
been subjected. In one of the upper tiers were the bones of two infants.
With one of them was a necklace of small shells of a species not native
here. With another bundle of bones were two small, neatly chipped flint
knives, a flint scraper, a bone whistle or “call,” several deer horn
implements, and a large flint implement of doubtful usage, known to
archaeologists as a “turtle-back,” because of its shape. With another
bundle of bones, and which they seemed to be clasping, were several
mussel shells, badly decomposed. One small ornament of an animal or bird
claw, several flint arrowheads, and some fragments of pottery, were also
found. In one of the skulls was embedded the flint blade of a war-club.
Thirty-one yards northwest of this mound was found another of less
prominence. It contained a burned mass of human remains, covered with a
layer of about six inches of clay, baked almost to the consistency of
brick. Lack of space forbids a mention of many other interesting
archaeological discoveries made in this county from time to time.
Suffice to say that there is ample evidence that within the borders of
Atchison county there lived and thrived and passed away a considerable
aboriginal population.



                              CHAPTER III.
                            INDIAN HISTORY.

  HARAHEY, AN INDIAN PROVINCE OF CORONADO’S TIME—THE KANSA NATION—
      BOURGMONT’S VISIT IN 1724—COUNCIL ON COW ISLAND IN 1819—THE
      KICKAPOO INDIANS.


There is nothing definite to show that Coronado ever reached the
confines of what is now Atchison county in 1541, as some historical
writers have seen fit to state, but there is a probability that the
Indian province of Harahey, which the natives thereof told him was just
beyond Quivira, embraced our present county and most of the region of
northeastern Kansas. Mark F. Zimmerman, an intelligent and painstaking
student of Kansas archaeology and Indian history, has given this matter
much consideration, and is confident that the Harahey chieftain,
Tatarrax, immortalized in Coronado’s chronicles, ruled over this
territory nearly four centuries ago. Until this fact is established,
however, it remains that the Indian history of what is now Atchison
county begins with the Kansa Indians in the early part of the eighteenth
century. At the time of the Bourgmont expedition in 1724, and for some
time before, this nation owned all of what is now northeastern Kansas,
and maintained several villages along the Missouri river, the principal
one being near the mouth of Independence creek, or at the present site
of Doniphan. Here they had a large town. The writer made a careful
examination and fully identified the site of this old town in 1904. The
results of this exploration are given in a pamphlet entitled “An Old
Kansas Indian Town on the Missouri,” published by the writer in 1914.
Another important village of the Kansa was located at the mouth of what
is now Salt creek, in Leavenworth county. Both of these historic
villages were situated right near and at about the same distance from
the present borders of Atchison county. There were several old Indian
villages within the confines of Atchison county, as already stated in
the preceding pages, but whether they belonged to the Kansa or to the
Harahey (Pawnee) is yet a matter of conjecture.

One of these old Kansa towns, evidently the one at Salt creek, was the
site of an important French post. Bougainville on French Posts in 1757,
says: “_Kanses._ In ascending this stream (the Missouri river) we meet
the village of the Kanses. We have there a garrison with a commandant,
appointed as in the case with Pimiteoui and Fort Chartres, by New
Orleans. This post produces one hundred bundles of furs.” Lewis and
Clark, in 1804, noted the ruins of this old post and Kansa village. They
were just outside of the southern borders of Atchison county, near the
present site of Kickapoo.

The Independence creek town, or what is generally referred to by the
early French as “Grand village des Canzes,” seems to have been a Jesuit
Missionary station as early as 1727, according to Hon. George P.
Morehouse, the historian of the Kansa Indians, who recently found in
some old French-Canadian records of the province of Ontario an
interesting fact not before recognized in Kansas history, that the name
“Kansas” was a well known geographical term to designate a place on the
Missouri river, within the present borders of our State, where the
French government and its official church, nearly 200 years ago, had an
important missionary center. Mr. Morehouse says: “It is significant as
to the standing of this Mission station of the Jesuits at Kanzas, away
out in the heart of the continent, that in this document it was classed
along with their other important Indian Missions, such as the Iroquois,
Abenaquis, and Tadoussac, and that the same amount per missionary was
expended. It was ‘Kansas,’ a mission charge on the rolls of the Jesuit
Fathers, for which annual appropriations of money were made as early as
1727. Here some of the saintly, self-sacrificing missionary pioneers of
the Cross must have come from distant Quebec and Montreal, or from the
faraway cloisters of sunny France. What zeal and sacrifice for others!
Is it any wonder that the Kansa Indians always spoke reverently of the
‘black robes,’ who were the first to labor for their welfare in that
long period in the wilderness.”

Just when the Kansa Indians established themselves at the “Grand
Village” at Doniphan, or at “Fort Village” at Kickapoo, is not known.
The first recorded mention of a Kansa village along this section of the
Missouri river is by Bourgmont in 1724. Onate met the Kansa on a hunting
expedition on the prairies of Kansas in 1601, but does not state where
their villages were located. The “Grand Village” was an old one,
however, at the time of Bourgmont’s visit. Bourgmont does not mention
the “Fort Village” at Salt creek, as he surely would had it been in
existence at that time, and it is believed that it was established
later, as it was in existence in 1757, as stated by Bourgainville.

As is a well known historical fact the Spanish attempted to invade and
colonize the Missouri valley early in the eighteenth century. The French
had come into possession of this region in 1682, and M. de Bourgmont was
commissioned military commander on the Missouri in 1720, the French
government becoming alarmed at the attempted Spanish invasion.
Establishing friendly relations with the Indians of this region in order
to have their assistance in repelling any further Spanish advance was
the object of the Bourgmont expedition to the Kansa and Padouca Indians
in 1724. Bourgmont’s party, consisting of himself, M. Bellerive, Sieur
Renaudiere, two soldiers and five other Frenchmen, besides 177 Missouri
and Osage Indians in charge of their own chiefs, marched overland from
Fort Orleans, on the lower Missouri, and arrived at the “Grand village
des Cansez” on July 7, 1724. Here they held a celebration of two weeks,
consisting of pow-wows, councils, trading horses or merchandise, and
making presents to the Indians, several boat loads of the latter, in
charge of Lieutenant Saint Ange, having arrived by river route. On July
24 they “put themselves in battle array on the village height, the drum
began to beat, and they marched away” on their journey to the Padoucas.
The incidents of their march across what is now Atchison county, and
other facts pertaining to this expedition will be found in the chapter
on early explorations in this volume.

According to a tradition handed down from prehistoric times the Kansa,
Osage, Omaha, Ponca and Kwapa were originally one people and lived along
the Wabash and Ohio rivers. In their migrations they arrived at the
mouth of the Ohio where there was a separation. Those who went down the
Mississippi became known as the Kwapa, or “down stream people,” while
those going up were called Omaha, or “up stream people.” At the mouth of
the Missouri another division took place, the Omaha and Ponka proceeding
far up that stream. The Osage located on the stream which bears their
name, and the Kansa at the mouth of what is now the Kansas river. Later
they moved on up the Missouri and established several villages, the most
northern of which was at Independence Creek. At about the close of the
Revolutionary war they were driven away from the Missouri by the Iowa
and Sauk tribes, and they took up a permanent residence on the Kansas
river, where Major Long’s expedition visited them in 1810. They
continued to make predatory visits to the Missouri, however. They
committed many depredations on traders and explorers passing up the
river and even fired on the United States troops encamped at Cow Island.
It was to prevent the recurrence of such outrages that Major O’Fallon
arranged a council with the Kansa Nation. This council was held on Cow
Island August 24, 1819, under an arbor built for the occasion. Major
O’Fallon made a speech in which he set forth the cause of complaint
which the Kansa had given by their repeated insults and depredations,
giving them notice of the approach of a military force sufficient to
chastise their insolence, and advising them to seize the present
opportunity of averting the vengeance they deserved, by proper
concessions, and by their future good behavior to conciliate those whose
friendship they would have so much occasion to desire. The replies of
the chiefs were simple and short, expressive of their conviction of the
justice of the complaints against them, and of their acquiescence in the
terms of the reconciliation proposed by the agent.

There were present at this council 161 Kansa Indians, including chiefs
and warriors, and thirteen Osages. It was afterwards learned that the
delegation would have been larger but for a quarrel that arose among the
chiefs after they had started, in regard to precedence in rank, in
consequence of which ten or twelve returned to the village on the Kansas
river. Among those at the council were Na-he-da-ba, or Long Neck, one of
the principal chiefs of the Kansas; Ka-he-ga-wa-to-ning-ga, or Little
Chief, second in rank; Shen-ga-ne-ga, an ex-principal chief; Wa-ha-che-
ra, or Big Knife, a war chief, and Wam-pa-wa-ra, or White Plume,
afterwards a noted chief. Major O’Fallon had with him the officers of
the garrison of Cow Island, or Cantonment Martin, and a few of those
connected with Major Long’s exploring party. “The ceremonies,” says one
account, “were enlivened by a military display, such as the firing of
cannon, hoisting of flags, and an exhibition of rockets and shells, the
latter evidently making a deeper impression on the Indians than the
eloquence of Major O’Fallon.” A description of Major Long’s steamboat,
built to impress the Indians on this occasion, will be found in the
following chapter on early explorations.

From the Kansa Indians our State derived its name. For more than 300
years they dwelt upon our soil. At their very advent in this region what
is now Atchison county became a part of their heritage and for
generations it was a part of their imperial home.

By the treaty of Castor Hill, Mo., October 24, 1832, the Kickapoo
Indians were assigned to a reservation in northeastern Kansas, which
included most of what is now Atchison county. They settled on their new
lands shortly after the treaty was made. Their principal settlement at
that time was at the present site of Kickapoo, in Leavenworth county,
where a Methodist mission was established among them by Rev. Jerome C.
Berryman, in 1833. There is said to have been a mission station among
the Kickapoos where Oak Mills, in Atchison county, now stands, at an
early day, but nothing definite is known regarding its history, except
that we have it from early settlers that an Indian known as Jim Corn
seemed to be the head man of the band of Kickapoos that lived there, and
that the white pioneers frequently attended services in the old mission
house which stood in the hollow a short distance southwest of the
present site of Oak Mills.

[Illustration:

  Wards of the State of Kansas, State Orphans’ Home, Atchison, Kan.
]

During the time that the Kickapoos owned and occupied what is now
Atchison county, they were ruled over by two very distinguished
chieftains—Keannakuk, the Prophet, and Masheena, or the Elk Horns. Both
of these Indians were noted in Illinois long before they migrated
westward and were prominently mentioned by Washington Irving, George
Catlin, Charles Augustus Murray and other distinguished travelers and
authors. Catlin painted their pictures in 1831, and these are included
in the famous Catlin gallery in Washington. Keannakuk was both a noted
chief and prophet of the tribe. He was a professed preacher of an order
which he claimed to have originated at a very early day and his
influence was very great among his people. He died at Kickapoo in 1852
and was buried there. Masheena was a really noted Indian. He led a band
of Kickapoos at the battle of Tippecanoe. He died and was buried in
Atchison county, near the old town of Kennekuk, in 1857. He was born in
Illinois about 1770.

Important seats of Kickapoo occupancy in Atchison county in the early
days were Kapioma, Muscotah and Kennekuk. Kapioma was named for a chief
of that name who lived there. The present township of Kapioma gets its
name from this source. Father John Baptiste Duerinck, a Jesuit, was a
missionary among the Kickapoos at Kapioma in 1855–57. Muscotah was for a
long time the seat of the Kickapoo agency. It is a Kickapoo name meaning
“Beautiful Prairie,” or “Prairie of Fire.” Kennekuk was named for John
Kennekuk, a Kickapoo chief, and son of Keannakuk, the Prophet.

By treaty of 1854 the Kickapoo reservation was diminished and the tribe
was assigned to lands along the Grasshopper or Delaware river. Still
later it was again diminished and they were given their present
territory within the confines of Brown county.

The Kickapoos are a tribe of the central Algonquian group, forming a
division with the Sauk and Foxes, with whom they have close ethnic and
linguistic connection. The first definite appearance of this tribe in
history was about 1667–70, when they were found by Allouez near the
portage between Fox and Wisconsin rivers, in Wisconsin. About 1765 they
moved down into the Illinois country, and later to Missouri and Kansas.



                              CHAPTER IV.
                          EARLY EXPLORATIONS.

  CORONADO IN 1541—THE BOURGMONT EXPEDITION IN 1724—PERIN DU LAC—LEWIS
      AND CLARK—FIRST FOURTH OF JULY CELEBRATION—MAJOR STEPHEN H. LONG—
      CANTONMENT MARTIN—ISLE AU VACHE—OTHER EXPLORERS—PASCHAL PENSONEAU—
      THE OLD MILITARY ROAD—THE MORMONS.


Some historians (notably General Simpson) in their studies of the famous
march of Coronado in search of the land of Quivira, in 1541, have
brought the great Spanish explorer to the Missouri river, in
northeastern Kansas. The more recent researches of Hodge, Bandalier and
Brower, however, have proven beyond question that Coronado’s line of
march through Kansas was north from Clark county to the Great Bend of
the Arkansas river, and thence to the region northeastward from
McPherson to the Kansas river, between the junction of its two main
forks and Deep creek, in Riley county, where the long lost province of
Quivira was located. Hence, it is no longer even probable that the great
Spaniard on this famous march ever saw the Missouri river region in
northeastern Kansas, much less to have ever set foot upon the soil of
what is now Atchison county, as many have heretofore believed.

The first white men, of whom we have definite record, to visit what is
now Atchison county, were those who composed the expedition of Capt.
Etienne Vengard de Bourgmont, military commander of the French colony of
Louisiana, who, in the summer of 1724, arrived at the Kansa Indian
village where Doniphan now stands, crossed what is now Atchison county,
and made several encampments on our soil. Leaving the Kansa village at
Doniphan on the morning of July 24, en route to the province of the
Padoucas, or what is now known as the Comanche tribe of Indians, in
north central Kansas, Bourgmont and party marched a league and a half
along what is now Deer creek, and went into camp, where they spent the
day. The next day they passed Stranger creek, or what they designated “a
small river,” and stopped on account of rain, until the 26th, when they
proceeded a few miles further, and again went into camp. A thunder-
storm, lasting all the afternoon, compelled them to remain encamped
here. On the 27th they reached a river, which was doubtless the
Grasshopper or Delaware, about four or five miles below Muscotah, where
they again camped, and, on the 28th marched out of Atchison county
somewhere along the southwest border, in Kapioma township. This strange
procession, besides Bourgmont’s force of white men, consisted of 300
Indian warriors, with two grand chiefs and fourteen war chiefs, 300
Indian squaws, 500 Indian children, and 500 dogs, carrying and dragging
provisions and equipments. The object of the expedition was to promote a
general peace among, and effect an alliance between, the different
tribes inhabitating this region. Shortly after leaving Atchison county,
Bourgmont was taken very ill, and was obliged to return to Fort Orleans,
on the lower Missouri. He was carried back across Atchison county to the
Kansa village, on a hand-barrow, and then transported down the Missouri
in a canoe. Upon his recovery he resumed his journey to the Padoucas in
the fall of 1724, coming back by way of the Kansa village and Atchison
county. No doubt other French explorers, traders and trappers, visited
this county at an earlier date than did Bourgmont, but information
concerning them is vague and uncertain.

Perin du Lac, a French explorer, set foot upon the soil of Atchison
county while on an exploring trip up the Missouri in 1802–03. In his
journal, published soon after his return to France, Du Lac mentions that
“three miles below the old Kances Indian village they perceived some
iron ore.” As the “old Kances village” was the one already referred to
as having been at Doniphan, the iron ore discovered by Du Lac must have
been in Atchison county, somewhere in the vicinity of Luther Dickerson’s
old home, where the rocks are known to be strongly impregnated with
iron. Du Lac gathered some specimens of the Atchison county ore, which
he must have lost, for he says in his journal: “I intended to have
assayed it on my return, but an accident unfortunately happening
prevented me.”

In the summer of 1804 the famous “Louisiana Purchase exploring
expedition” of Lewis and Clark passed up the Missouri river, arriving at
the southeast corner of Atchison county on July 3. They passed Isle Au
Vache, or Cow Island, opposite Oak Mills, stopped at a deserted trader’s
house at or near the site of Port William, where they picked up a stray
horse (the first recorded mention of a horse in what is now Atchison
county) and camped that night somewhere in the vicinity of Walnut creek.
The next morning they announced the “glorious Fourth” with a shot from
their gun boat, and there began the first celebration of our Nation’s
birthday on Kansas soil. That day they took dinner on the bank of White
Clay creek, or what they called “Fourth of July creek.” Here Joe Fields,
a member of the party, was bitten by a snake, and Sergeant Floyd, in
commemoration of the incident, named the prairie on which Atchison now
stands, “Joe Fields’ Snake Prairie.” Above the creek, they state, “was a
high mound, where three Indian paths centered, and from which was a very
extensive prospect.” This, undoubtedly, was the commanding elevation
where the Soldiers’ Orphans’ Home now stands. On the evening of the
Fourth they discovered and named Independence creek in honor of the day,
and closed the day’s observances with “an evening gun and an additional
gill of whiskey to the men.”

A detachment of Maj. Stephen H. Long’s Yellowstone exploring expedition,
under command of Capt. Wyley Martin, spent the winter of 1818–19 on Cow
Island, which now belongs to Atchison county, and established a post
known as Cantonment Martin. This was the first United States military
post established above Ft. Osage, and west of Missouri Territory. During
that winter Captain Martin’s men killed between 2,000 and 3,000 deer,
besides great numbers of bears, turkeys and other game. The troops that
established this frontier post were a part of the First Rifle regiment,
the “crack” organization of the United States army at that time. In
July, 1819, Major Long arrived at Cow Island. His steamboats were the
first to ascend the Missouri river above Ft. Osage. The next day Colonel
Chambers and a detachment of infantry arrived. Thomas Say and his party
of naturalists, under command of Major Biddle, at about the same time
crossed Atchison county en route from the Kansa Indian village where
Manhattan now stands, and joined Major Long’s party at Cow Island.
Messrs. Say and Jessup, naturalists of the expedition, were taken very
ill and had to remain at the island for some time. Col. Henry Atkinson,
the founder of Ft. Atkinson, and commander of the western department for
more than twenty years, arrived at Cow Island shortly after Major Long.
Maj. John O’Fallon was sutler of the post and Indian agent for the upper
Missouri. On July 4, 1819, the Nation’s birthday was celebrated on Cow
Island. The flags were raised at full mast, guns were fired, and they
had “pig with divers tarts to grace the table.” On August 24 an
important council with the Kansa Indians was held on the island. An
account of this council will be found in the chapter on Indian history
in this volume.

One of the captains who was stationed on Cow Island—Bennett Riley—
afterwards became a distinguished man in the history of this country. He
was the man for whom Ft. Riley was named. He served with gallantry in
the Indian country, the Northwest and Florida. In the Florida war he was
promoted to colonel. In the war with Mexico he became a major-general,
and was subsequently military governor of California. Col. John O’Fallon
entered the army from Kentucky and fought in the Battle of Tippecanoe
under Harrison, where he was severely wounded and carried the scar to
his grave. He had a brilliant military record, and afterwards became one
of the wealthiest and most public-spirited citizens of St. Louis.

Major Willoughby Morgan assumed command of the Cow Island post April 13,
1819. He was also a distinguished officer. When Cantonment Martin was
abandoned in September, 1819, it required a month to transport the
troops from there to Council Bluffs on the steamboats.

One of these boats, the “Western Engineer,” the first that ever touched
the shore of Atchison county, was of unique construction, having been
expressly built for the expedition and calculated to impress the
Indians. On her bow was the exhaust pipe, made in the form of a huge
serpent, with wide open mouth and tongue painted a fiery red. The steam,
escaping through the mouth, made a loud, wheezing noise that could be
heard for miles. The Indians recognized in it the power of the great
Manitou and were overcome with fear.

Cow Island has been a prominent landmark in the West from a very early
period. It was discovered by the early French explorers and called by
them Isle au Vache, meaning Isle of Cow or Cow Island. It was so named
because a stray cow was found wandering about on the island. It is
supposed that this cow was stolen by the Indians from one of the early
French settlements and placed on this island to prevent her escape.
There is a coincidence in the fact that the first horse and the first
cow in what is now Atchison county, of which we have any record, were
found in the same locality. The stray horse picked up by Lewis and
Clark, mention of which is made on a preceding page of this chapter, was
found almost opposite the upper end of Cow Island, on the Kansas shore.
There is a tradition that the French had a trading post on Cow Island at
a very early day.

In 1810, John Bradbury, a renowned English botanist, made a trip up the
Missouri river, and was the first scientist to make a systematic study
of the plants and geological formations of this region. He touched the
shore of what is now Atchison county, and in his book, “Travels in the
Interior of America,” speaks about the great fertility of our soil. He
shipped the specimens collected on this trip to the botanical gardens of
Liverpool, and no doubt many Atchison county specimens were included in
these shipments. The next year H. M. Brackenridge, another explorer,
came up the Missouri and made some observations along our shore.

[Illustration:

  Postoffice, Atchison, Kansas
]

The first permanent white settler of what is now Atchison county was a
Frenchman, Paschal Pensoneau, who, about 1839, married a Kickapoo Indian
woman and about 1844 settled on the bank of Stranger creek, near the
present site of Potter, where he established a trading-house and opened
the first farm in Atchison county on land which had been allotted him by
the Government for services in the Black Hawk and Mexican wars.
Pensoneau had long lived among the Kickapoo Indians, following them in
their migrations from Illinois to Missouri and Kansas, generally
pursuing the vocation of trader and interpreter. As early as 1833 or
1834 he was established on the Missouri river at the old Kickapoo town,
later removing to Stranger creek, as aforestated. He became a very
prominent and influential man among the Kickapoos. He long held the
position of Government interpreter that tribe. After the treaty of 1854,
diminishing the Kickapoo reserve, Pensoneau moved to the new lands
assigned the tribe along the Grasshopper river, where he lived for many
years. About 1875 he settled among a band of Kickapoo Indians, near
Shawnee, Indian Territory, where he died some years later. He was born
at Cahokia, Ill., April 17, 1796, his parents having been among the
emigrants from Canada to the early French settlements of Illinois.

In 1850 the military road from Ft. Leavenworth to Ft. Laramie was laid
out by Colonel Ogden. It crossed Atchison county, and over it passed
many important expeditions to the Western plains and mountains, and to
Oregon and California. Before this road was laid out as a Government
highway, the same route had long been traveled as a trail. It was a
great natural highway, being on the “dividing ridge” between the
Missouri and Kansas rivers. Charles Augustus Murray, Francis Parkman,
Captain Stansbury and other noted travelers journeyed over this trail
during the thirties and forties, and in the fascinating volumes they
have left, we find much of interest pertaining to the region of which
Atchison county is now a part. During the gold excitement in California
this old trail swarmed with emigrants seeking a fortune in the West. The
Mormons, the soldiers, the overland freighters, the stage drivers, the
hundred and one other picturesque types of character in the early West
have helped to make the history of this famous old branch of the “Oregon
and California Trail” immortalized by Parkman.

During the days of Mormon emigration a Mormon settlement sprang up a few
miles west of Atchison, and immediately east of the present site of
Shannon, which became known as “Mormon Grove.” The settlement was
enclosed by trenches, which served as fences to prevent the stock from
going astray, and traces of these old ditches may be seen to this day.
Many of the Mormons here died of cholera and were buried near the
settlement, but all traces of the old burial ground have been
obliterated by cultivation of the soil.



                               CHAPTER V.
                           TERRITORIAL TIMES.

  TERRITORY ACQUIRED FROM FRANCE IN 1803—ORGANIZATION OF TERRITORY—
      KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT—IMMIGRATION TO KANSAS—TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT—
      FREE STATE AND PRO-SLAVERY CONFLICT—FIRST ELECTION—SECRET
      POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS—BORDER WAR ACTIVITIES AND OUTRAGES—
      CONTESTS OVER ADOPTION OF CONSTITUTION—KANSAS ADMITTED TO THE
      UNION.


Kansas is as rich in historic lore and resources as any other region of
the great West. George J. Remsburg, who has contributed two chapters of
this history, has, with great care and accuracy, put into readable form
an account of prehistoric times, Indian occupancy and the record of
earlier explorers in northeastern Kansas. It is a tale of absorbing
interest to those who would go back to the dawn of civilization here and
study the force and character of men who paved the way for the
developments that came after. To the intrepid Spanish conquerors of
Mexico of the sixteenth century, and the hardy French explorers, two
centuries later, we are indebted for the opening up of the Great
American Desert, into which American pioneers, the century following,
found their way. Thousands of years before these came, Atchison county
had been the abode of hunting tribes and the feasting place of wild
animals. Then came the ceaseless flow of the tide of civilization, which
swept these earlier denizens from the field, to clear it for the
“momentous conflict between the two opposing systems of American
civilization, then struggling for mastery and supremacy over the
Republic.” It was in Kansas that the war of rebellion began, and it was
in the northeastern corner along the shores of the Missouri river—in
Atchison county—“that the spark of conflict which had irritated a Nation
for decades burst into devastating flames.”

It is a delicate task to convey anything approaching a truthful account
of the storm and stress of opinions and emotions which accompanied the
organization of Kansas as one of the great American commonwealths, and
the part played by the citizens of Atchison county in that tremendous
work, but sixty years have served to mellow the animosities and
bitternesses of the past, and it is easier now to comprehend the strife
of that distant day and pass unbiased judgment upon it.

When the United States acquired from France, in 1803, the territory of
which Atchison county is a part, slavery was a legalized institution,
and many of the residents held slaves. In the treaty of cession, there
was incorporated an expressed stipulation that the inhabitants of
Louisiana “should be incorporated into the Union of the United States
and admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the
Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages and
immunities of citizens of the United States, and in the meantime they
should be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their
liberty, property and the religion which they professed.” Thus it came
to pass for over fifty years after the time that vast empire was
acquired from France the bitter contest between the anti-slavery and the
pro-slavery advocates ebbed and flowed, and amidst a continual clash of
ideas and finally after the shedding of blood, Kansas, and Atchison
county, were born.

It was in the Thirty-second Congress that petitions were presented for
the organization of the Territory of the Platte, viz: all that tract
lying west of Iowa and Missouri and extending west to the Rocky
mountains, but no action on the petitions was taken at that time.
December 13, 1852, Willard P. Hall, a congressman from Missouri,
submitted to the House of Representatives a bill organizing this region.
This bill was referred to the committee on territories, which reported
February 22, 1853, through its chairman, William A. Richardson, of
Illinois. A bill organizing the territory of Nebraska, which covered the
same territory as the bill of Mr. Hall, was met by unexpected and strong
opposition from the southern members of Congress, and was rejected in
the committee of the whole. The House, however, did not adopt the action
of the committee, but passed the bill and sent it to the Senate, where
it was defeated March 3, 1853, by six votes. On the fourteenth day of
December, 1853, Senator Dodge, of Iowa, submitted to that body a new
bill for the organization of the territory of Nebraska, embracing the
same region as the bill which was defeated in the first session of the
Thirty-second Congress. It was referred to the committee on territories,
of which Stephen A. Douglas was chairman, on January 4, 1854.

It was during the discussion of this bill that the abrogation of the
Missouri Compromise was foreshadowed. The story of the action of Senator
Douglas in connection with the slavery question has appeared in every
history since the Civil war. It is neither necessary nor proper to dwell
at length upon his career in connection with the history of Atchison
county. However, it was following a bitter discussion of the slavery
question that the bill was passed, creating Kansas a territory. The
provisions of the bill, as presented, were known to be in accordance
with the wishes and designs of all the Southern members to have been
accepted before being presented by President Pierce by a majority of the
members of his cabinet, and to have the assured support of a sufficient
number of Northern administration Democrats, to insure its passage
beyond a doubt. The contest over the measure ended May 27, 1854, by the
passage of the bill, which was approved May 30, 1854, by President
Pierce.

The act organizing Nebraska and Kansas contained thirty-seven sections.
The provisions relating to Kansas were embodied in the last eighteen
sections, summarized as follow:

Section 19 defines the boundaries of the territory; gives it the name of
Kansas, and prescribes that when admitted as a State, or States, the
said territory, or any portion of the same, shall be received into the
Union with or without slavery, as their constitution may prescribe at
the time of their admission. Also provides for holding the rights of all
Indian tribes inviolable, until such time as they shall be extinguished
by treaty.

Section 20. The executive power and authority is vested in a governor,
appointed by the President, to hold his office for the term of four
years, or until his successor is appointed and qualified, unless sooner
removed by the President of the United States.

Section 21. The secretary of State is appointed and subject to removal
by the President of the United States, and to be acting governor with
full powers and functions of the governor in case of the absence of the
governor from the territory, or a vacancy occurring.

Section 22. Legislative power and authority of territory is vested in
the governor and a legislative body, consisting of two branches, a
council and a house of representatives.

Section 23 prescribes qualifications of voters; giving the right to
every free white male inhabitant, above the age of 21 years, who shall
be an actual resident of the territory, to vote at the first election.

Section 24 limits the scope of territorial legislation, and defines the
veto power of the governor.

Section 25 prescribes the manner of appointing and electing officers,
not otherwise provided for.

Section 26 precludes members from holding any office created or the
emoluments of which are increased during any session of the legislature
of which they are a member, and prescribes qualifications for members of
the legislative assembly.

Section 27 vests the judicial power in the supreme court, district
courts, probate courts and in justices of the peace.

Section 28 declares the fugitive slave law of 1850 to be in full force
in the territory.

Section 29 provides for the appointment of an attorney and marshal for
the territory.

Section 30 treats with the nomination of the President, chief justice,
associate justices, attorney and marshal, and their confirmation by the
Senate, and prescribes the duties of these officers and fixes their
salaries.

Section 31 locates the temporary seat of government of the territory at
Ft. Leavenworth, and authorizes the use of the Government buildings
there for public purposes.

Section 32 provides for the election of a delegate to Congress, and
abrogates the Missouri Compromise.

Section 33 prescribes the manner and the amount of appropriations for
the erection of public buildings, and other territorial purposes.

Section 34 reserves for the benefit of schools in the territory and
states and territories hereafter to be erected out of the same, sections
number 16 and 30 in each township, as they are surveyed.

Section 35 prescribes the mode of defining the judicial districts of the
territory, and appointing the times and places of holding the various
courts.

Section 36 requires officers to give official bonds, in such manner as
the secretary of treasury may prescribe.

Section 37 declares all treaties, laws and other engagements made by the
United States Government with the Indian tribes inhabiting the territory
to remain inviolate, notwithstanding anything contained in the
provisions of the act.

It was under the provisions of the above act that those coming to Kansas
to civilize it and to erect their homes were to be guided.

Edward Everett Hale, in his history of Kansas and Nebraska, published in
1854, says, “Up to the summer of 1834, Kansas and Nebraska have had no
civilized residents, except the soldiers sent to keep the Indian tribes
in order; the missionaries sent to convert them; the traders who bought
furs of them, and those of the natives who may be considered to have
attained some measure of civilization from their connection with the
whites.” So it will be seen that at the time of the passage of the
Kansas-Nebraska act, Atchison county was very sparsely settled.

All movements in the territory, or elsewhere, made for its organization,
were provisional, as they were subject to the rights of the various
Indian tribes, whose reservations covered, by well defined boundaries,
every acre of northeastern Kansas, except such tracts as were reserved
by the Government about Ft. Leavenworth, and other military stations,
but with the move for the organization of the territory came an effort
to extinguish the Indian’s title to the lands and thus open them to
white settlers. One of the most interesting books bearing upon the
history of Kansas of that time was “Greeley’s Conflict.” He makes the
following statement with reference to this subject:

“When the bill organizing Kansas and Nebraska was first submitted to
Congress in 1853, all that portion of Kansas which adjoins the State of
Missouri, and, in fact, nearly all the accessible portion of both
territories, was covered by Indian reservations, on which settlement by
whites was strictly forbidden. The only exception was in favor of
Government agents and religious missionaries; and these, especially the
former, were nearly all Democrats and violent partisans of slavery.
* * * * Within three months immediately preceding the passage of the
Kansas bill aforesaid, treaties were quietly made at Washington with the
Delawares, Otoes, Kickapoos, Kaskaskias, Shawnees, Sacs, Foxes and other
tribes, whereby the greater part of the soil of Kansas, lying within one
or two hundred miles of the Missouri border, was suddenly opened to
white appropriation and settlement. These simultaneous purchases of the
Indian land by the Government, though little was known of them
elsewhere, were thoroughly understood and appreciated by the Missourians
of the western border, who had for some time been organizing ‘Blue
Lodges,’ ‘Social Bands,’ ‘Sons of the South,’ and other societies, with
intent to take possession of Kansas in behalf of slavery. They were well
assured and they fully believed that the object contemplated and
desired, in lifting, by the terms of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, the
interdict of slavery from Kansas, was to authorize and facilitate the
legal extension of slavery into that region. Within a few days after the
passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act, hundreds of leading Missourians
crossed into the adjacent territory, selected each his quarter section,
or a larger area of land, put some sort of mark on it, and then united
with his fellow-adventurers in a meeting, or meetings, intended to
establish a sort of Missouri preëmption upon all this region.”

Immediately following the passage of the territorial act the immigration
of Missourians to Kansas began, and, indeed, before its final passage
the best of the lands had been located and marked for preëmption by the
Missourians. This was true, apparently, in the case of George M.
Million, whom the records disclose was the first settler in Atchison
county, after Kansas was made a territory. Mr. Million was of German
descent and came to the vicinity of Rushville in the hills east of
Atchison from Coal county, Missouri, prior to 1841, where he was married
to Sarah E. Dixon before she was fifteen years old. In 1841 Million
occupied the present site of East Atchison as a farm. At that time the
bottom land just east of Atchison was covered with tall rushes and was
known as Rush bottom. The town of Rushville was originally known as
Columbus, but the name was subsequently changed to Rushville because of
the character of the country in which it was located. During the winter
Million eked out his livelihood by cutting wood and hauling it to the
river bank, selling it in the spring and summer to the steamboats that
plied up and down the Missouri river. Sometime subsequent to 1841,
Million built a flat-boat ferry and operated it for seven or eight years
and did a thriving business during the great gold rush to California. He
accumulated considerable money and later operated a store, trading with
the Indians for furs and buying hemp, which he shipped down the river.
In June, 1854, he “squatted” on the present townsite of Atchison, and
built a log house at the foot of Atchison street, near his ferry
landing, and just opposite his cabin on the Missouri side of the river.
Following Million, in June, 1854 came a colony of emigrants from Iatan,
Mo., and took up claims in the neighborhood of Oak Mills. They were F.
P. Goddard, G. B. Goddard, James Douglass, Allen Hanson and George A.
Wright, but the actual settlers and founders of Atchison county did not
enter the territory of Kansas until July, 1854. On the twentieth day of
that month Dr. J. H. Stringfellow with Ira Norris, Leonidas Oldham,
James B. Martin and Neil Owens left Platte City, Mo., to decide
definitely upon a good location for a town. With the exception of Dr.
Stringfellow they all took claims about four miles southwest of the
present city of Atchison. Traveling in a southwesterly direction from
Platte City the party reached the river opposite Ft. Leavenworth and
crossed to the Kansas side. They went north until they reached the mouth
of Walnut creek, “and John Alcorn’s lonely cabin upon its banks.” They
continued their course up the river until they came to the “south edge
of the rim of the basin which circles around from the south line of the
city, extending west by gradual incline to the divide between White Clay
and Stranger creek, then north and east around to the northern limits of
the city.” It was at this point that the Missouri river made the bend
from the northeast, throwing the point where Atchison is now located,
twelve miles west of any locality, north, and twenty miles west of
Leavenworth, and thirty-five miles west of Kansas City. When they
descended into the valley, of which Commercial street is now the lowest
point, Dr. Stringfellow and his companions found George M. Million and
Samuel Dickson. Mr. Dickson followed Million to Kansas from Rushville,
and while there is some dispute as to who was the second resident in
Atchison county after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, the best
authorities lead to the conclusion that to Samuel Dickson belongs that
honor. Mr. Dickson erected a small shanty near the spring, which bore
his name for so many years, on the east side of South Sixth street,
between Park and Spring streets. His house is described as a structure
twelve feet square, having one door and one window and a large stone
chimney running up the outside. As soon as Dr. Stringfellow arrived he
at once commenced negotiations with Mr. Million for the purchase of his
claim. Mr. Million, apparently, was a shrewd real estate speculator and
only surrendered his claim upon the payment of $1,000. Dr. Stringfellow
considered this a very fancy figure for the land, but he and his
associates were firm in their decision of founding a city at this point
on the Missouri river and they gave Mr. Million his price. The
organization of a town company which followed will be discussed in a
subsequent chapter of this territory.

The first territorial appointment for the purpose of inaugurating a
local government in Kansas was made in June, 1854. Governor Andrew. H.
Reeder, of Easton, Pa., was appointed on that date. He took the oath of
office in Washington, D. C., July 7, and arrived in Kansas at Ft.
Leavenworth October 7, becoming at once the executive head of the Kansas
government. Governor Reeder was a stranger to Kansas. With the exception
of Senator Atchison he scarcely knew anybody in Kansas. He was a lawyer
by profession, one of the ablest in the State of Pennsylvania. From
early manhood he had been an ardent and loyal Democrat and had defended
with vigor and great power the principle of squatter sovereignty and the
Kansas-Nebraska bill. He was not a politician and was an able, honest,
clear-thinking Democrat. Upon his arrival in Kansas he set himself at
once to the task of inaugurating the government in the territory.
According to his own testimony before the special congressional
committee appointed by Congress to investigate the troubles in Kansas in
1856, he made it his first business to obtain information of the
geography, settlements, population and general condition of the
territory, with a view to its division into districts; the defining of
their boundary; the location of suitable and central places for
elections, and the full names of men in each district for election
officers, persons to take the census, justices of the peace, and
constables. He accordingly made a tour of the territory, and although he
did not come to Atchison county his tour included many important and
remote settlements in the territory. Upon his return he concluded that
if the election for a delegate to Congress should be postponed until an
election could be had for the legislature, which, in the one case
required no previous census, and in the other a census was required, the
greater part of the session of Congress, which would terminate on the
fourth of March, would expire before a congressional delegate from the
territory could reach Washington. He, therefore, ordered an election for
a delegate to Congress, and postponed the taking of the census until
after that election. He prepared, without unnecessary delay, a division
of the territory into election districts, fixed a place of election in
each, appointed election officers and ordered that the election should
take place November 29, 1854. Atchison county was in the fifteenth
election district, which comprised the following territory: Commencing
at the mouth of Salt creek on the Missouri river; thence up said creek
to the military road and along the middle of said road to the lower
crossing of Stranger creek: thence up said creek to the line of the
Kickapoo reservation, and thence along the southern and western line
thereof to the line of the fourteenth district: thence between same, and
down Independence creek to the mouth thereof, and thence down the
Missouri river to the place of beginning. The place of the election was
at the house of Pascal Pensoneau, on the Ft. Leavenworth and Oregon
road, near what is now the town site of Potter. The election which
followed was an exciting one. Public meetings were held in all of the
towns and villages, at which resolutions were passed against the eastern
abolitionists, the _Platte County Argus_ sounding the following alarm:

“We know we speak the sentiments of some of the most distinguished
statesmen of Missouri when we advise that counter-organizations be made,
both in Kansas and Missouri, to thwart the reckless course of the
abolitionists. We must meet them at their very threshold and scourge
them back to their covers of darkness. They have made the issue, and it
is for us to meet and repel them.”

The secret organizations, of which Greeley spoke, known as the “Blue
Lodges,” “Social Bands,” and “Sons of the South,” became very active,
and knowing the condition of affairs along the Missouri border, and
having learned the needs and wishes of the actual settlers in the
territory, Governor Reeder decided that their rights should not be
jeopardized. Therefore, in ordering an election of a congressional
delegate only, with the idea of a later proclamation ordering a
territorial election of a legislature, he knew that much trouble would
be spared. In his proclamation for the congressional election, provision
was made for defining the qualifications of legal voters, and providing
against fraud, both of which provisions were received with alarm by the
leaders of the slavery Democracy, who, up to that time had hoped that
the administration at Washington had sent them an ally. It was not long
until they discovered that they were mistaken.

The actual settlers of the territory did not evince much interest in the
election. They were all engaged in what appeared to them to be the more
important business of building their homes and otherwise providing
necessities before the approach of winter. There were no party
organizations in the territory. The slavery question was not generally
understood to be an issue. The first candidates to announce themselves
were James N. Burnes, whose name has for sixty years been prominently
identified with the social, political and business history of Atchison
county, and J. B. Chapman. These two candidates subsequently withdrew
from the campaign, and the names finally submitted to the voters were:
Gen. John W. Whitfield, Robert P. Flenneken, Judge John A. Wakefield.
Whitfield ignored the slavery issue during his canvass, but his cause
was openly espoused by the Missourians. Flenneken was a friend of
Governor Reeder, with Free Soil proclivities. Wakefield was an outspoken
Free-Soiler. Hon. David R. Atchison, then a United States senator, and
for whom Atchison county was named, was the head and front of the pro-
slavery movement. He had a national reputation and was a power in the
United States Senate, and won for himself the highest position in the
gift of the Senate, having been chosen president protempore of that body
after the death of Vice-President King. He was loyal to the southern
views regarding slavery and this made him the unquestioned leader of the
party which believed, as Senator Atchison himself believed, that the
passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill would inevitably result in a slave
State west of Missouri. It was to Senator Atchison that Dr. J. H.
Stringfellow, himself one of the strong leaders of the pro-slavery
forces, looked for inspiration and direction. In a speech Senator
Atchison made in Weston, Mo., November 6, 1854, which was just prior to
the congressional election in Kansas, he said:

“My mission here today is, if possible, to awaken the people of this
country to the danger ahead and to suggest the means to avoid it. The
people of Kansas in their first elections will decide the question
whether or not the slave-holder was to be excluded, and it depends upon
a majority of the votes cast at the polls. Now, if a set of fanatics and
demagogues a thousand miles off could afford to advance their money and
exert every nerve to abolitionize the territory and exclude the slave-
holder, when they have not the least personal interest in the matter,
what is your duty? When you reside within one day’s journey of the
territory, and when your peace, your quiet, and your property depend
upon this action you can without any exertion send five hundred of your
young men who will vote in favor of your institutions.”

On November 28, the day preceding the election, the secret society
voters in Missouri began to cross over into Kansas. They came organized
to carry the election and in such overwhelming numbers as to completely
over-awe and out-number the legal voters of the territory at many of the
precincts. They took possession of the polls, elected many of the
judges, intimidated others to resign and refusing to take the oath
qualifying themselves as voters and prescribe to the regulations of the
election, cast their ballots for General John W. Whitfield and hastily
beat their retreat to Missouri. The whole number of votes cast in that
election was 2,233, of which number Whitfield received 2,258; Wakefield,
248; Flenneken, 305, with twenty-two scattering votes. The frauds which
were at first denied by both the pro-slavery newspapers and General
Whitfield himself, were not long in being discovered.

In the Fifteenth district, of which Atchison county was a part, the
total number of votes cast was 306, of which Wakefield got none;
Flenneken, 39, and Whitfield, 267. The total number of votes given by
the census was 308, and in the majority report of the congressional
committee of the following year 206 illegal votes were shown to have
been cast in that district. However, there was little immediate
disturbance following the election. The settlers continued to busy
themselves in completing their homes and were more interested in
securing titles to their lands than in the future destiny of the
territory.

In the following January and February Governor Reeder caused an
enumeration of the inhabitants to be taken preparatory to calling an
election for a legislature. H. B. Jolly was named as enumerator for the
Fifteenth district and Mr. Jolly found a total of 873 persons in the
district, divided as follows: Males, 492; females, 381; voters, 308;
minors, 448; natives of the United States, 846; foreign born, sixteen;
negroes, fifteen; slaves, fifteen. The date appointed for the
legislative election was March 30, 1855. The proclamation of the
governor defined the election districts; appointed the voting precincts;
named the judges of the election, defined the duties of the judges, and
the qualifications of voters. Thirteen members of the council and
twenty-six members of the house of representatives were to constitute
the legislative assembly of the territory. Atchison was in the Ninth
council district and in the Thirteenth representative district.
Following the precedent established in the election for congressional
delegate the November before the blue lodges of Missouri became active
and large numbers of members of the secret societies of Missouri were
sent into every council and representative district in the territory for
the purpose of controlling the election. They were armed and came with
provisions and tents. They overpowered and intimidated the resident
voters to such an extent that only 1,410 legal votes were cast in the
territory out of 2,905 enumerated in the census.

D. A. N. Grover was the pro-slavery candidate for councilman in the
Ninth Council district with no opposition and he received 411 votes
which was the total number of votes enumerated for that district. H. B.
C. Harris and J. Weddell were the pro-slavery candidates for
representative in the Thirteenth district with no opposition. They each
received 412 votes, being the total number of votes enumerated in the
district.

It was another victory for the pro-slavery sympathizers and the Free
State men were indignant, while on the other hand the pro-slavery
residents, with their Missouri allies, did not conceal their joy, at the
same time admitting frankly the outrages which were practiced at the
polls. The _Leavenworth Herald_ of April 6 headed its election returns
with the following:

               “All Hail.
               Pro-Slavery Party Victorious.
               We have met the enemy, and they are ours.
               Veni Vidi Vici!
               Free White State Party used up.

“The triumph of the pro-slavery party is complete and overwhelming. Come
on, Southern men; bring your slaves and fill up the territory. Kansas is
Saved! Abolitionism is rebuked. Her fortress stormed. Her flag is
dragging in the dust. The tri-colored platform has fallen with a crash.
The rotten timbers of its structure were not sufficient to sustain the
small fragments of the party.”

The _Parkville Luminary_ which was published in Platte county, Missouri,
very mildly protested against the manner of carrying the election and
spoke in friendly terms of the Free Soil settlers. The following week
its office and place was destroyed by a mob and forced its editors to
flee the country for their lives.

The election of November 29, 1854, so incensed the Anti-Slavery element
that the Free State movement was given a great impetus. A convention of
Free State men at Lawrence June 8, 1855, and the Big Springs convention
September 5, 1855, were the result, and from that date many other public
meetings of Free State men followed. The Free State sentiment fully
crystalized itself in the momentous election of October 9, 1855,
following eight days after the date set by the pro-slavery legislature
for an election of delegate to Congress to succeed J. W. Whitfield, who
had been elected the year before. The first election in 1855 was held
October 1 but was participated in only by pro-slavery men. The abstract
of the poll books showed that 2,738 votes were cast in the territory and
Whitfield received 2,721, of which it is only fair to say that 857 were
declared illegal. In the Free State election Ex-Governor Andrew H.
Reeder received 2,849 votes, of which 101 were cast in Atchison county.
On the same day an election for delegates to a constitutional convention
to be held at Topeka took place and R. H. Crosby, a merchant of Oceana,
Atchison county, and Caleb May, a farmer, near the same place, were
elected delegates.

The returns of the pro-slavery election having been made according to
law, the governor granted the certificate of election to Whitfield, who
returned to Washington as the duly elected delegate from Kansas. The
territorial executive committee, elected at the Big Springs convention,
gave a certificate of election to Reeder. The Topeka constitutional
convention subsequently convened October 23, 1855, and was in session
until November 11. This body of Free State men framed a constitution,
and among other things memorialized Congress to admit Kansas as a State.
It was understood by all that the validity of the work of the convention
was contingent upon the admission of Kansas as a State. Meanwhile the
executive committee of Kansas Territory appointed at the Topeka primary,
September 19, 1855, under the leadership of James H. Lane, continued to
direct and inspire the work for a State government.

As a counter-irritant to the activities of the Free State men, and for
the purpose of allaying the insane excitement of the territorial
legislature, the pro-slavery followers organized a Law and Order party,
which was pledged to the establishment of slavery in Kansas. From
thenceforth it was open warfare between the two great forces contending
for supremacy in the territory. Atchison was the stronghold of the Law
and Order party, as Lawrence was the stronghold of the Free State party.
The Free State party was looked upon by the Law and Order advocates as
made up of revolutionists and the Law and Order party was determined to
bring them to time as soon as possible, but as the members of the Free
State party held themselves apart from the legal machinery devised for
the government of the territory, bringing no suits in its courts;
attending no elections; paying no attention to its county organizations;
offering no estates to its probate judges, and paying no tax levies made
by authority of the legislature, they were careful to commit no act
which would lay themselves liable to the laws which they abhorred. They
settled all their disputes by arbitration in order to avoid litigation,
but as they could build, manufacture, buy and sell and establish schools
and churches without coming under the domination of the pro-slavery
forces, they managed to do tolerably well. Where the inhabitants were
mostly Free State, as in Lawrence and Topeka, conditions were reasonably
satisfactory, but in localities like Atchison and Leavenworth, where the
Law and Order party dominated affairs, the Free State inhabitants were
forced to suffer many indignities and insults.

During the month of August, 1855, a negro woman belonging to Grafton
Thomassen, who ran a sawmill in Atchison, was found drowned in the
Missouri river. J. W. B. Kelley, a rabid anti-slavery lawyer, from
Cincinnati, who became a resident of Atchison, expressed the opinion
that if Thomassen’s negro woman had been treated better by her master
she would not have committed suicide by jumping into the river.
Thomassen was greatly angered at this personal illusion and deluded
himself into believing that if he satisfied his own vengeance he would
at the same time be rendering the pro-slavery party a service. He
therefore picked a quarrel with Kelley and they came to blows, after
which Thomassen’s conduct was sustained by a largo meeting of Atchison
people. While it is said that Thomassen was a larger and more powerful
man than Kelley, the people did not consider this fact, but rather
considered the principle involved, and as a result they commended the
act in the following resolution:

“1. Resolved. That one J. W. B. Kelley, hailing from Cincinnati, having
upon sundry occasions denounced our institutions and declared all pro-
slavery men ruffians, we deem it an act of kindness and hereby command
him to leave the town of Atchison one hour after being informed of the
passage of this resolution never more to show himself in this vicinity.

2. Resolved. That in case he fails to obey this reasonable command, we
inflict upon him such punishment as the nature of the case may require.

3. Resolved. That other emissaries of this ‘Aid Society’ now in our
midst, tampering with our slaves, are warned to leave, else they too
will meet the reward which their nefarious designs so justly merit.—
Hemp.

4. Resolved. That we approve and applaud our fellow-townsman, Grafton
Thomassen, for the castigation administered to said J. W. B. Kelley,
whose presence among us is a libel upon our good standing and a disgrace
to our community.

5. Resolved. That we commend the good work of purging our town of all
resident abolitionists, and after cleaning our town of such nuisances
shall do the same for the settlers on Walnut and Independence creeks
whose propensities for cattle stealing are well known to many.

6. Resolved. That the chairman appoint a committee of three to wait upon
said Kelley and acquaint him with the actions of this meeting.

7. Resolved. That the proceedings of this meeting be published, that the
world may know our determination.”

After the passage of these resolutions they were circulated throughout
Atchison and all citizens were asked to sign the same and if any person
refused he was deemed and treated as an abolitionist. A few days after
this incident Rev. Pardee Butler, a minister of the Christian church,
who was living at that time near the now abandoned townsite of Pardee,
west of Atchison, about twelve miles, came to town to do some trading.
Butler was an uncompromising anti-slavery advocate and never overlooked
an opportunity to make his sentiments known. He had strong convictions
backed by courage, and while he did not seek controversies, he never
showed a desire to avoid them. He was well known in the community as a
Free State man, and so when he came into Atchison after these
resolutions were passed and the town was all excited about them it did
not take him long to get into the controversy and he condemned in strong
terms the outrage upon Kelley and also the resolutions which were
passed. In the course of a conversation which he had at the postoffice
with Robert S. Kelley, the postmaster and assistant editor of the
_Squatter Sovereign_, he informed Mr. Kelley that he long since would
have become a subscriber to his paper had he not disliked the violent
sentiments which appeared in its columns. Mr. Kelley replied: “I look
upon all Free Soilers as rogues and they ought to be treated as such.”
Mr. Butler responded: “I am a Free Soiler and expect to vote for Kansas
as a Free State.” “I do not expect you will be allowed to vote,” was Mr.
Kelley’s reply. On the following morning Mr. Kelley called at the
National hotel, corner of Second and Atchison streets, where Mr. Butler
had spent the night, accompanied by a number of friends and demanded
Butler to sign the resolutions, which of course Mr. Butler refused to
do, and walked down stairs into the street. A crowd gathered and seized
Mr. Butler, dragging him towards the river, shouting that they intended
to drown him. The mob increased in size as they proceeded with the
victim. A vote was taken as to the kind of punishment which ought to be
given him and a verdict of death by hanging was rendered. It was not
discovered until forty years afterwards that Mr. Kelley, the teller,
saved Mr. Butler’s life by making false returns to the excited mob. Mr.
Kelley subsequently was a resident of Montana and gave this information
while stopping in St. Joseph with Dr. J. H. Stringfellow, the former
editor of the _Squatter Sovereign_. Instead of returning a verdict of
death by hanging Mr. Kelley announced that it was the decision of the
mob to send Mr. Butler down the Missouri river on a raft, and an account
of what followed is best given by Rev. Pardee Butler himself:

“When we arrived at the bank Mr. Kelley painted my face with black
paint, marked upon it the letter “R.” The company had increased to some
thirty or forty persons. Without any trial, witness, judge, counsel or
jury, for about two hours I was a sort of target at which were hurled
imprecations, curses, arguments, entreaties, accusations and
interrogations. They constructed a raft of three cottonwood sawlogs,
fastened together with inch plank nailed to the logs, upon which they
put me and sent me down the Missouri river. The raft was towed out to
the middle of the stream with a canoe. Robert S. Kelley held the rope
that towed the raft. They gave me neither rudder, oar nor anything else
to manage my raft with. They put up a flag on the raft with the
following inscription on it:

  ‘Eastern Emigrant Aid Express.

  The Rev. Pardee Butler again for the underground road;

  The way they are served in Kansas: Shipped for Boston; Cargo insured.
      Unavoidable danger of the Missourians and Missouri river excepted.

  Let future emissaries from the north Beware.

  Our Hemp crop is sufficient to reward all such scoundrels.’

“They threatened to shoot me if I pulled the flag down. I pulled it
down, cut the flag off the flag staff, made a paddle out of the flag
staff and ultimately got ashore about six miles below.”

The mob was considerate enough to provide Mr. Butler a loaf of bread and
permitted him to take his baggage on board, afterwards escorting him
down the river for some distance.

When Mr. Butler landed he returned overland to his home near Pardee. On
April 30, 1856, he again ventured to make his appearance in Atchison,
where he says: “I spoke to no one in town save two merchants of the
place with whom I had business transactions since my first arrival in
the territory. Having remained only a few minutes I went to my buggy to
resume my journey when I was assaulted by Robert S. Kelley, junior
editor of the _Squatter Sovereign_; was dragged into a grocery and there
surrounded by a company of South Carolinians who are reported to have
been sent out by a Southern Emigrant Aid Society. After exposing me to
every sort of indignity they stripped me to the waist, covered my body
with tar and then for the want of feathers applied cotton wool, having
appointed a committee of three to certainly hang me the next time I
should come to Atchison. They tossed my clothes into the buggy, put me
therein, accompanying me to the suburbs of the town and sent me naked
upon the prairie. I adjusted my attire about me as best I could and
hastened to rejoin my wife and two little sons on the banks of Stranger
creek. It was rather a sorrowful meeting after so long a parting.”

The above incident gives some idea of the prevailing sentiment in
Atchison county during the period beginning in 1854 and ending in 1857.

There was little chance of Free State settlers to avoid trouble except
by discreet silence. It would not be just, however, to fail to disclose
the fact that the Free State men also had their secret organizations.
The Kansas Legion was a military organization for defensive purposes
only. Its members were organized into companies, battalions and
regiments and were officered and armed with rifles and pistols sent from
the East. These organizations were the natural result of the secret pro-
slavery organizations of Missouri and were known to exist to protect the
Free State settlers against the attacks of the Blue Lodges, Sons of the
South, and the Social Bands.

A man by the name of Pat Laughlin became a member of the Kansas Legion
and was very active in organizing companies of that organization at
different points in the territory. He subsequently became a traitor to
his associates and gave out information to the enemy, thereby creating
great indignation among his former friends whom he had betrayed. Later
Laughlin and Samuel Collins, of Doniphan county, became engaged in a
fierce altercation and friends of both parties to the dispute were
present and armed. Laughlin shot Collins and killed him on the spot and
was slightly wounded himself. This affair occurred October 25, 1855. No
attempt was made by the appointed peace officers of the territory to
bring the guilty parties participating in the Pardee Butler outrage or
the murder of Collins to justice. Shortly after Laughlin recovered from
his wound he secured a position in a store in Atchison and lived there
for many years.

This condition of affairs could not long exist without an open rupture
between the two opposing forces and from this time on there was a
succession of personal encounters of wide significance, and in addition
there was the war along the border in which Atchison county played a
conspicuous but not a glorious part. The activities here at that crucial
period were largely in the interest of the pro-slavery forces. It was at
this juncture that the immortal John Brown appeared on the scene to
begin his work of driving the slavery advocates from Kansas and making
it and the Nation free. His first appearance among the Free State men
was December 7, 1855, but he had been in the territory several months
before that with his four sons. John Brown did not reach Atchison county
during his stormy career in Kansas. The nearest he ever came was in 1857
when he passed through Jackson county with a party of slaves which he
was taking from Missouri to Nebraska for the purpose of setting them
free. In the historical edition of the Atchison _Daily Globe_ of July
16, 1894, there appears the following short reference to this excursion:

“In 1857 John Brown made a trip from Missouri into Nebraska with a party
of slave negroes which he intended to set free. His route was through
Jackson county, Kansas, and up by where the town of Centralia now
stands. A lot of the pro-slavery enthusiasts in Atchison heard of the
affair and went out to intercept Brown. They came up with him near
Centralia, but Brown had heard of their coming and captured the entire
party. One of the men in the pro-slavery party was named George Ringo;
afterwards he soldiered with Dwight Merlin in the Thirteenth Kansas and
often talked of the trip to Merwin around their camp fires. Ringo says
that James T. Herford was another member of the pro-slavery party, and a
man named Cook was another. John Brown looked at Cook critically after
the capture and asked his name. Cook said his name was Thomas Porter. “I
believe you are lying. I believe your name is Cook and if I was certain
of it I would kill you,” Brown said. Cook was one of the men accused of
killing Brown’s son at Osawatomie, but Brown was not certain of his
identity and let him go with the others. George Ringo says that Brown
held a prayer meeting in his camp every evening and asked a blessing at
every meal.

“One night when the Atchison party was in the custody of Brown, Brown
asked Jim Herford to pray. ‘I can’t pray,’ Herford replied. ‘Didn’t your
mother teach you to pray?’ Brown inquired. ‘She taught me to say, “Now I
lay me down to sleep,” that was all,’ Herford answered. ‘All right,’
Brown said, ‘get down on your knees and say, “Now I lay me down to
sleep.”’ Herford did as he was requested, being afraid to refuse and
Brown soon rolled himself in a blanket and went to sleep.”

As the activities of Brown increased so likewise the activities of the
pro-slavery forces increased under the leadership of Senator Atchison,
of Missouri, and Dr. Stringfellow, editor of the _Squatter Sovereign_.
The _Squatter Sovereign_, about which more will appear in a subsequent
chapter, was published in Atchison and was largely supported by
government advertising patronage. It was the leading pro-slavery
newspaper organ of the territory. Senator Atchison’s activities were of
the most pronounced sort. He not only urged his Missouri constituents to
invade the territory in all their might and capture the Yankees, but he
went himself. At Platte City, Mo., February 4, 1856, Senator Atchison
made a speech which gives some idea of the language he employed in
urging the people of western Missouri to join in the invading of Kansas.
He said:

“I was a prominent agent in repealing the Missouri Compromise and
opening the territory for settlement. The abolition traitors drummed up
their forces and whistled them onto the cars, and whistled them off
again at Kansas City: some of them had ‘Kansas and Liberty’ on their
hats. I saw this with my own eyes. These men came with the avowed
purpose of driving or expelling you from the territory. What did I
advise you to do? Why, to beat them at their own game. When the first
election came off I told you to go over and vote. You did so and beat
them. Well, what next? Why, an election of members of the legislature to
organize the territory must be held. What did I advise you to do then?
Why, meet them on their own ground and at their own game again: and,
cold and inclement as the weather was, I went over with a company of
men. The abolitionists of the North said, and published it abroad, that
Atchison was there with bowie-knives, and by God, it was true. I never
did go into that territory—I never intend to go into that territory—
without being prepared for all such kinds of cattle.

“They held an election on the fifteenth of last month and they intend to
put the machinery of the State in motion on the fourth of March. Now you
are entitled to my advice, and you shall have it. I say, _prepare
yourselves. Go over there._ Send your young men, and if they attempt to
drive you out, then, damn them, drive _them_ out. Fifty of you with your
shotguns are worth 250 of them with their Sharpe’s rifles. Get ready—arm
yourselves; for, if they abolitionize Kansas you lose one million
dollars of your property. I am satisfied that I can justify every act of
you before God and a jury.”

All of the pro-slavery papers were open in their advocacy of an
immediate war of extermination. The _Squatter Sovereign_ in its issue
just after the election of January 15, commenting on certain
disturbances at Easton and a murder at Leavenworth, did not condemn what
took place at Easton and had no word of apology or pity to offer for the
murdered man. On the contrary it upheld those who committed the murder
and gave them encouragement in their campaign of killing abolitionists.
Dr. Stringfellow employed his violent rhetoric to give vent to his
feelings and the opening paragraph of his leading editorial in the issue
of the _Squatter Sovereign_ he used the following language:

“It seems now to be certain that we will have to give the abolitionists
at least one good thrashing before political matters are settled in this
territory. To do so we must have arms; we have the men. I propose to
raise funds to furnish Colt’s revolvers for those who are without them.
We say if the abolitionists are able to whip us and overturn the
government that has been set up here, the sooner it is known the better,
and we want to see it settled.”

During the whole of the following winter preparations for attack and
defense went quietly on. There was drilling along the border and
disquieting rumors came from time to time of companies that had been
organized and equipped to move into Kansas as soon as spring opened to
uphold the rights of the Southerners.

Atchison county took a prominent part in the border warfare. The bold
attitude assumed by the Free State forces in and around Lawrence; the
Wakarusa war; the Free State elections, and the determination of the
Free State party to convene their legislature in March, 1856, kept the
partisan pro-slavery sentiment in Atchison in a constant tumult. In
March large numbers of South Carolina emigrants, armed and equipped with
the avowed purpose of enforcing southern rights in Kansas, arrived on
all the incoming steamboats. Capt. F. G. Palmer, of Atchison, commanded
one of the earliest if not the earliest company of these emigrants.
Robert De Treville was first lieutenant. The home company had been
formed prior to the arrival of the South Carolinians. Dr. John H.
Stringfellow was captain; Robert S. Kelley, first lieutenant; A. J. G.
Westbrook, second lieutenant, and John H. Blassingame, third lieutenant.
Their arms were supplied from Ft. Leavenworth and by the last of April
they were ready and waiting for the assault and the subsequent “sacking”
of Lawrence. The whole countryside was aflame with the passion of war.
By May 1 quite a large army of pro-slavery sympathizers was organized.
The South Carolinian Company, from Atchison, was among the first to
start the assault upon Lawrence and it was not long before “its flag was
planted upon the rifle pit of the enemy.” Dr. Stringfellow was there and
Robert S. Kelley, his able assistant on the _Squatter Sovereign_, was
also there. In an account of the assault the following appeared in the
_Squatter Sovereign_.

“The flag was carried by its brave bearer and stationed upon the Herald
of Freedom Printing office, and from thence to the large hotel and
fortress of the Yankees, where it proudly waived until the artillery
commenced battering down the building. Our company was composed mostly
of South Carolinians, under command of Capt. Robert De Treville, late of
Charleston, S. C. and we venture the prediction that a braver set of men
than are found in its ranks never bore arms.”

The _Squatter Sovereign_ continued to be without fear the most bitter
and uncompromising pro-slavery organ in the territory. Its watch-word
was “Death to all Yankees and traitors in Kansas.” At a large mass
meeting at Atchison, held in June, 1856, Robert S. Kelley, its assistant
editor, was nominated as the “Commander-in-Chief of the forces in town,”
but for some reason now lost to view Kelley declined the honor and it
was passed on to Capt. F. G. Palmer who accepted it without remorse and
without apologies. Senator Atchison was present at this mass meeting and
made a speech, and so was Col. Peter T. Abell, afterwards president of
the Atchison Town Company, and Captain De Treville, and others not so
famous, and they all made speeches.

During that summer, because of the continued activities of old John
Brown and the agitation which those activities created in the breasts of
the pro-slavery sympathizers in Atchison, another military company was
formed, called the Atchison Guards, of which John Robertson was the
commander, who was so prominent in the Battle of Hickory Point, and
Atchison county continued to take a prominent part in the border warfare
which continued for sometime thereafter. During all of this time the
Free State settlers of Atchison were very quiet and undemonstrative.
They were not strong in number and aside from a few virile souls like
Pardee Butler, they held their tongues and kept their own counsel. They
were treated with scant courtesy and consideration by their pro-slavery
neighbors, and it can be said to their credit that no set of men ever
displayed greater self-restraint or suffered more for the cause of peace
than the Free State settlers of this county. It doubtless unsettled
their minds and disturbed their slumbers to read from time to time
sentiments such as these taken from the _Squatter Sovereign_ of June 10,
1856:

[Illustration:

  (Upper) Atchison Hospital. (Center) Atchison County Court House.
    (Lower) Y. M. C. A.
]

“Hundreds of Free State men who have committed no overt act, but have
only given countenance to those reckless murderers, assassins and
thieves, will, of necessity, share the same fate of their brethren. If
Civil war is to be the result of such a conflict, there cannot be, and
will not be any neutrals recognized. ‘He that is not for us is against
us,’ will of necessity be the motto, and those who are not willing to
take either one side or the other are the most unfortunate men in Kansas
and had better flee to other regions as expeditiously as possible. They
are not the men for Kansas.”

In another issue Dr. Stringfellow said:

“The abolitionists shoot down our men without provocation wherever they
meet them. Let us retaliate in the same manner. A free fight is all we
desire. If murder and assassination is the program of the day we are in
favor of filling the bill. Let not the knives of the pro-slavery men be
sheathed while there is one abolitionist in the territory. As they have
shown no quarters to our men they deserve none from us. Let our motto be
written in blood upon our flags. ‘_Death to all Yankees and Traitors in
Kansas._’ We have 150 men in Atchison ready to start in an hour’s
notice. All we lack is horses and provisions.”

And then follows an exhortation from Dr. Stringfellow to his friends in
Missouri to contribute something that will enable his constituents to
protect their lives and their families from the outrages of the
assassins of the North, and ends by stating that the war will not cease
until Kansas has been purged of abolitionists.

Pro-slavery committees from Doniphan, Atchison and Leavenworth counties
were organized to call on their friends in the South for arms,
ammunition and provisions, and a circular letter appeared in the
_Leavenworth Herald_, and an urgent invitation was issued to all the
pro-slavery papers to give the circular wide publicity. It read, in
part, as follows:

“To our friends throughout the United States:

“The undersigned, having been appointed a committee by our fellow
citizens of the counties of Leavenworth, Doniphan and Atchison, in
Kansas Territory, to consult together and to adopt measures for mutual
protection and the advancement of the interests of the pro-slavery party
in Kansas Territory, this day assembled at the town of Atchison, to
undertake the responsible duty assigned us; and in our present emergency
deem it expedient to address this circular to our friends throughout the
union, but more particularly in the slave-holding states. * * * * The
time has arrived when prompt action is required and the interior of
Kansas can easily be supplied from various points in the above named
counties. The pro-slavery party is the only one in Kansas which pretends
to uphold the Government or abide by the laws. Our party from the
beginning has sought to make Kansas a slave state, only by legal means.
We have been slandered and vilified almost beyond endurance, yet we have
not resorted to violence, but steadily pursued the law for the
accomplishment of our objects. * * * * We have proclaimed to the world
that we recognize the principle of the Kansas Bill as just and right,
and although we preferred Kansas being made a negro slave state, yet we
never dreamed of making it so by the aid of bowie-knives, revolvers and
Sharpe rifles, until we were threatened to be driven out of the
territory by a band of hired abolitionists, brought up and sent here to
control our elections and steal our slaves. We are still ready and
intend to continue so, if our friends abroad stand by and assist us. Our
people are poor and their labor is their capital. Deprive them of that,
which we are now compelled to do, and they must be supported from
abroad, or give up the cause of the South. The Northern Abolitionists
can raise millions of dollars, and station armed bands of fanatics
throughout the territory and support them, in order to deprive Southern
men of their constitutional rights. We address this to our friends only,
for the purpose of letting them know our true condition and our wants.
We know that our call will meet a ready, willing and liberal response.
* * * * Heaven and earth is being moved in all the free states to induce
overwhelming armies to march here to drive us from the land. We are able
to take care of those already here, but let our brethren in the states
take care of the outsiders. Watch them, and if our enemies march for
Kansas let our friends come along to take care of them, and if nothing
but a fight can bring about peace, let us have a fight that will amount
to something. Send us the money and other articles mentioned as soon as
practicable, and if the abolitionists find it convenient to _bring_
their supplies, let our friends _come_ with ours. Arrangements have been
made with Messrs. Majors, Russell & Company, Leavenworth, K. T.; J. W.
Foreman & Company, Doniphan, K. T., and C. E. Woolfolk & Company,
Atchison, K. T., to receive any money or other articles sent for our
relief, and will report to the undersigned, and we pledge ourselves that
all will be distributed for the benefit of the cause. Horses, we greatly
need—footmen being useless in running down midnight assassins and
robbers.”

The following residents of Atchison county signed the circular: P. T.
Abell, chairman; J. A. Headley, A. J. Frederick, J. F. Green, Jr., C. E.
Mason.

This circular was signed June 6, 1856, and was published in the
_Lawrence Herald of Freedom_, June 14, 1856.

From this time forward the conflagration spread with ever increasing
fury, and not only did the appeals for aid from the pro-slavery forces
find immediate response, but likewise the anti-slavery forces throughout
the whole North came to the rescue of the Free Soilers in Kansas, and
during all of this great excitement Atchison county was the focal point
of pro-slavery activities. The news of the “sacking” of Lawrence served
to awaken the Nation in the North. It was at this time that Henry Ward
Beecher, with all of the great eloquence at his command, advocated from
his Brooklyn pulpit the sending of Sharpe rifles instead of Bibles to
Kansas, and pledged his own parish to supply a definite number. And on
and on they came to Kansas out of the North with determination in their
hearts and Sharpe rifles in their hands, to help the Free Soilers in
their battles against the forces of Atchison and Stringfellow and Abell.
Then came Lane’s “Army of the North,” which sounded more terrible than
it really was, following in quick succession the second battle of
Franklin; the siege and capitulation of Ft. Titus, and the famous battle
of Osawatomie. At last the mobilization of the forces of Atchison and
Stringfellow not far from the outskirts at Lawrence in September, 1856,
for the purpose of a final assault on that Free State stronghold, marked
the collapse of the Atchison-Stringfellow military campaign. It was a
critical hour for Lane. Old John Brown was there, and the citizens were
ready for whatever might befall them, but further hostilities were
averted by the action of Governor Geary on the morning of September 15,
1856, when he appeared in person in the midst of the Missouri camp
several hours after issuing a proclamation for the Missourians to
disband. He found both Senator Atchison and Gen. B. F. Stringfellow
(brother of Dr. Stringfellow) there, and in the course of his speech
severely reprimanded Atchison, who “from his high estate as Vice-
President of the United States, had fallen so low as to be the leader of
an army of men with uncontrollable passions, determined upon wholesale
slaughter and destruction.”

When Governor Geary had concluded his remarks his proclamation and order
to disband the army were read and the more judicious obeyed.

The troops thus disbanded, marched homeward. Those enlisting at Atchison
returned to Missouri by way of Lecompton. This was the last organized
military invasion from Missouri and ended the attempts of the pro-
slavery forces to rule Kansas by martial law.

It must not be concluded, however, that the Stringfellows and other pro-
slavery leaders in Atchison county were not law-abiding citizens. They
believed in the institution of slavery, as many good men of that day
did, and they had the same rights to peacefully enter the territory of
Kansas and endeavor to make it a slave State under the principle of
Squatter sovereignty, as Dr. Charles Robinson, and Lane, and John Brown
did to make the territory a free State. It would not only be unjust to
the memory of the Stringfellows and their compatriots, but unjust to
posterity also to leave the impression that they had no semblance of
justification, for many of their acts, which the impartial historian
will admit, were very frequently in retaliation of wrongs and outrages
suffered. The terrible stress and strain under which good men on both
sides labored in those critical days led them to extremes, and in the
midst of the discordant passions of good men, the bad men—those who are
the lawless of every age and clime—flourished and their lawlessness only
served to complicate the dangerous and ever threatening situation. Calm
judgment may not have been lacking in the territory in and around
Atchison and Lawrence in the days between 1854 and 1857, but if it
existed at all it was lost in the riot of partisan feeling and did not
evince itself until later.

Following the disbanding of the “Territorial” militia before Lawrence,
General Atchison seemed to have somewhat recovered his composure and in
an address to the troops after Governor Geary had retired, he said:

“As was well known to all present the gentlemen composing this meeting
had just been in conference with Governor Geary, who in the strongest
language had deprecated the inhuman outrages perpetrated by those whom
he characterized as bandits, now roving through the territory, and
pledged himself in the most solemn manner to employ actively all of the
force at his command in executing the laws of the territory and giving
protection to his beloved citizens, and who had also appealed to us to
dissolve our present organization and stand by and co-operate with him
in holding up the hands of his power against all evil doers, and who had
also retired from the meeting, with a request that he would consult and
determine what course would be taken. Now the object of the meeting was
thus to consult and determine what should be done.”

General Atchison also impressed the meeting with the solemnity and
importance of the occasion and said that it was time for men to exercise
their reason and not yield to their passions and also to keep on the
side of the law which alone constitutes our strength and protection.
These words of General Atchison breathed a far different message than
his strong language of a few years before and indicated more plainly
than anything else the general trend of pro-slavery sentiment.

After the cessation of military movements in the territory, more or less
peaceful elections, sessions of the legislature and conventions, at
which constitutions were framed and voted upon, took place, and the work
of preparing the territory to become a State went forward.

Four constitutions were framed before Kansas was admitted to the Union.

The Topeka constitution, which was the first in order, was adopted by
the convention which framed it November 11, 1855, and by the people of
the territory at an election December 15, 1855.

The Lecompton constitution was adopted by the convention which framed it
November 7, 1857, and was submitted to a vote of the people December 21,
1857, and the form of the vote prescribed was: “For the constitution,
with slavery,” and “For the constitution, without slavery.” As no
opportunity was afforded at this election to vote against the
constitution the Free State people did not participate in it. The
Territorial legislature was summoned in extra session and passed it
without submitting this constitution to a vote of the people, January 4,
1858, and at that election 138 votes were cast for it and 10,226 against
it. In spite of this overwhelming vote against the constitution it was
sent to Washington and was transmitted by President Buchanan to the
Senate who urged the admission of Kansas under it, thus starting the
great contest which divided the Democratic party, the election of
Abraham Lincoln as President, and the final overthrow of the slave
party. The bill to admit Kansas under this constitution failed, but a
bill finally passed Congress, under the provisions of which the
constitution was again submitted to the people August 4, 1858, with the
result that there were 1,788 votes cast for it and 11,300 votes cast
against it.

The convention which framed the Leavenworth constitution was provided
for by an act of the Territorial legislature, passed in February, 1858,
at which time the Lecompton constitution was pending in Congress. The
Leavenworth constitution was adopted by the convention April 3, 1858,
and by the people May 18, 1858.

The Wyandotte constitution was adopted by the convention which framed it
July 29, 1859, and adopted by the people October 4, 1859. It was under
the Wyandotte constitution that the State was admitted into the Union
January 29, 1861.

In this last convention Atchison county played a very important part.
Three members were sent from this county: Caleb May, to whom reference
has been made before, a farmer, born in Kentucky, and residing near the
now abandoned townsite of Pardee; John J. Ingalls, a lawyer at Sumner,
who arrived in Kansas from Massachusetts, October 4, 1858, exactly one
year previous to the adoption of the constitution by the people of the
Territory, and Robert Graham, a merchant at Atchison, who was born in
Ireland. John A. Martin, the editor of _Freedom’s Champion_, the
successor to the _Squatter Sovereign_, at Atchison, was secretary of the
convention.

Caleb May remained a successful farmer and leading citizen of the county
for many years after this convention, subsequently drifting to the
Indian Territory, where he died.

John J. Ingalls became United States senator from Kansas, where he
remained for eighteen years, part of the time as president protempore of
that body.

John A. Martin became one of the leading military heroes of Kansas, and
served as governor of the State from 1886 to 1888. He played an
important part as an officer of the convention, as also did Mr. Ingalls,
who, Samuel A. Stinson says, was the “recognized scholar of the
convention, and authority on all questions connected with the
arrangement and phraseology of the instrument.” For this reason he was
made chairman of the committee on phraseology and arrangements. Robert
Graham was chairman of the committee on corporations and banking, and on
the ballot to locate a temporary capital of the State Atchison received
six votes. Topeka received twenty-nine and was chosen as the temporary
capital and afterwards became the permanent capital of Kansas.



                              CHAPTER VI.
              ORGANIZATION OF COUNTY AND CITY OF ATCHISON.

  ONE OF THE THIRTY-THREE ORIGINAL COUNTIES—THE CITY OF ATCHISON
      LOCATED—TOWN COMPANY—SALE OF LOTS—INCORPORATION OF TOWN—EARLY
      BUSINESS ENTERPRISES—ORGANIZATION OF COUNTY—COMMERCIAL GROWTH—
      FREIGHTING—FIRST OFFICERS—FREE STATE AND PRO-SLAVERY CLASHES—
      HORACE GREELEY VISITS ATCHISON—ABRAHAM LINCOLN MAKES A SPEECH
      HERE—GREAT DROUGHT OF 1860—CITY OFFICIALS.


Atchison was one of the thirty-three original counties created by the
first territorial legislature, which convened at Pawnee, July 2, 1855,
and subsequently adjourned to Shawnee Mission, July 6, 1855, and was
named for Senator David R. Atchison, United States senator from
Missouri, concerning whom much has been said in previous chapters. The
county was surveyed in 1855 and divided into three townships,
Grasshopper township comprising all that section lying west of the old
Pottawatomie road; Mount Pleasant township, all east of the old
Pottawatomie road, and south of Walnut creek, from its confluence with
the Missouri river to the source of the creek and a parallel line west
to the old Pottawatomie road, and Shannon township, all that section of
the county north of Mount Pleasant township. Subsequently, this sub-
division was further divided into eight townships, now comprising the
county, to-wit: Grasshopper, Mount Pleasant, Shannon, Lancaster,
Kapioma, Center, Walnut and Benton. The county is located in the extreme
northeastern part of Kansas, save one, Doniphan county, by which it is
bounded on the north, together with Brown county, and on the west by
Jackson county, and on the south by Jefferson and Leavenworth counties.
It has an area of 409 square miles, or 271,360 acres.

The site of the city of Atchison, the first town in the county, was
selected because of its conspicuous geographical location on the river.
Senator Atchison and his associates attached great importance to the
fact that the river bent boldly inland at this point. They felt that it
would be of great commercial advantage to a town to be thus located, so
July 4, 1854, after a careful consideration of the matter, in all of its
phases, Senator Atchison and his Platte county, Missouri, friends
dedicated the new town. They felt that they had located the natural
gateway through which all the overland traffic to Utah, Oregon and
California would pass. After they had settled with George Million, the
first known white settler of the territory, and attended to other
unimportant preliminaries Dr. J. H. Stringfellow made a claim just north
of the Million claim, and with Ira Norris, James T. Darnell, Leonidas
Oldham, James B. Martin, George Million and Samuel Dickson, agreed to
form a town company, and they received into their organization David R.
Atchison, Elijah Green, E. H. Norton, Peter T. Abell, B. F.
Stringfellow, Lewis Burnes, Daniel D. Burnes, James N. Burnes, Calvin F.
Burnes and Stephen Johnson. A week later these men gathered under a
large cottonwood tree, near Atchison street, on the river, and organized
by electing Peter T. Abell, president; Dr. J. H. Stringfellow,
secretary, and Col. James N. Burnes, treasurer. Peter T. Abell,
president of the town company, was an able lawyer, and a Southern man,
with pronounced views on the question of slavery. But he was a man of
judgment, and a natural boomer. He was a very large man, being over six
feet tall and weighed almost 300 pounds. When he became president of the
town company he was a resident of Weston, Mo., and lived there until a
year after Atchison had been surveyed. Subsequently, Senator Atchison
assigned his interests in the town company to his nephew, James Headley,
who afterwards became one of the leading lawyers of the town. Jesse
Morris also became a member.

The town company, having been regularly organized, the townsite was
divided into 100 shares. Each of its members retained five shares; the
balance of thirty being held for general distribution. Abell, B. F.
Stringfellow and all of the Burnes brothers were received as two
parties. Henry Kuhn, a surveyor, surveyed 480 acres, which comprised the
original townsite. Mr. Kuhn and his son returned to Atchison forty-five
years later, and for a short time ran the _Atchison Champion_. On
September 21, the first sale of town lots was held, amidst great
excitement and general interest. It was a gathering which had both
political and business significance. Senator Atchison, from Missouri,
with a large number of his constituents, was there, and Atchison made a
speech, in which one reporter quotes him as having said:

“People of every quarter should be welcome to the Territory, and treated
with civility as long as they showed themselves peaceable men.”

[Illustration:

  A View in Commercial Street. Looking East, Atchison, Kansas
]

Someone in the crowd called out, “What shall we do with those who run
off with our negroes?” “Hang ’em,” cried a voice in the crowd. To this
Mr. Atchison replied, “No, I would not hang them, but I would get them
out of the Territory, get rid of them.” One version of the speech was to
the effect that Senator Atchison answered his questioners by saying, “By
G—d, sir, hang every abolitionist you find in the Territory.” But the
best account of the meeting was printed in a Parkville, Mo., newspaper,
and was reported by an eye witness, who said:

“We arrived at Atchison in the forenoon. Among the company was our
distinguished senator, in honor of whom the new city was named. There
was a large assemblage on the ground, with plenty of tables set for
dinner, where the crowd could be accommodated with bacon and bread, and
a drink at the branch, at fifty cents a head. The survey of the town had
just been completed the evening before. Stockholders held a meeting, to
arrange particulars of sale, and afterwards, as had been previously
announced, General Atchison mounted an old wagon and made a speech. He
commenced by mentioning the bountiful country that was beginning to be
settled; to some of the circumstances under which a territorial
government was organized, and in the course of his remarks, mentioned
how Douglass came to introduce the Nebraska bill, with a repeal clause
in it. He told of how Judge Douglass requested twenty-four hours in
which to consider the question of introducing a bill for Nebraska, like
the one he had promised to vote for, and said that if, at the expiration
of that time, he could not introduce such a bill, which would not at the
same time accord with his own sense of right and justice to the South,
he would resign as chairman of the territorial committee, and Democratic
caucus, and exert his influence to get Atchison appointed. At the
expiration of the given time, Judge Douglass signified his intention to
report such a bill.

“General Atchison next spoke of those who had supported and those who
had opposed the bill in the Senate, and ended by saying that the
American people loved honesty and could appreciate the acts of a man who
openly and above-board voted according to the will of his constituents,
without political regard or favor. He expressed his profound contempt
for abolitionists, and said if he had his way he would hang everyone of
them that dared to show his face, but he knew that Northern men settling
in the Territory were sensible and honest, and that the right feeling
men among them would be as far from stealing a negro as a Southern man
would.

“When Senator Atchison concluded his remarks, the sale of town lots
began, and thirty-four were sold that afternoon, at an average of $63.00
each. Most of those that were sold were some distance back from the
river, and speculators were not present, so far as it could be
determined, and lots that were sold were bought mostly by owners of the
town. Prices ranged from $35.00 to $200.00.”

At this meeting the projects of building a hotel and establishing a
newspaper were discussed, and as a result, each of the original 100
shares was assessed $25.00, and in the following spring the National
Hotel, corner of Second and Atchison streets, was built. Dr. J. H.
Stringfellow and Robert S. Kelley received a donation of $400.00 from
the town company, to buy a printing office and in February, 1855, the
_Squatter Sovereign_, which subsequently did so much for the pro-slavery
cause, was born.

The town company required each settler to build a house at least sixteen
feet square upon his lot, so that when the survey was made in 1855 many
found themselves upon school lands. Among those who put up homes in 1854
and 1855 were James T. Darnell, Archibald Elliott, Thomas J. C. Duncan,
Andrew W. Pebler, R. S. Kelley, F. B. Wilson, Henry Kline and William
Hassett. The titles to the lands owned by these residents remained
unsettled until 1857, when titles to all lands within the townsite and
open to settlement were acquired from the federal government, and
subsequently the title to school lands was secured by patents from the
Territory, and in this way the town company secured a clear title to all
lands which they had heretofore conveyed, and re-conveyed the same to
the settlers and purchasers. Dr. J. H. Stringfellow, proprietor of North
Atchison, an addition to the city of Atchison, employed J. J. Pratt to
survey that addition in October, 1857. It consisted of the northeast
quarter of the northeast quarter of section 36, township 5, range 20.
Samuel Dickson, who was the proprietor of South Atchison, had that
addition platted in May, 1858, and John Roberts, who was the proprietor
of West Atchison, had his addition surveyed in February, 1858, a few
months before Samuel Dickson surveyed South Atchison. C. L. Challiss’
addition was surveyed about the same time. Other additions to the
corporate limits of Atchison have been made, and are as follows:
Branchton, Bird’s addition, Brandner’s addition, Bakewell Heights,
Batiste addition, Florence Park, Forest Park, Goodhue Place, Garfield
Park, Highland Park, Home Place, Howard Heights, LaGrande addition,
Lincoln Park, Llewellyn Heights, Lutheran Church addition, Mapleton
Place, Merkles addition, Parker’s addition, Park Place, Price Villa
addition, River View addition, Spring Garden, Style’s addition, Bellvue
Heights, and Talbott & Company’s addition.

Atchison was incorporated as a town by act of the Territorial
legislature, August 30, 1855, but it was not incorporated as a city
until February 12, 1858, after which the charter was approved by the
people by special election, March 2, 1858. In the fall of 1856, Atchison
had obtained a great many advantages over other towns along the river,
by a judicious system of advertising. The _Squatter Sovereign_ printed a
circular November 22, 1856, which was scattered broadcast. The circular
was as follows:

“To the public, generally, but particularly to those persons living
north of the Kansas river, in Kansas Territory:

“It is well known to many, and should be to all interested, that the
town of Atchison is nearer to most persons living north of the Kansas
river, than any other point on the Missouri river. The country, too,
south of the Kansas river above Lecompton, is also as near Atchison as
any other Missouri river town. The roads to Atchison in every direction
are very fine, and always in good repair for wagon and other modes of
travel. The country opposite Atchison is not excelled by any section of
Missouri, it being portions of Buchanan and Platte counties, in a high
state of cultivation, and at a considerable distance from any important
town in Missouri, making grain, fruit, provisions and all kinds of
marketing easily procured at fair prices; a matter of no small
consideration to settlers in a new country.

“The great fresh water lake, from which the fish markets of St. Joseph
and Weston are supplied, is also within three miles of Atchison.

“Atchison is now well supplied with all kinds of goods: groceries,
flour, corn, meal, provisions and marketing of all kinds are abundant,
and at fair prices. To show the compatibility of Atchison to supply the
demands of the country, we here enumerate some of the business houses,
viz: Six large dry goods and grocery stores, wholesale and retail; six
family grocery and provision stores, wholesale and retail; one large
clothing store; one extensive furniture store, with mattresses and
bedding of all sorts; one stove, sheet iron and tinware establishment,
where articles in that line are sold at St. Louis prices; several large
warehouses sufficient to store all the goods of emigrants and traders
across the plains, and to Kansas Territory; one weekly newspaper—_The
Squatter Sovereign_—having the largest circulation of any newspaper in
Kansas, with press, type and materials to execute all kinds of job work;
two commodious hotels, and several boarding houses; one bakery and
confectionery; three blacksmith shops; two wagon makers, and several
carpenter shops; one cabinet maker; two boot and shoe maker shops, and
saddle and harness maker shops; one extensive butcher and meat market; a
first rate ferry, on which is kept a magnificent new steam ferry boat
and excellent horse boat, propelled by horses; a good flat boat, and
several skiffs; saw mills, two propelled by steam and one by horse-
power; two brick yards, and two lime kilns.

“A fine supply of professional gentlemen of all branches constantly on
hand equal to the demand.

“A good grist mill is much needed, and would make money for the owner.”

The first business house in Atchison was established by George T.
Challiss, at the corner of the Levee and Commercial streets, in August,
1854. The National Hotel was not built at that time, so Mr. Challiss
established a temporary camp, and his workmen were accommodated under an
elm tree near the river. The Challiss store building was torn down in
1872. George T. Challiss and his brother, Luther C. Challiss, were
clerking in a dry goods store at Booneville, Mo., in the spring of 1854.
George T. Challiss returned to his old home in New Jersey on a visit,
and upon his return, in August, he came direct to Atchison. He came by
boat to Weston, Mo., where he met P. T. Abell, president of the town
company, and Abell prevailed upon him to come to Atchison in a buggy,
crossing the river here on George Million’s ferry. Mr. Abell donated Mr.
Challiss the lot upon which he built his store, and he went to Rushville
and bought enough cottonwood lumber to build it. When he arrived in
Atchison, he had $4.50 in money, but later on borrowed $150.00 from his
brother, Luther C. Challiss, at Boonville. He enjoyed a good business
from the beginning, and carried a large stock of both dry goods and
groceries.

The town of Atchison was the one big outstanding factor in Atchison
county when the territory was organized, but at the same time that Abell
and Stringfellow and others “were shaping up the town,” others were busy
organizing the county. As the city was named for General Atchison, so
likewise was the county at the time of its creation by the first
Territorial legislature that assembled at Pawnee. The first board of
county commissioners was selected and appointed by the Territorial
legislature, August 31, 1855, and was composed of William J. Young,
James M. Givens and James A. Headley. The first meeting of the board was
held September 17, 1855, at the home of O. B. Dickerson, in the city of
Atchison. At this meeting Ira Norris was appointed clerk and recorder;
Samuel Dickson, treasurer; Samuel Walters, assessor. William McVay had
received an appointment as sheriff of the county prior to the meeting of
the board, direct from the governor, to fill the office temporarily
until his successor was subsequently appointed and qualified. On the
18th of September, 1855, being the second day of the session of the
first board of county commissioners, Eli C. Mason was appointed as
sheriff to succeed McVay, and Dudley McVay was appointed coroner. Voting
precincts were established in three townships preparatory to an election
of a delegate to Congress, which was to take place the first Monday in
October, 1855. At the October meeting of the board of county
commissioners, block 10, in what is now known as Old Atchison, was
accepted by the board as a location upon which to erect a court house.
This property was offered to the county by the Atchison town company for
the purpose of influencing the board to make Atchison the county seat.
The conditions of the gift were that the court house was to be built of
brick and to be at least forty feet square. In the following spring the
town company donated fifty town lots, and the proceeds of these lots
were to be used in the construction of the court house. In June, 1857,
the court house was ordered built and it was to be two stories high, the
first story to be of rock and the second story of wood. It was 24×18
feet square: however, the plans were subsequently changed, and, because
of the gift of an additional fourteen lots by the town company, of a
value of $6,000.00, a more pretentious building was erected in 1859,
with a county jail adjoining it. Prior to the erection of the court
house, there was a spirited contest between Mt. Pleasant, Monrovia,
Lancaster and Sumner over the question of the county seat. In an
election to determine the location, Atchison received a majority of 252
votes over all competitors for the county seat. The estimated total
population of the county at the time was 2,745.

In the next few years Atchison grew rapidly and the dreams of Senator
Atchison and his associates bade fair to be realized on a large scale.
The population of the town was about 500, and yet there were eight
hardware stores, twelve dry goods stores, eight wholesale grocery
stores, nineteen retail grocery stores, and twenty-six law firms. The
banking business was controlled by the contracting firms of A. Majors &
Company and Smoot, Russell & Company. The Atchison branch of the Kansas
Valley Bank was the first in the State to be formed under the
legislative act, authorized February 19, 1857, with a capital stock of
$300,000.00. In the act, John H. Stringfellow, Joseph Plean and Samuel
Dickson were named to open subscription books. An organization was
effected in the spring of 1858, and the capital stock of the local
organization was $52,000.00. The board of directors was composed of
Samuel C. Pomeroy, president; W. H. Russell, L. R. Smoot, W. B. Waddell,
F. G. Adams, Samuel Dickson and W. E. Gaylord. There was considerable
rivalry between Sumner and Doniphan at the time, and shortly after the
organization of the bank, a rumor, which was supposed to have started in
Sumner, to the effect that the bank was about to suspend, caused the
directors to publish a statement of its condition, showing that its
assets were $36,638.00 and its liabilities $20,118.00. S. C. Pomeroy
resigned as president before the year was out and was succeeded by
William H. Russell. The bank subsequently had its name changed by the
legislature to the Bank of the State of Kansas. Mr. Russell, the second
president of the bank, made his home in Leavenworth and was an active
pro-slavery man, being treasurer of the executive committee in 1856 to
raise funds to make Kansas a slave State. This bank continued until
1866, when it went into voluntary liquidation and its stockholders wound
up its affairs.

One of the most important institutions in Atchison in the early days was
the Massasoit House, opened for business September 1, 1858, in charge of
Tom Murphy, a genial proprietor, who conducted it for many years. At the
same time there were three other hotels in operation in the city.
Reference has heretofore been made to the National Hotel, which was
elected in 1855 by popular subscription. It was a plain log structure on
the north side of Atchison street, just east of Second, overlooking the
river. The Tremont House was a two-story frame structure at the
southeast corner of Second and Main, and the Planters’ House was at the
southwest corner of Commercial and Sixth streets on the site now
occupied by the Exchange National Bank, but the Massasoit House was the
leading hotel of this section and it was a substantial, somewhat
imposing frame building erected at the northwest corner of Second and
Main streets on the site now occupied by the Wherrett-Mize Wholesale
Drug House. It was three stories high with a basement and was handsomely
furnished. It did a large business and was the headquarters for the
overland staging crowds. All the lines, which ran in every direction,
out of Atchison at that time departed from the Massasoit House. It was a
favorite place for political gatherings, and from its balconies many
speeches were made by leaders of the political parties of that day. It
at one time was the hiding place for a number of slaves who had been
secreted in the hotel by their master. Horace Greeley, the famous editor
of the _New York Tribune_, ate his first dinner in Kansas at this hotel,
and Abraham Lincoln was a guest on the day that John Brown was executed
at Harper’s Ferry.

Some idea of the magnitude of the merchandising that was carried on in
Atchison in 1858 may be gathered from the fact that during the summer of
that year twenty-four trains comprising 775 wagons, 1,114 men, 7,963
oxen, 142 horses, 1,286 mules conveyed 3,730,905 pounds of merchandise
across the Rocky mountains and California. One single train that was
sent out that year consisted of 105 wagons, 225 men, 1,000 oxen, 200
mules, fifty horses and 465,500 pounds of merchandise. During the latter
part of 1859 and the early months of 1860, forty-one regular traders and
freighters did business out of Atchison. During nine months of one of
those years, the trains outfitted from Atchison were drawn by mules and
cattle and comprised 1,328 wagons, 1,549 men, 401 mules and 15,263 oxen.
The Pike’s Peak gold mines, which were discovered in 1858, and the
prospecting in that region were the causes of the larger part of this
enormous business. Denver at that time had a population of about 2,500,
and was the center of the mining region around Pike’s Peak. In the
period just mentioned, thirty-three of the trains that left Atchison
were destined for Denver. One of these trains was composed of 125
wagons, carrying 750,000 pounds of merchandise. It extended from the
levee on the river far beyond the western outskirts of the city. The
outfit was managed by fifty-two men, twenty-two mules and 1,542 oxen.
Several of the trains for Denver had from twenty to fifty wagons. One,
sent out by Jones & Cartwright, had fifty-eight wagons and carried over
3,000 pounds of merchandise. Among the trains that left Atchison during
the latter part of 1859 were, one for Santa Fe, N. M., another for
Colorado City, Colo., two for Green River, Wyo., and four for Salt Lake
City. The biggest overland outfit was owned by Irwin, Jackson & Company,
who were Government freighters. During one season this firm sent out 520
wagons, 650 men, 75 mules and 6,240 oxen. This firm had a good contract
for supplying the military posts on the plains, including Forts Kearney,
Laramie, Bridger, Douglas, and Camp Floyd, a short distance from Salt
Lake City. In addition to these larger overland staging concerns there
were a number of lesser outfits sent out by private parties in Atchison,
with one, two or three wagons each. Most of the freight conveyed across
the plains in wagons was brought to Atchison in steamboats, which
unloaded at the levee extending along two or three blocks, beginning at
about Atchison street and running south. Very frequently loaded ox
trains nearly a mile in length were seen on Commercial street, and some
of the prairie schooners would be loaded with hardware or some other
dead weight, drawn by six to eight yoke of cattle; and more wagon trains
were loaded and departed from Atchison than from any other point on the
Missouri river.

The act of the Territorial legislature of Kansas incorporating the city
of Atchison was approved February 12, 1858, and it provided for the
election of a mayor and councilmen. The charter was voted upon and
accepted by the people at a special election held March 2, 1858, and the
first mayor and council were elected at a special election March 13,
1858. The charter provided for an annual city election at that time to
be held on the first Monday in September, and consequently the first
mayor and councilmen of the city, elected in March, held their offices
only until the following September. Samuel C. Pomeroy was the first
mayor of the city, holding his office from March, 1858, until May, 1859.
Pomeroy was one of the prominent Free State settlers and was one of its
most popular citizens. His election as mayor was the result of the toss
of a coin. A temporary truce having been effected between the
Southerners and the Free State men, it was agreed that a compromise in
local affairs would be beneficial to the community. By the toss of a
coin the Free State men won the mayor and three councilmen, and the pro-
slavery men had four councilmen. Pomeroy was named by the Free State men
mayor. Pomeroy subsequently became actively identified with the
Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Association, in the distribution of aid to
the stricken people of Kansas following the great drought of 1860, and
it was largely because of his identification with this organization that
he was enabled to place aid where it would do the most good, and he
subsequently became one of the first United States senators from Kansas.
When he was a resident of Atchison he lived at the corner of North
Terrace and Santa Fe streets, but later he moved to a tract of land near
Muscotah, and during the twelve years he was senator he claimed the
latter place as his home. It was when he asked for a third term as
United States senator that he was exposed on the floor of the State
senate by Senator York, who arose in his place and, advancing to the
secretary’s desk, placed $7,000.00 in cash thereon, which he alleged
Pomeroy had given him to influence his vote. Many have always believed
that Senator Pomeroy was greatly wronged by this act of York. Ex-
Governor George W. Glick, himself a Democrat and a leading citizen of
Atchison in the early days, was a very warm friend of Pomeroy and always
expressed indignation when he heard Pomeroy abused, not only about his
conduct in connection with the Emigrant Aid Association, but also in
connection with his downfall politically. It was the contention of
Governor Glick that Pomeroy’s fall was the result of a conspiracy and
not because of general bribery. However, Pomeroy never rose to political
prominence after this incident and ended his days in Washington, D. C.,
where he lived for a number of years prior to his death.

Associated with Pomeroy as the first mayor of Atchison, were the
following citizens: John F. Stein, Jr. register; E. B. Grimes,
treasurer; Milton R. Benton, marshal; A. E. Mayhew, city attorney; W. O.
Gould, city engineer; M. R. Benton, by virtue of his office as marshal,
was also street commissioner; H. L. Davis, assessor; Dr. J. W. Hereford,
city physician. The board of appraisers was composed of Messrs. Petfish,
Roswell and Gaylord. The first councilmen were William P. Childs, O. F.
Short, Luther C. Challiss, Cornelius E. Logan, S. F. Walters, James A.
Headley, Charles Holbert. John F. Stein, who was register, resigned his
office in August, and R. L. Pease was appointed to succeed him. In the
following August the city was divided into three wards, the first ward
being entitled to four councilmen, the second ward to two, and the third
ward to three. At the first meeting of the council, which was held March
15, 1858, an ordinance was adopted providing for a special election for
the purpose of submitting a proposition to take $100,000.00 of stock in
a proposed railroad from St. Joseph, Mo., to some point opposite
Atchison on the Missouri river. The election was held and the stock was
subscribed for. Mayor Pomeroy was appointed agent of the proposed road,
which was to be known as the Atchison & St. Joseph Railroad Company. A
further account of the development of railroad building from Atchison
will occur in a subsequent chapter. The council at this session also
fixed the salary of the mayor, and in spite of the freedom of those
days, saloons were ordered to be closed on Sunday, and other stringent
regulations were passed in connection with the liquor traffic. The first
financial statement of the city, of date September 5, 1859, is as
follows:

 General city tax, 1858                                       $ 5,927.70
 Fines imposed by mayor’s court                                   186.50
 Dray and wagon licenses                                          192.00
 Dram shop licenses                                             1,787.76
 Beer house licenses                                              101.33
 Shows                                                            130.00
 Billiard tables                                                  225.00
 Registry of dogs                                                  50.00
 Assessment on C street from River to Fourth                    3,381.00
                                                               —————————
                            Total                             $12,008.29

 Amount of scrip and orders issued on general fund to
   December 15, 1858                                          $ 6,317.17
 Amount of scrip and orders issued on general fund to
   September 5, 1859                                            3,140.53
 Scrip issued toward building jail                              1,675.00
 Scrip issued for grading streets, curbing, etc.               10,105.39
                                                               —————————
                            Total                             $21,238.09
                                                               —————————
 General deficit                                              $ 9,229.79

The fact that Mayor Pomeroy had strongly urged in his inaugural address
the importance of grading and improving the streets of the city
“especially Atchison, Second and Fourth streets, and the levee,”
possibly accounts for the indebtedness of the city at so early a date.
There was a general inclination among the citizens of Atchison to build
a modern city in accordance with the standards of the times, and
therefore they were anxious to follow the mayor’s advice to put their
streets and alleys in order.

