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Title: Hobson-Jobson - A glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, - and of Kindred terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical - and Discursive
Author: Yule, Henry, Sir, Burnell, Arthur Coke
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's note: Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).
Text preceded by a caret ^ is superscript.

The printed book contains over 300 minor typographical errors, many (but
not all) in the citations: these have NOT been attempted to be corrected.

       *       *       *       *       *



A GLOSSARY

OF

ANGLO-INDIAN COLLOQUIAL

WORDS AND PHRASES

AND OF

KINDRED TERMS

  ["Wee have forbidden the severall Factoryes from wrighting words in this
  languadge and refrayned itt our selves, though in bookes of coppies we
  feare there are many which by wante of tyme for perusall we cannot
  rectefie or expresse."—Surat Factors to Court, Feb. 26, 1617: I. O.
  Records: O. C. No. 450. (Evidently the Court had complained of a growing
  use of "Hobson-Jobsons.")]

----

  "Οὐδὲ γὰρ πάντως τὴν αὐτήν διασώζει διάνοιαν μεθερμηνευόμενα τὰ ὀνόματα
  ἀλλ' ἔστι τινὰ, καὶ καθ' ἕκαστον ἔθνος ἰδιώματα ἀδύνατα εἰς ἄλλο ἔθνος
  διὰ φωνῆς σημαίνεσθαι"—IAMBLICHUS, _De Mysteriis_, vii. cap. v.

  _i.e._ "For it is by no means always the case that translated terms
  preserve the original conception; indeed every nation has some idiomatic
  expressions which it is impossible to render perfectly in the language of
  another."

----

  "As well may we fetch words from the _Ethiopians_, or East or West
  _Indians_, and thrust them into our Language, and baptize all by the name
  of _English_, as those which we daily take from the _Latine_ or Languages
  thereon depending; and hence it cometh, (as by often experience is found)
  that some _English-men_ discoursing together, others being present of our
  own Nation ... are not able to understand what the others say,
  notwithstanding they call it _English_ that they speak."—R. V(ERSTEGAN),
  _Restitution of Decayed Intelligence_, ed. 1673, p. 223.

----

 "Utque novis facilis signatur cera figuris,
  Nec manet ut fuerat, nec formas servat easdem,
  Sed tamen ipsa eadem est; VOCEM sic semper eandem
  Esse, sed in varias doceo migrare figuras."
        _Ovid. Metamorph._ xv. 169-172 (adapt.).

----

  "... _Take this as a good fare-well draught of_ English-Indian
  _liquor_."—PURCHAS, _To the Reader_ (_before_ Terry's Relation of East
  India), ii. 1463 (misprinted 1464).

----

  "Nec dubitamus multa esse quae et nos praeterierint. Homines enim sumus,
  et occupati officiis; subsicivisque temporibus ista curamus."—C. PLINII
  SECUNDI, _Hist. Nat. Praefatio, ad Vespasianum_.

----

 "Haec, si displicui, fuerint solatia nobis:
      Haec fuerint nobis praemia, si placui."
         MARTIALIS, _Epigr._ II. xci.



HOBSON-JOBSON

A GLOSSARY OF COLLOQUIAL
ANGLO-INDIAN WORDS AND
PHRASES, AND OF KINDRED
TERMS, ETYMOLOGICAL, HISTORICAL,
GEOGRAPHICAL AND
DISCURSIVE

BY COL. HENRY YULE, R.E., C.B.
AND A. C. BURNELL, PH.D., C.I.E.

NEW EDITION EDITED BY

WILLIAM CROOKE, B.A.

LONDON
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET
1903



[_Dedication to Sir George Udny Yule, C.B., K.C.S.I._]

G. U. Y.

FRATRI OPTIMO DILECTISSIMO
AMICO JUCUNDISSIMO
HOC TRIUM FERME LUSTRORUM
OBLECTAMENTUM ET SOLATIUM
NEC PARVI LABORIS OPUS
ABSOLUTUM TANDEM
SENEX SENI
DEDICAT

H. Y.

PREFACE.


The objects and scope of this work are explained in the Introductory
Remarks which follow the Preface. Here it is desired to say a few words as
to its history.

The book originated in a correspondence between the present writer, who was
living at Palermo, and the late lamented ARTHUR BURNELL, of the Madras
Civil Service, one of the most eminent of modern Indian scholars, who
during the course of our communications was filling judicial offices in
Southern and Western India, chiefly at Tanjore. We had then met only
once—at the India Library; but he took a kindly interest in work that
engaged me, and this led to an exchange of letters, which went on after his
return to India. About 1872—I cannot find his earliest reference to the
subject—he mentioned that he was contemplating a vocabulary of Anglo-Indian
words, and had made some collections with that view. In reply it was stated
that I likewise had long been taking note of such words, and that a notion
similar to his own had also been at various times floating in my mind. And
I proposed that we should combine our labours.

I had not, in fact, the linguistic acquirements needful for carrying
through such an undertaking alone; but I had gone through an amount of
reading that would largely help in instances and illustrations, and had
also a strong natural taste for the kind of work.

This was the beginning of the portly double-columned edifice which now
presents itself, the completion of which my friend has not lived to see. It
was built up from our joint contributions till his untimely death in 1882,
and since then almost daily additions have continued to be made to the
material and to the structure. The subject, indeed, had taken so
comprehensive a shape, that it was becoming difficult to say where its
limits lay, or why it should ever end, except for the old reason which had
received such poignant illustration: _Ars longa, vita brevis_. And so it
has been wound up at last.

The work has been so long the companion of my _horae subsicivae_, a thread
running through the joys and sorrows of so many years, in the search for
material first, and then in their handling and adjustment to the
edifice—for their careful building up has been part of my duty from the
beginning, and the whole of the matter has, I suppose, been written and
re-written with my own hand at least four times—and the work has been one
of so much interest to dear friends, of whom not a few are no longer here
to welcome its appearance in print,[1] that I can hardly speak of the work
except as mine.

Indeed, in bulk, nearly seven-eighths of it is so. But BURNELL contributed
so much of value, so much of the essential; buying, in the search for
illustration, numerous rare and costly books which were not otherwise
accessible to him in India; setting me, by his example, on lines of
research with which I should have else possibly remained unacquainted;
writing letters with such fulness, frequency, and interest on the details
of the work up to the summer of his death; that the measure of bulk in
contribution is no gauge of his share in the result.

In the _Life of Frank Buckland_ occur some words in relation to the
church-bells of Ross, in Herefordshire, which may with some aptness
illustrate our mutual relation to the book:

  "It is said that the Man of Ross" (John Kyrle) "was present at the
  casting of the tenor, or great bell, and that he took with him an old
  silver tankard, which, after drinking claret and sherry, he threw in, and
  had cast with the bell."

John Kyrle's was the most precious part of the metal run into the mould,
but the shaping of the mould and the larger part of the material came from
the labour of another hand.

At an early period of our joint work BURNELL sent me a fragment of an essay
on the words which formed our subject, intended as the basis of an
introduction. As it stands, this is too incomplete to print, but I have
made use of it to some extent, and given some extracts from it in the
Introduction now put forward.[2]

The alternative title (_Hobson-Jobson_) which has been given to this book
(not without the expressed assent of my collaborator), doubtless requires
explanation.

A valued friend of the present writer many years ago published a book, of
great acumen and considerable originality, which he called _Three Essays_,
with no Author's name; and the resulting amount of circulation was such as
might have been expected. It was remarked at the time by another friend
that if the volume had been entitled _A Book, by a Chap_, it would have
found a much larger body of readers. It seemed to me that _A Glossary_ or
_A Vocabulary_ would be equally unattractive, and that it ought to have an
alternative title at least a little more characteristic. If the reader will
turn to _Hobson-Jobson_ in the Glossary itself, he will find that phrase,
though now rare and moribund, to be a typical and delightful example of
that class of Anglo-Indian _argot_ which consists of Oriental words highly
assimilated, perhaps by vulgar lips, to the English vernacular; whilst it
is the more fitted to our book, conveying, as it may, a veiled intimation
of dual authorship. At any rate, there it is; and at this period my feeling
has come to be that such _is_ the book's name, nor could it well have been
anything else.

In carrying through the work I have sought to supplement my own
deficiencies from the most competent sources to which friendship afforded
access. Sir JOSEPH HOOKER has most kindly examined almost every one of the
proof-sheets for articles dealing with plants, correcting their errors, and
enriching them with notes of his own. Another friend, Professor ROBERTSON
SMITH, has done the like for words of Semitic origin, and to him I owe a
variety of interesting references to the words treated of, in regard to
their occurrence, under some cognate form, in the Scriptures. In the early
part of the book the Rev. GEORGE MOULE (now Bishop of Ningpo), then in
England, was good enough to revise those articles which bore on expressions
used in China (not the first time that his generous aid had been given to
work of mine). Among other friends who have been ever ready with assistance
I may mention Dr. REINHOLD ROST, of the India Library; General ROBERT
MACLAGAN, R.E.; Sir GEORGE BIRDWOOD, C.S.I.; Major-General R. H. KEATINGE,
V.C., C.S.I.; Professor TERRIEN DE LA COUPERIE; and Mr. E. COLBORNE BABER,
at present Consul-General in Corea. Dr. J. A. H. MURRAY, editor of the
great English Dictionary, has also been most kind and courteous in the
interchange of communications, a circumstance which will account for a few
cases in which the passages cited in both works are the same.

My first endeavour in preparing this work has been to make it accurate; my
next to make it—even though a Glossary—interesting. In a work intersecting
so many fields, only a fool could imagine that he had not fallen into many
mistakes; but these when pointed out, may be amended. If I have missed the
other object of endeavour, I fear there is little to be hoped for from a
second edition.

  H. YULE.

  _5th January 1886._



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.


The twofold hope expressed in the closing sentence of Sir Henry Yule's
Preface to the original Edition of this book has been amply justified. More
recent research and discoveries have, of course, brought to light a good
deal of information which was not accessible to him, but the general
accuracy of what he wrote has never been seriously impugned—while those who
have studied the pages of _Hobson-Jobson_ have agreed in classing it as
unique among similar works of reference, a volume which combines interest
and amusement with instruction, in a manner which few other Dictionaries,
if any, have done.

In this edition of the _Anglo-Indian Glossary_ the original text has been
reprinted, any additions made by the Editor being marked by square
brackets. No attempt has been made to extend the vocabulary, the new
articles being either such as were accidentally omitted in the first
edition, or a few relating to words which seemed to correspond with the
general scope of the work. Some new quotations have been added, and some of
those included in the original edition have been verified and new
references given. An index to words occurring in the quotations has been
prepared.

I have to acknowledge valuable assistance from many friends. Mr. W. W.
SKEAT has read the articles on Malay words, and has supplied many notes.
Col. Sir R. TEMPLE has permitted me to use several of his papers on
Anglo-Indian words, and has kindly sent me advance sheets of that portion
of the Analytical Index to the first edition by Mr. C. PARTRIDGE, which is
being published in the _Indian Antiquary_. Mr. R. S. WHITEWAY has given me
numerous extracts from Portuguese writers; Mr. W. FOSTER, quotations from
unpublished records in the India Office; Mr. W. IRVINE, notes on the later
Moghul period. For valuable suggestions and information on disputed points
I am indebted to Mr. H. BEVERIDGE, Sir G. BIRDWOOD, Mr. J. BRANDT, Prof. E.
G. BROWNE, Mr. M. LONGWORTH DAMES, Mr. G. R. DAMPIER, Mr. DONALD FERGUSON,
Mr. C. T. GARDNER, the late Mr. E. J. W. GIBB, Prof. H. A. GILES, Dr. G. A.
GRIERSON, Mr. T. M. HORSFALL, Mr. L. W. KING, Mr. J. L. MYRES, Mr. J.
PLATT, jun., Prof. G. U. POPE, Mr. V. A. SMITH, Mr. C. H. TAWNEY, and Mr.
J. WEIR.

  W. CROOKE.

  _14th November 1902._



CONTENTS.


                                                      PAGE
  DEDICATION TO SIR GEORGE YULE, C.B., K.C.S.I.          v

  PREFACE                                              vii

  PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION                             xi

  INTRODUCTORY REMARKS                                  xv
      Note A. to do.                                 xxiii
      Note B.   "                                      xxv

  NOTA BENE—IN THE USE OF THE GLOSSARY—
      (A) Regarding Dates of Quotations               xxvi
      (B) Regarding Transliteration                   xxvi

  FULLER TITLES OF BOOKS QUOTED IN THE GLOSSARY      xxvii

  CORRIGENDA                                        xlviii

  GLOSSARY                                               1

  INDEX                                                987



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.


Words of Indian origin have been insinuating themselves into English ever
since the end of the reign of Elizabeth and the beginning of that of King
James, when such terms as _calico_, _chintz_, and _gingham_ had already
effected a lodgment in English warehouses and shops, and were lying in wait
for entrance into English literature. Such outlandish guests grew more
frequent 120 years ago, when, soon after the middle of last century, the
numbers of Englishmen in the Indian services, civil and military, expanded
with the great acquisition of dominion then made by the Company; and we
meet them in vastly greater abundance now.

Vocabularies of Indian and other foreign words, in use among Europeans in
the East, have not unfrequently been printed. Several of the old travellers
have attached the like to their narratives; whilst the prolonged excitement
created in England, a hundred years since, by the impeachment of Hastings
and kindred matters, led to the publication of several glossaries as
independent works; and a good many others have been published in later
days. At the end of this Introduction will be found a list of those which
have come under my notice, and this might no doubt be largely added to.[3]

Of modern Glossaries, such as have been the result of serious labour, all,
or nearly all, have been of a kind purely technical, intended to facilitate
the comprehension of official documents by the explanation of terms used in
the Revenue department, or in other branches of Indian administration. The
most notable examples are (of brief and occasional character), the Glossary
appended to the famous _Fifth Report_ of the Select Committee of 1812,
which was compiled by Sir Charles Wilkins; and (of a far more vast and
comprehensive sort), the late Professor Horace Hayman Wilson's _Glossary of
Judicial and Revenue Terms_ (4to, 1855) which leaves far behind every other
attempt in that kind.[4]

That kind is, however, not ours, as a momentary comparison of a page or two
in each Glossary would suffice to show. Our work indeed, in the long course
of its compilation, has gone through some modification and enlargement of
scope; but hardly such as in any degree to affect its distinctive
character, in which something has been aimed at differing in form from any
work known to us. In its original conception it was intended to deal with
all that class of words which, not in general pertaining to the
technicalities of administration, recur constantly in the daily intercourse
of the English in India, either as expressing ideas really not provided for
by our mother-tongue, or supposed by the speakers (often quite erroneously)
to express something not capable of just denotation by any English term. A
certain percentage of such words have been carried to England by the
constant reflux to their native shore of Anglo-Indians, who in some degree
imbue with their notions and phraseology the circles from which they had
gone forth. This effect has been still more promoted by the currency of a
vast mass of literature, of all qualities and for all ages, dealing with
Indian subjects; as well as by the regular appearance, for many years past,
of Indian correspondence in English newspapers, insomuch that a
considerable number of the expressions in question have not only become
familiar in sound to English ears, but have become naturalised in the
English language, and are meeting with ample recognition in the great
Dictionary edited by Dr. Murray at Oxford.

Of words that seem to have been admitted to full franchise, we may give
examples in _curry_, _toddy_, _veranda_, _cheroot_, _loot_, _nabob_,
_teapoy_, _sepoy_, _cowry_; and of others familiar enough to the English
ear, though hardly yet received into citizenship, _compound_, _batta_,
_pucka_, _chowry_, _baboo_, _mahout_, _aya_, _nautch_,[5] first-_chop_,
competition-_wallah_, _griffin_, &c. But beyond these two classes of words,
received within the last century or so, and gradually, into half or whole
recognition, there are a good many others, long since fully assimilated,
which really originated in the adoption of an Indian word, or the
modification of an Indian proper name. Such words are the three quoted at
the beginning of these remarks, _chintz_, _calico_, _gingham_, also
_shawl_, _bamboo_, _pagoda_, _typhoon_, _monsoon_, _mandarin_,
_palanquin_,[6] &c., and I may mention among further examples which may
perhaps surprise my readers, the names of three of the boats of a
man-of-war, viz. the _cutter_, the _jolly-boat_, and the _dingy_, as all
(probably) of Indian origin.[7] Even phrases of a different character—slang
indeed, but slang generally supposed to be vernacular as well as
vulgar—_e.g._ 'that is the _cheese_';[7] or supposed to be vernacular and
profane—_e.g._ 'I don't care a _dam_'[7]—are in reality, however vulgar
they may be, neither vernacular nor profane, but phrases turning upon
innocent Hindustani vocables.

We proposed also, in our Glossary, to deal with a _selection_ of those
administrative terms, which are in such familiar and quotidian use as to
form part of the common Anglo-Indian stock, and to trace all (so far as
possible) to their true origin—a matter on which, in regard to many of the
words, those who hourly use them are profoundly ignorant—and to follow them
down by quotation from their earliest occurrence in literature.

A particular class of words are those indigenous terms which have been
adopted in scientific nomenclature, botanical and zoological. On these Mr.
Burnell remarks:—

"The first Indian botanical names were chiefly introduced by Garcia de Orta
(_Colloquios_, printed at Goa in 1563), C. d'Acosta (_Tractado_, Burgos,
1578), and Rhede van Drakenstein (_Hortus Malabaricus_, Amsterdam, 1682).
The Malay names were chiefly introduced by Rumphius (_Herbarium
Amboinense_, completed before 1700, but not published till 1741). The
Indian zoological terms were chiefly due to Dr. F. Buchanan, at the
beginning of this century. Most of the N. Indian botanical words were
introduced by Roxburgh."

It has been already intimated that, as the work proceeded, its scope
expanded somewhat, and its authors found it expedient to introduce and
trace many words of Asiatic origin which have disappeared from colloquial
use, or perhaps never entered it, but which occur in old writers on the
East. We also judged that it would add to the interest of the work, were we
to investigate and make out the pedigree of a variety of geographical names
which are or have been in familiar use in books on the Indies; take as
examples _Bombay_, _Madras_, _Guardafui_, _Malabar_, _Moluccas_,
_Zanzibar_, _Pegu_, _Sumatra_, _Quilon_, _Seychelles_, _Ceylon_, _Java_,
_Ava_, _Japan_, _Doab_, _Punjab_, &c., illustrating these, like every other
class of word, by quotations given in chronological series.

Other divagations still from the original project will probably present
themselves to those who turn over the pages of the work, in which we have
been tempted to introduce sundry subjects which may seem hardly to come
within the scope of such a glossary.

The words with which we have to do, taking the most extensive view of the
field, are in fact organic remains deposited under the various currents of
external influence that have washed the shores of India during twenty
centuries and more. Rejecting that derivation of _elephant_[8] which would
connect it with the Ophir trade of Solomon, we find no existing Western
term traceable to that episode of communication; but the Greek and Roman
commerce of the later centuries has left its fossils on both sides,
testifying to the intercourse that once subsisted. _Agallochum_,
_carbasus_, _camphor_, _sandal_, _musk_, _nard_, _pepper_ (πέπερι, from
Skt. _pippali_, 'long pepper'), _ginger_ (ζιγγίβερις, see under _Ginger_),
_lac_, _costus_, _opal_, _malabathrum_ or _folium indicum_, _beryl_,
_sugar_ (σάκχαρ, from Skt. _sarkara_, Prak. _sakkara_), _rice_ (ὄρυζα, but
see s.v.), were products or names, introduced from India to the Greek and
Roman world, to which may be added a few terms of a different character,
such as Βραχμᾶνες, Σάρμανες (_śramaṇas_, or Buddhist ascetics), ζύλα
σαγαλίνα καὶ σασαμίνα (logs of teak and shīsham), the σάγγαρα (rafts) of
the Periplus (see _Jangar_ in GLOSS.); whilst _dīnāra_, _dramma_, perhaps
_kastīra_ ('tin,' κασσίτερος), _kastūrī_ ('musk,' καστόριον, properly a
different, though analogous animal product), and a very few more, have
remained in Indian literature as testimony to the same intercourse.[9]

The trade and conquests of the Arabs both brought foreign words to India
and picked up and carried westward, in form more or less corrupted, words
of Indian origin, some of which have in one way or other become part of the
heritage of all succeeding foreigners in the East. Among terms which are
familiar items in the Anglo-Indian colloquial, but which had, in some shape
or other, found their way at an early date into use on the shores of the
Mediterranean, we may instance _bazaar_, _cazee_, _hummaul_, _brinjaul_,
_gingely_, _safflower_, _grab_, _maramut_, _dewaun_ (dogana, douane, &c.).
Of others which are found in medieval literature, either West-Asiatic or
European, and which still have a place in Anglo-Indian or English
vocabulary, we may mention _amber_-gris, _chank_, _junk_, _jogy_, _kincob_,
_kedgeree_, _fanam_, _calay_, _bankshall_, _mudiliar_, _tindal_, _cranny_.

The conquests and long occupation of the Portuguese, who by the year 1540
had established themselves in all the chief ports of India and the East,
have, as might have been expected, bequeathed a large number of expressions
to the European nations who have followed, and in great part superseded
them. We find instances of missionaries and others at an early date who had
acquired a knowledge of Indian languages, but these were exceptional.[10]
The natives in contact with the Portuguese learned a bastard variety of the
language of the latter, which became the _lingua franca_ of intercourse,
not only between European and native, but occasionally between Europeans of
different nationalities. This Indo-Portuguese dialect continued to serve
such purposes down to a late period in the last century, and has in some
localities survived down nearly to our own day.[11] The number of people in
India claiming to be of Portuguese descent was, in the 17th century, very
large. Bernier, about 1660, says:—

"For he (Sultan Shujā', Aurangzeb's brother) much courted all those
_Portugal_ Fathers, Missionaries, that are in that Province.... And they
were indeed capable to serve him, it being certain that in the kingdom of
_Bengale_ there are to be found not less than eight or nine thousand
families of _Franguis_, _Portugals_, and these either Natives or Mesticks."
(_Bernier_, E.T. of 1684, p. 27.)

A. Hamilton, whose experience belonged chiefly to the end of the same
century, though his book was not published till 1727, states:—

"Along the Sea-coasts the _Portuguese_ have left a Vestige of their
Language, tho' much corrupted, yet it is the Language that most _Europeans_
learn first to qualify them for a general Converse with one another, as
well as with the different inhabitants of _India_." (_Preface_, p. xii.)

Lockyer, who published 16 years before Hamilton, also says:—

"This they (the _Portugueze_) may justly boast, they have established a
kind of _Lingua Franca_ in all the Sea Ports in _India_, of great use to
other _Europeans_, who would find it difficult in many places to be well
understood without it." (_An Account of the Trade in India_, 1711, p. 286.)

The early Lutheran Missionaries in the South, who went out for the
S.P.C.K., all seem to have begun by learning Portuguese, and in their
diaries speak of preaching occasionally in Portuguese.[12] The foundation
of this _lingua franca_ was the Portuguese of the beginning of the 16th
century; but it must have soon degenerated, for by the beginning of the
last century it had lost nearly all trace of inflexion.[13]

It may from these remarks be easily understood how a large number of our
Anglo-Indian colloquialisms, even if eventually traceable to native sources
(and especially to Mahratti, or Dravidian originals) have come to us
through a Portuguese medium, and often bear traces of having passed through
that alembic. Not a few of these are familiar all over India, but the
number current in the South is larger still. Some other Portuguese words
also, though they can hardly be said to be recognized elements in the
Anglo-Indian colloquial, have been introduced either into Hindustani
generally, or into that shade of it which is in use among natives in
habitual contact with Europeans. Of words which are essentially Portuguese,
among Anglo-Indian colloquialisms, persistent or obsolete, we may quote
_goglet_, _gram_, _plantain_, _muster_, _caste_, _peon_, _padre_, _mistry_
or _maistry_, _almyra_, _aya_, _cobra_, _mosquito_, _pomfret_, _cameez_,
_palmyra_, still in general use; _picotta_, _rolong_, _pial_, _fogass_,
_margosa_, preserved in the South; _batel_, _brab_, _foras_, _oart_,
_vellard_ in Bombay; _joss_, _compradore_, _linguist_ in the ports of
China; and among more or less obsolete terms, _Moor_, for a Mahommedan,
still surviving under the modified form _Moorman_, in Madras and Ceylon;
_Gentoo_, still partially kept up, I believe, at Madras in application to
the Telugu language, _mustees_, _castees_, _bandeja_ ('a tray'), _Kittysol_
('an umbrella,' and this survived ten years ago in the Calcutta customs
tariff), _cuspadore_ ('a spittoon'), and _covid_ ('a cubit or ell'). Words
of native origin which bear the mark of having come to us through the
Portuguese may be illustrated by such as _palanquin_, _mandarin_,
_mangelin_ (a small weight for pearls, &c.), _monsoon_, _typhoon_, _mango_,
_mangosteen_, _jack-fruit_, _batta_, _curry_, _chop_, _congee_, _coir_,
_cutch_, _catamaran_, _cassanar_, _nabob_, _avadavat_, _betel_, _areca_,
_benzoin_, _corge_, _copra_.[14] A few examples of Hindustani words
borrowed from the Portuguese are _chābī_ ('a key'), _bāola_ ('a
portmanteau'), _bāltī_ ('a bucket'), _martol_ ('a hammer'), _tauliya_ ('a
towel,' Port. _toalha_), _sābūn_ ('soap'), _bāsan_ ('plate' from Port.
_bacia_), _līlām_ and _nīlām_ ('an auction'), besides a number of terms
used by Lascars on board ship.

The Dutch language has not contributed much to our store. The Dutch and the
English arrived in the Indies contemporaneously, and though both inherited
from the Portuguese, we have not been the heirs of the Dutch to any great
extent, except in Ceylon, and even there Portuguese vocables had already
occupied the colloquial ground. _Petersilly_, the word in general use in
English families for 'parsley,' appears to be Dutch. An example from Ceylon
that occurs to memory is _burgher_. The Dutch admitted people of mixt
descent to a kind of citizenship, and these were distinguished from the
pure natives by this term, which survives. _Burgher_ in Bengal means 'a
rafter,' properly _bargā_. A word spelt and pronounced in the same way had
again a curiously different application in Madras, where it was a
corruption of _Vaḍagar_, the name given to a tribe in the Nilgherry
hills;—to say nothing of Scotland, where Burghers and Antiburghers were
Northern tribes (_veluti_ Gog _et_ Magog!) which have long been condensed
into elements of the United Presbyterian Church——!

Southern India has contributed to the Anglo-Indian stock words that are in
hourly use also from Calcutta to Peshawur (some of them already noted under
another cleavage), _e.g._ _betel_, _mango_, _jack_, _cheroot_, _mungoose_,
_pariah_, _bandicoot_, _teak_, _patcharee_, _chatty_, _catechu_, _tope_ ('a
grove'), _curry_, _mulligatawny_, _congee_. _Mamooty_ (a digging tool) is
familiar in certain branches of the service, owing to its having long had a
place in the nomenclature of the Ordnance department. It is Tamil,
_manvĕtti_, 'earth-cutter.' Of some very familiar words the origin remains
either dubious, or matter only for conjecture. Examples are _hackery_
(which arose apparently in Bombay), _florican_, _topaz_.

As to Hindustani words adopted into the Anglo-Indian colloquial the subject
is almost too wide and loose for much remark. The habit of introducing
these in English conversation and writing seems to prevail more largely in
the Bengal Presidency than in any other, and especially more than in
Madras, where the variety of different vernaculars in use has tended to
make their acquisition by the English less universal than is in the north
that of Hindustani, which is so much easier to learn, and also to make the
use in former days of Portuguese, and now of English, by natives in contact
with foreigners, and of French about the French settlements, very much more
common than it is elsewhere. It is this bad habit of interlarding English
with Hindustani phrases which has so often excited the just wrath of high
English officials, not accustomed to it from their youth, and which
(_e.g._) drew forth in orders the humorous indignation of Sir Charles
Napier.

One peculiarity in this use we may notice, which doubtless exemplifies some
obscure linguistic law. Hindustani _verbs_ which are thus used are
habitually adopted into the quasi-English by converting the imperative into
an infinitive. Thus to _bunow_, to _lugow_, to _foozilow_, to _puckarow_,
to _dumbcow_, to _sumjow_, and so on, almost _ad libitum_, are formed as we
have indicated.[15]

It is curious to note that several of our most common adoptions are due to
what may be most especially called the Oordoo (_Urdū_) or 'Camp' language,
being terms which the hosts of Chinghiz brought from the steppes of North
Eastern Asia—_e.g._ "The old _Bukshee_ is an awful _bahadur_, but he keeps
a first-rate _bobachee_." That is a sentence which might easily have passed
without remark at an Anglo-Indian mess-table thirty years ago—perhaps might
be heard still. Each of the outlandish terms embraced in it came from the
depths of Mongolia in the thirteenth century. _Chick_ (in the sense of a
cane-blind), _daroga_, _oordoo_ itself, are other examples.

With the gradual assumption of administration after the middle of last
century, we adopted into partial colloquial use an immense number of terms,
very many of them Persian or Arabic, belonging to technicalities of revenue
and other departments, and largely borrowed from our Mahommedan
predecessors. Malay has contributed some of our most familiar expressions,
owing partly to the ceaseless rovings among the Eastern coasts of the
Portuguese, through whom a part of these reached us, and partly doubtless
to the fact that our early dealings and the sites of our early factories
lay much more on the shores of the Eastern Archipelago than on those of
Continental India. _Paddy_, _godown_, _compound_, _bankshall_, _rattan_,
_durian_, _a-muck_, _prow_, and _cadjan_, _junk_, _crease_, are some of
these. It is true that several of them may be traced eventually to Indian
originals, but it seems not the less certain that we got them through the
Malay, just as we got words already indicated through the Portuguese.

