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´╗┐Title: Grounds of Natural Philosophy: Divided into Thirteen Parts - The Second Edition, much altered from the First, which - went under the Name of Philosophical and Physical Opinions
Author: Newcastle, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of
Language: English
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The Second Edition, much altered from the First,

which went under the Name of




Written by the

Thrice Noble, Illustrious, and Excellent Princess,




Printed by A. Maxwell, in the Year 1668.


Most Learned Societies,

All Books, without exception, being undoubtedly under your
Iurisdiction, it is very strange that some Authors of good note, are
not asham'd to repine at it; and the more forward they are in judging
others, the less liberty they will allow to be judg'd themselves. But,
if there was not a necessity, yet I would make it my choice, To submit,
willingly, to your Censures, these _Grounds of Natural Philosophy_,
in hopes that you will not condemn them, because they want _Art_, if
they be found fraught with Sense and Reason. You are the _Starrs of
the First Magnitude_, whose Influence governs the _World of Learning_;
and it is my confidence, That you will be propitious to the Birth of
this beloved Child of my Brain, whom I take the boldness to recommend
to your Patronage; and as, if you vouchsafe to look on it favourably,
I shall be extreamly obliged to your Goodness, for its everlasting
Life: So, if you resolve to Frown upon it, I beg the favour, That it
be not buried in the hard and Rocky Grave of your Displeasure; but
be suffer'd, by your gentle silence, to lye still in the soft and
easie Bed of Oblivion, which is incomparably the less Punishment of
the Two. It is so commonly the error of indulgent Parents, to spoil
their Children out of Fondness, that I may be forgiven for spoiling
This, in never putting it to suck at the Breast of some Learned Nurse,
whom I might have got from among your Students, to have assisted me;
but would, obstinately, suckle it my self, and bring it up alone,
without the help of any Scholar: Which having caused in the First
Edition, (which was published under the name of _Philosophical and
Physical Opinions_) many Imperfections; I have endeavoured in this
Second, by many Alterations and Additions, (which have forc'd me to
give it another Name) to correct them; whereby, I fear, my Faults are
rather _changed_ and _encreased_, than _amended_. If you expect fair
Proportions in the Parts, and a Beautiful Symmetry in the Whole, having
never been taught at all, and having read but little; I acknowledg my
self too illiterate to afford it, and too impatient to labour much for

But, if you will be contented with _pure Wit_, and the Effects of _meer
Contemplation_; I hope, that somewhat of that kind may be found in this
Book, and in my other _Philosophical, Poetical_, and _Oratorical Works_:
All which I leave, and this especially, to your kind Protection, and

Your most humble Servant, and Admirer,



The First Part.

I. Of Matter

II. Of Motion

III. Of the Degrees of Matter

IV. Of _Vacuum_

V. The difference of the two Self-moving Parts of Matter

VI. Of dividing and uniting of Parts

VII. Of Life and Knowledg

VIII. Of Nature's Knowledg, and Perception

IX. Of Perception in general

X. Of double Perception

XI. Whether the Triumphant Parts can be perceived distinctly from each

XII. Whether Nature can know her self, or have an absolute Power of her
self, or have an exact Figure

XIII. Nature cannot judg herself

XIV. Nature poyses or balances her Actions

XV. Whether there be degrees of Corporal Strength

XVI. Of Effects and Cause

XVII. Of Influence

XVIII. Of Fortune and Chance

XIX. Of Time and Eternity

The Second Part.

I. Of Creatures

II. Of Knowledg and Perception of different kinds and sorts of

III. Of Perception of Parts, and united Perception

IV. Whether the Rational and Sensitive Parts, have a Perception of
each other

V. Of Thoughts, and the whole Mind of a Creature

VI. Whether the Mind of one Creature, can perceive the Mind of another

VII. Of Perception, and Conception

VIII. Of Human Supposition

IX. Of Information between several Creatures

X. The reason of several kinds and sorts of Creatures

XI. Of the several Properties of several kinds and sorts of Creatures

The Third Part.

Chap. 1. to 7. Of Productions in general

VIII. Productions must partake of some parts of their Producers

IX. Of Resemblances of several Off-springs, or Producers

X. Of the several appearances of the Exterior parts of one Creature

The Fourth Part.

I. Of Animal Productions, and of the difference between Productions
and Transformations

II. Of different Figurative Motions in Man's production

III. Of the Quickning of a Child, or any other sort of Animal

IV. Of the Birth of a Child

V. Of Mischances, or Miscarriages of Breeding-Creatures

VI. Of the encrease of Growth and Strength of Mankind, or such like

VII. Of the several properties of the several exterior shapes of
several sorts of Animals

VIII. Of the Dividing and Uniting parts of a particular Creature

The Fifth Part.

I. Of Man

II. Of the variety of Man's Natural Motions

III. Of Man's Shape and Speech

IV. Of the several Figurative Parts of human Creatures

V. Of the several perceptions amongst the several parts of Man

VI. Of divided and composed Perceptions

VII. Of the ignorances of the several perceptive Organs

VIII. Of the particular and general perceptions of the exterior parts
of human Creatures

IX. Of the exterior Sensitive Organs of human Creatures

X. Of the Rational parts of the human Organs

XI. Of the difference between the human Conception, and Perception

XII. Of the several varieties of Actions of human Creatures

XIII. Of the manner of information between the Rational and Sensitive

XIV. Of irregularities and regularities of the Restoring-parts of
human Creatures

XV. Of the agreeing and disagreeing of the Sensitive and Rational
parts of human Creatures

XVI. Of the power of the Rational; or rather, of the indulgency of
the Sensitive

XVII. Of human Appetites and Passions

XVIII. Of the Rational actions of the Head and Heart of human

XIX. Of Passions and Imaginations

XX. That Associations, Divisions, and Alterations, cause several

XXI. Of the differences between Self-love, and Passionate love

The Sixth Part.

I. Of the Motions of some parts of the Mind, and of Forrein Objects

II. Of the Motions of some parts of the Mind

III. Of the Motions of human Passions and Appetites; as also, of the
Motions of the Rational and Sensitive parts, towards Forrein Objects

IV. Of the Repetitions of the Sensitive and Rational actions

V. Of the passionate Love, and sympathetical Endeavours, amongst the
Associate parts of a human Creature

VI. Of Acquaintance

VII. Of the Effects of Forrein Objects of the Sensitive Body; and of
the Rational Mind of a human Creature

VIII. Of the advantage and disadvantage of the Encounters of several

IX. That all human Creatures have the like kind and sorts of

X. Of the singularity of the Sensitive, and of the Rational Corporeal

XI. Of the Knowledg between the Sensitive Organs of a human Creature

XII. Of human perception, or defects of a human Creature

XIII. Of Natural Fools

The Seventh Part.

I. Of the Sensitive actions of Sleeping and Waking

II. Of Sleeping

III. Of human Dreams

IV. Of the actions of Dreams

V. Whether the interior parts of a human Creature, do sleep

VI. Whether all the Creatures in Nature, have sleeping and

VII. Of human Death

VIII. Of the Heat of human Life, and the Cold of human Death

IX. Of the last act of human Life, ibid.

X. Whether a human Creature hath knowledg in death, or not

XI. Whether a Creature may be new formed after a general dissolution

XII. Of Foreknowledg

The Eighth Part.

I. Of the irregularity of Nature's parts

II. Of the human parts of a human Creature

III. Of human Humors

IV. Of Blood, ibid.

V. Of the Radical humors, or parts

VI. Of expelling malignant disorders in a human Creature

VII. Of human Digestions and Evacuations

VIII. Of Diseases in general

IX. Of the Fundamental Diseases

The Ninth Part.

I. Of Sickness

II. Of Pain

III. Of Dizziness

IV. Of the Brain seeming to turn round in the head

V. Of Weakness

VI. Of Swooning, ibid.

VII. Of Numb and Dead Palsies, or Gangren's

VIII. Of Madness

IX. The Sensitive and Rational parts may be distinctly mad

X. The parts of the head are not only subject to madness; but also, the
other parts of the body

XI. The Rational and Sensitive parts of a human Creature, are apt to
disturb each other

XII. Of Diseases produced by conceit

The Tenth Part.

I. Of Fevers

II. Of the Plague

III. Of the Small-Pox and Measles

IV. Of the intermission of Fevers, or Agues

V. Of Consumptions

VI. Of Dropsies, ibid.

VII. Of Sweating

VIII. Of Coughs

IX. Of Gangren's

X. Of Cancers and Fistula's

XI. Of the Gout, ib.

XII. Of the Stone

XII. Of Apoplexies and Lethargies

XIII. Of Epilepsies

XIV. Of Convulsions and Cramps

XV. Of Cholicks, ibid.

XVI. Of Shaking-Palsies

XVII. Of the Muther, Spleen, and Scurvy

XVIII. Of Food or Digestions, ibid.

XIX. Of Surfeits

XX. Of natural Evacuations and Purgings

XXI. Of Purging-Drugs

XXII. Of the various humors of Drugs

XXIII. Of Cordials

XXIV. Of the different actions of the several Sensitive Parts of a
human Creature.

XXV. Of the Antipathy of some human Creatures, to some Forrein

XXVI. Of the Effects of Forrein Objects, on the human Mind, ib.

XXVII. Of Contemplation

XXVIII. Of injecting the Blood of one Animal, into the Veins of another

The Eleventh Part.

I. Of the different Knowledges in different kinds and sorts of

II. Of the variety of self-actions in particular Creatures

III. Of the variety of Corporeal Motions of one and the same sort and
kind of Motion

IV. Of the variety of particular Creatures, ibid.

V. Of dividing, and rejoyning, or altering exterior figurative

VI. Of different figurative Motions in particular Creatures

VII. Of the alterations of exterior and innate figurative Motions of
several sorts of Creatures

VIII. Of Local Motion

IX. Of several manners or ways of Advantages or Disadvantages

X. Of the actions of some sorts of Creatures, over others

XI. Of Glassie-Bodies

XII. Of Metamorphoses, or Transformations of Animals and Vegetables,

XIII. Of the Life and Death of several Creatures

XIV. Of Circles

XV. Human Creatures cannot so probably treat of other sorts of
Creatures, as of their own

The Twelfth Part.

I. Of the equality of Elements

II. Of several Tempers

III. Of the change and rechange; and of dividing of the parts of
the Elements

IV. Of the innate figurative Motions of Earth

V. Of the figurative Motions of Air, ibid.

VI. Of the innate figurative Motions of Fire

VII. Of the productions of Elemental Fire

VIII. Of Flame

IX. Of the two sorts of Fire most different, ibid.

X. Of Dead or Dull Fires

XI. Of the occasional Actions of Fire

XII. Fire hath not the property to change and rechange

XIII. Of the innate figurative Motions of Water

XIV. The nature or property of Water

XV. Of the alteration of the exterior figurative motion of Water

XVI. Of Oyl of Vitriol, ibid.

XVII. Of Mineral and Sulphurous Waters

XVIII. The cause of the Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea

XIX. Of Overflows

XX. Of the Figure of Ice and Snow

XXI. Of the change and rechange of Water

XXII. Of Water quenching Fire,
and Fire evaporating Water

XXIII. Of inflamable Liquors

XXIV. Of Thunder

XXV. Of Vapour, Smoak, Wind and Clouds

XXVI. Of Wind

XXVII. Of Light

XXVIII. Of Darkness

XXIX. Of Colours

XXX. Of the Exterior Motions of the Planets

XXXI. Of the Sun, and Planets, and Seasons

XXXII. Of Air corrupting dead Bodies.

The Thirteenth Part.

I. Of the innate figurative Motions of Metal

II. Of the melting of Metals

III. Of Burning, Melting, Boyling, and Evaporating

IV. Of Stone

V. Of the Loadstone

VI. Of Bodies apt to ascend, or descend

VII. Why heavy Bodies descend more forcibly than leight Bodies ascend,

VIII. Of several sorts of Densities and Rarities, Gravities, and

IX. Of Vegetables

X. Of the production of Vegetables

XI. Of replanting Vegetables


The First Part.

I. Whether there can be a Substance that is not a Body

II. Of an Immaterial

III. Whether an Immaterial be perceivable

IV. Of the Difference between GOD and Nature

V. All the Parts of Nature, worship GOD, ibid.

VI. Whether GOD's Decrees are limited

VII. Of GOD's Decrees concerning the particular Parts of Nature

VIII. Of the Ten Commandments

IX. Of several Religions

X. Of Rules and Prescriptions

XI. Sins and Punishments are material

XII. Of human Conscience

The Second Part.

I. Whether it is possible there could be Worlds consisting only of the
Rational parts, and others only of the Sensitive parts

II. Of Irregular and Regular Worlds

III. Whether there be Egress and Regress between the Parts of several

IV. Whether the Parts of one and the same Society, could (after their
dissolution, meet and unite

V. Whether, if a Creature being dissolved, if it could unite again,
would be the same

VI. Of the Resurrection of Human-kind

VII. Of the dissolution of a World

VIII. Of a new Heaven, and a new Earth

IX. Whether there shall be a Material Heaven and Hell, ibid.

X. Concerning the Joys or Torments of the Blessed and Cursed, after
they are in Heaven or Hell

The Third Part.

The Preamble.

I. Of the Happy and Miserable Worlds

II. Whether there be such kinds and sorts of Creatures in the Happy and
Blessed World, as in this World

III. Of the Births and Deaths of the Heavenly World, ibid.

IV. Whether those Creatures could be named Blessed, that are subject to

V. Of the Productions of the Creatures of the Regular World

VI. Whether the Creatures in the Blessed World, do feed and evacuate

VII. Of the Animals, and of the food of the Humans of the Happy World

VIII. Whether it is not irregular for one Creature to feed on another

IX. Of the continuance of life in the Regular World

X. Of the Excellency and Happiness of the Creatures of the Regular

XI. Of Human Creatures in the Regular World

XII. Of the happiness of human Creatures in the Material World, ibid.

The Fourth Part.

I. Of the Irregular World

II. Of the Productions and Dissolutions of the Creatures of the
irregular World

III. Of Animals, and of Humans in the irregular World

IV. Of Objects and Perceptions

V. The Description of the Globe of the irregular World, ibid.

VI. Of the Elemental Air, and Light of the irregular World

VII. Of Storms and Tempests in the irregular World

VIII. Of the several Seasons; or rather, of the several Tempers in the
irregular World, ibid.

IX. The Conclusion of the irregular and unhappy, or cursed World

The Fifth Part.

Fifteen Sections concerning Restoring-Beds, or Wombs

The Conclusion

GROUNDS OF Natural Philosophy.

The First Part.


Matter is that we name Body; which Matter cannot be less, or more,
than Body: Yet some Learned Persons are of opinion, That there are
Substances that are not Material Bodies. But how they can prove any
sort of Substance to be no Body, I cannot tell: neither can any of
Nature's Parts express it, because a Corporeal Part cannot have an
Incorporeal Perception. But as for Matter, there may be degrees, as,
_more pure_, or _less pure_; but there cannot be any Substances in
Nature, that are between Body, and no Body: Also, Matter cannot be
figureless, neither can Matter be without Parts. Likewise, there cannot
be Matter without Place, nor Place without Matter; so that Matter,
Figure, or Place, is but one thing: for, it is as impossible for One
Body to have Two Places, as for One Place to have Two Bodies; neither
can there be Place, without Body.


Though Matter might be without Motion, yet Motion cannot be without
Matter; for it is impossible (in my opinion) that there should be an
Immaterial Motion in Nature: and if Motion is corporeal, then Matter,
Figure, Place, and Motion, is but one thing, _viz_. a corporeal
figurative Motion. As for a First Motion, I cannot conceive how it can
be, or what that First Motion should be: for, an Immaterial cannot have
a Material Motion; or, so strong a Motion, as to set all the Material
Parts in Nature, or this World, a-moving; but (in my opinion) every
particular part moves by its own Motion: If so, then all the Actions
in Nature are self-corporeal, figurative Motions. But this is to be
noted, That as there is but one Matter, so there is but one Motion; and
as there are several Parts of Matter, so there are several Changes of
Motion: for, as Matter, of what degree soever it is, or can be, is but
Matter; so Motion, although it make Infinite Changes, can be but Motion.

CHAP. III. Of the degrees of MATTER.

Though Matter can be neither more nor less than Matter; yet there
may be degrees of Matter, as _more pure_, or _less pure_; and yet
the purest Parts are as much material, in relation to the nature of
Matter, as the grossest: Neither can there be more than two sorts of
Matter, namely, that sort which is Self-moving, and that which is not
Self-moving. Also, there can be but two sorts of the Self-moving Parts;
as, that sort that moves intirely without Burdens, and that sort that
moves with the Burdens of those Parts that are not Self-moving: So that
there can be but these three sorts; Those parts that are not moving,
those that move free, and those that move with those parts that are not
moving of themselves: Which degrees are (in my opinion) the Rational
Parts, the Sensitive Parts, and the Inanimate Parts; which three sorts
of Parts are so join'd, that they are but as one Body; for, it is
impossible that those three sorts of Parts should subsist single, by
reason Nature is but one united material Body.


In my opinion, there cannot possibly be any _Vacuum_: for, though
Nature, as being material, is divisible and compoundable; and, having
Self-motion, is in perpetual action: yet Nature cannot divide or
compose _from_ her self, although she may move, divide, and compose in
her self: But, were it possible Nature's Parts could wander and stray
in, and out of _Vacuum_, there would be a Confusion; for, where Unity
is not, Order cannot be: Wherefore, by the Order and Method of Nature's
corporeal Actions, we may perceive, there is no _Vacuum_: For, what
needs a _Vacuum_, when as Body and Place is but one thing; and as the
Body alters, so doth the Place?

CHAP. V. The difference of the Two Self-moving Parts of Matter.

The Self-moving Parts of Nature seem to be of two sorts, or degrees;
one being purer, and so more agil and free than the other; which (in
my opinion) are the Rational Parts of Nature. The other sort is not so
pure; and are the Architectonical Parts, which are the Labouring Parts,
bearing the grosser Materials about them, which are the Inanimate
Parts; and this sort (in my opinion) are the Sensitive Parts of Nature;
which form, build, or compose themselves with the Inanimate Parts, into
all kinds and sorts of Creatures, as Animals, Vegetables, Minerals,
Elements, or what Creatures soever there are in Nature: Whereas the
Rational are so pure, that they cannot be so strong Labourers, as to
move with Burdens of Inanimate Parts, but move freely without Burdens:
for, though the Rational and Sensitive, with the Inanimate, move
together as one Body; yet the Rational and Sensitive, do not move as
one Part, as the sensitive doth with the Inanimate. But, pray mistake
me not, when I say, the Inanimate Parts are grosser; as if I meant,
they were like some densed Creature; for, those are but Effects, and
not Causes: but, I mean gross, dull, heavy Parts, as, that they are
not Self-moving; nor do I mean by Purity, Rarity; but Agility: for,
Rare or Dense Parts, are Effects, and not Causes: And therefore, if
any should ask, Whether the Rational and Sensitive Parts were Rare, or
Dense; I answer, They may be Rare or Dense, according as they contract,
or dilate their Parts; for there is no such thing as a Single Part in
Nature: for Matter, or Body, cannot be so divided, but that it will
remain Matter, which is divisible.

CHAP. VI. Of Dividing and Uniting of Parts.

Though every Self-moving Part, or Corporeal Motion, have free-will to
move after what manner they please; yet, by reason there can be no
Single Parts, several Parts unite in one Action, and so there must
be united Actions: for, though every particular Part may divide from
particular Parts; yet those that divide from some, are necessitated to
join with other Parts, at the same point of time of division; and at
that very same time, is their uniting or joining: so that Division,
and Composition or Joining, is as one and the same act. Also, every
altered Action, is an altered figurative Place, by reason Matter,
Figure, Motion, and Place, is but one thing; and, by reason Nature is a
perpetual motion, she must of necessity cause infinite Varieties.

CHAP. VII. Of Life and Knowledg.

All the Parts of Nature have Life and Knowledg; but, all the Parts have
not Active Life, and a perceptive Knowledg, but onely the Rational and
Sensitive: And this is to be noted, That the variousness, or variety
of Actions, causes varieties of Lives and Knowledges: For, as the
Self-moving parts alter, or vary their Actions; so they alter and vary
their Lives and Knowledges; but there cannot be an Infinite particular
Knowledg, nor an Infinite particular Life; because Matter is divisible
and compoundable.

CHAP. VIII. Of Nature's Knowledg and Perception.

If Nature were not Self-knowing, Self-living, and also Perceptive,
she would run into Confusion: for, there could be neither Order, nor
Method, in Ignorant motion; neither would there be distinct kinds or
sorts of Creatures, nor such exact and methodical Varieties as there
are: for, it is impossible to make orderly and methodical Distinctions,
or distinct Orders, by Chances: Wherefore, Nature being so exact (as
she is) must needs be Self-knowing and Perceptive: And though all her
Parts, even the Inanimate Parts, are Self-knowing, and Self-living;
yet, onely her Self-moving Parts have an active Life, and a perceptive

CHAP. IX. Of PERCEPTION in general.

_Perception_ is a sort of Knowledg, that hath reference to Objects;
that is, Some Parts to know other Parts: But yet Objects are not the
cause of Perception; for the cause of Perception is Self-motion.
But some would say, _If there were no Object, there could be no
Perception_. I answer: It is true; for, that cannot be perceived, that
is not: but yet, corporeal motions cannot be without Parts, and so not
without Perception. But, put an impossible case, as, That there could
be a single Corporeal Motion, and no more in Nature; that Corporeal
Motion may make several Changes, somewhat like _Conceptions_, although
not _Perceptions_: but, Nature being Corporeal, is composed of Parts,
and therefore there cannot be a want of Objects. But there are Infinite
several manners and ways of Perception; which proves, That the Objects
are not the Cause: for, every several kind and sort of Creatures, have
several kinds and sorts of Perception, according to the nature and
property of such a kind or sort of Composition, as makes such a kind
or sort of Creature; as I shall treat of, more fully, in the following
Parts of this Book.


There is a _Double Perception_ in Nature, the Rational Perception, and
the Sensitive: The Rational Perception is more subtil and penetrating
than the Sensitive; also, it is more generally perceptive than the
Sensitive; also, it is a more agil Perception than the Sensitive: All
which is occasioned not onely through the _purity_ of the Rational
parts, but through the _liberty_ of the Rational parts; whereas the
Sensitive being incumbred with the Inanimate parts, is obstructed
and retarded. Yet all Perceptions, both Sensitive and Rational,
are in parts; but, by reason the Rational is freer, (being not a
painful Labourer) can more easily make an united Perception, than
the Sensitive; which is the reason the Rational parts can make a
Whole Perception of a Whole Object: Whereas the Sensitive makes but
Perceptions in part, of one and the same Object.

CHAP. XI. Whether the Triumphant Parts can be perceived distinctly from
each other.

Some may make this Question,_ Whether the Three sorts of Parts, the
Rational, Sensitive, and Inanimate, may be singly perceived?_ I answer,
Not unless there were single Parts in Nature; but, though they cannot
be singly perceived, yet they singly perceive; because, every Part hath
its own motion, and so its own perception. And though those Parts, that
have not self-motion, have not perception; yet, being joined, as one
Body, to the Sensitive, they may by the Sensitive Motion, have some
different sorts of Self-knowledg, caused by the different actions of
the Sensitive parts; but that is not _Perception_. But, as I said, the
_Triumphant Parts_ cannot be perceived distinctly asunder, though their
Actions may be different: for, the joining, or intermixing of Parts,
hinders not the several Actions; as for example, A Man is composed of
several Parts, or, (as the Learned term them) _Corporeal Motions_; yet,
not any of those different Parts, or Corporeal Motions, are a hindrance
to each other: The same between the _Sensitive_ and _Rational Parts_.

CHAP. XII. Whether Nature can know her self, or have an Absolute Power
of her self, or have an exact Figure.

I was of an opinion, That Nature, because Infinite, could not know
her Self; because Infinite hath no limit. Also, That Nature could not
have an Absolute Power over her own Parts, because she had Infinite
Parts; and, that the Infiniteness did hinder the Absoluteness: But
since I have consider'd, That the Infinite Parts must of necessity be
Self-knowing; and that those Infinite Self-knowing Parts are united in
one Infinite Body, by which Nature must have both an United Knowledg,
and an United Power. Also, I questioned, Whether Nature could have an
Exact Figure, (but, mistake me not; for I do not mean the Figure of
Matter, but a composed Figure of Parts) because Nature was composed
of Infinite Variety of Figurative Parts: But considering, that those
Infinite Varieties of Infinite Figurative Parts, were united into one
Body; I did conclude, That she must needs have an Exact Figure, though
she be Infinite: As for example, This World is composed of numerous
and several Figurative parts, and yet the World hath an exact Form and
Frame, the same which it would have if it were Infinite. But, as for
Self-knowledg, and Power, certainly God hath given them to Nature,
though her Power be limited: for, she cannot move beyond her Nature;
nor hath she power to make her self any otherwise than what she is,
since she cannot create, or annihilate any part, or particle: nor can
she make any of her Parts, Immaterial; or any Immaterial, Corporeal:
Nor can she give to one part, the Nature (_viz_. the Knowledg, Life,
Motion, or Perception) of another part; which is the reason one
Creature cannot have the properties, or faculties of another; they may
have the like, but not the same.

CHAP. XIII. Nature cannot judg her self.

Although Nature knows her self, and hath a free power of her self;
(I mean, a natural Knowledg and Power) yet, Nature cannot be an
upright, and just Judg of her self, and so not of any of her Parts;
because every particular part is a part of her self. Besides, as
she is Self-moving, she is Self-changeing, and so she is alterable:
Wherefore, nothing can be a perfect, and a just Judg, but something
that is Individable, and Unalterable, which is the Infinite GOD, who
is Unmoving, Immutable, and so Unalterable; who is the Judg of the
Infinite Corporeal Actions of his Servant Nature. And this is the
reason that all Nature's Parts appeal to God, as being the only Judg.

CHAP. XIV. Nature Poyses, or Balances her Actions.

Although Nature be Infinite, yet all her Actions seem to be _poysed_,
or _balanced_, by Opposition; as for example, As Nature hath dividing,
so composing actions: Also, as Nature hath regular, so irregular
actions; as Nature hath dilating, so contracting actions: In short,
we may perceive amongst the Creatures, or Parts of this World, slow,
swift, thick, thin, heavy, leight, rare, dense, little, big, low, high,
broad, narrow, light, dark, hot, cold, productions, dissolutions,
peace, warr, mirth, sadness, and that we name _Life_, and _Death_;
and infinite the like; as also, infinite varieties in every several
kind and sort of actions: but, the infinite varieties are made by the
Self-moving parts of Nature, which are the Corporeal Figurative Motions
of Nature.

CHAP. XV. Whether there be Degrees of Corporeal Strength.

As I have declared, there are (in my Opinion) Two sorts of Self-moving
Parts; the one Sensitive, the other Rational. The Rational parts
of my Mind, moving in the manner of Conception, or Inspection, did
occasion some Disputes, or Arguments, amongst those parts of my Mind.
The Arguments were these: _Whether there were degrees of Strength, as
there was of Purity, between their own sort, as, the Rational and the
Sensitive?_ The Major part of the Argument was,_ That Self-motion could
be but Self-motion: for, not any part of Nature could move beyond its
power of Self-motion_. But the Minor part argued, _That the Self-motion
of the Rational, might be_ _stronger than the Self-motion of the
Sensitive._ But the Major part was of the opinion, _That there could be
no degrees of the Power of Nature, or the Nature of Nature: for Matter,
which was Nature, could be but Self-moving, or not Self-moving; or
partly Self-moving, or not Self-moving._ But the Minor argued, _That
it was not against the nature of Matter to have degrees of Corporeal
Strength, as well as degrees of Purity: for, though there could not be
degrees of Purity amongst the Parts of the same sort, as amongst the
Parts of the Rational, or amongst the Parts of the Sensitive; yet, if
there were degrees of the Rational and Sensitive Parts, there might
be degrees of Strength._ The Major part said, _That if there were
degrees of Strength, it would make a Confusion, by reason there would
be no Agreement; for, the Strongest would be Tyrants to the Weakest,
in so much as they would never suffer those Parts to act methodically
or regularly._ But the Minor part said, _that they had observed, That
there was degrees of Strength amongst the Sensitive Parts._ The Major
part argued,_ That they had not degrees of Strength by Nature; but,
that the greater Number of Parts were stronger than a less Number of
Parts. Also, there were some sorts of Actions, that had advantage of
other sorts. Also, some sorts of Compositions are stronger than other;
not through the degrees of innate Strength, nor through the number
of Parts; but, through the manner and form of their Compositions, or
Productions._ Thus my Thoughts argued; but, after many Debates and
Disputes, at last my Rational Parts agreed, That, If there were degrees
of Strength, it could not be between the Parts of the same degree, or
sort; but, between the Rational and Sensitive; and if so, the Sensitive
was Stronger, being _less pure_; and the Rational was more Agil, being
_more pure_.

CHAP. XVI. Of Effects, and Cause.

To treat of Infinite Effects, produced from an an Infinite Cause, is an
endless Work, and impossible to be performed, or effected; only this
may be said, That the Effects, though Infinite, are so united to the
material Cause, as that not any single effect can be, nor no Effect can
be annihilated; by reason all Effects are in the power of the Cause.
But this is to be noted, That some Effects producing other Effects,
are, in some sort or manner, a Cause.


An _Influence_ is this; When as the Corporeal Figurative Motions, in
different kinds, and sorts of Creatures, or in one and the same sorts,
or kinds, move sympathetically: And though there be antipathetical
Motions, as well as sympathetical; yet, all the Infinite parts of
Matter, are agreeable in their nature, as being all Material, and
Self-moving; and by reason there is no _Vacuum_, there must of
necessity be an Influence amongst all the Parts of Nature.


_Fortune_, is only various Corporeal Motions of several Creatures,
design'd to one Creature, or more Creatures; either to _that_ Creature,
or _those_ Creatures Advantage, or Disadvantage: If Advantage, Man
names it _Good Fortune_; if Disadvantage, Man names it _Ill Fortune_.
As for _Chance_, it is the visible Effects of some hidden Cause;
and _Fortune_, a sufficient Cause to produce such Effects: for, the
conjunction of sufficient Causes, doth produce such or such Effects;
which Effects could not be produced, if any of those Causes were
wanting: So that, _Chances_ are but the Effects of Fortune.


_Time_ is not a Thing by it self; nor is _Time_ Immaterial: for, _Time_
is only the variations of Corporeal Motions; but Eternity depends not
on Motion, but of a Being without Beginning, or Ending.

The Second Part.


All Creatures are Composed-Figures, by the consent of Associating
Parts; by which Association, they joyn into such, or such a figured
Creature: And though every Corporeal Motion, or Self-moving Part,
hath its own motion; yet, by their Association, they all agree in
proper actions, as actions proper to their Compositions: and, if every
particular Part, hath not a perception of all the Parts of their
Association; yet, every Part knows its own Work.

CHAP. II. Of Knowledg and Perception of different kinds and sorts of

There is not any Creature in Nature, that is not composed of
Self-moving Parts, (_viz._ both of Rational and Sensitive) as also of
the Inanimate Parts, which are Self-knowing: so that all Creatures,
being composed of these sorts of Parts, must have a Sensitive, and
Rational Knowledg and Perception, as Animals, Vegetables, Minerals,
Elements, or what else there is in Nature: But several kinds, and
several sorts in these kinds of Creatures, being composed after
different manners, and ways, must needs have different Lives,
Knowledges, and Perceptions: and not only every several kind, and
sort, have such differences; but, every particular Creature, through
the variations of their Self-moving Parts, have varieties of Lives,
Knowledges, Perceptions, Conceptions, and the like; and not only so,
but every particular part of one and the same Creature, have varieties
of Knowledges, and Perceptions, because they have varieties of Actions.
But, (as I have declared) there is not any different kind of Creature,
that can have the like Life, Knowledg, and Perception; not only because
they have different Productions, and different Forms; but, different
Natures, as being of different kinds.

CHAP. III. Of Perception of Parts, and United Perception.

All the Self-moving Parts are perceptive; and, all Perception is in
Parts, and is dividable, and compoundable, as being Material; also,
Alterable, as being Self-moving: Wherefore, no Creature that is
composed, or consists of many several sorts of Corporeal Figurative
Motions, but must have many sorts of Perception; which is the reason
that one Creature, as Man, cannot perceive another Man any otherwise
but in Parts: for, the Rational, and Sensitive; nay, all the Parts of
one and the same Creature, perceive their Adjoining Parts, as they
perceive Foreign Parts; only, by their close conjunction and near
relation, they unite in one and the same actions. I do not say, they
always agree: for, when they move irregularly, they disagree: And some
of those United Parts, will move after one manner, and some after
another; but, when they move regularly, then they move to one and the
same Design, or one and the same United Action. So, although a Creature
is composed of several sorts of Corporeal Motions; yet, these several
sorts, being properly united in one Creature, move all agreeably to
the Property and Nature of the whole Creature; that is, the particular
Parts move according to the property of the whole Creature; because
the particular Parts, by conjunction, make the Whole: So that, the
several Parts make one Whole; by which, a Whole Creature hath both a
general Knowledg, and a Knowledg of Parts; whereas, the Perceptions of
Foreign Objects, are but in the Parts: and this is the reason why one
Creature perceives not the Whole of another Creature, but only some
Parts. Yet this is to be noted, That not any Part hath another Part's
Nature, or Motion, nor therefore, their Knowledg, or Perception; but,
by agreement, and unity of Parts, there is composed Perceptions.

CHAP. IV. Whether the Rational and Sensitive Parts have a Perception of
each other.

Some may ask the Question, _Whether the Rational and Sensitive, have
Perception of each other?_ I answer: In my Opinion, they have. For,
though the Rational and Sensitive Parts, be of two sorts; yet, both
sorts have Self-motion; so that they are but as one, as, that they are
both Corporeal Motions; and, had not the Sensitive Parts incumbrances,
they would be, in a degree, as agil, and as free as the Rational. But,
though each sort hath perception of each other, and some may have the
like; yet they have not the same: for, not any Part can have another's
Perception, or Knowledg; but, by reason the Rational and Sensitive,
are both Corporeal Motions, there is a strong sympathy between those
sorts, in one Conjunction, or Creature. Indeed, the Rational Parts
are the Designing Parts; and the Sensitive, the Labouring Parts; and
the Inanimate are as the Material Parts: not but all the three sorts
are Material Parts; but the Inanimate, being not Self-moving, are the
Burdensome Parts.

CHAP. V. Of Thoughts, and the whole Mind of a Creature.

AS for Thoughts, though they are several Corporeal Motions, or
Self-moving Parts; yet, being united, by Conjunction in one Creature,
into one whole Mind, cannot be perceived by some Parts of another
Creature, nor by the same sort of Creature, as by another Man. But
some may ask, _Whether the whole Mind of one Creature, as the whole
Mind of one Man, may not perceive the whole Mind of another Man_? I
answer, That if the Mind was not joyn'd and mix'd with the Sensitive
and Inanimate Parts, and had not interior, as well as exterior Parts,
the whole Mind of one Man, might perceive the whole Mind of another
Man; but, that being not possible, one whole Mind cannot perceive
another whole Mind: By which Observation we may perceive, there are no
_Platonick Lovers_ in Nature. But some may ask, Whether the Sensitive
Parts can perceive the Rational, in one and the same Creature? I
answer, They do; for if they did not, it were impossible for the
Sensitive Parts to execute the Rational Designs; so that, what the Mind
designs, the Sensitive Body doth put in execution, as far as they have
Power: But if, through Irregularities, the Body be sick, and weak, or
hath some Infirmities, they cannot execute the Designs of the Mind.

CHAP. VI. Whether the Mind of one Creature, can perceive the Mind of
another Creature.

Some may ask the reason, _Why one Creature, as Man, cannot perceive the
Thoughts of another Man, as well as he perceives his exterior Sensitive
Parts?_ I answer, That the Rational Parts of one Man, perceive as
much of the Rational Parts of another Man, as the Sensitive Parts of
that Man doth of the Sensitive Parts of the other Man; that is, as
much as is presented to his Perception: for, all Creatures, and every
part and particle, have those three sorts of Matter; and therefore,
every part of a Creature is perceiving, and perceived. But, by reason
all Creatures are composed of Parts, (_viz._ both of the Rational and
Sensitive) all Perceptions are in parts, as well the Rational, as the
Sensitive Perception: yet, neither the Rational, nor the Sensitive, can
perceive all the Interior Parts or Corporeal Motions, unless they were
presented to their perception: Neither can one Part know the Knowledg
and Perception of another Part: but, what Parts of one Creature are
subject to the perception of another Creature, those are perceived.

CHAP. VII. Of Perception, and Conception.

Although the Exterior Parts of one Creature, can but perceive the
Exterior Parts of another Creature; yet, the Rational can make
Conceptions of the Interior Parts, but not Perception: for, neither
the Sense, nor Reason, can perceive what is not present, but by rote,
as after the manner of Conceptions, or Remembrances, as I shall in
my following Chapters declare: So that, the Exterior Rational Parts,
that are with the Exterior Sensitive Parts of an Object, are as much
perceived, the one, as the other: but, those Exterior Parts of an
Object, not moving in particular Parties, as in the whole Creature, is
the cause that some Parts of one Creature, cannot perceive the whole
Composition or Frame of another Creature: that is, some of the Rational
Parts of one Creature, cannot perceive the whole Mind of another
Creature. The like of the Sensitive Parts.

CHAP. VIII. Of Human Suppositions.

Although Nature hath an Infinite Knowledg and Perception; yet, being
a Body, and therefore divisible and compoundable; and having, also,
Self-motion, to divide and compound her Infinite Parts, after infinite
several manners; is the reason that her finite Parts, or particular
Creatures, cannot have a general or infinite Knowledg, being limited,
by being finite, to finite Perceptions, or perceptive Knowledg; which
is the cause of _Suppositions_, or Imaginations, concerning Forrein
Objects: As for example, A Man can but perceive the Exterior Parts
of another Man, or any other Creature, that is subject to Human
Perception; yet, his Rational Parts may suppose, or presuppose, what
another Man thinks, or what he will act: and for other Creatures, a
Man may suppose or imagine what the innate nature of such a Vegetable,
or Mineral, or Element is; and may imagine or suppose the Moon to
be another World, and that all the fixed Starrs are Sunns; which
Suppositions, Man names _Conjectures_.

CHAP. IX. Of Information between several Creatures.

No question but there is _Information_ between all Creatures: but,
several sorts of Creatures, having several sorts of Informations, it
is impossible for any particular sort to know, or have perceptions
of the Infinite, or Numberless Informations, between the Infinite
and Numberless Parts, or Creatures of Nature: Nay, there are so
many several Informations amongst one sort (as of Mankind) that it
is impossible for one Man to perceive them all; no, nor can one Man
generally perceive the particular Informations that are between the
particular Parts of his Sensitive Body; or between the particular
Informations of his Rational Body; or between the particular Rational
and Sensitive Parts: much less can Man perceive, or know the several
Informations of other Creatures.

CHAP. X. The Reason of several kinds and sorts of Creatures.

Some may ask, _Why there are such sorts of Creatures, as we perceive
there are, and not other sorts?_ I answer, That, 'tis probable, we do
not perceive all the several kinds and sorts of Creatures in Nature:
In truth, it is impossible (if Nature be Infinite) for a Finite to
perceive the Infinite varieties of Nature._ Also they may ask, Why the
Planets are of a Spherical Shape, and Human Creatures are of an Upright
shape, and Beasts of a Bending and stooping shape? Also, Why Birds
are made to flye, and not Beasts? And for what Cause, or Design, have
Animals such and such sorts of shapes and properties? And Vegetables
such and such sorts of shapes and properties? And so of Minerals and
Elements?_ I answer; That several sorts, kinds, and differences of
Particulars, causes Order, by reason it causes Distinctions: for, if
all Creatures were alike, it would cause a Confusion.

