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Title: Secrets of meat curing and sausage making - how to cure hams, shoulders, bacon, corned beef, etc., and - how to make all kinds of sausage, etc. to comply with the - pure food laws
Author: Benjamin Heller & Co.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber’s Note:

Text delimited by equal signs is bold.

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THE HOME OF B. HELLER & CO.

CALUMET AVENUE AND 40th STREET, CHICAGO

[Illustration]

When in Chicago be sure to visit our factory. We invite Inspection and
will be pleased to show you through our plant.

  _B. HELLER & CO._



  FIFTH EDITION

  H

  SECRETS OF

  MEAT CURING

  AND

  SAUSAGE MAKING


  HOW TO CURE
  HAMS, SHOULDERS, BACON,
  CORNED BEEF, ETC.

  AND

  HOW TO MAKE ALL
  KINDS OF

  SAUSAGE, ETC.

  TO COMPLY WITH THE

  PURE FOOD LAWS


  PUBLISHED BY
  B. HELLER & CO.
  MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS
  CHICAGO, U. S. A.

  December, 1922



  INDEX


  A

  Age for Killing, 173

  Ant-Bane, 295

  Aseptifume, 259

  Atomizer for Insecticides and Liquid Disinfectants, 299

  Auto-Glo, 290


  B

  Bacon, Advice on Curing, 217

  Bacon, Breakfast, How to Pump, 63

  Bacon, Failure in Curing, Cause of, 234

  Bacon, Heavy Bellies, How to Cure, 62

  Bacon, How to Keep for Six Months, 212

  Bacon, How to Keep for a Year, 90

  Bacon, How to Wash Before Smoking, 90

  Bacon, Light Bellies, How to Cure, 62

  Bacon, Molding, How to Prevent, 239

  Bacon, Sugar Cured Breakfast, 62

  Barometer, Paper, How to Make, 193

  Barrel Packing, 112

  Barrel Pork, Description of, 95

  Barrel Pork, How to Cure, 96

  Barrel Pork, Need Not Be Overhauled, 97

  Barrel Pork, Temperature for Curing, 96

  Bedbug Killer, 293

  Beef Cheeks, Direction for Dry Salting, 120

  Beef Cheeks, How to Cure for Bologna and Frankfurts, 119

  Beef Cheeks, How to Cure for Canning, 101

  Beef Hams, How to Cure, 69

  Beef Hearts, How to Cure for Bologna, 121

  Beef Livers, How to Cure, 104

  Beef Tongue, Garlic Flavored, 100

  Beef Tongue, How to Cure, 99

  Beef Trimmings, How to Cure, 111

  Begin Curing Meat in the Pen, 32

  Belly Pork, Description, 95

  Berliner Style Ham, How to Make, 109

  Berliner Style Ham Meat, How to Cure, 108

  Blood Sausage, 137

  Blood Sausage, Directions for Making, 138

  Bockwurst, How to Make, 147

  Boiling Bologna, Large, 116

  Boiling Bologna, Round, 116

  Boiling Ham, 74

  Boiling the Brine, 82

  Bologna, Coating to Prevent Mold, 219

  Bologna, Drawing Water and Being Dry, 202

  Bologna, How to Make from Fresh Beef, 113

  Boiling Thermometers, 274

  Bologna Fat, How to Salt, 116

  Bologna, Freeze-Em Pickle Used for, 248

  Bologna, How to Make Red Without Color, 244

  Bologna, How to Boil, 116

  Bologna Meat, How to Cure, 110

  Bologna Sausage, Formula, 114

  Bologna, Taking Water in Cooking, 216

  Bologna, Why It Shrivels, 216

  Bologna, Why It Draws Water, 198

  Bologna, Without Artificial Coloring, 244

  Boneless Ham, 107

  Boneless Rolled Butt Sausage, 107

  Boneless Rolled Shoulder, How to Cure, 59

  Boston Shoulders, 56

  Brains, How to Keep from Spoiling, 148

  Branding Hams, 222

  Brine, Absorbs Foreign Odors, 91

  Brine, Boiling, 228

  Brine, How to Boil, 82

  Brine, How Long Should Be Used, 91

  Brine, Ropy or Stringy, Cause of, 81

  Brine, Temperature It Should Be, 47

  Brine Testing Hydrometers, 291

  Brine Troubles, How to Overcome, 210

  Brine, When to Use Twice, 74

  Brass Polish, 285, 286 and 287

  Braunschweiger Liver Sausage, How to Make, 135

  Bull Meat, Why It Is Best for Sausage, 193

  Bull-Meat-Brand-Flour, Description of, 260, 261

  Bull-Meat-Brand-Flour, Imitation, 203

  Bull-Meat-Brand-Flour, Imitation, 236

  Bursting of Casings, How to Prevent, 125

  Butcher Business, How to Start, 222

  Butt Pork, Description of, 95

  Butt Sausage, 107

  Butts, How to Cure in Closed-up Tierces, 106

  Butts, How to Cure in Open Tierces, 105

  Butts, How to Overhaul in Open Packages, 106

  Butts, Quantity of Brine Necessary for Curing, 105

  Butts, Shoulders, How to Cure, 104

  Butts, Square Cut, How to Cure, 56


  C

  California Hams, How to Cure, 56

  Calves’ Stomachs or Rennets, How to Handle, 80

  Casings, Bursting, How to Prevent, 125

  Casing Color, 269, 270, 273

  Casings, for Holstein Style Sausage, How to Color, 143

  Casings, for Polish Style Sausage, How to Color, 146

  Casings, for Swedish Style Metwurst, How to Color, 144

  Casings, Frankfurts, How to Color, 119

  Casings, How to Clean, 187

  Casings, How to Color in Government Inspected Packing House, 117

  Casings, How to Prepare Before Stuffing, 124

  Casings, How to Remove Fat, 226

  Casings, Shrinking, How to Prevent, 125

  Cattle and Sheep Dip, 298

  Celery Zest, 266

  Cervelat Sausage, How to Make, 140

  Cheeks, Beef, How to Cure for Canning, 101

  Cheese, Head, How to Make, 131

  Chemists, Consulting, 25

  Chile Powder, 264

  Chill Room Temperature, 43

  Chilling Meats to Be Cured, 72

  Chipped Beef, How to Make, 69

  Chow Chow, 156

  Cleaning Lard Tierces, 87

  Cleansing Curing Packages, 82

  Clear Back Pork, Description, 95

  Clear Bean Pork, Description, 95

  Clear Brisket Pork, Description, 95

  Cold Storine, Legal to Use, 243

  Cold Storine, 255

  Coloring Frankfurt Sausage Casings, 119

  Coloring Sausage Casings, 117

  Coloring Sausage Meat Artificially Is Illegal, 231

  Compound Lard, 167

  Compounding Lard with Cottonseed Oil, 168

  Condimentine, “A”, 251

  Condimentine, “B”, 252

  Condition of Meat Before Curing, 47

  Cooked Corned Beef, How to Make, 65

  Cooking Thermometers, 275

  Cooler, How to Build, 215

  Cooler, Temperature for Dry Salting, 94

  Coolers, Why They Sweat, 242

  Copper Polish, 286 and 288

  Corned Beef Brine, How to Make, 65

  Corned Beef, Cooked, How to Make, 68

  Corned Beef, Garlic Flavored, 67

  Corned Beef, How to Know When Fully Cured, 66

  Corned Beef, How to Pump, 67

  Corned Beef, Importance of Making, 64

  Corned Beef, Rolled and Spiced, 71

  Corned Beef, Seasoning of, 66

  Corned Beef, Tough and Salty, 211

  Cotton Seed Oil Lard Compound, 168

  Cured Meat, Keeping During Summer, 238

  Curing Dried Salt Meat, 93

  Curing Hams, 50

  Curing Meat, Cause of Failure, 241

  Curing Meat from Farmer-Killed Hogs, 240

  Curing Meat, General Hints on Curing, 72

  Curing Meats, Quickest Way, 209

  Curing Packages, How to Cleanse, 82

  Curing Pork the Year Around, 33

  Curing Shoulders, 56

  Curing Vats, Difference in Size, 53

  Curing with the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, 48

  Cutting the Hind Shank Bone, 39

  Cutting Meat, Experience Necessary, 224


  D

  Deodorine, 258

  Difference Between Bull-Meat-Brand-Flour and Potato Flour, 201

  Dill Pickles, 157

  Disinfectant, 280

  Drain Pipes, How to Open Stopped-up, 285

  Dressing Hogs on the Farm, 183

  Dressing Mutton, 181

  Dressing Poultry, 158

  Dried Beef Ends, How to Utilize, 213

  Dried Beef, Fancy, How to Make, 69

  Dried Beef, How to Keep for a Year, 90

  Dried Beef, Why It Does Not Thoroughly Dry, 192

  Dried Salt Meat, Wash Before Smoking, 90

  Drippings from Refrigerator Pipes, 97

  Dry Salt Meats, 92

  Dry Salt Curing, Without an Ice Machine, 94

  Dry Salt Side Meats, How to Cure, 93

  Dry Salt Sides, How Long to Cure, 94


  E

  Eggs, How to Preserve, 229

  Enamel Cleaner, 290

  Extra Long Clears, Description, 92

  Extra Short Clears, Description, 92

  Extra Short Ribs, Description, 92


  F

  Facing Hams in a Packing House, 40

  Family Pork, Lean, Description, 95

  Farmer-Killed Hogs, How to Cure, 240

  Fat, How to Salt for Bologna, 116

  Fat Trimmings, Utilizing, 247

  Feet, Pigs’, Fresh, 148

  Fertilizer, How to Make from Beef Blood, 200

  Fish Color; Pure Food, 274

  Flavors, Prepared Sausage, 262 and 263

  Flour, Bull-Meat-Brand, Description, 260 and 261

  Fly Chaser, Price List, 298

  Fly Paper, Sticky, How to Make, 159

  Food Laws, Complying with in Curing Meat, 237

  Frankfurt Casings, How to Color, 119

  Frankfurt Casings, Momentary Dipping of, 117

  Frankfurts, How to Make Red Without Color, 244

  Frankfurts, How to Make from Fresh Beef, 113

  Frankfurts, How to Make without Artificial Color, 110

  Frankfurts, How to Make to Comply with Pure Food Laws, 110

  Frankfurt Sausage, How to Make, 118

  Frankfurt Sausage Meat, How to Cure, 110

  Freeze-Em, 256 and 257

  Freeze-Em Pickle, Process, 48, 49

  Freeze-Em Pickle for Blood Sausage, 137

  Freeze-Em Pickle for Curing Bacon, 62
    Barrel Pork, 96
    Beef, 65
    Beef Trimmings, 111
    Beef Hams and Shoulders, 69
    Bologna and Frankfurts from Fresh Beef, How to Make, 113
    Cheeks, 101
    Dry Salt Meat, 93, 120
    Hams, 50
    Livers, 103
    Meat Without Ice Machine, 94
    Pigs’ Feet, 149
    Shoulders, 56
    Tongues, 99

  Freeze-Em Pickle for Curing Meat for Bockwurst, 147
    Bologna Sausage, 110, 119
    Boneless Hams, 107
    Boneless Shoulders, 59
    German Style Ham Sausage, 123
    Hamburger, 127
    Head Cheese, 131
    Holstein Style Sausage, 142
    Liver Sausage, 134
    Metwurst, 144
    Polish Style Sausage, 145
    Rolled Spiced Beef, 71
    Freeze-Em Pickle, Description of, 49, 248
    Different from Freeze-Em, 209
    Directions for Using, 48, 56, 62, 65, 69
    Directions for Pumping, 76
    Guaranty, 250
    Imitation, 225
    Keeps Meat Red, 244
    Legal Everywhere, 196
    Legal to Use, 206

  Fresh Pigs’ Feet, How to Keep from Spoiling, 148

  Fresh Tripe, How to Keep from Spoiling, 148

  Fuller’s Earth, How Used to Refine Lard, 169

  Furniture Polish, 292


  G

  Garlic-Flavored Corned Beef, 67

  Garlic in Powdered Form, 267 and 268

  General Hints for Curing Meats, 72

  German Style Ham Sausage, How to Make, 123

  Golden Gloss Shine, 288

  Guaranty on Casing Mixture, 271

  Guaranty on Freeze-Em Pickle, 250

  Gutting Hogs in a Packing House, 39

  Gutting Hogs on the Farm, 186

  Gutting Mutton, 182


  H

  Hamburger Sausage, How to Make, 127

  Hamburger Seasoning, 262 and 263

  Hamburger Steak, How to Season, 126

  Ham Facing in a Packing House, 40

  Ham-Roll-Ine, 254

  Ham Sausage, German Style, How to Make, 123

  Hams and Superior Hams, 84

  Hams, Advice on Curing, 217

  Hams, Boneless (Sausage), 107

  Hams, California, How to Cure, 56

  Hams, Curing in Molasses and Syrup Barrels, 52

  Hams, How Packers Brand, 222

  Hams, How to Boil, 74

  Hams, How to Cure, 50

  Hams, How to Cure in Closed-Up Tierces, 54

  Hams, How to Cure in Open Barrels, 51

  Hams, How to Keep for a Year, 90

  Hams, How to Overhaul in Open Packages, 53

  Hams, How to Pump, 76

  Hams, How to Wash Before Smoking, 90

  Hams, Keeping for Six Months, 212

  Hams, Molding, How to Prevent, 239

  Hams, Picnic, How to Cure, 56

  Hams, Quantity of Brine to Use for 100 lbs., 52

  Hams, Shape of Vats for Curing, 53

  Hams, Sour, Some Causes Why They Sour, 83

  Hams, Souring, How to Prevent, 196

  Hams, Souring in the Hock, How to Prevent, 213

  Hams, Souring in the Smoke House, 225

  Hams, Use of Molasses and Syrup Barrels in Curing, 52

  Head Cheese, How to Make, 131

  Head Cheese, How to Make Solid, 239

  Head Cheese Meat, How to Cure, 131

  Hearts, How to Cure for Sausage, 121

  Hides, Green, How to Trim, 190

  Hides, How Long to Cure, 190

  Hides, How to Handle, 187

  Hides, How to Stack When Salting, 189

  Hides, Proper Storage for Same, 188

  Hides, Quantity of Salt to Use for Salting, 189

  Hides, Salt to Use for Salting, 188

  Hog Chill Room Ventilation, 42

  Hog Gutting in a Packing House, 39

  Hog Hoisting Machines, 34

  Hog Livers, How to Cure, 103

  Hog Scald, 278

  Hog Scalding in a Packing House, 36

  Hog Scrapping in a Packing House, 38

  Hog Splitting in a Packing House, 41

  Hog Sticking, 34

  Hog Tongues, How to Cure, 101

  Hogs, How to Dress on the Farm, 183

  Hogs, How to Gut on the Farm, 186

  Hogs, How to Kill on the Farm, 183

  Hoisting Hogs in a Large Packing House, 33

  Holstein Style Sausage, Directions for Making, 142

  Holstein Style Sausage, How to Color Casings, 143

  Horns, How to Polish, 192

  Horse Radish, 154

  Hydrometers, 276


  I

  Ice vs. Ice Machines in Small Plants, 200

  Ice Water, 74

  Indelible Marking Ink, 301

  Indelible Ink Eradicator, 301

  Ink for Office Use and Fountain Pen, 300

  Italian Style Salami Sausage, How to Make, 141


  J

  Jell-Jell, 265


  K

  Keeping Sausage in Warm Weather, 148

  Killing and Dressing Cattle, 175

  Killing Hogs on the Farm, 183

  Killing Mutton, 181

  Killing on the Farm, 173

  Knives, How to Sharpen for Meat Grinding Machines, 240

  Konservirungs-Salt, White and Red Berliner Brand, Price List, 253

  Konservirungs-Salt, Legality of, 242

  Kraut, Sauer, How to Make, 155


  L

  Lard and Tallow Purifier, 277

  Lard, Compound, 167

  Lard, Handling in a Settling Tank and Agitator, 165

  Lard, How It Is Refined in Packing Houses, 169

  Lard, How to Purify, 166

  Lard, How to Refine with Fuller’s Earth, 169

  Lard, How to Render, 160

  Lard, How to Settle in a Settling Tank, 162

  Lard, Not Purified, 163

  Lard, Purifier, 277

  Lard, Purifying with Only a Common Kettle, 163

  Lard, Rendering in a Jacket Kettle, 161

  Lard, Rendering in a Steam Jacket Kettle, 207

  Lard, Separating from Water, 230

  Lard, Strong, from Boars, 238

  Lard, Tierces, How to Cleanse, 87

  Lard, Why It Foams When Using Purifier, 202

  Lard, Why Oil Separates from It, 218

  Larding Needles, How Used, 241

  Leaf Lard Pulling in a Packing House, 40

  Lean Backs, Description, 92

  Lean End Pork, Description, 95

  Liver Sausage, 134

  Liver Sausage, Braunsweiger, 135

  Liver Sausage, Directions for Making, 134

  Liver Sausage, How to Smoke, 136

  Liver Sausage Meat, How to Cure, 134

  Livers, How to Cure, 103

  Livers, How to Cure, 104

  Loin Back, Description, 92

  Loin Pork, Description, 95

  Long Clears, Description, 92

  Lunch Ham Meat, How to Cure, 108


  M

  Marble Cleaner, 289

  Meat, Condition Before Curing, 47

  Meat, Curing Failure, Cause of, 241

  Meat, Curing, Quickest Way, 209

  Meat, Cutting, Experience Necessary, 224

  Meat, Fresh, Molding in the Cooler, 233

  Meat Grinder Knives, How to Sharpen, 240

  Meat, How to Chill for Curing, 72

  Meat, How to Cure from Farm-Killed Hogs, 240

  Meat, Rusty, Cause of, 227

  Mess Pork, Description of, 95

  Mess Pork, Short Cut, Description of, 95

  Metal Polish, Description, 286, 287 and 288

  Mice Killer, 297

  Mince Meat, 152

  Mold, How to Prevent on Sausage, Hams and Bacons, 239

  Moth Powder, 295

  Mutton, How to Dress, 181

  Mutton, How to Gut, 182

  Mutton, How to Kill, 181


  N

  Neat’s Foot Oil, 172

  New England Style Ham, How to Make Solid, 239

  New England Style Pressed Ham, How to Make, 109

  New England Style Pressed Ham Meat, How to Cure, 108

  New York Shoulder, Description, 56


  O

  Oil, Neat’s Foot, 172

  Overhauling Barreled Pork, 97

  Overhauling Hams and Shoulders When Curing, 73

  Overhauling Meats, 73

  Ozo Sky-Light Cleaner, 283

  Ozo Toilet Cleaner, 284

  Ozo Washing Powder, 282

  Ozo Waste Pipe Opener, 285


  P

  Packing in Barrels or Tierces, 112

  Packer Who Was Deceived, 207

  Peppered Beef, How to Make, 247

  Piccalilli, 156

  Pickle Tester, Description, 276

  Pickle-Soaked Meats, How to Smoke, 86

  Pickled Meats, How to Keep for a Year, 90

  Pickled Pigs’ Feet, 149

  Pickled Pigs’ Feet, How to Store, 150

  Pickled Pigs’ Tongues, 154

  Pickled Spare Ribs, How to Cure, 98

  Pickled Tripe, 150

  Pickles, Dill, How to Make, 157

  Picnic Ham, Description, 56

  Picnic Ham, Directions for Curing, 56

  Pig Pork, Description, 95

  Pigs’ Feet, Fresh, How to Keep from Spoiling, 148

  Pigs’ Feet, How to Pickle, 149

  Pigs’ Feet, Pickled, How to Store, 150

  Pigs’ Tongues, How to Pickle, 154

  Plate Glass Cleaner, 272

  Polish, Automobile, 291

  Polish, Enamel, 290

  Polish, Furniture, 292

  Polish, Metal, 287, 288 and 289

  Polish Style Sausage, How to Make, 145

  Polish Style Sausage Casings, How to Color, 146

  Polish, Silver, 287 and 289

  Polishing Horns, 192

  Pork, Barreled, How to Cure, 96

  Pork, Bean, Description, 95

  Pork, Belly, Description, 95

  Pork, Butts, Description, 95

  Pork Cheeks, Directions for Dry Salting, 120

  Pork, Clear Back, Description, 95

  Pork, Clear Brisket, Description, 95

  Pork, Curing the Year Around, 33

  Pork, Extra Short Clears, Description, 95

  Pork, Hearts, How to Cure for Bologna, 121

  Pork, How to Treat When Too Salty, 236

  Pork, in Barrels, Temperature for Curing, 96

  Pork, Lean Ends, Description, 95

  Pork, Lean Family, Description, 95

  Pork, Loins, Description, 95

  Pork, Mess, Description, 95

  Pork, Pig, Description, 95

  Pork, Rib Brisket, Description, 95

  Pork Sausage, 129

  Pork Sausage, Great Importance of Using a Good Binder, 129

  Pork Sausage, Smoked, 130

  Pork Sausage, Preventing from Souring in Warm Weather, 205

  Pork Sausage Seasoning, 262 and 263

  Pork, Short Cut, Mess, Description, 95

  Pork Trimmings, How to Cure, 111

  Poultry, How to Dress, 158

  Preparing Stock for Slaughter, 174

  Pressed Corned Beef, 68

  Pressed Ham, 108

  Pressing Lard, 161

  Pulling Leaf Lard in a Packing House, 40

  Pumping Breakfast Bacon, 63

  Pumping Corned Beef, 67

  Pumping Hams, 76

  Pumping Meats, Directions, 76

  Pumping Meats, Hams, Bacon, etc.,  75

  Pumping Pickle, How to Make, 76

  Pumping Shoulders, 77

  Pure Food Colors, 273 and 274

  Pure Food Laws, 30

  Pure Food Laws, Complying with in Curing Meat, 237

  Purifying Lard in a Common Rendering Kettle, 163

  Purifying Tallow, 221


  R

  Rat Killer, Description, 297

  Red Color in Bologna, How to Produce Without Artificial Color, 244

  Refining Lard with Fuller’s Earth, 169

  Refrigerator Pipe Drippings, 97

  Rendering Lard, 160

  Rendering Lard and Handling in an Agitator, 164

  Rendering Lard and Settling It, 162

  Rendering Lard, Using a Settling Tank and Agitator, 165

  Rendering Lard Without a Settling Tank, 164

  Rennets, How to Handle, 80

  Rib Brisket Pork, Description, 95

  Roach Powder, Description, 293

  Rolled Boneless Butt Sausage, 107

  Rolled Boneless Shoulder, How to Cure, 59

  Rolled Spiced Corned Beef, 71

  Ropy Brine, 228

  Ropy Brine, What Causes It, 81

  Ropy Brine, When Using Old Barrels, 199

  Royal Metal Polish, Price List, 278

  Rusty Meat, Cause of, 227


  S

  Salami Sausage, How to Make, 141

  Salometers, Description, 276

  Salt for Making Brine, 228

  Salt Pork, How to Treat, 236

  Salting Fat for Bologna, 116

  Sanitary Fluid, 280

  Sauer Kraut, 165

  Sausage, Blood, 137

  Sausage, Blood, Directions for Making, 138

  Sausage, Bockwurst, How to Make, 147

  Sausage, Bologna Formula, 114

  Sausage, Braunsweiger, Liver, How to Make, 135

  Sausage, Butts, 107

  Sausage Casings, Bursting, How to Prevent, 125

  Sausage Casing Color in Government Inspected Packing Houses, 117

  Sausage Casing Colors, 269, 270 and 273

  Sausage Casings, Shrinking, How to Prevent, 125

  Sausage, Cervalet, How to Make, 140

  Sausage Factory Plan, 221

  Sausage Flavors, 262 and 263

  Sausage, Frankfurts, How to Make, 118

  Sausage, German Style, Ham, How to Make, 123

  Sausage, Hamburger, Description, 127

  Sausage, Hamburger, How to Make, 127

  Sausage, Head Cheese, How to Make, 131

  Sausage, Holstein Style, Directions for Making, 142

  Sausage, How to Keep in Warm Weather, 148

  Sausage, Liver, How to Make, 134

  Sausage, Meat Coloring Artificially Is Illegal, 231

  Sausage, Molding, How to Prevent, 239

  Sausage, Polish Style, How to Make, 145

  Sausage, Pork, How to Make, 129

  Sausage, Salami, How to Make, 141

  Sausage, Seasoning, 262 and 263

  Sausage, Shrinking, How to Prevent, 125

  Sausage, Summer, How to Make, 140

  Sausage, Swedish Style, How to Make, 143

  Sausage, Tongue, Blood, 137

  Savory Jell-Jell, 265

  Scalding Hogs in a Packing House, 36

  Scalding Preparation, 278

  Scraping Hogs in a Modern Packing House, 38

  Seasoning for Sausage, 208

  Seasoning Hamburger Steak, 126

  Sewers, How to Open When Stopped Up, 286

  Sharpening Knives and Plates of Meat Grinders, 240

  Sheep and Cattle Dip, 298

  Short Clear Backs, Description, 92

  Short Clears, Description, 92

  Short Fat Backs, Description, 92

  Short Ribs, Description, 92

  Short Ribs (hard), Description, 92

  Shoulder Butts, How to Cure, 104

  Shoulder Clots, How to Cure, 69

  Shoulder, Boneless, How to Cure, 59

  Shoulders, Butts, Description, 56

  Shoulders, Directions for Curing, 56

  Shoulders, How to Keep for a Year, 90

  Shoulders, How to Wash Before Smoking, 90

  Shoulders, New York, Description, 56

  Shrinking of Sausage, How to Prevent, 125

  Silver Polish, Description, 286 and 287

  Silver Shine, 287

  Skinning Cattle, 176

  Skins, Directions for Tanning, 191

  Skylight Cleaner, 283

  Small Details to be Given Close Attention, 47

  Smoke Color for Fish, 273

  Smoke House, How to Construct, 204

  Smoke House, Temporary, How to Build, 89

  Smoked Pork Sausage, 130

  Smoked Sausage Casings, How to Color, 117

  Smoking Pickle Soaked Meat, 86

  Soap, Making from Rendered Fat, 197

  Soap, Making from Tallow, 219

  Sour Hams, Causes of, 83

  Sour Sausage, 194

  Souse, 153

  Spare Ribs, How to Cure, 98

  Spiced Beef, How to Make, 195

  Spiced Corned Beef, Rolled, 71

  Spices, Use Only Pure, 88

  Spices, Zanzibar Brand, Description, 262 and 263

  Splitting Hogs in a Modern Packing House, 41

  Starting a Butcher Business, 222

  Sticking Hogs in a Modern Packing House, 34

  Sticky Fly Paper, How to Make, 159

  Storing Trimmings, Proper Temperature, 113

  Stringy Brine, What Causes It, 81

  Sugar, Kind to Use, 78

  Summer Sausage, How to Make, 140

  Swedish Style Metwurst Casings, How to Color, 144

  Swedish Style Sausage, How to Make, 143

  Sweet Breads, How to Keep from Spoiling, 148

  Sweet Pickled Spare Ribs, 98

  Switches, Salting, 190


  T

  Tallow Purifier, 277

  Tallow Purifying, 221

  Tallow, Rendered Soft and Flaky, Like Lard, 171

  Tallow, Whitening and Purifying, 232

  Tanaline, 279

  Tanning Directions, 191

  Tanning Powder, Description of, 279

  Tanning Skins, 190

  Temperature for Curing Meats, 46

  Temperature for Storing Trimmings, 113

  Temperature of Chill Room, 43

  Temperature of the Brine, 47

  Thermometer, Boiling, 275

  Tierce Packing, 112

  Tin Polish, 286

  Toilet Cleaner, 284

  Tongue Blood Sausage, 137

  Tongues, Beef, Garlic Flavored, 100

  Tongues, Beef, How to Cure, 99

  Tongues, Hog, How to Cure, 101

  Tongues, Pig, How to Pickle, 154

  Tripe, Fresh, How to Keep from Spoiling, 148

  Tripe, How to Pickle, 150


  V

  Vacuum Brand Garlic, Price List, 267 and 268

  Varn-I-Glo, Price List, 292

  Vats, 53

  Ventilation in Hog Chill Rooms, 42

  Vinegar, How to Test, 229


  W

  Washing Powder, Price List, 281 and 282

  Washing Cured Meat Before Smoking, 90

  Waste Pipe Opener, 285

  Water, Separating from Lard, 230

  Window Cleaner, 272

  Wool, How to Remove, 246

  Writing Fluid, 300


  Z

  Zanzibar Brand Sausage Seasonings, 262 and 263

  Zanzibar Carbon, by Whom Manufactured, 208

  Zanzibar Carbon Brand Casing Brown Mixture, 269

  Zanzibar Carbon Brand Casing Yellow Mixture, 270



PREFACE


[Illustration: ADOLPH HELLER]

Adolph Heller, the father of the members of the firm of B. Heller &
Co., was a scientific and practical Butcher and Packer and a Practical
Sausage Manufacturer. He studied the causes of failure in the handling
of meats, with the aim of always producing the best and most uniform
products that could be made. He was so successful in his business that
his products were known and recognized as the best that could be made.

His sons were all given practical training in all departments of the
business, from the bottom rung of the ladder to the top. The problems
of the Packing Industry were kept constantly before them in their
school and college days and influenced them in the investigations and
study which developed into the present business of B. Heller & Co.

Under these circumstances, the Science of Chemistry naturally claimed
the sons of Adolph Heller. Naturally, too, the Chemistry of the Meat
Industry overshadowed all other branches of the fascinating profession.
With their habits of study and investigation, they soon discovered
that one of the great causes of failure in the curing and handling of
meat products was the lack of materials which were always uniform,
pure and dependable. This led to the founding of the firm of B. Heller
& Co., whose aim has always been to furnish to the Butchers, Packers
and Sausage Makers such materials as could be absolutely depended
upon for purity and uniformity. They also early found that even with
good materials to work with, the lack of fixed rules and formulas
contributed largely to the lack of uniformity in the finished goods.
This led to the publication of “Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage
Making,” in which definite rules were given for handling all kinds of
meats and making all kinds of sausage.

The enactment of the National Pure Food Law, the National Meat
Inspection Law and the various State Pure Food Laws has made a great
change in the Butcher, Packing and Sausage Making Business. The use of
Chemical Preservatives is now prohibited under these various food laws,
making it necessary to preserve meats and manufacture sausage without
the use of many agents which were in general use.

The firm of B. Heller & Co. anticipated the enactment of the various
food laws, and already had completed investigations which enabled them
to assist packers, butchers and sausage makers at once by giving them
curing agents which were free from the Antiseptic Preservatives which
these laws prohibited, and yet would produce cured meats, sausage, etc,
of the highest quality without the use of the Antiseptic Agents. The
underlying principles for handling meats and making sausage with the
antiseptic agents and without them are very different, and it became
absolutely necessary that the firm of B. Heller & Co. should furnish
their friends and customers such information as would enable them to
cure their meats and make their sausage so as not to incur losses from
goods that would not keep, and to turn out goods of fine quality and
appearance. This book is =the= result. In its pages are formulas and
rules for the handling of all kinds of meat and the manufacture of all
kinds of sausage which are the results of many years of experience as
Packing House Experts and Chemists who have made a life-time study
of the business in all its phases. If the directions and rules are
followed, anyone can produce the finest of cured meats and sausage,
whether they have had previous experience or not. Furthermore, the
products made according to these directions will comply with the
requirements of all the Food Laws at present in force in this country.

Hoping the following pages will be found instructive and helpful and
thanking the Butcher Trade for their support and patronage in the past,
we beg to remain,

  Very respectfully,
  B. HELLER & CO.

[Illustration: BENJAMIN HELLER]

[Illustration: ALBERT HELLER]

[Illustration: JOE HELLER]

[Illustration: EDWARD HELLER]

[Illustration: HARRY HELLER]


PACKING-HOUSE EXPERTS

ANALYTICAL AND CONSULTING CHEMISTS

[Illustration]

We have been Consulting Chemists for the Large Packers for many years.
Our advice in the handling of meats has saved Packers many thousands of
dollars. We offer our advice free of charge to our customers. We make a
specialty of both Analytic and Synthetic Chemistry. Our large clientele
will always find us prompt in our services as heretofore.


Analyses Given Careful Attention.

General Syntheses

a Specialty

B. HELLER & CO.

[Illustration: PRIVATE OFFICE

_of_

BENJAMIN HELLER]

[Illustration: PRIVATE OFFICE

_of_

ALBERT HELLER]

[Illustration: VIEW IN GENERAL OFFICE]

[Illustration: VIEW IN GENERAL OFFICE]

[Illustration: MAKE YOUR SAUSAGE & CURE YOUR MEATS TO COMPLY WITH ALL
PURE FOOD LAWS]

The Board of Food and Drug Inspection of the Agricultural Department,
at Washington, has permitted the use of certain Curing Agents, by not
objecting to their use; but, at the same time, has ruled out, for
curing purposes, such chemicals as come under the heading of Antiseptic
Preservatives. As a consequence, certain chemical preservatives are
prohibited in meats and meat food products if they are to be sold in
the Territories or are to be shipped from one State to another, or from
any State or Territory into any other State or Territory.

For that reason, we have changed some of our former preparations and
have also placed on the market several preparations that will take
the place of some of our former products. These new products are
Freeze-Em-Pickle, “A” Condimentine and “B” Condimentine. They contain
nothing that has been ruled out by any of the rulings or regulations
under any of the Food Laws in this country.

The Antiseptic Preservatives that have been ruled out are: Borax,
Boracic Acid, Fluoride of Ammonia, Formaldehyde, Benzoic Acid,
Sulphurous Acid, Sulphite of Soda, Salicylic Acid, Abrastol and Beta
Naphthol.

The use of some of these Preservatives is considered by many high
authorities of the world to be harmless. However, as the majority of
the Food Commissioners of this country object to their use, and have
recommended to the State Legislatures and the Congress of the United
States that the use of these Preservatives be prohibited by law, and
the State Legislatures and United States Congress have passed laws to
this effect; these laws are now in effect and it is, therefore, the
duty of every citizen of this country to obey these laws, strictly and
to the letter.

In this book we are giving to the Butchers and Sausage Manufacturers
the results of much study and experiment, so as to enable the Butchers
and Sausage Makers and Packers to produce goods which will meet the
requirements of the various food laws and yet avoid the danger of loss
from turning out meat food products that might not keep the necessary
length of time. Our methods are original, and will produce most
excellent results.

It must be remembered that meat must be handled at the proper
temperature and according to certain rules, which must be followed to
the letter if the Butcher desires to turn out products of the best
quality and of appetizing appearance. No detail mentioned in this book
is too small to merit strict attention.

All the materials mentioned for use in these pages are in strict
accordance with the various food laws. Nothing is recommended or
suggested that would come in conflict with the application of the
regulations under the existing food laws.

We invite the correspondence of our customers and whenever they are in
any doubt it will afford us much satisfaction to hear from them and to
give them full information concerning any feature of their business
upon which they desire our advice.

  [Illustration:
  B. Heller & Co.]



[Illustration: BEGIN CURING OF MEAT IN THE PEN.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)]


Thousands of pounds of Hams, Shoulders and Sides are spoiled annually
before the hog is killed. Overheated hogs, or hogs that are excited
from overdriving, should never be killed until they are cooled off or
have become perfectly quiet. When the temperature of a hog is above
normal, the meat always becomes feverish. This is especially true of
large fat hogs, and when the meat becomes feverish, it will never cure
properly, but nine times out of ten will sour. The meat of feverish
hogs can never be chilled as it should be, and unless the meat is
properly chilled, it cannot be properly cured. Before hogs are killed,
they ought to be driven into a cool place and if necessary, sprayed
with cold water until they are thoroughly cooled off. This precaution
is necessary only in hot weather; in winter, they simply need plenty of
rest.

If it is necessary to hold the hogs for several days in the pen before
they are killed, they should have an abundance of water and also a
little feed. This prevents shrinkage and will also keep them from
getting nervous from hunger.



[Illustration: CURING PORK THE YEAR AROUND

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)]


Up to a comparatively few years ago, all Pork Packing was done in
the winter. Packing Houses would fill their plants during the winter
months, and in the spring would smoke out the meats. In this way,
most of the meat had to be sold oversalted, the shrinkage and loss to
the Packer was greater and meats, therefore, had to be sold at a much
higher price, besides, they were of very inferior quality.

At the present time, due to improved methods, packing can be done all
the year around, and meat can be sold as fast as it is finished. In
this way, cured meat can be produced at a much lower price, the money
invested in it can be turned over four, five or six times a year, and
the meat will be much better, taste better and more of it can be eaten
because of the fact that it is more wholesome and more easily digested.



HOISTING HOGS IN A LARGE PACKING HOUSE, WITH A HOG-HOISTING MACHINE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Great care should always be exercised when hogs are hoisted before
sticking. When hogs are hoisted alive to be stuck, very often when
a very heavy hog is jerked from the floor, the hip is dislocated or
sprained, and blood will be thrown out around the injured joint, so the
Ham will be spoiled. Great care should also be exercised in driving the
live hogs, as hogs are the heaviest and weakest and easiest injured of
all animals.

Special pens should be provided for them, so they are not crowded,
and so they have plenty of room when they are driven to the killing
pen. They should be handled very carefully, and piling up and crowding
should be avoided as much as possible. Many hams are injured by
overcrowding the hogs in the killing pens, for when hogs smell blood
they become excited and nervous, and unless they have plenty of room,
they will pile upon each other and bruise themselves so that there
will be many skin-bruised hams, and the flesh will be full of bruises.
Men driving hogs should never use a whip. The best thing to use in
driving hogs is a stick about two feet long, to the end of which is
fastened a piece of canvas three inches wide and two feet long. By
striking the hogs with this canvas, it makes a noise which will do more
towards driving them, without injury, than the whip which will injure
and discolor the skin.

[Illustration: MACHINE USED IN LARGER PACKING HOUSES FOR HOISTING HOGS.]



STICKING HOGS IN A MODERN PACKING HOUSE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Men sticking hogs should be sure to make a good, large opening in the
neck, three or four inches long, in order to give the blood a good,
free flow. It is very necessary to sever the veins and arteries in the
neck, so as to get all of the blood out of the hog. The man who does
the sticking must be careful not to stick the knife into the shoulder,
for if the shoulder is stuck, the blood settles there, and the bloody
part will have to be trimmed out after the hog is cut up. In large
Packing Houses, there is a report made out every day, of the number
of shoulder-stuck hogs, and the sticker must sign this report before
it is sent to the office. This shows the sticker the kind of work he
is doing and makes him more careful. In small houses, most butchers
stick the hogs on the floor and let them bleed there. Those who can
possibly do it should hoist the hog by the hind leg before it is stuck
or immediately after it is stuck, as the case may be, so as to allow
the hog to properly bleed. When the hog is properly hoisted by one hind
leg, alive, and then stuck while hanging, it will kick considerably
and the kicking and jerking of the hog will help in pumping out all of
the blood, making a much better bled carcass than if the hog is first
stunned with a hammer and stuck on the floor. The better the hog is
bled, the better the meat will be for curing.

[Illustration: HOW HOGS ARE STUCK IN A LARGE MODERN PACKING HOUSE.]



SCALDING HOGS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


It is impossible to give the exact temperature one should use in
scalding hogs, as this will vary under different circumstances. In
winter the hair sticks much tighter than in summer and requires more
scalding and more heat than in summer. Hogs raised in the South, in a
warm climate, will scald much easier than those raised in a northern
climate. A butcher will soon learn which temperature is best adapted to
his own locality and the kind of hogs he is scalding.



[Illustration: SCALDING HOGS IN A LARGE MODERN PACKING HOUSE.]


In a Packing House where a long scalding tub is used, the temperature
depends entirely upon how fast the hogs are being killed. If the hogs
are killed slowly, so each hog can remain in the water longer, it is
not necessary to have the water as hot as when they are handled fast
and are taken out of the water in a shorter time. It is, however,
universally acknowledged that the quicker a hog can be taken out of
the scalding tub the better it is for the meat. The hog is a great
conductor of heat, and when kept in the scalding water too long, it
becomes considerably heated and bad results have many times been
traced to the fact that the hog was scalded in water which was not hot
enough, and was kept in this water too long in order to loosen the
hair. Overheating the hog in the scalding water very often causes the
meat of fat hogs to sour and Packers wonder why it is that the meat
has spoiled. We therefore wish to caution Packers against this, and to
advise the use of water as hot as practicable for scalding hogs.

To make the hair easy to remove and to remove dirt and impurities from
the skin, we recommend Hog-Scald. This preparation makes scalding easy,
it removes most of the dirt and filth, cleanses the hog and whitens the
skin.

[Illustration: B. HELLER & CO’S HOG-SCALD TRADE MARK]

In many localities, where the water is hard, Hog-Scald will be found of
great value, as it softens the water and makes it nice to work with;
it cleanses the skin of the hogs and improves their appearance. It is
a great labor saver and more than pays the cost by the labor it saves,
as it assists in removing the hair and leaves the skin more yielding to
the scraper.

The skin of all hogs is covered with more or less greasy filth, which
contains millions of disease germs and these extend down into the pores
of the skin. If this germ-laden filth is not removed, and if it gets
into the brine when the meat is being cured, it injures both the meat
and the brine in flavor, and also spoils the flavor of the lard if it
gets into that. Hog-Scald removes most of this filth and cleanses the
skin, and for these reasons alone, should be used by every Packer and
Butcher. Hams and Bacon from hogs that have been scalded with Hog-Scald
are, therefore, cleaner and will be much brighter after they are smoked
than when the filth of the hog remains in the pores of the skin.

Those selling dressed hogs will find Hog-Scald very valuable, as hogs
that have been scalded with it are cleaner and look whiter and much
more appetizing.

The use of Hog-Scald is legal everywhere. It does not come under the
regulations of the Food Laws, as it is simply a cleansing agent.
Hog-Scald costs very little at the price we sell it, and everyone can
afford to use it. Butchers who once try it will continue its use.



SCRAPING HOGS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: SCRAPING HOGS IN A PACKING HOUSE.]

As much of the hair as possible should be scraped from the hogs,
instead of being shaved off with a sharp knife, as is often done. If
the hog is not properly scalded and scraped and the hair remains in the
skin, such hair is usually shaved off with a knife before the hog is
gutted, and sometimes after the meat is chilled and cut up. After the
meat is cured, the rind shrinks and all the stubs of hair that have
been shaved off will stick out and the rind will be rough like a man’s
face when he has not been shaved for a day or so. Hams and Bacon from
hogs that have been shaved instead of properly scalded and scraped,
will look much rougher and much more unsightly than if the hogs are
properly scalded and scraped. Therefore, Packers should give close
attention that the scalding and scraping is properly done. The scraping
bench should be provided with a hose right above where the hogs are
being scraped and this should be supplied with hot water, if possible,
so the hogs can be rinsed off occasionally with hot water, while being
scraped. The hot water can, however, be thrown over the hogs with a
bucket.

After the hog has been gambrelled and hung up, either on a
gambrel-stick or on rollers, it should be gutted. After it is gutted,
it should be washed out thoroughly, with plenty of cold, fresh water.
As every Packer understands how to gut a hog, it is not necessary to go
into details.

[Illustration: GUTTING HOGS IN A MODERN PACKING HOUSE.]



CUTTING THE HIND SHANK BONE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: a]

[Illustration: b]

We advise the cutting of the hind shank bone after the hog is dressed,
so as to expose the marrow, as shown in cuts A and B. It is the best
thing to do, as it helps to chill the marrow. The chunk of meat that
is usually left on the hind foot, above and next to the knee, if cut
loose around the knee, will be drawn to the ham, and when chilled, will
remain on the ham instead of being on the hind foot, as shown in cut A.
After the meat is cut, the bone can be sawed, in the same place where
the hock would be cut from the ham later. See cut B. The hog will hang
on the sinews the same as if the bone had not been sawed, except that
the cut bone separates and exposes the marrow so it can be properly
cooled. On heavy hogs this is quite a gain, as the chunk that would
remain on the foot would be of little or no value there, but when left
on the ham, sells for the regular ham prices.



[Illustration]

FACING HAMS AND PULLING LEAF LARD IN A MODERN PACKING HOUSE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


The first two figures in the above cut show two men Facing Hams. The
first man faces the Ham at his right hand side and the second man faces
the Ham on his left hand side, as the Hogs pass by.

The advantage of Facing Hams right after the hogs are dressed, is this.
The knife can be drawn through the skin and through the fat close to
the meat, and the fat will peel right off the fleshy part of the Ham.
Between the fat and lean meat of the Ham, between the legs, there is a
fibrous membrane which is very soft and pliable. When the knife is run
through the skin and fat, it will run along the side of this membrane,
making a clean face for the Ham. That part remaining on the Ham will
shrink to the Ham and will form a smooth coating over the lean meat,
which closes the pores and makes the Ham look smooth and nice when it
is smoked. It also makes a much smoother cut along the skin. The skin
when cut warm will dry nicely and look smooth when cured, whereas if it
is trimmed after the meat is chilled, it looks rough and ragged. Facing
Hams also allows the escape of the animal heat more readily. If Hams
are not faced until after the Hogs have been chilled, this fat must be
trimmed off and the Hams will not look nearly so smooth as they will if
this tissue and fat is removed while the hog is warm.

The second two men in the opposite illustration are Pulling Leaf Lard.
The Leaf Lard should always be pulled out of the hogs in summer, as it
gives the hogs, as well as the Leaf Lard, a better chance to chill.
During the winter months it can be pulled loose, but can be left
hanging loosely in the hog, from the top. In this way it will cool
nicely, and it will also allow the animal heat to get out of the hog.
Most of the large packing houses pull out the Leaf Lard in the winter
as well as summer, and hang it on hooks in the chill room to chill.
Leaf Lard that is properly chilled, with the animal heat all taken out
of it, makes much finer lard than when pulled out of the hog and put
into the rendering tank with the animal heat in it.



[Illustration]

SPLITTING HOGS IN A MODERN PACKING HOUSE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Splitting can be done in several different ways. Where the back of the
hog is to be cut up for pork loins, the hog is simply split through the
center of the backbone, so that one half of the backbone remains on
each loin. Packers who wish to cut the sides into Short or Long Clears
or Clear Bacon Backs run the knife down on both sides of the backbone,
as close to the backbone as possible, cutting through the skin, fat
and lean meat; then the hog should be split down on one side of the
backbone. The backbone should remain on the one side until the hog is
cut up and it can then easily be sawed off with a small saw. By cutting
or scoring the back in this way for making boneless side meat, the
sides will be smooth and there will not be much waste left on the bone
as when the backbone is split and half of it left on each side and then
is peeled out after the meat is chilled and is being cut up.

[Illustration: VENTILATION IN HOG CHILL ROOM.]



HOG CHILL ROOM IN A MODERN PACKING HOUSE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Many chill rooms are not properly built. There should be at least from
24 to 36 inches of space between the ceiling of the chilling room and
the gambrel-stick, or more if possible, in order to enable the shanks
to become thoroughly chilled. The animal heat which leaves the carcass
naturally rises to the top of the cooler, and unless there is space
between the ceiling and the top of the hog the heat will accumulate in
the top of the cooler where the temperature will become quite warm;
this will prevent the marrow in the shank and the joints from becoming
properly chilled. It is this fact that accounts for so much marrow and
shank sour in hams.



TEMPERATURE OF CHILL ROOM.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


All Packers who have a properly built cooler for chilling hogs and who
are property equipped with an ice machine will find the following rules
will give the best results. Those who are not properly equipped should
try to follow these rules as closely as they can with their equipment.

A hog chill room should be down to from 28 to 32 degrees Fahrenheit
when the hogs are run into it. As the cooler is filled, the temperature
will be raised to as high as 45 or 46 degrees F., but enough
refrigeration must be kept on so the temperature is brought down to 36
degrees by the end of 12 hours after the cooler is filled, and then the
temperature must be gradually reduced down as low as 32 degrees by the
time the carcasses have been in the cooler 48 hours. In other words, at
the end of 48 hours the cooler must be down to 32 degrees.

All large hog coolers should be partitioned off between each section of
timbers, into long alleys, so that each alley can be kept at its own
temperature.

In the improper chilling of the carcasses lies the greatest danger
of spoiling the meat. The greatest care must be given to the proper
chilling, for if the carcasses are not properly chilled, it will be
very difficult to cure the meat, and it will be liable to sour in the
curing. Meat from improperly chilled carcasses, even with the greatest
care afterwards, will not cure properly. Therefore, one of the first
places to look for trouble when Hams are turning out sour is to look to
the chilling of the meat, as it is nine chances out of ten that this
is where the trouble started from. We have found by experience that by
deviating only a few degrees from these set rules, the percentage of
sour meat is surprisingly increased.

It has always been considered an absolute necessity to have an open
air hanging room to allow the hogs to cool off in the open air before
they are run into the cooler. It has always been considered that this
saves considerable money in the refrigeration of the hogs. However,
by the experiments made in some of the large Packing Houses, it has
been demonstrated that this economy is very much over-estimated. There
are certain conditions which must be closely adhered to for the
safe handling and curing of pork products, and the most important of
these is the proper temperature. In the outside atmosphere the proper
temperature rarely prevails. Hogs that are left in the open air on the
hanging floor over night are generally either insufficiently chilled
or are over-chilled the next morning, depending upon the outside
temperature of the air. We feel that it is of advantage, however, to
run the hogs into an outside hanging room and to allow them to dry for
one or two hours before putting them into the chilling room.

Packers who cure large quantities of hogs must see to it that their
chill rooms are properly constructed and have sufficient refrigeration,
so the temperature can be kept under perfect control at all times.
The cooler should be partitioned off lengthwise, between each line of
posts, making long alleys to run the hogs into, each one of which can
be regulated as to its temperature separately from the others. The hogs
can be run into one of these alleys as fast as they are killed and
should the temperature get up above 50 degrees F., the hogs can be run
out of this into another. The cooler in which hogs are chilled should
never go above 50 degrees Fahrenheit, and a properly constructed cooler
can be kept below this temperature.

While the cooler is being filled, the temperature should be held at
between 45 and 50 degrees Fahrenheit, and should be kept at this
temperature for about two hours after filling. At the end of two hours,
all of the vapor will have passed away, being taken up by and frozen
onto the refrigerator pipes, and the hogs will begin to dry. When the
hogs begin to show signs of drying, or in about two hours after the
refrigerator is filled, more refrigeration should be turned on, and the
temperature should be gradually brought down, so that in twelve hours
from the time the cooler is filled, the temperature should be brought
down to 36 or 37 degrees temperature Fahrenheit. If the temperature is
not brought down to 36 or 37 degrees F. in 12 hours it means a delay
in removing the animal heat, and a tendency for decomposition to set
in. If the temperature is brought down lower than 32 degrees Fahrenheit
during the first 12 hours, the outside surface of the carcasses are too
rapidly chilled, which tends to retard the escape of the animal heat.
It is known, from practical experience, that where the meat is chilled
through rather slowly, the animal heat leaves the meat more uniformly.
Too rapid chilling on the outside seems to clog up the outside of the
meat so that the heat in the thick portions does not readily escape.