We used to have a very few words in French form, such as _boutique_ and
_mort-de-chien_. But these two are really distortions of Portuguese words.

A few words from China have settled on the Indian shores and been adopted
by Anglo-India, but most of them are, I think, names of fruits or other
products which have been imported, such as _loquot_, _leechee_,
_chow-chow_, _cumquat_, _ginseng_, &c. and (recently) _jinrickshaw_. For it
must be noted that a considerable proportion of words much used in Chinese
ports, and often ascribed to a Chinese origin, such as _mandarin_, _junk_,
_chop_, _pagoda_, and (as I believe) _typhoon_ (though this is a word much
debated) are not Chinese at all, but words of Indian languages, or of
Malay, which have been precipitated in Chinese waters during the flux and
reflux of foreign trade.

Within my own earliest memory Spanish dollars were current in England at a
specified value if they bore a stamp from the English mint. And similarly
there are certain English words, often obsolete in Europe, which have
received in India currency with a special stamp of meaning; whilst in other
cases our language has formed in India new compounds applicable to new
objects or shades of meaning. To one or other of these classes belong
_outcry_, _buggy_, _home_, _interloper_, _rogue_ (-elephant), _tiffin_,
_furlough_, _elk_, _roundel_ ('an umbrella,' obsolete), _pish-pash_,
_earth-oil_, _hog-deer_, _flying-fox_, _garden-house_, _musk-rat_,
_nor-wester_, _iron-wood_, _long-drawers_, _barking-deer_, _custard-apple_,
_grass-cutter_, &c.

Other terms again are corruptions, more or less violent, of Oriental words
and phrases which have put on an English mask. Such are _maund_, _fool's
rack_, _bearer_, _cot_, _boy_, _belly-band_, _Penang-lawyer_, _buckshaw_,
_goddess_ (in the Malay region, representing Malay _gādīs_, 'a maiden'),
_compound_, _college_-pheasant, _chopper_, _summer-head_,[16] _eagle-wood_,
_jackass_-copal, _bobbery_, _Upper Roger_ (used in a correspondence given
by Dalrymple, for _Yuva Raja_, the 'Young King,' or Caesar, of Indo-Chinese
monarchies), _Isle-o'-Bats_ (for Allahābād or _Ilahābāz_ as the natives
often call it), _hobson-jobson_ (see Preface), _St. John's_. The last
proper name has at least three applications. There is "St. John's" in
Guzerat, viz. _Sanjān_, the landing-place of the Parsee immigration in the
8th century; there is another "St. John's" which is a corruption of
_Shang-Chuang_, the name of that island off the southern coast of China
whence the pure and ardent spirit of Francis Xavier fled to a better world:
there is the group of "St. John's Islands" near Singapore, the chief of
which is properly Pulo-_Sikajang_.

Yet again we have hybrids and corruptions of English fully accepted and
adopted as Hindustani by the natives with whom we have to do, such as
_simkin_, _port-shrāb_, _brandy-pānī_, _apīl_, _rasīd_, _tumlet_ (a
tumbler), _gilās_ ('glass,' for drinking vessels of sorts), _rail-ghārī_,
_lumber-dār_, _jail-khāna_, _bottle-khāna_, _buggy-khāna_, 'et omne quod
exit in' _khāna_, including _gymkhāna_, a very modern concoction (q.v.),
and many more.

Taking our subject as a whole, however considerable the philological
interest attaching to it, there is no disputing the truth of a remark with
which Burnell's fragments of intended introduction concludes, and the
application of which goes beyond the limit of those words which can be
considered to have 'accrued as additions to the English language':
"Considering the long intercourse with India, it is noteworthy that the
additions which have thus accrued to the English language are, from the
intellectual standpoint, of no intrinsic value. Nearly all the borrowed
words refer to material facts, or to peculiar customs and stages of
society, and, though a few of them furnish allusions to the penny-a-liner,
they do not represent new ideas."

It is singular how often, in tracing to their origin words that come within
the field of our research, we light upon an absolute dilemma, or
bifurcation, _i.e._ on two or more sources of almost equal probability, and
in themselves entirely diverse. In such cases it may be that, though the
use of the word _originated_ from one of the sources, the existence of the
other has invigorated that use, and contributed to its eventual diffusion.

An example of this is _boy_, in its application to a native servant. To
this application have contributed both the old English use of _boy_
(analogous to that of _puer_, _garçon_, _Knabe_) for a camp-servant, or for
a slave, and the Hindī-Marāṭhī _bhoi_, the name of a caste which has
furnished palanquin and umbrella-bearers to many generations of Europeans
in India. The habitual use of the word by the Portuguese, for many years
before any English influence had touched the shores of India (_e.g._ _bóy
de sombrero_, _bóy d'aguoa_, _bóy de palanquy_), shows that the earliest
source was the Indian one.

_Cooly_, in its application to a carrier of burdens, or performer of
inferior labour, is another example. The most probable origin of this is
from a _nomen gentile_, that of the _Kolīs_, a hill-people of Guzerat and
the Western Ghats (compare the origin of _slave_). But the matter is
perplexed by other facts which it is difficult to connect with this. Thus,
in S. India, there is a Tamil word _kūli_, in common use, signifying 'daily
hire or wages,' which H. H. Wilson regards as the true origin of the word
which we call _cooly_. Again, both in Oriental and Osmali Turkish, _kol_ is
a word for a slave, and in the latter also there is _kūleh_, 'a male slave,
a bondsman.' _Khol_ is, in Tibetan also, a word for a slave or servant.

_Tank_, for a reservoir of water, we are apt to derive without hesitation,
from _stagnum_, whence Sp. _estanc_, old Fr. _estang_, old Eng. and Lowland
Scotch _stank_, Port. _tanque_, till we find that the word is regarded by
the Portuguese themselves as Indian, and that there is excellent testimony
to the existence of _tānkā_ in Guzerat and Rajputana as an indigenous word,
and with a plausible Sanskrit etymology.

_Veranda_ has been confidently derived by some etymologists (among others
by M. Defréméry, a distinguished scholar) from the Pers. _barāmada_, 'a
projection,' a balcony; an etymology which is indeed hardly a possible one,
but has been treated by Mr. Beames (who was evidently unacquainted with the
facts that do make it hardly possible) with inappropriate derison, he
giving as the unquestionable original a Sanskrit word _baraṇḍa_, 'a
portico.' On this Burnell has observed that the word does not belong to the
older Sanskrit, but is only found in comparatively modern works. Be that as
it may, it need not be doubted that the word _veranda_, as used in England
and France, was imported from India, _i.e._ from the usage of Europeans in
India; but it is still more certain that either in the same sense, or in
one closely allied, the word existed, quite independent of either Sanskrit
or Persian, in Portuguese and Spanish, and the manner in which it occurs in
the very earliest narrative of the Portuguese adventure to India (_Roteiro
do Viagem de Vasco da Gama_, written by one of the expedition of 1497),
confirmed by the Hispano-Arabic vocabulary of Pedro de Alcalà, printed in
1505, preclude the possibility of its having been adopted by the Portuguese
from intercourse with India.

_Mangrove_, John Crawfurd tells us, has been adopted from the Malay
_manggi-manggi_, applied to trees of the genus _Rhizophora_. But we learn
from Oviedo, writing early in the sixteenth century, that the name _mangle_
was applied by the natives of the Spanish Main to trees of the same, or a
kindred genus, on the coast of S. America, which same _mangle_ is
undoubtedly the parent of the French _manglier_, and not improbably
therefore of the English form _mangrove_.[17]

The words _bearer_, _mate_, _cotwal_, partake of this kind of dual or
doubtful ancestry, as may be seen by reference to them in the Glossary.

Before concluding, a word should be said as to the orthography used in the
Glossary.

My intention has been to give the headings of the articles under the most
usual of the popular, or, if you will, vulgar quasi-English spellings,
whilst the Oriental words, from which the headings are derived or
corrupted, are set forth under precise transliteration, the system of which
is given in a following "Nota Bene." When using the words and names in the
course of discursive elucidation, I fear I have not been consistent in
sticking either always to the popular or always to the scientific spelling,
and I can the better understand why a German critic of a book of mine, once
upon a time, remarked upon the _etwas schwankende yulische Orthographie_.
Indeed it is difficult, it never will for me be possible, in a book for
popular use, to adhere to one system in this matter without the assumption
of an ill-fitting and repulsive pedantry. Even in regard to Indian proper
names, in which I once advocated adhesion, with a small number of
exceptions, to scientific precision in transliteration, I feel much more
inclined than formerly to sympathise with my friends Sir William Muir and
General Maclagan, who have always favoured a large and liberal recognition
of popular spelling in such names. And when I see other good and able
friends following the scientific Will-o'-the-Wisp into such bogs as the use
in English composition of _sipáhí_ and _jangal_, and _verandah_—nay, I have
not only heard of _bagí_, but have recently seen it—instead of the good
English words 'sepoy,' and 'jungle,' 'veranda,' and 'buggy,' my dread of
pedantic usage becomes the greater.[18]

For the spelling of _Mahratta_, _Mahratti_, I suppose I must apologize
(though something is to be said for it), _Marāṭhī_ having established
itself as orthodox.


NOTE A.—LIST OF GLOSSARIES.

1. Appended to the ROTEIRO DE VASCO DA GAMA (see Book-list, p. xliii.) is a
Vocabulary of 138 Portuguese words with their corresponding word in the
_Lingua de Calicut_, _i.e._ in Malayālam.

2. Appended to the VOYAGES, &c., du Sieur DE LA BOULLAYE-LE-GOUZ
(Book-list, p. xxxii.), is an _Explication de plusieurs mots dont
l'intelligence est nécessaire au Lecteur_ (pp. 27).

3. Fryer's New Account (Book-list, p. xxxiv.) has an _Index Explanatory_,
including _Proper Names_, _Names of Things_, and _Names of Persons_ (12
pages).

4. "INDIAN VOCABULARY, to which is prefixed the Forms of Impeachment."
12mo. Stockdale, 1788 (pp. 136).

5. "An INDIAN GLOSSARY, consisting of some Thousand Words and Forms
commonly used in the East Indies ... extremely serviceable in assisting
Strangers to acquire with Ease and Quickness the Language of that Country."
By T. T. ROBARTS, Lieut., &c., of the 3rd Regt. Native Infantry, E.I.
Printed for Murray & Highley, Fleet Street, 1800. 12mo. (not paged).

6. "A DICTIONARY OF MOHAMMEDAN LAW, Bengal Revenue Terms, Shanscrit,
Hindoo, and other words used in the East Indies, with full explanations,
the leading word used in each article being printed in a new Nustaluk
Type," &c. By S. ROUSSEAU. London, 1802. 12mo. (pp. lxiv—287). Also 2nd ed.
1805.

7. GLOSSARY prepared for the FIFTH REPORT (see Book-list, p. xxxiv.), by
Sir CHARLES WILKINS. This is dated in the preface "E. I. House, 1813." The
copy used is a Parliamentary reprint, dated 1830.

8. The Folio compilation of the BENGAL REGULATIONS, published in 1828-29,
contains in each volume a Glossarial Index, based chiefly upon the Glossary
of Sir C. Wilkins.

9. In 1842 a preliminary "GLOSSARY OF INDIAN TERMS," drawn up at the E. I.
House by Prof. H. H. Wilson, 4to, unpublished, with a blank column on each
page "for Suggestions and Additions," was circulated in India, intended as
a basis for a comprehensive official Glossary. In this one the words are
entered in the vulgar spelling, as they occur in the documents.

10. The only important result of the circulation of No. 9. was "SUPPLEMENT
TO THE GLOSSARY OF INDIAN TERMS, A—J." By H. M. ELLIOT, Esq., Bengal Civil
Service. Agra, 1845. 8vo. (pp. 447).

This remarkable work has been revised, re-arranged, and re-edited, with
additions from Elliot's notes and other sources, by Mr. JOHN BEAMES, of the
Bengal Civil Service, under the title of "MEMOIRS ON THE FOLK-LORE AND
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES of the North-Western Provinces of India, being an
amplified edition of" (the above). 2 vols. 8vo. Trübner, 1869.

11. To "MORLEY'S ANALYTICAL DIGEST of all the Reported Cases Decided in the
Supreme Courts of Judicature in India," Vol. I., 1850, there is appended a
"Glossary of Native Terms used in the Text" (pp. 20).

12. In "WANDERINGS OF A PILGRIM" (Book-list, p. xlvi.), there is a Glossary
of some considerable extent (pp. 10 in double columns).

13. "The ZILLAH DICTIONARY in the Roman character, explaining the Various
Words used in Business in India." By CHARLES PHILIP BROWN, of the Madras
Civil Service, &c. Madras, 1852. Imp. 8vo. (pp. 132).

14. "A GLOSSARY OF JUDICIAL AND REVENUE TERMS, and of Useful Words
occurring in Official Documents, relating to the Administration of the
Government of British India, from the Arabic, Persian, Hindústání,
Sanskrit, Hindí, Bengálí, Uriyá, Maráṭhí, Guzaráthí, Telugu, Karnáta,
Támil, Malayálam, and other languages. By H. H. WILSON, M.A., F.R.S., Boden
Professor, &c." London, 1855. 4to. (pp. 585, besides copious Index).

15. A useful folio Glossary published by Government at Calcutta between
1860 and 1870, has been used by me and is quoted in the present GLOSS. as
"Calcutta Glossary." But I have not been able to trace it again so as to
give the proper title.

16. CEYLONESE VOCABULARY. See Book-list, p. xxxi.

17. "KACHAHRI TECHNICALITIES, or A Glossary of Terms, Rural, Official, and
General, in Daily Use in the Courts of Law, and in Illustration of the
Tenures, Customs, Arts, and Manufactures of Hindustan." By PATRICK CARNEGY,
Commissioner of Rai Bareli, Oudh. 8vo. 2nd ed. Allahabad, 1877 (pp. 361).

18. "A GLOSSARY OF INDIAN TERMS, containing many of the most important and
Useful Indian Words. Designed for the Use of Officers of Revenue and
Judicial Practitioners and Students." Madras, 1877. 8vo. (pp. 255).

19. "A GLOSSARY OF REFERENCE on Subjects connected with the Far East"
(China and Japan). By H. A. GILES. Hong-Kong, 1878, 8vo. (pp. 182).

20. "GLOSSARY OF VERNACULAR TERMS used in Official Correspondence in the
Province of ASSAM." Shillong, 1879. (Pamphlet).

21. "ANGLO-INDIAN DICTIONARY. A Glossary of such Indian Terms used in
English, and such English or other non-Indian terms as have obtained
special meanings in India." By GEORGE CLIFFORD WHITWORTH, Bombay Civil
Service. London, 8vo, 1885 (pp. xv.—350).



Also the following minor Glossaries contained in Books of Travel or
History:—

22. In "CAMBRIDGE'S ACCOUNT of the War in India," 1761 (Book-list, p.
xxx.); 23. In "GROSE'S VOYAGE," 1772 (Book-list, p. xxxv.); 24. In
CARRACCIOLI'S "LIFE OF CLIVE" (Book-list, p. xxx.); 25. In "BP. HEBER'S
NARRATIVE" (Book-list, p. xxxvi.); 26. In HERKLOT'S "QANOON-E-ISLAM"
(Book-list, p. xxxv.); [27. In "VERELST'S VIEW OF BENGAL," 1772; 28. "THE
MALAYAN WORDS IN ENGLISH," by C. P. G. Scott, reprinted from the Journal of
the American Oriental Society: New Haven, 1897; 29. "MANUAL OF THE
ADMINISTRATION OF THE MADRAS PRESIDENCY," Vol. III. Glossary, Madras, 1893.
The name of the author of this, the most valuable book of the kind recently
published in India, does not appear upon the title-page. It is believed to
be the work of C. D. Macleane; 30. A useful Glossary of Malayālam words
will be found in LOGAN, "MANUAL OF MALABAR."]


NOTE B.—THE INDO-PORTUGUESE PATOIS

(BY A. C. BURNELL.)

The phonetic changes of Indo-Portuguese are few. _F_ is substituted for
_p_; whilst the accent varies according to the race of the speaker.[19] The
vocabulary varies, as regards the introduction of native Indian terms, from
the same cause.

Grammatically, this dialect is very singular:

  1. All traces of genders are lost—_e.g._ we find _sua povo_ (Mat. i. 21);
  _sua nome_ (Id. i. 23); _sua filho_ (Id. i. 25); _sua filhos_ (Id. ii.
  18); _sua olhos_ (Acts, ix. 8); _o dias_ (Mat. ii. 1); _o rey_ (Id. ii.
  2); _hum voz tinha ouvido_ (Id. ii. 18).

  2. In the plural, _s_ is rarely added; generally, the plural is the same
  as the singular.

  3. The genitive is expressed by _de_, which is not combined with the
  article—_e.g._ _conforme de o tempo_ (Mat. ii. 16); _Depois de o morte_
  (Id. ii. 19).

  4. The definite article is unchanged in the plural: _como o discipulos_
  (Acts, ix. 19).

  5. The pronouns still preserve some inflexions: _Eu_, _mi_; _nos_,
  _nossotros_; _minha_, _nossos_, &c.; _tu_, _ti_, _vossotros_; _tua_,
  _vossos_; _Elle_, _ella_, _ellotros_, _elles_, _sua_, _suas_, _lo_, _la_.

  6. The verb substantive is (present) _tem_, (past) _timha_, and
  (subjunctive) _seja_.

  7. Verbs are conjugated by adding, for the present, _te_ to the only
  form, viz., the infinitive, which loses its final _r_. Thus, _te falla_;
  _te faze_; _te vi_. The past is formed by adding _ja_—e.g. _ja falla_;
  _ja olha_. The future is formed by adding _ser_. To express the
  infinitive, _per_ is added to the Portuguese infinitive deprived of its
  _r_.



NOTA BENE

IN THE USE OF THE GLOSSARY


(A.) The dates attached to quotations are not always quite consistent. In
beginning the compilation, the dates given were those of the _publication_
quoted; but as the date of the _composition_, or of the use of the word in
question, is often much earlier than the date of the book or the edition in
which it appears, the system was changed, and, where possible, the date
given is that of the actual use of the word. But obvious doubts may
sometimes rise on this point.

The dates of _publication_ of the works quoted will be found, if required,
from the BOOK LIST, following this _Nota bene_.



(B.) The system of transliteration used is substantially the same as that
modification of Sir William Jones's which is used in Shakespear's
_Hindustani Dictionary_. But—

The first of the three Sanskrit sibilants is expressed by (_ś_), and, as in
Wilson's Glossary, no distinction is marked between the Indian aspirated
_k_, _g_, and the Arabic gutturals _kh_, _gh_. Also, in words
transliterated from Arabic, the sixteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet is
expressed by (_ṭ_). This is the same type that is used for the cerebral
Indian (_ṭ_). Though it can hardly give rise to any confusion, it would
have been better to mark them by distinct types. The fact is, that it was
wished at first to make as few demands as possible for distinct types, and,
having begun so, change could not be made.

The fourth letter of the Arabic alphabet is in several cases represented by
(_th_) when Arabic use is in question. In Hindustani it is pronounced as
(_s_).

Also, in some of Mr. Burnell's transliterations from S. Indian languages,
he has used (R) for the peculiar Tamil hard (_r_), elsewhere (R), and (_γ_)
for the Tamil and Malayālam (_k_) when preceded and followed by a vowel.

LIST OF FULLER TITLES OF BOOKS
QUOTED IN THE GLOSSARY


  ABDALLATIF. Relation de l'Egypte. _See_ DE SACY, SILVESTRE.

  ABEL-RÉMUSAT. Nouveaux Mélanges Asiatiques. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1829.

  ABREU, A. de. DESC. DE MALACA, from the _Parnaso Portuguez_.

  ABULGHAZI. H. des Mogols et des Tatares, par Aboul Ghazi, with French
  transl. by Baron Desmaisons. 2 vols. 8vo. St. Petersb., 1871.

  ACADEMY, The. A Weekly Review, &c. London.

  ACOSTA, Christ. Tractado de las Drogas y Medecinas de las Indias
  Orientales. 4to. Burgos, 1578.

  —— E. Hist. Rerum a Soc. Jesu in Oriente gestarum. Paris, 1572.

  —— Joseph de. Natural and Moral History of the Indies, E.T. of Edward
  Grimstone, 1604. Edited for HAK. SOC. by C. Markham. 2 vols. 1880.

  ADAMS, Francis. Names of all Minerals, Plants, and Animals described by
  the Greek authors, &c. (Being a Suppl. to Dunbar's Greek Lexicon.)

  AELIAN. Claudii Aeliani, De Natura Animalium, Libri XVII.

  ĀĪN. ĀĪN-I-AKBARĪ, The, by Abul Fazl 'Allami, tr. from the orig. Persian
  by H. Blochmann, M.A. Calcutta. 1873. Vol. i.; [vols. ii. and iii.
  translated by Col. H. S. Jarrett; Calcutta, 1891-94].

    The MS. of the remainder disappeared at Mr. Blochmann's lamented death
    in 1878; a deplorable loss to Oriental literature.

  —— (Orig.). The same. Edited in the ORIGINAL Persian by H. Blochmann,
  M.A. 2 vols. 4to. Calcutta, 1872. Both these were printed by the Asiatic
  Society of Bengal.

  AITCHISON, C. U. Collection of Treaties, Engagements, and Sunnuds
  relating to India and Neighbouring Countries, 8 vols. 8vo. Revised ed.,
  Calcutta, 1876-78.

  AJAIB-al-Hind. _See_ MERVEILLES.

  ALBIRÛNÎ. Chronology of Ancient Nations E.T. by Dr. C. E. Sachau (Or.
  Transl. Fund). 4to. 1879.

  ALCALÀ, Fray Pedro de. Vocabulista Arauigo en letra Castellana.
  Salamanca, 1505.

  ALI BABA, Sir. Twenty-one Days in India, being the Tour of (by G. Aberigh
  Mackay). London, 1880.

  [ALI, Mrs Meer Hassan, Observations on the Mussulmauns of India. 2 vols.
  London, 1832.

  [ALLARDYCE, A. The City of Sunshine. Edinburgh. 3 vols. 1877.

  [ALLEN, B. C. Monograph on the Silk Cloths of Assam. Shillong, 1899.]

  AMARI. I Diplomi Arabi del R. Archivio Fiorentino. 4to. Firenze, 1863.

  ANDERSON, Philip, A.M. The English in Western India, &c. 2nd ed. Revised.
  1856.

  ANDRIESZ, G. Beschrijving der Reyzen. 4to. Amsterdam, 1670.

  ANGRIA TULAGEE. Authentic and Faithful History of that Arch-Pyrate.
  London, 1756.

  ANNAES MARITIMOS. 4 vols. 8vo. Lisbon, 1840-44.

  ANQUETIL DU PERRON. Le Zendavesta. 3 vols. Discours Preliminaire, &c. (in
  first vol.). 1771.

  ARAGON, CHRONICLE OF KING JAMES OF. E.T. by the late John Forster, M.P. 2
  vols. imp. 8vo. [London, 1883.]

  ARBUTHNOT, Sir A. Memoir of Sir T. Munro, prefixed to ed. of his Minutes.
  2 vols. 1881.

  ARCH. PORT. OR. Archivo Portuguez Oriental. A valuable and interesting
  collection published at Nova Goa, 1857 _seqq._

  ARCHIVIO STORICO ITALIANO.

    The quotations are from two articles in the _Appendice_ to the early
    volumes, viz.:

      (1) Relazione di Leonardo da Ca' Masser sopra il Commercio dei
      Portoghesi nell' India (1506). App. Tom. II. 1845.

      (2) Lettere di Giov. da Empoli, e la Vita di Esso, scritta da suo zio
      (1530). App. Tom. III. 1846.

  ARNOLD, Edwin. The Light of Asia (as told in Verse by an Indian
  Buddhist). 1879.

  ASSEMANI, Joseph Simonius, Syrus Maronita. Bibliotheca Orientalis
  Clementino-Vaticana. 3 vols. in 4, folio. Romae, 1719-1728.

  AYEEN AKBERY. By this spelling are distinguished quotations from the tr.
  of Francis Gladwin, first published at Calcutta in 1783. Most of the
  quotations are from the London edition, 2 vols. 4to. 1800.



  BABER. Memoirs of Zehir-ed-din Muhammed Baber, Emperor of Hindustan....
  Translated partly by the late John Leyden, Esq., M.D., partly by William
  Erskine, Esq., &c. London and Edinb., 4to. 1826.

  BABOO and other Tales, descriptive of Society in India. Smith & Elder.
  London, 1834. (By Augustus Prinsep, B.C.S., a brother of James and H.
  Thoby Prinsep.)

  BACON, T. First Impressions of Hindustan. 2 vols. 1837.

  BADEN POWELL. PUNJAB HANDBOOK, vol. ii. Manufactures and Arts. Lahore,
  1872.

  BAILEY, Nathan. _Diction. Britannicum_, or a more Compleat Universal
  Etymol. English Dict. &c. The whole Revis'd and Improv'd by N. B.,
  Φιλόλογος. Folio. 1730.

  BAILLIE, N. B. E. Digest of Moohummudan Law applied by British Courts in
  India. 2 vols. 1865-69.

  BAKER, Mem. of Gen. Sir W. E., R.E., K.C.B. Privately printed. 1882.

  BALBI, Gasparo. Viaggio dell' Indie Orientali. 12mo. Venetia, 1590.

  BALDAEUS, P. Of this writer Burnell used the Dutch ed., Naauwkeurige
  Beschryvinge van Malabar en Choromandel, folio, 1672, and —— Ceylon,
  folio, 1672.

    I have used the German ed., containing in one volume seriatim,
    Wahrhaftige Ausführliche Beschreibung der beruhmten Ost-Indischen
    Kusten Malabar und Coromandel, als auch der Insel Zeylon ... benebst
    einer ... Entdeckung der Abgöterey der Ost-Indischen Heyden.... Folio.
    Amsterdam, 1672.

  BALDELLI-BONI. Storia del Milione. 2 vols. Firenze, 1827.

  BALDWIN, Capt. J. H. Large and Small Game of Bengal and the N.W.
  Provinces of India. 1876.

  BALFOUR, Dr. E. CYCLOPAEDIA OF INDIA. [3rd ed. London, 1885.]

  [BALL, J. D. Things Chinese, being Notes on various Subjects connected
  with China. 3rd ed. London, 1900.

  BALL, V. Jungle Life in India, or the Journeys and Journals of an Indian
  Geologist. London, 1880.]

  BANARUS, Narrative of Insurrection at, in 1781. 4to. Calcutta, 1782.
  Reprinted at Roorkee, 1853.

  BÁNYAN TREE, THE. A Poem. Printed for private circulation. Calcutta,
  1856.

    (The author was Lt.-Col. R. A. Yule, 9th Lancers, who fell before
    Delhi, June 19, 1857.)

  BARBARO, Iosafa. Viaggio alla Tana, &c. In _Ramusio_, tom. ii. Also E.T.
  by W. Thomas, Clerk of Council to King Edward VI., embraced in Travels to
  Tana and Persia, HAK. SOC., 1873.

    N.B.—It is impossible to discover from Lord Stanley of Alderley's
    Preface whether this was a reprint, or printed from an unpublished MS.

  BARBIER DE MÉYNARD, DICTIONNAIRE Géogr. Hist. et Littér. de la Perse, &c.
  Extrait ... de Yaqout. Par C. B. de M. Large 8vo. Paris, 1861.

  BARBOSA. A Description of the Coasts of E. Africa and Malabar in the
  beginning of the 16th century. By Duarte Barbosa. Transl. &c., by Hon. H.
  E. J. Stanley. HAK. SOC., 1866.

  —— LISBON ED. Livro de Duarte Barbosa. Being No. VII. in Collecção de
  Noticias para a Historia e Geografia, &c. Publ. pela Academia Real das
  Sciencias, tomo ii. Lisboa, 1812.

  —— Also in tom. ii. of Ramusio.

  BARRETTO. Relation de la Province de Malabar. Fr. tr. 8vo. Paris, 1646.

    Originally pub. in Italian. Roma, 1645.

  BARROS, João de. Decadas de Asia, Dos feitos que os Portuguezes fizeram
  na Conquista e Descubrimento das Terras e Mares do Oriente.

    Most of the quotations are taken from the edition in 12mo., Lisboa,
    1778, issued along with Couto in 24 vols.

    The first Decad was originally printed in 1552, the 2nd in 1553, the
    3rd in 1563, the 4th as completed by Lavanha in 1613 (Barbosa-Machado,
    Bibl. Lusit. ii. pp. 606-607, as corrected by Figanière, _Bibliogr.
    Hist. Port._ p. 169). A. B.

    In some of Burnell's quotations he uses the 2nd ed. of Decs. i. to iii.
    (1628), and the 1st ed. of Dec. iv. (1613). In these there is
    apparently no division into chapters, and I have transferred the
    references to the edition of 1778, from which all my own quotations are
    made, whenever I could identify the passages, having myself no
    convenient access to the older editions.

  BARTH, A. Les Religions de l'Inde. Paris, 1879.

    Also English translation by Rev. T. Wood. Trübner's Or. Series. 1882.

  BASTIAN, Adolf, Dr. Die Völker des Oestlichen Asien, Studien und Reisen.
  8vo. Leipzig, 1866—Jena, 1871.

  BEALE, Rev. Samuel. Travels of FAH-HIAN and Sung-yun, Buddhist Pilgrims
  from China to India. Sm. 8vo. 1869.