CHAP. XI. Of the several Properties of several Kinds and sorts of

As I have said, There are several kinds, and several sorts, and several
particular Creatures of several kinds and sorts; whereof there are
some Creatures of a mixt kind, and some of a mixt sort, and some of a
mixture of some particulars. Also, there are some kind of Creatures,
and sorts of Creatures; as also Particulars of a Dense Nature, others
of a Rate Nature; some of a Leight Nature, some of a Heavy Nature; some
of a Bright Nature, some of a Dark Nature; some of an Ascending Nature,
some of a Descending Nature; some of a Hard Nature, some of a Soft
Nature; some of a Loose Nature, and some of a Fixt Nature; some of an
Agil Nature, and some of a Slow Nature; some of a Consistent Nature,
and some of a Dissolving Nature: All which is according to the Frame
and Form of their Society, or Composition.

The Third Part.

CHAP. I. Of Productions in general.

The Self-moving Parts, or Corporeal Motions, are the Producers of
all Composed Figures, such as we name _Creatures_: for, though all
Matter hath Figure, by being Matter; for it were non-sense to say,
_Figureless Matter_; since the most pure Parts of Matter, have Figure,
as well as the grossest; the rarest, as well as the densed: But, such
Composed Figures which we name _Creatures_, are produced by particular
Associations of Self-moving Parts, into particular kinds, and sorts;
and particular Creatures in every kind, or sort. The particular kinds,
that are subject to Human Perceptions, are those we name Animals,
Vegetables, Minerals, and Elements; of which kinds, there are numerous
sorts; and of every sort, infinite particulars: And though there
be Infinite Varieties in Nature, made by the Corporeal Motions, or
Self-moving Parts, which might cause a Confusion: Yet, considering
Nature is intire in her self, as being only Material, and as being
but one United Body; also, poysing all her Actions by Opposites; 'tis
impossible to be any ways in Extreams, or to have a Confusion.

CHAP. II. Of Productions in general.

The Sensitive Self-moving Parts, or Corporeal Motions, are the
Labouring Parts of all Productions, or Fabricks of all Creatures; but
yet, those Corporeal Motions, are parts of the Creature they produce:
for, Production is only a Society of particular Parts, that joyn into
particular Figures, or Creatures: but, as Parts produce Figures, by
Association; so they dissolve those Figures by Division: for, Matter is
a perpetual Motion, that is always dividing and composing; so that not
any Creature can be eternally one and the same: for, if there were no
Dissolvings, and Alterings, there would be no varieties of Particulars;
for, though the kinds and sorts may last, yet not the Particulars. But,
mistake me not, I do not say those Figures are lost,

or annihilated in Nature; but only, their Society is dissolved, or
divided in Nature. But this is to be noted, That some Creatures are
sooner produced and perfected, than others; and again, some Creatures
are sooner decayed, or dissolved.

CHAP. III. Of Productions in general.

There are so many different composed Parts, and so much of variety of
Action in every several Part of one Creature, as 'tis impossible for
Human Perception to perceive them; nay, not every Corporeal Motion of
one Creature, doth perceive all the varieties of the same Society; and,
by the several actions, not only of several Parts, but of one and the
same Parts, cause such obscurity, as not any Creature can tell, not
only how they were produced, but, not how they consist: But, by reason
every Part knows his own Work, there is Order and Method: For example,
In a Human Creature, those Parts that produce, or nourish the Bones,
those of the Sinews, those of the Veins, those of the Flesh, those of
the Brains, and the like, know all their several Works, and consider
not each several composed Part, but what belongs to themselves; the
like, I believe, in Vegetables, Minerals, or Elements. But mistake me
not; for, I do not say, those Corporeal Motions in those particulars,
are bound to those particular Works, as, that they cannot change, or
alter their actions if they will, and many times do: as some Creatures
dissolve before they are perfect, or quite finished; and some as soon
as finished; and some after some short time after they are finished;
and some continue long, as we may perceive by many Creatures that dye,
which I name Dissolving in several Ages; but, untimely Dissolutions,
proceed rather from some particular Irregularities of some particular
Parts, than by a general Agreement.

CHAP. IV. Of Productions in general.

The Reason that all Creatures are produced by the ways of Production,
as one Creature to be composed out of other Creatures, is, That
Nature is but one Matter, and that all her Parts are united as one
Material Body, having no Additions, or Diminutions; no new Creations,
or Annihilations: But, were not Nature one and the same, but that her
Parts were of different natures; yet, Creatures must be produced by
Creatures, that is, Composed Figures, as a Beast, a Tree, a Stone,
Water, &c. must be composed of _Parts_, not a _single Part_: for, a
single Part cannot produce composed Figures; nor can a single Part
produce another single Part; for, Matter cannot create Matter; nor can
one Part produce another Part out of it self: Wherefore, all Natural
Creatures are produced by the consent and agreement of many Self-moving
Parts, or Corporeal Motions, which work to a particular Design, as to
associate into particular kinds and sorts of Creatures.

CHAP. V. Of Productions in general.

As I said in my former Chapter, That all Creatures are produced, or
composed by the agreement and consent of particular Parts; yet some
Creatures are composed of more, and some of fewer Parts: neither are
all Creatures produced, or composed after one and the same manner; but
some after one manner, and some after another manner: Indeed, there
are divers manners of Productions, both of those we name Natural, and
those we name _Artificial_; but I only treat of Natural Productions,
which are so various, that it is a wonder if any two Creatures are
just alike; by which we may perceive, that not only in several kinds
and sorts, but in Particulars of every kind, or sort, there is some
difference, so as to be distinguished from each other, and yet the
species of some Creatures are like to their kind, and sort, but not
all; and the reason that most Creatures are in _Species_, according
to their sort, and kind, is not only, that Nature's Wisdom orders and
regulates her Corporeal Figurative Motions, into kinds and sorts of
Societies and Conjunctions; but, those Societies cause a perceptive
Acquaintance, and an united Love, and good liking of the Compositions,
or Productions: and not only a love to their Figurative Compositions,
but to all that are of the same sort, or kind; and especially, their
being accustom'd to actions proper to their Figurative Compositions,
is the cause that those Parts, that divide from the Producers, begin a
new Society, and, by degrees, produce the like Creature; which is the
cause that Animals and Vegetables produce according to their likeness.
The same may be amongst Minerals and Elements, for all we can know.
But yet, some Creatures of one and the same sort, are not produced
after one and the same manner: As for example, One and the same sort
of Vegetables, may be produced after several manners, and yet, in the
effect, be the same, as when Vegetables are sowed, planted, engrafted;
as also, Seeds, Roots, and the like, they are several manners, or ways
of Productions, and yet will produce the same sort of Vegetable: but,
there will be much alterations in replanting, which is occasioned by
the change of associating Parts, and Parties; but as for the several

of several kinds and sorts, they are very different; as for example,
Animals are not produced as Vegetables, or Vegetables as Minerals, nor
Minerals as any of the rest: Nor are all Animals produced alike, nor
Minerals, or Vegetables; but after many different manners, or ways.
Neither are all Productions like their Producers; for, some are so far
from resembling their Figurative Society, that they produce another
kind, or sort of Composed Figures; as for example, Maggots out of
Cheese, other Worms out of Roots, Fruits, and the like: but these sorts
of Creatures, Man names _Insects_; but yet they are Animal Creatures,
as well as others.

CHAP. VI. Of Productions in general.

All Creatures are Produced, and Producers; and all these Productions
partake more or less of the Producers; and are necessitated so to do,
because there cannot be any thing New in Nature: for, whatsoever is
produced, is of the same Matter; nay, every particular Creature hath
its particular Parts: for, not any one Creature can be produced of
any other Parts than what produced it; neither can the same Producer
produce one and the same double, (as I may say to express my self:)
for, though the same Producers may produce the like, yet not the same:

for, every thing produced, hath its own Corporeal Figurative Motions;
but this might be, if Nature was not so full of variety: for, if all
those Corporeal Motions, or Self-moving Parts, did associate in the
like manner, and were the very same Parts, and move in the very same
manner; the same Production, or Creature, might be produced after it
was dissolved; but, by reason the Self-moving Parts of Nature are
always dividing and composing _from_, and _to_ Parts, it would be very
difficult, if not impossible.

CHAP. VII. Of Productions in general.

As there are Productions, or Compositions, made by the Sensitive
Corporeal Motions, so there are of the Rational Corporeal Motions,
which are Composed Figures of the Mind: And the reason the Rational
Productions are more various, as also more numerous, is, That the
Rational is more loose, free, and so more agil than the Sensitive;
which is also the reason that the Rational Productions require not such
degrees of Time, as the Sensitive. But I shall treat more upon this
Subject, when I treat of that Animal we name _MAN_.

CHAP. VII. _Lastly_, Of Productions in general.

Though all Creatures are made by the several Associations of
Self-moving Parts, or (as the Learned name them) _Corporeal Motions_;
yet, there are infinite varieties of Corporeal Figurative Motions, and
so infinite several manners and ways of Productions; as also, infinite
varieties of Figurative Motions in every produced Creature: Also, there
is variety in the difference of Time, of several Productions, and of
their Consistency and Dissolution: for, some Creatures are produced
in few Hours, others not in many Years. Again, some continue not a
Day; others, numbers of Years. But this is to be noted, That according
to the Regularity, or Irregularity of the Associating Motions, their
Productions are more or less perfect. Also, this is to be noted, That
there are Rational Productions, as well as Sensitive: for, though all
Creatures are composed both of Sensitive and Rational Parts, yet the
Rational Parts move after another manner.

CHAP. VIII. Productions must partake of some Parts of their Producers.

No Animal, or Vegetable, could be produced, but by such, or such
particular Producers; neither could an Animal, or Vegetable, be
produced without some Corporeal Motions of their Producers; that is,
some of the Producers Self-moving Parts; otherwise the like Actions
might produce, not only the like Creatures, but the same Creatures,
which is impossible: Wherefore, the things produced, are part of the
Producers; for, no particular Creature could be produced, but by such
particular Producers. But this is to be noted, That all sorts of
Creatures are produced by more, or fewer, Producers. Also, the first
Producers are but the first Founders of the things produced, but not
the only Builders: for, there are many several sorts of Corporeal
Motions, that are the Builders; for, no Creature can subsist, or
consist, by it self, but must assist, and be assisted: Yet, there are
some differences in all Productions, although of the same Producers;
otherwise all the Off-springs of one and the same Producer, would be
alike: And though, sometimes, their several Off-springs may be so
alike, as hardly to be distinguished; yet, that is so seldom, as it
appears as a wonder; but there is a property in all Productions, as,
for the Produced to belong as a Right and Property to the _Producer_.

CHAP. IX. Of Resemblances of several Off-springs, or Producers.

There are numerous kinds and sorts of Productions, and infinite manners
and ways, in the actions of Productions; which is the cause that the
Off-springs of the same Producers, are not so just alike, but that
they are distinguishable; but yet there may not only be resemblances
between particular Off-springs of the same Producers, as also of the
same sort; but, of different sorts of Creatures: but the Actions of all
Productions that are according to their own _Species_, are Imitating
Actions, but not Bare Imitations, as by an Incorporeal Motion; for
if so, then a covetous Woman, that loves Gold, might produce a Wedg
of Gold instead of a Child; also, _Virgins_ might be as Fruitful as
_Married Wives_.

CHAP. X. Of the Several Appearances of the Exterior Parts of One

Every altered Action of the Exterior Parts, causes an altered
Appearance: As for example, A Man, or the like Creature, doth not
appear when he is old, as when he was young; nor when he is sick, as
when he is well in health; no, nor when he is cold, as when he is
hot. Nor do they appear in several Passions alike: for, though Man
can best perceive the Alteration of his own Kind, or Sort; yet, other
Creatures have several Appearances, as well as Man; some of which, Man
may perceive, though not all, being of a different sort. And not only
Animals, but Vegetables, and Elements, have altered Appearances, and
many that are subject to Man's perception.

The Fourth Part.

CHAP. I. Of Animal Productions; and of the Differences between
Productions, and Transformations.

I understand Productions to be between Particulars; as, some particular
Creatures to produce other particular Creatures; but not to transform
from one sort of Creature, into another sort of Creature, as Cheese
into Maggots, and Fruit into Worms, &c. which, in some manner, is like
Metamorphosing. So by Transformation, the Intellectual Nature, as well
as the Exterior Form, is transform'd: Whereas Production transforms
only the Exterior Form, but not the Intellectual Nature; which is the
cause that such Transformations cannot return into their former state;
as a Worm to be a Fruit, or a Maggot a Cheese again, as formerly. Hence
I perceive, that all sorts of Fowls are partly Produced, and partly
Transformed: for, though an Egg be produced, yet a Chicken is but a
Transformed Egg.

CHAP. II. Of different Figurative Motions in MAN's Production.

All Creatures are produced by Degrees; which proves, That not any
Creature is produced, in perfection, by one Act, or Figurative Motion:
for, though the Producers are the first Founders, yet not the Builders.
But, as for Animal Creatures, there be some sorts that are composed of
many different Figurative Motions; amongst which sorts, is Mankind, who
has very different Figurative Parts, as Bones, Sinews, Nerves, Muscles,
Veins, Flesh, Skin, and Marrow, Blood, Choler, Flegm, Melancholy, and
the like; also, Head, Breast, Neck, Arms, Hands, Body, Belly, Thighs,
Leggs, Feet, &c. also, Brains, Lungs, Stomack, Heart, Liver, Midriff,
Kidnies, Bladder, Guts, and the like; and all these have several
actions, yet all agree as one, according to the property of that sort
of Creature named MAN.

CHAP. III. Of the Quickning of a Child, or any other sort of Animal

The Reason that a Woman, or such like Animal, doth not feel her Child
so soon as it is produced, is, That the Child cannot have an Animal
Motion, until it hath an Animal Nature, that is, until it be perfectly
an Animal Creature; and as soon as it is a perfect Child, she feels it
to move, according to its nature: but it is only the Sensitive Parts of
the Child that are felt by the Mother, not the Rational; because those
Parts are as the Designers, not the Builders; and therefore, being not
the Labouring Parts, are not the Sensible Parts. But it is to be noted,
That, according to the Regularity, or Irregularity of the Figurative
Motions, the Child is _well shaped_, or mishaped.

CHAP. IV. Of the Birth of a Child.

The reason why a Child, or such like Animal Creature, stays no longer
in the Mother's Body, than to such a certain Time, is, That a Child is
not Perfect before that time, and would be too big after that time; and
so big, that it would not have room enough; and therefore it strives
and labours for liberty.

CHAP. V. Of Mischances, or Miscarriages of Breeding Creatures.

When a Mare, Doe, Hind, or the like Animal, cast their Young, or a
Woman miscarries of her Child, the Mischance proceeds either through
the Irregularities of the Corporeal Motions, or Parts of the Child; or
through some Irregularity of the Parts of the Mother; or else of both
Mother and Child. If the Irregularities be of the Parts of the Child,
those Parts divide from the Mother, through their Irregularity: but,
if the Irregularity be in the Parts of the Mother, then the Mother
divides in some manner from the Child; and if there be a distemper in
both of them, the Child and Mother divide from each other: but, such
Mischances are at different times, some sooner, and some later. As for
false Conceptions, they are occasioned through the Irregularities of

CHAP. VI. Of the Encrease of Growth, and Strength of Mankind, or such
like Creatures.

The reason most Animals, especially Human Creatures, are weak whilst
they are Infants, and that their Strength and Growth encreases by
degrees, is, That a Child hath not so many Parts, as when he is a
Youth; nor so many Parts when he is a Youth, as when he is a Man:
for, after the Child is parted from the Mother, it is nourished by
other Creatures, as the Mother was, and the Child by the Mother; and
according as the nourishing Parts be Regular, or Irregular, so is the
Child, Youth, or Man, weaker, or stronger; healthful, or diseased; and
when the Figurative Motions move (as I may say for expression sake)
curiously, the Body is neatly shaped, and is, as we say, beautiful. But
this is to be noted, That 'tis not Greatness, or Bulk of Body, makes
a Body perfect; for, there are several sizes of every sort, or kind
of Creatures; as also, in every particular kind, or sort; and every
several size may be as perfect, one, as the other: But, I mean the
Number of Parts, according to the proper size.

CHAP. VII. Of the several Properties of the several Exterior Shapes of
several sorts of Animals.

The several Exterior Shapes of Creatures, cause several Properties,
as Running, Jumping, Hopping, Leaping, Climbing, Galloping, Trotting,
Ambling, Turning, Winding, and Rowling; also Creeping, Crawling,
Flying, Soaring or Towring; Swimming, Diving, Digging, Stinging or
Piercing; Pressing, Spinning, Weaving, Twisting, Printing, Carving,
Breaking, Drawing, Driving, Bearing, Carrying, Holding, Griping or
Grasping, Infolding, and Millions of the like. Also, the Exterior
Shapes cause Defences, as Horns, Claws, Teeth, Bills, Talons, Finns,
_&c._ Likewise, the Exterior Shapes cause Offences, and give Offences:
As also, the different sorts of Exterior Shapes, cause different
Exterior Perceptions.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Dividing and Uniting Parts of a particular Creature.

Those Parts (as I have said) that were the First Founders of an Animal,
or other sort of Creature, may not be constant Inhabitants: for, though

the Society may remain, the particular Parts may remove: Also, all
particular Societies of one kind, or sort, may not continue the like
time; but some may dissolve sooner than others. Also, some alter by
degrees, others of a sudden; but, of those Societies that continue, the
particular Parts remove, and other particular Parts unite; so, as some
Parts _were_ of the Society, so some other Parts are of the Society,
and _will be_ of the Society: But, when the Form, Frame, and Order
of the Society begins to alter, then that particular Creature begins
to decay. But this is to be noted, That those particular Creatures
that dye in their Childhood, or Youth, were never a full and regular
Society; and the dissolving of a Society, whether it be a Full, or
but a Forming Society, Man names _DEATH_. Also, this is to be noted,
That the Nourishing Motion of Food, is the Uniting Motion; and the
Cleansing, or Evacuating Motions, are the Dividing Corporeal Motions.
Likewise it is to be noted, That a Society requires a longer time of
uniting than of dividing; by reason uniting requires assistance of
Foreign Parts, whereas dividings are only a dividing of home-Parts.
Also, a particular Creature, or Society, is longer in dividing its
Parts, than in altering its Actions; because a Dispersing Action is
required in Division, but not in Alteration of Actions.

The Fifth Part.


Now I have discoursed, in the former Parts, after a general manner, of
_Animals_: I will, in the following Chapters, speak more particularly
of that sort we name _Mankind_; who believe (being ignorant of the
Nature of other Creatures) that they are the most knowing of all
Creatures; and yet a _whole Man_ (as I may say for expression-sake)
doth not know all the Figurative Motions belonging either to his Mind,
or Body: for, he doth not generally know every particular Action of
his Corporeal Motions, as, How he was framed, or formed, or perfected.
Nor doth he know every particular Motion that occasions his present

or Being: Nor every particular Digestive, or Nourishing Motion: Nor,
when he is sick, the particular Irregular Motion that causes his
Sickness. Nor do the Rational Motions in the Head, know always the
Figurative Actions of those of the Heel. In short, (as I said) Man doth
not generally know every particular Part, or Corporeal Motion, either
of Mind, or Body: Which proves, Man's Natural Soul is not inalterable,
or individable, and uncompoundable.

CHAP. II. Of the variety of Man's Natural Motions.

There is abundance of varieties of Figurative Motions in Man: As,
first, There are several Figurative Motions of the Form and Frame of
Man, as of his Innate, Interior, and Exterior Figurative Parts. Also,
there are several Figures of his several Perceptions, Conceptions,
Appetite, Digestions, Reparations, and the like. There are also several
Figures of several Postures of his several Parts; and a difference
of his Figurative Motions, or Parts, from other Creatures; all which
are Numberless: And yet all these different Actions are proper to the
Nature of _MAN_.

CHAP. III. Of Man's Shape and Speech.

The Shape of Man's Sensitive Body, is, in some manner, of a mixt Form:
but, he is singular in this, That he is of an upright and straight
Shape; of which, no other Animal but Man is: which Shape makes him
not only fit, proper, easie and free, for all exterior actions; but
also for Speech: for being streight, as in a straight and direct Line
from the Head to the Feet, so as his Nose, Mouth, Throat, Neck, Chest,
Stomack, Belly, Thighs, and Leggs, are from a straight Line: also,
his Organ-Pipes, Nerves, Sinews, and Joynts, are in a straight and
equal posture to each other; which is the cause, Man's Tongue, and
Organs, are more apt for Speech than those of any other Creature; which
makes him more apt to imitate any other Creature's Voyces, or Sounds:
Whereas other Animal Creatures, by reason of their bending Shapes, and
crooked Organs, are not apt for Speech; neither (in my Opinion) have
other Animals so melodious a Sound, or Voice, as Man: for, though some
sorts of Birds Voices are sweet, yet they are weak, and faint; and
Beasts Voices are harsh, and rude: but of all other Animals, besides
Man, Birds are the most apt for Speech; by reason they are more of an
upright shape, than Beasts, or any other sorts of Animal Creatures, as
Fish, and the like; for, Birds are of a straight and upright shape, as
from their Breasts, to their Heads; but, being not so straight as Man;
causes Birds to speak uneasily, and constrainedly: Man's shape is so
ingeniously contrived, that he is fit and proper for more several sorts
of exterior actions, than any other Animal Creature; which is the cause
he seems as Lord and Sovereign of other Animal Creatures.

CHAP. IV. Of the several Figurative Parts of Human Creatures.

The manner of Man's Composition, or Form, is of different Figurative
Parts; whereof some of those Parts seem the Supreme, or (as I may say)
Fundamental Parts; as the Head, Chest, Lungs, Stomack, Heart, Liver,
Spleen, Bowels, Reins, Kidnies, Gaul, and many more: also, those Parts
have other Figurative Parts belonging or adjoining to them, as the
Head, Scull, Brains, _Pia-mater, Dura-mater_, Forehead, Nose, Eyes,
Cheeks, Ears, Mouth, Tongue, and several Figurative Parts belonging to
those; so of the rest of the Parts, as the Arms, Hands, Fingers, Leggs,
Feet, Toes, and the like: all which different Parts, have different
sorts of Perceptions; and yet (as I formerly said) their Perceptions
are united: for, though all the Parts of the Human Body have different
Perceptions; yet those different perceptions unite in a general
Perception, both for the Subsistence, Consistence, and use of the
Whole Man: but, concerning Particulars, not only the several composed
Figurative Parts, have several sorts of Perceptions; but every Part
hath variety of Perceptions, occasioned by variety of Objects.

CHAP. V. Of the several Perceptions amongst the several Parts of MAN.

There being infinite several Corporeal Figurative Motions, or Actions
of Nature, there must of necessity be infinite several Self-knowledges
and Perceptions: but I shall only, in this Part of my Book, treat
of the Perception proper to Mankind: And first, of the several and
different Perceptions, proper for the several and different Parts:
for, though every Part and Particle of a Man's Body, is perceptive;
yet, every particular Part of a Man, is not generally perceived;
for, the Interior Parts do not generally perceive the Exterior;
nor the Exterior, generally or perfectly, the Interior; and yet,
both Interior and Exterior Corporeal Motions, agree as one Society;
for, every Part, or Corporeal Motion, knows its own Office; like as
Officers in a Common-wealth, although they may not be acquainted with
each other, yet they know their Employments: So every particular Man
in a Common-wealth, knows his own Employment, although he knows not
every Man in the Common-wealth. The same do the Parts of a Man's
Body, and Mind. But, if there be any Irregularity, or Disorder in a
Common-wealth, every Particular is disturbed, perceiving a Disorder
in the Common-wealth. The same amongst the Parts of a Man's Body;
and yet many of those Parts do not know the particular Cause of that
general Disturbance. As for the Disorders, they may proceed from some
Irregularities; but for Peace, there must be a general Agreement, that
is, every Part must be Regular.

CHAP. VI. Of Divided and Composed Perceptions.

As I have formerly said, There is in Nature both Divided and Composed
Perceptions; and for proof, I will mention Man's Exterior Perceptions;
As for example, Man hath a Composed Perception of Seeing, Hearing,
Smelling, Tasting, and Touching; whereof every several sort is
composed, though after different manners, or ways; and yet are divided,
being several sorts of Perceptions, and not all one Perception. Yet
again, they are all Composed, being united as proper Perceptions of one
Man; and not only so, but united to perceive the different Parts of one
Object: for, as Perceptions are composed of Parts, so are Objects; and
as there are different Objects, so there are different Perceptions;
but it is not possible for a Man to know all the several sorts of
Perceptions proper to every Composed Part of his Body or Mind, much
less of others.

CHAP. VII. Of the Ignorances of the several Perceptive Organs.

As I said, That every several composed Perception, was united to the
proper use of their whole Society, as one Man; yet, every several
Perceptive Organ of Man is ignorant of each other; as the Perception
of Sight is ignorant of that of Hearing; the Perception of Hearing, is
ignorant of the Perception of Seeing; and the Perception of Smelling
is ignorant of the Perceptions of the other two, and those of Scent,
and the same of Tasting, and Touching: Also, every Perception of every
particular Organ, is different; but some sorts of Human Perceptions
require some distance between them and the Object: As for example, The
Perception of Sight requires certain Distances, as also Magnitudes;
whereas the Perception of Touch requires a Joyning-Object, or Part.
But this is to be noted, That although these several Organs are not
perfectly, or throughly acquainted; yet in the Perception of the
several parts of one Object, they do all agree to make their several
Perceptions, as it were by one Act, at one point of time.

CHAP. VIII. Of the particular and general Perceptions of the Exterior
Parts of Human Creatures.

There is amongst the Exterior Perceptions of Human Creatures, both
particular sorts of Perceptions, and general Perceptions: For, though
none of the Exterior Parts, or Organs, have the sense of Seeing, but
the Eyes; of Hearing, but the Ears; of Smelling, but the Nose; of
Tasting, but the Mouth: yet all the Exterior Parts have the Perception
of Touching; and the reason is, That all the Exterior Parts are full
of pores, or at least, of such composed Parts, that are the sensible
Organs of Touching: yet, those several Parts have several Touches;
not only because they have several Parts, but because those Organs of
Touching, are differently composed. But this is to be noted, That every
several part hath perception of the other parts of their Society, as
they have of Foreign parts; and, as the Sensitive, so the Rational
parts have such particular and general perceptions. But it is to be
noted, That the Rational parts, are parts of the same Organs.

CHAP. IX. Of the Exterior Sensitive Organs of Human Creatures.

As for the manner, or ways, of all the several sorts, and particular
perceptions, made by the different composed parts of Human Creatures;
it is impossible, for a Human Creature, to know any otherwise, but
in part: for, being composed of parts, into Parties, he can have
but a parted knowledg, and a parted perception of himself: for,
every different composed part of his Body, have different sorts of
Self-knowledg, as also, different sorts of Perceptions; but yet, the
manner and way of some Human Perceptions, may probably be imagined,
especially those of the exterior parts, Man names the _Sensitive
Organs_; which Parts (in my opinion) have their perceptive actions,
after the manner of patterning, or picturing the exterior Form, or
Frame, of Foreign Objects: As for example, The present Object is a
Candle; the Human Organ of Sight pictures the Flame, Light, Week, or
Snuff, the Tallow, the Colour, and the dimension of the Candle; the
Ear patterns out the sparkling noise; the Nose patterns out the scent
of the Candle; and the Tongue may pattern out the tast of the Candle:
but, so soon as the Object is removed, the figure of the Candle is
altered into the present Object, or as much of one present Object, as
is subject to Human Perception. Thus the several parts or properties,
may be patterned out by the several Organs. Also, every altered action,
of one and the same Organ, are altered Perceptions; so as there may
be numbers of several pictures or Patterns made by the Sensitive
Actions of one Organ; I will not say, by one act; yet there may be
much variety in one action. But this is to be noted, That the Object
is not the _cause_ of Perception, but is only the _occasion_: for, the
Sensitive Organs can make such like figurative actions, were there no
Object present; which proves, that the Object is not the Cause of the
Perception. Also, when as the Sensitive parts of the Sensitive Organs,
are Irregular, they will make false perceptions of present Objects;
wherefore the Object is not the Cause. But one thing I desire, not to
be mistaken in; for I do not say, that all the parts belonging to any
of the particular Organs, move only in one sort or kind of perception;
but I say, Some of the parts of the Organ, move to such, or such
perception: for, all the actions of the Ears, are not only hearing;
and all the actions of the Eye, seeing; and all the actions of the
Nose, smelling; and all the actions of the Mouth, tasting; but, they
have other sorts of actions: yet, all the sorts of every Organ, are
according to the property of their figurative Composition.

CHAP. X. Of the Rational Parts of the Human Organs.

As for the Rational parts of the Human Organs, they move according to
the Sensitive parts, which is, to move according to the Figures of
Foreign Objects; and their actions are (if Regular) at the same point
of time, with the Sensitive: but, though their Actions are alike, yet
there is a difference in their Degree; for, the figure of an Object in
the Mind, is far more pure than the figure in the Sense. But, to prove
that the Rational (if Regular) moves with the Sense, is, That all the
several Sensitive perceptions of the Sensitive Organs, (as all the
several Sights, Sounds, Scents, Tasts, and Touches) are thoughts of the

CHAP. XI. Of the difference between the Human Conception, and

There are some differences between Perception, and Conception: for,
Perception doth properly belong to present Objects; whereas Conceptions
have no such strict dependency: But, Conceptions are not proper
to the Sensitive Organs, or parts of a Human Creature; wherefore,
the Sensitive never move in the manner of Conception, but after an
irregular manner; as when a Human Creature is in some violent Passion,
Mad, Weak, or the like Distempers. But this is to be noted, That all
sorts of Fancies, Imaginations, _&c._ whether Sensitive, or Rational,
are after the manner of Conceptions, that is, do move by Rote, and not
by Example. Also, it is to be noted, That the Rational parts can move
in more various Figurative Actions than the Sensitive; which is the
cause that a Human Creature hath more Conceptions than Perceptions; so
that the Mind can please it self with more variety of Thoughts than
the Sensitive with variety of Objects: for variety of Objects consists
of Foreign Parts; whereas variety of Conceptions consists only of
their own Parts: Also, the Sensitive Parts are sooner satisfied with
the perception of particular Objects, than the Mind with particular

CHAP. XII. Of the Several Varieties of Actions of Human Creatures.

To speak of all the Several Actions of the Sensitive and Rational
parts of one Creature, is not possible, being numberless: but, some
of those that are most notable, I will mention, as, Respirations,
Digestions, Nourishments, Appetites, Satiety, Aversions, Conceptions,
Opinions, Fancies, Passions, Memory, Remembrance, Reasoning, Examining,
Considering, Observing, Distinguishing, Contriving, Arguing, Approving,
Disapproving, Discoveries, Arts, Sciences. The Exterior Actions are,
Walking, Running, Dancing, Turning, Tumbling, Bearing, Carrying,
Holding, Striking, Trembling, Sighing, Groaning, Weeping, Frowning,
Laughing, Speaking, Singing and Whistling: As for Postures, they cannot
be well described; only, Standing, Sitting, and Lying.

CHAP. XIII. Of the manner of Information between the Rational and
Sensitive Parts.

The manner of Information amongst the Self-moving Parts of a Human
Creature, is after divers and several manners, or ways, amongst the
several parts: but, the manner of Information between the Sensitive
and Rational parts, is, for the most part, by Imitation; as, imitating
each other's actions: As for example, The Rational parts invent some
Sciences; the Sensitive endeavour to put those Sciences into an Art.
If the Rational perceive the Sensitive actions are not just, according
to that Science, they inform the Sensitive; then the Sensitive Parts
endeavour to work, according to the directions of the Rational: but,
if there be some obstruction or hindrance, then the Rational and
Sensitive agree to declare their Design, and to require assistance of
other Associates, which are other Men; as also, other Creatures. As for
the several Manners and Informations between Man and Man, they are so
ordinary, I shall not need to mention them.

CHAP. XIV. Of Irregularities and Regularities of the Self-moving Parts
of Human Creatures.

Nature being poised, there must of necessity be Irregularities, as well
as Regularities, both of the Rational and Sensitive parts; but when
the Rational are Irregular, and the Sensitive Regular, the Sensitive
endeavour to rectifie the Errors of the Rational. And if the Sensitive
be Irregular, and the Rational Regular, the Rational do endeavour to
rectifie the Errors of the Sensitive: for, the particular parts of a
Society, are very much assistant to each other; as we may observe by
the Exterior parts of Human Bodies; the Hands endeavour to assist any
part in distress; the Leggs will run, the Eyes will watch, the Ears
will listen, for any advantage to the Society; but when there is a
general Irregularity, then the Society falls to ruine.

CHAP. XV. Of the Agreeing, or Disagreeing, of the Sensitive and
Rational Parts of Human Creatures.

There is, for the most part, a general agreement between the Rational
and Sensitive Parts of Human Creatures; not only in their particular,
but general actions; only the Rational are the Designing-parts; and
the Sensitive, the Labouring parts: As for proof, The Mind designs to
go to such, or such Foreign Parts, or Places; upon which design the
Sensitive Parts will labour to execute the Mind's intention, so as the
whole Sensitive Body labours to go to the designed place, without the
Mind's further Concern: for, the Mind takes no notice of every action
of the Sensitive parts; neither of those of the Eyes, Ears; or of the
Leggs, or feet; nor of their perceptions: for, many times, the Mind
is busied in some Conception, Imagination, Fancy, or the like; and
yet the Sensitive Parts execute the Mind's Design exactly. But, for
better proof, When as the Sensitive parts are sick, weak, or defective,
through some irregularities, the Sensitive parts cannot execute the
Mind's Design: also, when the Sensitive parts are careless, they oft
mistake their way; or when they are irregularly opposed, or busied
about some Appetite, they will not obey the Mind's desire; all which

are different degrees of Parts. But, as it is amongst the particular
parts of a Society; so, many times, between several Societies; for,
sometimes, the Sensitive parts of two Men will take no notice of each
other: As for example, When two men speak together, one man regards not
what the other says; so many times, the Sensitive parts regard not the
Propositions of the Rational; but then the Sensitive is not perfectly

CHAP. XVI. Of the Power of the Rational; or rather, of the Indulgency
of the Sensitive.

The Rational Corporeal Motions, being the purest, most free, and so
most active, have great power over the Sensitive; as to perswade, or
command them to obedience: As for example, When a man is studying about
some Inventions of Poetical Fancies, or the like; though the Sensitive
Corporeal Motions, in the Sensitive Organs, desire to desist from
patterning of Objects, and would move towards sleep; yet the Rational
will not suffer them, but causes them to work, viz. to write, or to
read, or do some other Labour: Also, when the Rational Mind is merry,
it will cause the Leggs to dance, the Organs of the Voice to sing, the
Mouth to speak, to eat, to drink, and the like: If the Mind moves to
sadness, it causes the Eyes to weep, the Lungs to sigh, the Mouth to
speak words of Complaint. Thus the Rational Corporeal Motions of the
Mind, will occasion the Senses to watch, to work, or to sport and play.
But mistake me not; for I do not mean, the Senses are bound to obey
the Rational Designs; for, the Sensitive Corporeal Motions, have as
much freedom of Self-moving, as the Rational: for, the Command of the
Rational, and the Obedience of the Sensitive, is rather an Agreement,
than a Constraint: for, in many cases, the Sensitive will not agree,
and so not obey: also, in many cases, the Rational submits to the
Sensitive: also, the Rational sometimes will be irregular; and, on the
other side, sometimes the Sensitive will be irregular, and the Rational
regular; and sometimes both irregular.

CHAP. XVII. Of Human Appetites and Passions.

The Sensitive Appetites, and the Rational Passions do so resemble each
other, as they would puzzle the most wise Philosopher to distinguish
them; and there is not only a Resemblance, but, for the most part, a
sympathetical Agreement between the Appetites, and the Passions; which
strong conjunction, doth often occasion disturbances to the whole life
of Man; with endless Desires, unsatiable Appetites, violent

Passions, unquiet Humors, Grief, Pain, Sadness, Sickness, and the like;
through which, Man seems to be more restless, than any other Creature:
but, whether the cause be in the Manner, or Form of Man's Composition,
or occasioned by some Irregularities; I will leave to those who are
wiser than I, to judg. But this is to be noted, That the more Changes
and Alterations the Rational and Sensitive Motions make, the more
variety of Passions and Appetites the Man hath: also, the quicker the
Motions are, the sharper Appetite, and the quicker Wit, Man hath. But,
as all the Human Senses are not bound to one Organ; so all Knowledges
are not bound to one Sense, no more than all the Parts of Matter to the
composition of one particular Creature: but, by some of the Rational
and Sensitive actions, we may perceive the difference of some of the
Sensitive and Rational actions; as, Sensitive Pain, Rational Grief;
Sensitive Pleasure, Rational delight; Sensitive Appetite, Rational
Desire; which are sympathetical actions of the Rational and Sensitive
Parts: Also, through sympathy, Rational Passions will occasion
Sensitive Appetites; and Appetites, the like Passions.

CHAP. XVIII. Of the Rational Actions of the Head and Heart of Human

As I formerly said, In every Figurative Part of a Human Creature, the
Actions are different, according to the Property of their different
Composers; so that the Motions of the Heart are different to the
Motions of the Head, and of the other several Parts: but, as for the
Motions of the Head, they are (in my Opinion) more after the manner of
Emboss'd Figures; and those of the Heart, more after the manner of Flat
Figures; like Painting, Printing, Engraving, _&c._ For, if we observe,
the Thoughts in our Heads are different from the Thoughts in our
Hearts. I only name these two Parts, by reason they seem to sympathize,
or to agree, more particularly to each other's actions, than some of
the other Parts of Human Creatures.

CHAP. XIX. Of Passions and Imaginations.

Some sorts of Passions seem to be in the Heart; as, Love, Hate, Grief,
Joy, Fear, and the like; and all Imaginations, Fancies, Opinions,
Inventions, _&c._ in the Head. But, mistake me not, I do not say, that
none of the other Parts of a Man have not Passions and Conceptions:
but, I say, they are not after the same manner, or way, as in the
Heart, or Head: as for example, Every Part of a Man's Body is sensible,
yet not after one and the same manner: for, every Part of a Man's Body
hath different perceptions, as I have formerly declared, and yet may
agree in general actions: but, unless the several composed Parts of a
Human Creature, had not several perceptive actions, it were impossible
to make a general perception, either amongst the several Parts of their
own Society, or of Foreign Objects. But, it is impossible for me to
describe the different manners and ways of the particular Parts, or
the different actions of any one Part: for, what Man can describe the
different perceptive actions of that composed Part, the Eye, and so of
the rest of the Parts.

CHAP. XX. That Associations, Divisions, and Alterations, cause several

The Rational and Sensitive Corporeal Motions, are the perceptive Parts
of Nature; and that which causes acquaintance amongst some parts, is
their Uniting and Association: That which loses acquaintance of other
Parts, is their Divisions and Alterations: for, as Self-compositions
cause particular Knowledges, or Acquaintances: So Self-divisions cause
particular Ignorances, or Forgetfulnesses: for, as all kinds and sorts
of Creatures are produced, nourished, and encreased by the Association
of Parts; so are all kinds and sorts of Perceptions; and according
as their Associations, or their Compositions do last, so doth their
Acquaintance; which is the cause, that the Observations and Experiences
of several and particular Creatures, such as Men, in several and
particular Ages, joyned as into one Man or Age, causes strong and
long-liv'd Opinions, subtile and ingenious Inventions, happy and
profitable Advantages; as also, probable Conjectures, and many Truths,
of many Causes and Effects: Whereas, the Divisions of particular
Societies, causes what we name Death, Ignorance, Forgetfulness,
Obscurity of particular Creatures, and of perceptive Knowledges; so
that as particular perceptive Knowledges do alter and change, so do
particular Creatures: for, though the Kinds and Sorts last, yet the
Particulars do not.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Differences between Self-Love, and Passionate Love.

Self-love, is like Self-knowledg, which is an innate Nature; and
therefore is not that Love Man names Passionate Love: for, _Passionate
Love_ belongs to several Parts; so that the several parts of one
Society, as one Creature, have both Passionate Love, and Self-love, as
being sympathetically united in one Society: Also, not only the Parts
of one and the same Society, may have Passionate Love to each other;
but, between several Societies; and not only several Societies of one
Sort, but of different Sorts.

The Sixth Part.