The first 12 hours of the chilling of all kinds of meat and the removal
of the animal heat during this period is the most important part of the
chilling. After that period, the proper temperature is of much less
vital importance.

Hogs that are to be cut up for curing should never be cut up sooner
than 48 hours after being killed, and the temperature of the cooler
should be gradually brought down to 28 degrees Fahrenheit by the time
the hogs are taken out of the chill room to be cut up. After the hogs
have been in the cooler 12 hours the temperature should gradually be
brought down from 36 degrees at the end of the first 12 hours, to 28
degrees at the end of 48 hours; that is, if the hogs are to be cut up
48 hours after they are killed. If they are to be cut up 72 hours after
being killed, the temperature should be brought down gradually from 36
degrees at the end of the first 12 hours, to 30 degrees F. at the end
of 72 hours. This would mean that the temperature should be brought
down from 36 degrees to 30 degrees F., if the hogs are to be cut up at
the end of 72 hours, or a lowering of six degrees in practically 58
hours; or a lowering of eight degrees, from 36 to 28 Fahrenheit, if
the hogs are to be cut up in 48 hours after being killed. This means
a reduction in temperature of about one degree for every eight hours.
This does not mean that the six or eight degrees should be reduced in
two hours’ time, for if that were done the meat would be frozen.

In a large Packing House, where the cooler is properly equipped, and
one has a good attendant, these instructions can be carried out in
detail. When the foregoing instructions are carefully followed, the
safe curing of the product will be assured.

While the curing of course requires careful attention, yet, if the
chilling is not done properly, the curing will never be perfect.

The floors of coolers should always be kept sprinkled with clean
sawdust, as this will absorb drippings and assist in keeping the cooler
clean and sweet. If the drippings from hogs are allowed to fall on the
bare floor, the cooler will soon become sour and this will affect the
meat that hangs over it.



TEMPERATURE FOR CURING MEAT.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


An even temperature of 38 degrees Fahrenheit is the best temperature
for curing meats. Most butchers, however, have no ice machine, and,
therefore, are not able to reach such a low temperature in their
coolers; nevertheless, they should try to get their coolers as low in
temperature as possible, and should at all times be careful to keep the
doors closed, and not leave them open longer than is necessary at any
time. The temperature of 37 to 39 degrees Fahrenheit is what should
govern all packers who use ice machines; those who are fortunate enough
to have ice machinery should never allow the cooler to get below 37
degrees, nor above 40 degrees. Many packers let the temperature in
their coolers get too cold, and in winter during the very cold weather,
the windows are sometimes left open, which allows the temperature to
get too low. This should always be avoided, as meat will not cure in
any brine, or take salt when dry salted, if stored in a room that is
below 36 degrees Fahrenheit. If meat is packed even in the strongest
kind of brine, and put into a cooler, which is kept at 32 to 33 degrees
of temperature, and thus left at this degree of cold for three months,
it will come out of the brine only partly cured. The reason for this
is the fact that meat will not cure and take on salt at such a low
temperature, and as the temperature herein given is above freezing
point, which is 32 degrees, the meat will only keep for a short time,
and then it starts to decompose when taken into a higher temperature.
Anyone, who is unaware of this fact, will see how necessary it is to
have accurate thermometers in a cooler, to examine them frequently, and
to closely watch the temperature of the room. See illustration of our
Standard Cold Storage Thermometer on page 282.

The first essential point to watch before putting meat into brine,
is to be absolutely certain that it is properly chilled through to
the bone. Those who are not equipped with ice machinery for properly
chilling meat in hot weather must spread the meat on the floor after
it is cut ready for packing, and place crushed ice over it for 24
hours, to thoroughly chill it before it is packed in the salt. This
will get the temperature of the meat as low as 36 to 38 degrees
Fahrenheit before putting it in the brine. It is necessary that small
butchers, who have no ice machines, and rely upon the ice box for a
cooler, should use the greatest care to see that the meat is well and
thoroughly chilled.

Thousands of pounds of meat are spoiled yearly simply for the one
reason that the temperature of the meat is not brought down low enough
before the meat is salted. In the summer, hams and heavy pieces of pork
should never be packed by persons having no ice machine, unless the
meat is first put on the floor for at least twelve hours with broken
ice to thoroughly cover it. If our directions are carefully followed
and =Freeze-Em-Pickle= is used, such a thing as spoiled meat will be
unknown.



CONDITION OF MEAT BEFORE CURING.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


When cured meat turns out bad, it is not always the fault of the man
who has charge of the curing so much as it is the condition the meat
was in when put into the brine to cure. Good results should not be
expected from a man who has charge of the curing unless the meat is
delivered to him in proper condition. Hogs should never be killed
the same day of purchase at the Stock Yards or from the farmer. They
ought to remain in the packing house pen for at least 24 hours before
killing. If different lots of hogs are mixed together, they will
sometimes fight, which greatly excites them. Whenever they show this
fighting disposition, they should be separated.



THE TEMPERATURE OF BRINE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Make all Pickle in the cooler, and have the water or brine of as low a
temperature as the cooler when it is put on the meat. Try to have the
temperature of the brine not over 38 degrees Fahrenheit when putting it
over the meat. A great deal of meat is spoiled in curing by having the
brine too warm when the meat is put into it.



GIVE CLOSE ATTENTION TO DETAILS.


Be careful to do everything right as you go along, for if you spoil the
meat you will hardly become aware of it until it is too late to remedy
your error.

[Illustration: BEST BY TEST]



WITH THE FREEZE-EM-PICKLE PROCESS AND “A” AND “B” CONDIMENTINE ANYONE
CAN CURE MEAT AND MAKE GOOD SAUSAGE

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Bacterial action causes great annoyance and loss to Curers of Meats
and Sausage Manufacturers, and, since the enactment of Pure Food Laws
prohibiting the use of antiseptic preservatives, the proper handling of
meats has become a matter of the greatest importance if good sausage
and well-cured meats are to be produced.

We have acted as Consulting Experts for the large Packers and Sausage
Manufacturers for many years, and have formulated and systematized
methods for the curing of all kinds of meat and the making of all kinds
of sausage. We have crystallized the results of our large experience
into a plan for the proper curing of meats and the making of all kinds
of sausage, which, if followed, will always give satisfactory results.

For curing meat we have combined the necessary curing agents for this
Process into a combination which is always uniform and which is known
as Freeze-Em-Pickle.

Freeze-Em-Pickle furnishes to the Packer, Butcher and Sausage Maker the
proper materials, scientifically and accurately compounded, and by
using it according to the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, which is set forth
in this book, any man, whether he is experienced or not, can get as
good results as the most expert packer in the business.

If the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process is followed, and Freeze-Em-Pickle
is used according to the directions given in this book, the meats
and sausage will be uniform and of fine quality. They will have an
appetizing color, a delicious flavor and they will comply with the
requirements of the Pure Food Laws.

By curing meat by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, the albumen in the
meat is so congealed that only a small percentage of it will be drawn
out of the meat into the brine, and the natural flavor of the meat is
retained, making it far more palatable.

When Freeze-Em-Pickle is dissolved in water with the proper quantity
of sugar and salt, the brine will be decidedly sweet and of the proper
specific gravity to properly cure Hams, Bacon, Shoulders, Corned Beef,
Dried Beef, etc., with a Delicious Flavor, without loss from spoiling.
The meat will not be too Salty, but will have that Peculiar Sugar-Cured
Flavor which is so much liked. By the use of the Freeze-Em-Pickle
Process anyone can make fine cured meats, whether or not they have ever
had any previous experience in the curing or handling of meats.

Packers, Butchers and Curers have many difficulties in turning out
good, sweet-pickle cured meat, owing to their inability to compound the
proper proportions of curing ingredients. Besides, their methods of
curing are frequently incorrect and unscientific.

By adopting the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process, the proper ingredients are
used and the meat is handled in the right way. That is why the finished
products made by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process are superior to what they
are when made in other ways.

In making Bologna and Frankfurt Sausage, if the sausage meat is cured
for a few days with Freeze-Em-Pickle and handled according to the
Freeze-Em-Pickle Process of curing Bologna and Frankfurt Sausage Meat
it will produce Finer Sausage, in both taste and appearance, and will
have an appetizing color and will not spoil in hot weather, within a
reasonable length of time, and the sausage will comply with the Pure
Food Laws.

[Illustration: HAMS]



DIRECTIONS FOR CURING HAMS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Use the following proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Salt, Sugar and
Water to obtain the best results in curing Hams:


Small Hams, 8 to 14 Lbs. Average.

                    { 7 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.  { 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
  Small Hams.       { 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
                    { 5 gals. of Cold Water.
                    { Cure in this brine 50 to 60 days.


Medium Hams, 14 to 18 Lbs. Average.

                    { 8 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.  { 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
  Medium Hams.      { 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
                    { 5 gals. of Cold Water.
                    { Cure in this brine 60 to 70 days.


Heavy Hams, 18 to 24 Lbs. Average.

                    { 9 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.  { 1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
  Heavy Hams.       { 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
                    { 5 gals. of Cold Water.
                    { Cure in this brine 75 to 80 days.

=First=:--Sort the Hams, separating the Small, Medium and Large.

=Second=:--Take enough of any one size of the assorted Hams to fill a
tierce, which will be 285 lbs.; then thoroughly mix together in a large
pail or box the following proportions of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated
Sugar and Salt:

More than 285 lbs. of Hams can be packed in a tierce, but this never
should be done, as it requires a certain amount of brine to a certain
amount of meat, and by placing 285 lbs. of fresh Hams in a standard
tierce, the tierce will hold 14 to 15 gallons of brine, which is the
proper quantity of brine for this amount of Hams. If too much meat is
put into the tierce, it will not hold enough brine to properly cure the
meat.

The Sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar. Yellow or Brown Sugar
must not be used.

Use, for 285 lbs. of =Small Hams=, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs.
of best Granulated Sugar and 21 lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of =Medium Hams=, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of
best Granulated Sugar and 24 lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of =Heavy Hams=, 3 lbs. of Freeze-Em-Pickle, 6 lbs. of
best Granulated Sugar and 27 lbs. of Salt.



How To Cure Hams in Open Barrels.

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


When the tierces or barrels in which these Hams are cured are not to
be headed up, but are left open, use half of the Freeze-Em-Pickle,
Granulated Sugar and Salt dry by rubbing it over the hams in the
following manner:

=First=:--After mixing all of the Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar
and Salt together, sprinkle some of the dry mixture over the bottom of
a perfectly clean tierce.

The Sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar. Yellow or Brown Sugar
must not be used. When adulterated sugar is used, the brine becomes
thick in two weeks; but when Pure Granulated Sugar is used it will last
quite a while, depending upon the conditions under which the brine is
kept.

=Second=:--Rub each Ham well with some of the mixture of
Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar and Salt and pack them nicely in the
tierce. Put clean boards over the tops of the hams and weight or fasten
these boards down so as to keep them under the brine.

=Third=:--Take all of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar and
Salt that is left after the rubbing and use it in making the brine;
it will require 14 to 15 gallons of brine, as tierces vary some, for
each standard size tierce of Hams. Make the brine by dissolving in
about 14 gallons of cold water all of the mixed Freeze-Em-Pickle,
Granulated Sugar and Salt that is left after the rubbing. Stir well
for a minute, until it is dissolved, then pour this brine over the
meat. As tierces vary so much in size, it is always best to dissolve
the Freeze-Em-Pickle in a little less quantity of water, say about 14
gallons for a tierce. After this brine is added to the meat, should
the tierce hold more, simply add cold water until the tierce is full.
The right amount of Salt, etc., has already been added; now simply add
sufficient water to well cover the meat.

When curing a less quantity than a full tierce of Hams, cut down the
amount of Freeze-Em-Pickle, Granulated Sugar and Salt and the quantity
of water, according to the quantity of Hams to be cured, using all
materials in the proportions given on page 50.



QUANTITY OF BRINE TO USE FOR CURING 100 LBS. OF HAMS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Five gallons by measure, or forty-two pounds by weight, is the
approximate amount of water to use for every 100 lbs. of Hams.

A tierce, after being packed with 285 lbs. of meat, will hold about
14 to 15 gallons of water. When curing Hams in vats, or open barrels,
whether in small or large quantity, always use no less than five
gallons of brine to every 100 pounds of meat, as this makes the proper
strength and a sufficient brine to cover the meat nicely.



THE USE OF MOLASSES AND SYRUP BARRELS IN CURING HAMS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Never use old molasses barrels, or syrup barrels for curing meat,
unless they have been first thoroughly scoured and steamed, and
cleansed with our Ozo Washing Compound. It is best to use oak tierces,
and always be sure that they are perfectly clean and sweet before
putting the meat into them to cure.



PUMPING HAMS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


We strongly recommend the pumping of Hams, full directions for which
are given on page 76.



SHAPE OF VATS IN CURING HAMS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Sometimes, vats of certain shapes require more brine to cover the
meat than others, and in such cases, a proportionate amount of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt, should be added to the necessary
amount of water to make sufficient brine to cover the meat.



HOW TO OVERHAUL HAMS WHEN CURING IN OPEN PACKAGES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: HOW TO OVERHAUL HAMS WHEN CURING IN OPEN PACKAGES]

On the fifth day after packing each lot of Hams, it is necessary that
they should be overhauled. This must be repeated seven days later;
again in ten days; and a final overhauling should be given ten days
later. Overhauling four times while curing, and at the proper time
in each instance, is very important and must never be forgotten,
especially when curing with this mild, sweet cure. Overhauling means to
take the Hams out of the brine and to repack them in the same brine.
The proper way to overhaul is to take a perfectly clean tierce, set it
next to the tierce of Hams to be overhauled, pack the meat into the
empty tierce, and then pour the same brine over the meat.



HOW TO CURE HAMS IN CLOSED UP TIERCES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Large packers, who employ coopers, should always cure Hams in closed up
tierces, as this is the best method known.

[Illustration: HOW TO CURE HAMS IN CLOSED UP TIERCES

FIRST.--]

=First=:--Mix the proper proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and
Salt for the different size Hams to be cured. These proportions are
given in the table on page 50, under the heading, “Small Hams, Medium
Hams, Heavy Hams.” If the tierces are to be headed up, use half of the
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt for rubbing the Hams, and the half
that is left over, after the Hams are rubbed, should be dissolved in
the water which is to be used to fill the tierces. Rub each Ham well
before packing; put only 285 lbs. of meat in each tierce, and then head
them up.

[Illustration: SECOND.--]

=Second=:--Lay the tierces on their sides and fill them through the
bunghole with water in which the half of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and
Salt left over after rubbing, has been dissolved.

[Illustration: THIRD.--]

=Third=:--Insert the bung and roll the tierces. This will mix and
dissolve the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt rubbed on the meat.
Where the pieces of meat press tightly against each other or against
the tierce, the brine does not act on the meats; but if the meats are
properly rubbed with the mixture of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and
Salt before being packed in the tierce, such surfaces will be acted
upon by the undissolved mixture, so that curing will be uniform, and
no portion of the piece will be left insufficiently cured even if
the brine does not come in contact with it. For this reason, it is
important that each piece should be carefully rubbed with the mixture
of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt before being packed in the tierce.

[Illustration: OVERHAUL FIVE DAYS AFTER PACKING

FOURTH.--]

=Fourth=:--Overhaul five days after packing; again seven days later;
again in ten days, and once more ten days thereafter. At each
overhauling, examine each tierce for leaks; if any of the Pickle has
leaked out, knock the bung in and refill. Remember to overhaul four
times during the period of the first thirty-two days.

=Fifth=:--Overhaul the Hams in closed up tierces, simply by rolling
the tierces from one end of the cooler to the other. They ought to be
rolled at least 100 feet.

=Sixth=:--See paragraph on temperature for curing meat, page 46.

[Illustration: SHOULDERS AND PICNIC HAMS]



DIRECTIONS FOR CURING SHOULDERS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


=New York Shoulders=:--Have shank cut off above knee, trimmed close and
smooth, and square at the butt.

=California or Picnic Hams= are made from Medium and Heavy Shoulders,
well-rounded at the butt, and trimmed as near to the shape of a Ham as
possible.

=Boston Shoulders= are made from Light Shoulders, well-rounded at the
butt, similar to California Hams.

=California= and =Picnic Hams= and =Square Cut Butts=, are cured in
the same way, and with the same brine, the only change being in the
strength of the brine and the time of curing, which must be made to
suit the size of the Shoulder.


Small Shoulders.


                    { 7 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.  { 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  Small Shoulders.  { 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
                    { 5 gals. of Cold Water.
                    { Cure in this brine 50 to 60 days.


Medium Shoulders.

                     { 8 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.   { 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
  Medium Shoulders.  { 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
                     { 5 gals. of Cold Water.
                     { Cure in this brine 60 to 70 days.


Heavy Shoulders.


                     { 9 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.   { 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  Heavy Shoulders.   { 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
                     { 5 gals. of Cold Water.
                     { Cure in this brine 75 to 80 days.

The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar
must not be used.

=First.=--Sort the Shoulders, separating the Small, Medium and Large.

=Second.=--Take enough of any one size of the assorted Shoulders to
fill a tierce, which will be 285 lbs.; then thoroughly mix together in
a large pail, or box, the following proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=,
Sugar and Salt:

Use for 285 lbs. of =Small Shoulders=, 3 lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6
lbs. of best pure Granulated Sugar, and =21= lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of =Medium Shoulders=, 3 lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6
lbs. of best Granulated Sugar and =24= lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of =Heavy Shoulders=, 3 lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6 lbs.
of best Granulated Sugar, and =27= lbs. of Salt.


Curing Shoulders in Open Packages.

When it is desired to cure Shoulders in Open Packages, use the
foregoing proportions and in every way handle the Shoulders as directed
for Hams, on page 51.


Quantity of Brine for Curing 100 Lbs. of Shoulders.

The same quantity of brine should be used for curing Shoulders as
directed for Curing Hams, full directions for which will be found on
page 52.


Quantity of Shoulders to Cure in Each Tierce.

The same quantity of Shoulders and the same amount of brine should be
used as directed for Curing Hams, on page 52. The same remarks with
regard to the variation in the amount of brine for each tierce, and
how to be sure to have the proper amount of the right strength of
brine, apply in curing Shoulders, the same as for Hams, (see page 52).
Likewise do not use Syrup and Molasses barrels for Curing Shoulders.


How to Overhaul Shoulders When Curing in Open Packages.

It is important to follow the same directions for Overhauling Shoulders
that are given for Overhauling Hams. (See page 53.)


How to Cure Shoulders in Closed Up Tierces.

Follow the same directions for Curing Shoulders as given for Curing
Hams in Closed Up Tierces, on page 54.


How to Overhaul Shoulders When Cured in Closed Up Tierces.

Follow exactly the same instructions as are given for Overhauling Hams
when cured in Closed Up Tierces, on page 55.


Pumping Shoulders.

Pump Shoulders as directed on page 76.



BONELESS ROLLED SHOULDERS

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration]

Boneless Rolled Shoulders should be made in the following manner: Take
the Shoulders from hogs that have been properly chilled and bone them.
If the meat has been thoroughly chilled, so it is perfectly solid and
chilled throughout, the Shoulders are ready to cure; but if the meat
is not perfectly solid and firm on the inside, where the bone has been
removed, the Shoulders should be spread out in the cooler on racks for
24 hours, until the meat is thoroughly chilled and firm.


Small Boneless Rolled Shoulders.

                    {  7 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.  {  1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  Small Boned       {  2 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar.
  Shoulders.        {  5 gallons of Cold Water.
                    {  Cure in this brine 30 to 40 days.


Medium Boneless Rolled Shoulders.

                    { 8 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.  { 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  Medium Boned      { 2 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar.
  Shoulders.        { 5 gallons of Cold Water.
                    { Cure in this brine 40 to 50 days.


Large Boneless Rolled Shoulders.

                    {  9 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.  {  1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  Large Boned       {  2 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar.
  Shoulders.        {  5 gallons of Cold Water.
                    {  Cure in this brine 50 to 60 days.

The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar
must not be used.

=First=:--Sort the Boneless Shoulders, separating the Small, Medium and
Large, as the different sizes should be cured in separate barrels.

=Second=:--Take enough of any one size of the Boned Shoulders to fill a
tierce, which will be 285 lbs. Then thoroughly mix together, in a large
pail or box, the following proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and
Salt:

Use for 285 lbs. of =Small Boneless Shoulders=, 3 lbs. of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar and =21= lbs. of
Salt.

Use for 285 lbs. of =Medium Boneless Shoulders=, 3 lbs. of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar and =24= lbs. of
Salt.

Use for 285 lbs. of =Large Boneless Shoulders=, 3 lbs. of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar and =27= lbs. of
Salt.

=Third=:--After the Shoulders have been weighed, take for example that
one has 285 lbs. of =Medium Boneless Shoulders=, averaging, boned,
about 10 lbs., which would make 28 pieces for a tierce of 285 lbs. Now,
take the 3 lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6 lbs. of Granulated Sugar and
24 lbs. of Salt to be used for the tierce of =Medium Shoulders=, and
mix together thoroughly in a box or tub.

=Fourth=:--Rub about ¼ lb. of this mixture in each Shoulder where the
bone has been removed, then roll it and tie it in the regular way.
After it is rolled and tied, rub about ¼ lb. of the mixture all over
the outside, and pack the Shoulders into the tierce. After the 28
=Boneless Shoulders= have been packed nicely into the tierce, put clean
boards over the top of the meat and weight or fasten down these boards,
so as to keep them under the brine.

The sugar must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar must
not be used. When adulterated sugar is used the brine becomes thick in
two weeks, but when Pure Granulated Sugar is used it will last quite a
while, depending upon the conditions under which the brine is kept.

=Fifth=:--Take all of the mixed =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Granulated Sugar
and Salt that is left after rubbing the meat, and use it in making the
brine. It will require between 14 and 15 gallons of brine, as tierces
vary somewhat in size, for each standard size tierce of Boneless
Shoulders. Make the brine by dissolving in about 14 gallons of water
all of the mixed =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Granulated Sugar and Salt that is
left after rubbing. As tierces vary so in size, it is always best to
dissolve the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt in a less quantity of
water, say about 14 gallons for a tierce. After this brine is added to
the meat, should the tierce hold more, simply add cold water until the
tierce is filled. The right amount of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and
Salt has already been added, now simply add sufficient water to well
cover the meat.

In curing a less quantity than a full tierce of =Boneless Rolled
Shoulders=, cut down the amount of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Granulated
Sugar and Salt and the quantity of water, according to the quantity of
Boneless Shoulders to be cured.


Quantity of Brine for Curing Less Than 100 Lbs. of Boneless Rolled
Shoulders.

The same directions should be followed in curing less than 100 lbs. of
Boneless Rolled Shoulders as are given for Hams, on page 52.


The Use of Molasses and Syrup Barrels in Curing Boneless Rolled
Shoulders.

The remarks concerning the use of these barrels in curing Hams apply
with equal force to the curing of Boneless Rolled Shoulders, and we
refer to page 52.


Shape of Vats for Curing Boneless Rolled Shoulders.

See page 53 concerning the Shape of Vats for curing Hams, as the same
remarks apply in curing Boneless Rolled Shoulders.


How to Overhaul Boneless Rolled Shoulders When Cured in Open Packages.

See page 53 and follow the same instructions for overhauling as are
given for overhauling Hams when curing in open packages.


Pumping Boneless Rolled Shoulders.

This should not be neglected. See page 76 and follow the directions
closely. The Pumping of Boneless Rolled Shoulders is very important,
because when they are Boned and Rolled, most of the outside surface is
covered with Rind, which prevents the Brine from getting through to the
meat. However, by rubbing the inside of the Shoulder with the Curing
Mixture and then Pumping them before Curing, good results will always
be assured.



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SUGAR CURED BREAKFAST BACON.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: SUGAR CURED BREAKFAST BACON]


Light Bellies.

  Use for 100 lbs. Light Bellies.
  =5= lbs. of Common Salt.
  1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
  5 gallons of Cold Water.
  Cure in this brine 20 to 25 days.


Heavy Bellies.

  Use for 100 lbs. Medium or Heavy Bellies.
  =7= lbs. Common Salt.
  1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  2 lbs. Granulated Sugar.
  5 gals. Cold Water.
  Cure in this brine 25 to 40 days, according to size.

=First=:--Mix together the proper proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=,
Sugar and Salt, as stated above for every 100 lbs. of Bellies.

=Second=:--Take a perfectly clean tierce, tub or vat, and sprinkle a
little of the mixed =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Granulated Sugar and Salt on
the bottom. The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or
brown sugar must not be used. When adulterated sugar is used, the brine
becomes thick in two weeks; but when Pure Granulated Sugar is used,
it will last quite a while, depending upon the condition in which the
brine is kept.

=Third=:--Take half of the mixed =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Granulated Sugar
and Salt and rub each piece of Belly with the mixture and then pack as
loosely as possible.

=Fourth=:--Put clean boards over the top of the Bellies and fasten or
weight the boards down so as to keep them covered with the brine.

=Fifth=:--All of the mixed =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Granulated Sugar and
Salt that is left after rubbing the meat should be used for making the
brine.

=Sixth=:--For each 100 lbs. of Bellies packed in the tierce, tub or
vat, add not less than 5 gallons of brine, and pour it over the meat.
Five gallons of water by measure or forty-two pounds by weight, will
make sufficient brine to cover, and is the proper amount for each 100
lbs. of Bellies.

=Seventh=:--Before putting the water over the Bellies, dissolve in it
the mixed =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt left after rubbing; stir
it for a few minutes until it is thoroughly dissolved, and then pour
this brine over the Bellies.

=Eighth=:--Bellies must be overhauled three times while curing--once
on the fifth day; again seven days later, and again in ten days more.
Overhauling must never be neglected, if good results are desired.

Overhauling means to take the meat out of the brine and repack it in
the same brine. The proper way to overhaul is to take a perfectly
clean tierce or vat, set it next to the tierce or vat of Bellies to be
overhauled, pack the meat into the empty package and then pour the same
brine over the meat.



PUMPING BREAKFAST BACON.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Many Packers pump Breakfast Bacon when it is put into the brine, and we
can heartily recommend this, as Bacon that is properly pumped will be
cured in one half the time and it will have a uniform cure and color
throughout and will be as well cured on the inside as the outside.
Great care, however, should be exercised in making the pumping pickle.
It must be made according to the formula given on page 76, just the
same as for Pumping Hams. The pieces of Bacon should be pumped in from
three to five places, according to the size of the piece. Very large
pieces, especially if the rib is left in them, can be pumped several
times more.

[Illustration: CORNED-BEEF

CORNED-BEEF SPECIAL TO-DAY]



FEW BUTCHERS REALIZE

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Few Butchers realize the importance of building up a reputation on
good Corned Beef. A good trade on Corned Beef enables the dealer to
get higher prices for Plates, Rumps, Briskets and other cuts which
otherwise would have to be sold at a sacrifice. Corned Beef cured
by the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= Process will have a Delicious Corned Beef
Flavor, a Fine, Red, Cured-Meat Color, =will not be too Salty=.

To obtain the best results in curing Corned Beef, it is always
advisable to first soak the meat for a few hours in a tub of fresh cold
water to which a few handfuls of salt have been added. This will draw
out the blood which would otherwise get into the brine. The membrane on
the inside of the Plates and Flanks should be removed and the Strip of
Gristle cut off the edge of the Belly Side.

If any part is =tainted=, =mouldy=, =discolored= or =slimy=, =it
must be trimmed off=, so no slimy or tainted parts will get into the
brine. If Plates or Briskets are to be rolled, a small amount of mixed
Zanzibar Brand Corned Beef Seasoning, =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and
Salt must be sprinkled on the inside before rolling them. This will
give the meat a Delicious Flavor and results in a Nice Red Color and
will cure it more uniformly and quickly.

[Illustration: MAKING THE BRINE]



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING FINE CORNED BEEF.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


                     { 5 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.   { 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  =Plates, Rumps,=   { 2 lbs. of Granulated Cane Sugar.
  =Briskets, etc.=   { 6-8 ozs. Z. B. Corned Beef Seasoning.
                     { 5 gals. of Cold Water.

Cure the meat in this brine 15 to 30 days, according to weight and
thickness of the piece.

Retail Butchers who cure Corned Beef in small quantities, and who from
day to day take out pieces from the brine and add others, should make
the brine and handle the Corned Beef as follows:

To every five gallons of water add five pounds of common salt, one
pound of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and two pounds of granulated sugar. In
summer, if the temperature of the curing room or cooler cannot be kept
down as low as 40 degrees, then use one pound of sugar for five gallons
of water. If the cooler is kept below 40 degrees, use two pounds of
sugar. In winter the curing can always be done in a temperature of 36
to 38 degrees, and then two pounds of sugar to five gallons of water
should always be used. The sugar must be Pure Granulated Sugar. Yellow
or Brown Sugar must not be used. When adulterated sugar is used, the
brine becomes thick in two weeks, but when pure granulated sugar is
used it will last quite a while, depending largely upon the conditions
under which the brine is kept.



THE SEASONING OF CORNED BEEF.


It is simple enough to add Seasoning to the corned beef, but the
ability to decide what proportion of just what spices, etc., will
produce the most desirable flavor requires ripe judgment and long
experience. There are many butchers today who could greatly improve
their corned beef if they but knew more about the proper seasoning and
the proportions to use. We have worked out this problem for him in our
special Corned Beef Flavor. It is a splendid combination of just those
spices, etc., most suited for seasoning corned beef, and imparts a most
zestful and appetizing flavor. This flavor should be added by tying
it up in a piece of cheese cloth and allowing it to lay in the brine
which contains the corned beef. This will flavor the brine and thus
the corned beef becomes uniformly and thoroughly seasoned without any
particles of the seasoning adhering to the meat.



HOW TO KNOW WHEN CORNED BEEF IS NOT FULLY CURED.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


If a piece of Corned Beef is cut, before or after it is cooked, and the
inside is not a nice red color, it is because the meat is not cured
through. It is often sold in this condition, but it should not be, as
it does not have the proper flavor unless it has been cured all the way
through, which requires two or three weeks in a mild brine, depending
upon the size of the piece of meat. Corned Beef pickled for four or
five days in a strong brine, with an excessive amount of saltpetre in
it, as some butchers cure it, =is not good Corned Beef= and =does not
have the proper flavor=, although it may be red through to the center,
the color being due to the large amount of saltpetre used in the brine.

The =Freeze-Em-Pickle Process= of curing gives the meat a different and
better flavor.



PUMPING CORNED BEEF.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


We recommend Pumping Corned Beef with a Pickle Pump, before it is put
into the brine. In this way the meat is cured in about half the time
and it will be cured from the inside just the same as from the outside,
and will be more uniform in color throughout than if cured without
pumping. If Corned Beef is pumped, it should be pumped with the same
pickle as for pumping Hams, formula for which is given on page 76. The
pieces of Corned Beef should be pumped in from two to four places,
according to the size of the piece of meat. One will soon become
accustomed to it, after pumping a few pieces. Pumping can of course
be overdone, and too much brine must not be pumped into the meat;
otherwise it will puff out too much and become spongy.



GARLIC FLAVORED CORNED BEEF.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: SOME PEOPLE PREFER]

Many people like Garlic Flavor in Corned Beef, and butchers who want
to please their customers should keep a supply of Corned Beef both
with and without the Garlic Flavor. We make a special preparation,
known as Vacuum Brand Garlic Compound, with which butchers are able to
give a Garlic Flavor to any kind of meat, without having any of the
objectionable features that result from the use of fresh Garlic.

Vacuum Brand Garlic Compound is a powder which we manufacture from
Selected Garlic. The flavor given by it is delicious, and the
advantages gained by it will be thoroughly appreciated by all who use
it

[Illustration: HOME-MADE PRESSED COOKED CORNED BEEF]



DIRECTION FOR MAKING COOKED CORNED BEEF.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Take fully cured Corned Beef and cut it up into different sizes, and
pack it nicely into a cooked corned beef press, sprinkling a little
Zanzibar Brand Corned Beef Seasoning between each layer of meat so as
to give it a delicious flavor. All Butchers’ Supply Houses sell presses
made especially for this purpose. After packing the pieces of Meat into
the press, screw it up tight; then put the press which has been filled,
into hot water, of a temperature of 180 F., and leave it there for
one and a half hours, then reduce the temperature to 170 degrees and
leave it there for one hour longer. A very large press might require
three hours cooking before the meat would be cooked through. After the
meat is thoroughly cooked, place the press in the cooler and let it
remain there over night. The following morning the Corned Beef will be
thoroughly chilled and can be taken out of the press.

In the summer it is a good plan to dip the cake of Cooked Corned Beef,
after it is removed from the press, into Hot Lard for a second, or even
Hot Tallow. This will coat it so it will not become mouldy, and it will
keep much better than without dipping it.

Pressed Cooked Corned Beef is an elegant article, is a good seller
and very often women would be only too pleased to be able to buy this
from the butcher and would be willing to pay good prices for it if
they could only obtain it. Butchers should give more attention to
preparations of this kind, as they would help greatly in developing
business.



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING FANCY DRIED BEEF.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: SLICING CHIPPED BEEF]

How to Cure Beef Hams and Shoulder Clots.


SMALL PIECES.

                        { 6 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.      { 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  =Small Beef Hams=     { 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
  =and Shoulder Clots.= { 5 gals. of Cold Water.
                        { Cure in this brine 50 to 60
                        {   days.


MEDIUM PIECES.

                         { 7 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.       { 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  =Medium Beef Hams=       { 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
  =and Shoulder Clots.=    { 5 gals. of Cold Water.
                         { Cure in this brine 60 to 70
                         {   days.


HEAVY PIECES.

                         { 8 lbs. of Common Salt.
  Use for 100 lbs.       { 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  =Heavy Beef Hams=        { 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
  =and Shoulder Clots=.    { 5 gals. of Cold Water.
                         { Cure in this brine 75 to 80
                         {   days.

The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar
must not be used.

=First.=--Sort the Beef Hams and Clots, separating the Small, Medium
and Large.

=Second.=--Take enough of any one size of the assorted Beef Hams
and Clots to fill a tierce which will be 285 lbs.; then thoroughly
mix together in a large pail or box, the following proportions of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt:

Use for 285 lbs. of =Small Beef Hams and Small Clots=, 3 lbs. of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar and 18 lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of =Medium Beef Hams and Medium Clots=, 3 lbs. of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6 lbs. of Granulated Sugar and 21 lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of =Heavy Beef Hams and Heavy Clots=, 3 lbs. of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6 lbs. of best Granulated Sugar and 24 lbs. of Salt.


Curing Beef Hams and Clots in Open Barrels.

Follow exactly the same instructions as given for curing Hams in Open
Packages, page 51.


Quantity of Brine for Curing 100 Lbs. of Beef Hams and Clots.

Use the same quantity of Brine and the same amount of Beef Hams and
Clots as directed for curing Hams, on page 52. The same remarks apply
as to variations in the size and shape of vats, and in the general
handling, as given for Hams.


How to Overhaul Beef Hams and Clots When Curing in Open Packages.

Overhaul and handle exactly as directed for Hams, on page 53.


How to Cure Beef Hams and Clots in Closed Up Tierces.

Follow the same directions in every way as given for curing Hams in
Closed Up Tierces, page 54.


How to Overhaul Beef Hams and Clots When Cured in Closed Up Tierces.

Follow exactly the directions for overhauling Hams when cured in Closed
Up Tierces, given on page 55.


Pumping Beef Hams and Clots.

Follow the general directions for Pumping, which will be found on page
76.



[Illustration: ROLLED SPICED BEEF]

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Take 100 lbs. of boneless Beef Plates and cure them in brine made as
follows:

  5 gallons of cold water.
  5 lbs. of common salt.
  1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and
  2 lbs. of granulated sugar.

Cure the Plates in this brine 10 to 30 days in a cooler. The
temperature should not be higher than 42 to 44 degrees Fahrenheit, but
38 to 40 degrees temperature is always the best for curing purposes.

The 5 gallons of brine should be flavored by placing in it about 6 to
8 ounces of Zanzibar Brand Corned Beef Seasoning. After the meat has
been fully cured in accordance with the above directions, sprinkle some
Corned Beef Seasoning on the meat; then roll the meat and tie it tight
with a heavy string. The meat should then be boiled slowly.

Boiled Spiced Beef should be boiled the same as hams, in water that is
155 degrees Fahrenheit.

This Rolled Spiced Beef is sold to customers raw as well as boiled.
Many prefer to buy it raw and boil it at home. This style of Corned
Beef makes a beautiful display on the counter and butchers will find
this a profitable way of working off fat plates. Meat worked up in this
way brings a good price and is a ready seller. Those liking Garlic
Flavor can also add a small quantity of Garlic Compound or Garlic
Condiment.



GENERAL HINTS FOR CURING MEATS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Curers of meat, who are well acquainted with us know that we have
been in a position to acquire more than the average knowledge in the
curing and handling of meats. As is well known, we have been consulting
chemists and packing house experts for many years; therefore, the
general information which we offer for curing meats are suggested by
the results of many years of practical experience.



CHILLING MEATS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: CHILLING MEATS

38 DEGREES]

Hams, Shoulders, Bellies and other cuts must be thoroughly chilled
before they are put into pickle. From one to two days before being
packed, depending upon the temperature, they should be hung up or laid
on a rack in the cooler, in order to draw out all the animal heat
that is in them and to make them firm and ready for packing. Packers,
using ice machinery for cooling, can bring the temperature low enough
during the warm weather to properly chill the meat; however, it must
not be frozen. If the cooler in which meats are chilled is not cold
enough to make the Hams, Shoulders, Bellies, etc., firm and solid in
48 hours, it is advisable to lay the meat on the floor over night and
place crushed ice over it; this will harden the meat. Those using a
common ice house can employ the crushed ice method, which is to spread
the meat on the floor and throw cracked ice over the meat, allowing it
to remain over night. It should always be remembered that if meat is
put into brine soft and spongy, it will become pickle-soaked and in
such condition will never cure properly. It will come out of the brine
soft and spongy, and will often sour when in the smoke house. A great
deal of meat spoils in curing only for the reason that the animal heat
has not been removed before the meat is packed and placed in brine.
When the animal heat is all out of the meat, the meat will be firm and
solid all the way through. In order to get the best results, the inside
temperature of Hams and Shoulders when packed, should not be over 36
to 38 degrees Fahrenheit. The meat should be tested with a thermometer
made for this purpose before it is packed. Every curer of meat should
have one. An illustration of same will be found on page 284.

[Illustration: CHILLING MEATS]



OVERHAULING.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


When curing Hams, Shoulders, and all kinds of sweet-pickled meats in
open vats, overhauling is a very important feature; it must be done
at least four times during the curing period. When curing in closed
up tierces, the tierces must be rolled at least four times during the
curing period. Bellies must be overhauled at least three times while
curing in open vats, and if cured in closed up tierces, they must be
rolled at least three times during the curing period. This overhauling
is very necessary because it mixes the brine and changes the position
of the meat in such a way that the brine gets to all parts of it.



HOW TO BOIL HAMS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Heat the water to 155 degrees Fahrenheit. Then place the hams in the
hot water and keep them in it from eight to nine hours, according to
the size of Hams. Try to keep the water as near to 155 degrees as
possible. By cooking Hams in a temperature of 155 degrees, very little
of the fat will cook out of them and float on top of the water, and the
Hams will shrink very little. When Hams or large pieces of meat are
boiled for slicing cold, allow them to remain in the water until it is
nearly cold, for by so doing the meat re-absorbs much of the nutriment
which has been drawn out during the cooking process. Then put them in a
cooler over night, so that they will become thoroughly chilled before
slicing. Hams should never be cooked in boiling water, which is 212
degrees Fahrenheit, as this is so hot that most of the fat will melt
and run out of them.



USING BRINE TWICE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


The Pickle, in which Hams have been cured, but which is still sweet and
not stringy or ropy, is the best brine in which to cure light bellies.
Nothing need be added to it. It should be used just as it comes from
the Hams. While brine in which Hams have been cured can be used once
more for curing Breakfast Bacon, it should be remembered that it must
not be used a second time for curing Hams or Shoulders.



ICE WATER.


[Illustration]

Never use the drip water of melted ice from a cooler for making Pickle,
as it contains many impurities, and therefore should never be used.



PUMPING MEATS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: PUMPING MEATS]

We highly recommend pumping Hams, Shoulders and other kinds of Cured
Meats. It is a safeguard in Hams and Shoulders against shank and body
souring, should they, through some carelessness, be insufficiently
chilled all the way to the bone, and is a protection against sour
joint, and insures a uniform cure. It is also of great advantage to
pump Breakfast Bacon, Corned Beef, Dried Beef, Dry Salt Meats, etc.
Packers and curers, who do not use a pump and the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
Process, are suffering losses from sour meats, which during a year’s
business would mean a large profit to them.

There is a mistaken idea among many butchers and packers that pumping
Hams and Shoulders is injurious to the meat. The facts do not warrant
such a belief, as the best cured and the best flavored meats are those
that have been pumped. When Hams and Shoulders are not pumped, it
requires weeks for the pickle to penetrate through to the bone, which
is the vital spot of a Ham or Shoulder. If the joints, tissues and meat
around the bone are not wholly and thoroughly cured, the entire Ham or
Shoulder is inferior and no good; because it furnishes a favorable seat
for the development of the germs of putrefaction, which render the meat
unfit for human food.

In order to always have a mild cure, sweet flavor at the joints,
and uniform color, they should be pumped. Pumping with the
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= Process is a safe-guard against shank and body
souring; it gives the inside of a Ham or Shoulder a delicious flavor,
a good color, and insures a uniform cure; it cures the joints and
the meat around the bone thoroughly, and greatly reduces the period
of curing. The secret and principal feature in pumping Hams and
Shoulders, is to have the right kind of pumping brine. When common
brine, or ordinary sweet-pickle is used for pumping, the Hams or
Shoulders usually become pickle-soaked, and if the refrigerator under
such conditions is not the very best, or if the Hams or Shoulders are
not thoroughly chilled, the smallest degree of animal heat which may
be remaining in them will start fermentation, causing the meat to sour
next to the joints. It is, therefore, plain to be seen that pumping,
under such conditions, instead of doing good, will in reality result
in injury, and this is the reason why so many who have tried pumping
meats have failed. On the other hand, when the pumping brine is made as
shown herein, all of these objections are overcome, and the meat will
not be pickle-soaked, nor will it become soft and flabby. The brine
will be absorbed by the meat around the bone and joints so thoroughly
as to leave no trace of it after the Ham is cured; it also gives the
inside meat a fine red color, and a delicious flavor. Hams that have
been pumped with =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and cured by the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
Process, will not dry up and become hard when fried or cooked; when
sliced cold they will not crumble, but will slice nicely and have a
delicate and pleasing flavor.



DIRECTIONS FOR PUMPING.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


One gallon of pumping brine is sufficient for pumping one tierce, or
285 lbs. of meat. Make the pumping brine as follows:

  ½ lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
  1 lb of Pure Granulated Sugar.
  2 lbs. of Salt.
  1 gal. of Water.

The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar
must not be used. When adulterated sugar is used, the brine becomes
thick and would spoil the meat in two weeks. Stir the above thoroughly
before using. As this will make a thick brine which is more than
saturated, it will precipitate when left standing, therefore, when
mixed in large quantities, it should be stirred occasionally. Meats
should never be pumped with anything but a solution that is thoroughly
saturated.

[Illustration: HAMS]

[Illustration: SHOULDERS]

Pump the Hams or Shoulders just before they are packed, and if it
is desired to rush the cure, pump them every time that the meat is
overhauled. The pumping solution must be cold when pumped into the
meat. Ordinarily, three insertions of the needle in the Hams are
sufficient; once at the shank to the hock joint as shown at A, once
to the thigh and along the bone, Fig. B., and once from the butt end
to the joint under the hip bone and into the fleshy part, Fig. C.
Solid lines show needle up to point of insertion and dotted line shows
direction taken by needle after insertion. In a very heavy Ham as
many as six insertions should be made, and the same with very heavy
Shoulders. Three insertions of the needle into a medium size Shoulder
are sufficient; one at Fig. D, one to the shoulder joint at Fig. E, and
one under the blade from the end, or diagonally from the back of the
shoulder toward the end at Fig. F. More insertions may be made without
injury to the meat, but the above are all that are required for good
results. One cubic inch of solution is enough for each insertion, and
after withdrawing the needle, the hole must be squeezed shut with the
thumb to prevent the solution from oozing out. Stir the solution well
before starting to pump. The Pumper must be careful not to pump air
into the meat. Never allow the Pickle to go below the end of sucker of
pump.



USE ONLY PURE SUGAR

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


It will be noted that, in all of our directions for the sweet pickling
of meat, we lay great stress upon the importance of using only pure
sugar, free from adulterations. The very best and purest of granulated
sugar should always be used, if the best results are expected. Sugar,
as is well known is a great nutrient and, as a food, possesses
practically the same value as starch; it is however, much more readily
digested. Therefore the use of pure sugar assists in making meat food
products more digestible. In preparing a sweet brine, the one great
object sought to be attained is that the brine shall have the highest
possible penetrative quality. Any adulterant in the sugar tends to
prevent the penetration of the sweet pickled brine and lessens its
efficiency in proportion as adulterants are contained in the sugar.
It is only by the use of pure granulated sugar that a well-keeping
brine can be produced. Many adulterants, even though they are natural
adulterants, resulting from lack of proper refining of the sugar,
tend to create fermentation in the brine producing a slimy and ropy
condition. As is well known to those best experienced in the sweet
pickling of meat, ropy and slimy brine is almost always sure to cause
meat to sour.

Impurities in sugar used for producing sweet pickle will prevent the
proper coagulation of the albumen in the meat juices. Coagulation
does and should take place in all well cured meat. The impurities
and adulterants, in other words, positively counteract the effect
of the curing agents in the brine. Therefore use only the best pure
granulated sugar in making all sweet pickle. The general conditions
for obtaining pure granulated sugar at the present day are very much
improved over those of a number of years ago, prior to the passage of
the Food and Drugs Act of 1906. For instance, you can form a good idea
of the purity of your sugar by dissolving a quantity in water to make
a fairly thick syrup, but not using more than the water will take up.
Cork this tightly and place in a dark room over night. We have seen
tests made in this way, which in twenty-four hours would show a deposit
of blue coloring at the bottom of the bottle, and also a considerable
quantity of insoluble salts. This comes from what is known as “bluing”
the sugar, but where you purchase one of the well known manufacturers
products marked, “pure granulated sugar”, these difficulties are seldom
met with at the present time. There was a time also when sugar was
frequently adulterated with crystallized glucose or as is commonly
known “grape sugar.” This was a very serious adulterant from the view
point of the sweet pickle curing of meat, as glucose tends to ferment
in brine very quickly and consequently the brine would become ropy and
slimy within a very short time. This resulted in sour and soggy hams,
bacon, etc., so that the purchase of cheap sugar containing impurities
was never a saving, but proved very costly to the manufacturer who was
persuaded to purchase low grade sugar.

It has been a common practice with some butchers in preparing sweet
pickle to use molasses or syrup. This method we strongly urge our
friends not to adopt. The saving will be many times lost by meat which
will have to be thrown away because of ropy, fermented and sour pickle.
We cannot urge upon our friends too strongly that they use only pure
granulated sugar. Not only from the standpoint of keeping sweet pickle
brine in good, clean condition, but from the view point of flavor and
thorough cure, the use of pure granulated sugar is absolutely necessary
for producing the proper kind of finished meat food products.

Sugar is considered as a natural preservative, but it must be borne
in mind that sugar is used in the sweet pickle method of curing meat,
not only as a preservative, but also as a flavor. Pure sugar has
the property of combining with the other curing agents and by its
penetrative property carries the other curing agents into the cells of
the meat tissue more thoroughly. This results in the uniform action of
the curing agent, producing even flavored meat as a result of the cure.
Another peculiar property of pure sugar is that by its combination
with the salt used in the brine it has a great tendency to prevent
fermentation, thus keeping a clean, clear, sweet, penetrative brine,
which will do the largest amount of work with the smallest amount of
material, in producing evenly cured meat. To sum up, we will state that
pure granulated sugar should take the place of molasses, syrup or any
other form of sweetener because it imparts a better flavor and assists
in making the brine more penetrative, thus producing best results.



HANDLING CALVES’ STOMACHS OR RENNETS

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


The calf’s stomach is divided into four compartments. The first one is
known as the paunch; the second as the honeycomb stomach; the third is
called the many-plies stomach and the fourth is known as the rennet bag.

The proper way to handle the rennet bag is to remove it from the
balance of the stomach, turn it inside out, and clean with fresh water
so as to remove the adhering contents. Great care must be taken not to
scrape off or in any way remove the mucous membrane (by this is meant
the many folds of thin skin) as this is the part of the stomach which
has a market value. Of course the stomach must be gently and carefully
washed to remove the undigested portions of food which may be contained
therein, as otherwise it would very quickly decompose and become
putrid. It would then be of no value whatever for any purpose. After
cleansing them, dust the rennet bags all over with finely ground salt,
and blow them up after having turned them inside out. Then hang them
in a dry place in a current of air so that they will dry as quickly as
possible.



ROPY OR STRINGY BRINE

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


Occasionally brine that has been made with sugar will become ropy and
thick like jelly, but yet will be somewhat stringy. This is called
“Ropy Brine,” and can always be traced to either the use of unsuitable
sugar or improper temperature of the curing room.

[Illustration: ROPY BRINE]

Yellow or brown sugar and glucose sugar will never do for curing meat.
It must be Pure Sugar, and the Refined, Granulated Sugar is the best,
because the impurities have been taken out.

However, even if Pure Granulated Sugar is used and the temperature of
the Curing Room is too high, the brine is liable to turn “Ropy” anyway.
It is, therefore, absolutely necessary for anyone who intends to cure
meat in sweet brine not only to use the proper kind of sugar but also
to cure in the proper temperature. Otherwise, the results will not be
satisfactory, no matter what kind of a curing agent is used.

In buying sugar for curing purposes, it is advisable to order it from
the wholesale grocers or from the manufacturer, and have it guaranteed
to be Pure Granulated Sugar put up Especially for Preserving Purposes.
This grade of sugar is on the market and is used for preserving fruits,
and is the best kind of sugar to use for curing meats.

If brine has become ropy in a curing package and it is desired to use
that package again, it is absolutely necessary to thoroughly scald
out such package, and it is well to use =Ozo Washing= Powder for that
purpose so as to prevent the possibility of fermentation. Otherwise,
the unclean package will cause the fresh brine to turn “Ropy” even
though it is made with the right kind of sugar and kept in the proper
temperature.



BOILING THE BRINE

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: BOILING BRINE]

Boiling the brine improves it some, but not enough to pay for the extra
trouble it makes. We recommend boiling the water, if one has the time,
as it purifies it. When there is reason to believe that the water is
impure, or when it is known to be tainted with vegetable matter, the
brine should always be boiled, and the impurities will then float on
the surface, and can be skimmed off.