  BEAMES, John. COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR of the Modern Aryan Languages of India,
  &c. 3 vols. 8vo. 1872-79.

  —— See also in _List of Glossaries_.

  BEATSON, Lt.-Col. A. View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with
  Tippoo Sultaun. 4to. London, 1800.

  [BELCHER, Capt. Sir E. Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Samarang, during
  the years 1843-46, employed surveying the Islands of the Eastern
  Archipelago. 2 vols. London, 1846.]

  BELLEW, H. W. Journal of a Political Mission to Afghanistan in 1857 under
  Major Lumsden. 8vo. 1862.

  —— [The Races of Afghanistan, being A Brief Account of the Principal
  Nations inhabiting that Country. Calcutta and London, 1880.]

  BELON, Pierre, du Mans. Les OBSERVATIONS de Plvsievrs Singularités et
  Choses memorables, trouuées en Grece, Asie, Iudée, Egypte, Arabie, &c.
  Sm. 4to. Paris, 1554.

  BENGAL, DESCRIPTIVE ETHNOLOGY OF, by Col. E. T. Dalton. Folio. Calcutta,
  1872.

  BENGAL ANNUAL, or Literary Keepsake, 1831-32.

  BENGAL OBITUARY. Calcutta, 1848. This was I believe an extended edition
  of De Rozario's 'Complete Monumental Register,' Calcutta, 1815. But I
  have not been able to recover trace of the book.

  BENZONI, Girolamo. The Travels of, (1542-56), orig. Venice, 1572. Tr. and
  ed. by Admiral W. H. Smyth, HAK. SOC. 1857.

  [BERNCASTLE, J. Voyage to China, including a Visit to the Bombay
  Presidency. 2 vols. London, 1850.]

  BESCHI, Padre. _See_ GOOROO PARAMARTTAN.

  [BEVERIDGE, H. The District of Bakarganj, its History and Statistics.
  London, 1876.]

  BHOTAN and the History of the Dooar War. By Surgeon RENNIE, M.D. 1866.

  BIRD'S GUZERAT. The Political and Statistical History of Guzerat, transl.
  from the Persian of Ali Mohammed Khan. Or. Tr. Fund. 8vo. 1835.

  BIRD, Isabella (now Mrs. Bishop). The GOLDEN CHERSONESE, and the Way
  Thither. 1883.

  BIRD'S JAPAN. Unbeaten Tracks in J. by Isabella B. 2 vols. 1880.

  BIRDWOOD (Sir) George, C.S.I., M.D. The Industrial Arts of India. 1880.

  [—— Report on The Old Records of the India Office, with Supplementary
  Note and Appendices. Second Reprint. London, 1891.

  [—— and Foster, W. The First Letter Book of the East India Company,
  1600-19. London, 1893.]

  [BLACKER, Lt.-Col. V. Memoir of the British Army in India in 1817-19. 2
  vols. London, 1821.

  [BLANFORD, W. T. The Fauna of British India: Mammalia. London, 1888-91.

  BLUMENTRITT, Ferd. VOCABULAR einzelner Ausdrücke und Redensarten, welche
  dem Spanischen der Philippinschen Inseln eigenthümlich sind. Druck von
  Dr. Karl Pickert in Leitmeritz. 1882.

  BLUTEAU, Padre D. Raphael. Vocabulario Portuguez Latino, Aulico,
  Anatomico, Architectonico, (and so on to Zoologico) ... Lisboa, 1712-21.
  8 vols. folio, with 2 vols. of Supplemento, 1727-28.

  BOCARRO. DECADA 13 da Historia da India, composta por Antonio B.
  (Published by the Royal Academy of Lisbon). 1876.

  BOCARRO. Detailed Report (Portuguese) upon the Portuguese Forts and
  Settlements in India, MS. transcript in India Office. Geog. Dept. from
  B.M. Sloane MSS. No. 197, fol. 172 _seqq._ Date 1644.

  BOCHARTI HIEROZOICON. In vol. i. of Opera Omnia, 3 vols. folio. Lugd.
  Bat. 1712.

  BOCK, Carl. Temples and Elephants. 1884.

  BOGLE. _See_ MARKHAM'S TIBET.

  BOILEAU, A. H. E. (Bengal Engineers). TOUR THROUGH the Western States of
  RAJWARA in 1835. 4to. Calcutta, 1837.

  BOLDENSELE, Gulielmus de. ITINERARIUM in the _Thesaurus of Canisius_,
  1604. v. pt. ii. p. 95, also in ed. of same by _Basnage_, 1725, iv. 337;
  and by C. L. Grotefend in _Zeitschrift_ des Histor. Vereins für Nieder
  Sachsen, Jahrgang 1852. Hannover, 1855.

  BOLE PONGIS, by H. M. Parker. 2 vols. 8vo. 1851.

  BOMBAY. A Description of the Port and Island of, and Hist. Account of the
  Transactions between the English and Portuguese concerning it, from the
  year 1661 to the present time. 12mo. Printed in the year 1724.

  [BOND, E. A. Speeches of the Manager and Counsel in the Trial of Warren
  Hastings. 4 vols. London, 1859-61.]

  BONGARSII, GESTA DEI DER FRANCOS. Folio. Hanoviae, 1611.

  BONTIUS, Jacobi B. Hist. Natural et Medic. Indiae Orientalis Libri Sex.
  Printed with PISO, q.v.

  [BOSE, S. C. The Hindoos as they are: A Description of the Manners,
  Customs, and Inner Life of Hindoo Society in Bengal. Calcutta, 1881.

  BOSQUEJO das Possessões, &c. See p. 809_b_.

  [BOSWELL, J. A. C. Manual of the Nellore District. Madras, 1887.]

  BOTELHO, Simão. Tombo do Estado da India. 1554. Forming a part of the
  SUBSIDIOS, q.v.

  BOURCHIER, Col. (Sir George). Eight Months' Campaign against the Bengal
  Sepoy Army. 8vo. London, 1858.

  BOWRING, Sir John. The Kingdom and People of SIAM. 2 vols. 8vo. 1857.

  BOYD, Hugh. The Indian Observer, with Life, Letters, &c. By L. D.
  Campbell. London, 1798.

  BRIGGS, H. Cities of Gujarashtra; their Topography and History
  Illustrated. 4to. Bombay, 1849.

  BRIGG'S FIRISHTA. H. of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India.
  Translated from the Orig. Persian of Mahomed Kasim Firishta. By John
  Briggs, Lieut.-Col. Madras Army. 4 vols. 8vo. 1829.

  [BRINCKMAN, A. The Rifle in Cashmere: A Narrative of Shooting
  Expeditions. London, 1862.]

  BROOKS, T. Weights, Measures, Exchanges, &c., in East India. Small 4to.
  1752.

  BROOME, Capt. Arthur. Hist. of the Rise and Progress of the BENGAL ARMY.
  8vo. 1850. Only vol. i. published.

  BROUGHTON, T. D. Letters written in a Mahratta Camp during the year 1809.
  4to. 1813. [New ed. London, 1892.]

  BRUCE'S ANNALS. Annals of the Honourable E. India Company. (1600-1707-8.)
  By John Bruce, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 3 vols. 4to. 1810.

  BRUGSCH Bey (Dr. Henry). Hist. of Egypt under the Pharaohs from the
  Monuments. E.T. 2nd ed. 2 vols. 1881.

  BUCHANAN, Claudius, D.D. CHRISTIAN RESEARCHES in Asia. 11th ed. 1819.
  Originally pubd. 1811.

  BUCHANAN HAMILTON, Fr. The Fishes of the Ganges River and its Branches.
  Oblong folio. Edinburgh, 1822.

  [—— Also see EASTERN INDIA.

  [BUCHANAN, Dr. Francis (afterwards Hamilton). A Journey ... through ...
  Mysore, Canara and Malabar ... &c. 3 vols. 4to. 1807.]

  BURCKHARDT, J. L. See p. 315_a_.

  BURKE, The WRITINGS and Correspondence of the Rt. Hon. Edmund. 8 vols.
  8vo. London, 1852.

  BURMAN, THE: His Life and Notions. By Shway Yoe. 2 vols. 1882.

  BURNES, Alexander. Travels into Bokhara. 3 vols. 2nd ed. 1835.

  [BURNES, J. A Visit to the Court of Scinde. London, 1831.]

  BURNOUF, Eugène. Introduction à l'Histoire du BOUDDHISME INDIEN. (Vol. i.
  alone published.) 4to. 1844.

  BURTON, Capt. R. F. PILGRIMAGE to El Medina and Mecca. 3 vols. 1855-56.

  [—— Memorial Edition. 2 vols. London, 1893.]

  —— SCINDE, or the Unhappy Valley. 2 vols. 1851.

  —— SIND REVISITED. 2 vols. 1877.

  —— CAMOENS. _Os Lusiadas_, Englished by R. F. Burton. 2 vols. 1880. And 2
  vols. of Life and Commentary, 1881.

  —— GOA and the Blue Mountains. 1851.

  [—— The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, translated from the
  Arabic by Capt. Sir R. F. Burton, edited by L. C. Smithers. 12 vols.
  London, 1894.]

  BUSBEQUII, A. Gislenii. Omnia quae extant. Amstelod. Elzevir. 1660.

  [BUSTEED, H. E. Echoes of Old Calcutta. 3rd ed. Calcutta, 1857.

  [BUYERS, Rev. W. Recollections of Northern India. London, 1848.]



  CADAMOSTO, Luiz de. NAVEGAÇÃO PRIMEIRA. In Collecção de Noticias of the
  Academia Real das Sciencias. Tomo II. Lisboa, 1812.

  CALDWELL, Rev. Dr. (afterwards Bishop). A COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR of the
  Dravidian or South Indian Family of Languages. 2nd ed. Revd. and
  Enlarged, 1875.

  CALDWELL, Right Rev. Bishop. Pol. and Gen. History of the District of
  TINNEVELLY. Madras, 1881.

  ——, Dr. R. (now Bishop). Lectures on TINNEVELLY MISSIONS. 12mo. London,
  1857.

  CA' MASSER. Relazione di Lionardo in ARCHIVIO STORICO ITALIANO, q.v.

  CAMBRIDGE, R. Owen. An Account of the WAR IN INDIA between the English
  and French, on the Coast of Coromandel (1750-1760). 4to. 1761.

  CAMERON, J. Our Tropical Possessions in Malayan India. 1865.

  CAMÕES, Luiz de. OS LUSIADAS. Folio ed. of 1720, and Paris ed., 8vo., of
  1847 are those used.

  [CAMPBELL, Maj.-Gen. John. A Personal Narrative of Thirteen Years'
  Service among the Wild Tribes of Khondistan. London, 1864.

  [CAMPBELL, Col. W. The Old Forest Ranger. London, 1853.]

  CAPMANY, ANT. MEMORIAS HIST. sobre la Marina, Comercio, y Artes de
  Barcelona. 4 vols. 4to. Madrid, 1779.

  CARDIM, T. Relation de la Province du JAPON, du Malabar, &c. (trad. du
  Portug.). Tournay, 1645.

  [CAREY, W. H. The Good Old Days of Honble. John Company. 2 vols. Simla,
  1882.]

  CARLETTI, FRANCESCO. RAGIONAMENTI di—Fiorentino, sopra le cose da lui
  vedute ne' suoi Viaggi, &c. (1594-1606). First published in Firenze,
  1701. 2 vols. in 12mo.

  CARNEGY, Patrick. See _List of Glossaries_.

  CARPINI, Joannes de Plano. Hist. Mongalorum, ed. by D'Avezac, in Recueil
  de Voyages et de Mémoires de la Soc. de Géographie, tom. iv. 1837.

  CARRACCIOLI, C. Life of Lord Clive. 4 vols. 8vo. No date (c. 1785).

    It is not certain who wrote this ignoble book, but the author must have
    been in India.

  CASTANHEDA, Fernão Lopez de. Historia do descobrimento e conquista da
  India.

    The original edition appeared at Coimbra, 1551-1561 (in 8 vols. 4to and
    folio), and was reprinted at Lisbon in 1833 (8 vols. sm. 4to). This
    last ed. is used in quotations of the Port. text.

    Castanheda was the first writer on Indian affairs (_Barbosa Machado_,
    _Bibl. Lusit._, ii. p. 30. See also _Figanière_, _Bibliographia Hist.
    Port._, pp. 165-167).

    He went to Goa in 1528, and died in Portugal in 1559.

  CASTAÑEDA. The First Booke of the Historie of the Discouerie and Conquest
  of the East Indias.... Transld. into English by N. L.(itchfield),
  Gentleman. 4to. London, 1582.

    The translator has often altered the spelling of the Indian words, and
    his version is very loose, comparing it with the printed text of the
    Port. in the ed. of 1833. It is possible, however, that Litchfield had
    the first ed. of the first book (1551) before him, whereas the ed. of
    1833 is a reprint of 1554. (A.B.).

  CATHAY AND THE WAY THITHER. By H. Yule, HAK. SOC. 8vo. 2 vols.
  (Continuously paged.) 1866.

  [CATROU, F. F. A History of the Mogul Dynasty in India. London, 1826.]

  CAVENAGH, Lt.-Gen. Sir Orfeur. REMINISCENCES of an Indian Official. 8vo.
  1884.

  CEYLONESE VOCABULARY. List of Native Words commonly occurring in Official
  Correspondence and other Documents. Printed by order of the Government.
  Columbo, June 1869.

  [CHAMBERLAIN, B. H. Things Japanese, being Notes on Various Subjects
  connected with Japan. 3rd ed. London, 1898.]

  CHARDIN, Voyages en Perse. Several editions are quoted, _e.g._ Amsterdam,
  4 vols. 4to, 1735; by Langlès, 10 vols. 8vo. 1811.

  CHARNOCK'S Hist. of MARINE ARCHITECTURE. 2 vols. 1801.

  CHARTERS, &c., of the EAST INDIA COMPANY (a vol. in India Office without
  date).

  CHAUDOIR, Baron Stan. Aperçu sur les Monnaies Russes, &c. 4to. St.
  Pétersbourg, 1836-37.

  [CHEVERS, N. A. A Manual of Medical Jurisprudence for India. Calcutta,
  1870.]

  CHILDERS, R. A DICTIONARY of the PALI Language. 1875.

  CHITTY, S. C. The CEYLON GAZETTEER. Ceylon, 1834.

  CHOW CHOW, being Selections from a Journal kept in India, &c., by
  Viscountess Falkland. 2 vols. 1857.

  CIEZA DE LEON, Travels of Pedro. Ed. by C. Markham. HAK. SOC. 1864.

  CLARKE, Capt. H. W., R.E. Translation of the SIKANDAR NĀMA of Nizāmī.
  London, 1881.

  CLAVIJO. Itineraire de l'Ambassade Espagnole à Samarcande, in 1403-1406
  (original Spanish, with Russian version by I. Sreznevevsky). St.
  Petersburg, 1881.

  —— Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de, to the Court of Timour. E.T. by C.
  Markham. HAK. SOC. 1859.

  CLEGHORN, Dr. Hugh. Forests and Gardens of S. India. 8vo. 1861.

  COAST OF COROMANDEL: Regulations for the Hon. Comp.'s Black Troops on
  the. 1787.

  COBARRUVIAS, Tesoro de la Lengua Castellana o Española, compvesto per el
  Licenciado Don Sebastian de. Folio. Madrid, 1611.

  COCKS, Richard. Diary of ——, Cape-Merchant in the English Factory at
  Japan (first published from the original MS. in the B. M. and Admiralty).
  Edited by Edward Maunde Thompson, 2 vols. HAK. SOC. 1883.

  COGAN. _See_ PINTO.

  COLEBROOKE, Life of, forming the first vol. of the collection of his
  Essays, by his son, Sir E. Colebrooke. 1873.

  COLLET, S. The Brahmo Year-Book. Brief Records of Work and Life in the
  Theistic Churches of India. London, 1876 _seqq._

  COLLINGWOOD, C. Rambles of a Naturalist on Shores and Waters of the China
  Sea. 8vo. 1868.

  COLOMB, Capt. R.N. Slave-catching in the Indian Ocean. 8vo. 1873.

  COLONIAL PAPERS. _See_ SAINSBURY.

  COMPETITION-WALLAH, LETTERS OF A (by G. O. Trevelyan). 1864.

  COMPLETE HIST. of the War in India (Tract). 1761.

  CONTI, Nicolo. _See_ POGGIUS; also see INDIA IN THE XVTH CENTURY.

  [COOPER, T. T. The Mishmee Hills, an Account of a Journey made in an
  Attempt to penetrate Thibet from Assam, to open out new Routes for
  Commerce. London, 1873.]

  CORDINER, Rev. J. A. Description of CEYLON, &c. 2 vols. 4to. 1807.

  CORNWALLIS, Correspondence of Charles, First Marquis. Edited by C. Ross.
  3 vols. 1859.

  CORREA, GASPAR, LENDAS da India por. This most valuable, interesting, and
  detailed chronicle of Portuguese India was not published till in our own
  day it was issued by the Royal Academy of Lisbon—4 vols. in 7, in 4to,
  1858-1864. The author went to India apparently with Jorge de Mello in
  1512, and at an early date began to make notes for his history. The
  latest year that he mentions as having in it written a part of his
  history is 1561. The date of his death is not known.

    Most of the quotations from Correa, begun by Burnell and continued by
    me, are from this work published in Lisbon. Some are, however, taken
    from "The THREE VOYAGES OF VASCO DA GAMA and his Viceroyalty, from the
    Lendas da India of Gaspar Correa," by the Hon. E. J. Stanley (now Lord
    Stanley of Alderley). HAK. SOC. 1869.

  CORYAT, T. CRUDITIES. Reprinted from the ed. of 1611. 3 vols. 8vo. 1776.

  COUTO, Diogo de. The edition of the DECADAS da Asia quoted habitually is
  that of 1778 (see BARROS). The 4th Decade (Couto's first) was published
  first in 1602, fol.; the 5th, 1612; the 6th, 1614; the 7th, 1616; the
  8th, 1673; 5 books of the 12th, Paris, 1645. The 9th was first published
  in an edition issued in 1736; and 120 pp. of the 10th (when, is not
  clear). But the whole of the 10th, in ten books, is included in the
  publication of 1778. The 11th was lost, and a substitute by the editor is
  given in the ed. of 1778. Couto died 10th Dec. 1616.

  —— DIALOGO do Soldado Pratico (written in 1611, printed at Lisbon under
  the title Observações, &c., 1790).

  COWLEY, Abraham. His Six Books of PLANTS. In Works, folio ed. of 1700.

  CRAWFURD, John. DESCRIPTIVE DICT. of the Indian Islands and adjacent
  countries. 8vo. 1856.

  —— MALAY DICTIONARY, A Grammar and Dict. of the Malay Language. Vol. i.
  Dissertation and Grammar. Vol. ii. Dictionary. London, 1852.

  —— Journal of an Embassy to Siam and Cochin China. 2nd ed. 2 vols. 1838.
  (First ed. 4to, 1828.)

  —— Journal of an Embassy to the Court of AVA in 1827. 4to. 1829.

  [CROOKE, W. The Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India. 1st ed.
  1 vol. Allahabad, 1893; 2nd ed. 2 vols. London, 1896.

  [—— The Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, 4
  vols. Calcutta, 1896.]

  CUNNINGHAM, Capt. Joseph Davy, B.E. History of the Sikhs, from the Rise
  of the Nation to the Battles of the Sutlej. 8vo. 2nd ed. 1853. (1st ed.
  1849.)

  CUNNINGHAM, Major Alex., B.E. LADAK, Physical, Statistical, and
  Historical. 8vo. 1854.

  CUNNINGHAM, M.-Gen., R.E., C.S.I. (the same). Reports of the
  Archaeological Survey of India. Vol. i., Simla, 1871. Vol. xix.,
  Calcutta, 1885.

  CYCLADES, The. By J. Theodore BENT. 8vo. 1885.



  DABISTAN, The; or, School of Manners. Transl. from the Persian by David
  Shea and Anthony Troyer. (Or. Tr. Fund.) 3 vols. Paris, 1843.

  D'ACUNHA, Dr. Gerson. Contributions to the Hist. of Indo-PORTUGUESE
  NUMISMATICS. 4 fascic. Bombay, 1880 _seqq._

  DA GAMA. _See_ ROTEIRO and CORREA.

  D'ALBUQUERQUE, Afonso. Commentarios. Folio. Lisboa, 1557.

  —— COMMENTARIES, transl. and edited by Walter de Grey BIRCH. HAK. SOC. 4
  vols. 1875-1884.

  DALRYMPLE, A. The ORIENTAL REPERTORY (originally published in numbers,
  1791-97), then at the expense of the E.I. Co. 2 vols. 4to. 1808.

  DAMIANI A GÖES, Diensis Oppugnatio. Ed. 1602.

  —— De Bello Cambaico.

  —— CHRONICA.

  DAMPIER'S VOYAGES. (Collection including sundry others). 4 vols. 8vo.
  London, 1729.

  [DANVERS, F. C., and Foster, W. Letters received by the E.I. Co. from its
  Servants in the East. 4 vols. London, 1896-1900.]

  D'ANVILLE. ECLAIRCISSEMENS sur la Carte de l'Inde. 4to. Paris, 1753.

  DARMESTETER, James. Ormazd et Ahriman. 1877.

  —— The Zendavesta. (Sacred Books of the East, vol. iv.) 1880.

  DAVIDSON, Col. C. J. (Bengal Engineers). Diary of Travels and Adventures
  in Upper India. 2 vols. 8vo. 1843.

  DAVIES, T. Lewis O., M.A. A SUPPLEMENTAL ENGLISH GLOSSARY. 8vo. 1881.

  DAVIS, Voyages and Works of John. Ed. by A. H. Markham. HAK. SOC. 1880.

  [DAVY, J. An Account of the Interior of Ceylon. London, 1821.]

  DAWK BUNGALOW, The; or, Is his appointment pucka? (By G. O. Trevelyan).
  In Fraser's Mag., 1866, vol. lxiii. pp. 215-231 and pp. 382-391.

  DAY, Dr. Francis. The FISHES OF INDIA. 2 vols. 4to. 1876-1878.

  DE BRY, J. F. and J. "Indien Orientalis." 10 parts, 1599-1614.

    The quotations from this are chiefly such as were derived through it by
    Mr. Burnell from Linschoten, before he had a copy of the latter. He
    notes from the _Biog. Univ._ that Linschoten's text is altered and
    re-arranged in De Bry, and that the Collection is remarkable for
    endless misprints.

  DE BUSSY, Lettres de M., de Lally et autres. Paris, 1766.

  DE CANDOLLE, Alphonse. ORIGINE des Plantes Cultivées. 8vo. Paris, 1883.

  DE CASTRO, D. João de. Primeiro Roterio da Costa da India, desde Goa até
  Dio. Segundo MS. Autografo. Porto, 1843.

  DE CASTRO. Roteiro de Dom Joam, do Viagem que fizeram os Portuguezes ao
  Mar Roxo no Anno de 1541. Paris, 1883.

  DE GUBERNATIS, Angelo. Storia dei VIAGGIATORI ITALIANI nelle Indie
  Orientali. Livorno, 1875. 12mo. There was a previous issue containing
  much less matter.

  DE LA BOULLAYE-LE-GOUZ, VOYAGES et Observations du Seigneur, Gentilhomme
  Angevin. Sm. 4to. Paris, 1653, and 2nd ed. 1657.

  DE LA LOUBÈRE. Historical Relation of SIAM by M. E.T. 2 vols. folio in
  one. 1693.

  DELLA TOMBA, Marco. Published by De Gubernatis. Florence, 1878.

  DELLA VALLE, PIETRO. VIAGGI de ——, il Pellegrino, descritti, da lui
  medesimo in Lettere Familiari.... (1614-1626). Originally published at
  Rome, 1650-53.

    The Edition quoted is that published at Brighton (but printed at
    Turin), 1843. 2 vols. in small 8vo.

  [—— From the O.E. Tr. of 1664, by G. Havers. 2 vols. ed. by E. Grey. HAK.
  SOC. 1891.]

  DELLON. Relation de l'INQUISITION DE GOA. 1688. Also E.T., Hull, 1812.

  DE MONFART, H. An Exact and Curious Survey of all the East Indies, even
  to Canton, the chiefe citie of China. Folio. 1615. (A worthless book.)

  DE MORGA, Antonio. THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, ed. by Hon. E. J. Stanley.
  HAK. SOC. 1868.

  [DENNYS, N.B. Descriptive Dictionary of British Malaya. London, 1894.]

  DE ORTA, Garcia. _See_ GARCIA.

  DE SACY, Silvestre. Chrestomathie Arabe. 2nd ed. 3 vols. Paris, 1826-27.

  DESIDERI, P. Ipolito. MS. transcript of his Narrative of a residence in
  Tibet, belonging to the Hakluyt Society. 1714-1729.

  DICCIONARIO della Lengua CASTELLANA compuesto por l'Academia Real. 6
  vols. folio. Madrid, 1726-1739.

  DICTY. of Words used in the EAST INDIES. 2nd ed. 1805. (List of
  Glossaries, No. 6.).

  DIEZ, Friedrich. ETYMOLOGISCHES WÖRTERBUCH der Romanischen Sprachen. 2te.
  Ausgabe. 2 vols. 8vo. Bonn, 1861-62.

  DILEMMA, THE. (A novel, by Col. G. Chesney, R.E.) 3 vols. 1875.

  DIPAVANSO. The Dipavamso: edited and translated by H. Oldenberg. London,
  1879.

  DIPLOMI ARABI. _See_ AMARI.

  DIROM. NARRATIVE of the Campaign in India which terminated the War with
  Tippoo Sultan in 1792. 4to. 1793.

  D'OHSSON, Baron C. Hist. des Mongols. La Haye et Amsterdam. 1834. 4 vols.

  DOM MANUEL of Portugal, LETTER OF. Reprint of old Italian version, by A.
  Burnell. 1881.

    Also Latin in GRYNAEUS, Novus Orbis.

  DORN, Bernhard. HIST. OF THE AFGHANS, translated from the Persian of
  Neamet Allah. In Two Parts. 4to. (Or. Tr. Fund.) 1829-1836.

  DOSABHAI FRAMJI. Hist. of the PARSIS. 2 vols. 8vo. 1884.

  DOSTOYEFFSKI. 1881. _See_ p. 833_b_.

  DOUGLAS, Revd. Carstairs. Chinese-English Dictionary of the Vernacular or
  Spoken Language of Amoy. Imp. 8vo. London, 1873.

  [DOUGLAS, J. Bombay and Western India. 2 vols. London, 1893.]

  DOWSON. _See_ ELLIOT.

  DOZY AND ENGELMANN. Glossaire des Mots Espagnols et Portugais derivés de
  l'Arabe, par R. D. et W. H. F. 2nd ed. Leide, 1869.

  —— OOSTERLINGEN. Verklarende Lijst der Nederlandsche Woorden die mit het
  Arabsch, Hebreeuwsch, Chaldeeuwsch, Perzisch, en Turksch afkomstig zijn,
  door R. Dozy. S' Gravenhage, 1867. (Tract.)

  —— Supplément aux Dictionnaires Arabes. 2 vols. 4to.

  DRAKE, The World Encompassed by Sir Francis (orig. 1628). Edited by W. S.
  W. Vaux. HAK. SOC. 1856.

  DRUMMOND, R. ILLUSTRATIONS of the Grammatical parts of Guzarattee,
  Mahrattee, and English Languages. Folio. Bombay, 1808.

  DRY LEAVES FROM YOUNG EGYPT, by an ex-Political (E. B. Eastwick). 1849.

  DUBOIS, Abbé J. Desc. of the Character, Manners, &c., of the People of
  India. E.T. from French MS. 4to. 1817.

  [DUFFERIN and Ava, Marchioness of. Our Viceregal Life in India. New
  edition. London, 1890.]

  DUNN. A NEW DIRECTORY for the East Indies. London, 1780.

  DU TERTRE, P. Hist. Générale des ANTILLES Habitées par les François.
  Paris, 1667.



  EASTERN INDIA, The History, Antiquities, Topography and Statistics of. By
  Montgomery Martin (in reality compiled entirely from the papers of Dr.
  FRANCIS BUCHANAN, whose name does not appear at all in a very diffuse
  title-page!) 3 vols. 8vo. 1838.

  ECHOES OF OLD CALCUTTA, by H. E. Busteed. Calcutta, 1882. [3rd ed.
  Calcutta, 1897.]

  [EDEN, Hon. E. Up the Country. 2 vols. London, 1866.]

  EDEN, R. A. HIST. OF TRAUAYLE, &c. R. Jugge. Small 4to. 1577.

  EDRISI. GÉOGRAPHIE. (Fr. Tr.) par Amedée Jaubert. 2 vols. 4to. Paris,
  1836. (Soc. de Géogr.)

  [EDWARDES, Major H. B. A Year on the Punjab Frontier. 2 vols. London,
  1851.

  [EGERTON, Hon. W. An Illustrated Handbook of Indian Arms, being a
  Classified and Descriptive Catalogue of the Arms exhibited at the India
  Museum. London, 1880.]

  ELGIN, Lord. Letters and Journals of James Eighth Earl of E. Edited by T.
  Walrond. 1872.

  ELLIOT. The Hist. of India as told by its own Historians. Edited from the
  Posth. Papers of Sir H. M. Elliot, K.C.B., by Prof. John DOWSON. 8 vols.
  8vo. 1867-1877.

  ELLIOT, Sir Walter. Coins of S. India, belonging to the new ed. of
  Numismata Orientalia. Not yet issued (Nov. 1885).