CHAP. I. Of the Motions of some parts of the Mind; and of Forrein

Notions, Imaginations, Conceptions, and the like, are such Actions
of the Mind, as concern not Forrein Objects: and some Notions,
Imaginations, or Conceptions of one man, may be like to another man,
or many men. Also, the Mind of one man may move in the like Figurative
Actions, as the Sensitive Actions of other sorts of Creatures; and
that, Man names _Understanding_: and if those Conceptions be afterwards
produced, Man names them _Prudence_, or _Fore-sight_; but if those
Parts move in such Inventions as are capable to be put into Arts,
Man names that, _Ingenuity_: but, if not capable to be put into the
practice of Arts, Man names it, _Sciences_: if those Motions be so
subtile, that the Sensitive cannot imitate them, Man names them,
_Fancies_: but, when those Rational Parts move promiscuously, as partly
after their own inventions, and partly after the manner of Forrein or
outward Objects; Man names them, _Conjectures_, or _Probabilities_:
and when there are very many several Figurative, Rational Motions,
then Man says, _The Mind is full of Thoughts_: when those Rational
Figurative Motions, are of many and different Objects, Man names them,
_Experiences_, or _Learning_: but, when there are but few different
sorts of such Figurative Motions, Man names them _Ignorances_.

CHAP. II. Of the Motions of some Parts of the Mind.

When the Rational Figurative Corporeal Motions of an Human Creature,
take no notice of Forrein Objects, Man nameth that, _Musing_, or
_Contemplating_. And, when the Rational Parts repeat some former
Actions, Man names that, _Remembrances_. But, when those Parts alter
those Repetitions, Man names that, _Forgetfulness_. And, when those
Rational Parts move, according to a present Object, Man names it,
_Memory_. And when those Parts divide in divers sorts of Actions, Man
names it, _Arguing_, or _Disputing in the Mind_. And when those divers
sorts of Actions are at some strife, Man names it, _A contradicting of
himself_. And if there be a weak strife, Man names it, _Consideration_.
But, when those different Figurative Motions move of one accord,
and sympathetically, this Man names, _Discretion_. But, when those
different sorts of Actions move sympathetically, and continue in that
manner of action, without any alteration, Man names it, _Belief,
Faith_, or _Obstinacy_. And when those Parts make often changes, as
altering their Motions, Man names it _Inconstancy_. When their Rational
Parts move slowly, orderly, equally, and sympathetically, Man names
it _Sobriety_. When all the Parts of the Mind move regularly, and
sympathetically, Man names it, _Wisdom_. When some Parts move partly
regularly, and partly irregularly, Man names that, _Foolishness_,
and _Simplicity_. When they move generally irregularly, Man names it

CHAP. III. Of the Motions of Human Passions, and Appetites; as also,
of the Motions of the Rational and Sensitive Parts, towards Forrein

When some of the Rational Parts move sympathetically, to some of the
Sensitive Perceptions; and those Sensitive Parts sympathize to the
Object, it is _Love_. If they move antipathetically to the Object,
it is _Hate_. When those Rational and Sensitive Motions, make many
and quick repetitions of those sympathetical actions, it is _Desire_
and _Appetite_. When those Parts move variously, (as concerning the
Object) but yet sympathetically (concerning their own Parts) it is
_Inconstancy_. When those Motions move cross towards the Object, and
are perturbed, it is _Anger_. But when those perturbed Motions are
in confusion, it is _Fear_. When the Rational Motions are partly
sympathetical, and partly antipathetical, it is _Hope_, and _Doubt_.
And if there be more sympathetical Motions than antipathetical, there
is more _Hope_ than _Doubt_. If more antipathetical than sympathetical,
then more _Doubt_ than _Hope_. If those Rational Motions move after
a dilating manner, it is _Joy_. If after a contracting manner, it
is _Grief_. When those Parts move partly after a contracting, and
partly after an attracting manner, as attracting from the Object, it
is _Covetousness_. But, if those Motions are sympathetical to the
Object, and move after a dilating manner towards the Object, it is
_Generosity_. If those Motions are sympathetical to the Object, and
move after the manner of a Contraction, it is _Pity_ or _Compassion_.
If those Motions move antipathetically towards the Object, yet after a
dilating manner, it is _Pride_. When those Motions move sympathetically
towards the Object, after a dilating manner, it is _Admiration_. If
the dilating Action is not extream, it is only _Approving_. If those
Motions are antipathetical towards the Object, and are after the manner
of an extream contraction, it is _Horror_. But, if those Actions are
not so extraordinary as to be extream, it is only _Disapproving,
Despising, Rejecting_, or _Scorning_. If the Rational Parts move
carelesly towards Forrein Objects, as also partly antipathetically, Man
nameth it, _Ill-nature_. But, if sympathetically and industriously, Man
nameth it, _Good-nature_. But this is to be noted, That there are many
sorts of Motions of one and the same kind; and many several particular
Motions, of one sort of Motion; which causes some difference in the
Effects: but, they are so nearly related, that it requires a more
subtile Observation than I have, to distinguish them.

CHAP. IV. Of the Repetitions of the Sensitive and Rational Actions.

Both the Rational and Sensitive Corporeal Motions, make often
Repetitions of one and the same Actions: The Sensitive Repetitions, Man
nameth, _Custom_. The Rational Repetitions, Man nameth, _Remembrances_:
for, Repetitions cause a facility amongst the Sensitive Parts; but yet,
in some Repeating Actions, the Senses seem to be tired, being

naturally delighted in variety. Also, by the Rational Repetitions, the
Mind is either delighted, or displeased; and sometimes, partly pleased,
and partly displeased: for, the Mind is as much pleased, or displeased
in the absence of an Object, as in the presence; only the Pleasure, and
Displeasure of the Senses, is not joyned with the Rational: for, the
Sense, if Regular, makes the most perfect Copies when the Object is
present: but, the Rational can make as perfect Copies in the absence,
as in the presence of the Object; which is the cause that the Mind is
as much delighted, or grieved, in the absence of an Object, as with the
presence: As for example, A Man is as much grieved when he knows his
Friend is wounded, or dead, as if he had seen his Wounds, or had seen
him dead: for, the Picture of the dead Friend, is in the mind of the
living Friend; and if the dead Friend was before his Eyes, he could but
have his Picture in his mind; which is the same for an absent Friend
alive; only, as I said, there is wanting the Sensitive Perception of
the absent Object: And certainly, the Parts of the Mind have greater
advantage than the Sensitive Parts; for, the Mind can enjoy that which
is not subject to the Sense; as those things Man names, _Castles in the
Air_, or _Poetical Fancies_; which is the reason Man can enjoy Worlds
of its own making, without the assistance of the Sensitive Parts; and
can govern and command those Worlds; as also, dissolve and compose
several Worlds, as he pleases: but certainly, as the pleasures of the
Rational Parts are beyond those of the Sensitive, so are their Troubles.

CHAP. V. Of the Passionate Love, and Sympathetical Endeavours, amongst
the Associate Parts of a Human Creature.

In every Regular Human Society, there is a Passionate Love amongst
the Associated Parts, like fellow-Students of one Colledg, or
fellow-Servants in one House, or Brethren in one Family, or Subjects in
one Nation, or Communicants in one Church: So the Self-moving Parts of
a Human Creature, being associated, love one another, and therefore do
endeavour to keep their Society from dissolving. But perceiving, by the
example of the lives of the same sort of Creatures, that the property
of their Nature is such, that they must dissolve in a short time,
this causes these Human sorts of Creatures, (being very ingenuous) to
endeavour an after-life: but, perceiving again, that their after-life
cannot be the same as the present life is, they endeavour (since they
cannot keep their own Society from dissolving) that their Society may
remain in remembrance amongst the particular and general Societies of
the same sort of Creatures, which we name Mankind: And this Design
causes all the Sensitive and Rational Parts, in one Society, to be
industrious, to leave some Mark for a lasting Remembrance, amongst
their fellow-Creatures: which general remembrance, Man calls _Fame_;
for which _Fame_, the Rational Parts are industrious to design the
manner and way, and the Sensitive Parts are industrious to put those
Designs in execution; as, their Inventions, into Arts or Sciences;
or to cause their Heroick or Prudent, Generous or Pious Actions;
their Learning, or witty Fancies, or subtile Conceptions, or their
industrious Observations, or their ingenious Inventions, to be set
in Print; or their Exterior Effigies to be cast, cut, or engraven in
Brass, or Stone, or to be painted; or they endeavour to build Houses,
or cut Rivers, to bear their Names; and millions of other Marks,
for remembrance, they are industrious to leave to the perception of
after-Ages: And many men are so desirous of this after-life, that they
would willingly quit their present life, by reason of its shortness, to
gain this after-life, because of the probability of a long continuance;
and not only to live so in many several Ages, but in many several
Nations. And amongst the number of those that prefer a long after-life,
before a short present life, I am one. But, some men dispute against
these Desires, saying, That _it doth a man no good to be remembred
when he is dead_. I answer: It is very pleasing, whilst as man lives,
to have in his Mind, or in his Sense, the Effigies of the Person, and
of the good Actions of his Friend, although he cannot have his present
company. Also, it is very pleasant to any body to believe, that the
Effigies either of his own Person, or Actions, or both, are in the Mind
of his Friend, when he is absent from him; and, in this case, Absence
and Death are much alike. But, in short, God lives no other ways
amongst his Creatures, but in their Rational Thoughts, and Sensitive


As there are Perceptive Acquaintances amongst the Parts of a Human
Creature; so there is a Perceptive Acquaintance between, or amongst
the Human sorts of Creatures. But, mistake me not; for I do not say,
Men only are acquainted with each other; for, there is not only an
Acquaintance amongst every particular sort, as between one and the
same sort of Creatures, but there are some Acquaintances between some
sorts of different kinds: as for example, Between some sorts of Beasts,
and Men; as also, some sorts of Birds, and Men, which understand
each other, I will not say, so well as Man and Man; but so well, as
to understand each other's Passions: but certainly, every particular
sort of Creatures, of one and the same kind, understand each other, as
well as Men understand one another; and yet, for all that, they may be
unacquainted: for, Acquaintance proceeds from Association; so that,
some Men, and some Beasts, by Association, may be acquainted with each
other; when as some Men, not associating, are meer strangers. The truth
is, Acquaintance belongs rather to Particularities, than Generalities.

CHAP. VII. Of the Effects of Forrein Objects of the Sensitive Body; and
of the Rational Mind of a Human Creature.

According as the Rational Parts are affected, or disaffected with
Forrein Objects, the Sensitive is apt to express the like affections,
or disaffections: for, most Forrein Objects occasion either pleasure
and delight, or displeasure and dislike: but, the effects of Forrein
Objects are very many, and, many times very different; as, some Objects
of Devotion, occasion a Fear, or Superstition, and Repentance in the
Mind; and the Mind occasions the Sensitive Parts to several actions,
as, Praying, Acknowledging Faults, Begging pardon, making Vows,
imploring Mercy, and the like, in words: also, the Body bows, the
Knees bend, the Eyes weep, the hands hold up, and many the like devout
actions. Other sorts of Objects occasion pity and compassion in the
Mind, which occasions the Sensitive Parts to attend the sick, relieve
the poor, help the distressed, and many more actions of Compassion.
Other sorts of Forrein Objects, occasion the Rational Mind to be dull
and melancholy; and then the Sensitive Parts are dull, making no
variety of Appetites, or regard Forrein Objects. Other sorts of Objects
occasion the Mind to be vain and ambitious, and often to be proud; and
those occasion the Sensitive Actions to be adventurous and bold; the
Countenance of the face, scornful; the Garb of the Body, stately; the
Words, vaunting, boasting, or bragging. Other Objects occasion the
Mind to be furious; and then the Sensitive Actions are, Cursing Words,
Frowning Countenances, the Leggs stamping, the Hands and Arms fighting,
and the whole Body in a furious posture. Other sorts of Objects
occasion the Mind to a passionate Love; and then the Sensitive Actions
are, Flattering, Professing, Protesting in words, the Countenance
smiling, the Eyes glancing; also, the Body bows, the Leggs scrape, the
Mouth kisses: also, the Hands mend their Garments, and do many of the
like amorous actions. Other Objects occasion the Mind to Valour; and
then the Sensitive Actions are, Daring, Encouraging, or Animating.
Other Objects occasion the Mind to Mirth, or Cheerfulness; and they
occasion the Sensitive Actions of the Voice, to Sing, or Laugh; the
Words to be jesting, the Hands to be toying, the Leggs to be dancing.
Other sorts of Objects occasion the Mind to be Prudent; and then the
Sensitive Actions, are Sparing or Frugal. Other sorts of Objects
occasion the Mind to be Envious, or Malicious; and then the Sensitive
Actions are Mischievous. There are great numbers of Occasional Actions,
but these are sufficient to prove, _That Sense and Reason understand
each other's Actions or Designs_.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Advantage and Disadvantage of the Encounters of
several Creatures.

There is a strong Sympathy between the Rational and Sensitive Parts, in
one and the same Society, or Creature: not only for their Consistency,
Subsistency, Use, Ease, Pleasure, and Delight; but, for their Safety,
Guard, and Defence: as for example, When one Creature assaults another,
then all the Powers, Faculties, Properties, Ingenuities, Agilities,
Proportions, and Shape, of the Parts of the Assaulted, unite against
the Assaulter, in the defence of every particular Part of their whole
Society; in which Encounter, the Rational advises, and the Sensitive
labours. But this is to be noted concerning advantage and disadvantage
in such Encounters, That some sorts of Creatures have their advantage
in the Exterior Shape, others meerly in the Number of Parts; others in
the agility of their Parts, and some by the ingenuity of their parts:
but, for the most part, the greater Number have advantage over the
less, if the greater number of Parts be as regular, and as ingenious
as the less number: but, if the less number be more regular, and more
ingenious than the greater, then 'tis a hundred to one but the less
number of Parts have the advantage.

CHAP. IX. That All Human Creatures have the like Kinds and Sorts of

All Human Creatures have the like Kinds and Sorts of Properties,
Faculties, Respirations, and Perceptions; unless some Irregularities
in the Production, occasion some Imperfections, or some Misfortunes,
in some time of his Age: yet, no Man knows what another Man perceives,
but by guess, or information of the Party: but, as I said, if they
have have no Imperfections, all Human Creatures have like Properties,
Faculties, and Perceptions: As for example, All Human Eyes may see
one and the same Object alike; or hear the same Tune, or Sound; and
so of the rest of the Senses. They have also the like Respirations,
Digestions, Appetites; and the like may be said of all the Properties
belonging to a Human Creature. But, as one Human Creature doth not know
what another Human Creature knows, but by Confederacy; so, no Part of
the Body, or Mind of a Man, knows each Part's perceptive knowledg, but
by Confederacy: so that, there is as much Ignorance amongst the Parts
of Nature, as Knowledg. But this is to be noted, That there are several
manners and ways of Intelligences, not only between several sorts
of Creatures, or amongst particulars of one sort of Creatures; but,
amongst the several Parts of one and the same Creature.

CHAP. X. Of the Irregularity of the Sensitive, and of the Rational
Corporeal Motions.

As I have often mentioned, and do here again repeat, That the Rational
and Sensitive Parts of one Society, or Creature, do understand, as
perceiving each other's Self-moving Parts; and the proof is, That,
sometimes, the Human Sense is regular, and the Human Reason irregular;
and sometimes the Reason regular, and the Sense irregular: but, in
these differences, the Regular Parts endeavour to reform the Irregular;
which causes, many times, repetitions of one and the same Actions,
and Examinations; as, sometimes the Reason examines the Sense; and
sometimes the Sense, the Reason: and sometimes the Sense and Reason do
examine the Object; for, sometimes an Object will delude both the Sense
and Reason; and sometimes the Sense and Reason are but partly mistaken:
As for example, A fired end of a Stick, by a swift exterior Circular
Motion, appears a Circle of fire, in which they are not deceived:
for, by the Exterior Motion, the fired end is a Circle; but they are
mistaken, to conceive the Exterior Figurative Action to be the proper
natural Figure: but when one man mistakes another, that is some small
Error, both of the Sense and Reason. Also, when one man cannot readily
remember another man, with whom he had formerly been acquainted, it is
an Error; and such small Errors, the Sense and Reason do soon rectifie:
but in causes of high Irregularities, as in Madness, Sickness, and the
like, there is a great Bustle amongst the Parts of a Human Creature;
so as those Disturbances cause unnecessary Fears, Grief, Anger, and
strange Imaginations.

CHAP. XI. Of the Knowledg between the Sensitive Organs of a Human

The Sensitive Organs are only ignorant of each other, as they are
of Forrein Objects: for, as all the Parts of Forrein Objects, are
not subject to one Sensitive Organ; so all the Sensitive Organs are
not subject to each Sensitive Organ of a Human Creature: yet, in the
perceptive Actions of Forrein Objects, they do so agree, that they make
an united Knowledg: Thus we may be particularly ignorant one way, and
yet have a general Knowledg another way.

CHAP. XII. Of Human Perception, or Defects of a Human Creature.

It is not the great quantity of Brain, that makes a Man wise; nor a
little quantity, that makes a Man foolish: but, the irregular, or
regular Rational Corporeal Motions of the Head, Heart, and the rest
of the Parts, that causes dull Understandings, short Memories, weak
Judgments, violent Passions, extravagant Imaginations, wild Fancies,
and the like. The same must be said of the Sensitive Irregular
Corporeal Motions, which make Weakness, Pain, Sickness, disordered
Appetites, and perturbed Perceptions, and the like: for, Nature
poysing her Actions by Opposites, there must needs be Irregularities,
as well as Regularities; which is the cause that seldom any Creature
is so exact, but there is some Exception. But, when the Sensitive and
Rational Corporeal Motions are regular, and move sympathetically,
then the Body is healthful and strong, the Mind in peace and quiet,
understands well, and is judicious: and, in short, there are perfect
Perceptions, proper Digestions, easie Respirations, regular Passions,
temperate Appetites. But when the Rational Corporeal Motions are
curious in their change of Actions, there are subtile Conceptions,
and elevated Fancies: and when the Sensitive Corporeal Motions move
with curiosity, (as I may say) then there are perfect Senses, exact
Proportions, equal Temperaments; and that, Man calls _Beauty_.


There is great difference between a Natural Fool, and a Mad Man: for,
Madness is a Disease, but a Natural Fool is a Defect; which Defect was
some Error in his Production, that is, in the form and frame either
of the Mind, or Sense, or both; for, the Sense may be a Natural Fool
as well as the Reason; as we may observe in those sorts of Fools whom
we name _Changelings_, whose Body is not only deformed, but all the
Postures of the Body are defective, and appear as so many fools: but
sometimes, only some Parts are fools; as for example; If a Man be born
Blind, then only his Eyes are Fools; if Deaf, then only his Ears are
Fools, which occasions his dumbness; Ears being the informing Parts,
to speak; and wanting those informations, he cannot speak a Language.
Also, if a Man is born lame, his Leggs are Fools; that is, those Parts
have no knowledg of such Properties that belong to such Parts; but the
Sensitive Parts may be wise, as being knowing; and the Rational Parts
may be defective; which Defects, Man names _Irrational_. But this
is to be noted, That there may be Natural and Accidental Fools, by
some extraordinary Frights, or by extraordinary Sickness, or through
the defects of Old Age. As for the Errors of Production, they are
incurable; as also, those of Old Age; the First being an Error in
the very Foundation, and the other a Decay of the whole Frame of the
Building: for, after a Human Creature is brought to that perfection, as
to be, as we may say, at full growth and strength, at the prime of his
age; the Human Motions, and the very Nature of Man, after that time,
begins to decay; for then the Human Motions begin to move rather to the
dissolution, than to the continuance; although some Men last to very
old Age, by reason the unity of their Society is regular and orderly,
and moves so Sympathetically, as to commit few or no Disorders, or
Irregularities; and such old Men are, for the most part, Healthful,
and very wise, through long Experience; and their Society having got
a habit of Regularity, is not apt to be disturbed by Forrein Parts.
But this is to be noted, That sometimes the Sensitive Body decays,
before the Rational Mind; and sometimes the Rational Mind, before
the Sensitive Body. Also, this is to be noted, That when the Body is
defective, but not the Mind; then the Mind is very industrious to find
out Inventions of Art, to help the Defects that are natural. But pray
mistake me not; for I do not say, That _all_ Deformities, or Defects,
but only _some_ particular sorts of Deformity, or Defects, are Foolish.

The Seventh Part.

CHAP. I. Of the Sensitive Actions of Sleeping and Waking.

The Sensitive and Rational Corporeal Figurative Motions, are the cause
of infinite varieties: for, though Repetitions make no varieties;
yet, every altered action is a variety: Also, different Actions, make
different Effects; opposite Actions, opposite Effects; not only of
the actions of the several Self-moving Parts, or Corporeal Motions,
but of the same Parts: As for example, The same Parts, or Corporeal
Motions, may move from that, Man names _Life_, to that which Man names
_Death_; or, from Health to Sickness, from Ease to Pain, from Memory to
Forgetfulness, from Forgetfulness to Remembrance, from Love to Hate,
from Grief to Joy, from Irregularity to Regularity; or, from Regularity
to Irregularity, and the like; and from one Perception to another: for,
though all actions are perceptive, yet there are several kinds, several
sorts, and several particular perceptions: But, amongst the several
Corporeal Motions of Animal, or Human kind, there are the opposite
Motions of what we name _Waking_, and _Sleeping_; the difference
is, That Waking-actions are, most commonly, actions of Imitation,
especially of the Sensitive Parts; and are more the Exterior, than
the Interior actions of a Human Creature. But, the actions of Sleep,
are the alterations of the Exterior Corporeal Motions, moving more
interiorly, as it were inwardly, and voluntarily: As for example, The
Optick Corporeal Motions, in Waking-actions, work, or move, according
to the outward Object: but, in Sleeping-actions, they move by rote, or
without Examples; also, as I said, they move, as it were, inwardly;
like as a Man should turn himself inward, or outward, of a door,
without removing from the door, or out of the place he stood in.


Although the Rational and Sensitive Corporeal Motions, can never be
tired, or weary of moving or acting, by reason it is their nature to
be a perpetual Corporeal Motion; yet they may be weary, or tired with
particular actions. Also, it is easier and more delightful, to move by
Rote, than to take Copies, or Patterns; which is the reason that Sleep
is easie and gentle, if the Corporeal Motions be regular; but if they
be irregular, Sleep is perturbed. But this is to be noted, That the
Corporeal Motions delight in varieties so well, that, many times, many
and various Objects will cause the Sensitive and Rational Corporeal
Motions in a Man, to retard their actions of Sleep; and, oft-times,
want of variety of Forrein or outward Objects, will occasion the action
of Sleep; or else Musing and Contemplating actions. Also, it is to be
noted, That if some Parts of the Body, or Mind, be distempered with
Irregularities, it occasions such disturbances to the Whole, as hinders
that repose; but if the Regular Parts endeavour not to be disturbed
with the Irregular; and the Irregulars do disturb the Regular; then
it occasions that which Man names, _Half-sleeps_, or _Slumbers_, or
_Drowsiness_. And if the Regular Corporeal Motions get

the better, (as many times they do) then we say, Sleep hath been the
occasion of the Cure; and it oft proves so. And it is a common saying,
_That a good Sleep will settle the Spirits_, or ease the Pains; that
is, when the Regular Corporeal Motions have had the better of the


There are several kinds, sorts, and particulars of Corporeal
Irregularities, as well as of Regularities; and amongst the infinite
kinds, sorts, and particulars, there is that of Human Dreams; for,
the Exterior Corporeal Motions in Waking-actions, do copy or pattern
outward Objects; whereas, in actions of Sleep, they act by rote,
which, for the most part, is erronious, making mixt Figures of several
Objects; as, partly like a Beast; and partly, like a Bird, or Fish;
nay, sometimes, partly like an Animal, and partly like a Vegetable;
and millions of the like Extravagancies; yet, many times, Dreams will
be as exact as if a Man was awake, and the Objects before him; but,
those actions by rote, are more often false than true: but, if the
Self-moving Parts move after their own inventions, and not after the
manner of Copying; or, if they move not after the manner of Human
Perception, then a Man is as ignorant of

his Dreams, or any Human Perception, as if he was in a Swound; and then
he says, he did not dream; and, that such Sleeps are like Death.

CHAP. IV. Of the Actions of DREAMS.

When the Figures of those Friends and Acquaintants that have been
dead a long time, are made in our Sleep, we never, or seldom question
the truth of their being alive, though we often question them how
they came to be alive: And the reason that we make no doubt of
their being alive, is, That those Corporeal Motions of Sleep, make
the same pattern of that Object in Sleep, as when that Object was
present, and patterned awake; so as the Picture in Sleep seems to be
the Original awake: and until such times that the Corporeal Motions
alter their Sleeping-Actions to Waking-Actions, the truth is not
known. Though Sleeping and Dreaming, is somewhat after the manner of
Forgetfulness and Remembrance; yet, perfect Dreams are as perceptive
as Waking-patterns of present Objects; which proves, That both the
Sensitive and Rational Motions, have Sleeping Actions; but both the
Sensitive and Rational Corporeal Actions in Sleep, moving partly by
rote, and partly voluntarily, or by invention, make Walking-Woods,
or Woodden Men; or make Warrs and Battels, where some Figures of Men
are kill'd, or wounded, others have victory: They also make Thieves,
Murderers, falling Houses, great Fires, Floods, Tempests, high
Mountains, great Precipices; and sometimes pleasant Dreams of Lovers,
Marriage, Dancing, Banquetting, and the like: And the Passions in
Dreams are as real, as in waking actions.

CHAP. V. Whether the Interior Parts of a Human Creature, do sleep.

The Parts of my Mind were in dispute, Whether the Interior Parts of a
Human Creature, had sleeping and waking actions? The Major Part was
of opinion, That Sleep was not proper to those Human Parts, because
the Interior Motions were not like the Exterior. The Opinion of the
Minor Part was, That change of Action, is like Ease after Labour; and
therefore it was probable, the Interior Parts had sleeping and waking
actions. The Opinion of the Major Parts, was, That if those Parts, as
also the Food received into the Body, had sleeping actions, the Body
could not be nourished; for, the Meat would not be digested into the
like Parts of the Body, by reason sleeping actions were not such sorts
of actions. The Opinion of the Minor Parts was, That the sleeping

actions were nourishing actions, and therefore were most proper for
the Interior Parts; and, for proof, the whole Human Body becomes faint
and weak, when they are hindred, either by some Interior Irregularity,
or through some Exterior Occasion, from their sleeping actions. The
Opinion of the Major Part, was, That sleeping actions are actions
of rote, and not such altering actions as digesting actions, and
nourishing actions, which are uniting actions. Besides, that the reason
why the Interior actions are not sleeping actions, was, That when the
Exterior Parts move in the actions of Sleep, the Interior Parts move
when the Exterior are awake; as may be observed by the Human Pulse, and
Human Respiration; and by many other Observations which may be brought.

CHAP. VI. Whether all the Creatures in Nature, have Sleeping and Waking

Some may ask this Question, _Whether all Creatures have sleeping
Actions?_ I answer, That though sleeping actions are proper to Human
Creatures, as also, to most Animal Creatures; yet, such actions may not
any ways be proper to other kinds and sorts of Creatures: and if (as in
all probability it is) that the Exterior Parts of a Human Creature have
no such sleeping actions, it is probable that other kinds and sorts
of Creatures move not at any time, in such sorts of actions. But some
may say, _That if Nature is poysed, all Creatures must have sleeping
actions, as well as waking actions_. I answer, That though Nature's
actions are poysed, yet that doth not hinder the variety of Nature's
actions, so as to tye Nature to particular actions: As for example,
The Exterior Parts of Animals have both sleeping and waking actions;
yet that doth not prove, that therefore all the Parts or Creatures in
Nature, must have sleeping and waking actions. The same may be said of
all the actions of an Animal Creature, or of a Human Creature; nay,
of all the Creatures of the World: for, several kinds and sorts of
Creatures, have several kinds and sorts of Properties: Wherefore, if
there be other kinds and sorts of Worlds besides this, 'tis probable
that those Worlds, and all the Parts, or several kinds and sorts of
Creatures there, have different properties and actions, from those of
this World; so that though Nature's actions are poysed and balanced,
yet they are poysed and balanced after different manners and ways.

CHAP. VII. Of Human Death.

_Death_ is not only a general Alteration of the Sensitive and Rational
Motions, but a general Dissolution of their Society. And as there
are degrees of Time in Productions, so in Dissolutions. And as there
are degrees to Perfection, as from Infancy to Manhood; so there are
degrees from Manhood to Old Age. But, as I said, _Death_ is a general
Dissolution, which makes a Human Creature to be no more: yet, some
Parts do not dissolve so soon as others; as for example, Human Bones;
but, though the Form or Frame of Bones is not dissolved; yet the
Properties: of those Bones are altered. The same when a Human Creature
is kept by Art from dissolving, so as the Form, or Frame, or Shape may
continue; but all the Properties are quite altered; though the Exterior
Shape of such Bodies doth appear somewhat like a Man, yet that Shape is
not a Man.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Heat of Human Life, and the Cold of Human Death.

There are not only several sorts of Properties belonging to several
sorts of Creatures, but several sorts of Properties belonging to one
and the same sort of Creature; and amongst the several sorts of Human
Properties, Human Heat is one, which Man names _Natural Heat_: but,
when there is a general alteration of the Human Properties, there is
that alteration of the Property as well of his Natural, as Human Heat:
but, Natural Heat is not the cause of Human Life, though Human Life is
the cause of that Natural Heat: so that, when Human Life is altered or
dissolved, Human Heat is altered or dissolved: And as Death is opposite
Actions to that Man names _Life_; so Cold is opposite Actions to that
Man names _Heat_.

CHAP. IX. Of the Last Act of Human Life.

The reason some Human Creatures dye in more pain than others, is, That
the Motions of some Human Creatures are in strife, because some would
continue their accustomed Actions, others would alter their accustomed
Actions; which Strife causes Irregularities, and those Irregularities
cause Differences, or Difficulties, which causes Pain: but certainly,
the last Act of Human Life is easie; not only that the Expulsive
Actions of Human Respirations, are more easie than the Attracting
Actions; but, that in the last act of Human Life, all the Motions do
generally agree in one Action.

CHAP. X. Whether a Human Creature hath Knowledg in Death, or not?

Some may ask the Question, _Whether a dead Man hath any Knowledg or
Perception?_ I answer, That a dead Man hath not a Human Knowledg or
Perception; yet all, and every Part, hath Knowledg and Perception:
But, by reason there is a general alteration of the actions of the
Parts of a Human Creature, there cannot possibly be a Human Knowledg
or Perception. But some may say, That a Man in a Swound hath a general
alteration of Human actions; and yet those Parts of a Human Creature
do often repeat those former actions, and then a Man is as he was
before he was in that Swound. I answer, That the reason why a Man in
a Swound hath not the same Knowledg as when he is not in a Swound,
is, That the Human Motions are not generally altered, but only are
generally irregular; which makes such a disturbance, that no Part can
move so regularly, as to make proper Perceptions; as in some sorts of
Distempers, a Man may be like a Natural Fool; in others, he may be Mad;
and is subject to many several Distempers, which cause several Effects:
but a Human Swound is somewhat like Sleeping without Dreaming; that is,
the Exterior Senses do not move to Human Exterior Perception.

CHAP. XI. Whether a Creature may be new Formed, after a general

Some may ask the Question, _Whether a Human Creature, or any other
Creature, after their Natural Properties are quite altered, can be
repeated, and rechanged, to those Properties that formerly were?_

I answer, Yes, in case none of the Fundamental Figurative Parts be

But some may ask, _That if those dissolved Parts were so inclosed
in other Bodies, that none of them could easily disperse or wander;
whether they might not joyn into the same Form and Figure again, and
have the same Properties?_

I answer, I cannot tell well how to judg; but I am of the opinion,
they cannot: for, it is the property of all such Productions, to be
performed by degrees, and that there should be a dividing and uniting
of Parts, as an intercourse of Home and Forrein Parts; and so there is
requir'd all the same Parts, and every Part of the same Society, or
that had any adjoining actions with that particular Creature; as all
those Parts, or Corporeal Motions, that had been from the first time of
Production, to the last of the Dissolving; and that could not be done
without a Confusion in Nature.

But some may say, _That although the same Creature could not be
produced after the same manner, nor return to the degree of his
Infancy, and pass the degrees from his Infancy, to some degree of Age;
yet, those parts that are together, might so joyn, and move, in the
same manner, as to be the same Creature it was before its dissolution?_

I answer, It may not be impossible: but yet, It is very improbable,
that such numerous sorts of Motions, after so general an Alteration,
should so generally agree in an unnatural action.


I have had some Disputes amongst the Parts of my Mind, _Whether Nature
hath Foreknowledg?_ The Opinion of the Minor Parts was, That Nature had
Foreknowledg, by reason all that was Material, was part of her self;
and those Self-parts having Self-motion, she might foreknow what she
would act, and so what they should know. The Opinion of the Major Parts
was, That by reason every Part had Self-motion, and natural Free-will,
Nature could not foreknow how they would move, although she might know
how they have moved, or how they do move.

After this Dispute was ended, then there was a Dispute, _Whether the
particular Parts had a Foreknowledg of Self-knowledg?_ The Opinion of
the Minor Parts was, That since every Part in Nature had Self-motion,
and natural Free-will, every Part could know how they should move, and
so what they should know. The Opinion of the Major Parts was, That
first, the Self-knowledg did alter according to Self-action, amongst
the Self-moving Parts: but, the Self-knowledg of the Inanimate Parts,
did alter according to the actions of the Sensitive Self-moving Parts;
and the Perceptive actions of the Self-moving Parts, were according
to the form and actions of the Objects: so that Foreknowledg of
Forein Parts, or Creatures, could not be: And for Foreknowledg of
Self-knowledg of the Self-moving Parts, there were so many occasional
actions, that it was impossible the Self-moving Parts could know
how they should move, by reason that no Part had an Absolute Power,
although they were Self-moving, and had a natural Free-will: which
proves, That Prophesies are somewhat of the nature of Dreams, whereof
some may prove true by chance; but, for the most part, they are false.

The Eighth Part.

CHAP. I. Of the Irregularity of Nature's Parts.

Some may make this Question, that, _If Nature were Self-moving, and
had Free-will, it is probable that she would never move her Parts so
irregularly, as to put her self to pain._

I answer, first, That Nature's Parts move themselves, and are not moved
by any Agent. Secondly, Though Nature's Parts are Self-moving, and
Self-knowing, yet they have not an infinite or uncontrolable Power;
for, several Parts, and Parties, oppose, and oft-times obstruct each
other; so that many times they are forced to move, and they may not
when they would. Thirdly, Some Parts may occasion other Parts to be
irregular, and keep themselves in a regular posture. Lastly, Nature's
Fundamental actions are so poysed, that Irregular actions are as
natural as Regular.

CHAP. II. Of the Human Parts of a Human Creature.

The Form of Man's Exterior and Interior Parts, are so different, and so
numerous; that I cannot describe them, by reason I am not so learned
to know them: But, some Parts of a Human Creature, Man names _Vital_;
because, the least disturbance of any of those Parts, endangers the
Human Life: and if any of those Vital Parts are diminished, I doubt
whether they can be restored; but if some of those Parts can be
restored, I doubt all cannot. The Vital Parts are, the Heart, Liver,
Lungs, Stomack, Kidneys, Bladder, Gaul, Guts, Brains, Radical Humours,
or Vital Spirits; and others which I know not of. But this is to be
noted, That Man is composed of Rare and Solid Parts, of which there are
more and less Solid, more and less Rare; as also, different sorts of
Solid, and different sorts of Rare: also, different sorts of Soft and
Hard Parts; likewise, of Fixt and Loose Parts; also, of Swift and Slow
Parts. I mean by Fixt, those that are more firmly united.

CHAP. III. Of Human Humours.

_Humours_ are such Parts, that some of them may be divided from the
whole Body, without danger to the whole Body; so that they are somewhat
like Excremental parts, which Excremental parts, are the superfluous
parts: for, though the Humours be so necessary, that the Body could not
well subsist without them; yet, a Superfluity of them is as dangerous,
(if not more) as a Scarcity. But there are many sorts of Humours
belonging to a Human Creature, although Man names but Four, according
to the Four Elements, _viz. Flegm, Choler, Melancholy_, and _Blood_:
but, in my opinion, there are not only several sorts of _Choler, Flegm,
Melancholy_, and _Blood_; but other sorts that are none of these Four.


I have heard, that the Opinions of the most Learned Men, are, That
all Animal Creatures have Blood, or at least, such Juyces that are in
lieu of Blood; which Blood, or Juyces, move circularly: for my part, I
am too ignorant to dispute with Learned Men; but yet I am confident,
a _Moth_ (which is a sort of Worm, or Fly, that eats Cloth) hath no
Blood, no, nor any Juyce; for, so soon as it is touched, it dissolves
straight to a dry dust, or like ashes. And there are many other
Animals, or Insects, that have no appearance of Blood; therefore the
life of an Animal doth not consist of Blood: And as for the Circulation
of Blood, there are many Animal Creatures that have not proper Vessels,
as Veins and Arteries, or any such Gutters, for their Blood, or Juyce,
to circulate through. But, say the Blood of Man, or of such like
Animal, doth circulate; then it is to be studied, Whether the several
parts of the Blood do intermix with each other, as it flows; or,
whether it flows as Water seems to do; where the following parts may be
as great strangers to the Leading parts, as in a Crowd of People, where
some of those behind, do not know those that are before: but, if the
Blood doth not intermix as it flows, then it will be very difficult for
a Chyrurgion, or Physician, to find where the ill Blood runs: besides,
if the Blood be continually flowing, when a sick Man is to be let
blood, before the Vein is opened, the bad Blood may be past that Part,
or Vein, and so only the good Blood will be let out; and then the Man
may become worse than if he had not been let blood.

CHAP. V. Of the Radical Humours, or Parts.

There are many Parts in a Human Body, that are as the Foundation of a
House; and being the Foundation, if any of those Parts be removed or
decayed, the House immediately falls to ruine. These Fundamental Parts,
are those we name the _Vital Parts_; amongst which are those Parts we
name the _Vital_ and _Radical Spirits_, which are the Oyl and Flame
of a Human Creature, causing the Body to have that we name a _Natural
Heat_, and a _Radical Moisture_. But it is to be noted, That these
Parts, or Corporeal Motions, are not like gross Oyl, or Flame: for, I
believe, there are more differences between those Flames, and ordinary
Flames, than between the Light of the Sun, and the Flame of a Tallow
Candle; and as much difference between this Oyl, and the greasie Oyl,
as between the purest Essence, and Lamp-Oyl. But, these Vital Parts
are as necessary to the Human Life, as the solid Vital Parts, viz. the
Heart, Liver, Lungs, Brains, and the like.

CHAP. VI. Of Expelling Malignant Disorders in a Human Creature.

Expelling of Poyson, or any Malignity in the Body, is, when that
Malignity hath not got, or is not setled into the Vital Parts; so that
the Regular Motions of the Vital Parts, and other Parts of the Body,
endeavour to defend themselves from the Forrein Malignancies; which if
they do, then the Malignant Motions do dilate to the Exterior Parts,
and issue out of those Exterior Passages, at least, through some; as,
either by the way of Purging, Vomiting, Sweating, or Transpiration,
which is a breathing through the Pores, or other passages. After the
same manner is the expelling of Surfeits, or Superfluities of Natural
Humours: but, if the Malignity or Surfeit, Superfluity or superfluous
Humours, have the better, (as I may say) then those Irregular Motions,
by their Disturbances, cause the Regular Motions to be Irregular,
and to follow the Mode; which is, to imitate Strangers, or the most
Powerful; the most Fantastical, or the most debauch'd: for it is, many
times, amongst the Interior Motions of the Body, as with the Exterior
Actions of Men.

CHAP. VII. Of Human Digestions and Evacuations.