One of the most interesting and at the same time one of the most
difficult tasks in tracing the settlement of a community, is to
correctly catalogue the establishment of the first settler, the first
house, the first business institution, and the first of everything, and
it could with safety be said that this is not only an interesting and
difficult task but it is well nigh an impossible one. This is not to be
wondered at when we take into account the rush and confusion which
always attend the settlement of a new community. However, it has now
become an established fact that George M. Million was the first white
settler in the Territory, with Samuel Dickson a close second. There was
some dispute about who built the first house in the town of Atchison,
but we have resolved all doubt in favor of Dickson, just as we have
decided that George T. Challiss established the first business house.
The Challiss brothers, George, Luther and William all played an
important part in the very early history of the county. They were in
business and in the professions, and they were all land owners,
selecting the choicest tracts “close in” and holding onto them, none too
wisely or too well, for their tenacity in this respect later resulted in
their undoing. The leading lawyers in the county during those days were
M. J. Ireland, A. G. Otis, Isaac Hascall, James A. Headley, A. E.
Mayhew, J. T. Hereford, P. H. Larey, Joseph P. Carr and B. F.
Stringfellow. Horton, Foster, Ingalls, and General Bela M. Hughes came
later. Hascall carried a card in the _Squatter Sovereign_, advertising
his legal headquarters as the Border Ruffian Law Office.

In addition to the names of merchants and professional men heretofore
given, “Andreas’ History of Kansas” gives the following list: Grafton
Thomassen, the slave owner, ran a sawmill. Thomassen’s name appears in
the records of Atchison county in connection with land transfers as
Grafton Thomason; Luther C. Challiss, who occupied a store on the levee,
45 by 100 feet which he filled with dry goods and groceries, and
advertised “such an assortment as was never before offered for sale in
the upper country”; Samuel Dickson, a merchant and politician and also
an auctioneer, on the north side of C street; Lewis Burnes, M. P. Rively
and Stephen Johnson carried stocks of assorted merchandise; A. J. G.
Westbrook, a grocer, and Patrick Laughlin, who fled from Doniphan on
account of the murder of Collins, the Free State man, was a tinner;
William C. Null and Albert G. Schmitt operated a warehouse and carried a
general stock of merchandise at the corner of Second and C streets;
Charles E. Woolfolk and Robert H. Cavell had a large store and warehouse
at the steamboat landing; George M. Million operated the Pioneer Saloon;
John Robertson conducted a saddlery and harness business; Messrs.
Jackson & Ireland were a contracting firm with a shop over Samuel
Dickson’s store; Uncle Sam Clothing Store, at the corner of C and Third
streets, was conducted by Jacob Saqui & Company; Giles B. Buck sold
stoves on C street; O. B. Dickson was proprietor of the Atchison House;
Drs. J. H. Stringfellow and D. M. McVay were the leading physicians; and
it is interesting to note that Washburn’s Great American Colossal
Circus, which was the first in Kansas, gave two exhibitions in Atchison,
July 31, 1856. This aggregation carried three clowns, a full brass and
string band and an immense pavilion, and many other novel and attractive
features.

Fully fifty new buildings were erected during the spring and summer of
1856.

During this period in the history of the county, Free State people began
to come into their own. They grew bolder, following the compromise with
the pro-slavery citizens, over the question of the distribution of city
officers and because of other concessions that were made by the pro-
slavery citizens for the general good of the community. It was not
strange, therefore, that some of the less tactful and politic Free State
leaders should over-reach themselves at such a time. While the “Reign of
Terrorism” under the Stringfellow regime was on, the Free State men in
Atchison county considered discretion the better part of valor. They
were very quiet, with few exceptions, of whom Pardee Butler was a
conspicuous example, but they were nevertheless quite numerous in the
county, and particularly was this the case in and around Monrovia, Eden
and Ocena; in fact, there was an organization of Free State men in the
county as early as 1857, and several quiet meetings were held that year;
and at Monrovia a society was formed, of which Franklin G. Adams was the
chief officer and spokesman.

Early in May, 1857, Senator Pomeroy and the Free State men bought the
_Squatter Sovereign_ from Dr. Stringfellow, and Mr. Adams and Robert
McBratney became its editors. Mr. Adams was just as ardent a Free State
man as Dr. Stringfellow was the other way, so the policy of the paper
was completely reversed. Judge Adams was a lawyer and partner of John J.
Ingalls for a while. He represented Atchison county in the
constitutional convention that met in Mineola March 23, 1858 and which
subsequently adjourned to Leavenworth. Caleb May, G. M. Fuller, C. A.
Woodworth and H. E. Baker were the other delegates from Atchison county.
Judge Adams was later one of the useful men of Kansas, and at the time
of his death he was secretary of the State Historical Society, which
position he filled with credit and honor for many years. On August 22,
1858, following the local compromise with the pro-slavery leaders, Judge
Adams concluded the time was ripe to invite James H. Lane, the great
Free State leader, to Atchison, to make a speech. He consequently served
notice in his paper that Lane would be in Atchison October 19. As soon
as it was generally known that Lane had been invited to speak in
Atchison a number of the more rabid pro-slavery men concluded that the
speaking would not take place. On the other hand, Judge Adams was just
as determined that Lane would have a public meeting in Atchison. For the
purpose of insuring order on that occasion Adams invited a number of
strong and reliable Free State friends from Leavenworth to come up to
Atchison and see that fair play was done. The invitation to the
Leavenworth Free Soilers was accepted with alacrity and they arrived on
the morning of the day Lane was billed to make his speech and brought
with them their side arms as a matter of precaution. They made the
office of Adams, Swift & Company their headquarters while here. Shortly
after the arrival of the Leavenworth contingent and while sitting in his
office Judge Adams noticed a crowd gathering on Commercial street, near
Fifth. Suspecting that the crowd had gathered for no good purpose, Judge
Adams and six of his friends started for the scene of what appeared to
him to be a disturbance. On their way they met Caleb A. Woodworth, Sr.,
hatless and apparently in trouble. As Judge Adams stopped to make
inquiries of Mr. Woodworth regarding his trouble somebody from the rear
assaulted him with a heavy blow on the cheek. Instead of following the
Biblical injunction he did not turn his other cheek, but swung quickly
in his tracks and levelled a pistol at his assailant, who was
accompanied by a crowd of his friends, all armed and with blood in their
eyes. As Judge Adams was about to pull the trigger of his gun a friend
of Judge Adams shouted, “Don’t shoot yet!” following which admonition
all of the crowd displayed cocked revolvers and aimed them in the
direction of Judge Adams and his crowd. Observing that the Free Soilers
meant business, the pro-slavery men discreetly withdrew without further
trouble, and the Free Soil men returned to the office of Judge Adams. It
was then determined that the meeting should be an out-of-door one, and
as they passed out into the street, again the pro-slavery advocates
mixed freely with the Free Soilers. A. J. W. Westbrook, of the “Home
Guards,” mounted on a prancing horse, rode among the crowd, flourishing
a cocked gun, apparently seeking to kill Judge Adams at the first
favorable opportunity. It has been doubted that Westbrook meant
business, but his conduct had the effect of stirring up his followers
who avowed that Jim Lane should not speak in Atchison that night. His
threatening attitude apparently had the desired effect, for the Free
Soil men decided that it was not necessary for the existence of their
cause that Jim Lane should speak and therefore postponed the speaking.
Judge Adams was not altogether pleased but he was finally prevailed upon
to return home without attempting further trouble. Later in the day a
party of Free Soil men met General Lane on the outskirts of the city,
returning from Doniphan where he had been speaking, and prevailed upon
him not to come to Atchison. This was not the first attempt of Lane to
visit Atchison county. He was entertained at dinner in 1855 at the home
of Dr. J. H. Stringfellow, whose house occupied the site where the home
of Ex-Governor W. J. Bailey now stands. The fact that Lane was a guest
of Dr. Stringfellow will appear strange to those who knew nothing of the
Stringfellow family. While they were belligerent pro-slavery advocates,
they were always high class men with decent instincts and therefore it
would not be unusual for them to open their home to so violent an
opponent of theirs as Lane was. The eastern papers, in giving an account
of Lane’s entertainment at the Stringfellow home, stated that the dinner
was a very elaborate one, including oysters, plum pudding, terrapin and
champagne. Mrs. Stringfellow told E. W. Howe in 1894 that Lane came to
the house about 11 o’clock in the morning attended by a body-guard of
four men and inquired for Dr. Stringfellow. The Doctor was away at the
time, but was expected about noon. The men said that they would wait,
whereupon Mrs. Stringfellow knew that she would probably have them for
dinner. Her girl was just getting ready to go somewhere on an errand and
was asked to remain at the house. Dr. Stringfellow came in about noon
and when the two men met in the yard Stringfellow asked Lane if he was
not afraid to call at his house. “I am not afraid,” Lane replied, “to
call on a gentleman anywhere.” This gallantry captured Mrs.
Stringfellow’s admiration and she invited Lane and his body-guard to
dinner, which, contrary to the report in the eastern papers, was a very
simple one. Mrs. Stringfellow, in her interview with Mr. Howe, said that
it was as follows: Coffee, hot biscuits and butter, cold pie, preserves
and milk; no terrapin, no oysters, no champagne, no plum pudding. Lane
called at the house on a matter of business and Mrs. Stringfellow said
that Lane and his body-guard were very kindly genteel men. Two or three
weeks later, when Mrs. Stringfellow was alone in the house, she saw a
wagon pass in the road with three or four men lying down in it.
Presently another wagon, similarly loaded, attracted her attention. Then
came four men and a woman on horseback and several men on foot. The
people came from down town, or from southwest of town. The circumstances
were peculiar, and Mrs. Stringfellow climbed on top of a table and
watched the men through the upper sash of a window. They stopped in a
little glade northeast of the house, when the woman dismounted from the
horse, took off the skirt and turned out to be Jim Lane. He stood beside
the horse and talked possibly half an hour. Mrs. Stringfellow is certain
the speaker was Lane, because she had seen him only a few weeks before,
and he rode the white horse he had ridden when he stopped at her house,
and the same four men composed the body-guard. Lane had threatened to
make a speech in the town but had been warned not to, as he had been
warned two years earlier. He made his speech in spite of the warning,
but his audience was composed of his friends only. A half hour after
Lane disappeared over the hill toward the farm then owned by John
Taylor, some distance south of the Orphans’ Home, forty mounted
southerners appeared looking for him. Mrs. Stringfellow knew John Scott,
the leader, and told him of the incident. The men laughed and then gave
three rousing cheers for Jim Lane, who had outwitted them.

[Illustration:

  Forest Park, Atchison, Kansas
]

While there was a tremendous traffic across the plains from Atchison in
1857, 1858 and 1859, and for a number of years later the “town was alive
with business,” it is only fair to record that the town itself was not a
thing of beauty and a joy forever, in spite of the efforts of Mayor
Pomeroy and the city fathers who put the city in debt to the extent of
$9,000, September 5, 1859, for public improvements.

Frank A. Root in his admirable book, “The Overland Stage to California,”
published in 1901, has this to say in part upon his arrival here in
November, 1858:

“It was in November, 1858, that I first set foot on the levee in
Atchison. I stepped from the steamer, ‘Omaha,’ which boat was
discharging its cargo of freight at the foot of Commercial street. At
that time the place was a very small town. I took up my residence in
Atchison the following spring, having this time come up the river on a
steamboat from Weston where I had been employed as a compositor in the
office of the _Platte Argus_. On landing at Atchison I had a solitary
dime in my pocket, and, after using that to pay for my lunch, I started
out in search of a job. A sign over the office which read: ‘Freedom’s
Champion, John A. Martin, Editor and Publisher,’ attracted my attention.
It hung above the door of the only newspaper office in the city at that
time, but preparations were then being made by Gideon O. Chase, of
Waverly, N. Y., to start the _Atchison Union_, which was to be a
Democratic paper. I secured a place in the _Champion_ office, beginning
work the following morning. As I walked about the town I remember of
having seen but four brick buildings on Commercial street. A part of the
second story of one of them, about half a square west of the river, was
occupied by the _Champion_. The Massasoit House was the leading hotel.
The Planters, a two-story frame house, was a good hotel in those early
days, but it was too far out to be convenient, located as it was, on the
corner of Commercial and Sixth streets. West of Sixth there were but few
scattering dwellings and perhaps a dozen business houses and shops. The
road along Commercial street, west of Sixth, was crooked, for it had not
been graded and the streets were full of stumps and remnants of a thick
growth of underbrush that had previously been cut. A narrow, rickety
bridge was spanning White Clay creek where that stream crosses
Commercial street at Seventh street. Between Sixth and Seventh streets,
north of Commercial street there was a frog pond occupying most of the
block, where the boys pulled dog-grass in highwater, and where both boys
and girls skated in winter. The Exchange hotel on Atchison street,
between Second and the Levee, built of logs—subsequently changed to the
National—was the principal hotel of Atchison, and for more than a
quarter of a century stood as an old familiar landmark, built in early
territorial days.

“Atchison was the first Kansas town visited by Horace Greeley. It was
Sunday morning, May 15, 1859, a few days before beginning his overland
journey across the continent by stage. He came through Missouri by the
Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, thence down the Missouri river from St.
Joseph on the ‘Platte Valley,’ a steamer then running to Kansas City in
connection with trains on the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad. It was in
the old Massasoit House that Greeley wrote on Kansas soil, his first
letter to the _Tribune_. During the latter part of the afternoon he was
driven over the city in a carriage, John A. Martin being one of the
party. The city was a favorite place of Albert D. Richardson, the noted
correspondent of five eastern newspapers.

“It was at Atchison that Abraham Lincoln, on his first visit to Kansas,
spoke to a crowded house on ‘The Issues of the Day,’ December 2, 1859,
the date that old John Brown was executed in Virginia. Lincoln spoke in
the Methodist church, which then stood on the hill at the corner of
Fifth and Parallel streets. The little church was a frame building,
dedicated in May, 1859, and overlooked a considerable portion of the
city. The house afterwards became quite historic, for during the early
part of the Civil war, the patriotic Rev. Milton Mahin, a stanch Union
man, from Indiana, in a patriotic speech, soon after the Civil war broke
out, had the nerve, and was the first minister of the Gospel in
Atchison, to raise the Stars and Stripes over his house of worship.” D.
W. Wilder, in his “Annals of Kansas,” one of the most wonderful books of
its kind ever published, says that Abraham Lincoln arrived in Elwood,
which is just across from St. Joseph, December 1, 1859, and made his
speech there that evening. He was met at St. Joseph by M. W. Delahay and
D. W. Wilder. The speech that Lincoln delivered at Elwood and at
Atchison was the same speech that he subsequently delivered at the
Cooper Institute, New York City, and was considered as one of the ablest
and clearest ever delivered by an American statesman.

Atchison county was making forward strides at a rapid pace and the
future held out every promise of prosperity, but in 1859 “a great famine
fell upon the land.” It did more to depopulate Kansas than all the
troubles of preceding years. The settlers in the Territory were able to
fight border ruffians with more courage than they could endure
starvation, and during all of their earlier troubles they confidently
looked forward to the time when all of their political difficulties
would be settled and prosperity, peace and contentment would be their
share in life. During the years of 1855, 1856 and 1857 the citizens of
the Territory were unable to take advantage of the then favorable
seasons to do more than raise just sufficient for their immediate needs.
During the next year immigration to Kansas was large and the new
settlers had but little time, in addition to building their homes, to
raise barely enough for home consumption, so in 1859 Kansas had only
enough grain on hand to last until the following harvest. The drought
commenced in June, and from the nineteenth of that month until November,
1860, not a shower of rain fell of any consequence. By fall the ground
was parched and the hot winds that blew from the south destroyed
vegetation and the wells and springs went dry. There were a few
localities on bottom lands along the Missouri river where sufficient
crops were raised to supply the immediate population, but over 60,000
people in Kansas faced starvation in the fall of 1860. Thirty thousand
settlers left the Territory for their old homes, from which they came,
abandoning their claims and all hope of success in Kansas. An endless
procession crossed the border from day to day. About 70,000 inhabitants
remained, of whom it was estimated 40,000 were able to go through the
winter. As soon as the news of this situation reached the East,
movements were inaugurated for the relief of the sufferers in Kansas. S.
C. Pomeroy was appointed general agent of northern Kansas. He did much
to raise liberal contributions in New York, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois
and Ohio, and the contributions were all sent to Atchison, from which
place they were distributed to the different counties of the State. The
total receipts of provisions for distribution up to March 15, 1861, were
8,090,951 pounds, and the total distribution at Atchison, exclusive of
branch depots, was 6,736,424 pounds. In spite of all of this assistance
over 30,000 settlers in Kansas that year suffered privation and almost
starvation.

It was during this frightful travail that Kansas as a State was born. On
January 21, 1861, Jefferson Davis and a number of other southern
senators left the United States Senate and on that day the bill for the
admission of Kansas under the Wyandotte constitution, which had been
laid before the House of Representatives in February, 1860, was called
up by W. H. Seward, and passed the Senate by a vote of thirty-six yeas
to sixteen nays. One week later the bill came up in the House on motion
of Galusha A. Grow, of Pennsylvania, who introduced the first bill for
the admission of Kansas into the Union, and while the motion was out of
the regular order, it was passed by a vote of 119 yeas to forty-two
nays. On January 29 the bill was signed by President Buchanan, and free
Kansas joined the Union.

The following are the names of the city officials of Atchison March 1,
1916: Dr. C. C. Finney, mayor; Victor L. King, city clerk; Walter E.
Brown, city attorney; C. A. Wright, city treasurer; Frank S. Altman,
city engineer; D. S. Beatty, police judge; William H. Coleman, chief of
police; John Compton, fire marshal; Jerome Van Dyke, street
commissioner; Owen P. Grady, meat inspector and license collector; Fred
Stutz, sanitary sergeant; Frank J. Roth, building commissioner; John
Compton, purchasing agent; Dr. T. E. Horner, city physician. Councilmen:
Louis Weinman, president; first ward, Louis Weinman, F. F. Bracke;
second ward, Joseph Schott, C. A. Brown; third ward, H. M. Ernst, John
R. Schmitt; fourth ward, W. C. Linville, Fred Snyder; fifth ward, Fay
Kested, Walter North.



                              CHAPTER VII.
                        TOWNS, PAST AND PRESENT.

  SUMNER, ITS RISE AND FALL—OCENA—LANCASTER—FORT WILLIAM—ARRINGTON—
      MUSCOTAH—EFFINGHAM—HURON—OLD MARTINSBURG—BUNKER HILL—LOCUST GROVE—
      HELENA—CAYUGA—KENNEKUK—KAPIOMA—MASHENAH—ST. NICHOLAS—CONCORD—
      PARNELL—SHANNON—ELMWOOD—CUMMINGSVILLE—EDEN POSTOFFICE—POTTER—MOUNT
      PLEASANT—LEWIS’ POINT—FARLEY’S FERRY.


One of the most interesting subjects for the local historian is the rise
and fall of town companies and towns, within the confines of Atchison
county. Perhaps no county in the State, or for that matter, no county in
the United States, has been immune from the visitations of town boomers.
It is difficult in this enterprising age, with all the knowledge that we
now have at hand, to understand how it was possible for anybody, though
he was ever so enthusiastic, to conceive the idea that there was any
future for many of the “towns” that were born in Atchison county in the
early days. Yet, it is found that there was in the breasts of many
promoters a feeling that Atchison county offered unlimited possibilities
for the establishment and growth of towns and cities. One need only
search the records on file in the office of the register of deeds in
this county to discover numerous certified plats of towns which were
born to blush unseen and waste their fragrance on the desert air. In
some instances the records are quite complete and authentic, and contain
much information with reference to the origin, growth and final decay of
these nascent municipalities. In other cases nothing has come down to
posterity, save the merest fragmentary data, of which the plat,
containing the name of the town and of its organizer, its location and
the number of blocks, streets and alleys, constitute the major part.

Reference has heretofore been made to the founding and the organization
of the city of Atchison, which became and now remains the county seat of
Atchison county. The city played such an important part in the early
history of the county that its story has been woven into the general
fabric of this history, and therefore further reference to the city of
Atchison will not be made in this chapter.


                                SUMNER.

Perhaps the most important, although not the oldest, town established in
Atchison county outside of the city of Atchison was Sumner. A peculiar
aroma of legendary glory still clings to this old town, which was
located three miles below Atchison, on the Missouri river.

Its founder was John P. Wheeler, a young man who came to the Territory
when about twenty-one years of age, and who has been described as “a
red-headed, blue-eyed, consumptive, slim, freckled enthusiast from
Massachusetts.”

Atchison at this time was a strong pro-slavery town, and no abolitionist
was a welcome settler in her midst. For this reason Sumner sprang into
existence. It was a dream of its founder to make Sumner an important
forwarding point, one of its claims being the fact that it was the most
westerly of any of the Missouri river towns in Kansas.

In 1856 the site was surveyed and platted, and the name “Sumner” given
the new town, in honor of George Sumner, one of the original
stockholders, and not for his brother, the Hon. Charles Sumner, United
States senator, of Massachusetts, as many people suppose.

To bring Sumner before the public Mr. Wheeler engaged an artist named
Albert Conant to come out and make a drawing of it, and this was later
taken to Cincinnati, and a colored lithograph made from it, which was
widely circulated. From copies of this lithograph still extant it must
be admitted that the artist did not slight the town in any particular.

In the fall of 1857 the Sumner Town Company began the erection of a
large brick hotel. Samuel Hollister had the contract, his bid being
$16,000. The brick used in the construction were made on the ground, and
the lumber used in the construction work came by steamboat from
Pittsburgh, Pa. The hotel was completed in the summer of 1858, and at
last accounts the town company still owed Mr. Hollister $3,000. Some
years later the brick used in the hotel were gathered and cleaned and
hauled to Atchison and used for the construction of a building owned by
the late John J. Ingalls, located at 108–110 South Fourth street.

In the fall of 1857 Cone Brothers (John P. and D. D.) brought a printing
outfit to Kansas, and were induced to locate in Sumner, where they
shortly begun the publication of _The Sumner Gazette_, the first issue
of which appeared on September 12. During the political canvass that
fall they also issued a daily. _The Gazette_ was issued until 1861 when
it suspended, its publishers believing that it was the only paper in
Kansas that outlived the town in which it started.

Among those engaged in business in Sumner on October 1, 1857, the _Daily
Gazette_ shows the following:

John P. Wheeler, attorney and counsellor at law, commissioner of deeds,
dealer in real estate, etc.

Kahn & Fassler, general store, on Front street, between Washington
avenue and Chestnut street.

Mayer & Rohrmann, carpenters and builders.

Barnard & Wheeler, proprietors of the Sumner Brick Yard.

Wm. M. Reed, contractor, Atchison and Sumner.

John Armor, steam saw mill, in the city.

Butcher & Brothers, general store on Front street, between Washington
avenue and Olive street.

Allen Green, painter and glazier.

S. J. Bennett, boot and shoe store, corner of Washington avenue and
Fourth street.

Arthur M. Claflin, general land agent, forwarding and commission agent.

J. P. Wheeler and A. M. Claflin, lumber, office with the Sumner Company.

H. S. Baker, proprietor of Baker’s Hotel, corner of Front and Olive
streets, near steamboat landing.

A. Barber, general merchandise, Front street, between Washington avenue
and Olive street.

Lietzenburger & Co., blacksmiths, wagon makers, etc., Cedar street,
between Third and Fourth streets.

D. Newcomb. M. D., office in postoffice building, corner of Third street
and Washington avenue. Mr. Newcomb also dealt in lime, and on September
24, received a large and select stock of hardware, stoves, etc.

When the Territorial legislature of 1858 met, a bill was introduced,
incorporating the Sumner Company, Cyrus F. Currier, Samuel F. Harsh, J.
W. Morris, Isaac G. Losse and John P. Wheeler, their associates and
successors, constituting the company. The act also provided that the
corporation should have the power to purchase and hold, and enter by
preëmption and otherwise, any quantity of land where the town of Sumner
is now located, not to exceed one thousand acres, etc.

A ferry at Sumner was also incorporated by the legislature of 1858, J.
W. Morris, Cyrus F. Currier and Samuel Harsh being the incorporators.
This boat plied between Atchison and Sumner and the Missouri side.

In 1858 Samuel Hollister built a steam sawmill, adding a gristmill
later.

By the end of 1858 Sumner had outstripped its rival, Atchison, in
population, and steps were taken looking towards the incorporation of
the town. Early in the beginning of the legislature of 1859, articles of
incorporation were passed and received the approval of Governor Samuel
Medary on February 9. These articles of incorporation were later amended
by an act passed by the first State legislature, which was approved June
3, 1861.

The decline of Sumner began with the drought which started in the fall
of 1859 and prevailed through the year 1860. In June, 1860, a cyclone
struck the town and either blew down or damaged nearly every building,
this calamity being followed in September by a visitation of
grasshoppers, all of which were potent factors in wiping Sumner off the
map. Some of the houses which could be moved were taken to Atchison, and
some to farms in the immediate vicinity.

One of the most interesting accounts that appeared about Sumner was
written by H. Clay Park, an old citizen of Atchison, who for many years
was editor and part owner of the _Atchison Patriot_. It would not be
just either to Mr. Park or to Sumner, were this account not perpetuated
in this volume, and it, therefore, appears in full as follows:


                     “THE RISE AND FALL OF SUMNER.

“Three miles south of Atchison, Kansas, is the site of a dead city,
whose streets once were filled with the clamor of busy traffic and
echoed to the tread of thousands of oxen and mules that in the pioneer
days of the Great West transported the products of the East across the
Great American Desert to the Rocky mountains. It was a city in which for
a few years twenty-five hundred men and women and children lived and
labored and loved, in which many lofty aspirations were born, and in
which several young men began careers that became historical.

“This city was located on what the early French voyagers called the
‘Grand Detour’ of the Missouri river. No more rugged and picturesque
site for a city or one more inaccessible and with more unpropitious
environments could have been selected. It was literally built in and on
the everlasting hills, covered with a primeval forest so dense that the
shadows chased the sunbeams away. It sprang into existence so suddenly
and imperceptibly it might almost have been considered a creation of the
magician’s wand. It was named Sumner in honor of the great Massachusetts
senator. Its official motto was ‘Pro lege et grege’ (For the law and the
people). This would, in the light of subsequent events, have been more
suggestive: ‘I shall fall, like a bright exhalation in the evening.’

“Sumner’s first citizens came mostly from Massachusetts, and were imbued
with the spirit of creed and cant, self-reliance and fanaticism that
could have been born only on Plymouth Rock. They had come to the
frontier to make Kansas a free State and to build a city, within whose
walls all previous conditions of slavery should be disregarded and where
all men born should be regarded equal. The time—1856—was auspicious.
Kansas was both a great political and military battlefield, upon which
the question of the institution of slavery was to be settled for all
time.

“The growth of Sumner was phenomenal. A lithograph printed in 1857 shows
streets of stately buildings, imposing seats of learning, church spires
that pierced the clouds, elegant hotels and theaters, the river full of
floating palaces, its levee lined with bales and barrels of merchandise,
and the white smoke from numerous factories hanging over the city like a
banner of peace and prosperity. To one who in that day approached Sumner
from the east and saw it across the river, which like a burnished
mirror, reflected its glories, it did indeed present an imposing aspect.

“One day the steamboat Duncan S. Carter landed at Sumner. On its
hurricane deck was John J. Ingalls, then only twenty-four years old. As
his eye swept the horizon his prophetic soul uttered these words:
‘Behold the home of the future senator from Kansas.’ Here the young
college graduate, who since that day became the senator from Kansas,
lived and dreamed until Sumner’s star had set and Atchison’s sun had
risen, and then he moved to Atchison, bringing with him Sumner’s
official seal and the key to his hotel.

“Here lived that afterwards brilliant author and journalist, Albert D.
Richardson, whose tragic death some years ago in the counting room of
the _New York Tribune_ is well remembered. His ‘Beyond the Mississippi’
is to this day the most fascinating account ever written of the
boundless West.

“Here lived the nine-year-old Minnie Hauk, who was one day to become a
renowned prima donna and charm two continents with her voice, and who
was to wed the Count Wartegg. Minnie was born in poverty and cradled in
adversity. Her mother was a poor washerwoman in Sumner.

“Here lived John E. Remsburg, the now noted author, lecturer and free-
thinker. Mr. Remsburg has probably delivered more lectures in the last
thirty years than any man in America. He is now the leader of the Free-
Thought Federation of America.

“Here Walter A. Wood, the big manufacturer of agricultural implements,
lived and made and mended wagons. Here Lovejoy, ‘the Yankee preacher,’
preached and prayed. Here lived ‘Brother’ and ‘Sister’ Newcomb, from
whom has descended a long line of zealous and eminent Methodists. Here
was born Paul Hull, the well known Chicago journalist.

“And Sumner was the city that the Rev. Pardee Butler lifted up his hands
and blessed and prophesied would grow and wax fat when the ‘upper
landing’ would sleep in a dishonored and forgotten grave, as he floated
by it on his raft, clad in tar and feathers. The ‘upper landing’ was the
opprobrious title conferred by Sumner upon Atchison. The two towns were
bitter enemies. Sumner was ‘abolitionist;’ Atchison was ‘border
ruffian.’ In Atchison the ‘nigger’ was a slave; in Sumner he was a
fetich. It was in Atchison that the ‘abolition preacher,’ Pardee Butler,
was tarred and feathered and set adrift on a raft in the river. He
survived the tortures of his coat of degradation and the ‘chuck-holes’
of the Missouri river and lived to become a prohibition fanatic and a
Democratic Presidential elector.

“Jonathan Lang, alias ‘Shang,’ the hero of Senator Ingalls’ ‘Catfish
Aristocracy,’ and the ‘last mayor of Sumner,’ lived and died in Sumner.
When all his lovely companions had faded and gone ‘Shang’ still pined on
the stem. The senator’s description of this type of a vanished race is
unique:

“‘To the most minute observer his age was a question of the gravest
doubt. He might have been thirty; he might have been a century, with no
violation of the probabilities. His hair was a sandy sorrel, something
like a Rembrandt interior, and strayed around his freckled scalp like
the top layer of a hayrick in a tornado. His eyes were two ulcers, half
filled with pale blue starch. A thin, sharp nose projected above a
lipless mouth that seemed always upon the point of breaking into the
most grievous lamentations, and never opened save to take whiskey and
tobacco in and let oaths and saliva out. A long, slender neck, yellow
and wrinkled after the manner of a lizard’s belly, bore this dome of
thought upon its summit, itself projecting from a miscellaneous
assortment of gent’s furnishing goods, which covered a frame of
unearthly longitude and unspeakable emaciation. Thorns and thongs
supplied the place of buttons upon the costume of this Brummel of the
bottom, coarsely patched beyond recognition of the original fabric. The
coat had been constructed for a giant, the pants for a pigmy. They were
too long in the waist and too short in the leg, and flapped loosely
around his shrunk shanks high above the point where his fearful feet
were partially concealed by mismated shoes that permitted his great toes
to peer from their gaping integuments, like the heads of two snakes of a
novel species and uncommon fetor. This princely phenomenon was topped
with a hat which had neither band nor brim nor crown:

“‘If that could shape be called which shape has none.

“‘His voice was high, shrill and querulous, and his manner an odd
mixture of fawning servility and apprehensive effrontery at the sight of
a “damned Yankee abolitionist,” whom he hated and feared next to a negro
who was not a slave.’

“The only error in the senator’s description of ‘Shang’ is that ‘Shang’
was ‘abolitionist’ himself, and ‘fit to free the nigger.’

‘Shang’ continued to live in Sumner until every house, save his
miserable hut, had vanished like the baseless fabric of a vision. He
claimed and was proud of the title, ‘the last mayor of Sumner.’ He died
a few years ago, and a little later lightning struck his cabin and it
was devoured by flames. And thus passed away the last relic of Sumner.

“In the flood tide of Sumner’s prosperity, 1856 to 1859—for before that
it was nothing, after that nothing—it had ambition to become the county
seat of the newly organized county of Atchison. J. P. Wheeler, president
of the Sumner Town Company, was a member of the lower house of the
Territorial legislature, and he ‘logrolled’ a bill through that body
conferring upon Sumner the title of county seat, but the Atchison ‘gang’
finally succeeded in getting the bill killed in the senate.
Subsequently, October, 1858, there was an election to settle the vexed
question of a county seat. Atchison won; Sumner lost.

“About this time Atchison secured its first railroad. The smoke from the
locomotive engines drifted to Sumner and enveloped it like a pall. The
decadence was at hand, and Sumner’s race to extinction and oblivion was
rapid. One day there was an exodus of citizens; the houses were torn
down and the timbers thereof carted away, and foundation stones were dug
up and carried hence. Successive summers’ rains and winters’ snows
furrowed streets and alleys beyond recognition and filled foundation
excavations to the level, and ere long a tangled mass of briers and
brambles hid away the last vestige of the once busy, ambitious city. The
forest, again unvexed by ax or saw, asserted his dominion once more, and
today, beneath the shadow cast by mighty oaks and sighing cottonwoods,
Sumner lies dead and forgotten.”

In the above article, reference is made by Mr. Park to Jonathan Lang,
and it is important in this connection to print herewith an excerpt from
the _Atchison Daily Globe_, December, 1915, relating to this interesting
character, which follows:

“The reunion of the Thirteenth Kansas infantry at Hiawatha Tuesday
recalls that the late Jonathan G. Lang, self-styled ‘Mayor of Old
Sumner,’ and hero of John J. Ingalls’ ‘Catfish Aristocracy,’ was a
soldier in this regiment, and was the butt of many jokes on the part of
his comrades in camp as he was in the days of civil life at old Sumner.
Thomas J. Payne, a sergeant in the Thirteenth, now living in California,
relates an amusing story of ‘Old Shang,’ as Lang was generally called by
his comrades: When the regiment was mustered into service on September
28, 1862, and the newly assigned officers were reviewing their troops at
Camp Stanton, in Atchison, the tall, gaunt form of Lang (for he was
nearly seven feet tall and very angular) towered above the rest of the
men like the stately cottonwood above the hazel-brush. Riding up and
down the lines, and scanning the troops with critical eye to see that
there was no breech of ranks or decorum, the gaze of Colonel Bowen could
not help but fall upon the lofty and lanky form of Lang, rising several
heads above any of his comrades. The colonel paused, and pointing his
finger at the grenadier form in the ranks, shouted in thunderous tones,
‘Get down off that stump.’ A ripple of suppressed laughter immediately
passed along the lines, and when Colonel Bowen saw his mistake he
promptly revoked his order with a hearty chuckle and rode on towards the
end of the column. And not until twenty years later, when all that was
mortal of old Lang—his nearly seven feet of skin and bones—was laid way
to moulder with the ruins of old Sumner, did he finally ‘get down off of
that stump.’ He rests at the entrance of the Sumner cemetery and his
grave is marked with one of those small, regulation slabs such as are
furnished by the Government for the graves of dead soldiers and bears
this simple inscription: ‘J. G. Lang, Co. K. 13th Kansas Infantry.’
There are two other members of the Thirteenth Kansas buried at Sumner.
They are, John Scott, of Company D, and Albred Brown, of Company F.”

Another article relating to Old Sumner, which is entertaining and
instructive, was written by E. W. Howe, and is taken from the Historical
Edition of the _Atchison Daily Globe_, issued July 16, 1894:

“The founder of Sumner was John P. Wheeler, a red-headed, blue-eyed,
consumptive, slim, freckled enthusiast from Massachusetts. He was a
surveyor by profession, and also founded the town of Hiawatha. He was
one of the adventurers who came to Kansas as a result of the excitement
of 1855–’56, and was only twenty-one years old when he came West. Most
of the men who had much to do with early Kansas history were young.

“The town was not named for Charles Sumner, as is generally supposed,
but for his brother, George Sumner, one of the original stockholders. At
that time Atchison was controlled by Southern sympathizers—P. T. Abell,
the Stringfellows, the McVeys, A. J. Westbrook and others—and
abolitionists were not welcome in the town. It was believed that a city
would be built within a few miles of this point, as it was favorable for
overland freighting, being farther West than any other point on the
Missouri river. On the old French maps Atchison was known as the ‘Grand
Detour,’ meaning the great bend in the river to the westward.

“Being a violent abolitionist, John P. Wheeler determined to establish a
town where abolitionists would be welcome, and Sumner was the result.
The town was laid out in 1856, and the next year Wheeler had a
lithograph made, which he took East for use in booming his town.

“Among others captured by means of this lithograph was John J. Ingalls.
Wheeler and Ingalls were both acquainted with a Boston man of means
named Samuel A. Walker. Wheeler wanted Walker to invest in Sumner, and
as Walker knew that Ingalls was anxious to go West, he asked him to stop
at Sumner and report upon it as a point for the investment of Boston
money.

“Mr. Ingalls arrived in Sumner on the 4th of October, 1858, on the
steamer Duncan S. Carter, which left St. Louis four days before. The
town then contained about two thousand people, five hundred more than
Atchison; but Sumner was already declining, and Mr. Ingalls did not
advise his friend, Walker, to invest.

“A hotel building costing $16,000.00, had been built by Samuel
Hollister. A famous steamboat cook had charge of the kitchen in the old
days, and the stages running between Jefferson City and St. Joe stopped
there every day for dinner. Jefferson City was then the end of the
railroad—the Pacific Railroad of Missouri, now the Missouri Pacific—
which runs through the deserted site of Sumner, and directly over the
foundation of the wagon factory built by Levi A. Woods. This wagon
factory was one of the results of Wheeler’s audacious lithograph, and
few wagons were actually manufactured. The factory was heavily insured,
and burned.

“Albert R. Richardson was a citizen of Sumner, when Mr. Ingalls arrived
there; also James Hauk, the father of Minnie Hauk, who has since become
famous as a singer in grand opera. James Hauk was a carpenter, whose
wife operated a boarding house. Minnie Hauk waited on the table, and was
noted among the boarders as a smart little girl with a long yellow braid
down her back, who could play the piano pretty well. The next year Hauk
made a house boat and floated down the river to New Orleans.

“When John J. Ingalls went to Sumner, a young man of twenty-four, he
took great interest in such characters as Archie Boler and Jonathan
Grander Lang. Lang was a jug fisherman in the river, melon raiser, truck
patch farmer and town drunkard. Ingalls says that Lang was really a
bright fellow. He had been a dragoon in the Mexican War, and his stories
of experiences in the West were intensely interesting. Ingalls used to
go out in Lang’s boat when he was jugging for catfish and spend hours
listening to his talk. Finally Ingalls wrote his ‘Catfish Aristocracy,’
and Lang recognized himself as the hero. He was very indignant and
threatened to sue Ingalls, having been advised by some jackleg lawyer
that the article was libelous. Lang lived on a piece of land belonging
to Ingalls at the time, and Ingalls told the writer of this the other
day that it was actually true that he settled with Lang for a sack of
flour and a side of bacon. Lang served in the Civil war, and long after
its close, when his old friend was president of the United States
Senate, he secured him a pension and a lot of back pay. But this he
squandered in marrying. His pension money was a curse to him, for it
only served to put a lot of wolves on his trail.

“When the war broke out the Atchison men who objected to abolitionists
settling in their town were driven out of the country, and this
attracted a good many of the citizens of Sumner. But its death blow came
in June, 1860, when nearly every house in the place was either blown
down or badly damaged by a tornado. This was the first and only tornado
in the history of this immediate section.”

Reference is made in both of these articles to John J. Ingalls, who
arrived in Sumner from Boston, Mass., October 4, 1858. Mr. Ingalls was a
graduate of Williams College a short time before, and at the time he
decided to go West he was a student in a law office in Boston, where his
attention was first called to Sumner by an elaborate lithograph of the
town displayed by Mr. Wheeler, the promoter. The impressions of Mr.
Ingalls upon his arrival in Sumner are, therefore, pertinent and convey
some idea of the shock he received when he landed at the Sumner levee.
In a letter which he subsequently wrote describing the event, he said:

“That chromatic triumph of lithographed mendacity, supplemented by the
loquacious embellishments of a lively adventurer who has been laying out
town sites and staking off corner lots for some years past in Tophet,
exhibited a scene in which the attractions of art, nature, science,
commerce and religion were artistically blended. Innumerable drays were
transporting from a fleet of gorgeous steamboats vast cargoes of foreign
and domestic merchandise over Russ pavements to colossal warehouses of
brick and stone. Dense, wide streets of elegant residences rose with
gentle ascent from the stores of the tranquil stream. Numerous parks,
decorated with rare trees, shrubbery and fountains were surrounded with
the mansions of the great and the temples of their devotion. The
adjacent eminences were crowned with costly piles which wealth, directed
by intelligence and controlled by taste, had erected for the education
of the rising generation of Sumnerites. The only shadow upon the
enchanting landscape fell from the clouds of smoke that poured from the
towering shafts of her acres of manufactories, while the whole
circumference of the undulating prairie was white with endless, sinuous
trains of wagons, slowly moving toward the mysterious region of the
Farther West.”


                                 OCENA.

Ocena was laid out in Atchison county in 1855, and for a time it gave
promise of becoming an important place. Ocena was located on the
northeast bank of Stranger creek, on what is known as the McBride farm,
in the south half of the northeast quarter of section 22, township 6,
range 19, about a mile north of the present site of Pardee. The first
postoffice in Center township, and one of the first in Atchison county,
was established at Ocena with William Crosby as postmaster in August,
1855. In 1856, T. C. McBride was appointed postmaster, and served until
the office was removed to Pardee in 1858, when S. G. Moore was appointed
postmaster.

T. C. McBride was one of the early settlers of Center township, having
arrived there in March, 1856, and settled on the land on which the town
of Ocena was built. He was one of the early merchants of the place,
having a small store, in which he kept the postoffice. The mail was
carried from Atchison to Ocena by stage. McBride was a Tennesseean, born
in 1826. In the fall of 1857, in a grove on the McBride farm, the first
church service in that section was held. It was of the Methodist
Episcopal denomination.

Ocena was the first important stopping place west of Atchison. The old
_Squatter Sovereign_, of Atchison, in its issue of December 5, 1857,
contained the following advertisement of the town: “The truth plainly
told will show that Ocena is already a city. The surface of the earth
was so moulded by the plastic hand of the Creator that a few points in
the wide expanse of Nature were destined to eclipse all others. Ocena is
one of those points. Located as it is, on the northeast bank of Stranger
creek, in the county of Atchison, where roads leading from Doniphan and
St. Joe to Lecompton are intersected by roads leading from Atchison to
Grasshopper Falls and Osawkee; and also being upon the great
thoroughfare running up and down the valley of the Stranger, it offers
more inducements for a large and prosperous inland town than any other
place in Kansas Territory. All persons anxious to thrive and desirous of
obtaining a home on reasonable terms will do well to settle in Ocena.
For further particulars in reference to the town apply to Isaac S.
Hascall, president, or M. C. Finney, secretary.”

_Freedom’s Champion_, in its issue of July 3, 1858, says of the town:
“Ocena, besides having the most musical name, is one of the most
beautiful places in Kansas. A postoffice has been established there and
several new buildings are being erected. It is destined to be a thriving
little place.”

Ocena was killed by Pardee, a town which was started a short distance to
the south of it, but neither amounted to much from a municipal and
business standpoint. Pardee is now only a country village. It was first
platted as a town by James Brewer, in the string of 1857, and was named
in honor of Pardee Butler, of border warfare fame. In the winter of 1856
Mr. Butler preached his first sermon in Pardee, the services being held
in the school house, which had been completed during the previous fall,
and opened by James Brewer in December. Caleb May, the first settler in
Center township, was the first president of the Pardee Town Company.
Pardee Butler was afterwards president; Milo Carleton, secretary; Wm. J.
May, treasurer; S. G. Moore, A. Elliott and W. Wakefield, trustees. Mr.
Moore opened the first store in Pardee in 1858, and became the first
postmaster as aforestated. Mr. Carleton put a wind gristmill in
operation at Pardee at an early day, but it was destroyed by a storm.


                               LANCASTER.

Lancaster is one of the oldest towns in the county. In the issue of
October 16, 1858, of _Freedom’s Champion_, the following advertisement
with reference to Lancaster appears:

                              “LANCASTER.

“Lancaster City is the name of a new town just springing into existence.
It is located 10 miles direct west of our city (Atchison) Atchison
county, K. T., on the east half of Section 32, Township 5, Range 19, the
great military road to Fts. Kearney, Laramie, Bridge, and to Santa Fe,
Utah, Washington Territory, Gadson Purchase, California, New Mexico,
etc., passes through the town site. Also roads leading from Nebraska
City, St. Joseph, Doniphan, and to Grasshopper Falls, Topeka, Lecompton
and Lawrence.

“A more beautiful situation for a large and prosperous city could not be
found in the Territory, or the Great West. Its site is rolling and dry,
climate healthy and salubrious as heart could wish for. The surrounding
country cannot be surpassed for its magnificent undulating prairies,
being one of the most fertile agricultural regions in the whole country.

“Excellent coal, building stone and timber, within two, and two and a
half miles. This town has been under way but little over two months, and
notwithstanding the hard times, quite a number of buildings are already
erected, among which will be found a large and commodious hotel, a good
store, blacksmith and carpenter shops, post office, etc., etc.
Arrangements are made for the erection of several more dwelling houses,
also for the erection during this month, of a Union church, (the first
in the county) and with liberty heretofore unequalled in Kansas, Mr. J.
W. Smith, the President of the Company, authorizes us to say that he
will give good lots gratis to mechanics, laborers, and others, who will
apply for them soon, or who will erect improvements on them in six
months, worth $200 or more. This, we think, a good chance for men who
want a comfortable home in the best section of our country. The company
now offer to sell lots or shares at reasonable rates, and are prepared
to make warrantee deeds for the same, having purchased the site and
obtained the title for the same of the Government of the United States
on the 26th day of June, 1858. Persons wishing to live in an interior
town, will do well to visit Lancaster before investing elsewhere.”

While this little town did not prove to be all that its promoters
expected of it, it continued as a good trading point for many years, and
in 1916 remains one of the prosperous communities of the county. In
addition to the one bank which it supports, reference to which has
already been made, Lancaster, in 1915, has seven stores, a two-room
public school, three churches, one elevator, one lumber yard, a good
hotel and a garage. In 1915 its enterprising citizens built an electric
high tensioned line connecting with the Effingham line out of Atchison,
to supply the town with electric lights, and its citizens are now
enjoying all the benefits of electricity.

About 80,000 bushels of grain, and an average of seventy-five cars of
live stock are shipped out of Lancaster annually. Its merchants are
enterprising and prosperous, and many comfortable and commodious homes
have been built in this little town. It is located in one of the finest
agricultural sections of the county, and the surrounding country is in a
state of high cultivation, and peopled by prosperous and thrifty
farmers.


                             PORT WILLIAM.

In the _Squatter Sovereign_ of March 11, 1856, published at Atchison,
appeared the following advertisement of Port William:

“This new and beautiful town site is situated on the Missouri river, in
Kansas Territory, three or four miles above the town of Iatan, in the
heart of the most densely populated part of Kansas; surrounded by the
finest soil and timber in that Territory, with a permanent landing,
commanding a view of the river for several miles above and below. The
principal part of said town is located on a bed of stone coal of the
best quality. Arrangements are being made to have said stone coal bed
opened and wrought by a joint stock company early in the spring, at
which time there will be a sale of lots. There is now in course of
erection a good steam saw mill, which will be in successful operation in
a few weeks; also, a large and commodious tavern is in process of
erection, which will be opened for the accommodation of the public in a
short time. Persons wishing to procure lots immediately will have
opportunity of so doing by calling on Henry Bradley or Jonathan Hartman,
both of whom are authorized agents to sell and dispose of lots, and one
or both may at all times be found on the premises ready to accommodate
purchasers upon the most liberal terms. H. B. Wallace, Amos Rees, Henry
Debard, H. C. Bradley, H. B. Herndon, James G. Spratt, W. C. Remington,
James W. Bradley, P. J. Collins, trustees.”

Of the above named trustees Judge James G. Spratt, W. C. Remington and
Henry Debard were prominent citizens of Platte county, Missouri, and
members of the town company that incorporated Port William in 1855.
James M. and Henry Bradley and H. B. Herndon were also members of this
company. Henry Debard was a Kentuckian, born in Clark county, November
24, 1801, and came to Platte county at an early day, later removing to
Kansas. He was a prominent Mason, and took an active part in Masonic
work in Missouri for many years. He was a cabinet maker, but did not
work much at his trade. He died in Platte City, October 5, 1875.

Amos Rees was born at Winchester, Va., December 2, 1800, and came to
Missouri at an early age, locating in Platte county, March 1, 1845. For
many years he was a prominent attorney of that county. He moved to
Kansas in 1855, and died, December 29, 1885. Dr. H. B. Wallace, who was
interested in Port William, was a physician at Platte City, and a member
of the town board in 1858. He invested largely in St. Jose, and the war
reduced him almost to poverty. He died, February 24, 1863. Judge Paxton,
in his “Annals of Platte County,” simply mentions him as having married
the “beautiful and accomplished Ann E. Owen.”

J. Butler Chapman arrived in Kansas in the spring of 1854, made a trip
over the territory, and then published a small volume, entitled “History
of Kansas and Emigrant’s Guide.” He refers to Port William as
“Williamsport, a prospective town a short distance above Kickapoo.” “The
bluffs,” he continues, “are high and precipitous, and the land broken
until you reach the high rolling prairie back some three miles. The
whole country is settled on with a view of preëmption.”

A company known as the Port William Sharp’s Rifles, numbering eighty-
one, rank and file, was formed at Port William, in October, 1856. The
commissioned officers elected were James Adkins, captain; Henry C.
Bradley, first lieutenant; James M. Bradley, second lieutenant; S.
Bowman, third lieutenant. The company was enrolled, or was intended to
be enrolled, in the first regiment, first brigade, northern division of
the Kansas militia, and applied for arms and commissions. The Port
William Town Company was incorporated by an act of the Territorial
legislature in 1855 and the town company was composed of William C.
Remington, James G. Spratt, Henry Debard, James M. Bradley, Henry
Bradley, Horace B. Herndon and William B. Almond.

General William B. Almond, one of the incorporators of Pt. William, was
a noted man in the West in the early days. He was a Virginian, who came
to Platte county, Missouri, when the Platte Purchase was opened, and
settled near the Buchanan county line. At a very early period he had
been connected with the American Fur Company, and as a mountaineer had
many adventures. During the thirties he was a brigadier general of the
State militia in Missouri. He was one of the foremost “Forty-niners” to
California, leading a company to the land of gold, among whom was Ben
Holladay, afterwards famous as the originator of the “pony express” and
other Western enterprises. While in California General Almond
distinguished himself as a Territorial judge in San Francisco. Returning
to Platte county in 1851 he was elected circuit judge, was a candidate
for lieutenant governor, and filled other offices and places of
distinction and prominence. He was also connected with mercantile,
milling and other enterprises. He lived for some time in Topeka and
Leavenworth, and died at the latter place in 1860.

Judge James G. Spratt, another of the promoters of old Port William, was
also a man of some prominence. He came to the West from Smith county,
Virginia, where he was born, 1826, and, like General Almond, settled in
Platte county at a very early day. In 1843 he was appointed a justice of
the peace in Platte county, and was afterwards deputy county clerk,
probate judge and held other positions. For some time he was engaged in
the practice of law, and was in partnership with Hon. Joseph E.
Merryman, in Platte City. In 1864 he went to Montana where he became a
mine speculator. He died November 13, 1881, and his remains were brought
back to Platte for burial. W. H. Spratt, a brother of Judge Spratt, was
at one time sheriff of Platte county.

William C. Remington was another pioneer of Platte, like General Almond
and Judge Spratt, a Virginian by birth, who came west at a very early
day. He was one of the early assessors of Platte county, and
subsequently was elected circuit clerk. He was one of the trustees of
the Platte City Town Company when it was incorporated in 1843. He was
also a member of the company that laid off the town of St. Mary’s at the
mouth of Bee creek in 1857, but no lots were ever sold. Mr. Remington
was one of the early merchants of Platte City, one of the proprietors of
the _Platte City Weekly Atlas_, and was interested in various other
enterprises. His handsome brick residence in Platte City was among those
burned by federal orders in July, 1864. He died December 20, 1864, in
Omaha, where he was operating a hotel.

Of Henry Debard, another member of the Port William Town Company, the
writer has not yet found any record. The Bradleys lived in Platte
county, opposite Port William for many years, moved over to the Kansas
side early in 1854, and with Squire Horace B. Herndon started the old
town. The Bradleys opened a general store and James M. Bradley was
appointed postmaster when the postoffice was established in April, 1855.
Squire Herndon was one of the earliest justices of the peace in Kansas,
and had much business in his court in the early days, as Port William
was one of the roughest of the border towns.

Port William was located eight miles below Atchison. It is one of the
most interesting localities from a historical standpoint in Atchison
county and northeastern Kansas. It is one of the oldest settlements in
Kansas, and for a time in the early days was one of the promising
villages of the territory. In fact, it was of enough importance, not in
size, but as a prospective populace, to be mentioned by travelers of
that time, as one of the principal towns of Kansas. Father Pierre Jean
de Smet, the Jesuit missionary, in a letter written February 26, 1859,
says: “A great number of towns and villages have sprung up as if by
enchantment in the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska. The principal
towns of Kansas are Wyandotte, Delaware, Douglas, Marysville, Iola,
Atchison, Ft. Scott, Pawnee, Lecompton, Neosho, Richmond, Tecumseh,
Lawrence, Port William, Doniphan, Paola, Alexandria, Indianola, Easton,
Leavenworth and others.” The history of old Doniphan, Sumner and
Kickapoo has long been well established, but that of Port William has
been neglected and has remained obscure. Port William never was much of
a town, as were its rivals, Doniphan, Sumner and Kickapoo, but it was
proposedly in the race for municipal supremacy in the pioneer days, and
though its star may never have attained the ascendency, its story is at
least worthy of preservation in the archives of Atchison county history.

Port William was started in 1856 by Henry and James M. Bradley, John T.
and Albred Bailey, and Jonathan Hartman. The two Bradleys and John T.
Bailey composed the town company. The Bradleys conducted a general
store, and a postoffice was established in April, 1855, with Henry
Bradley as first postmaster. This was the first postoffice in Walnut
township. Jonathan Hartman owned and operated a sawmill, the first in
Atchison county, in 1854, and made the first lumber ever sawed in the
county. There were several saloons, and later a blacksmith shop, a
carpenter shop and other small industries were started. It has been
surmised by someone that Port Williams, as it is sometimes called, was
named for a Missouri river steamboat captain named Williams, as
steamboats often tied up at the place in the early days. There are
others who believe it was so-called for the late “Uncle Frank” Williams,
one of the fathers of the colored settlement which was started in that
vicinity at a later day. The correct name of the place, however, is Port
William, instead of Port Williams, and it is known that it was so named
more than fifty years ago, or nearly twenty years before “Uncle Frank”
Williams settled there. The correct origin of the name is probably given
by the late W. J. Bailey, of Atchison, who was one of the very first
settlers of that vicinity. He said that in 1854 a man named William
Johnson came across from the settlement about Iatan, Mo., and took up
the claim on which Port William was afterwards built. It was a likely
claim and Johnson soon had trouble on his hands in holding the property.
Several men tried to chase him off with guns, but Johnson managed to
make such a good defense as to repel them. He stayed in his cabin a
week, not daring to come out for fear of being shot. He won out and held
the claim. The other fellows then referred to his cabin as Fort William
(that was his first name). Soon after Jake Yunt, from Missouri,
established a hand ferryboat, and by and by steamboats began to land
there. Then the name was changed to Port William, and this is the proper
name of the place, although on the Missouri Pacific station board now
standing there it is marked “Port Williams.”

There are but few men who came to Atchison county earlier than W. J.
Bailey, of Atchison. He crossed the river from Platte county on June 12,
1854, and settled at Port William, and, with the exception of a few
years’ residence in Colorado, has lived in this county ever since.
Luther Dickerson, who was generally known as the “oldest inhabitant,”
came here the same month that Mr. Bailey did. When Mr. Bailey first
arrived at Port William he built a one room cabin on his claim near that
place, and to do so was obliged to drag logs with one horse a distance
of a mile and a half. In 1855 he brought his cattle over. He said the
grass all over this county was ankle deep and afforded fine pasturage.
There was no town at Atchison then, but Challiss Bros. conducted a store
on the river bank, and George Million operated a hand ferryboat. Mr.
Bailey worked for Million three years.

“Those were happy times,” said Mr. Bailey, “we met around among
neighboring cabins and had parties. When we had a fiddle we danced.” For
several years Mr. Bailey was with a freighting crew between Ft.
Leavenworth and Ft. Kearney, most of the time as a wagon-master. They
generally drove twenty-six wagons with six yoke of oxen to each wagon
and hauled Government supplies. Once they were surrounded by Indians and
were in imminent danger of being annihilated, when General Harney with a
company of troops came to their rescue and chased the red-skins to Ash
Hollow, near Ft. Kearney, where a bloody skirmish took place and the
Indians were routed. Speaking of old Port William, Mr. Bailey said:
“Although laid out as an investment, the town was a failure. The little
creek flowed through the center of the town, dividing the stores and
saloons from the sawmill, blacksmith shop and carpenter shop. No city
government encased the stream with cement tiling, and the best bridge
the town ever afforded was built by felling a cottonwood tree across the
stream.” Port William had its “town bullies” and fights were of frequent
occurrence. Mr. Bailey said that the “town bullies” were Dan McLoud,
Bill Pates and Bob Gibson. “It was common,” he said, “for farmers to go
to Port William every Saturday afternoon to witness the fights and
drunks.” On one occasion a man was badly shot up and another jumped into
the river and swam across. Mr. Bailey said the first election there
contained 250 ballots, although only sixty people voted. There were two
ballot boxes, one controlled by the pro-slavery and the other by the
Free State people. Eight or ten men stood around the balloting places
with guns, and people voted five or six times, though under different
names.

The “village blacksmith” of old Port William, and one of the early
justices of the peace of Walnut township, was Thomas J. Payne, later
living at Canyon City, Colo. Mr. Payne settled at Port William, March
18, 1855, and was one of the pioneer blacksmiths of Kansas. He operated
blacksmith shops at three of the old towns of Atchison county, Port
William, Sumner and Mt. Pleasant. He was appointed a justice of the
peace by Governor Shannon, in 1856. The office of “county squire” was of
more importance in those stirring times than it is now. Mr. Payne’s son,
Charles Sumner Payne, was the first child born at old Sumner. His birth
occurred September 25, 1857. He was named by the town company, who made
out and presented to him a deed for a lot in the once thriving city.
Another son was born at Sumner on the day that John Brown was hanged,
and was named for the great abolitionist. A third son was named for Jim
Lane. Thomas J. Payne enlisted as a private in Company F, Thirteenth
Kansas infantry, at Atchison, August 20, 1862, and was later promoted to
orderly sergeant. He was discharged at Ft. Smith, Ark., October 29,
1864. Then he was immediately appointed by the secretary of war first
lieutenant of Company B, First Regiment of Kansas infantry, colored. He
took part in many engagements, and was mustered out in August, 1865. He
was born in Georgetown, Ohio, the town in which General Grant was born.
There are few men in Kansas who have served as a justice of the peace
longer than Mr. Payne. He held the office in Atchison county for a
number of years, at Robinson, Kan., for eighteen years, and later at
Horton, Kan., for several years.

The old Horace B. Herndon farm at Port William, now owned and occupied
by Frank Bluma, Sr., was known as the “Old Indian farm,” in the early
days. According to W. J. Bailey it was so-called because an Indian known
as “Kickapoo John” located on it previous to the settlement of Kansas by
the whites and was still living there with numerous other Indians when
Mr. Bailey first came to that locality. Mr. Bailey said that the butts
of tepee poles could be seen sticking in the ground on the site of Port
William for some time afterwards. In 1854 Horace B. Herndon preëmpted
the “Old Indian farm,” built a cabin thereon at the southwest corner of
the field near the creek, and put an old negro slave in it to hold the
claim for him. The old darkey died and was buried in the family burying
ground on the farm about 1855. He was probably the first colored man who
ever lived and died in what afterwards became famous as the “Port
William colored settlement.” This was about twenty years before this
community became generally settled by colored people. The old Herndon
family residence, one of the landmarks of this region, is still standing
and is occupied by Frank Bluma and family. There is evidence that the
“old Indian farm” was occupied by Indians long before “Kickapoo John’s”
time for the old field is strewn with various fragments representing the
stone age and prehistoric times. Mr. Herndon died a number of years ago.
He was another of the early justices of the peace of Walnut township and
was generally known as “Squire” Herndon. He was also a public
administrator for Atchison county, and was one of the most prominent
citizens of the southern part of the county for many years. He was the
father of Mrs. Henry King and James Herndon, residents of Round Prairie.
Mrs. King, then Miss Virginia Herndon, was the “belle” of the old town
of Port William, and was a social favorite throughout this section of
the county.

Another early settler of Port William was Henry Luth, the veteran
carpenter, who moved from Atchison to Leavenworth. Mr. Luth lived in
Port William for several years in the early fifties, removing to
Atchison in 1857. He built many of the first houses in this section of
the country. A large walnut cupboard and other furniture in Mr. Luth’s
home he made from walnut timber cut at Port William and sawed into
lumber at the old Hartman sawmill at that place. Mr. Luth had a little
shop at Port William in which he made furniture. Henry Hausner,
Atchison’s well known commission merchant, took a claim at Port William
in 1855, but was cheated out of it. Andy Brown, for many years an
Atchison flagman, was an early settler of Port William. With Thomas
Taylor, now living at Perry, Kan., he crossed the river to Kansas on
Jake Yunt’s ferry just above Port William in 1854. Mr. Brown’s father
had taken a claim at Port William and Taylor one adjoining it. The
latter helped Samuel Dickson build his cabin shanty on the site of
Atchison in the fall of 1854.

Ex-Sheriff Fred Hartman, of this county, now deceased, lived at Port
William in the early days. His father, Jonathan Hartman, in 1854, put
into operation at that place one of the very first sawmills in the
Territory. It furnished lumber for many of the first houses in this
section. The lumber was sawed from the fine timber which grew along
Little Walnut creek. Fred Hartman said that in 1856 Bob Gibson brought
his famous “Kickapoo Rangers” to Port William for the purpose of
lynching his father, Jonathan Hartman, on account of his most avowed
Free Soil principles. They stayed around a while, and as Mr. Hartman did
not seem to be the least bit intimidated, they finally left and never
molested him again. It was during this time that Pardee Butler was
placed on a raft at Atchison and set adrift in the river. He landed just
above Port William, and went at once to Mr. Hartman’s for assistance.
Not deeming it safe for Mr. Butler to remain in Port William, Mr.
Hartman took him out to the home of Jasper Oliphant, about two miles
west of the village, where he stayed at night and finally reached his
home in safety. Jasper Oliphant was another of the earliest settlers of
this locality. He was assassinated some years ago by Bob Scruggs, a
desperate character, who at the same time shot and killed John Groff,
another prominent Walnut township citizen, and Scruggs was captured and
hanged to a tree near Oak Mills. The tragic deaths of two such
substantial citizens as Mr. Oliphant and Mr. Groff produced a profound
sensation throughout Walnut township. In the spring of 1857 Jonathan
Hartman sold his sawmill and moved to a farm near the present site of
Parnell, where he died. Fred Hartman served during the war in the
Thirteenth Kansas with Thomas J. Payne, mentioned elsewhere.

The wagon road leading from Port William westward to the “old military
road,” bears the unique distinction of crossing the same creek fourteen
times in a distance of less than three miles. It is not believed that
there is another creek in Atchison county that is crossed an equal
number of times by one road. Little Walnut creek, which empties into the
Missouri river at Port William, has its source near the Leavenworth
county line. It flows northward through a heavily timbered country, and
is one of the prettiest little streams in Atchison county. It was
formerly called Bragg’s creek, after “Jimmy” Braggs, an early-day
Missouri Pacific section foreman, who lived on its banks. Braggs
afterward moved to Holton, where he died and the name of the creek was
changed to Little Walnut, after its neighbor, Walnut creek, which
empties into the river at Dalby, about two miles above.


                               ARRINGTON.

Arrington is located on the Union Pacific railroad in the southwest part
of the county. This town was platted August 20, 1884, and its original
promoters were R. A. Van Winkle, D. S. Henecke. John Ballinger, D. D.
High, D. A. Benjamin, J. M. Roberson, Michael Baker, J. S. Hopkins, Ira
Tabor and George W. Drake. Its streets are numbered one to four, and its
cross streets are called Fountain avenue, Delaware street and Forest
avenue. Arrington has three general stores, one elevator and a bank.
During good crop years, as high as 125 cars of grain and live stock are
shipped from its station, and its stores do a good business, rendering
fine service to the surrounding territory.

At one time prior to 1890 medicinal springs were located at Arrington
and it was quite a resort during the summer months for people living in
northeastern Kansas. The town has a good hotel, and in addition to its
merchandise establishments it supports a physician and several churches.

For many years a mill was conducted on the Delaware river upon which
Arrington is located, operated by water power. This mill was built by
John Reider in 1867, who also operated it both as a sawmill and as a
grain mill. In 1874 W. H. Stockton joined Mr. Reider, and these two men
built a two-story frame mill, but they operated it only one day, as it
was mysteriously burned the following night. Shortly thereafter Mr.
Reider, undismayed and undiscouraged, associated with himself Albert
Ingler, and remembering his previous disastrous experience with fire,
Mr. Reider built a stone mill. This firm conducted a successful business
for a number of years, drawing patronage for a distance of sixty miles,
but in 1879, Mr. Ingler met an untimely death, by drowning as he was
crossing the river, a few feet below where the Arrington bridge stands.
Mr. Reider sold his interest to D. S. Heneks, who ran the mill until
1906, when John W. Young became its owner. He subsequently turned it
over to George W. Stone, since which time it has been in possession of
various owners, and in 1916 is owned by Burt McCulley. It has not been
operated since 1908, and stands in ruins.

A history of Arrington would be incomplete without the mention of the
name of Ransom A. Van Winkle, who was the first settler in Kapioma
township, and the founder of the town. Captain Van Winkle was born
November 25, 1818, in Wayne county, Kentucky. He was a Hollander by
descent, and at one time his great-grandfather, Michael Van Winkle,
owned an interest in 13,000 acres of land within twelve miles of New
York City, which was sold just prior to the Revolutionary war, for
twenty-five cents an acre. Van Winkle received the rudiments of his
education in a Kentucky log school house, but was for two years a cadet
at West Point and received a good education. He was married twice and
had a varied experience in business, at one time owning a large interest
in coal lands in Kentucky. He removed to St. Joseph, Mo., in 1849, and
in September, 1855, came to Kansas and built the first claim cabin on
the Grasshopper, or what is now the Delaware river, above Valley Falls,
in Kapioma township. He also built the first steam sawmill, sawed the
first lumber, and built the first frame house, and taught the first
school in Kapioma township, and was the first postmaster at Arrington.
He always took an active part in politics in the county and was a stanch
Republican. He was a prominent Free State man in the early struggle in
Kansas and contributed liberally to the cause and worked hard in its
behalf. He was a justice of the peace in Papioma township for fourteen
years; postmaster five years; trustee of Kapioma township eight years; a
member of the legislature in 1861 and 1862 and county commissioner of
Atchison county for six years. He was patriarchal in appearance and was
a conspicuous figure for many years in Republican conventions in
Atchison county.


                               MUSCOTAH.

The name of “Muscotah” is of Indian origin, but when, why and by whom it
was applied to a town, seems to be a question. “Andreas’ History of
Kansas,” in a brief historical mention of the town of Muscotah, says:
“The name Muscotah, written in Indian style, Musco-tah, signifies
“Beautiful Prairie,” or “Prairie on Fire.” Andreas does not give any
authority for this statement, but on page 1343 in a biographical sketch
of William D. Barnett, one of the earliest settlers of Muscotah, he says
that Mr. Barnett did not name the town, but that it was named by Paschal
Pensoneau, the old Kickapoo trader and interpreter. Mr. Kessler was a
blacksmith among the Kickapoos at early day.

Maj. C. B. Keith was one of the founders of Muscotah, and an early agent
for the Kickapoo Indians. In a letter under date of December 8, 1908,
Mrs. Keith, the widow of Major Keith, wrote that Muscotah was named by
her husband and her two brothers, William P. and John C. Badger. She
corroborates Andreas in his statement that the name signifies “Beautiful
Prairie,” or “Prairie on Fire,” and says that Muscotah should be
accented on the last syllable. She further says that Paschal Pensoneau
may have suggested the name, and incidentally adds: “He was interpreter
for my brother, William P. Badger, who was Indian agent under President
Buchanan, and later for my husband under Lincoln. He was a good friend
for both of my brothers and Major Keith, and accompanied my husband to
Washington with the head chiefs when they made their treaty. The
original Muscotah was on a fine site and justified the name.”

There is a town in the old Kickapoo country, in Illinois, named
Mascoutah, and believing it to be synonymous with the Atchison county
name, though slightly different in orthography and pronunciation, Milo
Custer, of Heyworth, Ill., the well known authority on the Kickapoos,
wrote: “As to the meaning of the names Muscotah and Mascoutah, they are
synonymous with the old Algonquin word, Masko-teh, meaning ‘prairies.’
The Kickapoo word for prairies was one among others that I failed to get
when I visited the tribe in Kansas in October, 1906. However, I am of
the opinion that the word was originally derived from Ma-shi O-shkoo-
teh, meaning ‘Big Fire,’ and that it referred to the great prairie fires
which swept over the country. In fact I have seen the opinion advanced
by some other authority, but cannot now recall the name.” When the
Kickapoos lived in Illinois there was a band called the Mas-cou-tins,
which Maj. H. W. Beckwith, the highest authority on the Illinois tribes,
says was the Indian name for “Indians of the Prairie.” Hence it is
evident that the name Muscotah is at least a derivation of the word
“prairie,” whether a “beautiful prairie” or “prairie of fire.”

[Illustration:

  Scene on Main Street, Muscotah, Kansas
]

[Illustration:

  New Muscotah School Building. Erected 1916, at a cost of $20,000.
]

The plat of the Muscotah Town Company was filed by W. P. Badger, one of
its proprietors, June 5, 1857, and the town is located in section 34,
township 5, range 17, on the Central Branch railroad, near the western
edge of the county. Its streets run from one to thirteen, and its cross
streets are named Pawpaw, Elm, Vine, Walnut, Mulberry, Hickory and Oak.
Following the construction of the Central Branch railroad William Osborn
filed another plat of the town, and several amendments have since been
made to it. Muscotah has always been an important trading point, and one
of the prosperous towns of the county. In 1916 there were three general
stores, one hardware store, two banks, two elevators, one lumber yard,
two cream stations, two barber shops, one harness shop, two drug stores,
two restaurants, a hotel, private boarding house, two garages and
blacksmith shops. The town also has four practicing physicians,
including an osteopath, and one dentist. The first general store was
established by Nels Brown in 1868, and a year later Watson & Guy put in
a general hardware store. Hagerman & Roach conducted a grain business in
1865, and the first elevator was built in 1874. Several serious fires
have destroyed much property in Muscotah, the largest being known as the
Watson fire, which occurred in 1883, destroying much property. The first
mayor of the town was Dr. William P. Badger, who was elected in 1882.
Albert Harrington was the first postmaster, in 1866. The first physician
to locate in the present limits of Muscotah was Dr. L. N. Plummer, who
came there in 1869. In 1868 a Dr. Heath located a few miles out from
Muscotah, but never lived in the town. Dr. S. M. Riggs came in 1872 and
he and Dr. Plummer are both active physicians in the practice in 1916,
together with Dr. O. O. Barter and Dr. F. A. Bermen. Years before
Muscotah was established there was a small settlement nearby where there
were a few houses and a postoffice located about where the Robert
Russell farm is. John Keeley, an enterprising early settler, built a
flouring mill on the Grasshopper river, now known as the Delaware, in
1869. Mr. Keeley did considerable business with the farmers in the
surrounding territory, but business finally fell off and the mill was
washed away by high water in 1895.

Muscotah is an important shipping point, and the annual shipment of
grain amounts to $150,000 to $200,000. Much live stock is also shipped
from Muscotah, and during the year 1915 fifty-two cars of cattle, hogs
and horses were shipped to the Kansas City and St. Joseph markets.

Muscotah is also a city of churches and schools. The Congregational
church was established in 1866. The pastor of this church in 1916 is
Rev. Fred Gray, who preaches to a congregation of about 150. When this
church was organized its members worshiped in the home of Robert
Russell, which was at that time in the depot, and the church edifice
which is now occupied was built in 1914.

The Methodist Episcopal church was established about 1876; it now has a
membership of 120, and its pastor is Rev. Rollo J. Fisher.

The Advent Christian church was organized in 1889, and its first pastor
was Rev. Marshall McCollough.

Mission Hall is maintained by unattached and unorganized Christians. It
holds meeting several times a week, including two services on Sunday.

The public school system of Muscotah includes an accredited high school,
in which two four-year courses are offered, together with a general and
college preparatory course. R. E. Devor is superintendent of schools,
and the officers of the school board are: J. F. Thompson, president; W.
D. Roach, treasurer; R. A. Allison, secretary. The first school house
within the present limits of the town was built in 1870, but was
subsequently destroyed by fire when another school was built in 1885. A
six room school was erected, and it was also destroyed by fire in
January, 1916. A movement is now under way to build a new, handsome,
modern school building, to accommodate twelve grades, together with
manual training, domestic science and a gymnasium.

Muscotah is supplied with electricity by high tension line from
Atchison, and in 1916 it has forty-two street lamps and fifty-five
private consumers.

In addition to being a town of churches and schools, Muscotah also has
several active lodges. The Masonic lodge was organized December 20,
1871, by E. D. Hillyer, of Grasshopper Falls, on a dispensation issued
by the grand lodge; the charter was issued October 17, 1872, and the
officers installed November 16, 1872. The first officers were: Ben F.
Freeland, William N. Kline, Thomas H. Phillips, B. G. Merrill, D. M.
Stillman, W. Bullock and I. C. Archer.

Purity Council No. 293, Knights and Ladies of Security, was chartered
July 6, 1895, with John Edward Lewis, president. It had ten charter
members and in 1916 there was a membership of seventy, with George W.
Rork, president, and Mrs. Carl Rork, secretary.

Modern Woodmen was chartered in August, 1898. The present officers are
W. F. Murray, V. H. Little and G. W. Harris. There are also active
lodges of the Mystic Workers, Eastern Star and Royal Neighbors.

Muscotah’s new combination grade and high school, which will take the
place of the one destroyed by fire, will cost approximately $20,000, and
will be a fire-proof structure of brick and concrete. When completed it
will be one of the best school buildings of its kind in any town the
size of Muscotah in the State. The present city officials of Muscotah
are: William Buckles, mayor; R. A. Hillyer, J. G. Burbank, W. D. Roach,
R. H. Trial and R. A. Allison, councilmen; H. M. Turner, city clerk; E.
M. Hicks, police judge, and S. B. Liggatt, marshal.


                               EFFINGHAM.

Effingham, the seat of Atchison county high school, is an incorporated
town, located sixteen miles west of Atchison, on the Central Branch
railroad, and was first platted by William Osborne April 4, 1868, who
built the first hundred miles of the Central Branch railroad, and is
located on a part of the southwest quarter of section 15 and the
northwest quarter of section 22, township 6, range 18. The original plat
contained only eight blocks and was subsequently cancelled. February 6,
1871, Major W. F. Downs, land commissioner of the Central Branch
railroad, filed another plat in which one block was dedicated as a
public park and the streets numbered from one to ten, with cross streets
as follows: Elizabeth, Seabury, Howard, George, William, and John. At
the opening of the Central Branch railroad Effingham enjoyed quite a
boom and it has remained one of the finest towns in northeastern Kansas
ever since.

There was a settlement around Effingham for a number of years prior to
the location of the townsite, and it was quite a trading point.
Effingham is located on a broad sweep of prairie land, but there is very
little of romance or legend connected with the town. There is one thing,
however, for which it has always been noted, and to this extent
Effingham occupies an unique place in the towns, not only of Atchison
county, but of Kansas, namely: It has never been without a good hotel.
The original hotel was known far and wide throughout the country and was
conducted by Aunt Betty Benton, a famous cook, who not only gave her
guests good things to eat, but made of her hotel a favorite stopping
place for the traveling public on account of the hospitable way in which
she ran it. Uncle Jack Martin succeeded Aunt Betty and for many years
thereafter kept up the high standard set by her. Then came Thomas F.
Cook, whose kindly welcome made friends for him among the hundreds of
visitors that came to Effingham from year to year, and who never left
his hotel without a full meal. Mr. Cook was succeeded by Mrs. Frank
Pitman, and she in turn was succeeded by Mrs. Davis, who, in 1915, is
conducting the hotel at Effingham and maintains the high standard of
excellence of food and hospitality set by her predecessors.

[Illustration:

  Main Street, Looking West, Effingham, Kansas
]

Among the early merchants of Effingham was Hon. Milton R. Benton, who
was born in Madison county, Kentucky May 3, 1815. He immigrated to
Kansas in 1857; located in Atchison, where he resided until 1867, during
which year he moved to his farm in Atchison county, near Effingham. He
was the first marshal of the city of Atchison, having been elected in
1858. In 1863 he was elected mayor of the city, and in 1864 was elected
a member of the council. He served as a member of the senate in the
Territorial council of 1859; in the State legislature in 1864, and for
three years as trustee of Center township. Benton township, in which
Effingham is located, was named for him. He was educated as a Democrat,
but before he cast his first vote identified himself with the anti-
slavery movement and became a Free State man in Kansas, but in after
years he supported Horace Greeley and became identified with the
Democratic party. In addition to farming he was in the real estate
business in Effingham.

[Illustration:

  Presbyterian Church, Effingham, Kansas
]

A. F. Achenbach was one of the early liverymen of Effingham, and also
was George P. Allen, who was a dealer in hardware and grain; Ball &
Herron, dealers in harness; Joel M. Ketch, hardware merchant; J. E.
McCormick, butcher; Alonzo Spencer, grocer; James Nesbitt, lumber
dealer, and Simeon Walters, contractor and carpenter.

P. J. O’Meara was a pioneer merchant of Effingham, and was a native of
Ireland, having been born in the county of Tipperary March 27, 1829. He
first settled in Miami county, where he received his education, and in
1865 he moved to Atchison and went into the grocery business on
Commercial street, between Third and Fourth, later moving to Effingham
when the townsite was located, and built one of the first store
buildings. He did a large and paying business, and his popularity was
shown by the people of Effingham in electing him their first mayor.

Effingham in 1915 had two hardware stores, one drug store, four general
stores, two banks, two garages, two barber shops, one cream station, one
clothing store, three restaurants, one hotel, one livery, and two
elevators. Effingham is also a city of churches having one Catholic
church, one Presbyterian church, Methodist church, Christian church and
Lutheran church. Its citizens are enterprising and progressive, and in
1914 the city council secured a twenty-four hour electric light service
over high tension line from Atchison. The elevators are owned by the
Farmers’ Mercantile Association, and Snyder, Smith & Company. Tom Tucker
and Beckman & Thomas are big live stock shippers, and they ship from
ninety-five to one hundred cars of live stock out of Effingham every
year, and the elevators ship over one hundred cars of grain every year.

The present city officials who have been so diligent and faithful in
their services to Effingham are as follows:

J. W. Wallach, mayor; A. J. Sells, city clerk; G. M. Snyder, councilman;
I. Ebert, councilman; D. Richter, councilman; James Farrell, councilman;
E. J. Kelley, councilman; J. W. Atcheson, marshal; J. A. Harman, city
treasurer.


                                 HURON.

Huron is located on the Omaha branch of the Missouri Pacific railway, in
Lancaster township, seventeen miles northwest of Atchison. The townsite
was originally the property of Col. D. R. Anthony, of Leavenworth. Mr.
Anthony donated the railroad company twenty acres of land and the right
of way for one mile. The surveys were made and the town named and
platted on May 18, 1882. Within six weeks after completion of the
surveys five dwellings were erected and the business interests of the
town were well represented. W. D. Starr was the first postmaster, and by
the end of the first year there were over fifty dwellings in the town,
and among the first buildings to be erected were the Presbyterian and
Baptist churches. Colonel Anthony donated lots upon which to build the
churches. J. D. Carpenter opened the first hotel in Huron. Mr. Carpenter
came to Kansas in 1874 and located on a farm near Huron, and when the
town was organized he moved there and opened his hotel. W. G. Rucker was
one of the early lumber dealers of Huron. He came from Corning, where he
was engaged in the general merchandise business, and moved to Huron when
the town was platted. Capt. George W. Stabler, for many years a resident
of Huron, was one of the prominent politicians and characters of the
county. He was born at Stablersville, Baltimore county, Maryland, in
1839, where his ancestors had lived for over 200 years. He moved to
Kansas in 1858, settling in Lancaster township. He enlisted as a private
in Company D, Second Kansas infantry, in 1861, for 100 days, and at the
expiration of that time he re-enlisted in the Second Kansas cavalry; was
made sergeant and was mustered out in 1865 and returned to his farm,
subsequently moving to Huron. In 1866 he was elected to the legislature,
and in 1871 and 1872 served as deputy United States marshal. He had been
justice of the peace, at the time of his death, a few years ago, for
over twenty years.

Old Huron was the original settlement near the present townsite of
Huron, and was an important trading point for many years prior to the
establishment of the new townsite following the laying of the railroad
to Omaha. There were many early settlers of importance in and around
Huron, among whom was Capt. Robert White. Captain White came to Kansas
in 1857 and bought the squatter rights of Charles Morgan and preëmpted a
quarter section of land in Lancaster township, near Huron.

The birth of the first white child in Atchison county, of which there is
any record, occurred in Lancaster township. The child was Miss Frances
Miller, who was born May 9, 1855. Her father was the late Daniel Miller,
an Ohioan by birth, and lived near DeKalb, Mo., in 1841. In 1854 he
looked over northeastern Kansas and settled on Independence creek,
twelve miles north of Atchison, early in 1855, near the northeastern
corner of Lancaster township. Mr. Miller sold his quarter section in
1858, after he had proven up on it, to Thomas Butcher, a new arrival in
Kansas from Brownville, Pa., for $3,000. Mr. Butcher built a flouring
mill on this land, which was run by water from Independence creek.
Butcher subsequently sold the plant to A. J. Evans, who ran it as a
“custom mill” until August, 1865, when it was destroyed by high water,
caused by heavy rains.

Samuel Wymore, for whom Wymore, Nebraska was named, was a resident of
Lancaster township, near Huron, in the fifties and early sixties, and
ran a sawmill by horse power, about three miles north of Lancaster, in
1858. Mr. Wymore sold his first bill of lumber to Captain Robert White
for $100 in gold, and at that time it was more money than Wymore had
ever seen at one time, and he was so nervous during the following night
that he could not sleep and continually stirred the fire in the stove so
that he could count the money from the light that it made. Wymore was
uneducated. He could neither read nor write, and he was said to have
been worth over $150,000 before 1875.

Isaac E. Kelly, a young man from Pennsylvania, taught one of the first
schools in Lancaster township, in one of the settlers’ preëmption cabin,
near Eden postoffice in 1860. He went to war in 1861 and marched with
Sherman to the Sea.

The first mowing machine in Atchison county was brought to Lancaster
township, two miles west of where Huron now is, by Joel Hiatt, in 1859,
who sold it to Capt. Robert White, who cut hay with it several seasons.
The machine was a Ball, and a crude affair. The first reaper to harvest
grain in the county was owned by the late M. J. Cloyes, who also lived
in Lancaster township, not many miles from Huron. Mr. Cloyes bought the
reaper in the early sixties. The grain was raked off by a man lashed to
a post on a platform four or five feet to the rear of the cycle. This
reaper was a Buckeye machine, and was sold by J. E. Wagner, the hardware
merchant of Atchison.

The forty acre tract of land upon which the home of Edward Perdue
stands, a few miles east of Huron, was traded for a mowing machine by
the owner in 1865.

Bethel church, located southwest of Huron, is supposed to be the oldest
church in the county, outside of Atchison. It was built by the Methodist
Episcopal church (South), about 1870, and is still in use in 1915.

Thus it will be seen that Huron is located in the midst of a very
interesting part of Atchison county, and while the town did not reach
the proportions that its original promoters had hoped for it, it is one
of the good towns of the county. The following are the business houses
in Huron in 1915:

 J. M. Delany—General merchandise.
 E. P. Perry—General merchandise.
 W. E. English—Hardware, implements and furniture.
 H. T. Harrison—Grocer.
 Dr. Wiley Jones—Drug store.
 John L. Snavly—Restaurant and postmaster.
 Mrs. Alta Wilson—Hotel.
 C. E. Mathew—Lumber.
 Loren Horton—Meat market.
 A. F. Allen—Grain, coal, live stock and automobile supplies.
 Baker-Corwell—Grain company.
 A. Morehead—Barber.
 W. Hildman—Blacksmith.
 Riley & Son—Livery barn.

Over 200,000 bushels of grain are shipped from Huron annually and the
average shipment of live stock amounts to about forty cars.


                            OLD MARTINSBURG.

Martinsburg was laid out near the present site of Potter in the early
days. It is not generally known, even among the old settlers, that there
was such a place. George Remsburg said that this was due probably to the
fact that Martinsburg was born dead. It was conceived in the town craze
of early territorial times, but it came a still-born infant and its
promoters succeeded in viewing it only long enough for it to give a
feeble gasp and fall back dead again. Though this proposed municipal
enterprise of pioneer days did not materialize, it was, nevertheless, an
interesting and important fact of local history, hitherto unrecorded,
that such a town was actually staked off and laid out in Atchison county
at a very early period. The only old-timers who remembered it were James
B. Low, of Colorado Springs, formerly of Mount Pleasant, “Uncle Joe”
Potter, and W. J. (Jack) Bailey. All three settled in the southern part
of Atchison county in 1854. Mr. Low settled with his parents in Walnut
township in the fall of that year, and says that Martinsburg was laid
out that fall. It was situated in what is known as the Mercer bottom, on
land belonging to Felix Corpstein and Fred Poss, in the west half of
section 24, a little northeast of the present site of Potter, or
immediately adjoining it. What is known as the Mercer spring, one of the
finest in this section, was included in the town site. Mr. Low and his
brother went out to look at the place in the fall of 1854 and decided to
spend the winter there. It consisted at that time of a few huts and a
small store, and never amounted to any more than a village, if it could
be called that, although Mr. Low says the town site originally comprised
about 100 acres, and a few lots were actually sold. The store was a
small frame building, erected by one Alex Hayes, who had previously
taken a claim on Plum creek, near Kickapoo. Mr. Low thinks this was the
first frame building in Atchison county. Hayes carried a small stock of
goods. This was long before the town of Mt. Pleasant, in the same
vicinity, was ever dreamed of, and even before Tom Fortune opened a
store there. It seems that the chief promoters of Martinsburg were two
brothers named Martin; hence the name. Not much is known concerning
them, or what became of them. “Uncle Joe” Potter says that one of them
came to his house on one occasion when he and his brother, Marion
Potter, were making rails. Martin stood around a while and finally
insinuated that they were foolish for working so hard, and in a
confidential way, “just the same as told them,” as Mr. Potter expressed
it, that they could make lots of money and make it easy stealing horses,
whereupon Marion Potter promptly ordered him off of the place, and told
him never to return. James Low’s father bought the town site of
Martinsburg in the fall of 1855 and moved onto it in the spring of 1856,
converting it into a farm. Thus perished Martinsburg. Even the name did
not survive in the memory of the settlers, and it was only by accident
that it was recently recalled after a lapse of fifty-four years. At an
early day the locality became known as Mercer’s Bottom, after Joe
Mercer, one of the earliest settlers, and it is known by that name
today. It is not known what became of Mercer. James Low says the last
time he saw him was in Denver, in 1859. Mercer was a queer character. It
is told of him that he lived in a little cabin and subsisted principally
on mussels, which he found in Stranger creek. Alex Hayes, the
Martinsburg storekeeper, has also been lost trace of, but Dick King says
there was an oldtimer named Alexander Hayes, who died many years ago and
was buried in the Sapp graveyard at Oak Mills. The town site of
Martinsburg was a favorite camping place for soldiers and emigrants
passing over the old Military road in the early days on account of the
fine spring, the large meadows and the protection of the hills around
it. To catch this tide of emigration was, in all probability, the object
of those pioneer town projectors in selecting this site.


                              BUNKER HILL.

There appears to be no data available which enables the historian to
determine exactly where this town was located, but a prospectus
publication March 18, 1858, in _Freedom’s Champion_, states that it was
on Independence creek, within ten miles of Atchison and twenty-five
miles of St. Joseph. Its chief promoter was Dr. Charles F. Kob, of
Atchison. Dr. Kob was a German physician and surgeon, who located in
Atchison at an early date. He had been a surgeon in the army, and a
member of the Massachusetts and Connecticut medical societies. He lived
and practiced medicine in Boston for some time. About the only advantage
for Bunker Hill, set forth in the prospectus, was that coal was found
around the place, but Bunker Hill never seemed to have any coal in her
bunkers. She failed to flourish and no Bunker Hill monument perpetuates
her memory.


                             LOCUST GROVE.

Locust Grove was never laid out as a town site. It was a stopping place
on the old stage route to Topeka, and the postoffice from Mount Pleasant
was moved there in 1862.


                                HELENA.

Helena was located and named in this county, and the plat thereof was
filed March 18, 1857, by James L. Byers, one of the proprietors of the
town company, and was located on the north half of section 28, township
5, range 18, on the Little Grasshopper river, in Grasshopper township,
at the crossing of the old Military road, five miles north of the
present site of Effingham. The town appears on an old township map of
eastern Kansas, published by Whitman & Searl, of Lawrence, in 1856. It
shows it to have been on the east branch of Grasshopper river, about
fifteen miles west of Atchison, and north of the Ft. Laramie and
California roads.


                                CAYUGA.

Cayuga was laid out by a New York colony in 1856, and was named for
Cayuga, N. Y. It was also in Grasshopper township, on the old Military
road, one and one-half miles from Lancaster township line on part of the
east half of section 18, township 5, range 18. It was surveyed by Dr. A.
C. Tabor, and the plat was filed October 9, 1857, by George L. Willson.
Provision was made in the town site for a public park and a young
ladies’ seminary. It was claimed that it had at one time 400
inhabitants. Among the members of the town company were Messrs. Smooks,
Fuller, Higby, Atherton, Ontis, Meeker, William Adams, Chase and Dr.
Taylor. The land on which the town was located was “junked” as a claim
by a Mrs. Place, and thereafter the town gradually went out of
existence. It is said to have had a good two-story hotel and a number of
business houses.


                               KENNEKUK.

In the plat which Royal Baldwin, president of the town company, filed
April 6, 1859, the name of this town is given as Kennekuck. It was
located on the southeast quarter and the southwest fractional quarter of
section 3, township 5, range 17. Its streets were sixty feet wide,
except Broadway, which was 100 feet wide, and Market street, which was
eighty feet wide. One block was donated for a market house, and another
block for a park, for religious and educational purposes. The streets
were numbered from 1 to 10 and the cross streets were named as follows:
Elm, Linn, Cedar, Poplar, Broadway, Market, Walnut, Weld, Perry and
Baldwin. The town site was vacated by the board of county commissioners
December 15, 1871. Kennekuk was a station on the Overland stage route,
twenty-four miles west and north of Atchison. During the overland stage
days Thomas Perry ran an eating station there, and Mrs. Perry, who was a
grand cook, always had a smoking hot dinner ready with the best of
coffee, for the occupants of the stage coaches. In the early days dances
were held in the Perry home, and Hon. D. W. Wilder, the author of the
celebrated “_Annals of Kansas_,” used to trip the light fantastic toe
there, and it is said that he courted the girl who afterwards became his
wife, in the Perry home.

Frank A. Root, who was an express messenger on the overland stage, says,
in his book, that Kennekuk was the first “home” station out from
Atchison, and the drivers were changed there. In 1863 it was a little
town of perhaps a dozen houses with one store and a blacksmith shop. The
Kickapoo Indian Agency was one of the most prominent buildings there,
and was located near the old road in the northwestern part of the town.
The town was laid out by William H. Wheeler, a surveyor and speculator,
and was named for the Kickapoo chieftain, John Kennekuk. George Remsburg
says that the town was platted in June, 1854, but the dedication on the
original plat in the court house would indicate that it was platted on
the date first mentioned in this sketch.

Hon. A. J. White, the son of Capt. Robert White, and at one time a
member of the legislature from this county, and one of the leading
farmers of the county, claims that Royal Baldwin was the first white
settler in Kennekuk, and that he was appointed Indian agent for the
Kickapoos there by President Pierce before Kansas was opened for
settlement. Mr. Remsburg also says that many noted travelers stopped at
Kennekuk, including Mark Twain.


                                KAPIOMA.

According to Captain Elberhant, of Golden, Colo., the Kickapoo Indians
once had a village on the Grasshopper river in Atchison county, called
Kapioma, after the chief of the band, and it is from this source that
Kapioma township took its name. Captain Berthoud says that Father
Duerinck, a native of Belgium, who was probably the first Jesuit priest
in Atchison county, gave the pronunciation of the name of his Atchison
county station as Kah-pi-oma, accent on the syllable “Kah.”

In an affidavit of H. H. Skiles, volume 69, page 63, in the records of
the office of the register of deeds of Atchison county, Kansas, the
following appears:

“This affiant further states that there was in 1857 and 1858 a company
formed, called and known as the Kapioma City Company, and the
individuals composing that company were B. Gray, S. C. Russell, W. W.
Weston, H. H. Skiles and W. Y. Roberts, who united themselves together
for the purpose of laying out, locating and establishing a town called
Kapioma, on what was then known as Grasshopper creek, just north of its
confluence with Straight creek, in the western borders of Atchison
county, Kansas. The entire purpose and scheme in laying out and
establishing a town fell through and was wholly and totally abandoned by
all and every person connected with it without prejudice to any one, and
the title to the land intended by the company to become town property
reverted to the original owner. The law required to establish a town was
never complied with.”


                               MASHENAH.

Mashenah, apparently, was to be a rival town of Kennekuk. The cold and
quiet records now on file in the court house would convey the idea that
Royal Baldwin must have fallen out with the original promoters of
Kennekuk and decided to establish a town of his own, so, accordingly, he
filed a plat of this town September 21, 1857, showing it to be located
in the northeast quarter and the northwest quarter of section 2,
township 5, range 17. One block was set aside for a college and another
for a park. Its streets were numbered 1 to 21, and the cross streets
were named as follows: Oak, Pine, Plum, Vine, Elm, Linn and Cedar.


                             ST. NICHOLAS.

The only record that can be found of this town is that Thomas Poteet
filed a plat thereof April 20. 1858, showing it to be located in the
southwest corner of section 6, township 7, range 20.


                                CONCORD.

This is another town about which there is little information available.
The plat was filed June 20, 1857, by James R. Whitehead and shows it to
have been located in the west half of section 1, township 5, range 17.
The streets were numbered from 1 to 18, and the cross streets were named
Buchanan, Emily, Mary, Carolina, Jefferson, St. Joseph, Ellwood, Able,
Alexander, and there were two public squares, called North and South.


                                PARNELL.

The plat of Parnell was filed December 24, 1883, by J. C. Hotham, and
shows the town site to be located in the southwest corner of the
southeast quarter of section 20, township 6, range 20. It is located on
both the Santa Fe and the Missouri Pacific railroads. The station was
named for a hero of the Civil war, James L. Parnell, a private soldier
in Company F, Thirteenth Kansas volunteer infantry, who was killed
during the skirmish at Haare Head, Ark., August 4, 1864. Parnell was the
original settler on the site of Parnell and was one of the first
citizens of Atchison county to respond under President Lincoln’s call of
July, 1862. He enlisted in the Thirteenth Kansas. Ex-Sheriff Frank
Hartin was a comrade of Parnell in Company F and married into the
Parnell family.


                                SHANNON.

Shannon was platted by G. W. Sutliff February 22, 1883. and is located
in the northwest corner of the northeast quarter of section 1. township
6, range 19, about eight miles west of Atchison, on the Parallel road.
The town consists of one store building, in which the postoffice is
located, and a few residences, together with railroad station and a
small elevator.


                                ELMWOOD.

Elmwood was platted by Anna Hoke and J. S. Hoke April 12, 1873, and was
located on the south half of the northeast quarter of section 2,
township 6, range 20. This was a “paper” town, and the only record now
available of it is the plat on file in the court house at Atchison.


                             CUMMINGSVILLE.

Cummingsville was platted by William Cummings December 16, 1872, and was
located on the north half of the southwest quarter of section 1,
township 7, range 19, on the line of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe
railway, southwest of Atchison, in Center township, and took its name
from the founder of the town. The original plat provided for two
streets, Market and Main, but on September 21, 1883, Samuel C. King
filed a plat, creating an addition to Cummingsville, composed of four
blocks. The first settler on the townsite was Robert Kennish, who
located there in November, 1872, and was appointed postmaster when the
postoffice was established the following fall. Mr. Kennish opened the
first store in Cummingsville in December, 1872, and he for many years
was station agent there, one of the oldest in the service of the
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railway. He was a much beloved character. He
died a few years ago at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Nelson W. Cox,
who lives in Cummingsville with her invalid husband, Nels Cox, who for
eight years served Atchison county in the capacity of clerk of the
court. In April, 1873, C. D. Harrison and family located in
Cummingsville, and their child, Lorenzo, was the first child born on the
townsite, and his was also the first death, Lorenzo having died March
25, 1875. In the winter of 1880–81, R. C. Ripple taught the first
school, and the Methodist church (South) was built in 1880.
Cummingsville now is a town of over 100 residences, and in addition to
its bank, it has several good stores, a cream station and an elevator.
Much grain and live stock is shipped out of Cummingsville annually.


                               EDEN P. O.

Eden was located about eight miles northwest of Atchison, and Charles
Servoss was appointed the first postmaster there in 1858. The postoffice
was located on a farm adjoining the Johnson Wymore farm on the south.
Servoss resigned as postmaster in 1863 and removed to Detroit, Mich. He
was succeeded by H. C. Lee, who kept the office on a farm adjoining the
Wymore farm on the west. Mr. Lee was a grandfather of Miss Kate Platt
and Mrs. S. F. Harburger, formerly of Atchison, and the father of Mrs.
Flora B. Hiatt. Mr. Lee held the office until 1872, when Francis
Schletzbaum, Sr., was named as postmaster, and removed the office to his
farm, which adjoined the old Wymore farm on the north. The postoffice
remained there until it was discontinued upon the establishment of free
rural delivery service in 1900.


                                POTTER.

Potter is pleasantly situated on a slight rise or knoll in the beautiful
valley of Stranger creek, and near the southeast corner of Mt. Pleasant
township. From the first it has been the principal station on the Santa
Fe railroad, between Atchison and Leavenworth, being situated about
midway between the two cities. It is an attractive little town, with
well graded streets and good cement sidewalks, and a number of
attractive residences. While it is one of the younger towns of the
county, it has made strides that make it compare favorably with some of
its older sisters, in volume of business at least, if not in population.

Potter, as the home of the white man, dates back further than any
community in the county. Elsewhere in this history will be found an
account of Paschal Pensoneau, the old French trader, who established
himself on Stranger creek, near the present townsite, during the early
forties.

The building of Potter is the third and the most successful attempt to
establish a town in that vicinity. The first attempt was at Mount
Pleasant. This was one of the first towns started in Kansas, and here
was located the first postoffice in Atchison county. It prospered for a
time and was a candidate for the county seat. It gradually declined, and
since the establishment of Potter, has been little more than a memory.
In the early days, some say before Mt. Pleasant was started, a town was
laid out near the big Mercer spring, just northeast of the present site
of Potter, and called Martinsburg. It was extensively boomed, but
outside of a small store and a few huts, it never advanced beyond the
paper stage.

Early in 1886 the Leavenworth, Northern & Southern railway, now a branch
of the Santa Fe, and known as the “Pollywog,” was built and a station
located where Potter now stands. A town was platted and called Bennett
Springs, after James Gordon Bennett, the well known eastern journalist.
The mineral springs on the Masterson farm near the townsite were
attracting considerable attention at the time, and it was thought that a
popular resort could be built up there. The medicinal properties of the
water were discovered by Dr. Rice, a local physician, and subsequently
analyzed by experts, who confirmed Dr. Rice’s conclusions, and a number
of people claimed to have used the waters in liver, kidney and other
complaints with good results. Henry C. Squires, afterwards a Potter
banker, conceived the idea of establishing a health resort here, and
named it in honor of James Gordon Bennett, who, it was thought, would
use his influence towards getting eastern capital interested in the
project. The expected financial backing was not forthcoming, however,
and the proposed development of the springs was never made.

In the meantime the railroad people had christened the town Potter, in
honor of Hon. Joseph Potter, owner of the quarter section on which the
town was laid out, and, while the name of the town still appears on the
tax rolls as Bennett Springs, the original name having never been
legally changed, the town is now generally known as Potter. Joseph
Potter was the original settler, having preëmpted the land on which the
town stands, in 1854, and the first sales of lots in Potter were deeded
to their purchaser thirty-two years later direct from the Government
preëmption owner. The taking up of the land, filing, etc., cost Mr.
Potter about $220 for 160 acres, and when it was divided up into town
lots it brought him $200 an acre. Mr. Potter entered part of this land
with a land warrant given him for services in the Mexican war.

[Illustration:

  Street Scene, Potter, Kansas
]

The first lots in the town were sold to the late James Stalons, for many
years a justice of the peace, preacher of the Gospel and prominent
citizen of the county. The first house on the townsite was built by
Thomas J. Potter in 1882, four years before the town was laid out. The
house is still standing. The first business house in the town was
erected by Charles Klein, who operated a store there until his death. A
year or two after Potter was started the postoffice was removed from Mt.
Pleasant to the place, and James B. Weir was the first postmaster. The
first hotel was operated by Mrs. Elvira Pierce. Dr. Barnes had the first
drug store, and was also the first physician; Frank Blodgett, the first
hardware store, and B. F. Shaw & Company, the first furniture store. The
first barber was Thomas Seever; the first blacksmith, Lou Chilson; the
first butcher, John Yost; the first carpenter, P. H. Fleer; the first
painters, George Brown and Grant Cass; the first stone masons, S. B.
Morrow and Frank Maxwell; the first shoemaker, Patrick Murphy; the first
stock buyer, Henry Show; the first school teacher, Albert Limbaugh; the
first railroad agent, C. L. Cherrie; the first lumber dealer, David
Hudson; the first harness maker, Harry Rickets; the first rural mail
carrier, Frank White. Frank Mayfield operated the first livery stable;
the first elevator was built by James Hawley; the first church building
was that of the Methodists. The first Methodist preacher was Rev. John
W. Faubian, and the first Christian preacher, Rev. T. W. Cottingham. The
first telephone exchange was operated by Charles and George Sprong. The
first lodge was Echo Lodge, No. 103, Independent Order of Odd Fellows.
The first bank was the Potter State Bank. Potter has had three
newspapers, the first, the _Potter Press_, was established by E. E.
Campbell, in 1898. In 1900 Mr. and Mrs. Eppie Barber started the _Potter
Leaf_. Three years later Charles B. Remsburg bought the _Leaf’s_
circulation and launched the _Potter Kansan_, which is now owned and
published by his father, J. E. Remsburg.

Potter is one of the most flourishing towns of its size in Kansas.
Though its population is less than 200, it boasts of two banks, the
aggregate resources of which amount to nearly a quarter million dollars.
There probably is not another town of its size in the State that has two
banks. The town has two good elevators which during the years 1912, 1913
and 1914 handled on an average of 140,000 bushels of grain a year. These
elevators are operated by Fred Ode & Sons and James Robinson. The
railroad station at Potter does a business that amounts to something
like $40,000 annually. The shipping of live stock is an important
industry here. The principal buyers are Tinsley, Potter, and Timple
Bros. Much fruit is grown around Potter, and as high as $20,000 has been
paid out for apples during one shipping season.