  ELPHINSTONE, The Hon. MOUNT-STEWART, Life of, by Sir Edward Colebrooke,
  Bart. 2 vols. 8vo. 1884.

  ELPHINSTONE, The Hon. Mount-Stewart. Account of the Kingdom of CAUBOOL.
  New edition. 2 vols. 8vo. 1839.

  EMERSON TENNENT. An Account of the Island of CEYLON, by Sir James. 2
  vols. 8vo. [3rd ed. 1859.] 4th ed. 1860.

  EMPOLI, Giovanni da. Letters, in ARCHIVIO Storico Italiano, q.v.

  EREDÌA. _See_ GODINHO.

  EVELYN, John, Esq., F.R.S., The DIARY of, from 1641 to 1705-6. (First
  published and edited by Mr. W. Bray in 1818.)



  FAHIAN, or FAH-HIAN. _See_ BEALE.

  FALLON, S. W. New Hindustani-English Dictionary. Banāras (Benares), 1879.

  FANKWAE, or Canton before Treaty Days: by an Old Resident. 1881.

  FARIA Y SOUSA (Manoel). ASIA PORTUGUESA. 3 vols. folio. 1666-1675.

  —— E.T. by Capt. J. Stevens. 3 vols. 8vo. 1695.

  FAVRE, P. DICTIONNAIRE Malais-Français et Français-Malais, 4 vols.
  Vienne, 1875-80.

  FAYRER, (Sir) Joseph. THANATOPHIDIA of India, being a Description of the
  Venomous Snakes of the Indian Peninsula. Folio. 1872.

  FEDERICI (or Fedrici). Viaggio de M. Cesare de F.— nell'India Orientale
  et oltra l'India. In Venetia, 1587. Also in vol. iii. of Ramusio, ed.
  1606.

  FERGUSON. A Dictionary of the Hindostan Language. 4to. London, 1773.

  FERGUSSON, James, D.C.L., F.R.S. Hist. of INDIAN and Eastern
  ARCHITECTURE. 8vo. 1875.

  [FERRIER, J. P. Caravan Journeys in Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, and
  Beloochistan. London, 1856.]

  FIFTH REPORT from the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the
  Affairs of the E.I. Company. Folio. 1812.

  FILET, G. F. Plant-kundig Woordenboek voor Nederlandsch Indie. Leiden,
  1876.

  FIRISHTA, SCOTT'S. Ferishta's H. of the Dekkan from the great Mahommedan
  Conquests. Tr. by Capt. J. Scott. 2 vols. 4to. Shrewsbury, 1794.

  —— BRIGGS'S. _See_ BRIGGS.

  FLACOURT, Hist. de la Grande isle MADAGASCAR, composée par le Sieur de.
  4to. 1658.

  FLÜCKIGER. _See_ HANBURY.

  FONSECA, Dr. J. N. da. HIST. and Archæological Sketch of the City of GOA.
  8vo. Bombay, 1878.

  FORBES, A. Kinloch. _See_ RÂS MÂLÂ.

  [FORBES, Capt. C. J. F. S. British Burmah, and its People, being Sketches
  of Native Manners, Customs, and Religion. London, 1878.]

  FORBES, Gordon S. Wild Life in Canara and Ganjam. 1885.

  FORBES, James. Oriental Memoirs. 4 vols. 4to. 1813. [2nd ed. 2 vols.
  1834.]

  FORBES, H. O. A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Indian Archipelago. 1885.

  FORBES WATSON'S Nomenclature. A List of Indian Products, &c., by J. F.
  W., M.A., M.D., &c. Part II., largest 8vo. 1872.

  [—— The Textile Manufactures and the Costumes of the People of India.
  London, 1866.]

  FORREST, Thomas. Voyage from Calcutta to the MERGUI Archipelago, &c., by
  ——, Esq. 4to. London, 1792.

  —— Voyage to NEW GUINEA and the Moluccas from Balambangan, 1774-76. 4to.
  1779.

  FORSTER, George. JOURNEY from Bengal to England. 2 vols. 8vo. London,
  1808. Original ed., Calcutta, 1790.

  FORSYTH, Capt. J. Highlands of Central India, &c. 8vo. London, 1872. [2nd
  ed. London, 1899.]

  FORSYTH, Sir T. Douglas. Report of his MISSION to Yarkund in 1873. 4to.
  Calcutta, 1875.

  [FOSTER. _See_ DANVERS, F. C.

  [FRANCIS, E. B. Monograph on Cotton Manufacture in the Punjab. Lahore,
  1884.

  [FRANCIS, Sir P. The Francis Letters, ed. by Beata Francis and Eliza
  Keary. 2 vols. London, 1901.]

  FRASER, James Baillie. Journal of a Tour through Part of the Snowy Range
  of the Himālā Mountains. 4to. 1820.

  [—— The Persian Adventurer. 3 vols. London, 1830.]

  FRERE, Miss M. DECCAN DAYS, or Hindoo Fairy Legends current in S. India,
  1868.

  FRESCOBALDI, Lionardo. VIAGGI in Terra Santa di L. F. ed. altri. Firenze,
  1862; very small.

  FRIAR JORDANUS. _See_ JORDANUS.

  FRYER, John, M.D. A New Account of EAST INDIA and Persia, in 8 Letters;
  being 9 years Travels. Begun 1672. And Finished 1681. Folio. London,
  1698.

    No work has been more serviceable in the compilation of the Glossary.

  FULLARTON, Col. View of English Interests in India. 1787.



  GALLAND, Antoine. Journal pendant son Séjour à Constantinople, 1672-73.
  Annoté par Ch. Schefer. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1881.

  GALVANO, A. Discoveries of the World, with E.T. by Vice-Admiral Bethune,
  C.B. HAK. SOC., 1863.

  GARCIA. COLLOQUIOS dos Simples e Drogas e Cousas Medecinaes da India, e
  assi de Algumas Fructas achadas nella ... compostos pelo Doutor GARCIA DE
  ORTA. Physico del Rei João 3^o. 2a edição. Lisboa, 1872.

    (Printed nearly page for page with the original edition, which was
    printed at Goa by João de Eredem in 1563.) A most valuable book, full
    of curious matter and good sense.

  GARCIN DE TASSY. Particularités de la Religion Musulmane dans l'Inde.
  Paris, 1851.

  GARDEN, IN MY INDIAN. By Phil. Robinson. 2nd ed. 1878.

  GARNIER, Francis. VOYAGE D'EXPLORATION en Indo-Chine. 2 vols. 4to and two
  atlases. Paris, 1873.

  GILDEMEISTER. Scriptorum Arabum de Rebus Indicis Loci et Opuscula
  Inedita. Bonn, 1838.

  GILES, Herbert A. Chinese Sketches. 1876.

  ——. _See_ _List of Glossaries_.

  GILL, Captain William. The RIVER OF GOLDEN SAND, The Narrative of a
  Journey through China and Eastern Tibet to Burmah. 2 vols. 8vo. 1880.
  [Condensed ed., London, 1883.]

  GLEIG, Rev. G. R. Mem. of Warren Hastings. 3 vols. 8vo. 1841.

  —— _See_ MUNRO.

  GLOSSOGRAPHIA, by T. B. (Blount). Folio ed. 1674.

  GMELIN. REISE durch Siberien. 1773.

  GODINHO DE EREDIA, MALACA, L'Inde Meridionale et le Cathay, MS. orig.
  autographe de, reproduit et traduit par L. Janssen. 4to. Bruxelles, 1882.

  GOOROO PARARMATTAN, writtten in Tamil by P. Beschi; E.T. by Babington.
  4to. 1822.

  GOUVEA, A. de. Iornada do Arcebispo de Goa, D. Frey Aleixo de Menezes ...
  quando foy as Serras de Malabar, &c. Sm. folio. Coimbra, 1606.

  [GOVER, C. E. The Folk-Songs of Southern India. Madras, 1871.]

  GOVINDA SÁMANTA, or the History of a Bengal Ráiyat. By the Rev. Lál
  Behári Day, Chinsurah, Bengal. 2 vols. London, 1874.

  GRAHAM, Maria. Journal of a Residence in India. 4to. Edinburgh, 1812.

    An excellent book.

  GRAINGER, James. The Sugar-Cane, a Poem in 4 books, with notes. 4to.
  1764.

  GRAMATICA INDOSTANA. Roma, 1778.

    _See_ p. 417b.

  GRAND MASTER, The, or Adventures of Qui Hi, by Quiz. 1816.

    One of those would-be funny mountains of doggerel, begotten by the
    success of Dr Syntax, and similarly illustrated.

  GRANT, Colesworthy. Rural Life in Bengal.

    Letters from an artist in India to his Sisters in England. [The author
    died in Calcutta, 1883.] Large 8vo. 1860.

  GRANT, Gen. Sir Hope. Incidents in the Sepoy War, 1857-58. London, 1873.

  GRANT-DUFF, Mount-Stewart Elph. Notes of an Indian Journey. 1876.

  GREATHED, Hervey. Letters written during the Siege of Delhi. 8vo. 1858.

  [GRIBBLE, J. D. B. Manual of Cuddapah. Madras, 1875.

  [GRIERSON, G. A. Bihār Peasant Life. Calcutta, 1885.

  [GRIGG, H. B. Manual of the Nilagiri District. Madras, 1880.]

  GROENEVELDT. Notes on the Malay Archipelago, &c. From Chinese sources.
  Batavia, 1876.

  GROSE, Mr. A VOYAGE to the EAST INDIES, &c. &c. In 2 vols. A new edition.
  1772.

    The first edition seems to have been pub. in 1766. I have never seen
    it. [The 1st ed., of which I possess a copy, is dated 1757.]

  [GROWSE, F. S. Mathurá, a District Memoir. 3rd ed. Allahabad, 1883.]

  GUERREIRO, Fernan. RELACION Annual de las cosas que han hecho los Padres
  de la Comp, de J.... en (1)600 y (1)601, traduzida de Portuguez par
  Colaço. Sq. 8vo. Valladolid, 1604.

  GUNDERT, Dr. Malayālam and English Dictionary. Mangalore, 1872.



  HAAFNER, M. J. VOYAGES dans la Péninsule Occid. de l'Inde et dans l'Ile
  de Ceilan. Trad. du Hollandois par M. J. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1811.

  [HADI, S. M. A Monograph on Dyes and Dyeing in the North-Western
  Provinces and Oudh. Allahabad, 1896.]

  HADLEY. _See_ under MOORS, THE, in the GLOSSARY.

  HAECKEL, Ernest. A Visit to Ceylon. E.T. by Clara Bell. 1883.

  HAEX, David. Dictionarium Malaico-Latinum et Latino-Malaicum. Romae,
  1631.

  HAJJI BABA of Ispahan. Ed. 1835 and 1851. Originally pubd. 1824. 2 vols.

  —— in England. Ed. in 1 vol. 1835 and 1850. Originally pubd. 1828. 2
  vols.

  HAKLUYT. The references to this name are, with a very few exceptions, to
  the reprint, with many additions, in 5 vols. 4to. 1807.

    Several of the additions are from travellers subsequent to the time of
    Richard Hakluyt, which gives an odd aspect to some of the quotations.

  HALHED, N. B. CODE of Gentoo Laws. 4to. London, 1776.

  HALL, Fitz Edward. Modern English, 1873.

  HAMILTON, Alexander, Captain. A New Account of the East Indies.

    The original publication (2 vols. 8vo.) was at Edinburgh, 1727; again
    published, London, 1744. I fear the quotations are from both; they
    differ to a small extent in the pagination. [Many of the references
    have now been checked with the edition of 1744.]

  HAMILTON, Walter. HINDUSTAN. Geographical, Statistical, and Historical
  Description of Hindustan and the Adjacent Countries. 2 vols. 4to. London,
  1820.

  HAMMER-PURGSTALL, Joseph. Geschichte der Goldenen Horde. 8vo. Pesth,
  1840.

  HANBURY AND FLÜCKIGER. Pharmacographia: A Hist. of the Principal Drugs of
  Vegetable Origin. Imp. 8vo. 1874. There has been a 2nd ed.

  HANWAY, Jonas. Hist. Acc. of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, with
  a Journal of TRAVELS, &c. 4 vols. 4to. 1753.

  [HARCOURT, Capt. A. F. P. The Himalayan Districts of Kooloo, Lahoul, and
  Spiti. London, 1871.]

  HARDY, Revd. Spence. Manual of BUDDHISM in its Modern Development.

    The title-page in my copy says 1860, but it was first published in
    1853.

  HARRINGTON, J. H. Elementary ANALYSIS of the Laws and Regulations enacted
  by the G.-G. in C. at Fort William. 3 vols. folio. 1805-1817.

  HAUG, Martin. ESSAYS on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of
  the Parsis. 8vo. 1878.

  HAVART, Daniel, M.D. Op- en Ondergang van Coromandel. 4to. Amsterdam,
  1693.

  HAWKINS. The Hawkins' Voyages. HAK. SOC. Ed. by C. Markham. 1878.

  HEBER, Bp. Reginald. NARRATIVE of a Journey through the Upper Provinces
  of India. 3rd ed. 3 vols. 1878.

    But most of the quotations are from the edition of 1844 (Colonial and
    Home Library). 2 vols. Double columns.

  HEDGES, DIARY of Mr. (afterwards Sir) William, in Bengal, &c., 1681-1688.

    The earlier quotations are from a MS. transcription, by date; the
    later, paged, from its sheets printed by the HAK. SOC. (still
    unpublished). [Issued in 2 vols., HAK. SOC. 1886.]

  HEHN, V. KULTURPFLANZEN und HAUSTHIERE in ihren Uebergang aus Asien nach
  Griechenland und Italien so wie in das übrige Europa. 4th ed. Berlin,
  1883.

  HEIDEN, T. Vervaerlyke Schipbreuk, 1675.

  HERBERT, Sir Thomas. Some Yeares TRAVELS into Divers Parts of Asia and
  Afrique. Revised and Enlarged by the Author. Folio, 1638. Also 3rd ed.
  1665.

  HERKLOTS, G. B. QANOON-E-ISLAM. 1832. 2nd ed. Madras, 1863.

  HEYLIN, Peter. COSMOGRAPHIE, in 4 Books (paged as sep. volumes), folio,
  1652.

  HEYNE, Benjamin. TRACTS on India. 4to 1814.

  HODGES, William. Travels in India during the Years 1780-83. 4to. 1793.

  [HOEY, W. A Monograph on Trade and Manufactures in Northern India,
  Lucknow. 1880.]

  HOFFMEISTER. TRAVELS. 1848.

  HOLLAND, Philemon. The Historie of the World, commonly called The
  Natvrall Historie of C. PLINIVS Secvndvs.... Tr. into English by P. H.,
  Doctor in Physic. 2 vols. Folio. London, 1601.

  HOLWELL, J. Z. Interesting HISTORICAL EVENTS Relative to the Province of
  Bengal and the Empire of Indostan, &c. Part I. 2nd ed. 1766. Part II.
  1767.

  HOOKER (Sir) Jos. Dalton. Himalayan Journals. Notes of a Naturalist, &c.
  2 vols. Ed. 1855.

  [HOOLE, E. Madras, Mysore, and the South of India, or a Personal
  Narrative of a Mission to those Countries from 1820 to 1828. London,
  1844.]

  HORSBURGH'S INDIA DIRECTORY. Various editions have been used.

  HOUTMAN. Voyage. _See_ SPIELBERGEN. I believe this is in the same
  collection.

  HUC ET GABET. SOUVENIRS d'un Voyage dans la Tartarie, le Thibet, et la
  Chine pendant les Années 1844, 1845, et 1846. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris 1850.
  [E.T. by W. Hazlitt. 2 vols. London, 1852.]

  [HÜGEL, Baron Charles. Travels in Kashmir and the Panjab, with notes by
  Major T. B. Jervis. London, 1845.

  [HUGHES, T. P. A Dictionary of Islam. London, 1885.]

  HULSIUS. Collection of Voyages, 1602-1623.

  HUMĀYŪN. Private MEM. of the Emperor. Tr. by Major C. Stewart. (Or. Tr.
  Fund.) 4to. 1832.

  HUMBOLDT, W. von. Die Kawi Sprache auf der Insel Java. 3 vols. 4to.
  Berlin, 1836-38.

  HUNTER, W. W. ORISSA. 2 vols. 8vo. 1872.

  HYDE, Thomas. Syntagma Dissertationum, 2 vols. 4to. Oxon., 1767.

  HYDUR NAIK, HIST. of, by Meer Hussein Ali Khan Kirmani. Trd. by Col. W.
  Miles. (Or. Tr. Fund). 8vo. 1842.



  [IBBETSON, D. C. J. Outlines of Panjab Ethnography. Calcutta, 1883.]

  IBN BAITHAR. Heil und Nahrungsmittel von Abu Mohammed Abdallah ...
  bekannt unter dem Namen Ebn Baithar. (Germ. Transl. by Dr. Jos. v.
  Sontheimer). 2 vols, large 8vo. Stuttgart, 1840.

  IBN BATUTA. Voyages d'Ibn Batoutah, Texte Arabe, accompagné d'une
  Traduction par C. De Frémery et le Dr. B. R. Sanguinetti (Société
  Asiatique). 4 vols. Paris, 1853-58.

  IBN KHALLIKAN'S Biographical Dictionary. Tr. from the Arabic by Baron
  McGuckin de Slane. 4 vols. 4to. Paris, 1842-71.

  INDIA IN THE XVTH CENTURY. Being a Coll. of Narratives of Voyages to
  India, &c. Edited by R. H. Major, Esq., F.S.A. HAK. SOC. 1857.

  INDIAN ADMINISTRATION of Lord Ellenborough. Ed. by Lord Colchester. 8vo.
  1874.

  INDIAN ANTIQUARY, The, a Journal of Oriental Research. 4to. Bombay, 1872,
  and succeeding years till now.

  INDIAN VOCABULARY. See _List of Glossaries_.

  INTRIGUES OF A NABOB. By H. F. Thompson. _See_ under NABOB in GLOSSARY.

  ISIDORI HISPALENSIS Opera. Folio. Paris, 1601.

  IVES, Edward. A VOYAGE from England to India in the year 1754, &c. 4to.
  London, 1773.



  JACQUEMONT Victor. CORRESPONDANCE avec sa Famille, &c. (1828-32). 2 vols.
  Paris, 1832.

  —— (English Translation.) 2 vols. 1834.

  JAGOR, F. Ost-Indische Handwerk und Gewerbe. 1878.

  JAHANGUIER, MEM. of the Emperor, tr. by Major D. Price (Or. Tr. Fund).
  4to. 1829.

  JAL, A. ARCHÉOLOGIE NAVALE. 2 vols, large 8vo. Paris, 1840.

  JAPAN. A Collection of Documents on Japan, with comment, by Thomas
  Rundall, Esq. HAK. SOC. 1850.

  JARRIC, P. (S.J.). Rerum Indicarum THESAURUS. 3 vols. 12mo. Coloniae,
  1615-16.

  JENKINS, E. The Coolie. 1871.

  JERDON'S BIRDS. The Birds of India, being a Natural Hist. of all the
  Birds known to inhabit Continental India, &c. Calcutta, 1862.

    The quotations are from the Edition issued by Major Godwin Austen. 2
    vols. (in 3). Calcutta, 1877.

  —— MAMMALS. The Mammals of India, A Nat. Hist. of all the Animals known
  to inhabit Continental India. By T. C. Jerdon, Surgeon-Major Madras Army.
  London, 1874.

  [JOHNSON, D. Sketches of Field Sports as followed by the Natives of
  India. London, 1822.]

  JOINVILLE, Jean Sire de. HIST. DE SAINT LOUIS, &c. Texte et Trad. par M.
  Natalis de Wailly. Large 8vo. Paris, 1874.

  JONES, Mem. of the Life, Writings, and Correspondence of SIR WILLIAM. By
  Lord Teignmouth. Orig. ed., 4to., 1804. That quoted is—2nd ed. 8vo.,
  1807.

  JORDANUS, FRIAR, MIRABILIA Descripta (c. 1328). HAK. SOC. 1863.

  J. IND. ARCH. Journal of the Indian Archipelago, edited by Logan.
  Singapore, 1847, _seqq._

  JULIEN, Stanislas. _See_ PÈLERINS.



  KAEMPFER, Engelbert. Hist. Naturelle, Civile et Ecclesiastique du Japon.
  Folio. La Haye. 1729.

  —— AM. EXOT. Amœnitatum Exoticarum ... Fasciculi V. ... Auctore
  Engelberto Kæmpfero, D. Sm. 4to. Lemgoviæ, 1712.

  KHOZEH ABDULKURREEM, Mem. of, tr. by GLADWIN. Calcutta, 1788.

  KINLOCH, A. A. Large Game Shooting in Thibet and the N.W.P. 2nd Series.
  4to. 1870.

  KINNEIR, John Macdonald. Geogr. Memoir of the PERSIAN EMPIRE. 4to. 1813.

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  Animals in their Relations with the People. London, 1892.]

  KIRCHER, Athan. CHINA Monumentis, &c. ILLUSTRATA. Folio. Amstelod. 1667.

  KIRKPATRICK, Col. Account of NEPAUL, 4to. 1811.

  KLAPROTH, Jules. MAGASIN ASIATIQUE. 2 vols. 8vo. 1825.

  KNOX, Robert. An Historical Relation of the Island of CEYLON in the East
  Indies, &c. Folio. London, 1681.

  KUZZILBASH, The (By J. B. Fraser). 3 vols. 1828.



  LA CROZE, M. V. HIST. DU CHRISTIANISME des Indes. 12mo. A la Haye, 1724.

  LA ROQUE. Voyage to Arabia the Happy, &c. E.T. London, 1726. (French
  orig. London, 1715.)

  LA ROUSSE, DICTIONNAIRE UNIVERSEL du XIX^e Siècle. 16 vols. 4to.
  1864-1878.

  LANE'S MODERN EGYPTIANS, ed. 2 vols. 1856.

  —— Do., ed. 1 vol. 8vo. 1860.

  —— ARABIAN NIGHTS, 3 vols. 8vo. 1841.

  [LE FANU, H. Manual of the Salem District. 2 vols. Madras, 1883.]

  LELAND, C. G. PIDGIN-ENGLISH Sing-song, 16mo. 1876.

  [LEMAN, G. D. Manual of the Ganjam District. Madras, 1882.]

  LEMBRANÇA de Cousas da India em 1525, forming the last part of SUBSIDIOS,
  q.v.

  LETTER TO A PROPRIETOR of the E. India Company. (Tract.) 1750.

  LETTERS OF SIMPKIN THE SECOND on the Trial of Warren Hastings. London,
  1791.

  LETTERS FROM MADRAS during the years 1836-1839. By a Lady. [Julia
  Charlotte Maitland.] 1843.

  LETTRES EDIFIANTES et Curieuses. 1st issue in 34 Recueils. 12mo. 1717 to
  1774. 2nd do. re-arranged, 26 vols. 1780-1783.

  LEUNCLAVIUS. Annales Sultanorum Othmanidarum. Folio ed. 1650.

    An earlier ed. 4to. Francof. 1588, in the B. M., has autograph notes by
    Jos. Scaliger.

  LEWIN, Lt.-Col. T. A Fly on the Wheel, or How I helped to Govern India.
  8vo. 1885. An excellent book.

  [—— The Wild Races of South-Eastern India. London, 1870.]

  LEYDEN, John. Poetical Remains, with Memoirs of his Life, by Rev. J.
  MORTON. London, 1819.

    (Burnell has quoted from a reprint at Calcutta of the Life, 1823.)

  LIFE IN THE MOFUSSIL, by an Ex-Civilian. 2 vols. 8vo. 1878.

  LIGHT OF ASIA, or the Great Renunciation. As told in verse by an Indian
  Buddhist. By EDWIN ARNOLD. 1879.

  LINDSAYS, LIVES OF THE, or a Mem. of the House of Crawford and Balcarres.
  By Lord Lindsay. 3 vols. 8vo. 1849.

  LINSCHOTEN. Most of the quotations are from the old English version: Iohn
  Hvighen van Linschoten, his Discours of Voyages into Ye Easte and Weste
  Indies. Printed at London by Iohn Wolfe, 1598—either from the
  black-letter folio, or from the reprint for the HAK. SOC. (2 vols. 1885),
  edited by Mr. Burnell and Mr. P. Tiele. If not specified, they are from
  the former.

    The original Dutch is: "Itinerarie Voyage ofter Schipvaert van Jan
    Huygen van Linschoten." To T'Amstelredam, 1596.

  LITTRÉ, E. Dict. de la Langue Française. 4 vols. 4to., 1873-74, and 1
  vol. SUPPT., 1877.

  LIVROS DAS MONÇÕES. (Collecçao de Monumentos Ineditos). Publd. by R.
  Academy of Lisbon. 4to. Lisbon, 1880.

  [LLOYD, Sir W. GERARD. Capt. A. A Narrative of a Journey from Caunpoor to
  the Boorendo Pass in the Himalaya Mountains. 2 vols. London, 1840.]

  LOCKYER, Charles. An Account of the Trade in India, &c. London, 1711.

  [LOGAN, W. Malabar. 3 vols. Madras, 1887-91.]

  LONG, Rev. James. Selections from Unpublished Records of Government (Fort
  William) for the years 1748-1767. Calcutta, 1869.

  LORD. Display of two forraigne Sects in the East Indies. 1. A Discouerie
  of the Sect of the Banians. 2. The Religion of the Persees. Sm. 4to.
  1630.

  LOWE, Lieut. C. R. History of the Indian Navy. 2 vols. 8vo. 1877.

  LUBBOCK, Sir John. Origin of Civilisation. 1870.

  LUCENA, P. João de. Hist. da Vida do Padre F. de Xavier. Folio. Lisbon,
  1600.

  LUDOLPHUS, Job. Historia Aethiopica Francof. ad Moenum. Folio. 1681.

  LUILLIER. Voyage du Sieur, aux Grandes Indes. 12mo. Paris, 1705. Also E.
  T., 1715.

  LUTFULLAH. Autobiog. of a Mahomedan Gentleman. Ed. by E. B. Eastwick.
  1857.



  MACARIUS. Travels of the Patriarch. E.T. by F. C. Belfour (Or. Trans.
  Fund). 4to. 1829.

  MCCRINDLE, J. W. Ancient India as described by Megasthenes and Arrian.
  8vo. 1877.

  —— Transl. of the Periplus Maris Erythraei, and of Arrian's Voyage of
  Nearchus. 1879.

  —— Ancient India as described by Ktesias the Knidian. 1882.

  —— Ancient India as described by Ptolemy. 1885.

  [—— The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great. New ed. London, 1896.]

  MACDONALD, D., M.D. A Short Account of the Fisheries of the Bombay
  Presidency (prepared for the great Fisheries Exhibition of 1883).

  MACGREGOR, Col. (now Sir Charles). A Journey through Khorassan. 2 vols.
  1875.

  MACKENZIE. Storms and Sunshine of a Soldier's Life. By Mrs. Colin
  Mackenzie. 2 vols. 8vo. 1882.

  [—— Life in the Mission, the Camp, and the Zenáná, or Six Years in India.
  2nd ed. London, 1854.]

  MACKENZIE COLLECTION. Desc. Catalogue of. By H. H. Wilson. 2 vols. 8vo.
  Calcutta, 1828.

  MACKINTOSH, Capt. A. An Account of the Origin and Present Condition of
  the Tribe of Ramoosies, &c. Bombay, 1833.

  [MACLAGAN, E. D. Monograph on the Gold and Silver Works of the Punjab.
  Lahore, 1890.]

  MACLENNAN, J. F. An Inquiry into the origin of the form of Capture in
  Marriage Ceremonies. Edinburgh, 1865.

  [MCMAHON, Lieut.-Col. A. R. The Karens of the Golden Chersonese. London,
  1876.]

  MCNAIR, Major. Perak and the Malays. 1878.

  MADRAS, or Fort St. George. Dialogues written originally in the Naruga or
  Gentou language. By B. S. V. Halle, 1750. (German).

  MAFFEUS, Joannes Petrus, E. S. J. Historiarum Indicarum Libri XVI. Ed.
  Vienna, 1751.

  —— also Selectarum Epistolarum ex India Libri IV. Folio. (Hist. first
  pubd. at Florence, 1588).

  MAINE, Sir Henry S. Village Communities. 3rd ed. 1876.

  —— Early History of Institutions. 1875.

  MAKRIZI. Hist. des Sultans Mamlouks de l'Egypte par ... trad. par M.
  Quatremère. (Or. Transl. Fund). 2 vols. 4to. 1837-1842.

  MALACA CONQUISTADA pelo Grande Af. de Alboquerque. A Poem by Fr. de Sa de
  Menezes. 4to. 1634.

  MALCOLM, Sir John. Hist. of Central India. 1st ed. 1823; 2nd, 1824; 3rd,
  1832. 2 vols.

  —— Hist. of Persia. 2 vols. 4to. 1815. [New ed. 2 vols. 1829.]

  —— Life of Robert, Lord Clive. 3 vols. 1836.

  MALCOLM'S ANECDOTES of the Manners and Customs of London during the 18th
  Century. 4 to. 1808.

  MANDELSLO, Voyages and Travels of J. A., into the E. Indies, E.T. 1669.
  Folio.

  MANNING. _See_ MARKHAM'S TIBET.

  MANUAL ou BREUE INSTRUCTÇÃO que serue por Uso D'as Crianças, que Aprendem
  Ler, e comêçam rezar nas Escholas Portuguezas, que são em India Oriental;
  e especialmente na Costa dos Malabaros que se chama Coromandel. Anno
  1713.