CLEANSING CURING PACKAGES

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


All curing packages should be taken out of the cooler after the meat
has been cured in them, and scalded and washed thoroughly clean with
hot water and =Ozo=. Soda or Soda-ash may also be used, but we strongly
recommend =Ozo=, which is a thoroughly reliable Washing Powder. When
packages have been thoroughly cleaned, they should be put out in
the sun and allowed to remain there for a day or two. The sun will
thoroughly dry them and the fresh air will sweeten them.



SOME CAUSES FOR SOUR HAMS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Sour Hams are sometimes caused by hanging warm meat in the same room in
which the meat is cured. This should never be done. The warm carcasses
raise the temperature of the curing room, thus causing the brine to
get too warm. Under such conditions the meat is liable to sour in the
brine. Furthermore, the brine is liable to absorb the odors from the
warm carcasses, which of course is very objectionable.

Many suppose that Hams sour from getting too much smoke, but such is
never the cause, as Hams will not sour from over-smoke. Smoke aids to
preserve Hams and cannot cause them to sour. When Hams sour in the
Smoke House the cause must be traced to the fact that they are not
properly and fully cured before going into the Smoke House, and the
portion that has not been thoroughly cured, which is generally close
to the bone, has not been reached by the brine. In many cases, souring
comes from imperfect chilling of meat before putting it into the brine;
then again, the meat may not have been overhauled at the proper time
and with the frequency which good curing requires.

In order to prevent souring of Hams the various stages of curing must
be carried out with the utmost care. In the first place, hogs should
not be killed when overheated or excited, and after they have been
scalded and scraped, they must be dressed as quickly as possible,
washed out thoroughly with clean water and then split and allowed to
hang in a well ventilated room until partly cooled off. They should
then be run into a cooler or chill room as quickly as possible and the
temperature should be reduced to 32 to 34 degrees Fahrenheit. They
should be allowed to thus chill for 48 hours. When hogs are properly
chilled after curing, the temperature of the inside of the Ham or
Shoulder will not be more than several degrees higher than the cooler.
After being thoroughly chilled, the Hams must undergo the various
processes which will be found in other pages of this book which give
directions for the curing of Hams and Shoulders. When these directions
are closely followed, there will never be trouble from sour Hams.



HAMS AND SUPERIOR HAMS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration]

There seems to exist some doubt in the minds of butchers as to whether
one Ham can be cured to better advantage than another, basing their
opinion upon the fact that all packers have two grades of Hams, one of
which is called of superior quality. Doubt has been expressed as to
whether one piece of meat taken from the hog will make any better pork
than that taken from another. This doubt should not obtain and could
hardly exist in the minds of anyone who has carefully investigated the
modern methods of packing. If such a person were to stand by the side
of a Ham trimmer in a packing house and examine each Ham as it comes
from the trimmer, he would be at once convinced as to the error of his
opinion. There would be noticed a vast difference in the quality of
Hams, even in their fresh state. Many Hams are of very coarse grain,
especially those that come from boars, stags and old sows, while
many other Hams are large and too fat. Those that come from poor,
scrawny hogs are too small and thin, and this differentiation exists
regardless of the grade or the experience in buying different lots of
hogs. Perhaps there is no animal which varies so much in quality and
condition of meat as the hog, and he fully represents or reflects the
quality of the food from which he is made, or the results of wise or
unwise feeding. Furthermore, Hams will vary in quality even after they
have been graded; some medium size Hams, which is the size usually
picked for the finest cure, are of much better quality than others.
This will be readily admitted when it is remembered that a Ham may be
of proper weight, but it can also be too fat for its weight, it can
be too lean, it can have a coarse thick skin, the meat can be coarse
in grain or it may be properly graded as to size, but come from an
old, worn-out sow. Under such circumstances, it is not only necessary
to cull the Hams, but to recull them, until the different grades are
divided as to quality.

A fourteen to sixteen pound Ham from a young barrow with a fine, thin,
white skin which is not too fat or not too lean, and possessing a nice,
fine grained meat is fully up to grade and is taken for the superior
quality of Hams. Therefore, a Ham of this description is superior
in quality even before it goes into the brine for curing, and it is
very easy to understand that when such a quality of Ham is carefully
cured, for just the proper length of time, it will be far better than
the ordinary run of Hams. Furthermore, the quality of the Hams may be
deteriorated in many ways. For instance, the fourteen to sixteen pound
Ham is fully cured in from sixty to seventy days, but if a packer has
put up a large quantity of better grade Hams which gives him a surplus,
he will hold them in the brine from ten to twenty days longer after
they have been fully cured, and if they are thus kept in the brine for
this additional period, they may become too salty and their fine flavor
is lost. Under such circumstances the Hams must be taken out of the
brine and smoked, or must be stored in a low temperature for ten or
twenty days longer, but the moment they are kept beyond the full curing
time they are not as good as when taken out of the cure at the moment
they are fully cured. Furthermore, if a large quantity of the superior
quality of Hams have been smoked and they are not disposed of rapidly
enough, they begin to lose in appearance, and must again be culled and
sold with the cheaper grade of Hams. If they are kept in brine longer
than is necessary, they must also go into the cheaper quality.

It is, therefore, plain to be seen that what is known as the superior
quality is the best Ham that the packer can turn out. As stated, the
Hams are superior before they are cured. They are properly kept all
through the process of curing, and the moment they are fully cured they
are taken out, smoked and sold. It is only by handling Hams in this
manner that it is possible to maintain a grade of superior quality. All
Hams cannot be handled in this way, owing to the fluctuation of supply
and demand, but the packer aims to keep them fully up to superior grade
by a frequent and discriminating culling. This should convince anyone
in doubt upon this question that they are erroneous in supposing that
all hams are alike, and that all hog meat is high grade pork, when, in
fact, it has various grades of quality.



HOW TO SMOKE PICKLE-SOAKED MEAT.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


It sometimes happens that butchers leave their Hams in brine too long
and they become pickle-soaked. Once in this pickle-soaked condition,
it is well known that it is a very difficult matter to smoke the Hams,
because, even though they are sweet when they go into the Smoke House,
they will come out sour. Hams should not be left in brine over ninety
days, and at the very outside not more than one hundred days, unless
they are put into a freezer and kept at a temperature of 28 degrees,
at which they can be kept as long as desired. But it is frequently the
case that they are left in pickle five or six months in an ordinary
cooler. Hams thus over-pickled cannot fail to cause trouble in the
Smoke House, and we would advise that all Hams that have been left
in the brine for such a long time should be washed off in warm water
after first letting them soak in cold water 2 to 4 hours. They should
then be hung up to dry and kept in a well ventilated room where the
temperature is not too high. A room in which the circulation of air is
good and which can be well ventilated by opening the windows and doors,
and which does not rise in temperature above 60 to 70 degrees, would
answer the purpose for drying out. It will do no harm to let the Hams
hang two or three weeks before smoking. They can then be put in the
Smoke House and smoked gently, using as little heat as possible. For
the purpose of this light smoking, it is best to use sawdust instead of
wood, or mostly sawdust, and a small amount of wood, in order to reduce
the heat. The Smoke House should also be constructed in such a way that
it can be sufficiently ventilated to let cool air into it and thus make
sure of a cool smoke. If Hams are smoked under such conditions, they
should come out of the Smoke House without souring.

The souring of pickle-soaked Hams is due to the brine fermenting in
the Hams when they are placed in the warm Smoke House. Hence the
advisability of drying out the Hams well before placing them in the
Smoke House, and of smoking them in a cool smoke. When Meat has been in
brine a very long time and has become pickle-soaked, and is afterward
soaked in cold water, the greatest of care must be taken not to
keep it in cold fresh water too long, otherwise the meat will absorb
more moisture. It is also a good plan to soak Meat that has been in
brine 60, 70 or 80 days in cold water. When Hams are fully cured, the
strength of the brine may be reduced somewhat, after which the Hams
may be permitted to remain in the brine about 30 days longer. Hams are
fully cured in 70 days, and may be allowed to remain in a weaker brine
30 days longer, but no longer. After 30 days they must be taken out of
this reduced brine, and, if it is so desired, they may be kept in a low
temperature two or three weeks longer before smoking, but at the end of
that time they must be smoked.



CLEANING LARD TIERCES FOR CURING PURPOSES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


As is well known, Butchers experience a great deal of trouble when they
use second-hand lard tierces for curing meats, owing to the fact that
the lard soaks into the pores of the wood, where it becomes tainted and
rancid. No amount of washing or scalding will thoroughly cleanse such
tierces or make them as good as new. The lard is run into the tierces
while it is hot and the fat naturally soaks very deeply into the wood.
After these tierces are emptied and are used for curing purposes, the
old lard remains in the pores and becomes rancid and contaminates the
brine and also the meat.

[Illustration]

It is a fact that many Butchers use old lard tierces for curing
purposes and neglect to thoroughly clean them; and even if they have
been well cleaned, it is well known that, notwithstanding every
precaution taken, there is still left in the tierces a taint which
affects the flavor of the meat.



USE ONLY PURE SPICES

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


We strongly recommend our friends to use only Pure Spices for three
very good and sufficient reasons. First, for flavor; second, for
uniformity, which will insure your sausage always being the same in
flavor; third, for economy, as pure spices are cheapest in the final
analysis.

Then again, the Pure Food Laws should not be over-looked. In States
where the use of cereal in sausage is forbidden, the one safe-guard
against prosecution is to use absolutely Pure Spices and avoid
so-called sausage seasonings which contain cereals as an adulterant.
In our laboratory we have repeatedly found cases where as much as 50%
bread crumbs were mixed into spice to cheapen it. The bread crumbs
mixed with the seasoning into the sausage meat would be detected by the
chemists and microscopists of the various State Pure Food Departments,
making the butcher who used such seasonings liable to prosecution for
adding adulterants to his sausage.

If you will bear in mind that spices are of value only to the extent
that they contain the flavoring principle of the particular Spice, you
will readily understand that buying adulterated Spices is just throwing
so much money away. For instance, in the case of White Pepper, there
is an Oil of Pepper and certain resins. Presuming that you do pay the
legitimate wholesale price for the sausage seasoning which contains
only the best Singapore White Pepper and do have to pay a few cents a
pound more than for one which is diluted down with 50% bread crumbs,
the pure and unadulterated Spice is by far the cheapest in the end. You
are also assured of always obtaining a uniform flavor in the finished
sausage meat.

There is probably no other material in use by the butcher that is as
liable to adulteration as Spice. To the average user the adulteration
is very difficult to detect, because the aroma of the Spice is there
and the adulterant is so cunningly ground and mixed in with the Pure
Spice that, to the naked eye, it looks like the genuine article.
But once the chemist or the microscopist secures a sample of these
adulterated goods one glance through the microscope and a simple test
for starch, which comes from the added cereal present, is sufficient.
These adulterations not only occur in the largest used Spice like
Pepper, but many of the other higher priced Spices like Cinnamon,
Nutmeg, Cloves, Mace, Allspice, Ginger, etc., are equally the subject
of adulteration at the hands of unscrupulous manufacturers and jobbers
whose only object is to undersell the legitimate importer and grinder
of real 100% Spice.



A CHEAP TEMPORARY SMOKE HOUSE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


This illustration will give some idea of how a temporary smoke house
can be rigged up with very little trouble, which will answer the
purpose nicely.

[Illustration]

Very often it becomes necessary for a butcher to re-smoke some bologna
that has been shipped to him from a packer, and it is sometimes
necessary to re-smoke Hams and Bacon. Also, a butcher will often want
to cure a small quantity of meat and would like to smoke it.

When butchers who are not equipped with a smoke house have to do this,
they may be at a loss to know what to do.

Take a clean sugar barrel and knock out the bottom; then set the barrel
on top of a box about four feet long, one or two feet high and as wide
as the barrel. If a box of this shape cannot be obtained, a large dry
goods box will answer. Bore auger holes through the box under the
barrel, to let the smoke through. Get a large piece of tin, galvanized
iron or sheet iron, about one foot wide and 2 feet long and bend it
into the shape of a pan, or take an old roasting pan. Dig a hole in the
ground at the front end of the box, so fire can be put onto this piece
of tin, sheet iron or pan and then placed under the box with the fire
on it. After the fire is placed under the box, place a board over the
hole. All crevices must be banked with dirt around the box, to keep the
smoke in.

The meats to be smoked should be hung on sticks with long strings on
them, so as to let them down to about the middle of the barrel. Cover
the barrel up with a gunny sack, so as to let a draft pass through and
still retain the smoke in the barrel.

This makes a first class temporary smoke house with very little trouble
and expense.



HOW TO KEEP HAMS, SHOULDERS, BACON, DRIED BEEF, AND ALL KINDS OF
PICKLED MEATS IN BRINE FOR A YEAR OR LONGER.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


All kinds of pickled meat after it is fully cured, if stored in a
cooler in which the temperature is kept down to 28 degrees can be kept
in this cooler for a year, or even longer, and when removed will come
out similar to fresh cured meat. During the time when Hams and other
meats are low in price, they can be stored in a freezer, and kept there
until such a time as they are in greatest demand and will sell at the
highest price. This enables the packer to reap a larger profit. At a
temperature of 28 degrees, the meat will not freeze after it is cured,
and the brine of course does not freeze, as salt water will not freeze,
at that temperature. When meat is taken out of such cold storage to
be smoked, it should first be soaked for three to five hours in fresh
water, then washed in boiling hot water and smoked the same as regular
fresh cured meat.



WASHING CURED MEAT BEFORE SMOKING.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: WASHING MEATS BEFORE SMOKING]

Hams, Shoulders, Bacon and all cured meats whether dry salted or cured
in brine, should be washed in hot water and scrubbed with a brush
before being put into the smoke house. This is very important, as the
meat thus scrubbed will come out of the smoke looking much better. The
water should be as hot as the men can work with. The hotter the water,
the better the meat will look after being smoked.



BRINE ABSORBS FOREIGN ODORS

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


Warm carcasses of meat should never be put into a cooler where meat is
being cured in open vats, as the cold pickle will absorb the impure
animal heat, and odors which these carcasses give off. Never allow
sour pickle of any kind to remain in the curing room, as cold brine or
water will absorb all foreign odors. To demonstrate this, take a glass
of cold water, set it on a table next to a glass of tainted brine, and
cover both with a bucket or pan; allow them to remain over night, and
the next morning the cold water will have the same odor as the tainted
brine. This will easily prove how meat can be tainted when curing in
open tierces or vats, if anything sour or spoiled is in the cooler;
therefore, curing rooms must be kept as clean as possible.



HOW LONG BRINE SHOULD BE USED

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


The length of time that brine should be used depends entirely upon the
quantity of brine that you have in the barrel and the amount of meat
that you put in each week. When the meat is packed solid it takes about
5 gallons of brine to each 100 pounds of meat. On the other hand if
you put 25 gallons of brine in a tierce in which you place but a few
pieces of corned beef from time to time as the meat accumulates your
brine would be sufficient to cure 500 pounds of meat; if the barrel was
nice and clean, the meat in good condition when put in the brine, and
generally speaking conditions are favorable it will cure a great deal
more than 500 pounds.

The brine may be used until it begins to get thick and show foam on the
top; then of course it is advisable to make a new brine, at the same
time washing the tierce out thoroughly.



DRY SALT MEATS.


=Short Ribs= (Regular) are made from the sides of the hog, between the
Ham and Shoulder, having the loin and ribs in, and backbone removed.

=Extra Short Ribs= are made from the sides of the hog, between the Ham
and Shoulder, with loin taken out, but belly ribs left in.

=Short Ribs= (Hard) are made from the sides of the hog, between the Ham
and Shoulder, having the loin, ribs and backbone in.

=Short Clears= are made from the sides of the hog, between the Ham and
Shoulder, having the loin in, and ribs and backbone removed.

=Extra Short Clears= are made from the sides of the hog, between the
Ham and Shoulder with loin and all bones taken out.

=Long Clears= are made from sides, Ham being cut off, but Shoulders
left in, back bone and ribs removed, shoulder blade and leg bone taken
out, and leg cut off close to the breast.

=Extra Long Clears= are made from sides, Ham being cut off, back bone,
loin and ribs removed. Shoulder blade and leg bone taken out and leg
cut off close to the breast.

=Short Clear Backs= are made from the backs of hogs with the loin left
in, but ribs and backbone removed; also known as =Lean Backs= and =Loin
Backs=.

=Short Fat Backs= are made from the fat backs of prime hogs, being free
from lean and bone, and properly squared on all edges.

=Dry Salt Bellies= are made from medium size hogs, cut square and well
trimmed on all edges, with ribs left in.

=Dry Salt Clear Bellies= are made from medium size hogs, cut square and
well trimmed on all edges, with ribs taken out.



HOW TO CURE DRY SALT SIDE MEATS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


=First=--Thoroughly chill the hogs so they are firm and solid. This
will require letting them hang in the cooler after they are killed
about 48 hours. Should the sides not be perfectly solid and thoroughly
chilled, when cut up, spread them on the floor of a dry cooler for 24
hours, which ought to be long enough in a fair cooler to thoroughly
chill them.

=Second=:--Make a tub of brine, using 15 lbs. of salt and 1 lb. of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= to each 5 gallons of brine.

=Third=:--Take a pickle pump, and pump some of the above brine into the
sides along the backbone, being careful to get it all through the thick
part.

=Fourth=:--Dip the sides into the tub of brine, and then lay them on a
table or trough and rub thoroughly with dry salt. They must be dipped
in brine, so that the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= will get all over the meat,
and so the salt will adhere to the meat.

=Fifth=:--Clean the floor in the cooler or curing room with =Ozo
Washing Powder=; sprinkle the floor lightly with salt; and then pile
the sides one on top of the other with the meat side always up. Between
each side spread a layer of salt, and see that all parts of the meat
are covered with the salt. The more salt put on it the better.

=Sixth=:--Five days after salting the sides, shake off the salt, and
pump them again in the same manner as when first salting; dip into the
vat of brine, and dry salt again; then stack up the same as in the
first instance, putting salt between each layer, and repeating this
overhauling every ten days until the sides are cured.



HOW LONG TO CURE DRY SALT SIDES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Light sides will fully cure in from 30 to 35 days, and should be
resalted three times, which with the first salting received by them,
will give them four saltings during the curing period. These saltings
are given on the first day, the fifth day, the fifteenth day, and the
twenty-fifth day.



HOW LONG TO CURE HEAVY DRY SALT SIDES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Heavy sides will be fully cured in from 50 to 60 days, according to
size, and should be resalted five times during the curing, as follows:
The first day, the fifth day, and then every ten days. After 45 days,
the meat need not be rehandled, and can then remain in the cooler piled
up, as long as one wishes to keep it. It should not be taken out of the
cooler, however, until it has been in salt 50 to 60 days, according to
the season of the year.



TEMPERATURE OF COOLER FOR DRY SALTING.


Full information as to the temperature of the cooler for dry salting
will be found on page 46 under the head “Temperature.”



DRY SALT CURING BY BUTCHERS WHO HAVE NO ICE MACHINE.


Small butchers, who have no ice machines, and simply use an ice box
for a cooler, must use the greatest care to see that the meat is well
chilled before salting, and they must also use plenty of salt. For the
special benefit of small butchers, we will say that we fully realize
the conditions which surround them, and we are well aware that they
cannot get the temperature in an ice box as low as with an ice machine;
but nevertheless, they can always cure meat with the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
process, and get better results.



DESCRIPTION OF BARRELED PORK.


=Mess Pork= is made from the sides of well-fattened hogs, split through
the backbone, and cut in strips about six inches wide.

=Mess Pork Short Cut= is made from the backs of prime hogs, split
through the backbone, backbone left in, and bellies taken off; cut into
pieces six inches square.

=Clear Back Pork= is made from the fat part of the backs of prime hogs,
being free from lean and bone, even in thickness, and cut into pieces
about six inches square.

=Family Pork Lean= is made from the top of shoulders, when cut into
California Hams. It has one-half of the blade bone in, and is about
two-thirds fat, and one-third lean.

=Clear Bean or Butt Pork= is made from the fat cheek or jowl, cut
square.

=Clear Brisket Pork= is made from the Briskets of prime medium weight
hogs, ribs removed and pieces cut about five inches wide.

=Rib Brisket Pork= is made from the Briskets of prime medium hogs, ribs
left in, and cut into pieces about five inches wide.

=Loin Pork= is made from the end of the back next to the Ham, with both
lean and fat, and has a portion of the tail bone in.

=Pig Pork=: Light selected boneless Bellies cut into five inch pieces,
trimmed square.

=Belly Pork=: Selected heavy weight Bellies, cut into five inch pieces,
with ribs left in.

=Extra Short Clear Pork= is made from the sides of hogs, with the loin
and backbone removed, and the Belly ribs left in, cut into strips five
inches wide, squared at each end.

=Lean End Pork= is made from selected medium weight Rib Bellies, cut
into strips five inches wide.



DIRECTIONS FOR CURING BARRELED PORK.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Never pack more than 190 lbs. of pork in an ordinary pork barrel.

=First=:--If it can possibly be obtained, it is always best to use
coarse rock salt, or coarse evaporated salt, which is made especially
for this purpose; but if coarse salt cannot be obtained, any salt will
answer the purpose. In packing it is necessary to use 35 lbs. of salt
for each barrel, over and above the salt used in the brine.

=Second=:--Take a perfectly clean pork barrel, and throw three handfuls
of salt on the bottom of the barrel.

=Third=:--Put in a layer of pork; throw three handfuls of salt over
this layer.

=Fourth=:--Keep packing layer after layer, until the 190 lbs. of pork
are packed in the barrel, and while packing put three handfuls of salt
over each layer of the pork.

=Fifth=:--The following are the proper proportions for brine for 190
lbs. of pork: Put 10 gallons of cold water in a keg or tub; dissolve in
this water 2 lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and 30 lbs. of salt. Stir this
well until it is all dissolved, and then pour the brine over the pork
which has been packed as above directed.

=Sixth=:--If the barrels are to be headed up, head up first, and then
put in the brine through the bung hole.



TEMPERATURE FOR BARRELED PORK.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


It is necessary that the greatest care should be exercised not to let
the pork freeze while curing. Brine for barreled pork will not freeze
at the freezing point of water, but the meat in the brine will freeze,
and will not cure if the temperature is lower than the freezing point
for any length of time. See instructions as to Temperature to be found
on page 46.



BARRELED PORK NEED NOT BE OVERHAULED.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Barreled Pork when packed in accordance with these directions with
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= and Salt, and then stored in a cooler, will not
spoil, but will cure with a delicious flavor. It is not necessary that
barreled pork should be overhauled; overhauling is required only for
dry-salt and sweet-pickled meats. After the pork is fully cured, which
will vary according to the size of the pieces, from 40 to 60 days, the
pork can be shipped anywhere, into any hot climate and will remain in
perfect condition without spoiling.

Extreme care must be exercised to thoroughly chill the pork before
it is packed; if animal heat is left in the pork, it will not cure
properly, any more than will hams when they are put into brine, with
the animal heat left in them. Good results when curing barreled pork,
cannot be expected if the meat is not in proper condition when packed.



DRIPPINGS FROM REFRIGERATING PIPES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: DRIPPINGS FROM PIPES]

Never allow the drippings from refrigerating pipes along the ceiling,
or from ice chambers, to drip into open vats containing meats while
curing, as they will reduce the strength of the brine and make no end
of trouble.

Keep the cooler as dry and as clean as it possibly can be kept. A damp,
dirty cooler breeds millions of germs. These germs affect the brine and
the curing of the meat.

[Illustration: SWEET PICKLED SPARE RIBS]



RECIPE FOR CURING SPARE RIBS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


For each 100 pounds of spare ribs make the brine as follows: 5 pounds
of common salt, 1 pound of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 2 pounds of best
granulated sugar and 5 gallons of cold water.

Cure in this brine from 10 to 12 days. The temperature of the cooler in
which the spare ribs are cured can be anywhere from 36 to 43 degrees,
but it should not vary from this range of temperature. It is best to
leave the spare ribs in the cure from 10 to 12 days, though they will
be cured sufficiently in 7 to 8 days.

If the above method is carefully carried out, the result will be a
fine, mild, sweet cure and not too salty.

Before placing the spare ribs in the brine they should be handled in
the same manner as hams and shoulders. In other words, they should be
rubbed in half of the above quantity of salt, =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and
sugar, and the mixed =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, sugar and salt that is left
after rubbing should be used for making the brine.

[Illustration: BEEF TONGUES]



HOW TO CURE BEEF TONGUES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


=First=:--Cut the tongues out of the heads as soon as possible, and
with warm water scrub off all the slime and dirt, with a stiff brush;
hang up in a cooler on a hook at the gullet, to make the tongues thick
instead of long and thin.

=Second=:--Let them hang for at least 24 hours in a cooler.

=Third=:--When the tongues are thoroughly chilled and firm, cut off the
surplus fat and square the tongues at the gullet by trimming off all
ragged pieces.

=Fourth=:--Put them into a strong common salt brine to beach them, and
leave them in this brine from 10 to 20 hours.

=Fifth=:--Take them out of this brine and rub the slime off the tongues
and out of the gullet, and also rub the gullet with dry salt.

=Sixth=:--If only a few tongues are to be cured make a barrel of
pickle, as follows, and simply throw the tongues into it: For every
5 gallons of water, add 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 2 lbs. of Pure
Granulated Sugar, and 7 lbs. of Common Salt.

=Seventh=:--Where large packers wish to pack tongues in tierces, the
tongues should be handled as follows: Weigh out 285 lbs.; then mix
together in a box or tub the following:

   3 lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
   6 lbs. of Best Granulated Sugar.
  21 lbs. of Salt.

=Eighth=:--Rub each tongue with some of this mixture and pack as
loosely as possible in the tierce, using about one-half of the mixture
of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt for rubbing, and the other half
for making the brine. It will require between 14 to 15 gallons of brine
to fill the tierces, some tierces vary in size, therefore dissolve the
balance of the mixture of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt in about
14 gallons of water, and pour over the tongues, should the tierce hold
more simply add enough cold water to cover all the meat as the right
amount of salt has already been added.

=Ninth=:--If the tierces are to be headed up, the heads should be
put in, and the brine should be poured into the tierce through the
bung hole. The overhauling of tongues is just as important, as is the
overhauling of hams and shoulders. They should be overhauled in the
same manner, and the same number of times. By reference to directions
for curing hams and shoulders, which will be found on previous pages,
all the necessary instructions can be followed. To give the tongues a
proper flavor, they ought to cure from 50 to 60 days.



GARLIC FLAVORED BEEF TONGUES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Many like Garlic Flavored Tongues, and this desire can be fully
satisfied by adding about two tablespoonfuls of Vacuum Brand Garlic
Compound to each tierce of tongues; add it to the brine before it is
poured over the tongues. This will give them a delicious flavor which
will be relished even by people who do not like fresh Garlic.

[Illustration: HOG TONGUES]



HOW TO CURE HOG TONGUES.


Hog Tongues should be handled and cured in exactly the same manner as
beef tongues. The brine should be made of the same strength and in the
same manner, and when so made, it will cure the hog tongues in about 30
days. The directions for curing Beef Tongues can be used for curing Hog
Tongues in every particular.



CURING BEEF CHEEKS FOR CANNING.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


=First=:--The cheeks should be cut out of the head immediately after
the beef is killed, all the fat should be trimmed off, and then the
cheeks should be twice cut, lengthwise, through the outside muscles.

=Second=:--They should be then thrown into ice water to which has been
added some salt, and they should be allowed to remain there for an hour
or two. This will draw out all the slime and blood.

=Third=:--The cheeks should then be put on a coarse wire screen, or
perforated galvanized iron pan placed in a cooler and spread out as
thinly as possible, so as to give them a chance to thoroughly chill. A
thorough chilling in a cold cooler will require 24 hours.

=Fourth=:--The cheeks should then be salted, and packed into tierces;
285 lbs. should be put into each tierce.

=Fifth=:--Handle the cheeks as follows: For each 285 lbs., mix in a box
or tub, 3 lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6 lbs. of Granulated Sugar and 15
lbs. of Common Salt.

=Sixth=:--Then put 285 lbs. of cheeks on a table and take half of the
mixture of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Granulated Sugar and Salt and mix it
with the cheeks thoroughly; then shovel into tierces.

=Seventh=:--If the tierces are to be headed up, put the heads in and
take the balance of the mixture of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt
and dissolve it in 15 gallons of cold water, which pour into the
tierces through the bung hole. Insert the bung, and roll the tierces.
This will mix and dissolve the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt.
Overhaul in closed up tierces simply by rolling them from one end of
the cooler to the other. They ought to be rolled at least 100 feet.

=Eighth=:--If the tierces are to remain open, take 15 gallons of water
in which dissolve the remaining mixture of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar
and Salt, and pour this brine over the cheeks; put boards over the
top to keep the meat from floating or from coming out of the top of
the barrel. At the end of five days after salting, the cheeks must be
overhauled and rehandled by transferring them to another tierce with a
large fork made for such purpose; this should be repeated every five
days, viz., on the fifth day, on the tenth day and on the fifteenth
day. After each overhauling, the same brine is always used to pour over
the meat. If the cheeks are to be kept for any length of time, they
should have another overhauling 25 to 30 days from the day they were
packed. Cheek meat slime considerably, making it difficult to cure.
When the cheeks are overhauled, if the pickle is thick and ropy, new
brine of the same strength as the original brine will have to be made
and poured over them, instead of the old brine. The cheek meat must be
thoroughly washed in cold water before being put into fresh brine.

[Illustration: LIVERS]



CURING HOG LIVERS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Cut off plucks and chill livers thoroughly; then pump them in three or
four places with a long slender open nozzle, about 3/16 to ¼ inch in
diameter, using a pumping pickle made as follows.

   1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  12 lbs. of Common Salt.
   5 gal. of Water.

Stick the nozzle of the brine pump into the different veins on the
lower side of the livers and pump them until they swell up from the
pressure of the brine; then lay them out on a rack for 24 hours in a
cooler and allow the blood to ooze out of them.

On the next day after the livers have been pumped, pack them in a 60
deg. common salt brine; nothing else need be added. Those not having a
Hydrometer for testing brine can make the brine by dissolving 15 lbs.
of salt in 85 lbs. of water, this makes a 60 degree brine. In this
way, the livers can be kept for a long time. When pickling livers, it
is absolutely necessary that all animal heat should be extracted from
them, and that they should be properly chilled and cooled, otherwise,
they will not keep.



CURING BEEF LIVERS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Cut off plucks and chill livers thoroughly. Pump the curing brine into
them in three of four places by using a long slender open nozzle about
3/16 to ¼ inch in diameter, which insert into the different veins on
the lower side of the livers. The brine should be forced into them
until the pressure swells them up; after pumping them, lay them out
on a rack for 24 hours in a cooler and allow the blood to ooze out of
them. The pumping brine for beef livers is made the same as the brine
for hog livers as follows:

   1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  12 lbs. of Common Salt.
   5 gal. of Water.

The day after the livers have been pumped, they should be packed in a
60 deg. common salt brine, which is made by dissolving 15 lbs. of salt
in 85 lbs. of water; nothing else need be added. All animal heat must
be thoroughly extracted, and the livers must be properly chilled and
cooled.



DIRECTIONS FOR CURING LEAN SHOULDER BUTTS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


LIGHT WEIGHT BUTTS.

                      { 5 lbs. of Common Salt,
                      { 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=,
  Use for 100 lbs.    { 2 lbs. Granulated Sugar,
  Light Weight Butts. { 5 gals. of Cold Water.
                      { Cure in this brine 20 to 30 days.


HEAVY WEIGHT BUTTS.

                       { 6 lbs. of Common Salt,
  Use for 100 lbs.     { 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=,
  Heavy Weight Butts.  { 2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar,
                       { 5 gals. of Cold Water.
  Cure in this brine from 30 to 40 days according to size.

The sugar used must be Pure Granulated Sugar; yellow or brown sugar
must not be used.

=First=:--Sort the Butts, separating the Light Weight Butts and the
Heavy Weight Butts.

=Second=:--Take enough of any one size of the assorted Butts to fill a
tierce which will be 285 lbs.; then thoroughly mix together in a large
pail or box the following proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, the very
best and purest Granulated Sugar and Salt.

Use for 285 lbs. of Light Weight Butts, 3 lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6
lbs. of Granulated Sugar and 15 lbs. of Salt.

For 285 lbs. of Heavy Weight Butts, 3 lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 6
lbs. of Granulated Sugar and 18 lbs. of Salt.



HOW TO CURE BUTTS IN OPEN TIERCES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


When the tierces or barrels in which these Butts are cured, are not to
be headed up, but are left open, use half of the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=,
Sugar and Salt for rubbing as follows:

=First=:--Rub each Butt well with some of the mixture of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt. Sprinkle a little of the mixture in
the bottom of the tierce.

=Second=:--Pack the Butts in a perfectly clean tierce. The mixed
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt that is left after rubbing should be
used for making the brine. It will require 14 to 15 gallons of brine
for each tierce of Butts. Make the brine by dissolving in cold water
all the mixed =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt that is left after the
Butts are rubbed. Stir well for a minute until it is dissolved, and
then pour this brine over the meat. When curing only a small quantity
of Butts, cut down the proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and
Salt, also the quantity of water, according to the quantity of Butts to
be cured.



QUANTITY OF BRINE TO USE FOR CURING 100 LBS. OF BUTTS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Five gallons by measure, or 42 lbs. by weight, is the approximate
amount of water to use for every 100 lbs. of meat.

Tierces, after being packed with 285 lbs. of meat, will hold about 15
gallons of water. When curing Butts in vats or open barrels, whether in
small or large quantities, always use not less than 5 gallons of brine
to 100 lbs. of meat, as this makes the proper strength and a sufficient
brine to cover the meat.



HOW TO OVERHAUL BUTTS WHEN CURING IN OPEN PACKAGES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


On the fifth day after packing each lot of Butts, it is necessary that
they should be overhauled. This must be repeated seven days later;
again in ten days, and a final overhauling should be given ten days
later. Overhauling Light Butts three times, and Heavy Butts four
times while curing, and at the proper time in each instance, is very
important, and must never be forgotten, especially when curing with
this mild, sweet cure. Overhauling means, to take the Butts out of the
brine and to repack them in the same brine. The proper way to overhaul
is to take a perfectly clean tierce, set it next to the tierce of Butts
to be overhauled, pack the meat into the empty tierce, and then put
this same brine over the meat.



HOW TO CURE BUTTS IN CLOSED UP TIERCES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Large packers who employ coopers, should always cure Butts in closed up
tierces, as this is the best method known.

=First=:--Mix the proper proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and
Salt, for the different size Butts to be cured. These proportions are
given in the foregoing table, under the heading, “Light Weight Butts,
and Heavy Weight Butts.” If the tierces are to be headed up, use half
of the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar and Salt, for rubbing the Butts,
and the half that is left over after the Butts are rubbed, should be
dissolved in the water which is to be used to fill the tierce. Rub each
Butt well before packing; put only 285 lbs. of meat in each tierce, and
then head them up.

=Second=:--Lay the tierces on their sides and fill them through the
bung hole, with water in which the half of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar
and Salt left over after rubbing, has been dissolved.

_Third_:--Insert the bung and roll the tierces. This will mix and
dissolve the _Freeze-Em-Pickle_, Sugar and Salt rubbed on the meat.
Where the pieces of meat press tightly against each other, or against
the tierce, the brine does not act on the meat; but if the pieces of
meat are rubbed properly with the mixture of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Sugar
and Salt before being packed in the tierce, such surfaces will be acted
upon by the undissolved mixture, so that the curing will be uniform
and no portion of the pieces will be left insufficiently cured, even
if the brine does not come in contact with it. For this reason, it is
important that each piece of meat should be carefully rubbed with the
mixture before being packed in the tierce.

=Fourth=:--Overhaul five days after packing; again seven days later,
again in ten days, and once more ten days thereafter. At each
overhauling, examine each tierce for leaks; if any of the Pickle has
leaked out, knock the bung in and refill. Remember to overhaul Light
Butts three times, and Heavy Butts four times.

=Fifth=:--Overhaul Butts in closed-up tierces, simply by rolling the
tierces from one end of the cooler to the other. They ought to be
rolled at least 100 feet.



ROLLED BONELESS BUTTS OR BUTT SAUSAGE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: BONELESS HAMS]

After the Butts are thoroughly cured, they should be stuffed in beef
bungs; if they are large only one should be stuffed in each casing; if
they are small, two can be stuffed together side by side. The casings
should be tied off at each end, and then wound with a heavy string,
which should be wrapped as tightly as possible. Perforate the casings
with a fork so as to let out any air that may be in them; then smoke
them over night in a cool smoke; in the morning boil them. If they
are to be sold uncooked, dip them in boiling water for five minutes,
and then in cold water so as to shrink the casings. Our new Improved
Zanzibar Carbon can be used on the casings to give them an appetizing
color. See directions for dipping on page 117.



HOW TO CURE MEAT FOR LUNCH HAM OR NEW ENGLAND STYLE PRESSED HAM
(ALSO CALLED BERLINER STYLE HAM)

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


The =Freeze-Em-Pickle= Process is especially adapted for curing
Ham trimmings which are used for Berliner Style Hams, Lunch Hams,
Boneless Hams, New England Style Pressed Hams, etc. It will cure
and preserve Ham trimmings perfectly, and will give them a rich,
delicate sugar-cured ham flavor. It does not draw the albumen out of
the meat, but the natural binding qualities are retained, and the
meat has a rich, red, cured-meat color. Trimmings cured with the
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= Process can be kept in cold storage for a year
without getting too salty or becoming short and losing their nice
flavor and binding qualities.

[Illustration: NEW ENGLAND STYLE PRESSED HAM]

The following directions must be carefully followed to get the results
desired:

=First=:--The trimmings should not be larger than an egg, and should be
as uniform in size as possible.

=Second=:--Do not run the trimmings through an Enterprise Grinder to
cut them up before packing them, as it has a tendency to heat the meat.

=Third=:--Trimmings that are to be held for any great length of time
must be fresh as possible; if they should be somewhat slimy, they
should be washed thoroughly in cold common salt brine and allowed to
drain until quite dry. Never mix or salt trimmings that become slimy,
with fresh ones; always pack them separately.

=Fourth=:--It is absolutely necessary that the meat should be
thoroughly chilled, and that the packing should be done in the cooler
so that the temperature of the meat will not get above the temperature
in which it is to be cured.

=Fifth=:--For each 100 lbs. of trimmings, take 1 lb. of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 1 lb. of best Granulated Sugar and 2 lbs. of Common
Salt, and mix these thoroughly with the meat. Mixing thoroughly is
very important; it should be carefully done so as to insure a uniform
cure.

=Sixth=:--Have the tierces or barrels perfectly clean and sweet; then
sprinkle a little salt on the bottom, and fill the barrel or tierce
about one-quarter full of salted meat, and pound it down hard with a
tamper. Do the same when the barrel is half full and continue in this
manner until the barrel is filled. This tamping is done to expel the
air between the pieces of meat, and it is an important factor to insure
a uniform cure and color. If the trimmings are to be kept any length of
time, it will be necessary that the tierces or barrels should be headed
up, and they should always be filled with meat as much as possible.
When trimmings are to be used as soon as cured, it is not necessary to
head them up, simply put a top on them and weight them down, or cover
them with a clean cloth and put a layer of salt about one inch thick,
over the top of the cloth. This will keep out the air and will give
good results. The trimmings will be cured in from two to three weeks,
and are then in a perfect condition to be made into New England Style
Pressed Hams, etc. They need not be soaked in water, nor need any salt
be added as they are ready for instant use just as they are and will
have a delicious sugar-cured ham flavor.

See paragraph on Temperature for Curing Meats on page 46.



HOW TO MAKE NEW ENGLAND STYLE PRESSED HAMS

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


After the meat is cured, it should be stuffed in beef bungs, and should
be smoked about three hours, but this depends upon the smoke house
and whether wood or sawdust is used. It may be necessary to smoke the
Pressed Ham still longer. Boil them in a temperature of 180 degrees
Fahrenheit for 1½ hours, then reduce the temperature to 170 degrees
Fahrenheit and remove them at the expiration of one hour. After they
are boiled for 2½ hours, they should be laid out on a table in the
cooler, and then boards should be placed on top of them weighted down
with heavy stones, and should remain there over night before being
removed.

The casings may be given an appetizing smoke color by momentary dipping
in a solution of Zanzibar-Carbon Brand Casing Brown Mixture (see page
117 for directions).

[Illustration: BOLOGNA



HOW TO CURE MEAT FOR MAKING FINE BOLOGNA AND FRANKFURT SAUSAGE AND
COMPLY WITH PURE FOOD LAWS]

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


In following the old method of making Bologna and Frankfurt Sausage, a
large percentage of the albumen is drawn out of the Meat, thus losing
much of the richness, flavor and color which should be retained in the
Sausage.

B. Heller & Co. have made an important improvement in the process of
curing trimmings, and Sausage Makers will find it greatly to their
advantage to make an immediate trial of this process. A single batch
of Sausage made after this method will convince any Sausage Maker of
the mistake of following the old ideas of making Bologna and Frankfurt
Sausages.

When Bologna and Frankfurts are made from fresh Meats, they have a gray
color and are very difficult to keep in good condition, especially
during the warm weather. However, when Bologna and Frankfurts are made
by the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= Process, they will have a fine red color and
they will comply with the Pure Food Laws, because =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
contains no ingredients which have been prohibited by any of the food
laws. They will also keep much better than when made in the old way,
and will stand shipment during the warm weather with better results.



HOW TO CURE BEEF OR PORK TRIMMINGS WITH FREEZE-EM-PICKLE

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


Trimmings that are to be stored away for a few days to two weeks,
should be packed with the following proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
and Salt.

To every 100 lbs. of Trimmings use the following:

  1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  1 lb. of Salt.

For Trimmings that are to be stored away for two weeks to three months,
the following proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and Salt should be used:

  1¼ lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and
  1 lb. of Salt to each
  100 lbs. of Trimmings.

For Trimmings that are to be stored away for three months to six
months, the following proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and Salt should
be used:

  1½ lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and
  1 lb. of Salt to each
  100 lbs. of Trimmings.

=First=:--Weigh the Trimmings and then spread them on a table.

=Second=:--Weigh out the proper proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and
Salt, mix them together thoroughly, and then sprinkle over the meat.

=Third=:--Mix the Trimmings well so that the Salt and
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= get to all parts of the meat.

=Fourth=:--Run the Trimmings through the grinder, using what is called
the lard plate, a plate that has holes in it from 1 to 1¼ inches in
diameter. By first mixing the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and Salt with the meat
and then putting it through the grinder, the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and
Salt become better mixed with the meat.

Another way is to run the Trimmings through the grinder first, using
the lard plate with 1 to 1¼ inch holes in it; then put this meat
in the mixer and while mixing add the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and Salt,
which have first been thoroughly mixed. Let the mixer run until the
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= and Salt are thoroughly mixed with the meat, which
only takes a few minutes.

If a plate with large holes in it is not available, cut the Trimmings
up small by hand and then mix the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and Salt with the
meat.



HOW TO PACK IN BARRELS OR TIERCES

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


=First=:--Take barrels or tierces that are perfectly clean and sweet;
this is very important. Then sprinkle a handful of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
and Salt which have first been thoroughly mixed, over the bottom of the
tierce.

=Second=:--Fill tierce about one-quarter full of the meat that has been
mixed with =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and Salt, and then with a tamper, tamp it
down as tight as can be. The tighter the meat is packed, the better.
Then place more of the meat into the tierce and tamp it, and keep on
doing this until the tierce is full.

=Third=:--If the tierce is not to be headed up, don’t fill it quite
to the top, and after tamping the meat tight, sprinkle a couple of
handfuls of the mixture of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and Salt over the top.
Then lay a piece of parchment paper over the meat, and on top of this
place a piece of cheese cloth about a yard square.

=Fourth=:--On top of the cheese cloth put about two or three inches of
dry Salt, spread so it reaches to all the edges of the barrel, so as to
exclude the air from the meat, and then turn the ends of the cloth over
the top, and allow this meat to stay in the cooler until you are ready
to make Bologna, Frankfurts, or any similar sausage out of it.

This meat is now ready in four or five days to be made into Bologna,
Frankfurts, or any similar sausage, but can also remain in a cooler as
long as six months or even longer without being disturbed. This meat
will not become too salty no matter how long it stands, and whenever
you wish to make Bologna, Frankfurts, or any similar sausage, the meat
is ready to be used.

This is known as the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= Process, and by curing the
meat in this way no brine or albumen will be found at the bottom of
the tierce when the meat is taken out. The meat when taken from the
barrel will be found sticky, and to possess good binding quality and
a nice cured flavor. It will make delicious Bologna, Frankfurts, or
any similar sausage. The meat will have a nice sweet cure and a fine
color which will be imparted to the Bologna, Frankfurts or any similar
sausage made from it. On account of the meat being cured, the Bologna,
Frankfurts and other sausage will not spoil so easily as they would if
made from fresh meat.

Beef or pork trimmings should be handled in the same way, and no fresh
meat used at all in making the Bologna or Frankfurts.

If the trimmings are to be kept for any length of time, it is advisable
to head them up. When tierces are to be headed up, fill them as full
as possible, sprinkle two handfuls of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and salt,
which have first been thoroughly mixed, over the top and then put on
the head.

When making this =Freeze-Em-Pickle= cured meat into smoked sausages,
more salt of course must be added, as the meat is not sufficiently
salty, so when adding the Seasoning add sufficient salt to give it
the proper taste, and add ½ lb. of sugar to every 100 lbs. of meat in
addition to the spice, as it gives the meat a delicious flavor.



PROPER TEMPERATURE FOR STORING TRIMMINGS

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


If the trimmings are to be used up in two or three weeks, any ordinary
cooler that is kept around 40 degrees will be sufficient, but if
trimmings are to be kept three to six months, they should be kept in a
cooler at a temperature of 35 to 36 degrees to get the best results.
Never let the temperature get down below freezing if it can be helped,
and do not let it get any higher than 38 degrees, if possible.



HOW TO MAKE BOLOGNA AND FRANKFURTS FROM FRESH BEEF AND PORK WITH
FREEZE-EM-PICKLE WITHOUT FIRST CURING THE MEAT

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


Run the desired quantity of beef and pork through a grinder, first
using a coarse plate, then through a fine one; then finish in a silent
chopper. While cutting it in the silent cutter, add to each 100 lbs.
of meat 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, ¾ lb. of “B” Condimentine, 1 to
1½ lbs. of salt and ½ lb. of sugar, according to taste. Chop this up
as usual, adding pure artificial ice to keep it cool. First put the
beef in the silent cutter and when it is about three-fourths fine add
the necessary pork, which has first been run through the ¼ inch plate
of a grinder. If a mixer is not used, add the Seasonings and flour to
the meat in the silent cutter. When all are thoroughly mixed put into a
tub, cover well over with parchment or wax paper to exclude the air and
put away until ready to use. The meat can then be taken direct from the
tub in 24 to 36 hours, placed into the stuffer, and stuffed into the
casings.

The meat should be kept in a temperature of 45 to 46 degrees. This is a
fairly high temperature which gives the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= a chance to
do its work quicker, and by standing 24 to 36 hours after it is chopped
and seasoned, it develops its full binding qualities and saves handling
the meat two or three times, which should appeal to every sausage
maker.



FORMULA FOR BOLOGNA SAUSAGE

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


The following formula makes very fine Bologna sausage:

  75 lbs. beef trimmings cured by Freeze-Em-Pickle Process.
  15 lbs. pork trimmings cured by Freeze-Em-Pickle Process.
  10 lbs. pork speck (back fat).

Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in the percentage amount of cereal
allowed by your State Food Law, but not over five pounds to the hundred.

  8 to 10 ounces Zanzibar-Brand Bologna Sausage Flavor.
  ¾ lb. “B” Condimentine
  Sufficient cracked ice for cooling.

=First=:--Salt the pork and beef trimmings according to the directions
on foregoing pages.

=Second=:--When making the Bologna (or Frankfurts), take the beef that
has been cured with Freeze-Em-Pickle and run through the grinder, using
¼ or ⅜ inch plate. (Some sausage makers prefer to run this meat through
the grinder again, using the smallest plate they have, but this in our
opinion takes up unnecessary time and labor. Once running through a ¼
or ⅜ inch plate is sufficient).

Then place this beef in the silent chopper. As soon as this has made
one or two revolutions, put in sufficient cracked ice to prevent the
beef from becoming heated. Then add about one pound of salt; adding ice
if necessary. Then add the pork to the beef, which should have already
been run through the grinder, and at the same time add the pork speck.

=Third=:--Then for seasoning add 8 to 10 ounces Zanzibar-Brand
Bologna Flavor, and also about ¾ of a pound of “B” Condimentine. This
Condimental preparation is permissible in all Government inspected
houses and complies with the Pure Food Laws. “B” Condimentine is used
to prevent shrinkage and help keep the sausage, and so the color inside
will not fade or turn gray, but retain its bright, rich color for ten
days if kept under proper conditions. This is a great advantage,
especially to large packers who do shipping. After the Spices and
Condimentine are worked in, then add salt to taste. Sausage made with
“B” Condimentine does not have to be labeled that a preservative is
used.

=Fourth=:--Then while the meat is being cut in the silent chopper,
add the legal amount of Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder to each 100
pounds of meat. Or, if a mixer is used, add the binder in the mixer.
When properly mixed and seasoned with spices and “B” Condimentine,
and binder has been added, it is already for the stuffer, or if
desired, this meat already chopped can be kept in tubs in a cooler of a
temperature of 38 to 40 degrees for 24 to 36 hours until required.

=Notice=:--See our instructions on page 113 for handling beef that has
been cured with Freeze-Em-Pickle and stored away from two to six months
or longer.

=Note=:--Since the Pure Food Laws have been enacted, all Antiseptic
Preservatives have been ruled out and cannot be used in sausage, so
sausage makers must be careful what kind of a Sausage Binder they use
in their sausage. Many of the binders on the market start fermentation
soon after moisture is added to them. When it is noticed that Bologna
does not keep as well as it should, the first thing to be looked to
is the binder used, as invariably a binder which is not free from the
germs of fermentation will cause trouble, and the losses a butcher has
from using such binders will amount to more than the saving in the cost
of the binder. Many cheap binders can be bought for less money than
Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder, as they cost less to manufacture. We
are not trying to see how cheap a binder we can manufacture, but our
sole aim in selling Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder is to offer the very
Finest Binder that we know how to make, which will help the sausage
instead of souring it, and, even if our price is a trifle higher,
Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder is much cheaper to use and results are
always satisfactory.

=Notice=:--If a Garlic flavor is desired, add one or two tablespoonfuls
of Vacuum-Brand Garlic Compound while the meat is being chopped.
Vacuum-Brand Garlic Compound is recommended as it does not sour in the
sausage and it does not leave any after-taste nor taint the breath,
because it is so finely divided that it is thoroughly incorporated in
the meats and is thoroughly digested and absorbed. In States where
Cereal is not permitted, use Garlic Condiment instead of Garlic
Compound.

=Fifth=:--After the meat is chopped to the proper fineness, stuff it
into beef rounds or beef middles. Place the sausage in the smoke house
and smoke.