Potter has a rural high school, the first of its kind established in the
State, and an $8,000 school building.

The town has two general stores, those of W. A. Hodge and P. P. Knoch; a
hardware store, operated by B. F. Shaw; a grocery store, by Thomas J.
Potter; a furniture store, by Frank Beard; a drug store, by G. E.
Coulter; a hotel, by Mrs. G. F. Pope; two blacksmith shops, by R. E.
Brown and G. F. Pope; a livery stable, by H. G. Hawley; two barber
shops, by George Brown and Frank Blankenship; a cement tile factory, by
Grisham & Maxwell; a millinery store, by Mrs. T. J. Maxwell; a telephone
exchange, by E. C. Yoakum; a newspaper, _The Potter Weekly Kansan_, by
J. E. Remsburg; two physicians, Dr. G. W. Redmon and Dr. S. M. Myers.
Dr. A. E. Ricks, of Atchison, has a branch dental office here; the
Lambert Lumber Company, of Leavenworth, has a commodious and well
stocked yard here, with Samuel Parker as manager. There are two
churches, Methodist and Christian, two public halls, and one lodge hall.
L. M. Jewell conducts an insurance, real estate and loan business. There
is also a garage, and other business enterprises in the town.

[Illustration:

  School House, Potter, Kansas
]


                            MOUNT PLEASANT.

In 1854 Thomas L. Fortune, Jr., a Virginian, settled on the “old
Military road” and opened one of the very earliest stores in Atchison
county, around this store springing up the village of Mount Pleasant. A
postoffice was established here in 1855, and Mr. Fortune was appointed
postmaster. Being an inventive genius, he finally gave up his store
business and devoted his energies towards perfecting and building a
road-wagon, to which reference has heretofore been made, and which he
thought would revolutionize the freighting business across the plains.

The townsite of Mount Pleasant was surveyed in 1857 by John P. Wheeler,
agent for the Town Company.

Michael Wilkins and James Laird were the very first settlers in the
township, being followed shortly afterwards by Levi Bowles, Jacob
Grindstaff, Andrew J. Peebler, Martin Jones, Chris Horn, P. R. King, W.
C. Findley, A. S. Speck and Amos Hamon.

The first hotel in the town was opened by Henry Payne, who operated it
many years.

T. J. Payne and Philo W. Hull were the next parties to engage in
business, Mr. Payne leaving when the new town of Sumner was started, and
locating there.

The next to engage in business was P. R. King, who established a general
store about 1858. He remained at Mount Pleasant until after the county
seat question had been settled, when he removed to Atchison.

In the fall of 1858 a district school was opened. In 1860 the Cumberland
Presbyterians erected a church building, having held religious services
at the homes of the members prior to this time. Rev. A. A. Moore was
their first pastor.

On May 1, 1862, the Church of Christ was organized by Elder W. S.
Jackson, with seventeen members, services being held in the school
house.

Mount Pleasant Lodge, No. 158, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, of
Mount Pleasant, was organized in the fall of 1868 by the following
charter members: William J. Young, X. Klein, M. R. Benton, John Hawley.
S. K. McCreary, Joseph Howell and Albert Hawley. Their first meeting was
held October 20, 1868, with the following as first officers: William
Young, worshipful master; X. Klein, senior warden; A. Hawley, junior
warden; S. K. McCreary, secretary; M. R. Benton, treasurer.

In August, 1862, the name of the postoffice was changed to Locust Grove.


                             LEWIS’ POINT.

In pre-territorial times and in the steamboat days, Kansas had many
geographical names that are not now to be found on the map. Some of
them, where permanent settlements have sprung up, have been perpetuated,
but the majority of them do not live even in the memory of the oldest
inhabitants. One of the latter is “Lewis’ Point,” near the present site
of Oak Mills. Old “Cap.” Lewis is long since dead, his name almost
forgotten, and the rapacious Missouri river and “Mansell’s Slide” are
now about to devour the “Point.” with which his name was coupled in our
early geography. While “Lewis’ Point” was never a place of any
prominence, and not even the site of a village or settlement, yet it was
a geographical name that was known to every steamboat man running on
this section of the river, and is worthy of preservation in our local
history. “Lewis’ Point” was at the projection of land lying immediately
above Oak Mills, on the Missouri river. It took its name from the fact
that Calvin Lewis, an old riverman, settled at this point at an early
day, and it became a frequent stopping place for steamboats to take on
wood. In those days there was a splendid wood supply in that vicinity.
Lewis’ house stood near the site of the old Champton, or William Moody,
house, which was destroyed by fire about a year ago.

It is not generally known that a steamboat was ever built on Atchison
county soil, much less that Oak Mills was ever the scene of the ship
builder’s craft, outside of the construction of Indian canoes and the
modern skiffs built by Dick King or some other later-day river man. Yet,
it is a fact that Calvin Lewis once built and launched at “Lewis’ Point”
a small stern-wheel steamboat, and operated it on the river for several
years. In 1855 the first territorial legislature of Kansas passed an act
authorizing Lewis to operate a ferry at “Lewis’ Point.”


                            FARLEY’S FERRY.

The same legislature that gave permission to Lewis to operate a ferry at
“Lewis’ Point,” granted the same privilege to Nimrod Farley, to maintain
a ferry across the Missouri river, opposite Iatan, Mo. Farley was a well
known character in the Missouri bottoms in the vicinity of Iatan, Cow
Island, and Oak Mills, in the early days. He lived near Iatan, but it
seems that he owned land on the Kansas side, near Oak Mills, which
offered a landing for his ferry. He was a brother of Josiah Farley, who
laid out the town of Farley, in Platte county, in 1850. George McAdow
later became proprietor of Farley’s Ferry and operated it until it was
destroyed by Jayhawkers, shortly before the war.



                             CHAPTER VIII.
                             THE CIVIL WAR.

  THE ISSUE BETWEEN EARLY SETTLERS—INFLUX OF FREE STATE AND PRO-SLAVERY
      PARTISANS—EARLY VOLUNTEERING—MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS—THREATENED
      INVASION FROM MISSOURI—POLITICAL SOCIETIES—JAYHAWKERS—CLEVELAND’S
      GANG—LYNCHINGS—ATCHISON COUNTY TROOPS IN THE WAR—PRICE’S ATTEMPTED
      INVASION.


The six years intervening between 1854 and 1860 constitute a momentous
period in the history of Atchison county. No new community was ever
organized under more unpromising circumstances. It was not merely land
hunger and lust for personal gain that were the impelling motives which
brought men to Kansas in that day. Neither gold, nor gas, nor oil, nor
precious gems lured men here. Kansas was then, as it is now, an
agricultural paradise, and such an environment has ordinarily but little
charm for the daring adventurer and the seeker after sudden riches, who
toil not and spin less. It is true that a large number of peaceful,
plodding home-seekers—the tillers of the soil—the hewers of wood and the
haulers of water, immigrated to Kansas to take up land and build
permanent homes, but they were in the minority prior to 1860. The
tremendous issue of human slavery was the all absorbing fact, and the
long struggle here wrought a complete revolution in the political
thought of the whole country. Men came to Kansas for the most part for
political rather than for business or agricultural reasons. The
settlement of Kansas was an inspired political movement of partisans.
There was little room for neutrals, and those who were “too proud to
fight” went elsewhere. There was little consideration on the part of the
early settlers of Kansas, of any questions except slavery and anti-
slavery. They came in large numbers from the South and from the North,
and met here upon the frontier in a final test of strength. The Free
Soilers won, but only after bitter contests in which passion, prejudice
and bloody partisanship ran riot, and Atchison county played a most
conspicuous part in this great battle. The Nation and the world looked
on as the battle lines surged forward and backward. And while they
fought here in a last desperate struggle for supremacy, these courageous
men and women on both sides founded their towns, built their court
houses, their primary schools and their churches with an abiding faith
in the hearts of each of them that victory would finally crown their
efforts. Atchison county made progress in spite of the fact that her
leaders were wrong. We gave promise here of being the metropolis of
Kansas, for we had many geographical and commercial advantages over
other struggling communities of the Territory. But before the well laid
plans of our citizens matured, before projects for the development of
steam transportation to bring us nearer the outside world could be
concluded the mighty conflict which ended in four bloody years of civil
war, broke upon the Nation, and Kansas within three months after being
admitted as a State enrolled itself on the side of the Union. Atchison
county sprang to arms almost a thousand strong, and may it ever be said
to its everlasting glory that few, if any, counties in the State had a
more patriotic record. One hundred and thirty-one Atchison county men
enlisted in the First Kansas regiment; twenty-five in the Seventh;
eighty-five in the Eighth; eighty-six in the Tenth; 260 in the
Thirteenth; 100 in the First Kansas (colored); twenty-five in the First
Nebraska; 105 in the Thirteenth Missouri; thirty in the Fifteenth
Kansas; forty in the Ninth, and fifty in the Sixteenth, or a total of
937 men, which, together with the scattering of men in other regiments
in adjoining States, brought the total number of soldiers engaged during
the Civil war to 1,000. The population of Atchison county at that time
was 7,747, and the voting population 1,133, which shows that the total
number of voters was but slightly larger than the total number of
volunteers. At that time Atchison, by reason of its location, was
subject to incursions from Confederate troops and Jayhawkers from
Missouri, which called for the organization at different periods of the
war, of home guard companies, which are not included in the foregoing
statement. At the outset of the war Atchison had three militia
companies, A, B and C, and a fourth, known as the All Hazard company,
the origin of whose name is thus explained. At the city election in the
spring of 1861 the issue was union or dis-union. The Republicans and
Union Democrats united in supporting G. H. Fairchild for mayor. He was a
Union Democrat who on various occasions announced his unwavering
friendship of the Union and for the maintenance of the constitution and
laws “at all hazards,” and when this company enlisted for the war Mayor
Fairchild was its captain and it became Company K of the First Kansas.
It participated in the battle of Wilson’s Creek, August 10, 1861, which
was the first action in which a Kansas regiment was under fire.

In 1861 there were constant threats of invasion from Missouri rebel
organizations in Buchanan and Platte counties, and in that year another
home guard company was organized with the following officers: Charles
Holbert, captain; J. G. Bechtold, first lieutenant; Clem Rhor, second
lieutenant; W. Becker, third lieutenant; John Schupp, ensign. During the
following year the danger of invasion became still more threatening and
650 men in sixteen companies came to Atchison to protect the town from
destruction. The Atchison county companies were commanded by Captains
Holbert, Hays, Batsett, Evans and Vanwinkle. It was due to the
thoroughness with which the people of Atchison organized themselves
against invasion that they were spared from being completely
annihilated. On the fifteenth day of September, 1861, another company
for home guard service was mustered in at Ft. Leavenworth. J. M. Graham
was captain; J. G. Bechtold, first lieutenant; R. N. Bryant, second
lieutenant. This company subsequently became Company E of the First
Kansas Regiment Home Guards, numbering fifty men, and were ordered back
to Atchison for duty, where they were stationed until all danger of
invasion had passed, after which the company became a part of the Eighth
Kansas. The victories of the Union forces in 1862 were frequent, and as
a result many rebel sympathizers came to Atchison for safety, where they
became very troublesome. In order to counteract the growing evil over
the activities of these men, Mayor Fairchild issued a proclamation in
which he warned them that they must not expect to be protected in any
manner by the city laws as long as they held to the views which they
expounded at even favorable opportunity. “It would be absurd to
suppose,” the proclamation said, “that a patriotic community could treat
otherwise than its enemies, persons who are in sympathy with base men
who have brought upon our country untold misery, almost unlimited
taxation and almost inconceivable pecuniary suffering. As a
representative of a loyal people I will not encourage men to return
among us who have circulated reports that they were refugees from the
loyal States on account of their secession doctrines, nor will I give
protection to men who unmistakably at heart belong to the Confederacy.”
This proclamation met with such favor that a mass meeting of Union men
in Atchison county was held at Price’s Hall March 15, 1862. The whole
county was well represented and stirring addresses were delivered by
Colonel Edge, of Doniphan county, Tom Murphy, the genial proprietor of
the Massasoit House, Rev. W. S. Wenz, Lieutenant Price, E. Chesebrough,
Mayor Fairchild, Caleb May, and others, after which resolutions
denouncing the southern sympathizers and notifying them not to return
were unanimously adopted. During the latter part of the same year a call
for aid to assist the Atchison county troops met with immediate response
and within a few days, commencing August 20, 1862, almost $4,000 was
subscribed by the citizens of Atchison. Seven hundred and forty-five
dollars came from Mt. Pleasant township. Among the leading contributors
were Theodore Bartholow, E. Chesebrough, G. W. Fairchild, J. W. Russell,
W. L. Challiss, Dr. William Irwin, G. W. Howe, Bela M. Hughes, William
Hetherington, Otis & Glick, Henry Deisbach, J. E. Wagner, Rice McCubbin,
McCausland & Brown, Tom Murphy, W. A. Cochrane, Samuel C. Pomeroy,
Stebbins & Company, E. Butcher, and William C. Smith, each of whom
subscribed the sum of $50 or over. Atchison also made a notable
contribution when Quantrell invaded Lawrence, sending $4,000 to assist
the people of that city. In 1863 depredations of the Jayhawkers became
very annoying, and a vigilance committee was organized and all good,
peaceful and loyal citizens were called upon to band themselves together
for the protection of their lives, homes and property. Those who joined
the vigilance committee took an oath to support the Government of the
United States and Kansas, and to do all in their power to put down the
rebellion, and also to keep secret all proceedings of the organization.
This committee did very effective work in bringing to punishment
violators of law and also in keeping the lawless bands of Jayhawkers and
other thieves out of Atchison county.

The following “circular” has been unearthed by the author, and while it
bears no date it apparently contained the constitution, by-laws, ritual
and oath of these societies.


                         “CIRCULAR TO OFFICERS.

“Be extremely careful in the selection of your members. Admit no one who
is not of good standing in the community, and whom you have not good
reason to believe to be firm and uncompromising in his devotion to the
Union, and to be relied upon to assist in any emergency in maintaining
the laws and good order in the community. This is of the first and
highest importance to the order, and if any member shows symptoms of
defection, watch him closely.

“In all cases, deal kindly with your opponents, and strive by gentle
means to win them over to a change of sentiment. Many good men may thus
be brought within our circle who would otherwise be lost to us.

“The first club established in your county seat will be called the
County Club, to which all clubs in the county will report, and by those
officers all such clubs will be established. It is important that we be
frequently advised as to our strength in the State; and for this purpose
each subordinate club will report weekly to the county club the number
of members enrolled therein; and the County Club will report monthly to
the Ex. Com. at —— the number of clubs and number of members in the
county. These reports should be carefully sealed and addressed ——.

“The officers of County Clubs will be supplied with a printed
constitution and ritual, and they will furnish officers of subordinate
clubs copies of the same, with a strict injunction to secrecy.

“All correspondence must be secret as possible; and in order that this
may be accomplished the monthly reports may consist only of the place,
date, number of clubs in the county and number of members. No signature
must be attached. These reports will be summed up and published by the
Ex. Com.

“Strict secrecy as to the _working_ of the organization is enjoined and
promptness and vigor in its extension is very important. We must work
now and work _rapidly_. _No time is to be lost_; our opponents are
working vigorously and secretly, but it is not too late to counteract
their machinations and utterly overthrow them. _Work! Work! Work!_


                             “CONSTITUTION.


                                “OBJECT.

“The object shall be to preserve and maintain the Union and the
constitution of the United States and of the State of Kansas, and to
defend Kansas against invasion, insurrection, civil commotion and to
protect Union men against assassination, arson, robbery, prescription
and all other wrongs inflicted by the enemies of the Government of the
United States and of this State upon loyal persons.


                               “OFFICERS.

“The officers shall consist of Pr., V. P., R. S., T., M., and S., who
shall hold their office for three months.


                          “DUTIES OF OFFICERS.

“The duties of officers shall be the same as in similar organizations
and all business shall be conducted in the usual parliamentary form.


                         “ADMISSION OF MEMBERS.

“Persons may become members who are eighteen years of age and upwards,
and are citizens of the United States.


                              “INITIATION.

“All initiations shall take place in and with the authority of the
officers of the club who may delegate suitable persons to initiate
members from time to time as occasion requires outside of any regular
meeting of the club. Branch clubs may be formed by proper application to
this club when the president may appoint suitable persons to establish
the same.


                             “WITHDRAWALS.

“Any member may withdraw from this club by giving written notice of the
same to the R. S. at any regular meeting; but the obligations of such
member shall remain the same as before.


                              “AMENDMENTS.

“This constitution may be altered or amended by giving one week’s notice
thereof, by a vote of two-thirds of the executive committee of the
State. Each county club may make by-laws for its own organization, not
conflicting with this constitution.


                                “RITUAL.

“Eternal God! Supreme Ruler, Governor and Architect of the Universe! We
humbly beseech Thee to protect the people of the United States in
general and especially the members of this organization. Wilt thou be
pleased to direct and prosper all our consultations to the advancement
of Thy glory, the good of Thy country, the safety, honor and welfare of
Thy people, and may all things be ordered and settled by the Legislature
and Executive branches of our Government upon the best and surest
foundation, so that peace and happiness, truth and justice may be
established among us for all generations. Wilt Thou be pleased to guide
and direct us as Thou didst our Fathers in the Revolution. With the
strength of Thine almighty arm Thou didst uphold and sustain them
through all their trials, and at last didst crown them with victory. May
charity, and brotherly love cement us; may we be united with our
principles founded upon the teachings of Thy Holy Word and may Thy Good
Spirit guide, strengthen and comfort us, now and forever, Amen.

“All candidates for membership to this club will be required to answer
the following questions to be propounded by the marshal before
initiation:

“1. Are you opposed to secession or dis-union?

“2. Do you acknowledge that your first and highest allegiance is due to
the Government of the United States of America?

“3. Are you willing to take such an oath of allegiance to the United
States of America?

“4. Are you willing to pledge yourself to resist to the extent of your
power, all attempts to subvert or overthrow the constitution of the
United States, or the constitution of the State of Kansas?

“Should the candidates answer affirmatively, the marshal, after
repeating to the president, will conduct them into the club room and
present them to the president, who shall then address the candidates as
follows:

“Gentlemen:—We rejoice that you have thus voluntarily come forward to
unite yourselves with us. The cause we advocate is that of our country;
banded together for the purpose of perpetuating the liberties for which
our fathers fought, we have sworn to uphold and protect them.

“It is a strange and sad necessity which impels American citizens to
band themselves together to sustain the constitution and the Union; but
the Government under which we live is threatened with destruction.
Washington enjoined upon us that ‘the unity of the Government which
constitutes us one people is a main pillar in the edifice of our real
independence; the support of our tranquility at home, our peace abroad—
of our safety, of our prosperity, of that very liberty which we so
highly prize.’ He charges that we should ‘properly estimate the immense
value of our national Union to our collective and individual happiness;
that we should cherish a cordial, habitual and immovable attachment to
it; accustoming ourselves to think and speak of it as the palladium of
our political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with
jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion
that it can in any event be abandoned.’

“He tells us again that ‘to the efficiency and permanency of the Union,
a Government for the whole is indispensable. No alliances, however
strict between the parts, is an adequate substitute.’

“It is to sustain this Government we are banded together, and for this
purpose you are now required to take a solemn obligation.

“Place your left hand on the National Flag and raise your right hand
toward Heaven; repeating after me:

“We and each of us do solemnly swear in the presence of God and these
witnesses to support, protect and defend the constitution and Government
of the United States and of the State of Kansas against all enemies,
foreign and domestic, and to maintain and defend the Government of the
United States and the flag thereof, and aid in maintaining the laws of
the United States in this State and to defend the State of Kansas
against invasion from any State or States and from any other rebellion,
invasion, insurrection to the best of our ability without any mental
reservation or evasion—So help us God.

“The members will respond.

“To this we pledge ourselves.

“We do severally solemnly swear and affirm that we will protect, aid and
defend each member of all Union clubs, and will never make known in any
way or manner, to any person or persons, not members of Union clubs, any
of the signs, passwords, proceedings, purposes, debates or plans of this
or any other club under this organization, except when engaged in
admitting new members into this organization.

“The president will then deliver the following address to the
candidates:

“‘The oath which you have now taken of your own free will and accord
cannot rest lightly upon your conscience, neither can it be violated
without leaving the stain of perjury upon your soul. Our country is now
in “disorder” and “confusion;” the fires of commotion and contest are
now raging in our midst, war has come to us but we cannot, we must not,
we dare not omit to do that which in our judgment the safety of the
Union requires, not regardless of consequences, we must yet meet
consequences; seeing the hazard that surrounds the discharge of public
duty, it must yet be discharged. Let us then, cheerfully shun no
responsibility justly devolving upon us here or elsewhere in attempting
to maintain the Union. Let us cheerfully partake its fortune and its
fate. Let us be ready to perform our appropriate part, whenever and
wherever the occasion may call us, and to take our chances among those
upon whom the blows may fall first and fall thickest.

“‘Above all remember the words of our own immortal Clay: “If Kentucky
tomorrow unfurls the banner of resistance, I never will fight under that
banner. I owe a paramount allegiance to the whole Union. A _subordinate_
one to my own State.”

“‘Be faithful, then, to your country, for your interests are
indissolubly connected with hers; be faithful to these, your brethren,
for your life and theirs may be involved in this contest; be faithful to
posterity for the blessings you have enjoyed in this Government are but
held in trust for thee.’

“Response by all the members—We Will!

“The president will then present the constitution and oath to the
candidates for their signature.”

Charles Metz, a notorious Jayhawker, whose personal appearance and
characteristics are best described in an essay entitled, “The Last of
the Jayhawkers,” contributed to the old _Kansas Magazine_, by John J.
Ingalls. “Conspicuous among the irregular heroes who thus sprang to arms
in 1861,” says Ingalls, “and ostensibly their leader, was an Ohio stage
driver by the name of Charles Metz, who having graduated with honor from
the penitentiary of Missouri, assumed for prudential reasons the more
euphonious and distinguished appellation of ‘Cleveland.’ He was a
picturesque brigand. Had he worn a slashed doublet and trunk hose of
black velvet he would have been the ideal of an Italian bandit. Young,
erect and tall, he was sparely built and arrayed himself like a
gentleman in the costume of the day. His appearance was that of a
student. His visage was thin, his complexion olive tinted and colorless,
as if ‘sicklied over with a pale cast of thought.’ Black piercing eyes,
finely cut features, dark hair and beard correctly trimmed, completed a
_tout ensemble_ that was strangely at variance with the aspect of the
score of dissolute and dirty desperadoes that formed his command. These
were generally degraded ruffians of the worst type, whose highest idea
of elegance in personal appearance was to have their mustaches a
villainous, metallic black, irrespective of the consideration whether
its native hue was red or brown. * * * *

“The vicinity of the fort with its troops rendered Leavenworth
undesirable as a base of operations. St. Joseph was also heavily
garrisoned, and they accordingly selected Atchison as the point from
which to move on the enemy’s works. Atchison at that time contained
about 2,500 inhabitants. Its business was transacted upon one street and
extended west about four blocks from the river. Its position upon the
extreme curve of the ‘Grand Detour of the Missouri, affording unrivaled
facilities to the interior in the event of pursuit. Having been
principally settled by Southerners it still afforded much legitimate
gain for our bird of prey, and its loyal population having already
largely enlisted, the city was incapable of organized resistance to the
depredations of the marauders.

“They established their headquarters at the saloon of a German named
Ernest Renner, where they held their councils of war and whence they
started upon their forays. The winter was favorable to their designs, as
the river closed early, enabling them to cross upon the ice. Cleveland
proclaimed himself marshal of Kansas, and announced his determination to
run the country. He invited the cordial co-operation of all good
citizens to assist him in sustaining the government and punishing its
foes. Ignorant of his resources and of his purposes, the people were at
first inclined to welcome their strange guests as a protection from the
dangers to which they were exposed, but it soon became apparent that the
doctors were worse than the disease. They took possession of the town,
defied the municipal authorities, and committed such intolerable
excesses that their expulsion was a matter of public safety. Their
incursions into Missouri were so frequent and audacious that a company
of infantry was sent from Weston and stationed at Winthrop to effect
their capture, but to no purpose. * * * * If a man had an enemy in any
part of the country whom he wished to injure, he reported him to
Cleveland as a rebel, and the next night he was robbed of all he
possessed and considered fortunate if he escaped without personal
violence. * * * * A small detachment of cavalry was sent from the fort
to take them, but just as they had dismounted in front of the saloon and
were hitching their horses, Cleveland appeared at the door with a cocked
navy in each hand and told them that he would shoot the first man who
moved a finger. Calling two or three of his followers he disarmed the
dragoons, took their horses and equipments and sent them back on foot to
reflect upon the vicissitudes of military affairs. Early in 1862 the
condition became desperate and the city authorities, in connection with
the commander at Winthrop, concerted a scheme which brought matters to a
crisis. Cleveland and about a dozen of his gang were absent in Missouri
on a scout. The time of their return was known, and Marshal Charles
Holbert had his force stationed in the shadow of an old warehouse near
the bank of the river. It was a brilliant moonlight night in mid-winter.
The freebooters emerged from the forest and crossed upon the ice. They
were freshly mounted and each one had a spare horse. Accompanying them
were two sleighs loaded with negroes, harness and miscellaneous plunder.
As they ascended the steep shore of the levee, unconscious of danger,
they were all taken prisoners except Cleveland, who turned suddenly,
spurred his horse down the embankment and escaped. The captives were
taken to Weston, where they soon afterward enlisted in the Federal army.
The next day Cleveland rode into town, captured the city marshal on the
street and declared his intention to hold him as a hostage for the
safety of his men. He compelled the marshal to walk by the side of his
horse a short distance, when finding a crowd gathering for his capture,
he struck him a blow on the head with his pistol and fled.”

Cleveland continued his exploits for a number of months after this, but
was finally captured in one of the southern counties where he was
attempting to let himself down the side of a ravine. He was shot by a
soldier from above, and the ball entered his arm and passed through his
body. He was buried in St. Joseph. Mo., and a marble head stone over his
grave bears the following inscription, placed there by his widow: “One
hero less on earth, one angel more in heaven.”

As the direct result of the operations of Cleveland and his gang, the
spirit of lawlessness grew and the people finally “took the law into
their own hands.” Perhaps the best account of the lynchings that
followed was given by Hon. Mont. Cochran March 17, 1902, at the time a
Congressman from Missouri, but formerly a leading citizen and county
attorney of Atchison. Mr. Cochran said:

“The thieves who fell victims to Judge Lynch, while not known as
Cleveland’s gang, operated extensively throughout the period of
lawlessness in which no effort whatever was made to bring the outlaws to
justice. After the Cleveland gang had been effectively broken up, these
depredatory scoundrels continued their operations. Their last crime, and
the one for which they were gibbeted, was the attempted robbery of an
old man named Kelsey. He had received at Ft. Leavenworth $1,500 on a
Government contract, and, upon returning home by the way of Atchison, he
deposited it in Hetherington’s bank. The thieves went to his house at
night and demanded the money. Of course, he could not produce it. They
tortured the old man and his wife alternately for hours, and when after
the departure of the thieves, the neighbors were called in, Kelsey and
his wife were nearer dead than alive. The next morning hundreds of their
neighbors, armed to the teeth, swarmed into Atchison. In Third street,
north of Commercial, was a little log building, which had been the home
of an early settler, in which was a gunsmith’s shop. Three or four of
the farmers went there to have their fire arms put in order. When they
came out one of them had a revolver in his hand. Two fellows standing
by, seeing the farmers approaching, dived into an alley and started
westward at lightning speed. The farmers pursued and at the house of a
notorious character, known as Aunt Betsey, the fugitives were run to
cover. The house was surrounded and they were captured. One of them was
Sterling, the fiddler and pianist of the bagnio. Other arrests followed
until five were in durance. Then ensued probably the most extraordinary
proceeding known to the annals of Judge Lynch. The mob took possession
of the jail and the court house and for a week held them. The prisoners
were tried one by one. Sterling was convicted and executed. An elm tree,
standing on the banks of White Clay creek, in the southwest quarter of
the town, was admirably suited to the purpose. When the wagon, bearing
Sterling to his doom reached the ground the whole town was in
attendance. A range of hills to the south swarmed with women. Asa
Barnes, a prominent farmer, a man of iron resolution and unswerving
honesty, was the leader of the mob. With clinched teeth and blanched
face he ordered Sterling to take his place on the seat of the wagon,
and, while the desperado was as game as a peacock, he promptly obeyed.
Standing on the wagon seat Sterling took off his hat, banged it down and
placing his foot on it, shook his clenched hand at the sea of upturned
faces, and with a volley of imprecations, said: ‘I am the best d—d man
that ever walked the earth and if you will drop me down and give me a
gun, I will fight any ten of you.’ Sandy Corbin, a great bluffer, who
bore but little better reputation than the man with the noose on his
neck, pretended that he wanted to fight Sterling single-handed. Nobody
else paid any attention to Sterling’s ravings, and in a twinkling he was
swung into eternity. The next day two others, a man named Brewer, a
soldier at home on a furlough, and a young fellow known as Pony, met the
same fate. There was much sympathy for Pony. He was a drunkard and all
his delinquencies were attributed to this weakness. Just as they were
ready to swing him up, two or three members of the mob told him that if
he would give information as to others implicated, but who had not been
arrested, they would save him. His reply was: ‘I went into this thing as
a man and I will die as a man.’ There was a stir among those nearest the
wagon and it was discovered that an effort was being made to save the
boy from death. The traces were cut and the horses led away. The effort
failed. Fifty men seized the wagon and dragged it away. The fourth to
suffer the vengeance of the mob was an old gray-haired man named Moody.
At the trial he strongly protested his innocence, and promised, if given
a respite of twenty-four hours, he would prove an alibi. This was
granted, but the witnesses were not forthcoming and the next day the old
man was put to death. A priest visited him in jail, which was constantly
surrounded day and night, and when he came out after administering the
rights of the church to the doomed man, it was remarked by those who saw
him that the priest was as pale as a ghost. The report gained currency
that when asked if Moody was innocent, he refused to answer yea or nay,
and, although it had not then developed that Moody could not produce the
witnesses he promised, the conduct of the priest was taken as proof that
Moody was guilty. During the week in which these extraordinary
proceedings took place, the mob was in undisputed control of the court
house and jail. Judge Lynch was perched upon the wool sack and a jury of
twelve men, who had qualified under oath, in the usual form, occupied
the jury box. Not the slightest effort at concealment was made by those
who led or those who followed. In my judgment no other course was left
open to the community.

“Not less than 500 men were driven out of Kansas on the charge of
disloyalty in 1861 and 1862, with the approval of men of excellent
character, by thugs and scoundrels, who made no concealment of the fact
that they lived by horse stealing and house breaking. From the beginning
of the Civil war until peace was declared, the Kansas border from the
Nebraska State line to the Indian Territory, was a scene of lawlessness
and disorder. In the earlier years of the war, thieves regularly
organized into companies, with captains whose authority was recognized
by the rank and file, with headquarters in the towns and cities of
eastern Kansas, masqueraded as saviors of the Union, and upon the
pretense that they were serving the cause, thrived amazingly by
pillaging the farm houses and barns of neighboring counties in Missouri.
Atchison was the headquarters of the Cleveland gang—the most active and
the boldest of the banditti. The gang did not hesitate to cross over to
Missouri and steal horses, and returning to Atchison sell them in broad
daylight. Usually these raids were made at night, but there was no
concealment of the business they were engaged in, nor of the fact that
hundreds of the horses sold by them were stolen from farmers of
Buchanan, Platte and Clinton counties. In the capacity of saviors of the
Union, they took upon themselves the task of driving all persons
suspected of sympathy for ‘the lost cause’ out of Kansas. P. T. Abell,
J. T. Hereford, Headley & Carr, prominent lawyers, were notified to
leave or they would be killed. They departed. Headley, Carr and Hereford
served in the Confederate army. Abell lived in exile until after the war
was over, and then returned to Atchison. He was one of the founders of
the town, and before the war was the partner of Gen. B. F. Stringfellow.
Tom Ray, proprietor of an extensive blacksmithing and wagon shop, was
banished. In a month or two he returned, but not until after he had
halted at Winthrop, a village opposite Atchison and opened up
negotiations which resulted in a grant of permission to remain in
Atchison long enough to settle up his business and collect considerable
sums due from his customers. He registered at the old Massasoit House,
but did not tarry long. Maj. R. H. Weightman, an early settler, who left
Atchison in 1861, and accepted a colonel’s commission in the Confederate
army, had been killed at Wilson’s Creek. While sitting in the Massasoit
House barroom, Ray was approached by Sandy Corbin, a somewhat notorious
character, who handled most of the horses stolen by Cleveland’s thieves.
Corbin mentioned Weightman’s death, expressing satisfaction at his
untimely end, and applying all the epithets known to the abandoned, to
the dead man. Ray expostulated, and finally warned Corbin to desist or
expect a thrashing. Corbin rushed to his room and returned with two
revolvers, so adjusted upon his belt that Ray could not help seeing
them. Ray, who was a giant in size, seized Corbin, threw him face
downward upon a billiard table, and with a blacksmith’s hand as large as
a ham, spanked him until he was almost insensible. Then he hurriedly
boarded the ferry boat, crossed the river and made his way to Montana,
where he lived until his death, twenty years ago.

“Cleveland’s lieutenant, a fellow named Hartman, was the worst of the
gang, and was guilty of so many and such flagrant outrages upon the
prominent citizens that in sheer desperation, four men, all of whom are
now dead, met and drew straws to see who would kill Hartman—(1) Jesse C.
Crall, during his life prominent in politics and business; (2) George T.
Challiss, for thirty years a deacon in the Baptist church and a
prominent wholesale merchant and identified prominently with Atchison
affairs; (3) James McEwen, a cattle buyer and butcher; (4) The fourth
man was a prominent physician. Each of these had suffered intolerable
outrages at the hands of Hartman. He had visited their houses and
terrified their wives by notifying them that unless their husbands left
Atchison within a specified period they would be mobbed. Even the
children of two of the victims of persecution had been abused. They met
at the physician’s office, and after a prolonged conference, at which it
was agreed that neither would leave until Hartman had been killed,
proceeded to draw straws to see which would undertake the work. Crall
held the straws, McEwen drew the short straw and the job fell to his
lot. Atchison is bisected by two or three brooks, one of which traverses
the northwest section of the town and runs into White Clay creek. This
ravine has very precipitous banks, and was crossed by several foot
bridges. At the east approach of the bridge was a tall elm tree. McEwen
took his position under this tree, and awaited the appearance of
Hartman, who necessarily passed that way in going home at night. When
Hartman was half-way across the bridge, McEwen stepped out, dropped to
his knee, leveled a double-barreled shotgun and turned loose. He filled
Hartman with buckshot from his head to his heels, but strange to say,
the fellow did not die for months afterward. Had either of the others
drawn the fatal straw, no doubt Hartman would have been killed in broad
daylight, on the streets, but McEwen concluded to give the fellow no
chance for his life.”

The First Kansas volunteer cavalry was the first regiment to be raised
under the call of President Lincoln May 8, 1861. It was mustered into
the service at Ft. Leavenworth June 3, 1861. George W. Deitzler, of
Lawrence, was colonel, and the following men from Atchison were
officers: George H. Faicheled, captain, Company C; Camille Aguiel, first
lieutenant: Rinaldo A. Barker, second lieutenant; James W. Martin,
second lieutenant of Company B. Within ten days of the date this
regiment was mustered in, they received orders for active service. The
regiment joined the army of General Lyon at Grand River, Mo., and on
July 10 arrived at Springfield, where the force of General Sigel was
gathered. The united forces of the rebels, under Price and McCullouch,
was concentrated at Wilson’s Creek, twelve miles from Springfield, and
was strongly entrenched there, where the initial engagement of the First
Kansas regiment took place. This regiment went into the engagement with
644 men and officers, and lost seventy-seven killed and 333 wounded. The
rebel forces were estimated to be 5,300 infantry, fifteen pieces of
artillery, and 6,000 horsemen, with a loss of 265 killed, 721 wounded,
and 292 missing. The Union forces numbered about 5,000, with a loss of
about 1,000. It was one of the fiercest and most determined battles of
the Civil war, and both officers and privates in the companies from
Atchison displayed great bravery. First Lieut. Camille Aguiel was among
the killed, and privates Henry W. Totten and Casper Broggs, together
with Corporal William F. Parker, of Atchison, also lost their lives in
this engagement.

The Seventh regiment Kansas cavalry was ordered into active service
immediately following its organization. Colonel Daniel R. Anthony, of
Leavenworth, was a lieutenant-colonel of this regiment, and among the
line officers was William S. Morehouse, of Atchison, who was second
lieutenant. This regiment saw a great deal of active service in the
Civil war, and was first attacked by the rebels November 11, 1861, while
encamped in western Missouri, on the Little Blue river. Following a
furious battle the regiment lost nine of its force by death and thirty-
two wounded. This regiment subsequently participated in an engagement at
Little Santa Fe and at Independence. In January, 1862, the Seventh
regiment went into camp at Humboldt, Kan., and remained there until it
was ordered to Lawrence in the following March, and subsequently was
ordered to Corinth, Miss., and from thence to Rienzi, Miss., where it
was assigned to the First Cavalry brigade, of which Phillip H. Sheridan
was commander, and subsequently saw much service in Tennessee and other
points in the South, and participated in the various actions that
occurred during General Smith’s expedition to the Tallahatchee, after
which the balance of their active service took place in Missouri. It was
mustered out at Ft. Leavenworth September 4, 1865.

The Eighth regiment Kansas infantry was perhaps closer to the hearts of
the people of Atchison county than any other regiment that participated
in the Civil war, for the reason that its lieutenant-colonel was the
beloved John A. Martin, editor of the _Atchison Champion_, and
subsequently governor of Kansas. It was originally recruited and
intended for home and frontier service. The fear of invasion, both by
hostile Indians on the west, and the rebels on the south and east, kept
fear alive in the hearts of many residents of Kansas, and for this
purpose it was deemed desirable to have a regiment of volunteer soldiers
close at hand. As originally organized, this regiment consisted of six
infantry and two cavalry companies, but various changes were made during
the three months following its organization. It saw active service
throughout the South, and participated in many of the important battles
of the Civil war, but in none did it play a more conspicuous part than
in the great battle of Mission Ridge. The following is from Colonel
Martin’s official report of the part taken by the Eighth Kansas in this
engagement:

“Shortly after noon, on the twenty-fifth (November), we were ordered to
advance on the enemy’s position at the foot of Mission Ridge, and moved
out of our works, forming in the second line of the battle. We at once
advanced steadily in line through the woods and across the open field in
front of the enemy’s entrenchments to the foot of the hill, subjected
during the whole time to a heavy artillery fire from the enemy’s
batteries, and as soon as we reached the open field, to a destructive
musketry fire. Reaching the first line of works we halted to rest our
men for a few moments, and then advanced through a terrible storm of
artillery and musketry, to the foot of the hill and up it as rapidly as
possible. The crest of the ridge at the point where we moved up was
formed like a horseshoe. We advanced in the interior, while the enemy’s
batteries and infantry on the right and left, as well as in the center,
poured upon us a most terrific fire. But the men never faltered or
wavered, although from the nature of the ground, regiments were mingled
one with another, and company organization could not possibly be
preserved. Each man struggled to be first on top, and the officers and
men of the regiment, without a single exception, exhibited the highest
courage and the most devoted gallantry in this fearful charge.

“The enemy held their ground until we were less than a dozen yards from
their breastworks, when they broke in wild confusion and fled in panic
down the hill on the opposite side. A portion of our men pursued them
for nearly a mile, capturing and hauling back several pieces of
artillery and caissons, which the enemy were trying to run off.

“We occupied the summit of Mission Ridge until the night of the twenty-
sixth, when we were ordered to return to camp at Chattanooga.

“Our loss was one commissioned officer wounded and three enlisted men
killed and thirty-one wounded. The regiment went into the battle with an
aggregate force of 217 men and officers.

“Where all behaved with such conspicuous courage, it is difficult to
make distinction, but I cannot forebear mentioning my adjutant-
lieutenant, Sol. R. Washer. Wounded at Chicakamauga, and not yet
recovered from the effects of his wound, and suffering from a severe
sprain of the ankle, which prevented his walking, he mounted his horse
and rode through the whole battle, always foremost in danger.”

The Eighth infantry remained in camp at Chattanooga until it removed to
the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, which city was reached on December
7. About the same time Sherman’s corps arrived. The winter of 1863 was
spent in east Tennessee, and in the following February arrived home in
Atchison and Ft. Leavenworth. There was great rejoicing and celebration
and both officers and soldiers were greeted with waving banners, ringing
bells, booming cannon, and there was much feasting and speech making.
The regiment was home on a furlough, and early in April the men re-
assembled at Leavenworth and on the twelfth of that month was ordered to
report back to Chattanooga, where it subsequently saw service in the
Cumberland mountains, and throughout the State of Tennessee.

Colonel Martin was mustered out at Pulaski November 17, his term of
enlistment having expired, and the following day he left for the North,
but the regiment was not mustered out of service until the following
January.

The Tenth regiment, Kansas infantry, was made up of the Third and Fourth
and a small portion of the Fifth Kansas regiments, and among its
officers were Mathew Quigg, captain of Company D; Seth M. Tucker, first
lieutenant, and David Whittaker, second lieutenant, all of Atchison. The
activities of this regiment were largely confined to operations in
Missouri and Arkansas, and afterwards in Tennessee. In December, 1864,
it arrived at Clinton, Miss., without tents or blankets, and many of the
men without shoes or overcoats. During January it made an expedition
into Mississippi, and the latter part of that month marched to
Waterloss, Ala., remaining there until February 8, when it embarked for
Vicksburg, where it remained until February 19, and subsequently
operated around Mobile, and the men of this regiment were employed as
skirmishers in the joint advance upon the fortifications around Mobile.
It was mustered out at Montgomery, Ala., September 20, 1865, and finally
discharged at Ft. Leavenworth, Kan. The regiment was mostly composed of
veterans, who understood the life of a soldier, and realized the
hardships of military campaigns. They did their duty, whether it was in
guarding their own State from invasion, or assaulting the rebels at the
siege of Ft. Blakely.

The Thirteenth regiment, Kansas infantry, had more officers in it from
Atchison than any of the regiments that participated in the Civil war.
It was raised under President Lincoln’s call of July, 1862, and was
recruited by Cyrus Leland, Sr., of Troy, Kan., by virtue of authority
from James H. Lane, in the counties of Brown, Atchison, Doniphan,
Marshall and Nemaha. The regiment was organized September 10, 1862, at
Camp Staunton, Atchison, and mustered into the service ten days later.
Colonel of this regiment was Thomas M. Bowen, of Marysville, and the
major was Caleb A. Woodworth, of Atchison. Among the line officers from
Atchison were: Henry Havenkorst, captain of Company B; August
Langehemeken, second lieutenant; Henry R. Neal, captain; Robert
Manville, second lieutenant; John E. Hayes, captain, Company F;
Archimedes S. Speck, first lieutenant; William J. May, second
lieutenant; Patrick McNamara, captain, Company K; Daniel C. O’Keefe,
first lieutenant; Hugh Dougherty, second lieutenant.

The regiment joined a division of General Blunt soon after the battle of
Old Ft. Wayne, and participated in various engagements in Arkansas. At
the battle of Prairie Grove, it was one of the first regiments to be
engaged, and in every attempt to capture the battery of which this
regiment formed the support at this battle, was successfully repulsed,
with heavy losses to the rebels. This battle virtually finished the
campaign for the winter. It subsequently did garrison and out-post duty
in Arkansas, and in the Cherokee Nation. The regiment remained on duty
at Ft. Smith, Ark., until March 3, 1865, when it was ordered to Little
Rock, Ark., and on June 26 of that year was mustered out of service.

Among the privates of this regiment from Atchison, who were killed,
were: James L. Parnell, of Mount Pleasant, and John Collins and Lorenzo
Richardson, of Atchison.

Thomas Roe, a fine, stout young man, son of a widowed mother, of
Brownsville, Pa., was the only member of Company D, of the Second Kansas
cavalry, that lost his life in battle during its nearly four years of
service in the Civil war. This company participated in the battles of
Cane Hill and Prairie Grove, in Arkansas, and other engagements. Roe
came to Kansas with the late Thomas Butcher, for whom he worked until
going into the war of the rebellion.

In May, 1861, a company of home guards was organized by Free State men,
of Lancaster and Shannon townships, Atchison county, with a few from
Brown and Doniphan counties, which gathered every Saturday afternoon for
drill, alternating at the homes of Johnson Wymore and Robert White.
Robert White, who had received military training during the Mexican war,
having served there in 1846–48, did most of the drilling. A. J. Evans
was captain; Robert White, first lieutenant; John Bertwell, of Brown
county, was second lieutenant.

The pro-slavery people were also organized and drilling at the same
time, consisting of South Carolinians, Virginians and Missourians, who
were for the Confederacy and slavery.

At a Sunday school meeting on the prairie, held in a vacant settler’s
shanty near Eden postoffice, where both sides in the neighborhood
worshiped on Sundays, Robert White found out on a Sunday in August,
1861, that a southern organization was to disarm all Free State men the
following Tuesday. His nearest neighbor and a good friend, also a
southerner, thought White had found this out and came and visited him a
good part of Sunday afternoon and staying in the evening until after 10
o’clock before going home, White showing no excitement. Willis went
home, seemingly much at ease, but he was watched by his friend White
until safely resting at his home, when White went and called another
Free State man from his bed who notified half the Free State company and
White the other half, causing them to meet early the following Monday,
when by the middle of the afternoon of that day every pro-slavery man in
that part of the country had his fire arms taken from him, and before
Tuesday evening all of them had departed for Missouri.

Most of the members of the Free State company enlisted in the following
October as volunteers for three years’ service in the Union army and
became known as Company D of Second Kansas cavalry. Robert White, who
was commissioned as first lieutenant in Company D, was discharged and
sent home to die with a serious case of inflammatory rheumatism, but he
recovered so far that in 1863 he raised and drilled a company that
became a part of the State militia. He was commissioned captain of this
company and led it in the Price raid at the battle of Westport in 1864
as a part of the regiment commanded by Col. L. S. Treat in helping keep
Capt. White’s old brigade, commanded by Gen. Sterling Price, of the
Mexican war, from getting into Kansas. The late M. J. Cloyes and T. B.
Platt, of Atchison, were members of Captain White’s company in the Price
raid. Platt was clerk of the company; John English was first lieutenant;
W. F. Streeter, second lieutenant, and Francis Schletzbaum was first
sergeant.

The Seventeenth regiment, Kansas infantry, was a negro regiment, but
with white officers. James M. Williams was colonel, and George J.
Martin, of Atchison, was captain of Company B, and William G. White and
Luther Dickinson, of Atchison, were first and second lieutenants. This
regiment played an honorable part during all the Civil war, and its
service was largely confined to operations in Arkansas and Texas. It was
mustered out of service at Pine Bluff, Ark., October 1, 1865.

The Second regiment, Kansas colored infantry, was organized in June,
1863, at Ft. Smith, Ark., and among its line officers was First Lieut.
John M. Cain, of Atchison. It conducted itself with conspicuous bravery
with the army of the frontier, and during the brief occupation of
Camden, Ark., by General Steele’s forces, this regiment was employed on
picket and forage duty. It showed conspicuous bravery around Poison
Springs and Mark’s Mills, and under the able command of Col. Samuel J.
Crawford, who subsequently became governor of Kansas, it won for itself
an enviable name among the regiments from Kansas, who participated in
the Civil war. This regiment was finally discharged from the services at
Leavenworth November 27, 1865, after having proved to the Nation the
fidelity of the colored soldier.

It was in September, 1864, that General Sterling Price created great
consternation by an attempted invasion of Kansas, which ended in his
defeat on the border by the Union forces, aided by the Kansas State
militia. At the time Price started north in his march through Arkansas
and Missouri. Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis commanded the Department of
Kansas, which included Nebraska, Colorado and Indian Territory, in
addition to Kansas. General Curtis had about 4,500 men, all of whom had
been employed in protecting the frontiers of Kansas and Colorado, and
the overland mail route. At this time General Curtis was near Ft.
Kearney, operating against the Indians. On receipt of word announcing
the movements of General Price, General Curtis was recalled and reached
Kansas in September. A few days later he received word that 3,000 rebels
were marching on Ft. Scott, and advised Governor Carney to call the
militia into service. At this time George W. Deitzler was major-general
of the State militia; John T. Norton was assistant adjutant-general; R.
A. Randlett, assistant quartermaster; Samuel S. Atwood, assistant
quartermaster; Charles Chadwick, George T. Robinson, Lewis T. Welmorth,
John J. Ingalls, Thomas White, Elijah G. Moore, H. Stein, and John A.
Leffkler were all majors. Constant reports of a conflicting nature were
spread from day to day, regarding the movements of General Price, but
the first point to be attacked was Pilot Knob, the engagement commencing
September 27 and lasting all day. General Ewing put up a vigorous
defense, with a force of about 1,000 men, while the militia commanders
in Kansas made preparations for further resistance to the invasion of
Price. Meanwhile General Price continued to make headway, and on the
fourth of October an order was issued forbidding the transit of boats
below Kansas City. When it was discovered that the rebels under Price
had not been seriously checked in their movement westward, further
efforts were made by General Curtis to prevail upon Governor Kearney to
call out the militia, which the Governor seemed disinclined to do.
Finally, on October 9, 1864, Major General Deitzler issued an order for
the State militia from Doniphan, Brown, Nemaha and Marshall counties to
rendezvous at Atchison, and the militia from other counties were ordered
to other points in the State. A few days later Leavenworth was
fortified, because of a telegram which was received from General
Rosecrans, stating that it was Price’s intention to strike that point
first. The militia responded promptly, and the following regiments
reported for service at Atchison: The Twelfth regiment, composed of 460
men, under the command of Col. L. S. Treat, and the Eighteenth regiment,
composed of 400 men, under the command of Colonel Mathew Quigg. The
total number of militia enrolled under the call of the governor was
12,622, of which about 10,000 were south of the Kansas river at the
point most exposed to danger. From the eleventh until the sixteenth of
the month there was great excitement, as the forces rapidly gathered, to
be organized and equipped. On the staff of General Deitzler there were
two men from Atchison: A. S. Hughes, an aide, and John J. Ingalls,
judge-advocate, with the rank of major.

As a result of this determined move on the part of Gen. Sterling Price
to invade Kansas, there followed in quick succession the battle of
Lexington, the battle of Big Blue, and finally the battle of Westport,
at which, on October 23, 1864, the forces of Price were finally routed
and his campaign and invasion were stopped, but not until it had caused
the citizens of Kansas, in addition to the labor and loss of life, not
less than half a million dollars.



                              CHAPTER IX.
                              NAVIGATION.

  PIONEER TRANSPORTATION—EARLY FERRIES AND RATES—FAMOUS RIVER BOATS—
      STEAMBOAT LINES TO ATCHISON—STEAMBOAT REGISTERS.


Slight reference has been made in the early narrative of this history to
pioneer transportation facilities, but the subject is one of so much
importance and of such immense interest, that a chapter devoted to it is
the only way in which it can be adequately treated.

At the time Atchison county was settled, railroad transportation by
steam was not a new thing, although it was in its primitive stages.
Navigation of the inland waterways had reached rather a high state of
development, and the matter of transportation then was just as essential
to the purposes of civilization as in this day of the railroad and the
automobile, but it was many years before the steam railroads made the
steamboat traffic of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers obsolete. The
tremendous subsidies granted by the Government in later years for
railroad building, however, and the splendid opportunity for piling up
wealth in the projection of new railroads and the operation of them,
without Governmental restrictions, together with the advantage of
speedier transportation facilities, completely overshadowed the
steamboat business, and as a result, our great inland waterway system
has grown into practical disuse. Shortly after Atchison county was
organized, and the city of Atchison laid out, agitation was started for
railroad connections with the East. One of the first ordinances passed
by the city council in 1858 provided for an election to submit a
proposition to take $100,000.00 of stock in railroad. At that time the
only means of communication to the outside world Atchison had was by
steamboats to St. Louis. It was in October, 1855, that George M.
Million, Lewis Burnes, D. D. Burnes, James N. Burnes and Calvin F.
Burnes commenced the operation of a ferry across the Missouri river.
Their dock on the Kansas side was at the foot of Atchison street. Their
charter was secured from the legislature under the terms of which a bond
of $1,000.00 was required to insure the faithful performance of their
operations. Although there was no public utilities commission in Kansas
in 1855, the legislature took upon itself the task of fixing the rates
to be charged by the ferry owners, in order that the public would not be
robbed. They were as follows:

    Two-horse wagon, or wagon and one yoke of oxen (loaded)   $1.00
    Two-horse wagon, or wagon and one yoke of oxen (unloaded)   .75
    One additional pair of horses or  oxen                      .25
    Loose cattle or oxen, per head                              .10
    Sheep and hogs, per head                                    .05
    Man and horse                                               .25
    Foot passengers                                             .10
    One horse and buggy or other vehicle                        .50
    Two horse buggy or carriage                                 .75

The original promoters operated the ferry but a short time, and early in
the following year, they disposed of their interests to Dr. William L.
Challiss, and his brother, Luther C. Challiss, and Willis E. Gaylord,
and the ferry, under Dr. Challiss, and subsequent owners, continued in
operation until 1875, when the present bridge was built.

About the time the first ferry was established in Atchison, a number of
Salt Lake freighters selected the town as a starting and outfitting
point and from that time until 1866, Atchison was the eastern terminus
of many of the leading overland mail and freighting routes. It was the
natural location for communication with the West, as it was twelve miles
further west in Kansas than any other point on the Missouri river.
Freight and passengers were brought to the Atchison levee, at the foot
of Commercial street, by a regular line of Packets plying between St.
Louis and St. Joseph. It required eight days to make the round trip, and
in the very early days, as many or four to six boats landed here in the
busy season.

During the winter months traffic on the river was practically suspended,
on account of the ice. These boats carried as many as 400 passengers,
the fare from St. Louis to St. Joseph ranging from $10.00 to $15.00,
which included meals and state rooms. The cooking was said to have been
very fine, and the passengers always enjoyed the best that money could
buy.

In addition to passengers, these boats carried from 500 to 600 tons of
freight, and the rates were as high as $2.50 per cwt. on merchandise
that would not cost to exceed fifteen cents per cwt. in these days. The
crew consisted of 80 to 100 men, and the value of these boats was
estimated to be about $45,000.00 each. The river then, as now, was
filled with sandbars and it required the greatest experience to pilot a
boat safely to its destination, and as a result, experienced pilots
would command monthly salaries ranging from $250.00 to $500.00. Each
boat carried two pilots. A. B. Symns, for many years a successful
wholesale grocery merchant in Atchison, E. K. Blair, the miller, and
George W. Bowman, who also subsequently engaged in the grocery business,
were employees on several of the steamboats that landed at Atchison.
Stories of gambling and revelries, by day and by night, are not
uncommon, and it is said it was not an unusual sight to see as many as
ten games of poker going on in the main cabins on every trip, in which
real money and not mere chips were used. Among the famous boats on the
river in the early days were the “Hesperian,” which burned near Atchison
in 1859; the “Converse,” “Kate Kinney,” “Fort Aubrey,” “Morning Star,”
“John D. Perry,” “Sioux City,” “Omaha,” “Carrier,” and the “James H.
Lucas,” which made the record run from St. Louis to St. Joseph,
encompassing the trip in fifty-nine hours and twenty-two minutes, were
among the well known boats that docked at the Atchison levee from time
to time. The leading wharfmaster of the steamboat days was Mike Finney,
who was the father of Atchison’s present mayor (1915). James H. Garside
succeeded him and remained in the position until steamboat days had
passed. Had the Missouri river been the beneficiary of the bounty of the
Government, as the railroads were in that day, it would still be a
splendid auxiliary of our transportation system. The Missouri river, so
far as Atchison is concerned, is in the same condition it was in when
Mark Twain made an early trip on it from St. Louis to St. Joseph. In
“Roughing It,” he said:

“We were six days going from St. Louis to St. Joseph, a trip that was so
dull and sleepy and eventless, that it has left no more impression on my
memory than if its duration had been six minutes instead of that many
days. No record is left in my mind now concerning it, but a confused
jumble of savage looking snags, which we deliberately walked over with
one wheel or the other; and of reefs which we butted and butted and then
retired from, and climbed over in some softer place; and of sand bars
which we roosted on occasionally and rested, and then got our crutches
and sparred over. In fact the boat might as well have gone to St. Joseph
by land, for she was walking most of the time anyhow—climbing over reefs
and clambering over snags, patiently and laboriously all day long. The
captain said she was a bully boat, and all she wanted was more “shear”
and a bigger wheel. I thought she wanted a pair of stilts, but I had the
sagacity not to say so.”


                   STEAMBOAT LINES TO ATCHISON—1856.

 From _Squatter Sovereign_.

 March 11, 1856.

     “A. B. Chambers,” James Gormley, Master; D. Jamison, Clerk.

     “F. X. Aubrey,” Ambrose Reeder, Captain; Ben V. Glime, Clerk.

     “Polar Star,” E. F. Dix, Master; H. M. Glossom, Clerk.

     “New Lucy,” Wm. Conley, Master.

     “James H. Lucas,” Andrew Wineland, Commander.

 March 18, 1856.

     “Star of the West,” E. F. Dix, Master.

 March 25, 1856.

     “J. M. Convers,” Geo. W. Bowman, Captain; G. A. Reicheneker,
       Clerk.

 April 29, 1856.

     “Martha Jewett,” D. H. Silver, Captain; W. McCreight, Clerk.

     “Sultan,” John H. McCloy, Master; D. C. Sheble, Clerk.

     “Edinburg,” Dan Able, Master.

 May 27, 1856.

     “Morning Star,” Wm. Brierly, Master.

 June 24, 1856.

     “Emigrant,” Hugh L. White, Master; H. R. McDonald, Clerk.


                          STEAMBOAT REGISTER.

                 Reported for the _Champion_ by M. C.
                       Finney, Steamboat Agent.


                               BOUND UP.

              E. M. Ryland, Blunt            Monday, 8th.
              Peerless, Bissell          Wednesday, 10th.
              John H. Dickey, Abel        Saturday, 13th.
              H. H. Russell, Kenny          Sunday, 14th.
              Hesperian, Kerchival          Sunday, 14th.
              F. X. Aubry, Glime         Wednesday, 17th.
              Platte Valley, Postill     Wednesday, 17th.
              Wm. Campbell, Dale          Thursday, 18th.
              White Cloud, O’Neil           Friday, 19th.
              Spread Eagle, Lagrage         Friday, 19th.
              Emma,                         Friday, 19th.


                              BOUND DOWN.

              E. M. Ryland, Blunt           Tuesday, 9th.
              Peerless, Bissell             Friday, 12th.
              John H. Dickey, Abel          Sunday, 14th.
              W. H. Russell, Kenney         Monday, 15th.
              Hesperian, Kerchival         Tuesday, 16th.
              F. X. Aubry, Glime         Wednesday, 17th.
              Wm. Campbell, Dale            Friday, 19th.
              White Cloud, O’Neil         Saturday, 20th.

              (From _Freedom’s Champion_, Atchison, March
                              20, 1858.)


                               BOUND UP.

              Spread Eagle, Lagrage         Friday, 19th.
              Emma, Yore                    Friday, 19th.
              Silver Heels, Nanson        Saturday, 20th.
              Morning Star, Burk            Sunday, 21st.
              Polar Star, McMullin           Monday, 22d.
              Twilight, Shaw                 Monday, 22d.
              St. Mary, Devenny             Tuesday, 23d.
              Carrier, Postal            Wednesday, 24th.
              Sovereign, Hutchinson      Wednesday, 24th.
              Omaha, Wineland             Thursday, 25th.
              F. X. Aubry, Glime          Thursday, 25th.
              Minnehaha, Baker            Thursday, 25th.
              John H. Dickey, Abel          Friday, 26th.
              White Cloud, O’Neil         Saturday, 27th.
              Florence, Throckmorton      Saturday, 27th.
              Polar Star, McMullin          Sunday, 28th.
              Hesperian, Lee                Sunday, 28th.
              Star of the West, Ollman      Monday, 29th.
              South Western, Dehaven        Monday, 29th.
              John Warner, Paterson         Monday, 29th.
              Sioux City, Baker             Monday, 29th.
              War Eagle, White             Tuesday, 30th.
              Ben Lewis, Brierly           Tuesday, 30th.
              Thomas E. Tutt, Dozier       Tuesday, 30th.
              J. D. Perry, Davis         Wednesday, 31st.
              Watossa, Richoneker        Wednesday, 31st.
              Alonzo Child, Holland      Wednesday, 31st.
              Wm. Campbell, Dale         Wednesday, 31st.
              Kate Howard, Nonson        Wednesday, 31st.
              Sky Lark, Johnson        Thursday, April 1.
              E. M. Ryland, Blunt          Thursday, 1st.
              Silver Heels, Nanson            Friday, 2d.
              John H. Dickey, Abel            Friday, 2d.
              F. A. Ogden                     Friday, 2d.

Every boat on the above list except eight have passed down again, making
in all, sixty landings at our wharf, in the short space of thirteen
days.

(From _Freedom’s Champion_, Atchison, April 3, 1858.)


                    ST. LOUIS & ATCHISON UNION LINE.

One of the following Splendid Steamers Will leave


                     ATCHISON FOR ST. LOUIS DAILY.

    Sunday Boats,       Peerless and Silver Heels,     Alternately.
    Monday Boats,       Hesperian and Morning Star,    Alternately.
    Tuesday Boats,   South Webster and A. B. Chambers, Alternately.
    Wednesday Boats,      Ben Lewis and Twilight,      Alternately.
    Thursday Boats,             Sovereign.
    Friday Boats,       Kate Howard and Minnehaha,     Alternately.
                      For Freight or passage apply to
                                     G. W. BOWMAN, Agent, Atchison.
    N. B. Tickets sold through to all the Eastern and
      Southern Cities.

    OFFICE on the Levee.

    (From _Freedom’s Champion_, Atchison, March 27, 1858.)

                  *       *       *       *       *

 _Squatter Sovereign_, Atchison, Dec. 5, 1857:

     Omaha, Andrew Wineland, Master; J. J. Wilcox, clerk.

 _Freedom’s Champion_, Atchison, April 3, 1858:

     Ben Lewis, T. H. Brierly, Master; W. G. Barkley, clerk.

 _Freedom’s Champion_, March 12, 1859:

     Alonzo Child, D. DeHaven, Master; Stanley Ryland, clerk; H. P.
       Short, clerk.



                               CHAPTER X.
                          OVERLAND FREIGHTING.

  ATCHISON AS AN OUTFITTING POINT—FREIGHTING COMPANIES—PRINCIPAL ROUTES—
      STAGE LINES—OVERLAND MAIL ROUTES—BEN HOLLADAY—BUTTERFIELD’S
      OVERLAND DISPATCH—TIME TO DENVER—TABLES OF TIME AND DISTANCES ON
      VARIOUS ROUTES—STATISTICAL.


Atchison was chosen as an outfitting point for the Salt Lake freighters,
in addition to many other reasons, because we had one of the best
steamboat landings on the river, and had the best wagon road in the
country leading west. Twenty-four miles west of Atchison this road was
intersected by the old overland mail trail from St. Joseph. Leavenworth
had laid out a new road west, over which it was planned to run the
Pike’s Peak Express stages in the spring of 1859, as well as the mule
and ox teams, for Denver and the mountain mining camps. A branch road
was also opened to intersect this route from Atchison in the spring of
1859, under the direction of Judge F. G. Adams. The expedition started
west from Atchison in the spring of that year, over what is now known
and was then known as the Parallel road, then through Muscotah and
America City, across into the Big Blue river, near Blue Rapids, and
westward through Jewell county. The object of this expedition was to
open a shorter route to the mountains than the one opened by the
Leavenworth company, and the route proposed did save sixty-five miles
distance, and almost twelve hours time. E. D. Boyd, an engineer,
measured the entire distance from Atchison to Denver. He also made an
accurate report, showing distances and the crossing of streams, and a
brief description of the entire route, which was published in the
_Atchison Champion_, in June, 1859. According to that report, the
distance from Atchison to Denver was 620 miles. But notwithstanding the
advantage of this new road, it was abandoned immediately and never
traveled by ox or mule trains out of Atchison, for the reason that the
old military road by Fort Kearney and along the Platte river enjoyed
Government protection from the Indians, and was settled at intervals
almost the entire distance.

During the period of overland freighting on the plains, more trains left
Atchison than any other point on the river. The leading firms engaged in
the freighting business were, Stevens & Porter; Dennison & Brown;
Hockaday-Burr & Company; J. S. Galbraith: George W. Howe; Brown
Brothers; E. K. Blair; I. N. Bringman; Roper & Nesbitt; Harrison
Brothers; Henry Reisner; J. C. Peters; P. K. Purcell; R. E. Wilson; Will
Addoms; George I. Stebbins; John C. Bird; William Home; Amos Howell;
Owen Degan, and a number of others.

The cost of shipping merchandise to Denver was very high, as everything
was carried by the pound, rather than by the hundred pounds rate. Flour,
bacon, molasses, whiskey, furniture and trunks were carried at pound
rates. The rates per pound on merchandise shipped by ox or mule wagons
from Atchison to Denver prior to 1860, were as follows:

                          Flour      9  cents
                          Tobacco   12½ cents
                          Sugar     13½ cents
                          Bacon     15  cents
                          Dry goods 15  cents
                          Crackers  17  cents
                          Whiskey   18  cents
                          Groceries 19½ cents
                          Trunks    25  cents
                          Furniture 31  cents

It has been said by those who witnessed the tremendous overland traffic
of the late fifties and the early sixties, that those of this generation
can form no conception of the enormous amount of traffic overland there
was in those days. Trains were being constantly outfitted not only at
Atchison, but at other points along the river. Twenty-one days was about
the time required for a span of horses or mules to make the trip to
Denver and keep the stock in good condition. It required five weeks for
ox trains to make the same distance, and to Salt Lake, horses and mules
were about six weeks making the trip, and ox trains were on the road
from sixty-five to seventy days. It was the ox upon which mankind
depended in those days to carry on the commerce of the plains. They were
the surest and safest for hauling a large part of the freight destined
for the towns and camps west of the Missouri river. Next in importance
to the ox, was the mule, because they were tough and reliable, and could
endure fatigue.

The year of 1859 was a big year in the history of Atchison, for in that
year the percentage of the growth of the town was greater than any other
year in its history. The fact that it was the best point on the Missouri
river for the overland staging and freighting outfits, brought it in
greater commercial prominence. At that time, Irwin & McGraw were
prominent contractors, who were supplying the various military posts on
the frontier. The mere fact that these Government trains were started
from Atchison, gave the town wonderful prestige.

It was nothing unusual to see two or three steamboats lying at the
levee, discharging freight, and as many more in sight either going up
the river from St. Louis, or down the river from St. Joe. It was not
uncommon for a boat to be loaded at Pittsburgh, Pa., or Cincinnati,
Ohio, going down the Ohio river and up the Mississippi and Missouri to
Atchison; it was not an unusual sight to see a whole boat load of wagons
and ox yokes, mining machinery, boilers and other material necessary for
the immense trade of the West.

The greater part of the traffic out of Atchison to the West was over the
Military road, along the south bank of the Platte, and along this road
teams of six to eight yoke of cattle, hauling heavily loaded wagons, and
strings of four or six horse or mule teams, formed almost an endless
procession.

The liveliest period of overland trade extended from 1859 to 1866,
during which time there was on the plains and in the mountains an
estimated floating population of 250,000. The greater majority of the
people on the plains produced but few of the necessities of life, and
consequently they had to be supplied from the Missouri river. During the
closing year of the Civil war, the travel was immense, most of the
emigration going into the gold mining camps of the Northwest.

While there was considerable freighting out of Atchison to the West
following the opening of the Territory, overland staging did not reach
its height until 1861. The era of overland staging from the Missouri
river to the Pacific coast lasted altogether about eight years. The
first great overland staging enterprise started in 1858, on what is
known as the Southern or Butterfield route. This route ran from St.
Louis and Memphis, Tenn., intersecting at Ft. Smith, Ark. After being in
operation for nearly three years, the route was succeeded by a daily
line on the Central route, which ran from the Missouri river five years,
first starting at St. Joseph, Mo., July 1, 1861, and then from Atchison
in September of that year. On the Central route, the through staging
came to a close after the completion of the Union Pacific railroad from
Omaha across the continent. Originally the stage enterprise was known as
the Overland Mail Company—the Southern or Butterfield line. After it was
transferred north and ran in connection with the stages to Denver, it
was known as the Central Overland California and Pike’s Peak Express
Company. After passing into the hands of Ben Holladay, it became the
Overland Stage Line, and finally the name was changed to the Holladay
Overland Mail Express Company. In 1866, the line had been consolidated
with the Butterfield Overland Dispatch, a stage company which was
organized in 1865, with headquarters in Atchison.

Atchison’s importance as an overland staging terminus was fixed by
reason of an order of the United States Postoffice Department. Before
the final change, making Atchison headquarters and starting point for
the mail, the road from Atchison westward intersected the road from St.
Joseph at Kennekuk. The distance from Atchison to Kennekuk was twenty-
four miles, while it was about thirty-five miles from St. Joseph, and
consequently there was a saving of about nine miles in favor of
Atchison. This was an important item, in carrying the mails, and
resulted in the order of the Postoffice Department making Atchison the
starting point. The distance by the overland stage line from Atchison to
Placerville was 1,913 miles, and following the abandonment of the
Butterfield or Southern route, it became the longest and the most
important stage line in America. There were 153 stations between
Atchison and Placerville, located about twelve and one-half miles apart.
The local fare was $225.00, or about twelve cents per mile, and as high
as $2,000.00 a day was frequently taken in at the Atchison office for
passenger fare alone. The fare between Atchison and Denver was $75.00,
or a little over eight cents per mile, and to Salt Lake City, $150.00.
Local fares ran as high as fifteen cents per mile. Each passenger was
allowed twenty-five pounds of baggage. All in excess of that was charged
at the rate of $1.00 per pound. During the war, the fare to Denver was
increased from seventy-five dollars to $100.00, and before the close of
the war, it had reached $175.00 or nearly twenty-seven cents per mile.

It required about 2,750 horses and mules to run the stage line between
Atchison and Placerville. It required, in addition to the regular supply
of horses to operate the stages, some additional animals for
emergencies, and it was estimated that the total cost of the horses on
this stage line was about one-half million dollars. The harness was the
finest that could be made, and cost about $150.00 for a complete set of
four, or about $55,000.00 for the whole line. The feeding of the stock
was one of the big items of expense, and there were annually consumed at
each station from forty to eighty tons of hay, at a cost of $15 to $40
per ton. Each animal was apportioned an average of twelve quarts of corn
every day, which cost from two to ten cents a pound. In the Salt Lake
and California divisions, oats and barley, grown in Utah, were
substituted for corn, but which cost about the same.

There were about 100 Concord coaches which, in the early sixties cost
about $1,000.00 each. The company owned about one-half of the stations,
in addition to thousands of dollars’ worth of miscellaneous property, at
different places along the route. There were superintendents, general
and local attorneys, paymasters and division agents, all of whom drew
big salaries. Among the stage company’s agents in the late fifties and
early sixties were Hugo Richards and Paul Coburn, at Atchison; Robert L.
Pease, of Atchison, was also for a time agent at Denver.

The mail was carried from Atchison west by Forts Kearney, Laramie and
Bridges, once a week. The schedule time from the river to Salt Lake City
was about eighteen days, and the distance was about 1,200 to 1,300
miles.

In 1861 a daily overland mail was established out of Atchison, and with
the exception of a few weeks in 1862, 1864 and 1865, on account of
Indian troubles, the overland was in operation and ran stages daily out
of Atchison for about five years. It was the greatest stage line in the
world, carrying mail, passengers and express. It was also regarded as
the safest and the fastest way to cross the plains, and the mountain
ranges. It was equipped with the latest modern four and six horse and
mule Concord coaches, and the meals at the eating stations along the
route were first-class, and cost from fifty cents to $2.00 each.

When Atchison was selected as the starting place for the overland mail,
it was not certain how long it would remain the eastern terminus of the
mail route. The Civil war was at its height, and the rebels were doing
much damage to the Hannibal & St. Joseph railroad, which had been
constructed in 1859. They tore up the track, burned the bridges,
destroyed the culverts, fired into the trains, and placed obstructions
along the roadbed, frequently delaying the mail from two to six days. As
a result of this condition of affairs, it was feared that Atchison would
lose the overland mail, and the Government would change the starting
point to some town further north, but because of the advantageous
geographical position of Atchison, it was decided that it would be
disastrous to make a change, so the Government placed a large number of
troops along the entire line of the Hannibal & St. Joe, to insure the
safety of the mails, and Atchison continued to be the point of departure
for the overland mail, until 1866.

The stage coaches used by the overland line were built in Concord, N. H.
They carried nine passengers inside, and one or two could ride on the
box by the driver. Some of the stages were built with an extra seat
above and in the rear of the driver, so that three additional persons
could ride there, making fourteen, with the driver. Sometimes an extra
man would be crowded on the box, making as many as fifteen persons, who
could ride on the Concord coach without very much inconvenience.

This chapter on overland staging would be unfinished, unless some
reference was made to Ben Holladay, who played such an important part in
the overland staging days of this country. Ben Holladay had a remarkable
career. In his early days, when he resided in Weston, Mo., he drove a
stage himself. He was a genuine westerner, having run a saloon and
tavern in Weston as early as 1838 and 1839. He went overland to
California in 1849, and took a train to Salt Lake City with $70,000
worth of goods. He spent some time in Utah, where he made considerable
money.

Besides operating the Overland Stage for over five years, Holladay had
other important interests in the West. Among his enterprises was a fleet
of passenger steamers, plying between San Francisco and Portland, Ore.
At the height of his career he was a millionaire, and few men in the
country accumulated wealth more rapidly. He spent his money freely, and
squandered vast sums when he was making it. After he had accumulated a
fortune, he went to New York to live, and built a most pretentious
residence a few miles out of New York, on the Hudson river, which he
called Ophir Farm. After he was awarded some good mail contracts by the
Government, he built a mansion in Washington, which he furnished
superbly, and collected a large classical library, with handsomely bound
volumes, and also was a patron of art, collecting fine oil paintings of
celebrated masters in Europe and America. He also made a collection of
fine bronzes and statuary, and paid $6,000.00 each for two bronze lions.

It was in 1860 that he came into possession of the Central Overland
California Mail Line, but subsequent trouble with the Indians damaged
his property to the extent of a half million dollars. His stage stations
were burned, and his stock stolen, and stage coaches destroyed. Finally,
in 1888, being broken in health and in debt, his Washington home, with
its contents, was sold under the hammer.

He came into possession of practically all the big overland routes by
purchase and foreclosure of mortgages, and he made his vast fortune in
mail contracts from the Government. He remained at the head of the
overland line for about five years, taking possession of it in December,
1861, and disposing of it, including the stations, rolling stock and
animals, in the latter part of 1866, to Wells Fargo & Company.

Mr. Holladay died in August, 1877, in Portland, Ore., a poor man.


                    BUTTERFIELD’S OVERLAND DISPATCH.

One of the interesting promoters in overland staging days was D. A.
Butterfield. He came to Atchison from Denver in 1864, and engaged in the
commission business in a large stone warehouse near the Massasoit House,
and, in addition to his commission business, he was agent for a line of
packets plying between St. Louis and Atchison. Shortly after his arrival
in Atchison he began the development of an overland stage line, which
subsequently reached very large proportions. His ambition was to be at
the head of an overland stage line, and, having selected what was known
as the Smoky Hill route along the Kansas and Smoky Hill rivers, which
was fifty miles shorter than any other route to Denver, he proceeded
with the further development of his plans. He was a smart, capable,
ambitious and aggressive fellow, with vim, and was in touch with a
number of men of large means in New York, whom he soon interested in his
enterprise. Early in 1865 the following advertisement appeared in the
_Atchison Daily Free Press_, announcing Mr. Butterfield’s project:

                   “BUTTERFIELD’S OVERLAND DISPATCH.

     “To all points in Colorado, Utah, Idaho and Montana Territory.
  Principal office, Atchison, Kansas. New York Office No. 1 Vesey St.
                              Astor House.

  “Through bills of lading given from New York, Boston, Philadelphia,
         Pittsburgh, Chicago, St. Louis, and Burlington, Iowa.

           “D. A. Butterfield, Proprietor, Atchison, Kansas.

               “A. W. Spalding, General Agent, New York.”

Butterfield’s consuming desire was to control the big end of the
transportation business across the plains. He maintained an expensive
office in New York City and called his line “The Butterfield Overland
Dispatch.” Conspicuous signs were displayed over the doors of his office
in the Astor House, showing caravans of great covered wagons drawn by
mules and oxen, which signs attracted the attention of all. During his
promotion of this new stage line Butterfield lived in great style and
elegance in Atchison, in a house, the remains of which still stand
(1915) at the southwest corner of Fifth and S streets. He entertained
lavishly, and “champagne flowed like water” at his home when he gave a
party.

The direct route out of Atchison to Denver, chosen by Butterfield, was
in a southwesterly direction to Valley Falls, thence across the plains
to a point on the old Fort Riley military road a few miles northeast of
Topeka. The Butterfield line was first operated with mules and oxen, but
as the road grew more prosperous, four horse stages were substituted.
“Dave” Butterfield, as he was known, was determined to make Ben Holladay
a pigmy in the overland stage business. Although it was known to many
that there was more wind behind his enterprise than real money, yet in
spite of the fact that his efforts in the staging world were more or
less looked upon as a promotion scheme, he interested considerable
capital, including the United States, American and the Adams Express
companies. He was a great believer in publicity and spent large sums in
newspaper advertising, but it required much money to properly equip and
operate a stage line, and Butterfield did not have enough. In
consequence of his lack of capital, his original company failed, but was
subsequently reorganized in June, 1865. Butterfield, undaunted, went
east again and raised more money, and before his return, he capitalized
a new company with $3,000,000.00, with one-half paid in. Branch offices
were opened in New York, Boston, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati,
Chicago, Atchison, Leavenworth, Denver and Salt Lake City. John A.
Kinney, a pioneer business man of Atchison, who had been connected with
Butterfield from the beginning, continued in charge of the Atchison
office under the reorganization, with a salary of $2,500 per year.
Shortly after the new company was organized, Butterfield inserted
another advertisement in the _Free Press_, as follows:

                   “BUTTERFIELD’S OVERLAND DISPATCH.

  “To all points in Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Idaho,
  Montana and the state of Nevada.

  “Contracts can be made with this Company through their Agents to
  transport freight from all the eastern cities to all localities in
  the Territories, the rate to include railroad and overland carriage
  and all commissions upon the Missouri River. The Company owns its
  own transportation and gives a through bill of lading which protects
  shipper from extreme East to the Far West.

                          “EXPRESS DEPARTMENT.

  “About August, 1865 the Company will have a line of express coaches
  running daily between Atchison, Kansas and Denver, Colorado; and
  about September 1st, to Santa Fe, New Mexico, and as soon in the
  Spring as possible, a tri-weekly between Denver and Salt Lake City
  over which merchandise will be carried at fair express rates.

                    “TIME TO DENVER—EIGHT (8) DAYS.

  “INSTRUCTIONS: Mark goods for cattle and mule trains: ‘But’d Ov’d
  Desp’h.’ Mark goods for express: B. O. D. Express, Atchison.”

Some changes were afterwards made in the location of the route, but it
left as before, in a southwesterly direction to Valley Falls. The
business of the new company was very large from the start and grew
rapidly. Steamboats discharged great quantities of freight at the
Atchison levee for shipment by Butterfield’s line. A large amount also
came from St. Joseph by railroad. In one day during July, 1865, nineteen
car loads of freight consigned to the Butterfield line at Atchison were
received for transportation across the plains. In the following month a
train was loaded with 600,000 pounds of merchandise for Salt Lake City.
One of the early stages that left Atchison on this line made the run to
Junction City, which was 119 miles, in less than twenty-four hours, or
at the rate of five and one-half miles an hour, including all stops, but
the reorganized Butterfield line was not long in operation before it met
with many obstacles. The fact that the Smoky Hill route selected by
Butterfield was not guarded by Government troops of soldiers, as the
Fort Kearney route was, caused the Indians to make many raids upon the
overland trains. A number of severe encounters with Indians were had
from time to time, until it became necessary to operate the stages with
a mounted guard in advance. It finally became so dangerous that it was
difficult to secure messengers and drivers to operate the line. This
condition became so serious that the “Overland Dispatch,” which in the
meanwhile was becoming more financially embarrassed from day to day, was
finally obliged to retire from the field. During the short time that it
lasted, it was widely known throughout the western country, and in the
East it was known in most of the leading cities. While this company, to
some extent, cut down the receipts of the Holladay line, traffic across
the plains had become so dull in the sixties that there was not much
profit in it for anybody. In March, 1866, Holladay took over the
Butterfield line and the following announcement appeared in the
newspapers:

                                “NOTICE.

“To the Employees of the Overland Dispatch Company.

  “The Overland Stage Line and the Overland Dispatch Company have
  become one property under the name of the Holladay Overland Mail &
  Express Company.

  “The new Company guarantees payment to the employees of the late
  Overland Dispatch Company. An agent is now en route from New York to
  pay them.

                      “David Street, Gen’l Agt.,
                      “Holladay Mail & Express Co.

  “Atchison, Kansas, March 17, 1866.”

The business that Butterfield had worked up was continued by the new
company, but Butterfield was hopelessly down and out. While in the midst
of what appeared to be a prosperous freight business with many tons of
ponderous mining machinery in transit across the plains to the mining
camps of Colorado, the mining bubble broke, and great difficulty was
experienced in collecting freight bills that were accumulating on
machinery that was being transported across the plains, so it was
unloaded upon the plains and there it was left to rust out. In less than
eighteen months from the first organization of the Overland Dispatch,
Butterfield was a financial wreck, and the consolidation of his company
with the Holladay line was the only action that could be taken to
conserve the property which the Butterfield line had acquired.
Butterfield subsequently left Atchison and located in Mississippi, where
he organized a railroad, which also proved a failure. He left
Mississippi for Arkansas and built and operated a horse car line in Hot
Springs. He finally got into a quarrel with one of his employees, who
struck him with a neck yoke, from the effects of which he died.


                             OTHER ROUTES.

Atchison was an important point for stage routes as early as 1859. There
was a line of hacks which ran daily from Atchison to Leavenworth, and
another to Lawrence, and still another by Oskaloosa and Valley Falls
across the Kansas river to Lecompton, Big Springs, Tecumseh and Topeka.
To reach Lawrence from Atchison in those days, passengers were compelled
to go by Leavenworth, until a line was opened by Mount Pleasant and
Oskaloosa, reducing the distance to forty-five miles, and the fare to
$4.50. There was a line north to Doniphan, Troy, Highland and Iowa
Point. A line was also operated by Doniphan to Geary City, Troy and St.
Joseph, and still another ran by Hiawatha to Falls City, Neb. The most
important route, which had its headquarters at that time in Atchison,
was a four mule line. The Central Overland California and Pike’s Peak
Express, which with its speedy Concord stages, crossed the plains twice
a week. This was the Holladay line. The Kansas Stage Company operated a
line to Leavenworth, which made stops at Sumner and Kickapoo. A daily
line, operated by the Kansas Stage Company, ran to Junction City by way
of Mount Pleasant, Winchester, Osawkie, Mt. Florence, Indianola, Topeka,
Silver Lake, St. Marys, Louisville, Ogden and Ft. Riley. The distance
over this route was 120 miles and the fare was $10.00. There was also a
two-horse stage line carrying the mail from Atchison to Louisville, Kan.
Louisville was one of the most important towns in Pottawatomie county,
and in 1859 was an important station on the route of the Leavenworth &
Pike’s Peak Express. The mail line as then operated ran through
Monrovia, Arrington, Holton and other points to its destination in the
West. J. H. Thompson, who was an old man then, was the contractor for
carrying the mail and was well known along the whole route, being
familiarly known as “Uncle Johnny” Thompson. His stage left Atchison
every Saturday morning at 8 o’clock and arrived from Louisville on
Friday evening at 6. The fare from Atchison to Louisville was $8.00.

            “ST. JOSEPH, ATCHISON AND LECOMPTON STAGE LINE.

  “Passing through Geary City, Doniphan, Atchison, Manchester, Hickory
  Point, and Oscaloosa, connecting at Lecompton with lines to Topeka,
  Grasshopper Falls, Fort Riley, Lawrence, Kansas City, and the
  Railroad at St. Joseph for the East.

  “Offices—Massasoit House, Atchison. K. T., and Planter’s House, St.
  Joseph, Mo.”

  (From _Freedom’s Champion_, Atchison, February 12, 1859.)


                   LAST DAYS OF THE STAGING BUSINESS.

The people of Atchison in the sixties little realized the advantages the
town gained by being the starting point for the California mail. They
became used to it, the same as we have this day been accustomed to the
daily arrival and departure of trains, but it was a gloomy day for
Atchison when “the overland” finally pulled out of the town for good,
after having run its stages out of the city almost daily for five years.
The advance of the Union Pacific railroad from Omaha west along the
Platte to Ft. Kearney, and the completion of the Kansas Pacific railway
was the cause of the abandonment of Atchison by the “overland” as a
point of departure for the mail. The company for many weeks before its
final departure had been taking both stock and coaches off of the
eastern division from the Missouri river to Rock creek, and other steps
in preparation for moving the point of departure further west were
taken. It was a little after 11 o’clock in the morning of December 19,
1866, that the long train of Concord stages, express coaches, hacks and
other rolling stock started from their stables and yards on Second
street to leave Atchison forever. The procession went west out of
Atchison along Commercial street. Alex Benham and David Street, both
faithful employees of “The Overland,” were in charge of the procession
and they rode out of town in a Concord buggy. Other employees followed
in buggies and coaches, and then the canvas covered stages, followed by
over forty teams and loose horses, slowly moved out of town, headed for
Fort Riley and Junction City.

                          ROUTE FROM ATCHISON
                                via the
                         SMOKY HILL FORK ROUTE.

 From Atchison to  Miles Total                  Remarks
 Mormon Grove         3½       Junction of the Great Military Road.
 Monrovia             8½    12 Provisions, entertainment and grass.
 Mouth of Bill’s      13    25 On the Grasshopper, wood and grass.
   Creek
 Ter. Road from       15    40 Wood, water and grass.
   Nebraska
 Soldier Creek        10    50 Wood and grass.
 Lost Creek           15    65 Wood and grass.
 Louisville           10    75 Wood and grass.
 Manhattan City       12    87 Water, wood and grass.
 Fort Riley           15   102 Water, wood and grass.
 Salina               52   154 Wood, water and grass.
 Pawnee Trail-       130   284 Grass and buffalo chips.
   Smoky Hill
 Pawnee Fork          35   319 Grass and buffalo chips.
 Arkansas Crossing    35   354 Wood, water and grass.
 Bent’s Fort         150   504 Wood, water and grass.
 Bent’s Old Fort      40   544 Water and grass.
 Huerfano             40   584 Water and grass.
 Fontaine qui         15   599 Wood, water and grass.
   Bouille
 Crossing of same     18   617 Wood, water and grass.
 Jim’s Camp           15   632 Water and grass.
 Brush Corral         12   644 Wood, water and grass.
 Head of Cherry       26   670 Wood, water and grass.
   Creek
 Crossing of Same     35   705 From this point to the mines there is
                                 heavy timber, and grass and water in
                                 abundance.
 Mines                 6   711

             From _Freedom’s Champion_, February 12, 1859.

                           ROUTE FROM ATCHISON
                                   via
 The Great Military Road to Salt Lake, and Col. Fremont’s Route in 1841.

 From Atchison to  Miles Total                  Remarks
 Marmon Grove         3½       Junction of the Great Military Road.
 Lancaster            5½     9 Provisions and grass.
 Huron (Cross.         4    13 Provisions and grass. First Salt Lake
   Grasshopper)                  Mail Station.
 Kennekuk, do main    10    23 Provisions, timber, and grass.
   do
 Capioma (Walnut      17    40 Provisions, timber, and grass.
   Creek)
 Richmond (head of    15    55 Salt Lake Mail Station and  provisions.
   Nemaha)
 Marysville           40    95 Water and Grass.
 Small Creek on       10   105 Luxuriant grass.
   Prairie
 Small Creek          10   115 Water and grass.
 Small Creek           7   122 Wood and grass.
 Wyth Creek            7   129 Wood and grass.
 Big Sandy Creek      13   142 Wood and luxuriant grass.
 Dry Sandy Creek      17   159 Heavy timber.
 Little Blue River    12   171 Wood and grass.
 Road leaves          44   215 Wood and grass.
   Little Blue
 Small Creek           7   222 Wood, grass and buffalo.
 Platte River         17   239 Salt Lake Mail Station and provisions.
 Ft. Kearney          10   249
 17 Mile point        17    26 Wood, water and grass.
 Plum Creek           18   284 Wood and grass.
 Cottonwood Spring    40   324 Wood and grass.
 Fremont’s Springs    40   364 Luxuriant grass.
 O’Fallon’s Bluffs     5   369 Wood, water and grass.
 Crossing South       40   409 Wood, water, and grass.
   Platte
 Ft. St. Vrain       200   609 Provisions, and from this to the mines
                                 the route is well timbered and watered.
 Cherry Creek         40   649

              From _Freedom’s Champion_, February 12, 1859.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                            TABLE OF DISTANCES

                                  —From—

                       ATCHISON TO THE GOLD MINES,

                                 via the

    First Standard Parallel Route to the Republican Fork of the Kansas
 River, thence following the Trail of Colonel Fremont on his Explorations
                 in 1843, to Cherry Creek and the Mines.

                  *       *       *       *       *

     Compiled from Colonel Fremont’s Surveys, and the most reliable
     information derived from the traders across the Great Plains.

 From Atchison to  Miles Total                  Remarks
 Lancaster             9       Settlement, provisions and grass.
 Muscotah, on         11    20 Settlement, provisions and grass.
   Grasshopper
 Eureka               11    31 Settlement, provisions and grass.
 Ontario, on Elk      10    41 Settlement, provisions and grass.
   Creek
 America, on           9    50 Settlement, provisions and grass.
   Soldiers Creek
 Vermillion City      25    75 Settlement, entertainment and provisions.
 Crossing of Big       3    78
   Blue
 Little Blue creek    17    95 Heavy timber and grass.
 Head of Blue         23   118 Timber and grass.
   creek
 Republican Fork      12   130 Wood, water and grass.
 Republican Fork       2   132 Colonel Fremont describes this section as
   crossing                      “affording an excellent road, it being
                                 generally over high and level prairies,
                                 with numerous streams which are well
                                 timbered with ash, elm, and very heavy
                                 oak, and abounding in herds of buffalo,
                                 elk and antelope.”
 Branch of            38   170
   Solomon’s Fork
 Leaves Solomon’s     75   245
   Fork
 Branch of            15   260
   Republican Fork
 Following up Rep.   190   450 Heavy timber and grass on course.
   to its head
 Beaver Creek         23   473 Wood, grass and buffalo.
 Bijou Creek          22   495 Wood, grass and buffalo.
 Kioway Creek         15   510 The route from this point to the mines
                                 runs thro’ a country well timbered and
                                 watered, with luxuriant grass and
                                 plenty of wild game.
 Cherry Creek and     25   535
   Mines

              From _Freedom’s Champion_, February 12, 1859.

[Illustration:

  Main Entrance to Jackson Park, Atchison, Kansas
]

                _Freedom’s Champion_: October 30, 1858.

                  A TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBER OF TRAINS

Which have left Atchison this season, for Salt Lake City and other
Points on the Plains, Together with the Number of Men, Cattle, Mules,
Horses and wagons engaged in transporting, and the Amount of the Freight
Shipped:

          Owners.             Residence.         Freighters.
 Radford, Cabot & Co.      St. Louis        P. M. Chateau & Co.
 John M. Hockady & Co.     Mail Contractors First Supply Train
 Dyer, Mason & Co.         Independence     W. H. Dyer & Co.
 S. G. Mason & Co.         Independence     E. C. Chiles
 Radford, Cabot & Co.      St. Louis        J. B. Doyle
 John M. Hockady & Co.     Mail Contractors Second Supply Train
 C. C. Branham             Weston           C. C. Branham
 C. A. Perry & Co.         Weston           C. A. Perry & Co.
 R. H. Dyer & Co.          Fort Kearney     R. H. Dyer & Co.
 F. J. Marshall            Marysville       F. J. Marshall
 Irvin & Young             Independence     Irvin & Young
 Livingston, Kinkead & Co. New York         Irvin & Young
 J. M. Guthrie & Co.       Weston, Mo.      S. M. Guthrie & Co.
 Curtas Clayton            Leavenworth      C. C. Branham
 Reynald & McDonald        Fort Laramie     Reynald & McDonald
 C. Martin                 Green River      C. Martin
 Livingston, Kinkead & Co. New York         Hord & Smith
 Hord & Smith              Independence     Hord & Smith
 Bisonette & Lazinette     Deer Creek       Bisonette & Lazinette
 Ballord & Moralle         Marysville       J. S. Watson
 R. H. Dyer & Co.          Fort Kearney     R. H. Dyer & Co.
 John M. Hockady & Co.     Independence     Third Supply Train
 Geo. Chorpoening          California       A. J. Schell
 Hockady, Burr & Co.       Salt Lake City   Hockady, Burr & Co.


          Owners.           Residence.     Destination.
 Radford, Cabot & Co.      Kansas City  Salt Lake City
 John M. Hockady & Co.     Independence S. L. M. Stations
 Dyer, Mason & Co.         Independence Salt Lake City
 S. G. Mason & Co.         Independence Salt Lake City
 Radford, Cabot & Co.      New Mexico   Salt Lake City
 John M. Hockady & Co.     Independence S. L. M. Stations
 C. C. Branham             Weston       Salt Lake City
 C. A. Perry & Co.         Weston       Salt Lake City
 R. H. Dyer & Co.          Fort Kearney Fort Kearney
 F. J. Marshall            Marysville   Palmetto
 Irvin & Young             Independence Salt Lake City
 Livingston, Kinkead & Co. Independence Salt Lake City
 J. M. Guthrie & Co.       Weston       Salt Lake City
 Curtas Clayton            Weston       Salt Lake City
 Reynald & McDonald        Fort Laramie Fort Laramie
 C. Martin                 Green River  Green River
 Livingston, Kinkead & Co. Independence Salt Lake City
 Hord & Smith              Independence Do and Way Points
 Bisonette & Lazinette     Deer Creek   Labonto
 Ballord & Moralle         Marysville   Marysville
 R. H. Dyer & Co.                       Fort Kearney
 John M. Hockady & Co.                  S. L. M. Stations
 Geo. Chorpoening          Pennsylvania Cal. & S. L. Stat’s
 Hockady, Burr & Co.       Utah         Salt Lake City


          Owners.          Wagons. Men.  Oxen. Horses. Mules. Lbs. Mdse.
 Radford, Cabot & Co.           32    40   480       8     12    181,587
 John M. Hockady & Co.          10    20                   80     23,000
 Dyer, Mason & Co.              60    70   720       5     21    315,000
 S. G. Mason & Co.              27    35   350       3      6    149,000
 Radford, Cabot & Co.           38    43   460      13           198,500
 John M. Hockady & Co.          10    18                   85     21,000
 C. C. Branham                  28    36   380      12      6    145,500
 C. A. Perry & Co.              91   123 1,080       7     18    500,501
 R. H. Dyer & Co.               38    70   456       4      7    212,800
 F. J. Marshall                 20    25   280       1      3    120,000
 Irvin & Young                  32    40   384       1      7    160,000
 Livingston, Kinkead & Co.      52    59   624       2     12    234,017
 J. M. Guthrie & Co.            50    60   700       3      8    252,000
 Curtas Clayton                 12    25   380       1     12     66,000
 Reynald & McDonald              9    15   163       2      6     49,000
 C. Martin                       7    12    84       6      1     35,000
 Livingston, Kinkead & Co.      40    50             5    325    159,400
 Hord & Smith                   10    15             2     85     37,400
 Bisonette & Lazinette          13    20   156       6            67,600
 Ballord & Moralle               9    13   108       3            45,000
 R. H. Dyer & Co.               13    20   158       2            68,100
 John M. Hockady & Co.          57    60             6    312    204,000
 Geo. Chorpoening               12    20                   80     21,000
 Hockady, Burr & Co.           105   225 1,000      50    200    465,500
                               ——— ————— —————     ———  —————  —————————
                               776 1,114 7,963     142  1,286  3,730,905



                              CHAPTER XI.
                               RAILROADS.

  EARLY RAILROAD AGITATION—THE FIRST RAILROAD—CELEBRATING THE ADVENT OF
      THE RAILROAD—OTHER ROADS CONSTRUCTED—THE SANTA FE—THE ATCHISON &
      NEBRASKA CITY—THE KANSAS CITY, LEAVENWORTH & ATCHISON—THE ROCK
      ISLAND—THE HANNIBAL & ST. JOSEPH—THE FIRST TELEGRAPH—MODERN
      TRANSPORTATION.


Eight years before the last stage pulled out of Atchison the agitation
for a railroad began. The first charter provided for the construction of
a railroad from Atchison to St. Joseph. As appeared in an earlier
chapter, the city council of Atchison at its first meeting called an
election March 15, 1858, to vote on a proposition to subscribe for
$100,000 in stock. The election was held in the store of the Burnes
Brothers, and S. H. Petefish, Charles E. Woolfolk and Dr. C. A. Logan
were judges of election. The proposition carried almost unanimously,
and, in addition to the stock subscribed for by the city, the citizens
of the town subscribed for $100,000 in stock individually. The following
May the contract for the construction of the road was awarded to
Butcher, Auld & Dean at $3,700 per mile. There were fourteen other
bidders. The members of the firm which made the successful bid were:
Ephraim Butcher, David Auld, James Auld and William Dean. Work of
construction was started May 12, 1858, but was not finished until
February 22, 1860. The completion of this road to Atchison was of very
far reaching importance. The town was wild with excitement, for the new
railroad gave the town its first direct rail connection with the east.
Its terminus at Winthrop (East Atchison) was the first western point
east of the Rocky mountains reached by a railroad at that time in the
United States, save one. The first railroad built between the
Mississippi and the Missouri rivers was the Hannibal & St. Joseph, which
was completed to St. Joseph February 23, 1859, and the new railroad from
Atchison connected with the Hannibal & St. Joseph at the latter point.

Richard B. Morris was the first conductor of the Atchison road, and he
subsequently became internal revenue collector of Kansas under
Cleveland. Following the completion of the road, a great celebration was
held at Atchison June 13, 1860, and the people not only celebrated the
completion of the St. Joseph line, but also the breaking of ground on
the Atchison & Pike’s Peak railroad, now the Central Branch. Great
preparations were made for the celebration weeks in advance and promptly
following the hour of 12 o’clock on the morning of June 13, 1860, the
firing of 100 guns at intervals began, which was kept up with monotonous
regularity until daybreak. Flags and bunting fluttered from poles and
windows throughout the city, and a special train of invited guests from
the East arrived at Winthrop before noon with flags flying and bands
playing. The passenger steamer, “Black Hawk,” loaded to the guards with
citizens from Kansas City, reached Atchison early in the morning, and
leading citizens also came from Wyandotte, Leavenworth, Lawrence, Topeka
and other towns. The city had been cleaned up and put in holiday attire
by the city authorities. The town had never before presented such a gay
appearance. Frank A. Root in his interesting book, “The Overland Stage
to California,” who was present at the celebration, has perhaps written
the most interesting account of this event that has ever been printed.
He says:

“In the procession that formed along Second street, one of the unique
and attractive features was a mammoth government wagon trimmed with
evergreens and loaded with thirty-four girls dressed in white,
representing every State in the Union and the Territory of Kansas. There
were three other wagons filled with little girls similarly dressed,
representing all the forty-one counties of Kansas in its last year of
territorial existence.

“One of the contractors for government freighting had a huge prairie
schooner, drawn by twenty-nine yoke of oxen, the head of each animal
ornamented with a small flag, while he himself was mounted upon a mule.
The contractor was quite an attraction, dressed in the peculiar western
prairie and plains frontier cow-boy costume with buckskin pants, red
flannel shirt, boots nearly knee high, with revolver and bowie knife
buckled around his waist, dangling by his side. The procession in line,
marched west along Commercial street to near Tenth. It was a long one
and it was estimated that there were 7,000 people in it and at least
10,000 in the city witnessing the festivities. The ceremony of breaking
ground for these two roads took place about noon, but there was nothing
particularly imposing about it. The most important part of the
ceremonies was the turning over of a few spadefuls of dirt by Col. Peter
T. Abell, president of the road, and Capt. Eph. Butcher, the contractor,
who built the Atchison & St. Joseph road. The event was witnessed by
fully 5,000 people, after which the monster procession formed, and,
headed by a brass band, and other bands at different places in the line,
marched across White Clay creek to the grove in the southwest part of
the city, where the oration was delivered by Benj. F. Stringfellow.
Following the oration several speeches were made by the most prominent
of the invited guests, one of them by Col. C. K. Holliday, of Topeka,
one of the founders of the great Santa Fe system. The barbeque was an
important feature of the affair. Six beeves, twenty hogs, and over fifty
sheep, pigs and lambs were roasted. There was also prepared more than
one hundred boiled hams, several thousand loaves of bread, cakes by the
hundred, besides sundry other delicacies to tickle the palate and help
make the occasion one long to be remembered by all present. The
exercises were quite elaborate and wound up with a ball in the evening
at A. S. Parker’s hall on the west side of Sixth street, between
Commercial and Main and a wine supper in Charley Holbert’s building on
Second street, just north of the Massasoit House. Many visitors came
from a long distance east, some as far as New England. Most of the
Northern States were represented, and a few came from the South. Free
transportation was furnished the invited guests. Hundreds came by rail
and steamboat and many poured in from the surrounding country for miles,
in wagons and on horseback, from eastern Kansas and western Missouri.”

While a strong movement for the construction of railroads was started in
1860, it was soon discovered that much progress could not be made in the
face of the unsettled conditions brought on by the Civil war, and, as a
result a further effort in that direction, was, for the time being,
abandoned. However, Luther C. Challiss did not give up his idea of
projecting a road to the West, and to him more than to anybody else
belongs the credit of starting the first road west out of Atchison. He
obtained a charter for the building of the Atchison & Pike’s Peak
railroad and this company was organized February 11, 1859, but on
account of the war was not opened to Waterville until January 20, 1868.
Challiss obtained possession of 150,000 acres of land from the Kickapoo
Indians by a treaty, and, upon the organization of the company he was
elected president. The land he secured from the Indians was, for the
most part, located in Atchison county, around Muscotah, and adjoining
counties. With Mr. Challiss were associated Charles B. Keith, who was
the agent of the Kickapoo Indians, George W. Glick and Senators Pomeroy
and Lane. In the charter for this road provision was made for its
construction 100 miles west of Atchison. Col. William Osborn, who had
constructed the west half of the Hannibal & St. Joseph railroad, built
the first section of the Central Branch to Waterville. He named the town
after his old home in New York, where he was born. It was proposed at
this point to make a connection with a branch running from Kansas City
to Ft. Kearney, Neb., but the Kansas City road was subsequently changed
to Denver, and for this reason it has been said the Central Branch was
not completed to Denver, as originally planned.