    (In Br. Museum. No place or Printer. It is a Protestant work, no doubt
    of the first Danish missionaries of the S.P.G. It contains a prayer "A
    oração por a Illustrissima Companhia da India Oriental.")

  MANUAL OF THE GEOLOGY OF INDIA. Large 8vo. 2 parts by Medlicott and
  Blanford. Calcutta, 1879. Part 3 by V. Ball, M.A. Economic Geology, 1881.

  MARCEL DEVIC. Dictionnaire Etymologique des Mots d'origine orientale. In
  the Supplemental Vol. of Littré. 1877.

  MARINI. Hist. Nouuelle et Cvrievse des Royaumes de Tunquin et de Lao.
  Trad. de l'Italien. Paris, 1666.

  MARINO SANUDO. Secretorum Fidelium Crucis. _See_ BONGARSIUS, of whose
  work it forms the 2nd part.

  MARKHAM, C. R., C.B. Travels in Peru and India. 1862.

  —— Clavijo. Narr. of Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de C. to the Court of Timour
  (1403-6). Tra. and Ed. by C. R. M. HAK. SOC. 1859.

  ——'S TIBET. Narrative of the Mission of G. Bogle to Tibet; and of the
  Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa. 8vo. 1876.

  [—— A Memoir of the Indian Surveys. 2nd ed. London, 1878.]

  MARMOL, El Veedor Lvys de. Descripcion General de AFRICA; Libro Tercero,
  y Segundo Volumen de la Primera parte. En Granada, 1573.

  MARRE. KATA-KATA MALAYOU, ou Recueil des Mots Malais Françisés, par
  Avis-Marre (Ext. from Compte Rendu du Congrès Prov. des Orientalistes).
  Paris, 1875.

  MARSDEN, W. Memoirs of a Malayan Family, transl. from the original by,
  (O. T. F.). 1830.

  —— HISTORY OF SUMATRA. 2nd ed. 4to. 1784; 3rd ed. 4to. 1811.

  —— DICTIONARY of the Malayan Language. In two Parts. 4to. 1812.

  —— A Brief Mem. of his Life and Writings. Written by Himself. 4to. 1838.

  MARTINEZ DE LA PUENTE. Compendio de los Descubrimentos, Conquistas y
  Guerras de la India Oriental y sus Islas. Sq. 8vo. Madrid, 1681.

  [MASON, F. Burmah, its People and Natural Productions. Rangoon, 1860.

  [MASPERO, G. The Dawn of Civilisation. Egypt and Chaldaea. Ed. by A. H.
  Sayce. London, 1894.]

  MAṢ'UDI. Maçoudi, Les Prairies d'Or, par Barbier de Meynard et Pavet de
  Courteille. 9 vols. 8vo. 1861-1877.

  [MATEER, S. The Land of Charity: A Descriptive Account of Travancore and
  its People. London, 1871.]

  MATTHIOLI, P. A. Commentary on Dioscorides. The edition chiefly used is
  an old French transl. Folio. Lyon, 1560.

  MAUNDEVILLE, Sir John. Ed. by Halliwell. 8vo. 1866.

  MAX HAVELAAR door Multatuli (E. Douwes Dékker). 4th ed. Amsterdam, 1875.

    This is a novel describing Society in Java, but especially the abuses
    of rural administration. It was originally published c. 1860, and made
    a great noise in Java and the mother country. It was translated into
    English a few years later.

  [MAYNE, J. D. A Treatise on Hindu Law and Custom. 2nd ed. Madras, 1880.]

  MEHREN, M. A. F. Manuel de la Cosmographie du Moyen Age (tr. de l'Arabe
  de Chemseddîn Dimichqî). Copenhague, &c. 1874.

  MEMOIRS OF THE REVOLUTION IN BENGAL. (Tract.) 1760.

  MENDOZA, Padre Juan Gonzales de. The work was first published at Rome in
  1585: Historia de las cossas mas notables, Ritos y Costumbres del Gran
  Reyno de LA CHINA (&c.) ... hecho y ordenado por el mvy R. P. Maestro Fr.
  Joan Gonzalez de Mendoça, &c. The quotations are from the HAK. SOC.'s
  reprint, 2 vols. (1853), of R. Parke's E.T., entitled "The Historie of
  the Great and Mightie Kingdome of China" (&c). London, 1588.

  MENINSKI, F. à M. THESAURUS Linguarum Orientalium. 4 vols. folio. Vienna,
  1670. New ed. Vienna, 1780.

  MERVEILLES DE L'INDE, Livre des. Par MM. Van der Lith et Devic. 4to.
  Leide, 1883.

  MIDDLETON'S VOYAGE, Sir H. Last East India V. to Bantam and the Maluco
  Islands, 1604. 4to. London, 1606; also reprint HAK. SOC. 1857.

  MILBURN, Wm. Oriental Commerce, &c. 2 vols. 4to. 1813. [New ed. 1 vol.
  1825.]

  MILES. _See_ HYDUR ALI and TIPÚ.

  MILL, James. Hist. of BRITISH INDIA. Originally published 3 vols. 4to.
  1817. Edition used in 8vo, edited and completed by H. H. Wilson. 9 vols.
  1840.

  MILMAN, Bishop. Memoir of, by Frances Maria Milman. 8vo. 1879.

  MILLINGEN. Wild Life among the Koords. 1870.

  MINSHEU, John. The Guide into the Tongues, &c. The 2nd ed. folio. 1627.

  MINTO, LORD, IN INDIA. Life and Letters of Gilbert Elliot, first Earl of
  Minto, from 1807 to 1814, while Governor-General of India. Edited by his
  great niece, the Countess of Minto. 8vo. 1880.

  MINTO, Life of Gilbert Elliot, by Countess of Minto. 3 vols. 1874.

  MIRAT-I-AHMEDI. _See_ BIRD'S GUZERAT.

  MISCELLANEA CURIOSA (Norimbergae). _See_ pp. 957a, and 23b.

  MISSION TO AVA. Narrative of the M. sent to the Court of A. in 1855. By
  Capt. H. Yule, Secretary to the Envoy, Major Phayre. 1858.

  MOCQUET, Jean. Voyages en Afrique, Asie, Indes Orientales et
  Occidentales. Paris, 1617. The edition quoted is of 1645.

  MOHIT, The, by Sidi Ali Kapudan. Translated Extracts, &c., by Joseph v.
  Hammer-Purgstall, in J. A. S. Soc. Bengal. Vols. III. and V. [Also see
  SIDI ALI.]

  MOLESWORTH'S DICTY. Maráthí and English. 2nd ed. 4to. Bombay 1857.

  MONEY, William. JAVA, or How to Manage a Colony. 2 vols. 1860. (I believe
  Mr. Money was not responsible for the vulgar second title.)

  MOOR, Lieut. E. NARRATIVE of the operations of Capt. Little's Detachment,
  &c. 4to. 1794.

  MOORE, Thomas. Lalla Rookh. 1817.

  [MORIER, J. A Journey through Persia, Armenia and Asia Minor, to
  Constantinople, in the years 1808 and 1809. London, 1812.]

  MORTON, Life of Leyden. _See_ LEYDEN.

  MOUNTAIN, MEM. and Letters of Col. Armine S. H. 1857.

  MUIR, Sir William. Annals of the Early CALIPHATE, from original sources.
  1883.

  [MUKHARJI, T. N. Art-Manufactures of India. Calcutta, 1888.]

  MÜLLER, Prof. Max. Lectures on the Science of Language. 1st Ser. 1861.
  2nd Ser. 1864.

  —— Hibbert Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as illustrated
  by the Religions of India. 1878.

  [MUNDY, Gen. G. C. Pen and Pencil Sketches in India. 3rd ed. London,
  1858.]

  MUNRO, Sir T. Life of M.-Gen., by the Rev. G. R. GLEIG. 3 vols. 1830. (At
  first 2 vols., then a 3rd vol. of additional letters.)

  —— His MINUTES, &c., edited by Sir A. Arbuthnot, with a Memoir. 2 vols.
  8vo. 1881.

  MUNRO, Capt. Innes. NARRATIVE of Military Operations against the French,
  Dutch, and Hyder Ally Cawn, 1780-84. 4to. 1789.

  MUNRO, Surgeon Gen., C.B. REMINISCENCES of Military Service with the 93rd
  Highlanders. 1883. (An admirable book of its kind.)



  NAPIER, General Sir Charles. Records of the Indian Command of, comprising
  all his General Orders, &c. Compiled by John Mawson. Calcutta, 1851.

  [NEALE, F. A. Narrative of a Residence at the Capital of the Kingdom of
  Siam, with a Description of the Manners, Customs, and Laws of the modern
  Siamese. London, 1852.

  [N.E.D. A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles: founded mainly
  on the Materials collected by the Philological Society: edited by J. H.
  Murray and H. Bradley. 5 vols. Oxford. 1888-1902.]

  NELSON, J. H., M.A. The MADURA Country, a Manual. Madras, 1868.

  NIEBUHR, Carsten. VOYAGE en ARABIE, &c. 2 vols. 4to. Amsterdam, 1774.

  —— DESC. DE L'ARABIE, 4to. Amsterdam, 1774.

  NIEUHOF, Joan. Zee- en Lantreize. 2 vols. folio. 1682.

  NORBERT, Père (O.S.F.). MÉMOIRES Historiques presentés au Souverain
  Pontife Benoit XIV. sur les Missions des Indes Orientales (A bitter enemy
  of the Jesuits). 2 vols. 4to. Luques (Avignon). 1744. A 3rd vol. London,
  1750; also 4 pts. (4 vols.) 12mo. Luques, 1745.

  NOTES AND EXTRACTS from the Govt. Records in Fort St. George (1670-1681).
  Parts I., II., III. Madras, 1871-73.

  N. & E. NOTICES ET EXTRAITS des Manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du Roi (and
  afterwards _Nationale_, _Impériale_, _Royale_, &c.). 4to. Paris, 1787,
  _et seqq._

  NOTICES OF MADRAS AND CUDDALORE in the Last Century, from the Journals
  and Letters of the Earlier Missionaries (Germans) of the S.P.C.K. Small
  8vo. 1858. A very interesting little work.

  NOVUS ORBIS Regionum ac Insularum Veteribus Incognitarum, &c. Basiliae
  apud Io. Hervagium. 1555, folio. Orig. ed., 1537.

  NUNES, A. Livro dos Pesos da Ymdia, e assy Medidas e Moedas. 1554.
  Contained in SUBSIDIOS, q.v.



  OAKFIELD, or Fellowship in the East. By W. D. ARNOLD, late 58th Reg.
  B.N.I. 2 vols. 2nd ed. 1854. The 1st ed. was apparently of the same year.

  OBSERVER, The Indian. _See_ BOYD.

  [OLIPHANT, L. Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission to China and Japan
  in the years 1857-8-9. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1859.

  [OPPERT, G. The Original Inhabitants of Bharatavarṣa or India.
  Westminster, 1893.

  [ORIENTAL SPORTING MAGAZINE, June 1828 to June 1833, reprint. 2 vols.
  London, 1873.]

  ORME, Robert. HISTORICAL FRAGMENTS of the Mogul Empire, &c. This was
  first published by Mr. Orme in 1782. But a more complete ed. with sketch
  of his life, &c., was issued after his death. 4to. 1805.

  —— HIST. OF THE MILITARY TRANSACTIONS of the British Nation in Indostan.
  3 vols. 4 to. The dates of editions are as follows: Vol. I., 1763; 2nd
  ed., 1773; 3rd ed., 1781. Vol. II. (in two Sections commonly called Vols.
  II. and III.), 1778. Posthumous edition of the complete work, 1805. These
  all in 4to. Reprint at Madras, large 8vo. 1861-62.

  OSBECK. A Voyage to China and the E. Indies. Tr. by J. R. Forster. 2
  vols. 1771.

  OSBORNE, Hon. W. G. COURT AND CAMP OF RUNJEET SINGH. 8vo. 1840.

  OUSELY, Sir William. TRAVELS in Various Countries of the East. 3 vols.
  4to. 1819-23.

  OVINGTON, Rev. F. A Voyage to Suratt in the year 1689. London, 1696.

  [OWEN, Capt. W. F. W. Narrative of Voyages to explore the Shores of
  Africa, Arabia, and Madagascar. 2 vols. London, 1833.]



  PALGRAVE, W. Gifford. Narrative of a Year's Journey through Central and
  Western ARABIA. 2 vols. 1865. [New ed. 1 vol. 1868.]

  PALLEGOIX, Monseigneur. DESCRIPTION du Royaume Thai ou SIAM. 2 vols.
  1854.

  [PALMER, Rev. A. S. Folk-etymology. London, 1882.]

  PANDURANG HARI, or Memoirs of a Hindoo, originally published by Whitaker.
  3 vols. 1826. The author was Mr. Hockley of the Bo. C.S. of whom little
  is known. The quotations are partly from the reissue by H. S. King & Co.
  in 1873, with a preface by Sir Bartle Frere, 2 vols. small 8vo.; but
  Burnell's apparently from a 1-vol. issue in 1877. [See 4 Ser. N. & Q. xi.
  439, 527. The quotations have now been given from the ed. of 1873.]

  PANJAB NOTES AND QUERIES, a monthly Periodical, ed. by Capt. R. C.
  Temple. 1883 _seqq._ [Continued as "NORTH INDIAN NOTES AND QUERIES," ed.
  by W. Crooke. 5 vols. 1891-96.]

  PAOLINO, Fra P. da S. Bartolomeo. VIAGGIO alle Indiè Orientali. 4to.
  Roma, 1796.

  PAOLINO, E.T. by J. R. Forster. 8vo. 1800.

  [PEARCE, N. Life and Adventures in Abyssinia, ed. J. J. Halls. 2 vols.
  London, 1831.]

  PEGOLOTTI, Fr. Balducci. La Pratica di Mercatura, written c. 1343; publd.
  by Gian Francisco Pagnini del Ventura of Volterra in his work Della
  Decima, &c. Lisbone e Lucca (really Florence), 1765-66. 4 vols. 4to. Of
  this work it constitutes the 3rd volume. Extracts translated in Cathay
  and the Way Thither, q.v. The 5th volume is a similar work by G. UZZANO,
  written c. 1440.

  PÈLERINS BOUDDHISTES, by STANISLAS, JULIEN. Vol. I. Vie et Voyages de
  Hiouen Thsang. Vols. II. and III. Mémoires des Contrées Occidentales.
  Paris. 1857.

  [PELLY, Col. Sir L. The Miracle Play of Hasan and Husain, collected from
  Oral Tradition, ed. A. N. Wollaston. 2 vols. London, 1879.]

  PEMBERTON, Major R. B. REPORT on the Eastern Frontier of British India.
  8vo. Calcutta, 1835.

  PENNANT'S (T.) VIEW OF HINDOOSTAN, India extra Gangem, China, and Japan.
  4 vols. 4to. 1798-1800.

  PERCIVAL, R. An Account of the Island of CEYLON. 2 vols. 1833.

  PEREGRINATORIS Medii Aevi QUATUOR. Recensuit J. C. M. Laurent. Lipsiae.
  1864.

  PEREGRINE PULTUNEY. A Novel. 3 vols. 1844. (Said to be written by the
  late Sir John Kaye.)

  PERIPLUS MARIS ERYTHRAEI (I have used sometimes C. Müller in the Geog.
  Graeci Minores, and sometimes the edition of B. Fabricius, Leipzig,
  1883).

  PETIS DE LA CROIX. Hist. de TIMUR-BEC, &c. 4 vols. 12mo. Delf. 1723.

  PHILALETHES, The BOSCAWEN'S VOYAGE to Bombay. 1750.

  PHILIPPI, R.P.F., de Sanctma. Trinitate, ITINERARIUM Orientale, &c. 1652.

  PHILLIPS, Sir Richard. A MILLION OF FACTS. Ed. 1837. This Million of
  Facts contains innumerable absurdities.

  PHILLIPS, Mr. An Account of the Religion, Manners, and the Learning of
  the People of Malabar. 16mo. London, 1717.

  PICTET, Adolphe. LES ORIGINES Indo-Européenes. 2 vols. imp. 8vo.
  1859-1863.

  PIGAFETTA, and other contemporary Writers. The first Voyage round the
  World by MAGELLAN, translated from the accounts of ——. By Lord Stanley of
  Alderley. HAK. SOC. 1874.

  PILOT, THE ENGLISH, by Thornton. Part III. Folio. 1711.

  PINTO, Fernam MENDEZ. PEREGRINAÇÃO de —— por elle escrita, &c. Folio.
  Originally published at Lisbon, 1614.

  PINTO (COGAN'S). The Voyages and Adventures of Fernand Mendez P., A
  Portugal, &c. Done into English by H. C. Gent. Folio. London, 1653.

  PIONEER & PIONEER MAIL. (Daily and Weekly Newspapers published at
  Allahabad.)

  PISO, Gulielmus, de Indiae utriusque Re Naturali et Medicâ. Folio.
  Amsterdam, 1658. See _Bontius_, whose book is attached.

  [PLATTS, J. T. A Dictionary of Urdū, Classical Hindī, and English.
  London, 1884.]

  PLAYFAIR, G. TALEEF-I-SHEREEF, or Indian Materia Medica. Tr. from the
  original by. Calcutta, 1883.

  POGGIUS DE VARIETATE FORTUNAE. The quotations under this reference are
  from the reprint of what pertains to the travels of Nicolo Conti in Dr.
  Friedr. Kuntsmann's _Die Kenntniss Indiens_. München. 1863.

  POLLOK, Lt.-Col. SPORT IN BRITISH BURMAH, Assam, and the Jynteah Hills. 2
  vols. 1879.

  POLO, The Book of Ser Marco, the Venetian. Newly Tr. and Ed. by Colonel
  Henry Yule, C.B. In 2 vols. 1871. 2nd ed., revised, with new matter and
  many new Illustrations. 1875.

  PRICE, Joseph. _Tracts._ 3 vols. 8vo. 1783.

  PRIDHAM, C. An Hist., Pol. and Stat. Ac. of Ceylon and its Dependencies.
  2 vols. 8vo. 1849.

  PRIMOR E HONRA da Vida Soldadesca no estado da India. Fr. A. Freyre
  (1580). Lisbon, 1630.

  PRINGLE (Mrs.) M.A. A Journey in East Africa. 1880.

  [PRINGLE, A. T. Selections from the Consultations of the Agent, Governor,
  and Council of Fort St. George, 1681. 4th Series. Madras, 1893.

  —— The Diary and Consultation Book of the Agent, Governor, and Council of
  Fort St. George. 1st Series, 1682-85. 4 vols. (in progress). Madras,
  1894-95.]

  PRINSEP'S ESSAYS. Essays on Indian Antiquities of the late James Prinsep
  ... to which are added his USEFUL TABLES ed. ... by EDWARD THOMAS. 2
  vols. 8vo. 1858.

  PRINSEP, H. T. Hist. of Political and Military Transactions in India,
  during the Adm. of the Marquess of Hastings. 2 vols. 1825.

  PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL in the East. In Three Parts. Ed. of 1718. An
  English Translation of the letters of the first Protestant Missionaries
  ZIEGENBALG and PLUTSCHO.

  PROSPER ALPINUS. Hist. Aegypt. Naturalis et Rerum Aegyptiarum Libri. 3
  vols. sm. 4to. Lugd. Bat. 1755.

  PUNJAB PLANTS, comprising Botanical and Vernacular Names and Uses, by J.
  L. STEWART. Lahore, 1869.

  PUNJAUB TRADE REPORT. Report on the Trade and Resources of the Countries
  on the N.W. Boundary of British India. By R. H. DAVIES, Sec. to Govt.
  Punjab. Lahore, 1862.

  PURCHAS, his PILGRIMES, &c. 4 vols. folio. 1625-26. The Pilgrimage is
  often bound as Vol. V. It is really a separate work.

  —— His Pilgrimage, or Relations of the World, &c. The 4th ed. folio.
  1625. The 1st ed. is of 1614.

  PYRARD DE LAVAL, François. Discours du VOYAGE des Français aux Indes
  Orientales, 1615-16. 2 pts. in 1 vol. 1619 in 2 vols. 12mo. Also
  published, 2 vols. 4to in 1679 as Voyage de Franc. Pyrard de Laval. This
  is most frequently quoted.

    There is a smaller first sketch of 1611, under the name "Discours des
    Voyages des Francais aux Indes Orientales." [Ed. for HAK. SOC. by A.
    Gray and H. C. P. Bell, 1887-89.]



  QANOON-E-ISLAM. See HERKLOTS.



  RAFFLES' Hist. of Java. [2nd. ed. 2 vols. London, 1830.]

  [RAIKES, C. Notes on the North-Western Provinces of India. London, 1852.

  [RÁJENDRALÁLA MÌTRA, Indo-Aryans. Contributions towards the Elucidation
  of their Ancient and Mediæval History. 2 vols. London, 1881.]

  RALEIGH, Sir W. The Discourse of the Empire of GUIANA. Ed. by Sir R.
  Schomburgk. HAK. SOC. 1850.

  RAMĀYANA of TULSI DĀS. Translated by F. GROWSE. 1878. [Revised ed. 1 vol.
  Allahabad, 1883.]

  RAMUSIO, G. B. Delle NAVIGATIONI e Viaggi. 3 vols. folio, in Venetia. The
  editions used by me are Vol. I., 1613; Vol. II., 1606; Vol. III., 1556;
  except a few quotations from C. Federici, which are from Vol. III. of
  1606, in the B. M.

  RASHIDUDDIN, in Quatremère, HISTOIRE DES MONGOLS de la Perse, par
  Raschid-el-din, trad. &c., par M. QUATREMÈRE. Atlas folio. 1836.

  RÂS MÂLÂ, or Hindoo Annals of the Province of Goozerat. By Alex. Kinloch
  Forbes, H.E.I.C.C.S. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1856.

    Also a New Edition in one volume, 1878.

  RATES AND VALUATIOUN of Merchandize (SCOTLAND). Published by the
  Treasury. Edinb. 1867.

  RAVENSHAW, J. H. Gaur, its Ruins and Inscriptions. 4to. 1878.

  RAVERTY, Major H. G. ṬABAḲĀT-I-NĀṢIRI, E.T. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1881.

  RAWLINSON'S HERODOTUS. 4 vols. 8vo. 4th edition. 1880.

  RAY, Mr. John. A COLLECTION of Curious Travels and Voyages. In Two Parts
  (includes RAUWOLFF). The second edition. 2 vols. 1705.

  —— Historia Plantarum. Folio. _See_ p. 957_a_.

  —— Synopsis Methodica Animalium Quadrupedum et Serpentini Generis, &c.
  Auctore Joanne Raio, F.R.S. Londini, 1693.

  RAYNAL, Abbé W. F. HISTOIRE PHILOSOPHIQUE et Politique des Etablissements
  des Européens dans les deux Indes. (First published, Amsterdam, 1770. 4
  vols. First English translation by J. Justamond, London, 1776.) There
  were an immense number of editions of the original, with modifications,
  and a second English version by the same Justamond in 6 vols. 1798.

  REFORMER, A TRUE. (By Col. George CHESNEY, R.E.). 3 vols. 1873.

  REGULATIONS for the Hon. COMPANY'S TROOPS on the Coast of COROMANDEL, by
  M.-Gen. Sir A. Campbell, K.B., &c. &c. Madras, 1787.

  REINAUD. FRAGMENS sur l'Inde, in _Journ. Asiatique_, Ser. IV. tom. iv.

  —— _See_ RELATION.

  —— MÉMOIRE sur l'Inde. 4to. 1849.

  RELATION des VOYAGES FAITES PAR LES ARABES et les Persans ... trad., &c.,
  par M. Reinaud. 2 sm. vols. Paris, 1845.

  RENNELL, Major James. MEMOIR of a Map of Hindoostan, or the Mogul Empire.
  3rd edition. 4to. 1793.

  RESENDE, Garcia de. CHRON. del Rey dom João II. Folio. Evora, 1554.

  [REVELATIONS, the, of an Orderly. By Paunchkouree Khan. Benares, 1866.]

  RHEDE, H., van Drakenstein. HORTUS MALABARICUS. 6 vols. folio. Amstelod.
  1686.

  RHYS DAVIDS. Buddhism. S.P.C.K. _No date_ (more shame to S.P.C.K.).

  RIBEIRO, J. FADALIDADE HISTORICA. (1685.) First published recently.

  [RICE, B. L. Gazetteer of Mysore. 2 vols. London, 1897.

  [RIDDELL, Dr. R. Indian Domestic Economy. 7th ed. Calcutta, 1871.

  [RISLEY, H. H. The Tribes and Castes of Bengal. 2 vols. Calcutta, 1891.]

  RITTER, Carl. ERDKUNDE. 19 vols. in 21. Berlin, 1822-1859.

  ROBINSON, Philip. _See_ GARDEN, IN MY INDIAN.

  ROCHON, Abbé. _See_ p. 816_a_.

  [ROE, Sir T. Embassy to the Court of the Great Mogul, 1615-19. Ed. by W.
  Foster. HAK. SOC. 2 vols. 1899.]

  ROEBUCK, T. An English and Hindoostanee NAVAL DICTIONARY. 12mo. Calcutta,
  1811. _See_ SMALL.

  ROGERIUS, Abr. DE OPEN DEURE tot het Verborgen Hyedendom. 4to. Leyden,
  1651.

    Also sometimes quoted from the French version, viz.:—

  ROGER, Abraham. LA PORTE OUVERTE ... ou la Vraye Representation, &c. 4to.
  Amsterdam, 1670.

    The author was the first Chaplain at Pulicat (1631-1641), and then for
    some years at Batavia (see Havart, p. 132). He returned home in 1647
    and died in 1649, at Gouda (Pref. p. 3). The book was brought out by
    his widow. Thus, at the time that the English Chaplain LORD (q.v.) was
    studying the religion of the Hindus at Surat, the Dutch Chaplain Roger
    was doing the same at Pulicat. The work of the last is in every way
    vastly superior to the former. It was written at Batavia (see p. 117),
    and, owing to its publication after his death, there are a few
    misprints of Indian words. The author had his information from a
    Brahman named Padmanaba (_Padmanābha_), who knew Dutch, and who gave
    him a Dutch translation of Bhartrihari's Satakas, which is printed at
    the end of the book. It is the first translation from Sanskrit into an
    European language (A.B.).

  ROTEIRO DA VIAGEM de VASCO DA GAMA em MCCCCXCVII. 2a edição. Lisboa,
  1861. The 1st ed. was published in 1838. The work is inscribed to Alvaro
  Velho. See Figanière, _Bibliog. Hist. Port._ p. 159. (Note by A.B.).

  —— _See_ DE CASTRO.

  ROUSSET LÉON. A TRAVERS LA CHINE. 8vo. Paris, 1878.

  [ROW, T. V. Manual of Tanjore District. Madras, 1883.]

  ROYLE, J. F., M.D. An Essay on the Antiquity of HINDOO MEDICINE. 8vo.
  1837.

  —— Illustrations of the BOTANY and other branches of Nat. History of the
  HIMALAYAS, and of the Floras of Cashmere. 2 vols. folio. 1839.

  RUBRUK, Wilhelmus de. ITINERARIUM in RECUEIL DE VOYAGES et de Mémoires de
  la Soc. de Géographie. Tom. iv. 1837.

  RUMPHIUS (Geo. Everard Rumphf.). Herbarium Amboinense. 7 vols. folio.
  Amstelod. 1741. (He died in 1693.)

  RUSSELL, Patrick. An Account of Indian SNAKES collected on the coast of
  Coromandel. 2 vols. folio. 1803.

  RYCAUT, SIR PAUL. PRESENT STATE of the Ottoman Empire. Folio, 1687.
  Appended to ed. of KNOLLYS' HIST. of the Turks.



  SAAR, Johann Jacob, Ost-Indianische FUNFZEHEN-JÄHRIGE KRIEGS-DIENSTE
  (&c.). (1644-1659.) Folio. Nürnberg, 1672.

  SACY, Silvestre de. Relation de l'Egypte. _See_ ABDALLATIF.

  —— CHRESTOMATHIE ARABE. 2de Ed. 3 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1826-27.

  SADIK ISFAHANI, The Geographical Works of. Translated by J. C. from
  original Persian MSS., &c. Oriental Translation Fund, 1832.

  SAINSBURY, W. Noel. CALENDAR of State Papers, EAST INDIES. Vol. I., 1862
  (1513-1616); Vol. II., 1870 (1617-1621); Vol. III., 1878 (1622-1624);
  Vol. IV., 1884 (1625-1629). An admirable work.

  SANANG SETZEN. GESCHICHTE DER OST-MONGOLEN ... von Ssanang Ssetzen
  Chungtaidschi der Ordus aus dem Mongol ... von Isaac Jacob Schmidt. 4to.
  St. Petersburg, 1829.

  [SANDERSON, G. P. Thirteen Years among the Wild Beasts of India, 3rd ed.
  London, 1882.]

  SANGERMANO, Rev. Father. A description of the BURMESE EMPIRE. Translated
  by W. Tandy, D.D. (Or. Transl. Fund). 4to. Rome, 1833.

  SAN ROMAN, Fray A. HISTORIA GENERAL de la India Oriental. Folio.
  Valladolid, 1603.

  SASSETTI, LETTERE, contained in DE GUBERNATIS, q.v.

  SATY. REV. The Saturday Review, London weekly newspaper.

  SCHILTBERGER, Johann. The Bondage and TRAVELS of. Tr. by Capt. J. Buchan
  Telfer, R.N. HAK. SOC. 1879.

  SCHOUTEN, WOUTER. Oost-Indische VOYAGIE, &c. t'Amsterdam, 1676.

    This is the Dutch original rendered in German as WALTER SCHULZEN, q.v.