To treat of the several particular Digestive Actions of a Human
Creature, is impossible: for, not only every part of Food hath a
several manner of Digestive Action; but, every action in Transpiration,
is a sort of Digestion and Evacuation: so that, though every sort of
Digestion and Evacuation, may be ghest at; yet, every Particular is
not so known, that it can be described. But this is to be noted, That
there is no Creature that hath Digestive Motions, but hath Evacuating
Motions; which Actions, although they are but Dividing, and Uniting;
yet they are such different manners and ways of uniting and dividing,
that the most observing Man cannot particularly know them, and so not
express them: but, the Uniting actions, if regular, are the Nourishing
actions; the Dividing actions, if regular, are the Cleansing actions:
but if irregular, the Uniting actions are the Obstructive actions; and
the Dividing actions, the Destructive actions.

CHAP. VIII. Of DISEASES in general.

There are many sorts of Human Diseases; yet, all sorts of Diseases
are Irregular Corporeal Motions; but, every sort of Motion is of a
different Figure: so that, several Diseases are different Irregular
Figurative Motions; and according as the Figurative Motions vary, so
do the Diseases: but, as there are Human Diseases, so there are Human
Defects; which Defects (if they be those which Man names _Natural_)
cannot be rectified by any Human Means. Also, there are Human Decays,
and Old Age; which, although they cannot be prevented, or avoided; yet,
they may, by good Order, and wise Observations, be retarded: but there
are not only numerous sorts of Diseases, but every particular it self,
and every particular sort, are more or less different; insomuch, that
seldom a Disease of one and the same sort, is just alike, but there
are some differences; as in Men, who though they be all of one sort of
Animal-kind, yet seldom any two Men are just alike: and the same may
be said of Diseases both of Body and Mind; as for example, concerning
Irregular Minds, as in Mad-Men; Although all Mad-Men are mad, yet not
mad alike; though they all have the Disease either of Sensitive or
Rational Madness, or are both Sensitively and Rationally mad. Also,
this is to be noted, That as several Diseases may be produced from
several Causes, so several Diseases from one: Cause, and one Disease
from several Causes; which is the cause that a Physician ought to be a
long and subtile Observer and Practiser, before he can arrive to that
Experience which belongs to a good Physician.

CHAP. IX. Of the Fundamental Diseases.

There are numerous sorts of Diseases, to which Human Creatures are
subject; and yet there are but few Fundamental Maladies; which are
these as follow; Pain, Sickness, Weakness, Dizziness, Numbness,
Deadness, Madness, Fainting and Swounding; of which one is particular,
the rest are general: The particular is Sickness, to which no parts
of the Body are subject, but the Stomack: for, though any parts of
the Body may have Pain, Numbness, Dizziness, Weakness, or Madness;
yet in no part can be that which we name Sickness, but the Stomack.
As for Dizziness, the Effects are general, as may be observed in some
drunken Men: for, many times, the Head will be in good temper, when
the Leggs (I cannot say, are dizzie, yet) will be so drunk, as neither
to go or stand; and many times the Tongue will be so drunk, as not
to speak plain, when all the rest of the body is well temper'd; at
least so well, as not to be any ways perceived, but by the tripping of
their Speech: but, as I said, no Part is subject to be sick, but the
Stomack: And though there are numerous sorts of Pains to which every
Part is subject, and every several Part hath a several Pain; yet they
are still Pain. But some may say, _That there are also several sorts
of Sicknesses_. I grant it; but yet those several sorts of Sicknesses,
belong only to the Stomack, and to no other Part of the Body.

The Ninth Part.


To go on as orderly as I can, I will treat of the Fundamental Diseases,
and first of _Sickness_, by reason it is the most particular Disease:
for though, as I have said, no part of a Human Creature is subject to
that Disease, (namely, _Sickness_) but the Stomack; yet, there are
different sorts of Sicknesses of the Stomack; as for example, Some
sorts of Sickness is like the flowing and ebbing of the Sea: for, the
Humours of the Stomack agitate in that manner, as, if the flowing
motions flow upwards, it occasions Vomiting; if downwards, Purging: if
the Humours divide, as, partly to flow upwards, and partly downwards,
it occasions both Vomiting and Purging.

But the Question is, _Whether it is the motion of the Humours, that
occasions the Stomack to be sick; or the sickness of the Stomack, that
occasions the Humours to flow?_

I answer: That 'tis probable, that sometimes the flowing of the Humours
causes the Stomack to be sick; and sometimes the sickness of the
Stomack occasions the Humours to flow; and sometimes the Stomack will
be sick without the flowing of Humours, as when the Stomack is empty;
and sometimes the Humours will flow, without any disturbance to the
Stomack; and sometimes both the Humours and the Stomack do jointly
agree in Irregularities: but, as I said, there are several sorts of
sicknesses of the Stomack, or at least, that sickness doth produce
several sorts of Effects; as, for example, some sorts of sickness will
occasion faint and cold Sweats; which sick Motion is not flowing up or
down of the Humours; but it is a cold dilatation, or rarifying, after
a breathing manner; also expelling of those rarified parts through the
pores: Other sorts of Motions of the Humours, are like Boyling motions,
viz. Bubling motions; which occasion steaming or watry vapours, to
ascend to the Head; which vapours are apt to cloud the perception of
Sight. Other sorts of sick Motions, are Circular, and those cause a
swimming, or a dizzie motion in the Head, and sometimes a staggering
motion in the Leggs. Other sorts of sick Motions are occasioned through

tough and clammy Humours, the motion of which Humours, is a winding
or turning in such a manner, that it removes not from its Center; and
until such time as that Turning or Winding Motions alter, or the Humour
is cast out of the Stomack, the Patient finds little or no ease.


As I said, No Part is subject to be sick, but the Stomack; but every
several Part of a Human Creature, is subject to Pain; and not only
so, but every particular Part is subject to several sorts of Pain;
and every several sort of Pain, hath a several Figurative Motion:
but to know the different Figurative Motions, will require a subtile
Observation: for, though those painful Parts, know their own Figurative
Motions; yet, the whole Creature (suppose _Man_) doth not know
them. But it may be observed, Whether they are caused by Irregular
Contractions or Attractions, Dilatations or Retentions, Expulsions
or Irregular Pressures and Re-actions, or Irregular Transformations,
or the like; and by those Observations, one may apply, or endeavour
to apply proper Remedies: but all Pain proceeds from Irregular and
perturbed Motions.


I Cannot say, _Dizziness_ belongs only to the Head of an Animal
Creature, because we may observe, by irregular Drinkers, that sometimes
the Leggs will seem more drunk than their Heads; and sometimes all the
Parts of their Body will seem to be temperate, as being Regular, but
only the Tongue seems to be drunk: for, staggering of the Leggs, and
a staggering of the Tongue, or the like, in a drunken Distemper, is a
sort of Dizziness, although not such a sort as that which belongs to
the Head; so that, when a man is dead-drunk, we may say, that every
part of the Body is _Dizzily drunk_. But mistake me not; for I do not
mean, that all sorts of dizzinesses proceed from drinking; I only
bring Drunkenness for an Example: but, the Effects of dizziness of the
Head, and other parts of the Body, proceed from different Causes; for,
some proceed from Wind, not Wine; others from Vapour; some from the
perception of some Forrein Object; and numbers of the like Examples may
be found. But this is to be noted, That all such sorts of Swimming and
Dizziness in the Head, are produced from Circular Figurative Motions.
Also it is to be noted, That many times the Rational Corporeal Motions
are Irregular with the Sensitive, but not always: for, sometimes in
these and the like Distempers, the Sensitive will be Irregular, and the
Rational Regular; but, for the most part, the Rational is so compliant
with the Sensitive, as to be Regular, or Irregular, as the Sensitive is.

CHAP. IV. Of the Brain seeming to turn round in the Head.

When the Human Brain seems to turn round, the cause is, that some
Vapours do move in a Circular Figure, which causes the Head to be
dizzy; as when a man turns round, not only his Head will be dizzy,
but all the Exterior Parts of his Body; insomuch that some, by often
turning round, will fall down; but if, before they fall, they turn the
contrary way, they will be free from that dizziness: The reason of
which is, That, by turning the contrary way, the Body is brought to the
same posture it was before; as, when a man hath travell'd some way, and
returns the same way back, he returns to the place where first he began
his Journey.


There are many sorts of _Weakness_; some Weakness proceeds from Age;
others, through want of Food; others are occasioned by Oppression;
others, by Disorders and Irregularities; and so many other sorts,
that it would be too tedious to repeat them, could I know them: But,
such sorts of Weakness, as Human Creatures are subject to, after some
Disease or Sickness, are somewhat like Weariness after a Laborious
or over-hard Action; as, when a Man hath run fast, or laboured hard,
he fetches his breath short and thick; and as most of the Sensitive
Actions are by degrees, so is a Returning to Health after Sickness:
but, all Irregularities are Laborious.


The cause why a Man in _Swound_, is, for a time, as if he were dead;
is, an Irregularity amongst some of the Interior Corporeal Motions,
which causes an Irregularity of the Exterior Corporeal Motions, and so
a general Irregularity; which is the cause that a Man appears as if he
were dead.

But some may say, _A Man in a Swound is void of all Motion_.

I answer: That cannot be: for, if the Man was really dead, yet his
Parts are moving, though they move not according to the property or
nature of a living Man: but, if the Body had not consistent Motions,
and the Parts did not hold together, it would be dissolved in a moment;
and when the Parts do divide, they must divide by Self-motion: but, in
a Man in a Swound, some of his Corporeal Motions are only altered from
the property and nature of a living Man; I say, some of his Corporeal
Motions, not all: Neither do those Motions quite alter from the nature
of a living Man, so as the alterations of the Fundamental Motions do:
but they are so alter'd, as Language may be alter'd, viz. From _Hebrew_
to _Greek, Latin, French, Spanish, English,_ and many others; and
although they are all but Languages, yet they are several Languages
or Speeches; so the alteration of the Corporeal Motions of a Man in
a Swound, is but as the altering of one sort of Language to another;
as put the case, _English_ were the Natural Language or Speech, then
all other Languages were unknown to him that knows no other than his
Natural: So a Man in a Swound is ignorant of those Motions in the
Swound: but, when those Motions return to the Nature of a living Man,
he hath the same knowledg he had before. Thus Human Ignorance, and
Human Knowledg, may be occasioned by the alterations of the Corporeal

The truth is, that Swounding and Reviving, is like Forgetfulness and
Remembrance, that is, Alteration and Repetition, or Exchange of the
same Actions.

CHAP. VII. Of Numb and Dead Palsies, or Gangren's.

As for _Numb_ and _Dead Palsies_, they proceed not only from disordered
and Irregular Motions, but from such Figurative Motions as are quite
different from the nature of the Creature: for, though it be natural
for a Man to dye; yet the Figurative Motions of _Death_ are quite
different from the Figurative Motions of Life; so in respect to that
which Man names Life, that which Man names Death, is unnatural: but,
as there are several sorts of that Man names _Life_, or _Lives_; so
there are several sorts of those Corporeal Motions, Man names _Death_:
but, _Dead Palsies_ of some Parts of a Man's Body, are not like those
of a Man when he is, as we say, _quite dead_; for, those are not only
such sorts of Motions that are quite, or absolutely different from
the life of the Man, or such like Creature; but such as dissolve the
whole Frame, or Figure of the Creature: But, the Motions of a _Dead
Palsie_, are not dissolving Motions, although they are different
from the natural living Motions of a Man. The same, in some manner,
are _Numb Palsies_; only the Motions of _Numb Palsies_ are not so
absolutely different from the Natural living Motions; but have more
Irregularities, than perfect Alterations. As for that sort of Numbness
we name _Sleepy Numbness_, it is occasioned through some obstruction
that hinders and stops the Exterior Sensitive Perception. As, when
the Eyes are shut, or blinded, or the Ears stopt, or the Nostrils;
the Sensitive Figurative Motions of those Sensitive Organs, cannot
make Perceptions of Forrein Objects: so, when the Pores of the Flesh,
which are the perceptive Organs of Forrein Touches, are stopt, either
by too heavy burthens or pressings, or tying some Parts so hard, as
to close the Exterior Organs, (_viz_. the Pores) they cannot make
such Perceptions as belong to Touch: but, when those hinderances are
removed, then the Sensitive Perception of Touch, is, in a short time,
as perfect as before.

As for _Gangren's_, although they are somewhat like _Dead Palsies_, yet
they are more like those sorts of dead Corporeal Motions, that dissolve
the Frame and Form of a Creature: for, _Gangren's_ dissolve the Frame
and Form of the Diseased Part; and the like do all those Corporeal
Motions that cause Rottenness, or Parts to divide and separate after a
rotten manner.


There are several sorts of that Distemper named _Madness_; but they
all proceed through the Irregularities, either of the Rational, or
the Sensitive Parts; and sometimes from the Irregularities both
of Sense and Reason: but these Irregularities are not such as are
quite different from the Nature or Property of a Human Creature, but
are only such Irregularities as make false Perceptions of Forrein
Objects, or else make strange Conceptions; or move after the manner
of Dreams in waking-actions; which is not according to the Perception
of present Objects: As for example, The Sensitive Motions of the
Exterior Parts, make several Pictures on the outside of the Organs;
when as no such Object is present; and that is the reason Mad-men see
strange and unusual Sights, hear strange and unusual Sounds, have
strange and unusual Tasts and Touch: but, when the Irregularities are
only amongst the Rational Parts, then those that are so diseased,
have violent Passions, strange Conceptions, wild Fancies, various
Opinions, dangerous Designs, strong Resolutions, broken Memories,
imperfect Remembrances, and the like. But, when both the Sensitive
and Rational are sympathetically disorderly; then the Mad-men will
talk extravagantly, or laugh, sing, sigh, weep, tremble, complain, &c.
without cause.

CHAP. IX. The Sensitive and Rational Parts may be distinctly Mad.

The Senses may be irregularly Mad, and not the Reason; and the Reason
may be irregularly mad, and not the Sense; and, both Sense and Reason
may be both sympathetically mad: And, an evident proof that there is a
Rational and Sensitive Madness, is, That those whose Rational Parts are
Regular, and only some of the Sensitive Irregular, will speak soberly,
and declare to their Friends, how some of their Senses are distemper'd,
and how they see strange and unusual Sights, hear unusual Sounds, smell
unusual Sents, feel unusual Touches, and desire some Remedy for their
Distempers. Also, it may be observed, That sometimes the Rational Parts
are madly distemper'd, and not the Sensitive; as when the Sensitive
Parts make no false Perceptions, but only the Rational; and then only
the Mind is out of order, and is extravagant, and not the Senses: but,
when the Senses and Reason are madly Irregular, then the diseased Man
is that we name, _Outragiously Mad_.

CHAP. X. The Parts of the Head are not only subject to Madness, but
also the other Parts of the Body.

_Madness_ is not only in the Head, but in other Parts of the Body:
As for example, Some will feel unusual Touches in their Hands, and
several other parts of their Body. We may also observe by the several
and strange Postures of Mad-men, that the several Parts of the Body are
madly distemper'd. And it is to be noted, That sometimes some Parts
of the Body are mad, and not the other; as, sometimes only the Eyes,
sometimes only the Ears; and so of the rest of the Organs, and of the
rest of the Parts of the Body; one Part only being mad, and the rest in
good order. Moreover, it is to be noted, That some are not continually
mad, but only mad by fits, or at certain times; and those fits, or
certain times of disorders, proceed from a custom or habit of the
Rational or Sensitive Motions, to move Irregularly at such times; and
a proof that all the Parts are subject to the Distemper of _Madness_,
is, That every part of the Body of those sorts of Mad-men that believe
their Bodies to be Glass, moves in a careful and wary motion, for fear
of breaking in pieces: Neither are the Exterior Parts only subject to
the Distemper of Madness, but the Interior Parts; as may be observed,
when the whole Body will tremble through a mad fear, and the Heart will
beat disorderly, and the Stomack will many times be sick.

CHAP. XI. The Rational and Sensitive Parts of a Human Creature, are apt
to disturb each other.

Although the Rational and Sensitive Corporeal Motions, may, and
do sometimes disagree; yet, for the most part, there is such a
sympathetical Agreement between the Sensitive and Rational Corporeal
Motions of one Society, (viz. of one Creature) as they often disturb
each other: As for example, If the Rational Motions are so irregular,
as to make imaginary Fears, or fearful Imaginations, these fearful
Imaginations cause the Sensitive Corporeal motions, to move according
to the Irregularities of the Rational; which is the cause, in such
fears, that a man seems to see strange and unusual Objects, to hear
strange and unusual Sounds, to smell unusual Sents, to feel unusual
Touches, and to be carried to unusual Places; not that there are such
Objects, but the Irregular Senses make such Pictures in the Sensitive
Organs; and the whole Body may, through the strength of the Irregular
motions, move strangely to unusual places: As for example, A Mad-man,
in a strong mad fit, will be as strong as Ten men; whereas, when the
mad Fit is over, he seems weaker than usually, or regularly, he uses
to be; not that the Self-moving Parts of Nature are capable of being
weaker, or stronger, than naturally they are: but having liberty to
move as they will, they may move stronger, or weaker, swifter or
slower, regularly or irregularly, as they please; nor doth Nature
commonly use Force. But this is to be noted, That there being a general
Agreement amongst the particular Parts, they are more forcible than
when those Parts are divided into Factions and Parties: so that in
a general Irregular Commotion or Action, all the Sensitive Parts of
the Body of a man, agree to move with an extraordinary force, after
an unusual manner; provided it be not different from the property and
nature of their Compositions; that is, not different from the Property
and Nature of a Man. But this is likewise to be noted, That in a
general Agreement, man may have other Properties, than when the whole
Body is governed by Parts, as it is usual when the Body is Regular,
and that every Part moves in his proper Sphere, as I may say, (for
example) the Head, Heart, Lungs, Stomack, Liver, and so the rest, where
each Part doth move in several sorts of Actions. The like may also
may be said of the Parts of the Leggs and Hands, which are different
sorts of Actions; yet all move to the use and benefit of the whole
Body: but, if the Corporeal motions in the Hands, and so in the Leggs,
be irregular, they will not help the rest of the Parts; and so, in
short, the same happens in all the Parts of the Body, whereof some
Parts may be Regular, and others Irregular; and sometimes all may be
Irregular. But, to conclude this Chapter, the Body may have unusual
Force and Properties; as when a man says, He was carried and flung into
a Ditch, or some place distant; and that he was pinch't, and did see
strange sights, heard strange sounds, smelt strange scents; all which
may very well be caused by the Irregular motions, either by a general
Irregularity, or by some particular Irregularity; and the truth is,
The particular Corporeal motions, know not the power of the general,
until they unite by a general Agreement; and sometimes there may be
such Commotions in the Body of a Man, as in a Common-wealth, where many
times there is a general Uproar and Confusion, and none know the Cause,
or who began it. But this is to be noted, That if the Sensitive motions
begin the Disorder, then they cause the Rational to be so disordered,
as they can neither advise wisely, or direct orderly, or perswade

CHAP. XII. Of Diseases produced by Conceit.

AS there are numerous sorts of _Diseases_, so there are numerous
manners or ways of the production of Diseases; and those Diseases
that are produced by _Conceit_, are first occasioned by the Rational
Corporeal Figurative Motions: for, though every several Conceit, or
Imagination, is a several Rational Corporeal Figurative Motion; yet,
every Conceit or Imagination doth not produce a Sensitive Effect:
but in those that do produce a Sensitive Effect, it is the Conceit
or Imagination of some sorts of Diseases; but in most of those sorts
that are dangerous to Life, or causes Deformity: The reason is, That
as all the Parts of Nature are Self-knowing, so they are Self-loving:
Also, Regular Societies beget an united Love, by Regular Agreements,
which cause a Rational Fear of a disuniting, or dissolving; and that is
the reason, that upon the perception of such a Disease, the Rational,
through some disorder, figures that Disease; and the Sensitive
Corporeal Motions, take a pattern from the Rational, and so the Disease
is produced.

The Tenth Part.


Some are of opinion, That all, or, at least, most Diseases, are
accompanied, more or less, with a _Feverous Distemper_: If so, then
we may say, A _Fever_ is the _Fundamental Disease_: but, whether that
Opinion is true, or no, I know not; but I observe, there are many sorts
of Fevers, and so there are of all other Diseases or Distempers: for,
every alteration, or difference, of one and the same kind of Disease,
is a several sort. As for Fevers, I have observed, there are Fevers in
the Blood, or Humours, and not in any of the Vital Parts; and those
are ordinary Burning-Fevers: and there are other sorts of Fevers that
are in the Vital Parts, and all other Parts of the Body, and those are
_Malignant Fevers_; and there are some sorts of Fevers which are in the
Radical Humours, and those are _Hectick Fevers_; and there are other
sorts of Fevers that are in those Parts, which we name the _Spiritous
Parts_. Also, all _Consumptions_ are accompanied with a Feverish
Distemper: but, what the several Figurative Motions are of these
several sorts of Fevers, I cannot tell.


There are Two visible sorts of the Disease named the _Plague_: The
weaker sort is that which produces Swellings, or inflamed or corrupted
Sores, which are accompanied with a Fever. The other sort is that which
is named the _Spotted Plague_. The First sort is sometimes Curable; but
the Second is Incurable; at least, no Remedy as yet hath been found.
The truth is, the _Spotted Plague_ is a _Gangrene_, but is somewhat
different from other sorts of _Gangren's_; for this begins amongst
the Vital Parts, and, by an Infection, spreads to the Extream Parts;
and not only so, but to Forrein Parts; which makes not only a general
Infection amongst all the several Parts of the Body, but the Infection
spreads it self to other Bodies. And whereas other sorts of _Gangren's_
begin outwardly, and pierce inwardly; the _Plaguy Gangrene_ begins

inwardly, and pierces outwardly: so as the difference (as I said) is,
That the ordinary sort of _Gangren's_ infect the next adjoining Parts
of the Body, by moderate degrees; whereas the _Plaguy Gangrene_ infects
not only the adjoining Parts of the same Body, and that suddenly, but
infects Forreign Bodies. Also, the ordinary _Gangren's_ may be stopped
from their Infection, by taking off the Parts infected, or diseased.
But the _Plaguy Gangrene_ can no ways be stopped, because the Vital
Parts cannot be separated from the rest of the Parts, without a total
ruine: besides, it pierces and spreads more suddenly, than Remedies
can be applyed. But, whether there are Applications of Preventions, I
know not; for, those Studies belong more to the _Physicians_, than to a
_Natural Philosopher_. As for the Diseases we name the _Purples_, and
the _Spotted Fever_, they are of the same Kind, or Kindred, although
not of the same sort, as _Measles_, and the _Small-Pox_. But this is to
be noted, That Infection is an act of Imitation: for, one Part cannot
give another Part a Disease, but only that some imitate the same sorts
of Irregular Actions of other Parts; of which some are near adjoining
Imitators, and some occasion a general Mode.

CHAP. III. Of the Small-Pox, and Measles.

The _Small-Pox_ is somewhat like the _Sore-Plague_, not only by being
Infectious, as both sorts of Plagues are; but, by being of a corrupt
Nature, as the Sore-Plague is; only the _Small-Pox_ is innumerable,
or very many small Sores; whereas the _Sore-Plague_ is but one or
two great Sores. Also, the _Small-Pox_ and _Sore-Plague_, are alike
in this, That if they rise and break, or if they fall not flat, but
remain until they be dry and scabbed, the Patient lives: but, if they
fall flat, and neither break, nor are scabbed, the Patient is in
danger to dye. Also, it is to be noted, That this Disease is sometimes
accompanied with a Feverish Distemper; I say, Sometimes, not Always;
and that is the cause that many dye, either with too hot, or too
cooling Applications: for, in a Feverish Distemper, hot Cordials are
Poyson; and when there is no Fever, Cooling Remedies are _Opium_: The
like for letting Blood; for if the Disease be accompanied with a Fever,
and the Fever be not abated by letting Blood, 'tis probable the Fever,
joyned with the Pox, will destroy the Patient: and if no Fever, and
yet loose Blood, the Pox hath not sufficient Moisture to dilate, nor a
sufficient natural Vapour to breathe, or respirate; so as the Life of
the Patient is choaked or

stifled with the contracted Corruptions. As for Measles, though they
are of the same kind, yet not of the same sort; for they are rather
Small Risings, than Corrupted Sores, and so are less dangerous.

CHAP. IV. Of the Intermission of Fevers or Agues.

_Agues_ have several sorts of Distempers, and those quite opposite to
each other, as Cold and Shaking, Hot and Burning, besides Sweating:
Also, there are several times of Intermissions; as some are Every-day
Agues, some Third-day Agues, and some _Quartan_ Agues; and some
Patient may be thus distempered, many times, in the compass of Four
and twenty hours: but those are rather of the Nature of Intermitting
Fevers, than of perfect Agues. Also, in Agues, there is many times a
difference of the Hot and Cold fits: for sometimes the Cold Fits will
be long, and the Hot short; other times, the Hot Fits will be long,
and the Cold Fits short; other times, much of an equal degree: but,
most Intermitting Fevers and Agues, proceed either from ill-digestive
Motions, or from a superfluity of Cold and Hot Motions, or an
Irregularity of the Cold, Hot, Dry; or Moist Motions, where each sort
strives and struggles with each other. But, to make a comparison, Agues
are somewhat like several sorts of Weather, as Freezing and Thawing,

Cloudy or Rainy, or Fair and Sun-shining days: or like the Four Seasons
of the Year, where the Cold Fits are like _Winter_, cold and windy; the
Hot Fits like _Summer_, hot and dry; the Sweating Fits like _Autumn_,
warm and moist; and, when the Fit is past, like the _Spring_. But, to
conclude, the chief Cause of Agues, is, Irregular Digestions, that
make half-concocted Humours; and according as these half-concocted
Humours digest, the Patient hath his Aguish Distempers, where some
are every day, others every second day, some every third day, and
some _Quartans_: but, by reason those half-concocted Humours, are
of several sorts of Humors, some Cold, some Hot, some Cold and Dry,
some Hot and Dry, or Hot and Moist; and those different sorts, raw,
or but half-concocted Humours; they occasion such disorder, not only
by an unnatural manner of Digestion, as not to be either timely, or
regular, by degrees; but, those several sorts of Raw Humours, strive
and struggle with each other for Power or Supremacy: but, according as
those different Raw Humours concoct, the Fits are longer or shorter:
also, according to the quantity of those Raw Humours, and according as
those Humours are a gathering, or breeding, so are the times of those
Fits and Intermissions. But here is to be noted, That some Agues may
be occasioned from some Particular Irregular Digestions; others from a
General Irregular Digestion, some from some obscure Parts, others from
ordinary Humours.


There are many sorts of _Consumptions_; as, some are Consumptions of
the Vital Parts, as the Liver, Lungs, Kidneys, or the like Parts:
Others, a Consumption of the Radical Parts: Others a Consumption of
the Spiritous Parts: Other Consumptions are only of the Flesh; which,
in my opinion, is the only Curable Consumption. But, all Consumptions,
are not only an Alteration, but a Wasting and Dis-uniting of the
Fundamental Parts; only those Consuming Parts do, as it were, steal
away by degrees; and so, by degrees, the Society of a Human Creature is


_Dropsies_ proceed from several Causes; as, some from a decay of some
of the Vital Parts; others through a superfluity of indigested Humours;
some from a supernatural Driness of some Parts; others through a
superfluity of Nourishing Motions; some, through some Obstructions;
others, through an

excess of Moist Dyet: but, all Dropsies proceed not only from Irregular
Motions, but from such a particular Irregularity, as all the Motions
endeavour to be of one Mode, (as I may say) that is, To move after the
manner of those sorts of Motions which are the innate Nature of Water,
and are some sorts of Circular Dilatations: but, by these actions, the
Human Society endeavours to make a Deluge, and to turn from the Nature
of Blood and Flesh, to the Nature of Water.


All _Sweating-Diseases_ are somewhat of the nature of Dropsies; but
they are (at least, seem to be) more Exterior, than Interior Dropsies:
but, though there be Sweating-Diseases which are Irregular; yet,
Regular Sweating is as proper as Regular Breathing; and so healthful,
that Sweating extraordinary, in some Diseases, occasions a Cure: for,
Sweating is a sort of Purging; so that the evacuation of Sweat, through
the Pores, is as necessary as other sorts of evacuation, as Breathing,
Urine, Siege, Spitting, Purging through the Nose, and the like. But,
Excess of Sweating, is like other sorts of Fluxes, of which, some will
scowr to death; others vomit to death; and others the like Fluxes will

death; the like is of Sweating: so that the _Sweating-Sickness_ is
but like a _Fluxive-Sickness_. But, as I said, Regular Sweating is as
necessary as other ordinary Evacuations: and as some are apt to be
restringent, others laxative; and sometimes one and the same Man will
be laxative, other times, costive; so are Men concerning Sweating: and
as some Men take Medicines to purge by Stool, or Vomits, or Urine; so
they take Medicines to purge by Sweating. And, as Man hath several
sorts of Excremental Humours, so, several sorts of Sweats; as, Clammy
Sweats, Cold Sweats, Hot Sweats, and Faint Sweats: and, as all Excess
of other sorts of Purgings, causes a Man to be weak and faint; so doth


There are many several sorts of _Coughs_, proceeding from several
Causes; as, some Coughs proceed from a Superfluity of Moisture; others
from an Unnatural Heat; others from a Corruption of Humors; others
from a Decay of the Vital Parts; others from sudden Colds upon Hot
Distempers: Some are caused by an Interior Wind; some Coughs proceed
from Salt Humors, Bitter, Sharp, and Sweet: some Coughs proceed from
Flegm, which Flegm ariseth like a Scum in a Pot, when Meat is boiling
on a Fire: for

when the Stomack is distemperedly hot, the Humors in the Stomack boyl
as Liquid Substances on the Fire; those boiling Motions bearing up the
gross Humors beyond the Mouth of the Stomack, and, causing a Dispute
between the Breath and Humors, produce the Effect of Straining, or
Reaching upwards towards the Mouth, much like the Nature and Motions of
Vomiting: but, by reason those Motions are not so strong in Coughing,
as in Vomiting, the Coughing Motions bring up only pieces or parts of
superfluous Flegm, or gross Spittle. The like for corrupt Humors. Other
Coughs proceed from Unnatural or Distempered Heats; which Heats cause
Unnecessary Vapours, and those Vapours ascending up from the Bowels,
or Stomack, to the Head, and finding a Depression, are converted or
changed into a Watry Substance; which Watry Substance falls down, like
mizling or small Rain, or in bigger drops, through the passage of the
Throat and Wind-pipe: which being opprest, and the Breath hindered,
causes a Strife; which Striving, is a Straining; like as when Crumbs
of Bread, or Drops of Drink, go not rightly through the Throat, but
trouble and obstruct the Wind-pipe, or when any such Matter sticks
in the passage of the Throat: for, when any Part of the Body is
obstructed, it endeavours to release it self from those Obstructions:
Also, when the Vapour that arises, arises in very Thin and Rarified

that Rarified Vapour thickens or condenses not so suddenly, being
farther from the degree of Water; but when condensed into Water, it
falls down by drops; which drops trickling down the Throat, (like as
Tears from the Eyes trickle down the Cheeks of the Face) the Cough is
not so violent, but more frequent: but if the Rheum be salt or sharp,
that trickles down the Throat, it causes a gentle or soft smart, which
is much like the touch of Tickling or Itching, which provokes a faint
or weak Strain or Cough. Also, Wind will provoke to Strain or Cough:
The Motion of Wind is like as if Hair should tickle the Nose. Or, Wind
will cause a tickling in the Nose, which causes the Effect of Sneezing:
for, Sneezing is nothing but a Cough through the Nose; I may say, It
is a Nose-Cough. And Hickops are but Stomach-Coughs, Wind causing the
Stomack to strain. Also, the Guts have Coughs, which are caused by
the Wind, which makes a strife in the Guts and Bowels. Other Coughs
are produced from Decayed Parts: for, when any Part is corrupted, it
becomes less Solid than naturally it should be: As for example, The
Flesh of the Body, when corrupted, becomes from Dense Flesh, to a Slimy
Substance; thence, into a Watry Substance, which falls into Parts, or
changes from Flesh, into a Mixt Corrupted Matter, which falls into
Parts. The several Mixtures, or Distempered Substances,

and Irregular Motions, causes Division of the composed Parts; but in
the time of dissolving, and divisions of any Part, there is a strife
which causes Pain: and if the strife be in the Lungs, it causes Coughs,
by obstructing the Breath: but, some Coughs proceed from Vapours and
Winds, arising from the decayed Interior Parts, sending up Vapours from
the Dissolving Substance, which causeth Coughs; and some Coughs cause
Decays of the Prime Interior Parts: for, when there falls from the Head
a constant Distillation, this Distillation is like dropping Water,
which will penetrate or divide Stone; and more easily will dropping or
drilling Water do it, as Rheum, will corrupt Spongy Matter as Flesh is:
but, according as the Rheum is Fresh, Salt, or Sharp, the Parts are
a longer or shorter time decaying: for, Salt and Sharp is Corroding;
and, by the Corroding Motions, Ulcerates those Parts the Salt Rheums
fall on, which destroys them soon. As for _Chin-Cough_, 'tis a Wind or
Vapour arising from the Lungs, through the Wind-pipe; and as long as
the Wind or Vapour ascends, the Patient cannot draw in Reviving Air
or Breath, but Coughs violently and incessantly, until it faint away,
or have no Strength left; and with straining, will be as if it were
choaked or strangled, and become black in the face, and, after the
Cough is past, recover again; but some dye of these sorts of Coughs.


_Gangren's_ are of the Nature of the _Plague_; and they are of Two
sorts, as the _Plague_ is; the one more sudden and deadly than the
other: The only difference of their Insecting Qualities, is, That
_Gangren's_ spread by insecting still the next, or Neighbouring Parts;
whereas Plagues infect Forrein, as much as Home-Parts. Also, the deadly
sort of _Gangren's_, infect (as I may say) from the Circumference
towards the Center: when as the deadly sorts of Plague, infect from the
Center, towards the Circumference. But, that sort of _Gangrene_ that is
the weaker sort, infects only the next adjoining Parts, by degrees, and
after a spreading manner, rather than after a piercing manner.

But some may object, That _Plagues_ and _Gangren's_ are produced from
different Causes; as for example, Extream Cold will cause _Gangren's_;
and Extream Heat causes _Plagues_.

I answer, That Two opposite Causes may produce like Effects, for which
may be brought numerous Examples.

CHAP. X. Of Cancers and Fistula's.

_Cancers_ and _Fistula's_ are somewhat alike, in that they are both
produced from Salt, or sharp corroding Motions: but in this they
differ, that Cancers keep their Center, and spread in streams; whereas
_Fistula's_ will run from place to place: for if it be stopt in one
place, it is apt to remove and break out in another. Yet _Cancers_ are
somewhat like _Gangren's_, in infecting adjoining Parts; so that unless
a _Cancer_ be in such a place as can be divided from the Sound Parts,
it destroys the Human Life, by eating (as I may say) the Sound Parts of
the Body, as all Corroding, and Sharp or Salt Diseases do.

CHAP. XI. Of the GOVT.

As for the Disease named the _Gout_, I never heard but of Two sorts;
the _Fixt_, and the _Running Gout_: but, mistake me not, I mean _Fixt_
for _Place_, not _Time_. The _Fixt_ proceeds from Hot, Sharp, or Salt
Motions: The _Running Gout_ from Cold, Sharp Motions; but, both sorts
are Intermitting Diseases, and very painful; and I have heard those
that have had the _Fixt Gout_, say, That the pain of the Fixt Gout, is
somewhat like the Tooth-ach: but, all Gouts are occasioned by Irregular
Pressures and Re-actions. As for that sort that is named the Windy
Gout, it is rather a Sciatica, than a Gout.


Of the Disease of the _Stone_ in Human Creatures, there are many sorts:
for, though the _Stone_ of the _Bladder_, of the _Kidneys_, and in the
_Gaul_, be all of one kind of Disease called the _Stone_, yet they
are of different sorts: but, whether the Disease of the _Stone_ be
produced of Hot or Cold Motions, I cannot judg: but 'tis probable, some
are produced of Hot Motions, others of Cold; and perchance, others of
such sorts of Motions as are neither perfectly Hot, nor Cold: for, the
_Stone_ is produced, as all other Creatures, by such or such sorts of
Figurative Motions. Here is to be noted, That some of the Humours of
the Body may alter their Motion, and turn from being Flegm, Choler,
or the like, to be _Stone_; and so from being a Rare, Moist, or Loose
Body, to be a Dry, Densed, Hard, or Fixt Body. But certainly, the
_Stone_ of the _Bladder_, _Kidneys_ and _Gaul_, are of several sorts,
as being produced by several sorts of Figurative Motions; as also,
according to the Properties and Forms of those several Parts of the
Body they are produced in: for, as several sorts of Soyls, or Parts
of the Earth, produce several sorts of Minerals; so several Parts of
the Body, several sorts of the Disease of the _Stone_: And, as there
are several sorts of Stones in the several Parts of the Earth; so, no
doubt, there may not only be several sorts of Stone in several Parts,
but several sorts in one and the same Part; at least, in the like Parts
of several Men.

CHAP. XII. Of Apoplexies, and Lethargies.

_Apoplexies, Lethargies_, and the like Diseases, are produced by some
decay of the Vital Spirits, or by Obstructions, as being obstructed
by some Superfluities, or through the Irregularities of some sorts of
Motions, which occasion some Passages to close, that should be open.
But mistake me not, I do not mean empty Passages; for there is no such
thing (in my opinion) in Nature: but, I mean an open passage for a
frequent Course and Recourse of Parts. But an _Apoplexy_ is somewhat of
the Nature of a _Dead-Palsie_; and a _Lethargy_, of a Numb-Palsie; but
I have heard, that the Opinion of Learned Men is, That some sorts of
Vaporous Pains are the Fore-runners of _Apoplexies_ and _Palsies_: but,
in my opinion, though a Man may have two Diseases at once; yet surely,
where Vapour can pass, there cannot be an absolute Stoppage.


_Epilepsies_, or that we name the _Falling-Sickness_, is of the nature
of Swounding or Fainting Fits: but there are two visible sorts; the
one is, that only the Head is affected, and not the other Parts of the
Body; and for proof, Those that are thus distempered only in the Head,
all the other Parts will struggle and strive to help or assist the
affected or afflicted Parts, and those Parts of the Head that are not
Irregular, as may be observed by their Motions; but, by the means of
some other Parts, there will also be striving and strugling, as may be
observed by foaming through the Mouth. The other sort is like ordinary
Swounding-Fits, where all the Parts of the Body seem, for a time, to be
dead. But this is to be observed, That those that are thus diseased,
have certain times of Intermissions, as if the Corporeal Motions did
keep a Decorum in being Irregular. But some have had _Epilepsies_ from
their Birth; which proves, That their Productive Motions was Irregular.

CHAP. XIV. Of Convulsions, and Cramps.

_Convulsions_ and _Cramps_ are somewhat alike; and both, in my Opinion,
proceed from Cold Contractions: but, _Cramps_ are caused by the
Contractions of the _Capillary_ Veins, or small _Fibers_, rather than
of the Nerves and Sinews: for, those Contractions, if violent, are
_Convulsions_: so that Cramps are Contractions of the small Fibers;
and Convulsions are Contractions of the Nerves and Sinews. But the
reason (I believe) that these Diseases proceed from Cold Contractions,
is, That Hot Remedies produce, for the most part, perfect Cures; but,
they must be such sorts of Hot Remedies, that are of a dilating or
extenuating nature; and not such whose Properties are Hot and Dry, or
Contracting: also, the Applications must be according to the strength
of the Disease.


_Cholicks_ are like _Cramps_ or _Convulsions_; or _Convulsions_ and
_Cramps_, like _Cholicks_: for, as _Convulsions_ are Contractions
of the Nerves and Sinews; and _Cramps_, Contractions of the small
_Fibers_: so _Cholicks_

are a Contracting of the Gutts: and, for proof, So soon as the
Contracting Motions alter, and are turn'd to Dilating or Expelling
Actions, the Patient is at ease. But, there are several Causes that
produce the _Cholick_: for, some _Cholicks_ are produced by Hot and
Sharp Motions, as _Bilious Cholicks_; others from Cold and Sharp
Motions, as _Splenetick Cholicks_; others from Crude and Raw Humours;
some from Hot Winds; some from Cold Winds. The same some sorts of
_Convulsions_ and _Cramps_ may be: but, though these several _Cholicks_
may proceed from several Causes; yet, they all agree in this, To be
Contractions: for, as I said, when those Corporeal Motions alter
their Actions to Dilatation or Expulsion, the Patient is at ease.
But, those _Cholicks_ that proceed from Hot and Sharp Motions, are
the most painful and dangerous, by reason they are, for the most
part, more strong and stubborn. As for _Cholicks_ in the Stomack,
they are caused by the same sorts of Motions that cause some sorts
of Contractions: but, those sorts of _Cholick_ Contractions, are
after the manner of wreathing, or wringing Contractions. The same in

CHAP. XVI. Of Shaking Palsies.