The Atchison & Pike’s Peak Railroad Company was incorporated by special
act of the Territorial legislature of the Territory of Kansas, chapter
48, “Private Laws of Kansas, 1859,” and authorized to construct a
railroad from Atchison to the western boundary of the Territory in the
direction of Pike’s Peak. Subsequently, the Atchison & Pike’s Peak
Railroad Company became the assignee of all the rights, privileges and
franchises of the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad Company, given and
granted under an Act of Congress, of July 8, 1862, Twelfth Statute, page
489, entitled: “An Act to aid in the construction of a railroad and
telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to
secure to the government the use of same for postal, military and other
purposes,” which provided that the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad
Company might extend its road from St. Joseph via Atchison, to connect
and unite with a railroad in Kansas, provided for in said Act, for one
hundred miles in length next to the Missouri river, and might, for that
purpose, use any railroad charter, which had, or might have been
granted, by the legislature of Kansas. Accordingly, the work of
construction from Atchison west was inaugurated under the name of the
Atchison & Pike’s Peak Railroad Company. On January 1, 1867, by virtue
of the laws of the State of Kansas, the name of Atchison & Pike’s Peak
Railroad Company was changed to the Central Branch Union Pacific
Railroad Company, and the latter company completed the railroad from
Atchison to Waterville.


            THE ATCHISON, TOPEKA & SANTA FE RAILWAY COMPANY.

The first real move for the construction of a railroad from the Missouri
river, west, resulted in a charter granted by the Territorial
legislature to the St. Joseph & Topeka Railroad Company February 20,
1857. Under the terms of the charter the road was to start from St.
Joseph, Mo.; thence crossing the river through Doniphan, Atchison and
Jefferson counties to Topeka. The charter was subsequently amended and
the road was extended in the direction of Santa Fe, N. M., to the
southwestern line of Kansas, which is practically the same route now
traversed by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railroad. The desire on the
part of the people for direct railroad connection with the Missouri
river and the East gave to this movement great impetus, and there was
considerable rivalry between the towns to offer aid and assistance. The
people of Atchison were particularly anxious to make this town the
terminal point and the future railway center of the great trans-
continental system, and strongly opposed any project which would make
Atchison simply a way station on the great road to the West. With a view
to avert such action on the part of those behind the movement to
construct this road, it was determined to make Atchison the eastern
terminus of the same. Accordingly, Atchison loaned its credit to the
amount of $150,000. by aid of which subsidy a direct road was built on
the Missouri side of the river from St. Joseph and thence north under
another charter with Atchison, Kan., instead of St. Joseph as the
eastern terminus, the enterprise was carried on and as a result the
citizens of Kansas Territory were much elated with the added prestige of
the railroad being a Kansas corporation. The Atchison & Topeka Railroad
Company was incorporated by an Act of the legislature February 11, 1859.
Those named as the original incorporators were: S. C. Pomeroy, Atchison;
C. K. Halliday, Topeka; Luther C. Challiss, Atchison; Peter T. Abell,
Atchison; Aspah Allen, Topeka: Milton C. Dickey, Topeka; Samuel Dickson,
Atchison; Wilson L. Gordon, Topeka; George S. Hillyer, Grasshopper
Falls; Lorenzo D. Bird, Atchison; Jeremiah Marshall, Topeka; George H.
Fairchild, Atchison; F. L. Crane, Topeka. The company was “authorized to
survey, locate, construct, complete, alter, maintain and operate a
railroad with one or more tracks from or near Atchison in Kansas
Territory, to the town of Topeka, in Kansas Territory, and to such point
on the southern or western boundary of said Territory in the direction
of Santa Fe as may be convenient and suitable for the construction of
said road and also to construct a branch to any point on the southern
line of said Territory in the direction of the Gulf of Mexico.” The
authorized capital stock was $1,500,000, and the first meeting for
organization under the charter was held at the office of Luther C.
Challis in Atchison September 15, 1859, at which meeting $52,000 of the
first subscription of stock was paid, and the following directors were
chosen: L. C. Challiss, George H. Fairchild, P. T. Abell, S. C. Pomeroy,
L. D. Bird, C. K. Halliday, F. L. Crane, E. G. Ross, Joel H. Huntoon, M.
C. Dickey, Jacob Safford, R. H. Weightman, and J. H. Stringfellow. The
officers were: C. K. Holliday, president; P. T. Abell, secretary; M. C.
Dickey, treasurer. It will be seen that the majority of the
incorporators and of the officers were citizens of Atchison, and it is
an important fact in the history of Kansas that Atchison county played
such an important part in the organization and construction of the first
railroad lines in the State. Had it not been for the terrible drought of
1860, which totally paralyzed all classes of business, the work of
constructing this road immediately following its organization would have
gone forward, but the famine which followed the drought was so complete
and so widely distributed throughout the State and the western country
as to almost destroy the farming interests. During this period the
directors of the road decided to press the claims of Kansas for a
national subsidy for the construction of railroads, and President C. K.
Holliday, with a number of his associates, spent much time in Washington
during 1859 and 1860. Their work was not in vain, for on March 3, 1863,
Congress made a grant of land to the State of Kansas, giving alternate
sections one mile square and ten in width, amounting to 6,400 acres per
mile, on condition that the Atchison-Topeka road should be finished on
or before 1873. The State accepted the grant and transferred it to this
road February 9, 1864. It was in October, 1868, almost ten years after
the date that the first charter was granted to this road that work of
construction was begun in Topeka. The road was first built in a
southerly direction so as to reach the coal region in Osage county. It
was opened to Carbondale, eighteen miles from Topeka, in July, 1869, and
reached Wichita, 163 miles from Topeka, in May, 1872, and at about the
same time in 1872 the road was completed from Topeka to Atchison, a
distance of fifty-one miles.


                   ATCHISON & NEBRASKA CITY RAILROAD.

On May 5, 1867, the charter for the Atchison & Nebraska City Railroad
Company was filed in the office of the secretary of State of the State
of Kansas. The original incorporators of this road were Peter T. Abell,
George W. Glick, Alfred G. Otis, John M. Price, W. W. Cochrane, Albert
H. Horton, Samuel A. Kingman, J. T. Hereford and Augustus Byram, all of
whom were citizens of Atchison. The charter provided for the
construction of a railroad from “some point in the city of Atchison to
some point on the north line of the State of Kansas, not farther west
than twenty-five miles from the Missouri river, and the length of the
proposed railroad will not exceed forty-five miles.” Shortly after the
road was incorporated the name was changed to the Atchison & Nebraska
Railroad Company, and under this name subscriptions in bonds and capital
stock were made in Atchison and Doniphan counties. Atchison county
subscribed for $150,000, and in addition to the subscription of the
county there were individual subscriptions amounting to $80,000 in the
county. Work was commenced on the road in 1869, and it was completed in
1871 to the northern boundary of Doniphan county, three miles north of
Whitecloud. The stockholders of Atchison graded the road bed to the
State line, constructed bridges and furnished the ties, after which the
entire property was given to a Boston syndicate in consideration of the
completion and operation of the road. This railroad was afterwards
consolidated with the Atchison, Lincoln & Columbus Railroad Company of
Nebraska, which road had been authorized to construct a railroad from
the northern terminal point of the Atchison & Nebraska railroad to
Columbus, on the Union Pacific railroad, by way of Lincoln, and the road
was completed to Lincoln in the fall of 1872. This consolidated road was
purchased by the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad Company in 1880.


          KANSAS CITY, LEAVENWORTH & ATCHISON RAILWAY COMPANY.

This road was organized by articles of association filed in the office
of the Secretary of the State of Kansas September 21, 1867, and March
25, 1868, and the Missouri River Railroad Company by articles of
association filed February 20, 1865, and the construction of the
Leavenworth, Atchison & Northwestern railroad was commenced at
Leavenworth in March, 1869, and completed to Atchison in September,
1869. The stock held in the company by Leavenworth county, aggregating
$500,000, was donated to this road to aid in its extension to Atchison,
and the first train into Atchison arrived in the latter part of 1869. It
was not until July, 1882, however, that the first train was run through
from Atchison to Omaha over the line of the Missouri Pacific railroad,
which subsequently absorbed the Leavenworth, Atchison & Northwestern
Railroad Company.


          THE CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND & PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY.

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway Company was one of the last
of the railroads to make connection with Atchison. This line was
originally projected to Leavenworth, but reached Atchison shortly after.
The construction of the Atchison branch was begun in 1872, and in July
of that year the first train was run into the city.

All of these roads having been organized and constructed and in
operation, the next movement that took place in transportation circles
was the erection of the bridge across the Missouri river, work upon
which was commenced in August, 1874, and completed in July, 1875. This
bridge is 1,182 feet long and the stone for the piers and abutments upon
which it rests was taken from the quarries at Cottonwood Falls, Chase
county. It was originally built by the American Bridge Company of
Chicago, and was rebuilt entirely new, except for the piers, in 1898.
Shortly after the erection of the bridge, connecting Missouri with
Kansas at Atchison, the first railroad depot was built upon the site of
the present union station, which was completed and dedicated September
7, 1880. There was a great deal of discussion as to the proper location
of a depot before the building was finally erected, and it was through
the efforts of the Burneses that its location on Main street, between
Second and Fourth street, was selected. The capital stock of the
original Depot Company was $100,000,000, of which the railroad companies
then entering the city subscribed for $70,000. The balance of the stock
was taken by individuals. The cost of the original depot was $120,000,
and the architect was William E. Taylor, who planned the old union
station in Kansas City. James A. McGonigle, who was the contractor for
the old Kansas City station, also built the Atchison union depot. It was
built of the finest pressed brick from St. Louis, and trimmed with cut
stone from the Cottonwood Falls quarries. Its length was 235 feet, with
an “L” ninety-six feet long. It was two stories high with a mansard
roof. It was an ornamental, and, in those days, an imposing structure.
The ceremonies accompanying its dedication were witnessed by a great
crowd, and many great men in the railroad and political life of Kansas
participated in them. Gen. Benjamin F. Stringfellow delivered the
address, and a banquet was served in the evening, followed by a
procession and fire-works. Two years later, in June, 1882, this depot
was partially destroyed by fire, suffering a loss of $10,000, but it was
immediately rebuilt. On January 6, 1888, another fire completely
destroyed the building, and the present union station was erected a
short time later.


                    HANNIBAL & ST. JOSEPH RAILROAD.

On and after Monday, February 28, this road will be open for business
throughout its entire length. Passenger trains will leave St. Joseph for
Hannibal every morning, making close connection with steam packets to
St. Louis and Quincy, and affording direct connection with all the
railroads east of the Mississippi river. Time from St. Joseph to
Hannibal, eleven hours, and to St. Louis, eighteen hours, saving more
than three days over any other route. Trains from the east will arrive
in St. Joseph every evening, connecting with a daily line of packets
running between St. Joseph and Kansas City; also a line up the Missouri
to the Bluffs. Passengers from all parts of Kansas will find this the
quickest and most agreeable route to St. Louis and all points on the
Mississippi, giving those going east a choice between the routes from
St. Louis, Alton and Quincy. Fare will be as low as by any other route.
Favorable arrangements will be made for taking freight, saving most of
the heavy insurance on the Missouri river. Express freight will be taken
through much quicker than by any other line.

Tickets can be had at the office in St. Joseph for nearly all parts of
the country.

                                                     JOSIAH HUNT, Sup’t.

     P. B. GROAT, Gen’l. Ticket Ag’t.
 Feb. 1st, 1859.

                                                              no. 48–lm.

(From _Freedom’s Champion_, Atchison, February 12, 1859.)


                    HANNIBAL & ST. JOSEPH RAILROAD.

                 NEW ROUTE OPEN FOR THE EAST AND SOUTH.

Passengers for St. Louis, northern Missouri, Iowa, Chicago, Cincinnati,
Detroit, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans,
Louisville and Southern States, will find this the shortest, quickest
and most desirable route to the above points. On the 1st day of February
only fifteen miles of staging intervenes between St. Joseph and
Hannibal, and on the 1st day of March, 1859, the road will be completed,
and open for through travel the entire length. A daily line of stages
from Atchison, passing through Doniphan and Geary City, connects at St.
Joseph with the H. & St. Jo. railroad. From Hannibal a daily line of
packets leave upon arrival of cars for St. Louis, upon the opening of
navigation, and boats connect at Quincy with the C. B. & Q. railroad for
Chicago, and with the G. W. railroad for Toledo via Naples. This is in
every respect the best route for eastern and southern passengers. Trains
leave St. Joseph for the east daily.

                                                     JOSIAH HUNT, Sup’t.

 P. B. GROAT, General Ticket Agent.

                                (no. 47)
       (From _Freedom’s Champion_, Atchison, February 12, 1859.)


                          THE FIRST TELEGRAPH.

It was a little over six months after the completion of the Atchison &
St. Joseph railroad that the first telegraph connection was established
between Atchison and the world. The construction of the Missouri &
Western telegraph line was begun in Syracuse, Mo., in 1859. Charles M.
Stebbins built this telegraph line, which extended from Syracuse to Ft.
Smith, Ark. A branch of this line was extended westward to Kansas City,
and reached Leavenworth along in the spring of 1859. August 15, 1859,
this branch was extended to Atchison, and it was a proud day in the
history of this city. The first office was in a brick building on
Commercial street adjoining the office of _Freedom’s Champion_. John T.
Tracy was the first operator. Gen. Samuel C. Pomeroy was mayor, and on
this account the honor was given him of sending the first message, which
was as follows: “Atchison, August 15, 1859. His Honor, H. B. Denman,
Mayor of Leavenworth. Our medium of communication is perfect. May our
fraternal relations continue—may our prosperity and success equal our
highest efforts. S. C. Pomeroy, Mayor of Atchison.” Mayor Denman replied
as follows: “Hon. S. C. Pomeroy, Mayor of Atchison. May each push
forward its works of enterprise and the efforts of each be crowned with
success. H. B. Denman, Mayor of Leavenworth.” Congratulations were next
exchanged between Atchison and St. Louis, as follows: “Atchison, August
15, 1859. Hon. O. D. Filley, Mayor of St. Louis. For the first time
since the world began, a telegraph message is sent to St. Louis from
this place, the farthest telegraph station in the West. Accept our
congratulations and aid us in our progress westward. S. C. Pomeroy,
Mayor of Atchison.” It was in October of that same year that the first
news was flashed over the wire telling of the capture of Harper’s Ferry
by old John Brown.

In connection with the question of early day transportation in Atchison
county, it would be an oversight to fail to mention the efforts of one
Thomas L. Fortune to improve the means of locomotion. Mr. Fortune was a
citizen of Mt. Pleasant, and in the fall of 1859 he conceived the scheme
which he believed would revolutionize the whole transportation problem.
He planned a steam wagon with which he expected to haul freight across
the plains. The following year he built at St. Louis, a large vehicle,
twenty feet long by eight feet wide. The wheels were twenty inches wide
and eight feet in diameter. This wagon was transported up the Missouri
river to Atchison from St. Louis on the steamer, “Meteor,” and was
landed from the steamer in front of the White Mice saloon, which was a
noted resort on the Atchison levee at that time, in the latter part of
June, 1860. The following account is taken from Frank A. Root’s
“Overland Stage to California”:

A day or two after its arrival (referring to Fortune’s wagon) Mr. Root
says that it was arranged that the steam wagon should make a trial trip
on the Fourth of July. The monster was accordingly fired up on the
eighty-fourth National anniversary and started by an engineer named
Callahan. The wagon was ornamented with a number of flags and loaded
with a crowd of anxious men and boys. When everything was in readiness
the valve was opened and the wagon moved off in a southerly direction
from the levee. It went all right until it reached the foot of
Commercial street, about a square away. The pilot failing to turn the
machine, it kept on straight up to the sidewalk and ran into A. S.
Parker’s warehouse, which stood so many years by the old historic
cottonwood tree at the southeast corner of Commercial street and the
levee. The result of this awkward blunder was an accident, in which a
son of the owner of the wagon had an arm broken, as the machine crashed
into the side of the building, which was a long, one-story frame
cottonwood structure that for a number of years was a noted landmark in
Atchison. The excited engineer was at once let out and Lewis Higby,
another engineer, and a natural genius, was sent for. Higby mounted the
wagon and took his place at the engine, backed the machine out into the
middle of the road and in a few minutes went sailing gracefully along
west on Commercial street at about six miles per hour. When in front of
Jesse Crall’s stable at the corner of Sixth street, before that part of
Commercial street had been graded, it went down a little hill at a
lively speed, but Higby kept it going and did not stop until it reached
L. C. Challiss’ addition, just south and west from Commercial and Eighth
streets, near Morgan Willard’s old foundry, built in 1859, away from the
business and residence portion of the city.

After the wagon crossed Eighth street and was beyond the business
houses, Higby turned on more steam, and the monster vehicle made about
eight miles an hour, cavorting around on the bottom, there being only a
few scattering buildings then west of Eighth street. To test the
practicability of the machine, it was run into hollows and gullies, and,
where the ground was soft it was found that the ponderous wheels would
sink into the mud when standing still in soft ground. The result of the
trial, witnessed by hundreds, was disappointing to most of those
present. The inventor, who had spent a large amount of money and much
time in trying to perfect his steam wagon and solve the overland
transportation problem, was the worst disappointed. He was thoroughly
disgusted. He saw at once that the use of the vehicle was impracticable
and that it would never answer the purpose. That trial trip was the
first and only one the “overland steam wagon” ever made. It was
accordingly abandoned on the bottom where the tracks of the Central
Branch and Santa Fe roads are now laid, and was never afterwards fired
up. Those who had crossed the plains with mules and oxen, knew it could
never be used in overland freighting. There was no use for any such
vehicle and the anticipated reduction in prices of ox and mule teams did
not take place. The timbers used in the framework of the machine that
were not stolen finally went to decay, and the machinery was afterwards
taken out and disposed of for other purposes.


                         MODERN TRANSPORTATION.

The propitious beginning that Atchison had as a commercial and
transportation center should have made the town one of the largest and
most important railroad terminals in the West. That was the hope and
aspiration of its original founders, and for many years afterwards it
was a cherished idea. But Kansas City was subsequently selected as the
point of vantage, and the builders of this great western empire have
since centralized their activities at the mouth of the “Kaw,” and it is
there that the metropolis of the West will be built. However, a
marvelous development has taken place here since the day of the Holladay
and Butterfield stage lines and slow-moving ox and mule trains across
the plains. We no longer marvel at the volume of trade and freight
tonnage and the multitude of travelers that pass through Atchison every
year. We take these things as a matter of course, and make no note of
the daily arrival and departure of the fifty-six passenger trains at our
union depot every day; we marvel not at the speed and the ease and
comfort with which we can make the trip to St. Louis or Chicago, over
night, or to Denver in less than twenty-four hours, or to New York in
two and one-half days, and to San Francisco in less than five,
surrounded by every luxury money can buy. We have accustomed ourselves
to these marvels, just as we have learned to make use of the telephone
and the telegraph, and a little later on will begin to use the air ship
and the wireless. Nature has a way of easily adjusting mankind to these
changed conditions.



                              CHAPTER XII.
                    REMINISCENCES OF EARLY PIONEERS.

  D. R. ATCHISON—MATT GERBER—J. H. TALBOTT—WILLIAM OSBORNE—JOHN W. CAIN—
      W. L. CHALLISS—GEORGE SCARBOROUGH—SAMUEL HOLLISTER—JOHN TAYLOR—
      JOHN M. CROWELL—LUTHER DICKERSON—LUTHER C. CHALLISS—GEORGE W.
      GLICK—W. K. GRIMES—JOSHUA WHEELER—WILLIAM HETHERINGTON—WILLIAM C.
      SMITH—JOHN M. PRICE—SAMUEL C. KING—CLEM ROHR—R. H. WEIGHTMAN—CASE
      OF MAJOR WEIGHTMAN.


One of the really creditable and most pretentious newspaper enterprises
ever undertaken and accomplished in Kansas was E. W. Howe’s Historical
Edition of the _Atchison Daily Globe_. It contains much interesting and
valuable information written in the unique style which has made Mr. Howe
famous. With the consent of Mr. Howe, which he has very kindly granted
the author of this history, there will appear in this chapter, almost
verbatim, a number of biographical sketches and other interesting
matter, which should be printed in book form so that it could be assured
of a permanent place in the archives of the State. There are but few
copies left, and these are in a bad state of disintegration. The sketch
of Gen. D. R. Atchison will first be reproduced herein, and then will
follow others, touching upon the lives and characters of early settlers,
who contributed their part to the upbuilding of this community. Much has
already appeared in this history touching upon the activities of General
Atchison, but a sketch of his life is important, inasmuch as he is
perhaps the most conspicuous early-day character in the history of
Atchison county.


                        GENERAL D. R. ATCHISON.

David Rice Atchison, for whom Atchison was named, was born near
Lexington, Fayette county, Kentucky, August 11, 1807. The son of William
Atchison, a wealthy farmer of that county, he received all the
advantages of a liberal education. His mother’s maiden name was
Catherine Allen, a native of the State of Georgia. William Atchison, the
father, was a Pennsylvanian by birth.

David R. Atchison was blessed with six children, four sons and two
daughters. In 1825 he graduated with high honor from Transylvania
University, then the leading institution of learning in the State, and
since incorporated in the new University of Kentucky.

Upon receiving his degrees in the arts, Mr. Atchison immediately applied
himself to the study of law. In 1829 Mr. Atchison was admitted to
practice in his native State, and a few months after, in 1830, removed
to the comparatively wild district of Clay county, Missouri. In April of
that year he received in St. Louis his license to practice in the
supreme court of the State and immediately settled in the village of
Liberty, now the county seat of Clay county. About this period, Mr.
Atchison was appointed major general of the northern division of the
Missouri State militia.

General Atchison soon commanded a lucrative practice in his new home,
where he continued to reside in the discharge of the duties of his
profession until February, 1841, when his superior legal attainments,
which were known and recognized throughout the State, won for him the
appointment as judge of the district court of Platte county on its
organization in February of that year, when he moved his residence to
Platte City. It appears that in that day judges were appointed to this
position by the Government, with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The office was not made elective until several years after. In 1834 and
1838 he was elected to the Missouri legislature from Clay county.

Upon the death of Dr. Lyon, United States senator, in 1838, Judge
Atchison was appointed by Governor Reynolds to the vacancy in the
Senate. It was by many considered that this appointment was merited and
he had been recommended by Colonel Benton and other authorities of the
Democratic party; by others it was said that the governor himself was
ambitious of the senatorship and had selected Judge Atchison as a person
who could be easily beaten at the next election. The death of Governor
Reynolds, however, occurred before the meeting of the next legislature
and Judge Atchison was elected with but slight opposition. He was
reëlected for two more terms, the last of which expired March 4, 1855,
during the administration of Franklin Pierce. Two years after this he
moved his residence from Platte to Clinton county. He was elected
president of the Senate to succeed Judge Mangun, a Whig senator from
North Carolina.

The 4th of March, 1849, occurring on Sunday, Zachary Taylor was not
inaugurated until the following Monday. Judge Atchison thus, as
presiding officer of the Senate, became virtually President of the
United States during the term of twenty-four hours. In referring to this
accidental dignity, on being interrogated as to how he enjoyed his
exalted position, the venerable senator good humoredly replied that he
could tell but little about it as, overcome with fatigue consequent to
several days and nights of official labor, he slept through nearly his
whole term of service.

Judge Atchison became especially prominent in the legislature for the
organization of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and claims to
have originated the repeal of the Missouri Compromise bill. On his
retirement from the Senate, of which he was an honored member for the
space of twelve years, during the larger part of the time as presiding
officer, he continued to take a lively interest in the politics of the
country, and was regarded as a leader and chief adviser of the pro-
slavery party in Kansas during the troubles which preceded the admission
as a State. In 1856 we find him in command of 1,150 men at a point
called Santa Fe. On the 29th of August, the same year, a detachment from
General Atchison’s army attacked Osawatomie, which was defended by about
fifty men, who made a vigorous resistance but were defeated with a loss
of five wounded and seven prisoners. Five of the assailants were killed
and thirty buildings were burned. The next day a body of Free State men
marched from Lawrence to take Atchison’s army. Upon their approach the
latter retired and withdrew its forces into Missouri. The admission of
Kansas as a free State soon after this occurred put an end to this much
vexed question and restored tranquility to the country.

General Atchison lived in retirement on his magnificent estate in
Clinton county until the breaking out of the Rebellion, when he left for
the South and was present at the battle of Lexington. Governor Jackson
secured him a commission as brigadier general at the commencement of the
war. This General Atchison declined, as his residence was in Clinton
county, outside the limits of the division. He, however, remained with
the army and assisted in its organization. He joined temporarily for the
purpose of making up the company under Ephraim Kelley’s command from St.
Joseph and remained with the army until after the battle of Elkhorn.

At the close of the war, General Atchison returned to his home in
Clinton county, where he continued to reside in almost unbroken
retirement on his 1,700–acre farm in a neat cottage erected on the site
of his spacious brick mansion, which was accidentally destroyed by fire
February 2, 1870. He never married, and died at his home in Clinton
county, January 26, 1886.


                             MATT. GERBER.

Matt. Gerber came to this county originally in 1855, as pastry cook on a
Government steamer. There was almost no town at Atchison then, and he
went to Sioux City with the boat and afterwards returned to St. Louis.
In 1856 he was pastry cook on the “A. B. Chambers,” which ran between
St. Louis and Weston and was commanded by Captain Bowman, the father of
Mrs. D. C. Newcomb and Mrs. G. H. T. Johnson. Mr. Gerber was born in
Baden in 1833 and came to America in 1853, landing at New Orleans, and
for a time ran on boats on the lower Mississippi. For many years he was
the hero of Atchison children, as he operated a bakery, confectionery
and toy store on the south side of Commercial street, near Fourth. Mr.
Gerber first located in Sumner in 1858, where he ran a bakery, coming to
Atchison in 1860, and was in business at the same location for over
thirty-four years. Mr. Gerber died in Atchison, December 14, 1907.

[Illustration:

  S. O. POMEROY
]

[Illustration:

  JIM LANE
]


                             J. H. TALBOTT.

J. H. Talbott came west in 1855 and was a passenger on the “A. B.
Chambers,” of which George W. Bowman was captain and E. K. Blair, second
clerk. The cholera was so bad that year that Mr. Talbott left the boat
at Jefferson City and came overland to Monrovia, although his passage
was paid to Leavenworth. Several passengers on the “A. B. Chambers” died
of cholera and were buried on sand bars. Mr. Talbott preëmpted a claim
at Monrovia, and when his family came two years later he kept a boarding
house at Monrovia for four years. Albert D. Richardson was often a guest
at his house. He was a clean, neat city man of about thirty, and was
engaged in writing up the Kansas war for the _New York Tribune_. Jim
Lane also stopped at J. H. Talbott’s occasionally. Mr. Talbott first
heard him make a speech in a grove at Pardee, and A. J. Westbrook was in
the audience. Lane made some abusive reference to Westbrook, who made a
movement as if to pull a pistol, but Lane shook his celebrated boney
finger at Westbrook and defied him to shoot. At that time Atchison was
controlled by the pro-slavery element, but the Free State men
predominated around Monrovia and Pardee. The noted Colonel Caleb lived
at Farmington. James Ridpath was often at J. H. Talbott’s, and D. R.
Anthony and Webb Wilder appeared there as young men and took up claims.

Another famous place in those days was the Seven Mile House, seven miles
west of Atchison on the road traveled by the freighters, kept by John
Bradford. Talbott’s boarding house was built of logs and the beds were
nailed against the wall, one above another. Sometimes the house was so
crowded that the floor was also occupied with beds.

Mr. Talbott was born in Canal Dover, Ohio, where he knew W. C. Quantrill
real well. Quantrill afterwards became the noted guerilla and sacked
Lawrence. Mrs. Talbott went to school with Quantrill, and the teacher
was Quantrill’s father, a very worthy man. After Mr. Talbott married he
removed to Zanesville, Ind., and kept a store with S. J. H. Snyder, who
was one of the early settlers of Atchison county and a fierce Free State
man. In a little while Will Quantrill appeared at Zanesville and taught
school in the country. He usually spent his Saturdays and Sundays at J.
H. Talbott’s house, on the strength of their acquaintance at Canal
Dover. Mr. Talbott says he was well behaved and attracted great
attention around the store, particularly from the young men.

In 1854 Quantrill left Zanesville and settled at Lawrence, Kan., as a
Free State man and taught school, where he became acquainted with Robert
Bitter Morrow, whose life he afterwards saved during the massacre.
Robert Morrow kept the Byram in Atchison several years. When Talbott
went to Monrovia in 1855, the country was full of Kickapoo Indians. He
remembers seeing an Indian grave there: a rail pen covered with brush.
In the middle of the pen could be seen the dead Indian in a sitting
posture, with his gun beside him.


                         COL. WILLIAM OSBORNE.

Colonel Osborne built the first railroad to the Missouri river—the
Hannibal & St. Joseph. He built and owned the transfer ferry “Wm.
Osborne,” which was famous in Atchison in the early days. He also built
the first 100 miles of the Central Branch to Waterville, as has been
previously stated. He lived and died in Waterville, N. Y., but visited
Atchison frequently to see his daughter, Mrs. R. A. Park, who was the
wife of the president of the Atchison Savings Bank.


                            AMOS A. HOWELL.

Amos A. Howell was one of the plains freighters who distinguished
Atchison in the early days. He ran twenty-seven wagons with six yoke of
oxen to each wagon. An extra head of oxen was taken along, known as the
“cavvy” to spell the others and take the places of those that gave out.
Altogether he owned 400 head of work oxen. The oxen were expected to
pick up their living on the way, but when mules were used in the winter
it was necessary to carry grain for them. Thirty men were necessary in
the train of twenty-seven wagons pulled by oxen. Mr. Howell was assisted
in his wagon business by his son, Nat.

In those days there was a Government regulation that all trains should
be held at Ft. Kearney until 100 armed men had collected. Then a captain
was elected, who was commissioned by the Government and had absolute
charge of the train while it was passing through the Indian country. Mr.
Howell frequently occupied the position of captain, being well known on
the plains. On one occasion while he was captain he halted at Cottonwood
Falls on the Platte, as the Indians were very bad, and soldiers were
expected to go through with the train, but none came and finally Mr.
Howell unloaded five wagons, filled them with armed men and started out.
Almost in sight of Cottonwood a gang of gaily painted Indians attacked
the train, supposing it was a little outfit. But when the Indians came
within range, the “Whiskey Bills” and “Poker Petes” in the covered
wagons began dropping the Indians off their ponies, and there was a
pretty fight, in which the Indians were badly worsted.

Mr. Howell says that the Indians never attack wagon trains except very
early in the morning, or late in the evening.

The favorite sport of the Indians, however, was to run off the stock
after the train had gone into camp at night, and they always had one way
of doing it, which Mr. Howell finally learned. The Indians are no wiser
than white men, for they say that white men always fail in business the
same way and act the same way when they have a fire. An Indian would
ride up onto a high point and look around a while. This would always be
in the evening when the train was near a camping place. Then the Indian
would disappear and come back presently with another Indian wrapped in
his blanket and riding the same pony. One Indian would then drop into
the grass, and the rider would go back after another one. The Indians
were collecting in ambush; thinking the freighters would never think of
it. Mr. Howell had in his employ a driver, an Atchison man, named
“Whiskey Bill,” who was particularly clever at hating Indians, and
whenever an ambush was preparing “Whiskey Bill” would select four or
five other men equally clever and go after the Indians. He often killed
and scalped as many as four in one ambush, and sold their scalps in
Denver to the Jews for a suit of clothes each. The Jews bought them as
relics and disposed of them in the East. The killing of Indians in this
manner was according to Government order and strictly legitimate.
Another driver in Howell’s train was an Atchison man named Rube Duggan.
He was a great roper and used to take a horse, when in sight of a
buffalo herd and go out after calves, which made tender meat. Riding
into the herd he would lasso a calf, fasten the rope to the ground with
a stake and then go on after another one before the herd got away. He
caught several calves in this way for Ben Holladay, who took them east.
Mr. Howell remembers that once, this side of Fort Kearney, it was
necessary to stop the train to let a herd of buffalo pass. The men
always had fresh buffalo meat in addition to their bacon, beans, dried
apples, rice and fried bread.

There was a cook with the train who drove the mess wagon, but he did not
do any other work. Every driver had to take his turn getting wood and
water for the cook and herding the cattle at noon, but the night herder
did nothing else and slept in the wagon during the day. Occasionally he
was awakened about noon and hunted along the road. The cattle fed at
night until 10 or 11 o’clock when they would lie down until 2 in the
morning. The night herder would lie down by the side of a reliable old
ox and sleep too, being awakened when the ox got up to feed. The oxen
were driven into the wagon corral about daylight and yoked. Every wagon
had its specified place in the train and kept it during the entire trip.

Wagons were always left in a circle at night, forming a corral. Into
this corral the cattle were driven while being yoked. In case of an
attack, the cattle were inside the corral and the men fought under the
wagons. The teams started at daylight and stopped at 10 or 11 until 2 or
3, and then they would start up and travel until dark. Mr. Howell always
rested on Sunday, making an average of 100 miles a week with his ox
teams. When the train started out each man was given ten pounds of sugar
which was to last him to Denver. On the first Sunday the men would make
lemonade of sugar and vinegar and do without sugar the rest of the trip.
Mr. Howell saw the attack on George W. Howe’s train on the Little Blue
when George Con—— was killed and the entire train burned. Con—— was an
Atchison man. Howell’s train was corraled and he could not go to Howe’s
assistance.

Howell came to Atchison county in 1856 by wagon from Fayette county,
Pennsylvania, where he was born, December 26, 1824. At seventy he was
stout and vigorous, getting up every morning at 4 o’clock to go to work.
His plains experience did him good. He died on the 1st day of August,
1907, owning a large tract of land in Grasshopper township.

[Illustration:

  BELA M. HUGHES
]

[Illustration:

  ELLSWORTH CHESEBOROUGH
]


                             JOHN W. CAIN.

John W. Cain and his two sons, John S. Cain and William S. Cain, came to
Atchison in 1856 from the Isle of Man, and preëmpted a quarter section,
five miles west of Atchison. A. D. Cain, another son, came to this
county in 1856, accompanying his brother, John M. Cain, who had gone to
his old home in the Isle of Man on a visit. A. D. Cain attended school
longer than either of his three brothers and was a graduate of King
William’s College, a celebrated institution of learning. After leaving
school he learned the business of a druggist. He was born in 1846. John
M. Cain was seven years older.

John M. Cain enlisted in the Thirteenth Kansas infantry in 1862. His
brother, William, enlisted in Col. John A. Martin’s regiment the year
before. In less than a year John M. Cain was given the position as
captain in the Eighty-third U. S. infantry and raised Company C in
Atchison. Phillip Porter, the celebrated negro politician and orator, of
Atchison, was orderly sergeant of Company C, which had ten men killed in
the battle of Prairie Grove. After serving in the army nearly four
years, John M. Cain returned to his farm in Atchison county in 1866
where he remained until 1872, when he removed to Atchison and engaged in
the grain business. The Cains started the exporting of flour from Kansas
and their business was very largely export business during their
operation of the mill.

John W. Cain, father of the Cain brothers, was a fierce Free State man
in the days when it was dangerous to be a Free State man in Atchison
county, but as he was a powerful man and of undoubted courage, the pro-
slavery fans thought it wise to forgive him. His memory as well as the
memory of his sons, John M. Cain and A. D. Cain, are still highly
esteemed by the older settlers of Atchison county.


                          DR. W. L. CHALLISS.

Dr. W. L. Challiss came to Atchison June 3, 1866, on the steamboat
“Meteor” from Moorestown, N. J., where he had been a practicing
physician. At that time John Alcorn was operating a horse ferry on the
river and Dr. Challiss, in company with his brother, L. C. Challiss,
purchased a three-fourths interest in the ferry franchise after
operating a little rival ferry for a time, which was known as the “Red
Rover.” The price paid for the franchise was $1,800.00.

In the fall of 1856 Dr. Challiss went to Evansville, Ind., and
contracted for the building of a steam ferry. This was completed in
November and started for Atchison. In December it was frozen up in the
Missouri river at Carrollton, Mo., and left in charge of a watchman. The
crew was made up of old acquaintances of Dr. Challiss in New Jersey, and
these he brought to Atchison in two stage coaches hired for the purpose.

On February 7 of the following year Dr. Challiss started down the river
on horse back after his ferry boat, accompanied by George M. Million,
Granville Morrow and John Cafferty. There had been a thaw and a rise in
the river, and when the men reached the vicinity of Carrollton they
learned that the boat had gone adrift. They followed it down the river,
hearing of it occasionally and finally came up with it in sight of Arrow
Rock. The boat had grounded on a bar and a man was in possession,
claiming salvage. Dr. Challiss caught the man off the boat, took
possession and settled with him for $25.00. A story was circulated that
there had been small-pox on the boat and it narrowly escaped burning at
the hands of the people living in the vicinity. Dr. Challiss went on
down the river and met his family at St. Louis. When the steamer on
which they were passengers reached Arrow Rock, the captain was induced
to pull the ferry off the sand bar, and within four days it arrived in
Atchison.

This boat was named the “Ida” for Dr. Challiss’ oldest daughter, who
became the wife of John A. Martin, editor of the _Atchison Champion_,
colonel of the Eighth Kansas regiment and governor of the State two
terms. The “Ida” was brought up the river by George Million and
Granville Morrow, pilots, and John Cafferty, engineer. George Million
was the captain when it began making regular trips as a ferry, receiving
originally $50.00 per month. During the last years of his service he
received $125.00 a month. The ferry boat business was very profitable
and $100.00 per day was no unusual income. In 1860 Dr. Challiss built a
larger ferry at Brownsville, Penn., and called it the “J. G. Morrow.”
When it arrived at Atchison the Government pressed it into service and
sent it to Yankton with Indian supplies. Bill Reed was pilot and Dr.
Challiss, captain. A quick trip was made to within seventy miles of
Yankton where the pilot ran the boat into a snag and sank it. The boat
cost $25,000.00 and nothing was saved but the machinery. This was
afterwards placed in the ferry “S. C. Pomeroy,” which was operated here
until the bridge was completed in 1877. After this the “S. C. Pomeroy
was taken to Kansas City, where it sank during a storm. S. C. Pomeroy
owned a one-fourth interest in the “J. G. Morrow” and “S. C. Pomeroy”
and the wreck of the “Morrow” cost him $5,000.00.

The “Ida” was taken to Leavenworth on the completion of the bridge and
was in service there many years.

In the early days Dr. Challiss was a Free State man and for years he had
in his possession a letter warning him to leave the country, which was
written during the exciting period before the war. Dr. Challiss remained
active in the affairs of the town for many years but practiced his
profession only spasmodically. He died in Dayton, Ohio, at the home of
his daughter, on April 23, 1909.


                          GEORGE SCARBOROUGH.

George Scarborough was one of the most romantic characters that ever
lived in Atchison county. Influenced by his niece’s description of
Kansas, he came to Sumner in 1859 and purchased a tract of land now
owned by E. W. Howe and known as Potato Hill. The location is probably
the finest on the Missouri river. The farm lies on top of the bluff, and
Scarborough’s house was built near the river. He was well fitted to
enjoy the life of elegant leisure and seclusion, which he did. Early in
life he went to Kentucky from Connecticut and taught school. While there
he married the daughter of a congressman named Triplett. The wife died a
year later, and Scarborough came into possession of considerable money.
After that he adopted a literary and scientific life and spent much of
his time abroad, where he collected many pictures and other art
treasures. These were displayed in his home below Sumner. Scarborough
was a botanist, and made a complete collection of the flora of this
section, which he sent to the Smithsonian Institution, at Washington.
One of his discoveries was that Atchison county had eleven varieties of
the oak. Scarborough was one of the original founders of the First
National Bank of this city, furnishing most of the original capital.

In 1869 he went to Vineland, N. J., where he married a girl of twenty-
three, although he was nearly seventy. His wife died within a year, in
child birth, under precisely the same circumstances as his first wife.
Scarborough died in 1883, in his old home in Connecticut, in absolute
poverty, at the age of eighty-four. He is spoken of as one of the most
elegant gentlemen who distinguished the early days.


                           SAMUEL HOLLISTER.

Samuel Hollister was one of the original settlers of Sumner. He landed
at Leavenworth May 1, 1857, coming by boat from Jefferson City. Two
weeks later he met a number of the members of the Sumner Town Company
who were looking for somebody to go to Sumner to build a hotel. Having
been a contractor and builder in his old home in New Jersey, Mr.
Hollister accompanied the men to Sumner, which then consisted of a claim
cabin, used as a hotel, and four frame houses in course of construction.
The material for the frame houses had been brought from Cincinnati,
ready framed, and when completed were 16×24, containing two rooms each.
Mr. Hollister took the contract to build the Baker House, which
contained three rooms on the ground floor. The half story above was all
in one room, where the guests slept. The frames for the Baker House were
hewn out in the timber adjoining the town; the weather boarding and
shingles were shipped up the river. The hotel was completed in the
summer of 1857, and was operated by Hood Baker, a cousin of Capt. David
Baker, for many years a prominent citizen of Atchison.

In the fall of the same year Mr. Hollister began work on the Sumner
House, the contract price being $16,000.00. The brick used were made on
the ground. The lumber came by boat from Pittsburgh, Penn. This hotel
was completed in the summer of the following year. It was built by the
town company, which owed Mr. Hollister $3,000.00 at the time of his
death, a few years ago.

Mr. Hollister lived in Sumner twelve years, vigorously fighting
Atchison. In the fall of 1858 he built a mill, in company with Al
Barber, later adding a gristmill, which was the second built in the
county, the first having been built in Atchison, by William Bowman. Mr.
Hollister went down the river in a boat in January, 1859, and when he
reached his old home in the Catskill mountains, he crossed the Hudson
river on the ice. During this trip east he was married to Miss Harriet
Carroll, a lineal descendant of Charles Carroll, one of the signers of
the Declaration of Independence. His wife returned with him to Sumner,
and they afterwards moved to Atchison, where they lived for many years.
Mr. Hollister died March 28, 1910.


                              JOHN TAYLOR.

John Taylor, who for many years lived on a farm immediately south of the
State Orphans’ Home, was a resident of Missouri, a mile and a quarter
above East Atchison in 1844, ten years before Kansas was opened for
settlement. His father, Joseph Taylor, came to the Platte Purchase in
1838, from Pennsylvania, settling near Weston. At that time most of the
best claims were taken. John Taylor’s recollection was that the very
earliest settler in that vicinity was in 1837. Joseph Taylor did not
secure a very good claim, and afterward removed to Andrew county,
finally locating a mile above East Atchison, in 1844. John Taylor said
that George Million was living on the present site of East Atchison when
his father’s family settled in the bottom. It was Mr. Taylor’s opinion
that George Million settled in East Atchison in 1842, and that he did
not start his ferry until 1850. In the spring of that year John Taylor
crossed the river on George Million’s flat-boat ferry, and went to
California, in company with his brother, Joe. There was no wagon road
running west from Atchison at that time. John and Joe Taylor mined in
California for eighteen months, never making over $20.00 per day, and
usually only $5.00. They returned home by the way of the Isthmus of
Panama, and John Taylor got the small-pox at Glascow, Mo., which did not
break out on him until he reached East Atchison. This was supposed to be
the first case of small-pox in this section of the country. All the
other members of the family got it, and the wife of Jim Stultz, who came
in to help his mother, also got it. Their physician was a Doctor Ankrom,
who lived in the Narrows, near Rushville, and he got it, too. This was
in the winter of 1851 and 1852. In September, 1854, ten years after
settling in East Atchison, Mr. Taylor came to this side of the river.
When he arrived Ladd Yocum was running a hotel in a tent; there was
nothing else on the town site. Late in the fall George T. Challiss
completed his store, which was the first building of any kind in
Atchison, according to Mr. Taylor. He says that George Million did not
erect his claim shanty until the following year.

Mr. Taylor first settled in the bluffs, northeast of Atchison, but
afterwards moved to a tract of land owned by a man named O. B.
Dickerson, who afterwards built the first livery stable in Atchison.
Dickerson sold his claim to a man named Adams, B. T. Stringfellow’s
father-in-law, for $600.00, but Adams did not comply with the law and
Taylor jumped it. For a while Taylor and Adams lived on the same
quarter, and became acquainted; then Taylor discovered that Adams paid
$600.00 for the claim, and gave him his money back. Taylor said he never
had any short words with Adams about the claim, but once. They met on
the hill, overlooking the river, one day, and were looking at the wreck
of the old “Pontiac,” which is now said to have contained several
hundred barrels of whiskey. “Well,” said Adams, “when are you going?”
“Going where?” asked Taylor. “To Nova Scotia,” replied Adams. “I am not
going at all,” was Taylor’s response, which Adams understood to mean
that he was not going to leave the claim, but intended to fight. A
compromise soon followed.

Taylor says the “Pontiac” was carried off by Atchison people, and put
into their houses, and that years afterwards, the writing on the wheel
house could be seen around town. There was no whiskey left in the hold;
indeed, the hold was carried away.

The Taylor place was considered a great deal more valuable in 1855 than
it is now; people felt sure that within four or five years John Taylor
would cut it up in town lots and sell them at fabulous prices, and go
abroad.

John Taylor’s sympathies were always with the South Carolinians, who
made this section so warm in 1856, but said that only one in ten were
good citizens; the others were toughs. One of them, a man named Newhall,
was killed in the fight at Hickory Point. John Robinson, captain of a
southern party at Hickory Point, was an Atchison man, and was shot in
the hip.

Mr. Taylor said that in 1844 and several years later the country was
full of bee trees, and that cattle turned into the rush in the river
bottom in winter, came out fat in the spring. In 1844 there was a
settlement of fifty Kickapoo families on the flat just above the island
on the Kansas side. They made a great deal of maple sugar. In summer
these Indians went out to the buffalo grounds, sixty to eighty miles
west of the river, returning in the fall, to be near the Missouri
settlers. There never was an Indian village on the site of Atchison,
although Mrs. Joe Wade, who was George Million’s daughter, claims to
have remembered coming to this side of the river when she was a little
girl, and seeing a dead Indian strapped to a board and leaning against a
tree on the present site of Commercial street. The body was surrounded
with totem poles. There was no game at that time on this side of the
river. Indians themselves hunted deer on the Missouri side in winter,
and were very friendly with the whites.

John Taylor died on March 7, 1897.


                            JOHN M. CROWELL.

John M. Crowell was mayor of Atchison three terms, coming to the city in
1858 from Londonderry, N. H., where he was born October 22, 1823. For
ten years he was a merchant here, afterwards being appointed Government
storekeeper, and having charge of a distillery below town. From 1870 to
1885, he was United States postoffice inspector for nineteen States and
Territories, and in that capacity visited every section of the country.
He resigned to become a mail contractor, although solicited by a
Democratic postmaster general to remain. His record in Washington was as
good as that of any man who ever worked for the Government. Mr. Crowell
was a forty-niner, crossing the plains during the great rush of that
year, and engaging in sluice mining. He made four trips to California,
but never by railroad. From San Francisco he visited China, South
America, the Sandwich Islands, and was a great traveler in his time. He
was the father of Frank G. Crowell, who was born in Atchison, and for
many years a prominent citizen here, but later resigning his position as
county attorney of Atchison county and moving to Kansas City to engage
in the grain business, where he now lives.

John M. Crowell’s daughter became Mrs. F. M. Baker, who accumulated a
fortune in the grain business in Atchison. Mr. Crowell died on the
eleventh day of October, 1902.

[Illustration:

  GEORGE MILLION
]

[Illustration:

  WILLIAM SCARBROUGH
]


                           LUTHER DICKERSON.

Luther Dickerson came to Atchison county in June, 1854, immediately
after Kansas was opened to settlement, from Saline county, Missouri,
where he had lived ten years. He went to Missouri from Washington
county, Ohio, where he was born in 1825. After looking over the country
Mr. Dickerson returned to Missouri, but came back to Kansas the
following October, and “squatted” on a tract of land a mile north of the
State Orphans’ Home. From 1854 to 1857 were the squatter sovereignty
days, during which period a settler could have no title to land, further
than the fact of his settlement on the land he selected as his home.
Land offices were not established until in 1857, when the squatter filed
his claims, and began fighting over them. The first land office in this
section was at Doniphan. John W. Whitfield, who was afterwards in
Congress, was the register. About a year later the land office was
removed to Kickapoo, just below Atchison.

When Mr. Dickerson squatted on his claim in 1854, three-fourths of the
land around him was taken. Welcome Nance, Peter Cummings, John Taylor
and Widow Boyle had farms at that time. Andy Colgan did not come until
1857. The settlers of 1854 were mostly from Missouri. In 1855 came an
organized band of South Carolinians, whose object was to make Kansas a
slave State. Then followed the fierce and relentless fight with the Free
State men, which ended in 1857, as far as this section was concerned.
That is, in 1857 the Free State men won control, and have practically
kept it ever since. In the fall of that year the Free State men elected
their county ticket, and Luther Dickerson was chosen as one of the four
commissioners and was made chairman.

Luther Dickerson was a Free State man and was fought by all the Missouri
and South Carolinians. His land was contested, and he was beaten in the
land office, but he finally won before the secretary of the interior, by
proving that the woman who was contesting him was a foreigner. Hiram
Latham, a Free State man, who lived across the road from Dickerson, was
murdered in Doniphan, and because of this murder Frank McVey left the
country and never came back. The men who killed Latham were ferried over
Independence creek by Dickerson, and, noticing that they were armed, he
asked where they were going. They said they were going wolf hunting. In
1858 Luther Dickerson was elected a member of the house of
representatives, which met at Lecompton, and then adjourned to Lawrence.
In the same year, while still a county commissioner, he built the old
court house, which occupied the site of the present court house.

Luther Dickerson raised the first company of soldiers ever organized in
the State of Kansas, in May, 1861. The first military order issued in
the State was directed to him, signed by John A. Martin, assistant
adjutant general.

But while his company was the first organized, it happened that
Dickerson’s commission as captain was the second issued, and was signed
by Governor Charles Robinson, before the State had an official seal.
Afterwards, Mr. Dickerson served in the regular volunteer service, as
first lieutenant.

He lived on his land, north of town, for many years, and died in
Atchison on the thirteenth day of December, 1910.


                          LUTHER C. CHALLISS.

Luther C. Challiss came to Atchison in 1855 from Boonville, Mo., where
he was engaged as a merchant. He remained here continuously until 1861
as merchant, banker, ferry operator and real estate owner. Luther C.
Challiss’ addition, the east line of which is at the alley between
Seventh and Eighth streets, was preëmpted by Mr. Challiss in 1857, and
was originally composed of 198 acres.

As a member of the Territorial council, Mr. Challiss secured the first
charter for a railroad west from Atchison, known as the Atchison Pike’s
Peak railroad, now the Central Branch. He was the first president of the
road, and originally owned every dollar of the stock. He also managed
the Kickapoo treaty, which gave the road 150,000 acres of land, and made
it prominent in Washington as a specific possibility. The original
Government subsidy for this road was every other quarter section of land
for ten miles on either side, in addition to $16,000 to $48,000 per
mile, in Government bonds.

At the same time Mr. Challiss secured a charter for the Atchison-Pike’s
Peak railroad, he secured a charter for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe
railroad, his original idea being a southern route to the Pacific, and
that road has fulfilled all of his early expectations.

Mr. Challiss made a great deal of money in Atchison, and in 1864 drifted
to New York and Washington, where he became an operator on the stock
exchange. Mr. Challiss’ sympathies were with the South, and was
generally a bull. As long as the South showed its ability to hold out
Mr. Challiss made a great deal of money, and at one time he had on
deposit in New York $960,000, but the tide turned against him when the
South began to fail, and this fortune was reduced to nothing.

As an operator on Wall street at that time, Mr. Challiss outranked Jim
Fisk and Jay Gould, and was the peer of Anthony Morse and the Jeromes.
Jay Gould was a very common man at that time, compared to Mr. Challiss,
and a very little thing might have made Mr. Challiss one of the great
financial leaders in America. An incident in his career in New York was
the attempt of Woodhull & Claflin to break him. He made a fight that is
still remembered, and sent Woodhull and Claflin, Colonel Blood Stephen,
Pearl Andrews and George Francis Train to jail, where they remained six
months. Finally they left the country as a result of a compromise. Mr.
Challiss’ lawyers were Roger A. Pryor and Judge Fullerton. Judge
Fullerton received a quarter section of land in Atchison county as his
fee. Mr. Challiss also brought the famous Pacific Mail suit, which was
equally famous.

He returned to Atchison in 1878, looking after the wreck of his former
possessions. For three years he edited the _Atchison Champion_, and
bitterly opposed John J. Ingalls for United States senator in 1890.

Mr. Challiss, in his latter years, became a very much abused man, and
was looked upon as one of the unpopular citizens of the town, but it may
be said to his credit that he did much for Atchison, and was largely
responsible for making the town the terminus of the Hannibal & St. Joe
railroad. He brought Jay Gould, Henry N. Smith and Ben Carver to
Atchison, and they agreed to extend the road from St. Joseph to
Atchison, in consideration of $75,000.00 in Atchison bonds, which was
agreed to. Mr. Challiss had some sort of a deal with Henry N. Smith
while they were operating on Wall street, and Challiss claimed that
Smith owned him $107,000.00. They finally settled the matter, by Smith
agreeing to bring the Hannibal & St. Joseph road here without the
$75,000.00 in bonds the people had agreed to give him. The _Atchison
Champion_ of May 11, 1872, contained a half column scare head, to the
effect that Luther C. Challiss telegraphed from New York that the bridge
had been finally secured, and gave the credit of securing the bridge to
Challiss and James N. Burnes.

Mr. Challiss died a poor man on the sixth day of July, 1895.


                            GEORGE W. GLICK.

George W. Glick, the ninth governor of Kansas, for a number of years
United States pension agent for the district comprising Kansas,
Missouri, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Indian Territory, came to
Atchison in June, 1859, from Fremont, Ohio, where he studied law in the
office of Rutherford B. Hayes, who afterwards became President of the
United States. Mr. Glick came to Atchison on the steamer “Wm. H.
Russell,” named for and largely owned by William H. Russell, senior
member of the celebrated freighting firm of Russell, Majors & Waddell.
Mr. Glick was born in Fairfield county, Ohio, July 4, 1829, on a farm,
and when four years old removed with his father’s family to within a
mile and a half of Fremont, where he remained until he came to Atchison.
He first went to school in the country, near Fremont, where he
afterwards taught when he was nineteen. Later he attended a Dioclesion
school at Fremont, founded by Dr. Dio Lewis, who afterwards became
famous and whose name then was Dioclesia Lewis. Later he attended
Central College, Ohio, but did not graduate. In 1849 he began the study
of law in the office of Bucklin & Hayes, in Fremont, as a result of
getting his feet in a threshing machine. It was supposed that he would
never be fit for farm work again, but he afterwards recovered. Two years
later he was admitted to the bar in Cincinnati, standing an examination
with the graduating class of the Cincinnati law school. He practiced
eight years in Fremont before coming to Atchison, building up a good
business, in spite of the fact that he always went out to the farm in
haying time and harvested and helped his father. In January, following
his arrival in Atchison, he formed a partnership with A. G. Otis, which
continued as long as he practiced law. The firm of Otis & Glick was the
strongest in Atchison, as long as it lasted, and B. P. Waggener was a
student in their office. In 1872 Mr. Glick became a town farmer,
operating a farm of 640 acres four miles west of Atchison, making a
specialty of Short Horn cattle, paying as high as $1,000 for several
single animals. He served nine terms in the Kansas legislature, and was
once county commissioner, and once county auditor of Atchison county.
While auditor of Atchison county, in 1882, he was elected governor, by
9,000 plurality, over Jim P. St. John, who had been elected two years
before by about 55,000. In 1884 he was re-nominated as governor by the
Democrats, but was defeated by John A. Martin. He first received the
nomination for governor nine years after coming to Kansas, but was
defeated by the Republicans. He was appointed pension agent in 1885, and
again in 1893. He was a Mason, and was one of the original organizers of
the Knight Templars and Royal Arch Masons, in Atchison. He was the first
president of the Atchison-Nebraska road, having built it to the county
line, in connection with Brown and Bier. Governor Glick sold his farm
near Shannon a number of years ago, and during the latter part of his
life was inactive in business and professional affairs. He died on the
thirteenth day of April, 1911.


                           DR. W. K. GRIMES.

One of the oldest citizens of Atchison was Dr. W. H. Grimes, who came
here from Yellow Spring, Ohio, in 1858. His son, E. B. Grimes, came a
year before, and opened a drug store in the building for many years
occupied as an office by the Atchison Water Company, across from the
Byram Hotel. Dr. W. H. Grimes practiced medicine until the war broke
out, when he became a surgeon in the Thirteenth Kansas. Returning to
Atchison at the close of the war, he continued the practice of medicine
until his death, in 1879.

E. B. Grimes was a quartermaster during the war with a rank of major. At
the close of the war he entered the regular army, and built many of the
posts in the Department of the Platte, notably Ft. Laramie, Ft.
Fetterman and Ft. Douglass. He died at Ft. Leavenworth, in 1882.

Another son, Dr. R. V. Grimes, was a lieutenant in his father’s
regiment. After the war he became an army surgeon, and was in many of
the Indian campaigns in the Northwest. He was in Merritt’s command when
it went to the rescue of General Custer, and was the surgeon in Major
Thornburg’s command when it was surrounded at the famous fight on Milk
river. The command was surrounded five days by the Utes, and was finally
rescued by General Merritt. While he lived in Atchison he was employed
as a printer on the _Champion_.

Two other sons of Dr. Grimes, John and Howard Grimes, were members of
Colonel Jennison’s Seventh Kansas Jayhawkers.


                            JOSHUA WHEELER.

Joshua Wheeler was one of the best known, as well as one of the most
successful, farmers Atchison county ever had. His papers on questions
pertaining to agriculture and the farm, read before the various
societies, attracted wide-spread attention. In State affairs, he served
the public long and honorably, and for over twenty years was a member of
the State board of agriculture, serving three years as its president.
His long connection with the State Agriculture College gave him an
extended acquaintance over the State, and he was appointed regent for
that institution by Governor Harvey in 1871, and re-appointed by
Governor Martin in 1888, serving until April, 1894. During several years
of that time he was treasurer of the board, and gained an extensive
knowledge of the college and its history. He served in the State senate
during 1863 and 1864 and in the fall of 1885 was elected for another
term.

Joshua Wheeler was born in Buckingham, England, February 12, 1827, and
came to America in 1844, locating in New Jersey, where he resided four
years before removing to Illinois. In 1857 a colony of seven or eight
families of Fulton county, Illinois, farmers, Seventh-Day Baptists, came
to Kansas, and located in the southwest portion of Atchison county,
covering the entire distance overland. S. P. Griffin and Dennis Sounders
preceded the colony in the spring of the same year to look up a
location. They went as far to the southwest as Emporia, but found no
land equal to that of Atchison county. After locating the land for the
colony they went back to Illinois, but did not accompany the colony to
Kansas, but came a year or two later. Griffin farmed for nearly twenty
years, but afterwards became a Nortonville merchant. He was the father
of Charles T. Griffin, at one time an attorney in Atchison.

When the colony of Seventh-Day people arrived at the end of their
destination they found the land in possession of colonists, but they
bought them out, preëmpted claims and laid out the now famous Seventh-
Day Lane. The land was then an open prairie, occupied only by an
occasional hut. It is at this time the admiration of every visitor
abounding in well cultivated fields, pastures, groves, orchards,
comfortable homes, to which paint is no stranger, large barns, uniformly
trimmed hedges, and peopled by as thrifty a class as can be found in the
western country. Later on Seventh-Day people came from Iowa, Wisconsin
and New York, and joined the Illinois colony on Seventh-Day Lane, which
is two miles in length. The Seventh-Day Baptists observe their Sabbath
from sundown Friday evening to sundown Saturday evening. Their church
has a seating capacity of 400, which is always comfortably filled, and
was built in 1884, prior to which time the Seventh-Day Baptists
worshiped in their school house.

A. A. Randolph was the first pastor of the church on Seventh-Day Lane.
He came here from Pennsylvania in 1863, and died in 1868. S. R. Wheeler,
a brother of Joshua Wheeler, was pastor of the church for twelve years.

When the Seventh-Day Baptists built their homes on the Lane smooth wire
cost eleven and one-half cents per pound in Atchison, and ordinary
flooring, $100.00 per thousand feet. Money was loaned at four per cent.
per month. They did all of their trading in Atchison until Nortonville
was built.

Joshua Wheeler was not only a successful farmer, but a good business
man. He kept a regular set of books, and could always tell exactly what
it cost him to produce a bushel of wheat in any of the different years
of his farm experience. He could tell also what a bushel of corn, fed to
cattle, would produce. In 1877 he sold his wheat for $1.75 per bushel.

He owned a farm of over 300 acres, just at the west end of the Lane,
where he died on the fourteenth day of May, 1896.


                         WILLIAM HETHERINGTON.

William Hetherington, founder of the Exchange National Bank, came to
Atchison in 1859, from Pottsville, Penn., where he operated a flouring
mill. His three oldest children, Mrs. B. P. Waggener, W. W. Hetherington
and C. S. Hetherington, were born in Pottsville. Mrs. W. A. Otis, the
youngest daughter, was born in Atchison. William Hetherington himself
was born in Milton, Penn., May 10, 1821. He was also married there. When
he first came west he stopped in St. Louis, then went to Kansas City,
and later to Leavenworth, where he bought a bankrupt stock of goods and
hauled them to Atchison in wagons. This was in 1859. The same year he
established the Exchange Bank of William Hetherington, absorbing the
Kansas Valley Bank, owned by Robert L. Pease, which had been established
several years before.

Mr. Hetherington’s influence in Atchison was very marked. He was a
cultured gentleman of the old school, and was so generally respected,
although always a Democrat, he stood very high in the sixties when the
sectional bitterness was at its height, and did much to maintain peace
between the contending factions. He was a very able public speaker. He
was never a bitter partisan, and enjoyed the respect of the people to an
unusual degree. He was one of the early mayors of Atchison, and had a
successful career. He died on the twenty-first day of January, 1890.


                           WILLIAM C. SMITH.

William C. Smith, one of the early mayors of Atchison, came to Kansas in
1858 from Illinois, settling near Valley Falls. Two years later he
traded his farm to Sam Dickson for a stock of goods in Atchison and
removed to this city. The firm of William C. Smith & Son continued
sixteen years. The son was Henry T. Smith, who still resides in Atchison
(1915). Another son is William R. Smith, who is at present the attorney
for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company, at Topeka, for a
number of years was a justice of the supreme court of Kansas. His oldest
daughter married P. L. Hubbard, who afterwards became district judge of
Atchison county, and another daughter married H. C. Solomon, for many
years a leading attorney of Atchison. Mr. Smith died in 1884. He was
mayor two terms; member of the legislature, council and the board of
education. Although Mr. Smith came to Kansas from Illinois, he was born
at Columbus, Ohio, in 1817.


                             JOHN M. PRICE.

John M. Price arrived in Atchison with his wife on the first of
September, 1858, the day the Massasoit House was formally opened for the
public. They came here from Platte City, Mo., to visit some old friends
from Kentucky, who had moved to Kansas, and after they arrived concluded
to remain. The Prices originally came from Irvine, Ky. Mr. Price studied
law in Irvine; was admitted and elected county attorney before coming to
Atchison. He was a Union man, in spite of the fact that he came from
Kentucky, and was very active in a business and professional way during
the early days of his residence in this county, and for many years
thereafter. He constructed more large and substantial buildings in
Atchison than any other individual who ever lived here. He built the
house for a residence, now occupied by Mt. St. Scholastica Academy, an
opera house and many blocks of business buildings and residences. He was
a member of the legislature several times; was prominently mentioned as
a candidate for United States senator. Mr. Price died on the twentieth
day of October, 1898.


                            SAMUEL C. KING.

Samuel C. King came to Atchison March 27, 1857. His brothers, Ed. and
John, together with a sister and his widowed mother, arrived here the
year before, coming here with Dr. W. L. Challiss, in the steam ferry,
“Ida,” from Brownsville, Penn., where that boat was built. The King
family came originally from England, within thirty-five miles of
Liverpool, where the children were born, and where the father died. Ed.
King was the first pilot of the ferry boat, “Ida,” when it began making
trips to Atchison. The three sons and the mother took up claims in Mt.
Pleasant township. While living there three old neighbors came out and
Samuel C. King went out with them to look for claims. They were told
that there was plenty of vacant land near Monrovia, but Mr. King advised
them that it was too far out in the wilderness, and they went elsewhere.
(Monrovia is fourteen miles from Atchison). While the other members of
the family were getting their start Samuel C. King clerked in George T.
Challiss’ store, receiving $25.00 per month, and boarded himself. He
afterwards went to work for Mike Finney, steamboat wharf master, and was
practically the first express agent in Atchison. Later he went out to
his farm and split rails to fence it, and afterwards clerked for Bowman
& Blair for $25.00 per month and board. He enlisted in the navy in June,
1861, enlisting as a landsman on the man of war, “Augusta.” He served on
this ship through all the exciting scenes of the navy during the war,
and was at the battle of Point Royal. He assisted in capturing eight
British ships, which tried to run the blockade, and his part of the
prize money amounted to over $7,000.00. He was at the bombardment of Ft.
Sumpter, and at the taking of Tyble Island, off Savannah, Ga. He spent
eleven months at sea, working for the “Alabama,” and rounded Cape
Hatteras. He saw the burning of Charleston, and finally learning that
his mother was fatally ill, he came home. He was elected county
treasurer of Atchison county. Mr. King remained a prosperous capitalist
and real estate operator, until his death on the twenty-third day of
January, 1910.


                               CLEM ROHR.

Clem Rohr came originally from Buffalo, N. Y., where he was born in
1835. He learned the trade of harness maker there, and afterwards worked
at his trade at Chicago, Detroit and Moline, Ill. In Davenport, Iowa, he
heard Jim Lane make a speech about Kansas. This speech caused Rohr to go
to Leavenworth in 1856, and while living in that town and employed as
mail carrier he ran into the famous battle of Hickory Point. He slept in
Hickory Point the night after the fight and helped fix up the wounded.
He walked to Atchison in 1857 from Leavenworth, with Nick Greiner, for
many years a prosperous German farmer, south of Atchison, and started a
harness shop, which he conducted in the same place on the south side of
Commercial street, between Fourth and Fifth streets, for over forty
years.

The first telegram that came to Atchison announcing that Kansas had been
admitted was sent to Clem Rohr, and was signed by S. C. Pomeroy. He
served as mayor of Atchison. Early in the sixties when the home guard
was organized in Atchison Clem Rohr was made captain. His father was one
of Napoleon Bonaparte’s body-guard, and was with that great soldier at
Austerlitz in the Russian campaign, and at the battle of Waterloo. Mr.
Rohr always claimed that Julius Newman, who had a farm near the
Soldiers’ Home, made the first filing in the Lecompton land office.

Mr. Rohr died in Atchison on the twenty-third day of May, 1910.


                            R. H. WEIGHTMAN.

One of the most interesting and romantic early-day characters in
Atchison county was Maj. R. H. Weightman, an ex-major of the United
States army, who was associated with a famous frontier tragedy. Major
Weightman was a violent pro-slavery man and had been reared in the
South. Before coming to Kickapoo, where he was connected with the land
office, and subsequently to Atchison, he was the editor of the _Herald_
at Santa Fe, N. M., and also a delegate to Congress from that Territory.

F. X. Aubrey, the other party to the quarrel, was a French Canadian, of
great pluck and energy, and had made a reputation on a wager in 1852,
riding from Santa Fe to Independence, Mo., in a few hours over eight
days. The next year he wagered $1,000 he could go the same distance in
less than eight days. His bet was accepted and Aubrey covered the
distance in less than five days. Following these rides he engaged in the
freighting business over the plains and he and Major Weightman became
warm personal friends. Aubrey later made a trip to California, taking a
herd of sheep, which he sold at a fine profit. It was upon his return
from this trip that he and Weightman had their famous quarrel. The
fairest account of this incident appeared in the _Missouri Republican_,
September 28, 1854, which was in the form of a communication from a
correspondent of that paper, and was as follows:

                     “THE CASE OF MAJOR WEIGHTMAN.

  “Mr. Editor: The deplorable event by which F. X. Aubrey lost his
  life and which deprived the West of one of its most energetic and
  able pioneers, will not be passed lightly over. The name of Mr.
  Aubrey had become too closely identified with all that is gallant,
  preserving, and—in a western sense, at least—brave and chivalrous,
  that his memory and his sudden death should not awaken painful
  emotions among all those to whom his name had become a household
  word; emotions too painful to expect that, under his influence, full
  justice would be done to both parties concerned. When, therefore, an
  opportunity is afforded by which the facts, as nearly as we can
  approach them, may be investigated, it would seem injustice to
  withhold these facts from the public.

  “Though, perhaps, less historically known (if the expression be
  permitted) than Mr. Aubrey, Major Weightman has peculiar claims upon
  the citizens of Missouri, and especially of St. Louis, for demanding
  full and impartial justice in this behalf. Without wishing to
  anticipate the judgment of your readers, or at all commenting upon
  the evidence which will be found below, your correspondent, in view
  of the grave charge in which Major Weightman is involved, and the
  melancholy importance of the event, deems it his duty,
  notwithstanding, here to state what may be known to most of your
  readers, that Major Weightman, for years, formerly, was a resident
  of St. Louis, beloved and respected, almost without any exception,
  by all with whom he came in contact.

  “Amongst the many of Missouri’s citizens who participated in the
  late Mexican war, Major, then Captain Weightman, at the head of his
  Light Artillery Company, won laurels which placed his name foremost
  among the bravest and most gallant in that war. His fellow soldiers
  still in our midst will cheerfully bear your correspondent
  testimony, that Captain Weightman’s gallantry as a soldier and
  officer was only surpassed by his urbanity and true kindliness of
  feeling as a gentleman; and if the evidence adduced upon his
  preliminary examination before the examining magistrate should
  sustain Weightman’s plan of self-defense in the premises, his former
  friends here and abroad, and his fellow soldiers, will be glad to
  learn that the qualities of heart, for which they used most to prize
  Captain Weightman, in former years, remain untainted even now, when
  his name has become unfortunately coupled with a most grave and
  serious charge. May the public judge, and may not the unquestioned
  enviable renown of Captain Aubrey’s name tend to warp calm judgment
  in pronouncing upon the guilt or innocence of the accused.

  “The following evidence, being a synopsis of the process verbatim at
  the preliminary examination before Judge Davenport, at Santa Fe,
  have been transmitted to your correspondent from New Mexico by a
  third person, and, as your correspondent has every reason to
  believe, may be fully relied on. It is in the main supported by your
  former notices published in the _Republican_ concerning this same
  transaction.

  “The circumstances are these: Major Weightman, hearing of the
  arrival of Aubrey, and that he was at the store of the Messrs.
  Mercure, merchants at Santa Fe, crossed the plaza to see him, and
  was one of the first to take him by the hand and greet him as a
  friend. When Major Weightman arrived at the store of the Messrs.
  Mercure, several persons had already arrived to pay their respects
  to Mr. Aubrey.

  “Aubrey and Weightman met kindly, shook hands, and conversed
  pleasantly for a short time, when something having been said by a
  third person about the route by which Aubrey had arrived from
  California, Aubrey asked the major if he had yet published his paper
  in Albuquerque. The major said, no; that it was dead—had died a
  natural death from want of subscribers. Aubrey then said it should
  have died, because of the lies with which it was filled. This was
  said without excitement. When Weightman asked ‘What lies?’ Aubrey
  remarked: ‘When I returned from California last year you asked me
  for information in respect to my route, and afterwards you abused
  me.’ This Weightman denied, saying, ‘No, Aubrey, I did not abuse
  you.’ Aubrey then said, more or less excited, ‘I say you did, and I
  now repeat, it is a lie,’ at the same time bringing his hand down
  with force upon the counter.

  “At this Weightman, who was sitting on the counter, five or six feet
  from Aubrey, sprang down and approached Aubrey, who had been
  standing near the counter, and taking a glass from which Aubrey had
  been drinking (a toddy), threw the contents in his face. Weightman
  immediately stepped back, when Aubrey drew a pistol (Colt’s belt
  pistol), the first shot from which took effect in the ceiling
  (supposed to have gone off while cocking). Weightman then drew a
  knife, and before another shot could be fired, closed with Aubrey
  and stabbed him in the abdomen, and soon after seized Aubrey’s
  pistol.

  “The Messrs. Mercure rushed on and seized the parties. Aubrey
  rapidly sank, and as soon as he relinquished his pistol Weightman
  said: ‘I did it in my own defense, and I will go and surrender
  myself to the authorities,’ which he did, accompanied by his friend,
  Major Cunningham. Aubrey died in a few minutes. He received but the
  one blow. Major Weightman has carried a bowie knife for his own
  protection for a year past, believing it to be necessary for him to
  do so. This was stated as the cause of his being armed. Aubrey was
  of the number of those who were inimical to him. The relations
  between Aubrey and Weightman had been heretofore of the most
  agreeable character.”

Major Weightman was a resident of Atchison only a few years. At the
outbreak of the war he joined the southern army, and lost his life in
the battle of Wilson’s Creek.



                             CHAPTER XIII.
                    AGRICULTURE AND ITS DEVELOPMENT.

  AN AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY—SCIENTIFIC FARMING—FARMERS, THE ARISTOCRACY
      OF THE WEST—MODERN IMPROVEMENT—TOPOGRAPHY—SOIL—STATISTICS.


Atchison county is distinctively an agricultural community. There have
been some earnest efforts made in the past to develop its mineral
resources, and it is not beyond the realm of possibility that future
efforts in that direction will unlock hidden resources of fabulous
value. But in the future, as in the past, agriculture will be the big
important dividend producer in this county. Up to this time it is not
unfair to say that only the surface of the soil has been scratched.
Farming has been the occupation of a very large portion of our people
from the days when the first settlers took up their claims and with
crude implements, broke the sod, down to this enlightened age, of the
riding plow and the traction engine, but scientific husbandry has not
been followed on a large scale in this county. Crops have been so easy
to produce, on account of rich soil and a favorable climate, that the
methods employed in countries not so blessed and of a greater
population, have not been followed in the past. This is not an
arraignment of the former, for Atchison county has been peculiarly
blessed in its possession of an intelligent lot of thrifty farmers. They
have toiled and labored early and late; they have built comfortable
homes, accumulated fortunes, and are the sturdy, dependable citizens of
the county, but for over sixty years they have lacked organization and
the prosperous farmers have succeeded because of their own personal
initiative, judgment and hard work. As a class they have not made the
progress to which they are justly entitled. Those that came early and
remained, have in most instances met with rare success, but they worked
out their own salvation, unaided by scientific organization.

One hundred and sixty of them have banded together for mutual help and
have secured a county agricultural agent to assist them in this
direction, as the rich country in the States east of us have been forced
to do. The soil also has an abundance of potash and a creditable amount
of phosphorus, so with the proper use of legumes and manure, with the
addition of some phosphorus, the fertility of the soil may be increased
and maintained indefinitely. If soil washing is stopped and the organic
matter in the soil maintained, this county has a soil, that
agriculturally speaking, is second to none.

The real aristocracy in the West, will, in future generations, trace its
ancestry back to the pioneers, who settled on the land and tilled it.
Those who went into trade and the professions when they came to Atchison
county prior to 1860, and in subsequent years, have prospered, in part,
by their wits, but in the main, on the farmer. The farmers were then, as
now, the real wealth producers and so it has come to pass, after these
many years, that the farmer “has arrived,” and with the increase in
population and the general trend of advancement and improvement in all
human activities, farming now stands near the top of the big human
enterprises. The desire for organization and coöperation among the
farmers is growing everywhere, and it has taken hold of Atchison county
in recent years.

The farmer’s life in this county, in the late fifties and early sixties,
was a hard and lonely one. During those years many homesteads were
preëmpted, fifteen to twenty-one miles southwest, west and northwest of
Atchison, and onto these the young pioneers took their wives and
families. There they built their log houses, “broke out” their land, and
put it to corn and wheat. There were few neighbors, fewer creature
comforts, and no conveniences. It was a solitary life.

This history contains biographical sketches of many of these pioneers,
and in them will be found the intimate stories of hardships, privations
and discomforts. They came to conquer the resources of nature, and they
accomplished what they came after. There were no highways over which to
convey their crops when harvested, and the ways to the nearest market
were long and dreary ones. It was a two days’ trip over the prairies to
Atchison with a load of grain, and there were few ways to economize
time, although, fortunately, time was not an object then, as it is in
these restless days.

And yet within the short span of the lives of farmers who are still
here, there has been a marvelous development. Log houses have given way
to fine commodious homes, steam heated and electric lighted; great barns
shelter the stock, and house the grain; the telephone, the rural
delivery and the automobile have revolutionized the farmer’s life and
the farmer’s wife. Better roads are the order of the day, and it will be
along this line that great progress will be made in the immediate
future. Meanwhile, land values are on the increase, and the quarter
sections that sold from $500 to $800 each, fifty years ago, are now
bringing $16,000 to $24,000 each. Within the year 1915 there has been a
general trend of sentiment among the more enterprising farmers to put
farming upon a more scientific basis. The services of a farm adviser
have been secured, whose duty it is to assist in this direction. They
are learning more of food values, crop rotation and diversification,
soil culture and plant life. As the value of these things become more
apparent, the farming industry will thrive more, and in another
generation the problem of keeping the young men and young women on the
farm will have been solved.

The richest and most valuable farming land in Atchison county is very
generally distributed. There are parts of each township that are rough
and broken, but as the population increases land not now regarded as
choice will be made to produce abundant crops. The river bluffs, which
have stood so long in timber, are gradually being cleared and the bare
hills which are left, are admirably adapted to fruit, wheat and alfalfa.
Much of this land is as well adapted to fruit raising as is the already
famous Wathena district, some of it being exactly the same type of soil.
All that is needed is that the fruit growers give their plantations
care. The orchard that is properly cared for produces fruit of a quality
far superior to that of the famous Northwest. Incidentally, this land
returns the grower a greater net profit.

Atchison county lies within the glaciated portion of the plains region.
The underlying rocks are buried by the glacial till, but in turn is
covered by a deposit of fine silty material, known as loess. Practically
all the soil throughout this country is derived from the loess covering.
The principal soil is a brown, almost black, silty loam, well adapted to
the production of general farm crops. The rainfall is sufficient for the
maturing of all crops, the normal annual precipitation ranging from
fifteen to twenty-five inches. Atchison county has a population ranging
from 28,000 to 30,000 people. There was a slight decrease in the
population between the years of 1900 and 1910, yet, in spite of this
apparent unfavorable showing, the value of farm land and farm products
have increased. About ninety-five per cent. of the land in this county
is in farms, of an average value of $69.26 per acre. The proportionate
land area is 263,680 acres, of which 249,339 acres are in farms, with an
aggregate land value of $17,270,130, which is more than double what it
was in 1900, and over two million dollars more than the whole of the
Louisiana Purchase cost us in 1803. Figures and statistics are
proverbially dry and uninteresting, but there is no place in which they
can be more appropriately used than in history, and no language that can
be employed could tell a better story of the agricultural progress of
Atchison county, than the statistics taken from the thirteenth census of
the United States. From this source we find that the total value of
improvements on the farms in this county in 1910 was $2,692,755, and
that the value of the implements and machinery used by the farmers, not
including automobiles, was $499,129. While the value of domestic animals
and live stock was $2,149,863, and in these figures poultry is not
included. The chicken, duck, goose and turkey census reached 150,127,
and these were valued at $77,926. The total value of all crops shown by
the census of 1910 was as follows:

                  Cereals               $1,928,065.00
                  Other grain and seeds      3,577.00
                  Hay and forage           281,793.00
                  Vegetables                94,232.00
                  Fruits and nuts           32,297.00
                  All other crops           30,883.00
                                        —————————————
                       Grand Total      $2,370,847.00

Making a grand total of $2,370,847.00.



                              CHAPTER XIV.
                               THE PRESS.

  INFLUENCE OF NEWSPAPERS—PART PLAYED BY THE EARLY PRESS—“SQUATTER
      SOVEREIGN”—“FREEDOM’S CHAMPION”—“CHAMPION AND PRESS”—PIONEER
      EDITORS—LATER NEWSPAPERS AND NEWSPAPER MEN.


Of all the mighty powers for good and evil, none can excel the
newspaper. Take all the newspapers out of the world today and there
would be chaos. Mankind would lie groping in the dark, and life itself
would be a vain and empty thing. Newspapers are the arteries through
which the lifeblood of the world runs. They carry to our firesides the
continued story of civilization.

Early in the history of Atchison county, before the schools and the
churches, the newspaper appeared. It received a bounty of the original
town company when that association, September 21, 1854, by a resolution,
donated $400 to Robert Kelley and Dr. J. H. Stringfellow, to start a
printing office, and it was then that the _Squatter Sovereign_ was
conceived, and after a brief period of gestation, was born February 3,
1855. By a strange stroke of misfortune this first newspaper in the
county stood for a wrong principle and preached bad doctrine, for it
advocated human slavery. Yet it was a creature of environment, and
reflected the prevailing sentiment of its constituency. It was fearless
in its attitude and rabid in its utterances. It was a violent organ of
hate and bitterness toward all Free State men, and in it appeared a
constant flood of inflammatory comment directed against those who
opposed slavery, and were determined that Kansas should be the land of
the brave and the home of the free. But as the pro-slavery cause waned,
the _Squatter Sovereign_ waned with it, and in the fall of 1857, when
saner counsel and the feeling of brotherhood grew, the town company
disposed of its interest in the _Squatter Sovereign_ to the New England
Aid Society, of which S. C. Pomeroy was agent, and the paper then passed
into the hands of Robert McBratney and Franklin G. Adams. Mr. Adams and
Mr. McBratney were both Free Soilers, but they did not run the paper
long. It was shortly sold to O. F. Short, who ran it until the following
February, and on the twentieth day of that month, 1858. John A. Martin
purchased the plant and changed the name of the paper to _Freedom’s
Champion_. Under that name Colonel Martin made of his paper one of the
leading Free State organs of the Territory. Always a brilliant editor,
of courage and deep convictions, Colonel Martin during his whole career
never performed a greater service than during the time he shouted the
battle-cry of freedom through the columns of _Freedom’s Champion_, from
1858 to 1861. In September of the latter year, he laid aside his pen and
took up his sword in defense of the principles he so stoutly advocated,
and thus translated his words into deeds. When he went to the front he
left the _Champion_ in charge of George J. Stebbins, who continued in
charge until the fall of 1863, when it was leased to John J. Ingalls and
Robert H. Horton. These two men afterwards became political rivals. Both
were lawyers and both residents of Atchison for many years. Horton was a
typical lawyer, smooth and tactful, who enjoyed a successful career in
the practice of his profession and on the bench. Ingalls was of a
different temperament, being more intellectual, caring little for the
law, less tactful, but ambitious. They both met in the arena of
politics, and Horton was the vanquished. Following the senatorial
election of 1879, at which they were both candidates, they became bitter
enemies, and did not speak until they met, by chance, in London, in
1891. While these two men were editors of the _Champion_. Ingalls did
most of the writing and kept things warm until the return of Colonel
Martin from the war in January, 1865, one of the Nation’s heroes. Three
months after his return, on the twenty-second day of March, 1865.
Colonel Martin became the publisher of a daily paper, and on August 11,
1868, the _Freedom’s Champion_ was consolidated with the _Atchison Free
Press_, under the name of _Champion and Press_. The _Free Press_ was a
Republican daily paper, and first appeared May 5, 1864, with Franklin G.
Adams as its editor and proprietor. In April, 1865, Frank A. Root became
a partner, and subsequently, L. R. Elliott, who had been an assistant
editor, became a proprietor, with Mr. Root retiring later, when the
paper was consolidated with the _Champion_.

The office of the _Champion and Press_ was destroyed by fire May 20,
1869, but three weeks later the paper was in running order, with John A.
Martin as sole editor and proprietor, and from that date until the death
of Mr. Martin October 2, 1889, it remained one of the most influential
and prosperous papers in the State of Kansas.

Upon the death of Mr. Martin, the newspaper property was turned over to
his father-in-law, W. L. Challiss, as executor of Mr. Martin’s estate,
and on the day of Mr. Martin’s death the name of Phillip Krohn appears
as managing editor. Krohn occupied that important place until March 29,
1890, when his name appeared for the last time as editor. Dr. Phillip
Krohn was a man of brilliant attainments, a fluent writer, and a
pleasing public speaker. He was a Methodist minister by profession, but,
although he occupied the pulpit upon occasions, his name was seldom
taken seriously in connection with religious work. From the date of
Governor Martin’s death the paper gradually waned in influence. The
paper remained the property of the estate of Governor Martin, and Luther
C. Challiss was editor and manager, until October 11, 1804, when A. J.
Felt, an ex-lieutenant governor of Kansas, became its editor and
proprietor. The paper did not prosper under the management of Mr. Felt,
and four years later a company was organized by Charles M. Sheldon, a
promoter, and Mr. Sheldon became its editor May 2, 1898. Mr. Sheldon was
an enthusiastic and aggressive individual, who had very little respect
for the value of money, which he spent so lavishly that two months
later, July 1, 1898, his name appeared for the last time as editor of
the _Champion_. On the twentieth of that month the paper was sold to
satisfy a mortgage and the property was re-purchased by A. J. Felt, who
immediately transferred it to the Champion Linotype Printing Company, a
partnership, composed of Edward Skinner, George T. Housen, Charles O.
Hovatter, James McNamara and A. J. Felt. Mr. Felt again resumed the
editorial management of the paper, and remained in charge until January
1, 1899.

February 3, 1899, Henry Kuhn, who surveyed the townsite of Atchison,
returned to the city with his son, James G. Kuhn. They made a heroic
effort to restore the lost prestige of the _Champion_, but soon became
discouraged, and in the latter part of May or early in the June
following, they gave up the ghost and silently disappeared. The
mortgagees continued the publication of the paper, and July 31, 1899,
the name of John A. Reynolds appears as business manager. It had no
editor until August 23, 1899, when James G. Day, Jr., a young lawyer,
occupying a desk in the office of Waggener, Horton & Orr, became editor
and manager. Mr. Day ran a daily until January 9, 1900, when it was
discontinued. The following March he published a daily for one week, “as
the devil would run it,” a piece of cynicism in reply to an effort the
_Topeka Capital_ made a short time before, when that paper was turned
over to Rev. Charles M. Sheldon, the eminent Congregational preacher,
who ran that paper one week, “As Jesus would run it.”

Meanwhile, the _Champion_ had its ups and downs, but did not die. A
daily again appeared April 22, 1901, with Ewing Herbert, one of the
celebrated newspaper men of Kansas, as its editor and owner. Mr. Herbert
was at that time the owner of the _Brown County World_, at Hiawatha. He
conceived the idea that Atchison offered an attractive field for a
newspaper venture, and he succeeded in interesting some local capital in
his enterprise. Capt. John Seaton was a stockholder, among others, and
Jay House, the present mayor of Topeka (1915) and a brilliant newspaper
paragrapher, was city editor. Mr. Herbert spent only part of his time in
Atchison, and turned over the management of the _Champion_ to Mr. House.
It looked for a time as if Mr. Herbert was going to make a success of
his venture, but just at the height of his prosperity he was guilty of
an editorial indiscretion, which turned some powerful influences against
the paper, and on August 17, 1901, Mr. Herbert gave up his effort as a
bad job and turned the plant over to one W. A. Robinson, formerly of St.
Louis, Mo. Mr. Robinson was a follower of Henry George, the great single
taxer, and conceived it to be his duty to spread the single tax
propaganda through the editorial columns of the _Champion_. His efforts
in this direction did not prove profitable, and becoming disheartened
and discouraged he fled from the city shortly thereafter, a much poorer
but wiser man.

The _Champion_ next fell into the hands of Corman H. Young, for many
years a successful music merchant, of Atchison, who incidentally
acquired a small job printing plant, which he operated on North Fifth
street, and which he subsequently merged with the _Champion_ plant,
having acquired that by paying off the mortgage which Mr. Robinson gave
Ewing Herbert at the lime he undertook to acquire the property. Mr.
Young ran a weekly paper for a number of years, until May, 1907, when he
employed Walt Mason, the famous prose poet of the United States, to
assume the editorial management of a daily. Mr. Mason many years before
had been a resident of Atchison, and ran the Globe during the absence of
Mr. Howe in Europe. He was not so famous in 1907 as he is in 1915, but
he was just as brilliant. He published the daily _Champion_ on pink
paper and filled it with columns of editorial matter and humorous
running comment on current affairs. Mr. Mason had a wonderful capacity
for work and could prepare more “copy” in one day than all the other
writers on the paper could prepare in a week. During the summer of 1907,
Sheffield Ingalls, having returned from the legislature, where he was a
member of the house of representatives, became an editorial writer on
the _Champion_. November 20, 1907, Mr. Young prevailed upon Mr. Ingalls
to give up his other work and become editor of the paper. As Mr. Ingalls
walked into the office, Mr. Mason walked out, never to return. Mr.
Ingalls remained editor and manager of the _Champion_ until October 6,
1909, having been frustrated in plans he had made to acquire the
property as his own. Mr. Young continued to run the paper until July 1,
1911, when Mr. Ingalls, with the assistance of J. C. Killarney,
succeeded in organizing a company, which purchased the paper and turned
it over to Eugene C. Pulliam, as editor. Mr. Pulliam was a young man,
who had served his apprenticeship on the _Kansas City Star_ as a
reporter. He was a good writer, but lacked experience and business
judgment, and while he made a vigorous effort to run the paper, and had
the benefit of strong financial connections, he did not succeed, and
September 1, 1914, he turned the paper over to Sheffield Ingalls as
trustee, and it was subsequently sold to A. S. Andereck and his brother,
A. P. Andereck, of Kankakee, Ill. A few months later a company was
organized, composed of the Andereck brothers, O. A. Simmons, vice-
president of the First National Bank, Wilbur C. Hawk and Sheffield
Ingalls, who in 1915 are conducting the paper, and it is enjoying its
most prosperous days since the death of its brilliant editor, John A.
Martin.

In 1877 there came to Atchison a young man who subsequently became one
of the famous editors of the United States, Edgar Watson Howe. Mr. Howe
was born in Wabash county, Indiana, May 3, 1854, a son of Henry and
Elizabeth Howe. When he was about three years of age his family removed
to Bethany, Harrison county, Missouri, where the father, a Methodist
preacher, published a newspaper of strong abolition sentiments. The
younger Mr. Howe served an apprenticeship at the printer’s trade in his
father’s office, and in 1868 started out for himself. He visited various
cities, working at the case to earn money to pay his way from one place
to another, and at the age of eighteen became the publisher of the
weekly _Globe_, at Golden, Colo. From there he went to Falls City, Neb.,
where he published a newspaper, subsequently coming to Atchison, and
established the _Daily Globe_. When Mr. Howe reached Atchison, the
_Champion_, under the management of John A. Martin, was the most
powerful newspaper organ in the northern half of Kansas, and the field
here was none too promising on this account. However, Mr. Howe proceeded
to publish a paper of an entirely different type than that published by
Mr. Martin. It was a small sheet, and was devoted to “_gab, gossip and
paid locals_,” and for over thirty years this policy was successfully
maintained by Mr. Howe. It was unique in the journalistic world, and
under the management of Mr. Howe it acquired a National reputation,
chiefly because of the quaint, homely philosophy it contained and the
unusual treatment he gave the ordinary incidents of human life. As a
reporter of this class of news, Mr. Howe was perhaps without a peer in
the country. For over thirty years he tramped the streets of Atchison
with note-book and pencil, and to practically every item he turned in he
gave a peculiar twist, which reflected a remarkable insight of human
nature. With Mr. Howe were associated Miss Frances L. Garside, Ralph
(“Doc”) Tennal, Miss Nellie Webb and J. E. Rank. To each of them Mr.
Howe was indebted for much of the success the _Globe_ attained. The
death of Col. John A. Martin and the collapse of the _Champion_, that
followed, gave Mr. Howe his opportunity, and for the greater part of his
active newspaper career in Atchison he had the field to himself. The
_Globe_ was a great financial success and in one year it has been said
that Mr. Howe cleared close to $24,000 on his property. “Doc” Tennal was
the first one of Mr. Howe’s faithful associates to break up the _Globe_
family. Mr. Tennal was a remarkable reporter of local news, but being
ambitious and realizing the limitations by which he was surrounded, he
concluded to acquire a newspaper property of his own, and in pursuance
of that plan, he bought the _Sabetha Herald_ in 1905, subsequently
relinquishing it to become editor of the _Kansas City Weekly Star_. He
returned some years later to Sabetha, and re-purchased the _Herald_
plant, and is now the editor of that prosperous and progressive paper
(1915).

J. E. Rank left the _Globe_ a few years later, and went to Bartlesville,
Okla., where he ran a paper a short time, and then returned to Atchison,
and his first newspaper love.

Miss Garside, who was one of the most brilliant newspaper women in the
country, went from the _Globe_ to the _New York Journal_, and in 1909
Mr. Howe turned the _Globe_ over to his son, Eugene Howe, who is now
(1915) its editor and principal owner. Associated with him are Mr. Rank
and Miss Nellie Webb, together with other old _Globe_ employes.

Miss Webb is the society reporter, and in this capacity she has acquired
a brilliant reputation among the newspaper women of Kansas. The “policy”
of the _Globe_ remains unchanged, and, while it may not enjoy the same
prestige it had during the days of the elder Howe, it is still one of
the moneymaking newspaper plants of Kansas. Eugene Howe is a young man
of much promise. He is still young and has spent his life in newspaper
work. He has carried the new responsibilities thrust upon him by his
father both gracefully and tactfully, and there is every reason to
predict a successful future for him.

Among the early newspaper enterprises of Atchison was _The Patriot_,
established by Nelson Abbott October 25, 1867. In September, 1868,
Messrs. H. Clay Park, B. P. Waggener and Mr. Abbott formed a
partnership, under the name of H. Clay Park & Company, and purchased the
establishment, and in October of the same year, the paper passed into
the hands of C. F. and C. P. Cochrane, but shortly thereafter reverted
to Nelson Abbott, who remained in control until December, 1875. Dr. H.
B. Horn, for many years a respected and honored citizen of Atchison, was
connected with the paper as bookkeeper and business manager, and
performed much of the editorial work, and when Mr. Abbott finally
relinquished control of the paper, it fell again into the hands of H.
Clay Park, who together with F. L. Vandergrift and P. H. Peters, assumed
control. Mr. Peters did not remain long in the partnership, and in 1877
he sold his interest to E. W. Beall. The paper was Democratic, and Mr.
Park, who was very actively identified with the affairs of Atchison in
the early days, was an able editor. He left Atchison twenty-five years
later, to become an editorial writer on the _St. Joseph News_ and
_Press_. F. L. Vandergrift is one of the famous newspaper men of Kansas,
and for many years was the representative in Kansas of the _Kansas City
Star_. He is one of the best loved and best known newspaper writers of
the West, and is now (1915) editor of the _Earth_, a publication devoted
to the interests of the Santa Fe railroad.

One of the well known newspaper men of the West connected with _The
Patriot_ was Tom Stivers, who was connected with the _Champion_ for
eight years, and in January, 1879, became a partner with Mr. Park and
Mr. Vandergrift.

_The Patriot_ was an afternoon daily paper, and always stanchly
Democratic in politics, and for many years was a successful journalistic
enterprise. This paper continued to be published either as a weekly or a
daily until about October 12, 1895. It was in a precarious condition
many years before that date, and had a number of different editors,
among them F. M. Stambaugh and W. J. Montgomery. _The Atchison Morning
Star_ and _Daily Patriot_ was built upon the wreck of the original
_Patriot_, its first issue being dated October 13, 1895, and running
until February 23, 1896.

_The Atchison Union_ was a Democratic paper, established by Gideon O.
Chase, about 1858. It had an office in a frame building at the southwest
corner of Fifth and Commercial streets, subsequently occupied by the
_Champion_. Mr. Chase came from Waverly. N. V., and his paper, while
Democratic, was for the Union and against slavery. Mr. Chase did not
remain in charge of the paper very long, and turned it over to W. H.
Addoms and G. I. Stebbins. Shortly thereafter Stebbins retired, and
Addoms went to Leavenworth, where he started a paper, turning his
interest over to A. P. Cochrane, who was an employe in the office.
Cochrane did not run the paper but a short time, when a Mr. Leland,
Francis J. Marion and Franklin G. Adams assumed control and ran it a
short time, when Marion took the plant of Plattsburg, Mo., and junked
it, and for many years what was left of the paper was piled up in the
court house at that place.

_The Atchison Church Visitor_ was established in 1906, and was published
by the pastors of the following churches: English Lutheran, Methodist,
Christian, Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist.

On January 14, 1911, Paul Tonsing became its editor and publisher. The
paper is printed by Mr. Tonsing in the office over 500 Commercial
street, so long occupied as the editorial room of John A. Martin, of
whom Mr. Tonsing is a son-in-law. Mr. Tonsing is a Lutheran minister by
profession, and for a number of years after his graduation from Midland
College, he did pastoral work in a number of Lutheran churches in
Nebraska and Kansas. Mr. Tonsing is a reformer, and a man not without
courage and ability. His views are looked upon as too extreme by the
conservative liberal element of Atchison, but all give him credit for
being conscientious and honest. He is a hard-working, industrious
citizen, and, while he has made inane active enemies in his reform work,
he enjoys the personal satisfaction of seeing many of the reforms he has
advocated come to pass. He is an avowed foe of the liquor traffic, and
has perhaps done more than any other individual in the community to make
his views on that question effective. In connection with the publication
of the _Church Visitor_, Mr. Tonsing also prints and edits the _Western
Chief_, a monthly publication devoted to the Improved Order of Redmen.

_E. W. Howe’s Monthly_ was started by Mr. Howe in March, 1911. It is
published monthly and contains practically all of the present literary
efforts of its editor. Mr. Howe has adopted the use of pink paper for
this publication, which is composed of four pages. It contains no
advertising matter, but has a large circulation among friends and
admirers of Mr. Howe’s peculiar literary type. Mr. Howe has popularized
this monthly by making the price so low that no subscriber can afford
not to take it, and when he has reached a circulation large enough, he
plans to put it on a profitable basis as an advertising medium.

_The Effingham New Leaf_ was started about April 12, 1894, with M. C.
Klingman, editor, and his wife, Mrs. Ima L. Klingman, as associate
editor. The _New Leaf_ was the successor of the _Effingham Times_,
founded in 1887, and the _Effingham Graphic_, founded in 1891, and the
_Effingham World_, founded in 1893. After the death of M. C. Klingman,
at the Missouri Baptist sanitarium, at St. Louis, Mo., May 5, 1899, Mrs.
Klingman took charge as editor and publisher, and employed W. W. Cahoon,
associate editor. January 4, 1901, J. W. Coleman became the editor and
publisher, and W. W. Cahoon, associate editor. In December, 1903, W. W.
Cahoon purchased a one-half interest and the firm became Coleman &
Cahoon. Mr. Coleman re-purchased the paper October 16, 1903, and
continued its publication until September 8, 1903, when Mr. Cahoon and
C. E. Sells became the editors and publishers. May 4 of the following
year Mr. Cahoon sold his interest to W. H. Sells, and August 31, 1906,
C. E. and A. J. Sells took charge of the paper, and in 1915 were still
its publishers.

_The Effingham New Leaf_ is a successful country newspaper, serving its
readers faithfully and satisfactorily.

_The Muscotah Record_ was founded about October 1, 1884, by F. M.
Bonham, who ran the paper until about 1886, when on August 18 of that
year the Miller brothers became its editors and publishers. They sold it
to Claud Martin and Coleman Martin December 4, 1889, who subsequently
sold the plan to M. C. Klingman, editor of the _Effingham New Leaf_,
May, 1890. Mr. Klingman turned the property over to Fred W. Badger July
18, 1890, who continued the paper until December 8, 1893, when he
disposed of it to John Ford. Ford published the paper until November 1,
1894, when he sold it to James S. Martin and Guy L. Stotter, the latter
assuming entire control March 6, 1896. Mr. Stotter sold the _Record_ to
J. W. Campbell August 17, 1905, but assumed control of it again November
23, 1905, and remained in control until June 6, 1907, when J. A.
Shoemaker, who afterwards became county superintendent of Atchison
county, appeared as its editor and publisher. When Mr. Shoemaker was
elected county superintendent, he turned the property over to A. W.
Huntis, who on February 3, 1910, sold it to P. J. Cortelyon, and March
7, 1912, the property was purchased by R. M. Dunlap, who is now (1915)
its editor and publisher.

_The Huron Herald_ started January 7, 1892, with Frank I. White as
editor and publisher. On May 16, 1895, Messrs. Priest & Priest took
charge and were in control October 18, 1896, when the office was
destroyed by fire. The paper was suspended for a few weeks and the next
issue was dated November 6, 1896, with W. E. Johnson, editor and
publisher. _The Herald_ suspended publication in February, 1897, and was
again resurrected by W. A. Huff by the issue of April 9, 1897. Mr. Huff
discontinued the paper in 1900, and went to Brown county, where he was
active in newspaper work in that county. _The Huron Herald_ was revived
again April 12, 1907, by J. E. Smith, who published it until March 12,
1914, and March 19 of that year. J. M. Delaney announced that through no
fault of his, he was forced to take control of the paper, and had
employed Herman Van. On August 19, 1915, T. A. Cur became editor, and on
November 11, 1915, Orvil L. Pancake was in charge.

_The Potter Kansan_ was originally known as the _Potter Leaf_, which
started November 22, 1900, by Eppie L. Barber and Norene Barber, his
wife. Mr. Barber surrendered control of the paper September 17, 1903,
turning it over to his wife, who became its publisher. Shortly
thereafter, Charles B. Remsburg, who for many years was a well known
newspaper reporter in northeastern Kansas, appeared as its editor and
publisher, and remained in charge until May 11, 1905, when he turned it
over to J. W. Thompson and his wife, Mrs. J. W. Thompson. On August 17,
1905, the Thompsons leased the paper to R. J. Wilson, but in the
following December Mr. Thompson resumed control again and placed Howard
C. King in charge as local editor and business manager. On March 22,
1906, W. A. Remsburg became proprietor and in the following September,
J. E. Remsburg purchased the plant, and is now its editor.