  [SCHRADER, O. Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples. Tr. by F. B.
  Jevons. London, 1890.]

  SCHULZEN, Walter. Ost-Indische Reise-Beschreibung. Folio. Amsterdam,
  1676. See SCHOUTEN.

  SCHUYLER, Eugene. TURKISTAN. 2 vols. 8vo. 1876.

  [SCOTT, J. G. and J. P. Hardiman. Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan
  States. 5 vols. Rangoon, 1900.]

  SCRAFTON, Luke. REFLEXIONS on the Government of Hindostan, with a Sketch
  of the Hist. of Bengal. 1770.

  SEELY, Capt. J. B. The WONDERS OF ELLORA. 8vo. 1824.

  SEIR MUTAQHERIN, or a View of Modern Times, being a History of India from
  the year 1118 to 1195 of the Hedjirah. From the Persian of Gholam Hussain
  Khan. 2 vols. in 3. 4to. Calcutta, 1789.

  SETON-KARR, W. S., and Hugh Sandeman. SELECTIONS from Calcutta Gazettes
  (1784-1823). 5 vols. 8vo. (The 4th and 5th by H. S.) Calcutta, 1864-1869.

  SHAW, ROBERT. Visits to HIGH TARTARY, Yarkand, and Kâshghâr, 1871.

  SHAW, Dr. T. Travels or Observations relating to several Parts of BARBARY
  and the Levant. 2nd ed. 1757. (Orig. ed. is of 1738).

  SHELVOCKE'S VOYAGE. A V. round the World, by the Way of the Great South
  Sea, Perform'd in the Years 1719, 20, 21, 22. By Capt. George S. London,
  1726.

  SHERRING, Revd., M.A. Hindu Tribes and Castes. 3 vols. 4to. Calcutta,
  1872-81.

  SHERWOOD, Mrs. STORIES from the Church Catechism. Ed. 1873. This work was
  originally published about 1817, but I cannot trace the exact date. It is
  almost unique as giving some view of the life of the non-commissioned
  ranks of a British regiment in India, though of course much is changed
  since its date.

  SHERWOOD, Mrs., The Life of, chiefly Autobiographical. 1857.

  SHIPP, JOHN. MEMOIRS of the Extraordinary Military Career of ... written
  by Himself. 2nd ed. (First ed., 1829). 3 vols. 8vo. 1830.

  SIBREE, Revd. J. THE GREAT AFRICAN ISLAND. 1880.

  SIDI 'ALI. The MOHIT, by S. A. Kapudan. Exts. translated by Joseph v.
  Hammer, in _J. As. Soc. Bengal_, Vols. III. & V.

  —— RELATION des VOYAGES de, nommé ordinairement Katibi Roumi, trad. sur
  la version allemande de M. Diez par M. Moris in _Journal Asiatique_, Ser.
  I. tom. ix.

  [—— The Travels and Adventures of the Turkish Admiral. Trans. by A.
  Vambéry. London, 1899.]

  SIGOLI, Simone. VIAGGIO al Monte Sinai. See FRESCOBALDI.

  SIMPKIN. See _Letters_.

  [SKEAT, W. W. Malay Magic, being an Introduction to the Folklore and
  Popular Religion of the Malay Peninsula. 8vo. London, 1900.

  [SKINNER, Capt. T. Excursions in India, including a Walk over the
  Himalaya Mountains to the Sources of the Jumna and the Ganges, 2nd ed. 2
  vols. London, 1833.]

  SKINNER, Lt.-Col. James, Military Memoirs of. Ed. by J. B. Fraser. 2
  vols. 1851.

  SLEEMAN, Lt.-Col. (Sir Wm.). RAMASEEANA and Vocabulary of the Peculiar
  Language of the Thugs. 8vo. Calcutta, 1836.

  —— RAMBLES AND RECOLLECTIONS of an Indian Official. 2 vols. large 8vo.
  1844. An excellent book. [New ed. in 2 vols., by V. A. Smith, in
  Constable's Oriental Miscellany. London, 1893.]

  [—— A Journey through the Kingdom of Oudh in 1849-50. 2 vols. London,
  1858.]

  SMALL, Rev. G. A LASKARI Dictionary. 12mo., 1882 (being an enlarged ed.
  of ROEBUCK, q.v.).

  SMITH, R. BOSWORTH. LIFE OF LORD LAWRENCE. 2 vols. 8vo. 1883.

  SMITH, Major L. F. Sketch of the REGULAR CORPS in the service of Native
  Princes. 4to. Tract. Calcutta, N.D. London. 1805.

  [SOCIETY in India, by an Indian Officer. 2 vols. London, 1841.

  SOCIETY, Manners, Tales, and Fictions of India. 3 vols. London, 1844.]

  SOLVYNS, F. B. LES HINDOUS. 4 vols, folio. Paris, 1808.

  SONNERAT. VOYAGES aux Indes Orientales et à la Chine. 2 vols. 4to. 1781.
  Also 3 vols. 8vo. 1782.

  SOUSA, P. Francesco de. ORIENTE CONQUISTADO a Jesus Christo pelos Padres
  da Corapanha de Jesus. Folio. Lisbon. 1710. Reprint of Pt. I., at Bombay,
  1881.

  SOUTHEY, R. CURSE OF KEHAMA. 1810. In Collected Works.

  SPIELBERGEN van Waerwijck, VOYAGE OF. (Four Voyages to the E. Indies from
  1594 to 1604, in Dutch.) 1646.

  SPRENGER, Prof. Aloys. Die POST UND REISE-ROUTEN des Orients. 8vo.
  Leipzig, 1864.

  [STANFORD Dictionary, the, of Anglicised Words and Phrases, by C. A. M.
  Fennell. Cambridge, 1892.]

  STANLEY'S VASCO DA GAMA. _See_ CORREA.

  STAUNTON, Sir G. Authentic ACCOUNT of Lord Macartney's Embassy to the
  Emperor of China. 2 vols. 4to. 1797.

  STAVORINUS. VOYAGE to the E. Indies. Tr. from Dutch by S. H. Wilcocke. 3
  vols. 1798.

  STEDMAN, J. G. Narrative of a Five Years' Expedition against the Revolted
  Negroes in Surinam. 2 vols. 4to. 1806.

  STEPHEN, Sir James F. Story of NUNCOMAR and Impey. 2 vols. 1885.

  STOKES, M. INDIAN FAIRY TALES. Calcutta, 1879.

  STRANGFORD, Viscount, Select Writings of. 2 vols. 8vo. 1869.

  ST. PIERRE, B. de. LA CHAUMIÈRE INDIENNE. 1791.

  [STUART, H. A. _See_ STURROCK, J.

  [STURROCK, J. and Stuart, H. A. Manual of S. Canara. 2 vols. Madras,
  1894-95.]

  SUBSIDIOS para a Historia da India Portugueza. (Published by the Royal
  Academy of Lisbon.) Lisbon, 1878.

  SULIVAN, Capt. G. L., R.A. DHOW CHASING in Zanzibar Waters, and on the
  Eastern Coast of Africa. 1873.

  SURGEON'S DAUGHTER. By Sir WALTER SCOTT. 1827. Reference by chapter.

  SYMES, Major Michael. Account of an EMBASSY to the Kingdom of AVA, in the
  year 1795. 4to. 1800.



  TARANATHA'S GESCHICHTE DES BUDDHISMUS in India. Germ. Tr. by A.
  Schiefner. St. Petersburg, 1869.

  TAVERNIER, J. B. Les Six Voyages en Turquie, en Perse, et aux Indes. 2
  vols. 4to. Paris, 1676.

  —— E.T., which is generally that quoted, being contained in Collections
  of Travels, &c.; being the Travels of Monsieur Tavernier, Bernier, and
  other great men. In 2 vols, folio. London, 1684. [Ed. by V. A. Ball. 2
  vols. London, 1889.]

  TAYLOR, Col. Meadows. STORY OF MY LIFE. 8vo. (1877). 2nd ed. 1878.

  [TAYLOR, J. A Descriptive and Historical Account of the Cotton
  Manufacture of Dacca, in Bengal. London, 1851.]

  TEIGNMOUTH, Mem. of LIFE of John Lord, by his Son, Lord Teignmouth. 2
  vols. 1843.

  TEIXEIRA, P. PEDRO. RELACIONES ... de los Reyes de Persia, de los Reyes
  de Harmuz, y de un Viage dende la India Oriental hasta Italia por terra
  (all three separately paged). En Amberes, 1610.

  TENNENT, Sir Emerson. _See_ EMERSON.

  TENREIRO, Antonio. ITINERARIO ... como da India veo por terra a estes
  Reynos. Orig. ed. Coimbra, 1560. Edition quoted (by Burnell) seems to be
  of Lisbon, 1762.

  TERRY. A VOYAGE TO EAST INDIA, &c. Observed by Edward Terry, then
  Chaplain to the Right Hon. Sir Thomas Row, Knt., Lord Ambassador to the
  Great Mogul. Reprint, 1777. Ed. 1655.

  —— An issue without the Author's name, printed at the end of the E.T. of
  the Travels of Sig. Pietro della Valle into East India, &c. 1665.

  —— Also a part in Purchas, Vol. II.

  THEVENOT, Melchizedek. (COLLECTION). Relations de divers Voyages Curieux.
  2nd ed. 2 vols. folio. 1696.

  THEVENOT, J. de. VOYAGES en Europe, Asie et Afrique. 2nd ed. 5 vols.
  12mo. 1727.

  THEVET, André. COSMOGRAPHIE Universelle. Folio. Paris, 1575.

  THEVET. LES SINGULARITEZ de la FRANCE ANTARTICQUE, autrement nommée
  Amerique. Paris, 1558.

  THOMAS, H. S. THE ROD IN INDIA. 8vo, Mangalore, 1873.

  THOMAS, Edward. CHRONICLES OF THE PATHÁN KINGS of Dehli. 8vo. 1871.

  THOMSON, Dr. T. WESTERN HIMALAYA AND TIBET. 8vo. London, 1852.

  THOMSON, J. The STRAITS OF MALACCA, Indo-China, and China. 8vo. 1875.

  THORNHILL, Mark. PERSONAL ADVENTURES, &c., in the Mutiny. 8vo. 1884.

  [—— Haunts and Hobbies of an Indian Official. London, 1899.]

  THUNBERG, C. P., M.D. TRAVELS in Europe, Africa, and Asia, made between
  the years 1770 and 1779. E.T. 4 vols. 8vo. 1799.

  TIMOUR, INSTITUTES OF. E.T. by Joseph White. 4to. Oxford, 1783.

  TIMUR, Autobiographical MEMOIRS OF. E.T. by Major C. Stewart (Or. Tr.
  Fund). 4to. 1830.

  TIPPOO Sultan, Select LETTERS of. E.T. by Col. W. Kirkpatrick. 4to. 1811.

  TIPÚ SULTÁN, HIST. of, by Hussein Ali Khan Kirmani. E.T. by Miles. (Or.
  Tr. Fund.) 8 vo. 1864.

  TOD, Lieut.-Col. James. ANNALS and Antiquities of Rajasthan. 2 vols. 4to.
  1829. [Reprinted at Calcutta. 2 vols. 1884.]

  TOHFUT-UL-MUJAHIDEEN (Hist. of the Mahomedans in Malabar). Trd. by Lieut.
  M. J. Rowlandson. (Or. Tr. Fund.) 8vo. 1833. (Very badly edited.)

  TOM CRINGLE'S LOG. Ed. 1863. (Originally published in Blackwood, c.
  1830-31.)

  TOMBO DO ESTADO DA INDIA. _See_ SUBSIDIOS and BOTELHO.

  TR. LIT. SOC. BO. Transactions of the Literary Society of Bombay. 3 vols.
  4to. London, 1819-23.

  TREVELYAN, G. O. _See_ COMPETITION-WALLAH and DAWK-BUNGALOW.

  TRIBES ON MY FRONTIER. Bombay, 1883.

  TRIGAUTIUS. De Christiana Expeditione apud Sinas. 4to. Lugduni, 1616.

  TURNOUR'S (Hon. George) MAHAWANSO. The M. in Roman characters with the
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  TYLOR, E. B. PRIMITIVE CULTURE. 2 vols. 8vo. 1871.

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  1861.]

  TYR, GUILLAUME DE, et ses Continuateurs—Texte du XIII. Siècle—par M.
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  [TYTLER, A. F. Considerations on the Present Political State of India. 2
  vols. London, 1815.]



  UZZANO, G. A book of _Pratica della Mercatura_ of 1440, which forms the
  4th vol. of _Della Decima_. _See_ PEGOLOTTI.



  VALENTIA, Lord. Voyages and Travels to India, &c. 1802-1806. 3 vols. 4to.
  1809.

  VALENTIJN. Oud en Niew OOST-INDIEN. 6 vols. folio—often bound in 8 or 9.
  Amsterdam, 1624-6.

  [VÁMBÉRY, A. Sketches of Central Asia. Additional Chapters on my Travels,
  Adventures, and on the Ethnology of Central Asia. London, 1868.]

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  VAN DEN BROECKE, Pieter. Reysen naer Oost Indien, &c. Amsterdam, edns.
  1620? 1634, 1646, 1648.

  VANDER LITH. _See_ MERVEILLES.

  VANITY FAIR, a Novel without a Hero, THACKERAY'S. This is usually quoted
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  VANSITTART, H. A NARRATIVE of the Transactions in Bengal, 1760-1764. 3
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    This is the edn. quoted with a few exceptions. Mr. Burnell writes:

    "We have also used the second edition of the original (?) Italian text
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    and a fourth at Venice in 1535. This interesting Journal was translated
    into English by Eden in 1576 (8vo.), and Purchas (ii. pp. 1483-1494)
    gives an abridgement; it is thus one of the most important sources."

    Neither Mr. Winter Jones nor my friend Dr. Badger, in editing Varthema,
    seem to have been aware of the disparagement cast on his veracity in
    the famous Colloquios of Garcia de Orta (f. 29_v._ and f. 30). These
    affect his statements as to his voyages in the further East; and deny
    his ever having gone beyond Calicut and Cochin; a thesis which it would
    not be difficult to demonstrate out of his own narrative.

  [VERELST, H. A View of the Rise, Progress, and Present State of the
  English Government in Bengal, including a Reply to the Misrepresentations
  of Mr. Bolts, and other Writers. London, 1772.]

  VERMEULEN, Genet. Oost Indische VOYAGE. 1677.

  VIGNE, G. TRAVELS in Kashmir, Ladakh, &c. 2 vols. 8vo. 1842.

  VINCENZO MARIA. Il VIAGGIO all' Indie orientalí del P. ... Procuratore
  Generale de' Carmelitani Scalzi. Folio. Roma, 1672.

  VITRIACI, Jacobi (Jacques de Vitry). Hist. Jherosolym. _See_ BONGARS.

  VOCABULISTA in ARABICO. (Edited by C. Schiaparelli.) Firenze, 1871.

  VOIGT. HORTUS SUBURBANUS Calcuttensis. 8vo. Calcutta, 1845.

  VON HARFF, Arnold. PILGERFAHRT des Ritters (1496-1499). From MSS. Cöln,
  1860.

  VOYAGE TO THE EAST INDIES in 1747 and 1748.... Interspersed with many
  useful and curious Observations and Anecdotes. 8vo. London, 1762.

  VÜLLERS, J. A. LEXICON Persico-Latinum. 2 vols. and Suppt. Bonnae ad
  Rhenum. 1855-67.



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  WANDERINGS OF A PILGRIM in Search of the Picturesque (by Fanny Parkes). 2
  vols. imp. 8vo. 1850.

  WARD, W. A VIEW OF THE History, Literature, and Religion of the HINDOOS.
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    In the titles of first 2 vols. publd. in 1817, this ed. is stated to be
    in 2 vols. In those of the 3rd and 4th, 1820, it is stated to be in 4
    vols. This arose from some mistake, the author being absent in India
    when the first two were published.

    The work originally appeared at Serampore, 1811, 4 vols. 4to, and an
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  WARING, E. J. The Tropical Resident at Home, &c. 8vo. 1866.

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  —— EARLY RECORDS of British India. Calcutta, 1878. 2nd ed. 1879.

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  1873-74.

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  Parliament. Folio. 1821.

  [WILKINSON, R. J. A Malay-English Dictionary. Part I. Singapore, 1901.]

  WILKS, Col. Mark. HISTORICAL SKETCHES of the South of India in an Attempt
  to trace the Hist. of Mysoor. 3 vols. 4to. 1810-17. 2nd ed., 2 vols. 8vo.
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  WILLIAMS, Monier. RELIGIOUS THOUGHT and Life in India. Part I., 1883.

  [—— Brāhmanism and Hindūism. 4th ed. London, 1891.]

  WILLIAMS, S. Wells. CHINESE COMMERCIAL GUIDE. 4th ed. Canton, 1856.

  WILLIAMSON, V. M. The East India Vade Mecum, by Capt. Thomas Williamson
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  WILLIAMSON, Capt. T. ORIENTAL FIELD SPORTS. Atlas folio. 1807.

  WILLS, C. T. In the Land of the Lion and the Sun, or MODERN PERSIA. 1883.

  [WILSON, A. The Abode of Snow, Observations on a Journey from Chinese
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  WILSON, JOHN, D.D., Life of, by George SMITH, LL.D. 1878.

  [—— Indian Caste. 2 vols. Bombay, 1877.]

  WOLFF, J. Travels and Adventures. 2 vols. London, 1860.]

  WOLLASTON, A. N. ENGLISH-PERSIAN DICTIONARY. 8vo. 1882.

  WRIGHT, T. EARLY TRAVELS in Palestine, edited with Notes. (Bohn.) 1848.

  WRIGHT, T. Domestic Manners and Sentiments in England in the Middle Ages.
  1862.

  WYLLIE, J. W. S. ESSAYS on the External Policy of India. Edited by Dr. W.
  W. Hunter. 1875.

  WYTFLIET. HISTOIRE des Indes. Fo., 3 pts. Douay. 1611.



  XAVERII, Scti. Francisci. Indiarum Apostoli EPISTOLARUM Libri Quinque.
  Pragae, 1667.

  XAVIER, ST. FRANCIS, Life and Letters of, by Rev. H. I. COLERIDGE (S.J.).
  2 vols. 8vo. 1872.



  [YUSUF ALI, A. A Monograph on Silk Fabrics produced in the North-Western
  Provinces and Oudh. Allahabad, 1900.]



  ZEDLER, J. H. Grosses Vollständliges Universal Lexicon. 64 vols. folio.
  Leipzig, 1732-1750; and Supplement, 4 vols. 1751-1754.

  ZIEGENBALG. _See_ PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL.



CORRIGENDA.


  PAGE. COL.

  32  _b._—APOLLO BUNDER. Mr. S. M. Edwardes (_History of Bombay, Town
            and Island, Census Report_, 1901, p. 17) derives this name from
            'Pallav Bandar,' 'the Harbour of Clustering Shoots.'

  274 _a._—CREASE. 1817. "the Portuguese commander requested permission
            to see the CROSS which Janiere wore...."—_Rev. R. Fellowes_,
            _History of Ceylon_, chap. v. quoted in 9 ser. _N. & Q._ I. 85.

  276 _b._—_For_ "Porus" _read_ "Portus."

  380 _b._—_For_ "It is probable that what that geographer ..." _read_ "It
            is probable from what ..."

  499 _b._—The reference to BAO was accidentally omitted. The word is
            Peguan _bā_ (pronounced _bā-a_), "a monastery." The
            quotation from Sangermano (p. 88) runs: "There is not any
            village, however small, that has not one or more large wooden
            houses, which are a species of convent, by the Portuguese in
            India called BAO."

  511 _a._—_For_ "ADAWLVT" _read_ "ADAWLAT."

  565 _a._—Mr. Edwardes (_op. cit._ p. 5) derives MAZAGONG from Skt.
            _matsya-grāma_, "fish-village," due to "the pungent odour of
            the fish, which its earliest inhabitants caught, dried and
            ate."

  655 _b._—_For_ "Steven's" _read_ "Stevens'."

  678 _a._—Mr. Edwardes (_op. cit._ p. 15) derives PARELL from _padel_,
           "the Tree-Trumpet Flower" (_Bignonia suaveolens_).

  816 _a._—_For_ "_shā-bāsh_" _read_ "_shāh-bāsh_."

  858 _b._—_For_ "SOWAR" _read_ "SONAR, a goldsmith."

  920 _b._—TIFFIN add:

            1784.—"Each temperate day
                    With health glides away,
                    No TRIFFINGS[20] our forenoons profane."
            —_Memoirs of the Late War in Asia_, by _An Officer of
               Colonel Baillie's Detachment_, ii. _Appendix_, _p._ 293.

            1802.—"I suffered a very large library to be useless whence I
            might have extracted that which would have been of more service
            to me than running about to TIFFINS and noisy parties."
            —_Metcalfe_, to _J. W. Sherer_, in _Kaye_, _Life of Lord
              Metcalfe_, I. 81.

A GLOSSARY
OF
ANGLO-INDIAN COLLOQUIAL TERMS AND
PHRASES OF ANALOGOUS ORIGIN.


ABADA, s. A word used by old Spanish and Portuguese writers for a
'rhinoceros,' and adopted by some of the older English narrators. The
origin is a little doubtful. If it were certain that the word did not occur
earlier than c. 1530-40, it would most probably be an adoption from the
Malay _badak_, 'a rhinoceros.' The word is not used by Barros where he
would probably have used it if he knew it (see quotation under GANDA); and
we have found no proof of its earlier existence in the language of the
Peninsula; if this should be established we should have to seek an Arabic
origin in such a word as _abadat_, _ābid_, fem. _ābida_, of which one
meaning is (_v._ _Lane_) 'a wild animal.' The usual form _abada_ is
certainly somewhat in favour of such an origin. [Prof. Skeat believes that
the _a_ in _abada_ and similar Malay words represents the Arabic article,
which was commonly used in Spanish and Portuguese prefixed to Arabic and
other native words.] It will be observed that more than one authority makes
it the female rhinoceros, and in the dictionaries the word is feminine. But
so Barros makes _Ganda_. [Mr W. W. Skeat suggests that the female was the
more dangerous animal, or the one most frequently met with, as is certainly
the case with the crocodile.]

  1541.—"Mynes of Silver, Copper, Tin, and Lead, from whence great
  quantities thereof were continually drawn, which the Merchants carried
  away with Troops of Elephants and Rhinoceroses (_em cafilas de elefantes
  e_ BADAS) for to transport into the Kingdoms of _Sornau_, by us called
  _Siam_, _Passiloco_, _Sarady_, (_Savady_ in orig.), _Tangu_, _Prom_,
  _Calaminham_ and other Provinces...."—_Pinto_ (orig. cap. xli.) in
  _Cogan_, p. 49. The kingdoms named here are Siam (see under SARNAU);
  Pitchalok and Sawatti (now two provinces of Siam); Taungu and Prome in B.
  Burma; Calaminham, in the interior of Indo-China, more or less fabulous.

  1544.—"Now the King of Tartary was fallen upon the city of _Pequin_ with
  so great an army as the like had never been seen since _Adam's_ time; in
  this army ... were seven and twenty Kings, under whom marched 1,800,000
  men ... with four score thousand Rhinoceroses" (_donde partirão com
  oitenta mil_ BADAS).—_Ibid._ (orig. cap. cvii.) in _Cogan_, p. 149.

  [1560.—See quotation under LAOS.]

  1585.—"It is a very fertile country, with great stoare of prouisioun;
  there are elephants in great number and ABADAS, which is a kind of beast
  so big as two great buls, and hath vppon his snowt a little
  horne."—_Mendoza_, ii. 311.

  1592.—"We sent commodities to their king to barter for Amber-greese, and
  for the hornes of ABATH, whereof the Kinge onely hath the traffique in
  his hands. Now this ABATH is a beast that hath one horne only in her
  forehead, and is thought to be the female Vnicorne, and is highly
  esteemed of all the Moores in those parts as a most soveraigne remedie
  against poyson."—_Barker_ in _Hakl._ ii. 591.

  1598.—"The ABADA, or Rhinoceros, is not in India,[21] but onely in
  _Bengala_ and _Patane_."—_Linschoten_, 88. [Hak. Soc. ii. 8.]

  "Also in _Bengala_ we found great numbers of the beasts which in Latin
  are called _Rhinocerotes_, and of the Portingalles ABADAS."—_Ibid._ 28.
  [Hak. Soc. i. 96.]

  c. 1606.—"... ove portano le loro mercanzie per venderle a' Cinesi,
  particolarmente ... molti corni della BADA, detto
  Rinoceronte...."—_Carletti_, p. 199.

  1611.—"BADA, a very fierce animal, called by another more common name
  _Rhinoceros_. In our days they brought to the King Philip II., now in
  glory, a BADA which was long at Madrid, having his horn sawn off, and
  being blinded, for fear he should hurt anybody.... The name of BADA is
  one imposed by the Indians themselves; but assuming that there is no
  language but had its origin from the Hebrew in the confusion of tongues
  ... it will not be out of the way to observe that BADA is an Hebrew word,
  from _Badad_, 'solus, solitarius,' for this animal is produced in desert
  and very solitary places."—_Cobarruvias_, s.v.

  1613.—"And the woods give great timber, and in them are produced
  elephants, BADAS...."—_Godinho de Eredia_, 10 _v_.

  1618.—"A China brought me a present of a cup of ABADO (or black unecorns
  horne) with sugar cakes."—_Cocks's Diary_, ii. 56.

  1626.—On the margin of Pigafetta's _Congo_, as given by Purchas (ii.
  1001), we find: "Rhinoceros or ABADAS."

  1631.—"Lib. v. cap. 1. De ABADA seu Rhinocerote."—_Bontii Hist. Nat. et
  Med._

  1726.—"ABADA, s. f. La hembra del Rhinoceronte."—_Dicc. de la Lengua
  Castellana._


ABCÁREE, ABKÁRY. H. from P. _āb-kārī_, the business of distilling or
selling (strong) waters, and hence elliptically the excise upon such
business. This last is the sense in which it is used by Anglo-Indians. In
every district of India the privilege of selling spirits is farmed to
contractors, who manage the sale through retail shopkeepers. This is what
is called the 'ABKARY System.' The system has often been attacked as
promoting tippling, and there are strong opinions on both sides. We subjoin
an extract from a note on the subject, too long for insertion in integrity,
by one of much experience in Bengal—Sir G. U. Yule.

  _June, 1879._—"Natives who have expressed their views are, I believe,
  unanimous in ascribing the increase of drinking to our ABKAREE system. I
  don't say that this is putting the cart before the horse, but they are
  certainly too forgetful of the increased means in the country, which, if
  not the sole cause of the increased consumption, has been at least a very
  large factor in that result. I myself believe that more people drink now
  than formerly; but I knew one gentleman of very long and intimate
  knowledge of Bengal, who held that there was as much drinking in 1820 as
  in 1860."

  In any case exaggeration is abundant. All Sanskrit literature shows that
  tippling is no absolute novelty in India. [See the article on "Spirituous
  Drinks in Ancient India," by Rajendralala Mitra, _Indo-Aryans_, i. 389
  _seqq._]

  1790.—"In respect to ABKARRY, or Tax on Spirituous Liquors, which is
  reserved for Taxation ... it is evident that we cannot establish a
  general rate, since the quantity of consumption and expense of
  manufacture, etc., depends upon the vicinity of principal stations. For
  the amount leviable upon different Stills we must rely upon officers'
  local knowledge. The public, indeed, cannot suffer, since, if a few
  stills are suppressed by over-taxation, drunkenness is diminished."—In a
  _Letter from Board of Revenue_ (Bengal) to Government, 12th July. MS. in
  _India Office_.

  1797.—"The stamps are to have the words 'ABCAREE licenses' inscribed in
  the Persian and Hindu languages and character."—_Bengal Regulations_, x.
  33.


ABIHÓWA. Properly P. _āb-o-hawā_, 'water and air.' The usual Hindustani
expression for 'climate.'

  1786.—"What you write concerning the death of 500 Koorgs from small-pox
  is understood ... they must be kept where the climate [ĀB-O-HAWĀ] may
  best agree with them."—_Tippoo's Letters_, 269.


ABYSSINIA, n.p. This geographical name is a 16-century Latinisation of the
Arabic _Ḥabash_, through the Portuguese _Abex_, bearing much the same
pronunciation, minus the aspirate. [See HUBSHEE.]

  [1598.—"The countrey of the ABEXYNES, at Prester John's
  land."—_Linschoten_, Hak. Soc. i. 38.

  1617.—"He sent mee to buy three ABASSINES."—_Sir T. Roe, Travels_, Hak.
  Soc. ii. 445.]


A. C. (_i.e._ 'after compliments'). In official versions of native letters
these letters stand for the omitted formalities of native compliments.


ACHÁNOCK, n.p. H. _Chānak_ and _Achānak_. The name by which the station of
BARRACKPORE is commonly known to Sepoys and other natives. Some have
connected the name with that of Job _Charnock_, or, as A. Hamilton calls
him, CHANNOCK, the founder of Calcutta, and the quotations render this
probable. Formerly the Cantonment of Secrole at Benares was also known, by
a transfer no doubt, as _Chhotā_ (or 'Little') ACHĀNAK. Two additional
remarks may be relevantly made: (1) Job's name was certainly _Charnock_,
and not _Channock_. It is distinctly signed "Job Charnock," in a MS. letter
from the factory at "Chutta," _i.e._ Chuttanuttee (or Calcutta) in the
India Office records, which I have seen. (2) The map in Valentijn which
shows the village of TSJANNOK, though published in 1726, was apparently
compiled by Van der Broecke in 1662. Hence it is not probable that it took
its name from Job Charnock, who seems to have entered the Company's service
in 1658. When he went to Bengal we have not been able to ascertain. [See
_Diary of Hedges_, edited by Sir H. Yule, ii., xcix. In some "Documentary
Memoirs of Job Charnock," which form part of vol. lxxv. (1888) of the
Hakluyt Soc., Job is said to have "arrived in India in 1655 or 1656."]