_Shaking Palsies_ proceed from a Slackness of the Nerves, or Sinew
strings, as may be observed by those that hold or lay any heavy weight
upon the Arms, Hands or Leggs: for, when the Burdens are removed, those
Limbs will be apt to tremble and shake so much, for a short time,
(until they have recovered their former strength) that the Leggs cannot
go, or stand steadily; nor the Arms, or Hands, do any thing without
shaking. The reason of these sorts of Slackness, is, That heavy Burdens
occasion the Nerves and Sinews to extend beyond their Order; and
being stretched, they become more slack, and loose, by how much they
were stretched, or extended; until such time as they contract again
into their proper Posture: And the reason that Old Age is subject to
_Shaking-Palsies_, is, That the Frame of their whole Body is looser and
slacker, than when it was young: As in a decayed House, every Material
is looser than when it was first built; but yet, sometimes an old
shaking House will continue a great while, with some Repairs: so old
shaking Men, with Care, and good Dyet, will continue a great time. But
this is to be noted, That trembling is a kind of a _Shaking-Palsie_,
although of another sort; and so is Weakness

after Sickness: but, these sorts are occasioned, as when a House shakes
in a great Wind, or Storm; and not through any Fundamental Decay.

CHAP. XVII. Of the Muther, Spleen, and Scurvy.

As for those Diseases that are named the _Fits of the Muther_, the
_Spleen_, the _Scurvy_, and the like; although they are the most
general Diseases, especially amongst the Females; yet, each particular
sort is so various, and hath such different Effects, that, I observe,
they puzzle the most Learned Men to find out their jugling, intricate,
and uncertain Actions. But this is to be observed, That the Richest
sorts of Persons are most apt to these sorts of Diseases; which proves,
That Idleness and Luxury is the occasion.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Food, or Digestions.

As I have said, _Digestions_ are so numerous, and so obscure, that the
most Learned Men know not how Food is converted and distributed to all
the Parts of the Body: Which Obscurity occasions many Arguments, and
much Dispute amongst the Learned; but, in my opinion, it is not the
Parts of the Human Body, that do digest the Food, although they may
be an occasion (through their own Regularities, or Irregularities) to
cause good or bad digestions: but, the Parts of the Food, do digest
themselves; that is, alter their actions to the Property and Nature of
a Human Body: so that Digestive Parts are only Additional Parts; and,
if those Nourishing Motions be Regular,they distribute their several
Parts, and joyn their several Parts, to those several Parts of the Body
that require Addition. Also, the Digestive Motions are according to
the Nature or Property of each several Part of the Human Body, As for
example, Those Digestive Parts alter into Blood, Flesh, Fat, Marrow,
Brains, Humors, and so into any other Figurative Parts of the Sensitive
Body. The same may be said of the Rational Parts of the Mind: but, if
those Digestive Parts be Irregular, they will cause a Disorder in a
well-ordered Body: and, if the Parts of the Body be Irregular, they
will occasion a Disorder amongst the Digestive Parts: but, according to
the Regularities and Irregularities of the Digestive Parts, is the Body
more or less nourished. But this is to be noted, That according to the
Superfluity or Scarcity of those Digestive Parts, the Body is opprest,
or starved.


_Surfeits_ are occasioned after different manners: for, though many
Surfeits proceed from those Parts that are received into the Body;
yet, some are occasioned through often repetitions of one and the same
actions: As for example, The Eyes may surfeit with too often viewing
one Object; the Ears, with often hearing one Sound; the Nose, with
smelling one Sent; the Tongue, with one Tast. The same is to be said of
the Rational Actions; which Surfeits, occasion an aversion to such or
such Particulars: but, for those Surfeits that proceed from the Parts
that are received into the Body, they are either through the _quantity_
that oppresses the Nature of the Body; or, through the _quality_ of
those Parts, being not agreeable to the Nature of the Body; or, through
their Irregularities, that occasion the like Irregularities in the
Body: and sometimes, the fault is through the Irregularities of the
Body, that hinder those received Parts, or obstruct their Regular
Digestions; and sometimes, the fault is both of the Parts of the Body,
and those of the Food: but, the Surfeits of those Parts that receive
not Food, are caused through the often repetition of one and the same

CHAP. XX. Of Natural Evacuations, or Purgings.

There are many sorts, and several ways or means of Purging actions;
whereof some we name _Natural_, which purge the Excremental Parts; and
such Natural Purgings, are only of such Parts as are no ways useful
to the Body; or of those that are not willing to convert themselves
into the Nature and Property of the Substantial Parts. There must of
necessity be Purging actions, as well as Digestive actions; because,
no Creature can subsist singly of it self, but all Creatures subsist
each by other; so that, there must be Dividing actions, as well as
Uniting actions; only, several sorts of Creatures, have several sorts
of Nourishments and Evacuations. But this is to be noted, in the Human
Nourishments and Evacuations, that, through their Irregularities, some
Men may nourish too much, and others purge too much; and some may
nourish too little, and some may purge too little. The Irregularities
concerning Nourishments, are amongst the adjoining Parts; the Errors
concerning Purging, are amongst the Dividing Parts.


There are many sorts of _Druggs_, whereof some are beneficial, by
assisting those particular Parts of the Body that are oppressed and
offended, either by Superfluous Humours, or Malignant Humours: but,
there are some sorts of Druggs that are as malicious to the Human
Life, as the Assistant Druggs are friendly. Several sorts of Druggs,
have several sorts of Actions, which causes several Effects; as, some
Druggs work by Siege; others, by Urine; some, by Vomit; others, by
Spitting; others, by Sweating; some cause sleep; some are hot, others
are cold; some dry, others moist. But this is to be noted, That 'tis
not the Motions of the Druggs, but the Motion of the Humours, which the
Druggs occasion to flow; and not only to flow, but to flow after such
or such a manner and way. The Actions of Druggs, are like the Actions
of Hounds, or Hawks, that flye at a particular Bird, or run after a
particular beast of their own kind, although of a different sort: The
only difference is, That Druggs are not only of a different sort, but
of a different Kind from Animal Kind; at least, from Human Sort.

CHAP. XXII. Of the Various Humours of Druggs.

The reason, one and the same Quantity or Dose of one and the same sort
of Purging-Druggs or Medicine, will often work differently in several
Human Bodies; as also, differently in one and the same Body, at several
times of taking the same sorts of Medicines; is, That several Parts
of one and the same sort, may be differently humoured: as, some to be
duller and slower than others; and some to be more active than others.
Also, some Parts may be ill-natured, and cause Factions amongst the
Parts of the Body; whereas others will endeavour to rectifie Disorders,
or Factions. And sometimes both the Druggs, and the Body, falls out;
and then there is a dangerous strife; the Body striving to expel the
Physick, and the Physick endeavouring to stay in the Body, to do the
Body some mischief. Also, some Parts of one and the same sort, may
be so Irregular, as to hunt not only the superfluous Humours, or the
Malignant Humors, but all sorts of flowing Parts; which may cause so
great and general Disorder, as may endanger Human Life.


There are many sorts of _Cordials_: for, I take every Beneficial Remedy
to be a Cordial: but, many of the Vulgar believe, That there is no
Cordial but Brandy, or such like Strong-waters; at least, they believe
all such Remedies that are virtually Hot, to be Cordials: but, when
they take too much of such Cordials, either in Sickness, or Health,
they will, in some time, find them as bad as Poyson. But, all such
Applications as are named _Cordials_, are not hot: for, some are cool,
at least, of a temperate degree. And as there are Regular and Irregular
Corporeal Motions; so there are Sympathetical, and Antipathetical
Motions; and yet both sorts may be Regular. Also, there is a Neutral
sort, that has neither Sympathy nor Antipathy, but is Indifferent. But
in Disputes between Two different Parties, a Third may come in to the
assistance of one Side, more out of hate to the Opposite, than love
to the Assisted. The same may Cordials, or such like Applications,
do, when the Corporeal Motions of Human Life are in disorder, and at
variance: for, oftentimes there is as great a Mutiny and Disorder
amongst the Corporeal Motions, both in the Mind and Body of a Man, as
in a Publick State in time of Rebellion: but, all

Assistant Cordials, endeavour to assist the Regular Parts of the Body,
and to perswade the Irregular Parts. As for Poysons, they are like
Forrein Warr, that endeavours to destroy a Peaceable Government.

CHAP. XXIV. Of the different Actions of the several Sensitive Parts of
a Human Creature.

Some Parts of a Human Creature will be Regular, and some Irregular:
as, some of the Sensitive Parts will be Regular, and some Irregular;
that is, some Parts will be Painful, or Sick, others well: some Parts
will make false Perceptions; others, true Perceptions: some Parts be
Temperate; others, Intemperate: some Parts be Madd, other Parts Sober:
some Parts be Wise; others, Foolish: and the same is to be said of the
Rational Motions. But, in a Regular Society, every Part and Particle of
the Body, is Regularly agreeable, and Sympathetical.

CHAP. XXV. Of the Antipathy of some Human Creatures, to some Forrein

As I have often said, There is often both Sympathy and Antipathy
between the Parts of some particular Human and Forrein Objects; in so
much, that some will occasion such a general Disturbance, as will cause
a general Alteration, viz. cause a Man to swound, or at least, to be
very faint, or sick: as for example, Some will Swound at some sorts
of Sounds, some sorts of Scents, some sorts of Tast, some sorts of
Touches, and some sorts of Sights. Again, on the other side, some Human
Creatures will so sympathize with some sorts of Forrein Objects, as
some will Long for that, another will Swound to have.

CHAP. XXVI. Of the Effects of Forrein Objects, on the Human Mind.

As there is often Antipathy of the Parts of a Human Creature, to
Forrein Objects; so there are often Sympathetical Effects produced
from Forrein Objects, with the Parts of a Human Creature. As for
example, A timely, kind, and discreet Discourse from a Friend, will
compose or quiet his troubled Mind: Likewise, an untimely, unkind,
hasty, malicious, false, or sudden Discourse, will often disorder a
well-temper'd, or Regular Mind, the Mind imitating the smooth or harsh
strains of the Object: and the same Effects hath Musick, on the Minds
of many Human Creatures.


Human _Contemplation_, is a Conversation amongst some of the Rational
Parts of the Human Mind; which Parts, not regarding present Objects,
move either in devout Notions, or vain Fancies, Remembrances,
Inventions, Contrivancies, Designs, or the like. But the question
is, Whether the Sensitive Parts of a Human Society, do, at any time,
Contemplate? I answer, That some of the Sensitive Parts are so
sociable, that they are, for the most part, agreeable to the Rational:
for, in deep Contemplations, some of the Sensitive Parts do not take
notice of Forrein Objects, but of the Rational Actions. Also, if the
Contemplations be in devout Notions, the Sensitive Parts express
Devotion by their Actions, as I have formerly mentioned. Also, when the
Rational Parts move in Actions of Desire, straight the Sensitive move
in Sympathetical Appetites: Wherefore, if the Society be Regular, the
Sensitive and Rational Parts are agreeable and sociable.

CHAP. XXVIII. Of Injecting of the Blood of one Animal, into the Veins
of another Animal.

To put Blood of one Animal, into another Animal; as for example, Some
Ounces of Blood taken, by some Art, out of a Dogg's Veins, and, by some
Art, put into a Man's Veins, may very easily be done by _Injection_;
and certainly, may as readily convert it self to the Nature of Human
Blood, as Roots, Herbs, Fruit, and the like Food; and probably,
will more aptly be transformed into Human Flesh, than Hogg's Blood,
mixt with many Ingredients, and then put into Gutts, and boyled,
(an ordinary Food amongst Country People;) but Blood being a loose
Humourish Part, may encrease or diminish, as the other Humors, viz.
_Flegm, Choler_, and _Melancholy_, are apt to do. But this is to be
observed, That by reason Blood is the most flowing Humor, and of much
more, or greater quantity than all the rest of the Humours, it is apt
(if Regular) to cause, not only more frequent, but a more general

The Eleventh Part.

CHAP. I. Of the different Knowledges, in different Kinds and Sorts of

If there be not Infinite Kinds, yet, it is probable, there are Infinite
several Sorts; at least, Infinite particular Creatures, in every
particular Kind and Sort; and the Corporeal Motions moving after a
different manner, is the cause there are different Knowledges, in
different Creatures; yet, none can be said to be _least knowing_, or
_most knowing_: for, there is (in my opinion) no such thing as _least_
and _most_, in Nature: for, several kinds and sorts of Knowledges,
make not Knowledg to be more, or less; but only, they are different
Knowledges proper to their kind, (as, Animal-kind, Vegetable-kind,

Elemental-kind) and are also different Knowledges in several sorts:
As for example, Man may have a different Knowledg from Beasts, Birds,
Fish, Flies, Worms, or the like; and yet be no wiser than those sorts
of Animal-kinds. The same happens between the several Knowledges of
Vegetables, Minerals, and Elements: but, because one Creature doth
not know what another Creature knows, thence arises the Opinion of
_Insensibility_, and _Irrationability_, that some Creatures have of
others. But there is to be noted, That Nature is so Regular, or wise,
in her Actions, that the _Species_ and Knowledg of every particular
Kind, is kept in an Even, or Equal Balance: For example, The Death or
Birth of Animals, doth neither add or diminish from, or to the Knowledg
of the Kind, or rather the Sort. Also, an Animal can have no Knowledg,
but such as is proper to the _species_ of his Figure: but, if there
be a Creature of a mixt _Species_, or Figure, then their Knowledg is
according to their mixt Form: for, the Corporeal Motions of every
Creature, move according to the Form, Frame, or _Species_ of their
Society: but, there is not only different Knowledges, in different
Kinds and Sorts of Creatures; but, there are different Knowledges in
the different Parts of one and the same; as, the different Senses
of Seeing, Hearing, Smelling, Tasting, and Touching, have not only
different Knowledges in different Sensitive Organs, but

in one Sense, they have several Perceptive Knowledges: and though the
different Sensitive Organs of a Human Creature, are ignorant of each
other; yet, each Sense is as knowing as another. The same (no question)
is amongst all the Creatures in Nature.

CHAP. II. Of the Variety of Self-actions in particular Creatures.

There are numerous Varieties of Figurative Motions in some Creatures;
and in others, very few, in comparison: but, the occasion of that, is
the manner of the Frame and Form of a Creature: for, some Creatures
that are but small, have much more variety of Figurative Motions, than
others that are very bigg and large Creatures: so that, it is not only
the Quantity of Matter, or Number of Parts, but the several Changes
of Motion, by the Variety of their Active Parts, that is the cause of
it: for, Nature is not only an Infinite Body, but, being Self-moving,
causes Infinite Variety, by the altered Actions of her Parts; every
altered Action, causing both an altered Self-knowledg, and an altered
Perceptive Knowledg.

CHAP. III. Of the Variety of Corporeal Motion, of one and the same sort
or kind of Motion.

There is Infinite Variety of Motion of the same sorts and kinds of
Motions; as for example, Of Dilatations, or Extensions, Expulsions,
Attractions, Contractions, Retentions, Digestions, Respirations:
There is also Varieties of Densities, Rarities, Gravities, Levities,
Measures, Sizes, Agilness, Slowness, Strength, Weakness, Times,
Seasons, Growths, Decays, Lives, Deaths, Conceptions, Perceptions,
Passions, Appetites, Sympathies, Antipathies, and Millions the like
kinds, or sorts.

CHAP. IV. Of the Variety of particular Creatures.

Nature is so delighted with _Variety_, that seldom two Creatures
(although of the same sort, nay, from the same Producers) are just
alike; and yet Human Perception cannot perceive above four kinds of
Creatures, viz. _Animals, Vegetables, Minerals_, and _Elements_: but,
the several sorts seem to be very numerous; and the Varieties of the
several Particulars, Infinite: but, Nature is necessitated to divide
her Creatures into Kinds and Sorts, to keep Order and Method: for,
there may be numerous Varieties of sorts; as for example, Many several
Worlds, and infinite Varieties of Particulars in those _Worlds_: for,
Worlds may differ from each other, as much as several sorts of Animals,
Vegetables, Minerals, or Elements; and yet be all of that sort we name
Worlds: but, as for the Infinite Varieties of Nature, we may say, That
every Part of Nature is Infinite, in some sort; because every Part
of Nature is a perpetual Motion, and makes Infinite Varieties, by
change or alteration of Action: but, there is so much Variety of the
several Shapes, Figures, Forms, and Sizes, as, Bigger, and Less; as
also, several sorts of Heats, Colds, Droughts, Moistures, Fires, Airs,
Waters, Earths, Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, as are not to be

CHAP. V. Of Dividing, and Rejoyning, or Altering Exterior Figurative

The Interior and Exterior Figurative Motions of some sorts of
Creatures, are so united by their Sympathetical Actions, as they cannot
be separated without a Total Dissolution; and some cannot be altered
without a Dissolution; and other Figurative Motions may separate, and
unite again; and others, if separate, cannot unite again, as they were
before: As for example, The Exterior Parts of a Human Creature, if
once divided, cannot be rejoyned; when as some sorts of Worms may be
divided, and if those divided Parts meet, can rejoyn, as before. Also,
some Figurative Motions of different sorts, and so different, that they
are opposite, may unite in agreement, in one Composition, or Creature;
yet, when the very same sorts of Figurative Motions, are not so united,
they are, as it were, deadly Enemies.

CHAP. VI. Of Different Figurative Motions in particular Creatures.

There are many Creatures that are composed of very opposite Figurative
Motions; as for example, Some Parts of Fire and Water; also, all
Cordials, Vitriols, and the like Waters; also, Iron and Stone, and
Infinite the like: But, that which is composed of the most different
Figurative Motions, is _Quick-silver_, which is exteriorly Cold, Soft,
Fluid, Agil, and Heavy: also, Divisible, and Rejoynable; and yet so
Retentive of its Innate Nature, that although it can be rarified, yet
not easily dissolved; at least, not that Human Creatures can perceive;
for, it hath puzled the best _Chymists_.

CHAP. VII. Of the Alterations of Exterior and Innate Figurative Motions
of several sorts of Creatures.

The Form of several Creatures, is after several manners and ways, which
causes several Natures or Properties: As for example, The Exterior and
Innate Corporeal Motions of some Creatures, depend so much on each
other, That the least Alteration of the one, causes a Dissolution of
the whole Creature; whereas the Exterior Corporeal Motions of other
sorts of Creatures, can change and rechange their actions, without the
least disturbance to the Innate Figurative Motions: In other sorts the
Innate Motions shall be quite altered, but their Exterior Motions be in
some manner consistent: As for proof, Fire is of that Nature, that both
the Exterior and Innate Motions, are of one and the same sort; so that
the Alteration of the one, causeth a Dissolution of the other; that is,
Fire loses the Property of Fire, and is altered from being Fire. On the
other side, the Exterior Figurative Motions of Water, can change and
rechange, without any disturbance to the Innate Nature: but, though the
Alteration of the Innate Figurative Motions of all Creatures, must of
necessity alter the Life and Knowledg of that Creature; yet there may
be such consistent Motions amongst the

Exterior Parts of some sorts of Creatures, that they will keep their
Exterior Form: As for example, A Tree that is cut down, or into pieces,
when those pieces are withered, and, as we say, dead; yet, they remain
of the Figure of Wood. Also, a dead Beast doth not alter the Figure of
Flesh or Bones, presently. Also, a dead Man doth not presently dissolve
from the Figure of Man; and some, by the Art of embalming, will
occasion the remaining Figurative Motions of the dead Man to continue,
so that those sorts of Motions, that are the Frame and Form, are not
quite altered: but yet, those Exterior Forms are so altered, that they
are not such as those by which we name a _Living Man_. The same of
Flyes, or the like, intomb'd in _Amber_: but by this we may perceive,
That the Innate Figurative Motions may be quite altered, and yet the
Exterior Figurative consistent Motions, do, in some manner, keep in the
Figure, Form, or Frame of their Society. The truth is, (in my opinion)
That all the Parts that remain undissolved, have quite altered their
Animal actions; but only the Consistent actions, of the Form of their
Society, remains, so as to have a resemblance of their Frame or Form.


All Corporeal Motion is _Local_; but only they are different Local
Motions: and some sorts or kinds, have advantage of others, and some
have power over others, as, in a manner, to inforce them to alter their
Figurative motions; as for example, When one Creature doth destroy
another, those that are the _Destroyers_, occasion those that we name
the _Destroyed_, to dissolve their Unity, and to alter their actions:
for, they cannot annihilate their actions; nor can they give or take
away the Power of Self-motions; but, as I said, some Corporeal motions
can occasion other Corporeal motions to move so, or so. But this is to
be noted, That several sorts of Creatures have a mixture of several
sorts of Figurative motions; as for example, There are Flying Fish, and
Swimming Beasts; also, there are some Creatures that are partly Beasts,
and partly Fish, as _Otters_, and many others; also, a _Mule_ is partly
a Horse, and an Ass; a _Batt_ is partly a Mouse, and a Bird; an _Owle_
is partly a Cat and a Bird; and numerous other Creatures there are,
that are partly of one sort, and partly of another.

CHAP. IX. Of several manners, or ways of Advantages, or Disadvantages.

Not only the Manner, Form, Frame, or Shape of particular Creatures;
but also, the Regularity or Irregularity of the Corporeal motions
of particular Creatures, doth cause that which Man names _Strength_
or _Weakness, Obedience_ or _Disobedience_, _Advantages_ or
_Disadvantages_ of Power and Authority, or the like: As for example,
A greater Number will overpower a lesse: for, though there be no
Differences (as being no Degrees) of Self-strength amongst the
Self-moving Parts, or Corporeal motions; yet, there may be stronger
and weaker Compositions, or Associations; and a greater Number of
Corporeal motions, makes a stronger Party: but, if the greater Party be
Irregular, and the lesser Party be Regular, a hundred to one, but the
weaker Party is victorious. Also, the manner of the Corporeal motions;
as, a Diving-motion may get the better of a Swimming-motion; and, in
some cases, the Swimming, the better of the Diving. Jumping may have
the advantage over Running; and, in other cases, Running, over Jumping.
Also, Creeping may have the advantage over Flying; and, in other cases,
Flying, over Creeping. A Cross Motion may have the advantage over a
Straight; and, in other cases, a Straight, over a Cross. So it may be
said, of Turning and Lifting, of Contracting and Dilating Motions. And
many the like Examples may be had; but, as I have often said, There is
much Advantage and Disadvantage in the manner and way of the Composed
Form and Figure of Creatures.

CHAP. X. Of the Actions of some sorts of Creatures, over others.

Some sorts of Creatures are more Exteriorly active, than other sorts;
and some more Interiorly active; some more rare, some more dense, and
the like: also, some dense Creatures are more active than the rare;
and some rare, are more active than other sorts that are dense. Also,
some Creatures that are rare, have advantage of some that are dense;
and some that are dense, over some sorts that are rare; some leight
Bodies, over some heavy Bodies; and some heavy Bodies, over some sorts
of leight Bodies. Also, several sorts of Exterior Motions, of several
sorts of Creatures, have advantage and disadvantage of each other; as
for example, Springs of Water, and Air, will make Passages, and so
divide hard strong Rocks. And, on the other side, a Straw will divide
Parts of Water; and a small Flye, will divide Parts of the Air: but,
mistake me not, I mean, that they occasion the Airy or Watry Parts, to


Tis impossible, as I have said, to describe the Infinite Corporeal
Figurative Motions: but, amongst those Creatures that are subject to
Human Perception, there are some that resemble each other, and yet
are of different Natures; as for example, _Black Ebony_, and _Black
Marble_, they are both Glassie, smooth, and black; yet, one is Stone,
the other Wood. Also, there be many light and shining Bodies, that are
of different Natures; as for example, Metal is a bright shining Body;
and divers sorts of Stones, are bright shining Bodies: also, clear
Water is a bright shining Body; yet, the Metal and Stones are Minerals,
and Water is an Element. Indeed, Most Bodies are of a Glassie Hue, or,
as I may say, Complexion; as may be observed in most Vegetables; as
also, Skins, Feathers, Scales, and the like.

But some may say, That _Glassiness is made by the Brightness of the
Light that shines upon them_.

I answer: If so, then the ordinary Earth would have the like
Glassiness: but, we perceive the Earth to appear dull in the clearest
Sun-shining Day: wherefore, it is not the Light, but the nature of
their own Bodies. Besides, every Body hath not one and the same sort
of Glassiness, but some are very different: 'Tis true, some sorts of
Bodies do not appear Glassie, or shining, until they be polished: but,
as for such sorts of shining Bodies that appear in the dark, there is
not many of them perceiv'd by us, besides the Moon and Starrs; but
yet some there are, as Fire; but that is an Element. There are also
Glow-worms Tayles, Cats Eyes, Rotten Wood, and such like shining-Bodies.

CHAP. XII. Of Metamorphoses, or Transformations of Animals and

There are some Creatures that cannot be Metamorphosed: as for example,
Animals and Vegetables, at least, most of those sorts, by reason they
are composed of many several and different Figurative Motions; and
I understand _Metamorphose_, to be a change and alteration of the
Exterior Form, but not any change or alteration of the Interior or
Intellectual Nature: and how can there be a general change of the
Exterior Form or Shape of a Human Creature, or such like Animal, when
the different Figurative Motions of his different Compositions, are,
for the most part, ignorant of each others particular Actions? Besides,
as Animals and Vegetables require degrees

of time for their Productions, as also, for their Perfections; so,
some Time is requir'd for their Alterations: but, a sudden alteration
amongst different Figurative Motions, would cause such a Confusion,
that it would cause a Dissolution of the _whole_ Creature, especially
in actions that are not natural, as being improper to their kind, or
sort: The same of Vegetables, which have many different Figurative
Motions. This considered, I cannot chuse but wonder, that wise men
should believe (as some do) the Change or Transformation of Witches,
into many sorts of Creatures.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Life and Death of several Creatures.

That which Man names _Life_, and _Death_, (which are some sorts of
Compositions and Divisions of Parts of Creatures) is very different, in
different kinds and sorts of Creatures, as also, in one and the same
sort: As for example, Some Vegetables are old and decrepit in a Day;
others are not in Perfection, or in their Prime, in less than a hundred
years. The same may be said of Animal kinds. A _Silk-worm_ is no sooner
born, but dyes; when as other Animals may live a hundred years. As for
Minerals, Tinn and Lead seem but of a short Life, to Gold; as a Worm
to an Elephant, or a Tulip to an Oak for lasting; and 'tis probable,
the several Productions of the Planets and Fixed Starrs, may be as far
more lasting, than the parts of Gold more lasting than a Flye: for,
if a Composed Creature were a Million of years producing, or Millions
of years dissolving, it were nothing to Eternity: but, those produced
Motions that make Vegetables, Minerals, Elements, and the like, the
subtilest Philosopher, or Chymist, in Nature, can never perceive, or
find out; because, Human Perception is not so subtile, as to perceive
that which Man names Natural Productions: for, though all the Corporeal
Motions in Nature are perceptive; yet, every Perceptive Part doth
not perceive all the actions in Nature: for, though every different
Corporeal Motion, is a different Perception; yet, there are more
Objects than any one Creature can perceive: also, every particular kind
or sort of Creatures, have different Perceptions, occasioned by the
Frame and Form of their Compositions, or unities of their Parts: So as
the Perceptions of Animals, are not like the Perceptions of Vegetables;
nor Vegetables, like the Perceptions of Minerals; nor Minerals, like
the Perceptions of Elements: For, though all these several kinds and
sorts, be perceptive; yet, not after one and the same way, or manner of
Perception: but, as there is infinite variety of Corporeal Motions, so
there are infinite varieties of Perceptions: for, Infinite Self-moving
Matter, hath infinite varieties of Actions. But, to return to the
Discourse of the Productions and Dissolutions of Creatures; The reason,
that some Creatures last longer than others, is, That some Forms or
Frames of their Composition, are of a more lasting Figure. But this is
to be observed, That the Figures that are most solid, are more lasting
than those that are more slack and loose: but mistake me not; I say,
_For the most part_, they are more lasting. Also, this is to be noted,
That some Compositions require more labour; some, more curiosity; and
some are more full of variety, than others.


A _Circle_ is a Round Figure, without End; which Figure can more easily
and aptly alter the Exterior Form, than any other Figure. For example,
A Circular Line may be drawn many several ways, into different and
several sorts of Figures, without breaking the Circle: also, it may
be contracted or extended into a less or wider compass; and drawn or
formed into many several sorts of Figures, or Works; as, into a Square,
or Triangle, or Oval, or Cylinder, or like several sorts of Flowers,
and never dissolve the Circular Line. But this is to be noted, that
there may be several sorts of Circular Lines; as, some Broad, some
Narrow, some Round, some Flat, some Ragged or Twisted, some Smooth,
some Pointed, some Edged, and numbers of the like; and yet the compass
be exactly round.

But some may say, that, _When a Circle is drawn into several Works, it
is not a Circle: As for example, When a Circle is squared, it is not a
Circle, but a Square._

I answer: It is a Circle squar'd, but not a Circle broken, or divided:
for, the Interior Nature is not dissolved, although the Exterior Figure
is altered: it is a Natural Circle, although it should be put into a
Mathematical Square. But, to conclude this Chapter, I say, That all
such sorts of Figures that are (like Circular Lines) of one piece, may
change and rechange their Exterior Figures, or Shapes, without any
alterations of their Interior Properties.

CHAP. XV. Human Creatures cannot so probably treat of other sorts of
Creatures, as of their own.

To treat of the Productions of Vegetables, Minerals, and Elements, is
not so easie a Task, as to treat of Animals; and, amongst Animals, the
most easie Task is, to treat of Human Productions; by reason one Human
Creature may more probably guess at the Nature of all Human Creatures
(being of the same Nature) than he can of other kinds

of other kinds of Creatures, that are of another Nature. But, mistake
me not, I mean not of another Nature, being not of the same kind of
Creature, but concerning Vegetables, Minerals, and Elements. The
Elements may more easily be treated of, than the other Two kinds: for,
though there be numerous sorts of them, at least, numerous several
Particulars; yet, not so many several Sorts, as of Vegetables: and
though Minerals are not, as to my knowledg, so numerous as Vegetables;
yet, they are of more, or at least, of as many Sorts as Elements are.
But, by reason I am unlearned, I shall only give my Opinion of the
Productions of some sorts; in which, I fear, I shall rather discover
my Ignorance, than the Truth of their Productions. But, I hope my
_Readers_ will not find fault with my Endeavour, though they may find
fault with my little Experience, and want of Learning.

The Twelfth Part.

CHAP. I. Of the Equality of ELEMENTS.

As for the Four Elements, _Fire, Air, Water_, and _Earth_; they
subsist, as all other Creatures, which subsist by each other: but,
in my opinion, there should be an Equality of the Four Elements, to
balance the World: for, if one sort should superabound, it would
occasion such an Irregularity, that would cause a Dissolution of this
World; as, when some particular Humour in Man's Body superabounds, or
there is a scarcity of some Humours, it causes such Irregularities,
that do, many times, occasion his Destruction. The same may be said
of the Four Elements of the World: as for example, If there were not
a sufficient quantity of Elemental Air, the Elemental Fire would go
out; and if not a sufficient quantity of Elemental Fire, the Air would
corrupt: also, if there were not a sufficient quantity of Elemental
Water, the Elemental Fire would burn the Earth; and if there were not
a sufficient quantity of Earth, there would not be a solid and firm
Foundation for the Creatures of the Earth: for, if there were not
Density, as well as Rarity; and Levity, as well as Gravity; Nature
would run into Extreams.

CHAP. II. Of several TEMPERS.

Heat doth not make Drought: for, there is a _Temper_ of Hot and Moist.
Nor Cold doth not make Drought: for, there is a _Temper_ of Cold and
Moist. Neither doth Heat make Moisture: for, there is a _Temper_ of Hot
and Dry. Nor doth Cold make Moisture: for, there is a _Temper_ of Cold
and Dry. But, such or such sorts of Corporeal Figurative Motions, make
Hot, Cold, Moist, Dry; Hot and Dry, Hot and Moist; Cold and Dry, Cold
and Moist; and, as those Figurative Motions alter their Actions, those
_Tempers_ are altered: the like happens in all Creatures. But this is
to be observed, That there is some opposite or contrary _Tempers_,
which have a likeness of Motion: as for example, A Moist Heat, and a
Moist Cold, have a likeness or resemblance of Moistness;

and the same is in dry Heats and Cold: but surely, most sorts of
Moistures, are some sorts of dilative Motions; and most Droughts, are
some sorts of Contractive Motions: but, there are several sorts of
Dilatations, Contractions, Retentions, Expulsions, and the like: for,
there are Cold Contractions, Hot Contractions; Cold Dilatations, Hot
Dilatations; Hot Retentions, Cold Retentions; and so of Digestions,
Expulsions, and the like: But, as I said, Moist Heats, and Moist
Colds, seem of a Dilative Nature; as Dry, of a Contractive Nature.
But, all Cold and Heat, or Dry and Moist, may be made by one and the
same Corporeal Motions: for, though the Actions may vary, the Parts
may be the same: yea, the like Actions may be in different Parts. But,
no Part is bound to any particular Action, having a free Liberty of
Self-motion. But, concerning Hot and Cold, and the like Actions, I
observe, That Extream Heat, and Extream Cold, is of a like Power, or
Degree: neither can I perceive the Hot Motions to be quicker than Cold:
for Water, in little quantity, shall as suddenly freeze, as any leight
Fewel or Straw, burn: and Animals will as soon freeze to death, as be
burned to death: and Cold is as powerful at the Poles, as Heat in the
_Torrid Zone_. And 'tis to be observed, That Freezing is as quick and
sudden, as Thawing: but sometimes, nay very often, Cold and Hot Motions
will dispute for Power; and some sorts of Hot, with other sorts. The
like Disputes are amongst several sorts of Cold Motions; Dry with
Moist, Dry with Dry, Moist with Moist. And the like Disputes are also
often amongst all Creatures. As for Density, it doth not make Gravity:
for, there may be Dense Bodies, that are not Grave; as for example,
Feathers, and Snow. Neither doth Gravity make Density: for, a quantity
of Air hath some weight, and yet is not dense. But mistake me not; for,
I mean by _Grave, Heavy_; and not for the Effects of Ascending, and
Descending: for Feathers, though Dense, are more apt to ascend, than
descend; and Snow, to descend. Also, all sorts of Fluidity, do not
cause Moist, Liquid, or Wet; nor all Extenuations, cause Light: but,
they are such and such sorts of Fluidities and Extenuations, that cause
such and such Effects. And so for Heats, Colds, Droughts, Moistures,
Rarities. The same for Gravities, Levities, and the like. So that,
Creatures are Rare, Fluid, Moist, Wet, Dry, Dense, Hard, Soft, Leight,
Heavy, and the like, according to their Figurative Motions.

CHAP. III. Of the Change and Rechange; and of Dividing and Ioyning of
the Parts of the Elements.

Of all Creatures subject to Human Perception, the Elements are most apt
to Transform, _viz._ to _Change_ and _Rechange_; also, to _Divide_ and
_Ioyn_ their Parts, without altering their Innate Nature and Property.
The reason is, because the Innate Figurative Motions of Elements, are
not so different as those of Animals and Vegetables, whose Compositions
are of many different Figurative Motions; in so much, that disjoining
any Part of Animals, or Vegetables, they cannot be joined again, as
they were before; at least, it is not commonly done: but, the Nature
and Property of the Elements, is, That every Part and Particle are of
one innate Figurative Motion; so that the least grain of Dust, or the
least drop of Water, or the least spark of Fire, is of the same Innate
Nature, Property, and Figurative Motions, as the whole Element; when
as, of Animals, and Vegetables, almost, every Part and Particle is of a
different Figurative Motion.

CHAP. IV. Of the Innate Figurative Motions of Earth.

There are many sorts of _Earth_, yet all sorts are of the same kind;
that is, they are all Earth: but (in my opinion) the prime Figurative
Motions of Earth, are Circles; but not dilated Circles, but contracted
Circles: neither are those Circles smooth, but rugged; which is the
cause that Earth is dull, or dim, and is easily divided into dusty
Parts: for all, or at least, most Bodies that are smooth, are more
apt to joyn, than divide; and have a Glassie Hew or Complexion; which
is occasioned by the smoothness, and the smoothness occasioned by the
evenness of Parts, being without Intervals: but, according as these
sorts of Circular Motions are more or less contracted, and more or less
rugged, they cause several sorts of Earth.

CHAP. V. Of the Figurative Motions of Air.

There are many sorts of _Airs_, as there is of other Creatures, of
one and the same kind: but, for Elemental Air, is composed of very
Rare, Figurative Motions; and the Innate Motions, I conceive to be
somewhat of the Nature of Water, viz. Circular Figurative Motions,
only of a more Dilating Property; which causes Air, not to be Wet,
but extraordinary Rare; which again causes it to be somewhat of the
nature of Light: for, the Rarity occasions Air to be very searching and
penetrating; also, dividable and compoundable: but, the Rarity of Air,
is the cause that it is not subject to some sorts of Human Perception;
but yet, not so Rare, as not to be subject to Human Respirations; which
is one sort of Human Perception: for, all Parts of all Creatures, are
perceptive one way, or another: but, as I said, there are many sorts of
Air; as, some Cold, some Hot; some Dry, some Moist; some Sharp; some
Corrupt, some Pure, some Gross; and numbers more: but, many of these
sorts are rather Metamorphosed Vapours, and Waters, than pure Elemental
Air: for, the pure Elemental Air, is, in my opinion, more searching and
penetrating, than Light; by reason Light may be more easily eclipsed,
or stopt; when as Air will search every Pore, and every Creature, to
get entrance.

CHAP. VI. Of the Innate Figurative Motion of Fire.

The Innate Figurative Motions of Elemental Fire, seem the most
difficult to Human Perception, and Conception: for, by the Agilness,
it seems to be more pure than the other sorts of Elements; yet, by
the Light, or Visibleness, it seems more gross than Air; but, by the
dilating Property, it seems to be more rare than air, at least, as rare
as Air. By the Glassie or Shining Property, it seems to be of Smooth
and Even Parts: also, by the piercing and wounding Property, Fire
seems to be composed of sharp-pointed Figurative Motions: Wherefore,
the Innate Figurative Motions of Fire, are, Pure, Rare, Smooth, Sharp
Points, which can move in Circles, Squares, Triangles, Parallels, or
any other sorts of Exterior Figures, without an alteration of its
Interior Nature; as may be observed by many sorts of Fuels: as also, it
can contract and dilate its Parts, without any alteration of its Innate

CHAP. VII. Of the Productions of Elemental Fire.

It is to be observed, That Points of Fire are more numerous, and more
suddenly propagating, than any other Element, or any other Creature
that is subject to Human Perception. But, Sparks of Fire, resemble the
Seeds of Vegetables, in this, That as Vegetables will not encrease in
all sorts of Soyles, alike; neither will the Points of Fire, in all
sorts of Fuel, alike. And, as Vegetables produce different Effects
in several Soyls; so doth Fire on several Fuels: As for example, The
Seeds of Vegetables do not work the same Effect in a Birds Crop, as
in the Earth: for, there they encrease the Bird by digestion; but, in
the ground, they encrease their own Issue (as I may say): So Fire, in
some Fuels, doth destroy it self, and occasions the Fuel to be more
consumed; when as, in other sorts of Fuel, Fire encreases extreamly.
But Fire, as all other Creatures, cannot subsist single of it self, but
must have Food and Respiration; which proves, Fire is not an Immaterial
Motion. Also, Fire hath Enemies, as well as Friends; and some are
deadly, namely, Water, or Watry Liquors. Also, Fire is forced to comply
with the Figurative Motions of those Creatures it is joyned to: for,
all Fuels will not burn, or alter, alike.