_The Potter Kansan_ is one of the best known country weekly papers in
Kansas and the contributions from the pen of George J. Remsburg, the
noted archaeologist and newspaper paragrapher and poet, are frequently
quoted by the newspapers of the State.

Atchison county, perhaps, has been the graveyard for as many newspapers
as any other county in the State. The State Historical Society has
reserved the record, and in many instances, the files, of newspapers,
which have been born, and after a brief existence, have died in this
county.

The first rival newspaper of the _Champion_, then the _Squatter
Sovereign_, was the _Sumner Gazette_, published at Sumner in 1857. It
survived only a short time, as also did the _Western Spy_, which lived a
few months in 1860.

In 1857 _The Kansas Zeitung_ was started by Kab & Sussman, but was moved
to Leavenworth in 1859.

Half a dozen papers sprung up in 1862 and 1863, among which were: _The
Pleifer_, _The Bulletin_, _The Union-Banner_, _The Anti-Jayhawker_, _The
Standard_, and _Die Tackle_.

In 1873 the anti John A. Martin crowd, headed by John M. Price, started
a Republican daily and weekly, called the _Globe_, with A. W. Wagnhals,
J. B. Dutton, Rev. E. Cooper, T. F. Smith and Franklin G. Adams as the
principal writers. It lasted but a few months. Wagnhals subsequently
changed his name to Wagnalls, and moved to New York City, where he
became a great publisher as a member of the firm of Funk & Wagnalls,
which published the Standard Dictionary and a number of other well known
publications.

The following list shows the different publications received by the
Historical Society from Atchison county at the end of the year 1915:

 _Atchison Champion_, daily and weekly.
 _Atchison Globe_, daily and weekly.
 _The Midland_, Atchison.
 _The Abbey Student_, Atchison.
 _Midland College Bulletin_, Atchison.
 _St. Benedict’s Calendar_, Atchison.
 _The Western Chief_, Atchison.
 _Atchison Church Visitor._
 _E. W. Howe’s Monthly_, Atchison.
 _Kansas Synod Lutheran_, Atchison.
 _The Optimist_, Atchison.
 _Effingham New Leaf._
 _Atchison County High School News_, Effingham.
 _Muscotah Record._
 _Potter Kansan._
 _Huron Herald._

Among the numerous publications that have enjoyed a brief existence in
this county, are the following:

_Kansas Churchman_, published at Atchison from November, 1891, to
December, 1892. Rev. E. K. Brooke was editor. This publication had been
published at Salina, Kan., previously, and from Atchison was removed to
Lawrence.

_Arrington Argus_, started by T. W. Gardner, and was suspended after the
tenth number.

_The American Journal of Education_ was published at Atchison and St.
Louis, Mo., by Messrs. J. B. Merwin and I. C. Scott, in 1870.

_The Atchisonian_, established March 24, 1877, by the Atchison
Publishing Company. This paper was a six column, eight page affair, with
a patent inside. The last issue appeared May 26, 1877.

_Atchison Daily Times_ was started February 3, 1887, by John N.
Reynolds, but after the seventh issue the paper was changed to a weekly,
and called the _Atchison Weekly Times_, from March 19 to July 2, 1887.
The next issue was dated July 11, 1887, and was again called _The
Atchison Daily Times_, and ran as such until August 6, 1887, when it
suspended. John N. Reynolds was in many ways, a unique character. He
came to Atchison as the organizer and manager of a live stock insurance
company. He was at one time a preacher, and his career in Atchison was
remarkable for its violence and his disregard for both the proprieties
and the ethics of the newspaper profession, he was looked upon by many
as an irresponsible demagogue, and it was supposed that he ran his paper
for blackmailing purposes. The story goes that during his management of
the live stock insurance company, he incurred an advertising bill with
one of the local papers, and failing to pay the bill, the editor of the
local paper, instead of having recourse to the courts, began to heap
abuse upon Reynolds, and using this as a pretext, Reynolds established
the _Times_, for the purpose of retaliation. As the result of this
episode, Reynolds became very violent in his denunciation of many men of
established reputations in the community, and during the time that he
published his paper there was much excitement of an undesirable
character in the city. Reynolds finally landed in the Kansas State
penitentiary, having served a term previously in the Missouri State
penitentiary. He wrote a book subsequently, relating largely to his
treatment in these two institutions, which he entitled “The Twin Hells.”
For a short period he edited his paper from the county jail in Atchison,
but in 1888 J. A. Sunderland took hold of the _Times_, and it was
published up to January 31, 1891.

_The Sunday Morning Call_ was started by the Call Printing Company, with
Frank Pearce as editor and publisher, and was first issued in magazine
form February 8, 1880. March 28, 1880, Barton Lowe & Company became
editors and publishers, enlarging the paper to a five column folio.
January 3, 1881, Luther L. Higby appears as a member of the firm, but
with the issue of October 9, 1881, Luther L. Higby became sole owner.
November 6, 1881, C. F. Cochrane became one of the editors, and January
18, 1882, Chris Rutt became a partner of Mr. Higby, and this firm sold
the plant to Herman J. Rodman October 22, 1882, who continued it until
November 18, 1883, when the name was changed to _The Western Mercury_,
with E. J. Van Deventer and H. J. Rodman as publishers, and it was
continued until about 1886.

_The Missouri Valley Farmer_ was published by A. J. Felt during the time
that Mr. Felt was editor of the _Champion_. The first issue of the
_Farmer_ was dated January 5, 1893, and it continued until August 18,
1898, at which time it was sold to C. M. Sheldon, who also became owner
of the _Champion_, and the _Missouri Valley Farmer_ was moved to Kansas
City.

_The New West_ was a monthly journal of immigration, published by the
Immigrant Union, that was established in Atchison in August, 1878. It
was issued in magazine form and contained about sixteen pages of reading
matter. The earlier numbers of the publication were printed at Hannibal,
Mo., and in 1878 H. H. Allen, who was for many years a real estate
operator in Atchison, became the editor of this paper. Mr. Allen
subsequently sold the property to J. G. P. Hilderbrand, who later turned
the property over to two men by the names of Berry and Henry. The last
issue appeared about July, 1880.

_Atchison Baptist_ was a monthly magazine, printed by the City Mission
Publication Company, of Pittsburgh, Pa., in the interests of the First
Baptist church, of Atchison. It lasted about three years, and W. H. Park
was the local editor.

_Kansas Agriculturist_ was a weekly publication, which was established
July 18, 1898, and probably died about March 20, 1899.

The _Atchison Blade_ was established July 16, 1892, and published by the
Blade Publishing Company, composed of Dr. Grant Brown, Natt G. Langston,
and Will Harris, three prominent negroes of Atchison. It was a four
page, six column paper, and was operated, after several changes in the
management, until about January 20, 1894. It again resumed publication
November 5, 1897, and was run until September 19, 1898, by H. Lewis
Dorsey.

_The Kansas Statesman_, Atchison, was established February 15, 1901, by
G. W. Myers & Sons, office, 315 Commercial street. This paper was
absorbed by the _Atchison Champion_, after the issue of October 11,
1901.

_The Trades Union_, Atchison, was founded September 5, 1885, by Frank
Hall, R. Tompkins, and James W. Reilly. This paper was the official
paper of the Kansas State Assembly of the Knights of Labor, office, 521
Commercial street. The last issue on file is dated November 6, 1886, and
the paper moved to Topeka after this date.

_The Atchison Banner_ was a German paper, and C. F. Ruth was editor and
publisher. This was a seven column, four page paper, and was founded
March 1, 1878. It was enlarged to an eight column paper the same year.
It supported the Republican State ticket in 1878. The paper was
suspended after the issue of July 12, 1879.

_The Bible Investigator_ was a monthly publication, started about July,
1881, by William Kirby and A. D. Stevens. It was printed by W. H.
Haskell & Son, who for many years conducted a prosperous printing
business in Atchison. The editor was William Kirby, and a Mr. Stevens
was the manager, both of whom were residents of Doniphan, and a notice
in the paper asked that communications for either one should be
addressed to that place. It was in operation about five months.

_Atchison’s Monthly_ was published by W. H. Haskell & Son, and the
managing editor was Herman J. Rodman. It did not last long.

_Sentinel of the Northwest_ was a monthly publication, of which Dr. A.
H. Lamphear was editor. The only issue of which there is any record was
Volume 1, No. 1, date January 1, 1883.

_Sunday Morning Facts_ was published by E. W. Beal from September 2,
1883, until about February 3, 1884.

_Der Humorist_, was as the title indicates, a German publication, with
L. Willstaedt as its publisher. This paper, or magazine, was also short
lived, lasting less than a year.

_Atchison Sunday Morning Sermon_, published by J. W. and J. M. Tanner.
First issue was June 1, 1884, and the last issue about July 27, 1884.

_Atchison Advance_, published by Frank Hall and Dr. H. B. Horn. The
first issue of the paper was November 5, 1884, and the last issue was
January 3, 1885.

_The Messachorean_ was started in 1887, and issued about every two
months. It was devoted to the interest of Midland College, and edited by
the faculty. It died about June, 1888.

_The Atchison Daily Bee_ was one of John N. Reynolds’ enterprises, which
started March 25, 1889, and suspended April 4, 1889.

_The Tradesman_ was a monthly publication, devoted to the trade
unionism, and was edited by Robert Tompkins, the veteran editor and
publisher.

_Stebbins & Talbot’s Real Estate Record_, established in 1869, by C. I.
Stebbins, W. R. Stebbins and J. H. Talbot. This was, as its name
implies, a publication devoted to booming real estate in Atchison county
and vicinity.

_Kansas Monthly Souvenir_ was published by Fitch Rice & Company from
February, 1873, to sometime in June of the same year.

_Gardner’s Real Estate Bulletin_ was another real estate journal,
published monthly, by C. V. Gardner in 1873.

_The Short Line Advocate_ was issued by the Atchison & Denver Railroad
Company in 1879.

_Der Courier_ was another German publication, published at Atchison and
Topeka, by Edward F. Fleischer in 1879.

_The Public Ledger_ was started August 19, 1880, by W. J. Granger. It
supported the National Greenback ticket of that year, and October 30,
1888, Granger turned the paper over to E. A. Davis & Son, who ran it a
short time. Mr. Granger returned to Atchison eighteen years later, and
became a reporter on the _Atchison Champion_, and during the interval
published papers in Effingham and other places. In 1915 he was the
publisher and owner of the _Nettawaka Talk_.

_The Western Farm Home_ was a continuation of the _New West Monthly_.
Its first issue was in January, 1881, with James P. Henry and George H.
Pardee as editors and publishers. It suspended publication in October,
1881.

_High School Quarterly_ was published at Effingham for the first time
January, 1895, with S. J. Hunter, editor, and John W. Wilson, business
manager. This magazine was published in the interests of the Atchison
high school. It was subsequently changed to _The High School Bulletin_,
after which it was issued regularly once a month during the school year.
It suspended publication about September, 1902.

_The Oracle_ was another Effingham publication, started December, 1901,
which was conducted by Guy Hendrickson and the students of the Atchison
high school, in the interests of that institution. It suspended
publication about May, 1902.

_The A. C. H. S. Newsletter_ was a monthly publication, started in
February, 1901, by John W. Wilson, principal of the Atchison county high
school. There were only three numbers of this paper, which was a
monthly.

_The Atchison County Visitor_ was still another Effingham publication,
started by W. J. Granger March 10, 1905. Guy C. Hendrickson became
business manager June 8, 1906, and the paper suspended during the year
1907.

_The Potter Press_, started April 8, 1898, with E. Campbell as editor,
and Jewell & Campbell as publishers. It lasted until September 30, 1898,
when it was consolidated with the _Easton_ (Leavenworth county) _Light_.
January 27, 1899, it resumed publication, with M. L. and K. Lockwood as
editors, and E. E. Campbell as local editor, but again consolidated with
the _Easton Light_ September 1, 1899.

_The Atchison County Recorder_ was started June 1, 1900, and published
by the Lockwood Printing Company, of Atchison. Its last issue was dated
October 26, 1900.

_The Muscotah News_ was filed April 5, 1880, by Nash & Walkup, and
lasted about three months.

_The Weekly Journal_ was started by G. W. Messigh in Effingham September
2, 1892, who ran it until February 23, 1893, when it died.

_The Arrington Times_ was started May 28, 1896, by W. A. Huff. In
September of the same year its name was changed to _The Atchison County
Times_, and it suspended sometime in 1897.

_The Prairie Press_ was started in Lancaster May 12, 1888, with W. C.
Adkins as editor and publisher, and it was run until March 7, 1890, when
it was succeeded by the _Huron Graphic_.

_The Huron Headlight_, started March 13, 1884, and died on the same
date.

_The Huron Messenger_ was started July 2, 1884, by J. M. Warton, and
also died on the same day it was born.

_The Weekly Graphic_, which succeeded to all the rights and privileges
of the _Prairie Press_, of Lancaster, was started by W. C. Adkins April
5, 1890. Mr. Adkins ran this paper until March 28, 1891, at which time
he sold it to J. A. Sunderland, of Atchison, who ran it until May 2,
1891, when Mr. Adkins again took control of the paper and ran it until
the following fall.

_The Huron Times_ was a kind of continuation of the _Atchison Times_,
and Volume 4, No. 1, of this paper, was dated April 4, 1891. There were
but four issues of the _Times_, after the plant was moved from Atchison
to Huron, the last issue being dated April 25, 1891. J. A. Sunderland
was also editor and publisher of this paper, after he moved it from
Atchison to Huron. _The Huron Times_ was a weekly publication, by G. E.
Nichols, and was started February 22, 1901, and published seventeen
times, when it died.

_The Effingham Enterprise_ was founded about July 1, 1895, by W. H.
Bright. It was short lived, and little is known of its history after the
date just mentioned.

_The Peoples’ Press_ was a party organ, started in August, 1883, by the
Peoples’ Press Association, and suspended September 15 of the same year.

_The New Kansas Magazine_ was started by Dr. W. H. Wynn, for many years
a much beloved and greatly respected professor of English literature at
Midland College. Dr. Wynn conceived the idea that there was a place for
a monthly magazine in Atchison, to be conducted along the lines of the
original _Kansas Magazine_, published in 1873, which contained some of
the best literature that had ever been produced in Kansas. Associated
with Dr. Wynn were Dr. W. W. Campbell, R. M. Manley, B. P. Waggener, H.
M. Jackson, H. H. Allen, and A. J. Harwi. The first issue appeared
February 18, 1892, and the last issue appeared September 30, 1893.

_Midwest Moose Review_ was the official organ of the local lodge of the
Loyal Order of Moose, published monthly by Frank L. Danforth, editor. It
was founded in 1912, and ran only a few months.

_The Atchison Tribune_ was started in 1896, but the name of the editor
and publisher are unknown.

_The Western Chief_ is a monthly publication, devoted to the Order of
Redmen, and was founded about April, 1909. Paul Tonsing is editor and
publisher.

_Benedictine Parish Monthly_, started in Atchison, in March, 1907, and
published by St. Benedict’s College, until January, 1910.

_The College Review_ was published monthly in Lawrence and Atchison, by
A. G. Coonrod and G. T. Smith, from 1891 to 1900. Coonrod & Smith were
the owners of business colleges at Atchison and Lawrence.

_Kansas Telegraph_ was a German paper, started by H. Von Langen December
23, 1880, and was published in Atchison until 1881, when it was removed
to Topeka, where it was published for many years.

_Atchison Journal_ was another German publication, started by John
Hoenscheidt in 1880, but was short lived.

_The Kansas Staats-Anzeiger_ was started in Topeka in 1879, and
published until 1881, when it was moved to Atchison. It was also short
lived.

_Plain Facts_ was a weekly publication, started in Atchison October 4,
1897, and published by authority of twenty-five Atchison Populists, who
were opposed to the election of George W. Glick, the so-called Populist
candidates for State senator. It lasted three issues.

_The Atchison Journal_ was the official publication of the Trades and
Labor Council of Atchison. It started early in the year 1903, by W. J.
Granger, and discontinued the last of November of the same year.

_The Atchison Morning Star_ was a daily paper, published by J. A.
Roulston, and started June 14, 1905, lasting until August 30, 1905.

_The Atchison Tribune_ was a weekly publication, started March 27, 1896,
by W. H. Higgins, and suspended publication July 16, 1896.



                              CHAPTER XV.
                           BANKS AND BANKING.

  EARLY DAY BANKING—PIONEER FINANCIERS—THE OLDEST BANK—PRIVATE, STATE,
      AND NATIONAL BANKS—ATCHISON COUNTY BANKERS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF
      BANKING INSTITUTIONS.


Banking was a precarious business during the Territorial days in Kansas.
There were no banks, as we know them, until January 29, 1857, when the
Territorial legislature passed an act providing that every company or
association of persons formed for banking purposes within the Territory,
and without an act of legislature authorizing the same, should be deemed
unlawful. Upon the passage of this act, the first bank authorized to do
business under it was The Kansas Valley Bank, of Leavenworth, with an
authorized capital stock of $800,000.00, with five branches, at
Atchison, LeCompton, Doniphan, Ft. Scott and Shawnee. The authorized
capital stock of each one of the branches was $300,000.00, and under the
terms of the act, each branch was independent of the Leavenworth
institution. The great Government Overland Transportation Company of
Majors Smoot-Russell & Company was the big financial power behind this
organization. The Leavenworth bank was never formed, and the Atchison
branch was the first to start out under this act of the legislature,
being authorized to begin business February 19, 1857, with securities
amounting to $100,000. Dr. John H. Stringfellow, Joseph Plean and Samuel
Dickson were authorized to open subscription books. The board of
directors included Samuel C. Pomeroy, who was president: W. H. Russell,
L. R. Smoot, W. B. Waddell, Franklin G. Adams, Samuel Dickson and W. E.
Gaylord. Shortly after the bank began business there were rumors
emanating from the rival towns of Sumner and Doniphan that the Atchison
institution was about to suspend, and for the purpose of allaying any
suspicion on the part of the public, created by these rumors, the
directors published a statement of its condition, showing that the
assets were $36,638.00, with liabilities of $20,118.00. In July or
August, 1857, L. S. Boling, of LeCompton, was appointed to examine and
report on the financial condition of the Atchison branch of the Kansas
Valley Bank, and this is the first record in Kansas of a proceeding of
this kind.

Samuel C. Pomeroy resigned as president of the bank in 1858, and was
succeeded by William H. Russell, of the contracting firm of Majors-
Smoot-Russell & Company. G. H. Fairchild was made vice-president, and R.
L. Pease, cashier.

In 1861, this bank, then called the Kansas Valley Bank, had its name
changed by act of the legislature, to the Bank of the State of Kansas,
and it was conducted under that name until 1866, when the stockholders
wound up its affairs.

The legitimate successor of the Bank of the State of Kansas was
Hetherington’s Exchange Bank, which was founded in 1859 by William
Hetherington.

The Exchange National Bank, of Atchison, Kan., is the oldest banking
institution in the city of Atchison, having been established in 1859,
while Kansas was a Territory. The bank was then named the Hetherington
Exchange Bank. That bank became the successor of the Bank of the State
of Kansas, which was organized in 1857. The founder of the Hetherington
Exchange Bank was William Hetherington, and, except for one year during
the Civil war, it has been in successful operation since it was
established. It passed through the period of its existence during
Territorial days, and the depressing financial conditions as a result of
the war, and business reversals incident to the reconstruction period,
and its management was at all times conducted upon the theory of its
motto adopted by William Hetherington in an early day that “Safety
First” in all of its business transactions was the secret of success.

The bank’s first business home was in the Otis & Glick building,
opposite the Byram Hotel. In 1869 it was moved to the Hetherington
building, at the northwest corner of Fourth and Commercial streets.
Later on, and in 1885, the bank was moved to the southwest corner of
Sixth and Commercial streets, into the building erected by its
president, William Hetherington, where it has since been located.

In 1876, William Hetherington admitted into the firm, as a partner,
Webster W. Hetherington, his eldest son, and in 1881, Clifford S.
Hetherington, his youngest son, became associated with him. In the year
1882 the Hetherington Exchange Bank was incorporated under the laws of
Congress, as a National bank, under the name of The Exchange National
Bank of Atchison, with a paid-up capital of $100,000, and surplus of
$20,000, and at once took high rank as one of the strongest and most
conservative banks in northeastern Kansas, and has ever since maintained
that reputation.

The Exchange National Bank was organized with William Hetherington as
president, August Byram, vice-president, Webster W. Hetherington,
cashier, and C. S. Hetherington, assistant cashier. In 1890, upon the
death of its president, William Hetherington, Webster W. Hetherington
was elected president, B. P. Waggener, vice-president, and C. S.
Hetherington, cashier. In 1892, upon the death of its then president,
Webster W. Hetherington, B. P. Waggener was elected president, A. J.
Harwi, vice-president, W. P. Waggener, vice-president, C. S.
Hetherington, cashier, C. W. Ferguson, assistant cashier, and Webster
Wirt Hetherington, teller. In October, 1906, C. S. Hetherington, the
cashier, died, and C. W. Ferguson was elected cashier, and Webster Wirt
Hetherington, assistant cashier, and Edgar Mattocks, teller. In April
1907, the capital stock of the bank was increased to $200,000.00 with a
surplus of $50,000, and ex-Governor W. J. Bailey was elected vice-
president and managing officer of the bank, which position he has since
held. Upon the death of A. J. Harwi, his son, Frank E. Harwi, was
elected director, and succeeded his father, A. J. Harwi, as vice-
president, which position he now holds.

In 1892 the bank adopted a by-law, which prohibited any officer or
director of the bank from borrowing any money from it, or becoming an
endorser or surety on any obligation or note to the bank, since which
time no officer or director of the bank has been permitted to borrow any
of its funds on deposit. The wisdom of this by-law adopted in 1892 has
repeatedly been approved by the comptroller of the currency. The
management of the Exchange National Bank has adopted and adhered to this
policy, because it believes that a bank officer or director should not
be permitted, under any circumstances or in any emergency, to use any of
its deposits in any of his own personal speculations or ventures.

In February, 1914, Webster Wirt Hetherington was appointed cashier, and
Edgar Mattocks was elected assistant cashier, and George L. Wolfe,
teller.

While the bank is known far and wide throughout the State of Kansas for
its conservatism, yet it makes an effort to accommodate all business
institutions in the city of Atchison entitled to assistance and credit.
It aims to be a distinctive Atchison institution.

Luther C. Challiss appeared as a banker in the city directory of 1859
and 1861, operating his bank at the corner of Second and Commercial
streets, but not much is known of this institution.

First National Bank was organized on the first day of October, 1866, by
David Auld, with the following as the first board of directors: David
Auld, Henry Kuhn, H. H. Moulton, George Scarborough, C. G. Foster, D. C.
Newcomb, and J. M. Linley. David Auld was elected president, George
Scarborough, vice-president, and W. R. Stebbins as cashier. For thirty-
eight years this bank was under the careful and conservative management
of David Auld, who died in October, 1904, and was succeeded by his son,
David Auld, Jr. The bank began business in July, 1867, and since that
time has been one of the strongest financial institutions in the West.
It has always had the benefit of the services of experienced men in the
banking business, and has followed a conservative policy during the
whole of its existence. In 1910 the controlling interest in the First
National Bank was purchased by the Commercial State Bank, which was
organized in Atchison in 1906 by Sheffield Ingalls and O. A. Simmons. In
the merger that took place the Commercial State Bank was absorbed by the
First National Bank, and has continued under the latter name to maintain
its high standard of conservatism, and with the introduction of new
blood and new methods, it embarked upon a policy of service which has
redounded to the lasting benefit of the community. The present officials
of this institution are as follows: Edward Perdue, president; J. H.
Barry, chairman of the board; O. A. Simmons, first vice-president and
manager; J. M. Schott, second vice-president; Charles Linley, cashier;
George H. Edwards, assistant cashier; F. J. Ledoux, assistant cashier.

The directors represent varied business interests of this city and
county, and are as follows: Edward Perdue, J. H. Barry, O. A. Simmons,
Charles Linley, J. M. Schott, C. C. McCarthy, August Manglesdorf, Leo
Nusbaum, Sheffield Ingalls, A. E. Mize, M. Noll and W. T. Hutson.

The Atchison Savings Bank claims the distinction of being “The Oldest
State Bank in Kansas,” having enjoyed a continuous corporate existence
of over forty-six years.

R. A. Park was its organizer and first cashier, and in June, 1869, it
opened its doors for business in a brick one-story building at the
northwest corner of Fifth and Commercial streets. At that time most of
the business was centered close to the river, and this was considered
quite an “up town” location, but time has vindicated the judgment of its
early director in anticipating the westward growth of the town. With the
expectation of building thereon the bank early acquired title to the lot
at the southwest corner of Fifth and Commercial streets, but
subsequently disposed of it to the late Ex-Governor John A. Martin, who
built the _Champion_ building thereon, and the bank moved to its present
quarters, which it had acquired, and still owns, at the southeast corner
of Fifth and Commercial.

William C. Smith (father of Henry T. Smith) was the first president but
the late Judge A. G. Otis soon thereafter succeeded him and remained
president until 1891.

Thomas Murphy (father of John Murphy and one of the builders of the
present Cain Mill Company mill), W. W. Guthrie, Julius Kuhn, C. J.
Drury, Col. Wm. Osborn, J. W. Parker, and other men prominent in the
business and social life of that period were among its early
stockholders and directors, while for seventeen years the late T. C.
Platt served as teller, and by his affability and faculty of remembering
people, made many friends for the institution. A baseball bat, kept
under the counter, was his weapon for defending the funds in his care.
Courtney Challiss, George H. Lawton, “Vode” Kathrens, Lowenholt, O.
Orlopp and Will H. Bryning and others also served varying terms as early
employees and will be remembered for their distinctive personalities. An
apothecary’s scale for weighing gold dust was part of the early
equipment, but one trial was sufficient to prove the presence of too
much dust and too little gold in the commodity offered. For almost
twenty years the bank ran with but few restrictions from the State, the
law simply requiring it to file an annual statement of its capital,
surplus, etc., with list of stockholders and officers, and publish a
statement of its financial condition as of some one day in the year.
Needless to say the day selected was usually one on which the deposits,
loans and resources would make a satisfactory showing, but about 1890
the legislature enacted a banking law, which has since been several
times perfected by amendments, which brought this and all other State
banks under its provisions, and the supervision of a State bank
commissioner, with cast iron restrictions as to the relative amounts of
loans, cash reserves, etc., and although some of the requirements seemed
unduly severe to those accustomed to the former unrestrained exercise of
their own individual judgment, few would now deny that it was wise and
much needed legislation.

Following the retirement from the bank in 1891 of Judge Otis, Col.
William Osborn became president, serving until his death, when R. A.
Park succeeded to the office and served until his death in 1902. C. J.
Drury being elected his successor and giving the institution his
services for about a year, seconded by J. T. Hersey as vice-president,
but both these gentlemen then retired upon the acquisition of a majority
of the stock by Messrs. T. M. Walker, J. C. Fox and F. M. Baker. Of
later years the growth of the bank has been marked, the capital and
surplus having repeatedly been enlarged, and deposits and loans having
shown a corresponding increase. The late Theodore Bartholow added his
ripe experience as a successful banker to the board of directors, while
F. G. Crowell, Joseph W. Allen, William Carlisle, with Messrs. Walker,
Baker and Fox and others as stockholders and directors gave the
institution a State-wide prominence.

R. A. Park, the second, who resigned as vice-president in 1911 to engage
in business elsewhere, entered the bank in 1881; became cashier in 1892;
elected vice-president in 1910, being succeeded as cashier by F. M.
Woodford, who entered the bank’s employ in 1900 as bookkeeper.

C. W. Ferguson, formerly cashier of the Exchange National Bank, has
recently been elected a vice-president of the Savings Bank, and the
present officers and directors are as follows: T. M. Walker, president;
Joseph W. Allen, vice-president; C. W. Ferguson, vice-president; F. M.
Woodford, cashier; W. T. Fox, assistant cashier.

The German-American State Bank of Atchison was chartered May 15, 1912,
and began doing business June 21, 1912. Its original board of directors
was composed of Louis W. Voigt, Henry Klostermeier, William
Klostermeier, F. A. Manglesdorf, L. A. Libel, G. T. Bolman, and F. A.
Manglesdorf. Three months later the charter was amended and Charles
Haase and W. A. Dilgert were added to the board of directors. This bank
was organized with a capital stock of $50,000, and a surplus account of
$10,000. At the first meeting of the board of directors, the following
officers were elected: Louis W. Voigt, president; Henry Klostermeier,
vice-president; William Klostermeier, vice-president; F. A. Manglesdorf,
cashier.

At the time the membership of the board was increased, Guy Elwell was
elected assistant cashier. This bank occupies handsome quarters at the
southeast corner of Eighth and Commercial streets, and has shown a
remarkable growth since its organization. The only change in the board
of directors that has been made since its organization was the
substitution of E. F. Manglesdorf for his brother, A. F. Manglesdorf. At
the close of the first business day of the bank it had deposits
aggregating $25,000, and at the end of one year the deposits had
increased to $248,000, and at the end of the second year it was
$323,000, and at the end of the third year it was $425,000, and in 1915
it boasted of total deposits amounting to $525,000, with a surplus and
undivided account of $21,000. This bank has had an able set of officers,
and its directors are among the most influential and substantial
citizens of the community. It started in by making an aggressive
campaign for business, and it accomplished what it went after. The
institution is conducted along broad and conservative lines, and renders
not only good service to its many patrons, but to the community as well.

German Savings Bank.—This institution was organized in 1873, with the
following officers: George Storch, president; Robert Forbriger, vice-
president; John Belz, cashier.

The capital stock of the bank was $10,000 and its deposits were about
$100,000. It conducted a general banking business, together with a
regular savings department in connection therewith. This bank was
located at 406 Commercial street, and wound up its affairs in 1886, when
it was merged with the United States National Bank and the Dime Savings
Bank, both of which failed.

The Atchison National Bank.—This bank was organized April 1, 1873, by
John M. Price as president; M. Barratt as cashier. G. D. Harrison
succeeded Mr. Price as president, in which capacity he served until
1878, at which time he was succeeded by C. J. Drury, with R. H.
Ballentine as vice-president. When this bank commenced business it had a
capital of $100,000, but in 1877 it was reduced to $50,000. It was
located for many years at 503 Commercial street, afterwards moving to
what is now the Simpson building, in the corner occupied by the Barth
Clothing Company, where it failed in 19—.

The Atchison State Bank.—This bank was organized prior to 1891, and went
into voluntary liquidation March 24, 1898, at which time John M. Cain
was president and cashier, and John H. Murray was secretary. It was
located on West Main street, near the corner of Thirteenth street.

The Commercial State bank was chartered September 8, 1906, and began
business October 31 of the same year, and subsequently merged with the
First National Bank March 24, 1910.

The Union Trust Company was chartered February 28, 1907, and was
organized by B. P. Waggener, with a paid-up capital stock of $100,000.
March 24, 1909, his charter was amended and it became the Exchange State
Bank of Atchison, the officers of which are: F. E. Harwi, president, and
Edward Iverson, cashier. This bank has a paid-up capital of $50,000,
with surplus and undivided profits of $34,776.91, with average deposits
of $350,000. It is one of the strong State banking institutions of
Kansas, and is doing a prosperous business.

Atchison county has a number of strong, flourishing banks, located at
Effingham, Muscotah, Potter, Huron, Lancaster and Cummings.

The Farmers and Merchants State Bank, at Effingham, was organized in
1905, with a capital of $12,000 by A. J. Smith, U. B. Sharpless, Fred
Sutter, R. M. Thomas and J. W. Davis. Since its organization there have
been a few changes among the officers and the board of directors, and in
1915 the officers were: Fred Sutter, president; L. T. Hawk, vice-
president; E. J. Kelley, cashier; D. R. Gerety, assistant cashier. The
present board of directors is as follows: Fred Sutter, L. T. Hawk, Alex.
McKay, U. B. Sharpless, E. J. Kelley.

The capital stock and surplus in 1915 exceeds $15,000, and the bank’s
average deposits are about $120,000. In 1910 a handsome and commodious
brick building was erected at the corner of Main and Howard streets for
its new home, and it was fitted with attractive new fixtures and a
burglar-proof vault of modern structures, at a cost of $4,000. This
institution is purely a local concern, financed by local capital; all of
the stockholders reside in Effingham and vicinity, and comprise leading
merchants and farmers of the Effingham district.

The State Bank of Effingham was organized in 1889, and occupies its own
quarters in a substantial and commodious brick building on the Main
street of Effingham, which was erected in 1897. In 1912 handsome new
fixtures and a burglar-proof vault were purchased at large cost. The
first president of this bank was Wesley Cummings, and the first cashier
was Gilbert Campbell, with Harvey Sharp as assistant cashier and
bookkeeper. Mr. Cummings continued as president until his death in 1899,
and was succeeded by L. A. Murphy, who in turn was succeeded by T. J.
Bohannon, who served until his death, August 29, 1915. A. M. Ellsworth
became cashier in 1892, and was succeeded by W. M. Walker, who served in
that capacity until 1905, when he is turn was succeeded by Clarence L.
Cummings, the present cashier of this substantial and growing
institution. The president officers of the bank are as follows: R. G.
Bohannon, president; A. E. Mayhew, vice-president; C. L. Cummings,
cashier; Carl B. Searls, bookkeeper. The directors are: H. A. McLenon,
A. E. Mayhew, R. G. Bohannon and C. L. Cummings. The capital stock is
$20,000, with surplus of $13,500 and deposits average $100,000. This
institution is one of the most flourishing banks in the county, and its
officers and directors are substantial business men and farmers, who are
not only highly regarded in Effingham and vicinity, but throughout all
of northeastern Kansas.

The State Bank of Lancaster was organized March, 1896, by W. W. Stepp,
Mark S. Cloyes, C. L. Cummings, T. J. Bohannon, and Dr. A. L. Charles.
T. J. Bohannon was elected its first president, and C. L. Cummings its
first cashier. It had a capital stock of $5,000, which subsequently was
increased to $10,000, and in 1915 it had a surplus of $5,000, with
deposits aggregating $80,000. The present directors of this bank are as
follows (1915): M. J. Hines, C. E. Smith, A. J. Smith, J. F. Shell and
M. E. Smith, and its present officers are: M. J. Hines, president; C. E.
Smith, vice-president; A. J. Smith, cashier, and C. G. Stickler,
assistant cashier.

The State Bank of Cummings was organized by H. J. Barber and E. W.
Kaufman in 1908, with a capital stock of $10,000. E. W. Kaufman was
elected president; B. F. Cline, vice-president, and H. J. Barber,
cashier. The capital stock in 1915 was $10,000, with a surplus of $5,000
and deposits aggregating $60,000. A neat and substantial brick building
was erected for banking quarters and equipped with handsome fixtures and
burglar-proof vault, at a cost of $3,500. The officers of the bank in
1916 were as follows: President, John Ferris; cashier, H. J. Barber, and
the directors were John Ferris, H. J. Barber, C. A. Lewis, William
Hegarty and F. W. Kaufman. The bank is in a thrifty condition, and has
shown a steady increase in growth from the date of its organization.

The Farmers’ State Bank of Potter, Kan., was organized in 1905 by B. C.
Daum, C. K. Hawley, P. C. Grenier, Arthur Davis, James Grapengieszer,
Fred Potter, John Niemann, C. L. Cline, J. H. Glancy, who subsequently
became directors of this enterprising institution. The capital stock was
fixed at $12,000 and the first president of the bank was B. C. Daum, and
the first cashier was C. K. Hawley. There are thirty-two stockholders in
this institution, who are practically all farmers, residing in the
immediate neighborhood of Potter. In 1916 the officers were as follows:
President, P. C. Grenier; cashier, A. H. Manglesdorf; vice-president, C.
E. Hudson, and the capital stock was $12,000, with a surplus of $5,500
and deposits aggregating $80,000.

It is unusual to find two substantial banking institutions in a town the
size of Potter, as it is supposed that one bank in such a community
would meet all the requirements of its citizens.

The Potter State Bank preceded the organization of the Farmers’ State
Bank five years. It was organized in 1900 by O. A. Simmons, L. M. Jewell
and Fred Ode, with a capital stock of $5,000. O. A. Simmons remained the
active cashier and manager of the bank for two years, being succeeded by
L. M. Jewell in 1902, who served until 1906. Mr. Jewell was succeeded by
H. A. Ode. A new brick building was erected for this very enterprising
financial institution in 1909, and equipped with new modern fixtures and
a fine burglar-proof vault. The capital stock of this bank in 1916 was
$10,000, with a surplus of $10,000 and deposits aggregating $125,000.
The officers for that year were as follows: President, L. M. Jewell;
vice-president, Fred Ode; cashier, H. A. Ode, and in addition to the
officers, the following prominent farmers of Walnut and Mount Pleasant
townships are directors: C. N. Faulcomer, C. W. Carson, E. H. Blodgett
and Adam Ehart. There are over seventeen stockholders, all of whom are
prosperous and well to do farmers, living in the vicinity of Potter.
This bank has grown rapidly, both in prestige and strength since its
organization, and its average net annual profits since its organization
have been about $2,000.

The Muscotah State Bank was organized by George Storch in 1870, as a
private bank, who remained in charge until about 1890, when Mr. Storch
sold his interest to Harvey and Calvert. This firm conducted the bank as
a private institution until about January 1, 1902, when it was organized
into a State bank, with A. B. Harvey, president, and J. H. Calvert,
cashier. Mr. Harvey remained president until about 1910, and in that
year C. C. Hart became its cashier. The officers of this institution in
1916 were as follows: A. D. Wilcox, president; C. C. Hart, vice-
president; R. A. Allison, cashier. The directors are: A. D. Wilcox, C.
C. Hart, A. H. Calvert, M. E. Bevens, R. A. Allison and Thomas Ryan. The
capital stock is $10,000.00, with a surplus of $10,000.00, and deposits
aggregating $100,000.00. This institution is the oldest bank outside of
the city of Atchison, and remains today one of the most substantial
financial institutions in this part of the State.

The Huron State Bank was organized in 1891, with a capital stock of
$10,000. The first directors were Edward Perdue, John Swartz, John
Drohan, John English, David Rouse, David Rouse, Jr., and T. B. Marshall.
Its first officers were Edward Perdue, president; John Swartz, vice-
president, and W. C. McLain, cashier. This is one of the substantial
banks of the county, and showed by one of its last statements a capital
stock of $10,000, with surplus fund of $5,000.00 and deposits
aggregating $80,000.00. Its officers in 1916 are as follows: Edward
Perdue, president; David Rouse, Jr., vice-president, C. E. Smith,
cashier, and Cloyd Smith, assistant cashier. In addition to the
officers, T. B. Smith, Jr., is the fifth director.

Mr. Perdue, who is the president of this bank, is one of the leading
citizens of Atchison county, and in addition to being president of the
Huron bank, is also president of the First National Bank of Atchison.

C. E. Smith, the cashier, is also one of the well known and most
conservative bankers of the State, and the officers and directors of
this institution have reason to be proud of the splendid growth and
standing of their institution.

The Farmers State Bank of Muscotah was organized and opened for business
February 21, 1910, with a capital stock of $10,000. It now has a surplus
and undivided account of approximately $5,000, and its deposits average
$70,000. The first directors were L. Cortelyou, A. T. Cortelyou, L.
Cortelyou, Jr., and H. M. Turner, who came from Moberly, Mo. W. M.
Walker, of Atchison, was one of the organizers of this institution, but
he sold his interest a few weeks after organization and was succeeded by
William Buckles on the board of directors. L. Cortelyou was elected
president, and H. M. Turner, cashier, and they have continued as the
active officers of the bank. The present board of directors consists of
L. Cortelyou, William Buckles, M. C. Vansell, John Sullivan, J. W. A.
Miller and H. M. Turner. As this history is written it is said that
there has been a consolidation of the two Muscotah banks, under the name
of the Farmers State Bank. A charter has been granted and the new
institution will have a capital of $15,000. L. Cortelyou is to be the
president, H. M. Turner, cashier, and Ralph Allison, assistant cashier.
The bank will continue to occupy the present quarters of the Farmers
State Bank, and the merger, when effected, will give Muscotah one of the
best banks in the county.

The Commerce Trust Company of Atchison, with a paid-up capital stock of
$100,000, received its charter from the State February 11, 1916. The
first meeting of the board of directors was held in the office of the
Commerce Investment Company on the evening of February 19, 1916, at
which time the following officers were elected: President, Sheffield
Ingalls; vice-presidents, Henry Diegel, A. J. Schoenecker, M. J. Horan;
treasurer, Ellsworth Ingalls; secretary, Frank H. Manglesdorf; trust
officer, H. A. Schoenecker; general counsel, J. M. Challiss. The
following named citizens were the first directors of the company: H. A.
Schoenecker, Henry Diegel, J. C. Killarney, O. A. Simmons, A. J.
Schoenecker, Ellsworth Ingalls, T. E. Snowden, Clive Hastings, M. J.
Horan, F. H. Manglesdorf, H. E. Muchnic and Sheffield Ingalls. The
company is a development of the Commerce Investment Company, established
in 1910, and does a general trust business, as provided by the laws of
Kansas. It began business March 2, 1916.



                              CHAPTER XVI.
                               CHURCHES.

  METHODIST—CHRISTIAN—PRESBYTERIAN—BAPTIST—SALEM CHURCH—GERMAN
      EVANGELICAL ZION CHURCH—FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST—ST.
      PATRICK’S, MT. PLEASANT—TRINITY CHURCH, EPISCOPAL—ST. MARK’S,
      ENGLISH LUTHERAN—ST. BENEDICT’S ABBEY—FIRST GERMAN EVANGELICAL
      LUTHERAN CHURCH.


Methodism was introduced into Atchison by the Rev. James Shaw, who had
been a prominent member of the Detroit conference, both as pastor and
missionary among the Indians along the Lake Superior district, and also
as presiding elder. Being in poor health and desiring a new location, he
came to Leavenworth in March, 1856, and finding that Leavenworth was
already provided with a pastor, he proceeded to Atchison. He did not
find Atchison very friendly toward preachers when he arrived, and the
Pardee Butler incident was fresh in the minds of the people at that
time. So the Rev. Mr. Shaw went farther north, to Doniphan and Geary
City, which were Free State towns. He soon thereafter went to Detroit
for his family, and soon after his return to Geary City, he was
appointed as pastor at Atchison and Monrovia. He preached his first
sermon in May, 1857, in the office of S. C. Pomeroy, which was located
on the corner of Third and Commercial streets, and this was the first
sermon from the lips of a preacher of any denomination that was
delivered in Atchison. He organized the Methodist Episcopal church in
January, 1858, with members from various denominations. The first
services were held in a room in the building on the southeast corner of
Second and Commercial streets. He later raised $2,000 for a new church
building, S. C. Pomeroy, O. F. Short and Robert McBratney each pledging
$500, on condition that the new building should be located on the north
side of Parallel street, near Fifth street.

Rev. I. F. Collins succeeded Mr. Shaw, and Rev. C. H. Lovejoy, who had
been preaching at Lawrence for two years, was sent to Sumner. Upon the
arrival of Mr. Collins, he at once began the erection of the new church
building on Parallel street, the two lots on which the building was
subsequently erected being donated by the Atchison Town Company. The
trustees of the church at that time were: John T. Dougherty, Edwin O.
Collins, Archie C. Master, David F. Beagle, William A. Butler, Joseph H.
Gilbert, Robert Hancock, Cyrus A. Comstock and Calvin W. Phelps. The
church building was completed in April, 1859, and was fifty-eight feet
long and thirty-two feet wide. It had a seating capacity of 350 people,
and cost $3,075. The structure was dedicated May 8, 1859, and Rev. Hugh
D. Fisher, the famous Free State Methodist preacher, came up from
Leavenworth and assisted in the dedication. During the first year in the
new church, two young men came to Atchison, who afterwards became
successful and honored citizens of the town, Samuel Gard and D. C.
Newcomb. They subsequently formed a partnership and conducted a drygoods
store under the name of Gard & Newcomb, which for many years remained
one of the leading firms of the city. Mr. Gard died many years ago, and
in 1915 Mr. Newcomb still lives. The Methodist church, perhaps, owes
more to D. C. Newcomb than any other man who was ever identified with
it. His money, business sagacity and consecration have made possible the
success of Methodism in Atchison. His motto has always been, “It is safe
to do right, and unsafe to do wrong.”

Butcher, Auld & Dean, famous contractors of an early day, who built the
first railroad between Atchison and St. Joseph, with their families,
united with the Methodist church and became stanch supporters of it. J.
C. Reisner, who came to Atchison in 1858, and his wife, Rebecca, were
also prominent early members of the church. They built the Tremont
House, which for a great many years was the leading hotel, located where
the Burlington freight house now stands. Rev. Dr. Christian F. Reisner,
pastor of Grace Church, New York City, was the youngest son of Mr. and
Mrs. Reisner. The fourth session of the Kansas-Nebraska conference,
which met in Omaha in May, 1859, returned Rev. Collins to Atchison, and
during that year Mr. and Mrs. John M. Crowell and the McCulley brothers
united with the church. In December, 1859, Abraham Lincoln, on his visit
to Kansas, spoke in the little church edifice on Parallel street,
reference to which has already been made in this history. In the fifth
session of the Kansas-Nebraska conference, Rev. Milton Mahen was
appointed to Atchison. It was a critical period in the history of the
town, and the Rev. Mahen was admonished to be very cautious on the
question of slavery, but he had courage and patriotism enough to order
the Stars and Stripes hoisted on his church. That year T. B. Davis and
his wife, Kathryn, came to Atchison and became useful members. “Grandma”
Davis is living in 1916, and on February 21, 1915, celebrated her
ninetieth birthday. Owing to the great drought that visited Atchison in
1860, the church did not prosper greatly during the period of Mr.
Mahen’s pastorate, but in the succeeding session of the Kansas
conference, which met March 21, 1861, Mr. Mahen was returned to
Atchison, and it was during this year that a severe storm, which
destroyed Sumner, wrecked the church building so that extensive repairs
were necessary. In the seventh session of the Kansas conference, March,
1862, the Rev. Mr. James Shaw was returned to Atchison.

W. M. Davies was the superintendent of the Sunday school, having been
elected in 1859. In 1863 Rev. W. Marlatt was appointed for Atchison, and
March 10, 1864, Mr. Marlatt was succeeded by Dr. W. R. Davis, who had
been president of Baker University. Rev. Mr. Davis was retained in
March, 1865, by the tenth session of the conference, and was succeeded
by Rev. W. K. Marshall. Mr. Marshall was returned to Atchison in 1867,
and in March, 1868, Rev. Hugh D. Fisher, who was known during the war as
the “fighting chaplain,” was made pastor at Atchison. He found
conditions rather discouraging, but went to work to pay off the debts on
the church property and repair the building. He created a great deal of
interest in the town in religious matters, and the little church
building on Parallel street having become too small, two lots on the
corner of Fifth and Kansas avenue were purchased in 1870, and the
basement of the present building was erected and dedicated by Dr.
Fisher, who remained pastor of the church for three years. Dr. Fisher
was one of the strong preachers of Kansas in that day, and a strong
anti-slavery sympathizer. He built the church at Leavenworth in 1859,
which was one of the famous churches of the State, and popularly known
as the cradle of prohibition. He was in Lawrence when Quantrell sacked
the town, and after an eventful life as pastor, chaplain and missionary,
Dr. Fisher died at Baldwin, Kan., October 23, 1905.

Rev. T. J. Leak succeeded Mr. Fisher, and it was during Mr. Leak’s
pastorate that the new church was dedicated, October 26, 1873. Three
years later the Rev. Mr. Leak was succeeded by Dr. George S. Dearborn.
Rev. William Friend succeeded Dr. Dearborn in March, 1876, who was
succeeded by E. W. Van Deventer. Dr. Philipp Krohn became pastor in
1882. He was succeeded by Rev. A. H. Tevis. Dr. J. W. Alderman came to
Atchison in 1887 and remained until March, 1893, and was succeeded by
Dr. E. H. Brumbaugh, who became pastor in March, 1893. Rev. S. V. Leach
followed Dr. Brumbaugh in 1897, who in turn was succeeded by Rev. G. W.
Grines, and since that time Dr. H. E. Wolf, Rev. W. T. Stott, Dr. I. B.
Pulliam and Dr. John W. Scott filled the pulpit of the church down to
the year 1914, when Rev. Thomas E. Chandler, who for five years previous
had been superintendent of the Ottawa district, became pastor of the
church. Dr. Chandler is one of the best informed, most eloquent and
beloved pastors the church has ever had. He is not only popular among
his own church people, but has made numerous friends outside his fold.
In September, 1915, through the efforts of Dr. Chandler, assisted by Dr.
C. F. Reisner, pastor of Grace Church, New York City, together with C.
D. Walker and others, $42,000 was raised for the erection of a new
church. When it is completed it will be one of the finest church
edifices in Kansas.


                               CHRISTIAN.

The Christian church was organized in Pioneer Hall, corner of Kansas
avenue and Fourth street, May 20, 1882, with twenty-four charter
members. At the end of the first year there were fifty-five members, and
in April, 1884, the church was incorporated under the laws of Kansas.
The first church edifice was located at the corner of Tenth street and
Kansas avenue, and was dedicated May 24, 1885, at a cost of $2,604. The
building was much enlarged during the ministry of W. H. White. In 1912,
the congregation having outgrown its old building, agitation for a new
building was started, and a new site was selected at Seventh and Santa
Fe streets, and on August 19, 1914, a beautiful new church was
dedicated, which cost $47,000. The church also owns a lot adjoining the
church, upon which a parsonage will be erected. The present membership
is 1,400, and the Bible school is next to the largest in the State. The
Sunday school is thoroughly graded, with eight departments, sixty-five
officers and teachers, with H. P. Armstrong, superintendent. The church
has thirty deacons and elders.

The records show that as early as 1869 the Christian church had
followers in this community, and among the pastors who served in the
early days were William C. Rodgers, James E. Gaston and C. C. Band. The
early congregation went so far as to purchase a lot at the corner of
Seventh and Santa Fe streets, opposite the present new edifice, and a
foundation was laid for a building, but the plan had to be abandoned
because of lack of funds.

Miss Etta Beason, of Atchison, and T. D. McCleery, of Effingham, are the
two surviving charter members.

The names of the pastors who have served the church since 1882 are as
follows: M. P. Hayden, W. S. Priest, J. S. Myers, Rev. Cox, W. H. White,
Lowell McPherson, Rev. Ingram, M. E. Harlan, E. L. Ely, W. T. Hilton, Z.
E. Bates. The present pastor of the church is Rev. Jesse M Bader, one of
the most popular, aggressive and conscientious ministers in Atchison.

[Illustration:

  White Temple Christian Church, Atchison, Kan.
]


                             PRESBYTERIAN.

The First Presbyterian Church was organized October 21, 1858, by a
committee from the Presbytery of Highland, Rev. Alexander W. Pitzer, of
Leavenworth, chairman. The number of persons entering into the
organization on that day was eight. Their names were as follows: William
M. Davies, Mary Davies, George B. Irwin, Rebecca Irwin, Annie Love,
Andrew Hamilton, Maximilla Ireland and Edward Hair. The following
persons have served the church as ministers: Rev. Julius Spencer, from
April, 1858, for about eighteen months; Rev. H. H. Dobbins, for seven
months, from September, 1863; Rev. T. P. Lemis commenced his labors in
April, 1865, and continued with the church until February, 1868; Rev.
Edward Cooper had charge of the church from December, 1868, until
December, 1875; Rev. J. H. Clark officiated as pastor from March, 1876,
until June, 1878; Rev. M. L. Howie began his labors in November, 1878,
and continued with the church until November, 1882: he died in Chicago
in August, 1913; Rev. D. C. Milner began his work in December, 1882, and
continued with the church until September 23, 1887: Rev. M. L. Howie
(second term), November 11, 1887, to 1897: Rev. J. D. Countermine, from
1897 to 1899; Rev. B. F. Boyle came February 25, 1900, and continued as
pastor until in the fall of 1911. Rev. W. I. Alexander came in November,
1911, and continued his labors until September, 1914. Rev. W. C. Isett
was called in September, 1915.

[Illustration:

  Presbyterian Church at Atchison, Kan.
]

For some months after its organization the church had no regular
minister and services were held in a store room, hall and private
residences. For a time the church held meetings in Bang’s Hall on
Commercial street, and in Price’s Hall, on the corner of Fourth and Main
streets. During the pastorate of Rev. Lewis, the building on Fourth
street, between Commercial and Main streets, known as “the Presbyterian
hall,” was erected, and the congregation commenced using it as a place
of worship in 1865. The congregation began the erection of the present
church building in 1880. The corner stone was laid on September 15 of
that year. About the time of beginning the building, Mrs. S. Donald,
Mrs. Judge Berry, Mrs. C. A. Stuart and Mrs. A. J. North canvassed the
city and secured large subscriptions to the building fund. The building
committee consisted of A. W. Simpson, A. F. Martin and J. M. Covert. The
elders in 1880 were as follows: A. B. McQueen, A. J. North, J. M.
Covert, J. W. Allen, J. S. Trimble, and Harry Harkness. The deacons in
the same year were as follows: B. F. Hudson, J. Edward Lewis, S. D. D.
Smith and D. M. Wynkoop. The trustees were as follows: B. F. Hudson,
president; A. F. Martin, secretary; David Lukens, treasurer; E. K.
Blair, R. B. Drury, A. W. Simpson, S. D. D. Smith. Officers of the
Sunday school were as follows: A. F. Martin, superintendent; J. M.
Covert, assistant superintendent, and J. E. Lewis, secretary and
treasurer. Officers of the Ladies’ Aid Society were as follows: Mrs. A.
J. North, president; Mrs. W. C. North, secretary; Mrs. E. K. Blair,
treasurer. Young Ladies’ Society: Miss May Seaton, president; Miss Tola
Thomas, secretary; Miss Nellie George, treasurer. In the year 1858 the
persons active in the church at that time were: Mrs. Thomas Seip, Mr.
and Mrs. William Davis, Mr. and Mrs. A. B. McQueen. The first
deaconesses were: Mrs. C. J. Parmenter and Miss Anna J. North, ordained
in 1888.


                                BAPTIST.

The First Baptist Church of Atchison was organized in 1858, in Allen’s
Hall, on the northwest corner of Second and Commercial streets. At the
time of the organization there were but nine members, of whom three are
still living and members of the church, though non-resident: Mrs. L. A.
Alderson, Mrs. Aaron Stephenson and Mrs. Mary A. Challiss. Dr. W. L.
Challiss was soon added to the membership. The lots on the corner of
Ninth street and Kansas avenue were donated by Luther C. Challiss, and a
house of worship was erected upon it, and this location has been the
home of the church ever since.

Rev. L. A. Alderson was the first pastor of the church, and he served
faithfully three years without salary. Then followed Rev. Dr. Perkins
from New Jersey, and Rev. Frank Remington.

Just at this time the troubles of the war came on and very little could
be accomplished. Rev. J. W. Warder became pastor in 1866 and the church
grew strong under his ministry. Rev. H. A. Guild successfully served the
church for a time in 1868. Rev. J. Sawyer accepted the pastorate, and
then Rev. E. Gunn.

Rev. J. W. Luke was pastor directly before Rev. Mulford. He baptized
some of our best workers and did excellent and permanent work for the
church.

The twenty-fifth anniversary was fittingly celebrated at the home of
Mrs. John M. Price, and a silver offering was received toward a new
building which came soon after, under the pastorate of Rev. J. B.
Mulford, who was called to his reward from here.

Rev. D. D. Proper followed and Rev. E. P. Brand and Rev. G. W. Rogers,
all of whom served the church under great difficulties. There was a
heavy debt left upon the new building, which was drawing a high rate of
interest, and the constant calls for money which was paid with
apparently no returns, discouraged the membership. Still, the pastors
resolutely worked at the great task. Rev. G. W. Rogers undertook to
raise $5,000 of the mortgage, and B. P. Waggener, who had always been a
generous contributor, gave $2,000, and made a liberal loan besides. Not
long after Rev. Rogers was called to another field, and again the church
had a pastorless period, but greatly enjoyed the ministrations of the
late Dr. Murphy. Rev. J. R. Comer was called to the pastorate June 1,
1895, and faithfully served the church twelve years. Much of the money
pledged during Dr. Rogers’ pastorate was paid in or collected while Rev.
J. R. Comer was pastor. Then the remaining $1,500 mortgage and all other
debts were bravely taken up and paid, and the church celebrated its
victory in burning the mortgage and a general rejoicing, and also a firm
determination never to go deeply in debt again.

During the present pastorate of more than eight years the church has
strictly followed this rule, but this has not prevented some large
purchases. In 1909 the church purchased and placed a new pipe organ at a
cost of $4,500, and two years later purchased the property adjoining the
church on the west for the accommodation of the growing Sunday school.
This was done at a cost of $5,500 for property and furniture, and the
money was raised at a Sunday morning service. It is in the minds of many
of the members of the church that in the near future there must be a new
church building, and to that end over $6,000 has been accumulated and is
being held for the time when the membership of the church shall be ready
to erect a structure that shall be worthy of the city and an honor to
God.

The work of the church has grown and developed and every department has
accepted a larger share in work, local and world-wide. Last year the
church contributed over $1,200 for missionary and benevolent work,
besides some gifts which did not pass through the church treasury.

The church stands for a strong and helpful and constructive religious
work, and a faithful adherence to the teachings of the Bible, and a
loyalty to the Lordship of Christ. The present pastor is Rev. A. J.
Haggett, who has served his congregation long and well.


                             SALEM CHURCH.

The Evangelical Association located a mission in Atchison in 1882, with
Rev. C. Brandt as the first missionary. A number of German families were
gathered and signified their willingness to effect a church
organization. Accordingly, a hall was rented at 614 Commercial street
and services held. In 1884 the organization numbered forty-seven
members, and the Kansas conference of the Evangelical Association at its
annual session in 1884 decided to build a church at this time. Rev.
Daniel R. Zellner was appointed pastor, and Rev. John Wuerth, presiding
elder of the Holton district. During the pastorate of Rev. D. R. Zellner
in 1884 the church was built at 522 Atchison street, and dedicated by
Rev. John Wuerth, presiding elder, as the Salem church of the
Evangelical Association, and service has continued uninterruptedly ever
since. Following are the ministers who served consecutively as pastors:
Rev. C. Brandt, D. R. Zellner, C. Brant, second pastorate; C. F.
Erffmeyer, Samuel Mueller, Jacob Schmidle, John Wuerth, C. F. Iwig,
Peter Scheumann, D. R. Zellner, third pastorate; Charles Linge, F. F.
Erffmeyer, D. R. Zellner, fourth pastorate. L. M. Nanninga, J. M.
Fricker, Samuel Breithaupt, present pastor (1916).

The following served as presiding elders during the past thirty-four
years: John Wuerth, Henry Mattill, J. F. Schreiber, Albert Brunner, C.
F. Erffmeyer, W. F. Wothensen and C. F. Iwig. The Evangelical
Association was organized as a denomination in 1800, with Jacob
Allbright as its founder.

Originally, the language used was German, but in the past half century
the German language was rapidly superseded by the English language. At
this time there are very few congregations in the denomination that
worship in the German language exclusively. The services in the
Evangelical church in this city for the past few years are conducted in
English.

This society maintains a well organized Sunday school, with weekly
sessions every Sunday at 10 o’clock a. m. G. W. Bradley is
superintendent; a Young People’s Alliance, E. B. Breithaupt, president,
and a Woman’s Missionary Society, Mrs. Samuel Breithaupt, president.
This organization maintains free pews and extends an invitation to
strangers when in the city to worship with them.


                    GERMAN EVANGELICAL ZION CHURCH.

In the summer of 1893 a number of men, among them Rev. Nestel, of St.
Joseph, Mo., who had received a special invitation, met at the home of
August Manglesdorf, Sr., and organized a German Evangelical
congregation. It was decided to have services in Odd Fellows hall. Rev.
Nestel came over from St. Joe from time to time and conducted the
services. In January, 1894, Rev. C. Stork, of Concordia, Mo., took
charge of the congregation as their first own pastor. In 1894 two lots
of land, at the northwest corner of Ninth and Santa Fe streets, were
bought, upon which the church was built. In 1895 the congregation became
a member of the German Evangelical Synod of North America. In the same
year the parsonage was erected, and in 1908 a school building was added
to the church. Besides Rev. Stork, the following ministers served the
congregation: H. Limper, 1897 to 1901; C. Bechtold, 1901 to 1905; P.
Stoerker, from 1905 to 1909, and Emil Vogt, the present pastor. Besides
the annual donations for their own church, the members have spent $2,000
for home and foreign missions. The church has a Sunday school, a
teachers’ training course, a choir, a Young People’s Society, and a
Ladies’ Aid Society.


                   FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST.

[Illustration:

  First Church of Christ Scientist, Atchison, Kan.
]

Mrs. Henrietta E. Graybill, of Milwaukee, might properly be called the
founder of the First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Atchison. She was
the original first reader when she came to Atchison from Kansas City in
1894. In March, 1895, she began a class in instruction at the Byram
Hotel. This was the beginning of the local church. On September 7, 1895,
the followers met in temporary quarters in the Ingalls’ building, at
Seventh and Commercial streets, seven being present. The church was
organized April 9, 1895, with seven charter members. The first
testimonial meeting was held January 3, 1896, and January 15, 1896, the
first Sunday school was organized, with seven children in attendance.
Before the end of 1896 the church was moved to more commodious quarters,
at the southeast corner of Fourth and Commercial streets. These quarters
were soon outgrown, and in March, 1897, the German Methodist church at
Ninth and Santa Fe streets was purchased and the first services held
there were on July 4, 1897. This church was dedicated in April, 1900, by
Mrs. G. W. Pennell, who had become first reader, and from the start had
been a constant and enthusiastic worker. Ten years later, March 28,
1910, lots at the northwest corner of Fourth and Santa Fe streets were
purchased, as a site for the permanent church. Land was secured and the
foundation started September 11, 1911; corner stone was laid July 7,
1912, and first services held in the Sunday school room May 25, 1913.
First services were held in the auditorium September 7, 1913, and the
church dedicated October 19, 1913. Among the permanent members of the
church are Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Pennell, Mr. and Mrs. James W. Orr, L. H.
Munson, Miss N. S. Donald and Miss Emma Maage, the first reader, and D.
W. Rowe.

The present church edifice was erected largely through the liberality of
Mr. Pennell, at a cost of $50,000, and is pronounced an architectural
gem.


                      ST. PATRICK’S, MT. PLEASANT.

St. Patrick’s congregation, near Mt. Pleasant, was founded in the early
fall of 1857, by the Rev. Father Augustine Wirth, O. S. B. He came from
Doniphan, Kan., over the prairies and through dense timber on foot, not
having the means to buy a horse or secure any kind of a conveyance, in
the summer of 1857. The Benedictine Fathers had been sent west by an
American founder, Rt. Rev. Boniface Wimmer, O. S. B., to establish a
priory in the eastern part of Kansas. They settled in the hills of
Doniphan, and from this county they founded and attended missions in
Atchison, Brown, Nemaha and Jefferson counties. Among the first parishes
established by these priests was one near Mt. Pleasant. Mt. Pleasant at
that time was quite a commercial center, owing largely to the overland
freighting outfits that passed through there on their way to Denver and
the Pacific coast. Patrick Durkin, who is a resident of Walnut township
in 1916, and the late John Delaney were teamsters on this route, and had
many interesting experiences and struggles with Indians and Jayhawkers.
Following the first visit of Father Augustine, after he had told the few
Catholic settlers how he had traveled on foot from Doniphan, a small
congregation collected enough money to pay for a horse, saddle and
bridle, and presented it to him.

Father Augustine attended to the spiritual demands of the early Catholic
settlers in the Mt. Pleasant district about once a month during the
period of his services there. There was no church edifice during that
period, and divine services were held in the humble log cabins of the
Catholic settlers, usually at the homes of John Knowles, Owen Grady, Ned
Cotter, Bernard Fee and James McArdle. Mary Honorah Clare was the first
child baptized at St. Patrick’s parish, September 28, 1857. The first
marriage was that of James Barry to Catherine Hennesy, May 9, 1857, at
the home of Edward Cotter. The ceremony was conducted by Rev. Augustine
Wirth. In the fall of 1857 the first church was built, which was a small
affair, constructed out of native timber. It was poorly constructed and
was of short duration, as it was blown down by a strong wind one cold
winter day, and wrecked beyond repair. Following the destruction of the
first church, the members concluded to build a more substantial edifice
of stone, and in the spring of 1866 the walls were built. The stone work
was done by the late Nicholas Greiner, a German stone mason, who came to
Sumner in the late fifties, and subsequently died, one of the wealthiest
farmers of Walnut township. The church was dedicated December 8, 1866.

In addition to the church proper, the Catholic settlers of Walnut
township, near Mt. Pleasant, have also erected a commodious parish house
for their priest, and a hall for public meetings.

The following is a list of the priests in charge of St. Patrick’s Church
since it was established:

Irregular pastors.—Rev. Augustine Wirth, O. S. B., September, 1857, to
November, 1859; died, December 20, 1901. Rev. Edmund Langenfelder, O. S.
B., November, 1857, to December, 1860; died, April 18, 1885. Rev. Philip
Vogt, O. S. B., February, 1860, to January, 1861; date of death not
known. Rev. Emanuel Hartig, O. S. B., December, 1860, to June, 1861;
died, September 1, 1910. Rev. Thomas Bartel, O. S. B., April, 1862, to
August, 1867; died, November 30, 1885.

Regular pastors.—Rev. Timothy Luber, O. S. B., January, 1864, to March,
1871. Rev. Placidus McKeever, O. S. B., March, 1871, to August, 1873;
died, September 22, 1896. Rev. Maurice Lynch, O. S. B., August, 1873, to
August, 1875; died, December 13, 1887. Rev. Eugene Bode, O. S. B.,
August, 1875, to April, 1880. Rev. Raymond Danial, O. S. B., April,
1880, to September, 1880; died, September 25, 1910. Rev. Peter Kassens,
O. S. B., September, 1880, to April, 1881. Rev. Adolph Wesseling, O. S.
B., April, 1881, to April, 1883; died, September 24, 1891. Rev. Urban
Tracy, O. S. B., April, 1883, to April, 1885; died, May 13, 1915. Rev.
Timothy Luber, O. S. B., April, 1885, to April, 1890; died, March 29,
1901. Rev. Augustine Baker, O. S. B., April, 1890, to December, 1893;
died, June 23, 1909. Rev. Thomas Burk. O. S. B., December, 1893, to
December, 1897. Rev. Columban Meaney, O. S. B., December, 1897, to
December, 1910; died, January 8, 1911. Rev. Ignatius Stein, O. S. B.,
January, 1911, to September, 1912. Rev. Lawrence Theis. O. S. B.,
September, 1912, to September, 1913. Rev. Robert Salmon, O. S. B.,
September, 1913, to September, 1914. Rev Lawrence Theis, O. S. B.,
September, 1914; still in charge (1916).


                       TRINITY CHURCH, EPISCOPAL.

This church was organized November 3, 1857, as St. Mary Magdalene’s
Church, by Rev. Lewis R. Staudenmayer, John H. Stringfellow, Joseph P.
Carr, G. W. Bowman, William O. Gould, John M. Maury, James W.
Stringfellow and Daniel Adams. The Rev. L. R. Staudenmayer, a German, of
middle age, was the first pastor, and the first property owned by the
parish was at the northeast corner of Kansas avenue and Ninth street,
where a small rectory was built in 1859. The first vestry was as
follows: Richard C. Mackall, A. Hanson Weightman, James L. McClure,
Philipp Link, John M. Maury and Joseph P. Carr, and in October, 1859, a
committee from the vestry was authorized to procure estimates for
building a church on its property upon Kansas avenue at a cost of
$1,500. The foundation for this edifice was laid and some money
expended, but the resignation of Mr. Staudenmayer in January, 1860, and
his removal from the city, brought to a standstill the construction of
the edifice. The court house and Price’s Hall were used as places of
worship for ten years. The Rev. Faber Byllsby succeeded Mr.
Staudenmayer, and in 1863 the Rev. John E. Ryan succeeded Mr. Byllsby.
After Mr. Ryan’s resignation, in September, 1864, Bishop Thomas H. Vail
was made rector of the church, and notwithstanding the manifold duties
which pressed upon him as bishop of the diocese, he gave much of his
time to his work here, with the assistance of his son-in-law, Rev. John
Bakewell, who proved to be a very successful rector. It was during his
rectorship that agitation for a new church building was started, and due
to the efforts of Mr. Bakewell, Col. William Osborne, Richard A. Park,
Judge Otis and E. S. Wills, the present church edifice at the corner of
Utah avenue and Fifth street was erected, at a cost of $20,000. It is
built of stone, in the early English style of Gothic architecture, slate
roof and interior finished in black walnut and pine, and stands today
one of the ornaments of Atchison. In 1871 Mr. Bakewell resigned and was
succeeded by Rev. F. Nelson Meade in January, 1872, and continued in
charge until April, 1874, when he was succeeded by the Rev Thomas G.
Garver, who resigned in September, 1875. Rev. Frank O. Osborne became
rector in February, 1876, and was succeeded by Rev. Abiel Leonard. Rev.
M. Leonard found a congregation of 150 communicants, who in May, 1882,
erected a two-story brick rectory on T street for him. It was during the
Rev. Mr. Leonard’s rectorship that St. Andrew’s Mission, on west
Commercial street, was built. Mr. Leonard was succeeded by the Rev.
Francis K. Brooke, who in turn was succeeded by the Rev. John Henry
Hopkins, who built a parish house adjoining the church, which was opened
for use in 1905. Upon the resignation of Mr. Hopkins, Rev. John E.
Sulger became rector, but he remained only a short time, and was
succeeded by the Rev. John Henry Molineux. Rev. William R. Cross
succeeded Mr. Molineux, and then came the Rev. Francis S. White, who
remained in the parish until 1911, and was succeeded by the Rev. Otis E.
Gray.

The present vestry of the church is composed as follows: E. A. Mize,
senior warden; Dr. W. G. Beitzel, junior warden and clerk, and W. W.
Hetherington, T. L. Lawrence, Clyde Hastings, J. W. Barlow, W. J.
Brownson, Henry Diegel and Sheffield Ingalls.


                      ST. MARK’S ENGLISH LUTHERAN.

The history of English Lutheranism in Atchison is interesting. The work
of establishing St. Mark’s was fraught with hardship and discouragement.
Several of the early efforts failed. But the battle was renewed and
success at last achieved. Early in 1867 J. H. Talbott, through the
_Lutheran Observer_, called attention to Atchison as a point for a
Lutheran mission. By correspondence he secured the interest of Rev.
Morris Officer, then secretary of the general synod’s home mission
board. At the convention of the general synod at Harrisburg, Pa., in
1868, the Rev. Officer persuaded the Rev. M. G. Boyer, then pastor at
Marklesburg, Pa., to become a missionary to Atchison. Rev. Boyer and his
young wife arrived here June 30, that year. Price’s Hall, South Fourth
street, between Main and Commercial, was rented and fitted up as a
meeting place. Services were begun and a Sunday school organized. On
September 20, 1868, the congregation was organized with twenty-five
members. The first church council consisted of C. Weber and H. Gehrett,
elders; J. H. Talbott, J. Beamer, H. Snyder and F. Brendt, deacons.

In the spring of 1869 the board of church extension granted the
congregation a loan of $500, which amount was invested in the purchase
of an excellent lot on Kansas avenue. There were bright hopes of having
a chapel soon, but these hopes were scattered when an aged minister
advised delay on account of the financial stringency of the times, and
the numerical weakness of the church. Among the members at this time was
the Rev. A. W. Wagnalls, afterward one of the founders of the publishing
house of Funk & Wagnalls, New York City. While here he was in the real
estate business. At his suggestion the congregation purchased a fifteen
acre tract adjoining the city of Atchison on the northwest, which
section was platted and offered for sale with the hope of making enough
profit to erect a church building. “In this the Lutherans were
disappointed,” says the historian, “for they sold only enough lots to
pay for the land.”

After that venture the congregation used the Congregational church
building. About that time many English Lutherans left the city. Rev.
Boyer resigned at the end of the year 1869, and for ten years the church
was without a pastor. The Rev. Wagnalls supplied the pulpit now and then
until his removal in 1876, but finally the congregation disbanded. The
lots belonging to the church were sold for taxes, but were redeemed at
the eleventh hour through Mr. Talbott’s efforts, and deeded to the board
of church extension.

In 1880 the Rev. W. I. Cutter, a returned missionary to India, with the
assistance of Rev. David Earhart and his daughter, Mrs. H. E. Monroe,
gathered the English Lutherans together again. Mrs. Monroe was then
conducting a private school known as the “Atchison Institute,” and she
offered her school room as a place of worship. On the eighth of August
the congregation was reorganized and the following officers elected:
Elders, J. H. Berlin, W. H. Kuhns and N. D. Kistler; deacons, J. L.
Heisey, E. D. Kistler, and John Fusselman; trustees, J. H. Talbott, W.
H. Smith and S. J. Clark. Rev. Cutter served as pastor two years. During
part of this time aid was received from the Home Mission Board. In 1882
this aid was withdrawn and Rev. Cutter resigned.

Not until 1884 did the second organization flourish. In November of that
year the Rev. George S. Diven was commissioned to come to Atchison and
revive the mission. New interest was taken and the rejuvenated
congregation held its first service in the home of Henry Snell at 921
South Seventh street. The Odd Fellows’ hall was then secured as a place
of worship and a Sunday school was organized. Under the leadership of
Pastor Diven this school is said to have quickly become the largest in
the city. That year the pastor reported sixty members.

Atchison’s boom season occurred during Rev. Diven’s pastorate, and
everything was rushed along at a tremendous pace. The movement for a
Lutheran college for Atchison started at this time. The location of
Midland College here was largely due to the efforts of Rev. Diven and
his congregation, supported by the public spirited citizens of the city.
In February, 1885, the church was incorporated as St. Mark’s English
Lutheran Church. Rev. Diven resigned in 1887 and was succeeded by the
Rev. W. F. Rentz, in April, 1888. Rev. Rentz set to work at once to
secure a lot and erect a church building. The present location, corner
of Sixth and Park streets, was purchased for $5,000. The southern end of
the lot with the dwelling on it (now the Keith home), was sold to the
pastor for $1,750. The chapel (now the Sunday school room) was erected
in 1888, the cornerstone being laid August 19, and the church dedicated
December 16. The building and equipment cost $4,010. Pastor Rentz served
nine years, resigning in May, 1897.

The Rev. L. S. Keyser, now professor of dogmatics in Hamma Divinity
School, Wittenberg College, became pastor November 7, 1897, and served
most acceptably until April 7, 1903. During his pastorate the church
became self-supporting, after receiving aid for fifteen years from the
Home Mission Board. The Rev. R. W. Hufford, D. D., served as pastor from
January 9, 1904, to November 27, 1904. After a vacancy of nine months
the Rev. A. E. Renn became pastor August 18, 1905.

The outstanding achievement of Rev. Renn’s pastorate was the erection of
the present church building. The movement began October 21, 1907. Plans
were adopted March 17, 1908, and the building committee ordered to
proceed. The cornerstone was laid during the summer following. The
building was erected under the supervision of A. B. Zimmerman,
contractor, and cost, including organ and furnishings, about $14,000, a
marvel of church financing. The opening service was held May 23, 1909,
and marked an epoch in Kansas Lutheranism. During this pastorate the
congregation adopted the historic Lutheran vestments for pastor and
choir, and advanced in churchly worship. Rev. Renn resigned September 1,
1911.

The Rev. Howard C. Garvic was installed pastor the first Sunday in
March, 1912. No pastor of St. Marks surpassed him in zeal and energy for
the upbuilding of the Lord’s kingdom. Day and night he labored in
personal appeal and in teaching classes of adults and children. In a
little more than two years 175 names were added to the church roll,
constituting the largest growth of any pastorate. The death of the
pastor in the prime of manhood in March, 1915, produced a profound
impression upon St. Mark’s and the city of Atchison. The Rev. Robert L.
Patterson. D. D., became pastor October 17, 1915.


                         ST. BENEDICT’S ABBEY.

St. Benedict’s Abbey, church and college, are conducted by the
Benedictine Fathers. The first Benedictine father that came to Kansas
was Henry Lemke, O. S. B., who arrived in Doniphan in 1855, where he
laid the foundation of a monastery. He was shortly followed to Kansas by
a number of brother workers, who were sent here by Father Boniface
Wimmer, O. S. B., who founded the monastery of St. Vincent’s, in
Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania. They immediately opened a Latin
school with a few pupils, but Very Rev. Augustine Wirth, O. S. B., soon
discovered that Atchison would surpass Doniphan, and on this account the
Catholic brothers transferred their home to Atchison in about 1859. The
Rev. Augustine Wirth, O. S. B., came to Atchison from Doniphan once a
month to hold religious services, which were conducted in the home of
Charles Burnes, located on the southwest corner of Second and L streets.
The following year Father Augustine built a frame parish church in which
services were held for the first time on Christmas day. In this rude
structure the faithful worshipped until about 1865, when the parish,
having increased to such number, it became necessary to build a larger
church. Under the aggressive leadership of Father Augustine, the
parishioners concluded to invest in this structure $25,000. Francis
George Himpler, now living in New York, and for many years a partner of
the late J. P. Brown, was employed as architect. The work was pushed
forward and instead of the proposed church, a magnificent Basilica was
conceived, and the construction of it was carried forward with great
earnestness. The foundation was completed in 1866, and the cornerstone
was laid in October. The Rev. John Hennessy, O. S. B., who later was
archbishop of Dubuque, and one of the most eloquent orators of the
church, delivered the dedication sermon. To obtain brick for the church
walls, Father Augustine bought expensive machinery, and, under the
supervision of the late Peter Bless, started a brickyard in East
Atchison, but the undertaking proved a failure, as the bricks were not
serviceable for the church. Instead of using them in the construction of
the church they were used to build several cottages and store buildings
in the immediate neighborhood and, later on, when suitable bricks were
obtained, the work on the church was continued, and by the summer of
1868 the walls were finished to the window sills.

Father Augustine resigned June 18, 1868, and went to Minnesota, and
subsequently died while pastor at Melrose in that State, December 19,
1901, at the age of seventy-three years. He was succeeded by the Very
Rev. Louis Mary Fink, O. S. B., July, 1868, and it was during his
pastorate that the church was solemnly dedicated Trinity Sunday, 1869,
but it was not completed at that time, and, in fact was not completed
for many years thereafter. The church is built in Roman style and is 152
feet long and fifty-six feet wide. Father Louis was succeeded by the
Very Rev. Giles Christoph, O. S. B., who was appointed prior in July,
1871. In January, 1875, Very Rev. Ouswald Moosemueller, O. S. B., became
prior. Under his direction the church flourished and he is particularly
remembered for his exertions in founding and building up a good library
for the church and school. The members of the church had grown
sufficiently large, so that the priory was promoted to an abbey April 7,
1877, and on September 29 of that year Rev. Innocent Wolf, O. S. B., was
elected abbot, and still retains his place (1916), loved by all. Rev.
Innocent Wolf’s election as abbot was celebrated with appropriate
ceremonies, and the Very Rev. Boniface Verheyen, O. S. B., was appointed
pastor, and at that time the status of the house was as follows: Rt.
Rev. Innocent Wolf, O. S. B., abbot; Very Rev. Boniface Verheyen, O. S.
B., prior; Very Rev. Pirmin Kaumly, O. S. B., prior of St. Benedict’s;
Rev. Augustine Wirth, O. S. B., Emanuel Horlig, O. S. B., Rev. Timothy
Luber, O. S. B., Rev. Peter Kassens, O. S. B., Rev. Eugene Bode, O. S.
B., Rev. Adolph Wesseling, O. S. B., Rev. Ferdinand Wolf, O S. B., Rev.
Winfried Schmidt, O. S. B., Rev. John Steoder, O. S. B.; and Rev.
Matthew Bradley, O. S. B. Besides these there were four priests from St.
Vincent’s, Pa., who acted as assistants, whose names were Rev. Ambrose
Huebner, O. S. B., Rev. Casimir Elsesser, O. S. B., Rev. Theodore
Schmitt, O. S. B., and Rev. Anslem Soehuler, O. S. B. There were seven
clerics, ten lay brothers, five candidates and ten scholastics. Rev.
Charles Stoekle, O. S. B., succeeded Father Adolph as pastor of St.
Benedict’s Church in 1890, and remained pastor until 1898, when he was
succeeded by Rev. Longinus New, O. S. B., who was one of the most
beloved and active pastors of the church. He was a priest burning with
zeal and he delighted in preaching. He was a powerful speaker, and his
sermons were always well prepared and written out. He had a strong
voice; used plain and simple language, and spoke with such zeal and
sincerity that he left a lasting impression on all of his hearers. His
health failed him, however, and he was compelled to seek a southern
climate, and died in a hospital at Birmingham, Ala., March 2, 1899, aged
fifty-three years, and in the twenty-eighth year of his priesthood. He
was succeeded by Rev. Girard Heinz, O. S. B., who was appointed to take
his place January 1, 1899, and Father Girard remains the pastor of the
church in 1916.

[Illustration:

  St. Benedict’s Abbey, Atchison, Kan.
]

[Illustration:

  Rt. Rev. Innocent Wolf, O. S. B.,
  President St. Benedict’s College, Atchison, Kan.
]


               FIRST GERMAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH.

This church was organized in 1866 by Rev. C. F. Liebe, home missionary
of the Evangelical Lutheran synod of Missouri, Kansas, Ohio, and other
states. The first regular minister was Rev. Mr. Menge, who was installed
in 1867. Rev. G. Landgraf succeeded Mr. Menge in December and was
installed the first day of that month. The church building at the corner
of Tenth and Commercial streets was dedicated at the same time. In 1869
a parsonage, adjoining the church, was erected, and the following year
C. Janzow, of Weston, Mo., succeeded Mr. Landgraf, who in turn was
followed by Rev. C. Hartman, who died in the fall of 1872, and after
which the call was extended to Rev. W. Zschoche, of Miami county,
Kansas. Under the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Zschoche the congregation
increased to a membership of 130, and a day school was conducted in
connection with the church by Mr. Zschoche until 1881.

Rev. C. Vedder succeeded Rev. Zschoche, who in turn was succeeded by
Rev. Theodore Bundenthal, whose untimely death in the latter part of
1915 deprived the church and its congregation of one of the best
ministers it ever had. Mr. Bundenthal was succeeded by Rev. Frederic
Niedner, who is in charge of the church in 1916. The present church
building at the corner of Eighth and Laramie streets was built in 1889.
There are 500 communicants and the church is affiliated with the
Missouri synod.

In addition to the churches already enumerated, there are several negro
churches, of which the Ebenezer Baptist Church, organized in 1867, and
the African Methodist Episcopal Church, organized in the summer of 1868,
are the most prominent. There are also several other denominations
represented in Atchison, including the Latter Day Saints, and the Holy
Rollers.



                             CHAPTER XVII.
                       EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS.

  FIRST SCHOOLS, PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS—ESTABLISHMENT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS—
      EARLY SCHOOLS AND PIONEER TEACHERS—DISTRICT SCHOOLS—STATISTICS—
      MANUAL TRAINING—ATCHISON COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL—COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS
      OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION—ATCHISON CITY SCHOOLS—PRIVATE SCHOOLS—MT.
      ST. SCHOLASTICA’s ACADEMY—PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS—MIDLAND COLLEGE AND
      WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY—ST. BENEDICT’S COLLEGE.


During the turmoil and confusion that accompanied the movement of
population into Atchison when the town and county were organized, the
question of schools appeared to be a secondary one. It was not until the
bitter days of 1854, 1855 and 1856 had passed that the attention of the
people was directed to this important question. The first schools in
Atchison were private institutions, and a number of them flourished
until after the beginning of the Civil war. Among those which were first
in the educational field here was the Baptist Seminary, at the northeast
corner of Eleventh and Santa Fe streets. It was a school for young women
and was conducted by Mr. Stork. Later Mrs. Lizzie Abbott, who afterwards
became the wife of Judge Cassius C. Foster, conducted a young ladies’
school at the northeast corner of Sixth and Laramie streets, and in the
eighties Miss Mary Teasdale conducted a private school at the same
place. Miss Lizzie Bay, the daughter of Hugh Bay, a prosperous farmer
living southwest of Atchison, was also active in early day educational
affairs, and so was Mrs. Amanda Blair, at that time Miss Amanda Meeker,
who is a resident of Atchison in 1916. Mrs. Blair was the first teacher
in Atchison county. While there was no activity in educational affairs
during the period just mentioned, the first Territorial legislature did,
in fact, pass a law in the summer of 1855 providing for the
establishment of common schools, but the history of the Atchison county
school system did not begin until 1858. The city of Atchison, District
Number 1, was organized August 5, 1858. On September 13th of that year a
meeting was held in the law office of Franklin B. Adams, and the
following school officers were elected: James A. Coulter, director; Dr.
William Grimes, treasurer, and Franklin G. Adams, clerk. O. F. Short was
the other member. Phillip D. Plattenburg, who had previously served as
county superintendent of Fulton county, Illinois, was elected principal
of the schools and Mrs. Blair his assistant. School was opened the first
week in November, in two rooms over Bury’s Grocery Store, on the corner
of Fourth and Commercial streets, where the Y. M. C. A. building now
stands. The next year the corps of teachers had increased to four, and
Miss Lizzie Bay and Miss Melissa Kipp, who subsequently became the wife
of Chief Justice Martin, became the other two teachers. The school was
moved to the old Masonic building further west on Commercial street,
where it was conducted for two years. Mr. Plattenburg was also appointed
county superintendent, and the first teacher’s certificate issued by him
in Atchison county was to D. W. Rippy, who died in Severance, Kan., in
1914, the richest man in Doniphan county. Mr. Rippy taught the first
school in the Second district, organized near the Waggener farm,
southwest of Atchison. Mrs. Blair had her teaching certificate when she
arrived in Atchison, as one was issued to her by Dr. Plattenburg in
Fulton county, Illinois, before she came to Atchison. Her school opened
in Atchison the first Monday in November, 1858, and she had charge of
the primary and intermediate departments. Dr. Plattenburg received a
salary of $100.00 a month and Mrs. Blair a salary of $45.00, which was
increased to $50.00 by Dr. Plattenburg giving her $5.00 of his own
salary. Mrs. Blair had sixty-five pupils. Mrs. Blair says that the first
spelling match in Atchison county took place in W. D. Rippy’s school.
She participated in the spelling match, and was spelled down on the word
“Poisonous.”

Mr. Plattenburg served in the capacity of principal and superintendent
of schools until May, 1861, when the schools were closed for lack of
funds. Because of the Civil war very little progress in education was
made, and the records of the county superintendent’s office for that
period are not available. The earliest record in the office of the
county superintendent concerning the schools of Atchison county is found
in an old record book of July 7, 1863, as follows:

“Through the kindness of the present board of County Commissioners, E.
Leighton, B. Wallack and C. G. Foster, this book was furnished for the
records of the public schools of Atchison county. It is hoped that every
superintendent, into whose possession this book may fall, will perform
every duty devolving upon him officially, and make every effort to
advance the cause of education.

                                            “ORLANDO SAWYER,
                                  “Superintendent of Public Instruction,
                                  “Atchison County.”

[Illustration:

  Old High School Building, Atchison, Kan.
]

In spite of the fact that the records of County Superintendent Sawyer,
who held his office from 1863 to 1867, are somewhat incomplete, they
contain much interesting information.

The average length of the school term for the first year was three and
one-half months, and in some districts, owing to the distance and the
rigors of the winter climate, school was held only during the summer
months. Among the early teachers in this county were Miss Lizzie Keith,
who taught in District No. 29 in 1863; Miss Mary A. Shields, who taught
in District No. 16 in the same year; Miss Helen L. Bishop, of District
No. 26, and Miss Stewart, of District No. 31. Miss Bishop was a pioneer
in advocating the teaching of vocational subjects in the public schools,
including domestic science, manual training, agriculture and sewing, and
for her zeal in this respect she was derided and laughed at. Women
teachers in those days, as now, outnumbered the men. The following are
the names of those who received teacher’s certificates in 1863: July 8,
Michael Roach; July 27, Mrs. Esther Thayer; July 30, W. D. Barnett;
August 15, Mary A. Shields; August 15, Solomon K. McCrary; August 27,
Richard Dunn; September 14, Martha Stewart; September 25, Allen Abbott;
September 27, Adelia Guest; October 11, Carlos E. Pease; October 14,
John C. Butman; November 23, I. J. Adams; December 1, R. S. Cook;
December 4, L. A. Messenger; December 4, Harriet Hollister, and December
4, W. R. DeWitt.

There were thirty-one districts in the county in that year, and the
amount of State funds apportioned to Atchison county was $295.30. The
school population was 1941, with an enrollment of 1,072, and an average
daily attendance of 500. Twenty-nine teachers were employed, twenty-two
women and seven men, with an average monthly salary for the men of
$25.20 and $16.75 for the women. The total valuation of school houses
was $1,050, and the amount of money received from the county was
$827.05. The following is a list of the Atchison county school officers
in the year 1863:

District No. 1: P. H. Woodard, director; M. S. Gaylord, clerk; F. Bier,
treasurer; District No. 3: Peter Boyer, L. A. Messenger and A. Wheeler;
District No. 5: Nathan McClintic, Hosea Norris and James Cravins;
District No. 6. W. H. Bowen, J. W. Cain and Jonathan Hartman; District
No. 8: S. Cummings, Milo Carleton and Lewis Brockman; District No. 9:
George Scarborough, Joseph Scarborough and Jacob Pochler; District No.
10: Jacob Beck, Frederick Neerman and James A. Smith; District No. 11:
John Graves, Henry Shell and Henry Widner; District No. 15: John W.
Best, George Lamberson and Boaz W. Williamson; District No. 17: Hiram
Quiett, Chas. Williamson and Wm. Cummings; District No. 18: W. J. Young,
F. L. Fortune and A. J. Reed; District No. 19: Henry Cline, F. Leighton
and W. J. Mayfield; District No. 20: W. J. Oliphant, D. H. Sprong and
Dandridge Holladay; District No. 21: Dwight Williams, Jacob Reese and
John J. Halligan; District No. 22: F. Roach, C. B. Keith and Joseph
Speer; District No. 23: W. A. Adams, W. H. Seever and W. M. Hamm;
District No. 24: James R. May, E. S. Evington and Jefferson Gragg;
District No. 26: R. Breedlone, C. May and James Fletcher; District No.
27: James F. Butcher, C. G. Means and W. L. Davis; District No. 28:
Andrew C. Pittman, David Earhart and George H. McPherson; District No.
29: Anderson Pate, James M. Wylie and H. T. Gill; District No. 30: P. B.
Chadwick, J. W. Roberson and R. A. Van Winkle; District No. 31: Samuel
Vanatta, William Hamon and Hamilton Bailey; District No. 33: Benj.
Rivers, Silas A. Hooey and J. Plotner; District No. 34: D. Kottle, John
S. Van Winkle and A. King; District No. 35: A. A. F. Randolph, D. M.
Stillman and Joshua Wheeler; Union District No. 1: J. A. Anderson, M. C.
Willis and George Storch; Union District No. 2: James Cooley, L. H.
Masterson and Wm. H. Cook; Union District No. 3: W. J. Brown, Thos. A.
Snoddy and J. Lasswell, and Union District No. 4: Richmon Dalton, Albert
Henson and Frederick Eleman.

The next record that can be found of the progress of schools in this
county is of 1868, when Norman Dunshee was county superintendent. In
that year there were forty-six organized school districts, and a school
population of 3,878, with a total enrollment of 2,247, and an average
daily attendance of 1281. The term for white children was increased to
five and one-half months and for colored children to ten months. There
was a total of sixty-four teachers, of whom thirty-seven were women and
twenty-seven men. The wages of the men were $42.92 a month, and for the
women, $28.76 a month, and there was a total of $15,117.87 paid out for
wages. The amount received from the State was $2,627.09, and an
additional source of revenue was from the pounding of stray livestock,
which brought into the school fund of the county that year $589.58. The
amount raised by district school tax was $24,373.21, and there were
forty-three school houses in the county, of which twelve were built of
logs, twenty-six of frame construction, and five of stone, with a total
valuation of $16,750.00. During the interim between 1863 and 1868, the
Third Kansas Teachers’ Association met in Atchison. The meeting was held
July, 1865, and there were fifty-nine teachers present in Price’s Hall.
John A. Martin, John J. Ingalls and Geo. W. Glick attended the meeting
and made addresses.

In comparison with the figures of those days, the figures of 1915 are
interesting, and they are here given as follows:

 School population, June 30, 1915                                  3,530
 Total enrollment, 1914–1915                                       2,477
 Average daily attendance, 1914–1915                               1,915
 Teachers employed, 1915–1916, including county
   high school, males 23, females 81                                 104
 Teachers employed 1915–1916, including county
   high school, holding State certificates                            19
 Normal training 33, first grade 22, second grade
   27
 Teachers without previous experience                                 21
 Teachers serving first year in present positions                     56
 Teachers more than two years in  present position                    16
 Average experience of teachers:
      One-teacher schools                                        5 years
      Graded schools                                             6 years
 Average length of term in weeks:                     1914–15    1915–16
      One-teacher schools                                30.4      30.65
      Graded schools                                     35.3      35.33
 Average salary of male teachers:                     1914–15    1915–16
      One-teacher schools                               63.75      67.25
      Graded schools                                    84.77      85.81
 Average salary of female teachers:                   1914–15    1915–16
      One-teacher schools                               58.16      57.45
      Graded schools                                    59.64      60.00
 Average attendance per teacher:                      1914–15
      One-teacher schools                                  21
      Graded schools                                       26
 Average cost per pupil per month in attendance:                 1914–15
      One-teacher schools                                       $   3.69
      Graded schools                                                4.38
 Amount expended for school purposes:                            1914–15
      One-teacher schools                                     $39,756.47
      Graded schools                                           19,212.88
      County high school                                       17,719.71
                                                                   —————
 Total                                                        $76,689.06

 Common school graduates, 1915:
      Boys 57, girls 71, total 128.
 High school graduates, 1915:
      Boys 17, girls 19, total 36.
 Total number of libraries in rural schools                           63
 Number of volumes in rural libraries                              4,314
 Number of schools having room or basement
   furnaces                                                           66
 Number of county certificates issued during year:
      First grade                                           9
      Second grade                                         24
      Third grade                                           7  Total  40
 Number of first grade renewed                                         5
 Number of State certificates registered                               7
 Number teachers normal training certificates
   registered                                                         13
 Number of first grades indorsed                                       3
 Number of second grades indorsed                                      1

The city of Atchison is not included in any of the above statistics.

It is interesting to note that the vision of Miss Helen E. Bishop of
1863 has been realized, for in every school in Atchison county, not only
agriculture is taught, but in about one-third of the schools, plain
sewing and various kinds of fancy needlework are taught also, and while
no rural school as yet is equipped to teach cooking, a number of the
teachers are directing some work along this line and it is done in
accordance with the teacher’s directions in the homes, with the
assistance of the mothers. More attention than ever is also being given
to drawing and music. Earnest efforts are being made by superintendents
and teachers to secure the coöperation of parents by means of community
gatherings. In many districts teachers’ associations, literary societies
and debating clubs have been organized, in which parents as well as
children are taking a great interest. Many of the districts have availed
themselves of the opportunity to use the stereopticon lectures sent out
by the University of Kansas. Lecture courses are being made in some of
the schools, and provisions have been made for serving hot lunches for
children. Medical inspection is also provided for, through the efforts
of teachers. One of the most interesting and valuable features
introduced into the rural school work of the county in recent years is
the community school fair. The plan is to have three to five schools
unite and meet at a school house, where the children enter exhibits of
corn, cereals, seeds of various kinds, vegetables and fruits, and in
addition to these are also exhibited canned fruits, peaches, jelly and
loaves of bread, and other samples of the art of cooking, together with
articles of fancy needlework and plain sewing. Many prizes are awarded
for the best exhibit, and the result is that much interest is stimulated
among the children in these accomplishments. The county farm agent is
also lending great assistance in organizing school gardens, and boys’
and girls’ clubs of various kinds for the purpose of agricultural
development. Much attention is also paid to the supervision of the
children at play, on the theory that all work and no play makes Jack a
dull boy, and the equipment for the playground of various kinds has been
supplied. Six rural schools of the county have organized basketball
teams.

Besides the rural and graded schools, Atchison county has four high
schools. Muscotah maintains an accredited four-year high school,
offering a college preparatory and general course, and the school
building which was destroyed by fire January 13, 1916, will be replaced
by a larger and better school, reference to which has already been made
in this history.

Under the direction of J. S. Blosser, an excellent two year high school
is maintained in Huron.


                    THE ATCHISON COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL.

In 1888 Atchison county, in accordance with an act of the Kansas
legislature of 1866, established the second county high school in the
State, and it was due to the efforts of Senator B. F. Wallack, and also
the efforts of the public spirited citizens of Effingham, that this
school was located there. The first board of trustees of this school
were as follows: A. J. Harwi, A. S. Best. J. E. Logan, F. E. Cloyes, L.
R. Spangler and W. E. Knight. John Klopfenstein, who was at that time
county superintendent, became the first president of the board.

The present site, which comprises a spacious campus of eight acres, was
purchased by the city of Effingham and donated to the county. A handsome
pressed brick and stone building was erected in compliance with plans
and specifications designed by Alfred Meier, of Atchison. The building,
costing more than $22,000.00, was completed in June, 1891. School opened
September 14, 1891, with F. J. Squires, principal, assisted by J. O.
Ward, Miss Julia Heath, and Miss N. Grace Murphy. Three courses of study
were provided for: Normal, general and college preparatory.

On the night of November 6, 1893, the building was destroyed by fire.
School was opened the next morning and was continued the remainder of
the year down town in lodge rooms, churches, and the public school
building. The present building, erected on the same site, was ready for
occupancy by the fall of 1894.

Following are the names of the principals who have served the school: J.
F. Squires, 1891 to 1893; S. J. Hunter, 1893 and 1896; J. W. Wilson,
1896 to 1907; W. H. Keller, 1907 to 1908; E. H. McMath, 1908 to 1911: J.
R. Thierstein, 1911 to 1915, and A. J. McAllister and G. W. Salisbury.
1915 to 1916.

The county high school exists mainly to afford free high school
education to every boy and girl in the county. Since its students come
principally from the rural districts, it must educate them to become
better homemakers and better farmers, and to appreciate more fully the
advantages of rural life. It must also help prepare better teachers for
the rural schools and train them for business as well as for college.

[Illustration:

  Atchison County High School, Effingham, Kansas
]

It has grown in efficiency and influence until it is recognized as one
of the best high schools in the State and is on the accredited list of
the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. This
means that our school is recognized by the colleges of Kansas, Oklahoma,
Missouri, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois, West Virginia, South Dakota, Wyoming and Colorado, which admit
our graduates without examination.

The faculty has increased in number from four in 1892 to twelve in 1915.
The number of graduates in 1892 was two, in 1915, thirty. Since its
organization the departments of commerce, music, manual training,
domestic art, domestic science, and agriculture have been added, a
farmers’ short course established, and a demonstration farm in
connection with the work in agriculture put into operation.

The school is well equipped in laboratories, and has a library of 3,000
volumes, and all the leading magazines and papers. A lively interest is
taken in athletics, both Young Men’s Christian Association and Young
Women’s Christian Association have a large membership. Every year the
students have the benefit of a splendid lecture course.

From its halls have been graduated 387 young men and young women, who
are now filling positions of honor as doctors, lawyers, ministers,
teachers, superintendents, farmers, bankers and missionaries, and are
found in nearly every State in the Union and in some foreign countries.

Atchison county further increased its educational advantages in June,
1915, by establishing at Potter, a rural high school, in accordance with
a law passed by the legislature in 1915. This district is known as Rural
High School, District No. 1, and comprises 26½ square miles, including
portions of nine school districts, five of which lie wholly in Atchison
county, and the four others jointly in Atchison, Jefferson and
Leavenworth counties.

August 9, 1915, the first school meeting in this district was held, and
J. E. Remsburg was elected director, T. F. Hall, treasurer and D. H.
Strong, Jr., clerk. It was not necessary for this district to vote bonds
for a building, because Union District No. 1, which includes Potter, and
is a part of the new high school district, already had a beautiful
modern four-room structure, which was leased to the newly organized high
school district. A. T. Foster was elected first president, and Miss
Sarah Armstrong, assistant. The school opened September 6, 1915, with an
enrollment of eighteen pupils. The course of study is that prescribed by
the State, board of education, and covers four years.

The year 1915–16 has been a year of progress for the schools of Atchison
county. The State department of education, by virtue of authority given
them by the State legislature in 1915, established a definite standard
of efficiency for the rural schools of the State, and formulated plans
for standardizing rural schools. As a result, two rural school
supervisors were added to the State department. J. A. Shoemaker, county
superintendent of this county, was appointed as one of those
supervisors, and was succeeded in office by Miss D. Anna Speer, who is
making one of the most earnest and efficient county superintendents this
county has ever had. It is universally conceded that the board of county
commissioners made no mistake when they selected Miss Speer as a
successor to Mr. Shoemaker. Miss Speer is making an earnest effort to
bring our schools up to the standard set by the State department of
education, in which she is receiving the cordial coöperation on the part
of the school officers, parents and children of the county. The work
that is being accomplished here has been highly commended by Miss Julia
Stone, one of the new State supervisors, and three schools, approved by
the supervisor, have the honor of the first three “Standard Schools” in
northeastern Kansas. These are: New Malden District No. 45, H. S. Mahan
and Eugene Crawford, teachers; Lancaster District No. 10, O. E. Seeber
and Miss Ione Gibson, teachers, and White Clay District No. 6, J. M.
Pennington, teacher. In 1915 the County Normal Institute was combined
with Midland College Institute, at Midland College. A six weeks’ session
was held, June 15 to July 28. Besides thorough reviews of all subjects
required for county teachers’ certificates, numerous courses for college
credit were offered. The corps of instructors consisted of county
superintendent, Miss D. Anna Speer: professors, W. E. Tilberg. E. M.
Stahl, S. L. Soper, D. W. Crouse. C. F. Malmberg and Bruno Meinecke.

The following is a list of county superintendents of public instruction
of Atchison county from the beginning of our history to the present
time:

 Philip D. Plattenburg, served September, 1858, to May, 1861.
 Orlando Sawyer, served July, 1830, to January, 1867.
 Norman Dunsher, served January, 1867, to January, 1869.
 Thomas F. Cook, served January, 1869, to January, 1873.
 J. E. Remsburg, served January, 1873, to January, 1877.
 Mr. Martin, served January, 1877, to January, 1879.
 W. H. Tucker, served January, 1879, to January, 1883.
 A. G. Drew, served January, 1883, to January, 1885.
 J. F. Class, served January, 1885, to January, 1887.
 George A. Ward, served January, 1887, to January, 1889.
 John Klopfenstein, served January, 1889, to January, 1893.
 Samuel Ernst, served January, 1893, to January, 1895.
 C. E. Reynolds, served January, 1895, to January, 1899.
 John Klopfenstein, served January, 1899, to January, 1901.
 E. E. Campbell, served January, 1901, to May, 1901.