BOILING BOLOGNA.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


After it is smoked, boil Round Bologna 30 minutes in water 160 degrees
Fahrenheit and Long Bologna for 45 to 60 minutes in 160 degrees water,
according to thickness.

After they are boiled place them on a table, or hang them up and pour
boiling water over them to wash off the grease. Then pour cold water
over them to shrink the casings. After that allow them to cool in the
open air or a well ventilated room, before placing in the cooler or
ice box. =This will prevent sweating, which causes mouldy and slimy
casings.=



BOILING LARGE BOLOGNA.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


If Large Bologna are desired, stuff the meat into beef bungs and smoke
until they are nicely smoked, then boil them from 1¼ to 1½ hours in
water 155 degrees Fahrenheit. Vary the time of boiling according to the
thickness of the Bologna.



SALTING FAT FOR BOLOGNA.


The Pork Back Fat or Pork Speck will be much better for use in Bologna
and Frankforts if it is dry salted with Freeze-Em-Pickle for a few
weeks before it is used.



HOW TO COLOR THE CASINGS OF SMOKED SAUSAGE WITH ZANZIBAR-CARBON BRAND
CASING BROWN MIXTURE

[Illustration]

COLORING BOLOGNA CASINGS

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


Hang the bologna in the smoke house just long enough to dry the skin
well, or hang it in front of a hot fire, or in the sun, any way to get
the excess moisture dried out of the casing; then proceed according to
the following method:



METHOD OF COLORING THE CASINGS OF SAUSAGE IN GOVERNMENT INSPECTED
PACKING HOUSES


In all Packing Houses having U. S. Government inspection, the coloring
of casings are allowed only by what is termed “Momentary Dipping”.
We advise butchers to use this method in preference to any other way
whether they have Government inspection or not.

Directions for Momentarily Dipping Smoked Sausage such as Bologna,
Frankfurt, etc.

After Sausage has been smoked and cooked, dip it into a solution made
up in the proportion of 1 ounce of Zanzibar-Carbon-Brand Casing Brown
Mixture to every 20 gallons of water. Always dissolve it first in some
hot water (not boiling) in the proportion of one-half gallon water for
every ounce used and then pour this solution into the balance of the
water to make up the dipping solution.

The water used for dipping should be about the same temperature as that
in which the Sausage is cooked. After dipping, the Sausage must be
rinsed off with hot water and thereafter with cold water, then hung up
in the usual manner to drip off and dry. When Sausage is smoked through
and is not cooked, it must be well sprayed with, or dipped into,
boiling hot water to remove the grease from the casing before being put
into the colored dipping solution.

[Illustration: FRANKFORTS]



FRANKFORT SAUSAGE; HOW TO MAKE

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


Frankfort Sausage is made in most cases in exactly the same manner
as Bologna with the exception that it is chopped very fine and
Zanzibar-Brand Frankfort Sausage Seasoning is used. To make fine
Frankfort Sausage use two parts of Beef and one part of Pork.

If Veal is used in Frankfort Sausage, it improves it considerably, but
the price of Veal is so high that it is very seldom used. Stuff in
sheep casings and smoke lightly, then dip them in Zanzibar-Carbon Brand
Casing Brown Mixture by the method prescribed on the preceding page.

Dipping them in hot water and then in cold takes out all the wrinkles.
After they have been dipped, pour a pail of hot water over them to
wash off all adhering grease; then dip them for a minute or two in ice
water to cool. This will make them contract so rapidly that they will
not wrinkle; then put in a cooler to hang up and cool through to the
center.



COLORING FRANKFURT SAUSAGE CASINGS

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


Follow the directions given on page 117 for momentary dipping.

If a deep color is desired, slightly increase the amount of
Zanzibar-Carbon Brand Mixture. You must use your own judgment in
producing the right color desired, as the drier the casing the less
Zanzibar-Carbon Brand Mixture it takes and the better the color will be.

Always be particular not to smoke with too much heat in the smoke
house, so that the grease does not melt in the sausage and come through
the casing.



CURING BEEF CHEEKS FOR BOLOGNA AND FRANKFURTS

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


=First=:--The Cheek Meat should be cut out of the heads as soon as
possible after the beef is killed, and the gristle should be cut
through lengthwise, two or three times. All the fat can also be trimmed
off or left on, just as desired; in a large slaughtering establishment,
the fat is worth more in the tank than in the sausage.

=Second=:--The Cheeks should then be thrown into ice water and allowed
to remain there for an hour or two. This will draw out all the slime
and blood.

=Third=:--The Cheeks should then be spread out thinly on coarse wire
screens, or on perforated galvanized iron pans, in a cooler. They
should be spread out as thinly as possible so as to thoroughly drain
and chill.

=Fourth=:--After they are thoroughly chilled, which will take 24 hours,
they should be salted as follows:



DIRECTIONS FOR DRY SALTING BEEF AND PORK CHEEK MEAT

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


Beef and Pork Cheek Meat that is to be stored away for a few days
to two weeks, should be packed with the following proportions of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= and salt.

To every 100 lbs. of Beef and Pork Cheek Meat use the following:

  1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  1 lb. of Salt.

For Beef and Pork Cheek Meat that is to be stored away for two weeks to
three months, the following proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and salt
should be used:

  1¼ lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and
  1 lb. of Salt to each
  100 lbs. of Beef and Pork Cheek Meat.

For Beef and Pork Cheek Meat that is to be stored away for three months
to six months, the following proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and salt
should be used:

  1½ lbs. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and
  1 lb. of Salt to each
  100 lbs. of Beef and Pork Cheek Meat.

=First=:--Weigh the Beef and Pork Cheek Meat and then spread it on a
table.

=Second=:--Weigh out the proper proportions of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and
salt, mix them together thoroughly, and then sprinkle over the meat.

=Third=:--Mix the Beef and Pork Cheek Meat well so that the salt and
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= get to all parts of the meat.

=Fourth=:--Run the Beef and Pork Cheek Meat through the grinder, using
what is called the lard plate, a plate that has holes in it from 1
to 1¼ inches in diameter. By first mixing the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
and salt with the meat and then putting it through the grinder, the
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= and salt become better mixed with the meat.

Another way is to run the Beef and Pork Cheek Meat through the grinder
first, using the lard plate with 1 to 1¼ inch holes in it; then put
this meat in the mixer and while mixing add the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and
salt, which have first been thoroughly mixed. Let the mixer run until
the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and salt become thoroughly mixed with the meat,
which only takes a few minutes.

If a plate with large holes in it is not available, cut the Beef and
Pork Cheek Meat up small by hand and then mix the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
and salt with the meat.

=Fifth=:--If the tierces are to remain open, they can be covered with
a clean cloth and a layer about two or three inches thick of dry salt
should be put over the top of the cloth. This will exclude the air and
keep the top meat from getting dry and dark.

=Sixth=:--Cheek Meat that has been properly chilled and packed in this
manner can be kept for any length of time and need not be overhauled.
It can be kept for a year or longer and whenever it is taken out of the
barrel and used, it will make fine Bologna and Frankforts with a fine
color and a delicious flavor. Dry salted Cheek Meat makes much better
Bologna than the pickled Cheek Meat. Sometimes Cheeks are very low in
price, and they can be packed and stored as above directed and kept
until the market advances; by this method quite a sum of money can be
made each year.

=Seventh=:--See paragraph on Temperature for Curing Meats on page 46.



CURING BEEF AND PORK HEARTS FOR BOLOGNA AND OTHER SAUSAGE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


=First=:--As soon as the beef or hog is slaughtered, the hearts should
be cut open; the pork hearts should be cut into four squares, and the
beef hearts into six or eight pieces, being sure to cut them so that
all the crevices are open and exposed. They should then be placed in
ice water in which they should be allowed to remain for two to three
hours.

=Second=:--Spread the hearts on trays or racks in a cooler as thinly as
possible, and allow them to drain and chill for 24 hours; they must be
thoroughly chilled so that all animal heat leaves them.

  Use for 100 lbs. of  { 1¼ lbs. Freeze-Em-Pickle.
  Beef or Pork Hearts. { 1 lb. of Common Salt.

=Third=:--Run hearts through an Enterprise grinder, using a lard
plate with 1½-inch holes; then place in a mixer and gradually add the
mixture of Freeze-Em-Pickle and salt. Be sure it is evenly divided and
thoroughly mixed.

=Fourth=:--Take a perfectly clean tierce, and sprinkle a handful of
salt, and a little Freeze-Em-Pickle on the bottom; put the salted
hearts into the tierce and tamp them down with a tamper as hard as
possible.

The object in tamping with a tamper is to get all the air out and to
close up all the cavities in the barrel. The less air cells in the
barrel, the better the hearts will cure and keep.

=Fifth=:--If the tierces are to be headed up, sprinkle a handful of
salt on top of the tierces, cover nicely with a piece of parchment
paper and put in the heads, being careful that the tierces are as full
as they possibly can be before the heads are put in, and also that the
tierces are perfectly sweet before packing.

=Sixth=:--If the tierces are to remain open, they can be covered with a
cloth and about two or three inches of dry salt should be put over the
top of the cloth. This will exclude the air, and will keep the top meat
from getting dry and dark.

=Seventh=:--Hearts that have been properly chilled and packed in this
manner can be kept for any length of time and need not be overhauled.
They can be kept for a year or longer, and whenever taken out of the
tierces to use, they will make fine bologna and such sausage as hearts
can be used for. Quite a quantity of properly cured hearts can be used
in the manufacture of sausage with very good results. They will have
a fine color and a delicious flavor. Hearts should never be pickled
for Bologna, but should always be dry salted as above directed. It is
very often the case that hearts can be bought at a small cost when the
market is low, and if so purchased and packed and stored as herein
directed until the market advances and meat is high, they can be made
into bologna with a very handsome profit.

=Eighth=:--See paragraph on Temperature for Curing Meats on page 46.



GERMAN STYLE HAM SAUSAGE

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: GERMAN STYLE HAM SAUSAGE]

German Style Ham Sausage is made very much like Bologna, except that
the meat should be chopped finer. For every 100 lbs. of Ham Sausage,
take the following:

  50 lbs. of Pork Trimmings.
  40 lbs. of Beef Trimmings.
  5 lbs. of Pork Speck (Back Fat).
  Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in the percentage proportion of cereal
      allowed by your State Food Law.
  ¾ lb. “B” Condimentine.
  2 lbs. of Salt.
  6 to 8 ounces Zanzibar-Brand Frankfort Flavor.

=First=:--Salt the Pork and Beef Trimmings four or five days ahead,
using to each 100 lbs. of meat 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, as directed
on page 111. No salt or anything in addition to the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
should be added when the meat is put down to cure. The salt is added
when the Sausage is made.

=Second=:--When making Ham Sausage, use the Pork and Beef in the
proportions as stated above and when about half chopped add the Speck
or Back Fat.

=Third=:--After adding the Fat, add sufficient salt so as to have 2
lbs. to each 100 lbs. of finished Ham Sausage. Also add 6 to 8 ounces
Frankfort Flavor.

=Fourth=:--Now proceed to chop or grind the meat according to
directions given on page 114, using cracked ice to keep the meat cool.

=Fifth=:--When the meat is chopped, stuff it into Beef Bung Casings.
After the Sausage is stuffed, it is well to wrap string around it
tight, so the Sausage will be firm when cooked and will not drop in the
smoke house.

=Sixth=:--Smoke this sausage carefully over a medium warm fire.

=Seventh=:--Cook the Sausage from 1¼ to 1½ hours, in water 155 degrees
hot. Vary the time according to the thickness of the Sausage. See
directions on page 117 for coloring Bologna casings and color the
casings of this Sausage the same way.

=Eighth=:--After Sausage of any kind has been cooked, it should be
handled as follows: Pour boiling water over it to wash off the surplus
grease that adheres to the casings and then pour cold water over it to
shrink and close the pores of the casings. This is very important and
it should be closely observed by all packers and sausage makers who
wish to have their Sausage look nice and fresh in appearance.



HOW TO PREPARE CASINGS BEFORE STUFFING.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Before casings are stuffed, they should always be soaked in warm water,
so as to make them pliable, so they will stretch to their utmost limit
when being stuffed. If they are properly soaked, they will stretch
considerably and will not burst as easy as they will if they are not
properly soaked. The casings should be soaked in water about 90 degrees
temperature Fahrenheit, from one to two hours, depending upon how old
and dry they are. If the casings are very old and dry, they will have
to be soaked until they are perfectly soft and pliable. When casings
are soaked in water that is too hot, the casings are scalded and become
tender and will burst when being stuffed, and the heavy Sausage will
tear loose in the smoke house.



HOW TO PREVENT BURSTING AND SHRINKING OF SAUSAGE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Many undergo a great deal of trouble from the bursting and shrinking
of Sausage and it is a trouble which can be easily avoided, as it is
entirely owing to the manner of boiling the Sausage. Ordinary round or
long Bologna should be kept in water at 160 to 170 degrees Fahrenheit
for about 30 minutes, and thick: large Bologna should be kept in water
from 155 to 160 degrees Fahrenheit from three-quarters of an hour to
one hour, according to the size. If the Sausage is very large, it
will take from one and one-quarter to one and one-half hours to cook
them thoroughly. When Sausage is boiled in water that is too hot the
particles of meat will crumble and separate. The Sausage will taste
dry, although water will be in the crevices between the small pieces
of meat. The Sausage will look rough on the outside and will also lose
more weight than when boiled as above directed. Many of them will burst
when the water is too hot. After Sausage of any kind has been cooked,
it should be handled as follows: Pour boiling water over it to wash off
all the surplus grease that adheres to the casing and then pour cold
water over it to shrink and close the pores of the casing. This is very
important and should be closely observed by all packers and sausage
makers who wish to have their Sausage look nice and keep its fresh
appearance.

[Illustration: HAMBURGER STEAK]



HOW TO SEASON HAMBURGER SO AS TO MAKE IT MORE PALATABLE AND PLEASING.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration]

A very successful way of increasing trade on Hamburger is to season
it with one ounce of Zanzibar-Brand Hamburger Seasoning to every 25
pounds of meat. This gives the meat a Delicious Flavor, makes it more
Palatable and Pleasing to the Taste and much more Appetizing and
Satisfactory to the Customer. Sometimes Hamburger when made without
Seasoning has a peculiar flavor and meat odor which many customers
object to.

All this trouble is overcome by Seasoning all Hamburger with our
Zanzibar Brand Hamburger Seasoning, as it gives the meat a Delicious
Flavor and Aroma.

This is something that will increase the sale on Hamburger wherever it
is used.



[Illustration: HAMBURGER SAUSAGE]


Below we give the recipe for a New Sausage that is well liked wherever
it is being tried, and we advise every butcher to make use of it. This
Sausage is a success, takes well with the trade when made up right
and is very easy to make. It is a nice eating Sausage and customers
are always pleased to get hold of something new for a change. Making
Hamburger Sausage gives the butcher an opportunity for selling all
the small pieces of beef and a large percentage of beef fat at a good
profit, which is very often not easily sold otherwise.



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING HAMBURGER SAUSAGE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


=Take=--

  70 lbs. Beef Trimmings.
  20 lbs. Beef Fat.
  Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in the percentage proportion of cereal
      allowed by your State Food Law.
  20 lbs. Water.
   6 to 8 ozs. Zanzibar Brand Hamburger Seasoning.
   1 lb. =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
   2 or 3 large size Onions.
   2 lbs. Salt.

=First=:--Take the 70 lbs. of Beef Trimmings and trim out all the sinew
and cut them into small pieces.

=Second=:--Spread the meat on a table and sprinkle over it 1 lb. of
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= to 70 lbs. meat. Mix it thoroughly so that the
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= gets to all parts of the meat and then run the
meat through a sausage grinder, through a medium fine plate, so as
to cut the meat into small pieces, so that the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= is
thoroughly mixed with the meat. Then place it in the cooler in tubs or
boxes not deeper than six inches and allow it to remain there from one
to two days to cure. It is better to allow the meat to cure for two
days or longer.

=Third=:--After the Beef is cured take 20 lbs. of Suet or Beef Fat,
from the Brisket is the best, cut it up with 2 or 3 large Onions and
run the Beef Fat and Onions through the meat grinder and grind it very
fine, then mix the ground Beef Fat with the 70 lbs. of Cured Beef.

=Fourth=:--Put Legal amount of Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder, 6 to 8
ozs. Zanzibar-Brand Hamburger Seasoning and 2 lbs. of Salt in a pail
and add 20 lbs. of cold water. After mixing, add this to the ground
Beef and Suet.

=Fifth=:--Mix the Beef, Suet, Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder,
Seasoning, Salt and water together as well as possible and then run it
through the meat grinder again.

=Notice=:--Hamburger Sausage can also be made without curing the meat
in advance, if one prefers.

Simply mix the Beef, Fat, Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder, Hamburger
Seasoning, Finely Cut-Up Onions, =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and Salt all
together, run it through a Grinder and add the water while grinding
and mixing, and when ground it is ready for sale. This sausage will,
however, have a different flavor than when made of cured meat as above.

=Sixth=:--After the Sausage is ground, spread it out on a platter,
decorate it nicely with parsley, a few pieces of sliced lemon or
orange, which adds to its attractiveness.

[Illustration: HOME MADE HAMBURGER SAUSAGE]

With each can of Hamburger Seasoning we furnish some of these cards
free. Take a beef skewer, split the end of it so the card can be put
into the slit and then stick this skewer into the platter of Hamburger
Sausage. This little card will help the sale and you will be surprised
at the many compliments you will receive on this new Sausage. We will
gladly furnish as many as are desired of these cards free of charge to
any butcher who is using our Hamburger Seasoning.

[Illustration: PORK SAUSAGE]



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING FRESH PORK SAUSAGE

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


Take 100 lbs. of Fresh Pork Trimmings and while chopping add

Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in the percentage proportion of cereal
allowed by your State Pure Food Law.

  ¾ to 1 lb. “A” Condimentine.
  1 lb. Salt.
  8 to 10 ounces Zanzibar-Brand Pork Flavor.

Use sufficient cracked ice to keep the mixture cold. This will make a
most delicious pork sausage.

When this is properly mixed it is ready for the stuffer. Pork Sausage
should be stuffed into hog casings, or it may be simply put up in bulk.

=Note=:--By using the above quantity of “A” Condimentine to each 100
lbs. of trimmings, it will prevent fresh pork sausage from turning sour
or gray for several days, if kept under proper conditions and at a low
temperature. It keeps the pork sausage in a firm, fresh condition. “A”
Condimentine does not alter or affect the color of the sausage meat,
but simply enables the meat to retain its own natural color. The use
of this harmless condimental preparation is a great advantage to all
packers and sausage manufacturers, especially when the sausage is
shipped distances or is delivered from wagons to the small retailers.
“A” Condimentine is guaranteed to comply with the Pure Food Laws
and the Federal Meat Inspection Law. Its use is permitted in all U.
S. Government Inspected Packing Houses. Sausage does not have to be
labeled to show the presence of a preservative when “A” Condimentine
is used.

There are many kinds of Flours and Binders on the market, but the
Sausage Maker will find Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder to be thoroughly
reliable, especially for Pork Sausage, as it does not so easily sour
or ferment and it makes an emulsion of the fat and water, and when
the Sausage is fried the grease and meat juices will not fry out of
it readily, but will remain in the Sausage. Pork Sausage made with
Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder is much more easily digested than when
made without it, because the fat goes into the stomach in the form of
an emulsion when it is eaten, and in this way is more easily digested
and absorbed. In using a Binder for Sausage, if it is the Butcher’s
desire to turn out a Fine-Flavored Sausage and one that is juicy when
eaten, it is very important that he be very careful what kind of a
Binder he uses. There are many Binders on the market, sold simply for
the purpose of making money, which are _utterly worthless_. They make
the Sausage dry and instead of improving the quality of the Sausage,
they are a great detriment to it. If the Butcher takes a pride in his
goods and wants to make Sausage that his trade will like, he should not
buy these Binders, as he is simply throwing his money away and spoiling
his goods by using them. Therefore, it is always advisable when buying
from jobbers to insist upon getting the _Genuine B. Heller & Co.’s
Bull-Meat-Brand Flour_, as you will then know exactly what you are
getting, as our guaranty is on every package.



SMOKED PORK SAUSAGE

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Pork Sausage not sold the day it is made may be smoked the following
day and sold for Smoked Pork Sausage. Pork Sausage smoked the day after
it is made will keep much better than when they are smoked as soon as
made, because Sausage that have been kept in a cooler for 24 hours
after being made are thoroughly cured, so they will stand the heat of
the smoke house, and will have an entirely different flavor than if
they are subjected to the heat when the meat is fresh and is not fully
cured.

[Illustration: HEAD-CHEESE]



HOW TO CURE MEAT FOR HEAD CHEESE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


The proper way to make Head Cheese is to make it from Cured Meat only,
and all the Heads and Meat used for it should be cured for 10 to 14
days in a brine made as follows:

  1 lb. =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  7 lbs. of Salt.
  5 gals. Water.

Head Cheese made from Meat cured by this process will have a fine red
color and will keep well under proper conditions in warm weather.
Always add Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder to Head Cheese, as it makes
it firm and combines with the fats and juices of the meat, so as to
keep the Head Cheese from drying out and thereby losing its flavor.



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING HEAD CHEESE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


The proper meat to use for making Head Cheese is that which has been
cured by the =Freeze-Em-Pickle Process=, as above described, but it
can also be made from fresh meat if desired. It will, however, be much
better and will keep for a longer time if made from meat cured by the
=Freeze-Em-Pickle Process=.

=First=:--Boil the Heads slowly, and long enough so that the meat can
be easily stripped from the bone.

=Second=:--Boil the Hog Rinds and the Hog Fat in nets at the same time
as when boiling the heads. When the Rinds are almost cooked through,
remove them from the kettle and chop or grind them fine. The Fat when
cooked, should be cut up into 1¼ to 1½ inch square blocks.

=Third=:--Also boil about 15 lbs. of Cured Hog Tongues, and when they
are cooked, cut them in strips.

=Fourth=:--The proper proportions for making good Head Cheese are as
follows, but, the quantity of the different kinds of meat can be varied
according to the stock on hand:

  10 lbs. of Fresh Hog Back Fat.
  15 lbs. of Cured Hog Tongues.
  25 lbs. of Hog Rinds.
  60 lbs. Cured Hog Head Meat (after removal from bone).
  Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in proportion as allowed of cereal by
      your State Pure Food Law, but not over 5 pounds.
  1 lb. of “A” Condimentine.
  1 lb. of White Berliner Brand Konservirung Salt.

If any salt is needed add sufficient to suit the taste. If the meat is
fully cured, no salt need be added.

=Fifth=:--The 60 lbs. of Head Meat must be cut into small pieces ½ to ¾
inch in size, either by hand or by machine.

=Sixth=:--The Rinds must be cut fine; the finer the better.

=Seventh=:--The Tongues must be cut into strips. The more Tongues used,
the better will be the Head Cheese.

=Eighth=:--Mix thoroughly together the Tongues, Rinds, Head Meat,
Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder, the Prepared Head Cheese Seasoning and
1 lb. “A” Condimentine. At the same time mix into the Meat as much of
the Water in which the meat was boiled as the Meat will absorb while
being mixed. This water, in which the Heads have been cooked, contains
Gelatine which has been drawn out of the meat while boiling, and this
water congeals like Jelly when it becomes cold. The more of this water
put into Head Cheese the better it will be, therefore add all of it
that the meat will absorb. Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder, in the
proportion given in the above formula, will make a very different Head
Cheese from what can be made with some of the other Binders on the
market. It will pay sausage makers to use B. Heller & Co.’s Genuine
Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder instead of any of the imitations now
on the market. None of the other Binders that we have tested in our
laboratory will prove as satisfactory as Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage
Binder. If the Butcher uses the best of ingredients and follows the
proper methods, he is bound to make the best products; but the most
careful sausage maker cannot make fine products unless he uses =good
material=.

=Ninth=:--After the Head Cheese Meat, Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder
and water in which the Heads have been boiled are mixed as above
directed, stuff in Beef Bungs or Hog Stomachs and boil in water 155
degrees hot until they are cooked through. This will require from one
to one and one-half hours, depending upon the thickness.

=Tenth=:--When cooked, remove from the kettle and place in cold water
until they are partly cooled; then lay them on boards and press them
down by putting boards over the Head Cheese with weights on them. Head
Cheese is sometimes smoked after it is pressed.

=Eleventh=:--If they are not smoked, rub them with White Berliner Brand
Konservirung Salt in order to prevent them from getting slimy.

[Illustration: LIVER-SAUSAGE]



CURING MEATS FOR LIVER SAUSAGE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Good Liver Sausage should always contain a certain amount of Meat and
Fat in addition to the Liver. This Fat and Meat should be cured for a
week or two, before making the Sausage, in a brine made as follows:

  1 lb. =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  7 lbs. Salt.
  5 gals. of Water.

Liver Sausage made from Meat which has been cured in this manner will
keep much better after it is made. Where it is necessary to ship Liver
Sausage any great distance, or to keep it on hand any length of time
after it has been made, the Livers should also be cured in the above
brine for two weeks before making the Sausage. The best way to cure the
Livers for this purpose is to cut them into strips after they have been
chilled for 24 hours and then put them into the brine to cure. Packers
who must ship Liver Sausage during the summer months will find the
above directions in making Liver Sausage very valuable.



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING LIVER SAUSAGE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Take 70 lbs. of Hog Livers, 25 lbs. of Pork Necks; the entire Boned
Head can be used instead of the Necks, or the trimmings which are cut
from Bellies will work into Liver Sausage very nicely.

=First=:--Scald the Livers by pouring boiling hot water over them or
dip them into boiling water until they are scalded through to the
center. Then throw them into the ice water or put them into a tub of
cold water and allow the water to run into the tub until the Livers are
cooled through to the center, otherwise, they might sour in a short
time.

=Second=:--Cook the Hog Necks, Heads or Bellies and remove all the meat
from the bone.

=Third=:--Chop the meat as fine as possible. When an Enterprise Grinder
is used, grind the meat as fine as it can be ground through a fine
plate; then add the Livers, which have also been ground as fine as it
is possible to get them. The finer and better the Livers and Fat are
ground, the finer and better will be the Liver Sausage.

=Fourth=:--When grinding, add to 100 lbs. of Sausage:

  3 large size Onions.
  Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in percentage proportion of cereal as
      allowed by your State Pure Food Law.
  6 to 8 ozs. of Zanzibar-Brand Liver Sausage Seasoning.
  1 lb. “A” Condimentine.

All of these should then be well mixed, and as much of the Water in
which the Meat was boiled should be added to the mixture as the Meat
will absorb.

=Fifth=:--Stuff very loosely into Hog Bungs or Beef Casings, and boil
very slowly, otherwise, they will burst; never have the water hotter
than 155 degrees. The length of time to boil is ½ to 1 hour, which will
depend entirely upon the thickness of the Sausage.

=Sixth=:--After they are boiled, place in ice water, in which they
should be kept until they have been chilled through to the center; then
remove them from the water and place in the cooler. After the Sausages
are chilled rub the casings with some White Berliner Brand Konservirung
Salt, to prevent the Sausage from getting slimy.



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING BRAUNSCHWEIGER LIVER SAUSAGE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Braunschweiger Liver Sausage is made of neck pieces from Lean Hogs, Hog
Livers, Gut Fat, Trimmings from Bellies and Back Fat, all of which must
be steamed before being chopped. For 150 lbs., or less amounts in the
same proportion, take:

  10 lbs. Gut Fat.
  30 lbs. of Belly Trimmings.
  20 lbs. of Back Fat.
  40 lbs. of Neck Pieces.
  50 lbs. of Hog Livers.

=First=:--Take the above quantities, put them into a kettle and steam
them at about 180 degrees or 190 degrees until the meat is tender. Care
must be taken that the water does not boil. It should not be hotter
than 190 degrees or just enough heated to make it simmer.

=Second=:--Separate the Livers from the other Meat that has been
steamed and chop it or grind it fine.

=Third=:--Take all of the other Meat out of the kettle, strip it from
the bones and rinds, put it in a chopper or grinder, and chop, rock or
grind fine. The finer the better. While chopping add:

  5 large size Onions.
  The Bull-Meat-Brand Flour.
  10 to 12 ozs. Zanzibar Brand Liver Sausage Seasoning.
  1 lb. “A” Condimentine, and as much of the Soup in which the Meat was
      steamed as the Meat will absorb.

=Fourth=:--Then put all of the chopped Meat, including the Livers, into
a trough and mix all the Meat thoroughly, adding as much more of the
Soup while mixing, as the mixture will absorb.

=Fifth=:--Stuff loosely into Hog Middles or Hog Bungs, and boil very
slowly, otherwise, they will burst; boil them until they are filled and
swell out. Never have the water hotter than 155 degrees. The length
of time to boil is ½ to 1½ hours, which will depend entirely upon the
thickness of the Sausage.

=Sixth=:--After they are boiled, place in cold water--ice water is
the best--in which they should be kept until they have been chilled
through to the center, but while chilling the Sausages must be turned
frequently to keep the grease from congealing to one side; then remove
from the water, and place in a cooler. After the Sausages are chilled,
rub the casings with some White Berliner Brand Konservirung Salt, to
prevent the Sausage from getting slimy.

=Seventh=:--If it is desired to smoke the Braunschweiger Liver Sausage
it can be smoked the following day.



SMOKED COLORED LIVER SAUSAGE


Color the casings in a solution of our Zanzibar-Carbon Brand Casing
Yellow Mixture by momentary dipping before watering, cutting and tying
them. This will give Liver Sausage the desired smoke shade color.

[Illustration: BLOOD SAUSAGE]



BLOOD SAUSAGE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Blood Sausage is always made from partially Cured Meat. This Meat
should be cured for 10 to 14 days in a brine made as follows:

  1 lb. =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  7 lbs. Salt.
  5 gals. Water.

Blood Sausage made from Meat which has been cured by the
=Freeze-Em-Pickle Process= will have a delicious flavor and will keep
well in any climate.

Use Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder, in percentage proportion of cereal
allowed by your State Food Law, in making Blood Sausage, as it tends to
absorb fat and meat juices, preventing the Sausage from drying out so
readily and becoming unpalatable.



TONGUE BLOOD SAUSAGE

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co., Reprint Forbidden._)


Tongue Blood Sausage is made the same as either Formula No. 1 or
Formula No. 2, with the exception that Cured Hog Tongues are added
to it. The more Tongues used, the better will be the sausage. Always
use Tongues that have been thoroughly cured by the =Freeze-Em-Pickle
Process= as they will have a nice red appearance in the Sausage. Boil
the Tongues until they are done and then cut into strips and mix into
the sausage at the same time as the blood is added.



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING BLOOD SAUSAGE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration]

To make 100 lbs. of Blood Sausage, use the following proportions which
we will call =Formula No. 1=:

  20 lbs. of Cheek Meat, either fresh or salted.
  15 lbs. of Hearts, either fresh or salted.
  15 lbs. of Pork Rinds, either fresh or salted.
  20 lbs. of Pork Speck (back fat), either fresh or salted.
  25 lbs. (3 gallons) of Hog or Beef Blood.
  Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in percentage proportion of cereal as
      allowed by your State Pure Food Law.
  6 to 8 ozs. Zanzibar-Brand Blood Sausage Flavor.
  ½ lb. “B” Condimentine.
  2 lbs. of Salt, to suit taste.
  ½ lb. =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.

Salted Meat is preferable in making Blood Sausage but fresh Meat can be
used if desired.

=First=:--Take 25 lbs. of Fresh Hog or Beef Blood, and stir until the
blood remains thin and will not congeal.

=Second=:--Put the Pork Rinds in a pudding net and boil until about
three-quarters done. Care must be taken not to boil them too long,
otherwise they will become too pulpy when boiled the second time in the
Sausage.

=Third=:--Boil the Cheek Meat and Hearts until done. The Cheek Meat and
Hearts should be boiled as slowly as possible. The slower the boiling
the better will be the Sausage.

=Fourth=:--After they are cooked, put the Pork Rinds in a chopper or
meat grinder and cut them as fine as possible. The finer the better.
After the Cheek Meat and Hearts have been cooked, they should be cut up
coarse by hand, or chopped coarse in a chopper.

=Fifth=:--The Pork Back Fat must be scalded by pouring boiling water
over it for a few minutes. It should then be cut into small squares or
cubes by hand or with a pork back fat cutting machine.

=Sixth=:--After the Meat and Fat are all cut, add to it:

  25 lbs. of Beef Blood.
  The legal amount of Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder.
  6 to 8 ozs. Zanzibar Brand Blood Sausage Seasoning.
  Salt to suit taste.

=Seventh=:--Mix these thoroughly and stuff into Beef Bungs, Beef
Middles or Rounds. Fill the casings only three-quarters full.

=Eighth=:--Blood Sausage should be boiled very slowly, the water should
not be hotter than 155 degrees. The length of time for boiling depends
entirely upon the thickness of the Sausage. When done, the Sausage
will float on top of the water and will be firm and plump. It will be
necessary to prick the Casings when boiling to let out the air.

=Ninth=:--When the Sausage is cooked through, remove it from the kettle
and place it in cold water; ice water is the best. Allow it to remain
in this cold water until it is thoroughly cooled. Then, place on a
board in a cooler and allow it to remain there 24 hours before cutting.

=Tenth=:--It is always advisable to use pickled or dry-salt cured Cheek
Meat and Hearts for Blood Sausage instead of fresh ones. To cure them
especially for Blood Sausage, they should be cured in brine made with
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= according to directions in first paragraph of this
article, for two weeks before being made into Sausage. Some prefer to
grind the Hearts fine, and leave the Cheeks coarse, and if this is
preferred, the Hearts can be ground with the Pork Rinds.

=Formula No. 2=, for making 100 lbs. of =Blood Sausage=:

  30 lbs. of Pork Speck (back fat).
  35 lbs. of Pork Snouts or Ears.
  30 lbs. of Hog or Beef Blood.
  Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in the percentage proportion of cereal
      as allowed by your State Pure Food Law.
  6 to 8 ozs. Zanzibar-Brand Blood Sausage Flavor.
  ½ lb. “B” Condimentine.
  ½ lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  2 lbs. Salt.

Cook and handle Formula No. 2 the same as Formula No. 1, with the
exception of leaving out the Hearts and Cheek Meat.

[Illustration: SUMMER SAUSAGE CERVELAT]



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SUMMER SAUSAGE (CERVELAT)

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


Use 70 lbs. of Pork Trimmings, 20 lbs. of Lean Beef, 10 lbs. of Pork
Back Fat.

=First=:--Before being made into Sausage, the Back Fat must first be
dry salted for two weeks in order to get it properly cured and firm.

=Second=:--After the Pork Back Fat has been dry salt cured, it should
be cut up into small pieces of about one-half inch square.

=Third=:--The Beef should be first finely chopped; then the Pork
Trimmings should be added and then the Pork Back Fat. The meat should
be chopped until fine and while it is being chopped add:

  2 lbs. of Salt.
  ½ lb. “B” Condimentine.
  8 ozs. Best Granulated Sugar.
  10 to 12 ozs. Zanzibar-Brand Summer Sausage Seasoning.
  Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in percentage proportion of cereal as
      allowed by your State Pure Food Law.

=Fourth=:--When the Meat is chopped, it should be packed tightly in
pans or boxes which should be placed in a cooler having a temperature
of about 40 degrees; these pans or boxes should hold about 50 lbs. and
should be shallow, not over six to eight inches deep, so that the Meat
can be thoroughly chilled through. The Meat in these pans or boxes
should remain in the cooler from four to six days before it will be
ready to stuff into the Casings.

=Fifth=:--Stuff the Sausage into Hog Bung Casings or Beef Middle
Casings and hang them in a dry room in a temperature of about 45 to 50
degrees for two or three weeks.

=Sixth=:--They can then be smoked and are ready for the market.



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING ITALIAN STYLE SALAMI SAUSAGE

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: ITALIAN STYLE SALAMI SAUSAGE]

  Take 60 lbs. of Pork Trimmings.
  20 lbs. Lean Beef.
  20 lbs. Pork Back Fat.
  Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in percentage proportion of cereal
      allowed by your State Pure Food Law.
  1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  ¾ lb. of “B” Condimentine.
  8 ozs. of Granulated Sugar.
  2 lbs. of Salt.
  10 to 12 ozs. of Zanzibar-Brand Summer Sausage Flavor.
  2 to 3 ozs. of Vacuum-Brand Garlic Compound or Garlic Condiment.

=First=:--Before being made into sausage, the Back Fat must first be
dry salted for two weeks to get it properly cured and firm.

=Second=:--Chop Pork Trimmings and Beef quite coarse, coarser than for
Summer Sausage. While chopping add the Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder,
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=, Salt, Sugar, Seasoning, “B” Condimentine and Garlic
Compound or Garlic Condiment, and when it is partly chopped add the
Back Fat which has previously been cut in cubes about one-half inch
square. By adding the Back Fat last it will still be in quite large
pieces when the Meat is sufficiently chopped. The Fat should show quite
prominently in Salami, as it must be fatter than Summer Sausage. Two or
three ounces of Vacuum-Brand Garlic Compound or Garlic Condiment should
be added while being chopped to give it a delicious Garlic flavor. See
pages 260 and 261. The quantity maybe varied according to the demands
of the trade.

=Third=:--When the Meat is chopped, it should be packed tightly in pans
or boxes, which should be placed in a cooler having a temperature of
about 40 degrees. These pans or boxes should hold about 50 lbs. and
should be shallow, not over six to eight inches deep, so that the Meat
can be thoroughly chilled through. The Meat in these pans should remain
in the cooler from four to six days before it will be ready to stuff
into Casings.

=Fourth=:--Stuff the Sausage into Hog Bung Casings or Beef Middle
Casings and hang them in a dry room in a temperature of about 45 to 50
degrees for two or three days, then wrap twine around them nicely as
shown in cut and again hang up to dry for two to three weeks.

=Fifth=:--They can then be smoked with cool smoke made with hardwood
sawdust only. Wood makes too much heat. Then they are ready for the
market.



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING HOLSTEIN STYLE SAUSAGE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: HOLSTEIN STYLE SAUSAGE]

  Take 50 lbs. of Pork Trimmings.
  40 lbs. of Beef Trimmings.
  10 lbs. of Pork Back Fat.

=First=:--Before being made into Sausage, the Back Fat must first be
dry-salted for two weeks in order to get it properly cured and firm.

=Second=:--Put the Beef into the chopping machine and while chopping it
add:

  2 lbs. of Salt.
  ¾  lb. “B” Condimentine.
  1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  8 oz. of Best Granulated Sugar.
  Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in percentage proportion of cereal as
      allowed by your State Pure Food Law.
  1 small teaspoonful of Vacuum-Brand Garlic Compound or Garlic Condiment.

Let the Beef chop until about one-half done before adding the Pork;
then chop the Pork and Beef some before adding the square cut pieces of
Pork Back Fat.

=Third=:--After the Meat is chopped and spiced put it in shallow boxes
or pans not over eight inches thick, and put it in a good cooler. Keep
the Meat in a cooler for from 4 to 6 days so it is thoroughly cured
before it is stuffed.

=Fourth=:--Stuff in Beef Round Casings and let the Sausage hang in a
dry room at 45 to 50 degrees of temperature for a week.

=Fifth=:--Then give them a good smoke and they are ready for the
market. Cool smoke is produced with hickory, hard maple or oak saw dust
only. Wood gives off too much heat.



HOW TO COLOR THE CASINGS FOR HOLSTEIN STYLE SAUSAGE.

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


See directions for momentary dipping on page 117. This method can be
used equally well on the empty casings. After the casings have a light
orange color take them out of the solution and wash them well in hot
water, cut and tie them, then stuff the casings and hang the sausage up
to dry.

After the sausage has hung a week or two and is dry, hang it in the
smoke house for a few days to give it a smoke flavor and it is ready
for shipment. This will save a large shrinkage and the sausage will
have a better appearance. Sausage that has had the casing colored
before being stuffed need not become rancid, as it is not exposed to
the heat in a smoke house, which heat always causes the stearin and
oil in the fat to separate, and as soon as this change takes place the
sausage begins to become rancid.



SWEDISH STYLE SAUSAGE

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: SWEDISH STYLE METWURST]

  Take 60 lbs. of Beef. (Boneless Chucks, Briskets and Shank Meat can be
      used.)
  30 lbs. of Pork Ham Trimmings.
  10 lbs. of Back Fat.

=First=:--Before being made into Sausage, the Back Fat must first be
dry-salted for two weeks in order to get it properly cured and firm.

=Second=:--Cut up the Pork Back Fat into square half-inch cubes by hand
or with a Pork Back Fat Cutting Machine.

=Third=:--Put the Beef and Pork on the block and when partly or
coarsely chopped add the cubes of Back Fat, and when the Beef and Pork
are cut fine, the Pork Back Fat should show prominently through the
meat.

While it is being chopped add:

  2 lbs. of Salt.
  ¾ lb. “B” Condimentine.
  Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in percentage proportion of cereal as
      allowed by your State Pure Food Law.
  1 lb. =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  8 ozs. Best Granulated Sugar.
  10 to 12 ozs. Zanzibar-Brand Swedish Style Sausage Seasoning.

=Fourth=:--After chopping fine, put the Meat in a trough and knead it
with the Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder until it is tight and hard.

=Fifth=:--Pack the Meat tightly in 50 lb. pans or boxes which place in
a cooler having a temperature of about 40 degrees; these pans or boxes
should be shallow, not over 6 to 8 inches deep, so that the Meat can
be thoroughly chilled through. The Meat in these pans or boxes should
remain in the cooler 4 to 6 days before it will be ready to stuff into
the Casings.

=Sixth=:--Stuff the Sausage into Beef Middles and hang them in a dry
room in a temperature of about 45 to 50 degrees for two or three weeks.

=Seventh=:--They can then be smoked with cool smoke made with sawdust
and are ready for the market.



HOW TO COLOR THE CASINGS FOR SWEDISH STYLE METWURST.

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


See directions for momentary dipping on page 117. This method can be
used equally well on the empty casings. After the casings have a light
orange color take them out of the solution and wash them well in hot
water, cut and tie them.

After the Sausage has hung a week or two and is dry, hang it in the
smoke house for a few days to give it a smoke flavor and it is ready
for shipment. This will save a large shrinkage and the Sausage will
have a better appearance. Sausage that has had the casing colored
before being stuffed need not become rancid, as it is not exposed to
the heat in a smoke house, which heat often causes the stearin and oil
in the fat to separate, and as soon as this change takes place the
sausage begins to become rancid.

[Illustration: POLISH STYLE SAUSAGE]



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING POLISH STYLE SAUSAGE

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


  Take: 50 lbs of Pork Trimmings.
        40 lbs. of Beef Trimmings.
        10 lbs. of Pork Back Fat.

Before being used in the Sausage, the Pork Back Fat should be dry-salt
cured for at least two weeks or it can be cut from dry salt sides.

=First=:--Cut up the Pork Back Fat into square half inch cubes by hand
or with a Pork Back Fat Cutting Machine.

=Second=:--Chop the Pork Trimmings, Beef Trimmings and Pork Back Fat
quite coarse, and while being chopped add:

  2 lbs. Salt.
  ¾ lbs. “B” Condimentine.
  1 lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
  10 to 12 ozs. Zanzibar-Brand Polish Style Sausage Seasoning.
  8 ozs. of Granulated Sugar.
  2 to 3 ozs. Vacuum Garlic Compound or Garlic Condiment.
  Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in percentage proportion of cereal as
      allowed by your State Pure Food Law.

=Third=:--After the Pork Trimmings and Pork Back Fat have been chopped
and mixed with the Salt, “B” Condimentine, Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage
Binder, =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and Vacuum Brand Garlic, stuff into beef
round casings.

=Fourth=:--After the sausage has been stuffed into casings place them
in the smoke house and thoroughly smoke with wood. This Polish Style
Sausage should not be boiled when made. It is boiled when eaten.



HOW TO COLOR THE CASINGS FOR POLISH STYLE SAUSAGE

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


See directions for momentary dipping on page 117. This method will
work equally well on the empty casings. After the casings have a light
orange color take them out of the solution and wash them well in hot
water, cut and tie them.

After the Polish Style Sausage is stuffed, hang it in the smoke house
for a few hours, using wood so as to have a hot smoke. This drys it
and gives it a smoke flavor. Then it is ready for shipment. This will
save a large shrinkage and the sausage will have a better appearance.
Polish Style Sausage that has had the casing colored before being
stuffed need not become rancid, as it is not exposed to so much heat in
a smoke house, which heat always causes the stearin and oil in the fat
to separate, and as soon as this change takes place the sausage begins
to become rancid.

[Illustration: THERE IS NO HIGHER ART THAN THAT WHICH TENDS TOWARDS THE
IMPROVEMENT OF HUMAN FOOD

  HENRY WARD BEECHER
]



HOW TO MAKE FINE QUALITY BOCKWURST

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: BOCKWURST]

=First=:--Take 45 pounds Beef, 20 pounds Veal, 20 pounds Lean Pork, 5
pounds Pork Back Fat (Speck).

=Second=:--The Meat should all be chopped very fine except the Speck,
which should first be cut into small cubes and then added to the rest
of the Meat when it is partly chopped so that small cubes of fat will
show in the Sausage.

=Third=:--While chopping, add the following:

  Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in percentage proportion of cereal as
      allowed by your State Pure Food Law.
  ½ lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  ¾ lb. “B” Condimentine.
  1½ to 2 lbs. of Salt.
  8 to 10 ozs. of Zanzibar-Brand Frankfurt Sausage Seasoning.
  3 tablespoonfuls of very finely cut Chives.
  6 heaping tablespoonfuls of finely chopped Parsley.
  Sufficient artificial ice to keep the meat cool while grinding, added
      a little at a time.

=Fourth=:--When the meat is all cut up fine and properly mixed with the
spice, it should be stuffed in Narrow Sheep Casings and turned off in
links about 2½ inches long.

=Fifth=:--As a rule Bockwurst is sold without smoking, but it can be
given a light smoke if desired.

=Sixth=:--To prepare Bockwurst for the table, it should be steamed five
or six minutes in hot water.



[Illustration: KEEPING SAUSAGE IN WARM WEATHER]


Pork Sausage, Bologna, Frankforts, Head Cheese, Liver Sausage, etc.,
can be kept in a good condition, by simply putting them, every night,
in a solution of 1 lb. of Cold-Storine dissolved in three gallons of
water. This solution should be kept in the Cooler. In the morning
remove the Sausage from the solution, hang it up and expose it for
sale, and what remains unsold in the evening, simply put back in the
brine for the night.

In this way Sausage can be kept fresh and nice appearing for some time,
and it will not =shrink= and =dry up=. This enables the dealer to keep
a large, attractive display on hand in his shop without any danger of
the goods spoiling.

By keeping the Sausage in this way, it does not dry out, nor become
slimy or moldy as it would if hung up in the cooler. Sausage can also
be shipped a reasonable distance in a Cold-Storine solution to better
advantage than if shipped in any other way.

On arrival it should be removed from the solution, hung up and allowed
to drain and dry. In the evening it should be replaced in the same
solution for keeping over night.

Never put Smoked Sausage and Fresh Sausage in the same solution. Each
kind of Sausage should be kept in a separate solution.



FRESH TRIPE AND PIGS FEET.


Fresh Tripe and Fresh Pig’s Feet turn dark and spoil very easily, but
by placing them every evening in a Cold-Storine solution made of one
pound of Cold-Storine dissolved in three gallons of water, they can be
kept in a good condition for a number of days. Every morning they may
be taken out of the solution, and those not sold during the day should
be put back into the Cold-Storine solution overnight. The solution for
Tripe and Pig’s Feet should not be used for storing anything else in it.



SWEET BREADS AND BRAINS.


Sweet Breads and Brains can also be kept in the same way as Tripe and
Pig’s Feet.


[Illustration: PICKLED PIGS FEET]

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)

=First=:--Clean the Feet as carefully as possible and then cure them in
brine made as follows:

  6 lbs. of Salt.
  1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=.
  5 gals. of Water.

The Feet should be cured in this brine from four to five days. This
brine can be used over and over again for curing Pickled Pigs Feet,
until it becomes thick from the substances drawn out of the Feet.

=Second=:--After the Feet have been cured for four or five days, cook
them as follows: Heat a kettle of water boiling hot; then throw the
Pigs Feet into it and keep the heat on until the water begins to boil;
then check the fire or steam, and simply let the water simmer just as
slowly as possible until the Feet are nicely cooked. The slower they
cook, the better, and they ought to remain in the hot water for about
four hours, when cooked at a low temperature.

=Third=:--When they are cooked through, turn on cold water and let the
water overflow until all the heat is out of them, and nothing but cold
water overflows, and then let the Feet cool well.

=Fourth=:--Split the Feet through the center and pack them. If they
are to be packed in tierces and kept on hand for any length of time,
the vinegar that is put over them should be 60 grains strong, but when
they are packed in small packages for immediate use 40 grains is strong
enough.

=Fifth:-=-When packing the Feet add to every 100 lbs. 8 to 10 ounces of
Zanzibar Brand Pickled Tongue Seasoning.



STORING PICKLED PIGS FEET.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


There are certain seasons of the year when Pickled Pigs Feet are in
great demand, while there are other seasons when they are a slow sale.
We, therefore, give here a formula for keeping Pickled Pigs Feet in
vinegar so they can be kept for one year if necessary in a perfect
condition. Salt, cure and boil the Pigs Feet the same as above, but
instead of boiling them all done, boil them only about half done; then
split them and put them in tierces and fill the tierces with 60-grain
vinegar and store in cold storage. The 60-grain vinegar has a tendency
to soften the meat. After they have been in this strength of vinegar
for some length of time, they will become soft just as if they were
thoroughly cooked, but if it is necessary to use them before they are
soft, roll them into the engine room or in a place where it is very
warm, and turn the tierces on their end. Keep the top of the barrel
covered with water--we mean on the top of the head--so that the head
will not dry. The bottom of the barrel will not shrink and dry because
the vinegar on the inside keeps it moistened, but if the top is not
kept wet the barrel will shrink and begin to leak. By allowing the Pigs
Feet, which are packed in strong vinegar, to remain in a very warm
place for a week or so, they will become nice and tender; they are then
to be repacked with 40-grain vinegar in small packages for the market.



PICKLING TRIPE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: HOME-MADE PICKLED TRIPE]

Select Tripe that is fresh and has not been lying around long enough to
attract the bacteria ever present in the air.

Tripe should be prepared by thoroughly cleaning and washing the paunch
in at least three or four changes of water. After that, a tub of cold
water should be prepared and a lump of unslaked lime, the size of an
English Walnut, should be added to about 50 gallons of water. Allow
the lime to dissolve and then stir the water to thoroughly mix it. In
this solution place the washed Tripe and allow it to soak for five or
six hours. The water should be kept cold. A small piece of ice may be
put in the water if necessary. Before the Tripe is put into the last
soaking water, the inside should be scraped with a hog-scraper so as
to remove the inside skin. The outside film or skin should also be
scraped off. The boiling vessel should be thoroughly washed before the
Tripe is placed in it for cooking. If there is any foreign substance
whatever in the kettle, it will discolor the Tripe. On the other hand,
it may be turned out perfectly white if the boiling vessel is in proper
condition. Two ounces of B. Heller & Co.’s Lard Purifier mixed in 50
gallons of boiling water will assist to keep the Tripe White.