_Flame_ is the Rarest Part of Fire: and though the Fuel of Flame be of
a vaporous and smoaky Substance; yet surely, there are pure Flames,
which are perfect Fires: and, for proof, we may observe, That Flame
will dilate and run, as it were, to catch Smoak: but, when the Smoak
is above the Flame, if it be higher than the Flame can extend, it
contracts back to the Fiery Body. But, Flame doth somewhat resemble
that we name _Natural Light_: but yet, in my opinion, Light is not
Flame; nor hath it any Fiery Property, although it be such a sort of
Extenuating or Dilating Actions, as Flame hath.

CHAP. IX. Of the two sorts of Fire most different.

There are many sorts of Fires: but two sorts are most opposite; that
is, the Hot, Glowing, Burning, Bright, Shining Fire; and that sort of
Fire we name a _Dead, Dull Fire_; as, Vitriol Fires, Cordial Fires,
Corrosive Fires, Feverish Fires, and numerous other sorts; and every
several sort, hath some several Property: as for example, There is
greater difference between the Fiery Property of Oyl, and

the Fiery Property of Vitriol: for, Oyl is neither Exteriorly Hot, nor
Burning; whereas Vitriol is Exteriorly Burning, though not Exteriorly
Hot: but, the difference of these sorts of Fires, is, That the Actions
of Elemental Fire, are to ascend, rather than to descend: and the Dull,
Dead Fire, is rather apt to descend, than ascend; that is, to pierce,
or dilate, either upwards, or downwards: but, they are both of Dilating
and Dividing Natures. But this is to be noted, That all sorts of Heats,
or Hotness, are not Fire. Also it is to be noted, That all Fires are
not Shining.

CHAP. X. Of Dead or Dull Fires.

OF _Dull, Dead Fires_, some sorts seem to be of a mixt sort: as
for example, Vitriol, and the like, seem to be Exteriorly, of the
Figurative Motions of Fire; and Interiorly, of the Figurative Motions
of Water, or of Watry Liquors: And Oyl is of Fiery Figurative Motions,
Interiorly; and of Liquid Figurative Motions, Exteriorly; which is
the cause that the Fiery Properties of Oyl cannot be altered, without
a Total Dissolution of their Natures. But, such sorts whose Fiery
Figurative Motions are Exterior, as being not their Innate Nature, may
be divided from those other Natural

Parts they were joyned to, without altering their Innate Nature.

CHAP. XI. Of the Occasional Actions of Fire.

All Creatures have not only Innate figurative Motions that cause
them to be such or such a sort of Creature; but, they have such and
such actions, that cause such and such Effects: also, every Creature
is occasioned to particular Actions, by forrein Objects; many times
to improper actions, and sometimes to ruinous actions, even to the
dissolution of their Nature: And, of all Creatures, Fire is the most
ready to occasion the most Mischief; at least, Disorders: for, where
it can get entrance, it seldom fails of causing such a Disturbance,
as occasions a Ruine. The reason is, that most Creatures are porous:
for, all Creatures, subsisting by each other, must of necessity have
_Egress_ and _Regress_, being composed of Interior and Exterior
Corporeal Motions. And Fire, being the sharpest figurative Motion, is
apt to enter into the smallest Pores.

But some may ask, _Whether Fire is porous it self?_

I answer: That having Respiration, it is a sufficient proof that it is
Porous: for, Fire dyes if it hath not Air.

But some may say, _How can a Point be porous?_

I answer, That a Point is composed of Parts, and therefore may very
well be porous: for, there is no such thing as a Single Part in Nature,
and therefore, not a Single Point.

Also, some may say, _If there be Pores in Nature, there may be Vacuum_.

I answer, That, in my opinion, there is not; because there is no empty
Pores in Nature: Pores signifying only an _Egress_ and _Regress_ of

CHAP. XII. Fire hath not the Property to Change and Rechange.

Of all the Elemental Creatures, _Fire_ is the least subject to change:
for, though it be apt to occasion other Creatures to alter; yet it
keeps close to its own Properties, and proper Actions: for, it cannot
change, and rechange, as Water can. Also, Natural Air is not apt to
change and rechange, as Water: for, though it can (as all the Elements)
divide and join its Parts, without altering the Property of its Nature:
yet, it cannot readily alter, and alter again, its Natural Properties,
as Water can. The truth is, Water and Fire, are opposite in all their
Properties: but, as Fire is, of all the Elements, the furthest from
altering: so Water is, of all the Elements, the most subject to alter:
for, all Circular Figures are apt to variety.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Innate Figurative Motions of Water.

The Nature of _Water_ is, Rare, Fluid, Moist, Liquid, Wet, Glutinous,
and Glassie. Likewise, Water is apt to divide and unite its Parts,
most of which Properties are caused by several sorts of Dilatations,
or Extenuations: but, the Interior, or Innate Figure of Water, is a
Circular Line. But yet, it is to be observed, That there are many
several sorts of Waters, as there are many several sorts of Airs,
Fires, and Earths, and so of all Creatures: for, some Waters are more
rare than others, some more leight, and some more heavy; some more
clear, and some more dull; some salt, some sharp; some bitter, some
more fresh, or sweet; some have cold Effects, some hot Effects: all
which is caused by the several Figurative Motions of several sorts
of Waters: but, the nature of Water is such, as it can easily alter,
or change, and rechange, and yet keep its Interior, or Innate Nature
or Figure. But this is also to be observed, That the Dilating or
Extenuating Circle of Water, is of a middle Degree, as between Two

CHAP. XIV. The Nature or Property of Water.

Wetness, which is the Interior or Innate Property, or Nature of Water,
is, in my opinion, caused by some sort of Dilatations or Extenuations.
As, all Droughts, or Dryness, are caused by some sorts of Contractions;
so, all Moistures, Liquors, and Wets, by Dilatations: yet, those
Extenuations, or Dilatations, that cause Wet, must be of such a sort of
Dilatations, as are proper to Wet; _viz._ Such a sort of Extenuations,
as are Circular Extenuations; which do dilate, or extenuate, in a
smooth, equal dilatation, from the Center, to the Circumference; which
Extenuations, or Dilatations, are of a middle Degree; for otherwise,
the Figure of Water might be extended beyond the Degree of Wet; or,
not extended to the Degree of Wet. And it is to be observed, That
there is such a Degree as only causes moistness, and another to cause
liquidness, the third to cause wetness: for, though Moistness and
Liquidness are in the way of Wetness; yet, they are not that which we
name Wet: also, all that is Soft, or Smooth, is not Wet; nor is all
that is Liquid, or Flowing, Wet: for, some sorts of Air are liquid
and flowing, but not wet: nay, Flame is liquid and flowing, but yet
quite opposite from wet. Dust is flowing, but neither liquid or wet,
in its Nature. And Hair and Feathers are soft and smooth, but neither
liquid, nor wet. But, as I said, Water is of such a Nature, as to have
the Properties of Soft, Smooth, Moist, Liquid, and Wet; and is also of
such flowing Properties, caused by such a sort of Extenuating Circles
as are of a Middle or Mean Degree: but yet, there are many several
sorts of Liquors, and Wets, as we may perceive in Fruit, Herbs, and the
like: but, all sorts of Wets, and Liquors, are of a watry kind, though
of a different sort. But, as I have said, all things that are Fluid,
are not Wet; as, Melted Metal, Flame, Light, and the like, are fluid,
but not wet: and Smoak and Oyl are of another sort of Liquidness, than
Water, or Juyce; but yet they are not wet: and that which causes the
difference of different sorts of Waters, and Watry Liquors, are the
differences of the watry Circular Lines; as, some are edged, some are
pointed, some are twisted, some are braided, some are flat, some are
round, some ruff, some smooth; and so after divers several Forms or
Figures: and yet are perfect Circles, and of some such a Degree of
Extenuations or Dilatations.

CHAP. XV. Of the Alteration of the Exterior Figurative Motion of Water.

As I formerly said, The Figurative Motions of the Innate Nature of
Water, is a sort of Extenuating; as being an equal, smooth Circle:
which is the cause Water is rare, fluid, moist, liquid, and wet. But,
the Exterior Figurative Motions of the watry Circle, may be edged,
pointed, sharp, blunt, flat, round, smooth, ruff, or the like; which
may be either divided, or altered, without any alteration of the Innate
Nature, or Property: As for example, Salt-water may be made fresh, or
the Salt Parts divided from the watry Circle: The like of other sorts
of Waters; and yet the Nature of Water remains.


The Exterior Figurative Motions of _Oyl_, are so much like those of
_Water_, as, to be fluid, smooth, soft, moist, and liquid, although
not perfectly wet: but, the Interior Figurative Motions of Oyl, are of
that sort of Fire, that we name a _Dull, Dead Fire_: and the difference
between _Salt Waters_,

_Vitriol_ or the like, and _Oyl_, is, That the Exterior Figurative
Motions of _Vitriol_ and _Salt Waters_, are of a sort of Fire; whereas
it is the Interior Figurative Motions of Oyl, or the like, that are
of those sorts of Fire; and that is the reason that the fiery Motions
of Oyl cannot be altered, as the fiery Motions of _Vitriol_ may. But
this is to be noted, That although the Interior Figurative Motions of
Oyl, are of such a sort of fiery Motions; yet, not just like those of
_Vitriol_; and are not burning, corroding, or wounding, as _Vitriols,
Corrosives_, and the like, are: for, those are somewhat more of the
Nature of bright shining Fires, than Oyls.

CHAP. XVII. Of Mineral and Sulphureous Waters.

In _Sulphureous_ and _Mineral Waters_, the _Sulphureous_ and _Mineral_
Corporeal Motions, are Exterior, and not Interior, like Salt
waters: but, there are several sorts of such waters; also, some are
occasionally, others naturally so affected: for, some waters running
through Sulphureous, or Mineral Mines, gather, like a rowling Stone,
some of the loose Parts of Gravel, or Sand; which, as they stick or
cleave to the rowling Stone; so they do to the running Waters; as we
may perceive by those waters that spring out of Chalk, Clay, or Lime
Grounds, which will

have some Tinctures of the Lime, Chalk, or Clay; and the same happens
to Minerals. But, some are naturally Sulphureous; as for example, Some
sorts of hot Baths are as naturally Sulphureous, as the Sea-water is
Salt: but, all those Effects of Minerals, Sulphurs, and the like, are
dividable from, and also may be joyn'd to, the Body of water, without
any disturbance to the nature of water; as may be proved by Salt-water,
which will cause fresh Meat to be salt; and salt Meat will cause
Fresh-water to be salt. As for hot Baths, those have hot figurative
Motions, but not burning: and the moist, liquid, and wet Nature of
water, makes it apt to joyn, and divide, to, and from other sorts of
Motions; as also, to and from its own sort.

CHAP. XVIII. The Cause of the Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea.

The Nature of water is to flow; so that all sorts of waters will flow,
if they be not obstructed: but it is not the Nature of Water, to ebb.
Neither can water flow beyond the Power of its Quantity: for, a little
water will not flow so far as a great one. But, I do not mean by
flowing, the falling of water from some Descent; but, to flow upon a
Level: for, as I have said, all waters do naturally flow, if they be
not obstructed; but, few sorts of water, besides Sea-water, ebbs. As
for the Exterior Figurative Motions of water, in the action of flowing,
they are an Oval, or a half Circle, or a half Moon; where the middle
parts of the half Moon, or Circle, are fuller than the two Ends. Also,
the figure of a half Moon, or half Circle, is concave on the inside,
and convex on the outside of the Circle: but, these Figurative Motions,
in a great quantity of water, are bigg and full, which we name _Waves
of Water_; which waves flowing fast upon each other, presses each
other forward, until such time as the half Circle divides: for, when
the Bow of the half Circle is over-bent, or stretched, it divides into
the middle, which is most extended: and when a half Circle (which is a
whole wave of water) is divided, the divided Parts fall equally back
on each side of the flowing waves: so, every wave dividing, after
that manner, in the full extension, it causes the motion of ebbing,
that is, to flow back, as it flow'd forward: for, the divided Parts
falling back, and joining as they meet, makes the head of the half
Circle, where the Ends of the half Circle were; and the Convex, where
the Concave was; by which action, the ebbing Parts are become the
flowing Parts. And the reason that it ebbs and flows by degrees, is,
That the flowing half Circles require so much time to be at the utmost
extension. Also, every wave, or half Circle, divides not all at one
time, but one after another: for, two Bodies cannot be in one place
at one point of time; and until the second, third, and so the rest,
flow as far as the first, they are not at their full extension. And
thus the Sea, or such a great Body of Water, must flow, and ebb, as
being its nature to flow; and the flowing Figure, being over-extended,
by endeavouring to flow beyond its power, causes a dividing of the
Extended Parts, which is the Cause of the Ebbing.

But, whether this Opinion of mine, be as probable as any of the former
Opinions concerning the Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea, I cannot judg:
but I would not be mistaken; for the flowing of the water, is according
to its Quantity; for, the further it flows, the fainter, or weaker it


As for _Overflows_, there be many; and many more would be, if the
waters were not hindred and obstructed by Man's Inventions. But,
some Overflows are very Uncertain and Irregular; others, Certain and
Regular, as, the flowing of _Nilus_ in _Egypt_: but as for the distance
of time of its flowing, it may proceed from the far Journey of those
flowing-waters: and, the time of its ebbing, may be attributed to
the great Quantity of Water; so that the great quantity of water,
will cause a longer or a shorter time in the flowing or ebbing; and
certainly the waters are as long a flowing back, as flowing forward.

As for Spring Tides, they are only in such a time when there is a
Naturall Issue of a greater quantity of water: so that Spring-Tides are
but once a Month, and Single-Tides in so many hours: but, many several
occasions, may make the Tides to be more or less full.

As for Double-Tides, they are occasioned through the Irregular dividing
of the Half-Circle; as, when they divide not orderly, but faster than
they orderly should do; which, falling back in a Crowd, and being,
by that means, obstructed, so that they cannot get forward, they are
necessitated to flow, where they ebb'd.

The reason the Tides flow through Streams of Running-waters, is, That
the Tide is stronger than the Stream: but, if the Stream and Tides pass
through each other, then the Tide and Stream are somewhat like Duellers
together, which make Passes and Passages for their conveniency.

CHAP. XX. Of the Figure of Ice and Snow.

A Circle may not only extend and contract it self without dividing; but
may draw it self into many several Figures, as Squares, or Triangles:
as also, into many other Figures mix'd of Squares, Triangles, Cubes, or
the like; being partly one, and partly, another; and into other several
ways, and after several manners; which is the reason, Water may appear
in many several Postures of Snow, Ice, Hail, Frost, and the like: and,
in my Opinion, when the Water-Circle is Triangular, it is Snow; when
the Circle is Square, it is Ice: as for Hail, they are but small pieces
of Ice; that is, small Parts, or few Drops of Water, changed into
Ice; and those several Parts moving after several manners, make the
Exterior Figures, after several shapes; as, great Bodies of Ice will
be of many several shapes, occasioned by many or fewer Parts, and by
the several Postures of those Parts: but, such Figures, though they are
of Ice, yet, are not the Innate Figures of Ice. The same is to be said
of Snow. But, the reason of these my Opinions concerning the Figures
of Ice and Snow, is, That Snow is leighter than the Water it self; and
Ice is heavier, at least, as heavy. And the reason Snow is so leight,
is, That a Triangular Figure hath no poyse, being an odd Figure;
whereas a Square is poysed by Even and Equal Lines, and just Number of
Points, as, Two to Two: but, a Triangle is Two to One. Also, a Circle
is a poysed Figure, as being equal every way, from the Center to the
Circumference; and from the Circumference to the Center, all the Lines
drawing to one Point. But, mistake me not; for I treat (concerning the
Figures of Snow and Ice) only of those Figures that cause Water to be
Snow or Ice; and not of the Exterior Figures of Snow and Ice, which are
occasioned by the Order or Disorder of Adjoining Parts: for, several
Parts of Water, may order themselves into numerous several Figures,
which concern not the nature of Water, as it is Water, Snow, or Ice:
As for example, Many Men in a Battel, or upon Ceremony, joyn into many
several Figures or Forms; which Figures or Forms, are of no concern
to their Innate Nature. Also, the several Figures or Forms of several
Houses, or several sorts of Building in one House, are of no concern to
the Innate Nature of the Materials. The like for the Exterior Figures
of Ice and Snow; and therefore _Microscopes_ may deceive the Artist,
who may take the Exterior for the Interior Figure; but there may be
great difference between them.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Change and Rechange of Water.

_Water_ being of a Circular Figurative Motion, is, as it were, but
one Part, having no divisions; and therefore can more easily change
and rechange it self into several Postures, viz. into the Posture of
a Triangle, or Square; or can be dilated or extended into a larger
compass, or contracted into a lesser compass; which is the cause it can
turn into Vapour and Vaporous Air; or into Slime, or into some grosser
Figure: For example, Water can extend it self beyond the proper degrees
of Water, into the degree of Vapour; and the Circle, extending further
than the degree of a Vaporous Circle, is extended into a Vaporous Air;
and if the Vaporous Airy Circle be extreamly extended, it becomes so
small, as it becomes to be a sharp Edg, and so, in a degree, next
to Fire; at least, to have a hot Effect: but, if it extends further
than an Edg, the Circle breaks into Flashes of Fire, like Lightning,
which is a flowing Flame: for, being produced from Water, it hath the
property of Flowing, or Streaming, as Water hath, as we may perceive
by the Effects of some few Parts of Water flung on a bright Fire; for
those few drops of Water being not enough to quench the Fire, straight
dilate so extreamly, that they break into a Flame; or else cause the
Fire to be more brisk and bright: and as the Water-Circle can be turned
into Vapour, Air, and Flame, by Extension; so, it can be turned into
Snow, Hail, or Ice, by Contraction.

CHAP. XXII. Of Water Quenching Fire; and Fire Evaporating Water.

There is such an Antipathy betwixt _Water_ and _Fire_, (I mean bright
shining Fire) that they never meet Body to Body, but Fire is in danger
to be quenched out, if there be a sufficient Quantity of Water. But
it is to be observed, That it is not the actual Coldness of Water,
that quenches out Fire; for, Scalding-water will quench out Fire:
wherefore, it is the Wetness that quenches out Fire; which Wetness
choaks the Fire, as a Man that is drown'd: for, Water being not fit
for Man's Respiration, because it is too thick, choaks and smuthers
him; and the same doth Water to Fire: for, though Air is of a proper
temper for Respiration, both to some sorts of Animals, such as Man; as
also, to Fire: yet, Water is not: which is most proper for other sorts
of Animals, namely, Fish; as also, for some sorts of Animals that are
of a mixt kind or sort, partly Fish, and partly Flesh: to which sort
of Creatures, both Air and Water are both equally proper for their
Respiration; or, their Respiration equal to either: for certainly, all
sorts of Creatures have Respiration, by reason all Creatures subsist
by each other; I say, _By each other_, not _Of each other_. But, there
are many several sorts and kinds of Respirations; as concerning Water
and Fire, though a sufficient quantity of Water, to Fire, doth always
choak, smuther, or quench out the Fire's Life, if joyn'd Body to Body;
yet, when there is another Body between those two Bodies, water is in
danger to be infected with the Fire's heat; the Fire first infecting
the Body next to it; and that Body infecting the Water: by which
Infection, Water is consumed, either by a languishing Hectick Fever;
or, by a raging Boyling Fever; and the Life of Water evaporates away.

CHAP. XXIII. Of Inflamable Liquors.

There are many Bodies of mixt Natures; as for example, Wine, and all
Strong Liquors, are partly of a watry Nature, and partly of a fiery
Nature; but, 'tis of that sort we name a _Dead_, or _Dull Fire_: but,
being of such a mixt Nature, they are both apt to quench Bright Fire,
as also, apt to burn or flame; so that such sorts are both Inflamable,
and Quenchable. But, some have more of the fiery Nature; and others
more of the watry Nature; and, by those Effects, we may perceive, that
not only different, but opposite Figurative Motions, do well agree in
one Society.


I observe, that all Tempestuous Sounds have some resemblances to the
flowing of waters, either in great and ruffling waves; or, when the
waters flow in such sort, as to break in pieces against hard and rugged
Rocks; or run down great Precipices, or against some Obstruction.
And the like Sound hath the Blowings of Wind, or the Clappings of
Thunder; which causes me to be of opinion, That Thunder is occasioned
by a Discord amongst some Water-Circles in the Higher Region; which,
pressing and beating upon each other in a confused manner, cause a
confused Sound, by reason all Circles are Concave within the Bow, and
Convex without; which is a Hollow Figure, although no Vacuum: which
Hollow Figure, causes quick Repetitions and Replies; which Replies
and Repetitions, we name Rebounds but, Replies are not Rebounds; for,
Rebounds are Pressures and Re-actions; whereas Repetitions are without
Pressure, but Re-action is not: and, Replies are of several Parts; as,
one Part to reply to another.

But for _Thunder_, it is occasioned both by Pressures and Re-actions;
as also, Replies of Extended Water-Circles, which make a kind or sort
of Confusion, and so a confused Sound, which we name _Horrid_; and,
according to their Discord, the Sound is more or less terrifying,
or violent. But this is to be noted, That as _Thunder_ is caused by
undivided or broken Circles; so _Lightning_ is caused by broken or
divided Circles, that are extended beyond the Power of the Nature of
the Water-Circle; and when the Circle is extreamly extended, it divides
it self into a straight Line, and becomes a flowing Flame.

CHAP. XXV. Of Vapour, Smoak, Wind, and Clouds.

_Vapour_ and _Smoak_ are both fluid Bodies: but, Smoak is more of the
Nature of Oyl, than Water; and Vapour more of the Nature of Water,
than Oyl; they are dividable: and may be join'd, as other Elements:
also, they are of a Metamorphosing Nature, as to change and rechange;
but, when they are Metamorphosed into the form of Air, that Air is a
gross Air, and is, as we say, a corruptible Air. As for Vapour, it is
apt to turn into Wind: for, when it is rarified beyond the Nature of
Vapour, and not so much as into the Nature of Air, it turns into some
sorts of Wind. I say, some sorts: and certainly, the strongest Winds
are made of the grossest Vapours. As for Smoak, it is apt to turn
into some sorts of Lightning; I say, apt: for, both Vapour and Smoak
can turn into many sorts of Metamorphosed Elements. As for Wind, it
proceeds either from Rarified Vapour, or Contracted Air. And there are
many sorts of Vapours, Smoaks, and Winds; all which sorts of Vapours
and Smoaks, are apt to ascend: but, Wind is of a more level action.
As for Clouds, they cannot be composed of a Natural Air; because
Natural Air is too rare a Body to make Clouds. Wherefore, Clouds are
composed of Vapour and Smoak: for, when Vapour and Smoak ascends up
high without transformation, they gather into Clouds, some higher,
some lower, according to their purity: for, the purer sort (as I may
say for expression-sake) ascends the highest, as being the most agil.
But, concerning the Figurative Motions of Vapour and Smoak, they are
Circles; but of Winds, they are broken Parts of Circular Vapours: for,
when the Vaporous Circle is extended beyond its Nature of Vapour, the
Circumference of the Circle breaks into perturbed Parts; and if the
Parts be small, the wind is, in our perception, sharp, pricking, and
piercing: but, if the Parts are not so small, then the wind is strong
and pressing: but wind, being rarified Vapour, is so like Air, as it is
not perceived by human sight, though it be perceived by human touch.
But, as there are hot vapours, cold vapours, sharp vapours, moist
vapours, dry vapours, subtil vapours, and the like; so there is such
sorts of winds. But, pray do not mistake me, when I say, that some
sorts of winds are broken and perturbed Circles, as if I meant, such as
those of Lightning: for, those of Lightning, are extended beyond the
degree of Air; and those of Vapours, are not extended to the degree of
Air: also, those of Lightning, are not perturbed; and those of Wind,
are perturbed. Again, those of Lightning, flow in Streams of smooth,
small, even Lines; those of Wind, in disordered Parts and Fragments.


_Wind_ and _Fire_ have some resemblance in some of their particular
actions: as for example, Wind and Fire endeavour the disturbance of
other Creatures, occasioning a separating and disjoining of Parts.
Also, Wind is both an Enemy and Friend to Fire: for Wind, in some sorts
of its actions, will assist Fire; and in other actions, dissipates
Fire, nay, blows it out: but certainly, the powerful Forces of Wind,
proceed not so much from Solidity, as Agility: for, soft, weak, quick
Motions, are far more powerful, than strong, slow Motions; because,
quick Replies are of great Force, as allowing no time of respit. But
this is to be observed, That Wind hath some watry Effects: for, the
further water flows, the weaker and fainter it is: so the Wind, the
further it blows, the weaker and fainter it is. But this is to be
observed, That according to the agilness or slowness of the Corporeal
Motions; or, according to the number; or, according to the manner of
the compositions, or joynings, or divisions; or, according to the
regularity or irregularity of the Corporeal Figurative Motions, so are
the Effects.


Water, Air, Fire, and Light; are all Rare and Fluid Creatures; but they
are of different sorts of Rarities and Fluities: and, though Light
seems to be extreamly Rare and Fluid; yet, Light is not so Rare and
Fluid, as pure Air is, because it is subject to that sort of Human
Perception we name _Sight_; but yet, it is not subject to any of the
other Perceptions: and, pure Air is only subject to the Perception of
Respiration, which seems to be a more subtil Perception than Sight;
and that occasions me to believe, That Air is more Rare and Pure, than
Light: but howsoever, I conceive the Figurative Motions of Light, to be
extraordinary even, smooth, agil Lines of Corporeal Motions: but, as
I said before, there are many sorts of Lights that are not Elemental
Lights; as, Glow-worms Tails, Cats Eyes, Rotten Wood, Fish Bones, and
that Human Light which is made in Dreams, and Infinite other Lights,
not subject to our Perception: which proves, That Light may be without
Heat. But, whether the Light of the Sun, which we name _Natural Light_,
is naturally hot, may be a dispute: for, many times, the Night is
hotter than the Day.


The Figurative Motions of _Light_ and _Darkness_, are quite opposite;
and the Figurative Motions of Colours, are as a Mean between both,
being partly of the Nature of both: but, as the Figurative Motions
of Light, in my opinion, are rare, straight, equal, even, smooth
Figurative Motions: those of Darkness are uneven, ruff, or rugged,
and more dense. Indeed, there is as much difference between Light
and Darkness, as between Earth and Water; or rather, between Water
and Fire; because each is an Enemy to other; and, being opposite,
they endeavour to out-power each other. But this is to be noted, That
Darkness is as visible to Human Perception, as Light; although the
Nature of Darkness is, To obscure all other Objects besides it self:
but, if Darkness could

not be perceived, the Optick Perception could not know when it is dark;
nay, particular dark Figurative Motions, are as visible in a general
Light, as any other Object; which could not be, if Darkness was only a
privation of Light, as the Opinions of many Learned Men are: but, as I
said before, Darkness is of a quite different Figurative Motion, from
Light; so different, that it is just opposite: for, as the property of
Light is to divulge Objects; so, the property of Darkness is to obscure
them: but, mistake me not; I mean, that Light and Darkness have such
properties to our Perception: but, whether it is so to all Perceptions,
is more than I know, or is, as I believe, known to any other Human


AS for _Colour_, it is the same with Body: for surely, there is no
such thing in Nature, as a Colourless Body, were it as small as an
Atom; nor no such thing as a Figureless Body; or such a thing as a
Placeless Body: so that Matter, Colour, Figure, and Place, is but one
thing, as one and the same Body: but Matter, being self-moving, causes
varieties of Figurative Actions, by various changes. As for Colours,
they are only several Corporeal Figurative Motions; and as there are
several sorts of Creatures, so there are several sorts of Colours:
but, as there are those, Man names Artificial Creatures; so there are
Artificial Colours. But, though to describe the several Species of all
the several sorts of Colours, be impossible; yet we may observe, that
there is more variety of Colours amongst Vegetables and Animals, than
amongst Minerals and Elements: for, though the Rain-bow is of many fine
Colours; yet, the Rain-bow hath not so much Variety, as many particular
Vegetables, or Animals have; but every several Colour, is a several
Figurative Motion; and the Brighter the Colours are, the Smoother and
Evener are the Figurative Motions. And as for Shadows of Colours, they
are caused when one sort of Figurative Motions is as the Foundation:
for example, If the Fundamental Figurative Motion, be a deep Blew,
or Red, or the like, then all the variations of other Colours have a
tincture. But, in short, all Shadows have a ground of some sort of dark
Figurative Motions. But, the Opinions of many Learned Men, are, That
all Colours are made by the several Positions of Light, and are not
inherent in any Creature; of which Opinion I am not: For, if that were
so, every Creature would be of many several Colours; neither would any
Creature produce after their own _Species_: for, a Parrot would not
produce so fine a Bird as her self; neither would any Creature appear
of one and the same Colour, but their Colour would change according
to the Positions of Light; and in a dark day, in my opinion, all fine
coloured Birds, would appear like Crows; and fine coloured Flowers,
appear like the Herb named Night-shade; which is not so. I do not say,
That several Positions of Light may not cause Colours; but I say, The
Position of Light is not the Maker of all Colours; for, _Dyers_ cannot
cause several Colours by the Positions of Light.

CHAP. XXX. Of the Exterior Motions of the Planets.

By the _Exterior Motions of the Planets_, we may believe their
Exterior Shape is Spherical: for, it is to be observed, That all
Exterior Actions are according to their Exterior Shape: but, by reason
Vegetables and Minerals have not such sorts of Exterior Motions or
Actions, as Animals; some Men are of opinion, they have not Sensitive
Life; which opinion proceeds from a shallow consideration: neither do
they believe the Elements are sensible, although they visibly perceive
their Progressive Motions; and yet believe all sorts of Animals to have
sense, only because they have Progressive Motions.

CHAP. XXXI. Of the Sun, and Planets, and Seasons.

The Sun, Moon, Planets, and all those glittering Starrs we see, are
several sorts of that Man names _Elemental Creatures_: but Man,
having not an infinite Perception, cannot have an infinite perceptive
knowledg: for, though the Rational Perception is more subtil than the
Sensitive; yet, the particular Parts cannot perceive much further than
the Exterior Parts of Objects: but, Human Sense and Reason cannot
perceive what the Sun, Moon, and Starrs are; as, whether solid, or
rare; or, whether the Sun be a Body of Fire; or the Moon, a Body of
Water, or Earth; or, whether the Fixed Starrs be all several Suns;
or, whether they be other kinds or sorts of Worlds. But certainly,
all Creatures do subsist by each other, because Nature seems to be an
Infinite united Body, without _Vacuum_. As for the several Seasons of
the Year, they are divided into Four Parts: but the several Changes and
Tempers of the Four Seasons, are so various, altering every moment,
as it would be an endless work, nay, impossible, for one Creature to
perform: for, though the _Almanack-makers_ pretend to foreknow all the
variations of the Elements; yet, they can tell no more than just what
is the constant and set-motions; but not the variations of every Hour,
or Minute; neither can they tell any thing, more than their Exterior

CHAP. XXXII. Of Air corrupting Dead Bodies.

Some are of opinion, _That Air is a Corrupter, and so a Dissolver of
all dead Creatures, and yet is the Preserver of all living Creatures._
If so, Air hath an Infinite Power: but, all the reason I can perceive
for this Opinion, is, That Man perceives, that when any Raw (or that
we name _Dead_) _Flesh_, is kept from the air, it will not stink, or
corrupt, so soon as when it is in the air: but yet it is well known,
that extream cold air will keep Flesh from corrupting.

Another Reason is, That a Flye entomb'd in _Amber_, being kept from
air, the Flye remains in her Exterior Shape as perfectly as if she were

I answer, The cause of that may be, that the Figurative Motions of
_Amber_, may sympathize with the Exterior consistent Motions of the
Fly, which may cause the Exterior Shape of the Flye to continue,
although the Innate Nature be altered. But Air is, as all other
Creatures are, both Beneficial, and Hurtful to each other; for Nature
is poysed with Opposites: for we may perceive, that several Creatures
are both Beneficial and Hurtful to each other: as for example, A Bear
kills a Man; and, on the other side, a Bear's

Skin will cure a Man of some Disease. Also, a _Wild-Boar_ will kill a
Man; and the _Boar_'s Flesh will nourish a Man. Fire will burn a Man,
and preserve a Man; and Millions of such Examples may be proposed.
The same may be said of Air, which may occasion Good or Evil to other
Creatures; as, the _Amber_ may occasion the death of a Fly; and, on the
other side, may occasion the Preservation, or Continuation of the Fly's
Exterior Figure, or Form: but, Nature being without _Vacuum_, all her
Parts must be be joined; and her Actions being poysed, there must be
both Sympathetical, and Antipathetical actions, amongst all Creatures.

The Thirteenth Part.

CHAP. I. Of the Innate Figurative Motions of Metals.

All sorts of _Metals_, in my opinion, are of some sorts of Circular
Motions; but not like that sort, that is Water: for, the Water-Circle
doth extend outward, from the Center; whereas, in my opinion, the
Circular Motion of Metal, draws inward, from the Circumference. Also,
in my opinion, the Circular Motions are dense, flat, edged, even, and
smooth; for, all Bright and Glassie Bodies are smooth: and, though
Edges are wounding Figures; yet, Edges are rather of the Nature of
a Line, than of a Point. Again, all Motions that tend to a Center,
are more fixt than those that extend to a Circumference: but, it is
according to the degree of their Extensions, that those Creatures are
more or less fixt; which is the cause that some sorts of Metals are
more fixt than others; and that causes Gold to be the most fixt of all
other sorts of Metals; and seems to be too strong for the Effects of
Fire. But this is to be noted, That some Metals are more near related
to some sort, than other: as for example, There is no Lead, without
some Silver; so that Silver seems to be but a well-digested Lead. And
certainly, Copper hath some near relation to Gold, although not so near
related, as Lead is to Silver.

CHAP. II. Of the Melting of Metals.

_Metals_ may be occasioned, by Fire, to slack their Retentive Motions,
by which they become fluid; and as soon as they are quit of their
Enemy, _Fire_, the Figurative Motions of Metal return to their proper
Order: and this is the reason that occasions Metal to melt, which is,
to flow: but yet, the Flowing Motion is but like the Exterior, and not
the Innate actions of: for, the Melting actions do not alter the Innate
actions; that is, they do not alter from the Nature of being Metal:
but, if the Exterior Nature be occasioned, by the Excess of those
Exterior actions, to alter their Retentive actions, then Metal turns to
that we name _Dross_; and as much as Metal loses of its weight, so much
of the Metal dissolves; that is, so much of those Innate motions are
quite altered: but, Gold hath such an Innate Retentiveness, that though
Fire may cause an extream alteration of the Exterior actions; yet, it
cannot alter the Interior motions. The like is of Quick-silver. And yet
Gold is not a God, to be Unalterable, though man knows not the way, and
Fire has not the power to alter the Innate Nature of Gold.

CHAP. III. Of Burning, Melting, Boyling, and Evaporating.

_Burning, Melting, Boyling_, and _Evaporating_, are, for the most
part, occasioned by Fire, or somewhat that is, in effect, Hot: I
say, _occasioned_, by reason they are not the actions of Fire, but
the actions of those Bodies that melts, boyls, evaporates, or burns;
which being near, or joyned to Fire, are occasioned so to do: as for
example, Put several sorts of Creatures, or Things, into a Fire, and
they shall not burn alike: for, Leather and Metal do not burn alike;
for Metal flows, and Leather shrinks up, and Water evaporates, and Wood
converts it self, as it were, into Fire; which other things do not;
which proves, That all Parts act their own actions. For, though some
Corporeal motions may occasion other Corporeal motions to act after
such or such a manner; yet, one Part cannot have another Part's motion,
because Matter can neither give nor take motion.


All Minerals seem to be some kinds of Dense and Retentive motions:
but yet, those kinds of Dense and Retentive motions, seem to be of
several sorts; which is the cause of several sorts of Minerals, and
of several sorts of Stones and Metals. Also, every several sort, hath
several sorts of Properties: but, in my opinion, some sorts are caused
by Hot Contractions and Retentions; others, by Cold Contractions and
Retentions; as also, by Hot or Cold Densations: and the reason why I
believe so, is, That I observe that many Artificial Stones are produced
by Heat: but Ice, which is but in the first Degree of a Cold Density,
seems somewhat like transparent Stones; so that several sorts of
Stones, are produced by several sorts of Cold and Hot Contractions and


As for the _Loadstone_, it is not more wonderful in attracting Iron,
than Beauty, which admirably attracts the Optick Perception of Human
Creatures: and who knows, but the North and South Air may be the most
proper Air for the Respiration of the _Loadstone_; and, that Iron may
be the most proper Food for it. But, by reason there hath been so many
Learned Men puzled in their Opinions concerning the several Effects of
the _Loadstone_, I dare not venture to treat of the Nature, and Natural
Effects of that Mineral; neither have I had much experience of it: but
I observe, That Iron, and some sorts of Stone, are nearly allied; for,
there is not any Iron, but what is growing, or is intermixt and united
in some sorts of Stone, as that which we call _Iron-stone_. Wherefore,
it is no wonder if the _Loadstone_, and Iron, should be apt to embrace
one another.

CHAP. VI. Of Bodies, apt to ascend or descend.

There are so many several Causes that occasion some sorts of Creatures
to be apt to _ascend_, and others to _descend_, as they are neither
known, or can be conceived by one finite Creature: for, it is not
Rarity or Density, that causes Levity and Gravity; but, the Frame
or Form of a Creature's Exterior Shape, or Parts. As for example: A
Flake of Snow is as Rare as a Downy Feather; yet, the Feather is apt
to ascend, and the Flake of Snow to descend. Also Dust, that is hard
and dense, is apt to ascend; and Water, that is soft and rare, is more
apt to descend. Again, a Bird, that is both a bigger, and a more dense
Creature by much, than a small Worm; yet, a Bird can flye up into the
air, when as a leight Worm cannot ascend, or flye, having not such a
sort of Shape. Also, a great heavy Ship, as big as an ordinary House,
fraughted with Iron, will swim upon the face of the Water; when as a
small Bullet, no bigger than a _Hasle-Nut_, will sink to the bottom
of the Sea. A great Bodied Bird will flye up into the air; when as a
small Worm lies on the earth, with a slow kind of crawling, and cannot
ascend. All which is caused by the manner of their Shapes, and not the
matter of Gravity and Levity.

CHAP. VII. Why Heavy Bodies descend more forcibly than Leight Bodies

Although the manner of the Shape of several Creatures, is the chief
cause of their _Ascent_, and _Descent_; yet, Gravity and Levity, doth
occasion more or less Agility: for, a Heavy Body shall descend with
more force, than a Leight Body ascend: and the reason is, not only that
there may be more Parts in a Heavy Body, than a Leight; but, that in a
Descent, every Corporeal Motion seems to press upon each other; which
doubles and trebles the Strength, Weight, and Force, as we may perceive
in the Ascending and Descending of the Flight of Birds, especially
of Hawks; of which, the weight of the Body is some hindrance to the
Ascent, but an advantage to the Descent: but yet, the Shape of the Bird
hath some advantage by the Weight, in such sort, that the Weight doth
not so much hinder the Ascent, as it doth assist the Descent.

CHAP. VIII. Of several sorts of Densities and Rarities, Gravities and

There are different sorts of Densities and Rarities, Softness and
Hardness, Levities and Gravities: as for example, The density of Earth
is not like the density of Stone; nor the density of Stone, like the
density of Metal: nor are all the Parts of the Earth dense alike; nor
all Stones, nor all Metals; as we may perceive in Clay, Sand, Chalk,
and Lime-Grounds. Also, we may perceive difference between Lead,
Tynne, Copper, Iron, Silver, and Gold; and between Marble, Alablaster,
Walling-Stone, Diamonds, Crystals, and the like: and so much difference
there is between one and the same kind, that some particulars of one
sort, shall more resemble another kind, than their own: as for example,
Gold and Diamonds resemble each other's Nature, more than Lead doth
Gold; or Diamonds, Crystal; I say, in their Densities. Also, there is a
great difference of the Rarity, Gravity, and Levity of several sorts of
Waters, and of several sorts of Air.