The Kansas legislature of 1901 changed the date of beginning of
superintendent’s term from the second Monday in January to the second
Monday in May, thus creating a vacancy in the office for four months.
Mr. Campbell was appointed by the county commissioners to serve during
that period.

 John Klopfenstein, served May, 1901, to May, 1903.
 O. O. Hastings, served May, 1903, to May, 1907.
 J. W. Campbell, served May, 1907, to March 18, 1909, when he died.
 J. A. Shoemaker, served March 23, 1909, to July 1, 1915.
 D. Anna Speer, served July 1, 1915, and still remains superintendent.


                         ATCHISON CITY SCHOOLS.

It was lamentable, but, nevertheless true, that there were many
residents of the city of Atchison of the early period in its history who
doubted the justice of supporting free schools. In 1860 the school board
refused to levy a tax for school purposes in the city of Atchison.
Following this, however, a more progressive spirit prevailed, and free
schools were regularly supported by annual tax levies. For ten years the
schools occupied rented quarters, excepting two frame buildings in South
Atchison. The basement of the Congregational church, the lower floor of
the old Masonic building that stood near the corner of Eighth and
Commercial streets, the upper floor of the Auld building on Commercial
street, near Sixth, Price’s Hall and probably other buildings were used
during those years.

There was little or no general supervision of the work of the schools up
to 1866, little or no system, and little distinction between public and
private schools.

During this unorganized period the business affairs of the schools were
administered by a district board of three members.

Under a law approved March 1, 1867, the Atchison city schools were
organized June 3, 1867, at which time the first board of education of
Atchison was elected, as follows: First ward, Wm. Scoville, Wm. C.
Smith; Second ward, M. L. Gaylord, L. R. Elliott; Third ward, John A.
Martin. Julius Holthaus; Fourth ward, Geo. W. Gillespie, Jacob Poehler.
In the organization of the first board, Wm. Scoville was elected
president, John A. Martin, vice-president, and M. L. Gaylord, clerk.

The board consisted of eight members until Atchison became a city of the
first class in 1881, at which time the ward representation was increased
to three members each, giving a board of twelve members. At the
organization of the first enlarged board, J. C. Fox was elected
president; J. B. Kurth, vice-president. The time of organization was the
first regular meeting in August, a change from the former time, the
first regular meeting in May, which was the law till 1881. During this
year the time of organization was extended three months, giving fifteen
months’ service under the organization of May, 1880. Another change made
at this time was the election of a clerk not a member of the board. At
the organization, August 1, 1881, M. Noll was elected clerk. He was
succeeded in October, by C. N. Seip, who was followed in May, 1882, by
James H. Garside.

By the addition of the Fifth ward, 1884, the board organized in August,
that year had fifteen members. The board organized in August, 1885, had
ten members. This representation continued till the law of 1911 provided
for the reduction to six members, and for a term of four years instead
of two years. The reduction was completed in 1913, and since August of
that year the board has had six members, elected without regard to city
wards.

The presidents of the board from 1871 have been as follows: For the year
ending in May, 1872, H. S. Baker; J. T. Coplan, to May, 1873; J. K.
Fisher, to May, 1874; A. J. North, three years, to May, 1877; John
Seaton, two years, to May, 1879; A. F. Martin, two and one-fourth years,
to August, 1881; J. C. Fox, to August, 1882; John B. Kurth, to August,
1883; J. C. Fox, to August, 1884; Seneca Heath, two years, to August,
1886; E. A. Mize, five years, to August, 1891; R. C. Meade, to August,
1892; J. T. Hersey, two years, to August, 1894; J. F. Woodhouse, to
August, 1895; J. T. Allensworth, to August, 1896; W. L. Bailey, to
August, 1897; Chas. S. Osborn, ten years, to August, 1907; H. H.
Hackney, eight years, to August, 1915; Alva Clapp, now serving his first
year.

While the records of the early days are not available, there are
indications that the chaos of the early schools was reduced to order in
the middle sixties, the graded system unifying the free schools being
established at that time by D. T. Bradford, who served as superintendent
and principal of the high school for four years. In those early days the
superintendent taught during the greater part of his time.

Mr. Bradford was followed by a Mr. Owens, who served one year and was
followed by R. H. Jackson. Available records show that Mr. Jackson was
superintendent in August, 1871, and served till June, 1876. How long he
served prior to the election of May, 1871, is not indicated by records
at hand.

The superintendents following Mr. Jackson are as follows: I. C. Scott,
to 1878; C. S. Sheffield, to 1880; R. C. Meade, to December, 1886; F. M.
Draper, to 1889; Buel T. Davis, to 1891; John H. Glorfelter, to 1901;
Nathan T. Veatch, serving at present (January, 1916).

The principals of the high school serving prior to the union of the
duties of superintendent and principal of the high school were, P. D.
Plattenburg, Orlando Sawyer and David Negley.

The course of study in the high school then was Latin, followed later by
the Latin-Scientific. Little change was made for years, except the
introduction of German in the fall of 1871. For more than thirty years
there was little change in the subject matter of the work. The most
important change during those thirty years or more was the complete
organization of the high school by Superintendent R. C. Meade, in 1880,
at which time a distinct principal was placed in charge of the
reorganized high school. The first principal under the new plan was F.
W. Bartlett. Definite classes were started and the first class graduated
June 7, 1881, in Corinthian Hall, as follows: Jane Boone, Arthur
Challiss, Blanche Challiss, Daisy, L. Denton, Della Estes, Mary E. Fox,
Frances L. Garside, Lilly G. Hathaway. Maggie R. Hedges, May Hosier,
Victor Linley, Nellie G. Reid, Mary E. Scott, Annie Underwood, 14. Total
graduates to date (January, 1916), 568.

[Illustration:

  “The Ingalls School,” Atchison, Kan.
]

F. W. Bartlett was principal of the high school until 1883. The
following is the list of principals since 1883: J. B. Cash, to 1883;
Geo. D. Ostrom, to 1887; J.T. Dobell, to 1895; C. A. Shively, to 1900:
W. C. Jamieson, to 1902; A. H. Speer, to 1909; W. H. Livers, to 1910; J.
T. Rosson, to 1911 H. P. Shepherd, now serving his fifth year.

The superintendent and principal aided by one assistant taught the high
school subjects till 1882. With the opening of school in September, of
that year, the high school course of study was changed from two years to
a full three-years course. Miss Sarah E. Steele and Miss Anna M. Niklaus
were assistants during those early years.

The addition to the teaching force, the lengthened course and the
tendency toward greater latitude in the choice of subjects soon doubled
the high school enrollment. The start toward vocational studies began in
September, 1881, when, at the suggestion of J. H. Garside, bookkeeping
was made an optional study.

The growth of the high school was gradual. During the late eighties,
another year was added to the course and an additional assistant was
employed. Manual training was added in December, 1903; sewing, 1907;
commercial subjects were added from time to time till the introduction
of a full business course, including shorthand and typewriting, in 1910;
normal training, 1909; cooking, 1910; physical training, 1910;
elementary agriculture, 1913; school nurse, January, 1914; special music
director, 1915. The addition of courses and optional subjects has so
increased the high school work as to require eighteen teachers, in
addition to the principal, and the enrollment has grown to 393. The
school is on the accredited list of the University of Kansas and of the
North Central Association of Colleges. A school paper, the _Optimist_,
is now in its sixth year. A Glee Club and orchestra have been organized.
A Young Men’s Christian Association and a Young Women’s Christian
Association are doing good work. The athletic association is giving an
outlet for the surplus energy in football, basketball, etc.

Grades and teachers were added in the different buildings until there
are now (January, 1916) five buildings having full eight grades of work,
one building with three grades, and the Branchton school having two
grades. The Branchton building belongs to district 65. Manual training
for the boys and sewing for the girls are given in sixth, seventh and
eighth grades and high school. All the grades have the benefit of
inspection by the school nurse, and instruction in music by the special
director.

In 1882 the teaching force was thirty beside the superintendent. This
grew to forty-one by 1901, and to sixty-five in 1915.

During March, 1881, it was resolved that a “kindergarten” be opened
during the next term. No record is found indicating the opening of such
school. The kindergarten was not made a part of the system till 1910.
Such work was offered earlier in rooms granted by the board. This was,
however, the result of private enterprise.

At the opening of the new high school building in 1910, the first public
kindergarten was established. In the spring of 1914, another
kindergarten was opened in the new Washington school.

The corner stone of the Central building was laid in August, 1868. This
building was destroyed by fire in October, 1869. The construction of a
new building on the old foundation began as soon as plans were
completed. This was the three-story brick building, costing $35,000,
torn down in 1908, to make room for the magnificent high school building
completed in 1910, and occupied for all school purposes in September of
that year. On October 5, 1892, the name was changed to “The Ingalls
School.”

The building begun in 1869 and, when completed, said to be “one of the
finest in the State,” was opened in 1870 and served without change till
1903, when a three-story addition, costing $5,264.00 was built to
provide for the office, manual training, one high school room and
sanitary fixtures. It was finally outgrown after serving thirty-eight
years. While the present building was being constructed, the high school
was housed in the old three-story Douglas building, Fifth and R streets,
and in two rooms of the old Washington building, Sixth and Q streets.

During the two years’ waiting for the new Ingalls building the colored
pupils from Douglas school were housed in a vacant store at Sixth and
Spring streets for one year, and in Lincoln school for part of the
second year, and the grades of Ingalls school were housed as follows:
Seventh and eighth, banquet room of Odd Fellows Hall; sixth, Martin
school; fifth, Pioneer Hall; second, third and fourth, basement of
Congregational church; first, basement of Presbyterian church; manual
training, in old fire department for the first year, and in a vacant
store room till the latter part of December of the second year, when it
was moved to the new building.

The present high school building, the Ingalls school, cost about
$103,500. The equipment and added lots at the southwest corner of the
block, improvement of grounds, etc., will bring the present value of the
property at least to $130,000.

Governor George W. Glick was largely instrumental in the work of
securing the lots for the Ingalls school. The ten lots purchased prior
to the erection of the first building cost, approximately, $3,500. Lots
8 and 9 in the same block secured by condemnation in 1911, cost $2,250.

The three-story brick building at the corner of Fifth and R streets,
built in 1873 at a cost of $15,000, was originally called Washington
school. A three-room, one-story frame building, erected on this site in
the middle sixties, was the first building owned by district No. 1, and
served till 1873. The lots cost $1,200 and the building $2,425. At that
time a frame building at the corner of Sixth and Q streets was used by
the colored pupils and was called Douglas school. This was built in the
middle sixties. It was at first a two-room, one-story building. Later, a
third room was added. The lots cost $820. This was the second building
owned by district No. 1. Early maps of Atchison show the locations of
Washington and Douglas here given.

The names “Central,” “Washington,” “Franklin,” “Lincoln” and “Douglas”
were authorized February 2, 1880.

In 1884 work began on two new buildings, one a ten-room brick building
to take the place of the frame building called “Douglas,” and the other
an eight-room brick building at Sixth and Division streets, named North
Atchison school. The one at Sixth and Q streets cost $18,682, and was
occupied for school purposes January 5, 1885. The white pupils in
“Washington” school were taken to the new building, and the colored
school formerly housed in “Douglas” was taken to the “Washington.” The
names were also transferred soon after the new order of things was
established.

The ten-room Washington building was used till the close of school for
vacation, December, 1913. On January 5, 1914, the school began work in
the present beautiful building, south of R street, between Fifth and
Sixth streets. The old property at Sixth and Q streets was sold for
$2,300, but the name of the school was retained. The new building with
grounds and equipment cost $63,000. The site was secured by condemnation
and cost $5,350.

The original “Washington” remained the “Douglas” until the completion of
the new Douglas on Sixth, between U and V streets. The pupils of
“Douglas” were housed in “Lincoln” till late in the fall of 1909. The
site of this building, lots 18, 19, 20 and 21, block 35, South Atchison,
was secured in March, 1909, in exchange for lots 10 and 11, same block,
the old hospital property, which had previously been donated to the
board of education for school purposes, the money involved being the
payment of some back taxes by the board.

The North Atchison school, Sixth and Division streets, was occupied for
school purposes in September, 1885. The lots cost $800 and the building,
equipment and retaining walls, $5,381.94. On October 5, 1892, the name
of this school was changed to “The John A. Martin School.” This building
was used till the last of May, 1915. Immediately after the close of
school, May 28, 1915, it was wrecked to make way for the new building
now in course of construction. The added ground, secured by
condemnation, cost $6,200 and the building, equipment and improvement of
grounds will cost, approximately, $56,500. During the year 1915–16 this
school is housed in the Ingalls building.

The West Atchison school building, named Franklin school, February 2,
1880, was, originally, a three-room, one-story brick, costing $2,617.10.
This was changed to six rooms by the addition of a second story in 1883,
at a cost of $2,498, and was remodeled and changed to an eight-room
building in 1908, at a cost of $12,500, and reoccupied early in 1909.
The lots cost $400. During the change in Franklin, the pupils were
housed in the “Green-Tree House” and in a vacant store room at 1521 Main
street.

The Lincoln school (colored), Eighth and Atchison streets, was
originally a three-room, one-story brick building erected in 1871 at a
cost of $2,425. The lots cost $750. In 1883, this was changed to a six-
room building at a cost of $2,498. This is the only school building in
the city not modernized.

The records reveal some interesting things. In 1878 it was decided that
“the work of the grades should be completed in eight years.” In 1884 an
attempt was made to establish a branch high school in South Atchison.
While this failed, it was voted that “a sub-junior grade be maintained
in the Washington school.” This was discontinued within a few years.

In March, 1883, it was ordered that the schools close because of lack of
funds. The city council came to the rescue and appropriated $4,000 for
school purposes. The schools re-opened March 29.

The school year was shortened several times in those early days.

The school spirit is in splendid condition. The increased material
equipment is adding greatly to the educational opportunities.
“Continuation schools” have been conducted for several years, with good
attendance.

The improvements have been made without bonds, excepting the $100,000
issue for the high school in 1908. The total bonded indebtedness
(January, 1916) is $122,000. Of this amount, $4,000 will be paid July 1,
1916. Of the issue of 1908, $94,000 remain unpaid, and will fall due in
1923. The $24,000 refunding bonds issued in 1913 will be due in 1933.
The board of education is not using the full limit of its taxing power.

It is only fair to add a tribute at this point to the faithful,
enthusiastic and efficient work rendered by Prof. Nathan T. Veatch to
the public school system of Atchison. During the period of his service
here, Atchison has seen its greatest development in its public school
system, and this has not only been brought about by the fine public
spirit that exists here but by the splendid co-operation which Prof.
Veatch has given it.


                            PRIVATE SCHOOLS.

In addition to the private schools that existed here in an early day,
there were a number of private schools which did good work in Atchison
subsequently to the Teasdale school, which was operated here in the
eighties. Mrs. Harriet E. Monroe rendered the cause of education in
Atchison county an invaluable and also an imperishable service. Mrs.
Monroe founded the Atchison Institute. In 1871 she erected a building at
the northwest corner of Third and Kansas avenue, to which a wing was
added in 1876, and three years later the large brick building, all of
which are still standing. The property represented an investment of
$25,000, and the success of Mrs. Monroe’s enterprise was phenomenal. She
received no bonus or assistance from city, county, State, church or
individual. She had nine students when she started her school, and
subsequently increased her enrollment to 300. She had a musical
department and an art department, and they were admitted to have no
superior in the Missouri valley at that time. She also conducted a
kindergarten, primary, intermediate and academic grades. Also a
collegiate department, consisting of preparatory, scientific, classical
and literary courses, together with the normal and commercial courses.
She had thirteen teachers. Her vocational department covered all the
arts of domestic economy and domestic science, before which she employed
most eminent women in their special lines to deliver lectures. Mrs.
Monroe was then, and is now, a truly remarkable woman. Her school was a
forerunner of Midland College, and when it came to Atchison in 1887,
Mrs. Monroe closed her school shortly thereafter and has since been a
resident of Washington, D. C. She is a highly educated lady of
refinement and culture, and has spent much time upon the lecture
platform.

Following the Monroe Institute, some years later, Prof. Flint conducted
a Latin school here, which was largely attended. Mr. Flint was succeeded
by Prof. Foot, and as an outgrowth of these two schools, Misses Helen
and Abigail Scofield opened a preparatory school, and successfully
conducted it for a number of years, when they were succeeded by Miss
Mary Walton, who ran her school in the building owned by Mrs. J. W.
Parker, on Laramie street, between Third and Fourth streets, until a few
years ago.

In 1916 the public school system is augmented in its work by several
parochial and denominational schools, conducted by the Catholics and the
German Lutherans.


                     MT. ST. SCHOLASTICA’S ACADEMY.

One of the first sights to impress the visitor to Atchison is the
imposing collection of buildings which crowns its southern hill, now
commonly known as Mt. St. Scholastica.

Mt. St. Scholastica is practically as old as Atchison itself, the first
sisters having come here in 1863. Few who gaze upon the massive and
commodious array of buildings, surrounded as they now are by well-kept
lawns, spacious meadow and woodland, stop to think of its humble
beginning and the many trials which beset the early foundation. But the
first sisters were in time to feel the effects of the Civil war and the
hardships attendant upon the same.

At the request of Rev. Augustine Wirth, O. S. B., then prior of St.
Benedict’s College, and the first pastor of the church in Atchison, Rev.
Mother Evangelista and six companions were sent from the Benedictine
convent in St. Cloud, Minn., to establish a school in Atchison. Two more
sisters were sent the following April. As these latter were on their
way, they were detained at Hannibal for two days. The funeral cortege of
President Lincoln having reached that city at the same time as the
sisters, one of their sad privileges was that of attending the obsequies
of the martyred President before continuing their journey Kansasward.

The little convent, situated at the corner of Second and Division
streets, near St. Benedict’s church, was the cradle of the present
institution. Second street at that time was not a street at all, but
rather a passageway cut through the hazel brush, then so abundant in
Atchison.

The academy organized its classes December 1, 1863. It was incorporated
in 1873. Its roster bears the names of many of Atchison’s best families
of both town and county.

In the summer of 1877 the Price villa was purchased. A new building was
added in 1889. The third building was commenced in 1900. The buildings
are surrounded by thirty-eight acres of woodland and meadow.

Besides the academy in Atchison, the sisters supply teachers for a large
number of missions or parochial schools in Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri,
and Iowa, also one large school in Walsenburg, Colo. The institution in
Atchison is the center or mother house of all these branch houses, and
in vacation all the sisters from the missions assemble here for the
annual retreat, and for the summer normal.

[Illustration:

  Mt. St. Scholastica’s Academy, Atchison, Kan.
]

The venerable Mother Evangelista, the first mother and foundress, was
succeeded in office by Sister Theresa, who governed the community as
Reverend mother for the next twelve years. Since that time Mother
Aloysia has ably carried on the work of her predecessors.

The early days of Mt. St. Scholastica, like the early days of Kansas,
were times of struggle and hardships. Yet, these brave pioneer sisters
were of the true Kansas type, and tell us that they never for a moment
regretted their mission to the Sunflower State. They tell us, too, that
the sunflower itself had a strange power to cheer and encourage their
early days. Its sturdy stalk and bright disk seem so fit a type of
faith, labor and grateful content, that, even to the present day this
rustic flower always finds a place in the convent garden.

The later history of Mt. St. Scholastica is too well known to need
repetition. Its actual growth began with the purchase of Price villa in
1877, since which time progress has been steady and vigorous.

A most comprehensive plan of study is pursued at Mt. St. Scholastica. It
includes all branches needful for a thorough, literal and refined
education, the outcome of long years of experience and thoughtful
consideration. That this fact is appreciated, not only by neighboring
cities and towns, may be seen by consulting the academy roster, which
records a long list of names from many and various sections of the
country. Besides the academic or classical course, Mt. St. Scholastica
furnishes a complete commercial course, together with special advantages
for the study of music and art.

The home life of Mt. St. Scholastica is ideal. The association of
fellow-students amid wholesome environments has the tendency to bring
out and develop every noble and womanly quality, while the beneficient
and judicious guidance of the sisters wisely leads to the attainment of
those lofty principles so needful to right living.

Sacred Heart parochial school, in Atchison, is also controlled by the
Benedictine sisters, and is supported by tuition. Its curriculum extends
through the grades, and the school is under the direction of Sister
Monica, O. S. B., and one assistant. Both boys and girls attend, and the
enrollment in 1916 is seventy-four.

St. Louis College is another parochial school, offering work through the
grades, and admitting both boys and girls. It is maintained by St.
Benedict’s parish. Number of teachers employed is six, and the Rev.
Gerard Heinz, O. S. B., is principal. Enrollment in 1916 is 293.

St. Patrick’s parochial school is located near St. Patrick’s church, in
Union District No. 2, about seven miles south of Atchison. Two teachers
are employed in the school, and Ven. Sr. Merwina, O. S. B., is
directress. It is controlled and supported by St. Patrick’s parish, and
its curriculum extends through the grades. Boys and girls attend the
school, and the enrollment in 1916 was sixty-seven.

St. Ann’s school is a Catholic parochial school, at Effingham. It is
controlled and supported by St. Ann’s parish. Both boys and girls enroll
in the school, which completes the work of the grades. The past year,
forty-six pupils were in attendance. Two teachers are employed, one of
whom is Sister Sr. M. Marcellina, O. S. B., the directress.

The Trinity Lutheran parochial school is controlled and supported by the
Trinity Lutheran parish, corner of Eighth and Laramie streets. The
curriculum extends to the eighth grade, and work is offered to both boys
and girls. The enrollment in 1916 is fifty-three, and Rev. Carl W.
Greinki is principal.


           MIDLAND COLLEGE AND WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY.

The board of education of the general synod of the Evangelical Lutheran
church, after considering propositions from a number of cities in the
Middle West, decided on Atchison as the most suitable location for a
Lutheran institution. It is easy of access from the whole territory from
which students are most likely to come, and the offer of the city to
give $50,000 in money for buildings, twenty acres of land for a campus
and professors’ houses, a half interest in the sale of 500 acres of
land, and to furnish 200 students the first year, was a tempting offer.

Owing to some difficulties that arose, this offer was not entirely
fulfilled, but the twenty acres of ground was donated, and about $33,000
put into buildings. The college was opened on the fifteenth of
September, 1887, with 101 students registered.

In 1888 the main building, known as Atchison Hall, was begun, and turned
over to the board of trustees in the spring of 1889, and formally
dedicated on the 30th day of September of the same year. The institution
was given over to the care of a self-perpetuating board. From time to
time the constitution has been changed, so that the trustees would be
elected by the synods supporting the college.

At the present time the board is composed of twenty-nine members; four
are elected by the board from the citizens of Atchison, six from each of
the Kansas, English Nebraska and German Nebraska synods; two from the
Rocky Mountain and Iowa synods each, and three from the Alumni
Association, with the president of the college advisory member, ex-
officio.

[Illustration:

  Carnegie Library, Atchison, Kansas
]

Rev. Jacob A. Clutz, D. D., was elected first president, and served
efficiently in that capacity for fourteen and one-half years. In 1904
Rev. M. F. Troxell, D. D., pastor of the English Lutheran church of St.
Joseph, Mo. was elected president, and was succeeded by Dr. Rufus B.
Peery.

In 1891 Oak Hall, a dormitory for girls, was erected, to which, about
ten years later, the annex was added, giving accommodations for thirty
young women. In 1893 the gymnasium was erected, the money being
solicited by the students of the institution. Through the solicitations
of Dr. Clutz, a splendid six-inch telescope was donated, and an
observatory built in 1899. Through the efforts of Dr. Troxell a
proposition was secured from Andrew Carnegie to donate $15,000 towards
the building of a library, provided the same amount could be raised for
its upkeep. From the synods on the territory, alumni and friends of the
college, this amount was secured, and the handsome library building was
erected during the winter of 1910–1911, and formally dedicated on May
30, 1911. A legacy of $5,000, given several years before, was added to
the building fund in order to have a public hall, and a memorial tablet
was placed in the hall to the memory of the generous donor, Rev. J. G.
Griffith, D. D. On the retirement of Dr. Clutz, his home was bought by
the college board for the use of the president.

The Western Theological Seminary was organized in 1895, and the first
president and professor, Rev. F. D. Altman, D. D., was inaugurated.

The German department of the seminary was added a few years later, with
Dr. J. L. Neve as dean of the department. The home owned by ex-Senator
John J. Ingalls was secured in 1908 for seminary purposes. It is
admirably adapted to that purpose. At the annual meeting of the college
trustees in 1910 the board of education turned over the management of
the seminary to this board.


                        ST. BENEDICT’S COLLEGE.

St. Benedict’s College is the product of Benedictine activity in Kansas,
in the cause of Christian civilization. Father Boniface Wimmer, O. S.
B., the founder of the Benedictines in the United States, settled in
Pennsylvania in 1846, and ten years later he sent missionaries in all
directions, and where they settled, promptly there, too, their schools
soon were founded. Father Henry Lempe, O. S. B., was the first
Benedictine to touch upon Kansas soil in 1856, and he inspired Bishop
Miege, S. J., of Leavenworth, with the idea of inviting Abbott Wimmer to
make a foundation in Kansas, and thereafter Father Augustine Wirth, O.
S. B., was sent out to Doniphan, in 1857, but in 1858 he moved to
Atchison. Father Augustine’s management of the college continued until
1868, when he was succeeded by Louis M. Fink, O. S. B., who remained at
the head of the institution until 1871. It was under Father Louis that
the first printed catalog of St. Benedict’s College appears. Father
Giles Christoph, O. S. B., succeeded Father Louis, and held the position
three years, from 1871 to 1874, and was succeeded by Father Oswald
Moosmueller, O. S. B. The college is situated on the hills north of
Atchison and commands an extensive view of the Missouri river and
surrounding country. In 1908 the college planned to erect a new group of
buildings to crown the brow of the hill, east of the old college, new
St. Benedict is to be not only first class, but it is to be a monument
of beautiful architecture, which will be in Tudor Gothic and uniform
throughout. The administration building, already erected, comprises the
first of the group, part of which comprises living quarters of the
students. It is a fire-proof building of re-inforced concrete and
vitrified brick, spacious, well ventilated, and conveniently arranged.
The buildings in the old group are of substantial structure, well fitted
to serve their purposes. They comprise an auditorium, recitation room,
kitchen and dining rooms, scientific laboratories, museum of natural
history, music and typewriting departments. The college has two distinct
libraries, one for the exclusive use of the students, and the other, the
college library proper. The students’ library contains upwards of 5,000
volumes, in addition to a number of papers and magazines. The college
library proper, maintained for the use of the professors, occupies four
rooms and the monastery, and it contains more than 27,400 bound volumes
and over 5,000 pamphlets. The scientific laboratories are adequate for
present use, and the museum is one of the best of its kind in this part
of the country. The playgrounds of the college are large and well suited
to afford all manner of healthful exercise for the students.

[Illustration:

  St. Benedict’s College, Atchison, Kan.
]

The courses available in the college are the academic, the collegiate,
business and stenographic, which are presided over by twenty-two
professors, and in which are 300 students. St. Benedict’s is one of the
finest Catholic institutions in the West.



                             CHAPTER XVIII.
                             BENCH AND BAR.

  EARLY MECCA OF LEGAL TALENT—ORGANIZATION OF JUDICIAL DISTRICT—EARLY
      JUDGES—PROMINENT PIONEER LAWYERS—MEMBERS OF THE ATCHISON COUNTY
      BAR.


Atchison county has always been particularly proud of the high order of
talent that has graced its bench and bar. From the very earliest days of
its history, the legal profession has been well represented here. Men
who have reached a high order of distinction in the profession have had
their beginning at the bar of this county. In fact, this county has been
somewhat unique in this respect, for there is perhaps no other county in
Kansas that has furnished a greater number of distinguished
representatives of this noble profession, who have shed their luster
upon the fair name of the State. For a long period, indeed, Atchison
seemed to be the Mecca towards which the best legal talent from all
quarters of the country gathered, and it was the Atchison bar that
furnished three chief justices of the supreme court of Kansas, one
United States district judge, an attorney-general, a governor, a United
States senator, and a general counsel for a large railroad system.

No attempt will be made in this chapter to give a complete roster of
names of the many lawyers who have successfully practiced their
profession here. The list is too numerous, but reference will be made to
a number of conspicuous leaders, whose names stand out prominently in
the history of the State, and whose careers have enriched the story of
success and achievement.

Atchison county was one of the counties of the second judicial district,
which composed, in addition to Atchison county, Doniphan, Brown, Nemaha,
Marshall and Washington counties. The first judge of the district was
Hon. Albert L. Lee, who lived at Elwood, Doniphan county, and served
from January 29 to October 31, 1861. He died in New York City December
31, 1907. The second judge of this district was Hon. Albert H. Horton.
Judge Horton was born in Orange county, New York, March 12, 1837, and
was educated at Farmers’ Hall Academy, in that county, and at Ann Arbor
University. He was admitted to practice in the supreme court of New
York, at Brooklyn, in 1859, and continued the practice of his profession
at Goshen until 1860, when he removed to Kansas, locating at Atchison.
His first public office here was city attorney, to which place he was
elected in the spring of 1861, upon the Republican ticket, and the same
year was appointed by Governor Robinson judge of the second judicial
district, and held this office, by election, until 1866, when he
resigned. He was a Republican presidential elector in 1868, and in 1869
was appointed a district attorney of Kansas by President Grant, which
office he held until 1873, when he was elected a member of the house of
representatives from this county. Three years later he was elected to
the State senate, and was also a delegate to the National Republican
convention in June of that year, and in the same year was appointed
chief justice of the supreme court of Kansas by Governor Thomas A.
Osborn, to succeed Hon. S. A. Kingman, who was before that time a
prominent practitioner in Atchison. In 1877 Judge Horton was nominated
on the Republican ticket to the office of chief justice of the State,
and he served in that capacity for seventeen years, at the end of which
time he returned to Atchison and formed a partnership with Hon. B. P.
Waggener. Judge Horton was an able jurist and lawyer, a strong
argumentative and fluent speaker. He displayed marked ability as a
parliamentarian while in the legislature, and was, altogether, a man of
strong mental capacity, good judgment, coupled with executive ability,
and much practical experience. After a number of years’ practice here,
following his resignation as chief justice of the State, he subsequently
was reëlected to the same position. He died on the second day of
September, 1902.

Judge Horton was succeeded as judge of the district court of this
district by Hon. St. Clair Graham May 11, 1866. Judge Graham served as
Judge until January 11, 1869, and was on the bench at the time that the
celebrated Regis Liosel land contest was tried in Nemaha county, in
which John J. Ingalls, another Atchison lawyer, represented some
claimants to 38,111 acres of land in the counties of Nemaha, Marshall,
Jackson and Pottawatomie. It was one of the celebrated cases of that
day. The litigation grew out of a French land grant, which subsequently
was confirmed by an act of Congress in 1858.

Judge Graham was succeeded by Hon. Nathan Price, of Troy, Doniphan
county, January 11, 1869. Judge Price served until March 1, 1872. He
practiced law in the district for a number of years thereafter, and died
in Troy March 8, 1883. B. P. Waggener, who began his wonderful career as
a lawyer during the administration of Judge Price, and who has been in
the active practice in Atchison since that time, is authority for the
statement that Judge Price was one of the most brilliant judges that
ever adorned the bench. He is described by Mr. Waggener as being a man
of a powerful personality, and thoroughly grounded in the principles of
the law.

[Illustration:

  S. C. KINGMAN
]

[Illustration:

  P. T. ABELL
]

During this period in the history of the county, Atchison had one of the
strongest bars in the State of Kansas. Among the able lawyers then in
the active practice were: P. T. Abell, about whom much has appeared in
this history; Gen. Benjamin F. Stringfellow, Alfred G. Otis, John J.
Ingalls, George W. Glick, Samuel C. Kingman, J. T. Hereford, Gen. W. W.
Guthrie, Albert H. Horton, Cassius G. Foster, S. H. Glenn, F. D. Mills
and David Martin, and one of that number, Mr. Waggener, is also
authority for the statement that Benjamin F. Stringfellow was the most
brilliant. General Stringfellow was a brother of Dr. John H.
Stringfellow, one of the founders of Atchison, and, like his brother,
was a strong pro-slavery leader. He was famous before he came to
Atchison, because of his widely known views with regard to the opening
of Kansas as a slave State, and for the depth and force of his arguments
upon the points then at issue. General Stringfellow was born in
Fredericksburg, Va., September 3, 1816, and before coming to Kansas he
was a resident of Missouri. He first located in Louisville, Ky., and
then went to St. Louis, and from St. Louis to Huntsville, Mo., finally
locating at Keytesville, where he settled down in his profession, and
was recognized as being a young lawyer of fine ability. He declined the
position of circuit attorney, but upon the earnest solicitation of the
governor, he finally yielded and entered upon the duties of that office,
and subsequently was elected without opposition, and held that office
for a term of four years at a salary of $250 a year. He subsequently was
elected to the legislature, with the largest majority ever received in a
county, and immediately became a very active, popular and influential
member of that body. Shortly thereafter the position of attorney-general
of the State of Missouri became vacant, and General Stringfellow was
appointed to that place. He held the office of attorney-general for four
years. It was then that he formed a partnership with Hon. P. T. Abell,
which continued until the fall of 1851, and they removed to Weston,
Platte county, Missouri, in the fall of 1853.

At the opening of Kansas to settlement in 1854, General Stringfellow
found the abolitionists preparing to get control of the country, and, in
opposition to the formation of the Massachusetts Immigrants’ Aid
Society, he took part in the organization of a pro-slavery organization
at Weston, Mo., known as the Platte County Self-Defensive Association,
of which he was secretary, and one of its most active members. General
Stringfellow, foreseeing the conflict, insisted that the only means of
preventing or deferring it, was to make Kansas a slave State, and thus
retain sufficient power in the United States Senate to defeat aggression
by the abolitionists on the rights of the South. General Stringfellow,
with all the power and enthusiasm of his southern temperament, labored
ceaselessly for the success of his cause. He was the active man of what
was generally called “Atchison, Stringfellow & Company.”

When the pro-slavery forces finally succeeded, and the destiny of Kansas
was fixed, General Stringfellow went to Memphis, Tenn., in 1858, but not
liking the climate, and compelled by his financial interests to look
after property in Atchison, he brought his family here and became a
resident of Atchison county in the fall of 1859, and remained here
during all the bitter conflict that followed, beloved and respected by
friends and opponents alike. He submitted gracefully to the final
decision, and, while never seeking office, and influenced in his
political action by what he deemed the best interests of the people of
the State, he cordially coöperated with the Republican party in Kansas,
but he was preëminently a lawyer, although he had a large outside
business interests during his residence here. He was active in the
organization and construction of the Atchison & St. Joseph railroad,
which was the first railroad connecting Kansas with the East, and was
its first attorney. Shortly before his death he made a trip around the
world. He died in Chicago in the early nineties.

[Illustration:

  GEN. B. F. STRINGFELLOW
]

[Illustration:

  COL. J. A. MARTIN
]

A few years after General Stringfellow immigrated from Missouri into
Kansas, there came another famous lawyer, who was also formerly an
attorney-general of Missouri, Gen. Bela M. Hughes. General Hughes was
also one of the brilliant lawyers of an early day, who remained in
Atchison but a few years as general counsel for the Overland Stage Line.
Before coming to Atchison, General Hughes was a resident of St. Joseph,
where he was the president and general counsel for the Central Overland
California & Pike’s Peak Express Company. When this line was sold, under
a mortgage foreclosure, to Ben Holladay, in 1862, General Hughes came to
Atchison. He served as general counsel for Mr. Holladay until the line
was purchased by Wells, Fargo & Company. He was retained by this company
as its general counsel, which continued to operate the overland stage
line, until a railroad was built across the plains, meanwhile moving to
Denver, where he was elected the first president and general counsel of
the Denver & Pacific railway, the first railroad to enter Denver, in
July, 1870, and he later became general counsel for the Denver & South
Park railroad, and a member of the last territorial legislature of
Colorado. General Hughes was born in Kentucky, educated at Augusta
College, and removed with his parents at an early date to Liberty, Mo.
He was a member of the Missouri legislature, prosecuting attorney, and
receiver of the United States land office at Plattsburg, from which
place he went to St. Joseph. In his early youth he was a soldier in the
Black Hawk war, serving with the Missouri volunteers. He took up his
residence in Denver in the late sixties, when the city had less than
5,000 inhabitants. He died in Denver in 1904, at the age of eighty-six
years.

Judge Samuel C. Kingman was born in Worthington, Mass., June 6, 1818. He
attended a common school and academies of his home town, and became
proficient in higher mathematics and Latin, but his regular attendance
at school ended when he was seventeen years old. He was always a sickly
man, and at times during his life was compelled to lay aside all study
and attention to active affairs. At the age of twenty he drifted to
Kentucky, where he remained eighteen years, teaching school, reading law
and practicing as an attorney. He held offices as county clerk and
county attorney in Kentucky, and was a member of the legislature of that
State in 1850. In 1856 he came to Iowa, and in the following year moved
to Brown county, Kansas, where he lived on a farm for a year, and then
opened a law office in Hiawatha. Judge Kingman was a member of the
Wyandotte Constitutional convention, which framed the constitution of
the State, and the same year was elected a judge of the supreme court,
taking his seat upon the admission of the State into the Union in 1861,
holding his office for four years. In 1866 he was elected chief justice,
and reëlected in 1872, but because of ill health he resigned in 1877,
and retired from active professional life. Judge Kingman was for a time
a resident of Atchison and a law partner of John J. Ingalls. He died in
Topeka September 9, 1904.

Cassius G. Foster, another one of the brilliant galaxy of lawyers, who
practiced in Atchison during the term of Judge Price on the bench, was
born at Webster, Monroe county, New York, June 22, 1837. He was brought
up on a farm until he was fourteen years of age, and having only the
advantages of a common district school, he attended high school at
Palmyra, N. Y., after which he went to Michigan, where he lived on a
farm near Adrian, where he worked for his uncle. Meanwhile, he attended
school at the academy in Adrian. He studied law with Fernando C. Beaman,
of Adrian, and afterwards removed to Rochester, N. Y. In June, 1859, he
came to Kansas, having previously been greatly interested in the Free
State struggle, and upon arriving in Atchison, he formed a partnership
with Judge S. H. Glenn, and immediately won for himself a high position
at the bar of the State and Federal courts. He was elected State senator
from Atchison county in 1862, and was mayor of Atchison in 1867. He
practiced law here until 1874, when he was appointed United States
district judge of Kansas.

Hon. P. L. Hubbard, of Atchison, succeeded Judge Price on the bench
March 2, 1872, and served until January 8, 1877, and following Judge
Hubbard, Hon. Alfred G. Otis was elected judge of the second judicial
district January 8, 1877, and served until January, 1881. Judge Otis was
born in Cortland county, New York, December 13, 1828, and came to Kansas
in October, 1855, and immediately became engaged in land litigation,
which at that time was very active here. During the early career of
Judge Otis in Atchison county, and for many years thereafter, land
litigation was the chief source of revenue for lawyers. There were no
great corporations then as now; no railroads for clients, and aside from
land litigation and a general practice of the law, including criminal
cases, there was but little business for lawyers. At that time the
criminal practice was not looked upon with the same disapprobation on
the part of the profession as it is in these days. A good criminal
lawyer then was an ornament to the profession, and a good criminal
advocate was in constant demand and his services brought him large
remuneration. Judge Otis was a Democrat, but a Union man, and in
addition to his activities in his profession, he was also prominent in
the business affairs of the town, and for a long time took an active
part in the management of the Atchison Savings Bank, of which he was for
many years president. Judge Otis died in Atchison May 7, 1912.

Judge Otis was succeeded by Hon. David Martin in January, 1881. Judge
Martin served until April, 1887, and was one of the eminent members of
the Atchison county bar. In personal appearance he was unique among his
fellows, and in physical appearance was the counterpart of Dickens’
famous Mr. Pickwick. He was a partner of B. P. Waggener for a number of
years, and was subsequently elected to the position of chief justice of
the supreme court of Kansas, where he served with great distinction. He
was a thorough lawyer and a scholar. He died at Atchison March 2, 1901.

It was between the terms of Judge Price and Judge David Martin that the
bar of Atchison county reached its greatest eminence, and, while there
have been good lawyers here since that time, there never has been a
period in the history of the county when there were so many brilliant
practitioners at the bar. During several years following Judge Martin,
the second judicial district, which constituted Atchison county alone,
was torn by internal dissension, and upon the resignation of Judge
Martin, Hon. H. M. Jackson was elected to the bench, April 1, 1887, and
served until January, 1888. There never was a more conscientious or
painstaking lawyer a resident of Atchison than Judge Jackson. He was not
only a fine lawyer, but he was a good citizen, useful to clients and the
public alike. At his death, May 7, 1912, he left a large practice, which
has since been conducted by his son, Z. E. Jackson. Following a bitter
contest, Hon. W. D. Gilbert succeeded Judge Jackson in January, 1888,
and served until 1889, and then came Hon. Robert N. Eaton, whose term
began in January, 1889, and ended in January, 1893. Judge Eaton was
succeeded by Hon. W. D. Webb, who in turn was succeeded by Hon. W. T.
Bland, who served from January, 1897, to January, 1902, and resigned to
go into the wholesale drug business. Hon. Benjamin F. Hudson, one of the
oldest practitioners at the bar, succeeded Judge Bland and served until
October 11, 1909, and was succeeded by Hon. William A. Jackson, the
present judge, a sketch of whose career appears in another part of this
history.

During the turbulent years that followed the organization of the second
judicial district, down to 1916, there was no greater lawyer at the
Atchison county bar than B. P. Waggener, about whom there appears an
historical sketch in another part of this history. Mr. Waggener, in
addition to being a native genius, inherited or acquired a faculty for
unremitting toil. These qualifications make him stand out in 1916 as a
brilliant leader of his profession in Atchison county. He has been
associated as a partner with many men who have been preëminent in their
profession at different periods in his career, Horton, Martin and
Doster, all of whom served as chief justices of the State, were his
partners, and in addition to these, Aaron S. Everest was at one time a
partner under the firm name of Everest & Waggener. In January, 1876,
this firm was appointed general attorneys for northern Kansas of the
Missouri Pacific and the Central Branch railroads, and from that date to
1916 Mr. Waggener has been in the constant service of this road, first
as general attorney and later as general counsel for the states of
Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado.

Col. Aaron S. Everest was an interesting member of this bar. He was a
native of Plattsburg, N. Y., and located in Kansas in 1871. His first
partner was A. G. Otis, and when he and Mr. Waggener were associated,
they were not only attorneys for the Missouri Pacific Railway Company,
but for the Pacific Express Company, the Western Union Telegraph
Company, three Atchison banks, the Atchison Bridge Company, and the firm
was also connected with the Union Pacific Railroad Company. Mr. Everest
retired from active practice a number of years before his death, having
acquired a comfortable fortune in the practice of law and in business
operations. He died in St. Louis a number of years ago.

The present membership of the Atchison county bar is composed of lawyers
of fine abilities, and the active members are as follows: James W. Orr,
for many years a partner of Mr. Waggener, and now special counsel for
the Government in important litigation against the Central Pacific
railroad; W. P. Waggener, general attorney for the Missouri Pacific
Railway Company in Kansas; J. M. Challiss, former county attorney, and a
member of the firm of Waggener, Challiss & Crane, of which A. E. Crane
is the other member; W. A. Jackson, district judge; Charles J. Conlon,
county attorney, C. D. Walker and T. A. Moxcey, both of whom were former
county attorneys; W. E. Brown, city attorney; Z. E. Jackson, of the firm
of Jackson & Jackson; Judge J. L. Berry. P. Hayes, Hugo Orlopp, E. W.
Clausen, Ralph U. Pfouts, Charles T. Gundy, judge of the city court,
George L. Brown, William Q. Cain, and Andrew Deduall.



                              CHAPTER XIX
                          MEDICAL PROFESSION.

  FIRST PHYSICIANS—EARLY PRACTICE—PIONEER REMEDIES—MODERN MEDICINE AND
      SURGERY—PROMINENT PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS—ATCHISON COUNTY MEDICAL
      SOCIETY.


Any history of this county would be incomplete did it not dwell at some
length upon the activities of the splendid service rendered the
community by the physicians and surgeons who were among the earliest
arrivals upon the frontier, and have presided at the births and
administered to the sick and dying for the past sixty years.

It was peculiarly fitting and appropriate when Atchison was born, that a
prominent physician of those days was on hand to assist in the delivery.
In truth, Dr. J. H. Stringfellow was not only the physician in charge,
but he also was one of the parents, and from that time to the present
the medical profession has been active in the affairs of the county.
There have been many splendid representatives of the profession here
since the days of Dr. Stringfellow, and the vicissitudes and trials and
hardships they went through make up a romantic chapter in our history.
The oldest physician in the city of Atchison in 1916 in point of service
is Dr. E. T. Shelly, and it might be said, without disparagement to
others, he is not only the oldest, but he is perhaps held in as high
esteem and respect as any other physician who ever practiced here. Dr.
Shelly combines the qualities that make for good citizenship. He treats
his profession as a good Christian treats his religion. He is a man of
ideals, of vision, of integrity, and his life rings true. Yet, withal,
Dr. Shelly is not a professional hermit. While his profession comes
first, he does not allow it to exclude him from an active interest and
participation in the affairs of life. He is a student of political and
economic questions, an essayist, and a vigorous advocate of a liberal
democracy. His views on these questions are wholesome and instructive,
but it is to the profession of medicine that Dr. Shelly addressed
himself in a recent interview the author of this history had with him,
and his views were expressed as follows:

“What changes have occurred in the practice of medicine since the days
of the first physicians here! He did his work on horseback with his
medicines in saddle-bags thrown over the horse, and often had to go many
miles to visit a patient over a sparsely settled prairie with roads that
were little more than trails. The streams he had to cross were
bridgeless, and the larger ones could be crossed only at fords, which,
after heavy rains or during freezing weather, were very dangerous.

“Today, in this section of the State, these primitive conditions can
hardly be imagined. Nearly every country doctor now has an automobile,
and crosses gullies and streams on concrete bridges and travels over
‘dragged’ roads. Instead of passing through a sparsely settled country,
he finds a fine large farm house on nearly every ‘quarter’ or ‘eighty’
supplemented by a substantial barn and spacious granaries. He passes a
school house every few miles and occasionally a rural church, and lives
in a comfortable, modern home in a flourishing, well kept country town.

“In the science and art of medicine the change has been no less marked
than in its general practice.

“Until forty years ago, doctors possessed a few great remedies which
they often used very skillfully, but the knowledge of the nature of
disease was very slight. Treatment was largely symptomatic; that is,
remedies were expected chiefly to combat certain symptoms, rather than
to treat underlying causes.

“A notion very prevalent until then, and which has not yet disappeared
entirely, was that there is a remedy for every disease, and that
whenever a patient is not cured of his illness it is due, not to the
limitations of the healing art, but to the fact that treatment was not
begun early enough, or his doctor didn’t know enough, or didn’t care
enough to give him the right medicine. About that time it began to dawn
on the most thoughtful and capable medical men that the course of
disease can usually not be quickly checked; that most diseases run a
definite course; that most patients recover spontaneously, or the
disease persists to the end and is not much influenced by any of the
remedies used. About that time medical men began to appreciate also
another fact: that underlying most diseases, there is a natural tendency
toward recovery, which means that most diseases will cure themselves if
given time enough.

“While medical men insist that the practice of medicine is both a
science and an art, they are also perfectly willing to admit that it is
neither an exact science nor a perfect art. In other words, modern
medicine admits that it has not yet scaled the heights or fathomed the
depths of scientific knowledge in regard to the nature of disease or of
its cure. It is still willing to learn. Indeed, it realizes the fact
that there is still infinitely more to learn than has yet been found
out. And there is no avenue of human knowledge which it is not willing
to explore in order to find out things that will get the sick well and
keep the well from getting sick.

“A stunning blow to the old notions of the nature of disease and to the
old methods of treatment, was administered about thirty years ago by the
discovery that most diseases are due to infinitely small, living
organisms, called germs or bacteria, which prey upon, or poison the
tissues of the body, and thereby disturb, more or less seriously, some,
or all, of the normal functions of the body. The scientific laboratory
thereupon became the shrine of modern medicine; a new epoch in medicine
had arrived.

“This new epoch meant not only that medical and surgical disorders were
henceforth to be treated in a much more scientific and rational way than
they had been in the past, but that one of the greatest scientific
conquests of the ages was underway—the intelligent prevention of
disease. Preventive medicine had been born. Soon thereafter a new and
unprecedented popular interest in medical matters became prevalent.
Newspapers, magazines and the public forum took a hand in popularizing
this new knowledge of the nature of disease and the methods of
preventing disease, which was founded on the new knowledge. Disease
began to be looked on no longer as only a mysterious dispensation of
Providence, but as a thing which, as scientific medicine advanced, was
more and more to come under the knowledge and control of science.

“In no domain of modern medicine have greater advances been made than in
surgery, due chiefly to the discovery of the role which germs play in
the causation of surgical troubles. Because of the discovery of the
necessity of asepsis (the absence of germs) in surgical operations and
its practical application, operations, which, if done thirty years ago,
would have been almost invariably fatal, can now be done nearly with
impunity. Then, surgical operations in large surgical clinics were done
by men in Prince Albert coats. Today, the surgeon and his assistants are
arrayed in sterilized white gowns and rubber gloves with caps for their
heads and special coverings for mouth and nose, which are worn in order
to prevent any unfiltered, contaminated vapor from these orifices coming
in contact with the freshly made wound. Where proper precautions are
taken, and no pus or other filth has come in contact with the wound,
some of the most extensive operations are followed by immediate repair,
without the formation of pus in the wound. To enumerate even a small
part of the triumphs of modern surgery would occupy too much space and
is uncalled for here, and these triumphs would have been impossible
before the advent of surgical cleanliness.

“But modern medicine does not stop at treating or curing people. It does
something even bigger and better—it tries to keep them well. Indeed, the
medical profession is the only immolating profession there is—the only
profession that is all the time trying, by its efforts in the direction
of preventive medicine, to destroy its only source of income—the
treatment of disease—by doing all within its power to make disease less
and less prevalent. It is continually urging better personal and public
hygiene and sanitation. Because medical men understand the stunting
effects of ill health on the growing mind and body of the child, they
are urging careful medical inspection of schools and school children,
and they call for better health conditions in the family, the factory,
and the mine, and they denounce without measure unhealthy child labor.
Modern medicine tries to banish from the home and school, as nearly as
may be, that brutal precept—“He that spareth the rod, hateth his son”—
because it knows that the irritable, petulant, stubborn child may be a
sick child, or has fools for parents, while the incorrigible boy or girl
needs the attention of an expert in nervous and mental diseases rather
than the brutality of an impatient, ignorant parent or policeman.

“Modern medicine enters the jungle and by proper sanitary rules and
regulations makes a deadly, miasmatic swamp a model of cleanliness and
healthfulness, as was done in the Panama canal zone, and without which
the building of the canal would have been impossible.

“Modern medicine seeks to help and to save mankind, not only from
physical ills, but from moral ills as well. By the careful study of the
influence of inheritance and environment on the development and the
conduct of the child, it tries to make his physical inheritance as
favorable as possible, and his economic and social environment as
helpful as may be, realizing that much of our moral delinquency is due
to unjust civic and economic conditions.”

It would require a volume to tell the story of the lives of all the
early-day physicians of this county. Investigation discloses the fact
that they were numerous, and that in addition to Dr. Stringfellow, who
gave more of his time to political matters than to his profession, there
was a Dr. D. McVay here prior to 1860. He was a southern gentleman, but
apparently had more discretion than valor, for he fled from Atchison at
the beginning of the Civil war. Dr. William Grimes, concerning whose
life brief mention has been heretofore made in this history, was a
physician at Atchison in 1858. Dr. W. W. Cochrane was another physician
of the old school, a courtly, amiable gentleman, and a good physician.
He was for a number of years treasurer of the Kansas Medical Society,
and was a pioneer among physicians in administering chloroform in
childbirth cases. Dr. Arnold was here in 1859, and later, on a trip to
Denver, he was scalped by the Indians. Dr. Joseph Malin, of Weston, Mo.,
who married one of the McAdows, was a physician in Atchison in 1861, and
Dr. J. V. Brining practiced in Atchison in 1862, and remained a
practitioner here until 1914.

Dr. William Gough, who had been a Confederate army surgeon, located in
Atchison shortly after the war. He practiced in St. Joseph before coming
to Atchison, and also at DeKalb, where he married Mrs. Annie Dunning.
From DeKalb he moved to Rushville, and then came to Atchison, where he
formed a partnership with the late Dr. J. M. Linley. Together they
enjoyed an extensive medical and surgical practice, until 1887, when Dr.
Gough moved to Los Angeles, Cal., for the benefit of his health. He died
there in 1908. Dr. Gough is described by his friends as being a man of
large physique, the soul of honor, and displayed the utmost care and
gentleness in the care of his patients.

Dr. W. L. Challiss came to Atchison in 1857, and while standing high in
his profession, gave most of his time to business affairs, and practiced
only spasmodically. There was also a Dr. Buddington in Atchison in 1864,
who ran a drug store at Fourth and Commercial streets.

One of the most interesting members of the medical profession in an
early day was Dr. Charles F. Kob, a German physician, who lived here
about 1858. Dr. Kob had been a surgeon in the army and a member of the
Massachusetts and Connecticut Medical Society. He founded the town of
Bunker Hill, on Independence creek, ten miles north of Atchison, to
which reference has already been made in this history. He lived and
practiced in Boston before coming to Atchison. Dr. Amaziah Moore was
another very early day physician, who located on a farm three or four
miles west of Lancaster, in 1857. He came from Ohio. In 1861 he helped
organize a company for the Civil war, which became Company D of the
Second Kansas cavalry, of which he was captain.

[Illustration:

  DR. W. W. COCHRANE
]

[Illustration:

  WILLIAM L. CHALLIS
]

Dr. John C. Batsell lived about two and one-half miles northwest of
Monrovia. He was a native of Kentucky, and was born in Marion county
March 16, 1818. He was reared and educated in his native county, where
he took up the study of medicine, and became proficient in the science.
He commenced the practice of his profession in Valeene, Orange county,
Indiana, where he continued successfully for over seven years. In the
autumn of 1855 he came to Atchison county, along with John Graves and
others, and after looking around, went to DeKalb, Mo., where he remained
until the spring of 1866, when he returned to Atchison county, and
preëmpted a quarter section, upon which he lived, northwest of Monrovia.
He engaged in the practice of medicine in connection with farming, being
frequently called into Doniphan and Brown counties. Malarial diseases
prevailed to a great extent in those early days, and the people were in
straitened circumstances. He furnished medicine and attended to their
wants, losing largely in a financial way, as the greater portion of the
first dwellers moved away. In 1863 Dr. Batsell organized one-half of
Company D, Thirteenth Kansas, of which he was tendered the captaincy,
but declined and accepted the position of first lieutenant. On account
of serious illness he only served three months in the army. He was major
of the Thirteenth Kansas during the Price raid, and at the close of the
war was elected to the legislature by the Republican party. He was
originally an old-line Whig, but upon the organization of the Republican
party he joined it, as he was in favor of the abolition of slavery.
During his latter years he discontinued his practice and devoted his
time to his farm. He died about ten years ago.

Dr. David Wait came from Missouri to Kansas in 1859 and settled on a
farm near Eden postoffice, now known as the Vollmer farm. He was a
striking-looking man and was looked upon as very proficient in his
profession. He was an ardent Union man. In fact, Dr. Moore, Dr. Batsell
and Dr. Wait were all of great help to the Union cause in the days
before the war.

Among other leading physicians of the county, outside of Atchison, of
the early days, were Dr. J. F. Martin, Dr. S. G. Page, Dr. C. C.
Stivers, and Dr. Desmond, concerning whom the following information is
available:

Dr. J. F. Martin was one of the first practitioners in Atchison county.
He was a native of Bourbon county, Kentucky, and was born September 29,
1828. He graduated at the Transylvania Medical University, in 1854, and
afterwards took a course of lectures in St. Louis Medical University.
Subsequently he removed to DeKalb, Mo., where he practiced until 1856,
coming to Kansas about the same time that Dr. Batsell came. He had a
large practice in Doniphan and Brown counties. He practiced ten years,
and returned to Decatur, Ill., in 1866, where he remained seven years,
and returned to Kansas, locating in Effingham. He died in Effingham in
1877.

Dr. S. G. Page, a native of Juniata county, Pennsylvania, was born July
16, 1845. He attended Bellevue Hospital Medical College in New York in
1867: came to Kansas in 1868, and located in Center township, five miles
south of Effingham, where he located on a farm which he operated a few
years, and then located in Effingham.

Dr. C. C. Stivers, a native of Brown county, Ohio, was born January 6,
1842. He enlisted in Company A, Sixtieth Ohio Volunteer infantry;
participated in the battles of Bull Run, Cross Keys and Port Royal.
Returning from the war, he took a course of lectures at Miami University
in Oxford Ohio; located in Eden in 1877 and practiced until 1881, when
he became a resident of Effingham. In 1880 he attended Keokuk Medical
College, graduating from that institution. He had the reputation of
being a brilliant conversationalist and a very interesting gentleman.

The first doctor to locate at Lancaster was Dr. Desmond, who went there
in the latter seventies. While there he married a Miss Streeper, of Good
Intent, and about 1885 moved to Stewartsville, Mo. Dr. Desmond was
succeeded at Lancaster by Dr. A. L. Charles, who came there from Bunker
Hill, Russell county, Kansas, where he had gone four years previously,
after graduating from the Kansas City Medical College. Soon after
locating at Lancaster, Dr. Charles married Miss Alice Keeney, who lived
near Lancaster. Dr. and Mrs. Charles raised a family of seven children,
the eldest of whom is the Atchison surgeon, Dr. Hugh L. Charles. Mrs.
Charles died of pneumonia in the Atchison hospital in January, 1915. Dr.
Charles has been a very successful physician. He enjoys the profoundest
respect of his colleagues throughout the county, who regard him as an
ideal physician. It is needless to add that he also enjoys the utmost
confidence and esteem of a clientele whose numbers are limited only by
his ability to serve.

The first physician at Mt. Pleasant was Dr. Eagle, who located there
during territorial days and practiced for a number of years. Dr. Jacob
Larry also located at Mt. Pleasant about 1856. He was a South
Carolinian, and a graduate of Charleston Medical College. During the war
he was a surgeon in the army. He located in Iatan, Mo., and was building
up a large practice when he committed suicide by taking strychnine and
then blowing his brains out with a pistol. Before moving to Iatan Dr.
Larry induced Dr. John Parsons, of King’s Bridge, N. Y., who also had
been an army surgeon, to come to Mt. Pleasant. Dr. Parsons practiced
there several years, and his practice became so large that he finally
induced Dr. George W. Redmon to locate at Mt. Pleasant and assist him.
Dr. Redmon located there in the fall of 1872, and remained a number of
years, later locating at Oak Mills. There was also a Dr. W. W. Crook at
Mt. Pleasant, in the seventies. Dr. Crook also practiced in Doniphan,
and later moved to Wyoming. Dr. P. R. Moore was another physician who
located in Mt. Pleasant township during the seventies, as was also Dr.
Johnson. Dr. Charles H. Linley, now a resident physician of Atchison,
practiced in Mt. Pleasant for a number of years, and following Dr.
Linley came Dr. Miller and Dr. Rice. Dr. Roberts had a small drug store
and practiced medicine at Oak Mills in the early days. He was addicted
to the liquor habit, and was found dead in his office one morning. He
had been preceded in practice at Oak Mills by Dr. Earle, who lived about
half way between Oak Mills and Kickapoo, and who settled there during
the fifties.

Dr. J. M. Linley came to Atchison March 14, 1865. He was born in
Concord, Ky., October 28, 1837. He attended college at Princeton, Ky.,
and was graduated from Miami Medical College at Cincinnati, Ohio, in
March, 1858, and subsequently attended lectures in Bellevue College, New
York. He was post surgeon at New Madrid, Mo., in 1864. Dr. Linley was
one of the most successful practitioners of Atchison and was held in
high esteem. In 1891 he went abroad and attended clinics in hospitals of
Berlin and London. He died in Phoenix, Ariz., November 28, 1900.

The following are the members of the Atchison County Medical Society as
reported in 1915: Dr. C. H. Johnson, Dr. H. L. Charles, Dr. M. T.
Dingess, Dr. E. J. Bribach, Dr. Robert Dickey, Dr. E. P. Pitts, Dr. C.
A. Lilly, Dr. Charles Robinson, Dr. C. H. Linley, Dr. T. E. Horner, Dr.
F. A. Pearl, Dr. P. R. Moore, Emmingham, Dr. S. M. Myers, Potter, Dr. G.
E. White, Effingham, Dr. G. W. Allaman, Dr. W. F. Smith, Dr. Virgil
Morrison, Dr. E. T. Shelly.



                              CHAPTER XX.
                       INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL.

  MUCH WEALTH AND ENTERPRISE ABOUND—MANUFACTURING—MILLING—EXTENSIVE
      WHOLESALE HARDWARE AND GROCERY ESTABLISHMENTS—PLANING MILLS—
      VARIOUS JOBBING AND RETAIL INTERESTS.


Industrial enterprises of Atchison county, so far as manufacturing and
jobbing interests are concerned, are confined exclusively to the city of
Atchison. There are no mills or factories or large manufacturing
institutions in any of the smaller towns of the county. Outside of
Atchison the labor and industry of the citizens are directed in
agricultural pursuits; the tilling of the soil, the breeding of live
stock and the development of all the other arts of husbandry, but in the
city of Atchison there are a number of establishments which give
employment to labor, and which in a number of instances ship their
finished products to all parts of the United States and into the ports
of foreign countries.

Atchison, however, strictly speaking, is not a factory town, nor a great
manufacturing center. There have been times in its history when it was
more important, commercially, than now, but that was in the days before
the great onrush to Kansas City. Yet the town today is a substantial,
solid community, where much wealth and enterprise abound, and where
there has been a steady, healthy commercial growth.

The largest manufacturing plant is the John Seaton Foundry Company, and
the Locomotive Finished Material Company, an associated enterprise,
established by the late John Seaton, who moved to Atchison from Alton,
Ill., in 1871, having been induced to come to Atchison by a handsome
donation from the citizens of the town. Mr. Seaton originally
manufactured much architectural work; iron and brass casting, boilers,
jail and sheet iron work. For a while it was conducted under the firm
name of Seaton & Lea, but shortly before the death of Captain Seaton, a
few years ago, the Locomotive Finished Material Company was organized to
put the finishing touches on castings and at the death of Mr. Seaton, H.
E. Muchnic became president and general manager of the company, with
John C. Seaton, Clive Hastings, W. S. Ferguson and G. L. Seaton as
associate directors. The average number of employees is about 226, when
the total horse power is 500. They have a payroll of over $14,000 a
month, and are doing a large business with railroads and other big
industrial plants throughout the country.

The Manglesdorf Brothers Company is one of the oldest establishments in
the city. It began in 1875 as a side line in connection with the retail
grocery business, by August and William Manglesdorf, and is now
conducted by the sons of the founders. It is one of the largest seed
houses in the West. The business was incorporated in 1887, and the
officers in 1916 are as follows: August Manglesdorf, president: A. F.
Manglesdorf, vice-president: Ed. F. Manglesdorf, vice-president: F. H.
Manglesdorf, treasurer, and F. W. Manglesdorf, secretary.

[Illustration: Manglesdorf Bros. Seed Company]

The business has grown to such an extent that it was thought advisable
to close out the retail end of it and it is now conducted as an
exclusively wholesale seed house. The new warehouse, which the firm now
occupies, was erected last year and gives it one of the largest and most
complete plants in the West. The new building is modern in every way,
strictly fire-proof and provides an enormous space for storing and
handling the stocks, which are accumulated for the spring trade. The
seed line, perhaps more than any other, is a seasonable one, and by far
the greater proportion of the year’s business must be crowded into a few
spring months. It is necessary, therefore, to move goods quickly and in
large quantities, when the season is on. For this purpose, the
warehouses are equipped with suitable machinery and devices, which are
kept up to the highest possible efficiency for handling and cleaning the
seed. The stocks are obtained in all parts of the world. When crops fail
in one part of the country, it is the business of the seed dealers to
supply the deficiency from some other sections, where conditions have
been more favorable. Thus, the source of supply and the outlet for it
are constantly shifting and it requires keeping in touch with the
progress of the crops and market conditions in many different producing
districts.

The firm does a considerable export business also, particularly in blue
grass and timothy, which are produced here, cheaper and in better
quality than they are in Europe. During each year the firm’s travelers
cover the States of Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, parts of Nebraska,
Colorado and Texas. Its line of garden seeds may be obtained from the
local merchants in nearly every town in this territory.

The Bailor Plow Company, of Atchison, organized in 1910 with an
authorized capital of $50,000. J. M. Schott, president; Charles Linley,
vice-president; W. P. Byram, secretary; E. V. Jones, treasurer and
manager. Manufacturers of a two-row cultivator. S. E. Bailor, then of
Beatrice, Neb., some twenty years since built and began experimenting
with a two-row cultivator. About 1905, the late David Rankin, of Tarkio,
Mo., placed fifty Bailor cultivators in use on his 25,000–acre farm near
Tarkio, giving them a thorough test for efficiency. The result was such
that he induced Bailor to build a plant for their manufacture at Tarkio.
In 1910 the Atchison Commercial Club, which had previously investigated
the possibilities of Bailor’s factory as a valuable addition to this
city’s industrial institutions, induced him to locate his business in
Atchison. The Bailor Plow Company was promoted and incorporated by the
following successful business men: Balie P. Waggener, Henry
Klostermeier, T. R. Clendinen, at that time president of the Commercial
Club; O. A. Simmons, vice-president of the First National Bank; E. V.
Jones, J. M. Schott, W. P. Byram, Charles Linley, at that time treasurer
of Atchison county, and S. E. Bailor, inventor of the cultivator. During
the year 1910, the first year of operation in Atchison, one hundred
cultivators were sold. The year 1915 shows an output of product valued
at about $250,000. The company’s plant has a floor space of 25,000
square feet; forty men are on its payroll and it disburses in wages over
$50,000 per annum.

The National Poultry and Egg Company. This institution is one of the
largest of its kind in the West, and is located on the corner of
Fourteenth and Main streets. Under the able management of G. E. Hanna,
it has steadily increased its capacity and enlarged its business
operations until at the present time it employs an average of fifty-four
men and women a month and pays out in wages almost $30,000 each year.
The plant and machinery represent an investment of about $70,000 and its
sales are over a half million dollars a year. It is engaged in buying
and selling poultry, eggs and butter, and ships fancy dressed poultry to
eastern markets.

Deer Creek Creamery Company. This company has a capital stock of
$10,000; employs eight men and four girls, with an annual payroll of
$8,000. In addition to the employees in the local office, it also
employs twenty men in the country to operate its numerous cream
stations. The company manufactures over a half million pounds of butter
a year, and it puts up and sells in Atchison from 80,000 to 100,000
gallons of milk every year, in addition to 6,000 or 8,000 gallons of ice
cream. Over $125,000 annually is paid out to Kansas farmers for cream;
about $25,000 of this amount going to farmers in the immediate vicinity
of Atchison. It is one of the growing institutions of the city, and the
excellence of the products it turns out is the cause for its constant
increase of business.

Atchison is also the home of two large manufacturers of saddlery. The
Atchison Saddlery Company is the successor to Louis Kiper & Sons and
occupies a large building on Kansas avenue between Fourth and Fifth
streets. Its officers are George Diegel, president; George T. Lindsey,
vice-president, and Henry Diegel, secretary-treasurer. It has a capital
stock of $150,000; employs seventy-nine people. It ships its products
into many States of the West and has been doing an exceedingly large
business in the past few years.

Kessler-Barkow Saddlery Company was incorporated several years ago, with
G. T. Bolman, president; F. A. Barkow, vice-president, and H. B.
Kessler, secretary and treasurer. This company has a capital and surplus
of $85,000, and employs sixty-five people, and has an average annual
payroll of about $40,000.00. It manufactures harness and saddles for the
jobbing trade exclusively and has large accounts with the Blish, Mize &
Silliman Hardware Company, Montgomery, Ward & Company and Sears, Roebuck
& Company.

The Atchison Leather Products Company is another growing institution of
Atchison, the officers of which are the same as that of the Kessler-
Barkow Saddlery Company. This company are producers of cut leather parts
of all kinds, and are large buyers of scrap leather. It has a capital
stock of $7,000.00 and employs fifteen people. Its sales for 1915
amounted to over $65,000.00, and it also handles various leather
specialties and automobile accessories.

Atchison is also the home of three large mills. The Blair Milling
Company, the Cain Milling Company and the Lukens Milling Company, and
these mills handle an average of 20,000 to 25,000 cars of grain
annually, and ship out finished wheat and corn products of 4,000 to
5,000 cars every year. The Lukens Milling Company has recently erected
cement storage tanks for storage of grain, of the capacity of 125,000
bushels, and the Blair Elevator Company, which is operated by J. W. and
W. A. Blair, in 1915, also erected cement storage tanks to the capacity
of 200,000 bushels. The growth of the mills of Atchison is logical, for
they are located in a rich agricultural section, and consequently the
mills are among the most important enterprises in the city. In each case
the mills of Atchison are being operated by the sons of its founders.
The Blair mill was established by E. K. Blair, in an early day of the
history of Atchison, and is now managed by his sons, J. W. and W. A.
Blair. The Lukens mill was founded by David Lukens, who came to Atchison
in 1857. He operated a sawmill and raised corn in Missouri bottoms until
1877, when he built the Diamond Mills, now conducted by his sons, Arthur
Lukens, Edwin Lukens and David Lukens. The original Cain Mill Company
was established by John M. Cain and Alfred Cain, and its successor, the
Cain Milling Company, is operated by Douglas M. Cain, the son of Alfred
Cain.

Atchison is also the home of two of the largest wholesale hardware
stores on the Missouri river, both of which began operations here at
approximately the same time. The operations of the Blish, Mize &
Silliman Hardware Company are the largest of the two companies. This
company travels thirty men and has an office and store force of eighty-
eight men and women. It has an annual payroll of $115,000.00. It was
founded by D. P. Blish, E. A. Mize and J. B. Silliman, who were all
related by marriage. The company began in a small way as a successor to
J. E. Wagner & Company, and has branched out in its business until it
covers several States and territories. It occupies a magnificent re-
inforced concrete fire-proof structure at the corner of Fifth and Utah
avenue, and its business has been increasing from year to year.

The A. J. Harwi Hardware Company is owned and controlled largely by F.
E. Harwi, the son of its founder, and a full account of its operations
appears in a sketch of the life and career of A. J. Harwi in this
history.

Atchison is particularly proud of the fact that it is one of the best
jobbing centers in this part of the country, and in this connection the
wholesale grocery business is well represented in the two splendid firms
of the Dolan Mercantile Company and the Symns Grocery Company. The Dolan
Mercantile Company was established by W. F. Dolan, one of the pioneers
of Atchison, who started in a small way as a retail grocer merchant, and
died leaving a splendidly established wholesale grocery business, which
is now conducted by M. J. Horan and Leo Nusbaum. This house, under the
able management of these two young men is rapidly making for itself a
big reputation among wholesale dealers and grocers. In addition to
jobbing regular lines of merchandise this company has recently installed
its own plant for the manufacture of fluid extracts, baking powder and
pancake flour, and also roasts its own coffees. It has a large traveling
force, visiting the States of Nebraska, Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma,
and the Dolan brands are well known throughout this whole territory.

The Symns Grocery Company was established by A. B. Symns, who came to
Kansas from West Virginia, with his three brothers, in 1858, where he
settled in the town of Doniphan and engaged in mercantile pursuits,
until he removed to Atchison in 1872. He opened a wholesale and retail
grocery here in that year, and continued in business without a partner
until March, 1878, when the firm became Symns & Turner, under which name
it was run until 1880, when it was changed to A. B. Symns & Company. It
was subsequently incorporated into the Symns Grocery Company, and at the
death of A. B. Symns, the business was run by J. W. Allen, J. E. Moore,
C. A. Lockwood and Tom Gray. It operates in about the same territory
that the Dolan Mercantile Company operates in, and its present
enterprising management is keeping up the splendid reputation
established by its founder.

The Odell Cider & Vinegar Company is a new institution in Atchison. A.
Leo is manager, and $30,000.00 is invested in the plant and equipment
here. This company pressed out over 200,00 bushels of apples in 1915,
and made 650,000 gallons of vinegar. Forty men are employed during the
pressing season, and over $30,000.00 a year is paid out for apples,
which are converted into 150,000 gallons of vinegar, which is shipped to
various points in the United States during 1915.

The Stevenson planing mill employs twelve men, with a payroll of about
$10,000.00 a year and annual sales aggregating $27,000.00. S. R.
Stevenson, who for many years was employed by the old Atchison Furniture
Company, is at the head of this business. He settled in Atchison in
1865, and learned cabinet making with Dickinson & Company, of this city.

It would require a volume to properly elaborate upon the operations of
the various commercial enterprises of Atchison. What has been given is
the merest outline of the industrial activities here. The brief
reference to the several business houses and manufacturing plants is
made merely for the purpose of showing the character of the industrial
life of the county.

In addition to those enumerated there are other jobbing and
manufacturing interests operating, in some instances on as large a
scale, and in other instances on a smaller scale, but which in
themselves are just as important. Reference has not been made to the
Klostermeier Hardware Company, one of the largest jobbers in hardware in
northeastern Kansas, or to L. W. Voigt & Company, large shippers of
fruit, vegetables and produce, or to Kean & Tucker, operating along the
same line; neither has the James Poultry Company been mentioned, which
is one of Atchison’s growing concerns. There are also manufacturers of
cigars, brooms and barrels; large distributors of automobiles and
automobile accessories, and candy manufacturers. The Railway Specialty
Company, manufacturers of gasoline propelled railway track cars is
making substantial progress. From a small beginning it has forged ahead,
under the able management of Clive Hastings, until it has reached a
point where it will soon take its place among the leading track car
manufacturers of this country. Already the company has shipped its cars
to foreign parts, and it has also supplied many of the large railroads
of the United States with its cars. The Weiss Cornice Company is the
latest arrival in Atchison. This company makes metal cornices, window
frames and other builders’ fire-proof specialties. It recently moved
here from Kansas City and is already a large employer of labor. The
Washer Grain Company, established by Maj. S. H. Washer, does a large
grain business, and is still managed by Major Washer, who recently
passed his eightieth birthday. He is ably assisted by his son, W. R.
Washer, who is also otherwise prominently identified with the commercial
and shipping interests of the county.

Atchison also is a fine retail center, and draws trade from the
surrounding territory for a distance of from fifty to seventy-five
miles. It has fine dry goods stores, which carry the latest merchandise;
good shoe stores, millinery shops, grocery and hardware stores and shops
of all kinds, all of which are run by enterprising merchants. Atchison
is a good town in which to live; a city of beautiful homes; fine paved
and well lighted streets; a good water system and adequate street car
service, and a fine, prosperous set of people. The future of Atchison,
as a commercial center, is particularly bright, and it may look back
with a justifiable pride to what has already been accomplished, and
forward to a better day that is yet to come.



                              CHAPTER XXI.
                   PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS.

  ATCHISON POSTOFFICE—COURT HOUSE—COUNTY HOSPITAL—YOUNG MEN’S CHRISTIAN
      ASSOCIATION—STATE ORPHANS’ HOME—ATCHISON PUBLIC LIBRARY—ATCHISON
      HOSPITAL—MASONIC TEMPLE.


The first postoffice in Atchison opened in a small, one-story, stone
building, on the south side of Commercial street, between Second and
Third. The room was about 20×26 feet in dimensions, but large enough for
the purpose for which it was intended at that time. The location of the
postoffice was removed in 1856 to the store of Messrs. Woolfolk &
Cabell, on the levee. During the war in Kansas, in August, the
headquarters of the United States mail service were removed to the law
office of P. P. Wilcox. From there the office was removed to a building
on the north side of Commercial street, between Third and Fourth, and it
was there that in July, 1882, the free delivery system was inaugurated
in Atchison, which, with her money order department fully equipped the
postoffice. A number of years later agitation was started for the
erection of a new postoffice, and through the efforts of Senator Ingalls
a site at the northeast corner of Seventh and Kansas avenue was
purchased from Dr. Cochrane by the Government, and the contract was
awarded for the erection of the postoffice June 24, 1892, at a cost of
$61,703.17.

The names and terms of the postmasters of Atchison since the founding of
the office are as follows: Robert S. Kelly, March 15, 1855; John H.
Blasingham, December 20, 1855; Henry Addoms, July 28, 1857; John A.
Martin, April 26, 1861; Benjamin B. Gale, March 5, 1874; John M. Price,
February 6, 1879; Melleville C. Winegar, March 10, 1882; H. Clay Park,
March 30, 1886; Solomon R. Washer, March 20, 1890; Edgar C. Post, June
7, 1894; James M. Chisham, June 3, 1898; William D. Casey, December 14,
1910; Louis C. Orr, December 29, 1914, who is postmaster in 1916.


                              COURT HOUSE.

The present court house of this county occupies lots 1, 2 and 3, in
block 65, Old Atchison, and the contract for the building was entered
into on the twenty-first day of May, 1896, and accepted by the board of
county commissioners September 13, 1897. The total cost of building and
fixtures was $83,154.48.


                            COUNTY HOSPITAL.

The present county hospital for the poor is located on the southeast
quarter of section 14, township 6, range 20. The farm was purchased from
R. A. Park October 7, 1903, for $9,540, and the hospital was erected
January 3, 1905, at a cost of $27,501. The average cost of operating the
hospital and farm of 160 acres is approximately $2,109.16 per year, and
the average number of inmates is thirty. The present superintendent is
J. S. Clingan.


                 THE YOUNG MEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION.

On December 2, 1911, there met in the office of C. S. Hull a small group
of men interested in securing a modern Young Men’s Christian Association
building for the city of Atchison. Although this is the first formal
meeting of which there are any minutes recorded it is known that the
idea of an organization and building had long existed in the mind of
William Carlisle, and that encouragement was given him by many others.
At the meeting held on December 2 the Atchison Y. M. C. A. Promotion
Club was formally launched with Claude B. Fisk as president.

At the next meeting, held January 1, 1912, an executive committee,
composed of R. W. Ramsay, W. B. Collett, Fred Oliver, and C. S. Hull was
elected and the secretary was authorized to invite John E. Manley, State
secretary of the Young Men’s Christian Association, to be present at the
next meeting of the club.

On March 6, 1912, the club met at the Byram Hotel for luncheon. Mr.
Manley was present at this meeting and outlined a plan for a campaign to
raise the necessary funds to erect a modern building. The luncheon
meeting adjourned to meet at the office of H. H. Hackney at 4 p. m., at
which time a business committee of twenty-five men was appointed. The
following composed this committee: H. B. Mize, Fred Oliver, Eugene Howe,
W. B. Collett, C. S. Hull, George Guerrier, R. W. Ramsay, Sheffield
Ingalls, D. M. Cain, F. W. Woodford, A. F. Heck, August Manglesdorf,
Jr., T. A. Moxcey, Eugene Pulliam, E. W. Clausen, Clive Hastings, H. H.
Hackney, N. T. Veatch, W. P. Waggener, W. J. Bailey, Charles Linley, Roy
Seaton, Claude Fisk, J. A. Shoemaker, Holmes Dysinger. This committee
was later increased to twenty-seven, and the names of W. A. Carlisle and
W. A. Jackson were added.

The first regular meeting of the provisional committee, as it was now
called, was held at the Blish, Mize & Silliman offices March 13 and a
permanent organization effected. State Secretary Manley was present. R.
W. Ramsay, the present incumbent, was made president at this meeting;
Charles Linley, vice-president; C. S. Hull, recording secretary, and
George Guerrier, treasurer. T. C. Treat at this time tendered the use of
a room in the Simpson building for an office for the organization, which
was gratefully accepted.

At a meeting of the executive committee, held March 18, 1912. L. V.
Starkey was employed as general secretary and took active charge of the
building campaign April 15.

At the meeting held April 22 it was decided to raise $100,000 by public
subscription, and the following team captains were elected: S. R. Beebe,
O. A. Simmons, H. B. Mize, John R. Taylor, F. M. Woodford, L. M. Baker,
Charles A. Brown, W. D. Casey, W. W. Hetherington, and W. A. Jackson.

The charter for the organization bears the date of April 6 and was duly
acted upon and signed by the committee of twenty-seven at a meeting held
April 22.

In a ten days’ campaign conducted May 15–25, 1912, an amount
approximating $85,000 was raised by popular subscription. The
headquarters of the campaign were in a room furnished by J. C. Killarney
at 105–107 North Fifth street.

The latter part of June, 1912. the site at the northeast corner of
Fourth and Commercial streets was contracted for and work begun at once
on the building. On December 4, 1913, the splendid building which now
occupies that corner was formally opened for the regular work of the
association. The membership soon reached 450, and has been maintained at
about that point ever since.

The entire cost of building, including site and furnishings, amounted to
$113,000.

The Y. M. C. A. building contains thirty-four living rooms with a
capacity for fifty men. These rooms are now kept filled practically all
the time. A restaurant is operated on the ground floor and there are
excellent facilities for handling banquets and committee meetings. The
building is always at the disposal of church societies and other
organizations for gatherings of any kind.

There is a gymnasium, 44×72 feet, thoroughly equipped with all necessary
apparatus and a white tile-lined swimming pool, 20×50 feet. With a
separate entrance on Fourth street, there is a special game room for
boys ten to fifteen years of age.

The present board of directors is composed of R. W. Ramsay as president;
B. L. Brockett, vice-president; H. H. Hackney, recording secretary;
Charles Lanley, treasurer; Messrs. W. B. Collett, M. T. Dingess, Claud
B. Fisk, J. A. Fletcher, C. C. Ham, W. W. Hetherington, Martin Jensen,
J. F. Krueger, H. P. Shepherd, and F. M. Woodford.

The present general secretary, Ira J. Beard, came to the association in
April, 1914. Emmett T. Ireland is the present physical director, and
George Kassabaum is the assistant secretary.

On the fourth of December, 1914, an anniversary banquet was held in the
gymnasium, celebrating the first year of the association in its new
building, and the reports of the work accomplished at that time
dispelled any feeling there may have been on the part of some that such
an institution could not be successfully maintained in Atchison. This
banquet was attended by 200 enthusiastic friends and members of the
association, and Governor Arthur Capper was a guest of honor.

Membership in the Young Men’s Christian Association is open to any boy
or man of good character who is over ten years of age. Membership in the
Atchison association is accepted and honored in all other Young Men’s
Christian associations throughout the country. The dominant purpose of
the association is the building up of Christian character.


                          STATE ORPHANS’ HOME.

The legislature of the State of Kansas at the session of 1885 enacted
the first law for the establishing of a Soldiers’ Orphans’ Home at
Atchison, Kan. For the purpose of erecting the first building the
legislature appropriated the sum of $24,300 on condition that the land
should be donated to the State.

The act of the legislature provided that said Soldiers’ Orphans’ Home
“shall be an institution for the nurture, education and maintenance,
without charge, for all indigent children of soldiers who served in the
army and navy of the Union during the late rebellion, and who have been
disabled from wounds or disease, or who have since died in indigent
circumstances, and other indigent orphan children of the State.” The
institution was located at Atchison, Kan., on the present site which was
purchased from the late J. P. Brown and donated to the State. In
pursuance of the act of the legislature a portion of what is now the
main building was erected and by a subsequent appropriation was
finished, and the first children were admitted on July 1, 1887.

The original building was a four-story brick building with a basement.
The fourth story was made into a dormitory, with five rooms for
employes. The third story consisted of a smaller dormitory, lavatories,
rooms for employes and sleeping room for the superintendent. The second
story had school rooms, superintendent’s office, parlor, lavatories and
rooms for employes. The first floor rooms were dining room, kitchen,
store room, school rooms. The basement was used for boilers, store
rooms, laundry and boys’ lavatory.

The laws regulating the home were amended and enlarged by the
legislature at its session of 1889, so that all children sound in mind
and body and over two years of age and under fourteen years, belonging
to any one of the following named classes shall be eligible for
admission to the home: “First, any child dependent upon the public for
support; any dependent, neglected and ill-treated child who is an object
of public concern, and whom the State may have power to exercise and
extend its protection and control.”

This act of the legislature so increased the number of eligible for
admission to the home that it soon became necessary to enlarge the
building. In 1891 the legislature again appropriated the sum of $7,000
for the erection of the west wing, to be the same width and height as
the main building, and to increase the length by thirty feet and this
gave play room, sitting room, school room and sleeping room for the
kindergarten children, also a room in which the John A. Martin Memorial
Library was placed, and a reading room in the upper story for the larger
boys.

Connected with this appropriation was $1,000 for a hospital building
which is detached from the main building by about 100 feet.

The growth of the institution and the number desiring admission made it
necessary to again ask for an appropriation for more buildings. At the
session of the legislature of 1895 the legislature appropriated $91,800
for the erection of the east wing and for three cottages, 50×42 feet,
and a building for domestic purposes, 40×110 feet, which contains the
chapel, children’s dining room, one large school room, kitchen, store
room, one employes’ dining room and eight rooms for employes.

At the legislative session of 1907 an appropriation of $25,000 was made
for the purpose of erecting a new cottage on the Orphans’ Home grounds,
to be used for the purpose of caring for destitute crippled children who
were otherwise unprovided for under the various acts of the legislature
providing for the Orphans’ Home. The foundation for this building was
commenced on the seventeenth day of October, 1909, and the building was
completed, and ready for the occupancy of children July 1, 1910. The law
providing for only children sound in mind and body between the ages of
two and fourteen years shall be admitted. This cottage at the present
time is used for the older girls of the institution and it seems very
well adapted for that purpose.

The legislature of 1903 very generously appropriated $20,000 to build a
brick pavement from the city to the home. This road was completed to the
city limits in 1904. Since that time the city has extended its pavement
so that now there is a pavement road all the way from the home to the
business district of Atchison.

The two latest improvements of great value to the home are, first the
connecting up of the home with the Atchison Water Company, so that now
we receive a supply of water adequate for all purposes. This was done in
1913 and 1914. Previous to that time water had been obtained from
various sources and the supply was always poor in quality and very
inadequate in quantity. This apparently settles the question of water,
so far as this institution is concerned, and we now have a plentiful
supply of the purest of water. Second: From the very first beginning of
the home the question of sewage disposal has been one of great
difficulty and a source of much annoyance and discomfort to those around
about, particularly the neighboring farmers. For years the sewage of the
institution flowed out through the pasture land and fields of our
neighbors, and various attempts to build sewage disposal plants were
made by the board of control and others who had charge of the State
institutions, but with little or no success. At the present time we are
engaged in connecting up the institution with the city sewer system at a
cost of approximately $6,000.

The original cost of the land occupied by the State Orphans’ Home, and
purchased from J. P. Brown, as hereinbefore mentioned, was $16,000.

No institution in this State occupies a more beautiful and sightly
location. It is situated at an elevation of 275 feet above the Missouri
river, and overlooking the winding course of that stream for miles, with
the city of Atchison at its feet and with the view north and west
unobstructed for miles, it is the wonder and admiration of all who
behold it. It is impossible for me to state exactly or to ascertain
exactly the cost of the institution, properly known as the State
Orphans’ Home, but it is approximately in the neighborhood of $300,000.

The first superintendent was John Pierson; his wife, Mrs. M. A. Pierson,
was his matron, and the celebrated Dr. Eva Harding, now a physician,
located in Topeka, and running for the Democratic nomination for
Congress in the First district, was his physician. Mr. Pierson was not
very long in this office. The records do not show just how long, but he
was succeeded by Charles E. Faulkner, who is now serving as
superintendent of the Washburn Memorial Orphans’ Asylum, at Minneapolis,
Minn. It was during Faulkner’s administration that most of the
improvements heretofore noted were made. Faulkner was succeeded by C. A.
Woodworth in 1898 and served but two years, when H. H. Young was
appointed. He served but a short time and was succeeded by E. L. Hillis,
who held the office until the time of his resignation, April 1, 1907,
because of ill health. Mr. Hillis was succeeded by E. C. Willis, of
Newton, Kan., on April 10, 1907, who remained superintendent until he
was succeeded by Mrs. E. K. Burnes on the first day of September, 1913.
Mrs. Burnes held the place for two years, being succeeded by E. C.
Willis on the first of September, 1915, who is still the superintendent
at the present time.

More than 6,000 have been inmates of the home at sometime or another,
and of the 6,000 only 200 are here at the present time. All of the
others who are still living are out in the world and doing for
themselves like other people with various degrees of success. Some of
them are doing well; others exceedingly well, and are occupying good
positions, or are in business for themselves.

                            Very sincerely,

                                                       EDWARD C. WILLIS,
                                                       Superintendent.


                        ATCHISON PUBLIC LIBRARY.

Major W. W. Downs was the promoter of the association. He was at Kansas
in the spring of 1879 and opened its doors to the public November 17 of
that year.

He was at that time superintendent of the Central Branch railroad and
realized the need of reading and amusement rooms for the young men in
this city. He succeeded in interesting a number of influential Atchison
women in the work and promised a generous personal donation and the
coöperation of the various railroads centering here.

It was unfortunate that before the doors of the library swung open the
Central Branch changed officials. In spite of this discouragement the
Atchison ladies continued to work, and since its organization it has
always been managed by a board of fifteen women.

Funds are raised by the sale of membership and donations and a small
monthly stipend from the city. J. P. Pomeroy subsequently made a
splendid donation, amounting to $10,000, and later on, A. J. Harwi
contributed a like amount for the support of this institution. It now
has almost 11,000 books on its shelves besides hundreds of magazines and
pamphlets.

Mrs. Leontine Scofield was appointed librarian in January, 1883, and has
held that position from that time until 1916 uninterruptedly. She has
endeared herself to the thousands of patrons who have visited this
institution, and her familiarity with the place and her fidelity to the
work especially fits her for this important place.

The following Atchison ladies are the officers of the association in
1916: Mrs. W. W. Guthrie, president; Mrs. F. E. Harwi, vice-president;
Mrs. W. S. Beitzel, recording secretary; Miss Effie E. Symns,
corresponding secretary; Mrs. Fannie W. Linley, treasurer. In addition
to these ladies the following are directresses: Miss Nellie Allen, Mrs.
R. F. Clark, Mrs. L. R. Seaton, Mrs. G. W. Glick, Mrs. E. S. Wills, Mrs.
W. H. Schulze, Mrs. J. M. Challiss, Mrs. D. C. Newcomb, and Miss Mary
Lukens. Mrs. J. J. Ingalls is an honorary directress of the association.


                           ATCHISON HOSPITAL.

The first attempt to found a hospital in the city of Atchison originated
in 1884, and after a general meeting for organization a board was
appointed which purchased and re-constructed a building situated on
South Seventh street between U and V, and the institution was open to
the public May 20 of that year.

The following named Atchison ladies were prominently identified with the
movement that was responsible for the building of the first hospital in
Atchison: Mrs. A. A. Carey, who was the first president of the
association; Mrs. J. J. Berry, Mrs. W. W. Campbell, Mrs. E. A. Mize,
Mrs. D. P. Blish, Mrs. C. B. Singleton, Mrs. J. J. Ingalls, and Mrs. C.
S. Osborn.

After five years of activity this building as a hospital was closed
through lack of support and the misapprehension of the purpose of a
hospital on the part of the community.

From about 1889 until 1912 the hospital necessities of Atchison were
provided by private institutions and cases were sent outside of the
city, but in the fall of 1912 the need for a hospital within the city
had become very apparent, and as a result the following public spirited
citizens of the city associated themselves together for the purpose of
building a modern hospital: W. P. Waggener, president; R. W. Ramsay,
vice-president; Otis E. Gray, secretary; Joseph M. Schott, treasurer.
The directors with the above officers were: Frank Harwi, T. M. Walker
and L. R. Seaton. They instituted a campaign for the purpose of raising
$50,000 to purchase a site and construct and equip a building for a
general hospital.

The campaign was to a very large degree successful, sufficient money
being raised in this initial effort to warrant the directors in
purchasing a site, the square block situated on North Second street
between N and O streets, where a fire-proof building was constructed to
accommodate thirty-five patients with a maximum capacity of fifty. The
building is equipped with the most modern appliances for hospital
activities. The operating room was modeled and equipped after the
suggestion of the most celebrated surgeons in the country, and since the
opening of the hospital to receive patients in July, 1914, its success
has been assured and its need demonstrated. It possesses appliances and
equipment conservatively valued at $65,000.

The present board of directors are: W. P. Waggener, president; Frank E.
Harwi, vice-president; O. E. Gray, secretary; Joseph M. Schott,
treasurer. Directors: R. W. Ramsay, H. E. Muchnic, Eugene Howe and Leo
Nusbaum.

The purpose of this institution is to take care of the sick and injured
of the community without distinction of race, color or creed. Those who
can afford to pay are expected to pay the fees of the institution. No
one is refused attendance by reason of his or her inability to pay for
such service. The biological and X-Ray laboratories are among the best
equipped in the State and these laboratories with their equipment, like
most of the furnishings and equipment of the hospital, are memorials of
the former residents of Atchison county.


                            MASONIC TEMPLE.

This magnificent new home for the Masonic orders of Atchison is a three-
story structure of re-inforced concrete fire-proof construction with
basement. It is built of gray Brazil, Indiana, vitrified brick and
trimmed with ocean colored terra cotta. The first floor is a store room
and on the second floor there are a number of offices and the banquet
hall with kitchen facilities. The third floor is used exclusively for
Masonic purposes, and in the rear portion of the third floor is a
mezzanine floor with fire-proof lockers. The lodge room is embellished
with an ornamental plaster cornice and with Scagliola columns and
pilasters. The ceiling is circular with a large dome, and the memorial
room is finished with ornamental plastering in elaborate Egyptian
design. The total cost of this building with furniture and equipment was
close to $60,000.

[Illustration:

  Masonic Temple, Atchison, Kan.
]



                             CHAPTER XXII.
                         SOCIETIES AND LODGES.

  ATCHISON COUNTY PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION—BENEVOLENT AND PROTECTIVE ORDER
      OF ELKS—FRATERNAL ORDER OF EAGLES—OTHER SECRET SOCIETIES—CATHOLIC
      SOCIETIES.


One of the strongest county organizations among the farmers is the
Atchison County Protective Association. It had its origin in a vigilance
committee which was organized at Good Intent and Shannon, in 1883. For
three years this committee operated as a vigilance committee and was
organized under the Central Protective Association, August 31, 1886, by
William Conners, of Winthrop, Mo. L. P. Dubois, concerning whom a
biographical sketch appears in another part of this history, was the
first president of the Good Intent lodge, and W. H. Smith was the first
secretary. Hon. T. J. Emlen, county treasurer of this county, was the
first treasurer of Shannon Hill lodge, and J. I. Holmes was the first
secretary.

The first work that was done by the consolidated lodges was in running
down a thief who stole a team of horses from the late Rolla Streeper.
Members of both lodges were taxed $10 each to defray the expense of the
chase. J. H. Barry was sheriff of the county at that time and captured
the thief in Nebraska.

Following this capture the lodges decided that the expense was too great
to be borne by them alone and so the Atchison County Protective
Association was formed in the spring of 1889. The first president was C.
S. Prim, and the second president was Hon. W. T. Bland, third president
was Elias Graves. W. H. Bush was the fourth president, and he held
office for ten years and was one of the most popular, tactful and
conscientious officials the association ever had. Will Dooley, of the
Good Intent lodge, was president of the association in 1916, and no
better man ever filled the position. The Hon. Edward Iverson, ex-county
clerk, and now cashier of the Exchange State Bank, at Atchison, has been
secretary of the association since 1901. The association has now a
membership of 1,500 and with twenty-five lodges, and is affiliated with
the Central Protective Association.


                BENEVOLENT AND PROTECTIVE ORDER OF ELKS.

This lodge was organized January 17, 1901, with 150 charter members. W.
T. Bland, for many years district judge of this county, was elected the
first exalted ruler. The lodge occupied temporary quarters for a number
of years, and erected its present building at a cost of $20,000 and
dedicated it in 1907. The present membership of the Elk’s lodge is 326,
and the names of the past exalted rulers, in addition to W. T. Bland,
are as follows: Charles Linley, T. S. Young, J. M. Challiss, James W.
Orr, W. S. Washer, Fred Giddings, W. P. Waggener, B. W. Vickery, W. D.
Harburger, Charles A. Brown, G. W. Myers, H. B. Bilimek, and Walter E.
Brown, whose term expires March 31, 1916.

[Illustration:

  Elks Club House, Atchison, Kan.
]


          ATCHISON AERIE, NO. 173, FRATERNAL ORDER OF EAGLES.

The Atchison Aerie, No. 173, of the Fraternal Order of Eagles, was
instituted on October 3, 1901. The officers in 1916 are as follows: Past
worthy president, Owen Grady; worthy president, John V. Smith; worthy
vice-president, Fred Rambke; worthy chaplain, F. E. Kaaz; treasurer, L.
M. Baker; secretary, W. H. Smith; trustees, S. S. King, Carl Schmitt, E.
N. Underwood; aerie physician, Dr. C. F. Finney.

[Illustration:

  Eagles’ Home, Atchison, Kan.
]

The aerie meets every Wednesday evening. The cost of the present
building was about $35,000. The building belongs to the Eagles’
Benevolent Association. The present membership is 550.


                           SECRET SOCIETIES.

Ancient Order of United Workmen—Atchison Lodge, No. 4, first and third
Thursdays at Odd Fellows’ Hall. L. M. Baker, recorder.

Ancient Order of United Workmen—Mulford Lodge, No. 137. Second and
fourth Thursdays at Odd Fellows’ Hall. W. A. Wilson, recorder.

Ancient Order of United Workmen—Degree of Honor—Columbia Lodge, No. 85.
Second and fourth Thursdays.

Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks—Atchison Lodge, No. 647. First
and third Tuesdays at 611 Kansas avenue. George R. Hooper, secretary.

Central Protective Association—Atchison Lodge, No. 32. Meets at call of
president. W. H. Smith, secretary.

Court of Honor—(See Ancient Order of United Workmen.).

Eagles—(See Fraternal Order of Eagles).

Elks Club House—(See Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks).

Fraternal Aid Association—Atchison Council, No. 7. First and third
Wednesdays at Security Hall. Rosa S. Voorhees, secretary.

Fraternal Order of Eagles—Atchison Aerie, No. 173. Every Wednesday at
Eagles’ Hall. W. H. Smith, secretary.

Grand Army of the Republic—A. S. Everest Post, No. 493. First and third
Mondays at court house.

Grand Army of the Republic—A. S. Everest Woman’s Relief Corps, No. 148.
First and third Thursdays at court house. Mrs. John Noron, secretary.

Grand Army of the Republic—John A. Martin Post, No. 93. Fourth Sundays
at court house. Willful A. Stanley, adjutant. C. H. Burrows, commander.

Independent Order of Odd Fellows—(See Odd Fellows).

Improved Order of Red Men—Miami Tribe, No. 15. Every Monday at Red Men’s
Wigwam. J. M. Tarman, sachem.

Independent Order of Foresters—Court Atchison, No. 1741. Meets at call
of Chief Ranger. George R. Hooper, secretary.

Kansas Fraternal Citizens—Atchison Assembly, No. 15. First and third
Thursdays at Odd Fellows’ Hall. Walter North, secretary.

Knights and Ladies of Security—Atchison Council, No. 267. Meets every
Thursday at Security Hall. Courtney Turner, secretary.

Knights and Ladies of Security—Harmony Council, No. 1375. Second and
fourth Thursdays. C. H. Burrows, secretary.

Knights of the Maccabees—Atchison Tent, No. 2. First and third Tuesdays.
F. M. Woodford, record keeper.

Knights of Pythias—Golden Cross Lodge, No. 7. Every Thursday at Security
Hall. W. M. Thistle, keeper of records and seal.

Masonic—Active Lodge, No. 158. Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. Second
and fourth Mondays at Knights of Pythias Hall. A. W. Nicholson,
secretary.

Masonic—Washington Chapter, No. 1, Royal Arch Masons. Second and fourth
Thursdays at Asylum, 724½ Commercial street. J. E. Henderson, secretary.

Masonic—Washington Commandery, No. 2, Knights Templar. First and third
Thursdays at Asylum, 724½ Commercial street. J. E. Henderson, recorder.

Eagle’s Benevolent Association—Meets at call of president. W. H. Smith,
secretary.

Masonic—Washington Council, No. 2, Royal and Select Masters. Third
Saturdays at Asylum, Masonic Temple. J. E. Henderson, recorder.

Ancient Free and Accepted Masons—Washington Lodge, No. 5, Ancient Free
and Accepted Masons. First and third Mondays at Masonic Temple. J. E.
Henderson, secretary.

Ancient Free and Accepted Masons—Order of Eastern Star—Martha Washington
Chapter, No. 215. First and third Fridays at Masonic Temple. Miss Alice
Noron, secretary.

Modern Brotherhood of America—Atchison Lodge, No. 427. Second Tuesdays
at Red Men’s Wigwam. Charles Pantle, secretary.

Modern Woodmen of America—Unity Camp, No. 356. Second and fourth Fridays
at Odd Fellows’ Hall. T. J. Ritner, clerk.

Mystic Workers of the World—First and third Tuesdays at Security Hall.
Herman Haase, secretary.

Independent Order of Odd Fellows’ Hall—Southwest corner Fifth and Kansas
avenue, second and third floors.

Independent Order of Odd Fellows—Friendship Lodge, No. 5. Every Tuesday
at Odd Fellows’ Hall. W. H. Smith, secretary.

Independent Order of Odd Fellows—Hesperian Encampment, No. 6. First and
third Fridays at Odd Fellows’ Hall. A. W. Heisey, secretary.

Independent Order of Odd Fellows—Rebekahs—Friendship Lodge, No. 288.
Second and fourth Mondays at Odd Fellows’ Hall. Mrs. Bessie Jost,
secretary.

Independent Order of Odd Fellows—Schillers Lodge, No. 33. Every
Wednesday at Odd Fellows’ Hall. Charles Feierabend, secretary.

Order of Eastern Star—(See Ancient Free and Accepted Masons).

P. E. O. Society—Chapter J. Kansas. Every second Friday at homes of
members. Mrs. Anna Lungwitz, secretary. Public rest room, 109 South
Fifth avenue.

Daughters of Rebekah—(See Independent Order of Odd Fellows).

Red Men’s Wigwam—Third floor, 500 Commercial street.

Royal Arcanum—Atchison Commandery, No. 1035. Scott Jones, secretary.
Meets at call of regent.

Royal Neighbors—Atchison Camp, No. 1044. First and third Fridays at Odd
Fellows’ Hall. Mrs. Emma M. Christian, recorder.