Scald the Tripe thoroughly and scrape both sides well with a
hog-scraper. The Tripe is then ready to be cooked.

In cooking, allow the water to come to the boiling point. It should
then be reduced to a simmer until the Tripe is thoroughly cooked.
When cooked, cold water should be turned on and allowed to overflow
until the Tripe has thoroughly cooled. After it is thoroughly cooled,
pack in tierces with vinegar that is 60 degrees strong. Always use
White Wine Vinegar. If it is desired to ship Tripe after it has been
vinegar-cured, it should be repacked in vinegar 40 degrees strong.

To give the Tripe a nice flavor, add to every 100 lbs. of Tripe 8 to 10
ounces of Zanzibar Brand Pickled Tongue Seasoning.

Many have trouble through their inability to cook Tripe tender. This,
in most cases, is owing to the fact that the Tripe is boiled too much
in water that is too hot. Water in which Tripe is being cooked should
be allowed to come to a boil, after that, it should be put on a slow
fire where it will cook the Tripe by simmering. A simmer is water that
is hot, but not boiling, or 155 to 160 degrees. Boiling water will
always shrink and toughen Tripe. It will take longer to cook some Tripe
than others, depending upon the age of the animal from which it is
taken. Tripe should be allowed to simmer until it is cooked tender.



MINCE MEAT.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: HOME-MADE MINCE MEAT]

The following directions will make a delicious Mince Meat:

Take 4 lbs. of lean Beef, boil it until it is fairly well cooked and
then chop or grind it very fine.

Add 8 lbs. of Hard Green Apples, cut into small cubes.

  1 lb. of very finely chopped suet.
  3 lbs. of seeded Raisins.
  2 lbs. of Picked Currants, carefully washed and dried.
  2 to 5 lbs. of Citron, cut up into small pieces.
  1 lb. of Brown Sugar.
  1 pint Cooking Molasses (pure New Orleans Molasses is the best, and it
      must be free from Glucose).
  1 quart of Sweet Cider.
  1 Tablespoonful of Salt.
  1 Teaspoonful of Ground Black Pepper.
  1 Teaspoonful of Mace.
  1 Teaspoonful of Allspice.
  ½ Teaspoonful of Cinnamon.
  A little grated Nutmeg.
  A pinch of Cloves.

Mix the above thoroughly, then heat slowly on the stove and boil for
half an hour.

If the Mince Meat is to be put in jars and sealed up tight, the hot
Mince Meat should be put into pint and quart jars, the jars should be
filled up to the brim and the tops screwed down tight immediately.

If the Mince Meat is to be kept in bulk and not sealed up in jars,
add ½ pint of good Brandy after the Mince Meat has been cooked and
allowed to become nearly cold, stirring the Brandy into the Mince Meat
thoroughly and then pack into stone crocks, cover tightly and keep in a
very cool place where the Mince Meat will not freeze. This Mince Meat
will keep all winter.

The above quantities can be increased or decreased proportionately,
according to the total amount of Mince Meat desired at one time.

Dry or concentrated Mince Meat is made same as above, except that dried
apples are used instead of fresh apples, and no liquids are added. Wet
Mince Meat is better than the dry and will give better satisfaction.



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SOUSE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: SOUSE]

=First=:--Take nicely cleaned Pigs Feet, Pigs Snouts, Hocks, Tails or
Ears, and put them in a kettle on a stove, or fire or in a steam jacket
kettle.

=Second=:--Add just enough cold water to entirely cover them.

=Third=:--Boil until the Meat can be removed from the bones.

=Fourth=:--Remove the Meat from the bones, and put it back into the
water in which it was boiled; then add to this water enough White Wine
Vinegar to give it a nice sour taste. The quantity of vinegar will
depend upon its strength.

=Fifth=:--Add the following proportions of spice, which can be changed
to suit the amount of Souse you are making. For 100 lbs. Souse use:

  2 lbs. of Granulated Sugar.
  8 to 10 oz. Zanzibar-Brand Pickled Tongue Seasoning.

=Sixth=:--Mix the spice with the Meat, and boil about 15 minutes; then
remove from the fire. Put the Souse into square tin pans, and allow it
to set 24 hours before removal. If desired, a lemon and 2 or 3 good
sized Onions may be cut into small pieces, and mixed in the Souse
before it is boiled; some like this, and some prefer it without Onion
or Lemon. Do not use too much Lemon as it will make the Souse taste
bitter.



VINEGAR PICKLED PIG’S TONGUES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: PICKLED PIG’S TONGUES]

Take salted Pigs Tongues that have been cured for 30 days and scald
them in hot water; then remove the skin and gullet. Boil slowly for
three hours, the same as boiling Pigs Feet; the slower they are boiled
the better; then cool the Tongues, in the same manner as directed for
cooling Pigs Feet.

Another way is to take them out of the Brine and cook them, and then
take off the skin and gullet after they are cooked. When handling large
quantities, this latter method will not work as well as the first
method, because after the Tongues are boiled, they must be cooled in
the same vat, and after they are cooled, the skin does not remove so
easily. That is why it is better to scald them in boiling water first
and then remove the skin and gullet, then boil them.

Split the tongues through the center and pack in Vinegar the same
as Pigs Feet and add to every 100 lbs. of Tongues 8 to 10 ounces
Zanzibar-Brand Pickled Tongue Seasoning.



HORSERADISH.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Home-made horseradish is a relish that every household demands. It is
impracticable to put grated horseradish upon the market except when
bottled, as exposure to the air discolors it and dries it out. An
excellent bottled article which will prove a good keeper as well as a
good seller can be made as follows: To ten parts of grated horseradish
add one part of granulated sugar and one part of pure vinegar. In
preparing horseradish none but white wine vinegar should be used.
One of the best means of getting new trade is for a Butcher to sell
home-made grated horseradish.



SAUER KRAUT.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: HOME-MADE SAUER KRAUT]

Select sound cabbages and peel off the first or damaged leaves, then
slice or shave with a cabbage cutter as fine as possible. The object
desired in making first-class Sauer Kraut is to obtain a perfect
fermentation under pressure with the aid of salt alone. The brine,
therefore, results from the water contained in the salt and cabbage,
no water being added. First secure a good strong cask, which should be
well scalded and cleaned. Sprinkle on the bottom of this cask a small
quantity of salt, then put in a layer of cabbage and while adding the
cabbage sprinkle some salt through it, so that the salt is as much
divided as possible and then tamp well with a wooden tamper, so as to
pack it as tight and solid as possible. Continue putting in layer of
cabbage and tamping this way until the barrel is full. The salt to be
used should always be of the best grade and one pound of salt to one
hundred pounds of cabbage should be used but may be varied according to
the taste. Some prefer it saltier than others. After the cask is filled
or as full as desired, the cabbage should be covered with a clean cloth
on which should be laid hardwood boards. Use the boards taken out of
the head of a whiskey barrel or tierce as this makes the best cover, as
they fit in the barrel and are made of hardwood and will not give the
cabbage a taste. Carefully weight the boards down with heavy stones,
always remembering that the fermentation should be accomplished under
pressure. Once a week take off the stone, board and cloth from the
cabbage and wash them clean and replace the cloth and boards and stones
on top of the barrel after they have been washed. By repeating the
washing of the boards and cloth and stones every week, the top of the
cabbage will be kept perfectly sweet and the foam which comes to the
top is removed, so that the top of the Sauer Kraut will be as good as
that in the bottom of the barrel. The Kraut should be left to ripen for
about four weeks in a warm temperature. It is always best not to offer
it for sale until it has sufficiently ripened and is tender and juicy
and that it has the proper flavor. This can only occur after perfect
fermentation has taken place.



PICCALILLI.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


This sauce is easily prepared and is in considerable demand by some
trades. Select good, firm, green tomatoes, wash them thoroughly and cut
away all defective portions of the tomatoes. They should then be sliced
or quartered and placed in a salt brine made with one pound of salt
to each gallon of water with a supply of green peppers. Let them cure
in this brine for two weeks. They may then be taken out and chopped
very fine, about ⅛ to ¼ inch in diameter. They are then ready for the
vinegar, which should be pure in quality, the white wine vinegar being
preferred. The vinegar should be first prepared or sweetened and spiced
with pure granulated cane sugar, cloves, cinnamon, mustard seed and
a small quantity of celery seed. This can be poured over the chopped
tomatoes and peppers, either hot or cold. Piccalilli should be sold
nearly or quite strained of its vinegar.



CHOW CHOW.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Chow Chow is a popular sauce that can be readily prepared. It is
strictly a Chinese innovation which was introduced to the American
palate during the first immigration of Chinamen. It is merely the
cucumber pickle cut up into small pieces with the addition of
cauliflower, onions, etc., over which is poured a preparation of
mustard, vinegar and various condiments which taste may demand. Chow
Chow is a good keeper and a good seller, but in order to retain its
flavor and color, it should be carefully covered and kept from exposure
to the air.



DILL PICKLES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: HOME-MADE DILL PICKLES]

All butchers should put up home made pickles of all kinds and such
relishes as horseradish and sauer kraut. Dill pickles are very popular
and they are always salable in the butcher shop. They may be made as
follows: Select large pickles of as near an even size as possible and
soak in water over night; then wash them thoroughly. Next, take a
barrel and put a layer of dill about one inch thick on the bottom of
it, upon which place the pickles three layers deep. Over these pickles
place another layer of dill and repeat the layer of pickles as in the
first instance. Continue this operation of the layer of dill and then
pickles until the barrel is as full as desired, leaving sufficient
space for the brine. The brine should be made of the best quality of
salt, using ½ lb. to each gallon of water. Brine thus made will make
the natural soft home-cured dill pickles. After the brine has been
placed over the pickles, place them in a cooler and let them ripen
for about four weeks. The ripening process may be quickened about two
weeks by leaving the pickles in a room of moderate temperature. Some
prefer dill pickles hard and for such taste it is necessary to put a
little alum in the brine. Pickles treated with alum must be labeled to
show this. A piece about as big as an egg for a full barrel of pickles
is the proper amount. Dissolve this in the brine. This will keep the
pickles firm and hard. It will be found, however, that most tastes
prefer the natural brine without the alum, as the soft pickle seems to
have a more appetizing flavor. There is no appetizer more appreciated
than the dill pickle and it comes nearer appealing to the general trade
than most any relish that can be offered.

[Illustration: DRESS POULTRY IMMEDIATELY AFTER KILLING]



HOW TO DRESS POULTRY.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


The Butcher who will make a specialty of dressed poultry will make a
hit with his customers and good profit on sales if he will be careful
to get his Chickens dressed decently, and to educate his customers
to pay prices that will be commensurate with the quality of the meat
offered. Very often it is almost an impossibility for the consumer to
secure sweet, untainted Poultry Meat. Much of this trouble is owing
to the fact that large shippers kill the Chickens, dry pick them or
scald them, and the food that remains in the intestines ferments and
taints the meat, with the result that the Chicken, when cooked, has an
abominable taste.

When a Butcher is so situated that he can dress his own Chickens,
and he would be fully justified in making all preparations in that
direction, he ought to open, draw and wash out thoroughly every chicken
as fast as it is killed, just as he would wash out Hogs, Calves or
Sheep. Chickens that have been nicely drawn and washed immediately
upon killing are always sweet in flavor, and the Butcher who will take
the pains to offer such goods and to acquaint his customers of their
quality can not only establish a large trade and a great reputation,
but he can offer the public an article that is pure and sweet, and
difficult to obtain. No doubt he could command the Chicken trade of
any neighborhood by this means, down all competition, and obtain good
prices for his Meat, as people would be willing to pay for the original
weight of the chicken before drawing, and at the same time would be
much better satisfied with what they get. If desired, the Butcher could
weigh the chickens after they are dressed, tag and draw them, and then
could say to his customers: “This Chicken weighed so much before it
was drawn, but in order to retain the sweetness of the meat, we draw
it as it ought to be drawn, wash it out, and sell it to you for just
what it is worth.” A Butcher’s statement upon these points would not
be doubted. Furthermore, the Butcher would not lose anything by this
method, as Chickens shrink after they are dressed and kept two or
three days before sold. The loss from this shrinkage is considerable.
Therefore, the trouble and expense of drawing Chickens and handling
them in the manner described would be fully repaid.



STICKY FLY PAPER.


[Illustration: STICKY FLY PAPER]

Every Butcher can make his own Sticky Fly Paper with very little
trouble. It is made as follows:

  1 lb. Rosin.
  3½ oz. Molasses.
  3½ oz. Boiled Linseed Oil.

Boil the three together until they get thick enough and then spread on
heavy Manilla paper. The proper and quickest way is to take a sheet of
heavy Manilla paper and spread the mixture on half of the surface of
it, then double the paper over; the mixture put on the half will be
quite sufficient to coat the face of the other half that is doubled
over on it. The cost of making this sticky fly paper is very small and
in an hour any Butcher can make enough Sticky Fly Paper to last the
entire summer.



[Illustration: RENDERING LARD]

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


One of the things much neglected in many butcher shops is the making
of Lard. Butchers who do not cut up enough hogs to have fat for making
Lard each day, allow the fat to accumulate until they have sufficient
so as to make it worth their while to render it. Many butchers do not
keep this fat in the ice box, but let it stand anywhere, because they
imagine that it does not spoil; then, when they make Lard out of it,
they wonder why the Lard is not better.

Lard should always be made as soon as possible, and the fat trimmings
should be kept in the cooler and not allowed to remain standing around
in a warm place. To make high grade Kettle-Rendered Lard, always cut
the rinds off of the fat. The rinds can be put into pickle and stored
until a quantity has accumulated and then they can be cooked and
utilized in Liver Sausage, Head Cheese or Blood Sausage. When the rind
is cooked with the lard, it always causes more or less detriment to the
lard.

Before rendering, if one has the machinery, the fat should be run
through a regular fat hasher or a Meat Grinder, and it should be ground
up into small pieces. The smaller it is ground the better, for if the
fatty tissues are thoroughly mangled and disintegrated, the oil will
separate more readily when the heat is applied. Those butchers not
having a machine in which they can cut up the fat should cut it into
small pieces by hand.

For making Kettle-Rendered Lard a steam jacket kettle is the best, but
if one does not have steam, a common caldron will answer, but great
care must be taken not to scorch the lard or allow it to become too hot
when a caldron is used.



RENDERING LARD IN JACKET KETTLE OR CALDRON.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Before putting the fat into the kettle, put in a gallon of water for
every 100 lbs. of fat, as the water prevents the lard from scorching.
Then put in all the fat to be rendered and start the fire or slowly
turn on the steam, as the case may be.

In rendering Lard the heat should be brought up gradually, so that
quite a little of the fat is melted before the full heat is applied. If
the heat is brought up too rapidly, it will cause the Lard to be darker
in color than when it is gradually heated.

Lard should be boiled about 1½ hours after the entire mass is boiling.

[Illustration: LARD PRESS]

Those butchers who wish to render their Lard scientifically, with
the aid of a thermometer, can do so by hanging a thermometer in the
Lard and bringing the temperature gradually up to 255 to 260 degrees
Fahrenheit, and then turn off the steam or check the fire, as the case
may be, and allow the Lard to cook slowly until it is finished.

A butcher can always tell when the Lard has cooked sufficiently by the
way the cracklings press out.

After the Lard has all been tried out, skim out all the cracklings, put
them into a press and press out all the Lard, adding what is pressed
out to that in the kettle.

Now the Lard is ready to be strained through a piece of cheese cloth.



IF ONE HAS A LARD SETTLING TANK, AS HERE ILLUSTRATED, HANDLE THE LARD
AS FOLLOWS:

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: SETTLING TANK]

After treating the Lard as directed, with Lard Purifier and water, and
after the Lard has been treated enough to make it foam, and the foam
has been skimmed off, dip the Lard and water out of the kettle, run it
through a piece of cheese cloth into the settling tank. A settling tank
is simply a galvanized iron tank with a large faucet at the bottom.
The bottom can be made to taper to the center and the faucet placed in
the center, so all the water can be drained off, or the bottom can be
made flat with the faucet close to the bottom, and the tank can be set
slanting, so the water or Lard will all drain out.

After the Lard is in the settling tank, let it settle for one or two
hours, according to the size of the tank and quantity of Lard in it.
Then drain off all the water and the impurities which have settled to
the bottom. After these are drawn off, the Lard is ready to be run into
buckets, which should be placed in the ice box to cool.

A better way is to let the Lard settle in the settling tank and, after
the water is drawn off, stir the Lard with a large paddle until it is
thick and creamy, and then it should be put into buckets. By letting it
cool in the settling tank and stirring it until it is thick and creamy,
Lard will have a much better appearance when cold than Lard that is run
into buckets hot.



HOW TO PURIFY LARD WITH ONLY A COMMON RENDERING KETTLE.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


After the Lard has been rendered as above, treat as follows: The kettle
must not be too full of Lard; it should not be more than three-fourths
full when being treated with the Purifier.

Put a thermometer into the Lard to test the temperature. If the
temperature of the Lard is below 200 degrees Fahrenheit, add to every
100 lbs. of Lard 3 ounces of B. Heller & Co.’s Lard Purifier, dissolved
in one quart of water. For example, if the kettle contains 400 lbs. of
rendered Lard, add 12 ounces of Lard Purifier dissolved in one gallon
of water.

Should the temperature of the Lard be over 200 degrees F., do not add
the Lard Purifier and water, but let the Lard stand for half an hour or
so, until the temperature comes below 200 degrees.

If the Lard Purifier and water are added to the Lard when it is as high
as 212 degrees F., the water will at once be converted into steam as
soon as it gets into the Lard, because water is converted into steam at
that temperature. When the Lard Purifier and water are added to Lard
that is too hot, the Lard will foam up and boil over; but, when the
Lard is below 200 degrees F. and the Lard Purifier and water are added,
it will not boil up.

After adding the Lard Purifier and water, take a paddle and stir the
Lard thoroughly, so the Lard Purifier is mixed thoroughly with every
part of the Lard; then turn on the steam or build up the fire slowly,
as the case may be, and heat the Lard up to 212 degrees F. The minute
212 degrees is reached the Lard will begin to foam. When the Lard gets
to this point, it should not be left for a moment, because if it gets
too hot it will boil over the top of the kettle; but if one stays right
with it when it begins to foam, and checks the fire, it will not boil
over but will foam a little and most of the impurities will rise to the
top of the Lard. Now stop the fire and skim off all the impurities on
the top of the Lard and allow the Lard to settle for about two hours,
when all the water and the smaller impurities that did not rise to the
top will have separated from the Lard and will be at the bottom, and
one will be surprised at the amount of impurities that will thus be
separated from the Lard.

If the kettle has a faucet at the bottom, draw off the water and the
impurities which have settled and then run off the Lard. Should the
kettle not have an opening at the bottom, dip out the Lard from the
top, being careful not to dip out any of the water which will be at the
bottom. When most of the Lard has been taken out, that remaining, which
is near the water, can be dipped out together with the water, and put
in a bucket or tub and allowed to harden.

The lard will float on the top and when hard can easily be taken off
from the top of the water, and should be kept until the next Lard is
rendered, when it should be re-melted with the next batch of Lard.

Before running the Lard into buckets, it is always well to run it
through a piece of cheese cloth, so as to remove any small pieces of
detached cracklings. It is advisable to put the Lard into the ice box
as soon as it is run into buckets, so as to set it, which will prevent
the separation of the oil from the Stearin.



IF ONE HAS NO SETTLING TANK, BUT SIMPLY HAS A RENDERING KETTLE AND AN
AGITATOR, HANDLE LARD AS FOLLOWS:

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


=First=:--Render the Lard in the Rendering Kettle, and treat it with B.
Heller & Co.’s Lard Purifier, the same as directed in the foregoing.
After it is treated, run the Lard through two or three thicknesses of
cheese cloth, into the Agitator. Allow it to settle in the Agitator for
two hours, then run off all the water from the bottom, and start the
Agitator. The Lard should be agitated until it is thick like cream,
then it is ready to run off. We, however, recommend that Lard should
be taken from the Rendering Kettle and put into the Settling Tank and
allowed to settle, and then the Lard should be run from the Settling
Tank through the faucet about an inch above the bottom, into the Lard
Cooler, and while in the Cooler it should be agitated until it becomes
thick. There are always small particles of charred tissue which will
settle to the bottom of the Settling Tank, which cannot be gotten out
in any other way, and the Lard will be whiter and purer if allowed to
settle in the Settling Tank and then drawn off into the Cooler.



IF ONE HAS A LARD SETTLING TANK AND AN AGITATOR, HANDLE THE LARD AS
FOLLOWS:

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: COOLER AND AGITATOR]

A Packer or Butcher who makes any quantity at all of Kettle Rendered
Lard, should have a Rendering Kettle in which the Lard is rendered, a
Settling Tank in which the Lard is settled, and a Lard Cooler with an
Agitator in it. The Lard Cooler and Agitator should be double-jacketed,
so that cold water can be run into the jacket to cool the Lard.

When equipping a plant with a Settling Tank and Cooler, we advise that
the Settling Tank have two faucets in it; one at the extreme bottom
and the other about one inch from the bottom. Then, when the water is
drawn off of the Settling Tank, it should be drawn off from the lowest
faucet, and when the Lard is drawn off into the Agitator, it should be
run off through the faucet which is an inch from the bottom. In this
way, small particles which may be in the Lard will remain in the bottom
of the Settling Tank, in the one inch layer of Lard which remains in
the bottom of the Settling Tank. After all the Lard is run off through
the upper faucet, what remains between the upper faucet and the bottom
of the Settling Tank should be drawn off through the lower faucet and
should be kept until the next time Lard is rendered, and then should be
re-rendered with the next batch.

After the Lard has been rendered and has been treated in the Rendering
Kettle, with the Lard Purifier, strain it through a cheese cloth into
the Settling Tank, allow it to settle for two hours, then draw off all
the water from the bottom faucet. After the water has been drawn off,
draw off the Lard from the top faucet and again run it through cheese
cloth, into the Cooler and Agitator. Start the Agitator and allow it
to run until the Lard is thick and white, like cream, and then run it
off into buckets or tubs.

A good way to set up the Settling Tank and the Cooler and Agitator,
is to have the Settling Tank high enough up, on a bench above the
Agitator, so that the Lard can be run out of the Settling Tank into the
Agitator. The Cooler and Agitator should also be high enough from the
floor so the Lard can be run from it into buckets or tubs.

It costs very little to properly equip oneself with the proper
apparatus, and if properly rigged up it is a pleasure to make the Lard
and requires very little work.



HOW TO PURIFY RENDERED LARD.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


=First=:--Put 100 lbs. of water into the lard kettle and add to it
one-quarter to one-half pound of B. Heller & Co.’s Lard Purifier; then
on top of the water put 100 lbs. of the rendered Lard.

=Second=:--If a steam kettle is used, turn on the steam; and if the
kettle is heated by fire, start the fire; the heat should be applied
slowly and must be closely watched, so that the Lard does not get too
hot and boil over. In no case should more Lard and water be put into
the kettle than to fill it one-half full. By thus having the kettle
only half full it leaves plenty of room for the Lard to boil and foam
and prevents it from boiling over the top of the kettle.

=Third=:--While the Lard is being heated stay right with it at the
kettle to watch it and continually stir it.

=Fourth=:--When the Lard begins to boil check the fire and let it
simmer from 10 to 15 minutes, then put out the fire or turn off the
steam and let the Lard settle for about three hours; all the impurities
that come to the top skim off carefully.

=Fifth=:--After the Lard has settled for three hours all the water
will be at the bottom. If the kettle is provided with a faucet at the
bottom so the water can be let off, let the water run out slowly until
it is all drained out; if the kettle has no opening in the bottom, skim
the Lard off from the top of the water and place the Lard in a Lard
Cooler. If you have a Lard Cooler with an Agitator, start the Agitator
and keep it running until the Lard gets thick like cream; it is then
ready to run off into buckets. If you have no regular Agitator, it is
necessary to stir the Lard by hand occasionally until it gets thick and
creamy; stir it as much as possible until it gets thick, and then run
it into buckets.



LARD NOT PURIFIED.


If Lard is made without taking out the impurities with water and our
Lard Purifier, the Lard will become rancid if it is to be kept during
the hot weather, and it will not be so sweet in flavor nor as clean
and white as it is when treated with our Purifier according to the
preceding directions. Our Lard Purifier neutralizes the free fatty
acids in the Lard, thus to a considerable extent preventing rancidity
and helps keep the Lard Sweet and Pure.

Lard made with our Lard Purifier according to the foregoing directions
will comply with the regulations under the various Pure Food Laws.



COMPOUND LARD.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


In the Southern States, where the climate is warm, it is necessary to
add either Tallow or Tallow Stearin or Lard Stearin to Lard, so as to
stiffen it in order that it can be handled at all.

To make Compound Lard, first render the Lard and press out the
cracklings as directed; then add from 10 to 20 per cent of either
Tallow, Tallow Stearin or Lard Stearin and stir until it is all melted
and thoroughly mixed with the Lard. The quantity of Tallow or Stearin
to add depends upon the climate and season of the year, and also the
price of the different materials.

After adding the above, purify the mixture, the same as directed for
handling Pure Lard. However, Compound Lard must always be agitated
until it is thick and cream-like before it is run into buckets. If one
has no Lard Agitator, it must be stirred by hand until it is stiff and
cool.

It is perfectly legal to add Tallow, Tallow Stearin or Lard Stearin to
Lard for this purpose, but such Lard must be sold as Compound Lard. It
cannot be sold as “Pure Lard” when these ingredients are added to it.



COTTON SEED OIL-LARD COMPOUNDS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


For certain purposes Cotton Seed Oil added to Lard is preferred to
straight Lard, and the Cotton Seed Oil is added after the Lard has been
purified and is ready to put in the Agitator.

To make a really good Compound Lard, a Cooler with an Agitator is
absolutely necessary, but if one hasn’t a cooler with Agitator, it can
be done by stirring by hand continuously, so the Lard and Oil do not
separate while cooling.

When Cotton Seed Oil is used, it must be Refined Cotton Seed Oil, and
the more it is refined the better the compound will be. Lard should
always be run through cheese cloth before putting it in the Lard
Cooler, so as to take out any small particles of detached cracklings
which may remain in the Lard.

The formula for making Compound Lard with Cotton Seed Oil varies
according to the relative values of the ingredients and the quality of
Compound desired. The usual Compounds found on the market, as sold at
the present time under trade names, and which contain no Lard at all,
are made of 80 per cent Cotton Seed Oil and 20 per cent Tallow Stearin.
(Tallow Stearin is Tallow with the oil pressed out of it.) A small
butcher can make this Compound by using 80 per cent Cotton Seed Oil and
20 per cent Rendered Tallow, which has previously been purified with B.
Heller & Co.’s Lard Purifier.

If it is desired to make a better quality of Compound, use less Cotton
Seed Oil and add sufficient Lard to bring the cost and quality to the
desired degree.

All such Compounds must be sold as “Compound Lard” when Lard is added;
but when no Lard is added, they must be sold as “Lard Substitutes.”
These preparations are perfectly legal, and comply with the Pure Food
Laws provided they are labeled and sold for what they are, but no one
should make a Lard Compound or Imitation Lard and sell it for Pure
Lard.



REFINING LARD WITH FULLER’S EARTH.



THE METHOD USED FOR REFINING LARD IN LARGE PACKING HOUSES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


The large packers all refine Lard and Tallow with the Fuller’s Earth
process, and for the benefit of the small packers, who would like to
know how it is done, we will give the full directions, although a small
packing house can hardly afford to put in a plant for the process,
as it requires a man who is experienced to refine Lard and Tallow in
this manner. If a packing house does not make enough Lard and Tallow
to afford to keep a man especially for this purpose, it will not pay
to put in a refinery, which consists of the following machinery: A
Receiving Kettle, which is a large open tank with steam coils in it to
dry the Lard or a large Jacket Kettle will do. A Clay Kettle, which is
a tank with steam coils in it for heating the Lard and an air pipe at
the bottom of it connected to an air compressor. A Lard Cooler with
Agitator to cool and stir the Lard while it sets so as to have it
thoroughly mixed. A Pump, Air Compressor and Filter Press. An ordinary
size outfit will cost from $2,000 to $3,000.

First, the Lard, Tallow or Cotton Seed Oil, which is termed stock,
is placed in the Clay Kettle. The Clay Kettle is simply an iron
jacket with a coil in the bottom of it through which air is pumped.
In this kettle, the Fuller’s Earth is added. To each and every 100
lbs. of stock, there is added from one to two lbs. of Fuller’s Earth;
the quantity depending upon the grade of stock. Before the stock is
treated a small test is made as follows. A small quantity is heated;
in a part of it one per cent of clay is put, in another part 1½ per
cent, and in another two per cent. Mix each lot thoroughly, put them
into a funnel over filter paper and allow them to filter. By examining
these samples, one can tell how much earth to use to the stock in the
kettle. This must be done when the stock varies. Of course, when the
Lard, Tallow, or Oil are running uniform, it is not necessary to make
the test, but where the stock changes, it is always advisable to test
before treating, for the reason that too much Fuller’s Earth put into
the stock will give the Lard an objectionable flavor. Before stock of
any kind can be treated with Fuller’s Earth, all the moisture must be
out of it; Lard usually contains two to three per cent of moisture,
and very often considerably more, so it must be heated in a Jacket
Kettle until all the water is evaporated. If there is any water in the
Lard, the Fuller’s Earth attacks the water first, and the Lard is not
affected, because wet Fuller’s Earth has absolutely no effect upon
Lard. When the Fuller’s Earth is added to Lard, it must be 155 degrees
hot; Tallow must be 185 degrees hot, and Cotton Seed Oil 140 degrees
hot. After the desired heat is obtained, regulate the steam so the
temperature will remain stationary, turn on the air, and when it is
blowing hard, put in the Fuller’s Earth and blow for about 20 minutes;
then start the force pump and pump the stock through the Filter Press.
If the stock is of fine quality and only a small percentage of Fuller’s
Earth is used, it can be pumped directly into the Receiving Kettle,
but if a large percentage of Fuller’s Earth is used, it is advisable
to let the Lard run back into the Clay Kettle, and keep on letting it
run through the filter and pumping it round until it is thoroughly
clarified; then allow it to run into the Receiving Kettle.

If inferior stock is used, sometimes as much as four and five per cent
of Fuller’s Earth is used to refine it, but it is not advisable to
use that large amount as the clay gives off an odor which the stock
sometimes absorbs. Always use the least amount of clay that good
judgment indicates will do the work, and after pumping through the
filter, if it is not as it should be add more clay and refilter it.

To make Compound Lard, treat the different stocks separately, run them
in different tanks, and then mix them. After they have been put into
the receiving tank or the mixing tank, it is advisable to mix them by
blowing air into the bottom of the kettle in which are Lard, Tallow
and Oil; this will mix even better than any process or method that we
know of. The amount or kind of stock to be used depends upon the season
of the year, and the kind and quantity of goods you wish to make. Equal
parts of Tallow, Lard and Oil make a very good Compound. All the cloths
for the Filter Press should be washed every day after using them as
they must be kept perfectly clean; the cleaner the better.

After the Compound Lard has been thoroughly mixed it must be put into
an Agitator and agitated until it is thick like cream before it is run
off into buckets.



HOW TO RENDER TALLOW WHITE, ODORLESS, FLAKY AND SOFT, LIKE LARD IN
TEXTURE

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


It is an easy matter to render Tallow so it will have a very light
color, in fact, will be almost white and at the same time flaky and
soft like Lard, if the instructions which follow are carried out.
When so rendered, the Tallow will sell at a good price, as it will be
entirely free from a tallowy odor, and is an excellent thing for baking
purposes. Tallow rendered according to these instructions can be mixed
with Lard and it will even improve the Lard. But it must be sold for
what it is.

Take Beef Suet and all the Beef Fat trimmed from steaks and other cuts,
and run it through a Chopper, chopping it very fine. It will thus
become soft and sticky so it can be rolled in small balls about one
and one-half to two inches in diameter. While this is being done, fill
Rendering Kettle half full of water, dissolving in the water about two
ounces of Lard Purifier to every 100 lbs. of Tallow to be rendered and
start it to boil. While the water is boiling the small balls of Tallow
should be placed on top of the water until a sufficient number of balls
have been thus put into the water to make a layer three or four inches
deep, but not deeper. After the Tallow is rendered out of the balls,
the heat should be turned off and the Tallow should be permitted to
cool. Just as soon as the boiling has ceased, all the cracklings that
are on the surface should be skimmed off, put into a press and pressed
out. The Tallow that is on the surface should be skimmed off and put
into buckets. Care should be taken that no water is taken out with the
hot Tallow. The tallow which remains on the water can be left there
until it is hard, when it can be taken off and melted if desired, and
then run into buckets. The advantage in rendering Tallow in this manner
is to prevent the Tallow from becoming too hot, and thus to keep it
from turning dark; besides, the water and Lard Purifier purifies the
Tallow and also draws out the tallowy odor.

Any butcher can build up a large trade on home-rendered tallow when it
is prepared in this manner. In fact, his trade will like the Tallow
so well that he will not be able to supply the demand. As a rule, the
butcher sells his Tallow unrendered at a low price, but if he will
render it himself and follow the above instructions carefully, he can
sell the Tallow for at least 10 to 12 cents per pound, owing to the
fact that Tallow rendered in this manner produces a very fine fat for
cooking purposes. We believe it is much better than Lard.



NEAT’S FOOT OIL.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Neat’s Foot Oil is made by simply boiling the feet of cattle in a water
bath, in an open kettle. The oil will come out of the feet and float
on the top of the water. After the oil has been cooked out of the
feet, they should be skimmed out of the kettle. The oil should then be
treated with our Lard Purifier, the same way as directed for treating
Lard. Simply let the water and fat cool down to 200 degrees Fahrenheit
or below, and to every 100 lbs. of oil add about four ounces of our
Lard Purifier dissolved in a quart of water. Stir the water, Lard
Purifier and Neat’s Foot Oil thoroughly, and then start up the fire
and bring it to a boil. Skim off any foam and impurities that may come
to the surface and then stop the fire and allow it to settle about two
hours; then skim the oil off of the top of the water and you will have
genuine, sweet and refined Neat’s Foot Oil.

[Illustration: KILLING ON THE FARM]



KILLING ON THE FARM.


Very often butchers in the smaller towns find it convenient to
slaughter live stock in the country where it is purchased. In order to
meet such cases we submit the following directions for slaughtering
cattle, hogs and sheep, and no doubt they will be found useful and
suggestive.

It is absolutely necessary that only healthy animals shall be
slaughtered for food. It is not so important that stock should be fat,
although no one can expect the best results from lean animals, but as
there is a demand for all grades of meat, condition is not so exacting
as health.

In the case of injured animals, crushed ribs, broken limbs, etc.,
the flesh is not good for food unless the stock has been slaughtered
immediately upon receiving the injuries.



AGE FOR KILLING.


It is a well known fact that the meat of old animals is tougher than
that of young ones. The flesh of young animals frequently lacks flavor
and is not solid. An old animal in proper condition and good health is
preferable as food to a younger one in poorer condition.

Cattle if properly fed are fit for beef at 12 to 24 months, although
the meat from these animals often lacks flavor, especially if they have
not been well fed. The best meat is from aged steers 30 to 40 months
old. A calf should not be slaughtered under four weeks and is not at
its best until about eight weeks of age. There is a law in many States
confiscating veal offered on the market under six weeks of age.

Pigs may be used after six weeks but the most profitable age at which
to slaughter hogs is between eight months and one year.

Sheep may be used at from 3 to 4 months of age; but are at their best
from eight to twelve months.



PREPARING FOR SLAUGHTER.


Experience dictates that an animal intended for slaughter should be
kept from eating for twenty-four to thirty-six hours before killing.
If kept on full feed the system is gorged and the blood, loaded with
assimilated nutrients, is pumped to the extremities of the capillaries.
It is impossible to thoroughly drain the blood from the veins when the
animal is bled, and the result will be a reddish-colored, unattractive
carcass. Again, food in the stomach decomposes very rapidly after the
animal is slaughtered. Where the dressing is slow, as it must be on the
farm, the gases generated from the stomach often flavor the meat. It
is well to give water freely up to the time of slaughter as it aids in
keeping the temperature normal and helps in cleaning out the system,
resulting in a nicer colored carcass.

It is but natural that the condition of animals prior to slaughter
should have a positive effect on the keeping qualities of the meat.
There should be no excitement sufficient to raise the temperature of
the body. Excitement creates fever, prevents proper drainage of the
blood vessels, and, if intense, will cause souring of the meat very
soon after dressing. No animal should be killed after a long drive
or rapid run about the pasture. It is always better in such cases to
permit the animal to rest over night rather than to risk spoiling the
meat. The flesh of an animal that has been overheated and then killed
is usually of a dark color and frequently develops a sour odor within a
few hours after dressing. Bruises cause blood to settle in the affected
portions of the body, often causing loss of a considerable part of
the carcass. A 24-hour fast, ample water, careful handling and rest
are necessary in order that the meat may be in the best condition for
immediate use or curing.



KILLING AND DRESSING CATTLE.


The first step in killing is to secure the animal so that, in no
emergency, it can escape. Use a rope one inch in diameter. Put a slip
noose in one end with a knot just far enough from the noose to prevent
choking when drawn tight, but it should at the same time allow the
noose to draw tight enough so that there is no danger of escape, in the
event of the rope becoming slack. If the animal has horns, pass the
noose over the head, back of the ear and horn on the right side, but in
front of the horn on the left side of the head. This operation leaves
the full face of the animal bare and does not tighten on the throat.
When a dehorned or polled animal is to be slaughtered it will of course
be necessary to put the noose around the neck. Attach an ordinary
pulley to a post or tree close to the ground, to the barn floor or
sill, pass the rope through it and draw the animal’s head down as close
to the pulley as possible.

Administer a heavy blow in the center of the forehead at a point where
lines from the base of the horns to the eyes would cross. Shooting has
the same effect as stunning and may be resorted to. Frequently where an
animal can not be brought to the pulley it is necessary to shoot. In
shooting use only a rifle of good caliber.

[Illustration: Fig. 2--Beef: Illustrating method of securing to stun.
Intersection of dotted lines show place to strike.]

Bleed the animal immediately by sticking just in front of the breast
bone as shown in Fig. 3. Stand in front of the animal with back toward
the body after the manner of a horseshoer. Reaching down between the
front feet, lay open the skin from breast-bone toward the chin for a
distance of 10 to 12 inches, using the ordinary skinning knife. Insert
the knife with the back against the breastbone and the tip pointing
to the spinal column at the top of the shoulders, cutting just under
the windpipe and about 5 to 6 inches in depth at the junction of the
jugular vein near the collar bone; at this point if the vein is severed
the blood will run out rapidly. If stuck too deep, the pleura will be
punctured and blood will flow in the chest cavity, causing a bloody
carcass. It requires practice to become expert in the sticking of beef.
Not so much skill is required to simply cut the animal’s throat back of
the jaws but the time required for bleeding is very much longer and the
bleeding less thorough.



SKINNING AND CUTTING.


Begin skinning at once while the carcass is lying on its side by
splitting the skin through the face from the head to the nose as shown
in Fig. 4. Skin the face back over the eyes on both sides and down over
the cheeks, cutting around the base of the horns so as to leave the
ears on the hide. Split the skin down the throat to meet the cut made
in bleeding. Start the skin in slightly on the sides of the neck and
down to the jaws. Now remove the head by cutting just back of the jaws
toward the depression back of the head as shown in Fig. 5. The atlas
joint will be found at this point and may be easily unjointed with the
knife.

[Illustration: Fig. 3--Beef: Place to stick and manner of sticking.]

At this point the carcass should be rolled on its back and held in
position by a small, strong stick, say 18 inches long, with a sharp
spike in both ends. Insert one end in the brisket and the other in the
floor or ground. This will hold the carcass in position. Then split
the skin over the back of the four legs from between the dew-claws to
a point three or four inches above the knees. Skin around the shin and
knee, unjointing the knee at the lowest joint as seen in Fig. 6 and
skin clear down to the hoof.

[Illustration: Fig. 4--Beef: Skinning the face, illustrating manner of
starting.]

The brisket and forearms should not be skinned until after the carcass
is hung up. Now cut across the cord over the hind shin, splitting the
skin from the dew-claws to the hock up over the rear part of the thigh
to a point from four to six inches back of the cod or udder. Skin the
hock and shin, removing the leg as shown in Fig. 7. In splitting the
skin over the thigh turn the knife down flat with the edge upward to
avoid the cutting of flesh. While the hind leg is stretched ahead it
is skinned down over the rear of the lower thigh but do not skin the
outside of the thigh until the hind-quarters are raised. After the legs
are skinned split the skin of the carcass over the midline from the
breast to the rectum.

[Illustration: Fig. 5--Beef: Removing the head.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6--Beef: Showing manner of unjoining fore leg and
skinning shank.]

Now begin at the flanks and skin along the midline until the side is
nicely started. With a sharp knife held flat against the surface have
the hide stretched tightly and remove the skin down over the sides
with steady down-strokes of the knife, as shown in Fig. 8. But it
is necessary that the hide should be stretched tightly and without
wrinkles. Care should be taken to leave a covering of muscles over the
abdomen of the carcass as it keeps it better. In siding the beef, it is
usual to go down nearly to the back bone, leaving the skin attached at
thighs and shoulders; skin over the buttock and as far down on the rump
as possible, always avoiding cutting the flesh or tearing the membrane
over it. A coarse cloth and a pail of hot water should be at hand while
skinning and blood spots wiped quickly from the surface, but the cloth
should be nearly dry, as the less water used the better. Open the
carcass at the belly and pull the small intestines out at one side. Use
a saw or sharp ax in opening the brisket and pelvis. After raising the
windpipe and belly and cutting loose the pleura and diaphragm along the
lower part of the cavity, the carcass will be ready to raise.

[Illustration: Fig. 7--Beef: Unjointing the hind leg.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8--Beef: “Siding down;” knife held flat against the
tightly stretched skin.]

Fig. 9 shows the carcass ready for raising, and Fig. 11 shows the block
and tackle rigging attached to the carcass about to be raised.

When the carcass is raised to a convenient height, skin the hide over
the thigh, rump and hips. While in this position, it is well to loosen
the rectum and small intestines and allow them to drop down over the
paunch. The fat lining, the pelvis and the kidney fat should not be
disturbed nor mutilated. The intestines may be separated from the
liver to which they are attached by the use of a knife. The paunch is
attached to the back at the left side and may be torn loose. Let it
roll on the ground and cut off or draw off the gullet. The carcass at
this point is shown in Fig. 11. Now raise the carcass a little higher
and take out the liver, having first removed the gall bladder. Now
remove the diaphragm, lungs, the heart, and finish skinning over the
shoulders, forearms and neck, as shown in Fig. 12. Sponge all the dirt
and blood off with a cloth, split the carcass in halves, using a saw,
cleaver or sharp ax, wash out the inside of the chest cavity and wipe
it dry.

[Illustration: Fig. 9--Beef: Ready to raise: Breast, forearms and neck,
left covered to protect the meat until the carcass is raised.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11--Beef: Removing paunch and intestines.]

Trim off all bloody veins and scraggy pieces of the neck and leave the
beef to cool before quartering.

[Illustration: Fig. 12--Beef: Skinning shoulders and forearms.]

[Illustration: 13.--Beef raised out of the way of animals to cool.]

Fig. 13 shows the finished carcass hanging high up and cooling.



KILLING AND DRESSING MUTTON.


If the sheep is an old one, it should be stunned. If a young one,
dislocating the neck after cutting the throat serves the same purpose.
This is accomplished by placing one hand on top of the head, the other
under the chin, and twisting sharply upward. Lay the sheep on its side
on a platform, with its head hanging over the end. Grasp the chin in
the left hand and stick the knife through the neck back of the jaw,
turning the cutting edge of the knife toward the spinal column and
cut the flesh to the bone. By so doing it is impossible to cut the
windpipe. (See Fig. 14.)

[Illustration: Fig. 14--Manner of Sticking a Sheep.]

Split the skin over the back of the front leg from the dewclaws a
little above the knee. (See Fig. 15.) Open the skin over the windpipe
from breast to chin, starting in slightly on the sides of the neck.
Split the skin over the back of the hind leg through the middle line
and skin the buttock. Raise the skin over the udder or cod and flanks.
Skin around the hocks and down to the hoofs, cutting off the feet at
the toe joints. Run the knife between the cord and bone on back of the
chin and tie the legs together just above the pastern joint. Do not
skin the legs above the hock until the carcass is hung up.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.--“Legging out” a sheep.]

Hang the sheep up by the hind legs, split the skin over the middle
line; start at the brisket and “fist off” the skin. This is done by
grasping the edge of the pelt firmly in one hand, pulling it up tight
and working the other with the fist closed between the pelt and the
body, over the fore-quarters downward and upward and backward over the
hind-quarters and legs. It is unwise to work down on the skin over the
hind legs, as it would rupture the membrane. The wool should always
be held away from the flesh as a matter of cleanliness, and the skin
on the legs should be pulled away from the carcass rather than toward
it. When the pelt has been loosened over sides and back, it should be
stripped down over the neck and cut off close to the ears. Remove the
head without skinning by cutting through the atlas joint.

[Illustration: Fig. 16--Fisting off the Pelt.]



GUTTING.


Remove the entrails by cutting around the rectum and allowing it to
drop down inside, but do not split the pelvis. Open down the belly line
from cod or udder to breast bone; take out the paunch and intestines,
leaving the liver attached to the diaphragm. It is not best to split
the breast. Reach up in the pelvis and pull out the bladder. Wipe all
blood and dirt from the carcass with a coarse cloth wrung dry from
hot water. Double up the front legs and slip the little cord found by
cutting into the fleshy part of the forearms into the ankle joints.

[Illustration: Fig. 17.--Removing the intestines of sheep.]



KILLING AND DRESSING HOGS.


A good sticking knife, hog hook, scrapers, a barrel or a trough
for scalding, and a convenient place for working are the important
necessities. Set the barrel at the proper slant with the open end
against a table or platform of the proper height, with the bottom
securely fastened; a strong tackle built for the purpose is desirable,
but not necessary. Hogs should not be excited or heated, and in
catching and throwing them bruising must be avoided. However, it is
not necessary to stun hogs before sticking them. At slaughter houses
they are usually hung up by one hind leg. If there is no hoisting
appliances, lay the hog on its back and hold it there until stuck.
Two men can handle a hog if they will but work with intelligence.
By reaching under the animal, one at the fore leg and the other at
the hind leg, they can turn a heavy hog on its back easily. One man,
standing astride the body, with his feet close against the side and
holding its front feet, can control it while the other does the
sticking.

[Illustration: Fig. 18.--Manner of holding and sticking a hog.]

[Illustration: Fig. 19.--Scalding a hog. Note arrangement.]

The knife should be eight inches long, straight bladed and narrow,
and stuck into the hog’s throat just in front of the breast bone, the
point directed toward the root of the tail and held in line with the
back bone. This is necessary to prevent cutting between the ribs and
the shoulders, which would cause the blood to settle there with waste
in trimming of the shoulder. When the knife has been stuck in six or
eight inches, according to the size of the hog, turn the knife quickly
to one side and withdraw it. The arteries that are to be cut run close
together just inside of the breast bone and both are cut when the knife
is turned, providing the edges are sharp at the point.

The water for scalding when heated in the house should be boiling when
removed from the stove. If put into a cold barrel it will be about
the right temperature when the hog is ready for scalding. During the
scalding process the water should be about 185 to 195 degrees, if the
scalding tub holds only enough water to scald one hog. Water at 150
degrees will scald a hog, but, of course, more time is required. In
large packing houses where a large tub is used and steam is continually
blowing into the water, the water is kept at 150 degrees. Too hot
water is likely to cause more trouble than too cold, and for this
reason it is always best to have a thermometer at hand. Of course, the
temperature may be reduced by putting in a little cold water. A hog
should not be scalded before it is dead or the blood in the small blood
vessels near the surface of the skin will cook and give a reddish tinge
to the carcass.

To make the hair easy to remove and to cleanse the skin of the hog and
free it from all the greasy filth which forms a scurf on the skin of
all hogs, our Hog-Scald should always be used. Hogs scalded with the
aid of Hog-Scald do not require so much heat to loosen the hair, it
requires much less labor to clean them, and the dressed hogs will look
much nicer and the rinds will cure and smoke nicer than when it is not
used. No Farmer or Butcher will dress his hogs without Hog-Scald after
giving it a trial. For description and price list on Hog-Scald, see
page 278.

[Illustration: Fig. 20.--A convenient way of hanging up a hog.]

While being scalded the carcass should be kept moving constantly to
avoid cooking the skin. While scalding, the hog should occasionally
be drawn out of the water for air, when the hair may be tried. When
both hair and scurf slip easily from the skin, scalding is completed.
Remove the carcass from the water and begin scraping. The head and feet
should be cleaned first, as they do not clean easily when cold. Use a
“candlestick” scraper on the head. Use the hands and a knife if you
haven’t this tool. The feet and legs are easily cleaned by grasping
them firmly with the hands and twisting them around and back; pull
the little bristles of the body by hand and remove the scurf and fine
hair with the scraper, long corn knife or other tool. Wash the entire
carcass with hot water and shave it with a sharp knife. Insert a stick
under the gambrel cords and hang up the hog.

Wash down with hot water, shave patches and rinse with cold water.
Occasionally the hog is too large to scald in a barrel. Cover it
thickly with blankets or sacks containing a little bran, pour hot water
over it and the hair will be readily loosened.



GUTTING HOGS.


Split the hog between the hind legs, separating the bones with a knife.
Run the knife down over the belly line, guiding it with the right hand
and shielding the point with the lingers of the left hand and thus
avoid the danger of cutting the intestines. Split the breast-bone with
a knife or an ax and cut down through the sticking place to the chin.
Cut around the rectum and pull down until the kidneys are reached,
using a knife whenever necessary to sever the cords attached to the
back. Do not disturb the kidneys or the fat covering them, excepting
in warm weather, when the leaf may be removed to allow quicker and
more thorough cooling. Remove the paunch and the intestines. The gall
bladder lies in plain sight on the liver, and it lies attached to the
diaphragm and hypatic vein. It should be stripped off after starting
the upper end with a knife. Avoid spilling the contents on the meat.
Insert the fingers under the liver and strip it out. Cut across the
artery, running down the backbone, and cut around the diaphragm,
removing them with the pluck, that is, heart, lungs, liver and gullet.
Open the jaw and insert a small block to allow free drainage. Wash out
all blood with cold water, and dry with a coarse cloth. In hot weather
the backbone should be split to facilitate cooling. The fat should
be removed from the intestines before they get cold. It is strong in
flavor and should not be mixed with the leaf lard in rendering.