_Vegetables_ are of numerous sorts, and every sort of very different
Natures: as for example, Some are Reviving Cordials; others, Deadly
Poyson; some are Purgers, others are Nourishers: some have Hot
Effects, some Cold; some Dry, some Moist; some bear Fruit, some bears
no Fruit; some appear all the year Young; others appear but part of
the year Young, and part Old; some are many years a producing; others
are produced in few hours; some will last many hundred years; others
will decay in the compass of few hours: some seem to dye one part
of the year, and revive again in another part of the year: some rot
and consume in the Earth, after such a time; and will continue in
perfection, if parted from the Earth. Others will wither and decay,
as soon as parted from the Earth. Some are of a dense Nature, some of
a rare Nature; some grow deep into the Earth; others grow high out of
the Earth; some will only produce in dry Soyls, some in moist: some
will produce only in Water, as we may perceive by some Ponds; others on
Houses of Brick or Stone. Also, some grow out of Stone; as, many Stones
will have a green Moss: some are produced by sowing their Seed into the
Earth; others, by setting their Roots, or Slips, into the Earth: others
again, by joyning or engrafting one Plant into another: so that there
is much variety of Vegetables, and those of such different Natures,
that they are not only different Sorts, but are variety of Effects of
one and the same sort; and it requires not only the study of one Human
Creature, or many Human Creatures; but, of all the Human Creatures in
all Nations and Ages, to know them; which is the reason, that those
that have writ of the Natures of Herbs, Flowers, Roots, and Fruits, may
be much mistaken. But I, living more constantly in my Study, than in my
Garden, shall not venture to treat much of the particular Natures, and
Natural Effects of Vegetables.

CHAP. X. Of the Production of Vegetables.

Tis no wonder, that some sorts of _Vegetables_ are produced out of
Stone or Brick, (as some that will grow on the top of Houses) by reason
that Brick is made of Earth, and Stone is generated in the Bowels of
the Earth; which shows they are of an Earthly Nature or Substance.
Neither is it a wonder that Vegetables will grow upon some sorts of
Water, by reason some sorts of Waters may be mixt with some Parts of
Earth. But, I have been credibly informed, That a Man whose Legg had
been cut, and

a Seed of an Oat being gotten into the Wound by chance, the Oat did
sprout out into a green Blade of Grass: which proves, that Vegetables
may be produced in several Soyls. But 'tis probable, that though many
sorts of Vegetables may sprout, as Barly in Water; yet, they cannot
produce any of the off-spring of the same Sort or Kind.

But, my Thoughts are, at this present, in some dispute; as, Whether the
Earth is a Part of the Production of Vegetables, as being the Breeder?
or, whether the Earth is only Parts of Respiration, and not Parts of
Production; and so, rather Breathing-Parts, than Breeding-Parts, as
Water to Fishes?

But, if so, then every particular Seed must encrease, not only by a
bare Transformation of their Parts into the first Form of Production;
but, by division of their united Parts, must produce many other
Societies of the same sort; as Religious Orders, where one Convent
divides into many Convents of the same Order; which occasions a
numerous Encrease. So the several Parts of one Seed, may divide into
many Seeds of the same sort, as being of the same _Species_; but then,
every Part of that Seed, must be encreased by additional Parts; which
must be, by Nourishing Parts: which Nourishing Parts are, in all
probability, Earthy Parts; or, at least, partly of Earthy Parts; and
partly, of some of the other Elemental Parts: but, as I have often
said, all Creatures in Nature are Assisted, and do Subsist, by each

CHAP. XI. Of Replanting Vegetables.

_Replanting of Vegetables_, many times, occasions great Alterations; in
so much as a Vegetable, by often Replanting, will be so altered, as to
appear of another sort of Vegetable: the reason is, that several sorts,
or parts of Soyls, may occasion other sorts of Actions, and Orders, in
one and the same Society. But this is to be noted in the Lives of many
Animals, That several sorts of Food, make great alterations in their
Temper and Shape; though not to alter their Species, yet so as to cause
them to appear worse or better: but, this is most visible amongst Human
Creatures, whom some sorts of Food will make weak, sick, faint, lean,
pale, old, and withered: other sorts of Food will make them strong,
and healthy, fat, fair, smooth, and ruddy. So some sorts of Soyls will
cause some Vegetables to be larger, brighter, smoother, sweeter, and of
more various and glorious Colours.

CHAP. XII. Of Artificial Things.

_Artificial Things_, are Natural Corporeal Figurative Motions: for, all
Artificial Things are produced by several produced Creatures. But, the
differences of those Productions we name _Natural_ and _Artificial_,
are, That the Natural are produced from the Producer's own Parts;
whereas the Artificial are produced by composing, or joyning, or mixing
several Forrein Parts; and not any of the particular Parts of their
composed Society: for, Artificial things are not produced as Animals,
Vegetables, Minerals, or the like: but only, they are certain seral
Mixtures of some of the divided, or dead Parts, as I may say, of
Minerals, Vegetables, Elements, and the like. But this is to be noted,
That all, or at least, most, are but Copied, and not Originals.

But some may ask, _Whether Artificial Productions have Sense, Reason,
and Perception?_

I answer: That if all the Rational and Sensitive Parts of Nature, are
Perceptive, and that no part is without Perception; then all Artificial
Productions are Perceptive.

CHAP. XIII. Of several Kinds and Sorts of Species.

According to my Opinion, though the _Species_ of this World, and all
the several Kinds and Sorts of _Species_ in this World, do always
continue; yet, the particular Parts of one and the same Kind or sort of
_Species_, do not continue: for, the particular Parts are perpetually
altering their Figurative Actions. But, by reason some Parts compose or
unite, as well as some Parts dissolve or disunite; all kinds and sorts
of _Species_, will, and must last so long as Nature lasts. But mistake
me not, I mean such kinds and sorts of _Species_ as we name Natural,
that is, the Fundamental Species; but not such _Species_, as we name

CHAP. XIV. Of Different WORLDS.

Tis probable if Nature be Infinite, there are several kinds and sorts
of those Species, Societies, or Creatures, we name _Worlds_; which may
be so different from the Frame, Form, Species, and Properties of this
World, and the Creatures of this World, as not to be any ways like this
World, or the Creatures in this World. But mistake me not, I do not
mean, not like this World, as it is Material and Self-moving; but, not
of the same Species, or Properties: as for example, That they have not
such kind of Creatures, or their Properties, as Light, Darkness, Heat,
Cold, Dry, Wet, Soft, Hard, Leight, Heavy, and the like.

But some may say, _That is impossible: for, there can be no World, but
must be either Light or Dark, Hot or Cold, Dry or Wet, Soft or Hard,
Heavy or Leight; and the like_.

I answer, That though those Effects may be generally beneficial to
most of the Creatures in this World; yet, not to all the Parts of
the World: as for example, Though Light is beneficial to the Eyes of
Animals; yet, to no other Part of an Animal Creature. And, though
Darkness is obstructive to the Eyes of Animals; yet, to no other Parts
of an Animal Creature. Also, Air is no proper Object for any of the
Human Parts, but Respiration. So Cold and Heat, are no proper Objects
for any Part of a Human Creature, but only the Pores, which are the
Organs of Touch. The like may be said for Hard and Soft, Dry and Wet:
and since they are not Fundamental actions of Nature, but Particular,
I cannot believe, but that there may be such Worlds, or Creatures,
as may have no use of Light, Darkness, and the like: for, if some
Parts of this World need them not, nor are any ways beneficial to
them, (as I formerly proved) surely a whole World may be, and subsist
without them: for these Properties, though they may be proper for the
Form or Species of this World; yet, they may be no ways proper for
the Species of another kind or sort of World: as for example, The
Properties of a Human Creature are quite different from other kinds of
Creatures; the like may be of different Worlds: but, in all Material
Worlds, there are Self-moving Parts, which is the cause there is
self-joyning, uniting, and composing; self dividing, or dissolving;
self-regularities, and self-irregularities: also, there is Perception
amongst the Parts or Creatures of Nature; and what Worlds or Creatures
soever are in Nature, they have Sense and Reason, Life and Knowledg:
but, for Light and Darkness, Hot and Cold, Soft and Hard, Leight and
Heavy, Dry and Wet, and the like; they are all but particular actions
of particular Corporeal Species, or Creatures, which are finite, and
not infinite: and certainly, there may be, in Nature, other Worlds
as full of varieties, and as glorious and beautiful as this World;
and are, and may be more glorious or beautiful, as also, more full of
variety than this World, and yet be quite different in all kinds and
sorts, from this World: for, this is to be noted, That the different
kinds and sorts of Species, or Creatures, do not make Particulars more
or less perfect, but according to their kind. And one thing I desire,
That my _Readers_ would not mistake my meaning, when I say, _The Parts
dissolve_: for, I do not mean, that Matter dissolves; but, that their
particular Societies dissolve.



CHAP. I. Whether there can be a Substance, that is not a Body.

What a _Substance_, that is not _Body_, can be, (as I writ in the First
Chapter of this Book) I cannot imagine; nor, that there is any thing
between _Something_ and _Nothing_.

But, some may say, _That Spiritual Substances are so_. I answer: That
Spirits must be either Material, or Immaterial: for, it is impossible
for a thing to be between Body and no Body.

Others may say, _There may be a Substance, that is not a Natural
Substance; but, some sort of Substance that is far more pure than the
purest Natural Substance_.

I answer: Were it never so pure, it would be in the List or Circle of
Body: and certainly, the purest Substance, must have the Properties of
Body, as, to be divisible, and capable to be united and compounded; and
being divisible and compoundable, it would have the same Properties
that grosser Parts have: but, if there be any difference, certainly the
purest Substance would be more apt to divide and unite, or compound,
than the grosser sort. But, as to those sorts of Substance, which some
Learned Men have imagined; in my opinion, they are but the same sort of
Substance that the Vulgar call, _Thoughts_, and I name, the _Rational
Parts_; which, questionless, are as truly Body, as the grossest
Parts in Nature: but, most Human Creatures are so troubled with the
Thoughts of Dissolving, and Dis-uniting, that they turn Fancies and
Imaginations, into Spirits, or Spiritual Substances; as if all the
other Parts of their Bodies, should become Rational Parts; that is,
that all their Parts should turn into such Parts as Thoughts, which I
name, the _Rational Parts_. But that Opinion is impossible: for, Nature
cannot alter the nature of any Part; nor can any Part alter its own
Nature; neither can the Rational Parts be divided from the Sensitive
and Inanimate Parts, by reason those Three sorts constitute but one
Body, as being Parts of one Body. But, put the case that the Rational
Parts might divide and subsist without the Sensitive and Inanimate
Parts; yet, as I said, they must of necessity have the Properties and
Nature of a Body, which is, to be divisible, and capable to be united,
and so to be Parts: for, it is impossible for a Body, were it the most
pure, to be indivisible.


I Cannot conceive how an Immaterial can be in Nature: for, first, An
Immaterial cannot, in my opinion, be naturally created; nor can I
conceive how an Immaterial can produce particular Immaterial Souls,
Spirits, or the like. Wherefore, an Immaterial, in my opinion, must be
some uncreated Being; which can be no other than GOD alone. Wherefore,
Created Spirits, and Spiritual Souls, are some other thing than an
Immaterial: for surely, if there were any other Immaterial Beings,
besides the Omnipotent God, those would be so near the Divine Essence
of God, as to be petty gods; and numerous petty gods, would, almost,
make the Power of an Infinite God. But, God is Omnipotent, and only God.

CHAP. III. Whether an Immaterial be Perceivable.

Whatsoever is Corporeal, is Perceivable; that is, may be perceived in
some manner or other, by reason it hath a Corporeal Being: but, what
Being an Immaterial hath, no Corporeal can perceive. Wherefore, no Part
in Nature can perceive an Immaterial, because it is impossible to have
a perception of that, which is not to be perceived, as not being an
Object fit and proper for Corporeal Perception. In truth, an Immaterial
is no Object, because no Body.

But some may say, that, _A Corporeal may have a Conception, although
not a Perception, of an Immaterial_.

I answer, That, surely, there is an innate Notion of God, in all the
Parts of Nature; but not a perfect knowledg: for if there was, there
would not be so many several Opinions, and Religions, amongst one Kind,
or rather, sort of Creatures, as Mankind, as there are; insomuch, that
there are but few of one and the same Opinion, or Religion: but yet,
that Innate Notion of God, being in all the Parts of Nature, God is
infinitely and eternally worshipped and adored, although after several
manners and ways; yet, all manners and ways, are joyned in one Worship,
because the Parts of Nature are joyned into one Body.

CHAP. IV. Of the Differences between God, and Nature.

God is an Eternal Creator; Nature, his Eternal Creature. GOD, an
Eternal Master: Nature, GOD's Eternal Servant. GOD is an Infinite
and Eternal Immaterial Being: Nature, an Infinite Corporeal Being.
GOD is Immovable, and Immutable: Nature, Moving, and Mutable. GOD is
Eternal, Indivisible, and of an Incompoundable Being: Nature, Eternally
Divisible and Compoundable. GOD, Eternally Perfect: Nature, Eternally
Imperfect. GOD, Eternally Inalterable: Nature Eternally Alterable.
GOD, without Error: Nature, full of Irregularities. GOD knows exactly,
or perfectly, Nature: Nature doth not perfectly know GOD. GOD is
Infinitely and Eternally worshipped: Nature is the Eternal and Infinite

CHAP. V. All the Parts of Nature worship God.

All Creatures (as I have said) have an Innate Notion of GOD; and as
they have a Notion of God, so they have a Notion to worship GOD: but,
by reason Nature is composed of Parts; so is the Infinite Worship to
God: and, as several Parts are dividing and uniting after several
kinds, sorts, manners and ways; so is their Worship to GOD: but, the
several manners and ways of Worship, make not the Worship to GOD less:
for certainly, all Creatures Worship and Adore GOD; as we may perceive
by the Holy Scripture, where it says, _Let the Heavens, Earth, and
all that therein is, praise God._ But 'tis probable, that some of the
Parts being Creatures of Nature, may have a fuller Notion of GOD than
others; which may cause some Creatures to be more Pious and Devout,
than others: but, the Irregularity of Nature, is the cause of Sin.

CHAP. VI. Whether GOD's Decrees are limited.

In my opinion, though God is Inalterable, yet no ways bounded or
limited: for, though GOD's Decrees are fixt, yet, they are not bound:
but, as GOD hath an Infinite Knowledg, He hath also an Infinite
Fore-knowledg; and so, fore-knows Nature's Actions, and what He will
please to decree Nature to do: so that, GOD knows what Nature can act,
and what she will act; as also, what He will decree: and this is the
cause, that some of the Creature's or Parts of Nature, especially Man,
do believe _Predestination_. But surely, GOD hath an Omnipotent Divine
Power, which is no ways limited: for GOD, being above the nature of
Nature, cannot have the Actions of Nature, because GOD cannot make
Himself no GOD; neither can He make Himself more than what he is, He
being the All-powerful, Omnipotent, Infinite, and Everlasting Being.

CHAP. VII. Of GOD's Decrees concerning the particular Parts of Nature.

Though Nature's Parts have Free-will, of Self-motion; yet, they have
not Free-will to oppose _GOD's Decrees_: for, if some Parts cannot
oppose other Parts, being over-power'd, it is probable, that the Parts
of Nature cannot oppose the All-powerful Decrees of _GOD_. But, if it
please the All-powerful _GOD_ to permit the Parts of Nature to act as
they please, according to their own natural Will; and, upon condition,
if they act so, they shall have such Rewards as Nature may be capable
to receive; or such Punishments as Nature is capable of; then the
Omnipotent _GOD_ doth not predestinate those Rewards, or Punishments,
any otherwise than the Parts of Nature do cause by their own Actions.
Thus all Corporeal Actions, belong to Corporeal Parts; but, the Rewards
and Punishments, to _GOD_ alone: but, what those Punishments and
Blessings are, no particular Creature is capable to know: for, though a
particular Creature knows there is a _GOD_; yet, not what _GOD_ is: so,
although particular Creatures know there are Rewards and Punishments;
yet, not what those Rewards and Punishments are. But mistake me not;
for I mean the general Rewards and Punishments to all Creatures: but
'tis probable, that _GOD_ might decree Nature, and her Parts, to make
other sorts of Worlds, besides this World; of which Worlds, this may be
as ignorant, as a particular Human Creature is of _GOD_. And therefore,
it is not probable (since we cannot possibly know all the Parts of
Nature, of which we are parts) that we should know the Decrees of
_GOD_, or the manners and ways of Worship, amongst all kinds and sorts
of Creatures.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Ten Commandments.

In my opinion, the Notions Man hath of _GOD's Commands_ concerning
their Behaviour and Actions to Himself, and their Fellow-Creatures,
is the very same that Moses writ, and presented to all those of whom
he was Head and Governour. But, mistake me not, I mean only the _Ten
Commandments_; which Commandments are a sufficient Rule for all
Human Creatures: and certainly, _GOD_ had decreed, that Moses should
be a wise Man, and should publish these wise Commands. But, the
Interpretation of the Law must be such, as not to make it no such Law:
but, by reason Nature is as much Irregular, as Regular, Human Notions
are also Irregular, as much as Regular; which causes great variety
of Religions: and their Actions being also Irregular, is the cause
that the practise of Human Creatures is Irregular; and that occasions
Irregular Devotions, and is the cause of SIN.


Concerning _the several Religions_, and several Opinions in Religions,
which are like several Kinds and Sorts; the Question is,

_Whether all Mankind could be perswaded to be of one Religion, or

The opinion of the Minor part of my Thoughts, was, That all men might
be perswaded.

And, the opinion of the Major part of my Thoughts, was, That Nature,
being divisible and compoundable, and having Free-will, as well
as Self-motion; and being Irregular, as well as Regular; as also,
Variable, taking delight in variety; it was impossible for all Mankind
to be of one _Religion_, or _Opinion_.

The opinion of the Minor part of my Thoughts, 246,$ was, That the Grace
of GOD could perswade all Men to one Opinion.

The Major part of my Thoughts was of opinion, That GOD might decree
or command Nature: but, to alter Nature's nature, could not be done,
unless GOD, by his Decree, would annihilate this Nature, and create
another Nature, and such a Nature as was not like this Nature: for, it
is the nature of this Material Nature, to be Alterable; as also, to be
Irregular, as well as Regular; and, being Regular, and Irregular, was a
fit and proper Subject for GOD's Justice, and Mercies; Punishments, and

CHAP. X. Of Rules and Prescriptions.

As Saint Paul said, _We could not know Sin, but by the Law_; so, we
could not know what Punishment we could or should suffer, but by the
Law; not only Moral, but Divine Law.

But, some may ask, _What is Law?_

I answer: Law is, Limited Prescriptions and Rules.

But, some may ask, _Whether all Creatures in Nature, have Prescriptions
and Rules?_

I answer: That, for any thing Man can know to the contrary, all
Creatures may have some Natural Rules: but, every Creature may chuse
whether they will follow those Rules; I mean, such Rules as they
are capable to follow or practise: for, several kinds and sorts of
Creatures, cannot possibly follow one and the same Prescription and
Rule. Wherefore, Divine Prescriptions and Rules, must be, according to
the sorts and kinds of Creatures; and yet, all Creatures may have a
Notion, and so an Adoration of God, by reason all the Parts in Nature,
have Notions of God. But, concerning particular Worships, those must
be Prescriptions and Rules; or else, they are according to every
particular Creature's conception or choice.

CHAP. XI. Sins and Punishments, are Material.

As all Sins are Material, so are Punishments: for, Material Creatures,
cannot have Immaterial Sins; nor can Material Creatures be capable
of Immaterial Punishments; which may be proved out of the Sacred
Scripture: for, all the Punishments that are declared to be in Hell,
are Material Tortures: nay, Hell it self is described to be Material;
and not only Hell, but Heaven, is described to be Material. But,
whether Angels, and Devils, are Material, that is not declared: for,
though they are named Spirits, yet we know not whether those Spirits be
Immaterial. But, considering that Hell and Heaven is described to be

Material, it is probable, Spirits are also Material: nay, our blessed
Saviour Christ, who is in Heaven, with God the Father, hath a Material
Body; and in that Body will come attended by all the Hosts of Heaven,
to judg the quick and the dead; which quick and dead, are the Material
Parts of Nature: which could not be actually judged and punished, but
by a Material Body, as Christ hath. But, pray mistake me not; I say,
They could not be actually judged and punished; that is, not according
to Nature, as Material Actions: for, I do not mean here, Divine and
Immaterial Decrees. But Christ, being partly Divine, and partly
Natural; may be both a Divine and Natural Judg.

CHAP. XII. Of Human Conscience.

The Human Notions of GOD, Man calls _Conscience_: but, by reason
that Nature is full of Varieties, as having Self-moving Parts; Human
Creatures have different Notions, and so different Consciences,
which cause different Opinions and Devotions: but, Nature being as
much compoundable as dividable, it causes unity of some, as also,
divisions of other Opinions, which is the cause of several Religions:
which Religions, are several Communities and Divisions. But, as for
Conscience, and holy Notions, they being Natural, cannot be altered
by force, without a Free-will: so that the several Societies, or
Communicants, commit an Error, if not a Sin, to endeavour to compel
their Brethren to any particular Opinion: and, to prove it is an
Error, or Sin, the more earnest the _Compellers_ are, the more do the
_Compelled_ resist; which hath been the cause of many Martyrs. But
surely, all Christians should follow the Example of Christ, who was
like a meek Lamb, not a raging Lyon: neither did Christ command his
Apostles to Persecute; but, to suffer Persecution patiently. Wherefore,
_Liberty of Conscience_ may be allowed, conditionally, it be no ways a
prejudice to the Peaceable Government of the State or Kingdom.

The Second Part.

CHAP. I. Whether it is possible there could be Worlds consisting only
of the Rational Parts, and others only of the Sensitive Parts.

The Parts of my Mind did argue amongst themselves, _Whether there might
not be several kinds and sorts of Worlds in Infinite Nature?_

And they all agreed, That probably there might be several kinds and
sorts of Worlds.

But afterwards, the Opinion of the Major parts of my Mind, was, That it
is not possible: for, though the Rational parts of Nature move free,
without Burdens of the Inanimate Parts; yet, being Parts of the same
Body, (viz. of the Body of Nature) they could not be divided from the
Sensitive and Inanimate Parts; nor the Sensitive and Inanimate Parts,
from the Rational.

The Opinion of the Minor Parts of my Mind, was, That a Composed World,
of either degree, was not a division from the Infinite Body of Nature,
though they might divide so much, as to compose a World meerly of their
own Degree.

The Major's Opinion was, That it was impossible; because the three
Degrees, Rational, Sensitive, and Inanimate, were naturally joyned as
one Body, or Part.

The Minor's Opinion was, That a World might be naturally composed
only of Rational Parts, as a Human Mind is only composed of Rational
Parts; or, as the Rational Parts of a Human Creature, could compose
themselves into several Forms, _viz._ into several sorts and kinds of
Worlds, without the assistance of the Sensitive or the Inanimate Parts:
for, they fancy Worlds which are composed in Human Minds, without the
assistance of the Sensitive.

The Major Part agreed, That the Rational Corporeal Actions, were free;
and all their Architectors were of their own Degree: but yet, they were
so joyned in every Part and Particle, to the Sensitive and Inanimate,
as they could not separate from these two Degrees: for, though they
could divide and unite from, and to Particulars, as either of their own
Degrees, or the other Degrees; yet, the Three Degrees being but as one
united Body, they could not so divide, as not to be joyned to the other
Degrees: for, it was impossible for a Body to divide it self from it

After this Argument, there followed another; _That, if it were possible
there could be a World composed only of the Rational Parts, without the
other two Degrees; Whether that World would be a Happy World?_

The Major Part's Opinion was, That, were it possible there could be
such unnatural Divisions, those divide Parts would be very unhappy:
for, the Rational Parts would be much unsatisfied without the
Sensitive; and the Sensitive very dull without the Rational: also, the
Sensitive Architectors would be very Irregular, wanting their Designing
Parts, which are the Rational Parts.

Upon which Argument, all the Parts of my Mind agreed in this Opinion,
That the Sensitive was so Sociable to the Rational, and the Rational so
Assisting to the Sensitive, and the Inanimate Parts so necessary to the
Sensitive Architectors, that they would not divide from each other, if
they could.

CHAP. II. Of Irregular and Regular Worlds.

Some Parts of my Mind were of opinion, _That there might be a World
composed only of Irregularities; and another, only of Regularities: and
some, that were partly composed of the one, and the other._

The Minor Part's Opinion was, That all Worlds were composed partly of
the one, and partly of the other; because all Nature's Actions were
poysed with Opposites, or Contraries: wherefore, there could not be a
World only of Irregularities, and another of Regularities.

The Major Part's Opinion, was, That Nature's Actions were as much
poysed by the contrary Actions of Two Worlds, as by the contrary
Actions of the Parts of One World, or one Creature: As for example, The
Peace and Trouble, Health and Sickness, Pain and Ease, and the like, of
one Human Creature; and so of the contrary Natures of several kinds and
sorts of Creatures of one and the same World.

After which Discourse, they generally agreed, There might be Regular
and Irregular Worlds; the one sort to be such happy Worlds, as that
they might be named Blessed Worlds; the other so miserable Worlds, as
might be named Cursed Worlds.

CHAP. III. Whether there be Egress and Regress between the Parts of
several Worlds.

There arose a Third Argument, _viz. Whether it was possible for some of
the Creatures of several Worlds, to remove, so as to remove out of one
World, into another?_

The Major Part's Opinion was, That it was possible for some Creatures:
for, if some particular Creatures could move all over the World, of
which they were a part, they might divide from the Parts of the World
they were of, and joyn with the Parts of another World.

The Minor Part's Opinion was, That they might travel all over the World
they were part of, but not to joyn with the Parts of another World, to
which they belong not.

The Major's Opinion was, That every Part and Particle, belonged to the
Infinite Body of Nature, and therefore not any Part could account it
self not of the Infinite Body; and being so, then every Part of Nature
may joyn, and divide from and to particular Parts, as they please, if
there were not Obstructions and Hindrances, and some Parts did not
obstruct other Parts: Wherefore, if there were not Obstructions, there
might be Egress and Regress amongst the particular Parts of several

The Minor's Opinion was, That if it could be according to the Major's
Opinion, it would cause an Infinite Confusion in Infinite Nature: for,
every Creature of every World, was composed according to the Nature and
Compositions of the World they were of: wherefore, the Products of one
kind or sort of Worlds, would not be sutable, agreeable, and Regular,
to the productions of another kind.

The Major Part's Opinion was, That it was impossible, since Nature is
one united Body, without _Vacuum_, but that the Parts of all Worlds
must have Egress and Regress.

CHAP. IV. Whether the Parts of one and the same Society, could, after
their Dissolution, meet and unite.

The Fifth Argument, was partly of the same Subject, _viz. Whether the
particular Parts of a Creature, (such as a Human Creature is) could
travel out of one World into another, after the dissolution of his
Human Life?_

The Major Part's Opinion was, That they could.

The Minor's Opinion was, They could not; because the particular Parts
so divided and joyned to and from other particular Parts and Societies,
as it was impossible, if they would, so to agree, as to divide from
those Parts and Societies they are joyned to, and from those they must
joyn with, to meet in another World, and joyn as they would, in the
same Society they were of, when the whole Society is dissolved. Neither
can Parts divide and joyn, as they would: for, though Self-moving Parts
have a Free-will to move; yet, being subject to Obstructions, they
must move as they can: for, no particular Part hath an absolute Power.
Wherefore, the Dispersed Parts of a Dissolved Society, cannot meet and
joyn as they would. Besides, every Part is as much affected to one
Sort, Kind, or Particular, they are Parts of, as to another. Besides,
the Knowledg of every Part alters, according as their Actions alter:
so that the Parts of one and the same Society, after division, have no
more knowledg of that Society.

CHAP. V. Whether, if a Creature being Dissolved, and could Unite again,
would be the same.

The Sixth Argument was, _That, put the case it were possible all the
several Parts belonging to one and the same Society; as for example, To
one Human Creature, after his Human Life was dissolved, and his Parts
dispersed, and afterwards, all those Parts meeting and uniting; Whether
that Human Creature would be the same?_

The Minor Part's Opinion was, That it could not be the same Society:
for, every Creature was according to the nature of their Kind or Sort;
and so according to the Form and Magnitude of one of their Kind or Sort.

The Major Part's Opinion was, That though the Nature of every
particular Creature had such Forms, Shapes, and Properties, as was
natural to that sort of Creatures they were of; yet, the Magnitude of
particular Creatures of one and the same sort, might be very different.

The Minor Part's Opinion was, That if all the Parts of one Society, as
for example, a Man, from the first time of his Production, to the time
of his Dissolution, should, after division, come to meet and unite;
that Man, or any other Creature, would be a Monstrous Creature, as
having more Parts than was agreeable to the nature of his Kind.

The Major Part's Opinion was, That though the Society, viz. The MAN,
would be a Society of greater Magnitude; yet, not any ways different
from the Nature of his Kind.

CHAP. VI. Of the Resurrection of Human Kind.

The Seventh Argument, was, _Whether all the particular Parts of every
Human Creature, at the time of the Resurrection, be, to meet and joyn,
as being of one and the same Society?_

The Minor Part's Opinion was, They shall not: for, if all those Parts
that had been of the same Body and Mind of one Man, from his first
Production, to the last of his Dissolution; or, from his Birth, to the
time of his Death, (supposing him to have liv'd long) should meet and
joyn, as one Society, that is, as one Man; that Man, at the time of
his Resurrection, would be a Gyant; and if so, then old Men would be
Gyants; and young Children, Dwarfs.

The Major Part's Opinion was, That, if it was not so, then every
particular Human Society would be imperfect at the time of their
Resurrection: for, if they should only rise with some of their Parts,
as (for example) when they were in the strength of their Age, then all
those Parts that had been either before, or after that time, would be
unjustly dealt with, especially if Man be the best Product in Nature.
Besides, if a dead Child did rise a Man, as at his most perfect Age,
it could not be said, He rises according to a Natural Man, having more
Parts than by Nature he ever had; and an old Man, fewer Parts than
naturally he hath had: so, what by Adding and Diminishing the Parts
of particular Men, it would not cause only Injustice; but, not any
particular Human Creature, would be the same he was.

CHAP. VII. Of the Dissolution of a World.

The Eighth Argument was, _That when all Human Creatures that were
dissolved, should rise, Whether the World they were of, should not be

All the Parts of my Mind agreed, That when all the Human Creatures that
had been dissolved, should rise, the whole World, besides themselves,
must also dissolve, by reason they were Parts of the World: for, when
all those numerous dissolved and dispersed Parts, did meet and joyn,
the World wanting those Parts, could not subsist: for, the Frame, Form,
and Uniformity of the World, consisted of Parts; and those Parts that
have been of the Human Kind, are, at several times, of other kinds and
sorts of Creatures, as other sorts and kinds are of Human Kind; and all
the Sorts and Kinds, are Parts of the World: so that the World cannot
subsist, if any kind or sort of Creatures, that had been from the first
time of the Creation, should be united; I mean, into one and the same
sort or kind of Creatures; as it would be, if all those that are Quick,
and those that have been _Dissolved_, (that is, have been dead) should
be alive at one time.

CHAP. VIII. Of a New Heaven, and a New Earth.

The Ninth Argument was, _That if a World could be dissolved, and that
the Human Creatures should rise, and reunite; what World should they
reside in?_

All the Parts of my Thoughts generally agreed, That the Omnipotent
GOD would command the Parts of His Servant NATURE, to compose other
Worlds for them, into which Worlds they should be separated; the Good
should go into a Blessed World; the Bad, into a Cursed World: and the
Sacred Scripture declares, That there shall be a _New Heaven_, and a
_New Earth_; which, in their opinion, was a Heaven and a Hell, for the
Blessed and Cursed Human Kind of this World.

CHAP. IX. Whether there shall be a Material Heaven and Hell.

The Tenth Argument was, _Whether the Heaven and Hell that are to be
produced for the Blessed and Cursed, shall be Material?_

The Minor Part's Opinion was, That they shall not be Material.

The Major Parts were of opinion, They shall be Material, by reason all
those Creatures that did rise, were Material; and being Material, could
not be sensible either of Immaterial Blessings, or Punishments: neither
could an Immaterial World, be a fit or proper Residence for Material
Bodies, were those Bodies of the purest Substance. But, whether this
Material Heaven and Hell, shall be like other Material Worlds, the
Parts of my Mind could not agree, and so not give their Judgment. But,
in this they all agreed, That the Material Heaven and Hell, shall not
have any other Animal Creatures, than those that were of Human kind,
and those not produced, but raised from Death.

But when they came to argue, Whether there might be Elements, Minerals,
and Vegetables, they could not agree; but some did argue, and offer to
make proof, That there might be Mynes of Gold, and Rocks of Diamonds,
Rubies, and the like; all which, were Minerals. Also, some were of
opinion, there were Elements: for, Darkness and Light, are Elemental
Effects: and, if Hell was a World of Darkness; and Heaven, a World of
Light; it was probable there were Elements.

CHAP. X. Concerning the Ioys or Torments of the Blessed and Cursed,
after they are in Heaven, or Hell.

As for the _Ioys of Heaven_, and the _Torments of Hell_, all the Parts
of my Mind agreed, they could not conceive any more probably, than
those they had formerly conceived: which former Conceptions they had
occasioned the Sensitive Parts to declare; and having been formerly
divulged in the Book of my _Orations_, their Opinion was, _That it
would be a superfluous Work to cause them to be repeated in this
Book._ But, the Ground or Foundation of those Conceptions, is, That
God may decree, _That both the Sensitive and Rational Parts of those
that are restored to Life, should move in variety of Perceptions, or
Conceptions, without variety of Objects: and, that those Creatures_
(viz. _Human Creatures) that are raised from Death to Life, should
subsist without any Forrein Matter, but should be always the same in
Body and Mind, without any Traffick, Egress, or Regress of Forrein
Parts_. And the proof, that the Sensitive and Rational Parts of Human
Creatures, may make Perceptions, or rather Conceptions, without Forrein
Objects, is, _That many men in this world have had Conceptions, both
amongst the Rational and Sensitive, which Man names Visions, or
Imaginations; whereof some have been Pleasing and Delightful; others,
Displeasing, and Dreadful_.

The Third Part.


The Parts of my Mind, after some time of respite from _Philosophical
Arguments_, delighting in such harmless Pastimes; did begin to argue
about a _Regular_ and _Irregular World_; having formerly agreed, there
might be such Worlds in Nature; and that the Regular Worlds, were Happy
Worlds; the Irregular, Miserable Worlds. But, there was some division
amongst the Parts of my Mind, concerning the choice of their Arguments;
as, Whether to argue, first, of the particular Parts of the Regular, or
of the Irregular World. But, at last, they agreed to argue, first, of
the Regular World. But, pray mistake not these Arguments; for they are
not Arguments of such Worlds as are for the reception of the Blessed
and Cursed Humans, after their Resurrections: but, such as these Worlds
we are of, only freely Regular, or Irregular. Also, though I treat but
only of one Regular World, and one Irregular World; yet, my opinion is,
there may be a great many Irregular Worlds, and a great many Regular
Worlds, of several kinds and sorts: but, these I shall treat of, are
such as are somewhat like this World we are of.

CHAP. I. Of the Happy and Miserable Worlds.

The First Argument was, _Whether there might not be such Worlds in
Nature, as were in no kind or sort like this World we are of?_

They all agreed, That it was probable there was.

The Second Argument was, _Whether it was probable that the Happy and
Miserable Worlds were, in any kind, like this we are of._

They all agreed, It was probable that this World was somewhat like both
one, and the other; and so, both those were somewhat like this: for, as
the _Happy World_ was no ways Irregular; and the _Miserable World_ no
ways Regular: so this World we are of, was partly Irregular, and partly
Regular; and so it was a _Purgatory World_.

CHAP. II. Whether there be such kinds and sorts of Creatures in the
Happy and Blessed World, as in this World.

The Third Argument was, _Whether it was probable, the Happy and
Miserable Worlds, had Animal, Vegetable, Mineral, and Elemental Kinds?_

They agreed, It was probable there were such Kinds: but yet, those
Kinds, and particular sorts of those Kinds, might be different from
those of this World.

The Fourth Argument was, _Whether there was Human sorts of Creatures in
those Worlds._

They all agreed, There was.

CHAP. III. Of the Births and Deaths of the Heavenly World.

The Fifth Argument was, _Whether there could be Births and Deaths in
the Happy World?_

Some Parts of my Mind were of opinion, That if there was so Regular
a World, as that there were no Irregularities in it, there could not
be _Deaths_: for, Death was a Dissolution; and if there was no Death,
there could be no Birth, or Production: for, if any particular sort
of Creatures should Encrease, and never dissolve, they would become
Infinite; which every particular kind or sort of Creatures, may be, for
time, and be Eternal; as also, be Infinite for Number; because, as some
dissolve, others are produced. And so, if particular sorts or kinds of
Creatures, be Eternal; the particular Production and Dissolution, is
Infinite: but, if any Sort, or Kind, should encrease, without decrease,
not any particular World could contain them: As for example, If all the
Human Creatures that have been produced from our Father _Adam_, (which
hath not been above Six thousand years) should be alive, this World
could not contain them; much less, if this World, and the Human sorts
of Creatures, had been of a longer date. And besides, if there should
be a greater Encrease, by the Number of Human Creatures: in truth,
the numerous Encrease, would have caused Mankind, in the space of Six
thousand years, to be almost Infinite.

But, the Minor Parts of my Mind was of opinion, That then the _Happy
World_ could not be so perfectly Regular, if there was Death.

The Major Part's opinion was, That some sorts of Deaths were as
regular, as the most Regular Births: for, though Diseases were caused
by Irregular Actions, yet, Death was not: for, as it is not Irregular,
to be old; so it is not Irregular, to dye. But, this Argument broke off
for that time.

CHAP. IV. Whether those Creatures could be named Blessed, that are
subject to dye.

The Sixth Argument was, _Whether those Creatures could be called_
Blessed, _or_ _Happy, that are subject to dye?_

The Major Parts of my Mind was of opinion, That, if Death was as free
from Irregularities, as Birth; then it was as happy to Dye, as to be

The Minor Parts were of opinion, That though Dissolution might be as
Regular as Composition; yet, it was an Unhappiness for every particular
Society, to be dissolved.

The Major Part's Opinion, was, That though the particular Societies
were dissolved; yet, by reason the general Society of the Kind, did
continue, it was not so much Unhappiness; considering, particular
Parts, or Creatures, did make the General Society; and not, the
General, the Particular Societies: so that, the Parts of the
Particulars, remained in the General, as in the Kind of Sort.

The Minor Parts were of opinion, That the Particulars of the same Kind
or Sort, (as _Mankind_) did contribute but little to the General: for,
other sorts of Creatures did contribute more than they; only Mankind
was the Occasion, or Contributor of the First Foundation, but no more:
but, the other Parts or Creatures of the World, did contribute more
to their Kind, than the Creatures of the same Kind did: and, as other
Kinds, and Sorts, did contribute to Mankind; so Mankind, to other Kinds
or Sorts: for, all Kinds and Sorts, did contribute to the Subsistance
and Assistance of each other.

The Major Part's Opinion was, That if all the Parts of a World did
assist each other, then Death could be no Unhappiness, especially in
the Regular World; by reason all Creatures in that World, of what Kind
or Sort soever, was Perfect and Regular: so that, though the particular
Human Creatures did dissolve from being Humans; yet, their Parts could
not be Unhappy, when they did unite into other Kinds, and Sorts, or
particular Societies: for, those other sorts and kinds of Creatures,
might be as happy as Human Creatures.

CHAP. V. Of the Productions of the Creatures of the Regular World.

The Seventh Argument was, of Productions of the Creatures of the
Regular World, _viz. Whether their Productions were frequent, or not?_

The Minor Part's Opinion, was, That they were frequent.

The Major Part's Opinion, was, That they were not _frequent_, or
_numerous_, by reason the World was Regular, and so all the Productions
or Generations, were Regular; but could not exceed such a Number as
was, regularly, sufficient for a World, of such a Dimension as the
Regular World; and according to the Dimensions, must the Society or
Creatures be, let them be large or little.

CHAP. VI. Whether the Creatures in the Blessed World, do Feed, and

The Eighth Argument, was, _Whether the Blessed Humans, in the Happy
World, did Eat, and Evacuate?_

They agreed, That, if they did feed, they must evacuate.