United Commercial Travelers of America—Atchison Council, No. 99. Fourth
Saturdays at Masonic Temple. George R. Hooper, secretary.

Woodmen Circle—Atchison Grove, No. 13. First and third Mondays at Odd
Fellows’ Hall. A. W. Heisey, secretary.

Woodmen of the World—Atchison Camp, No. 9. First and second Mondays at
Odd Fellows’ Hall. Judge J. P. Adams, clerk.

Security Hall—524–526 Commercial street, third floor.


                          CATHOLIC SOCIETIES.

Carroll Club—First and third Tuesdays at St. Louis College Hall. LeRoy
Ostertag, secretary.

Catholic Mutual Benevolent Association—No. 20. First Thursdays at St.
Louis College Hall. Werner Nass, secretary.

Knights of Columbus—Sacred Heart Council, No. 723. Second and Fourth
Thursdays at Hall, 511½ Commercial street. William T. Jochems, financial
secretary; Charles Smith, recording secretary.

Ladies’ Catholic Benevolent Association—No. 602. First and third
Tuesdays at St. Louis College Hall. Agnes Langan, secretary.

St. Joseph’s Benevolent Society—Second Sundays at St. Louis College
Hall. Joseph Tinschert, secretary.

Odd Fellows—Abdallah Shrine Club—Meets at call of president. J. E.
Henderson, secretary.

Masonic Charity Association—Meets at call of president. A. W. Nicholson,
secretary-treasurer.

Ladies’ Catholic Benevolent Association—No. 942. Second and fourth
Tuesdays.



                             CHAPTER XXIII.
                        THE AFRO-AMERICAN RACE.

  EARLY DAY CONDITIONS—THEIR ADVANCEMENT—PRIOR DICKEY—HENRY C. BUCHANAN—
      EUGENE L. BELL—CHARLES INGRAM—CHARLES J. FERGUSON—HENRY DICKEY—DR.
      FRANK ADRIAN PEARL, M. D.—DR. W. W. CALDWELL, M. D.


The story of the African race in Atchison county makes an appeal to the
thoughtful and intelligent student of history. It is not a mere
platitude to say that the negro has made marvelous progress in many
lines, and not the least striking illustration of this assertion is to
point to what he has accomplished in this county under circumstances
that have not been altogether propitious. The record of African bondage
here is not voluminous, but it is sufficient upon which to base a story
of his development. As early as 1856 a reference to slavery in Atchison
county is found in the _Squatter Sovereign_, which on September 16 of
that year contained the following advertisement:

                              $500 REWARD.

  Ran away from the subscribers on the night of September 9, two negro
  boys, Ned and Harrison.

  Ned is about eighteen years old, stout and well built, about five
  feet, eight inches high, and weighs about 170 pounds. At the time of
  his leaving was dressed in a brown velvet coat.

  Harrison is a bright mulatto, about five feet, four inches high,
  weighs about 120 pounds, is about sixteen years old, and was rather
  shabbily dressed.

  Said negroes took with them two horses.

  One black, six years old, branded H on left hip, quite thin, about
  fifteen and one-half hands high.

  One claybank, dark mane and tail, rather bony, six years old, about
  fifteen and one-half hands high, paces.

  Five hundred dollars reward will be given for the apprehension and
  safe return of the negroes, or $250 for the recovery of either of
  the negroes and horses.

                                                      A. J. FREDERICK,
                                                      R. H. CABELL.

  Atchison, K. T.

A search of the files of the _Squatter Sovereign_ fails to disclose the
sequel to this advertisement. Whether or not “Ned and Harrison” were
subsequently apprehended and the reward paid must be left to the
imagination, but doubtless they were among the four million black men
from whose limbs, a few years later, Abraham Lincoln struck the
shackles, and whose descendants this day are breathing the pure air of
freedom. There is no definite record of the number of slaves in Atchison
county at the time the advertisement in the _Squatter Sovereign_
appeared. When the first census was taken in 1855 no counties had been
established and the territory in Atchison county was included in the
fifteenth election district. This census provided for the enumeration of
the slaves in the territory, and as far as can be determined, the
following men in and around Atchison were slave owners: D. A. N. Glover,
three; W. M. Size, five; John Samuel, one; R. A. Walker, one; Charles
Echer, three; S. F. Raz, three; and Grafton Thomasson, the sawmill man,
of Atchison, owned three, one of whom drowned herself in the Missouri
river, which fatality was the direct cause of the famous Pardee Butler
incident. It is a far cry from “Ned and Harrison” to Prior Dickey and
Henry Buchanan, successful farmers of Walnut township, and it will be
the object of this chapter to show how far that cry is, by tracing
somewhat intimately the lives and careers of Dickey and Buchanan, and
other leading negroes of the Mills neighborhood.

Prior Dickey was born in Barren county, Kentucky, March 9, 1861, a son
of Jackson and Edith Dickey, the father a native of West Virginia, and
the mother of Kentucky. The first eighteen years of his life were spent
in Kentucky, and in 1879 he came to Kansas, and his first employment was
in a rock quarry at Millbrook, Graham county. He possessed $3.75 when he
landed in this town. He helped build sod houses, and in fact turned his
hand at anything that offered for his board and lodging. During the
spring of 1880 he walked from Millbrook to Concordia, a distance of 200
miles, in search of work. He was accompanied by a friend, Calvin
Trotter, and their joint capital was $1.25. After reaching Concordia,
and also having gone without food for two days, he secured work with a
railroad construction crew, and was sent from Concordia to Atchison, and
thence to Rich Hill, Mo., and later to Texas, where he worked on the
extension of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railway. When this work was
finished he started for Kansas, and wishing to save his money stowed
himself in a box car. While the train was at a standstill in a Texas
town, a white man knocked on the door, demanding admittance. Prior was
scared, and stealing out of the opposite door, started to run. The white
man called out, “Stop, neighbor,” and Prior stopped. They became
friends, and came north together in the box car. On arriving at Ft.
Scott, Prior gave his white friend $1, fed him at a restaurant, and sent
him on his way. From Ft. Scott he came to Atchison, and later was
employed in railroad construction work of various kinds in Nebraska, on
the Central Branch railroad in Kansas, the Wabash in Missouri, and
elsewhere. In 1833 he secured his first employment on a farm, a field of
endeavor in which he has since made a signal success. From ten dollars a
month to twenty-one dollars, with board and lodging, was his wage. Prior
possessed a spirit of thrift and saved his wages. In 1885, while working
for Medad Harvey, in Grasshopper township, Atchison county, he bought
his first forty acres. On this place he put his father and mother,
bringing them from Kentucky. They lived here until their deaths, that of
the father, in 1895, and the mother in 1911. Prior’s example in caring
for his aged parents, even refusing to marry on account of attendance on
his mother, is worthy of emulation. Three years after his first purchase
of land he bought his second forty, a year later a third forty, then an
eighty, and later from John J. Ingalls, he bought a 160 acre tract. He
is also the owner of a 160 acre farm in Oklahoma, and his various
holdings total over 500 acres. He is a capable and industrious
agriculturist, employs modern methods, is in close touch with the
advancement in scientific farming, and is a successful breeder of high
grade cattle and hogs. His herd of grade Herefords is the equal of any
in the county and numbers over fifty head. His property is well improved
and well kept. He is a stockholder in the State Bank of Potter and
conceded to be no mean financier. He is a stanch Republican and states
“not a black man in the United States can conscientiously be anything
but a Republican.” He cast his first vote in Graham county in the first
election held in that county after its organization. He is a Mason and a
Baptist. A sister and her children comprise his household. Possessed of
ambition to succeed and gain an assured position in his adopted State,
of untiring energy, intelligence and the quality of thrift, Prior Dickey
has developed into a citizen who is worth while.

Henry C. Buchanan was born in Lincoln county, Kentucky, on April 8,
1844. His father was a slave, owned by Dr. Thomas Montgomery, and named
Martin Montgomery, and his mother was Violet Shanks, a slave girl, owned
by Archie Shanks. Their son was born on the Shanks plantation. Following
the death of Archie Shanks, his daughter, Sarah, inherited the boy,
Henry, along with thirty other slaves. She afterward married a man by
the name of Buchanan, and this family name was given the boy. He grew to
young manhood on the Buchanan plantation, and was given fair treatment,
but not any schooling. In 1864 he left the plantation and enlisted in
the Fifth United States cavalry, at Camp Wilson, on the Kentucky river.
He served about twenty-two months and was mustered out at Little Rock,
Ark. He then returned to the old plantation in Kentucky, and found it
had been made a Government post. He was fairly well posted on farming,
as he had been one of the best field hands on the Buchanan plantation,
and this fact being known to the land owners of the neighborhood, he had
no difficulty in leasing a portion of the old plantation. A brother-in-
law was associated with him in this venture, but Henry was the manager.
He later leased land in the adjoining county. His farming was
profitable, and he saved his money, eventually accumulating enough
capital to engage in the general merchandise business in Lancaster, Ky.,
on a small scale. In 1881 he concluded to go west, and chose Atchison
Kan., as his place of location. He arrived here at the time of the great
flood, and shortly afterward opened a grocery and produce store on Fifth
street. He continued in this business until 1891, when he sold out, and
with the proceeds bought 100 acres of land in Walnut township. This
property he improved, and as the years have passed he has added to the
acreage, until now he owns 400 acres. The property is well improved,
well kept and well farmed. He was married in 1878 to Belle Hogans, of
Garritt county, Kentucky, who died in 1899. Handicapped by the lack of
education, he has spared no reasonable expense in the matter of
educating his children, and his sons are now carrying forward their
father’s farm enterprise along modern lines, and are well educated,
intelligent members of the community. A deceased daughter, Luella B.,
graduated from the Atchison county high school, at Effingham. Henry
Buchanan has always been a Republican. He has served as precinct
committeeman, and as a member of the election board at several
elections, and also as judge of election. He is a member of the Baptist
church, and has been a member of the board of trustees of his local
church for many years. Measured from the standpoint of a man who has
done the things which have come to his hand from time to time, he has
done those things well. He has assisted in the development of the
county’s agricultural resources, has been thrifty, and has gained the
respect and esteem of the residents of his township and county.

Eugene L. Bell, prosperous farmer, Walnut township, was born at Oak
Mills, Kan., July 28, 1875, a son of Joseph and Sydney (King) Bell,
natives of Missouri and Kentucky, respectively. Joseph Bell, the father,
was born in October, 1844, in Platte county, Missouri, of slave
parentage. He lived in Missouri until 1863, and then located in
Leavenworth, Kan., where he joined the United States army, becoming a
member of Company G, Seventy-ninth regiment, United States Colorado
infantry. He served until the close of the Civil war, taking part in
fourteen battles. After the war he married Miss Sydney King at
Leavenworth, Kan. In 1872 he removed to Oak Mills, Atchison county, and
settled on a farm in Walnut township. He was one of the pioneers of this
settlement and developed a fine farm. Mr. Bell took an active part in
matters pertaining to the betterment of his community and was an
exemplary citizen. Many of the noted men of his day in Kansas were his
warm and steadfast friends. Mr. and Mrs. Bell were the parents of nine
children, six of whom were reared to maturity: Eugene L., the subject of
this review; Mrs. Birdie Norman, of Omaha, Neb.; Mrs. T. C. Brown, and
Miss Pearlie Bell, of Chicago, Ill.; Humphrey Bell, of Pittsburgh, Pa.;
and Mead Bell, of Cleveland, Ohio. Joseph Bell died May 30, 1914. Mrs.
Bell died April 18, 1903. Like her husband, she ran away from slavery to
Kansas.

Eugene L. spent his boyhood days assisting his father in cultivating the
home farm, and managed to attend school about two and one-half months
out of the year until he attained the age of nineteen years. He then
began to hustle for himself and completed a three years’ course in the
Atchison county high school at Effingham. Ambition and a desire to
educate himself led him to make sacrifices in order to prepare himself
to better cope with the struggle for a livelihood. The priceless boon of
an education was his after considerable effort, and he graduated from
the county high school in 1896. He then returned to the avocation of
farmer and rented land in Walnut township, which he cultivated for some
years. Mr. Bell is the owner of a fine farm in Walnut township.

He was married December 26, 1901, to Miss Mamie Churchhill, of Monrovia,
Kan., a native of Hardin county, Kentucky. They settled in Atchison,
Kan., and lived there three years after this marriage. Mr. Bell then
moved to Walnut township and taught school for two terms in District No.
20. He then bought forty acres of land, on which he has since made his
home. Seven children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Bell: Inez, Orville,
Eugene, Leslie, Jr., Justin, Irene, Pearlie, Ruthanna. Mrs. Bell died
December 7, 1912.

Mr. Bell has been the local newspaper correspondent of his neighborhood
for several years and has a decided literary talent. For the past
eighteen years he has been connected with school district No. 20 in the
capacity of teacher and school trustee. He is a progressive Republican
in his political affiliations, and has been honored by his party. On May
27, 1915, he was appointed by Governor Capper as a member of the board
of trustees of Quindaro University, Kansas, and also received a
complimentary appointment to attend the Farmers’ Congress as a negro
delegate, held at the Panama Exposition at San Francisco. He is a member
of the Methodist Episcopal church of Atchison, and has been a member of
the Masonic fraternity for the past fifteen years. Mr. Bell has taken a
prominent part in the educational and civic life of Atchison county. He
has served as a delegate to county and State conventions of his party,
and filled the position of doorkeeper and sergeant-at-arms in the house
of representatives at Topeka. His newspaper experience includes a term
of employment in the printing department of the _Omaha Bee_ when
nineteen years old, where he learned typesetting, going from there to
Chicago and attending the World’s Fair. After this experience he
returned home with the intention of securing an education and succeeded.
Mr. Bell is one of the well respected citizens of his community, and is
one of the recognized leaders of his race in Kansas. His father, Joseph
Bell, was a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, Scott Post, of
Hydro, Okla., whither he removed in 1900.

Charles Ingram, a well known farmer, of Walnut township, whose
agricultural plant is located four miles distant from the town of
Potter, Kan., consisting of 160 acres of good land, is a native of the
Southland. He was born in 1855, a son of Hart and Vinia Ingram, both of
whom were born and reared in Tennessee. Just previous, or some years
before the opening of the Civil war, his parents left Tennessee and came
to Buchanan county, Missouri, as chattels of Jesse Ingram. The Ingram
farm was located about four miles distant from St. Joseph, Mo. Here they
toiled in the fields of the master and owner until given their freedom
by Mr. Ingram near the end of the Civil war. The owner, on setting his
slaves free, told them to go out and hustle for themselves. Hart Ingram
and his family came to Kansas and lived during their first winter here
in Atchison. He then located on a farm in Mt. Pleasant township, and
worked for Mr. Speck for five years. He then rented land of John King
for one year, after which he invested his savings in forty acres of land
in Walnut township, upon which he resided until his demise.

As a youth Charles had no opportunity to acquire an education, and after
his marriage in 1880 he rented land for several years, and eventually
saved enough money to make a payment on forty acres of farm lands. He
immediately made his home on his purchase and has added to his
possessions until he is now the owner of 160 acres of excellent farm
land, with good, comfortable dwelling and improvements. Charles Ingram
was married in 1880 to Margarette Farner, of Atchison county. Five
children have blessed this marriage, who are all receiving the benefits
of a good school education by their ambitious parents.

Mr. Ingram is a Republican in politics, and is a member of the Baptist
church. He is a man of high and strong character, which has been
developed in the stern and exacting school of adversity. Mr. Ingram has
seen the time when he was unable to borrow even twenty-five dollars, and
his credit is now good for as much as $2,500, should he desire it. One
of his daughters, Grace, is a graduate of the Atchison county high
school at Effingham, and the others have been given similar opportunity.
Grace Ingram taught school in Atchison county before her marriage. Mr.
Ingram is a striking example of the progress which his race has made
since the negroes have been freed from bondage.

Charles J. Ferguson, farmer, of Oak Mills, Kan., was born in Platte
county, Missouri, in April 1881, a son of Daniel and Sarah (Williams)
Ferguson, the former a native of Kentucky, and the latter a native of
Missouri. The parents of Charles came to Kansas from Missouri in 1881,
and settled on a small farm of twenty acres, which Daniel bought with
his savings, and still owns. Charles attended school in District No. 20,
and was reared on the parental farm. After his marriage in 1900 he began
doing things for himself and has become the owner of 100 acres of fine
farm lands, overlooking Bean Lake, and located in Walnut township. Mr.
Ferguson has attained to his comfortable position of affluence by
industry, economy, and good financial management, and began his career
with practically nothing. He was the first man in Walnut township to
ship a carload of wheat, and others have since followed his example. He
shipped his first carload of wheat in 1910 and has become noted as a
grower of small grain, having raised 1,690 bushels of wheat in 1914, and
raises on an average over 1,200 bushels annually. He was married March
7, 1900, to Eliza, a daughter of H. C. Buchanan, and is the father of
the following children: Granville F., born December 19, 1900; Sarah,
born March 1, 1902; Sheffield, born January 12, 1905; Rothschild, born
September 8, 1908; Luella, born June 17, 1910: Decina, born May 31,
1912.

Mr. Ferguson is a Republican in politics and has taken an active and
influential part in the affairs of his party in Atchison county. He was
elected a member of the county central committee in 1908, and has held
this position since that time. He is treasurer of the school board of
District No. 20 of his township. He is a member of the Knights of Tabor,
of Atchison, and is well thought of and highly respected by all who know
him.

Henry Dickey, farmer, of Walnut township, was born February 24, 1850, in
Barron county, Kentucky. He was a son of Jackson and Edith Dickey, who
were slaves until freed by the Emancipation Proclamation. After the
Civil war, which resulted in the Dickeys becoming freemen, the parents
remained in Kentucky until 1884. Henry was at that time working on a
farm in Kentucky for fifty cents a day, and he wished to better his
condition and that of his parents. Accordingly, he came to Kansas in
search of a location, and found it in Atchison county. After his
brother, Prior Dickey, joined him in this county, he and Prior pooled
their interests and invested in farm lands until they now own over 500
acres of land in partnership. They also own forty head of fine Hereford
cattle, seven-eighths pure bred stock.

Mr. Dickey was married February 23, 1903, to Celia Kerford, a daughter
of Abraham Kerford, a well known colored family of Atchison county. The
Kerfords came from the home county of Abraham Lincoln, in Kentucky. One
child has been born to Mr. and Mrs. Henry Dickey, Sarah E., born
September 24, 1906.

Politically, Mr. Dickey is allied with the Republican party, and has
served as a member of the school board of his district. He and his wife
are members of the Baptist church. Mrs. Dickey is affiliated with the
True Eleven lodge of Atchison. Mr. Dickey is one of the most influential
and successful members of the negro race in Kansas, and is considered as
one of the industrious and highly successful agriculturists and live
stock men of Atchison county.

Dr. Frank Adrian Pearl, M. D., Atchison, Kan., is one of the self-made
men of the present generation. He was born September 2, 1886, in the
city of Atchison, a son of Ryes and Sarah J. Pearl, the former of whom
was a native of Missouri, and removed to Atchison, Kan., shortly after
the close of the Civil war. He lived in Atchison until 1888, and then
moved to Butte, Mont., where he lived until his demise. After his demise
the widow married a man named Davis.

Frank A. was reared to young manhood in Butte, and attended the public
and high school of his home city, afterwards pursuing a course in
business college. When yet a boy he began to work for himself and early
became self-reliant in doing any and all kinds of honest labor. In 1905
and 1906 he studied in the Topeka Educational Institute, and supported
himself by hard work while studying in this institution. He then entered
Howard Medical College, of Washington, D. C., and graduated from this
school in 1912. After his graduation Dr. Pearl located in Kansas City,
and for one and one-half years served as interne in the General Hospital
of Kansas City. He located in Atchison in August of 1914, and has built
up an excellent practice among the people of his race, and has made a
name for himself as a skilled and well educated physician. Dr. Pearl is
a member of the County Medical Society, the Tri-State Medical
Association, embracing Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma, and the Kansas
Medical Society. He is an independent in politics, and is a member of
the Methodist Episcopal church. Dr. Pearl is fraternally allied with the
Odd Fellows, the United Brotherhood of Freemen, and the Knights of
Tabor. He is well educated, courteous, a great student, and is fast
making a place for himself in his chosen profession.

Dr. W. W. Caldwell, M. D., of Atchison, Kan., was born in Nashville,
Tenn., in 1877, a son of Jefferson and Elizabeth (Bell) Caldwell. His
mother was a native of Louisiana and had the entire support of ten
children thrown upon her after the removal of the family to Topeka,
Kan., in 1880. Mrs. Caldwell was a capable woman of more than ordinary
ability, thoroughly untutored, but possessed of a strong character, she
determined that her children should be fitted to cope with the battle of
life with well trained minds. She early installed into the minds of her
children those qualities of character which have produced great men. She
possessed an iron constitution and an unconquerable will which enabled
her to put in long hours each day at the wash-tub in order to gain the
means of feeding the hungry mouths of her children. She also taught each
of her offspring to become self-supporting as soon as they were able and
encouraged them to strike out for themselves. An instance of her nature
is shown in an occurrence in the life of Dr. Caldwell: “When the boy was
fourteen years of age he made his way to St. Louis, via ‘the side-door
Pullman’ route. He did not like the appearance of things in St. Louis,
and returned to the safer haven of his home in Topeka, only to be chided
by his mother for his inability to stay away from home and make his own
way in the world as she desired him to do.” The night following his
return he again left home and did not return until time for school to
re-open in the fall, with money in his pocket which would suffice to
carry him through the winter. The mother was an expert laundress and
kept all of her children in school as long as they desired to go. Two of
her daughters nearly finished the high school course in Topeka, but Dr.
Caldwell was the only child of the family to acquire a collegiate
education and a professional training.

He attended both the public and high schools of Topeka and afterwards
studied for three years in the State Normal school at Topeka, and was
granted a life teacher’s certificate. While at college Dr. Caldwell made
a great reputation as a runner and football player, serving as halfback
on the State Normal football team. He acquired his education practically
by his own efforts, encouraged by his ambitious mother. In 1892, when he
was fourteen years of age, he made his first trip away from home, to St.
Louis, but returned home after one month’s stay in that city. His mother
having ridiculed him for coming home, he caught the Rock Island flyer
out of Topeka that night and rode part of the way to Denver. After a
thrilling experience covering a period of two weeks, he finally arrived
at the western city, just as he started, without funds, but with the
desire to obtain employment. He worked in Denver at any honest
employment he could obtain, such as shining shoes, laying concrete,
hotel porter, and similar jobs. His hardships were many, but he was
eventually well repaid for his early struggles. One place which he held
as porter in a barber shop enabled him to lay by a considerable sum of
money each week. He was paid ten cents per shine and allowed to keep the
money thus earned, and saved eight dollars during his first week. He
worked for this shop for three successive summers, and made it a rule to
lay by eight dollars each week. When it came time for school to open he
would “beat” his way back to Topeka via the overland trains and study
during the winter and spring months, and would then again make his way
to Denver in time for employment. Thirty-five dollars saved usually
sufficed to pay his expenses during the winter months while in school,
and he would sometimes make his way home with $300 in his pocket. He
kept up this plan of working and studying until he had completed his
medical course, entering medical college in 1902, and graduating
therefrom in 1906. After practicing in Topeka for one and one-half years
he went to Independence, Kan., but remained there only seven months. In
1908 Dr. Caldwell came to Atchison and opened an office for general
medical practice. He has made a great success in his noble profession,
and has attained to a high position of leadership among the members of
the Afro-American race.

Dr. Caldwell was married in 1906 to Araminta Beck, a native of Wamegoa
county, Kansas, and to this union have been born children, as follows:
Georgia, born in 1909; Elizabeth, born in 1911; Elnora, born in 1908.
The mother of these children was born in Kansas City August 20, 1880, a
daughter of Leonardo Beck, a stone cutter by trade. Her mother, Mrs.
Georgia Beck, was one of the original Fisk Jubilee Singers, who sang in
public recitals in many cities of the United States and in England. They
sang in the cause of education, the money earned by the recitals going
to defray the expenses of erecting the $100,000 Jubilee Hall at Fisk
University, Nashville, Tenn. An uncle of Mrs. Caldwell, Col. James L.
Beck, commanded the Twenty-third regiment of colored Kansas volunteers
which served in Cuba during the Spanish-American war. Mrs. Caldwell is a
well educated lady and is a graduate of the Wamego, Kansas, high school,
and graduated from Kansas University before she attained the age of
twenty years. She is a member of the Eastern Star lodge of Topeka, in
which city she taught school for seven years, later teaching one year in
Springfield, Mo.

Dr. Caldwell is a member of the Masonic fraternity of Topeka, and is a
physician for the Knights of Tabor lodge of Atchison. He is a member of
Ebenezer Baptist Church, and is a Republican in politics. In 1912 he
received the degree of Bachelor of Arts from the State Normal at
Emporia, Kan. On July 30, 1915, Governor Capper appointed the Doctor a
delegate to the National Negro Educational Congress, held at Chicago,
from August 16 to August 21, inclusive. In 1914 he was presented with a
walnut gavel by the Inter-State Literary Association.



                             CHAPTER XXIV.
                               OFFICIALS.


                  COUNTY—TOWNSHIP AND SCHOOL OFFICERS.

          County Clerk—C. M. Voelker.
          County Treasurer—U. B. Sharpless.
          Sheriff—Roy C. Trimble.
          Register of Deeds—L. M. Baker.
          County Attorney—Charles J. Conlon.
          County Surveyor—Charles Woodworth.
          County Superintendent—D. Anna Speer.
          Clerk of District Court—W. H. Smith.
          Probate Judge—J. P. Adams.
          County Commissioner: First district—S. S. King.
          County Commissioner: Second district—J. H. Glancy.
          County Commissioner: Third district—Andrew Speer.
          Member of Legislature: Second district—T. A. Moxcey.
          Member of Legislature: Third district—A. E. Mayhew.
          State Senator: Second district—B. P. Waggener.


                  TOWNSHIP OFFICIALS—SHANNON TOWNSHIP.

                      Trustee—Joseph Taylor.
                      Clerk—Richard Handke.
                      Treasurer—Edward Underwood.


                          LANCASTER TOWNSHIP.

                         Trustee—C. R. Perdue.
                         Clerk—F. H. Kloepper.
                         Treasurer—J. R. Gragg.
                         Justice—C. D. Parrot.


                         GRASSHOPPER TOWNSHIP.

                       Trustee—William Stirton.
                       Clerk—L. N. Plummer.
                       Treasurer—Charles McCurdy.
                       Constable—G. R. Shannon.


                           KAPIOMA TOWNSHIP.

                       Trustee—F. M. Pratt.
                       Clerk—Walter Ferris.
                       Treasurer—James Robertson.
                       Justice—C. F. Katherins.


                            BENTON TOWNSHIP.

                      Trustee—W. S. Heffelfinger.
                      Clerk—J. G. Niblo.
                      Treasurer—W. R. Smith.
                      Justice—W. P. Heffelfinger.
                      Constable—J. W. Acheson.
                      Constable—James Farrell.


                            CENTER TOWNSHIP.

                      Trustee—J. E. Gibson.
                      Clerk—Edward Higley.
                      Treasurer—George Schroeder.
                      Justice—S. E. Langworthy.


                         MT. PLEASANT TOWNSHIP.

                        Trustee—B. Cummins.
                        Clerk—J. W. Ashcraft.
                        Treasurer—Robert Volk.
                        Justice—William Hartman.


                            WALNUT TOWNSHIP.

                       Trustee—S. M. Young.
                       Clerk—J. R. Adams.
                       Treasurer—C. N. Faulconer.
                       Justice—B. Brown.


          PRESENT ATCHISON COUNTY SCHOOL OFFICERS, 1915–1916.

Names of officers in the following order: Director, Treasurer, Clerk:

 District No. 2—

     Charles Cummings, Atchison.

     James Neilson, Atchison, Route 6.

     George Vanderweide, Atchison.

 District No. 3—

     H. J. Kuhnhoff, Lancaster.

     J. W. Louthian, Huron.

     Herman Fuhrman, Lancaster.

 District No. 4—

     J. W. Lewman, Atchison, Route 3.

     Robert Limerick, Atchison.

     R. L. Stevens, Atchison, Route 3.

 District No. 5—

     J. B. Davenport, Atchison, Route 2.

     H. W. Sachse, Atchison, Route 1.

     John M. Price, Atchison, Route 1.

 District No. 6—

     William Hartman, Cummings.

     C. R. Miller, Atchison, Route 3.

     William Krall, Cummings.

 District No. 7—

     Nicholas Boos, Atchison, Route 5.

     Conrad Handke, Atchison, Route 5.

     John Vandeloo, Atchison, Route 5.

 District No. 8—

     S. G. Moore, Cummings.

     C. P. Higley, Cummings.

     E. Scarlett, Nortonville.

 District No. 9—

     James Servaes, Atchison, Route 1.

     A. B. Howe, Atchison, Route 1.

     L. E. Lister, Atchison, Route 1.

 District No. 10—

     Guy P. Chain, Lancaster.

     L. J. Woodhouse, Lancaster.

     A. J. Smith, Lancaster.

 District No. 11—

     John Cowley, Nortonville.

     W. A. Meador, Monrovia.

     Ed. Neill, Nortonville.

 District No. 12—

     W. D. Chalfant, Atchison, Route 4.

     J. A. Kramer, Atchison, Route 5.

     P. Wolters, Atchison, Route 5.

 District No. 13—

     N. W. Enzbrenner, Atchison.

     George A. Thurn, Atchison.

     John Schletzbaum, Atchison.

 District No. 15—

     Harry Strine, Monrovia.

     S. Swendson, Monrovia.

     C. W. Stutz, Monrovia.

 District No. 16—

     Roy Grandstaff, Atchison, Route 2.

     J. B. Findley, Atchison, Route 2.

     J. H. Glancy, Atchison, Route 2.

 District No. 17—

     M. Amend, Cummings.

     M. Jones, Cummings.

     T. J. Ferris, Cummings.

 District No. 19—

     C. Cline, Cummings.

     William Donnelly, Cummings.

     L. B. Allen, Cummings.

 District No. 20—

     E. L. Bell, Oak Mills.

     C: J. Ferguson, Oak Mills.

     J. D. Richardson, Oak Mills.

 District No. 21—

     F. H. Hawk, Effingham.

     William Critchfield, Effingham.

     Mrs. C. M. Madden, Effingham.

 District No. 22—

     W. F. Speer, Muscotah.

     E. A. Barley, Muscotah.

     James R. Fassnacht, Muscotah.

 District No. 23—

     F. W. Weber, Horton, Route 1.

     L. N. Plummer, Horton, Route 1.

     John Shoebrook, Horton, Route 1.

 District No. 24—

     J. E. Wilson, Huron.

     W. H. Grimes, Everest, Route 2.

     W. F. Harden, Everest, Route 2.

 District No. 25—

     T. P. Armstrong, Atchison, Route 3.

     J. I. Holmes, Atchison, Route 4.

     A. L. Keithline, Shannon.

 District No. 26—

     F. M. Linscott, Farmington.

     Edwin Thorne, Farmington.

     William Higley, Monrovia.

 District No. 27—

     W. A. Dilgert, Atchison, Route 2.

     William Christian, Atchison, Route 2.

     L. H. Davenport, Atchison, Route 2.

 District No. 28—

     John Myer, Cummings.

     George Schrader, Cummings.

     Willard Pike, Farmington.

 District, No. 29—

     H. L. McLenon, Effingham.

     Anton Candreia, Effingham.

     William E. Steward, Muscotah.

 District No. 30—

     Frank Plummer, Arrington.

     W. J. Schiffbauer, Arrington.

     D. L. Dawdy, Arrington.

 District No. 31—

     J. E. Hamon, Arrington.

     Frank Reichart, Arrington.

     John Nevins, Valley Falls.

 District No. 32—

     D. L. Richards, Effingham.

     D. Richter, Effingham.

     Frank A. Stever, Effingham.

 District No. 33—

     John A. Sacks, Oak Mills.

     H. Pohl, Oak Mills.

     J. R. Adams, Oak Mills.

 District No. 34—

     John Davitz, Oak Mills.

     Frank Zacharias, Oak Mills.

     R. E. King, Oak Mills.

 District No. 35—

     F. B. Maris, Nortonville.

     E. M. Glaspy, Nortonville.

     Dennis Stillman, Nortonville.

 District No. 36—

     A. T. Bilderback, Nortonville.

     Harry H. Nieman, Nortonville.

     John Moeck, Nortonville.

 District No. 37—

     Henry Fankhanel, Monrovia.

     H. A. McLenon, Everest, Route 2.

     Stewart McLenon, Monrovia.

 District No. 38—

     S. E. Langworthy, Nortonville.

     J. R. Snyder, Farmington.

     H. Bertels, Nortonville.

 District No. 39—

     F. W. Weit, Effingham.

     Bon Hargrove, Effingham.

     C. N. Snyder, Effingham.

 District No. 40—

     J. P. Holmes, Cummings.

     Mrs. Cora B. Ferguson, Atchison.

     J. M. Martin, Atchison, Route 3.

 District No. 41—

     Mrs. W. H. Ryherd, Horton.

     Gates Saxton, Horton, Route 3.

     O. E. Rigdon, Everest.

 District No. 42—

     John Burns, Effingham.

     John Huffman, Nortonville.

     J. B. Davidson, Nortonville.

 District No. 43—

     J. F. Thompson, Muscotah.

     W. D. Roach, Muscotah.

     Ralph A. Allison, Muscotah.

 District No. 44—

     R. E. Brooks, Huron.

     C. E. Smith, Huron.

     A. F. Allen, Huron.

 District No. 45—

     W. H. Wicker, Horton, Route 1.

     Gilbert Pendlebury, Horton, Route 1.

     Robert P. Waller, Horton, Route 1.

 District No. 46—

     Abe Gerard, Atchison, Route 6.

     Sam Gelwick, Atchison, Route 6.

     M. J. Baker, Atchison, Route 6.

 District No. 47—

     H. H. Rork, Horton, Route 1.

     O. G. Wilson, Horton, Route 1.

     W. M. Loser, Horton, Route 1.

 District No. 48—

     E. C. Evans, Shannon.

     George Anderson, Lancaster.

     A. Fannen, Shannon.

     John Miller, Muscotah.

     W. E. Hubbard, Muscotah.

     F. M. Pratt, Muscotah.

 District No. 50—

     E. Whittier, Muscotah.

     Walter Stewart, Muscotah.

     H. M. Foster, Muscotah.

 District No. 51—

     H. A. Watowa, Atchison, Route 4.

     Everett Shufflebarger, Lancaster.

     Mrs. Anna Kumfrf, Lancaster.

 District No. 52—

     R. L. Finnegan, Atchison, Route 5.

     Julius Handke, Atchison, Route 5.

     Thomas Kilkeny, Atchison, Route 5.

 District No. 53—

     Frank Fassnacht, Effingham.

     W. J. Lauffer, Effingham.

     F. R. Schurman, Effingham.

 District No. 54—

     W. R. Freeland, Effingham.

     Ed. High, Effingham.

     W. H. Williams, Effingham.

 District No. 55—

     F. W. Kaufman, Cummings.

     W. K. Stillings, Cummings.

     E. B. Nieman, Cummings.

 District No. 56—

     J. E. Behen, Farmington.

     J. G. Cormode, Farmington.

     S. Congrove, Farmington.

 District No. 57—

     Samuel Plotner, Horton, Route 1.

     N. E. Jacobs, Horton, Route 1.

     C. S. Fairbairn, Muscotah.

 District No. 58—

     Lawrence Kipp, Horton.

     J. H. Claunch, Horton.

     G. E. Rork, Horton, Route 1.

 District No. 59—

     Howard North, Lancaster.

     Jacob Buttron, Lancaster.

     H. A. Dorssom, Lancaster.

 District No. 60—

     James Mummert, Effingham.

     David Morgan, Effingham.

     E. L. Henning, Effingham.

 District No. 61—

     Charles Gilliland, Atchison, Route 1.

     John Downey, Atchison, Route 1.

     J. D. Hundley, Atchison, Route 1.

 District No. 62—

     David Rouse, Everest, Route 2.

     James W. Freeland, Horton, Route 3.

     Wallace E. Harden, Everest, Route 2.

 District No. 63—

     Frank Hunn, Arrington.

     Thomas F. Cawley, Arrington.

     M. McGrath, Arrington

 District No. 65—

     Robert C. Sparks, Atchison.

     T. C. Treat, Atchison.

     August Haegelin, Atchison.

 District No. 66—

     William Walz, Atchison, Route 4.

     Louis J. Drimmel, Atchison, Route 4.

     R. D. Holder, Atchison, Route 4.

 District No. 67—

     Thomas Mullins, Atchison, Route 5.

     Antox Brox, Atchison, Route 5.

     C. E. Wood, Atchison, Route 5.

 District No. 68—

     Sam Beyer, Arrington.

     David Beyer, Arrington.

     William Lovelace, Muscotah.

 District No. 69—

     J. H. Durst, Atchison, Route 4.

     Chester Yaple, Atchison, Route 4.

     H. S. McGaughey, Atchison, Route 4.

 District No. 70—

     J. D. Nevins, Arrington.

     Henry Reichart, Arrington.

     W. P. Yazel, Arrington.

 District No. 71—

     W. J. Hunter, Atchison, Route 1.

     Charles Pantle, Atchison, Route 1.

     C. E. Jaquish, Atchison, Route 1.

 District No. 72—

     William H. McLenon, Monrovia.

     Gus. Stutz, Lancaster.

     Gustav Gigstad, Lancaster.

 District No. 73—

     A. G. Higley, Nortonville.

     John W. Henry, Nortonville.

     W. T. Henry, Nortonville.

 District No. 74—

     J. P. Cummings, Atchison, Route 3.

     A. C. Mayfield, Atchison, Route 3.

     J. W. Barber, Atchison, Route 3.

 Union No. 1—

     John Henninger, Potter.

     Frank Beard, Potter.

     S. A. Ellerman, Potter.

 Union No. 2—

     Albert Hanf, Atchison, Route 1.

     D. T. Greiner, Atchison, Route 1.

     Lawrence Wagner, Potter.

 Joint No. 3–50—

     Charles Handke, Atchison, Route 6.

     Paul Kuhnert, Atchison, Route 6.

     Henry Handke, Atchison, Route 6.

 Joint No. 6—

     H. E. Montgomery, Larkinburg.

     E. A. Smith, Larkinburg.

     J. J. Mooney, Larkinburg.

 Joint No. 70–98—

     W. L. Heineken, Effingham, Route 1.

     Calvin H. Feerer, Nortonville.

     G. B. Van Horn, Nortonville.

 Rural High School No. 1—

     J. E. Remsberg, Potter.

     T. F. Hall, Potter.

     D. H. Sprong, Jr., Oak Mills.

 Atchison County High School—

     D. Anna Speer, President, Atchison.

     C. E. Belden, Vice-president, Horton.

     Fred Sutter, Treasurer, Effingham.

     S. W. Adams, Secretary, Atchison.

     H. A. McLenon, Everest, Route 2.

     J. A. Kinney, Atchison.

     D. H. Sprong, Jr., Oak Mills.

[Illustration:

  _G. W. Glick_

  Statue of Gov. George W. Glick, in Statuary Hall, Washington, D. C.
]



                              CHAPTER XXV.
                          BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY


                        GEORGE WASHINGTON GLICK.

George W. Glick, ninth governor of Kansas, was born at Greencastle,
Fairfield county, Ohio, July 4, 1827. His great-grandfather, Philip
Glick, a Revolutionary soldier, was one of five brothers who came to
Pennsylvania from Germany. His grandfather, George Glick, served in the
War of 1812, as did also his mother’s father, Capt. George Sanders.
Governor Glick’s father, Isaac Glick, was a man of influence in the
community in which he lived, took an active interest in State and local
politics, and held many positions of public trust. His mother, Mary
Sanders, was of Scotch parentage. Both parents lived to a good old age.

George W. Glick was reared on his father’s farm near Fremont, Ohio, and
there acquired the habits of industry, economy and self-reliance that
made his later life so successful. At the age of twenty-one he entered
the office of Bucklin & Hayes as a law student, and was admitted to the
bar two years later at Cincinnati by the supreme court. He began
practice at Fremont, and soon won an enviable reputation as a hard-
working and successful lawyer. He fully sustained this reputation after
coming to Kansas.

Locating at Atchison in the spring of 1859, he formed a partnership with
Hon. Alfred G. Otis, which lasted until 1874, when an affection of the
throat compelled him to abandon the practice of law. Mr. Glick soon took
a leading place at the Kansas bar. His practice extended to all the
courts. He was a salaried attorney for two railroads and a number of
corporations.

Mr. Glick was a natural leader and began early in life to take an active
part in politics. When but thirty-one years of age he was nominated for
Congress by the Democracy of his district in Ohio, but declined the
nomination. The same year he was nominated for State senator and made
the race against Gen. R. P. Bucklin, his former law preceptor. He was
elected to the Kansas legislature in 1862 without opposition, and
reëlected in 1863, ’64, ’65, ’66, ’68, ’76 and ’82.

During his service as a legislator, he secured the passage of many
needed and important laws which have settled and fixed the policy of the
State on matters of vast interest, that have stood the test of time and
experience. In 1876 Mr. Glick was made speaker pro tem. of the house of
representatives, although that body was strongly Republican. He was a
delegate to Democratic National conventions in 1856, 1868, 1884 and
1892. The Kansas delegation in the Democratic National convention at
Chicago in 1892 presented his name to that convention as its candidate
for vice-president, after the nomination of Grover Cleveland for
President, and, although not the nominee of the convention for that
office, he received many votes. He was nominated for governor in 1868
and made the race in obedience to his party’s call, though his defeat
was inevitable. In 1882 he was again the unanimous choice of his party
for governor and made a memorable campaign, speaking in nearly every
county in the State; and, though fighting against great odds, among them
being a Republican majority of over 52,000, he defeated that
distinguished Republican and Prohibitionist, John P. St. John, by 8,079
votes. Governor Glick was inaugurated January 8, 1883, and his
administration was marked by dignity, intelligence, and a careful and
discreet management of the material and financial interests of the
State. His long experience as a legislator gave him an intimate
knowledge of its needs, and many valuable reform measures recommended in
his message to the legislature were accomplished. He entered an earnest
protest against the burdens imposed upon the agricultural classes by the
railroads and asked that legislation be enacted to prevent these
exactions. A law creating a railroad commission, and embodying
substantially all the improvements asked by him, was passed, and proved
of great benefit to the people of the State.

In 1885 he was appointed by President Cleveland pension agent at Topeka
and re-appointed when Mr. Cleveland again came into office. During Mr.
Glick’s two terms as pension agent at the Topeka agency, he received and
disbursed over $85,000.00.

In 1857 he married Elizabeth Ryder, of Massillon, Ohio, a lady descended
from a distinguished colonial ancestry. Her ancestors were among the
first settlers of Concord, Mass., and she derived her name from forbears
who were well known among the early colonists of New York City. For
fifty years and more this noble matron, having with her the best
traditions of American life, presided over the hospitable home of George
W. Glick, with the grace and dignity inherited from a fine ancestry. She
added to the success of his public life the greater blessings of
domestic happiness. Two children were born to this union: Frederick H.
Glick and Mrs. James W. Orr, of Atchison, Kan. He died at Atchison,
Kan., April 13, 1911, aged eighty-four years; his wife and children
survive him.

Each State is entitled to place in Statuary Hall at the capitol in
Washington, statues of two of its citizens renowned in literature, art,
war or civil life, and several years ago one of such places was filled
by the State of Kansas with a statue of John James Ingalls, of Atchison,
Kan. The regular session of the 1913 legislature of Kansas adopted a
concurrent resolution and made an appropriation for the purchase of a
suitable statue as a tribute to the memory of George Washington Glick,
to be placed in Statuary Hall, where the Nation has granted to its
people the privilege of placing it. The statue was designed and executed
by Charles H. Niehaus and accepted by Congress as a gift from Kansas,
with suitable ceremonies, and is now in Statuary Hall. A cut
representing it precedes this sketch. Sixteen thousand five hundred
copies of a volume containing the proceedings in Congress, and a plate
of the statue, were, by authority of Congress, printed and distributed.


                        HORACE MORTIMER JACKSON.

He who leaves behind him, when he passes beyond the goal from which no
mortal man has ever returned, a pleasant and abiding memory of his
existence on this earth, and has bequeathed to his progeny and posterity
a heritage of right living and right thinking, has accomplished much.
His memory will be revered long after that of the individual who has
done nothing but accumulate wealth and has made no effort to leave this
earthly abiding place a better place to live than when he came upon it.
Judge Horace Mortimer Jackson, deceased, was a man who lived an upright
life, and was accorded the universal respect of his fellow men and was a
legal practitioner of high rank, whose honorable methods of practice and
manner of living were such as to commend him for most favorable mention
in the archives of his adopted county of Atchison.

Judge Horace M. Jackson was born near Albion, Penn., July 11, 1839, a
son of Lyman Jackson, who was the son of Michael Jackson, whose father
was also named Michael, and was a native of Ireland. Michael Jackson,
the founder of the family in America, came from Ireland and settled near
Hartford, Conn. He went to the coast to trade and was not thereafter
heard from and was supposed to have been killed by Indians. He had three
sons, one of whom, Ebenezer, died in service as a soldier during the
French and Indian war. Another son went south, and the third was Michael
Jackson, the direct ancestor of Horace M. Jackson. Michael was born
March 28, 1735 and on June 4, 1755, was married to Susanna Willcocks,
who was born April 19, 1732. They settled in Windham county,
Connecticut, later removing to Pownal, near Bennington, Vt. Michael
Jackson was a soldier in the colonial army during the French and Indian
war, and was a member of Company Ten, First regiment. He was discharged
December 12, 1759. He also enlisted in the Seventh Company of the Third
regiment of volunteers, Army of Independence, May 5, 1775, and was
discharged December 15, 1775. He later volunteered for service in Col.
Samuel Herrick’s regiment of “Alarm Men.” Lyman, the son of Michael,
also served in the Revolution on the American side. He was born February
29, 1755, at Simsbury, Hartford county, Connecticut. He enlisted eight
different times in the American army. Lyman married Deidama Dunham on
January 3, 1782. This couple lived at Albany, Otsego and Wyoming, N. Y.,
at different times. To them were born thirteen children. About 1805,
Lyman Jackson settled in Erie county, Pennsylvania, and obtained a dense
tract of timber land in the Holland Purchase from which he cleared a
farm. Seven sons and a son-in-law of this redoubtable patriot fought in
the War of 1812.

Lyman Jackson died March 20, 1835. David Bardsley Jackson, a son of
Lyman, born May 29, 1797, at Richfield, Otsego county, New York, married
Lucy Hendryx, on April 11, 1822, near Albion, Penn. He was the ninth
child of Lyman Jackson and cleared a farm of forty acres in the Holland
Purchase on which he resided until the year 1830. He then sold his land,
loaded his effects in a farm wagon, drove to Pittsburgh, and took
passage down the Ohio river and thence up the Mississippi to Warsaw,
Ill., from which landing place on December 15, 1839 he drove to
Knoxville, Ill., and bought a farm ten miles west of the village. He
returned to Pennsylvania in 1841, driving overland with his team 1,000
miles each way accompanied by his wife and two youngest children. In the
year 1846 he removed to a residence in Knoxville and engaged in the
grocery business. In 1854 he settled on a farm one-half mile west of
Cambridge, Henry county, Illinois. He lived here until 1876, then sold
out and made his home at Gilson, for the remainder of his days. This
sturdy pioneer died January 18, 1879. His children were: Mrs. Elizabeth
Ruth Pierce, Zaremba, Obadiah H., Gershom, David, Francis Marion,
Charles Wilmer De Loss, Horace Mortimer, and Mrs. Annie Lucelia Wing.

Horace Mortimer Jackson was reared on the farm, attended the schools of
Knoxville, Ill., clerked in his father’s grocery store, sawed wood for
forty cents per cord, and did the hardest kind of farm work while yet a
boy. During 1860–61, he taught school for $28 per month. On August 7,
1861, he started for De Soto, Neb., by way of Hannibal and St. Joseph.
On April 12, 1861, he boarded a steamer at St. Joseph en route for
Omaha. Arriving there he joined his brother Zaremba on his farm in
Nebraska. He worked here for some time and assisted his brother in
tilling the farm with oxen in the most primitive way. He saved his money
and in 1862 returned to Cambridge, Ill., taught school during the winter
and read law at night. He followed farming, served as deputy sheriff of
the county and finally located at Versailles, Mo., in the practice of
law. He was a member of the board of education which gave the first
public school to the town of Versailles. He married Lavanchia Isabelle
Valentine, December 12, 1865. She was the eldest daughter of John O.
Valentine. For a time the newly wedded couple were in very poor
circumstances.

Their furniture was of crude workmanship, made from store boxes. It was
here that the future judge made the friendship of Anderson W. Anthony, a
good lawyer whom he esteemed highly, who became his first law partner.
He made a journey to Wichita, Kan., in August, 1870, but located at
Marysville, Mo., in September of the same year. He became a partner of
D. L. Palmer, who later went to Jewell City, Kan. He then formed a
partnership with Judge Thomas J. Johnston, and served as prosecuting
attorney of the county. In December of 1878 he started for Beloit, Kan.,
with the intention of locating in that city, but stopped at Atchison
where he met W. S. Greenleaf and Gen. W. W. Guthrie. He remained in
their law offices during the ensuing winter. General Guthrie at that
time was a member of the State senate. He formed a partnership with Mr.
Greenlea on March 17, 1879, which continued until Mr. Greenlea’s death
in September, 1880. His wife died March 26, 1883, and he later, on
February 11, 1886, married Matilda (Adams) Rook, who had one daughter by
a former marriage, Effie, now the wife of C. A. Chandler, of Atchison.
Matilda Adams Rook was a daughter of Peter and Martha Adams, of England,
and sister of J. P. Adams, of Atchison. Horace M. Jackson was appointed
judge of the district court on March 1, 1887, and continued as judge
until his successor was elected. He and his son, William A., conducted
the law business and served as the local attorneys for the Santa Fe and
the Burlington railroads until his death, which occurred December 11,
1910. Judge Jackson left two sons, William Anthony and Zaremba Edward.
He was a member of the Masonic fraternity, the Elks, Modern Woodmen and
the Ancient Order of United Workmen. He bequeathed to his children and
posterity a heritage of an honorable, upright life without stain or
blemish and will long be remembered as one of the honored citizens of
Atchison.


                          ZAREMBA E. JACKSON.

The measure of a living citizen is his genuine worth to his community.
If he unselfishly strives to make his home city a better place in which
to live, and does something by which he will long be remembered, as of
lasting good, he has accomplished a task well worth while. While every
town and city can boast of such individuals who are striving to do
things in behalf of the public welfare, there are not a great number who
can act without any ulterior motive and without desire to bring
pecuniary reward to themselves. Of the class of better citizens
mentioned as doing things for the betterment of the condition of the
citizenry, Z. E. Jackson, attorney of Atchison, occupies a prominent
place in the city. Gifted as an attorney, upright in all of his dealings
with his fellow men, interested to a high degree in the welfare of his
fellow citizens, he has striven unselfishly to do good. Jackson Park,
named after this gentleman, represents the culmination of one of his
dreams and years of endeavor to create a breathing place of woodland
beauty and a public playground of which the city may well be proud.

Z. E. Jackson was born in Maryville, Mo., September 23, 1872, and is a
son of Judge Horace Mortimer Jackson, late of Atchison, and a review of
whom appears in this work. He came to Atchison with his parents when six
years of age. He received his primary education in the public schools of
Atchison and afterward studied for two years in Midland College. He then
matriculated in the University of Illinois, with the intention of
preparing himself to become an electrical engineer. After studying for
two years in the Illinois university, he abandoned his original
intention and returning to Atchison, entered his father’s law office in
1893. He studied stenography without a regular instructor and prepared
himself to take dictation, filling the post of stenographer in his
father’s office while reading law. He studied law under his gifted
father’s tutelage and was admitted to the bar in 1899, being later
admitted to practice in the higher State and federal courts. At first he
practiced alone and was then made a member of the law firm of Jackson &
Jackson. This firm was at first composed of Judge Horace M. Jackson, and
his son, William A., and when William A., was elected to the position of
judge of the district court, it was composed of Horace M. and his son,
Z. E. Jackson. Mr. Jackson is local attorney for the Home Building and
Loan Association, and a director of the same concern. He is the local
attorney for the Santa Fe Railroad System and the Burlington Railroad
Company. He is also the legal adviser for several of Atchison’s
corporations. Mr. Jackson has the reputation of being one of the ablest
and cleanest practitioners of the Atchison county bar who has followed
in the footsteps of his illustrious father in never refusing counsel or
advice to a public official, religious denomination or to a charitable
organization, whether or not any fee was forthcoming—in fact, his office
has always been ready to give advice to applicants of the character of
the foregoing without charge or recompense of any kind. Mr. Jackson has
never turned away a client who had a meritorious cause, because of lack
of funds, and in this respect resembles his father in his manner of
conducting his legal practice. While Mr. Jackson is not a member of any
particular religious denomination, he has always been a liberal
contributor to all movements which have had for their intent the
betterment of the community. He is owner of Atchison real estate and
farm lands in Jackson county, Kansas, to which he gives his personal
attention.

Mr. Jackson’s career as a public official began in 1901, when he was
elected police judge of the city and again elected in 1903, after which
he declined to again become a candidate for the office. His career as
police judge was marked by uniform fairness and impartiality, tempered
with kindness in dealing with the city’s minor malefactors who were
brought before him for judgment in his official capacity. From 1905 to
1909 he was assistant city attorney, and in 1912 was elected to the
office of city attorney to fill the unexpired term of Daniel S. Hooper,
deceased. He served out the unexpired term and declined to become a
candidate in 1913, because of the growing demands of his large law
practice. While serving as city attorney many important problems came up
before the city for solution, such as the telephone merger, and the
renewal of the city’s contract with the Atchison Light and Power
Company. His wise advice and counsel steered the city government safely
over the shoals, incidental to the settlement of these questions. Mr.
Jackson found the city finances in bad shape, as related to the renewal
of the lighting contract, a condition of affairs brought about by his
predecessor’s long illness preventing him from attending to business,
and he immediately set to work to unravel the tangle and brought order
out of chaos to the advantage of the city. Another matter to which he
gave considerable attention while city attorney was the intercepting
sewer problem which he handled satisfactorily.

Mr. Jackson is a pronounced Republican in his political views, having
become a convert to Republican principles when he became of age, a
decision which he was influenced to make by the panic of 1893. He is
affiliated with the Knights of Pythias.

He was united in marriage with Miss Maud K. Smith, April 30, 1903. Mrs.
Jackson was born in Burlington, Iowa, a daughter of Lewis T. and Theresa
June (Chadwick) Smith, the former a native of Pennsylvania, and the
latter a native of Canada. Lewis T. Smith was born in 1846 in West
Lebanon, Pa., and is one of the old-time railroad men of the early days.

Mr. Jackson’s creed of living is best expressed in his own words, “I
believe that every man should do something for the community in which he
lives, besides getting a living out of it.” It was the practice of his
creed which led to the beautiful park in the southeast part of the city
being named in his honor, over his personal objections. The _Atchison
Globe_ says of his connection with the building and equipping of the
park in the issue of August 18, 1913, in part, after quoting Mr.
Jackson’s creed, as above given:

“That explains the principal reason why he (Z. E. Jackson) has taken
such an interest in the park which now bears his name. Another reason is
he likes to dig in the ground, and investigate things as he finds them
in the woods and wild places. He is also handy at improving on Nature
here and there without spoiling the general effect.

“Seven or eight years ago, after spending many of his boyhood and young
manhood days in Jackson Park, he saw the possibilities of it for a
beautiful playground for young and old. He invited several of his South
Atchison neighbors to meet in his law office one night and a park
improvement association was formed. In order to start a fund for
improvements in the park each member present put up five dollars. Other
citizens were invited to contribute and thus a small fund was raised.

“That proved to be the redemption of City Park, a tract of fifty-six
acres of woodland which cost the city $7,500 about thirty years ago.

“With the few hundred dollars raised by private subscription it was
shown what might be accomplished if the necessary funds were
forthcoming. From the sale of a park bond, issued when the city was
trying to put the coal mine on its feet, the committee secured $500
which was used in replacing the dam which makes the lake and other
improvements.

“If effective service is to be rewarded, then the city council made no
mistake when it acted on the petition presented to it, asking that the
name of City Park be changed to Jackson Park in honor of Z. E. Jackson,
a young man who decided that the making of a park was the debt he owed
the community where he makes his living.”

The action referred to in the foregoing was taken August 1, 1913, when
the official name of Jackson Park was given to the tract in honor of Mr.
Jackson. Besides his work of superintending the park and bringing about
its redemption with the assistance of other public spirited men, Mr.
Jackson and others secured a ten-acre tract of land lying between the
original fifty-six acres and the Missouri river, which has been added to
and is now a part of the park.


                             THOMAS FRABLE.

Thomas Frable, retired farmer, of Benton township, is one of the oldest
living pioneer citizens of Atchison county, both in age and number of
years of residence in the county. He was one of the old-time freighters
who conducted his own freighting outfit across the plains in the days of
the Civil war, and before the advent of the trans-continental railroads.
Mr. Frable was born in March, 1832, and has spent fifty-six of his four
score and four years of life in Atchison county and Kansas. He was born
on a farm in Pennsylvania, a son of Thomas Frable, who died when the
subject was three years of age, leaving his widow in such poor
circumstances that she was unable to rear her children in comfort.
Thomas was given a home by a man named Queen, who owned a large farm,
and he lived with Queen until attaining his majority. Queen owned a farm
of 300 acres, and Thomas was started to work when still a small boy,
learning to guide a plow across the fields when he was but eleven years
of age. When he became of age and was free to do as he liked, the germ
of adventure and ambition seized him and he decided to try his fortunes
in the great West. In line with this resolve, he crossed the country to
Kansas in 1859, in company with another young fellow named Reuben
Ferguson, with whom he finally bought a tract of land which they farmed
in common for a time, and then made a division. Mr. Frable still owns
eighty acres of the original tract which he and Ferguson purchased. Mr.
Frable engaged in the freighting business and made considerable money in
the old days. He became the owner of two teams which he drove with the
great trains which were constantly leaving Atchison in the early
sixties, en route to the far West, and transported blasting powder to
Denver and mining points in Colorado for the use of the gold and silver
miners. He also carried corn for the United States Government. During
the Civil war Mr. Frable was enrolled as a member of the Kansas State
militia, and served at the battle of Westport in the expedition against
the rebel, General Price. After the war he settled down to farming in
Benton township, and has prospered exceedingly, he and his son, Harry,
now owning over 560 acres of fine land. The Frable home is one of the
most imposing and best built farm residences in the county, and Harry
Frable recently erected a large barn in which the live stock of this
extensive farm is housed. Mr. Frable and Harry have been life-long
Republicans.

Thomas Frable was married in 1862 to Rebecca Graham, a daughter of
Richard Graham, who came from Pennsylvania with his family to Atchison
county in the early days, and was one of the well known pioneers of this
county. Mrs. Frable was born October 5, 1835, and died in November,
1908. Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Frable, namely:
Clara, deceased; Margaret, dying in infancy: two died in infancy; and
Harry was born January 22, 1865.


                             JAMES W. ORR.

The reviewer, in attempting to write a comprehensive and truthful
biography of an individual, must take into consideration the related
facts as to birth and subsequent career, the success attained, the
underlying principles which have combined to assist him in achieving his
desires and ambitions, and to lay particular stress upon the special
talent which has been developed in the life of the subject under review.
In reviewing the life career of James W. Orr, a leading member of the
Atchison county bar, the fact is determined that he is truly an able and
distinguished lawyer, whose reputation for success at the bar, for
having a profound knowledge of the law, and his ability to successfully
practice in the courts of the land, arrayed against the brightest minds
of the legal profession of the country, is recognized, not only by the
people of the State of Kansas and his profession generally, but by the
United States Government, in whose employ he now is as special assistant
to the attorney general of the United States.

[Illustration:

  _Eng. by E. G. Williams & Bro. N. Y._

  _James W Orr._
]

James W. Orr was born September 14, 1855, in the town of Reading,
Hillsdale county, Michigan. In his boyhood days, and during the struggle
to educate himself for the practice of his chosen profession, he knew
what adversity meant and has the satisfaction of knowing that his
education was obtained through his own unaided efforts. He is a son of
James and Mary Elizabeth (Underhill) Orr, both of whom were natives of
New York City. His father was of Scotch-Irish descent, his forebears
emigrating from Scotland to the north of Ireland in the days of old to
escape religious persecution. His paternal grandfather left Ireland in
an early day and made his home in New York. The Underhill family is of
English origin and a very old one in America, several generations of
whom have been born and reared in this country. His maternal grandfather
was Daniel Underhill, a goldsmith in New York City. James Orr, the
father, was a merchant in New York till about 1848, when he left his
native city and engaged in merchandising in Rome, Syracuse and Utica, N.
Y., (three stores), following which he engaged in wholesale business in
Toledo, Ohio. While a resident of Toledo he became identified with some
of the enterprises of that day and was a stockholder, director and one
of the builders of the Erie & Dunkirk railroad. In 1861 he removed to
Coldwater, Mich., and conducted a merchandise business there until 1868,
when, in broken health, he settled in Niles, Mich., where he died.

When James W. Orr was fourteen years of age he began earning his own
living and educating himself. He and his brother, Louis C. Orr, the
present postmaster of Atchison, worked together for several years,
sharing their work with each other and pooling their earnings. The boys
were fortunate in having a wise and ambitious mother who was well
educated and who taught them at home, thus giving them the education
they were financially unable to obtain at school. At the age of
seventeen years while employed in a drug store he was reading law at
nights and at odd times when his work was not pressing. By persistent
endeavor he managed to secure two years of study at Michigan University,
at Ann Arbor. He then took his examination for admission to the bar in
open court, and was admitted to practice when but twenty years of age.
His first employment in his new profession was with the McCormick
Harvester Company, settling claims, etc., in behalf of that company. He
remained in this position until 1880, and in January, 1881, came to
Atchison where he has since continuously resided. It was necessary for
him to begin the upward climb of the ladder to fame and success without
assistance from any individual or friend. How well Mr. Orr has succeeded
during the past thirty-four years is attested by his present high
position in the ranks of the legal profession and the competence he has
accumulated. He was first employed in Atchison by the New England Loan &
Trust Company as attorney to examine abstracts of titles, etc., at a
salary of forty dollars per month. It was not long until he was
receiving a salary of $150 per month and a share of the profits in the
employ of the same concern. When the concern moved to Kansas City and
became known as the Equitable Loan & Trust Company, Mr. Orr remained in
Atchison. In 1883 he was married to Miss Jennie Glick, the only daughter
of Governor George W. Glick, of Atchison. He took up the practice of
law, purchasing the interest of Judge W. D. Webb in the firm of Webb &
Martin, and entered into partnership with A. F. Martin, which
partnership existed from 1882 until April, 1887. During the five years
he had been in Atchison he had been extending his acquaintance over the
county, and in November, 1866, was a successful candidate for county
attorney on the Democratic ticket, being elected over W. D. Gilbert by a
substantial majority, despite the fact that the county was then normally
Republican by over 800 majority. In April, 1887, he formed a law
partnership with B. P. Waggener and Judge David Martin, the firm having
previously been known as Everest & Waggener. Judge Martin resigning the
position of judge of the Atchison district court to join the firm, which
was known as Waggener, Martin & Orr. In the year 1895 Judge Martin
retired from the firm, and Judge A. H. Horton, then chief justice of the
supreme court of Kansas, resigned his office of chief justice, a
position he had held continuously for nineteen years, to become a member
of the firm. Judge Dawn Martin was appointed to the vacancy so made on
the supreme bench. Judge Horton remained a member of the firm until his
death, when ex-Chief Justice Frank Doster became a member of the firm
known as Waggener, Doster & Orr. During Mr. Orr’s association with B. P.
Waggener in the practice of law they had charge of the legal business
for the Gould system of railroads in Kansas and Nebraska; the Western
Union Telegraph Company; express companies, and the Pullman Palace Car
Company. They were associated in partnership with three ex-chief
justices of the supreme court of Kansas during this period. In June,
1910, Mr. Orr resigned his position as attorney for the Missouri Pacific
Railway Company, and his connection with B. P. Waggener, which had then
continued for twenty-three years, was also terminated. The position of
special assistant to the attorney-general of the United States was
proffered him by Attorney-General McReynolds in October, 1913, while Mr.
Orr was engaged in the trial of a case in St. Louis. He accepted and was
given charge of the suit of the Government against the Southern Pacific
Company and others, including the Central Pacific Railway, to dissolve
the relations between those companies. Mr. Orr conducts his cases for
the Government in addition to his private practice. His rise has been
steady and consistent during the years he has been practicing his
profession in Atchison, and it is true that the youth who began his
career in the city of Atchison for the modest salary of forty dollars
per month now enjoys a lucrative private law practice, in addition to
his income from the Government and not supplemented by corporation
salaries. Mr. Orr has accumulated a comfortable fortune during the years
of his practice and has what is considered the most beautiful home in
Atchison. In his home he has his private library of several hundred
volumes, including the standard works of literature. His law library
lines the walls of his down-town offices and exceeds 2,000 volumes in
number.

[Illustration:

  Residence of J. W. Orr.
]

Mr. and Mrs. Orr had but one child, a son, George Glick Orr, who was
drowned while bathing in the Pacific ocean, near San Diego, Cal., on
July 21, 1909, at the age of twenty-five years. The loss of this
talented young man saddened the lives of his parents for years. At the
age when most young men are just beginning to gain a higher education,
George Glick Orr could read, write and speak six different languages.
For seventeen years of his life he was a student, graduated at the
University of Kansas, and had been admitted to the bar, showing great
promise in his chosen profession and being frequently entrusted with
important legal matters.

Mr. Orr has received all the Masonic degrees except the thirty-third,
and is a member of several fraternal societies. He attends and
contributes to the support of the Christian Science Church, of which
Mrs. Orr is a member.

In politics and as a public official and law-maker, Mr. Orr has a record
of which any man may well be proud. He became a member of the Kansas
Democratic State central committee in 1884 and remained such
continuously until 1908, and in point of service was its oldest member.
He has attended, as a delegate, six National Democratic conventions, and
on three occasions was a member of the notification committee appointed
to officially notify the presidential candidate of his nomination by the
convention, including Cleveland in 1892; Parker in 1904, and Woodrow
Wilson in 1912. His exceptional career in politics began as early as
1880, when he served as assistant secretary of the committee chosen to
notify General Hancock at Governor’s Island, N. Y., of his nomination
for the Presidency. Mr. Orr was an original Wilson man and one of the
committee of five having the floor management of the Wilson forces at
the Baltimore convention in 1912 which nominated Mr. Wilson for the
Presidency. From 1901 to 1907 Mr. Orr served three terms successively as
mayor of the city of Atchison and gave the city one of the best
administrations in its history. He served two terms in the State
legislature as representative from the Atchison city district, the
sessions of 1911 and 1913. During the 1911 session he was one of the
three legislators selected by the house to draft and did prepare the
present public utilities law, under which all railroads and public
utilities in this State are now managed and controlled; he was the
author of the present comprehensive drainage laws; the law requiring the
attorney-general to pay into the State treasury all fees received by him
in the prosecution of State cases; the so-called “Orr viaduct law,”
which requires railroads to construct and maintain at their expense all
necessary viaducts over or tunnels under their tracks in cities, and
under which the Fourteenth street viaduct in this city and viaducts in
many other cities have been built and then maintained by the railroads,
also many other laws of public interest and importance. In the session
of 1913 he was chairman of the judiciary committee and was elected
majority leader of the house. At the close of the legislative session of
1913 Mr. Orr was presented with a resolution, unanimously adopted by the
members of the house, beautifully engraved in India ink, artistically
framed and containing a reproduction of the great seal of Kansas. This
resolution thanks Mr. Orr for the assistance he had given individual
members of the house and for his service to the State, both as chairman
of the judiciary committee and as majority house leader, and is signed
by every member. It follows:

  “HOUSE RESOLUTION, NO. 51—BY MR. RIDDLE.

  “Resolved. That the members of the house extend to the Hon. James W.
  Orr their sincere thanks for the splendid service he has given to
  them and to the State during the present session. In addition to his
  work as floor leader of the majority party, and his work as chairman
  of the judiciary committee, he has been tireless, patient, and
  industrious in giving to individual members the benefit of his
  learning and ability by helping them in their work. His help has
  been extended alike to members of all political parties, and has
  been especially beneficial to members who have had little experience
  in legislative work. He has the confidence, esteem and love of all
  the members.

  “Done in the city of Topeka, this eighth day of March, 1913.”


                            ANDREW B. SYMNS.

When the late A. B. Symns passed beyond mortal ken on April 9, 1905,
Atchison suffered a loss from its business circles which could never be
replaced. He left behind him a monument in the A. B. Symns Grocer
Company, one of the largest of the wholesale establishments of the city
and State, which was the product of his brain and ability. He was one of
the noted pioneer figures of a decade which produced great and strong
men. From a modest beginning he rose to become a national character in
the business world of the great West and realized his ambition during a
long and useful life. He not only succeeded in accumulating a
comfortable fortune but left a reputation for integrity and upright
citizenship which has never been surpassed by any of his compeers of the
building age in Atchison and Kansas. From boyhood to the time he had
passed the age of three score years and ten, Mr. Symns was an
indefatigable worker and never relaxed except for much needed recreation
and rest, occasionally. Early in his career he had great faith in the
future of Atchison and that faith was fully justified by his own success
in the jobbing field.

A. B. Symns was born in Monroe county. West Virginia, March 27, 1831,
and was a son of John and Elizabeth (Peters) Symns, natives of old
Virginia, of Scotch-Irish descent.

As a boy he worked on his father’s farm, attending school three months
each winter. At the age of eighteen he clerked in a store at Petertown
and later on attended Lewisburg Seminary one year. He also worked at
White Sulphur Springs before coming west in 1853. He listened to the
call of the great unpeopled western country for young and ambitious men
to develop her dormant resources, and in 1853 crossed the country to St.
Joseph. Mo., where he clerked in a store for two years and then went to
St. Louis. After clerking in St. Louis for one year he became an eighth
owner of the steamboat “Hesperian” and served as clerk aboard the
steamer. This boat made its first trip on the Missouri trade in 1856 and
it was while passing up and down the Missouri river that he was
attracted to the then flourishing town of Doniphan. It far overshadowed
Atchison at that time and he determined to locate in Doniphan. During
the time he was connected with the steamboat service he had many
interesting experiences. He opened a grocery store in 1858, but during
the same year the land office was removed to Atchison and Doniphan lost
ground, but the Symns store grew in size and importance and was the
nucleus around which his great business was subsequently builded. He
removed the store to Atchison in 1872, and began wholesaling in a small
way in connection with his retail business. In 1877 he was doing
business in the corner store room at Sixth and Commercial streets, on
the southeast corner. While located in this building he closed out his
retail business and engaged in jobbing exclusively. With the impetus
given by his splendid business mind and his remarkable energy the
business grew rapidly, and he soon found himself at the head of one of
the largest wholesale grocery houses in the western country. Thirty men
are employed as traveling salesmen by the Symns Grocer Company alone,
and the Symns Utah Grocer Company, which he established, has its own
force. Customers of Mr. Symns over Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Missouri,
Texas, Colorado and Utah have always agreed that A. B. Symns was the
fairest man with whom they ever did business. He had faith in Atchison
as a great jobbing center, and the success of his business fully
justified that belief. The immense jobbing house of the Symns Grocer
Company on Main street of Atchison was built from plans prepared by Mr.
Symns himself and is one of the most complete establishments of the kind
to be found anywhere. So extensive did the business become, however,
that it was necessary to erect an addition in 1903. The capitalization
of the Symns Grocer Company at the time of the demise of Mr. Symns was
$300,000 and that of the Utah concern at Salt Lake City was $80,000. Mr.
Symns was president of both companies and had a controlling interest in
each. He left an estate valued at over $300,000.

One of the interesting episodes of Mr. Symns’ mercantile career was the
looting of his Doniphan store by Cleveland’s band of outlaws, who made
Atchison their headquarters in the winter of 1861–62. At the time Mr.
Symns was absent in St. Joseph, but his brothers, Sam and William Symns,
were in charge when it was surrounded one evening by Cleveland and his
gang. They forced William Symns to open the safe and took what money
there was on hand in addition to clothing, saddles, etc. While the
robbery was in progress, Mrs. Symns ran out to arouse the neighbors, but
no help was forthcoming because of the fact that everybody was afraid of
Cleveland and his gang, and the thieves got away with their booty
unmolested.

A. B. Symns was married in 1858, returning to Old Virginia for his
bride, Miss Elizabeth Tiffany, who was his boyhood sweetheart. Mrs.
Symns was a member of an excellent Virginia family and bore him the
following children: Mrs. A. S. Rowan, who died December 31, 1903; Miss
Effie Symns, of Atchison; Charles, Atchison, and Guy. The mother of
these children departed this life September 12, 1900, at the age of
sixty-four years, having been born in 1836. Six children were born and
died in infancy at Doniphan: John, Joseph, Lee, Hugh, Edna and Louis.
Mr. Symns died April 9, 1905, at Hot Springs, Ark. He was sincerely
mourned and Atchison business circles suffered a loss which could hardly
be estimated.

While Mr. and Mrs. Symns were on their wedding trip on the steamer
“Carrier” en route up the Missouri river from St. Louis to Doniphan, the
boat sank near Hermann, Mo. They easily escaped drowning because the
“Carrier” sank slowly, but they lost their newly purchased household
goods and a large amount of supplies with which Mr. Symns intended to
stock the Doniphan store. Mrs. Symns continued to Doniphan on another
boat, while Mr. Symns returned to St. Louis to lay in another stock of
household goods and provisions for his store.

The Symns family came of old Scotch Presbyterian stock. Although a
southerner by birth, he was a Union man in Kansas. He was an independent
Democrat in politics.

Mr. Symns was in active pursuits even after attaining the age of three
score years and ten, and was always found early at his desk. He was not
only the active head of the business but closely watched the details. He
was always hurrying and was ever busy, and it was his custom to walk
daily to the postoffice for his mail so as to have the benefit of the
exercise. Having always been a man of correct habits he belied his years
and his demise came unexpectedly at Hot Springs. He was accidentally
killed by a locomotive on a railroad crossing at Hot Springs, where it
had been his custom to go for his health during the latter ten years of
his life. He was fond of his family and dearly loved his home life. He
was quiet, unassuming, and was one of the kindest and gentlest of men,
probably no man being more universally admired and beloved in Atchison
during his day. His life story furnishes a decided inspiration for any
one who may read of his success in Atchison.


                         BALIE PEYTON WAGGENER.

It is not difficult to classify Balie P. Waggener so as to determine his
position in the civic body of Atchison, but it is not easy to write a
review comprehensive enough to give a proper estimate of this
distinguished citizen who has been honored in his home city and in the
State of Kansas. When one thinks of Atchison it is only natural to refer
to the city as the home of Balie Waggener, who is indisputably grouped
among the prominent and widely known figures who have shed fame and
luster upon their home city. A leading attorney, statesman, progressive
citizen, builder, farmer and stockman, friend of all children,
capitalist, and public benefactor are some of the terms which might be
applied to him without fear of contradiction from the mass of the people
who know him best.

He was born in Platte county, Missouri, July 18, 1847, a son of Peyton
R. and Sophronia Briseis (Willis) Waggener, who were American born and
descended from old American families. The great-grandfather of Mr.
Waggener served in the Continental army as a lieutenant-colonel during
the American war of independence, and his grandfather was a major in the
United States army during the War of 1812. Balie Waggener attended the
public schools until he attained the age of fourteen years and then
obtained a situation as toll-gate keeper on the old Platte City &
Western turnpike. He was ambitious to become a lawyer and during the
interims of his duties in attending the toll-gate, and after his day’s
work was done, he read his law books. The next step in his preparation
to become a member of the legal profession was to enter the law office
of Otis & Glick, in Atchison. This was in 1866, and so assiduously did
the young man apply himself to his studies that he was admitted to the
bar June 10, 1867. Three years later he formed a partnership with Albert
H. Norton, then United States district attorney, under the firm name of
Horton & Waggener, which lasted until the election of Judge Horton to
the office of chief justice of the Kansas supreme court in 1876. In 1887
Mr. Waggener formed a partnership under the firm name of Waggener,
Martin & Orr, which continued until April 30, 1895, when the firm was
dissolved and the firm became Waggener, Horton & Orr, Chief Justice
Horton having resigned his position and again entered the firm. David
Martin, Mr. Waggener’s former partner, became chief justice of the
supreme court of Kansas to succeed Chief Justice Horton. In 1902 Judge
Horton died, and later his place in the firm was taken by Ex-Chief
Justice Frank Doster, under the firm name of Waggener, Doster & Orr. It
will thus be seen that Mr. Waggener has been associated in the practice
of law with three chief justices of the supreme court of Kansas. In 1913
Mr. Orr withdrew from the firm to become special assistant to the
attorney-general of the United States, and the firm is now known as
Waggener, Challiss & Crane, being composed of W. P. Waggener, James
Challiss and Albert Crane. Mr. Waggener now devotes his time and legal
talents almost exclusively to his duties as general solicitor for the
Missouri Pacific railway.

[Illustration:

  _B. P. Waggener_
]

The ability of a lawyer having the calibre of Mr. Waggener was bound to
attract attention, and on January 4, 1876, he was appointed general
attorney of the Missouri Pacific railway for the State of Kansas, and on
May 1, 1910, he was made general solicitor for that company for the
States of Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado, his son, W. P. Waggener,
succeeding him as general attorney for Kansas. During the forty-four
years Mr. Waggener has been engaged in the practice of law he has won an
enviable position at the bar through his own personal efforts. He has
never ceased to be a student of all subjects pertaining to that most
jealous of professions, and it is worthy of note that he is the
possessor of one of the most complete law libraries in the United
States, containing upward of 10,000 volumes on every conceivable legal
subject. He keeps his library at his residence, which is one of the
handsomest and best appointed in the city of Atchison, and he prepares
most of his cases in the study of his home where privacy is possible.

Naturally, a man of Mr. Waggener’s vigor and broad-mindedness would
engage in enterprises outside of the practice of his profession, and he
has done so in such a manner as to profit himself and the community. In
1892 he was elected president of the Exchange National Bank of Atchison,
which position he has since held. He perfected and put into operation
the Atchison Railway, Light and Power Company in the city, and is the
owner of the famous “Green View Stock Farm,” comprising 500 acres,
beautifully located a short distance west of Atchison, and which is one
of the best equipped and most modern farms in Kansas. Through
experimentation and adapting modern methods of agriculture to the
cultivation of his land and the breeding of fine live stock, Mr.
Waggener has become a recognized authority on agriculture and animal
husbandry. The annual sales of fine live stock which are produced on his
farm have become an annual event in this section of Kansas and the West,
and are largely attended by buyers from all parts of the country.

In addition to his professional and business interests, Mr. Waggener has
manifested a public spirit in matters pertaining to the political
conditions of his city and State. Firmly grounded in Democratic
principles, he has become one of the foremost leaders of his party and
occupies a high place in its councils. In 1869 he was elected to the
Atchison city council when he had barely attained his majority. In the
year 1872 he was the nominee of his party for the office of attorney-
general of the State of Kansas, and in 1873 was made city attorney. From
1889 to 1891 and again in 1895–97 he was mayor of the city. In 1902 he
was elected a member of the lower branch of the State legislature, which
had a large Republican majority, and during the term held the important
position of chairman of the judiciary committee. It is generally
conceded that he influenced much of the legislation at that session, and
his record so commended him to his constituents that in 1904 he was
elected to the State senate from a strong Republican district, carrying
the district by a majority of 1,500 votes, although at the same election
Theodore Roosevelt, the Republican candidate for President, carried the
same district by over 3,600, an indisputable testimonial to Mr.
Waggener’s personal popularity and his ability. Mr. Waggener served in
the senate of the Kansas State legislature in the sessions of 1905 and
1907, and was reëlected by a handsome majority of over 2,000 in November
of 1912. He is now holding the position of State senator from this
district.

Mr. Waggener is a member of many secret orders, and is prominent in
Masonic circles, being a Knights Templar and a Thirty-second degree
member of the Scottish Rite, and a member of the Mystic Shrine.

On May 27, 1869, Mr. Waggener married Miss Emma L., daughter of William
W. Hetherington, one of Atchison’s prominent citizens, now deceased, a
review of whose life and career is given elsewhere in this volume. Two
children were born to this union: William Peyton Waggener, a “chip off
the old block,” and present general attorney of the Missouri Pacific
railway for the State of Kansas, and president of the Exchange State
Bank of Atchison; Mabel L., wife of R. K. Smith, vice-president and
general manager of the Mississippi Central railway.

Perhaps the trait of character that most endears Mr. Waggener to the
people of Atchison county is that liberality which led him in 1897 to
inaugurate the system of giving an annual picnic to the children. Every
year, at his own personal expense, he furnishes free transportation,
free entertainment, and free refreshments to all the children of
Atchison county who can attend his picnic, and the larger the crowd the
greater is his delight. These picnics are not given for the purpose of
increasing his popularity or for any self-aggrandizement whatever, but
solely that he may steal at least one day from his business cares and
derive a wholesome recreation in contributing to the amusement of the
young people. This innovation has occasioned at various times favorable
and commendatory comment in the press of the State, and a record of
these picnics has been placed in the annals of the Kansas State
Historical Society. The report of the secretary of the historical
society for the year 1911 has considerable to say concerning the visit
of President Taft to Kansas in that year and his attendance upon Balie
Peyton Waggener’s picnic to the children of the neighborhood. The
President left Topeka on September 27, about one hour after laying the
cornerstone of the Memorial Hall building and reached Atchison in time
for Mr. Waggener’s twelfth annual picnic. The President spoke words of
high praise of Mr. Waggener and presented him with a silver loving cup
in behalf of the people of Atchison county. Mr. Taft’s words in making
the presentation were: “A token is this, Mr. Waggener, that carries real
sincerity of friendship. I present this beautiful vase of silver in the
name of the people here assembled as a sign of love and esteem. I
congratulate you on the eminence you have attained.” Mr. Waggener
responded: “This is a distinction unmerited. I have no words to express
my grateful acknowledgment.” Balie Waggener’s picnic has become a
feature of Kansas history of a most pleasant nature. He is a life member
of the State Historical Society, and has always been an ardent and most
liberal friend of the society.

When Mr. Waggener was forced by illness to go to Rochester, Minn., for
the purpose of having a surgical operation performed, his safe return to
his home was made the occasion of a time of great rejoicing by the
children of the city, and a reception was given him, such as has never
been given an Atchison citizen before nor since, and which occasioned
State-wide comment on the part of the press as a fitting testimonial of
the great love and esteem in which he was held by the children and
people of his home city. During the time he was at Rochester undergoing
a surgical operation and his subsequent recovery, the children of the
city had been praying for his restoration to health and his safe return
to their midst. It was their great friend who was ill, and, when the
word came that he would arrive home on a certain evening the children
prepared to receive him in an appropriate manner. All the children of
Atchison turned out to give him welcome, and hundreds formed in line,
through which Mr. Waggener passed on his way to his home. He and his
automobile were pelted with flowers and tears filled his eyes, and he
was unable to express his heart-felt appreciation of the reception which
his people had given him. It has been described as the most beautiful
and touching thing that has ever happened in the life of Mr. Waggener.
To quote briefly from the _Kansas City Journal_, which described the
incident: “Few men in this world were so fortunate as to enjoy such an
ovation. Men who have done important things have been received by town
bands and by citizens covered with fluttering badges. Men have come back
to their home people to be received in the opera house, and cheers have
echoed in their receptive ears. But it must be understood that no such
home-coming as Mr. Waggener’s could come to an ordinary man. It was the
tribute of sincere devotion and genuine friendship. It couldn’t be
bought with money or earned by material success. These Atchison children
didn’t care a rap for Waggener, the railroad attorney, nor Waggener, the
politician, nor even for Waggener, the exemplary citizen. It was Mr.
Waggener, the good, kind friend they loved, to whom the welcome was
given, and it sprung from sheer joy that he had recovered his health and
was with them once more. And who can say that the earth holds a more
splendid triumph as the crowning glory of a life than this? All other
laudations and exclamations are tame compared with the flushed
enthusiasm of hundreds of happy children shouting from their hearts:

                “‘Waggener, Waggener sis boom ah!
                Our friend, our friend, rah! rah! rah!’”


                           ALBERT E. MAYHEW.

Personal achievement on the part of the individual who accomplishes
things worth while for himself and in behalf of his fellow men, is
always worth recording. The inherent qualities possessed by an able man
will develop and become pronounced in decided results if he be given the
proper opportunity. Albert E. Mayhew, legislative representative from
the Atchison county district, and a successful merchant, belongs to that
type of men who by force of intellect and sheer ability to do things
have placed themselves in the forefront of affairs and taken their
proper places as leaders in their respective communities. Forty-five
years of his life have been spent in Kansas, and he can properly be
classed as one of the pioneers of the State. Mr. Mayhew established
himself in business in Effingham January 1, 1899, and his success since
his advent into Atchison county has been marked and rapid. He began at
first with a capital of $3,000 invested in a hardware and implement
business. With characteristic energy and enterprise he developed his
business to the extent that his extensive stock of goods now requires a
capital of $10,000. In 1912 he purchased a lot at the corner of the two
principal streets of Effingham and erected a handsome two-story brick
building and a warehouse at the same time. This building measures 84×60
feet, including the warehouse and two splendid show rooms, filled with
high class goods. The stock of goods in the Mayhew establishment
embraces hardware, farming implements and wagons, paints, furniture, and
he also conducts an undertaking establishment. Three men are employed to
attend to the extensive trade of this store, which is the most important
institution of its kind in this section of the county.

Albert E. Mayhew was born March 17, 1866, at St. Mary’s, Ontario,
Canada, a son of William, born in 1833, died in March, 1906, and Mary
(Lancaster), born in 1833, died December 25, 1878, Mayhew, both of whom
were born in England and immigrated to Canada when in their youth.
William Mayhew ran away from home and made his way to Canada where he
became a farmer and married. William Mayhew and his wife resided in
Canada until May, 1870, when they immigrated to Kansas, settling in
Nemaha county. They purchased a farm near the town of Centralia,
developed it and Mr. Mayhew made a success of farming and stock raising.
He began with a large tract of land at first, but soon ascertained that
it were better to have a smaller farm, and accordingly reduced his
acreage to 160 acres, upon which he prospered. Mrs. Mayhew, the mother
of Albert E., died on the home place in Nemaha county. William, as old
age crept upon him, removed to San Diego, Cal., where his demise
occurred. He is buried in the cemetery of the California city. Five sons
and a daughter were born to William Mayhew and wife, namely: John, a
merchant, of Denver, Colo.; Robert, a retired farmer and merchant,
living in Topeka. Kan.; George, a merchant, of Denver, Colo.; Eliza,
wife of A. B. Clippinger, Kansas City, Mo.; Albert E., the subject of
this review, and Leonard, of Los Angeles, Cal.

Albert E. was reared to young manhood on the home farm in Nemaha county,
and received his education in the public schools of Centralia, Kan., and
the Seneca, Kan., high school, completing his education in the normal
school at Emporia, Kan. He taught school for a number of years in his
home county, saved his earnings and in 1887 embarked in the hardware and
implement business at Vermilion, Kan. He conducted this business with
fair success until 1897, and then sold out, coming to Effingham soon
afterward and engaging in the same line of business in this city. In
addition to his extensive business Mr. Mayhew is the owner of two
excellent farms in Marshall county, Kansas, aggregating 640 acres in
all, which has his attention. He has a beautiful, modern residence in
the south part of Effingham.

Mr. Mayhew was married in September, 1887, to Anna J. Tinker, of
Vermilion, Kan., born in Humboldt county, Kansas, a daughter of Avery
and Ellen Tinker, natives of New York State, born at Hastings Center,
that State. Two children have blessed this union of Albert E. and Anna
Mayhew: Avery, born in 1889, and died June 2, 1901; Carl H., born
January, 1891 and associated with his father in business. Carl H.
married Miss Vera Snyder, and has one daughter, Lucille, aged two years.

Mr. Mayhew is a stanch Republican in his political affiliations and has
taken an active and influential part in the affairs of his party since
coming to Atchison county. In November, 1914, he was the candidate of
his party for the high office of State representative from this district
and was elected, subsequently serving in the 1915 session of the Kansas
legislature with such marked ability as a legislator that his course and
activities conferred distinction upon himself and his constituents.
During this session he was a member of the committees on insurance,
education, legislative appointments, mines and mining, and judicial
apportionments. Having always taken a keen interest in educational
affairs, his position as a member of the committee on education gave him
an opportunity to support and advocate legislation which would enhance
the cause of education throughout the State. He succeeded in having
passed through the house an act requiring the school moneys of the State
to be loaned to farmers. There was plenty of precedence behind an act of
this character, and the fairness of its provisions is very evident,
although it was opposed by the banking interests of the State. The act,
however, failed to take its regular course through the senate, because
of the adjournment of the legislative body. It is probable that the act
will be finally passed at the next session and it is morally certain to
have strong support, if Mr. Mayhew is again representative from Atchison
county. He also introduced and successfully fathered an act, allowing
districts to levy higher taxes to provide more amply for bridge building
and road improvements, two provisions, which were of direct benefit to
the farming interests of the State, inasmuch as the movement for better
highways is fast gaining ground in Kansas. Mr. Mayhew also assisted in
the passing of better automobile laws, and took an active part in all
the deliberations of the legislative body, specializing, however, in
legislation which had for its ultimate object the betterment of the
school system of the State. He is a member and trustee of the
Presbyterian church, of Effingham, and is fraternally associated with
the Odd Fellows and the Modern Woodmen. It is probable that no citizen
is more widely or more favorably known throughout Atchison county than
A. E. Mayhew, and his course as a successful merchant and public
official has been such as to favorably commend him to the masses of the
people, who are always found appreciative of honesty and square dealing
on the part of men in public life, whom they honor with their political
preference. He is well worthy of the confidence and trust which have
been bestowed upon him by the people.


                             JOSEPH COUPE.

Joseph Coupe, late of Benton township, was born December 6, 1852, in
Utica, N. Y., and was a son of James and Jane (Latus) Coupe, both of
whom were born in England. James emigrated from his native land when a
young man and located in New York, where he married and reared a family,
cultivating a farm located one mile from the limits of Utica. He died on
his farm. Joseph was reared on the family farm and attended the Utica
public schools, receiving an excellent education, after which he took up
the study of law and was admitted to practice in his home city. He
practiced his profession in Utica until 1881 and then came west and
located at Falls City, Neb., where he continued his practice with
considerable success until 1906, when he removed with his family to his
farm, west of Effingham. Failing health induced him to make the change,
and it was thought by his physicians that the open air life would be
beneficial to him. He died February 10, 1908.

Judge Coupe was married in 1890 to Miss Anna Mooney, and to this union
were born six children: Margaret, a graduate of the county high school,
and a teacher in the Effingham public schools; James, who is managing
the home farm with his mother; Richard, a graduate of the county high
school; Anna, likewise a high school graduate; Mary, a junior in the
high school; and Joseph, a pupil in the Sisters’ school at Effingham.
The mother of these children was born in Atchison, Kan., confirmed and
baptized in St. Benedict’s church, and was a daughter of James, born in
1833, and Julia (Ryan) Mooney, born in 1837, both of whom were natives
of Ireland. James Mooney emigrated from Ireland when a youth, was first
a resident of Buffalo, N. Y., and in 1857 moved to Nebraska, and was
later employed at the nursery in Atchison, Kan. From Atchison he removed
to Rulo, Neb., where he still lives. He was married in 1860, and the
family lived in Atchison during the Civil war. James and Julia Mooney
were the parents of five children, namely: Thomas, deceased in March,
1908; John and James, farmers: Margaret, at home in Rulo with her
parents; Mrs. Joseph Coupe.

Previous to locating in Kansas, Mr. Coupe had resided on a farm near
Falls City, but was induced to remove to Effingham and here purchased a
farm of 194 acres west of the city in Benton township, this farm
consisting of 160 acres of excellent tillable land and thirty-four acres
of pasture. He was prominently identified with civic and political
affairs in Falls City and Richardson county, Nebraska, and had built up
a large and lucrative law practice. He was a Democrat in politics and
was one of the leaders of his party in Nebraska, serving four years as
county judge and was successful in re-election to a third term, but
resigned on account of poor health. He was popular with the masses of
the people and well liked by all who knew him, being universally admired
for his many excellent qualities of mind and heart.


                              JOHN SEATON.

The name and accomplishments of the late John Seaton appear prominently
in the history of the constructive period of the development of Kansas
and the city of Atchison. Destiny and natural endowments designed Mr.
Seaton to become a creator and builder; inherent ability also made him a
statesman and leader of men; design and inducement led him to locate his
enterprise, which was the work of his own hands and brain, in the city
of Atchison. In the course of time he was the gainer, becoming one of
the first citizens of Kansas, and Kansas and Atchison were doubly
gainers, because of him and his great work. What John Seaton wrought, in
an industrial sense, will live long as a monument to his energy and
enterprise; the record of right doing, honesty, plain living and his
work in behalf of his fellowmen in the halls of the State legislature
will live in the minds and hearts of his fellow citizens in the long
years to come.

John Seaton was a builder whose vision of a great industrial enterprise
in the city of the great bend of the Missouri came true in a material
sense, inasmuch as Atchison will continue to benefit through the
continued whirring of the industrial wheels which his genius set going.
While the evidence of his handiwork is visible, and the smoke of the
factory which he built will continue to be seen day after day as time
goes on, the greatest reminder of Mr. Seaton’s life on this earth will
be the lesson which his manner of living and his strict attention to the
highest duties of citizenship have left to posterity. Atchison suffered
a sincere loss when his demise occurred and his departure from the
realms of mortal ken created a void which could never be filled,
although Mr. Seaton’s work continues to exist after him.

[Illustration:

  _Eng. by E. G. Williams & Bro. N. Y._

  _John Seaton_
]

John Seaton was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, June 11, 1834, a son of John
M., and Elizabeth (Jones) Seaton, the former a native of Virginia and
the latter having been born in Vermont. John M. Seaton, the father, was
a soldier in the Mexican War and was killed in battle at the storming of
the heights of Cerro Gordo, Old Mexico. When John was three weeks old
his parents removed from Cincinnati to Louisville, Ky., where his
boyhood days were spent. He was eleven years of age when his father was
killed on the field of battle. He attended school until he was fifteen
years of age, and then began learning the trade of a machinist. A few
years later finds him working as a journeyman machinist in St. Louis,
Mo. In 1856 with a cash capital of two dollars and fifty cents, John
Seaton started a foundry at Alton, Ill. A natural aptitude for mechanics
and machinery appliances, combined with pluck, energy and perseverance,
enabled him to make a success of his first undertaking and the
enterprise prospered.

At the outbreak of the Civil war Mr. Seaton offered his services in
defense of the Union, and was commissioned a captain of Company B,
Twenty-second regiment, Illinois infantry. His first engagement was the
battle of Belmont under General Grant, and Captain Seaton was in command
of the skirmish line that opened this engagement. One of the precious
possessions of his family at this day is the personal letter he received
from the famous commander, commending him for the efficient manner in
which he performed the task allotted to his command. He served for one
year and then resigned his commission and returned to Alton to take
charge of his business. After the war Mr. Seaton remained in Alton in
charge of his foundry until 1872, when he removed to Atchison with his
entire force of fifty employees. He was induced to remove westward by
the fact that six months previous to the time of his removal to
Atchison, the city had voted $10,000 in bonds to any man who would
establish a foundry. He accepted the offer and the result was one of the
most beneficial industries ever located in Atchison. The Seaton foundry
gave employment to over 200 men, and he built up an industry which today
stands without a peer in its line in the West. The secret of Mr.
Seaton’s success lay in the fact that every detail of his business
received his direct supervision, and he insisted that only first class
work be turned out by his factories. For over eighteen years this
captain of industry carried his dinner pail with him to the foundry and
worked side by side with his men. He continued doing this after he had
attained to a position of wealth and affluence which enabled him to own
a home at the seashore at Orient, L. I., and could have retired from
active work at any time he chose. None but the finest finished products
were allowed to leave his establishment, and the name of Seaton and the
output of his plant are noted over the West for the excellence of the
finished manufactured materials and for their absolute reliability. In
addition to general architectural work, he filled orders for the Santa
Fe, Missouri Pacific and Ft. Scott and Gulf railroads, such as casting
locomotive wheels, smoke stacks, steam cylinders, etc., all known as
locomotive finished material products. The business of his large
establishment in Atchison was built up until it amounted to over
$250,000 annually, and the plant covered an area of 700×400 feet. Mr.
Seaton was in business continually from 1856 until the time of his
demise, January 12, 1912.

The activities of this noted citizen of Atchison were not confined
entirely to his business, but he took an active and influential part in
civic and political affairs after his advent in Atchison. His career
showed that he possessed statesmanship ability of a high order. For a
period of eighteen years Mr. Seaton was a member of the Kansas State
legislature, and so great was his influence in the house, and so long
and distinguished was his service that he became known throughout the
State as the “Father of the House.” His name is associated with many of
the important measures enacted into law by the State legislature, among
them being the binding twine factory law, which act is responsible for
the establishment of a plant for the manufacture of binder twine at the
State penitentiary. He probably did more for the success of the
“Douglass House,” during the legislative trouble of 1893 than any other
member of the Republican body. As a citizen and a legislator he enjoyed
the respect and esteem of the people of Kansas without regard to
political affiliations. He was opposed to the dominance of “trusts and
monopoly,” and it was his firm conviction that the great corporations
were devoid of feeling of a personal nature.

April 9, 1857, Mr. Seaton was married to Miss Charlotte E. Tuthill, of
Alton, Ill., and this marriage was blessed with five children: Mrs.
Lillie M. Hendrickson, of Atchison; John C. in California; Mary, wife of
Dr. W. H. Condit, of Kansas City; Mrs. Nellie Taber (Seaton) Byram,
deceased, and George L., married Amy Cox, of Weston, Mo., and resides on
South Fourth street, Atchison; John C. Seaton married Gertrude Hickman,
of Coffeyville, Kan. and resides in Kansas City and Los Angeles, Cal.;
Mrs. Charlotte E. (Tuthill) Seaton was born in Alton, Ill., November 10,
1840, a daughter of Pardon Taber Tuthill, who was born and reared on
Long Island, N. Y., and was a scion of one of the oldest American
families. The great-great-grandfather of Mrs. Seaton, John Tuthill,
known as Pilgrim John Tuthill, came from England with early settlers to
Long Island. The home built by Pilgrim John on Long Island in the early
part of the eighteenth century is still standing in a good state of
preservation. The ancestral home of the Tuthills is located in the
village of Orient, Long Island. On the maternal side an ancestor of Mrs.
Seaton, named Capt. Andrew Englis, commanded a company in the Revolution
and was a great patriot. Pardon Taber Tuthill was a pioneer in Alton,
Ill. He was a contractor and builder and in his later years devoted his
time and talents to horticulture. He was continually experimenting and
developed several new varieties of fruit. He was blessed with a
scientific mind and became famous as a horticulturist.

John Seaton was a member of John A. Martin Post, No. 93, Grand Army of
the Republic, the Loyal Legion and the Knights of Pythias lodges.
Through him the Enterprise theater was rebuilt and remodeled in
Atchison, and he was always found in the forefront of public movements
to advance the interests of his home city. Socially Mr. Seaton was a
genial, approachable, unassuming gentleman, whose pride was manifest
concerning his Civil war record and the fact that he had amassed wealth
and attained a leading position in the civic life of his adopted State
through his own efforts, and built up his fortunes from the ground. He
was a man of undoubted integrity and was a noble character whose demise
was sincerely mourned by the whole city of Atchison. He was a kind and
indulgent husband and father. In his passing Kansas lost one of her best
and most widely known statesmen and Atchison one of her most useful
citizens. His was a life well spent in behalf of the city and State
where his name will long be remembered and revered as one of the honored
pioneers of a widely known city and great State which he helped to
create.


                             AARON S. BEST.

It is meet that considerable space in this history of Atchison county be
devoted to the stories of the lives of real pioneers of the county. The
old pioneers were the salt of the earth, and a stronger or more vigorous
race of men, never conquered a wilderness. In the class of the real, old
pioneer settlers, comes Aaron S. Best, retired farmer, of Effingham,
Kan. Captain Best has lived in Atchison county for nearly fifty-five
years, and has seen the country transformed from a vast tract of pasture
and grazing land to a region of fertile and productive farms, and well
built towns and cities. During all these years he has taken an active
and prominent part in county affairs, and in his younger days was a
political leader in his own neighborhood.

Aaron S. Best was born June 27, 1839, in Clinton county, Pa., a son of
John W. and Catharine (Schaefer) Best, of German descent, and native
born and reared in Pennsylvania. John W. Best was born in 1809 and died
in 1881. He was the son of Peter Best, a native of Pennsylvania, of
German parentage. In the year 1860, John W. Best, accompanied by his
wife and seven children, crossed the country to find a new home in
Kansas. He had made a trip to Atchison county in the previous year, and,
after carefully looking over the ground, made up his mind that the
country had a great future, and he decided to move his family so as to
make a permanent home in Kansas. The Best family arrived in Atchison in
March of 1861, and at once moved to a farm in old Monrovia. In June of
the same year, the wife and mother died, at the age of forty-five years.
The following children were born to John W. Best and wife: Mary and
Elvina, deceased, in Pennsylvania; Henry, living at Parr, Tex.; Louis,
Luther and Reuben, deceased; Mrs. Henrietta Lamberson, of Argentry,
Ark.; and Michael, deceased.

Aaron Best was twenty-one years of age when the family removed to
Atchison county. Being a Free State advocate, it was only natural that
he take some part in the struggle which finally made Kansas a free
State. When General Price’s threatened invasion of Kansas seemed
imminent, he assisted in raising a company of militia among his
neighbors and was chosen captain. This company marched to Westport, and
took part in the famous engagement which resulted in Price’s retreat to
the southward. Captain Best was in command of Company F, Twelfth
regiment, Kansas cavalry. Only two companies of the Twelfth regiment
were under fire, and Company F was one of these, Capt. Asa Barnes’
company being the other actively engaged. Captain Best’s horse was shot
from under him and badly crippled.

After coming to Kansas, he spent one year assisting his father on the
home farm, and then moved to a farm of his own, south of Monrovia, which
he developed from raw prairie land to a very productive farm, residing
on until 1907, when he rented his land holdings and retired to a
comfortable home in Effingham. The first land which Mr. Best owned was
bought by his father for $750, and he farmed this on the share plan for
six years, after which he paid his father $2,000 for 140 acres. His next
purchase was eighty acres of land nearby, and he continued to add to his
land possessions until he was the owner of 275 acres in all. In the
spring of 1914 Mr. Best sold his farm land for $21,000. His farm was one
of the best improved in Atchison county, and naturally brought a good,
round price, because of the good condition of the buildings and of the
fertility of the soil.