[Illustration: Gutting the Hog]



CLEANING CASINGS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: CLEANING CASINGS]

Those who undertake to clean casings have great trouble in getting them
white and many resort to lime and other methods for both bleaching them
and freeing them of fat. Notwithstanding all such efforts, the casings
remain dark and unattractive. The reason for much of this difficulty
lies in the fact that the casings are not properly washed and cleaned
in the first operation. Casings should be washed thoroughly in three
different changes of water. The fat should then be scraped off from the
outside. Water must also be run through the casings and they should
be turned inside out so that they may become thoroughly washed and
cleaned. After casings have been perfectly washed and scraped in this
manner, they should be dry-salted by packing them in a liberal quantity
of salt. Casings thus cured will remain sweet and white.



HANDLING HIDES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


The proper handling of the hides of slaughtered animals, so as to
obtain the best possible prices for them and avoiding excessive
shrinkage before they are marketed, is a very important matter and
should have the Butcher’s careful attention.

In the first place, it should be borne in mind that it is an easy
matter to badly damage the hide of an animal before killing by prodding
it with a pole. This of course should always be avoided.

The killing floor should be kept as clean as possible. If there is
blood on the floor and this gets on the hair and remains there, when
the hides are stacked up this blood comes in contact with the fleshy
side of the hide next to it and will make a spot which gives the hide
a very bad appearance. By keeping the hides entirely free from blood,
they make a better appearance and bring a better price.

The greatest care should be given to the removal of the hide, so they
are not scored, as this greatly reduces the value of the hides to the
tanner. A good, careful skinner is worth several dollars a week more to
the Butcher who kills many animals than a skinner who is careless in
his work. (The hide should be so nicely removed from the animal that
when it comes to the tanner it should look like it had been planed from
the animal, it should be so free from cuts or scores.)



PROPER STORAGE OF HIDES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


This is a point of very great importance. If many hides are kept
on hand for any length of time before shipment, the difference in
shrinkage between hides which are properly kept and those which are not
so stored is very great. The careful storing and handling of hides will
always repay the time and trouble necessary, not only in the weight of
the hides, but in the condition in which they are marketed.

Hides should be kept in as cool a room as possible and all windows and
doors should be kept closed, so as to have no circulation of air.



SALT TO USE IN SALTING HIDES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


The best salt to use for this purpose is Crushed Rock Salt. Large lumps
of salt are objectionable, on account of leaving indentations in the
hides where they are pressed together, which injures their appearance
in the eyes of the buyer.

One part of Fine Salt to three parts of Crushed Rock Salt makes a fine
mixture for salting hides, as the fine salt quickly dissolves and makes
a moisture on the hide, which the hide absorbs.

When re-using old salt for salting hides, always add about one-third
of new salt to it, as this gives much better results. About one-third
of the salt used is consumed in salting hides, so by adding one-third
additional of fresh salt each time, the supply of salt is kept the
same. Always keep the salt as clean as possible. If there is much dirt
or manure in it these will discolor the hides and they will not make as
good a showing to the buyer.



QUANTITY OF SALT TO USE ON HIDES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


In large Packing Houses about 35 lbs. of salt is used for each hide.
The Packers find that by using this quantity they get better results
than if a smaller quantity is used. Very few Butchers in the country
use as much salt as this on their hides, but they would find it
greatly to their advantage to use about 100 lbs. of salt to every
three hides, and if the proper quantity of salt is used, as described
in the foregoing, it can be used over and over again with a loss of
about one-third for each time used. It is much better for the Butcher
to invest more money in salt and give the hides a proper amount, as he
will thus save on the excessive shrinkage of the hides, which would
amount to more than the cost of the salt.



HOW TO STACK HIDES WHEN SALTING.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


One of the most important features in salting hides is the way they
are stacked when salted. The hides must be so piled that they are
perfectly level and the salt must be distributed over every part of
the hide. The flesh side should be up, and the salt should be rubbed
over them evenly. The hides can be piled about two feet high. The legs
of the hide should be kept straight and flat, so the salt gets into
all crevices. The edges of the stack of hides should be kept a trifle
higher all around than the center of the stack, so the natural moisture
that comes out of the hide and the dry salt will remain on them. If
the hides are salted on a slanting floor, or if the hides are piled up
carelessly so the hides lie slanting, the brine composed of moisture
of the green hide and the salt will run off and then the percentage of
loss from shrinkage will be large.



HOW LONG TO CURE HIDES.


Hides should lie in the pack and salt for 25 to 30 days, so as to be
fully cured and ready for shipment.



TRIMMING OF GREEN HIDES.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


Before the hides are salted the switches should be cut off of the tail
and all loose ends of the hide should be cut off. The butt of the ears
should also be split; if the hides go into the pack without attention
to this point, it makes the pack very uneven on account of the
thickness of the ear, and the salt does not have a chance to properly
penetrate the ears, and they are liable to spoil. Loose pieces of meat
that are carelessly left on the hides and all excessive fat should be
trimmed off. Hides must not be salted until five hours or longer after
the animal is killed, and they must not be piled closely, as this would
prevent the animal heat from escaping. If hides are salted with the
animal heat in them, very often the hair will slip, which will make No.
2 hides.



SALTING SWITCHES.


Switches should be spread out on the floor so they will thoroughly cool
off. After they are thoroughly cool, they can be piled into a heap and
salt applied so they are entirely covered. The more salt put over them
the better, as they spoil very easily.



TANNING SKINS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: TANNING SKINS]

Butchers can easily tan the skins of Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Calves
with Tanaline, and they can often pick up fine skins of wild animals,
which can also be easily tanned. By tanning the fancy skins that the
Butcher frequently can get, he can sell them for three or four times
as much as he would realize when sold to the Hide Buyer.



DIRECTIONS FOR TANNING SKINS.


First:--After weighing the skins, soak them in plain cold water; fresh
or salted skins for 24 hours, and air dried skins for at least 48
hours. Then scrape off all the fat with a dull instrument, such as a
putty knife or sharp piece of hard wood. Then wash thoroughly, with
cold water, both sides of the skin.

Second:--Use, for every 30 pounds of skins, a 2-pound package of
Tanaline and 4 pounds of salt. Dissolve 2 pounds of Tanaline and 4
pounds of salt in 5 to 6 gallons of cold water, and when thoroughly
dissolved, place the skins into it. Have sufficient water so that all
the skins are entirely covered. Tan small, thin skins in this solution
for 24 hours. Goat, sheep, calf and dog skins should be allowed to tan
from two to three days, according to their thickness. Cattle or horse
skins, or skins of a similar nature, require one week in this solution
to properly tan them. During the tanning process remove the skins and
replace them in the same solution twice a day, so that the solution
gets over all parts of the skins uniformly. After tanning, drain off
all the solution that can easily be drained off, and spread the skins
out with the flesh side up, away from the sun.

Third:--Make a heavy flour paste; thin enough to spread easily. Now
cover the entire flesh side of the skin with a thin layer (about
one-eighth inch) of this paste. Let the skins and flour paste dry for
two to four days, according to the weather. The paste will absorb the
moisture out of the skins and soften them.

Fourth:--When the skins become dry, work them so that the paste is
shaken off. If the skins have been allowed to dry too long, they will
be too hard to work, and they should be softened by sprinkling some
dampened sawdust over the skins and leaving it on them over night. The
skins should next be softened and worked by pulling them over the edge
of a table or box, until soft and pliable.



POLISHING HORNS.

(_Copyrighted; Reprint Forbidden._)


[Illustration: POLISHING HORNS]

If the horns are rough, first take a file and file through the rough
horn, down to the solid horn, and file the horn into proper shape,
smoothing the tip and shaping the large end to suit the fancy. After
they have been filed, take sand paper and rub the horn with the sand
paper until it is nice and smooth, then finish the rubbing with very
fine sand paper, so as to take out all the scratches. After it has been
sand papered, take a piece of glass and scrape it until very smooth.
Polish by rubbing with powdered rotten stone and machine oil. The
polishing must be done with the palm of the hand, and the horn should
be rubbed until beautifully polished.



WHY DRIED BEEF DOES NOT THOROUGHLY DRY.


_Query.--R. B. writes: “We are having trouble with our Dried Beef. It
doesn’t seem to dry out. We have it hanging in the cooler.”_

Ans.--Your beef doesn’t dry out because you keep it in the cooler. In
order to dry beef, it is necessary to hang it in a dry room. You can
hang it right out in the market for that matter and there it will dry
rapidly, in fact, it will dry too quickly so that it will become hard.
Dried Beef will dry some in the smoke house, but not sufficiently.
We send you a copy of our book, “Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage
Making,” which will give you full particulars in reference to this
entire subject.



BULL-MEAT PREFERABLE FOR SAUSAGE.


_Query.--Z. & R. write: There is a prevailing notion among local
butchers that bull meat possesses qualities which make it superior to
first-class steer or cow meat for making bologna and wieners. Is this
not an erroneous idea? How can bologna and wieners be prevented from
turning dark and shrinking within a few days after making if exposed to
the air?_

=Ans=:--The opinion of your local butcher is correct as far as it
concerns bull meat as the best meat for bologna and wienerwurst. The
reason for this is that bull meat contains a great deal of gelatine in
various forms and far more than even the meat of either steer or cow.
If you take the bull meat and chop it up, you will find that it is
sticky and binds together, while if you take meat from an aged cow and
chop it up it will not bind together, is mushy and soft to the touch,
and when cooked frequently crumbles and falls apart.

In answering your next question, we can say that the probable cause in
most cases why sausage dries up, shrivels up, shrinks or turns dark
within a short time after being made is because it was not properly
handled. It is also possible that these effects of which you complain
were due to causes produced by the way you salted your meat or what you
salted it with. If you will follow our instructions on Bologna making
given in our book “Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making,” you
should have no further trouble. The book is sent free.



HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BAROMETER


_Question.--J. K. writes: Can you tell me how a Barometer can be made
with paper that tells what the weather is going to be?_

Answer.--Paper barometers are made by impregnating white blotting paper
in the following liquid, and then hanging up to dry:

  Cobalt Chloride            1 oz.
  Sodium Chloride            ½ oz.
  Acacia                     ¼ oz.
  Calcium Chloride          75 gr.
  Water                      3 fl. oz.

The amount of moisture in the atmosphere is indicated by the following
colors:

  Rose Red                 Rain
  Pale Red           Very Moist
  Bluish Red              Moist
  Lavender Blue      Nearly Dry
  Blue                 Very Dry



SOUR SAUSAGE


_Question.--B. & W. write: We have been using your
Bull-Meat-Brand-Flour through all of last winter, and found it
satisfactory in every way. We have been using also your Freeze-Em
Pickle. Since hot weather began our sausage has soured. We have lost
over 100 lbs. of sausage through its souring. Can you tell us what is
the probable cause of our sausage becoming sour?_

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)

Answer.--We will say that the cause of your sausage souring may be due
to several things. Either your grinder has become dull, causing the
meat you run through it to heat in the grinding, or it may be due to
the fact that the meat was not cold enough to prevent it from heating
while being ground.

Another cause for trouble of this kind is in the mixing machine. In
mixing meat too much, a considerable quantity of air is forced into the
meat, which will often cause it to sour during the warm seasons of the
year. During hot weather it is advisable to grind a small quantity of
ice with the meat to keep it cold.

We also advise the use of our “A” Condimentine preparation. This is
a very useful product for keeping in condition all fresh sausage. It
is entirely harmless, containing no substances injurious to health.
Complies with all pure food laws.

We are quite positive that you are souring your meat in the grinding,
or in the mixing. Please let us know if you have a mixing machine, or
whether you mix your meat by hand. If you have no mixing machine you
are souring your meat while grinding it. You should mix ice with your
meat before grinding it. Grind the meat and the ice together, and use
“A” Condimentine. Your troubles will then disappear.



SPICED BEEF


_Question.--W. C. K. writes: I was very much interested in your
magazine “Success With Meat,” and wish you would send me a formula
for the making and curing of Spiced Rounds of Fresh Beef. In our
city we have a great demand for spiced beef and I want the very best
formula obtainable, which I know you can furnish me. I have used
Freeze-Em-Pickle for a good many years and always get splendid results
from its use._

Answer.--We are very glad that you like “Success With Meat,” and are
pleased to learn you have obtained such uniformly good results with
Freeze-Em-Pickle.

To make rolled spiced beef take 100 lbs. of boneless beef plates and
cure them in brine made as follows:

  5 gallons of cold water.
  5 lbs. of common salt.
  1 lb. Freeze-Em-Pickle.
  2 lbs. of granulated cane sugar.
  6 to 8 ounces Zanzibar Brand Corned Beef Seasoning.

Cure the plates in this brine 10 to 20 days in a cooler. The
temperature should not be higher than 42 to 44 degrees Fahr., but a
temperature of 38 to 40 degrees is better for curing purposes.

The Zanzibar Brand Corned Beef Seasoning gives a delightful flavor to
the brine. After the meat has been fully cured in accordance with the
above formula sprinkle some Corned Beef Seasoning on the meat; then
roll the meat and tie it tight with a heavy string. Some people also
like a garlic flavor and if desired a small quantity of Vacuum Brand
Garlic may be added to the brine or sprinkled over the meat before it
is rolled. Where you want to cure rumps or rounds of beef that weigh
from 12 to 25 lbs. each, we advise that you pump them just the same as
a ham would be pumped with a pumping brine made as follows:

  ½ lb. of Freeze-Em-Pickle.
  1 lb. of pure granulated sugar.
  2 lbs. of salt.
  1 gallon of water.

By following the above suggestions carefully you should have no trouble
in turning out delicious corned beef.



SOUR HAMS--HOW TO PREVENT.


_Query.--F. B. writes: “Have you any chemical compounds that will help
us to take care of some sour hams? We have some hams that are just a
little sour and thought perhaps you would help us in the matter.”_

Ans.--We do not prepare anything which would help you in the least. The
trouble arises from imperfect curing and the only time that we could
have been of help to you would have been when you commenced to put the
hams in the pickle; we could have then given you full instructions for
pickling the hams in such a way that they could not have soured. In
nearly all cases the souring is around the bone. In your case it is
best to cut out the bone and trim away the sour meat. After being thus
carefully trimmed, they can be rolled, tied and sold for boned hams.
You can always avoid the danger of sour hams by exercising extreme care
in properly chilling the meat before curing. Most all souring arises
from the fact that the meat is not chilled through to the bone. If all
the animal heat is thoroughly removed before curing, the hams will come
out of the pickle cured all the way through.

If you will follow closely the directions contained in our book,
“Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making,” you will never have
trouble with your hams. We take great pleasure in sending you a copy of
this book free of charge.



FREEZE-EM-PICKLE LEGAL EVERYWHERE.


_Query.--S. G. Co.: You will please send us a 500-lb. barrel of
Freeze-Em Pickle, if you can guarantee it to comply with the Pure Food
Laws._

Ans.--Shipment of 500 lbs. Freeze-Em-Pickle, which you ordered by
mail, went forward today. We beg to inform you that this product
complies with requirements of all Pure Food Laws and is perfectly
legal to use everywhere. We know that you will be highly pleased with
Freeze-Em-Pickle. The Freeze-Em-Pickle process of curing meat gives it
a uniform bright red color and a sweet sugar cured flavor and enables
it to retain all of its albumen. It also prevents the meat from drying
up and hardening when fried or cooked, or from crumbling when sliced up
after being cooked. It may be used in the brine, or it can be sprinkled
dry over the meat before it is packed for storage. See our directions
for using it.



MAKING SOAP FROM RENDERED FAT


_Question.--C. J. B. writes: Can you give me a formula for making soap?
I have a surplus stock of rendered fat that I would like to convert
into soap._

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)

Answer.--We will give a very good formula for making soft soap and hard
soap.

To 20 pounds of clear grease or tallow take 17 pounds of pure white
potash. Buy the potash in as fine lumps as it can be procured and
place it in the bottom of the soap barrel, which must be water-tight
and strongly hooped. Boil the grease and pour it boiling hot upon the
potash then add two large pailfuls of boiling hot water; dissolve 1
pound of borax in 2 quarts of boiling hot water and stir all together
thoroughly. Next morning add 2 pailfuls of cold water and stir for half
an hour; continue this process until a barrel containing 36 gallons is
filled. In a week, or even in less time, it will be ready for use. The
borax, and also one pound of rosin, can be turned into the grease while
the grease is boiling.

Soap made in this manner is a first-rate article, and has a good body.
The grease must be tried out, free from scraps, ham rinds, bones, or
any other similar kind of matter; then the soap will be as thick as
jelly, and almost as clear. To make soft soap hard put into a kettle
four pailfuls of soft soap, and stir in it by degrees about one quart
of common salt. Boil until all the water is separated from the curd,
remove the kettle from the fire and draw off the water with a siphon
(a yard or so of rubber hose will answer); then pour the soap into a
wooden form in which muslin has been placed. For this purpose a wooden
box sufficiently large and tight, may be employed. When the soap is
firm turn out to dry, cut into bars with a brass wire and let it
harden. A little powdered rosin will assist the soap to harden and give
it a yellow color. This must be added in the kettle when the soap is
boiled. If the soft soap is very thin, more salt should be added.



WHY BOLOGNA DRAWS WATER WHEN IT IS BOILED


_Question.--J. B. writes: I again write you for information. When I
boiled my bologna the meat drew water. I added the water the second
time I ground the meat. Why did the meat draw water while the sausage
was being boiled?_

_I am glad to say that your advice in reply to my last letter enabled
me to completely overcome the trouble I had with my corned beef. I
am now using the galvanized iron tank as you recommended, and have
discarded my old corned beef barrel. I will further say that since
I began using your products, that I am selling three times as much
sausage as I formerly did. I am greatly pleased with all the goods that
I have bought from you._

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)

Answer.--There are three principal reasons for meat drawing water while
the bologna is being boiled. The first is that you probably “killed”
the meat in the grinding of it, by your knife not being sharp enough,
or that your meat soured in the grinding of it by the meat not being
cold enough. If you desire to work in some water while grinding the
meat, use chipped ice instead of water. The ice will keep the meat cool
and stiff, and the meat will not quash, or mash down. The use of ice
will prevent the meat from getting warm.

Another cause for bologna drawing water while being boiled is that you
have heated the bologna too hot while it was in the smokehouse, or you
are boiling bologna at too high a temperature. Boiling bologna at 160
degrees Fahrenheit would hardly spoil it, but we recommend boiling
bologna at 155 degrees Fahrenheit.

Possibly you boil the bologna too long. When you take your bologna out
of the cooking water do you pour cold water over them? This also has a
bearing on the case. Watch carefully all of the above points and you
will not have any more trouble. Refer to our book.



OLD BARRELS INFECTED WITH GERMS WILL CAUSE ROPY BRINE


_Question.--W. & Sons write: Can you advise us about our corned beef
pickle? We made it according to directions given in your book, “Secrets
of Meat Curing and Sausage Making.” But our brine gets “ropy” as you
call it. We use pure cane sugar. We keep our cooler at 38 to 40 degrees
Fahr., and are at a loss to know what is the cause of our trouble.
Please advise us in this matter._

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)

Answer.--Ropy brine can come about even when pure cane sugar is used in
curing. This condition is caused by germs which develop in the brine
and cause the brine to thicken. You will find that the barrels which
contain your brine are infected with germs. The best way to get rid of
these germs is to first empty the barrels; then put the barrels into
a vat and boil them. Also scrub the barrels inside and outside. For
this purpose they should be rinsed with boiling water to which has been
added Freeze-Em, 4 ounces to each gallon, and afterwards a last rinsing
with our Ozo washing powder, or soda, in the water that you use for
washing the barrels. After the barrels are thoroughly washed and rinsed
with cold water, they should then be put out of doors where the sun can
shine upon them and in them for several days before they are again used
and placed in the cooler.

Barrels in which corned beef is cured should be made of hardwood. If
you are using a syrup barrel or a molasses barrel, you will find that
the pores of the wood have become filled with syrup or molasses, which
causes the brine to become thick. We think this is the cause of your
trouble.

The best barrels to use are tierces that are made of oak, such as
lard is shipped in by the packers. The wood of these tierces becomes
saturated or filled with lard, and the lard prevents the brine from
penetrating or soaking into the wood. Be sure that whatever barrels you
use are made of hardwood, and not of white wood or other soft wood, of
which many kinds of barrels are made.



HOW TO MAKE FERTILIZER FROM BEEF BLOOD


_Question.--J. E. P. writes: Please tell me how to utilize and handle
beef blood so as to make fertilizer out of it. I am killing from ten
to fifteen head of cattle each week, and thus have quite a quantity of
blood._

Answer.--Blood in a packing house is handled as follows: It is first
drained from the killing floor into vats and when the vats are filled,
live steam is turned on and the blood is boiled until congealed. It is
then put in large powerful presses and all the water pressed out, the
congealed blood remaining in the press cloth. From the presses it is
put through a fertilizer dryer and then is known as dried blood.

Where you only kill 10 to 15 head of cattle a week, it would not pay
you to dry the blood in this way. A very fine fertilizer, however, can
be made from the blood either for your own use or to sell by boiling
the blood in a kettle over a fire or else putting it into a tank and
blowing live steam in it; then separate from the water as best you can
and mix with black earth, spreading it out thin in the sun to dry. The
boiled blood should be mixed with about its own weight in black earth.
This makes a wonderful fertilizer and ought to bring you many extra
dollars.



ICE VS. ICE MACHINE IN SMALL PLANTS


_Query.--F. S. writes: “I would like to know if an ice machine can be
had small enough for a retail meat market and would it be profitable
to take the place of an ice box? If you can do so, please give me
this information and where I can get the ice machine. Ice here for a
summer’s use will cost about $75.”_

Ans.--You state that the cost of ice for the summer season in your
market would be about $75.00; therefore, it will not pay you to put in
an ice machine, as the cost of operating such a machine for an ice-box
would be a great deal more than $75.00 for the season. For instance, if
you could obtain electric power or a gas engine for operating the ice
machine, you could figure on using at least $7.50 to $10.00 a month for
power alone. In addition to this, you would have the expense of repairs
and the wear and tear on the machinery, also the cost of ammonia and
the interest on your investment. For a small plant, it is always
cheaper to use ice for an ice-box, when it is possible to secure the
ice at a reasonable figure.



WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POTATO FLOUR AND BULL-MEAT BRAND SAUSAGE
BINDER?


_QUERY.--J. G. Co. writes: Will you kindly state the difference between
your Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder and Potato Flour, as we have
received several circulars from you on Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder
and have always been using potato flour heretofore, and if you will
explain to us the difference, and if your Bull-Meat Sausage Binder is
better for us, we will be glad to use it._

Answer.--The difference between Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder and
Potato Flour is this, potato flour is made from potatoes and the
absorbing properties of a pound of potato flour or potato starch are
much less than you would imagine. If you will take a gallon of water
and put into this water one pound of potato flour and let it stand
for one hour, all the Potato Flour will have settled to the bottom
and you can pour off the gallon of water and then weigh the pound of
potato flour and you will be surprised that it will weigh less than two
pounds, it will have taken up less than one pound of water. Also make a
test by putting one pound of Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder in a gallon
of water and you will find that the pound of Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage
Binder will have absorbed almost the entire gallon of water. You can
easily see by making this test the difference in the action of the
flours when used in different kinds of sausage. When Bull-Meat-Brand
Sausage Binder is used it helps to hold the fat and then when the
sausage is fried it looks different and tastes different than sausage
made with potato flour. Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder absorbs fat and
juice in the meat and tends to hold it in the meat and it does not fry
out so readily. If you will try the Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder and
make a test, you will prefer it to potato flour.



CAUSE OF BOLOGNA DRAWING WATER AND BEING SHORT GRAINED.


_Query.--J. L. B. writes: “Will you kindly answer the following
questions: First, What is the cause of bologna drawing water while
being cooked? Second, What is the cause of short grain bologna?”_

Ans.--We do not exactly understand your first question and cannot tell
whether you mean that moisture draws out of the Bologna or whether
water draws into the Bologna. As a rule, when the Bologna is cooked,
especially in water that is too hot, it will shrink very much, become
dry and crumble and break up. This effectually answers your second
question also. The trouble you are experiencing is due to your method
of making Bologna, which is not exactly right. In the first place
good Bologna cannot be made without the use of a binder like our
Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder. A binder and absorbent of this kind
causes the meat to hold together. It also makes the juices of the meat
remain in the Bologna. When Bologna does not properly bind, it shrinks
up and gets watery inside.

This is owing to the fact that the meat does not hold together properly
and the water, instead of being absorbed right into the meat as it
should be, gets between the small particles of meat and separates them.
If you use our =Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder= and follow the methods
set forth in our book, “Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making,” you
will never have any trouble from your Bologna breaking up or getting
crumbly or watery, as you call it.



CAUSE OF LARD FOAMING WHEN USING LARD PURIFIER.


_Query.--W. & Son write: “Will you kindly tell us what, in your
opinion, accounts for our lard foaming after treating it with your
B. Heller & Co.’s Lard Purifier when placed in the frying pan? Our
customers are complaining about this feature, although the lard is nice
and satisfies them in every other respect.”_

Ans.--The complaint which your customers make concerning the foaming
and spluttering of the lard is in all probability due to the fact that
all the water was not separated from the lard after treating the lard.
Whenever lard is treated with our Lard Purifier, it must be heated hot
enough and allowed to stand long enough so that all the water separates
and settles out to the bottom. If this is always done, the lard will
not splutter when used in the frying pan.



IMITATION BULL-MEAT-BRAND SAUSAGE BINDER.


_QUERY.--G. W. writes: “I find that I have been imposed upon by a
salesman with a binder which is claimed to be Bull-Meat Binder. Owing
to the fact that I have not been able to get satisfactory results from
the use of it, I have examined the package closely, and find that the
labels are not the same as yours. I enclose a rough drawing of what
this label is like and would like to know if the goods are of your
manufacture. It doesn’t act like your Bull-Meat Binder and I have had
very poor success with it: in fact, so very poor that I have sent it
back to the jobbers and told them that I could not use it.”_

Answer.--You most certainly received an imitation of Bull-Meat-Brand
Sausage Binder. The very fact that the preparation you received failed
to give satisfaction =was=, in itself, sufficient to convince you that
you had been imposed upon, as Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder always
produces excellent results. Your idea of examining the label is the
proper one. Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder is not only a Binder but
also an Absorbent. It has its Flavoring Qualities as well as its
tendency to Bind and Blend the Juices of the Meat, thus absorbing
those constituents that enables Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder to give
sausage such a Delicious and Superior Flavor. When purchasing our goods
in the future, we would ask you to kindly examine them closely upon
their receipt to see that you are receiving the Genuine and nothing
but the Genuine. In this way it will not be necessary for you to spoil
a lot of Sausage in order to find out that you have been imposed upon
by irresponsible imitators who try to pirate our goods. Never use any
goods shipped you until you have examined them closely to see that the
name of B. Heller & Co. and no other is upon the label.



HOW TO CONSTRUCT A MODERN SMOKE HOUSE.


_Query.--The S. P. Co. asks: “Would you kindly tell us, and we will
gladly pay you for the information, how to construct a modern,
up-to-date smokehouse?”_

Ans.--We will be very glad indeed to tell you all about this subject
without charging you any fee. We are always glad to tell customers or
prospective customers how they can profitably conduct their business
and make money. As you are located in California, where the weather is
always warm, the building of a smoke house becomes simple, because the
smoke house will not sweat like it does in a climate where the weather
gets cold in winter. Here in the Middle West, or farther East, it is
more difficult to get a good color on meats smoked in a smoke house in
winter. One of the principal points to be considered in laying out your
plans is to get the proper height, and the higher you build your house
and the less floor space it occupies, the better will be your results.
An 8×10 or an 8×12 foot house gives the best results. In this you could
put an arch about nine or ten feet from the ground, and under the arch
smoke your fresh sausage and above it smoke the meat. In this way the
heat and smoke used for the sausage would also be utilized for smoking
the bacon and hams and none would be wasted. If you build the way we
have indicated be sure and put ventilators right above the arch so that
cold air can be let into the smoke house during the real hot weather.
If your fire gets too hot, you can feed cold air to the interior
chamber, and if your smoke house is tall you can create a good draught
and will soon get up a circulation which will cool the air so that the
meat will not shrink too much. A smoke house built for simply two tiers
of meat, that is, two rows, is better than one built wider. The walls
of your smoke house can be built either of brick or wood, whichever you
prefer, brick being the safer of the two. If you do not intend to smoke
fresh sausage but only bacon and hams, it is unnecessary to put in an
arch. In that case simply construct some iron bars about eight feet
above the fire and on top of these put a heavy iron screen, so in case
any hams should fall that they do not fall into the fire. Of course,
you know that many smoke houses catch on fire and burn up, due to not
having an iron screen above the fire and by meat falling directly into
the fire.



PREVENTING PORK SAUSAGE FROM SOURING IN WARM WEATHER


QUESTION.--W. G. F. writes: “I make my own sausage, using your
Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder and your Sausage Seasoning. My sausage
is good when it is fresh-made, but it soon becomes sour in warm
weather. What can I do to prevent this trouble?”

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)

Answer.--The best and easiest way to overcome the difficulty you report
about your fresh pork sausage souring in warm weather is to use our
“A” Condimentine. In making your sausage, for each 100 pounds of meat
add ¾ to 1 pound of Heller’s “A” Condimentine. This will prevent fresh
pork sausage from turning gray and souring for from eight to ten days,
according to the temperature in which the sausage is kept.

“A” Condimentine will keep pork sausage in condition, so that it may
be shipped, if necessary, for a considerable distance and still retain
its own natural color. Your sausage maker will find this method of
keeping fresh pork sausage from souring for a reasonable length of time
in warm weather of great advantage and save you from severe losses.
“A” Condimentine is legal to be used under the National and all State
Pure Food Laws. The sausage does not have to be labeled to show the
presence of “A” Condimentine. We will be pleased to have you try out
our recommendation for retarding fresh pork sausage from souring and
report to us your success at an early date.



IS FREEZE-EM PICKLE LEGAL TO USE?


_Query.--W. K. I am a butcher and sausage maker, and also cure a great
many hams and bacon. I have used a good bit of your Freeze-Em Pickle
and am well pleased with it, and I wish to ask if it can be used with
safety under the new pure food laws. That is, the new state food law.
The man I have been getting Freeze-Em Pickle from says “Yes” and the
States Attorney says “No,” so I write you and would like to have you
explain the situation and oblige._

Ans.--Replying to your recent favor it affords us pleasure to advise
you that =Freeze-Em-Pickle= does comply with the requirements of your
new state food law, and that you need have no fears in continuing its
use. In fact, =Freeze-Em-Pickle= complies with the requirements of
all the state food laws, as well as with the regulations under the
National Pure Food Law, and it is being used all over the U. S. It is
evident that the State’s Attorney confuses =Freeze-Em-Pickle= with
the preservatives which are prohibited under your new state law. All
antiseptic preservatives, for the purpose of keeping fresh meat fresh
and meat food products in a fresh condition, are positively prohibited
under your new state food law. =Freeze-Em-Pickle= does not come in
this class. The ingredients of which =Freeze-Em-Pickle= is composed
have not been ruled against by any of the pure food laws. We are
pleased to hear your praise of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, although this is the
universal report we get when it is properly used. We enclose a circular
concerning its use, which you may not have seen, and this will give you
further information concerning the manufacture of Bologna and Frankfort
Sausage, Corned Beef, etc. We also enclose circular concerning our
Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder, which is unquestionably the best Binder
on the market. This also complies with the pure food law. So does our
Vacuum Brand Garlic Compound and our Prepared Sausage Seasoning, and
Red and White Konservirungs-Salt. We will be pleased to hear from you
whenever we can be of further service to you.



ADVICE TO A PACKER WHO WAS DECEIVED.


N. & W. complain that a firm to whom they gave an order for 25 pounds
of Freeze-Em Pickle and a barrel of Bull-Meat Sausage Binder, sent them
25 pounds of an inferior substitute and a barrel of flour which was an
imitation of Bull-Meat Sausage Binder. The firm states that they did
not know very much about how the label of Freeze-Em Pickle looked and,
therefore, did not notice the fraud until after they had used some of
the imitation. They ask what they should do about it.

Ans.--Return the goods to your jobber, even though you have used half
of them, inform him that you will not pay for the goods on the ground
that you did not order them, but had ordered B. Heller & Co.’s goods,
and that you will in future buy your goods from such firms as will send
you what you want and order. This is a simple remedy for the trouble
which you have.



ADVANTAGES OF STEAM-JACKET KETTLE IN RENDERING LARD.


_Query.--C. W. F. asks: Is there any advantage in rendering lard in a
steam-jacket kettle?_

Ans.--There is. Both a caldron and a steam-jacket kettle work well. The
best lard is made in one or the other. A steam tank in which the fat
is put, and the steam turned right into it, will not produce as good
lard as either the caldron or the steam-jacket kettle. The steam mixes
right with the lard and the latter therefore contains a large amount
of moisture and the lard does not keep well. Another disadvantage is
that water used in the boiler is not always pure. If the boiler is
not cleaned once a week the water will have a bad smell. Steam made
from this water and turned into lard can not be expected to improve
its flavor, even though it should not actually harm it. Those who
kill large numbers of hogs usually have a steam tank for making steam
rendered lard and a steam-jacket kettle for making their finer brands
of kettle rendered lard.



SEASONING FOR SAUSAGES.


_Query.--T. U.: Will you please send me a copy of your book, “Secrets
of Meat Curing and Sausage Making.” I have always used the following
seasonings in my sausage: Pepper, summer savory and sage, and would
like to know if you can recommend anything to me which will give the
sausage a better flavor than these spices will. Any information you can
give me in the seasoning of sausage will be very much appreciated._

Ans.--The Seasonings which you have been using are being used by a good
many Sausage Makers, but a real fine flavored Sausage cannot be made
with them. If you wish to increase your Sausage trade right along, and
want to make Sausage that your trade will relish and enjoy, you must
use the very finest Seasonings obtainable, as the Seasoning really
is the life of the Sausage. We are manufacturing the Zanzibar Brand
Sausage Seasonings, which we make for all kinds of Sausage. These
Seasonings are made after secret formulas which have been in our family
for a good many years. The flavor that these Seasonings impart to the
Sausage is something very fine; it must be tasted to be appreciated,
as we cannot describe in a letter what the flavor really is. It is a
peculiar combination which everyone likes and it is something that will
soon increase your Sausage trade. Zanzibar Brand Sausage Seasonings are
manufactured from only high grade Spices and we guarantee them to be
absolutely free from any adulteration. We are sending you our circular
and price list and would be pleased to receive your order for any
quantity that you may desire, and we will say in advance that when you
once use them you will never again want to make Sausage without these
Seasonings.



SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF ZANZIBAR CARBON.


_Query.--C. & K. write: “Are you the sole manufacturers of Zanzibar
Carbon?”_

Ans.--Yes, and we were the first to put a preparation of this kind upon
the market.



QUICKEST WAY TO CURE MEATS.


_Query.--W. & B. write: Our capacity for curing meats is limited for
the want of room. Can you give us a formula or a recipe that will give
a good cure in the shortest possible time? We would like something that
is reliable._

Ans.--Our Book, “Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making,” will
give you all the information in reference to curing meats which you
may desire. The curing period can be greatly shortened by pumping
the meat. It will also give you a better article. Our book, which is
mailed to anyone requesting it, free of charge, will give you full
directions for pumping, and also the formula for making the pumping
brine. By following the instructions which this book contains, you will
be able to turn out the finest kind of mild cured and sweet pickled
meats, which will have a delicious flavor and a fine color. It will
be necessary, however, for you to fully carry out our directions in
reference to chilling meats and overhauling them, also the temperature
to be maintained during the curing period.



DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FREEZE-EM AND FREEZE-EM-PICKLE.


_Query.--L. B.: We have been using some of your goods and notice that
you speak of Freeze-Em-Pickle for curing meats. Is this product the
same as Freeze-Em? We have been getting our goods from our jobbers, and
in their catalogue they also speak of Freeze-Em-Pickle. We would like
one of your books on the secrets of meat curing and methods of smoking
and curing, as we are young in the curing of meats yet and would like
all the information possible._

Ans.--Your letter received and we are pleased to note that you have
been using some of our goods and find them very satisfactory. You say
you have read of our =Freeze-Em= and also our =Freeze-Em-Pickle=,
and you would like to know whether they are both the same. They are
not the same. Before the various pure food laws went into effect, we
sold =Freeze-Em= as a preservative, also as a cleansing agent. As so
many of the pure food laws objected to the use of preservatives, we
discontinued selling =Freeze-Em= as a preservative, and now sell and
recommend it as a cleansing agent only.

=Freeze-Em-Pickle= is an entirely different preparation. This was
placed on the market with a special view to supply the butcher with a
preparation that will comply with all food regulations under all food
laws. =Freeze-Em-Pickle= is to be used for curing all kinds of meat,
such as hams, bacon, corned beef, bologna trimmings, pork sausage
trimmings, and meats of all kinds, and it is also excellent for use in
chopped beef, to keep it in a fresh condition. =Freeze-Em-Pickle is not
a Chemical Preservative.=



DIFFICULTIES WITH CURING BRINE AND HOW TO OVERCOME THEM.


_Query.--W. S. & Co.: We are so situated that we have to boil all the
water that we use in our brine. After boiling it we run it into a
cooling tank and let it cool. We have made some experiments with your
Freeze-Em Pickle and like it to cure very well, and have decided to
adopt its use in the curing of all of our meats. Now, what we want to
know is, can we dissolve the Freeze-Em Pickle in the boiling hot water
and then cool it and run it through coils the same as we do now with
the water? Would the heat affect the Freeze-Em Pickle? Our vats when
full hold 6,900 lbs. of medium sized hams. According to the size of the
kettle and the amount of water to boil at one time, it would require 58
pounds of Freeze-Em Pickle. What we want to do is this: we do not want
to weigh the Freeze-Em Pickle for each vat, but simply want to make
a large quantity of brine and then run the prepared brine on to our
hams. We have been using saltpetre and molasses for our brine and we
are having trouble with it getting ropy and stringy. Will syrup answer
the same as molasses or sugar, and is New Orleans molasses the best, or
should granulated sugar be used entirely? Kindly let us know what you
consider the best for hams._

Ans.--First of all, we advise that after the water is boiled, that
it is allowed to settle and precipitate so that all the solids will
settle to the bottom of the settling tank. It should settle at least
24 hours before the solids will have separated and gone to the bottom.
Then the water should be drawn off, but not from the bottom of the
tank, but at least a foot from the bottom. The water that will come
off from above will be nice and clear. This water should then be run
into another tank, called the mixing tank, in which the sugar, salt
and =Freeze-Em-Pickle= should be dissolved; this will make the stock
brine which can be run down into the cellar over cooling pipes, so
as to chill it properly before it is put on the meat. The reason the
brine that you are making becomes ropy is that you are using the wrong
sugar. If you will use absolutely pure granulated sugar or absolutely
pure syrup made from granulated sugar you will have no trouble from
ropy brine. We strongly advise the use of nothing but absolutely pure
granulated sugar. We find that it gives the best results. It costs
a little more than the unrefined product but you get less vegetable
substance in your brine, and the brine will therefore keep much longer.
The brine in which hams have been cured can be used a second time for
curing breakfast bacon, and the breakfast bacon will be even better
than if put into fresh brine. As your vats are large, the meat will
pack very tight on the bottom, and we wish to caution you to be sure
and overhaul your meat promptly five days after it is packed and
continue overhauling as per directions in our book on curing meats and
making sausage. If you follow these directions you will not have any
ropy brine or any spoiled meat, but all your meat will come out uniform
and will have the proper flavor.



TOUGH AND SALTY CORNED BEEF.


_Query.--E. W. G. writes: I have had complaints from several large
institutions I serve that my corned beef is tough and too salty. I
would like to know about what proportions of salt and saltpetre to use.
It is only recently that I have had these complaints, in fact, I have
been in the retail business for about ten years and have been very
successful with my corned beef._

Ans.--If you will use the following in curing plates, rumps, briskets,
etc., for corned beef, you will have no trouble. Use for 100 lbs. of
meat:

Five pounds of common salt, 1 lb. of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 2 lbs. of best
granulated sugar, 5 gallons of cold water.

Cure the meat in this brine fifteen to thirty days, according to
weight and thickness of the pieces. If you are taking pieces out of
the brine from day to day and adding others, you should keep up the
strength of the pickle to sixty degrees by adding a small quantity
of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and salt from time to time as you withdraw and
replace the meat. One of the first essentials to producing first-class
corned beef is to be careful about the temperature during the curing
period. An even temperature of 38 degrees Fahrenheit is always the best
for coolers and for curing meat. If maintained at this degree, there
will be no trouble from taking on too much salt, provided, of course,
the meat has been properly chilled through before placing it in the
brine for curing. In order to produce a good cure, all the animal heat
must be extracted from the meat before it is packed, otherwise it will
become soft and spongy in the brine, and pickle-soaked.



KEEPING HAMS AND BACON SIX MONTHS.


_Query.--A. J. M. writes: I would like to know how to keep hams and
bacon in first class shape for the next six months without their
getting mouldy and with the least possible shrinkage._

Ans.--There is no practical method for keeping hams and bacon for so
long a time after they are smoked without their getting mouldy. There
is a method for keeping them in sweet pickle for any length of time,
provided you have cold storage facilities. All kinds of pickled meat if
stored in a cooler in which the temperature is kept down to 28 degrees
can be kept in this cooler for a year or even longer, and when removed
will come out like fresh cured meat. Hams and other meats are often
purchased when the market is low and stored in a freezer and kept here
until such a time that they are in greatest demand and will sell at the
highest price. At a temperature of 28 degrees the meat will not freeze
after it is cured, and the brine, of course, does not freeze at that
temperature. When meat is taken out of such cold storage to be smoked,
it should be first soaked from three to five hours in fresh water, and
then washed and smoked the same as regular fresh cured meat. Farmers
often bury their smoked meats in their oat bins, and are enabled to
keep them in good condition for some time, but this is a method which,
perhaps, does not suit your purpose. It is best to keep the meat in
sweet pickle until you are ready to smoke it, as this will insure a
much better article.



USES FOR DRIED BEEF ENDS.


_Query.--C. E. C. writes: “Can you inform me the best and most
profitable way for disposing of my Dried Beef ends? I am in the sliced
Dried Beef business and have no way of using up my ends. Thanking you
in advance.”_

Ans.--There are three ways for disposing of beef ends to advantage and
profit. They may be ground up in an Enterprise Chopper and sold to
hotels and restaurants for use as Minced Dried Beef to be prepared and
served in cream. They can also be sold to concerns engaged in the baked
bean business, where the ends can be cut up and baked with pork in the
beans. Restaurants can also use dried beef ends to excellent advantage
by putting them in soup. They will give a delicious flavor to all kinds
of soups, if boiled at the same time with other soup meats.



HOW TO PREVENT HAMS FROM SOURING IN THE HOCK.


_Query.--C. F. G. Co. write: “We have a lot of hams that we put down in
dry salt to cure about six or seven weeks ago, and we have discovered
that they have become tainted in the hock, while the balance of the
piece of meat is all right. Can you tell us any way to rehandle or
overhaul these hams to save them? The front or butt end of the ham
is sound and all right and sweet; the bad part is in and around the
hock end or leg end. Could this taint and odor be removed and the meat
made sweet by putting these hams down now in a strong salt brine and
punching holes in the hock end of the pieces so that the brine could
quickly get into the tainted part? Would salt brine save them now? We
will thank you for any advice or plan of action that will help to save
us from loss.”_

Ans.--It is more difficult to cure hams by the dry salt process than it
is by the brine process. If these hams had been pumped before packing
them in the salt, there would not have been so much danger of shank
sour. Hams being very thick, it takes a long time for the salt to
draw through them; therefore, if they are first pumped and packed in
dry salt, you can readily see that the salt draws through quicker and
thus gives them a chance to cure from the inside as quickly as they
would cure from the outside. Only under one condition can you pump
these hams, make them sweet and save them. For instance, if the hams
are taken from the salt and upon trying them with a ham trier they
are found to be sweet but turn sour when they are placed in the smoke
house, then you can save them. Such a condition would show that the
hams are not fully cured around the bone and around the shank joints.
In that event, they can be pumped with pickle and fully cured around
the bone so that they will not sour when placed in the smoke house. It
is necessary to explain that meat is frequently perfectly sweet when
it comes out of cure, but it is not fully cured. In such a condition
when it is placed in a warm smoke house, it will sour in the smoke
house. This, of course, can be avoided by fully curing the hams. If, on
the other hand, the hams are already sour and tainted when they come
out of the cure, whether it be dry salt or sweet pickle, then nothing
can be done with them to make them sweet. Meat once spoiled, remains
spoiled. If the hams are sour when they come out of the cure, but sour
only in the shank, then the proper thing to do is to cut off the shank;
in other words, cut off all the sour or tainted meat and use the butt
ends for boiled hams. You can boil and slice them and sell them in your
store. You must be careful to cut off all the tainted parts because
any of the tainted meat which is left will taint all the rest of the
meat when the butt is boiled. You, of course, understand that during
the process of boiling, the good meat will absorb the taint from the
bad meat. We regret that you did not write us for advice before you
began curing the hams, as we would have advised you to cure in brine.
We will send you by mail, free of charge, our book, entitled “Secrets
of Meat Curing and Sausage Making,” which covers every point that its
title indicates. The advice given in this book as to the handling of
meats, you will find very valuable and covers the whole ground, from
the condition of the animal before killing to the handling of the meat
through the chill room and through the entire curing process. We call
your special attention to the various articles for curing meats, which
will give you the temperature for curing, how to overhaul the meat, how
to pump the meat and how to make the brine for pumping. Full directions
for curing the hams you will find carefully indexed. By following the
advice given in these pages, you will have no loss from the souring of
meats, but on the contrary, will be enabled to turn out meat of the
highest quality possible.



BUILDING A COOLER.


_Query.--W. G. H. writes: I have about completed a cooler except the
floor and am undecided whether to make it of plank or cement. I thought
you could give me the desired advice. One room is 16 feet square
inside; 7 feet to joist with 7 feet of solid ice above, or about 50
tons capacity. The walls are 2 feet thick; 8 inches sawdust, 4 inches
dead air space, 8 inches sawdust, with four thicknesses of one-inch
boards, thus making the 2 feet. The building has these walls on all
sides and partitions. I expect to use the drip from the above to
cool another room, 8 feet by 16 feet inside, and will have the water
run around this room in gutters (sheet iron) fastened to the wall. I
want this as dry and as free from mould and dampness as possible and,
therefore, am not sure as to whether a cement floor will be what is
needed, though it was my intention to use cement. There is a 2-foot
stone wall under the cooler which sets on sand--this sand having been
washed up at times past by the lake. There are now fifty tons of ice
over the cooler and back of this is an ice house, 16 feet square,
inside filled with ice 14 feet high. This makes the building 20 feet
wide by 48 feet long, by 20 feet studding. For ventilation a four-inch
square flue will run from the bottom in one corner and from the top in
the opposite corner of the cooler to the top of the roof, and above
it, acting as chimneys. I want to use these coolers for fresh meats,
packing hams and bacon, storing eggs and most anything that there is
any money in, which requires to be kept in good condition. Your advice
will be appreciated._

Ans.--You are building your cooler on very good plans. However, we
would advise the use of cement for the floors. It will be found much
better than wood, much purer and cleaner, and withal much drier.
You speak about putting two ventilators in your cooler, which is
all right, but you should be sure to provide these ventilators with
slides, so you can shut them off and regulate the ventilation according
to your wishes. Of course, you understand that it is not well to
have the ventilators open all the time, as it would result in quite
a loss of ice. The ventilators should be open only when the room
needs ventilation, which will be at well-defined periods, or varying
according to the amount of material in storage. Your plan of using the
drip water of the ice and running it in pans will work all right. We
have seen this method applied, and it was always satisfactory. Be sure
to use galvanized iron gutters for the pans, not sheet iron, as it will
rust easily.



WHY BOLOGNA “TAKES WATER” IN COOKING.


_Query.--H. P. writes: “Sometimes I have bother with my bologna taking
water when cooking them. Can you tell me what to do to prevent this
trouble?”_

Ans.--The difficulty you mention is caused by the sausage not being
properly boiled. Ordinary round or long Bologna should be boiled in
water of 160 to 170 degrees Fahrenheit for about thirty to forty
minutes, and thick, large Bologna should be boiled in water of 155 to
160 degrees for from three-quarters to one hour, according to the size.
If the sausages are very large, it will take from one and one-quarter
to one and one-half hours to cook them properly. After sausage of any
kind have been cooked, they should be handled as follows: Pour boiling
water over them to wash off all the surplus grease that adheres to the
casings, and then pour cold water over them to shrink and close the
pores of the casings. This is very important and should be closely
observed by all packers and sausage makers who wish to have their
sausage look nice and keep their fresh appearance. The shrinkage and
quality of cooked Bologna depends considerably upon the temperature in
which they have been boiled. It is very necessary for every man who
cooks sausage to use a thermometer.



WHY BOLOGNA SHRIVELS.


_Query.--T. B.: Can you tell me the reason bologna shrivels when it is
taken from the hot water? It looks fine until it gets cold._

Ans.--There are several reasons why your bologna might shrivel when
taken out of the boiling water. First, it might be that you do not cure
your meat right before the bologna is made, and second, you probably
do not use the right kind of a binder, and third, you probably boil
the bologna in too hot water. If when the meat is cured properly and
you do use the right kind of a binder, the bologna shrivels when
taken out of the boiling water, it is because you are boiling it at
too high a temperature. Before making bologna you should sprinkle
=Freeze-Em-Pickle= over the meat and leave it for a few days. We refer
to our instructions for preparing bologna trimmings, which will be
found in our book, “Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making.”



ADVICE ON CURING HAMS AND BACON.


_Query.--E. A. S. & Co. write: I have taken a barrel of meat, hams and
shoulders, which I cured in my ice box after your instructions, and I
wish to say that it is as fine as was ever produced by anyone. My ice
box holds well, standing at from 38 to 39 degrees, but it is small and
only has room for one barrel in it. I have made arrangements to try
packing in the house this winter. I have a closet made of brick on
both sides and by proper ventilation in cold weather so as to keep it
from 35 to 40 degrees, I think I can save hams all O. K. in tierces.
I have about ten oak tierces for the purpose. (Is that all right?) I
have an old ice box in the rear 8×8 feet with a good roof on it, walls
filled with sawdust. I would like to know if I can fill this with hams
and shoulders when the weather gets cold and just dry salt them. Can I
save them by just letting them stay there all winter until next spring?
I can put in a layer of hams and cover them with salt, then put in
another layer and cover with salt, and so on until I fill it. I would
like your opinion and advice as to these methods. I kept side meat this
way last winter just leaving it in salt._

Ans.--If you keep the temperature of the small room which you mention
at from 35 to 40 degrees it will answer the purpose for curing. The oak
tierces for curing are all right provided they are new. We advise that
you wash them out with scalding hot water, so as to get rid of the oak
taste. If the tierces are not new, then you must make doubly sure that
they are scalded out thoroughly and at the same time you should use our
Ozo for cleansing them.