  1677.—"The ship _Falcone_ to go up the river to Hughly, or at least to
  CHANNOCK."—Court's Letter to Ft. St. Geo. of 12th December. In _Notes and
  Extracts_, Madras, 1871, No. 1., p. 21; see also p. 23.

  1711.—"CHANOCK-Reach hath two shoals, the upper one in CHANOCK, and the
  lower one on the opposite side ... you must from below _Degon_ as
  aforesaid, keep the starboard shore aboard until you come up with a
  Lime-Tree ... and then steer over with CHANOCK Trees and house between
  the two shoals, until you come mid-river, but no nearer the house."—_The
  English Pilot_, 55.

  1726.—"'t stedeken TSJANNOCK."—_Valentijn_, v. 153. In Val.'s map of
  Bengal also, we find opposite to _Oegli_ (Hoogly), TSJANNOK, and then
  _Collecatte_, and _Calcula_.

  1758.—"Notwithstanding these solemn assurances from the Dutch it was
  judged expedient to send a detachment of troops ... to take possession of
  Tanna Fort and CHARNOC'S Battery opposite to it."—Narrative of Dutch
  attempt in the Hoogly, in _Malcolm's Life of Clive_, ii. 76.

  1810.—"The old village of ACHANOCK stood on the ground which the post of
  Barrackpore now occupies."—_M. Graham_, 142.

  1848.—"From an oral tradition still prevalent among the natives at
  Barrackpore ... we learn that Mr. Charnock built a bungalow there, and a
  flourishing bazar arose under his patronage, before the settlement of
  Calcutta had been determined on. Barrackpore is at this day best known to
  the natives by the name of CHANOCK."—_The Bengal Obituary_, Calc. p. 2.


ACHÁR, s. P. _āchār_, Malay _ắchār_, adopted in nearly all the vernaculars
of India for acid and salt relishes. By Europeans it is used as the
equivalent of 'pickles,' and is applied to all the stores of Crosse and
Blackwell in that kind. We have adopted the word through the Portuguese;
but it is not impossible that Western Asiatics got it originally from the
Latin _acetaria_.—(See _Plin. Hist. Nat._ xix. 19).

  1563.—"And they prepare a conserve of it (_Anacardium_) with salt, and
  when it is green (and this they call ACHAR), and this is sold in the
  market just as olives are with us."—_Garcia_, f. 17.

  1596.—Linschoten in the Dutch gives the word correctly, but in the
  English version (Hak. Soc. ii. 26) it is printed _Machar_.

  [1612.—"ACHAR none to be had except one jar."—_Danvers, Letters_, i.
  230.]

  1616.—"Our _jurebasso's_ (JURIBASSO) wife came and brought me a small
  jarr of ACHAR for a present, desyring me to exskews her husband in that
  he abcented hymselfe to take phisik."—_Cocks_, i. 135.

  1623.—"And all these preserved in a way that is really very good, which
  they call ACCIAO."—_P. della Valle_, ii. 708. [Hak. Soc. ii. 327.]

  1653.—"ACHAR est vn nom Indistanni, ou Indien, que signifie des mangues,
  ou autres fruits confis avec de la moutarde, de l'ail, du sel, et du
  vinaigre à l'Indienne."—_De la Boullaye-le-Gouz_, 531.

  1687.—"ACHAR I presume signifies sauce. They make in the _East Indies_,
  especially at _Siam_ and _Pegu_, several sorts of ACHAR, as of the young
  tops of Bamboes, &c. Bambo-_Achar_ and Mango-_Achar_ are most
  used."—_Dampier_, i. 391.

  1727.—"And the Soldiery, Fishers, Peasants, and Handicrafts (of Goa) feed
  on a little Rice boiled in Water, with a little bit of Salt Fish, or
  ATCHAAR, which is pickled Fruits or Roots."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 252. [And
  see under KEDGEREE.]

  1783.—We learn from Forrest that limes, salted for sea-use against
  scurvy, were used by the _Chulias_ (CHOOLIA), and were called ATCHAR
  (_Voyage to Mergui_, 40). Thus the word passed to Java, as in next
  quotation:

  1768-71.—"When green it (the mango) is made into ATTJAR; for this the
  kernel is taken out, and the space filled in with ginger, pimento, and
  other spicy ingredients, after which it is pickled in
  vinegar."—_Stavorinus_, i. 237.


ACHEEN, n.p. (P. _Āchīn_ [Tam. _Attai_, Malay _Acheh_, _Achih_] 'a
wood-leech'). The name applied by us to the State and town at the N.W.
angle of Sumatra, which was long, and especially during the 16th and 17th
centuries, the greatest native power on that Island. The proper Malay name
of the place is _Acheh_. The Portuguese generally called it _Achem_ (or
frequently by the adhesion of the genitive preposition, _Dachem_, so that
Sir F. Greville below makes two kingdoms), but our ACHEEN seems to have
been derived from mariners of the P. Gulf or W. India, for we find the name
so given (_Āchīn_) in the _Āīn-i-Akbari_, and in the Geog. Tables of Ṣādiḳ
Isfahānī. This form may have been suggested by a jingling analogy, such as
Orientals love, with Māchīn (MACHEEN). See also under LOOTY.

  1549.—"Piratarum ACENORUM nec periculum nec suspicio fuit."—_S. Fr. Xav.
  Epistt._ 337.

  1552.—"But after Malacca was founded, and especially at the time of our
  entry into India, the Kingdom of Pacem began to increase in power, and
  that of Pedir to diminish. And that neighbouring one of ACHEM, which was
  then insignificant, is now the greatest of all."—_Barros_, III. v. 8.

  1563.—

   "Occupado tenhais na guerra infesta
        Ou do sanguinolento,
    Taprobanico[22] ACHEM, que ho mar molesta
    Ou do Cambaico occulto imiguo nosso."
        _Camões, Ode prefixed to Garcia de Orta._

  c. 1569.—"Upon the headland towards the West is the Kingdom of ASSI,
  governed by a Moore King."—_Cæsar Frederike_, tr. in _Hakluyt_, ii. 355.

  c. 1590.—"The _zabád_ (civet), which is brought from the harbour-town of
  Sumatra, from the territory of ACHÍN, goes by the name of
  _Sumatra-zabád_, and is by far the best."—_Āīn_, i. 79.

  1597.—"... do Pegu como do DACHEM."—_King's Letter_, in _Arch. Port. Or._
  fasc. 3, 669.

  1599.—"The iland of Sumatra, or Taprobuna, is possessed by many Kynges,
  enemies to the Portugals; the cheif is the Kinge of DACHEM, who besieged
  them in Malacca.... The Kinges of ACHEYN and Tor (read _Jor_ for
  _Johore_) are in lyke sort enemies to the Portugals."—_Sir Fulke
  Greville_ to Sir F. Walsingham (in _Bruce_, i. 125).

  [1615.—"It so proved that both Ponleema and Governor of Tecoo was come
  hither for ACHEIN."—_Foster, Letters_, iv. 3.

  1623.—"ACEM which is Sumatra."—_P. della Valle_, Hak. Soc. ii. 287.]

  c. 1635.—"ACHÍN (a name equivalent in rhyme and metre to 'Máchín') is a
  well-known island in the Chinese Sea, near to the equinoctial
  line."—_Ṣādiḳ Isfahānī_ (Or. Tr. F.), p. 2.

  1780.—"ARCHIN." See quotation under BOMBAY MARINE.

  1820.—"In former days a great many junks used to frequent ACHIN. This
  trade is now entirely at an end."—_Crawfurd, H. Ind. Arch._ iii. 182.


ADAM'S APPLE. This name (_Pomo d'Adamo_) is given at Goa to the fruit of
the _Mimusops Elengi_, Linn. (_Birdwood_); and in the 1635 ed. of Gerarde's
_Herball_ it is applied to the Plantain. But in earlier days it was applied
to a fruit of the Citron kind.—(See _Marco Polo_, 2nd ed., i. 101), and the
following:

  c. 1580.—"In his hortis (of Cairo) ex arboribus virescunt mala citria,
  aurantia, limonia sylvestria et domestica POMA ADAMI vocata."—_Prosp.
  Alpinus_, i. 16.

  c. 1712.—"It is a kind of lime or citron tree ... it is called POMUM
  ADAMI, because it has on its rind the appearance of two bites, which the
  simplicity of the ancients imagined to be the vestiges of the impression
  which our forefather made upon the forbidden fruit...." _Bluteau_, quoted
  by Tr. of _Alboquerque_, Hak. Soc. i. 100. The fruit has nothing to do
  with _zamboa_, with which Bluteau and Mr. Birch connect it. See JAMBOO.


ADATI, s. A kind of piece-goods exported from Bengal. We do not know the
proper form or etymology. It may have been of half-width (from H. _ādhā_,
'half'). [It may have been half the ordinary length, as the Salampore
(SALEMPOORY) was half the length of the cloth known in Madras as _Punjum_.
(_Madras Man. of Ad._ iii. 799). Also see Yule's note in _Hedges' Diary_,
ii. ccxl.]

  1726.—"_Casseri_ (probably _Kasiári_ in Midnapur Dist.) supplies many
  _Taffatshelas_ (ALLEJA, SHALEE), _Ginggangs_, _Allegias_, and ADATHAYS,
  which are mostly made there."—_Valentijn_, v. 159.

  1813.—Among piece-goods of Bengal: "ADDATIES, Pieces 700" (_i.e._ pieces
  to the ton).—_Milburn_, ii. 221.


ADAWLUT, s. Ar.—H.—_'adālat_, 'a Court of Justice,' from _'adl_, 'doing
justice.' Under the Mohammedan government there were 3 such courts, viz.,
_Nizāmat_ 'ADĀLAT, _Dīwānī_ 'ADĀLAT, and _Faujdārī_ 'ADĀLAT, so-called from
the respective titles of the officials who nominally presided over them.
The first was the chief Criminal Court, the second a Civil Court, the third
a kind of Police Court. In 1793 regular Courts were established under the
British Government, and then the _Sudder_ ADAWLUT (_Ṣadr 'Adālat_) became
the chief Court of Appeal for each Presidency, and its work was done by
several European (Civilian) Judges. That Court was, on the criminal side,
termed _Nizamut Adawlat_, and on the civil side _Dewanny Ad._ At Madras and
Bombay, _Foujdarry_ was the style adopted in lieu of _Nizamut_. This system
ended in 1863, on the introduction of the Penal Code, and the institution
of the High Courts on their present footing. (On the original history and
constitution of the Courts see _Fifth Report_, 1812, p. 6.)

What follows applies only to the Bengal Presidency, and to the
administration of justice under the Company's Courts beyond the limits of
the Presidency town. Brief particulars regarding the history of the Supreme
Courts and those Courts which preceded them will be found under SUPREME
COURT.

The grant, by Shāh 'Ālam, in 1765, of the Dewanny of Bengal, Behar, and
Orissa to the Company, transferred all power, civil and military, in those
provinces, to that body. But no immediate attempt was made to undertake the
direct detailed administration of either revenue or justice by the agency
of the European servants of the Company. Such superintendence, indeed, of
the administration was maintained in the prior acquisitions of the
Company—viz., in the Zemindary of Calcutta, in the Twenty-four Pergunnas,
and in the Chucklas (CHUCKLAH) or districts of Burdwan, Midnapoor, and
Chittagong, which had been transferred by the Nawab, Kāsim 'Ali Khān, in
1760; but in the rest of the territory it was confined to the agency of a
Resident at the Moorshedabad Durbar, and of a 'Chief' at Patna. Justice was
administered by the Mohammedan courts under the native officials of the
Dewanny.

In 1770, European officers were appointed in the districts, under the name
of _Supervisors_, with powers of control over the natives employed in the
collection of the Revenue and the administration of justice, whilst local
councils, with superior authority in all branches, were established at
Moorshedabad and Patna. It was not till two years later that, under express
orders from the Court of Directors, the effective administration of the
provinces was undertaken by the agency of the Company's covenanted
servants. At this time (1772) Courts of Civil Justice (_Mofussil Dewanny
Adawlut_) were established in each of the Districts then recognised. There
were also District Criminal Courts (_Foujdary Adawlut_) held by CAZEE or
MUFTY under the superintendence, like the Civil Court, of the Collectors,
as the Supervisors were now styled; whilst Superior Courts (_Sudder
Dewanny_, _Sudder Nizamut_ ADAWLUT) were established at the Presidency, to
be under the superintendence of three or four members of the Council of
Fort William.

In 1774 the Collectors were recalled, and native 'Amils (AUMIL) appointed
in their stead. Provincial Councils were set up for the divisions of
Calcutta, Burdwan, Dacca, Moorshedabad, Dinagepore, and Patna, in whose
hands the superintendence, both of revenue collection and of the
administration of civil justice, was vested, but exercised by the members
in rotation.

The state of things that existed under this system was discreditable. As
Courts of Justice the provincial Councils were only "colourable imitations
of courts, which had abdicated their functions in favour of their own
subordinate (native) officers, and though their decisions were nominally
subject to the Governor-General in Council, the Appellate Court was even a
more shadowy body than the Courts of first instance. The Court never sat at
all, though there are some traces of its having at one time decided appeals
on the report of the head of the KHALSA, or native exchequer, just as the
Provincial Council decided them on the report of the Cazis and Muftis."[23]

In 1770 the Government resolved that Civil Courts, independent of the
Provincial Councils, should be established in the six divisions named
above,[24] each under a civilian judge with the title of Superintendent of
the _Dewanny Adawlut_; whilst to the Councils should still pertain the
trial of causes relating to the public revenue, to the demands of zemindars
upon their tenants, and to boundary questions. The appeal from the District
Courts still lay to the Governor-General and his Council, as forming the
Court of _Sudder Dewanny_; but that this might be real, a judge was
appointed its head in the person of Sir Elijah Impey, the Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court, an appointment which became famous. For it was
represented as a transaction intended to compromise the acute dissensions
which had been going on between that Court and the Bengal Government, and
in fact as a bribe to Impey. It led, by an address from the House of
Commons, to the recall of Impey, and constituted one of the charges in the
abortive impeachment of that personage. Hence his charge of the Sudder
Dewanny ceased in November, 1782, and it was resumed in form by the
Governor-General and Council.

In 1787, the first year of Lord Cornwallis's government, in consequence of
instructions from the Court of Directors, it was resolved that, with an
exception as to the Courts at Moorshedabad, Patna, and Dacca, which were to
be maintained independently, the office of judge in the Mofussil Courts was
to be attached to that of the collection of the revenue; in fact, the
offices of Judge and Collector, which had been divorced since 1774, were to
be reunited. The duties of Magistrate and Judge became mere appendages to
that of Collector; the administration of justice became a subordinate
function; and in fact all Regulations respecting that administration were
passed in the Revenue Department of the Government.

Up to 1790 the criminal judiciary had remained in the hands of the native
courts. But this was now altered; four Courts of Circuit were created, each
to be superintended by two civil servants as judges; the _Sudder Nizamut
Adawlut_ at the Presidency being presided over by the Governor-General and
the members of Council.

In 1793 the constant succession of revolutions in the judicial system came
to something like a pause, with the entire reformation which was enacted by
the Regulations of that year. The Collection of Revenue was now entirely
separated from the administration of justice; Zillah Courts under European
judges were established (Reg. iii.) in each of 23 Districts and 3 cities,
in Bengal, Behar, and Orissa; whilst Provincial Courts of Appeal, each
consisting of three judges (Reg. v.), were established at Moorshedabad,
Patna, Dacca, and Calcutta. From these Courts, under certain conditions,
further appeal lay to the Sudder Dewanny ADAWLUTS at the Presidency.

As regarded criminal jurisdiction, the judges of the Provincial Courts were
also (Reg. ix., 1793) constituted Circuit Courts, liable to review by the
_Sudder Nizamut_. Strange to say, the impracticable idea of placing the
duties of both of the higher Courts, civil and criminal, on the shoulders
of the executive Government was still maintained, and the Governor-General
and his Council were the constituted heads of the _Sudder Dewanny_ and
_Sudder Nizamut_. This of course continued as unworkable as it had been;
and in Lord Wellesley's time, eight years later, the two _Sudder Adawluts_
were reconstituted, with three regular judges to each, though it was still
ruled (Reg. ii., 1801) that the chief judge in each Court was to be a
member of the Supreme Council, not being either the Governor-General or the
Commander-in-Chief. This rule was rescinded by Reg. x. of 1805.

The number of Provincial and Zillah Courts was augmented in after years
with the extension of territory, and additional Sudder Courts, for the
service of the Upper Provinces, were established at Allahabad in 1831 (Reg.
vi.), a step which may be regarded as the inception of the separation of
the N.W. Provinces into a distinct Lieutenant-Governorship, carried out
five years later. But no change that can be considered at all organic
occurred again in the judiciary system till 1862; for we can hardly
consider as such the abolition of the Courts of Circuit in 1829 (Reg. i.),
and that of the Provincial Courts of Appeal initiated by a section in Reg.
v. of 1831, and completed in 1833.

  1822.—"This refers to a traditional story which Mr. Elphinstone used to
  relate.... During the progress of our conquests in the North-West many of
  the inhabitants were encountered flying from the newly-occupied
  territory. 'Is Lord Lake coming?' was the enquiry. 'No,' was the reply,
  'the ADAWLUT is coming.'"—_Life of Ephinstone_, ii. 131.

  1826.—"The ADAWLUT or Court-house was close by."—_Pandurang Hari_, 271
  [ed. 1873, ii. 90].


ADIGAR, s. Properly _adhikār_, from Skt. _adhikārin_, one possessing
authority; Tam. _adhikāri_, or _-kāren_. The title was formerly in use in
South India, and perhaps still in the native States of Malabar, for a rural
headman. [See quot. from Logan below.] It was also in Ceylon (_adikārama_,
_adikār_) the title of chief minister of the Candyan Kings. See PATEL.

  1544.—"Fac te comem et humanum cum isti Genti praebeas, tum praesertim
  magistratibus eorum et Praefectis Pagorum, quos ADIGARES vocant."—_S. Fr.
  Xav. Epistt._ 113.

  1583.—"Mentre che noi erauamo in questa città, l'assalirono sù la mezza
  notte all' improuiso, mettendoui il fuoco. Erano questi d'una città
  uicina, lontana da S. Thomè, doue stanno i Portoghesi, un miglio, sotto
  la scorta d'un loro Capitano, che risiede in detta città ... et questo
  Capitano è da loro chiamato ADICARIO."—_Balbi_, f. 87.

  1681.—"There are two who are the greatest and highest officers in the
  land. They are called ADIGARS; I may term them Chief Judges."—_Knox_, 48.

  1726.—" ADIGAAR. This is as it were the second of the
  _Dessave_."—_Valentijn_ (Ceylon), _Names of Officers_, &c., 9.

  1796.—"In Malabar esiste oggidi l'uffizio ... molti _Káriakárer_ o
  ministri; molti ADHIGÁRI o ministri d'un distretto...."—_Fra Paolino_,
  237.

  1803.—"The highest officers of State are the ADIGARS or Prime Ministers.
  They are two in number."—_Percival's Ceylon_, 256.

  [1810-17.—"Announcing in letters ... his determination to exercise the
  office of Serv ADIKAR."—_Wilks, Mysoor_, i. 264.

  1887.—"Each _amsam_ or parish has now besides the ADHIKĀRI or man of
  authority, headman, an accountant."—_Logan, Man. of Malabar_, i. 90.]


ADJUTANT, s. A bird so called (no doubt) from its comical resemblance to a
human figure in a stiff dress pacing slowly on a parade-ground. It is the
H. _haṛgīla_, or gigantic crane, and popular scavenger of Bengal, the
_Leptoptilus argala_ of Linnæus. The H. name is by some dictionaries
derived from a supposed Skt. word _haḍḍa-gila_, 'bone-swallower.' The
compound, however appropriate, is not to be found in Böhtlingk and Roth's
great Dictionary. The bird is very well described by Aelian, under the name
of Κήλα, which is perhaps a relic of the still preserved vernacular one. It
is described by another name, as one of the peculiarities of India, by
Sultan Baber. See PELICAN.

  "The feathers known as Marabou or Comercolly feathers, and sold in
  Calcutta, are the tail-coverts of this, and the _Lept. Javanica_, another
  and smaller species" (_Jerdon_). The name _marabout_ (from the Ar.
  _murābit_, 'quiet,' and thence 'a hermit,' through the Port. _marabuto_)
  seems to have been given to the bird in Africa on like reason to that of
  adjutant in India. [Comercolly, properly Kumārkhāli, is a town in the
  Nadiya District, Bengal. See _Balfour, Cycl._ i. 1082.]

  c. A.D. 250.—"And I hear that there is in India a bird _Kēla_, which is 3
  times as big as a bustard; it has a mouth of a frightful size, and long
  legs, and it carries a huge crop which looks like a leather bag; it has a
  most dissonant voice, and whilst the rest of the plumage is ash-coloured,
  the tail-feathers are of a pale (or greenish) colour."—_Aelian, de Nat.
  Anim._ xvi. 4.

  c. 1530.—"One of these (fowls) is the _dīng_, which is a large bird. Each
  of its wings is the length of a man; on its head and neck there is no
  hair. Something like a bag hangs from its neck; its back is black, its
  breast white; it frequently visits Kābul. One year they caught and
  brought me a _dīng_, which became very tame. The flesh which they threw
  it, it never failed to catch in its beak, and swallowed without ceremony.
  On one occasion it swallowed a shoe well shod with iron; on another
  occasion it swallowed a good-sized fowl right down, with its wings and
  feathers."—_Baber_, 321.

  1754.—"In the evening excursions ... we had often observed an
  extraordinary species of birds, called by the natives _Argill_ or
  _Hargill_, a native of Bengal. They would majestically stalk along before
  us, and at first we took them for Indians naked.... The following are the
  exact marks and dimensions.... The wings extended 14 feet and 10 inches.
  From the tip of the bill to the extremity of the claw it measured 7 feet
  6 inches.... In the craw was a _Terapin_ or land-tortoise, 10 inches
  long; and a large black male cat was found entire in its
  stomach."—_Ives_, 183-4.

  1798.—"The next is the great Heron, the _Argali_ or ADJUTANT, or Gigantic
  Crane of Latham.... It is found also in Guinea."—_Pennant's View of
  Hindostan_, ii. 156.

  1810.—"Every bird saving the vulture, the ADJUTANT (or _argeelah_) and
  kite, retires to some shady spot."—_Williamson, V. M._ ii. 3.

  [1880.—Ball (_Jungle Life_, 82) describes the "snake-stone" said to be
  found in the head of the bird.]


AFGHÁN, n.p. P.—H—_Afghān_. The most general name of the predominant
portion of the congeries of tribes beyond the N.W. frontier of India, whose
country is called from them _Afghānistān_. In England one often hears the
country called _Afguníst-un_, which is a mispronunciation painful to an
Anglo-Indian ear, and even _Af'gann_, which is a still more excruciating
solecism. [The common local pronunciation of the name is _Aoghān_, which
accounts for some of the forms below. Bellew insists on the distinction
between the Afghān and the Pathān (PUTTAN). "The Afghan is a Pathan merely
because he inhabits a Pathan country, and has to a great extent mixed with
its people and adopted their language" (_Races of Af._, p. 25). The name
represents Skt. _asvaka_ in the sense of a 'cavalier,' and this reappears
scarcely modified in the Assakani or Assakeni of the historians of the
expedition of Alexander.]

  c. 1020.—"... AFGHÁNS and Khiljis...."—'_Utbi_ in _Elliot_, ii. 24; see
  also 50, 114.

  c. 1265.—"He also repaired the fort of Jalálí, which he garrisoned with
  AFGHÁNS."—_Táríkh-i-Fírozsháhí_ in do. iii. 106.

  14th cent.—The AFGHANS are named by the continuator of Rashiduddin among
  the tribes in the vicinity of Herat (see _N. & E._ xiv. 494).

  1504.—"The AFGHANS, when they are reduced to extremities in war, come
  into the presence of their enemy with grass between their teeth; being as
  much as to say, 'I am your ox.'"[25]—_Baber_, 159.

  c. 1556.—"He was afraid of the AFGHÁNS."—_Sidi 'Ali_, in _J. As._, 1st
  S., ix. 201.

  1609.—"AGWANS and _Potans_."—_W. Finch_, in _Purchas_, i. 521.

  c. 1665.—"Such are those petty Sovereigns, who are seated on the
  Frontiers of Persia, who almost never pay him anything, no more than they
  do to the King of Persia. As also the _Balouches_ and AUGANS, and other
  Mountaineers, of whom the greatest part pay him but a small matter, and
  even care but little for him: witness the Affront they did him, when they
  stopped his whole Army by cutting off the Water ... when he passed from
  _Atek_ on the River _Indus_ to CABOUL to lay siege to
  KANDAHAR...."—_Bernier_, E. T. 64 [ed. _Constable_, 205].

  1676.—"The people called AUGANS who inhabit from _Candahar_ to _Caboul_
  ... a sturdy sort of people, and great robbers in the
  night-time."—_Tavernier_, E. T. ii. 44; [_ed. Ball_, i. 92].

  1767.—"Our final sentiments are that we have no occasion to take any
  measures against the AFGHANS' King if it should appear he comes only to
  raise contributions, but if he proceeds to the eastward of Delhi to make
  an attack on your allies, or threatens the peace of Bengal, you will
  concert such measures with Sujah Dowla as may appear best adapted for
  your mutual defence."—_Court's Letter_, Nov. 20. In _Long_, 486; also see
  ROHILLA.

  1838.—"Professor Dorn ... discusses severally the theories that have been
  maintained of the descent of the AFGHAUNS: 1st, from the Copts; 2nd, the
  Jews; 3rd, the Georgians; 4th, the Toorks; 5th, the Moguls; 6th, the
  Armenians: and he mentions more cursorily the opinion that they are
  descended from the Indo-Scythians, Medians, Sogdians, Persians, and
  Indians: on considering all which, he comes to the rational conclusion,
  that they cannot be traced to any tribe or country beyond their present
  seats and the adjoining mountains."—_Elphinstone's Caubool_, ed. 1839, i.
  209.


AFRICO, n.p. A negro slave.

  1682.—"Here we met with y^e Barbadoes Merchant ... James Cock, Master,
  laden with Salt, Mules, and AFRICOS."—_Hedges, Diary_, Feb. 27. [Hak.
  Soc. i. 16.]


[AGAM, adj. A term applied to certain cloths dyed in some particular way.
It is the Ar. _'ajam_ (lit. "one who has an impediment or difficulty in
speaking Arabic"), a foreigner, and in particular, a Persian. The adj.
_'ajamī_ thus means "foreign" or "Persian," and is equivalent to the Greek
βάρβαρος and the Hind. _mleććha_. Sir G. Birdwood (_Rep. on Old Rec._, p.
145) quotes from Hieronimo di Santo Stefano (1494-99), "in company with
some Armenian and _Azami_ merchants": and (_ibid._) from Varthema: "It is a
country of very great traffic in merchandise, and particularly with the
Persians and _Azamini_, who come so far as there."]

  [1614.—"Kerseys, AGAM colours."—_Foster, Letters_, ii. 237.

  1614.—"Persia will vent five hundred cloths and one thousand kerseys,
  AGAM colours, per annum."—_Ibid._ ii. 237.]


AGAR-AGAR, s. The Malay name of a kind of sea-weed (_Spherococcus
lichenoïdes_). It is succulent when boiled to a jelly; and is used by the
Chinese with birdsnest (_q.v._) in soup. They also employ it as a glue, and
apply it to silk and paper intended to be transparent. It grows on the
shores of the Malay Islands, and is much exported to China.—(See _Crawfurd,
Dict. Ind. Arch._, and _Milburn_, ii. 304).


AGDAUN, s. A hybrid H. word from H. _āg_ and P. _dān_, made in imitation of
_pīk-dān_, _ḳalam-dān_, _shama-dān_ ('spittoon, pencase, candlestick'). It
means a small vessel for holding fire to light a cheroot.


ĀG-GĀRI, s. H. 'Fire carriage.' In native use for a railway train.


AGUN-BOAT, s. A hybrid word for a steamer, from H. _agan_, 'fire,' and Eng.
_boat_. In Bombay _Ag-bōt_ is used.

  1853.—"... AGIN BOAT."—_Oakfield_, i. 84.


[AJNĀS, s. Ar. plur. of _jins_, 'goods, merchandise, crops,' etc. Among the
Moguls it was used in the special sense of pay in kind, not in cash.]

  [c. 1665.—"It (their pay) is, however, of a different kind, and not
  thought so honourable, but the _Rouzindars_ are not subject, like the
  _Mansebdars_ (MUNSUBDAR) to the AGENAS; that is to say, are not bound to
  take, at a valuation, carpets, and other pieces of furniture, that have
  been used in the King's palace, and on which an unreasonable value is
  sometimes set."—_Bernier_ (ed. _Constable_), 215-6.]


AK, s. H. _āk_ and _ark_, in Sindi _ăk_: the prevalent name of the _madār_
(MUDDAR) in Central and Western India. It is said to be a popular belief
(of course erroneous) in Sind, that Akbar was so called after the _āk_,
from his birth in the desert. [Ives (488) calls it OGG.] The word appears
in the following popular rhyme quoted by Tod (_Rajasthan_, i. 669):—

      AK-rā jhoprā,
      Phok-rā bār,
      Bajra-rā rotī,
      Mot'h-rā dāl:
  Dekho Rājā terī Mārwār.