Mr. Best was married in February, 1860, to Malinda Bricker, and to this
union have been born one son and three daughters, as follows: Mrs. Ella
Rebecca Sharp, living at Helena, Mo., and mother of two children, Albert
and Twila; Mrs. Mary C. Bonnell, living on a farm southeast of
Effingham, and who has eight children, Nellie, Edith, Grace, Ruth,
Catharine, Lea, Claude, Malinda; Mrs. Emma Wood, of Council Grove, Kan.,
and mother of four children, Clara, Beulah Morris, Ralph, Esther; John a
merchant, of Monrovia, Kan., father of three children, Leota, Hazel, and
Blanche. The mother of these children was born in Hanover township,
Daulphin county, Pennsylvania, December 15, 1837, and was a daughter of
Joseph and Rebecca (Lohs) Bricker, both of whom were of Pennsylvania
German ancestry, and died in their Pennsylvania home.

Mr. Best has always been allied with the Republican party, and has been
a stanch advocate of Republican principles for a long period of years.
He and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church and
contribute generously to the support of that denomination. He is
fraternally affiliated with the Odd Fellows Lodge and Encampment, No. 5,
and the Modern Woodmen. Physically and mentally, Mr. Best is a
remarkably well preserved man, when one considers his age and the fact
that he endured so many hardships in his first struggles to attain to
the position of affluence and comfort which he enjoys at present.


                             LOUIS C. ORR.

Faithfulness to duty on the part of public officials is always
appreciated by the people, and an official who regards his office as
other than a sinecure, is recognized as honest, capable and well
meaning. In Louis C. Orr, postmaster of the city of Atchison, Kan., the
patrons and citizens of Atchison have a capable and conscientious public
servant, whose sole interest is to see that the affairs of this
important Government office are conducted smoothly, and for the
convenience of the patrons of the postoffice. Although, in times past,
the Atchison postoffice has been looked upon as a sinecure, operated as
a well oiled piece of Government machinery with an efficient and well
trained force, Mr. Orr, since taking over the duties of his position,
has demonstrated that he can work as hard and efficiently as any of the
many employees making up the postoffice force. Probably no postoffice in
the State of Kansas is better conducted, or the welfare of the patrons
more carefully looked after than the Atchison postoffice, and credit is
due Mr. Orr for his diligent application to the duties of his office
since his appointment.

Louis C. Orr, postmaster of Atchison, was born August 3, 1857, in
McGregor, Iowa, a son of James and Man Elizabeth (Underhill) Orr,
concerning whom further mention will be found in the biography of James
W. Orr, brother of Louis C., in this volume. When Louis C. was eight
years of age the family removed from Iowa to Niles, Mich. Louis C. and
his brother James W. knew what poverty was in their youthful days, and
shared their hardships in common. Louis C. was ambitious to obtain an
education, and at an early age was compelled, by force of circumstances
over which he had no control, to practically earn his own living and the
wherewithal to obtain an education. For some years he and James W.
pooled their earnings and worked together for their mutual benefit, and
to this day this trait of brotherly devotion is present. Louis C.
attended school until he had attained the age of eighteen years, and he
then entered a drug store at Niles, Mich., in the capacity of clerk. He
remained in Michigan until 1885, when he came to Atchison. Kan., where
his brother, James W., had preceded him in 1881. Mr. Orr entered the
Government railroad mail service, and was employed in this capacity on
the Santa Fe Railway System, on the run from Atchison to Topeka, during
Grover Cleveland’s first administration. He then left the railway mail
service and was employed as clerk in the drug store of A. W. Stevens for
the following period of eight years. For the six years following he was
in charge of the paint department of the McPike Drug Company, a
wholesale drug firm then operating in Atchison, and since removed to
Kansas City, Mo. For four years, from 1907 to 1911, he served as city
collector of Atchison. He was engaged in the real estate and fire
insurance business until January, 1915. Mr. Orr was appointed postmaster
of Atchison December 29, 1914, by President Wilson, to take effect
January 4, 1915, although Mr. Orr did not begin his duties until January
15, 1915.

Mr. Orr was married in 1886 to Mary Isabelle Smith, of Richmond, Ind., a
daughter of John P. and Mary (Sedgwick) Smith, residents of Richmond,
Ind. One son has been born to this marriage, Richard Sedgwick Orr, born
in 1888, and at present employed as manager for the Standard Oil Company
in Atchison.

Louis C. Orr is a Democrat and is affiliated with the Christian
Scientist church. For the past twenty-five years he has been a member of
Lodge No. 127, Ancient Order of United Workmen. It can be said of him
that he is courteous, efficient and obliging to all with whom he is
brought in contact.


                          CARL LUDWIG BECKMAN.

Successful as an agriculturist, and again achieving success as a live
stock buyer and shipper, is a summary of the life and accomplishments of
Carl Ludwig Beckman, one of the best known and progressive citizens of
Effingham, Kan. Mr. Beckman’s live stock operations invoke the buying
and shipping of over fifty carloads of live stock yearly. In addition to
his business dealings, he also looks after his fine farm of 200 acres in
Benton township.

Mr. Beckman was born April 2, 1861, in Quincy, Ill. As the name
indicates, he is the son of German parents, his father, William Beckman,
having been born in Germany, in 1830, and was unfortunately killed by a
stroke of lightning in Burlington, Iowa, in 1863. When a young man,
William Beckman left his native land to seek his fortune in this
country. He located at Quincy, Ill., where he married Elizabeth Kipp,
who bore him four children, and was also born in Germany in 1824.
William Beckman removed his family to Burlington, Iowa, in about 1862.
The four children born to this couple were: William, a resident of
Parnell, Atchison county, Kansas; Mrs. Hannah Buhrmaster, living on a
farm in Benton township; Minnie, and Carl Ludwig, with whom this review
is directly concerned. The mother of these children later married Henry
Vollmer, a farmer, in Iowa, who gave her and the children a good home
and left his widow well provided for. Mrs. Vollmer, mother of C. L.,
resides at Mediapolis, Iowa.

When Carl was twenty years of age he left the farm in Iowa, and came to
Kansas in 1881, and in partnership with his brother, William, rented a
farm near Effingham for thirteen years, dissolving partnership in 1894.
Through purchase and by inheritance, on his wife’s part, Mr. Beckman and
his wife came into possession of 200 acres of land in 1894, upon which
they resided until 1908. In that year they bought a small farm of
thirty-five acres, one mile west of Effingham, upon which they resided
for three years, and then made a permanent home in Effingham. Since 1908
Mr. Beckman has been engaged in the buying and shipping of live stock,
with Robert M. Thomas as a partner in the enterprise, and has been very
successful in this business, being an accurate judge of live stock and
keeping abreast of market conditions.

He was married in 1894 to Miss Lebeldine Gersbach, born in Atchison
county in 1863, a daughter of Samuel and Catharine Gersbach, both of
whom were natives of Germany, and, after emigrating from their native
country to America, settled in Atchison county as early as 1854, and
were among the earliest pioneers of Kansas. Mr. Gersbach preëmpted land
and built up a fine farm which is now owned by Mr. and Mrs. Beckman. Two
children were born of this marriage: Rosa, aged twenty years, and a
student in the Atchison county high school, class of 1916; and Pearl,
aged seventeen, also a student in the high school, class of 1916.

Mr. Beckman is a Republican in politics, and takes an interest in the
civic and political affairs of his home town and county. He is a member
of the Odd Fellows and the Modern Woodmen. Mrs. Beckman and daughters
are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Beckman is a
stockholder of the Farmers’ Mercantile Association of Effingham, and is
generally found in the forefront of all undertakings which are intended
for the betterment and progress of conditions in his home city.


                        JAMES GRANVILLE MORROW.

We are taught that life is eternal; that when the course of man has been
run upon this earth and his work is done, his spirit returns to his
Maker and he is judged according to his deeds while a mortal among his
fellow creatures. This thought and belief is comforting alike to the
dying and the bereaved ones left behind to mourn their earthly loss for
the time being. Longfellow has written: “Life is real, life is earnest,
and the grave is not its goal; dust thou art, to dust returneth, was not
written of the soul.” So thought and so lived the late Capt. James
Granville Morrow, who at the time of his demise was the oldest living
pioneer resident of Atchison, and a man famed for his upright life and
beloved for his good and kindly deeds. Life was very “real and earnest”
to Captain Morrow and he enjoyed his earthly existence to the fullest
extent, the latter years of his residence in Atchison being the fullest
and best of all, in the sense that he indulged his taste and talents to
doing things which he loved, all the while being surrounded by a loving
wife and children whose respect and love he had to comfort him through
the greater part of his long and useful life. Captain Morrow lived in
such a manner as to endear him to all of his associates and he will long
be remembered as one of the noted figures of the pioneer and the present
era of Kansas development. It is meet that the life story of this truly
noble citizen be recorded in these annals of his county and city for the
inspiration and encouragement of the present and coming posterity for
all time to come.

[Illustration:

  _Eng. by E. G. Williams & Bro. N. Y._

  _James G. Morrow_
]

James Granville Morrow was born on a farm in Wayne county, Kentucky,
June 27, 1827, a son of Jeremiah and Lydia (Holder) Morrow, both of whom
were born and reared in Kentucky. Jeremiah Morrow was the son of Matthew
Morrow, a native of Virginia, who was one of the early pioneers of
Kentucky, and of Scotch descent, his ancestors having emigrated from
Scotland to America in the early colonial period of American history.
Jeremiah Morrow, father of James G., was born in 1802, and after his
removal to Kentucky married Lydia Holder. Six sons and two daughters
were born to Jeremiah Morrow and wife, only one of whom survives, Mrs.
W. H. Crisp, residing in Kentucky. Their children were as follows:
Mahala, wife of Rev. W. H. Crisp, of Kentucky; Floyd, deceased; James
Granville, the subject of this review; Nimrod, deceased; Riley, William,
Nancy, deceased wife of John Pennington; Percy, deceased. Granville
Morrow spent his boyhood days on the family farm in Wayne county,
Kentucky, and at the age of sixteen years was sent to a select school.
He made his home with his parents until he attained his majority and
then set out to make his own way in the world. He dealt quite
extensively in horses which he drove from Kentucky to Georgia. He was
also associated with his brothers in raising, purchasing and selling
hogs, which they drove 400 miles into Georgia, where they were sold to
the Georgia planters. Sometimes a single planter would buy 500 head and
the price ranged from eight to nine dollars per 100 pounds, live weight.
The Morrow brothers frequently drove as high as 13,000 head, traveling
only seven miles a day. There were no railroads in those days, but the
country was dotted with stations. Hog cholera did not bother swine in
those days and it was Captain Morrow’s frequent expression that hog
cholera was a product of civilization and high breeding, and, although
the hogs were driven as far as 400 miles they did not lose weight on the
trip. The business of the Morrow brothers was not always profitable,
however, and they lost money on some of the trips. Mr. Morrow abandoned
the business in 1850, and in 1854 arrived in Atchison en route to
California, but he did not go any farther. On April 5, 1854, he arrived
at Rushville Landing, now East Atchison. This was shortly before Kansas
was opened for settlement, and the only man living at that time on the
townsite of Atchison was George Million, who operated a rope ferry
across the Missouri river. Mr. Morrow found on landing at Atchison that
the overland train which he expected to join en route to the far West
had left, and, as he was ill he decided to wait for the next train.
Captain Morrow ate his first dinner in Kansas with Samuel Dixon at Dixon
Spring, now included in the city of Atchison. The food was ladled out of
a common kettle to which all the diners had access without style or
invitation other than “help yourself.” A tree trunk sawed off smooth
answered the purpose of a table on which the meal was served. While
waiting he found a job with Million and decided to remain in Kansas. In
the fall of 1854, he, with John Alcorn, bought out Portumous Lamb’s
ferry boat which was operated by horse power and a tread-mill, and from
that time on for seventeen consecutive years Mr. Morrow plied his ferry
between Atchison and Winthrop. In the fall of 1855 he began operating a
side-wheel steam ferry which had been brought here from Brownsville, Pa.
In 1857 he became captain of the steam ferry, “Ida,” later running the
steam ferry, “Pomeroy,” after which he went to Brownsville, Pa., where
he built the transfer boat, “William Osborne,” remaining there eight
months while the work was in progress. When he brought the “William
Osborne” to Atchison it was loaded with 300 tons of rails for the
Central Branch of the Missouri Pacific railroad, now the Northern Kansas
Division. This boat also conveyed across the Missouri river the first
locomotives used on the road after its construction.

Not long after his arrival in Atchison Captain Morrow began to
accumulate land, and in 1869 turned his attention to farming, retiring
from the steamboat business entirely in 1871. He accumulated 1,240 acres
of rich bottom lands in the Missouri river bottoms near East Atchison
which has never failed to produce a crop and is very valuable. He
formerly owned a section of land in Osage county, Kansas, near Lebo. He
also was the owner of two valuable farms on the Atchison side of the
river, 320 acres near Jacksboro, Texas, and owned considerable real
estate in the city, all of which has been left to his widow in trust for
his children and heirs. He was very successful as a wheat grower, and in
this way gained the greater part of his working capital. He erected a
beautiful home called “Enidan Heights” at Eighth and U streets, on the
south side of Atchison, where he spent his declining years in peace and
comfort. About 1875 he opened a general store in East Atchison which he
conducted until 1883. Those were still pioneer days, and the settlers in
the vicinity were poor and sometimes were unable to pay for the goods
they needed. The captain’s big heart and generous impulses frequently
led him to extend credit to patrons whom he knew would not be able to
pay for their purchases, and it was a favorite expression of his when
his clerk would report to him that a poor man wished credit, “Gracious
to goodness, if we don’t let him have the stuff he’ll starve to death.”
The captain sold hundreds of dollars’ worth of goods which were probably
never paid for, but his good heart would not permit him to see a fellow
creature in want for the necessities of life. This trait of kindness was
the predominating characteristic of his life and endeared him to
hundreds of people. After quitting the mercantile business Captain
Morrow devoted himself entirely to his farming interests and his
transfer business which he established in 1888 with his partners, later
becoming the sole owner of the business. He retired entirely from active
business pursuits and his farming in 1910 and spent the most of his time
working around the gardens of his fine home in Atchison. For years it
was his custom to drive back and forth to his big farm on the Missouri
side and he was gradually persuaded to abandon this activity. His demise
occurred December 2, 1915, after a brief illness, beginning with an
attack of la grippe, his great age and depleted vitality militating
against his recovery.

James Granville Morrow was married November 20, 1874, to Miss Sarah J.
George, and this happy marriage was blessed with the following children:
Della, born November 11, 1875, and died in 1904; Mary Etta, born in
Missouri March 17, 1880, dying October 2, 1880, and who is buried in
Orearville cemetery, Saline county, Missouri; James Granville George,
born September 16, 1878, married Ethel Worrell, and is the father of
four children: James Granville, Jr., John Worrell, Frances and Robert
George; Nadine, wife of John Raymond Woodhouse, who lives with Mrs.
Morrow, of Atchison, and mother of John Granville, born December 16,
1914; James G. Morrow resides in Buchanan county, Missouri, and has
charge of the immense Morrow farm in the Missouri bottoms. The children
of Captain and Mrs. Morrow have all been well educated and afforded
every facility for mind cultivation. Mrs. Nadine Woodhouse was educated
in Mount St. Scholastica Academy and the College Preparatory School of
Atchison, after which she completed her studies at Central College of
Missouri. Miss Della Morrow studied in Mount St. Scholastica Academy,
Midland and Central colleges, and Washington University, at St. Louis,
and was a bright and talented young lady prior to her demise. James
Morrow, the son, studied in the Atchison public schools and Midland
College. The mother of these children, Mrs. Sarah J. (George) Morrow,
was born March 30, 1853, near Orearville, Saline county, Missouri, a
daughter of Dr. James Jameson George, a native of Prince William county,
Virginia. Dr. George was born in Virginia November 25, 1810, a son of
William Henry George, a soldier in the War of 1812, who moved from
Virginia to Hardin county, Kentucky, in 1816 with his brothers, Moses
and Lindsey George, who settled at Shelbyville, Ky. The mother of Dr.
George was a member of the Jameson family, an old Virginia family. The
ancestry of both the George and Jameson families goes back to the pre-
Revolutionary days of the Virginia colony. Dr. J. J. George was a
graduate of the Transylvania College at Bairdstown, Ky., and also
studied at Lexington, Ky. He was married in 1841 at Mt. Sterling, Ky.,
to Mary (Catlett) Orear, a daughter of Robert Catlett Orear, who was
born in Mt. Sterling. Ky., January 30, 1814, and departed this life
March 27, 1876, in Johnson county, Missouri. Dr. J. J. and Mary George
were the parents of the following children: Robert died in June, 1905,
on his ranch in Coffey county, Kansas; Joel S., who resides at Peace
River Crossing, Alberta, Canada; Mary E., wife of J. H. Russell, died
June 28, 1911; Mrs. Malinda Morrison, of Tecumseh, Okla.; Benjamin
Franklin, born in Saline county, settled in Coffey county, Kansas, and
now resides in Denver, Colo.; Mrs. James Granville Morrow; two who died
in infancy; James Nelson contracted fever at Central College, and died
October 26, 1875, aged twenty-one years and twenty-nine days; Lee Davis,
a ranchman, of Coffey county, Kansas. Four of these children were born
in Kentucky, and the last four were born in Missouri, where the family
removed in 1850.

Dr. George was a minister of the Gospel and a member of the Methodist
Episcopal conference in Kentucky from 1838 to 1839. He came to Missouri
to farm and preach the Gospel, but was impressed very early in his
western career with the woeful dearth of skilled medical care for the
sick and ailing of the backwoods country, and was frequently called to
the bedside of people who were supposed to be dying, and whom he
realized could be easily saved with some medical attention. Fired with
zeal to assist an unfortunate and suffering people, he conceived the
worthy idea of studying medicine, so that he could be of material
assistance to his people other than in a religious sense. He returned to
Kentucky and entered the Medical College at Lexington. After completing
his course he returned to Saline county, Missouri, and engaged in the
practice of his profession until old age came upon him. He then removed
to Cass county, Missouri, and became a local minister. His was a long
and useful life, every matured year of which was given in behalf of his
fellowmen, unselfishly and devotedly. He was one of the noted
missionaries of the early days in Missouri and extended the word of the
Gospel to the remotest settlements. He organized churches and Sunday
schools where they seemed needed most and his work called him to preach
the Word in log houses and the most primitive habitations of man. Dr.
George was deeply in love with his great work, and loved the people, and
worked tirelessly for their well being in a religious and practical way.
He departed this life August 4, 1875. The last public utterance which he
made was when he spoke to a Sunday school assemblage in Coffey county,
Kansas, in the village of Key West. His end was peaceful and tranquil,
and the departure of this good man’s soul to the realms beyond mortal
kin marked the passing of one of the truly great men of the western
country whose work will go on and on forever. Dr. George and Captain
Morrow became great friends in the early sixties.

On Thanksgiving day of 1915, just the day before Mr. and Mrs. Morrow’s
forty-first wedding anniversary, the captain’s last illness began which
resulted in his passing away. His burial occurred on December 4 from
Trinity Episcopal Church, Rev. Otis E. Gray officiating, with the
Masonic lodge of Atchison conducting burial service at the grave. He was
for many years a Mason and was greatly interested in the Masonic
fraternity, rarely being absent from the lodge meetings, his last spoken
regret having been that he would be unable to attend the ceremonies held
at the laying of the cornerstone of the new Masonic Temple in Atchison.
The last five years of Captain Morrow’s life were perhaps the most
satisfactory and the happiest of his existence. His years of retirement,
although few as compared with that of most men, were spent almost
entirely at his beautiful home, with occasional visits to his farm
lands. He was loath to retire, and did so only at the urgent insistence
of his devoted wife, and for quite a long time after he was eighty years
of age he would insist on driving across the river to his farm. He took
the greatest pleasure with his grandchildren, and especially with his
namesake. In his later years he became a specialist in gardening and
fruit growing merely for his own satisfaction and would frequently
surprise his family with some very choice and rare fruits grown in his
gardens and orchards. From his orchard of peach trees he gathered over
400 bushels of peaches in one season, and also set out an apple orchard
which he attended assiduously. He became a disciple of the famous Luther
Burbank and was a member of the Luther Burbank corporation. Through the
exercise of his skill as a fruit grower be produced several kinds of
rare berries and was continually experimenting in small fruits and
vegetable growing. It was fitting that the life of Captain Morrow should
close in such a manner and that during his last years he was permitted
to indulge himself in his favorite pursuits, surrounded with the loving
and watchful career of his devoted wife, who was always his confidant
and adviser, and to whom he went in time of stress or trouble for
comfort and advice. His was a life well spent and his memory will live
long in the hearts and minds of those who knew him best.


                          ORLANDO C. SCOVILLE.

In the northeast part of Benton township, in a comfortable farm home on
section 11, range 18, there resides the oldest pioneer settler of that
section of the county, the review of whose career takes one back to the
days of the Civil war when he shouldered a musket in defense of the
Union, and to the early days of Kansas history when the long freight
trains hauled by oxen and mules were leaving Atchison for the far West.
We are reminded of the Indian troubles which beset the hardy freighters
as they convoyed their treasures across the wide reaches of prairie and
mountain. In all these things Orlando C. Scoville, Union veteran, old-
time freighter, and pioneer farmer, participated, and it is meet that
the story of his life and adventurous career be recorded for the
entertainment of succeeding generations of men and women in order that
they might know how a wilderness was redeemed and what manner of men
their forefathers were and whence they came.

Orlando C. Scoville was born February 4, 1846, in Cook county, Illinois,
on a farm located just twenty-two miles from the city of Chicago. His
father was William Scoville, born in 1820, at Watertown, N. Y., a son of
Abijah Scoville, a native of Connecticut, and a scion of an old New
England family. Abijah Scoville was a carpenter by trade and his art was
transmitted to his descendants. William Scoville received a good
education in his native State, and taught school in New York when a
young man seventeen years old. As early as 1842 he came west, to Cook
county, Illinois, and owned a farm in that county which he cultivated
until 1865 when he came to Atchison, Kan., where he first engaged in the
handling of live stock. Later he was in the lumber business with a Mr.
McCoy, who later sold out to Henry T. Smith, and he and Smith conducted
a wagon and lumber business on Utah avenue, just east of the old
Episcopal church, between Fourth and Fifth streets. William eventually
sold out his business and moved to a farm in Benton township, south of
where his son, O. C., lives, and there died in December, 1891. Previous
to removing to his farm he was foreman of the Hixon Lumber Company’s
interests in Atchison. The mother of Orlando C. was Lucinda Lasher, whom
William Scoville married in New York, and who removed to Arrington after
her husband’s death, and there died in November, 1893, at the age of
seventy-five years. William and Lucinda Scoville were the parents of
seven children, two of whom died in infancy: Imogene, wife of A. W.
Mulligan, of Blue Rapids, Kan.; Orlando C.; Eulalie, died in Atchison in
1866, and is buried in Oak Hill cemetery; Freeman, a railroad engineer
for many years, and who died at Arrington, in 1911; Giles, a successful
law practitioner, located in Chicago, and who studied law under the late
Senator John J. Ingalls.

O. C. Scoville was reared to young manhood on the farm in Cook county,
Illinois, and when eighteen years of age enlisted (1864) in Company B,
One Hundred and Thirty-second regiment, Illinois infantry. He served for
six months in the Army of the Tennessee, under General Thomas, and took
part in the several hard-fought battles, among them being the battle and
siege of Atlanta. His command started on the march with Sherman, to the
sea, but were turned back by department orders. After his war service
expired he came to Atchison and joined the family. His first occupation
in Atchison was the operating of a wagon shop, just across the street
from the Blair Mill, and it is a matter of history that his shop was
used as the first depot of the Central Branch railroad, then building.
He ran the wagon shop for two years and then made two trips across the
continent in the capacity of freighter and convoying a herd of cattle.
In 1867 he was one of the freighters in charge of the first train sent
over the Smoky Hill route for Butterfield to Denver. The live stock was
run off by the Indians during this trip, and Butterfield came out and
found them after four weeks’ search; his next trip was to Salt Lake
City. In 1868, he with others, drove a herd of milch cows which had been
sold by McCoy to a man named Murray, and consigned to him in California.
This trip required eighteen months to consummate, and they were forced
to winter in the Antelope valley on Walker river. After taking the
cattle to their destination he returned across the mountains to Reno,
Nev., and there boarded the train for the rest of the journey home, Reno
at that time being the western terminus of the railway. During 1869 he
worked for one year in the engineering corps of the Santa Fe railroad,
and in that winter his father bought his present farm in Benton
township. In the fall of 1872 he moved to the farm where he has resided
continuously for the past forty-three years. In 1893 he bought the farm
formerly owned by the family and has increased his acreage until he and
his son are the owners of 400 acres of land, the latter owning 180
acres, upon which formerly stood three sets of farm buildings, one of
which was destroyed by fire in April, 1915. His present residence was
erected in 1893.

Mr. Scoville was married in Atchison May 8, 1873, to Virginia Williams,
born in Greenbrier county, Virginia, in 1854, and a daughter of
Alexander Williams. Her father died when she was very young and she came
with her mother and stepfather to Missouri in the early pioneer days
when her mother died and she was adopted by Mrs. Miller, a music
teacher, of Atchison, Kan. Three children were born to this union,
namely: Katie died in infancy; William C., born August 10, 1875, married
Myrtle Lollar, and has two children, Earl, born December 13, 1911, and
Alice, born May 16, 1914. William C. is the only living son of Orlando
C. Scoville. Mrs. Scoville died in October, 1913.

This sturdy pioneer has been a Republican ever since he cast his first
vote, and is one of the true blue variety who prides himself on being a
“stand-patter,” who believes thoroughly in the principles of his party
and will never desert the standard of Republicanism. He has never held
office and has never been a seeker after political preferment; has never
been a party to a law suit, never served on a jury, and has been called
only once in his lifetime to the witness stand. He has endeavored at all
times to live at peace with all mankind and has succeeded to such an
extent that at a ripe old age, this pioneer settler of Atchison county
is living in peace and comfort in the home which he created out of a
wilderness.

Mr. Scoville cast his first vote for Abraham Lincoln in St. Louis, in
1864.


                          JOHN JAMES INGALLS.

John James Ingalls, author, lawyer, and United States Senator, was born
in Middleton, Mass., December 29, 1833, a son of Elias T. and Eliza
(Chase) Ingalls. He was descended from Edmond Ingalls, who, with his
brother, Francis, founded the town of Lynn, Mass., in 1628. His father
was a first cousin of Mehitable Ingalls, the grandmother of the late
President Garfield. His mother was a descendant of Aquilla Chase, who
settled in New Hampshire in 1630. Chief Justice Chase was of this
family. After going through the public schools Ingalls attended Williams
College, at Williamstown, Mass., graduating in 1855. He then studied law
and was admitted to the bar in 1857. The next year he came to Kansas and
in 1859 was a member of the Wyandotte constitutional convention. In 1860
he was secretary of the territorial council and was also secretary of
the first State senate, in 1861. The next year he was elected State
senator from Atchison county. In that year, and again in 1864, he was
nominated for lieutenant-governor on the anti-Lane ticket. During the
Civil war he served as judge advocate on the staff of Gen. George W.
Deitzler with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In 1865 Mr. Ingalls
married Miss Anna Louisa Chesebrough, a descendant of William
Chesebrough, who came to this country with Gov. Winthrop in 1630. Her
father, Ellsworth Chesebrough, was a New York importer who came to
Atchison, Kan., in 1859, and at the time of his death, in 1860, was an
elector on the Lincoln ticket. Of this union eleven children were born,
six of whom were living at the time of Mr. Ingalls’ death, viz:
Ellsworth, Ethel, Ralph, Sheffield, Marion and Muriel.

[Illustration:

  _John J. Ingalls_
]

In 1873, “Opportunity,” of which Mr. Ingalls wrote in his declining
years, knocked at his door. He was made a candidate for United States
senator at a private caucus one night and was elected by the legislature
the next day. His career at Washington, covering a period of eighteen
years, was one of great brilliancy. He quickly acquired distinction, and
Speaker Reed remarked before he had learned the name of the new senator:
“Any man who can state a proposition as that senator does is a great
man.” As a parliamentarian he was unsurpassed. Senator Harris, a
Democrat from Tennessee, said: “Mr. Ingalls will go down upon the
records as the greatest presiding officer in the history of the senate.”
His speeches made him famous. He was the master of sarcasm and satire,
as well as of eulogistic oratory. His address on John Brown, a speech of
blistering satire; the one delivered in Atchison after his vindication
in the senate; and his eulogies of Senator Hill and Senator Wilson are
classic masterpieces, seldom if ever excelled in oratory. Senator
Ingalls was a strict partisan, an invincible champion of any cause, and
a bitter and persevering opponent. During his three terms in the senate
his greatest efforts were in the advocacy of the constitutional rights
of the freedom of the South and the rights of the veterans of the Civil
war. When a wave of Populism came over Kansas it found him practically
unprepared. He had given little attention to the money question and the
tariff, and it was these things which were clamoring for solution. He
was defeated by the Populists for senator in 1891. Mr. Ingalls said many
times that he valued a seat in the senate above any other honor in the
gift of the American people. As an author Mr. Ingalls won his reputation
first by a number of articles appearing in the old _Kansas Magazine_,
among which were “Cat-Fish Aristocracy” and “Blue Grass.” His poem,
“Opportunity,” is worthy to be classed with the greatest in the English
language, and it may yet outlive his reputation as an orator and
statesman and be his lasting monument. After leaving the senate Mr.
Ingalls retired from active life, traveled for his health, and died in
New Mexico, August 16, 1900. In January, 1905, a statue of him was
installed in Statuary Hall at Washington with fitting ceremonies, being
the first statue to be contributed by Kansas, although Mr. Ingalls
during his lifetime had urged upon the State to place one of John Brown
in this hall.


                             SIDNEY MARTIN.

A publication of this nature exercises its most important function when
it takes cognizance of the life and labors of those citizens who
attained prominence and prosperity through their own well directed
efforts and who were of material value in furthering the advancement and
development of the commonwealth. Sidney Martin came to Atchison county
in 1856 when a boy of eleven. He endured the hardships common to the
resident of Kansas previous to and during the Civil war period. He made
several trips between Atchison and Denver as a freighter; drove over
some 400 miles of country infested with Indians and narrowly escaped
death at their hands. He bought the first section of land that was sold
in the Kickapoo reservation and became one of the most successful
farmers and stock breeders in northeastern Kansas. He was actively
identified with the development of this section of the State and
attained prominence and influence as a citizen.

Sidney Martin was a native of Kentucky, born in Estill county on
November 1, 1846, a son of Jackson H. and Polly (Walters) Martin. His
ancestors, paternal and maternal, were among the first to settle in the
Virginia colony, coming from England in 1607. His father, Jackson H.
Martin, best known to the residents of Atchison county as “Uncle Jack”
Martin, was also a Kentuckian, born in Estill county on January 15,
1812, a son of Robert and Mary (Harris) Martin, both of whom were
natives of Virginia. Robert Martin served in the War of 1812 and was a
commissioned officer. The epaulets from his uniform were in the
possession of the family until a few years ago. Subsequent to this
service he removed to Kentucky and was one of Daniel Boone’s companions
and was with him during many Indian fights. He was one of the pioneer
settlers of Estill county.

Jackson H. Martin, or “Uncle Jack,” as he was commonly called, was
reared in Estill county, married there, and in 1855 brought his family
to Buchanan county, Missouri, where he lived one year. In the spring of
1856 he came to Kansas and settled at Mormon’s Grove. The place derived
its name through being a former Mormon emigrant settlement. It was about
five miles from Atchison. “Uncle Jack” and his family occupied the
Mormon cabin until he could build one of his own. He preëmpted a quarter
section of land at this point and engaged in farming. A native of
Kentucky, a Democrat as well, he naturally became involved in the
turmoil of events preceding the Civil war. For the protection of himself
and family, he built a double wall of stone and earth around his
dwelling. This caused it to be called Ft. Martin. The place was attacked
one night by Jayhawkers who were after horses. The attacking party were
driven off without booty and several of their number were wounded.
“Uncle Jack” continued to reside at Ft. Martin until 1878, when he
became a resident of Effingham. He built the Martin Hotel and conducted
it for a number of years. He was a success as a host, his hotel was
famous for its cookery and hospitality and Effingham the gainer by his
coming. His death occurred in April, 1902, at the age of ninety years.
He had lived an eventful life, had watched Kansas grow from a sparsely
settled, faction-torn border State to one of the most prosperous
agricultural commonwealths of the Union. He had met many of the most
famous men of her formative period, and was a personal friend of John A.
Martin, Paddy Brown, Governor Glick and Charles Robinson. His wife,
Polly Walters, whom he married in Estill Springs, Ky., died in April,
1895. They were the parents of four children: Ann Elizabeth, the wife of
William Hight, of Fremont county, Colorado; Sidney, the subject of this
review; Mary W., widow of Gilbert Keithline, of Atchison county, and
Sally, widow of Henry Woodard. Twins died in infancy. Martha died at the
age of sixteen years. Sally (Martin) Woodard was born in Estill county,
Kentucky, in 1852, and came with her parents to Kansas in 1856. She was
reared on the old Martin farm in Atchison county, and in 1869 married
Henry Woodard, who was born in Evansville, Ind., in 1844. He was a son
of Philander Henry Woodard, who came to Atchison in the early sixties
and engaged in the milling business. After his marriage Henry Woodard
settled on a farm in Jackson county, where he remained until 1874, when
he located in Effingham and engaged in the mercantile business. He
followed this line of occupation until a few years before his death
which occurred May 30, 1914. He is survived by his widow and the
following children: Philander Henry, Jack Martin, Gilbert Campbell,
Dorothy, wife of Elmer Percival, of Sheridan county, Kansas; Helen Lee,
wife of Rolla Taliaferro; and Sally Bernice, a student in the Atchison
Business College.

Sidney Martin acquired his education in the schools of Atchison, and
later completed a course in the Platte City (Missouri) Academy. He was
reared on his father’s farm, near Atchison, and assisted in its carrying
on until about sixteen years of age. He then secured employment with Mr.
Teuschau, a pioneer French trader and freighter, who had an Indian wife.
He was also with the Scotch freighter, Kisskadden, on several trips. The
latter recommended him as a capable guide and driver to G. T. Smith, who
wished to secure the services of some one who could take his wife and
baby, and the aged wife of his partner, from Atchison to Denver in 1864,
where Smith owned a hardware store. Although but sixteen years of age,
young Martin secured the job. This was in 1864, a time when the Indians
were on the war path and Smith’s wagon with young Martin as driver,
started alone, but joined a freighting outfit numbering some forty
wagons and drivers. Just before they reached Ft. Kearney at Big Sandy,
they met fleeing Blue River ranchmen, who were hurrying to the nearest
settlement, and who told them the Indians were on the war path. They
stayed all night at the home of a settler and heard the following day
that Indians had murdered the settler’s family and burned their house.
The wife of Smith’s partner was insistent on a proper observance of the
Sabbath day, and while in the Indian country caused Mrs. Smith to order
that their wagon remain in camp over Sunday. The wagon train left them
behind and the Lord’s day was properly kept by the women, although they
were warned by Martin that it was dangerous to leave the protection of
the train. As related by Martin “that was the longest day I ever spent.”
About midnight he fed and harnessed the team and started on with the
intention of joining the train of eleven men and wagons which had
preceded them. At sunrise they reached a lone ranch and its owner, who
was postmaster, told Martin the wagons were just ahead, over the first
hill. Here he mailed a letter to his mother. On arriving at the hill top
Martin was able to see the valley where the train had camped. The wagons
were in flames, had been robbed of their contents, a large part of which
was whiskey. Two women were taken captives and the eleven freighters had
been killed and scalped by Indians. The savages had indulged in the
captured whiskey and were so thoroughly stupefied that they were
incapable of riding a horse and also failed to follow the wagon which
Martin drove. He wheeled his team and drove them at full speed to the
nearest ranch and found the buildings burned. They drove on to the next
ranch where they secured protection, a company of soldiers arriving
there the same day. The officer in command was drunk and refused to
attack the red-skins that night when victory would have been easy. When
the company reached the scene of the massacre the following day, the
Indians were not to be seen. Martin’s next stop was at another ranch and
here Mr. Smith joined the wagon, having rushed forward in the belief
that Martin had been killed and the women captured by the savages. On
parting from his charges Martin was given a plain band gold ring by Mrs.
Smith with her blessing. He made several other trips across the plains,
the last one with his father, “Uncle Jack” Martin, which took them to
Montana. When the Kickapoo Indian reservation was thrown open to
purchase, Sidney Martin bought the first section that was sold and
several years later he bought the last, becoming the owner of 560 acres
in one body. He entered actively into the developing of his raw land and
brought it up to a highly productive state. He became widely and
favorably known as a breeder of Shorthorn cattle, and from time to time
purchased additional acreage until his holdings in land were extensive,
owning at one time 747 acres, at the time of his demise. He took an
active part in political affairs of his section, and, while disinclined
to accept office, was called upon frequently for counsel and advice. He
was a man of keen perceptions, knew men and the motives which actuated
them, and was a student thoroughly familiar with the questions of the
day. He numbered among his close personal friends, Governor Glick. His
death occurred on January 3, 1904.

Mr. Martin married on February 20, 1868, Miss Mary Elizabeth White, a
daughter of George B., born May 10, 1815, and Mary Elizabeth (Lindsay)
White, born December 14, 1820, the former a native of Woodford county,
Kentucky, and the latter of Carroll county. They were married January
25, 1839. She died September 25, 1860, while the family was residing in
Missouri. After the death of his wife, Mr. White came to Atchison and
engaged in the grain business. With S. R. Washer he built the first
elevator in the city of Atchison. He died in November, 1900. Mrs. Martin
was born on May 15, 1848, while her parents were living in Missouri. On
the maternal side she is descended from the Blackburn family, members of
which fought with the Continental troops in the war for independence.
After the death of her husband, Mrs. Martin became a resident of the
city of Atchison, where she has since resided.


                           ROBERT M. THOMAS.

In every community we find that there are some individuals who seem
naturally endowed with the ability to go ahead and do things and take a
place of leadership among their associates. Robert M. Thomas is one of
those who possess the natural endowments, peculiar to leadership and the
ability to make things go with which he is connected. A successful
farmer, a good citizen and business man, makes an excellent combination,
and Mr. Thomas has made his mark in his community as a progressive and
enterprising citizen.

Robert M. Thomas was born in Buchanan county, Missouri, February 2,
1868, a son of Moses and Katie (Critchfield) Thomas, who were born and
partly reared in old Kentucky. The parents of both were early settlers
of Buchanan county. Moses was the son of Robert Thomas, and the father
of his wife was Martin Critchfield. They were Southern born, and were
descendants of old Southern families. Moses Thomas was born in 1843, and
still resides in Buchanan county; his wife, Katie, was born in 1850, and
is still living. The Thomas family has a farm of 140 acres in Buchanan
county, upon which was reared a large family of eleven children, nine of
whom are living: Robert M.; John, deceased; Walter, living in
California; Forrest, residing in St. Joseph, Mo.; Harriet and Cecil, at
home; Ollie, deceased; Louise, Margaret, Cora and Ellen, at home with
their parents.

R. M. Thomas received his education in the public schools of his native
State and assisted his father in the operating of the home farm until
1892, when he married and farmed for three years in Buchanan county,
Missouri, and then worked his farm in Platte county, Missouri, for four
years. His first purchase of land was in 1899 when he invested in a farm
of 120 acres in Buchanan county, which he sold three years later at a
profit over the original purchase price. In 1902 he bought another farm,
and in 1903 located two and one-half miles northwest of Effingham in
Benton township. This farm comprises 160 acres and is now one of the
best improved places in the neighborhood. Mr. Thomas did so well in
Atchison county that he was enabled to buy another farm of 160 acres in
1912. This farm is located in Grasshopper township, about three miles
north of Muscotah. Upon the organization of the Farmers’ Mercantile
Company in June, 1913, in which Mr. Thomas took an active part, he
assumed the managership of the same and attends to his business during
the day, while still making his home at the farm. This plan gives him an
excellent opportunity to oversee his farming operations at all times.

Mr. Thomas was married in 1892 to Katie Stanton, of Platte county,
Missouri, a daughter of William and Cynthia (Hall) Stanton, natives of
Platte county, and of Eastern origin. To this union the following
children have been born: William, married Pearl, daughter of Thomas O.
Gault, and is managing his father’s farm, two miles north of Muscotah;
Clara, a graduate of the Atchison County High School, and a teacher in
the public schools; Margaret, Ollie and Jessie, students in the county
high school; Elva, Emma, Robert M., and Daisy, attending the district
school near their home.

Mr. Thomas is a Democrat in politics and has filled the office of
trustee of Benton township one term. He and his family are members of
the Christian church. He is fraternally connected with the Odd Fellows
lodge.

The Farmers’ Mercantile Association, of which Mr. Thomas is the manager,
was organized in June of 1913 for the purpose of handling grain, coal,
feed and seeds. The capital stock of the concern is $10,000, of which
$6,800 is fully paid up. The officers of the association were:
President, C. A. Taliaferro; vice-president, Stewart Hefflefinger;
secretary and manager, R. M. Thomas; treasurer, C. M. Snyder. The
directors are: C. A. Taliaferro, S. Hefflefinger, Charles M. Snyder,
John E. Sullivan, R. M. Thomas, E. H. Cawley, W. M. Sutter, R. B. Hawk,
Reuben Hargrove. The present officers are the same with the exception
that Reuben Hargrove is now serving as the vice-president, and Fred
Wyatt was elected to fill the vacancy in the board of directors, caused
by the demise of C. A. Taliaferro and Edward High succeeded W. M.
Sutter. The concern has a grain elevator with a capacity of 8,000
bushels. The largest shipment of grain made in any one year has exceeded
115,000 bushels.


                            WILLIAM McADAM.

William McAdam, retired farmer, of Effingham, Kan., was born February 6,
1861, in Sterlingshire, Scotland, and is a son of James and Helen
(Macnee) McAdam, who, with their children emigrated from their native
country in 1882 and settled on a farm near Effingham in Atchison county,
Kansas. They reared a family of five children, of whom William is the
oldest, the others being as follows: Mrs. Jane Drummond, of Ellenville,
Kan.; George, of Holton, Kan.; Mrs. Nellie Drummond, residing in
Cottonwood Falls, Kan.; and James, living at Holton, Kan. The father of
these children was born in 1820, and died in 1885, just three years
after coming to America. He was a hard-working, industrious farmer. The
mother was born in 1839 and departed this life in May, 1899.

William McAdam was twenty-one years of age when the family came to
Atchison county and for three years after his arrival here he assisted
his parents in the operation of the home farm. He then worked out for
one year and began renting land on his own account, renting twelve years
in all, five of which were in Jackson county, Kansas. His first purchase
of land was a tract of ninety-six acres in Jackson county, which he
improved and resided upon until 1907, when he moved to Effingham, where
he and his family reside in one of the most attractive homes in the
city, located on a tract of ten acres. Mr. McAdam is now the owner of
160 acres of good land south of Effingham, over which he has
supervision.

He was married in 1888 to Miss Augusta Sutter, a daughter of Frederick
Sutter, now deceased, who was one of the earliest settlers in Atchison
county, and who became one of the wealthy land owners of the county.
(See sketch of Fred Sutter.) Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs.
McAdam, Fannie and Mabel, both of whom are at home with their parents.
The mother of these children was born in Atchison county in 1861.

Mr. McAdam is an independent Democrat, who votes as his conscience
dictates, and prefers to support the man rather than any one political
party or creed, believing in this manner that better government will
result. He is a member of the Presbyterian church, and is fraternally
connected with the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons.


                        CLAUDIUS DEMONT WALKER.

The citizen who loves his city to the extent that he is willing to
devote his energies toward making it a better abiding place for his
fellow men, and does his duty in a public capacity, regardless of
criticism or adverse comments, is a man worth while. He whose name heads
this review is such an individual. As mayor of Atchison, C. D. Walker
made a record which will outlive the present generation; as an attorney
he has achieved a signal success and ranks high in the legal fraternity
of the State of Kansas; as a religious worker he has accomplished much
good of a lasting and enduring quality for the community in which he
lives. Born of Kansas pioneer parents, his training and education were
such as to prepare him for the career which has made him distinguished
among his fellow men; and he has proven that a wholesome example set by
noble parents is the best incentive that a man can have to guide him
through life.

[Illustration:

  _Eng. by E. G. Williams & Bro. N. Y._

  _C. D. Walker_
]

C. D. Walker was born March 29, 1851, at Greenville, Pa., a son of
Harvey and Anna M. Walker, the former a native of Pennsylvania and the
latter a native of Ireland. Harvey Walker, the father, was born in 1820
and was a son of Harvey Walker, a native of the Keystone State, who
married at Pittsburgh, Pa., Miss Mary Ann Carr, who was born at Mile
End, England. The grandfather of C. D. Walker was a wagon and carriage
maker by trade and operated a shop in Greenville for many years. The
history of the Walkers in America begins with three brothers who
emigrated from the north of Ireland in colonial days. One of whom,
Samuel Walker, located near Rochester, N.Y., one, Andrew Walker, settled
in Virginia, and one, the great-grandfather of C. D. Walker, settled in
Pennsylvania. Being north Ireland people it is practically certain that
the Walker family is of Scotch descent, their ancestors having emigrated
from the ancestral home of the family to the north of Ireland a few
centuries ago when the migration of the protestant people from the Isle
of Britain to escape religious persecution occurred. Harvey Walker
learned his father’s trade of wagon and carriage making, but worked but
little at the business. Imbued with the desire to better his fortunes in
the great West, he left the old home of the family in about 1854 and
migrated to Oneida, Ill., near which town he purchased a homestead.
After farming for a few years he sold out and started overland to the
new State of Kansas, which at that time was attracting adventurers from
all parts of the country. The family possessions were loaded upon wagons
drawn by horses, and in due time the Walkers arrived at Ft. Scott in
Bourbon county, Kansas, their destination. During the years ’57–’58–’59,
the senior Walker traded with the Indians, and eventually located on a
homestead, twelve miles northwest of Ft. Scott. Harvey Walker was a
stanch Methodist of the uncompromising type and was unalterably opposed
to the institution of slavery. He fearlessly and freely voiced his
convictions at every opportunity, and his outspoken tendencies
frequently brought trouble upon him from the slavery advocates, who had
settled in the neighborhood in considerable numbers. He was always
introducing new innovations in farming methods and machinery. It is a
matter of history that he owned and used the first rake harvester
brought to that part of the country. The slavery advocates and border
ruffians annoyed him considerably. They stole his horses, broke up his
wagons and farming implements and so pronounced were the threats of the
slavery men that Mr. Walker was forced to spend most of his time in Ft.
Scott away from his family. He was greatly interested in the success of
the anti-slavery propagandists and used great influence in determining
the ultimate destiny in Kansas becoming a free State. When the war broke
out he decided to move north. In the spring of 1861 he arrived in the
city of Atchison, which at that time was a small village, and was
induced by Capt. Asa Barnes to locate in Atchison county, where he
remained about a year. He afterwards purchased and settled on a tract of
land adjoining the town of Winchester, Jefferson county, Kansas. Here he
located his permanent Kansas home, and developed a fine farm. Here he
raised a large family, and gave his children the best education the
school facilities at that time afforded. Harvey Walker was married
December 24, 1848, to Anna Mariah Nelson, who bore him the following
children, namely: Crandall C., an importer of thoroughbred horses, Sioux
City, Iowa; Claudius D., with whose career this review is directly
concerned; Marion D., a farmer and fruit grower, living near Midland
College, Atchison county; Marvin L., a banker of Oklahoma City, Okla.;
Ellis Lytle, living in Washington State; Schuyler R., a farmer of
Stillwater Okla.; Harvey Mitchell, an importer of thoroughbred horses of
Oklahoma City; William Nelson, a farmer of Stillwater, Okla.; Roland
Ferris, who died in infancy; Orlina L., widow of William McKenney,
deceased, a hardware merchant of Winchester, Kan., and Anna M., wife of
William B. Stevenson, a Methodist minister. The mother of the foregoing
children was born in north Ireland, September 24, 1824, a daughter of
James and Elizabeth (Farris) Nelson. James Nelson was agent for an
English estate in Ireland, and was the son of William Nelson and
Catherine (Stewart) Nelson. His wife, Elizabeth Farris, was the daughter
of Robert and Jane Farris, all of English descent. Anna Mariah Nelson
came to America when eight years old with a brother, and went to live
with an aunt in Greenville, Pa., while her family settled in Bayfield,
Canada. She was educated in the schools at Greenville and afterwards
became a teacher in the public school where she was wooed and married by
Harvey Walker. Harvey Walker and his noble wife were sturdy God-fearing
Christians, and the family prayers were a part of the regular regime of
the religious creed followed by them through life. They were ardent
Methodists who believed in living faithfully according to the precepts
of their religion, and the examples set by their upright and consistent
conduct throughout their long lives left an indelible imprint upon the
lives of their children, who have endeavored to follow in the footsteps
of their parents. Claudius DeMont attended the district school at
Winchester, and when eighteen years of age left home to enter Baker
University at Baldwin, Kan. After two years of hard work in Baker
University he entered the agricultural college at Manhattan, which at
that time was a college controlled by the Methodists and had the best
facilities of any college of the State of Kansas. Here he spent four
years and should have graduated in the class of 1873, but on account of
ill health was compelled to leave school before the end of the term. In
the fall of 1876 Mr. Walker matriculated in the law department of the
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. During the year previous to this,
he had studied law in the office of Boyce & Boyd in Cincinnati, Ohio,
and upon his matriculation at Ann Arbor entered the junior class of the
university. He graduated from the law department at Ann Arbor in the
class of 1878, and immediately located in Atchison, where he began the
practice of his profession. From the very beginning his professional
career was a success. In February, 1882, he formed a partnership with
Judge Gilbert, which continued until Gilbert’s election to the district
bench in the fall of 1887. Since that time Mr. Walker has practiced his
profession alone for thirty-four consecutive years, which has been
filled with gratifying success. The district records of Atchison county
show that for many years Mr. Walker was interested in virtually all of
the important cases pending. For many years he was attorney for the
First National Bank of Atchison, Kan., together with many other large
institutions of the city.

During his long successful legal career, Mr. Walker has not neglected
the material side of his affairs and early invested his money in loans
and real estate. His investments were so judiciously made that he has
become one of the largest land owners of Kansas, and is rated as one of
Atchison’s wealthiest citizens. His total holdings in Atchison county
will exceed 1,700 acres of farm lands, and he also owns other lands in
Texas and western Kansas.

The political and civic career of Mr. Walker has been a noteworthy one
and portrays the rugged honesty and public spirited feeling which have
actuated him during his whole life. He was first appointed to the office
of county auditor by Judge Gilbert in 1888, and served for two years;
and was elected to the office of county attorney in 1891, and served in
this capacity until 1894. His service as county attorney included the
most strenuous years of his life, inasmuch as the court docket was
continually crowded during his entire incumbency. This was the time that
Coxey’s army of unemployed was making its journey from this part of the
country toward Washington and on its way committed all kinds of small
crimes, and many arrests were made daily. It was Mr. Walker’s duty to
prosecute these numberless cases as they came up for trial which
overwhelmed him. He has served as a member of the city council of
Atchison several terms, and was mayor for two years, 1911 to 1913. Mr.
Walker’s administration of the city’s affairs during his incumbency as
the chief executive is considered to have been the best that Atchison
ever had in a constructive and law-abiding sense. Several miles of
street paving was accomplished and many bad streets were repaved
thoroughly and well. The first concrete paving in the city was laid on
Division street and done in the best manner possible. The city purchased
the finest fire apparatus ever brought to a northeast Kansas city. The
West Atchison fire station was built. Three large sewer districts were
created and the sewers installed. One of these was the intercepting
sewer in White Clay creek. For many years the city of Atchison suffered
from the filth and stench of White Clay creek until the same became
intolerable. The remedy had been thought impossible, but on Mr. Walker’s
election he conceived the plan of installing an intercepting sewer which
has proved a great success, and a benefit to the city.

The electric light rate was reduced from 15 to 10 cents per kilowatt,
thus saving to the consumer thousands of dollars annually. The street
lighting was changed from the half night to the all night moon light
schedule, with many new lights added and without a dollar’s increase in
expenses. The city was freed from joints and gambling places and houses
of ill repute within the first few months after Mr. Walker went into
office and remained so during his entire term. As mayor he first raised
the question of requiring the mills and other large institutions located
along railroads, and the railroads entering the city to light their own
premises and yards.

Mr. Walker was the promoter and organizer of the first independent
telephone company in the city, which company succeeded in putting the
Bell Telephone Company out of business for the time being, and until the
Home company was sold to the Bell company in 1911, and a consolidation
effected.

Mr. Walker is a Republican and has always taken a more or less active
part in his party’s affairs. He was at one time a candidate for Congress
from the First Congressional district of the State of Kansas, at the
time the three-cornered fight for the nomination between Ex-Governor
Bailey, Charles Curtis and C. D. Walker was waged, and a deadlock ensued
which lasted for more than one week.

His family life has been an ideal one, and in keeping with the career of
the man himself. The marriage of Mr. Walker and Miss Lizzie E. Auld took
place June 7, 1881, at Atchison, Kan. One daughter has blessed this
union, Isabelle, wife of Louis D. Brockett, a son of B. L. Brockett, a
leading lumber merchant of Atchison. Mr. Brockett has charge of the loan
business established by Mr. Walker. Mrs. Lizzie Auld Walker was born in
Brownsville, Pa., a daughter of William W. and Isabelle Mullen Auld,
natives of Pennsylvania, of Scotch-Irish ancestry. The Auld family is
one of the oldest of American families. Its members are related closely
with the Carrolls of Carrollton, Va., whose ancestors came from north of
Ireland and were originally of Scotch ancestry. William W. Auld migrated
from Pennsylvania to Atchison, Kan., in, 1872, and was a member of the
milling firm of Blair & Auld, from that time until his death in 1895.
Mr. Walker has been a member of the Masonic fraternity for over thirty
years, and has taken a regular course of Masonry, being a Knight
Templar. He is fraternally affiliated with the Benevolent and Protective
Order of Elks, the Knights of Pythias, the Modern Woodmen, Knights and
Ladies of Security, the Ancient Order of United Workmen, and the Royal
Arcanum. It is only natural that a man reared in a religious atmosphere,
as he has been, should take an active and influential part in church and
religious work. Mr. Walker has been a member of the official board of
the First Methodist Episcopal Church of Atchison, since 1880, and has
been a liberal and cheerful supporter of this denomination. At present
he is chairman of the building committee which has charge of the
erection of the new building planned by the church for the ensuing year.
Since 1889 he has served as a member of the board of trustees of Baker
University, of Baldwin, Kan. In 1908 he was a delegate to the National
conference of the Methodist denomination at Baltimore. Successful as a
lawyer, having achieved substantial competence in his behalf, made
history as a public official, followed the teachings of his Christian
parents as regards an upright life and doing his duty in a religious
sense, sums up the life career of this useful Atchison citizen.


                         ALVA CURTIS TRUEBLOOD.

Alva Curtis Trueblood, a former Atchison merchant and city official and
Union veteran, now deceased, was born in Salem, Washington county,
Indiana, in 1838, a son of Dr. Joshua and Zelpha (Arnold) Trueblood,
natives of South Carolina, who emigrated from their native State to
Indiana in the early pioneer days when the Indians were still camping on
the streams and roaming the forests of the Hoosier State. The parents of
A. C. Trueblood settled in Salem and he was there reared to manhood,
receiving his education in the district schools and the Seminary at
Battle Creek, Mich., where he was graduated. After his graduation in the
classical course at Battle Creek, he returned to his home town of Salem
and embarked in the newspaper business, purchasing the _Salem Times_,
which he edited until the outbreak of the Civil war. He enlisted at the
first call for troops issued by President Lincoln and was mustered in as
a member of Company H, Thirteen regiment, Indiana infantry, under
Captain Sales, who was later promoted to the rank of colonel, private
Trueblood being successively promoted to a second lieutenancy and then
to first lieutenant of his company. Later, he was commissioned a captain
and remained Captain Trueblood until the close of the war. He saw much
active service during the great rebellion and was under fire with his
regiment at the very first battle in which it was engaged, at Green
Brier Mountain, W. Va. Captain Trueblood fought in thirty-six terrific
battles during his term of service, and was engaged in the nine days’
battle at Cold Harbor under General Grant. Captain Trueblood often gave
a vivid and heart-rending description of the terrific slaughter of human
lives which took place at this great battle, and told of how a person
could walk for miles on the dead bodies with which the field was strewn.
His time of enlistment expired while the battle of Cold Harbor was in
progress, and he then returned to his home, where he was married
December 29, 1864, to Hattie Allen.

Mr. and Mrs. Trueblood resided in Salem, Ind., until after the close of
the war when he entered the mercantile business in Salem and was very
successful. His health failing him it was deemed advisable that they
seek a new home in the West. During his business career he had invested
in Atchison county land, and they came to this county in 1880, settling
on their farm in the spring of that year. They remained on the farm but
a short time, however, until Mr. Trueblood regained his health, in a
measure, and then removed to Atchison, where he embarked in the
queensware business, which he conducted for about three years. He was
then elected city clerk and held this office for about ten years.
Captain Trueblood died April 16, 1904. Mr. and Mr. Trueblood have reared
the following children: Albert, now engaged in the newspaper business at
Sacramento, Cal.; Victor T., manager of the Van Nuys News Company, of
Kansas City, Mo.; Paul T., a traveling salesman, residing in Grand
Island, Neb.; Owen T., of Kansas City, an express messenger of the
Missouri Pacific railroad; Nellie, a graduate of Midland College, and a
teacher in the Ingalls school; Norvel died in 1867, at the age of four
years. The mother of these children was born in March, 1840, a daughter
of Thomas and Annis (Brinkley) Allen, both natives of West Virginia, and
pioneer settlers of Washington county, Indiana. She was educated in the
common schools of her native county and attended the Salem Female
College. Thomas Allen, father of Mrs. Trueblood, was proprietor of a
cotton and woolen manufactory at Salem, and was forced to pay Gen. John
Morgan and his raiders the sum of $1,000 to prevent the burning of his
mill, when Morgan and his troops made their memorable raid and burned
the depot at Salem and raided the stores. Thomas Allen and wife were the
parents of eight children, six sons and two daughters. Three of the sons
were Union soldiers, William Allen, the twin brother of Mrs. Trueblood,
serving in the same regiment with Captain Trueblood.

Mr. Trueblood was an efficient and capable city official during his many
years of service in the city clerk’s office and had many warm friends in
Atchison. He was allied with the Republican party and was prominent in
the affairs of his party. He was well known in Masonic circles and was
high in the councils of the Masonic lodge, being master of Washington
Lodge, No. 5., of Atchison, Kan., for several years, and was a leading
member of the Grand Army of the Republic, both of which bodies
officiated at the ceremonies held when his body was laid away for the
long rest.


                            WILLIAM J. CLEM.

William J. Clem, deceased farmer and horticulturist, of Shannon
township, was born June 9, 1851, in Randolph county, Virginia, a son of
Aaron Clem, who immigrated to Kansas in 1863 and settled on Independence
creek, near the Doniphan-Atchison county line. On the farm, which his
father owned in this pioneer settlement of Kansas, William was reared to
young manhood, and married, after which he lived on a farm in the
southern part of Doniphan county for four years, then moved to the Myers
farm, which he and his wife purchased some years later and cultivated
until March of 1898. In this year he purchased the fine farm which is
now owned by his widow and immediately began improving it. This farm
consists of sixty acres and lays within a few miles of Atchison in a
northwesterly direction. Its acreage is divided as follows: Twenty acres
of apples and small fruits, and forty acres of farm land and pasture.
Realizing that it was necessary to follow intensive farming on a sixty-
acre farm, Mr. Clem set out an orchard of 350 trees, which have been
bearing prolifically for several years. An attractive farm residence,
set in a fine lawn in which shrubbery and flower beds please the eye,
together with a good barn and silo, greets the eye as they stand out on
a rise of land. Mr. Clem was a very industrious farmer, a good citizen,
and a kind father and husband, and will long be remembered by those who
knew him best and were aware of his many excellent qualities. He
departed this life on May 26, 1906. He was a member of the Baptist
church and a Democrat in politics.

W. J. Clem, and Laura E. Myers, his widow, were married June 16, 1879,
and to this union were born children, as follows: Mrs. Effie Randolph,
of Atchison, who is the mother of two children, Elizabeth and Bernice;
Mrs. Clara Waltz, of Shannon township, and mother of one child, Virginia
Frances; Mrs. Addie Underwood, residing on a farm in Shannon township,
who has one child, Spencer Eugene; Mrs. Laura Demmel, living near
Rushville, Mo., and mother of one son, Raymond; Albert, married Ella
Turner, and Edgar, at home; Mrs. Lissa Marie Altauf, of south Tenth
street, Atchison; Frances and Jessie, at home. Mrs. Laura E. (Myers)
Clem was born June 9, 1859, in Buchanan county, Missouri, a daughter of
Augustus and Hulda (Snyder) Myers, natives of Germany and Indiana,
respectively. Augustus Myers was born in 1825 and died October 6, 1909.
His parents with their family immigrated to this country from Germany in
1831. Augustus was reared on a farm, south of St. Joseph, and was there
married. His wife, Hulda, was born in 1831 and died October 8, 1907. She
came with her parents to Buchanan county, Missouri, in 1841. There were
nine children in the Myers family, namely: Hiram K., deceased; Edward
S., deceased; William H., living in Doniphan county; Mrs. Laura E. Clem,
with whom this review is directly concerned; Winslow, of Gower, Mo.;
Charles W. of Lancaster township, this county; Mrs. Dora Augusta Saeger,
of Quincy, Ill.; Mrs. Malinda Frances Underwood, of Shannon township;
and Ray Evans, of Seattle, Wash. The Myers family came to Atchison
county in August of 1875, living in Atchison until February, 1876, and
settled on a farm in Shannon township, which he purchased from Andrew
Evans, living on their place near Good Intent, until March of 1891, when
the old couple sold their farm to Mr. and Mrs. Clem, and retired to a
home in Atchison, where they died. Augustus Myers was a soldier in the
Union army and served for a few months under Captain Snyder, an uncle of
Mrs. Clem.

Mrs. Clem and her children are all members of the Christian church and
take an active part in the social and religious affairs carried on by
the large membership of this flourishing denomination. She and her
sturdy sons carry on the farming operations in a creditable and
profitable manner and are happy and contented. The boys are greatly
interested in athletics and were an important part of the winning church
baseball team during the season of 1915. A happier nor more contented
family can not be found in Atchison county. Mrs. Clem is a capable and
intelligent woman who did not hesitate to take over the management of
the farm upon her husband’s demise and has made a success of the
undertaking.


                          JARED COPELAND FOX.

The late Jared Copeland Fox was one of Atchison’s ablest citizens,
public spirited, a successful financier and a familiar figure in the
leading circles of the city for many years. Merchant, banker, scholar, a
kind husband and father, his demise left a void which can never be
filled. Coming of a distinguished family, born October 30, 1841, in
Chili, N. Y., his life bears out the oft repeated assertion that lineage
and birth have something to do with shaping a man’s destiny, and
influencing his career. His parents were Jared Ware and Mercy Chapman
(Copeland) Fox. Jared Ware Fox was a son of Alanson and Elizabeth (Ware)
Fox. His maternal grandfather was Jonathan Copeland, who married a Miss
Wells at Charlton, Mass., who was a direct descendant of Ruth, a
daughter of John and Priscilla Alden. On April 2, 1816, Jonathan
Copeland was commissioned a captain in the militia and adjutant on the
governor’s staff of Massachusetts in 1816. In 1819 he was appointed a
brigadier commander of the State militia. After his marriage he removed
to New York and was there a colonel in the State militia of New York. He
held five different commissions in Massachusetts and New York. The Fox
family is of English descent and originally settled in Connecticut. The
maiden name of the wife of Col. Jonathan Copeland was Rebecca Edwards
and she was a connection of the family of which Rev. Jonathan Edwards
was a member. Colonel Copeland had three children: Mercy, Elizabeth and
the Rev. Jonathan Copeland, a Congregational minister of New York, who
conducted an academy in that city and one of whose pupils was Philip
Armour of beef packing fame. Jonathan was born October 16, 1786, died in
1858 in New York; Rebecca was born in 1790, died February 6, 1863, in
Kansas.

[Illustration:

  _Eng. by E. G. Williams & Bro. N. Y._

  _A. C. Fox_
]

Alanson Fox, grandfather of Jared C., removed from Connecticut to a farm
near Sherburne, N. Y., and here Jared Ware was born December 5, 1810.
Rev. Jared Ware Fox was educated for the ministry, studying four years
in Oneida Institute and one year in a seminary in New York City, and for
fifty years preached the Gospel according to the Congregational faith.
In the early days he was sent to Kansas by his church to establish and
organize churches in the new towns and cities building up on the broad
prairies. He formed a church at Burlingame and Ridgeway, Kan., making
his home at the latter place and preaching throughout the country
serving churches at Kunwaka, Waveland, Valley Brook and one year at
Lawrence. He spent one year in Topeka in charge of a church in the
capital city. He was a strong abolitionist and was in his natural
element when he first came to Kansas in 1860, the year of the “great
drought.” He took an active part in the relief work in Kansas at that
time and sent his son, Jared C., then but eighteen years of age, back to
Galesburg, Ill., where an old friend of the family resided, to gather
potatoes and produce for the sustenance of the drought suffers. He died
March 2, 1898, leaving the following children: Charles G., on the old
homestead at Ridgeway, Kan.; Jared C.; Irving Dwight, deceased; Herbert
Everett, of California; Herman Elliot, Davenport, Iowa. The mother of
these children, Mercy C. (Copeland) Fox, was born February 16, 1816, and
died April 11, 1893.

Jared C. Fox received an academic education in New York and accompanied
his parents to Kansas. At the age of nineteen years he was first
employed in a general store conducted by Crosby Brothers at Valley
Falls, Kan., at a salary of $150 per year and his board. He yearned for
a larger field and came to Atchison in 1862, entering the employ of
William Smith, who owned a dry goods store. During a part of the Civil
war he served as clerk in the commissary department at Rolla, Mo., under
Major Grimes for two years. After the close of the war he was deputy
county treasurer under Sam C. King, and upon Mr. King’s resignation from
the county treasurership, he was appointed to serve for six months
finishing out Mr. King’s unexpired term. He then served as deputy United
States marshal under Charles Whiting. For some years previous to
embarking in the drug business he was associated in the real estate
business with H. Clay Park, former postmaster of Atchison and editor of
_The Patriot_, and now one of the editors of the _St. Joseph News_. In
1869 Mr. Fox made the business venture which was the turning point of
his fortunes and launched him on the high road to financial success. He
entered into partnership with W. C. McPike, S. C. King and Frank Allen
in the wholesale drug business. Later Mr. Fox and Mr. McPike became the
sole owners of the business, Mr. Fox disposing of his interest to T. M.
Walker and the firm removed to Kansas City, where it is still doing
business under the name of the McPike Drug Co. Mr. Fox became interested
in banking and at the time of his death was vice-president of the
Atchison Savings Bank, the oldest State bank in Kansas. He conducted a
loan business as his financial resources increased in strength and he
became one of Atchison’s wealthy citizens.

On December 22, 1868, Mr. Fox was married to a charming southern lady,
Miss Virginia Alexina Tortat. This union was blessed by the birth of
five children as follows: Jared Copeland, Jr., manager of the Howard
Manufacturing Co., of Atchison, and father of eight children, Virginia
Parker, Marjorie Parker, Jared Copeland, Jr., Parker, Amelia Joanna,
Lawton, Edith and William Horan; Edith Fox Jackson, wife of Judge W. A.
Jackson, and mother of two children, Jared Fox and Edmund Valentine;
Henry Irving, wholesale druggist at Wichita, Kan., and father of Everett
Cranson, Florence, Mary Anne and Sarah Virginia Fox; William Tortat,
assistant cashier in the Atchison Savings Bank, and father of one
daughter, Mary; Florence, at home with her mother. The mother of these
children, Mrs. Virginia Fox, was born at Eufaula, Ala., December 20,
1847, a daughter of Henri Sylvest and Nancy (Decker) Tortat. Henri S.
Tortat was born in October, 1811, in France. He was destined to be a
clergyman by his parents, but, having no intention to enter the
priesthood, took part in the three days’ revolution against Charles X.
He left home and joined an uncle who was an officer in the French army
of occupation in Algiers in 1833. He came to America in 1836 when a
young man and was married at Wiscassett, Me., to Nancy Decker, whom he
met at Boston, Mass. After his marriage he took his bride to Charleston,
S. C., and thence to Eufaula, Ala., and conducted a merchandise store
there until he was induced to join a colony of southern people who were
going to Kansas in May, 1857. When he came to Kansas he first took up a
homestead claim and then purchased a bakery at Tecumseh, Shawnee county,
but died July 6, 1858, before he could get fairly settled in the new
country. Seven children were born to and reared by Henri and Nancy
Tortat: Henri Alexis, deceased; Mrs. Amelia Caroline Barry, deceased;
Mrs. J. C. Fox; Jean Paul, deceased; Augusta makes her home with Mrs.
Fox; William Marshall, Peabody, Mass.; Mary died at the home of Mrs.
Fox. Six years after Mr. Tortat’s demise, the mother and children
removed to Atchison, where she died December 20, 1864.

In his younger days Mr. Fox was a Republican, but later became a
Democrat and was a strong Cleveland adherent. He was a supporter of
President Theodore Roosevelt during his first administration. He was a
staunch supporter of Woodrow Wilson when Wilson was a candidate for the
Presidency, but was generally broad minded in his political views. He
was a member of Washington lodge, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons,
Knights Templar, a Mystic Shriner and an Odd Fellow; he was reared in
the Congregational church atmosphere but after marriage chose to attend
the Episcopalian church with his wife. His death occurred August 23,
1914, when a strong and noble character passed to the great beyond. Mr.
Fox was blessed with a singularly happy temperament which manifested
itself even on his bed of illness; he was always good humored and had a
strong sense of humor which, combined with a kindly disposition, made
him a prime favorite with his friends and acquaintances. He was a great
reader, an expert accountant, possessed a strong memory and was a
Shakespearean scholar, quoting from Shakespeare while lying on his couch
awaiting the last summons, and also quoting the Twenty-first Psalm on
his last day on earth. He served the city as a member of the city
council and was president of the school board for a term, being of
material assistance in handling their financial affairs, because of his
genius in this direction.


                        JAMES EMERY PENNINGTON.

The _Western Advocate_, Mankato, Kan., in an issue of July, 1899, has
this to say in part regarding one of the most remarkable family reunions
ever held in Kansas or anywhere in the country: “Without doubt the most
remarkable family reunion ever held in Jewell county has been for the
past week at Burr Oak and among the various members of the family in
that vicinity. It is the reunion of the eleven children, together with
many of the sixty-four grand children of the late James Pennington and
Susan Wisdom Pennington. The Pennington family is a Southern family, the
elder Pennington being a native of Tennessee, and his wife of North
Carolina. All of the eleven children, however, with the exception of the
oldest son, were born and raised in Missouri. The Pennington family is
remarkable in that there were just eleven children and they are all
living and enjoying good health, although the youngest is now fifty
years of age, the eldest being a little past seventy. These family
reunions, which are an annual event, prove that the family tree,
nourished by the good old warm Southern blood, is still bearing the
fruits of hospitality and good cheer. Once a year they get together,
parents, children and grand children, and the ties of family, of
kinship, and affection are drawn a little closer. Hearts are cheered,
lives are brightened and days are lengthened.” Speaking of the gathering
on Saturday of the reunion week, the _Western Advocate_ goes on to say:
“On this day a company of one hundred gathered around the banquet board,
and the eleven brothers and sisters were weighed and their combined
weight found to be 1,832 pounds, an average of 166 pounds each.”

The father of this remarkable family was James Pennington, a native of
Tennessee, born in that State in 1822, and was there married to Susan
Wisdom. They migrated to Missouri in the early thirties and settled in
Nodaway county, developing a fine farm until the discovery of gold in
California. James then set out across the plains and mountains to the
gold fields of the New Eldorado in quest of fortune. While in California
he became a freighter and transported flour and provisions to the mining
camps afoot. He would carry a fifty pound sack of flour a distance of
sixteen miles and was paid at the rate of $50 per sack for
transportation, the flour costing $50 per sack at the point of purchase
and being valued at $100 when it was taken to its destination by the
carrier. James, Sr., remained in California until 1851 and then returned
to his home and family in Missouri, where he lived the remainder of his
days, dying in 1878, in Platte county. James and Susan Pennington were
the parents of eleven children as follows: William W., born in 1837,
died February, 1913, at Lebanon, Kan.; John Thomas, California, born in
1839; Mrs. Telitha Thorp, Marysville, Mo., born in 1841; Mrs. Julia
Denney, Benedict, Kan., born in 1842; Mrs. Clementine Conner, Santa Ana,
Cal., born in 1844, a widow; Mrs. Nancy Miller, California, born in
1845, a widow; James Emery, with whom this review is directly concerned;
Mrs. Sarah Robertson, Elk City, Okla., born in 1849; Mrs. Mary
Robertson, Burr Oak. Kan., born in 1853; Mrs. Cynthia Jane Judy, Burr
Oak, born in 1855; Mrs. Rocksinah Graves, Burr Oak, Kan., born in 1857.

James Emery Pennington, retired farmer of Potter, Kan., was born on a
farm in Nodaway county, Missouri, October 30, 1847. He was reared on the
farm in Missouri until seventeen years of age, and he then left home and
crossed the plains. The occasion of his going was because of the fact
that two brothers and three brothers-in-law had already enlisted in the
Union army for service in the Civil war, and the father felt that he
could not spare his son, James E., so it was agreed between father and
son that the boy should go west for a time. He made his way across the
Missouri to Ft. Leavenworth and there joined an overland freight train
which was bound for Salt Lake City, Utah. At that time all the freight
and merchandise west of the Missouri river was transported in wagons,
drawn by horses, mules or oxen. These wagons were loaded with from six
to twelve thousand pounds of merchandise and were drawn by teams ranging
in numbers from twelve to twenty-four animals. From twenty to forty men,
wagons and teams constituted what was then known as a “freight train.”
The train to which young Pennington attached himself consisted of forty
wagons, forty teamsters, two wagon masters, four assistants, two night
herders, and two extras, in all, fifty men, four hundred and ninety oxen
and a few horses for herding purposes. Being a farmer boy and having a
working knowledge of animals, young Pennington soon made himself
indispensable to the outfit and received the name of “Our Boy” from the
other men in charge of the train. The train proceeded its long way over
the plains of Kansas and followed the valley of the South Platte to the
Rockies without mishap, other than a few Indian skirmishes. In October
of 1864, “Our Boy” stood on the crest of the Rockies with one foot on
the Atlantic and one foot on the Pacific slope. Winter soon came on and
stock perished and they arrived at their destination in the dead of
severe winter. Young Pennington spent the winter in the home of a Mormon
family, consisting of a Mormon and his seven wives. From Utah he went
north into Idaho and Montana, and in that region took up his favorite
pursuit of freighting, which he followed for four years. His operations
were mainly from Ft. Benton, the head of navigation on the Missouri
river, to which point the river steamers carried the freight destined
for the mining camps of the mountain regions. He, with others,
transported the first quartz mill to the mining camp, later widely known
as Butte City, Mont. He returned home in 1869 and lived there for three
years, coming to Kansas in 1872. He had saved some capital which he
brought with him to Atchison county, and invested this money in a herd
of cattle which he grazed upon the free ranges, in this manner getting
his first real start in life, and which was the beginning of his later
prosperity. After his marriage in 1872 to Elizabeth Snoddy, he and his
wife settled on the home farm of the Snoddy’s, and at the end of one
year the father of Mrs. Pennington deeded the young couple eighty acres
of land which became the nucleus of their present acreage. This land is
four miles east and one-half mile south of Potter. Leavenworth county,
and the farm has been increased to 320 acres of well improved land. Mr.
Pennington removed to Potter in the spring of 1916, from the farm in
Leavenworth county, and has recently completed a fine, modern, ten-room
residence which will serve as his future domicile during the remainder
of his days.

James E. Pennington was married February 1, 1872, to Elizabeth, daughter
of Thomas and Margaret (Brown) Snoddy, the former a native of Tennessee,
and the latter a native of Missouri. Thomas Snoddy first came to Kansas
in 1854, and preëmpted the farm which he improved and where his children
were reared. He was a Mexican war veteran and the Government gave him
for his services a grant of land in northwestern Missouri, which he sold
for $1,600, and with the proceeds of the sale built his home on his
preëmption in Kansas. The upper part of the house was used as
headquarters for the Kickapoo Masonic lodge for many years. Thomas
Snoddy was born August 27, 1825, and died October 8, 1909. His remains
were interred in the Round Prairie cemetery. A remarkable fact about the
Snoddy house is, that the roof existed without repairs for over fifty-
five years and at the time of its repair by Mr. Pennington, the
excellence of the material which went into the building of the house
excited newspaper comment. Mrs. Pennington was born on September 25,
1856, and lived her whole life on the farm which her father preëmpted.

The following children were born to Mr. and Mrs. James Emery Pennington:
Rebecca, wife of William Ehart, of Atchison county, Kansas; Bessena,
wife of Joseph James, of Atchison county, a farmer and horse and mule
dealer; Roxie, wife of John Goff, of Potter, Kan., a thresher and
farmer; Thomas W., living on the home farm; Frank P., a lumber merchant,
of Burr Oak, Kan., who was associated with his father in the grain
business in Potter, in 1906; George, a farmer living in Leavenworth
county; Mamie, a student in the Potter High School.

Mr. Pennington, with others in his neighborhood, organized and placed in
operation the Farmers’ Elevator Company, of which he was president. This
concern built the Potter grain elevator and later sold it to H. A. Ode.
He has long been identified with the Democratic party, but has never
sought political preferment of any kind. At the time of the organization
of the Potter High School district, Mr. Pennington was one of the prime
movers in the building of the new high school building. Perhaps the best
known trait of this grand old pioneer is his inherent hospitality, which
has made him famous and one of the best loved men in his section of the
State. Concerning a great Christmas celebration held at the Pennington
home in 1911, the _Atchison Globe_, of December 27, 1911, says:

“J. E. Pennington, a well known farmer of the Round Prairie
neighborhood, south of town, always provides a big entertainment for his
immediate friends and relatives every Christmas, and spares no pains or
expense to make these annual affairs highly enjoyable. The late holiday
was no exception to the rule. On Monday quite a crowd gathered at Mr.
Pennington’s home, as usual, and spent a day of merriment. A big
Christmas tree loaded with almost everything conceivable in the way of
holiday gifts, was provided by Mr. Pennington; a big dinner was also
served, and in the afternoon the men indulged in a hunt. A long wire was
stretched across a field, with a horse hitched to each end of it. The
wire was thus dragged across the field and in this manner all of the
rabbits were scared up. The men followed behind the wire and shot the
rabbits as they jumped out. Four jack rabbits were scared up and one of
them killed; also many cottontails. It is said that Mr. Pennington
expended nearly $200 on this affair. He is a very prosperous farmer and
is noted for his hospitality.”


                          DR. EARL A. GILMORE.

Dr. Earl A. Gilmore, veterinary surgeon, of Effingham. Kan., was born
September 27, 1887, at Ames, Iowa, a son of William T. and Jerusha
(Norton) Gilmore. His father was born in 1850, in New York State, and
when an infant accompanied his father, George Gilmore, to Iowa. His
mother was born at Zearing, Iowa, November 10, 1855, and died March 7,
1898. William J. was reared on the pioneer farm in Iowa, and was able
when a young man to take advantage of the opportunity to amass wealth in
the new and rich State, which was being developed during his day and
lifetime. He was married September 5, 1869. He became one of Iowa’s most
prosperous farmers, and in his later days, when he retired from active
farm work, he traveled extensively throughout the country, visiting many
points in the West, and the Philippine Islands. On February 1, 1915,
while aboard a Missouri Pacific train en route to Kansas City, the train
was wrecked, and he was injured to such an extent that he was laid up in
the hospital at Kansas City for several weeks, and then returned to his
home at Ames, Iowa. There were ten children in the Gilmore family: Mrs.
Uretta Stevens, of Star City, Mich.; Mrs. Maria Pellersells, of Grand
Rapids, Wis.; Maines Gilmore, now in Alaska; Charles, of Greeley, Colo.;
George, living in Iowa; William, a college professor at Winnipeg,
Canada; Earl A., the subject of this review; Mrs. Eva Burton, of Ames,
Iowa; Ella, deceased: one child died in infancy. The mother of these
children was a daughter of Isaac Gilmore, a native of Ireland. The
Gilmore family is also of Irish descent, all four of Dr. Gilmore’s
grandparents having emigrated from the Emerald isle.

Earl A. Gilmore was educated in the Nevada (Iowa) High School, and
studied at Drake University for one year; the Iowa State College at Ames
for two and one-half years; then studied for two years in the Kansas
City Veterinary College, graduating April 16, 1912. His funds being
exhausted, when he decided to become a veterinary surgeon, he found it
necessary to work his way through his final college course, by doing
reportorial work on the staff of the _Kansas City Star_. Upon his
graduation he immediately located in Effingham and has built up an
extensive practice in his profession, covering a territory of twelve
miles, north and south, and nine miles, east and west.

Dr. Gilmore is a member of the Missouri Valley Veterinary Association,
and the National veterinary fraternity, the Kansas City chapter of the
Delta Alpha Psi. He is a Republican in politics and is fraternally
affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows lodge and the
Knights and Ladies of Security. Dr. Gilmore takes a keen and active
interest in the civic welfare of Effingham and is usually found in the
forefront of undertakings which are intended to promote the best
interests of the city.


                         ALFRED JONATHAN HARWI.

In writing the history of a city and county such as Atchison, the
reviewer very naturally finds that among the large number of men who
have had much to do with the upbuilding of the community, and who can be
counted among the really successful men of the period covered, there are
few who stand out preëminently among their fellows, and whose
individuality looms far above the average, and who are noted not only
for their individual accomplishments on their own behalf, but who have
performed deeds which have endeared their memory to posterity for
generations to come. In this respect we must consider the late Alfred
Jonathan Harwi, founder of the great A. J. Harwi Hardware Company,
millionaire, statesman, and philanthropist, of Atchison. Mr. Harwi will
long be remembered as one of the leading figures in the business world
of Atchison. He was a pioneer in the establishment of the great
wholesale houses which have made Atchison famous over the western
country. Beginning his career a poor man, endowed with financial and
business ability of a high order, blessed with a keen foresight into the
future, having confidence in the ultimate development of the country,
tireless and industrious in all his undertakings, he achieved a truly
remarkable success, and through it all he was a man among men, who never
lost the respect and regard of his fellow men because of his great
success in the realms of business and finance.

[Illustration:

  _A. J. Harwi_
]

Alfred Jonathan Harwi was born at Ritterville, Lehigh county,
Pennsylvania, January 21, 1847, the eldest of four sons, born to Michael
and Lucretia Harwi. One of the children died in infancy, and the others,
Edwin C. and W. H., followed Alfred J. to Atchison and became associated
with him in the hardware business which he had established. Edwin C.
died September 4, 1903, and Wilson H. Harwi died May 30, 1911. A sister
died in Pennsylvania when but a child. Michael Harwi followed the trade
of carpenter in heavy construction work during his life, and was engaged
in the building of canal locks in the days when the construction of
internal waterways was in vogue. He was also a farmer, and at the time
of his death was engaged in quarrying and contracting for slate. His
sons having all come to the West, he made preparations to join them here
in Atchison, but on the point of his departure on October 8, 1882, he
was taken ill and died. His widow, Lucretia Harwi, then came to Atchison
and resided here with her children until her demise, in November, 1904.

A. J. Harwi received his education in the schools of his native State,
attending the district school of his neighborhood until ten years of
age, then becoming a student at a Moravian school in Bethlehem, which
was located four miles from his home and required him to walk the
distance across a mountain both morning and evening. After spending two
years in diligent study in this institution he entered a general store
at Bethlehem for the purpose of acquiring business experience. However,
while learning the art of barter and trade over the counters of the
general store he did not neglect the cultivation of his mind. He read,
listened and learned, and in his spare time continued his studies until
his mind was broadened and he became a man of advanced thought, learned
to read and judge his fellow men, and acquire a refinement and polish
which in later years assisted him in his undertakings and enabled him to
command the respect of his fellows. His ambition was to eventually
engage in business for himself, and he saved his money to this end, and
in 1868, when he was twenty-one years of age, he became a partner in the
furniture business with J. B. Zimmele, but sold out two years later and
hearkened to the advice of Horace Greeley, who said: “Go west, young
man, go west, and grow up with the country.” While at Bethlehem Mr.
Harwi married Cora Wheeler, with whose father he became associated in
the hardware and implement business at Butler, Mo. When this partnership
was dissolved a few years later, Mr. Harwi went to Cedar Rapids, Iowa,
and for a few months was a clerk in a hardware store. In the year 1875
he came to Atchison equipped with considerable commercial experience,
but having little capital. He and C. H. Dearborn began a retail hardware
business in a small way in the building at 408 Commercial street. The
concern prospered from the start and its success was undoubtedly due to
Mr. Harwi’s intelligence and common-sense business methods and his
wonderful capacity for hard and unremitting work. This hardware business
soon became one of the leading local business enterprises of the rapidly
growing city of Atchison. Like other men who have been successful in
life, Mr. Harwi was visionary, but his vision did not take on the dream-
like character. It was practical and foresaw the inevitable development
of the western country and an increased demand for all kinds of products
as the country became more and more settled. He believed in common with
others of the period that Atchison was destined to become the gateway
and the distributing point for a large section of territory. Acting upon
this sound, practical belief in the early eighties when the retail
business had assumed large proportions and necessitated expansion in
other ways, he conceived the idea of engaging in the jobbing business.
He did so, and again his wonderful business acumen and ability came into
play, with the result that the A. J. Harwi Hardware Company is known
throughout the West and middle West, and has done a noteworthy part in
making Atchison famous as a wholesale center. The result of its
founder’s vision and industry is one of the great wholesale houses of
the West, represented by about twenty traveling salesmen covering four
States, while over fifty local employes are engaged to handle the vast
amount of office work and the great warehouse and shipping details
incident to such an important commercial institution as the A. J. Harwi
Hardware Company has developed into within thirty-five years. Their
commodious four-story office and warehouse building, located on the
corner of Commercial and Ninth streets, is one of the handsome modern
business houses of Atchison. One can begin to realize the scope and
extent of this business when he stops to think that it requires 75,000
feet of floor space to afford ample warehouse facilities. In 1889 the A.
J. Harwi Hardware Company was incorporated with a capital stock of
$100,000.

Mr. Harwi was three times married. His first wife, Cora Wheeler, whom he
married in Bethlehem, left one daughter, Mrs. E. P. Ripley, of Boston.
His second marriage was with Elizabeth Whitehead, of Atchison, in 1873,
to which union two children were born: Mrs. H. P. Shedd, of Bensonhurst,
Long Island, and Frank E., president of the A. J. Harwi Hardware
Company. The mother of these children died October 14, 1907. Mr. Harwi’s
third marriage occurred June 3, 1909, to Mrs. Mary E. Holland, who
survives him. Mr. Harwi passed away September 5, 1910. During his later
years the stress of business and the ceaseless activity which had been
his lot during life began to tell upon him, and for over twenty-five
years prior to his demise he was a sufferer from locomotor ataxia. The
things which he accomplished necessarily demanded that he be a hard and
tireless worker, but he never spared himself, and at a time when he
should have begun to conserve his bodily strength he worked the hardest,
with the result that his span of life was shortened under what it might
have been.

It is not alone through the magnificent mercantile concern which Mr.
Harwi conceived and built up that he is known, but he was a public
spirited gentleman who contributed generously to charity and
philanthropic work. Although he accumulated wealth outside of his
business to exceed a half million dollars and loaned out considerable
money on mortgages, he was never known to have taken advantage of a
debtor and to foreclose a mortgage. Although he was a member of the
Congregational church, he was a trustee of Midland College, Atchison,
and established and endowed the Harwi scholarship prizes, which have
been of inestimable benefit to many young students. He was one of the
trustees of the Atchison County High School at Effingham, and was also a
warm advocate of providing well for the education of the youth of the
community. Mr. Harwi was elected State senator from the Atchison
district in 1884, but did not allow his duties as legislator to
interfere with his business affairs, it being his custom while the
legislature was in session to spend the day in the legislative halls at
Topeka, return home and spend the greater part of the night in the
supervision of the business. His ability as a legislator came naturally
into the limelight, and there was talk of running him as the party’s
candidate for governor of the State, but this talk met with little
encouragement from Mr. Harwi, inasmuch as he was wrapped up heart and
soul in the reorganized Harwi Hardware Company at the time, the project
demanding all of his time and energy.


                           FRANK EDWIN HARWI.

Frank Edwin Harwi, president of the A. J. Harwi Hardware Company, is one
of Atchison’s live young citizens who is following in the footsteps of
his highly successful father. Mr. Harwi is in charge of the extensive
wholesale hardware concern founded and built up by his father, A. J.
Harwi. Frank E. Harwi was born October 11, 1884, in Atchison. He
received his education in the public schools of his native city and in
the Andover Preparatory School at Andover, Mass. He matriculated as a
freshman at Yale University, but was called home by the illness of his
father, and he became his father’s assistant for the ensuing year. In
1905 he entered the sophomore class of Kansas University, but gave up
his college course in 1906 to enter his father’s hardware establishment,
and upon his father’s demise took over the active management of the
concern and became president of the A. J. Harwi Hardware Company.

Mr. Harwi was married September 30, 1908, to Miss Florence Cain, a
daughter of John M. and Lucy Cain. To this union two children have been
born: Alfred J., born August 22, 1909, and Lucy E., born January 12,
1912. John M. Cain, father of Mrs. Harwi, was born July 30, 1839, at
Castletown, Isle of Man. He was educated in the select schools of his
native island, learned the carpenter’s trade and emigrated from the Isle
of Man in 1856, locating in Kansas, where he was successively farmer,
soldier, merchant and banker. He was a volunteer soldier in the company
organized by A. S. Speck and Asa Barnes, and was accepted for service in
1862, enlisting in Capt. P. H. McNamara’s company, of which he became
sergeant, and upon the organization of the regiments of colored troops
he was appointed first lieutenant of a company in the Eighty-third
regiment, colored infantry. He was afterwards commissioned a captain and
did splendid service throughout the Civil war. After the close of the
war he farmed in Atchison county, became a merchant, and was connected
with the old Atchison State Bank. He died in 1897. Mr. Cain was married
May 15, 1879, to Lucy Neerman, a daughter of Frank and Isabella (Rust)
Neerman. The following children were born of this marriage Eva, wife of
Foster Branson, of River Forest, Ill.; Ralph R., a banker, at Ada,
Okla.; Florence, wife of Frank E. Harwi; John Milton, with the A. J.
Harwi Hardware Company: William O., an attorney in Atchison, and Alfred
Neerman, deceased.

Mr. Harwi is an independent in politics. He was one of the organizers of
the Atchison Commercial Club and served as president of this thriving
organization in 1913, and is at present a member of its board of
directors. He is a member of the board of trustees of Midland College
and is a member of the Atchison city board of education. He has likewise
been one of the trustees of the Atchison city hospital since its
establishment. While the responsibilities connected with the conduct of
the great business establishment thrust upon his shoulders at the demise
of his father have been such as would probably daunt the young man of
average ability, Mr. Harwi has shown that he fully measures up to the
requirements of his important position in the mercantile world and has
made a reputation on his own individual account as a business head of
decided executive ability of a high order.


                           JOSEPH TROMPETER.

When Joseph Trumpeter departed this life Effingham lost one of its best
and most-highly respected citizens and his family suffered the lost of a
kind and industrious husband and father, whose sole ambition in life was
to provide well for his kindred and those dependent upon him for a
livelihood, and to accomplish his purpose in the most honorable and
upright manner possible. To him fell the task of erecting the first
county high school building in Effingham, and many of the most
pretentious dwellings of the city were built by him. He was one of the
widely known and successful contractors of the county, whose operations
extended over a wide stretch of territory, and whose work was always
strictly up to a certain high standard and honestly performed.

Mr. Trompeter was born June 15, 1857, in Prussia, Germany, and when ten
years of age he accompanied his parents to America. His father was
Maurice Trompeter, who settled on a farm in Illinois and who went from
Illinois to Texas, but after a short residence in that State returned to
Illinois, where he passed the remainder of his days. Joseph was reared
to young manhood in Illinois and there married Hannah Sowers. He also
went to Texas and removed from there to Horton, Kan. His father before
him was a carpenter and Joseph learned his trade and followed it,
becoming a contractor and builder when a young man. He erected several
court houses in Texas, and built several school buildings and church
edifices in Kansas. His first wife died in Horton, Kan., eight children
being born to this union, of whom two are living, namely: Mrs. Tina
Demmer, of Effingham. Kan.; Mrs. Bertha Wallace, also residing in
Effingham. Mr. Trumpeter removed to Effingham, and at once engaged in
building and contracting on an extensive scale. He erected all the
buildings on the main street of the town, on the north side of the
street, running from the banners and Merchants Bank building to the
newspaper office, at the end of the block. He also built the greater
part of the finer residences in Effingham and it is due to his handiwork
and taste that the city presents such an attractive appearance to the
visitor. In the spring of 1912 he and the family moved to his farm of
160 acres southeast of Effingham on which with his own hands Mr.
Trompeter erected a handsome farm dwelling and fitted it with all modern
improvements, adding an attractive barn at the same time. He did not
live to enjoy the comforts of his new home long, however, as illness
brought on by overwork, caused him to take to his bed and his demise
occurred August 19, 1915.

His second marriage was with Louise Richter, on November 8, 1892, at
Effingham. Four children were born of this marriage, namely: Amelia,
John, James and Mary, all of whom are at home with their mother. Mrs.
Trompeter was born in Austria, in 1874, a daughter of John, born
September 2, 1852, and Amelia (Wohletz) Richter, born May 31, 1849. The
Richters are of German birth and immigrated to America in 1882, first
residing in Atchison and then coming to Effingham. For twenty-eight
years Mr. Richter was employed in railroad work on the Central Branch of
the Missouri Pacific railroad. Mr. and Mrs. Richter now make their home
with their daughter, Mrs. Trompeter, and assist in the farming
operations. The Richter children are as follows: Mrs. Joseph Trompeter;
Domineck, conducting a meat market in Effingham; Leapold, living at
Tacoma, Wash., also a builder and contractor; Mrs. Amelia Hansen,
residing in Texas; Mrs. Anna Royer, Tacoma, Wash. There are eleven grand
children in the Richter family.

Mr. Trompeter was affiliated with the Democratic party, but was never a
seeker after political preferment. He was a member of the Catholic
church, and was fraternally connected with the Knights of Columbus and
the Modern Woodmen. Throughout his life he was an industrious and hard-
working citizen who did his duty as he saw it and lived an upright and
honest life. He was prominently identified with the civic life of
Effingham and was highly respected for his many excellent qualities.


                           JOSEPH N. ARTHUR.

Joseph N. Arthur, automobile salesman and garage proprietor, of
Effingham, Kan., is one of the progressive and enterprising business men
of the second city of Atchison county. Signal success has attended his
efforts during the years he has been a resident of Atchison county. He
embarked in the automobile business and established a garage in
Effingham, despite the fact that predictions were made that the venture
would not be a success, and Mr. Arthur as a result is the recognized
pioneer automobile man of his part of the county. Since taking the
agency for the Ford cars in 1912, he has sold over half the total of
Ford cars sold in the county and vicinity. Mr. Arthur first started in
business in 1910 and established a small garage in the rear of his real
estate office. His business grew to such an extent that larger quarters
became necessary, and in 1913 he erected a large concrete building,
forty by eighty feet in extent, in which is incorporated his office,
display and repair rooms. He employs a skilled mechanic, assistant and
driver. Mr. Arthur handles the Dodge Brothers, the Maxwell, and Ford
automobiles.

J. N. Arthur was born June 3, 1869, near Corning, Adams county, Iowa,
and is a son of John and Martha Arthur, natives of Ohio. Both parents
were reared in the old Buckeye State, and were early pioneer settlers in
Iowa, coming from Bucyrus, Ohio, in 1855, and driving overland via the
ox team route, with all their movable possessions loaded on wagons en
route from St. Joseph, Mo., to their destination in Adams county, Iowa.
John Arthur homesteaded Government land in Adams county and preëmpted
along the river where timber and water were plentiful. He prospered as
the years went on and the country became more and more settled, and he
became the owner of over 800 acres of excellent Iowa farm lands. He
resided in Adams county, Iowa, until his demise, in 1907.

John Arthur settled on the banks of a river for the purpose of having
timber, fuel and water, three essentials in keeping alive in the then
sparsely settled country in the southwestern part of Iowa. He built a
log cabin of logs hewn from trees chopped down with his own hands and
chinked the cracks and crevices with mud. When he preëmpted his first
tract of land in Iowa he had a yoke of oxen, $10 in money and a favorite
bull-dog, things which he was fond of telling about as he grew older and
more prosperous. During his fifty-two years of residence in Iowa he
accumulated 800 acres of land and had money loaned out to the amount of
$10,000. He was the father of eleven children, nine of whom grew to
maturity, each of whom as he married was assisted by the father to
settle on a farm of his own, and all have prospered—an enviable record
for a pioneer family to make.

Joseph N., with whom this review is directly concerned, was reared on
the Iowa farm, and knew something about the hardships of the pioneer
days in his boyhood. He attended the district school in his
neighborhood, and followed farming until he engaged in the implement
business in his home county for some years, with a fair degree of
success. He left his native State in 1904 and came to Effingham, Kan.,
purchasing 120 acres of land about one and one-half miles distant from
Effingham in Atchison county. One year later he embarked in the real
estate business, in partnership with B. F. Snyder. This partnership
lasted for two years and then Mr. Arthur engaged in the business for
himself. He also began to write insurance, and was reasonably successful
in both the real estate and insurance business. He erected a brick
building for his office quarters, and, when automobile owners multiplied
in Effingham and vicinity he foresaw the need of a repair shop and
established one in the rear of his real estate office. He soon afterward
rented an abandoned garage and hired a mechanic to do the repair work.
It was not long until larger quarters became necessary, and he built as
told in a preceding chapter. In July of 1915, Mr. Arthur disposed of his
insurance business, and has since devoted his energies entirely to the
automobile business.

He was married in 1892 to Lillie M. Ramsey, daughter of Newton Ramsey, a
pioneer settler of Adams county, Iowa, and a Union veteran of the Civil
war. Four children have blessed this union: Pearl, aged twenty-one
years; Jennie, aged eighteen years, and a teacher of music, and an
accomplished musician; Le Roy, nine years of age; Charles, three years
old. Three children are deceased: Chester A. died at the age of eight
years; Milton died at the age of eighteen months; Blanche died at the
age of nine months.

Mr. Arthur is a Republican in politics, and has identified himself more
or less with the civic life of his adopted community, and is considered
as one of Effingham’s best boosters and live wires. He is a member of
the Methodist Episcopal church, contributes to the support of the same,
and is affiliated with the Odd Fellows lodge and the Knights and Ladies
of Security.


                          DON CARLOS NEWCOMB.

It is a pleasure for the biographer to write a story of the life of a
man who has arrived at the evening of life and be able to record
something really worth while for the benefit of posterity. The life
annals of a man who has succeeded in making a name for himself,
achieving a well deserved competence, and been of some use to his
community, and has arrived at the time of life when he can look back
over the vista of the busy years that have passed, is interesting to a
high degree. In D. C. Newcomb, pioneer merchant and patriarch, of
Atchison, we find embodied that spirit of the West which enabled men to
build up this great country and to achieve things of importance in the
business and civic world. Mr. Newcomb loves his home city, its people
and prestige and is proud of its standing among the cities of the West.
He has had no small part in the upbuilding of Atchison, and it would
have been better in the days gone by if the city had more men like him
to assist its growth. Ever ready to contribute to any enterprise which
might help the growth of the city, his liberality and boosting
proclivities became proverbial, and it has oft been a saying of his that
Atchison could just as well have been a city of fifty or sixty thousand
inhabitants as to be its present size. Such men as he are of decided
benefit to any community.

[Illustration:

  _Eng. by E. G. Williams & Bro. N. Y._

  _D. C. Newcomb_
]

D. C. Newcomb, a pioneer merchant of Atchison, perhaps has had as much
to do with the commercial development of Atchison county for the past
half century as any other man within its borders. When Mr. Newcomb came
to Atchison county in 1858 it was a difficult matter to tell whether
Atchison, or its rival town, Sumner, was to be the chief town of the
county. Sumner was a thriving frontier town, but Mr. Newcomb picked
Atchison as the winner and time has demonstrated that his judgment was
sound. D. C. Newcomb was born in Washington county, Vermont, on Friday,
July 13, 1836, and is a son of Hosea and Harriet (Bixby) Newcomb, the
former a native of New Hampshire and the latter a native of Roxbury,
Mass., born in 1805. Hosea Newcomb was born in 1803 and came from a
prominent New England family of English descent. The Newcomb family was
founded in New England in 1635 by Francis Newcomb and his wife, who came
from England and located in New England at that time. It is recorded
that they made the voyage on a sailing vessel named “Planter.” Hosea
Newcomb, the father of D. C., was prominent in the affairs of his native
town, Waitsfield, Vt., where he remained until 1859, when he came to
Kansas, settling at the new town of Sumner, now extinct, in Atchison
county. He took an active part in the early-day development of that
promising frontier town and served as postmaster there. However, he
returned to Vermont in 1873, where he died in 1889, at the age of
eighty-six, and his wife passed away March 17, 1903, age ninety-seven
years, eight months and one day.

[Illustration:

  Residence of D. C. Newcomb, Atchison, Kan.
]

D. C. Newcomb was one of a family of five children and is now the only
one living, except a sister, Mrs. Lydia M. Shephard, of Minneapolis. A
brother, Dan J. Newcomb, was a very early settler in Atchison county,
coming here some time before D. C. arrived. He was prominent in the
organization of Atchison county and was the first register of deeds of
the county, D. C. serving as his deputy. D. C. Newcomb was reared in the
town of Waitsfield, Vt., where he attended the public schools and later
was a student at Newbury Seminary. In early life he clerked in a store
at Johnson, Vt., and also clerked for a time in Montpelier, Vt. In 1858
he came to Atchison county and first landed at Sumner, but immediately
went to Atchison, and, although the latter town was also in its early
stages of development, the location impressed Mr. Newcomb so favorably
that he determined to locate there. Soon after coming here he was
appointed deputy register of deeds and served in that capacity for three
years. He then engaged in clerking in a store, and in 1864 entered into
partnership with Samuel Gard, who had been a fellow clerk of his, and
they organized the firm of Gard & Newcomb and engaged in the mercantile
business. Their capital was limited, perhaps less than $2,500, but they