The old ice-box which you mention can be used for dry salting hams
and shoulders when the weather gets cold, provided you do not let the
meat freeze. You must not let the temperature get below 35 degrees,
because at a lower temperature, meat will not take on salt. Hams can
be dry salt cured just the same as side meats, but when hams are very
thick, we would advise that you pump them. Our book, “Secrets of Meat
Curing and Sausage Making,” will give you full information as to the
pumping process and a formula for making the pumping brine. Hams are
very seldom dry salt cured; they are nearly always sweet-pickle cured.
A sweet pickle or sugar cured ham has a much finer flavor than the dry
salt cured ham.

If you pack side meat properly and overhaul it regularly until it is
fully cured, and if you keep the temperature of the curing room at
about 38 degrees, you will have no trouble in keeping dry salt meat in
salt all winter. Of course if you keep it in salt too long, it will
get very salty. Our book on curing meats will give you full directions
for dry salt curing. Hams, after they are fully cured in brine, can
be rubbed with salt and kept in a cooler for several months, and if
desired, all winter, but the shrinkage will be great and they will take
on salt and might become too salty for your trade.



WHY OIL SEPARATES FROM LARD.


_Query.--E. & W.: We are having trouble with our lard; the oil
separates from the lard during the warm weather so part of the lard is
really oil, and we cannot use it in that condition. Our business is too
small to justify us in employing a practical man to take charge of our
lard. We ask you for your advice._

Ans.--To keep the oil from separating from the lard, you should carry
out the following directions: First, you should provide yourself with a
lard cooler with an agitator attached, as the lard after it is rendered
and when it begins to cool should be agitated until it becomes thick
like cream, before it is run into the buckets. If lard is not agitated,
when it is cooled the stearin crystallizes and the oil separates from
the stearin, but by chilling the lard and by agitating it while it
cools, the stearin does not get a chance to crystallize and the oil
will not separate and the lard will keep better in this condition. Lard
that is put up in winter for summer use is much improved by adding
about ten per cent of tallow, but when this lard is sold, it should be
sold as lard with ten per cent of tallow added. If you wish to treat
the lard that you have on hand, we advise you to treat it as follows:
For every 100 lbs. of lard, put 100 lbs. of water in your lard kettle;
add to it four ounces of our Lard Purifier, and throw 100 lbs. of lard
into this water. Start the fire and gradually heat it until the lard
is melted and is as hot as it will stand without boiling over. Keep on
stirring the lard until it begins to melt, so as to thoroughly wash it.
After the lard is thoroughly washed, you will find a certain amount of
scum will come to the top, skim this off and then allow the lard to
settle for about two hours, so that all the water will separate from
the lard and settle down at the bottom. Skim the lard off the top of
the water and then let it cool, but keep on agitating it or stirring it
while it is cooling, until it is thick like cream.



COATING BOLOGNA SAUSAGE NOT NECESSARY TO PREVENT MOULD.


_Query.--E. D. writes: I would like to ask you if you have anything to
coat bologna with after making? I think it is called Gloss or Lustre;
have seen it used, but have not been able to find out where to get it._

Ans.--What you refer to is Bologna Varnish. The use of such a
preparation has been practically discontinued as it does not conform to
pure food laws; it is not proper that a varnish should be put on the
outside of food of any kind. Bologna Varnish is made from shellac, and
shellac is used in all kinds of furniture varnish, so you can readily
see that it is not the proper thing to use on Bologna. In former years,
the use of varnish was quite general, but it was finally discontinued,
and is now practically a thing of the past. If you want to prevent
your Bologna from getting mouldy, you should make them as follows:
First, cure the meat with =Freeze-Em-Pickle= as directed in our book,
“Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making,” and add Bull-Meat-Brand
Sausage Binder to the meat, as this absorbs the moisture. Bologna made
by the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= Process keeps fine and will not mold for a
reasonable length of time.



MAKING SOAP FROM TALLOW.


_Query.--F. B. writes: We have a little meat business and quite often
have on hand a surplus of tallow. Now we have been thinking probably
we could put this into a soap, something cheap that would not cost us
too much to put on the market. Can you kindly give us any information
in the matter, and if the idea is a practical one for a small shop like
ours?_

Ans.--It would not pay you to undertake to make a hard soap in a small
way, as it would be necessary for you to compete with other soaps on
the market, and you are aware that laundry soap sells at a very low
price and is put upon the market upon a very small margin of profit.
You would also find it quite a task to make hard soap, and the time
required would hardly justify you to undertake it on a small scale. If
you can dispose of soft soap in your locality, we would advise you to
use your surplus tallow in that way, but, of course, this suggestion
from a financial point of view would depend entirely upon whether there
is a sufficient demand for such an article in your vicinity. Possibly
you could work up a trade among private families and sell it to them
for scrubbing purposes, also to hotels, stores and restaurants, but
as your town is small, you might have difficulty in disposing of a
sufficient quantity to make it pay you. On the other hand, it would
not cost you much to make the experiment. You are surrounded by a good
hog-feeding country, and it is possible that you could dispose of quite
a quantity of soft soap to the farmers, as it is a very fine thing for
hogs, and the truth of the matter is, their hogs would be much better
off if they would feed it frequently. You might be benefited more by
this suggestion than by sales from other sources.

The following is a recipe for making soft soap with potash: To 20
pounds of clear grease or tallow take 17 pounds of pure white potash.
Buy the potash in as fine lumps as it can be procured, and place it in
the bottom of the soap barrel, which must be water-tight and strongly
hooped. Boil the grease and pour it boiling hot upon the potash; then
add two large pailfuls of boiling hot water; dissolve 1 pound of borax
in 2 quarts of boiling hot water and stir all together thoroughly. Next
morning add 2 pails of cold water and stir for half an hour; continue
this process until a barrel containing thirty-six gallons is filled
up. In a week or even less, it will be ready for use. The borax can
be turned into grease while boiling, and also 1 pound of rosin. Soap
made in this manner always comes, and is a first-rate article, and will
last twice as long as that bought at a soap factory. The grease must
be tried out, free from scraps, ham rinds, bones, or any other debris;
then the soap will be as thick as jelly, and almost as clear. To make
soft soap hard put into a kettle four pailfuls of soft soap, and stir
in it by degrees about one quart of common salt. Boil until all the
water is separated from the curd, remove the fire from the kettle and
draw off the water with a siphon (a yard or so of rubber hose will
answer); then pour the soap into a wooden form in which muslin has been
placed. For this purpose a wooden box, sufficiently large and tight,
may be employed. When the soap is firm turn out to dry, cut into bars
with a brass wire and let it harden. A little powdered rosin will
assist the soap to harden and give it a yellow color. If the soft soap
is very thin, more salt should be added.



PLANS FOR SAUSAGE FACTORY.


_Query.--O. C. L. writes: I am now in business again on my own hook, so
please send me your book on Meat Curing and Sausage Making. I will, in
the near future, equip my market with an up-to-date sausage factory. I
have the following machinery: 1 six-horse power gasoline engine, silent
cutter, Enterprise machine, 1 bone cutter, 1 steam boiler for rendering
lard, cooking sausage, etc. The room I intend to place this machinery
in is 15×25 feet; would like to hear some of your suggestions, and
plans in placing the machinery; would appreciate this very much. Has
the freezing of pork sausage any detrimental effect on the flavor of
the sausage? Accept my well wishes._

Ans.--The machinery you enumerate will give you a sausage plant that
is quite complete. We think, however, that your room is a little bit
small in which to place so much machinery. If you could put the boiler
and rendering kettle in another room, away from the sausage factory, it
would be better. You would probably be able to make such an addition
as would answer your purpose at a very small cost. This arrangement
would make it much more convenient because the boiler and the rendering
tank in your sausage factory will make it very hot. The arrangement or
disposal of the machinery will not make material difference in a room
of the size mentioned. You can arrange it most any way to best suit
your convenience.

The freezing of pork sausage certainly has a most detrimental effect
on the flavor. Freezing meat always tends, to some extent, to spoil
the flavor of the meat. When the albumen of the meat is frozen, and is
afterwards thawed out, the albumen leaves the cells of the meat and in
that way the flavor is lost and the meat becomes insipid.



PURIFYING TALLOW.


_Query.--T. W. C. writes: “I am tanking mutton and beef tallow together
at 40 pounds pressure, and would like to know the best way to use your
tallow purifier so I can use my tallow with cottonseed oil to make a
lard compound.”_

Ans.--It would not be practicable to use our Lard and Tallow Purifier
in the tank. It can be used to greatest advantage in an open jacket
kettle. You can treat the tallow in the jacket kettle after it is
rendered and comes from the steam tank.



HOW PACKERS BRAND THEIR HAMS


_Question.--W. Z. writes: How do packers brand their hams._

Answer.--Packers brand their hams with Ink made from the following
formula:

  Glucose                           2¼ lbs.
  Lampblack                      ¼ to ½ lb.
  Water                             1½ lbs.
  Grain Alcohol                      ½ pint

Place the Glucose and water in a dish and heat on stove until it
becomes thin. Now take the Lampblack, put it in a separate dish and add
enough of the water and Glucose so as to make a thick paste; work this
paste up until all of the lumps are dissolved. Then take the Lampblack
paste and gradually mix it into the water and Glucose until the desired
shade of color is secured. After mixing thoroughly remove from fire and
set aside to cool. When cool add the ½ pint of Grain Alcohol, mixing
thoroughly. Keep in a corked bottle or can.

Spread a small quantity of the Ink thus made over a pad which is easily
made by taking 10 thicknesses of cheese cloth and tacking them on
top of a flat board. The branding itself is done with an iron brand
containing such letters or other marking as you wish to appear on the
hams. The branding should be done before the hams are put into the
smoke house.



STARTING A BUTCHER BUSINESS


_Query.--M. E. A. writes: Will you please forward me another copy of
your desirable book, “How to Cure Meat and Make Sausage”? And if it is
not too much trouble, I would like to have you advise how it is best
to start in the butcher and pork packing business in a small way. I
have about $700 capital and wish to ask how is the best way to fit up a
retail store without too much expense and yet to have it look good, and
also to fit up a sausage kitchen and have everything that a man needs
to run the business successfully. I may as well state that I have had
lots of experience, but after reading your book and the advice that it
gives I am sure that even experienced men can learn a lot by reading
it._

Ans.--With such a limited amount of capital, it would be advisable to
buy second-handed fixtures. These can always be obtained much cheaper
than new ones, and you can get good fixtures which will answer the
purpose, but they must be neat, clean and in good repair. If you intend
to do your own butchering, our advice is that you make arrangements
with some butcher who has a slaughter house, and where you can do your
butchering, and pay him a certain amount for each animal slaughtered. A
very important point that we advise you to follow is to sell everything
for cash only, as your capital is not sufficient to give credit to
anyone. Were you to give credit and make a lot of book accounts, you
would soon run out of money and would not be able to buy large stock
and supplies for your market. We also advise that you induce your
customers to take their meat home with them, and thus relieve yourself
of the necessity of keeping a horse and wagon for delivery purposes.
This would save quite an outlay in capital, and a great deal of expense
and time. You can then announce with a small advertisement in the daily
paper that you sell for cash only, and that you can afford to be more
liberal with your customers than you could if you carried accounts, and
because you do not incur the expense of delivery. Such an advertisement
with placards in your store, no doubt, would result favorably. You
must remember at all times that your capital is limited and that you
must “trim your sails” accordingly. It is the over-reaching the limits
of the possibilities of capital that make the most failures among
tradesmen. We would not advise you to advertise meat at a cut price
because you sell for cash; people do not want stuff that is cheap, for
if you sell stuff at a low price, they imagine there is something wrong
with it. Charge the same price that all the other butchers do, and in
that way, keep their friendship. If a woman gets something that she
doesn’t like and brings it back, tell her that you are very glad she
brought it back, if it did not suit her, because you never want any of
your customers to keep anything that does not please them.

A sausage room can be rigged up very cheap; all you need to start with
is a small Enterprise grinder, so that you can grind up your trimmings
and work them into sausage, and by working the meat trimmings up into
the different formulas that we give in our book, “Secrets of Meat
Curing and Sausage Making,” you will not have any loss, as all of your
trimmings can be worked up to good advantage. You also should make a
great display of your own cured corned beef and turn out fine corned
beef, so that when your customers buy it, they are well pleased. The
main thing in the success of running a retail market is that the
butcher understands how to buy his live stock so that he gets the
right quality of beef and gets it at the right price. If you have good
meats to sell you will have no trouble in selling them, but if you have
poor goods to sell, you may sell them to a customer once or twice, but
the third time the customer will not come near you. The same thing
holds good with you; if you were buying some of your supplies from the
jobber and the jobber did not send you good goods, you may try him once
more and if he again sends you poor goods, the third time you certainly
will not buy from him, but you will go to some other jobber who will
give you the best goods for your money. Your customers are just as
smart and as sensitive as you are, and want the same kind of treatment
that you like, so if you will always treat your customers as you would
like to be treated yourself if you were buying meat at a market, you
are bound to meet with success.



CUTTING UP MEATS--NECESSARY FOR EXPERIENCE.


_Query.--J. J. writes: I have decided to go into the meat business and
would like to know if you can advise me of some booklet or pamphlet on
cutting up meat; also let me know the price of your book, and if you
know of a good firm handling butcher supplies and refrigerators._

Ans.--We judge from your inquiry that you are inexperienced in the meat
business, and if such is the case, we would advise that you go to work
for some good butcher for a while before going into the business for
yourself. You could there learn the practical side of the business, and
provided you do not now understand how to cut up meat to the greatest
profit, you could acquire knowledge upon these points which would be of
more value to you than volumes that could be written upon the subject.
We most emphatically advise you to learn the business thoroughly before
embarking into it on your own account. We take great pleasure in
sending you our booklet, “Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making,”
which you will find of great value to you in teaching you to cure meat
and make sausage.



IMITATION FREEZE-EM PICKLE.


_Query.--L. M. writes: “M---- & ----, from whom I buy most of my
butcher supplies, handle an imitation of your Freeze-Em Pickle which
they claim is the same as your preparation. I do not want it and will
not have it. They tried to convince me that what they had is what I
want, but I have used Freeze-Em Pickle for years and, knowing from
your advertisements that there are imitations of it, I want to steer
clear of them. Will you please send me the name of a jobber handling
Freeze-Em Pickle near me?”_

Ans.--This is a clear case of an attempt for a substitution of spurious
goods for those of our manufacture. These dealers can not help knowing
that our customers want =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, and nothing else, but for
the sake of reaping an illegitimate profit, they misrepresent imitation
goods as being the same as ours. We wish to state that there is only
one =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, and all claims to the contrary are absolutely
false. They are merely the tricks of illegitimate dealers to pirate
the good reputation made by our preparations. In order to be convinced
of the superiority of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, it is only necessary to test
it with any preparation purporting to be the same or similar to it and
selling under similar names, which are calculated to deceive.



SOURING OF HAM IN SMOKE HOUSE.


_Query.--M. P. M. writes: “I am having trouble with my hams souring in
the smokehouse. They seem to get too much smoke. What can you suggest
that will help me to avoid this trouble and to keep my hams sweet?”_

Ans.--You are mistaken in supposing that your hams sour from getting
too much smoke; that is not the trouble. Hams will not sour from such
cause. Your trouble is owing entirely to the fact that the hams are not
properly and fully cured before going into the smoke house. Smoke aids
to preserve hams and will not cause them to sour. They sour because the
portion that has not been thoroughly cured, which is generally close
to the bone, has not been reached by the brine. In many cases souring
comes from imperfect chilling of meat before putting it into the brine;
then again you may not have overhauled the meat at the proper time and
with the frequency which good curing requires. In the first place,
the hog should not be killed when overheated or excited. Second, after
they have been scalded and scraped, they must be dressed as quickly
as possible, washed out thoroughly with clean water, then split and
allowed to hang in a well ventilated room until partly cooled off.
They should then be run into a cooler or chilling room as quickly as
possible, where the temperature should be reduced to 32 to 34 degrees
Fahrenheit. They should be allowed to thus chill for 24 hours for
medium size hogs. When hogs are properly chilled, the temperature of
the inside of the ham or shoulder will not be more than one to one and
one-half degrees higher than the cooler. Those without ice machinery
for curing, who are using common ice houses, can employ the crushed
ice method for chilling the meat. By this is meant to put the meat on
the floor and throw cracked ice over it, and thus allow it to remain
over night. After being thoroughly chilled, the hams must undergo the
various processes which you will find set forth in our book, “Secrets
of Meat Curing and Sausage Making,” which we take pleasure in sending
to you free of charge. If you will follow the directions contained in
this book you will never have trouble with soured hams from imperfect
curing or other causes.



CLEANING CASINGS.


_Query.--S. & H. write: “I would like to know if you have any
preparations for cleaning casings. We clean all the casings we get and
would like to get some chemicals to take the tallow and lard off of
them.”_

Ans.--There is no preparation that will free the lard from casings. If
you use something that is strong enough to take off the fat, it will
eat up the casings as well. The only thing practicable that can be done
is to wash the casings thoroughly and change the water a number of
times. In the last washing water it would be advisable to put in some
washing soda as that will soften the water and assist in cleaning the
casings. The fat you will have to remove by hand. There are machines
made for removing the fat from casings, but it will not pay you to go
to the expense of making such a purchase unless you clean a very large
amount of casings per day.



CAUSE OF “RUSTY” MEAT.


_Query.--R. J. B. writes: “We keep our meat in an ice box 35 degrees
cold and the barrels we used in curing it were galvanized, and we have
used them for five years. We use the regular pickling salt. Our meat
comes out rusty. What can you suggest?”_

Ans.--If your cooler is kept at 35 degrees, you must have an ice
machine instead of the regular ice box or cooler, and 35 degrees is
too cold for curing purposes. An even temperature of 38 degrees is the
proper one for curing meat, and all packers who use ice machines should
endeavor to keep their coolers at a temperature not varying from 37 to
39 degrees, and they never should be allowed to get above 40 degrees.
Meat will not cure in any brine or take on enough salt when dry salted
if stored in a room that is below 36 degrees. If meat is packed even in
the strongest kind of brine and put into a cooler which is kept at 32
to 33 degrees and thus left at this degree of cold for three months,
it will come out of the brine only partly cured; it will, therefore,
only keep for a short time and will start to decompose when taken into
a higher temperature. If you have used galvanized iron tanks for five
years, it is possible that the zinc or the galvanizing is worn off on
the inside of the vats so as to expose the iron. Brine will rapidly
rust iron and that will cause your meat to become rusty. Galvanized
iron tanks for curing are all right until the galvanizing is worn off
and the moment this happens, the tanks are useless for curing purposes.
Salt that is rusted or salt that is shoveled with a rusty shovel will
also cause rusty meat. It is absolutely necessary that the salt be
pure and free from rust. If live stock is driven for some distance and
slaughtered while it is overheated, the meat will not cure properly
and will also turn out rusty. Stock that has been driven should always
be allowed to remain in the pens over night. We send you our book,
“Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making,” which you will find full
of valuable information in reference to curing of meat. If you will
follow the directions contained therein closely, you will always have
good results.



SALT FOR BRINE--BOILING BRINE--ROPY BRINE.


_Query.--W. M. writes: “Is common barrel salt or rock salt the best and
cheapest to use for making brine? I have been using rock salt and I
think it is sweet, but in using rock salt I have to boil it in order to
dissolve the salt. Is it necessary to boil the water if it is pure? I
am having trouble with my brine. It becomes jelly-like in summer and in
winter. What is the cause of this?”_

Ans.--Evaporated salt, or what is known as the ordinary barrel salt of
a good quality, is generally approved by butchers for making brine.
Rock salt is much used by the large packers, as it is a stronger salt,
but their facilities for curing meat are altogether different from
those of the butcher and the ordinary curer.

It is not necessary to boil the water for brine if you know it to be
perfectly pure. If its purity is doubted, it should always be boiled
and the impurities which rise to the top should be thoroughly skimmed
off, or if they precipitate the water should be carefully drawn off.
When brine becomes jelly-like, you mean that it gets ropy. This
condition is owing to a great many causes; sometimes it is due to the
sugar which may be of low grade or unrefined, or where molasses and
syrup are used, it quite often results. The best grade of granulated
sugar should always be used for brine. Sometimes the ropiness of brine
is due to the packages in which the meat is cured. This is especially
true when syrup barrels are used. One of the most common causes of
ropy brine is owing to the fact that the meat is cured in too warm a
temperature. If the curing temperature is kept from 38 to 40 degrees,
the brine will remain thin and not get ropy, but there is always risk
in a temperature higher than we have given. If the meat has not been
properly chilled before putting it in pickle, ropiness will also
result. Great care should always be given to meat before putting it in
the brine, as it will become soft and spongy if not chilled through
to the bone. When in this condition it becomes pickle-soaked and
contaminates the brine.



PACKING EGGS.


_Query.--D. B. writes: “I have been using your goods for some time back
and they give the best of satisfaction. Can you give me a good recipe
for packing eggs?”_

Ans.--You will find the following very efficient for preserving eggs:
To each pailful of water add two pints of fresh slaked lime, one pint
of salt and one ounce of White Berliner Konservirungs-Salze; mix well
and then fill a barrel half full of this fluid, put the eggs into it
and they will keep for a long time. The eggs, of course, should be
stored in a cool room. A cool cellar will answer, but the temperature
should never be allowed to get too low--never lower than 38 degrees.



HOW TO TEST VINEGAR.


_Query.--G. G. writes: “Do you sell a thermometer or gauge for testing
vinegar? How am I to know the degree of strength of the vinegar without
a gauge?”_

Ans.--Vinegar is tested with a special apparatus called a Twitchel
Tester. Unless you use large quantities of vinegar, it would hardly
pay you to go to the expense of buying such an apparatus as they are
rather expensive and cost about $15 each. If you buy the vinegar
by the barrel from the wholesale grocers and specify the degree of
strength, they will give you the article desired. If you have any
doubts as to the purity of vinegar there are various ways to test its
purity. The adulterant of vinegar is sulphuric acid, which increases
its indicated strength. Sulphuric acid can be detected by placing some
of the vinegar to be tested in a saucer. Put some white sugar in the
vinegar and evaporate to dryness by placing the saucer on top of a
boiling water kettle. After the water has evaporated if the sugar turns
black, the vinegar contains an adulterating acid. In lieu of a saucer,
a teacup can be used in which the vinegar and sugar can be placed.
The cup can then be placed in a basin of hot water in which it can be
allowed to float until the vinegar in the cup is evaporated. If the
vinegar contains free sulphuric acid the dry sugar will be found to be
blackened. These are simple methods and are claimed to be more accurate
as a test than the use of the Barium Chloride Test. The Barium
Chloride Test is as follows: Mix one ounce of Chloride of Barium with
ten ounces of water. A little of this mixture dropped in vinegar will
quickly test its purity. If the vinegar contains sulphuric acid, this
mixture will make it turn flaky at once, but if it remains clear and
shows no change, the vinegar is free from sulphuric acid adulteration.
Sulphuric acid makes vinegar show a very high test when, as a matter of
fact, it is of very poor real vinegar strength.



SEPARATING WATER FROM LARD.


_Query.--C. W. writes: “I have my lard in such a shape that I don’t
know what to do with it. It seems that the water will not separate from
the lard and the mixture stays about the thickness of cream and about
as white. Can you give me any instructions or advice?”_

Ans.--To overcome your difficulty, we would advise you to remelt the
lard and heat it quite hot, even up to 190 to 200 degrees, but do
not let it come to a boil. Then let the lard settle. The water and
impurities will settle to the bottom. The lard will rise to the top. If
you heat the lard to the boiling point of water, that is, 212 degrees,
it would do no harm except that the lard will then foam and you will
have to be careful so that it does not foam over the top of the kettle.
When it foams, it will bring the impurities to the surface, besides
much of the moisture will evaporate. Either of these methods will
remove your difficulty. You can dry the lard by heating it sufficiently
or you can melt the lard and have it hot enough so that the water
will settle to the bottom. After the lard is melted, dip it from the
kettle, or if you have a lard cooler, run it into the lard cooler;
be careful, though, that all water which may be at the bottom of the
kettle is drawn off first if your intend to run the lard into a lard
cooler. You will have to get rid of the water that is in the lard, so
do not stir the lard while the water is still in the kettle. If you dip
the lard out of the top of the kettle and place it in a lard tierce,
when the lard begins to cool, you can stir it and keep on stirring it
until it is thick like cream; it should then be run into buckets. You
can readily understand that if there is a large per cent of water in
the lard, it will keep the lard soft, which is the trouble you are now
having.



COLORING SAUSAGE MEAT ARTIFICIALLY IS ILLEGAL.


_Query.--J. R. B.: Will you send me a guarantee that your Rosaline
for coloring sausage, etc., will stand the Pure Food Law? Also state
particulars of Potato Flour, and whether it is guaranteed or not to
be pure. I want to use the goods, and the house I deal with won’t
guarantee them to me._

Ans.--In reply to your inquiry we beg to say that Rosaline for coloring
bologna or other sausage would not be legal under your state law.
However, you can produce even a better sausage, both in appearance and
taste, by using =Freeze-Em-Pickle= according to the directions given
in the enclosed circular, “A New Way to Make Bologna and Frankfort
Sausage.” =Freeze-Em-Pickle= is legal in your state as well as all
other states, as it does not contain any ingredient that has been ruled
against under any of the food laws. We would urge you to adopt this
method of making your sausage, not only because it complies with your
law, but because you will make better sausage and will save yourself
from loss of the meat juices which would be lost if you made your
sausage in the old way. As regards potato flour, we do not handle
this product and are not interested in it. Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage
Binder, our guaranteed binder, is far superior to potato flour for
this purpose, and it is legal in your state if used in the proportion
of not to exceed 5 per cent, which will bind your sausage very nicely,
and be greatly to your advantage. Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder is
a pure and wholesome article of food in itself; it tends to absorb
the juices and fats and helps retain them in the sausage when it is
cooked, thus making a more palatable and pleasing sausage than where
no binder is used. Whenever a sausage in which a binder has been used
is shipped out of the state, it is necessary to label the container
to show that a binder was used, in order to comply with the National
Meat Inspection Law, which controls the interstate shipment of all meat
food products. =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and Bull-Meat Sausage Binder are
guaranteed by us under the Pure Food Laws, and every package of these
preparations leaving our factory, carry a label to this effect. Unless
these preparations comply with the Pure Food Law, we could not afford
to put our guarantee on the package. You will find =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
a very valuable aid to you for other purposes than for making your
Bologna, Frankfort and other sausage. By its use you can make very fine
hams, breakfast bacon, shoulders, corned beef, etc. If there are any
other questions you would like to ask, we shall be pleased to have you
write us, and we hope you will order a case of =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and
a barrel of Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder, as their use will quickly
convince you that you can not afford to do business without them.



WHITENING AND PURIFYING TALLOW.


_Query.--Messrs. S. B. write: “We render our tallow and other slaughter
house offal all together in the regular tanks, and we would like to
inquire whether you have anything that will whiten it after it is
rendered.”_

Ans.--You can treat the tallow and whiten and purify it after you have
rendered it in the regular manner in your tank if you are willing to
go to the additional labor of treating it in your open jacket kettle.
The proper way to do is to fill your open jacket kettle or caldron,
whichever you may use, about one-third full of hot water; dissolve in
this a one-pound package of our Lard and Tallow Purifier, then on top
of this put the tallow after you have rendered it. It will make no
difference whether the tallow is hot or whether it is cold. Get the
water boiling hot; stir the water and the tallow frequently, about two
minutes each time. This stirring should be at intervals of about five
minutes for from fifteen to twenty minutes; then turn off the heat and
permit the tallow to settle; next skim off the tallow from the top.
More tallow can be treated in the same solution in the same manner; in
fact, you can use the same solution in the jacket kettle two or three
times. It should then be renewed with a fresh solution because the
water will become impure, as the impurities of the tallow remain in the
water and contaminate it; while in this condition the Tallow and Lard
Purifier will exhaust its strength. Of course, more Lard and Tallow
Purifier could be added to the same solution, but it is advisable to
change the water occasionally as it will aid materially in purifying
the tallow.



MEAT MOULDING IN A COOLER.


_Query.--M. & S. Co.: Please forward to us one of your brine tester
hydrometers. Ought fresh beef to mould in a cooler where the
temperature is 36 degrees, after being in there ten to fourteen days?
We have lost meat this way in a cooler with three coats of white lead
throughout and the temperature maintained by ice. Not only has meat
moulded, but it has had a pine taste._

Ans.--As requested, we have sent you a hydrometer by express. You wish
to know if fresh beef stored in a cooler ten or twelve days should
begin to become mouldy. You say that your cooler is cooled by ice and
that its temperature is 36 degrees. We are inclined to believe that
your thermometer is not accurate. It would be very difficult to get the
temperature of a cooler down to 36 degrees with ice. If an ice box is
kept closed from Saturday night until Monday morning the temperature
runs down to 36 or 37 degrees, but where it is in constant use, and
opened from time to time throughout the day it is almost impossible
to reduce the temperature to 36 degrees, unless the cooler is a very
small one and a large amount of ice is packed in the ice chamber above.
Try another thermometer. It is important to have one that is right. Do
not buy a cheap thermometer for a cold storage tester. If your cooler
is constructed properly it should be perfectly dry and all the drip
water drained without entering the storage chambers. A cooler, even
when cooled with ice, should be so dry on the inside that a match might
be struck on the sides. If the cooler is moist, there is no need to
search further for the cause of your meat moulding. If the cooler is
perfectly dry then the beef will keep about two weeks without moulding,
then it is liable to mould slightly, but not enough to do any harm.
It is frequently stored three weeks before it is consumed, and when
kept that long it is tender and juicy--in other words, it is “ripe.”
You say that your meat tastes of pine. You did not state whether or
not your cooler was a new one or not. If it is a new one and has been
properly constructed it should not give meat a taste; if it has been
made from boards not thoroughly dry it will cause meat to taste of pine
and it might even be responsible for some mould. Then again the walls
may have been stuffed with green pine sawdust, and this will cause
trouble. It may be that your cooler is a home-made one, not properly
constructed; perhaps the circulation is not right. You merely state
that the meat moulds and tastes of pine, whereas you should have given
full details. If you will send us a drawing of your cooler and full
details we will be able to give you the cause of your trouble and the
remedy as well.



CAUSE OF FAILURE IN CURING BACON.


_Query.--T. K. writes: “We have been having trouble with our bacon. We
put it down in second-hand lard tierces which we got from the large
bakers here. We thoroughly cleansed them with boiling water before
using them, and have been careful to weigh everything and measure the
water we made the brine out of. We used brown sugar, the same as we
have always used previous to this time. Our bacon was thoroughly cooled
out before it was salted, and was never frozen. After being put in
the pickle, we let it stand in the back part of the shop, where the
temperature was often below freezing, but never cold enough to freeze
the meat in the brine. We repacked it by moving from one tierce to
another, always putting the same brine on the meat. We usually let our
bacon in the brine for six weeks, unless it is very heavy, then we let
it in a longer time. We usually keep four tierces full, and by moving
from one to another always have the last one ready to take out and
smoke. We used just the common barrel salt and have always had good
results until now; in fact, this time the meat is perfectly sweet, but
the fat of it is very dark colored, while heretofore it has always been
nice and white. We do all our own killing. If you can tell us what we
have done wrong, we would like to know, as we are always trying to
improve whenever we can.”_

Ans.--You have been very fortunate indeed to have escaped trouble if
you have always cured your bacon as you explain. There are many things
which you have done while curing which are likely to cause you serious
trouble, and which should never be done in the future. You are lucky
that some of the meat did not spoil completely. It is never advisable
to use lard tierces for curing, as the lard is run into the tierces
while hot, and the fat naturally soaks into the wood. This fat in time
becomes rancid, and is likely to contaminate the brine and also the
meat, even though you scald out the tierces, you do not get the grease
out of the pores of the wood. It is always best and safest to use new
tierces for curing purposes; in fact, there is great risk in using
anything else. You should never use brown sugar for sweet pickle, but
the very best grade of granulated sugar. Brown sugar is always more
likely to contain foreign substances detrimental to the brine, and in
most cases causes the brine to turn ropy, sometimes even causing it to
ferment. The purest of sugar should always be used for sweet pickle.
You have deviated from one of the greatest essentials to successful
curing by not observing the most important of all requirements and that
is an even temperature of about 38 degrees during the entire period of
curing. You state that your meat was sometimes in a temperature below
freezing point, but never cold enough to freeze the meat in the brine.
Such a degree of temperature is enough to ruin your meat, as the curing
room should never be allowed to go below 36 degrees. The moment you get
the temperature below 36 degrees, the meat ceases to take on salt and
will not cure; besides, it is likely to spoil in the brine. It is all
right to cure heavy Breakfast Bacon six weeks, but bacon from light or
small hogs will cure perfectly in twenty to twenty-five days. The meat,
however, at a temperature below freezing point would not cure in six
weeks or even in a much longer time. We, of course, understand that
the temperature in your curing room was not always below the freezing
point, but it should never be that cold.

We are going to send you free of charge our book, “Secrets of Meat
Curing and Sausage Making,” and we will ask you to read carefully all
we have to say on “General Hints for Curing Meats,” which covers the
entire process, including chilling, overhauling, pumping, packing,
temperature, etc. You will also note that we advise against the use of
molasses and syrup barrels, as they are liable to cause ropiness of
the brine. Also note what we have to say in regard to the handling of
meat in curing, the chilling room, the condition of the meat, and the
proper time to slaughter. If you will read carefully all we have to say
in reference to curing in this book and will follow our methods and
instructions, you cannot fail to turn out the finest kind of mild cured
sweet pickled meat, having a most delicious flavor and a beautiful
appearance. We ask you to make the trial and report results.



HOW TO TREAT PORK WHICH IS TOO SALTY.


_Query.--F. B. writes: “We have about twenty barrels of pork that have
become very salty in the brine. What would you do and how can we get
the brine out?”_

Ans.--Salt pork is usually put down in very strong brine, therefore
it is perfectly proper that pickled pork should be very salty. If it
is desired to store the pork for a long time, it should be left in
the strong brine and in order to freshen it so that it will not be so
salty, the pork should be washed in fresh water. It is best to handle
one barrel at a time as it is to be sold or used in the market. The
water in which the pork is soaked should be as cold as possible; in
fact, it would do no harm to put a little ice in it. By allowing the
pickled pork to soak in the fresh water, a great deal of the salt will
be drawn from the meat. The meat should be soaked twenty-four hours
altogether, and during the daytime the water should be changed every
six hours. After the meat has been soaked, it can be placed in a mild
brine, which should not be over 40 degrees strength, but if the meat
can be disposed of in a few days, it is not necessary to keep it in the
brine at all. It will be sufficient to place it on a shelf in the ice
box; at the end of three or four days, it might be necessary to wash it
off with fresh water.



IMITATION BULL-MEAT-BRAND SAUSAGE BINDER.


_QUERY.--G. H. F. writes: We recently ordered from a jobber 50 lbs.
of Freeze-Em Pickle and 100 lbs. of Bull-Meat Sausage Binder. The
Freeze-Em Pickle was not shipped but we received a barrel of what is
claimed to be Bull-Meat Sausage Binder. We notice that the Bull-Meat
Sausage Binder is not put up in the regular way. It is in a plain
keg without any of your labels upon it. We are suspicious about its
genuineness. Do you ever ship Bull-Meat Sausage Binder in this way? As
yet we have not opened the package to test it._

Ans.--You can rest assured that you have not received our goods and
you should return them at once. We never pack goods of ours of any
description except in our well known packages with labels on the
outside and circulars inside. We never sell Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage
Binder in any other manner than in red drums, which are familiar to you
and the trade generally. These drums vary only in size, otherwise they
are identical in every particular. They have our large label on the
head and our long label on the side, just as you see them illustrated
in the cuts which you will find in our circulars and advertisements.
You have received some substituted article which the shipper has sought
to impose upon you with the hope that you would not question its
genuineness. We leave to your own ideas of fairness as to just how such
a firm should be regarded. Our goods are the first and genuine of their
kind and have won great prestige among butchers all over the United
States. Unscrupulous parties in trade seek to reap some advantage
from our great reputation by substituting worthless preparations upon
which they make a big profit. You should always be careful in ordering
your goods to specify the article wanted and insist that the name of
B. Heller & Co. shall be upon the package and that you will accept no
other. Upon receiving the goods, you should always inspect the labels
and see that they are ours. Do not be misled by similar names or
packages resembling ours.



COMPLYING WITH FOOD LAWS IN CURING MEATS.


_Query.--F. K. writes: “We should like to have you inform us what we
can use in our state for curing meat and at the same time keep within
the restrictions of the law. They have prosecuted butchers all over the
state of Pennsylvania for using preservatives of some kinds, and it
leaves everyone in the meat business at a loss to know what to do. We
can’t keep meat or cure it without using preservatives of some kind.
What would you advise us to do?”_

Ans.--We manufacture a preparation known as _Freeze-Em-Pickle_, which
can be used for curing purposes and fully keep within the requirements
of all food laws, both state and National, as well as laws of foreign
countries. This article can be used in all kinds of sausage, fresh or
dried. We guarantee that the use of this article will not in any manner
conflict with the pure food laws of your state, and you are perfectly
safe in using it. Its uses are so various that it would be impossible
for us to give full directions for using it within the limits of these
columns, but we take pleasure in sending you a booklet which will give
you all necessary instructions and much other valuable information.



KEEPING CURED MEATS IN CELLARS DURING SUMMER.


_Query.--We have not enough cooler room to cure meat during the summer
time, and we want to know if there is any way we can keep cured meat in
our cellar during June weather without it becoming too salty._

Ans.--Even if you cure the meat in the winter and keep the cooler at
a proper temperature and then leave the meat in the brine during the
summer, the brine will turn sour, or become ropy, or thick, and will
spoil the meat. To store meat in brine, it is absolutely necessary to
keep it at a very low temperature. In fact, it is necessary to have
an ice machine to keep the temperature in the cooler or storage room
as low as 30 degrees. You could get it as low as 28 degrees. The meat
would not freeze, but by having the temperature so low, the meat would
not take on any more salt. You seem to be of the opinion that if the
pickle on the meat were reduced you could keep the meat in the brine
and keep it in a warm temperature. That would be impossible. Of course,
having the brine weaker, it would not cause the meat to become so
salty, but nevertheless, the brine would spoil, and it would then spoil
the meat. To store meat in brine it is absolutely necessary to have the
proper facilities and that means an ice machine. Our advice is that you
cure enough meat during the winter according to the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
process to carry you until the middle or end of May, and then about the
first of May begin curing some more meat in your regular cooler where
the temperature is low enough so that the meat will cure properly.



STRONG LARD FROM BOARS.


_Query.--J. A. S. writes: “I have rendered 100 lbs. of lard made as
follows: 75 lbs. from fat barrows, 25 lbs. from fat boars. I find that
the lard is strong. Can you give me the cause of it?”_

Ans.--The odor from boar fat is so strong that such fat should not
be used in first grade lard. Boar fat will only make a second grade
of lard. We advise that you always keep it separate and sell it at a
discount as a second grade of lard to bakers. The strong boar odor
cannot be removed from the lard and the only thing that can be done is
to whiten and purify it. In future render your barrow fat and boar fat
separately.



TO MAKE HEAD CHEESE AND NEW ENGLAND STYLE HAM SOLID


Answer.--To make Head Cheese sticky and solid without putting hog rinds
in it, use Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder, putting from ten to twelve
pounds of Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder into 100 pounds of meat. The
quantity used must be governed by the percentage proportion amount
allowed by your State Pure Food Law. This will make a firm, solid Head
Cheese, filling all the holes with a jelly-like mass. Bull-Meat-Brand
Sausage Binder is an excellent binder for Head Cheese and other sausage
products.

If you desire your New England Style Ham to be more sticky, you must
take your pork trimmings and cut them about the size of an egg and mix
with every 100 pounds of meat 1 pound of our =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, but
do not put any salt with them whatsoever. Let the meat stand in the
cooler for a week and you will find that the juices in the meat will
have been thickened like glue and be sticky. Then take the meat out of
the cooler; add 1½ pounds of salt to 100 lbs. of meat and season with
Zanzibar-Brand Seasoning. Take a small quantity of this meat and grind
it very fine and then mix the fine with the coarse pieces and stuff
it. Cook it very carefully with slow heat, then put it in the cooler
in a press or put boards on it and press it down with stones. Your New
England Style Pressed Ham is then finished. Of course, you can use some
Zanzibar-Carbon to color the casings. See directions for momentary
dipping on page 117.



HOW TO PREVENT MOULD ON SAUSAGE, HAMS AND BACON.


_Query.--L. B. writes: “Will you please let me know if there is
anything to prevent the moulding of summer sausage, hams and bacon?”_

Ans.--It is first necessary that you hang the sausage and meat in a
dry, cool room. If you keep it in a room where the air is moist, it
will mould rapidly. If lard is rubbed on the sausage and also the meat,
it will aid materially in preventing moulding. When so used, it should
be applied with a cloth and rubbed on both the meat and the skin side.
If your meat has already begun to mould, it should first be washed with
warm water and then permitted to dry for a few hours. When dry apply a
little of the lard with a cloth.



SHARPENING KNIVES AND PLATES OF MEAT GRINDERS.


_Query.--F. W. F. Co. asks how to sharpen knives and plates of meat
grinders._

Ans.--If the plates are grooved and rough, it will be necessary to
have them turned off in a lathe. Then the knives should be sharpened
on the cutting-edge just like a scissors. We do not mean the flat
side which runs against the plate. But if the knife is also rough on
the flat side, then the flat side should be smoothed off a little on
a grindstone, and after the plate is turned down the knife should be
ground with emery and oil right on the plate to make a tight fit. If
you have no lathe, it will have to be done in a machine shop, and in
that event we would advise you to get into touch with some of the large
concerns which supply butchers’ cutlery, etc. We would be pleased to
give you the names of some very good firms if you desire.



HOW TO CURE MEAT FROM FARM-KILLED HOGS.


_Query.--C. A. J. writes: I have more or less trouble in curing hams
from farmer killed hogs. The trouble I have is in the marrow. Would you
please tell me the best way for farmers to kill and chill hogs and how
is best to cure such meat?_

Ans.--We take pleasure in sending you by mail under separate cover, our
book, “Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making.” This book will give
you all needed information with reference to meat curing and sausage
making. You should study this carefully because it gives you the needed
information for handling the meat before it is put in brine and during
the time it is in the brine. It tells you how to pump the meats; how to
make the brine for pumping; when to overhaul the meat; the temperature
to cure in, etc. If you will follow all information given in these
articles you will overcome the trouble you have had. You should also
use =Freeze-Em-Pickle= for curing because by its use you will be able
to turn out the finest mild-cured sweet pickled meats having a most
delicious flavor, of good appearance. Moreover you would have a uniform
cure and no loss from sour meats. You say that you have had trouble
from hams souring at the marrow. Read carefully our article relating to
the pumping of meats. By pumping you will overcome the souring at the
marrow.



CAUSE OF FAILURE IN CURING MEATS.


_Query.--H. B. writes: I have been trying to cure corned beef, but it
has a very funny taste. If you can tell me what is the trouble and how
to avoid it I will be greatly obliged. I boil the water for making it
into brine and use refrigerated meats. I thoroughly cleaned the barrel
with scalding hot water. I did not cure the meat in a cooler, but in a
room where the temperature runs from sixty to sixty-five degrees. The
brine was seventy degrees strength, according to the pickle-tester.
I did not use either sugar or molasses in the brine. The curing is a
failure. Will you please give me all the information you can?_

Ans.--Your questions are their own answers. It is impossible to cure
Corned Beef or any other kind of meat in a room where the temperature
is as high as 60 degrees. It should not be higher than 45 degrees, and
40 degrees will be much better.

We refer you to our directions for curing Corned Beef in our book,
“Secrets of Meat Curing and Sausage Making.”

The directions contained therein should always be followed to the
letter, if good results are desired, and when they are followed you
will turn out the very finest Corned Beef; it will be in perfect
condition and have the sweet taste so much desired. The brine for 100
pounds of meat should be made as follows: 8 pounds of common salt, 1
pound of =Freeze-Em-Pickle=, 2 pounds of granulated sugar and 5 gallons
of cold water. The meat should be cured in this brine ten to fifteen
days, according to the weight and thickness of the pieces. Use only
fresh meats that have been thoroughly chilled.



LARDING NEEDLES--HOW USED.


_Query.--F. P. C. writes: What are larding needles used for? I would
like to receive a copy of your book._

Ans.--A larding needle is used for drawing fine or thin strips of
bacon through beef tenderloins and other kinds of meat. Frequently
small strips of dry salt pork are drawn through beef tenderloins, also
through meat to be roasted. This makes the meat nice and juicy and also
imparts to it a fine flavor. The strips which are to be drawn through
the meat are cut very thin and usually square. They are about ⅛ to 3/32
of an inch in thickness.



WHY COOLER “SWEATS.”


_Query.--F. B. writes: “I would like a little information in regard
to my cooler. In sultry weather it sweats terribly, almost changing
its natural finish to white and the sweat rolls down from it. If you
can give me any information as to how I can stop it, I will be very
thankful to you. The inside of the cooler is perfectly dry; in fact, I
could strike a match in it anywhere. Kindly let me know if there is any
way of preventing this trouble.”_

Ans.--The trouble with your cooler is no doubt due to the moisture of
the atmosphere and to some imperfection in insulation. The defect can
be remedied by the manufacturers. You say the cooler is perfectly dry
inside, therefore, its construction must be very good, but the outside
insulation is not just right, so the outside becomes too cool and the
moist air coming in contact with the cold surface readily condenses.
If the cooler can be insulated in such a way that the outside will not
become so cold, we have no doubt your trouble can be overcome.



LEGALITY OF WHITE BERLINER BRAND KONSERVIRUNGS-SALZE.


_Query.--O. B. writes: “We notice in the Scientific Meat Industry
that you claim White Berliner Konservirungs-Salze can be used as a
preservative for meats and keep within the requirements of the food
laws of Pennsylvania. We wish to inquire whether one is perfectly safe
in using this preparation as a preservative in Pennsylvania. Of course
it is well understood that butchers must use a preservative of some
kind, but they are interpreting the law in this state very strictly.
Please let us hear from you fully in regard to this.”_

Ans.--White Berliner Konservirungs-Salze, when used in the proportion
of four to eight ounces to each 100 lbs. of meat, complies with the
pure food laws of Pennsylvania. No one need hesitate to use it for
all the purposes for which we have recommended it in these columns,
as there would be no grounds for action against anyone for its use.
It is perfectly harmless and is everywhere recognized as such. No
objection has been made against its use. We advise all butchers in
Pennsylvania to make use of this preparation, as it will fully meet
their requirements and absolve them from prosecution for the use of a
meat preservative.



COLD-STORINE IS NOW LEGAL.


_Query.--L. B. S.: We notice that you have put Cold-Storine on the
market again. Is this product now legal to use?_

Ans.--In reply to your favor of the 10th inst. we are pleased to inform
you that Cold-Storine is now made under a new improved formula and
contains no ingredients that have been ruled out under the National
Pure Food Law or the Federal Meat Inspection Law. It is therefore now
legal to use everywhere.

As you undoubtedly know, Cold-Storine is used to keep sausage, tripe,
tongue, poultry, etc., in a good condition, and it does this work most
satisfactorily. Simply by storing the sausage, tripe and other meats in
a solution of Cold-Storine, each night, they can be displayed on the
counters during the entire day, and yet keep in a good condition for
a week or longer. This preparation can save you considerable money by
preventing losses from spoiled goods.

You undoubtedly have your greatest difficulty in keeping link pork
sausage in a good salable condition after it has been exposed on the
counter for several days. This difficulty is entirely overcome by
storing them in a solution of Cold-Storine over night. It will prevent
them from becoming slimy and enable them to retain their full weight
and fresh appearance until sold.

You are of course anxious to cut down your percentage of losses from
spoiled goods, as nothing else eats so large a hole into your profits
as this. So we expect you will be glad to hear that you can again use
Cold-Storine. Like all progressive meat dealers, you undoubtedly look
upon the use of Cold-Storine, not as an item of expense, but as a big
money-making proposition. We enclose herewith our folder entitled,
“Put a Dollar Into Cold-Storine and Take Out Ten,” which will give you
further information on this product.



HOW TO GIVE A BRIGHT, RED COLOR TO BOLOGNA AND FRANKFORT SAUSAGE
WITHOUT ARTIFICIAL COLORING.


_Query.--I am trying to make Bologna and Frankfort sausage, and make
it all right except the color of the meat. I cannot get a nice pink
color. I have tried Freeze-Em Pickle; it is all right, but it is too
slow a process. I want to make my sausage out of fresh meat and smoke
it in a smoke-house, but cannot get a nice pink color on the meat. It
has a gray color and does not look right. I have a color on hand, but
it don’t give satisfaction. It makes the meat too red and does not look
good._

_Now, if you have anything that will overcome my trouble and will
give my sausage a nice pink color, not red, and will comply with the
National Pure Food Law, send it right along. I will remit on arrival. I
would send the money now, but do not know the value of it. I make about
twenty-five pounds of sausage at a batch._

Ans.--Your letter of recent date received. You say you are trying to
make bologna and that you make it all right, but that the color of the
meat is not a nice pink color. You say you tried the =Freeze-Em-Pickle=
and that it worked all right, but that it is too slow a process. You
further say you want to make your bologna out of fresh meat, but that
you do not get a nice pink color when it is made that way. You say the
meat is gray.

In all of that you are correct, and you will always have a gray sausage
unless you make it with =Freeze-Em-Pickle= according to the directions
in our circular. If you make bologna sausage out of fresh meat, it, of
course, will be gray. If you roast a piece of beef, it will be gray.
If you cook a piece of beef, it will be gray. It is the same with
bologna. When bologna is made with fresh meat, it will be gray, just
as though you take a piece of fresh meat and boil it. It is impossible
to make bologna with a pink color and make it out of fresh meat. For
that reason, we recommend you to use =Freeze-Em-Pickle= and prepare
your bologna meat with =Freeze-Em-Pickle= beforehand. You can do that
in about two or three days. It is better, however, to let the meat cure
for a week.

All you have to do is to trim out the beef and pork trimmings with
which you intend to make the bologna, cut the pieces up about the
size of an English walnut and sprinkle on =Freeze-Em-Pickle= in the
proportion of one pound =Freeze-Em-Pickle= to every 100 pounds of meat.
Mix the meat thoroughly and then pack it tightly in a tierce or a box,
in fact a shallow box where the meat is not very thick is better, but
pack it in tightly, and then put it in the cooler and let it remain
there for at least four or five days, or a week, if possible. Then
when you make bologna, the bologna will be better in flavor, will be
juicier, will have a fine red appearance, and will be perfect in all
respects. This we positively guarantee.

If you want to make bologna and frankfort sausage properly and have it
right in all respects, you must take the necessary time and prepare the
meat accordingly.