Then there was a Dispute, _Whether those Happy Creatures did eat?_

They all agreed, That, if they were Natural Human Creatures, they had
Natural Appetites: but, by reason there were no Irregularities in
this World, the Human Creatures had not any Irregular Appetites, nor
Irregular Digestions; Irregular Passions, or Irregular Pastimes.

Then there arose a Dispute, _Whether those Blessed Creatures did sleep?_

Some were of opinion, They did not sleep: for, Sleep was occasioned
through a weariness of the Sensitive Organs, making perceptions of
Forrein Objects; and all Weariness, or Tiredness, was Irregular.

The Major part of my Mind, was of a contrary Opinion; because the
delight of Nature, is in Variety: and therefore, Regular Sleeps were

The Minor was of opinion, That Sleep was like Death, and therefore it
could not be Happy.

But, at last, they did conclude, That Sleep, being a soft and quiet
Repose, (as being retired from all Actions concerning Forrein Parts,
and had only Actions at Home, and of private Affairs; and that all the
Parts of Body and Mind, were then most sociable amongst themselves)
that the Blessed Humans did sleep.

CHAP. VII. Of the Animals, and of the Food of the Humans of the Happy

The Ninth Argument, was, _Whether there were all sorts of Animals in
the Regular World?_ All the Parts of my Mind agreed, That if there were
such Creatures as Human Creatures, it was probable there was other
Animal Creatures: but, by reason there was no Irregularities, there
could not be Cruel or Ravenous Animal Creatures: for, a Lyon, Leopard,
or Wolf, in that World, would be as harmless as a Sheep in this; and
all Kites, Hawks, and the like ravenous Birds, would be as harmless as
those Birds that only feed on the Berries, and Fruit of the Earth.

CHAP. VIII. Whether it is not Irregular, for one Creature to feed on

The Tenth Argument was, _Whether it was not Irregular, for one Creature
to feed on another?_

Some were of opinion, That it was natural for one Creature to subsist
by another, and to assist each other; but not cruelly to destroy each

Upon this Argument, the Parts of my Mind divided into a Minor and a
Major part.

The Minor Part's opinion, was, That, since all the Creatures in Nature,
had Life; then, all Creatures that did feed, did destroy each other's

The Major Part's Opinion, was, That they might be assisted by the
Lives of other Creatures, and not destroy their Lives: for, Life could
not be destroyed, though Lives might be occasionally alter'd: but,
some Creatures may assist other Creatures, without destruction or
dissolution of their Society: as for example, The Fruits and Leaves
of Vegetables, are but the Humorous Parts of Vegetables, because they
are divisible, and can encrease and decrease, without any dissolution
of their Society; that is, without the dissolution of the Plant. Also,
Milk of Animals, is a superfluous Humor of Animals: and, to prove it to
be a superfluous Humor, I alledg, That much of it oppresses an Animal.
The same I say of the Fruits and Leaves of many sorts of Vegetable
Creatures. Besides, it is natural for such sorts of Creatures to have
their Fruits and Leaves to divide from the Stock.

The Minor Part's Opinion, was, That the Milk of Animals, and the Fruits
of Vegetables, and the Herbs of the Earth, had as much Life as their

The Major Part's Opinion, was, That though they had as much Life as
their Producers; yet, it was natural for such off-springs to change and
alter their Lives, by being united to other sorts of Creatures: as for
example, An Animal eats Fruit and Herbs; and those Fruits and Herbs
convert themselves into the nature of those Animals that feed of them.
The same is of Milk, Eggs, and the like; out of which, a condition
of Life is endeavoured for: and, for proof, such sorts of Creatures
account an Animal Life the best; and therefore, all such superfluous
Parts of Creatures, endeavour to unite into an Animal Society; as we
may perceive, that Fruits and Herbs, are apt to turn into Worms, and
Flies; and some Parts of Milk, as Cheese, will turn into Maggots; so
that when Animals feed of such Meats, they occasion those Parts they
feed on, to a more easie Transformation; and not only such Creatures,
but Humans also, desire a better Change: for, what Human would not be a
glorious Sun, or Starr?

After which Discourse, all the Parts of my Mind agreed unanimously,
That Animals, and so Human Creatures, might feed on such sorts of Food,
as aforesaid; but not on such Food as is an united Society: for, the
Root and Foundation of any kind and sort of Creature, ought not to be

CHAP. IX. Of the Continuance of Life in the Regular World.

The Opinion of the Parts of my Mind, was, That, it was probable, that
all Societies in the Regular World, (that is, all such Parts of Nature
as are united into particular Creatures) are of long life, by reason
there are no Irregularities to destroy them, before their natural time.

But then a Dispute was raised amongst the Parts of my Mind, concerning
the natural time, that is, the proper time of the Lives of those
Creatures: for, all Creatures were not of the same time of Production;
nor, after their Production, of the same time of Continuance. But
the Parts of my Mind concluded, That though they could not judg by
observation of any Creature, no, not of their own Sort; yet, they did

believe they could judg better of Human Creatures, as being, at that
time, of a Human Society, than of any other: but, by reason they were
of this World (that is, Irregular in part) they did believe they might
very much err in their Judgment, concerning the continuance of Human
Lives, in the _Happy World_. But, after much debate, they concluded,
That a Human Creature, in the Regular World, might last as long as the
Productions did not oppress or burden that World, (for that would be
irregular) but how long a time that might be, they could not possibly
conceive or imagine.

CHAP. IX. Of the Excellency and Happiness of the Creatures of the
Regular World.

The Parts of my Mind could not possibly, being Parts of a Purgatory
World, conceive the happy condition of all Creatures in the Regular
World; but only, conceiving there was no Irregularities, they did also
conceive, that all Creatures there, must be in perfection; and that
the Elemental Creatures were purer, without drossie mixtures; so that
their Earth must needs be so fruitful, that it produces all sorts of
excellent Vegetables, without the help of Art; and their Minerals
as pure, as all sorts of Stone that are transparent, and as hard as
Diamonds; the Gold and Silver, more pure than that which is refined in
our World. The truth is, that, in their Opinions, the meanest sorts of
Metal in the Regular World, were more pure than the richest sort in
this World: so that then, their richest Metal must be as far beyond
ours, as our Gold is beyond our Iron, or Lead. As for the Elemental
Waters in the Regular World, they must be extraordinary smooth, clear,
flowing, fresh, and sweet; and the Elemental Air only, a most pure,
clear, and glorious Light; so that there could be no need of a Sun:
and, by reason all the Air was a Light, there could be no Darkness; and
so, no need of a Moon, or Starrs. The Elemental Fire, although it was
Hot, yet it was not Burning. Also, there could neither be scorching
Heats, nor freezing Colds, Storms, nor Tempest: for, all Excess is
irregular. Neither could there be Clouds, because no Vapours. But,
not to be tedious; it was my Mind's Opinion, That all the Parts of
the Happy World, being Regular, they could not obstruct each other's
Designs or Actions; which might be a cause, that both the Sensitive
and Rational Parts may not only make their Societies more curious, and
their Perceptions more perfect; but their Perceptions more subtile:
for, all the actions of that World being Regular, must needs be exact
and perfect; in so much, that every Creature is a perfect Object to
each other; and so every Creature must have, in some sort, a perfect
Knowledg of each other.

CHAP. XI. Of Human Creatures in the Regular World.

The Opinion of my Mind, was, That the _Happy World_, having no
Irregularities, all Creatures must needs be Excellent, and most
Perfect, according to their Kind and Sort; amongst which, are Human
Creatures, whose Kinds, or Sorts, being of the Best, must be more
excellent than the rest, being Exactly formed, and Beautifully
produced: there being, also, no Irregularities, Human Creatures
cannot be subject to Pains, Sickness, Aversions, or the like; or, to
Trepidations, or Troubles; neither can their Appetites, or Passions,
be irregular: wherefore, their Understanding is more clear, their
Judgments more poysed: and by reason their Food is Pure, it must be
Delicious, as being most tastable: also, it must be wholsome, and
nourishing; which occasions the Parts of Body and Mind, to be more
Lively and Pleasant.

CHAP. XII. Of the Happiness of Human Creatures in the Material World.

The Happiness that Human Creatures have in the _Regular World_, is,
That they are free from any kind or sort of Disturbance, by reason
there are

no Irregular Actions; and so, no Pride, Ambition, Faction, Malice,
Envy, Suspition, Jealousie, Spight, Anger, Covetousness, Hatred, or the
like; all which, are Irregular Actions among the Rational Parts: which
occasions Treachery, Slander, false Accusations, Quarrels, Divisions,
Warr, and Destruction; which proceeds from the Irregularities of the
Sensitive Parts, occasioned by the Rational, by reason the Sense
executes the Mind's Designs: but, there are no Plots or Intrigues,
neither in their State, nor upon their Stage; because, though they may
act the parts of Harmless Pleasures; yet, not of Deceitful Designs:
for, all Human Creatures, live in the Regular World, so united, that
all the particular Human Societies, (which are particular Human
Creatures) live as if they were but one Soul, and Body; that is,
as if they were but one Part, or particular Creature. As for their
pleasures, and pleasant Pastimes; in my opinion, they are such, as not
any Creature can express, unless they were of that World, or Heaven:
for, all kinds and sorts of Creatures, and all their Properties or
Associations, in this World we are of, are mixt; as, partly Irregular;
and partly, Regular; and so it is but a _Purgatory-World_. But surely,
all Human Creatures of that World, are so pleasant and delightful to
each other, as to cause a general Happiness.

The Fourth Part.

CHAP. I. Of the Irregular World.

After the Arguments and Opinions amongst the Parts of my Mind,
concerning a Regular World; their Discourse was, of an _Irregular
World_: Upon which they all agreed, That if there was a World that was
not in any kind or sort, Irregular; there must be a World that was not
in any kind or sort, Regular. But, to conceive those Irregularities
that are in the Irregular World, is impossible; much less, to express
them: for, it is more difficult to express Irregularities, than
Regularities: and what Human Creature of this World, can express a
particular Confusion, much less a World of Confusions?

Which I will, however, endeavour to declare, according to the
Philosophical Opinions of the Parts of my Mind.

CHAP. II. Of the Productions and Dissolutions of the Creatures of the
Irregular World.

According to the Actions of Nature, all Creatures are produced by
the Associations of Parts, into particular Societies, which we name,
_Particular Creatures_: but, the Productions of the Parts of the
Irregular World, are so Irregular, that all Creatures of that World
are Monstrous: neither can there be any orderly or distinct kinds
and sorts; by reason that Order and Distinction, are Regularities.
Wherefore, every particular Creature of that World, hath a monstrous
and different Form; insomuch, that all the several Particulars are
affrighted at the Perception of each other: yet, being Parts of Nature,
they must associate; but, their Associations are after a confused and
perturbed manner, much after the manner of Whirlwinds, or _Aetherial
Globes_, wherein can neither be Order, nor Method: and, after the same
manner as they are produced, so are they dissolved: so that, their
_Births_ and _Deaths_ are _Storms_, and their _Lives_ are _Torments_.

CHAP. III. Of Animals, and of Humans, in the Irregular World.

It has been declared in the former Chapter, _That there was not any
perfect Kind or Sort of Creatures in the Irregular World_: for, though
there be such Creatures as we name Animals; and amongst Animals,
Humans: yet, they are so Monstrous, that, being of confused Shapes, or
Forms, none of those Animal Creatures can be said to be of such, or
such a sort; because they are of different disordered Forms. Also, they
cannot be said to be of a perfect Animal-kind, or any Kind; by reason
of the variety of their Forms: for, those that are of the nature of
Animals, especially of Humans, are the most miserable and unhappy of
all the Creatures of that World; and the Misery is, That Death doth
not help them: for, Nature being a perpetual Motion, there is no rest
either alive or dead. In this World, it's true, some Societies (_viz._
some Creatures) may, sometimes, after their Dissolutions, be united
into more Happy Societies, or Forms; which, in the Irregular World, is
impossible; because all Forms, Creatures, or Societies, are miserable:
so that, after dissolution, those dispersed Parts cannot joyn to any
other Society, but what is as bad as the former; and so those Creatures
may dissolve out of one Misery, and unite into another; but cannot be
released from Misery. Page 284

CHAP. IV. Of Objects, and Perceptions.

The Opinions amongst the Parts of my Mind, were, That in the Unhappy,
or Miserable World, all the actions of that World, being irregular, it
must needs be, that all sorts of Perceptions of that World, must also
be irregular: not only because the Objects are all irregular; but, the
perceptive actions are so too; in such manner, that, what with the
irregularity of the Objects, and the irregularity of the Perceptions,
it must, of necessity, cause a horrid confusion, both of the Sensitive
and Rational Parts of all Creatures of that World, in so much, that not
only several Creatures may appear as several Devils to each other; but,
one and the same Creature may appear, both to the Sense and Reason,
like several Devils, at several times.

CHAP. V. The Description of the Globe of the Irregular World.

The Opinion of my Mind was, That the Globe of the Irregular World was
so irregular, that it was a Horrid World: for though, being a World, it
might be somewhat like other Worlds, both Globous, and a Society of it
self, by its own Parts; and therefore

might have that which we name _Earth, Air, Water_, and _Fire_: but,
for Sun-light, Moon-light, Starr-light, and the like, they are not
parts of the World they appear to; and are Worlds of themselves. But,
there can be no such Appearances in the Irregular World: for, the
Irregularities do obstruct all such Appearances; and the Elemental
Parts (if I may name them so) are as irregular, and therefore as horrid
as can be: so that it is probable, that the Elemental Fire is not a
bright shining Fire, but a dull, dead Fire, which hath the Effects of a
strong Corrosive Fire, which never actually Heats, but actually Burns;
so that some Creatures may both freeze and burn at once. As for the
Earth of that World, it is probable that it is like corrupted Sores,
by reason all Corruptions are produced by Irregular Motions; from
which Corruptions, may proceed such stinking Foggs, as may be as far
beyond the scent of Brimstone, or any the worst of Scents that are in
this World, as _Spanish_ or _Roman_ Perfumes, or Essences, are beyond
the scent of Carion, or _Assafoetida_; which causes all Creatures (of
Airy Substances) that breathe, to be so infected, as to appear like
Poysoned Bodies. As for their Elemental Water, 'tis probable, that it
is as black as Ink, as bitter as Gaul, as sharp as _Aquafortis_, and as
Salt as Brine, mixt irregularly together, by reason the Waters there,
must needs be very troubled Waters. As for the Elemental Air, I shall
declare the Opinion of my Rational Parts, in the following Chapter.

CHAP. VI. Of the Elemental Air, and Light of the Irregular WORLD.

'Tis probable, that the Elemental Air of the Irregular World, is
neither perfectly Dark, nor perfectly Light; for, either would be, in
some part or kind, a Perfection or Regularity: but, being irregular,
it must be a perturbed Air; and, being perturbed, it is probable it
produces several Colours. But, mistake me not, I do not mean such
Colours as are made by perturbed Light; but, such as are made by
perturbed Air: and, through the Excess of Irregularities, may be
Horrid Colours; and, by reason of the _Aetherial_ whirling Motions,
which are Circular Motions, the Air may be of the colour of Blood,
a very horrid Colour to some sorts of Creatures: but 'tis probable,
this Bloody Colour is not of a pure Bloody Colour, but of a corrupted
Bloody Colour: and so the Light of the Irregular World, may, probably,
be of a corrupt Bloody Colour: but, by the several Irregular Motions,
it may be, at several times, of several corrupted Bloody Colours:
and by reason there are no intermissions of _Air_, there can be no
intermissions of this _Light_, in the Irregular World. Page 287

CHAP. VII. Of Storms, and Tempests, in the Irregular World.

As for _Storms_, and _Tempests_, and such irregular Weather, 'tis
probable there are continual Winds and Thunders, caused by the
disturbance of the Air; and those Storms and Tempests, being irregular,
must needs be violent, and therefore very horrid. There may also be
Lightnings, but they are not such as those that are of a fiery colour;
but such as are like the colour of Fire and Blood mixt together. As for
Rain, being occasioned by the Vapours from the Earth and Waters, it
is according as those Vapours gather into Clouds: but, when there is
Thunder, it must needs be violent.

CHAP. VIII. Of the several Seasons, or rather, of the several Tempers
in the Irregular World.

As for _several Seasons_; there can be no constant Season, because
there is no Regularity; but rather, a great Irregularity, and Violence,
in all Tempers and Seasons; for there is no mean Degree: and surely,
their Freezing is as sharp and corroding, as their Corrosive-Burnings;
and it is probable, that the Ice and Snow in that world, are not as in
this world, _viz._ the Ice to be clear, and the Snow white; because
there the water is a troubled, and black water; so that the Snow is
black, and the Ice also black; not clear, or like black polished
Marble; but 'tis probable, that the Snow is like black Wool; and the
Ice, like unpolished black Stone; not for Solidity, but for Colour and

CHAP. IX. The Conclusion of the Irregular and Unhappy or Cursed World.

I have declared in my former Chapter, concerning the _Irregular World_,
That there could not be any exact, or perfect kind or sort, because of
the Irregularities; not that there is not Animal, Vegetable, Mineral,
and Elemental Actions, and so not such Creatures; but, by reason of the
Irregularities, they are strangely mixt and disordered, so that every
Particular seems to be of a different Kind, or sort, being not any ways
like each other; and yet, may have the nature of such Kinds, and Sorts,
by reason they are Natural Creatures, although irregularly Natural:
but, those irregular Natural Creatures, cannot chuse, by the former
Descriptions, but be Unhappy, having, in no sort or kind, Pleasure, or
Ease: and for such Creatures that have such Perceptions as are any way
like ours, they are most Miserable: for, by the Sense of

Touch, they freeze and burn: by the sense of Tast, they have
Nauseousness, and Hunger, being not satisfied: by the sense of Scent,
they are suffocated, by reason of irregular Respiration: by the sense
of Hearing, and sense of Seeing, they have all the horrid Sounds and
Sights, that can be in Nature: the Rational Parts are, as if they were
all distracted or mad; and the Sensitive Parts tormented with Pains,
Aversions, Sicknesses, and Deformities; all which is caused through
the Irregular Actions of the Parts of the Irregular World; so that the
Actions of all sorts of Creatures, are Violent, and Irregular.

But, to conclude: As all the Creatures of our World, were made for the
Benefit of Human Creatures; so, 'tis probable, all the Creatures of the
Irregular World, were produced for the Torment and Confusion of Human
Creatures in that World.

The Fifth Part, Being divided into FIFTEEN SECTIONS.

Concerning Restoring-Beds, or Wombs. I.

At the latter end of my _Philosophical Conceptions_, the Parts of
my Mind grew sad, to think of the dissolving of their Society: for,
the Parts of my Mind are so friendly, that although they do often
Dispute and Argue for Recreation and Delight-sake; yet, they were
never so irregular, as to divide into Parties, like Factious Fellows,
or Unnatural Brethren: which was the reason that they were sad, to
think their kind Society should dissolve, and that their Parts should
be dispersed and united to other Societies, which might not be so
friendly as they were. And, after many several Thoughts, (which are
several Rational Discourses: for, Thoughts are the Language of the
Mind) they fell into a Discourse of _Restoring Beds_, or _Wombs_, viz.
_Whether there might not be Restoring Beds, as well as Producing Beds,
or Breeding Beds_. And, to argue the case, they agreed to divide into
Minor and Major Parts.


The Major Parts of my Mind were of opinion, That there are Beds, or
Wombs, of Restoration, as well as Beds of Production: for, if Nature's
actions be poysed, there must be one, as well as the other.

The Minor Part's Opinion, was, That, as all Creatures were produced, so
all Creatures were subject to dissolve: so that, the poyse of Nature's
Productions, was Nature's Dissolutions, and not Restorations.

The Major Part's Opinion, was, That there are Restorations in Nature:
for, as some dissolved, others united in every kind and sort of
Creature, which was a Restoration to the kinds and sorts of Creatures.

The Minor Part's Opinion, was, That though every

sort and kind of Creatures, continued as the Species of each sort and
kind; yet, they did not continue by such Restorations as they were
arguing about: for though, when some Creatures dye, others of the
same Sort or _Species_, are born or bred; yet, they are Produced,
not restored: for, they conceived, that Restoration was a reviving
and re-uniting the Parts of a Dissolved Society or Creature; which
Restoration was not natural, at least, not usual.

The Major Part's Opinion, was, That Restoration was natural, and usual:
for, there were many things, or Creatures, restored, in some sort,
after they were dead.

The Minor Part's Opinion, was, That some Creatures might be restored
from some Infirmities, or Decays; but, they could not be restored after
they were dissolved, and their Parts dispersed.

The Major Part's Opinion, was, That if the Roots, Seeds, or Springs
of a Society, or Creature, were not dissolved and dispersed, those
Creatures might be restored to their former condition of Life, if
they were put, or received, into the Restoring Beds: As for example,
A dry and withered Rood of some Vegetable, although the Parts of that
Vegetable be, as we say, dead; yet, they are often restored by the
means of some Arts: also, dead Sprigs will, by Art, receive new Life.

The Minor Part's Opinion, was, That if there were such actions of
Nature, as Restoring actions; yet, they could not be the Poysing
Actions, nor the Artificial Actions: for, not any dead Creature can be
restored by Art.


Some of the Gravest Parts of my Mind, made this following Discourse to
some other Parts of my Mind.

_Dear Associates_, There hath been many Human Societies, that have
perswaded themselves, That there are such Restoring Actions of Nature,
which will restore, not only a Dead, but a Dispersed Society; by reason
they have observed, That Vegetables seem to dye in one Season, and
to revive in another: as also, that the Artificial Actions of Human
Creatures, can produce several Artificial Effects, that resemble those
we name _Natural_; which hath occasioned many Human Creatures to wast
their Time and Estates, with Fire and Furnace, cruelly torturing the
Productions of Nature, to make their Experiments. Also, they trouble
themselves with poring and peeping through Telescopes, Microscopes,
and the like Toyish Arts, which neither get Profit, nor improve their
Understanding: for, all such Arts prove rather ignorant Follies, than
wise Considerations; Art being so weak and defective, that it cannot so
much assist, as it doth hinder Nature: but, there is as much difference
between Art and Nature, as between a Statue and a Man; and yet Artists
believe they can perfect what by Nature is defective; so that they
can rectifie Nature's Irregularities; and do excuse some of their
Artificial actions, saying, they only endeavour to hasten the actions
of Nature: as if Nature were slower than Art, because a Carver can cut
a Figure or Statue of a Man, having all his Materials ready at hand,
before a Child can be finished in the Breeding-Bed. But, Art being the
sporting and toyish actions of Nature, we will not consider them at
this time.

But, _Dear Associates_, if there be any such things in Nature, as
_Restoring-Beds_, which most of our Society are willing to believe;
yet, those Beds cannot possibly be _Artificial_, but must be _Natural
Beds_. Nor can any one particular sort of Bed, be a general Restorer:
for, every several Sort or Kind, requires a Bed, or Womb, that is
proper for their Sorts or Kinds: so that, there must be as many sorts,
at least, and kinds of Beds, as there are kinds of Creatures: but, what
those Wombs or Beds are, we Human Creatures do not know; nor do we know
whether there be any such things in this World: but, if there be such
things in this World, we cannot conceive where they are.


After the former Discourse, the Parts of my Mind were a little
sad: but, after many and frequent Disputes and Arguments, they all
agreed, That there are Restoring Beds, or Wombs, in Nature: but that
to describe their Conceptions of those Restoring Beds, was only to
describe Opinions, but not known Truths: and their Opinions were, That
those Beds are as lasting as Gold, or Quick-silver: for, though they
may be occasioned to alter their Exterior Form; yet, not their Interior
or Innate Nature. But, mistake not my Mind's Opinion: for, their
Opinion is not, That those Beds are Gold, or Quicksilver: for, their
Opinion was, That neither Gold, or Quicksilver, were Restorers of Life:
but, if they were Restorers, they could restore no other Creatures,
but only dead Metals, by reason several Creatures require several
Restoring Beds proper to their Sorts or Kinds: so that a Mineral Kind
or Sort, could not restore an Animal Kind or Sort; because there was no
such thing in Nature, as the Elixir, or Philosophers-Stone, which the
Chymists believe to be some Deity, that can restore all Sorts and Kinds.


As it has formerly been declared, The Parts of my Mind were generally
of opinion, That it was, at least, probable, there were such things
in Nature as _Restoring-Beds_, or _Wombs_. The next Opinion was, That
these Beds were of several Kinds or Sorts, viz. Animal, Vegetable,
Mineral, and Elemental: so that every Kind or Sort, is a general
Restorer of the Lives of their Kind or Sort. As for example, An Animal
_Restoring-Bed_, may restore any dead Animal, to his former Animal
Life, in case the Animal Roots or Seeds, (which we name, the _Vital
Parts_) were not divided and dispersed, but inclosed, or inurned, so
that no other Animal could come to feed on those Roots and Seeds of the
dead Animal Body; and in case the Body was so closely kept, though dead
many years, if it was put into a _Restoring-Bed_, that Animal Creature
would reunite to the former Animal Life and Form.

But then there arose this Argument, _That if the Bodies of the dead
Animals, did corrupt and dissolve of themselves, as most dead Animal
Bodies do; Whether, after their Dissolution, they could be Restored?_

The Minor Part's Opinion was, That those dissolved Bodies, being
dissolved, or divided, and their Parts out of their places, could not
be restored.

The Major Part's Opinion, was, They might be restored; first, Because,
though the Parts may be divided; yet, they were not annihilated. The
next, That those divided Parts were not so separated and dispersed,
as to be united to other Societies: Wherefore, if all those dead
Animal Parts were put into a _Restoring-Womb_, or _Bed_; the Bed would
occasion those Parts to place themselves into their proper Order and


After the former Discourse, some of the Parts of my Mind were sad, to
think, that those that had been embowelled, were made incapable of ever
being restored; and, that it was a greater cruelty to murder a dead
man, and to rob him of his Interior Parts; than to murder a living man,
and yet suffer his whole Body to lye peaceably in the Urn, or Grave.

But, the other Parts endeavouring to comfort those sad Parts, made this
Argument, viz. _Whether it might not probably be, that the Bones or
Carcase of a Human Creature, were the Root of Human Life? and if so,
then if all the Parts were dissolved, and none were left undissolved,
but the bare Carcase; they might be restored to life._

The sad Part's Opinion, was, That it was impossible they could be
restored, by reason the Roots of Human Life, were those we name the
_Vital Parts_; and those being divided from the Carcase, and dispersed,

and united unto other Societies, could not meet and joyn into their
former state of Life, or Society, so as to be the same Man.

The Comforting Parts were of opinion, It was not probable that the
Fleshy and Spungy Parts, being the Branches of Human Life, could also
be the Roots. Wherefore, in all probability, the Bones were the Roots;
and the Bones being the Roots, if the bare Carcase of a Man should be
put into a Restoring Bed, all the Fleshy and Spungy Parts, both those
that were the Exterior, and those that were Interior, would spring and
encrease to their full Maturity.

The sad Part's Opinion, was, That if the Bones were the Roots; and
that, from the Roots, all the Exterior and Interior Parts, belonging
to a Human Creature, should spring, and so encrease to full Maturity;
yet, those Branches would not be the same they were, viz. the same
Parts of the same Man; and besides, those Branches would rather be new
Productions, than Restorations.

The Comforting Part's Opinion, was, That though the Branches were new,
the Carcase, as the Root, being the same, the Man would be the same:
for, though the Spungy and Fleshy Parts, divide and unite from Home,
and to Forrein Parts; yet, the Man is the same: and to prove that the
Bony Parts are the Roots of Human Life, doth it not happen, That if the
Flesh be cut from the Bone, and the Bone be left bare; yet, in time,
the bone produces new flesh: but, if any bone be separated from the
Body, that Bone cannot be restored; nor can a new bone spring forth,
nor can the divided bone be joyned or knit to the body, as it was
before: for, although a broken bone may be set; yet, a divided bone
cannot be rejoyned: All which Arguments, were a sufficient proof, That
the Bones were the Roots of Life.

The Sad Part's Argument, was, That it was well known, that if any
of the Vital Parts of a Human Creature, as the Liver, Lungs, Heart,
Kidneys, and the like, were decayed, pierced, or wounded, the Human
Creature dyed, by reason those Parts are incurable.

The Comforting Parts were of opinion, That there were many less Causes
which did often occasion Human Death; yet, those Causes were not the
Roots of Life: nor were those Parts the Roots of Life, although those
Parts which we name _Vital_, were the chief Branches of Human Life.

But, at last, they all agreed in this opinion, That the _Bones_, were
the Roots; the _Marrow_, the Sapp, and the _Vitals_, the chief branches
of Life. Also, they agreed, That when an Human Life was restored, the
bones did first fill with some Oylie Juyces; and from the bones, and
the sap or juyce of the bones, did all the Parts belonging to a Human
Creature, spring forth, and grow up to Maturity: and certainly, _Not to
disturb_ the _Bones of the dead_, was a Holy and Religious Charge to
Human Creatures.


After the pacifying the Sad Parts of my Mind, their Argument was,
_That, supposing Creatures could be restored; whether they should be
restored as when they were first produced; or, as when they were at the
perfection of their Age; or, as when they were at old Age?_

But, after many Disputes, they all agreed, That those that should be
restored, should be restored to that degree of Age and Strength, which
is the most perfect: and, as all Productions arrived towards Perfection
by degrees; so those that were restored, should return to Perfection
by degrees, if they were past the perfect time of their age: and those
that were not arrived to their Perfection, before they dyed, should
arrive to it, however, as those that had it: so that, both _Youth_ and
_Age_, shall meet in Perfection: for, as the one encreases, as it were,
forward; so the other return to their Strength and Perfection of their
past Age.


After the former Opinions, the Parts of my Mind were somewhat puzled in
their _Arguments_ concerning the degrees of the Restoring Times; as,
_Whether Restoration was done by a General Act, or by Degrees?_

The most Doubting Part's Opinion, was, That it was not natural to
Restore, although it was natural to Produce; and, that all Natural
Productions, were by degrees: but, for Restorations, (being not Natural
Productions) they could not be done by degrees: and therefore the
Action of Restoration, was but as one Action, although of many Parts.

The Believing Parts of my Mind were of opinion, That all Nature's
Actions, being by degrees, all Restorations were also by degrees.

The Doubting Part's Opinion was, That there were some actions that had
no degrees: for, One action might signifie a Thousand.

The other Part's Opinion was, That a Thousand actions, or degrees, were
in the figure of One.

The Doubting Parts were of opinion, That it was impossible. But, at
last, they agreed, That the Restoring actions were by degrees.


The Parts of my Mind were divided into Minor and Major Parts, about the
Time or Degrees of Restoration of Human Creatures.

The Minor's Opinion was, That the Restoring actions of Nature, were so
much quicker than the Producing actions, that a Human Creature might be
restored in a Months time; whereas the production of a Human Creature
was in ten Months: for, though a Human Creature may Quicken at Three
Months time; yet, it was not fully Ripe for Birth, before the time of
Ten Months.

The Major Part's Opinion was, That Restoration was according as the
Creature was Dissolved: for, a Man that was newly dead; or not so long
dead, that his Parts were not yet divided; that Man might be restored
to Life in an Hour's time, or less: but, if all the Parts, excepting
the bare Carcase, were dissolved, there would require as long a time in
Restoring, as in Producing.

The Minor's Opinion, was, That the Restoring-time, was no longer than
the time of Quickning.

The Major Part's Opinion, was, That though the Exterior Form or Frame
of a Child, might be before the Quickning; yet, it was not a perfect
Animal, until it was Quick: and although it might be a perfect Animal
when it was Quick; yet, not ripe, that is, not at the full Perfection
of a Human Creature. As it is with Fruits: for, a Green Plumb is not
like a Ripe Plumb; but, any Green Fruit, is like a Dead Fruit, in
comparison of a Ripe Fruit.

At last, the Parts of my Mind did agree, That if a Human Creature was
dissolved, excepting the bare Carcase; it would require Ten Months time
ere it could perfectly be restored: for, the Springing Parts would
require so long a time ere they could come to full Maturity.


The Question being stated, _Whether the Restoring-Bed, was a Fleshy
Bed_; All the Parts of my Mind, after many Disputes, agreed, That
it could not be a Fleshy Bed, by reason the nature of Flesh is
so corruptible, dissolvable, and easie to be dissolved, that it
could not possibly be of such a lasting nature, as is required for
_Restoring-Beds_. But yet, they agreed, they were like Flesh, for
Softness, or Spunginess; as also, for Colour. Also, they agreed,
That the Animal _Restoring-Bed_, was of such a Nature or Property,
that it could dilate and contract, as it had occasion; in so much,
that it could contract to the compass of the smallest, or extend to
the magnitude of the largest Animal. Also, they did agree, That it
was somewhat like the Stomack of a Human Creature, or of the like
Animal, that could open and shut the Orifice; and that when an Animal
Creature was put into the _Restoring-Bed_, it would immediately
inclose the Animal: and when it had caused a perfect Restoration, the
_Restoring-Bed_ would open it self, and deliver it to its own Liberty.


Another Question amongst the Parts of my Mind concerning
_Restoring-Beds_, or _Wombs_, was: _That in case there were such
Restoring-Beds in Nature, as in all probability there were; Where could
those Restoring-Beds be?_ viz. _Whether there were any in this World?
If not in this World, in any other World?_

The Minor Parts were of opinion, There were none in this World; but,
that there were some in other Worlds.

The Major Part's Opinion, was, That there were such Beds; but, that
Human Creatures would not know them, though they could perceive them:
nor, if they could perceive them, could they tell how to make use of

At last they all agreed, That those _Restoring-Beds_ were in the
Center of the World: but, where the Center is, no Human Creature, no,
not the most Subtile and _Learned Mathematicians, Geometricians_, or
_Astrologers_, could, with their most Laborious Arts, and Subtile
Observations, know; and therefore, unless by a special Decree from God,
no such Restoration can be made.


The Parts of my Mind were very studious to conceive where the Center of
the World was: Some of the Parts of my Mind was of opinion, That there
were four Centers, _viz._ A Center in the Earth, a Center in the Air, a
Center in the Sea, and a Center in the Element of Fire.

Upon which Opinion, the Parts of my Mind divided into Minor and Major

The Minor Parts were of opinion, That there were Centers in all the
Four Elemental Parts; and that the _Restoring-Beds_, were only of four
Kinds: but yet, there might be many several sorts of each particular
Kind; and that each particular Kind, with all the several Sorts, was
produced in each particular Elemental Center.

The Major Part was of opinion, That there might be infinite Centers,
if there were infinite Worlds: also, there might be many Centers in
this World; for, every round Globe hath a Center. But, their Opinion
concerning the _Restoring-Beds_, was, That they were in the Center of
the Globe of our whole World, and not of any of the Parts of the World:
for, the _Air_ could have but an uncertain Center; neither could the
_Water_ have a very solid Center; and the _Earth_ was too solid to have
a Center, consisting of the Four kinds of Elements: neither could the
Elemental _Fire_ have such a Center, as to breed such different kinds
and sorts of _Beds_, as the _Restoring-Beds_ are, because many of them
are quite of a different nature from the nature of Elemental Fire:
wherefore, it must be the Center of the World, which must consist of
all the Elemental kinds.


After the former _Argument_, the Parts of my Mind were very studious in
conceiving, where the Center of the whole Universe of this our World,
might be: at last they all agreed, It was the _Sea_, which is the
Watry Element: for, the _Sea_ is inclosed with the _Airy, Fiery_, and
_Earthy_ Parts of the Universe, and therefore must be the Center. And,
though the Sea was the Center of the World; yet, there was a Center of
the Sea: so that, there was a Center in a Center; in which Center, were
the _Restoring-Beds_.


After the former Conceptions, the Parts of my Mind were very studious,
to conceive where the Center's Center might be. But, they could not
possibly conceive it, by reason they could not possibly imagine how
large, and of what compass the Sea may be of: for they did verily
believe, that the utmost extension of the Sea, is not, as yet, known
to Human-Kind: for, that Circle about which the Ships of _Cavendishe_,
and _Drake_, did swim, might be, in comparison to the whole Body of the
Sea, but such a Circle as a Boy may occasion, with throwing a small
Stone, or such like thing, into a Pond of Water.


The last Conception of my Mind, concerning _Restoring-Beds_, was,
That the Parts of my Mind did conceive, That the Center of the whole
Universe, was the Sea; and in the Center of the Sea, was a small
Island; and in the Center of the Island, was a Creature, like (in the
outward Form) to a great and high Rock: Not that this Rock was Stone;
but, it was of such a nature, (by the natural Compositions of Parts)
that it was compounded of Parts of all the principal Kinds and Sorts
of the Creatures of this World, viz. Of _Elemental, Animal, Mineral_,
and _Vegetable_ kinds: and, being of such a nature, did produce, out
of it self, all kinds and sorts of _Restoring-Beds_; whereof, some
sorts were so loose, that they only hung by Strings, or Nerves: others
stuck close. Some were produced at the top, or upper parts: others
were produced out of the middle parts; and some were produced from
the lower parts, or at the bottom. In short, the Opinion of the Parts
of my Mind, was, That this Rocky Creature was all covered with its
own Productions; which Productions were of all Kinds and Sorts: not
that they were numerous; but, various Productions: also, that these
various Productions, were _Restoring-Beds_: for, the nature of this
Rocky Creature, is as lasting as the Sun, or other Planets; which was
the reason that those Productions are not subject to decay, as other
Productions are: nor can they produce new Creatures; but only restore
former Creatures; as, those that had been Produced, and were partly


After the Wisest Parts of my Mind had ended their _Arguments_, there
being some of the Dullest, and the most Unbelieving, or rather, Strange
Parts of my Mind, that had retired into the _Glandula_ of my Brain,
which is a kind of a Kernel; which they made use of, instead of a
Pulpit: out of which, they declared their Opinions, thus:

_Dear Associates_, We, that were not Parties of your Disputations, or
Argumentations, concerning _Restoring-Beds_; being retired into the
_Glandula_ of the Brain, where we have been informed by the Nerves, and
Sensitive Spirits, of your wise Opinions, and subtile Arguments,

Considering that your Conclusion was as improbable, if not as
impossible, as the Chymical _Philosophers-Stone_, or _Elixir_; We
desire you (being Parts of one and the same Society) not to trouble the
whole Society, in the search of that, which, if it was in Nature, will
never be found. But to prevent, that your painful Studies, and witty
Arguments, be not buried in Oblivion; We advise you, To perswade the
Sensitive Parts of our Society, to record them, so that they may be
divulged to all the Societies of our own Kind or Sort of Creatures; as
_Chymists_ do, who, after they have wasted their Times and Estates, to
gain the _Philosophers-Stone_, or _Elixir_; write Books to teach it to
the Sons of Art: which is impossible, at least, very improbable, ever
to be learn'd, there being no such Art in Nature: but, were it possible
such an Art was to be obtained; yet, when obtained, the Artist would
never divulge it in Print. But, those great Practitioners, finding,
after much Loss and Pains, nothing but Despair, write Books of that
Art; which, instead of the _Elixir_, did produce _Despair_; which
again, though produced by Art, did produce, naturally, that Vice,
named _Malice_; and _Malice_, being a Pregnant Seed, sowed upon the
Fertile Ground of their Writings, produces so much Mischief, that many
men of good Estates, have been undone, in following their Rules in
_Chymistry_: And if your Books should be as succesful as _Chymistry_
hath been (I dare not say, among _Fools_; but) amongst Credulous Men;
your Books will cause as much Mischief as theirs have done; not by the
ways of _Fire_, but by the ways of _Water_: for, your Books send men
to Sea, a much Cooler Element than _Fire_; but, more Dangerous than
_Chymical Fire_, unless _Chymical Fire_ be _Hell-Fire_.

Upon which Discourse, the rest of my Thoughts were very angry, and
pull'd them out of their Pulpit, the _Glandula_; and not only so, but
put them out of their Society, believing they were a Factious Party,
which, in time, might cause the Society's Dissolution.


*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Grounds of Natural Philosophy: Divided into Thirteen Parts - The Second Edition, much altered from the First, which - went under the Name of Philosophical and Physical Opinions" ***

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