Formerly when artificial colors could be used in bologna and frankfort
sausage, then it was all right to make it out of fresh meat and use
an artificial inside color, but now, however, the food laws are such
that you cannot use an inside color and therefore it is necessary
to make it according to the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= process and with our
=Freeze-Em-Pickle=. Then you will have a nice pink color on the inside
of your bologna and frankfort sausage. You say you have a color on hand
but it does not give satisfaction. It is a good thing that it does not
give satisfaction, because if you were to use it, you could be arrested
and fined and it would cause you a great deal of trouble; in fact, your
reputation might be ruined if your name got in the papers stating that
you used coloring on the inside of your bologna and frankfort sausage,
because the food laws prohibit that.

By using the =Freeze-Em-Pickle= process you will make sausage that
will in every way comply with your state food law and will at the same
time, have a fine inside color, and excellent flavor and splendid
keeping qualities. This will overcome all the troubles you mention,
and all that is necessary is for you to prepare your meats a few days
before hand. In fact, you can prepare a quantity of the meat before
hand and keep it and use it along as you need it, making up 25 pounds
at a time whenever you wish to do so, and leave the balance until a
later occasion. Meat will keep this way in a good cooler indefinitely.
This is the only way we can recommend your making sausage that will
comply with your law and at the same time have the color you desire. Of
course, it is a little more trouble, but it is trouble that will well
repay you, because your sausage will really be of better quality and it
will make a much better appearance.



HOW TO REMOVE WOOL FROM GREEN AND DRY SHEEP PELTS


_Question.--K. M. Co. writes: Can you give us a method for pulling
the wool from green hides and also from dry hides? We get the dead
carcasses from the feed and transit yards--a good many hundred pelts
during a year. Lots of these pelts are torn. If we can pull the wool we
will be able to realize more money out of handling these pelts._

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden._)

Answer.--As a general rule, wool is pulled from pelts by concerns that
make this work a business. The method used is sweating and steaming
the pelts. The pelts are hung on racks in a room into which live steam
is turned. The pelts are kept hot for a number of days and the heat
loosens the wool. It can then be easily pulled from the skin. The wool
is then dried and baled.

You could not adopt this method profitably on a small scale, but we
will give you a method that you can use which will prove a satisfactory
way for small handlers of pelts who desire to pull the wool.

Make a pile of your pelts, wetting the pelts as you pile them. Cover
the pelts with blankets or gunny sacks and allow the pile of pelts to
sweat. The wet pelts being covered up tight, will become hot and sweat.
This will loosen the wool and it can be readily pulled off.

Another way of removing the wool from pelts is to spread the pelts upon
the floor, with the wool down next to the floor. On the skin side of
the pelts place crushed fresh lime and dampen the lime. This wetting of
the lime will cause it to slake and soak into the skin. The wool will
be loosened by this treatment of the pelts and it can be easily pulled.
This method, however, will spoil the skins and render them of no value.

The simpler method of handling the green hides by a butcher or other
dealer who has only a small business equipment is to use the sweating
process. By this method both the wool and the skins can be saved and
sold. Ordinarily, by the sweating method the pelts are piled one on top
of the other, some water sprinkled on each pelt, and the piles made
from two feet to three feet high, and allowed to sweat. Great care must
be taken not to let the pelts sweat too much, otherwise the hide will
decay and in pulling the wool the hide will tear. As soon as the wool
is sufficiently loosened from the pelt it should be pulled. The skins
can then be salted and cured, or the skins can be put into a brine
and cured. After the skins are thoroughly cured they are ready to be
shipped to the tannery.



HOW TO MAKE PEPPERED BEEF


_Question.--G. E. O’F. writes--Can you furnish me with a recipe for
making (Postromer) Peppered Beef? I am a user of your goods and will be
under obligations to you for this information._

(_Copyrighted by B. Heller & Co.; Reprint Forbidden_)

Answer.--We do not clearly understand your question. If you mean cured
Briskets that are covered with red pepper, or Paprika Compound, and
then smoked, you can proceed as follows:

Cure your boneless briskets in corned beef brine with garlic in it. You
will find a formula for this in our book, “Secrets of Meat Curing and
Sausage Making,” a copy of which we are sending you. After the meat is
cured, and before you place it in the smoke-house, rub our Chile Powder
all over the outside of it, and then smoke it. Or, you can smoke it and
cook it, and then rub the Chile Powder over it after it is cooked. In
this way, you will use less Chile Powder.

If this does not fully answer your question write us again giving us
more complete statement of what is desired.



UTILIZING FAT TRIMMINGS


_Question.--H. A. writes: Please send me information as to how to use
up my fat trimmings._

Answer.--The best way to make use of your fat trimmings is to work them
up into Pork Sausage, using plenty of Bull-Meat-Brand Sausage Binder to
absorb the fat. When plenty of Bull-Meat Sausage Binder is used the fat
stays in the sausage when fried instead of frying out. This keeps the
meat from shrinking.



[Illustration: FREEZE-EM PICKLE]

For Curing Hams, Bacon, Shoulders, Corned Beef, and for Curing Beef and
Pork for making all kinds of Sausage


Freeze-Em-Pickle is a preparation for Curing Hams, Shoulders, Bacon,
Corned Beef, Dry Salt Meat, Pickled Pork and Meat for Making Bologna
and other kinds of sausage, etc. The Freeze-Em-Pickle Process
retards fermentation and souring of brine when used according to our
directions. It gives a delicious, mild flavor, curing the meat more
uniformly and with a fine color. By its use curing is made easier, and
anyone, without being experienced, can cure meats successfully.

Trimmings and sausage meats treated with dry Freeze-Em-Pickle can be
stored away for six months, or even longer, and will then make better
sausage than will fresh meats. Dry curing meats for sausage by the
Freeze-Em-Pickle Process congeals the albumen in the meat, so that it
and the juices do not draw out in the form of brine. It thus keeps more
of the nutriment and flavor in the meat and sausage, making it more
juicy and better when fried or otherwise cooked.

Those using the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process have an absolute guaranty
in its use and can always depend upon getting good results when our
directions are followed. It possesses the advantage which the curer of
meat has been seeking for years, and it also fully complies with the
State, National and Foreign Food Laws.

The Freeze-Em-Pickle Process of curing meats gives a mild, delicious
flavored cure. Meats cured by it will not be too salty, but will have
that sugar-cured flavor which is so much liked.



MAKING BOLOGNA AND FRANKFURT SAUSAGE


The Freeze-Em-Pickle Process is highly recommended for preparing meat
for Bologna, Frankfurts, etc. When the meat for Bologna and Frankfurt
Sausage is prepared by this Process, the sausage made will be juicy and
delicious.



ELIMINATE MEAT-CURING TROUBLES


Packers, Butchers and Curers have many difficulties in turning out
good, sweet-pickle cured meat. By adopting the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process
these troubles are eliminated and the finished products are superior to
those made in other ways.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=

[Illustration]



Our Guaranty


We guarantee that Freeze-Em-Pickle does not contain any ingredient
that has been ruled out by any food law and we further guarantee that
the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process of curing meats is in accordance with the
requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Law. We also guarantee that
meats cured by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process will have a fine flavor and
a mild, sweet cure when our directions are followed in every detail.
We guarantee that meats treated by the Freeze-Em-Pickle Process will
not spoil nor sour if kept under proper conditions. Freeze-Em-Pickle is
being used by many United States Government Inspected Packing Houses
throughout the country.

[Illustration]

  _B Heller & Co_



The Secret of Making Money in Meat Products Lies in the Prevention of
Losses

Save Money by Preventing the Losses Due to Spoiled Meat

Use B. HELLER & CO’S “A” CONDIMENTINE


“A” Condimentine is a Condimental Preparation used as an aid in Keeping
in a Fresh Condition for a reasonable time Fresh Sausage such as Pork
Sausage, Liver Sausage, Head Cheese, etc. Does not alter the Natural
Color of the meat.

[Illustration]

“A” Condimentine complies with Pure Food Laws, National and State. Its
use is permitted in Government Inspected Packing Houses.

It is worked into the sausage with the seasoning, simply adding ¾ to
1 pound “A” Condimentine to every 100 pounds of meat. In this way,
uncured meats can be shipped long distances or held without loss of the
fresh, red color for a reasonable period. Its nominal cost is a cheap
insurance against loss from spoilage.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



B. HELLER & CO’S “B” CONDIMENTINE

For Use in Smoked Sausage, Meat Loaves, etc.


KEEPS YOUR SAUSAGE IN GOOD CONDITION FOR A REASONABLE TIME

“B” Condimentine is a preparation for assisting in keeping Smoked
Sausage, such as Bologna, Frankfurts, Ham-Bologna, Summer Sausage, Meat
Loaves, etc., in marketable condition for a reasonable length of time.

[Illustration]

Smoked Sausage can be kept in good condition for a reasonable time by
using “B” Condimentine, and may be Shipped to a Distance with Safety.
The Sausage will remain in firm condition for a reasonable length of
time. The meat will also retain a Red Color.

It is easy to use, simply adding it as spices are added, ¾ to 1 pound
“B” Condimentine to every 100 pounds of meat. The benefits derived from
“B” Condimentine are out of all proportion to the nominal cost.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



BERLINER BRAND KONSERVIRUNGS SALT (CONSERVING SALT) (WHITE) USED FOR
FRESH MEATS VEAL, MUTTON, GAME, ETC.


For Salting and as an aid in Keeping in Good Condition Pork and Liver
Sausage, Head Cheese, etc., also used for the temporary keeping of
Fresh Meats such as Veal, Mutton, Game, etc. It does not contain any
ingredients prohibited under the National or State Pure Food Laws.

[Illustration]

It is easy to use, being added to the meat like spice, a simple and
effective process.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



  BERLINER BRAND
  KONSERVIRUNGS SALT
  (CONSERVING SALT)      (RED CURE)
  USED FOR
  CURING
  HAMS, BACON, TONGUE, DRIED
  BEEF, PICKLED PORK, MEAT,
  PIGS FEET, HEAD CHEESE, ETC.


For Curing Hams, Bacon, Tongues, Dried Beef, Pickled Pork, Pigs Feet,
Head Cheese, Meat, etc., and for Salting Trimmings for Bologna and
Frankfurt Sausage. It does not contain any ingredients prohibited under
the National or State Pure Food Laws.

[Illustration]

The Red Konservirungs salt is added to the uncured sausage meats
intended for smoking, just as salt or spices would be added.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



B. HELLER & CO’S. HAM-ROLL-INE


[Illustration: A Meat Curing Preparation used in Making Prepared Ham
Rolls

Ham-Roll-Ine is a powdered preparation put up expressly for curing Ham
Trimmings used in making Sausage or Ham Rolls. It produces a Fine, Mild
Cure, and gives the meat a beautiful appetizing color and excellent
flavor.

Ham or Sausage Rolls in which Ham-Roll-Ine is used are kept in a fresh,
appetizing condition when displayed on the counter, thereby greatly
increasing the sales.

Ham-Roll-Ine complies with the United States Government Meat Inspection
Regulations, and its use is permitted in all Government Inspected
Packing Houses. It is legal to use under the United States Pure Food
Laws.

Directions for making Ham Rolls or Sausage Rolls will be sent on
request.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



Keep Your Sausage, Sweetbreads, Pigs Feet, etc., in Better Condition by
Using

COLD-STORINE

TRADE MARK REGISTERED

REDUCES LOSSES FROM SPOILED GOODS


[Illustration]

By simply storing your Sausage, Sweet Breads, Pigs Feet, Tripe, etc.,
in a solution of Cold Storine over night, you will increase your
profits by reducing losses from the spoiling of these products.

Losses due to spoiled meats cut down profits greatly, and the butcher
should be interested in an article that reduces such losses. Use Cold
Storine and you will reduce your losses from spoilage.

By keeping the sausages in this way, they do not dry out or become
slimy or moldy as they do when hung in the cooler.

  =Write for Prices=



[Illustration: FREEZE-EM]

(TRADE-MARK REGISTERED)


[Illustration]

FOR ICE BOXES:--After thoroughly washing every part of the interior
with hot water and soap or a reliable washing powder (we strongly
recommend Ozo Washing Powder) prepare a rinsing solution by dissolving
four ounces of Freeze-Em to each gallon of Hot Water required, and
thoroughly rinse every corner and crevice with this rinsing solution.

We recommend this same strength rinsing solution for rinsing Blocks,
Pails, Tubs and all Butchers and Sausage Makers Tools and Machinery.

When cleaning old barrels used for Curing, use the same strength
solution on both the inside and outside of all barrels before putting
in new brine, always using fresh boiling hot water for the final rinse.

Freeze-Em is an entirely different article to Freeze-Em Pickle. The
latter is the wonderful curing compound used in Government Inspected
Packing Houses. (See pages 248-250)

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



[Illustration: FREEZE-EM]

(TRADE MARK REGISTERED)


New Style Package Adopted Jan. 1, 1918

[Illustration]

For many years Freeze-Em has been packed only in one and five-pound
bottles. On account of the high freight rate on Chemicals in glass, we
decided to change this package. From now on, our trade can procure it
in cans if they so desire, although we will continue to supply it in
bottles to those who prefer that style package. The cans will effect
a saving in transportation for our trade that will be well worth
considering.

The liberal use of Freeze-Em, in either style package, prevents the
corrupting influence of decomposing meat particles in meat block tops
and other tools, utensils and machinery.

It is put up in 1-pound and 5-pound cans, 25-pound and 50-pound pails,
100-pound kegs, half-barrels of 200 pounds, and barrels of 500 pounds.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



DEODORINE

Trade-Mark

THE DEODORIZER THAT LEAVES NO SMELL


[Illustration]

A Powerful and Harmless Deodorizing Disinfectant, for use in places
where a Disinfectant is desired which does not give off any odor from
itself but immediately destroys the odor with which it comes in contact.

=Deodorine= produces a solution that will Destroy Offensive Odors and
will NOT leave any odor of itself. Most Deodorizers have an odor of
their own, which in many instances is as offensive as the odor they
are expected to remove. Such Deodorizers cannot be Used around Food
Products, because of the smell which they impart to such articles.
Not so with Deodorine. It destroys the Odors of Putrefaction by
Substituting Oxygen for the Foul Air.

Deodorine Solution is Not Caustic and will not injure any metal, Wooden
or Porcelain ware, neither will it injure or irritate the hands or
other portions of the skin with which it comes in contact.

Deodorine can be used to Destroy the Offensive Odors which form in
Urinals, Toilets, Cuspidors, etc. As soon as it is applied, the Odors
Cease.

Deodorine is very cheap to use. One teaspoonful makes two gallons of
Deodorizing Solution, suitable for Sprinkling Floors, Washing out Ice
Boxes, Fish Boxes, Flushing Urinals, etc. It is so cheap that it can
be freely used, and it leaves the air in any room where it is used so
Sweet and Pure that after a trial no Butcher or Fish Dealer will do
without it.

It destroys the odors arising from decomposing particles of meat or
fish which may have lodged in floor cracks, and checks their further
decomposition.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



Your Customers are Interested in the Sanitary Condition of Your Place
of Business

BY USING


[Illustration: _Aseptifume_ TRADE MARK REGISTERED]

=You will Secure their Confidence and make Sure of their Continued
Patronage because your place will be Clean.=

[Illustration]

Aseptifume is used for Purifying the Air and Destroying Obnoxious Odors
in Hide Rooms, Rendering Rooms, Slaughter Houses, and many other places.

It can be used in Refrigerators, Fruit and Vegetable Cellars, etc., by
removing all Food Products and then Burning Aseptifume in them.

This method of Using Aseptifume will put Food-Storage Places in better
and more Wholesome Condition.

Left over-night in a sealed room, it kills flies and all other insects
there and destroys objectionable odors.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



[Illustration]

BULL-MEAT-BRAND FLOUR

Highly Recommended as a Sausage Binder and Meat Juice Absorbent


Sausage makers who have made a test of Bull-Meat-Brand Flour say that
it is a most satisfactory Blender, Binder and Absorbent for Bologna,
Frankfurts, Pork Sausage, etc.

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour is a Pure Cereal Product made from the Glutinous
parts of selected grain and contains no adulterants of any kind.
It possesses those absorbing and binding qualities which make it
especially adapted for use in sausage making. It adds to the nutritive
qualities of the sausage through its tendency to absorb and retain the
meat juices and fats. This makes the sausage more juicy and appetizing.

[Illustration: BULL-MEAT-BRAND Flour]

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour does not dry out nor become lumpy, but blends
with the meat and fat when used according to our directions.

Bull-Meat-Brand Flour complies with the requirements of the Pure Food
Laws. Being a wholesome and nutritious article of food in itself, it
improves the sausage in flavor by holding the juices in the sausage.
Our guarantee is attached to every package of Bull-Meat-Brand Flour
leaving our factory.

  =Prices on Application=



Don’t Envy the Successful Sausage Maker

But Make Your Sausage Equal Any In Flavor

BY USING OUR

PREPARED SAUSAGE SEASONINGS

Be A Successful Sausage Maker Yourself

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED


[Illustration]

In order to make Fine Sausage the Sausage Maker must use Fine
Seasonings. It pays to use the very best Seasonings that can be
obtained.

Zanzibar-Brand Prepared Sausage Seasonings are made from carefully
tested and selected spices and herbs. Their use gives to Sausage a
delicious and appetizing flavor. The pleasing aroma arising from
cooked Sausage containing these Seasonings adds zest to the appetite.
Zanzibar-Brand Sausage Seasonings are 100% Spices and Herbs.

There are so called sausage seasonings on the market which contain 40%
to 50% bread crumbs. Buy the all seasoning kind (Zanzibar-Brand) and be
safe.

Our Zanzibar-Brand Sausage Seasonings cost a little more than the
ordinary kind, but they are Guaranteed to be All Spice and Free from
Adulteration.

The Formulas from which the Zanzibar-Brand Sausage Seasonings are made
are old Secret Formulas the property of B. Heller & Co. These Formulas
have been used in past generations in the Heller Family, and also by
Mr. Adolph Heller, while in the Packing and Sausage Business. The added
Perfection of these Formulas has been brought about through the twenty
years of B. Heller & Co’s experience as Experts and Consulting Packing
House Chemists.

Zanzibar-Brand Prepared Sausage Seasonings impart a Fine Flavor as well
as a Delicious Aroma to all kinds of Sausage. The ingredients used
in the Zanzibar-Brand Seasonings are Pure, and of High Quality. The
combinations impart to Sausage a Zestful and Piquant Flavor entirely
their own, which is very Delicious and Appetizing and one which is
exceedingly pleasing. Zanzibar-Brand Seasonings will help increase
anyone’s Sausage Trade wherever used, because the Sausage Flavored with
these Seasonings will have such a Fine Flavor as well as an Appetizing
Aroma.

Owing to the Zanzibar-Brand Seasonings being Free from Adulterations,
and of High Quality, it is necessary to use only one-half as much
of the Zanzibar-Brand Seasonings as of diluted and adulterated
prepared Seasonings or Spices. It, therefore, can be seen that our
Zanzibar-Brand Seasonings are Cheaper owing to the small amount
required to give the Sausage the Desired Flavor. Any Sausage Maker who
will try these Seasonings will always use them, not only because they
give such a Delicious Flavor to the Sausage, but also owing to the
economy in their use.

Following are the principal seasonings we put up, used by some of the
most celebrated sausage makers:

  Pork Sausage Seasoning, without Sage
  Pork Sausage Seasoning, with Sage
  Bologna, Smoked Sausage Seasoning
  Frankfurt and Wiener Sausage Seas’ng
  Liver, Blood, Head Cheese Seasoning
  Swedish Style Sausage Seasoning
  Polish Style Sausage Seasoning
  Summer Sausage Seasoning
  Pickled Tongue, Pigs Feet Seasoning
  Corned Beef Seasoning
  Hamburger Seasoning
  Spanish Style Sausage Seasoning
  Chile Powder, Zanzibar-Brand

They are put up in cans of 10, 25, 50 and 100 pounds and in barrels of
300 pounds.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



B. HELLER & CO’S ZANZIBAR-BRAND CHILE POWDER

Keep Up Quality and Get the Business by Using Our Chile Powder

A Flavor for Spanish Style Dishes


[Illustration]

A Fine Flavoring for Chile Con Carne, Chile Loaves, Tamales, Salads,
Chorizos, etc.

Zanzibar-Brand Chile Powder is different from the general run of Chile
Powders. It is especially prepared for the flavoring or seasoning of
Mexican or Spanish Style Food Dishes, such as Chile Con Carne, Tamales,
Enchiladas, Chile Loaves, Chorizos, Gravies, Salads and many other
dishes.

When you feel a longing for something good to eat, and cannot express
your desire in words, something that will sharpen appetite and gratify
an unsatisfied craving, try our Chile Powder in one of the dishes above
named, and you will find satisfaction and content.

Put up in cans of various sizes, containing 5, 10, 25, 50, or 100
pounds, and in 225-pound drums.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



B. HELLER & CO’S ZANZIBAR-BRAND SAVORY JELL-JELL

Produces a Delicious Jell for Filling in Meat Preparations


[Illustration]

For use in Meat Pies, Meat Loaves, Head Cheese, Souse, Jellied Pigs
Feet, or any Meat Food Products where it is desired to have a nice
jellied appearance when cold.

The flavors of the spices and aromatics used to produce Savory
Jell-Jell are so thoroughly combined during our process of manufacture
that no particular flavor is predominant. The flavors are evenly
balanced and blended.

Use Savory Jell-Jell to fill Meat Pies, mix in with the Meat Loaves
before baking and as a Jell Binder and Flavoring in Head Cheese.

  The Flavor of Savory Jell-Jell Can Not be produced
  by a Mixture of Spices

  =Prices on Application=



[Illustration]

B. HELLER & CO’S ZANZIBAR-BRAND CELERY-ZEST


Zanzibar-Brand Celery-Zest is a combination of Celery and other
condiments. It is finely pulverized, and therefore mixes readily and
uniformly with articles of food in which it is used, giving them a
Delicious Celery Flavor without salt.

Zanzibar-Brand Celery-Zest possesses all the flavoring qualities of
the finest fresh celery, and has the advantage of being available for
use at all seasons of the year. It is always ready for use and does
not spoil. It is unsurpassed for flavoring Meat Loaves, Sausages, and
dishes prepared for delicatessen stores, using Celery-Zest for its
spicy celery aroma. It has a distinctive flavor which will increase the
business of any one using it.

It imparts an appetizing, zestful flavor like that obtained from fresh
celery. It is free from salt therefore does not make articles in which
it is used salty.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



B. HELLER & CO’S VACUUM-BRAND GARLIC COMPOUND (GARLIC AND CEREAL)

An Appetizing Flavor for High Grade Foods


[Illustration]

Vacuum-Brand Garlic Compound is a powder made from Selected Fresh
Garlic. The Fresh Garlic is Dried, Evaporated, Powdered and Combined
with Cereal to retain the essential flavoring principle by a Special
Process of our own. Our method of preparing Vacuum-Brand Garlic
Compound holds the Delicious Flavoring Properties of the Fresh Garlic
in a manner that permits their being easily and thoroughly mingled with
the foods to be flavored. Vacuum-Brand Garlic Compound is Excellent
as a Flavoring for Bologna and Frankfurt Sausage, Corned Beef, Chile
Sauce, etc.

It is put up in cans of various sizes, containing 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and
100 pounds; also in barrels containing 250 pounds.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



B. HELLER & CO’S VACUUM-BRAND Pure Garlic Powder


[Illustration]

This is the Pure Garlic with the moisture extracted and then finely
powdered.

Available and ready for use at all times in any climate; unvarying in
its strength, goes farthest, and most economical in use.

Its powder form admits of a more even distribution.

=Vacuum-Brand Pure Garlic Powder= is suitable for Meats, Sausages, Meat
Loaves, and other food products.

This Garlic is recommended for use in Sausage and other food products
in which no cereal is used. In foods where cereals are used the Garlic
Compound is the best and cheapest to use.

We guarantee Vacuum-Brand Garlic Powder to comply with the National and
State Pure Food Laws, and our guarantee is affixed to each package.

It is put up in cans of various sizes, containing 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and
100 pounds; also, in barrels containing 250 pounds.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



ZANZIBAR-CARBON

CERTIFIED CASING BROWN COLOR

Zanzibar-Carbon Certified Casing Brown Color Gives Sausage Casings an
Appetizing Smoke Shade Color.

[Illustration]


Zanzibar-Carbon Brand Certified Casing Brown Color is a Harmless Color.
Each batch is tested and passed as permissible and as harmless by
the United States Department of Agriculture, before being shipped by
us and it is therefore legal to use under the rulings of the Federal
Meat Inspection Law and may be used under the Government rules in
Packing Houses and Sausage Factories having United States Government
Inspection. (See guarantee on page 271.)

This Color gives the Sausage Casings an Appetizing, Attractive
Appearance. It should be used by all sausage manufacturers because it
is a Harmless Color, and perfectly safe to use. It is Guaranteed to
give satisfaction when our directions are followed.

  B. HELLER & CO.

Zanzibar-Carbon Casing-Brown saves time and shrinkage--saves the
juices, flavor, and appearance of sausage by cutting down the time
needed for smoking. It does not color the water when the customer
re-cooks the sausage.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



B. HELLER & CO’S ZANZIBAR-CARBON-BRAND Color for Liver Sausage Casings


[Illustration]

  ZANZIBAR-CARBON-BRAND CASING YELLOW
  MIXTURE GIVES TO LIVER SAUSAGE CASINGS
  THAT APPETIZING YELLOW COLOR

Zanzibar-Carbon-Brand Casing Yellow Mixture is used for the purpose of
giving Liver Sausage Casings an Attractive Light Smoke Shade Color; an
appearance that is so greatly desired by makers of Smoked Liver Sausage.

Casing Yellow Mixture should be used by all progressive Sausage Makers
as a great help in building business.

Zanzibar-Carbon-Brand Casing Yellow Mixture is a Harmless, Yellow Smoke
Shade Color. Each batch is tested and passed as permissible by the
United States Department of Agriculture before it is shipped by us. It
is legal to use under the Federal Meat Inspection Law, and may be used
in Packing Houses and Sausage Factories having United States Government
Inspection when used according to the rulings. (See guarantee on page
271)

Both the Liver Sausage Casing-Color and the Smoked Sausage Casing-Color
are put up in cans of various sizes, containing 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and
100 pounds.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



OUR GUARANTY


We hereby Guarantee that Zanzibar-Carbon-Brand Colors are Harmless,
as the only Coloring Matters used are Certified Colors, which are
permitted to be used by the United States Government. By this we mean
that a sample of each batch of Zanzibar-Carbon Brand Casing Mixtures
has first been submitted to the United States Government at Washington,
D. C., to be tested and be passed on as permissible before any of it is
shipped by us. The Government gives us a certificate number for each
lot. The numbers and our Guarantee are on each can. It is therefore
legal to use these Colors under the Government rulings in United States
Government Inspected Packing Houses for Coloring Sausage Casings.

[Illustration: ZANZIBAR CARBON

REGISTERED TRADE MARK

B. HELLER & CO. CHEMISTS CHICAGO. U.S.A.]

The genuine ZANZIBAR-CARBON-BRAND CASING BROWN and Casing YELLOW
mixtures are sold in cans only, and not in bulk. Every can is sealed
with a lead seal. The following is a facsimile of the seal we use for
sealing all these cans.

[Illustration: SEALED

Showing one side of lead seal]

[Illustration: B.H. & CO. CHGO. U.S.A.

Showing other side of lead seal]



$1000.^{00} GUARANTEED WINDOW CLEANER

[Reg. U. S. Pat. Off]


[Illustration]

$1000.00 Guaranteed Window Cleaner quickly and with little effort
removes dust, Soot and Stains from Windows, Skylights, etc. Regardless
of how long standing the accumulations may be, they quickly yield under
an application of $1000.00 Guaranteed Window Cleaner. Also unexcelled
for Cleaning Show Cases, Mirrors, Picture Glass, and Table Glassware.

Contains no grit, acids or other injurious substances. Will not
irritate or injure the hands. In fact, it is unexcelled for cleaning
and polishing Cut Glass. Recommended for cleaning and polishing eye
glasses.

Its use admits more and better light, promoting the efficiency of
workers, and saving artificial light. It makes it possible to show
goods off to better advantage through windows, and to maintain a
sanitary appearance where it counts for the most: namely, at the
windows, show-cases and sky-lights.

It does the work quicker and better, leaving no unsightly streaks,
smears, or film, and leaves a sparklingly clean, polished surface which
does not so readily soil again.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



MALABOZA BRAND

Pure Food Casing Color

(Liquid)


[Illustration]

Malaboza Brand Pure Food Casing Color is used to color the outside of
smoked sausage casings. It imparts to the casing a beautiful, rich
smoke-shade color that is most pleasing. Sausages need only a light
smoke when this color is used on the casings; this means less shrinkage
and an inviting, appetizing appearance that is conducive to largely
increased trade.

Malaboza Brand Pure Food Casing Color does not contain any coal tar or
aniline colors. It complies fully with the Pure Food Laws and may be
used with every confidence.

Packed in Steel Drums with faucet, as above illustrated.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



MALABOZA BRAND

PURE FOOD FISH COLOR

(Liquid)


[Illustration]

Malaboza Brand Pure Food Fish Color is a purely Vegetable Color
satisfactory in every way, for coloring Fish. It imparts a beautiful,
rich smoke shade to the Fish, improving their appearance and increasing
their salability.

It is economical, complies with Pure Food Laws and may be used with
confidence. Packers of Smoked Fish will find Malaboza Brand Pure Food
Fish Color indispensable.

Packed in Steel Drums as above illustrated.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



A STEADY, UNIFORM DEGREE OF TEMPERATURE IS VITALLY NECESSARY IN GETTING
GOOD RESULTS IN BOILING MEATS

Eliminate All Guesswork By Using Our

COOKING THERMOMETERS

FOR MEAT PACKERS, SAUSAGE MAKERS AND BUTCHERS


[Illustration]

This Cooking Thermometer is one especially designed and adapted for use
when cooking Bologna, Frankfurts, Hams, etc. It is well protected and
the scale is in large, plain figures easy to read. It is 18 inches long.

To produce perfect results an accurate Cooking Thermometer is necessary
so that the temperature can be kept at the proper degree when cooking
Bologna, Hams, etc. A card accompanies each one of these Thermometers,
giving full instructions for cooking meats and sausage of all kinds.

It is of accurate register, durable in construction, of proper
proportions, and practical and convenient in design. Its range is in
the neighborhood of 20 to 230° F.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



B. HELLER & CO’S STANDARD 100° HYDROMETERS SALOMETERS For Testing the
Strength of Brine


[Illustration]

The accurate way to determine the strength of brine is by the use of
a reliable Hydrometer, The “Heller” Hydrometer has certain features
that makes it especially desirable for this purpose. It is extremely
convenient to use, as it contains a special scale printed right
alongside the degree scale, which shows the proper strength of brine
for curing each kind, or piece, of meat. This is a special feature in
the “Heller” Hydrometer and the scale has been registered by B. Heller
& Co.

[Illustration]

Another valuable feature of the “Heller” Hydrometer is its accuracy.
These Hydrometers are all carefully tested in our Laboratories before
being shipped out, and our certificate of correctness is affixed to
each instrument. It is as important to know that the Hydrometer is
correct as it is to have one at all, therefore, the curer of meats
should be sure that he uses only Hydrometers that are accurate.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



You Can Obtain Top Prices for Your Lard if It Grades High

Use B. HELLER & CO’S LARD AND TALLOW PURIFIER


[Illustration]

Our Lard and Tallow Purifier will be found an excellent medium for
Purifying Lard and Tallow. By its use Lard and Tallow are improved.

Our Lard and Tallow Purifier is permitted to be used in Government
Inspected Packing Houses and is guaranteed to comply with the
requirements.

It saves its cost many times, and may be used in any method of
rendering, with or without a settling tank and agitator. It tends to
prevent rancidity in warm weather.

The one-pound cartons are packed in lots of 15, 25, 50, and 100 pounds.
In bulk, it is packed in half-barrels of 275 pounds and in barrels of
500 pounds.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



[Illustration: HOG-SCALD]

HELPS REMOVE THE DIRT AND THEREFORE WHITENS THE SKIN OF THE HOGS

Hog-Scald softens the scalding water and aids in loosening and removing
the hair; it also helps to remove the dirt and cleanse the skin of the
hog.


Hog-Scald is a time and money saver. The small quantity required and
its moderate cost is so little compared with the advantages obtained
that every one slaughtering hogs should use it.

It prevents the souring of hog carcasses from remaining too long in the
scalding water, as Hog-Scald reduces the time needed for scalding. It
is very successfully used also in cleaning chickens.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



B. HELLER & CO’S TANALINE A POWDER FOR TANNING SKINS INTO FURS


[Illustration]

MAKE EASY MONEY TANNING SKINS INTO VALUABLE FURS AND RUGS

Tanaline is a product for Tanning Skins of all kinds of animals. The
man that desires to tan a few skins at a time, will find Tanaline
convenient and dependable. Each package of Tanaline contains enough of
this Tanaline Powder for tanning fifty pounds of skins.

The method of using Tanaline is simple. Anyone can do satisfactory work
with it. Soft, Pliable Furs and Rugs can be made from the skins of all
kinds of animals with a small amount of work.

Each package of Tanaline contains enough for tanning 50 pounds of
skins. Whether for pleasure or profit, Tanaline turns out perfect work.
Full directions on each package.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



HELLER’S SANITARY FLUID

(A Liquid Disinfectant)


[Illustration]

Heller’s Sanitary Fluid is a most effective Disinfectant, Germicide
and Deodorizer. It prevents disease by destroying disease germs and
its regular use will keep places in a sanitary, healthful and sweet
smelling condition.

It is a liquid that can be sprayed lightly over the floors, etc., or it
may be used in the scrubbing water. It is a powerful deodorizer that
will remove odors from cuspidors, urinals, closets, refuse and garbage
cans. It is very economical to use because one gallon will make 75
gallons of a strong disinfecting solution.

The public appreciates cleanliness and pure air where food-stuffs are
prepared. Heller’s Sanitary Fluid is put up in 1-gallon cans, and
should be used by all packers and sausage makers.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



WHITE SWAN WASHING POWDER


[Illustration]

=_No Future Orders or Contracts of any kind will be accepted._=

White Swan Washing Powder is both a Cleaner and a Purifier. It should
be used freely as a sanitary precaution. Every place where articles of
food are kept should be carefully and thoroughly cleansed with this
preparation so that they may be kept in a clean, wholesome condition,
thereby preventing decay and disease.

Packers, Butchers, Bottlers, Dairymen and Ice Cream Manufacturers will
find this a very satisfactory and economical preparation for washing
anything that is more or less greasy. It cuts the grease and dirt and
leaves no smeary, greasy film on utensils washed with it as ordinary
washing powders do.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



CLEANLINESS IS HEALTH INSURANCE

B. HELLER & CO’S

  TRADE-MARK      OZO      REGISTERED

WASHING POWDER


[Illustration]

A Valuable Preparation for Cleansing, Washing and Scrubbing. Especially
recommended for use around Packing Houses, Meat Markets, Slaughter
Houses, Sausage Kitchens, etc. It is a very satisfactory Cleansing
Agent.

Every place where Food Products are to be stored should be carefully
and thoroughly cleansed. Packers, Sausage Makers, Butchers, Grocerymen
and all others interested in a reliable cleansing material will find
Ozo a superior preparation.

It cuts grease and lathers well; saves work and energy. It is put up in
3-pound packages, packed 18 or 36 packages to the case; in bulk, 300
pounds in the barrel.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



OZO

(TRADE MARK)

SKY-LIGHT CLEANER

_Cleans Sky-Lights_


[Illustration]

=Ozo Sky-Light Cleaner= is a scientific compound especially prepared
for easily and quickly removing soot and dirt from sky-lights. It works
quickly, dissolving the scale and slime, and producing a new-like
lustre to the glass of the sky-light.

=Ozo Sky-Light Cleaner= keeps sky-lights cleaned and polished. There is
no longer any excuse for working or living in darkened rooms because
of dirty sky-lights. =Ozo Sky-Light Cleaner= will let the sunlight
penetrate into the remotest corners of rooms which have heretofore been
dark because of filthy sky-lights.

=Ozo Sky-Light Cleaner= contains no acids to injure the hands. A single
trial will prove its wonderful effectiveness in cleaning sky-lights.

  Packed in convenient containers

  =OUR GUARANTY=

  =Ozo Sky-Light Cleaner is Guaranteed to give
  Absolute Satisfaction or money refunded=



$1000.00 GUARANTEED

OZO TOILET CLEANER

Removes Unsightly Stains, Incrustations, Etc. From Closet Bowls


[Illustration]

$1000.00 Guaranteed Ozo Toilet Cleaner should be used regularly once
or twice a week to keep closet bowls clean. It will prevent unsightly
stains and the accumulation of rusty-looking incrustations.

$1000.00 Guaranteed Ozo Toilet Cleaner is a preparation intended solely
for use in Toilet Bowls. It removes stains, incrustations, etc., and
when used regularly will keep the bowl looking clean and white.

$1000.00 Guaranteed Ozo Toilet Cleaner is of special value in removing
long-standing stains and accumulated incrustations. It does its work
quickly, easily and without injury.

$1000.00 Guaranteed Ozo Toilet Cleaner is easy to use--just pour from
the can into the bowl.


_DIRECTIONS_

Pull chain, completely wetting sides of bowl. Dust $1000.00 Guaranteed
Ozo Toilet Cleaner over the entire inside and into water. Let stand
a few minutes. Rub off discoloration with a rag tied to a stick, or
closet bowl brush. Then flush bowl.

When discoloration is of long standing repeat operation, letting
$1000.00 Guaranteed Ozo Toilet Cleaner remain in bowl 20 or 25 minutes.
Accumulated incrustations and long-standing stains can be removed by
sprinkling $1000.00 Guaranteed Ozo Toilet Cleaner freely into the bowl
and letting it stand over night.

[Illustration: “It Reaches The Unseen Trap”]

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



Something to Think About!

Saving in Plumbers Bills!

THE USE OF $1000.00 GUARANTEED OZO WASTE PIPE OPENER IS A REAL ECONOMY

Useful Wherever There Are Waste Pipes


[Illustration]

$1000.00 Guaranteed Ozo Waste Pipe Opener dissolves scum and grease
in stopped up Sinks, Ice Box Pipes, Sewers, Water Closets, Etc. Its
use will open up a drain pipe in a few minutes. In districts where the
water is hard or places where the pipes clog up easily, all the pipes
should be flushed regularly once a month with $1000.00 Guaranteed Ozo
Waste Pipe Opener. It will not affect any of the metal or enamel ware
used in plumbing.

It is also excellent for dissolving scale in radiators and in cylinder
water jackets of automobiles and gas engines.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



ROYAL METAL POLISH

(TRADE-MARK REGISTERED)

(A POWDER)

Makes Metal Polishing Easy


[Illustration]

This Polish is especially prepared for use on Brass, Copper, German
Silver, Zinc, Tin, etc. It is easy to use and quickly removes dirt,
tarnish, etc. In Hotels, Restaurants and other places where a powder is
frequently preferred and a large quantity of metal must be kept looking
bright, it is especially suitable. A single trial will convince any one
that it is a very superior powdered polish.

It is free of oil, grit, and other injurious substances, and it will
not scratch or otherwise injure. It is very economical to use and works
perfectly.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



$1000.00 Guaranteed


[Illustration]

Silver Polish

For Household and Silversmiths’ Use.

=$1000.00 Guaranteed Silver Polish= gives to gold, silver, plated
ware, nickel; cut glass, etc., upon which it is used, a bright,
mirror-like finish that is most pleasing. It contains no oil, grit or
acids to injure the hands or the finest of precious metals. It is of
imperceptible fineness and soft as velvet. Without exception the finest
polish of its kind made.

For polishing the metal trimmings on show cases, refrigerators, ice
boxes, etc., $1000.00 Guaranteed Silver Polish is especially useful. It
does its work quickly, easily and without scratching.

  =$1000.00 Guaranteed Silver Polish is guaranteed to please.=

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



$1000.00 GUARANTEED

Golden Gloss Shine


[Illustration]

A Liquid Polish for Nickel, Aluminum, Brass, Copper, Steel, Glass, Etc.

Hot or Cold

Makes Metal Polishing Easy

=$1000.00 Guaranteed Golden Gloss Shine= gives a wonderful golden gloss
shine to brass and copper. It is easily applied and works quickly--use
one cloth to apply and another to rub off.

Automobile owners and others who have much brass or copper work to
be cleaned and polished will be delighted with =$1000.00 Guaranteed
Golden Gloss Shine=. The work of cleaning and polishing utensils is
quickly and satisfactorily done, thus lightening the work of the user.
=$1000.00 Guaranteed Golden Gloss Shine= makes polishing a pleasure.
Free from acids that injure the hands. Guaranteed to give satisfaction.
In thick liquid form, does not settle.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



ROYAL MARBLE CLEANER

Preparation for Cleaning and Renewing Marble


[Illustration]

Royal Marble Cleaner quickly removes all stains, grease and scum from
Marble, Porcelain and Enameled Basins, Bath Tubs, Sinks, Tiling, etc.,
and revives in them their natural appearance. It is not gritty and will
not scratch or injure the finest surface. In those localities where the
water contains iron, sulphur, etc., stains are produced in the basins,
tubs, etc., which can easily be removed with this cleaner.

Butchers and Packers will find Royal Marble Cleaner indispensable
in cleaning the linings of Refrigerators, Ice Boxes, etc. It cleans
quickly, easily and satisfactorily.

Royal Marble Cleaner is in powder form, easily applied directly from
the sifter-top can. It does not injure the hands.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



$1000.00 GUARANTEED

ENAMEL CLEANER

For Use on Enamel and Porcelain Ware


[Illustration]

Enameled or Porcelain Sinks, Wash Bowls, Bath Tubs, etc., are made
unsightly and frequently ruined because of repeated cleaning with
substances that injure the beautiful glazing.

This cleaner is especially prepared to easily and quickly clean Enamel
and Porcelain without injury. It does not eat holes in the surface,
contains no acids to injure the hands or attack the composition of
Enamel.

Old stains, discolorations, mineral stains, such as iron, sulphur,
etc., which so quickly spoil the beauty of Enamel and Porcelain, yield
readily to the action of this cleaner.

Enamel and Porcelain need never have that stained, dirty, bluish
appearance, when all you really need is to use this preparation to keep
it looking clean.


  =$1000.00 GUARANTEED ENAMEL CLEANER DOES
  THE WORK EASILY, QUICKLY AND WITHOUT INJURY=

DIRECTIONS

Dust powder over surface to be cleaned. Wet cleaning cloth and rub
well. Then wash surface clean with hot water.

The beauty of the costly glazed tile work in the modern market is gone
and the investment wasted when stains are permitted to remain on such
surfaces. Immaculate cleanliness is the first thing demanded of the
market.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



[Illustration]

$1000.00 GUARANTEED

AUTO-GLO

A BODY POLISH FOR USE ON ALL HIGHLY FINISHED SURFACES


$1000.00 Guaranteed Auto-Glo is a superior polish for Automobile
Bodies, Fine Furniture, and all highly finished surfaces. It quickly
produces with very little effort, a lasting, glowing polish.

$1000.00 Guaranteed Auto-Glo renews, and adds greatly to the finish. It
works perfectly on Leather or Imitation Leather, Linoleum, Wood Work,
Floors, Etc., as well as Automobile Bodies. Its wonderful cleansing
properties and the brilliant lustre which it so easily produces
distinguishes $1000.00 Guaranteed Auto-Glo from all other polishes. It
is guaranteed to give absolute satisfaction.


DIRECTIONS

Apply freely all over surface to be polished either with a well
saturated soft cloth or sprayer. Then wipe and rub dry with a soft
cheese cloth.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



Here is Something All Butchers Need Has the ‘O. K.’ of Successful
Dealers Everywhere

B. HELLER & CO’S

VARN-I-GLO

(REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.)

A LUSTROUS POLISH FOR ALL KINDS OF FINISHED SURFACES


[Illustration]

VARN-I-GLO gives a Brilliant and Lustrous Polish to all Varnished and
Lacquered Surfaces. It also Cleans these surfaces very thoroughly,
removing Grease, Dirt and Ugly Spots that mar the Beauty of Fine
Furniture.

VARN-I-GLO Burnishes up Old Furniture, Ice Boxes, Counters, etc., in
fact, all Varnished and Lacquered Surfaces. One of the many strong
points of VARN-I-GLO is that it gives a high polish to Finished
Surfaces without leaving a greasy or cloudy after-effect.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



You Can Rid Premises of Roaches

BY USING

_$1000.00 Guaranteed Roach Killer_


[Illustration]

$1000.00 Guaranteed Roach Killer is guaranteed to rid buildings of
Roaches and Water-Bugs when properly applied. This preparation is
the result of thorough research to produce the most effective remedy
against Roaches and Water Bugs.

It is prepared so that Roaches will like it, which insures their eating
it. It is sure to kill the Roaches that eat it, yet it acts so slowly
that the poisoned Roaches linger on for several days before dying,
during which time they carry to their nest and to their young such
Powder as may adhere to their bodies.

This preparation is made perfectly clean, from clean materials. It
may be used in Butcher Shops, Grocery Stores, Restaurants, and in the
Kitchen.

  Write for Lowest Prices



$1000.00 GUARANTEED


[Illustration]

LIQUID BED-BUG KILLER

$1000.00 Guaranteed Liquid Bug Killer is guaranteed to kill Bed-Bugs.
When thoroughly applied it is sure to kill them. This Liquid Bed-Bug
Killer can be sprayed freely into all cracks and crevices. It does
not injure fine fabrics, wall paper, etc. When sprayed freely into
all cracks, in the corners of beds, dresser drawers, etc., and in the
seams and tufts of mattresses where bugs congregate, it does its work
thoroughly.

Liquid Bug Killer gives the best of satisfaction and does exactly as is
claimed for it. One trial will prove how thoroughly it works.

To make the application of Liquid Bug Killer thorough and economical,
an inexpensive special atomizer has been designed with which a
penetrating, fine spray-like mist can be injected into corners, cracks
and crevices.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



[Illustration]

$1000.00 GUARANTEED

ODORLESS

Moth Powder


$1000.00 Guaranteed Odorless Moth Powder is guaranteed to prevent Moths
and Carpet Beetles from destroying Furs or Cloth that have first been
covered with this Moth Powder.

A very objectionable feature with many other moth preparations is their
offensive odor. This odor simply drives the moths away from garments.
It does not destroy their eggs. If the moth eggs are deposited on furs
or cloth and these goods are packed away with these offensive odor moth
preparations, when the eggs hatch out the moths live and still feed
on the furs and woolens, regardless of odor. $1000.00 Guaranteed Moth
Powder has no odor and will not injure or discolor fine furs, woolens,
silks or other goods. It is also very easy to apply. Simply sprinkle it
onto garments that are to be protected rubbing the powder in well with
the hand, so that all parts are fully covered; shake it out or brush it
off when these garments are to be put in use. No airing or sunning is
necessary.

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$1000.00 GUARANTEED ANT-BANE

(A POWDER)


[Illustration]

Of all the insect pests to which a household is subject, none are more
troublesome or more difficult to get rid of than Ants. When once they
have invaded the premises it is almost impossible to get rid of them by
ordinary methods.

$1000.00 Guaranteed Ant-Bane is prepared especially for getting rid of
Ants.

It is a Guaranteed remedy and rids premises of these troublesome
insects.

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$1000.00 GUARANTEED RAT AND MICE KILLER

(IN PASTE FORM)


[Illustration]

Rats and Mice are among the most destructive of all pests, and when
once a building has become infested with them it is a hard task to get
rid of them. They are not only destroyers of food and property, but are
known carriers of disease.

$1000.00 Guaranteed Rat and Mice Killer is prepared expressly as an
effective aid in removing Rats, Mice and other Rodents from butcher
shops, packing houses, etc.

When used according to our directions the results will be satisfactory.

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FOR DIPPING CATTLE AND SHEEP $1000.00 GUARANTEED CATTLE AND SHEEP DIP


[Illustration]

It is effective against ticks and scab on cattle and sheep, against
lice on hogs, and against fleas and mange on dogs.

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$1000.00 GUARANTEED FLY CHASER

ASSISTS IN PROTECTING ANIMALS FROM FLIES, TICKS AND OTHER INSECTS


[Illustration]

$1000.00 Guaranteed Fly Chaser is a preparation for the protection of
animals from Annoyance by Flies, Ticks and other Insects. Used on Milk
Cows it helps to keep Flies Away from them, enabling the Cows to Graze
in Comfort, insuring a Larger Quantity and a Better Quality of Milk.

It rests the work-horse, calms the high strung thoroughbred, and quiets
the milk cow.

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B. HELLER & CO’S.

SPECIAL ATOMIZER

[Illustration: Capacity 1 quart]

For applying Liquid Disinfectants, Germicides, spraying Plants,
Flowers, Etc.


This atomizer is durable and well constructed, and with ordinary care
will last for years. It throws a fine, spray-like mist which penetrates
into corners, cracks and crevices that cannot be reached by ordinary
means. Especially useful for applying Liquid Bed-Bug Killer, Sanitary
Fluid and Zanzibar Fly Chaser. Prevents waste and saves time and money.
Only a few minutes are required to thoroughly spray a room if this
atomizer is used. Hotel Keepers and others who have use for a device of
this kind will find it gives very satisfactory results.

An atomizer is particularly desirable for the use of Liquid Bed-Bug
Killer. See page 294.

  =Write for Special Prices=



[Illustration]

COMBINED WRITING AND COPYING FLUID

ZANZIBAR-BRAND

Flows Readily and Dries Quickly, Leaving a Strong, Permanent, Legible
Blue-Black Color

Zanzibar-Brand Combined Writing and Copying Fluid flows freely and
easily from the pen, does not bead nor drop; penetrates the paper
readily and dries quickly. It produces a rich, deep blue-black color,
making a permanent, readable, lasting record. It does not smear or
smudge from handling, nor fade out by exposure.

It does not clog the most delicate mechanism of complicated fountain
pens.

When the ink dries up in the well, refill with water and it will still
be an intensely black ink.

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[Illustration]

ZANZIBAR-BRAND INDELIBLE INK

For Marking Laundry Work


An Indelible Ink so permanently indelible that its markings could not
be effected even if steeped in concentrated bleach for several hours.
Its deep jet black shade is really deepened by washing, rather than
weakened. It flows smoothly from the pen, dries immediately on the
goods and does not spread through the fibre.



[Illustration]

ZANZIBAR-BRAND INDELIBLE INK ERADICATOR

For Removing Indelible Ink Stains


This Eradicator gives satisfactory results in dissolving and removing
Indelible Ink Stains and marks made with Zanzibar-Brand Indelible Ink.
Its use is insurance against loss caused by ink stains on the laundry
work due to accident or careless handling of the marking ink. It should
be kept on hand for these emergencies. This Eradicator will not injure
the most delicate colors or fabrics.

  =Write for Lowest Prices=



[Illustration: THEY IMITATE

B. HELLER

& CO’S.

GOODS

IN NAME AND PACKAGE

WHY

?]


[Transcriber’s Note:

Obvious printer errors corrected silently.

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation are as in the original.]





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