    (For houses hurdles of _madār_,
    For hedges heaps of withered thorn,
    Millet for bread, horse-peas for pulse:
  Such is thy kingdom, Raja of Mārwār!)


AKALEE, or _Nihang_ ('the naked one'), s. A member of a body of zealots
among the Sikhs, who take this name 'from being worshippers of Him who is
without time, eternal' (_Wilson_). Skt. _a_ privative, and _kāl_, 'time.'
The Akālis may be regarded as the Wahābis of Sikhism. They claim their body
to have been instituted by Guru Govind himself, but this is very doubtful.
Cunningham's view of the order is that it was the outcome of the struggle
to reconcile warlike activity with the abandonment of the world; the
founders of the Sikh doctrine rejecting the inert asceticism of the Hindu
sects. The Akālis threw off all subjection to the earthly government, and
acted as the censors of the Sikh community in every rank. Runjeet Singh
found them very difficult to control. Since the annexation of the Panjab,
however, they have ceased to give trouble. The AKALEE is distinguished by
blue clothing and steel armlets. Many of them also used to carry several
steel _chakras_ (CHUCKER) encircling their turbans. [See _Ibbetson_,
_Panjab Ethnog._, 286; _Maclagan_, in _Panjab Census Rep._, 1891, i. 166.]

  1832.—"We received a message from the ACALI who had set fire to the
  village.... These fanatics of the Seik creed acknowledge no superior, and
  the ruler of the country can only moderate their frenzy by intrigues and
  bribery. They go about everywhere with naked swords, and lavish their
  abuse on the nobles as well as the peaceable subjects.... They have on
  several occasions attempted the life of Runjeet Singh."—_Burnes,
  Travels_, ii. 10-11.

  1840.—"The AKALIS being summoned to surrender, requested a conference
  with one of the attacking party. The young Khan bravely went forward, and
  was straightway shot through the head."—_Mrs Mackenzie, Storms and
  Sunshine_, i. 115.


AKYÁB, n.p. The European name of the seat of administration of the British
province of Arakan, which is also a port exporting rice largely to Europe.
The name is never used by the natives of Arakan (of the Burmese race), who
call the town _Tsit-htwé_, 'Crowd (in consequence of) War.' This indicates
how the settlement came to be formed in 1825, by the fact of the British
force encamping on the plain there, which was found to be healthier than
the site of the ancient capital of the kingdom of Arakan, up the valley of
the Arakan or Kaladyne R. The name AKYÁB had been applied, probably by the
Portuguese, to a neighbouring village, where there stands, about 1½ miles
from the present town, a pagoda covering an alleged relique of Gautama (a
piece of the lower jaw, or an induration of the throat), the name of which
pagoda, taken from the description of relique, is _Au-kyait-dau_, and of
this AKYÁB was probably a corruption. The present town and cantonment
occupy dry land of very recent formation, and the high ground on which the
pagoda stands must have stood on the shore at no distant date, as appears
from the finding of a small anchor there about 1835. The village adjoining
the pagoda must then have stood at the mouth of the Arakan R., which was
much frequented by the Portuguese and the Chittagong people in the 16th and
17th centuries, and thus probably became known to them by a name taken from
the Pagoda.—(From a note by _Sir Arthur Phayre_.) [Col. Temple writes—"The
only derivation which strikes me as plausible, is from the Agyattaw Phaya,
near which, on the island of Sittwé, a Cantonment was formed after the
first Burmese war, on the abandonment of Mrohaung or Arakan town in 1825,
on account of sickness among the troops stationed there. The word Agyattaw
is spelt Akhyap-taw, whence probably the modern name."]

  [1826.—"It (the despatch) at length arrived this day (3rd Dec. 1826),
  having taken two months in all to reach us, of which forty-five days were
  spent in the route from AKYAB in Aracan."—_Crawfurd, Ava_, 289.]


ALA-BLAZE PAN, s. This name is given in the Bombay Presidency to a
tinned-copper stew-pan, having a cover, and staples for straps, which is
carried on the march by European soldiers, for the purpose of cooking in,
and eating out of. Out on picnics a larger kind is frequently used, and
kept continually going, as a kind of _pot-au-feu_. [It has been suggested
that the word may be a corr. of some French or Port. term—Fr. _braiser_;
Port. _brazeiro_, 'a fire-pan,' _braza_, 'hot coals.']


ALBACORE, s. A kind of rather large sea-fish, of the Tunny genus (_Thynnus
albacora_, Lowe, perhaps the same as _Thynnus macropterus_, Day); from the
Port. _albacor_ or _albecora_. The quotations from Ovington and Grose below
refer it to _albo_, but the word is, from its form, almost certainly
Arabic, though Dozy says he has not found the word in this sense in Arabic
dictionaries, which are very defective in the names of fishes (p. 61). The
word _albacora_ in Sp. is applied to a large early kind of fig, from Ar.
_al-bākūr_, 'praecox' (Dozy), Heb. _bikkūra_, in Micah vii. 1.—See
_Cobarruvias_, s.v. _Albacora_. [The _N.E.D._ derives it from Ar.
_al-bukr_, 'a young camel, a heifer,' whence Port. _bacoro_, 'a young pig.'
Also see Gray's note on _Pyrard_, i. 9.]

  1579.—"These (flying fish) have two enemies, the one in the sea, the
  other in the aire. In the sea the fish which is called ALBOCORE, as big
  as a salmon."—_Letter from Goa, by T. Stevens_, in _Hakl._ ii. 583.

  1592.—"In our passage over from S. Laurence to the maine, we had
  exceeding great store of Bonitos and ALBOCORES."—_Barker_, in _Hakl._ ii.
  592.

  1696.—"We met likewise with shoals of ALBICORES (so call'd from a piece
  of white Flesh that sticks to their Heart) and with multitudes of
  Bonettoes, which are named from their Goodness and Excellence for eating;
  so that sometimes for more than twenty Days the whole Ship's Company have
  feasted on these curious fish."—_Ovington_, p. 48.

  c. 1760.—"The ALBACORE is another fish of much the same kind as the
  Bonito ... from 60 to 90 pounds weight and upward. The name of this fish
  too is taken from the Portuguese, importing its white colour."—_Grose_,
  i. 5.


ALBATROSS, s. The great sea-bird (_Diomedea exulans_, L.), from the Port.
_alcatraz_, to which the forms used by Hawkins and Dampier, and by Flacourt
(according to Marcel Devic) closely approach. [_Alcatras_ 'in this sense
altered to _albi-_, _albe-_, _albatross_ (perhaps with etymological
reference to _albus_, "white," the albatross being white, while the
_alcatras_ was black.') _N.E.D._ s.v.] The Port. word properly means 'a
pelican.' A reference to the latter word in our Glossary will show another
curious misapplication. Devic states that _alcatruz_ in Port. means 'the
bucket of a Persian wheel,'[26] representing the Ar. _al-ḳādūs_, which is
again from κάδος. He supposes that the pelican may have got this name in
the same way that it is called in ordinary Ar. _saḳḳa_, 'a water-carrier.'
It has been pointed out by Dr Murray, that the _alcatruz_ of some of the
earlier voyagers, _e.g._, of Davis below, is not the _Diomedea_, but the
Man-of-War (or Frigate) Bird (_Fregatus aquilus_). Hawkins, at p. 187 of
the work quoted, describes, without naming, a bird which is evidently the
modern albatross. In the quotation from Mocquet again, _alcatruz_ is
applied to some smaller sea-bird. The passage from Shelvocke is that which
suggested to Coleridge "The Ancient Mariner."

  1564.—"The 8th December we ankered by a small Island called ALCATRARSA,
  wherein at our going a shoare, we found nothing but sea-birds, as we call
  them Ganets, but by the Portugals called ALCATRARSES, who for that cause
  gave the said Island the same name."—_Hawkins_ (Hak. Soc.), 15.

  1593.—"The dolphins and bonitoes are the houndes, and the ALCATRARCES the
  hawkes, and the flying fishes the game."—_Ibid._ 152.

  1604.—"The other foule called ALCATRARZI is a kind of Hawke that liueth
  by fishing. For when the Bonitos or Dolphines doe chase the flying fish
  vnder the water ... this ALCATRARZI flyeth after them like a Hawke after
  a Partridge."—_Davis_ (Hak. Soc.), 158.

  c. 1608-10.—"ALCATRAZ sont petis oiseaux ainsi comme
  estourneaux."—_Mocquet, Voyages_, 226.

  1672.—"We met with those feathered Harbingers of the Cape ... ALBETROSSES
  ... they haue great Bodies, yet not proportionate to their Wings, which
  mete out twice their length."—_Fryer_, 12.

  1690.—"They have several other Signs, whereby to know when they are near
  it, as by the Sea Fowl they meet at Sea, especially the ALGATROSSES, a
  very large long-winged Bird."—_Dampier_, i. 531.

  1719.—"We had not had the sight of one fish of any kind, since we were
  come Southward of the Streights of _Le Mair_, nor one sea-bird, except a
  disconsolate black ALBITROSS, who accompanied us for several days,
  hovering about us as if he had lost himself, till _Hatley_ (my second
  Captain) observing, in one of his melancholy fits, that this bird was
  always hovering near us, imagin'd from his colour, that it might be some
  ill omen.... But be that as it would, he after some fruitless attempts,
  at length shot the ALBITROSS, not doubting (perhaps) that we should have
  a fair wind after it...."—_Shelvocke's Voyage_, 72, 73.

  1740.—"... a vast variety of sea-fowl, amongst which the most remarkable
  are the _Penguins_; they are in size and shape like a goose, but instead
  of wings they have short stumps like fins ... their bills are narrow like
  those of an ALBITROSS, and they stand and walk in an erect posture. From
  this and their white bellies, _Sir John Narborough_ has whimsically
  likened them to little children standing up in white aprons."—_Anson's
  Voyage_, 9th ed. (1756), p. 68.

  1754.—"An ALBATROSE, a sea-fowl, was shot off the Cape of Good Hope,
  which measured 17½ feet from wing to wing."—_Ives_, 5.

  1803.—

   "At length did cross an ALBATROSS;
      Thorough the fog it came;
    As if it had been a Christian soul
      We hailed it in God's name."
               _The Ancient Mariner._

  c. 1861.—

   "Souvent pour s'amuser, les hommes d'équipage
      Prennent des ALBATROS, vastes oiseaux des mers,
    Qui suivent, indolents compagnons de voyage,
      Le navire glissant sur les gouffres amers."
               _Baudelaire, L'Albatros._



ALCATIF, s. This word for 'a carpet' was much used in India in the 16th
century, and is treated by some travellers as an Indian word. It is not
however of Indian origin, but is an Arabic word (_ḳatīf_, 'a carpet with
long pile') introduced into Portugal through the Moors.

  c. 1540.—"There came aboard of Antonio de Faria more than 60 _batels_,
  and _balloons_, and _manchuas_ (q.q.v.) with awnings and flags of silk,
  and rich ALCATIFAS."—_Pinto_, ch. lxviii. (orig.).

  1560.—"The whole tent was cut in a variety of arabesques, inlaid with
  coloured silk, and was carpeted with rich ALCATIFAS."—_Tenreiro, Itin._,
  c. xvii.

  1578.—"The windows of the streets by which the Viceroy passes shall be
  hung with carpets (ALCATIFADAS), and the doors decorated with branches,
  and the whole adorned as richly as possible."—_Archiv. Port. Orient._,
  fascic. ii. 225.

  [1598.—"Great store of rich Tapestrie, which are called
  ALCATIFFAS."—_Linschoten_, Hak. Soc. i. 47.]

  1608-10.—"Quand elles vont à l'Eglise on les porte en palanquin ... le
  dedans est d'vn grand tapis de Perse, qu'ils appellent
  ALCATIF...."—_Pyrard_, ii. 62; [Hak. Soc. ii. 102].

  1648.—"... many silk stuffs, such as satin, contenijs (CUTTANEE) attelap
  (read _attelas_), ALEGIE ... _ornijs_ [H. _oṛhnî_, 'A woman's sheet'] of
  gold and silk for women's wear, gold ALACATIJVEN...."—_Van Twist_, 50.

  1726.—"They know nought of chairs or tables. The small folks eat on a
  mat, and the rich on an ALCATIEF, or carpet, sitting with their feet
  under them, like our Tailors."—_Valentijn_, v. _Chorom_, 55.


ALCORANAS, s. What word does Herbert aim at in the following? [The Stanf.
Dict. regards this as quite distinct from _Alcorān_, the Korān, or sacred
book of Mohammedans (for which see _N.E.D._ s.v.), and suggests _Al-qorūn_,
'the horns,' or _al-qirān_, 'the vertices.']

  1665.—"Some (mosques) have their ALCORANA'S high, slender, round steeples
  or towers, most of which are terrassed near the top, like the Standard in
  Cheapside, but twice the height."—_Herbert, Travels_, 3rd ed. 164.


ALCOVE, s. This English word comes to us through the Span. _alcova_ and Fr.
_alcove_ (old Fr. _aucube_), from Ar. _al-ḳubbàh_, applied first to a kind
of tent (so in Hebr. _Numbers_ xxv. 8) and then to a vaulted building or
recess. An edifice of Saracenic construction at Palermo is still known as
_La Cuba_; and another, a domed tomb, as _La Cubola_. Whatever be the true
formation of the last word, it seems to have given us, through the Italian,
_Cupola_. [Not so in _N.E.D._]

  1738.—"CUBBA, commonly used for the vaulted tomb of _marab-butts_"
  [ADJUTANT.]—_Shaw's Travels_, ed. 1757, p. 40.


ALDEA, s. A village; also a villa. Port. from the Ar. _al-ḍai'a_, 'a farm
or villa.' Bluteau explains it as 'Povoção menor que lugar.' Lane gives
among other and varied meanings of the Ar. word: 'An estate consisting of
land or of land and a house, ... land yielding a revenue.' The word forms
part of the name of many towns and villages in Spain and Portugal.

  1547.—"The Governor (of Baçaem) Dom João de Castro, has given and gives
  many ALDEAS and other grants of land to Portuguese who served and were
  wounded at the fortress of Dio, and to others of long service...."—_Simão
  Botelho, Cartas_ 3.

  [1609.—"ALDEAS in the Country."—_Danvers, Letters_, i. 25.]

  1673.—"Here ... in a sweet Air, stood a Magnificent Rural Church; in the
  way to which, and indeed all up and down this Island, are pleasant
  ALDEAS, or villages and hamlets that ... swarm with people."—_Valentijn_,
  v. (_Malabar_), 11.

  1753.—"Les principales de ces qu'on appelle ALDÉES (terme que les
  Portugals ont mis en usage dans l'Inde) autour de Pondichéri et dans sa
  dependance sont...."—_D'Anville, Éclaircissemens_, 122.

  1780.—"The Coast between these is filled with ALDEES, or villages of the
  Indians."—_Dunn, N. Directory_, 5th ed., 110.

  1782.—"Il y a aussi quelques ALDÉES considérables, telles que Navar et
  Portenove, qui appartiennent aux Princes du pays."—_Sonnerat, Voyage_, i.
  37.


ALEPPEE, n.p. On the coast of Travancore; properly Alappuḷi. [Mal.
_alappuzha_, 'the broad river"—(_Mad. Adm. Man. Gloss._ s.v.)].


[ALFANDICA, s. A custom-house and resort for foreign merchants in an
oriental port. The word comes through the Port. _alfandega_, Span.
_fundago_, Ital. _fondaco_, Fr. _fondeque_ or _fondique_, from Ar.
_al-funduḳ_, 'the inn,' and this from Gk. πανδοκεῖον or πανδοχεῖον, 'a
pilgrim's hospice.']

  [c. 1610.—"The conveyance of them thence to the ALFANDIGUE."—_Pyrard
  della Valle_, Hak. Soc. i. 361.]

  [1615.—"The Iudge of the ALFANDICA came to invite me."—_Sir T. Roe,
  Embassy_, Hak. Soc. i. 72.]

  [1615.—"That the goods of the English may be freely landed after dispatch
  in the ALFANDIGA."—_Foster, Letters_, iv. 79.]


ALGUADA, n.p. The name of a reef near the entrance to the Bassein branch of
the Irawadi R., on which a splendid lighthouse was erected by Capt. Alex.
Fraser (now Lieut.-General Fraser, C.B.) of the Engineers, in 1861-65. See
some remarks and quotations under NEGRAIS.


ALJOFAR, s. Port. 'seed-pearl.' Cobarruvias says it is from Ar.
_al-jauhar_, 'jewel.'

  1404.—"And from these bazars (_alcacerias_) issue certain gates into
  certain streets, where they sell many things, such as cloths of silk and
  cotton, and _sendals_, and _tafetanas_, and silk, and pearl
  (ALXOFAR)."—_Clavijo_, § lxxxi. (comp. _Markham_, 81).

  1508.—"The ALJOFAR and pearls that (your Majesty) orders me to send you I
  cannot have as they have them in Ceylon and in Caille, which are the
  sources of them: I would buy them with my blood, and with my money, which
  I have only from your giving. The Sinabaffs (_sinabafos_), PORCELAIN
  vases (_porcellanas_), and wares of that sort are further off. If for my
  sins I stay here longer I will endeavour to get everything. The slave
  girls that you order me to send you must be taken from prizes,[27] for
  the heathen women of this country are black, and are mistresses to
  everybody by the time they are ten years old."—_Letter of the Viceroy D.
  Francisco d'Almeida to the King_, in _Correa_, i. 908-9.

  [1665.—"As it (the idol) was too deformed, they made hands for it of the
  small pearls which we call 'pearls by the ounce.'"—_Tavernier_, ed.
  _Ball_, ii. 228.]


ALLAHABAD, n.p. This name, which was given in the time of Akbar to the old
Hindu Prayāg or Prāg (PRAAG) has been subjected to a variety of corrupt
pronunciations, both European and native. _Illahābāz_ is a not uncommon
native form, converted by Europeans into _Halabas_, and further by English
soldiers formerly into _Isle o' bats_. And the _Illiabad_, which we find in
the Hastings charges, survives in the _Elleeabad_ still heard occasionally.

  c. 1666.—"La Province de HALABAS s'appelloit autrefois _Purop_
  (POORUB)."—_Thevenot_, v. 197.

  [   "    "ELABAS (where the Gemna (JUMNA) falls into the
  Ganges.)"—_Bernier_ (ed. _Constable_), p. 36.]

  1726.—"This exceptionally great river (Ganges) ... comes so far from the
  N. to the S. ... and so further to the city HALABAS."—_Valentijn._

  1753.—"Mais ce qui interesse davantage dans la position de HELABAS, c'est
  d'y retrouver celle de l'ancienne _Palibothra_. Aucune ville de l'Inde ne
  paroit égaler _Palibothra_ ou _Palimbothra_, dans l'Antiquité.... C'est
  satisfaire une curiosité géographique bien placée, que de retrouver
  l'emplacement d'une ville de cette considération: mais j'ai lieu de
  croire qu'il faut employer quelque critique, dans l'examen des
  circonstances que l'Antiquité a fourni sur ce point.... Je suis donc
  persuadé, qu'il ne faut point chercher d'autre emplacement à Palibothra
  que celui de la ville d'HELABAS...."—_D'Anville, Eclaircissemens_, pp.
  53-55.

  (Here D'Anville is in error. But see Rennell's _Memoir_, pp. 50-54, which
  clearly identifies Palibothra with PATNA.)

  1786.—"... an attack and invasion of the Rohillas ... which nevertheless
  the said Warren Hastings undertook at the very time when, under the
  pretence of the difficulty of defending Corah and ILLIABAD, he sold these
  provinces to Sujah Dowla."—_Articles of Charge_, &c., in _Burke_, vi.
  577.

     "    "You will see in the letters from the Board ... a plan for
  obtaining ILLABAD from the Vizier, to which he had spirit enough to make
  a successful resistance."—_Cornwallis_, i. 238.


ALLEJA, s. This appears to be a stuff from Turkestan called (Turki) ALCHAH,
ALAJAH, or ALĀCHAH. It is thus described: "a silk cloth 5 yards long, which
has a sort of wavy line pattern running in the length on either side."
(_Baden-Powell's Punjab Handbook_, 66). [Platts in his Hind. Dict. gives
_ilācha_, "a kind of cloth woven of silk and thread so as to present the
appearance of cardamoms (_ilāchī_)." But this is evidently a folk
etymology. Yusuf Ali (_Mon. on Silk Fabrics_, 95) accepts the derivation
from _Alcha_ or _Alācha_, and says it was probably introduced by the
Moguls, and has historical associations with Agra, where alone in the
N.W.P. it is manufactured. "This fabric differs from the _Doriya_ in having
a substantial texture, whereas the _Doriya_ is generally flimsy. The
colours are generally red, or bluish-red, with white stripes." In some of
the western Districts of the Panjab various kinds of fancy cotton goods are
described as _Lacha_. (_Francis, Mon. on Cotton_, p. 8). It appears in one
of the trade lists (see PIECE-GOODS) as _Elatches_.]

  c. 1590.—"The improvement is visible ... _secondly_ in the _Safid_
  ALCHAHS also called _Tarhdárs_...."—_Āīn_, i. 91. (Blochmann says:
  "_Alchah_ or _Alāchah_, any kind of corded stuff. _Tarhdár_ means
  _corded_.")

  [1612.—"Hold the ALLESAS at 50 Rs."—_Danvers, Letters_, i. 205.]

  1613.—"The _Nabob_ bestowed upon him 850 _Mamoodies_, 10 fine _Baftas_,
  30 _Topseiles_ and 30 ALLIZAES."—_Dowton_, in _Purchas_, i. 504.
  "_Topseiles_ are _Tafçilah_ (_a stuff from Mecca_)."—_Āīn_, i. 93. [See
  ADATI, PIECE-GOODS].

  1615.—"1 pec. ALLEIA of 30 Rs...."—_Cocks's Diary_, i. 64.

  1648.—See _Van Twist_ above, under ALCATIF. And 1673, see _Fryer_ under
  ATLAS.

  1653.—"ALAIAS (Alajas) est vn mot Indien, qui signifie des toiles de
  cotton et de soye: meslée de plusieurs couleurs."—_De la
  Boullaye-le-Gouz_, ed. 1657, p. 532.

  [c. 1666.—"ALACHAS, or silk stuffs interwoven with gold and
  silver."—_Bernier_ (ed. _Constable_), p. 120-21.]

  1690.—"It (Suratt) is renown'd ... both for rich Silks, such as Atlasses,
  Cuttanees, Sooseys, Culgars, ALLAJARS...."—_Ovington_, 218.

  1712.—"An ALLEJAH petticoat striped with green and gold and
  white."—Advert. in _Spectator_, cited in _Malcolm, Anecdotes_, 429.

  1726.—"Gold and silver ALLEGIAS."—_Valentijn_ (_Surat_), iv. 146.

  1813.—"ALLACHAS (pieces to the ton) 1200."—_Milburn_, ii. 221.

  1885.—"The cloth from which these pyjamas are made (in Swāt) is known as
  ALACHA, and is as a rule manufactured in their own houses, from 2 to 20
  threads of silk being let in with the cotton; the silk as well as the
  cotton is brought from Peshawur and spun at home."—_M‘Nair's Report on
  Explorations_, p. 5.


ALLIGATOR, s. This is the usual Anglo-Indian term for the great lacertine
amphibia of the rivers. It was apparently in origin a corruption, imported
from S. America, of the Spanish _el_ or _al lagarto_ (from Lat. _lacerta_),
'a lizard.' The "Summary of the Western Indies" by Pietro Martire
d'Angheria, as given in Ramusio, recounting the last voyage of Columbus,
says that, in a certain river, "they sometimes encountered those crocodiles
which they call LAGARTI; these make away when they see the Christians, and
in making away they leave behind them an odour more fragrant than musk."
(_Ram._ iii. f. 17_v._). Oviedo, on another page of the same volume, calls
them "LAGARTI o dragoni" (f. 62).

Bluteau gives "LAGARTO, _Crocodilo_" and adds: "In the Oriente Conquistado
(Part I. f. 823) you will find a description of the Crocodile under the
name of _Lagarto_."

One often, in Anglo-Indian conversation, used to meet with the endeavour to
distinguish the two well-known species of the Ganges as _Crocodile_ and
ALLIGATOR, but this, like other applications of popular and general terms
to mark scientific distinctions, involves fallacy, as in the cases of
'panther, leopard,' 'camel, dromedary,' 'attorney, solicitor,' and so
forth. The two kinds of Gangetic crocodile were known to Aelian (c. 250
A.D.), who writes: "It (the Ganges) breeds two kinds of crocodiles; one of
these is not at all hurtful, while the other is the most voracious and
cruel eater of flesh; and these have a horny prominence on the top of the
nostril. These latter are used as ministers of vengeance upon evil-doers;
for those convicted of the greatest crimes are cast to them; and they
require no executioner."

  1493.—"In a small adjacent island ... our men saw an enormous kind of
  lizard (LAGARTO _muy grande_), which they said was as large round as a
  calf, and with a tail as long as a lance ... but bulky as it was, it got
  into the sea, so that they could not catch it."—_Letter of Dr. Chanca_,
  in _Select Letters of Columbus_ by Major, Hak. Soc. 2nd ed., 43.

  1539.—"All along this River, that was not very broad, there were a number
  of Lizards (LAGARTOS), which might more properly be called Serpents ...
  with scales upon their backs, and mouths two foot wide ... there be of
  them that will sometimes get upon an ALMADIA ... and overturn it with
  their tails, swallowing up the men whole, without dismembering of
  them."—_Pinto_, in Cogan's tr. 17 (_orig._ cap. xiv.).

  1552.—"... aquatic animals such as ... very great lizards (LAGARTOS),
  which in form and nature are just the crocodiles of the Nile."—_Barros_,
  I. iii. 8.

  1568.—"In this River we killed a monstrous LAGARTO, or Crocodile ... he
  was 23 foote by the rule, headed like a hogge...."—_Iob Hortop_, in
  _Hakl._ iii. 580.

  1579.—"We found here many good commodities ... besides ALAGARTOES,
  munckeyes, and the like."—_Drake, World Encompassed_, Hak. Soc. 112.

  1591.—"In this place I have seen very great water ALIGARTOS (which we
  call in English crocodiles), seven yards long."—_Master Antonie Knivet_,
  in _Purchas_, iv. 1228.

  1593.—"In this River (of Guayaquill) and all the Rivers of this Coast,
  are great abundance of ALAGARTOES ... persons of credit have certified to
  me that as small fishes in other Rivers abound in scoales, so the
  _Alagartoes_ in this...."—_Sir Richard Hawkins_, in _Purchas_, iv. 1400.

  c. 1593.—

   "And in his needy shop a tortoise hung,
    An ALLIGATOR stuff'd, and other skins
    Of ill-shaped fishes...."—
               _Romeo & Juliet_, v. 1.

  1595.—"Vpon this river there were great store of fowle ... but for
  LAGARTOS it exceeded, for there were thousands of those vgly serpents;
  and the people called it for the abundance of them, the riuer of LAGARTOS
  in their language."—_Raleigh, The Discoverie of Guiana_, in _Hakl._ iv.
  137.

  1596.—"Once he would needs defend a rat to be _animal rationale_ ...
  because she eate and gnawd his bookes.... And the more to confirme it,
  because everie one laught at him ... the next rat he seaz'd on hee made
  an anatomie of, and read a lecture of 3 dayes long upon everie artire or
  musckle, and after hanged her over his head in his studie in stead of an
  apothecarie's crocodile or dride ALLIGATUR."—_T. Nashe's 'Have with you
  to Saffron Walden.'_ Repr. in J. Payne Collier's _Misc. Tracts_, p. 72.

  1610.—"These Blackes ... told me the River was full of ALIGATAS, and if I
  saw any I must fight with him, else he would kill me."—_D. Midleton_, in
  _Purchas_, i. 244.

  1613.—"... mais avante ... por distancia de 2 legoas, esta o fermoso ryo
  de Cassam de LAGARTHOS o crocodillos."—_Godinho de Eredia_, 10.

  1673.—"The River was full of ALIGATORS or Crocodiles, which lay basking
  in the Sun in the Mud on the River's side."—_Fryer_, 55.

  1727.—"I was cleaning a vessel ... and had Stages fitted for my People to
  stand on ... and we were plagued with five or six ALLEGATORS, which
  wanted to be on the Stage."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 133.

  1761.—

   "... else that sea-like Stream
    (Whence Traffic pours her bounties on mankind)
    Dread ALLIGATORS would alone possess."
               _Grainger_, Bk. ii.

  1881.—"The Hooghly alone has never been so full of sharks and ALLIGATORS
  as now. We have it on undoubted authority that within the past two months
  over a hundred people have fallen victims to these brutes."—_Pioneer
  Mail_, July 10th.


ALLIGATOR-PEAR, s. The fruit of the _Laurus persea_, Lin., _Persea
gratissima_, Gaertn. The name as here given is an extravagant, and that of
_avocato_ or _avogato_ a more moderate, corruption of _aguacate_ or
_ahuacatl_ (see below), which appears to have been the native name in
Central America, still surviving there. The Quichua name is _palta_, which
is used as well as _aguacaté_ by Cieza de Leon, and also by Joseph de
Acosta. Grainger (_Sugarcane_, Bk. I.) calls it "rich _sabbaca_," which he
says is "the Indian name of the _avocato_, _avocado_, _avigato_, or as the
English corruptly call it, _alligator pear_. The Spaniards in S. America
call it _Aguacate_, and under that name it is described by Ulloa." In
French it is called AVOCAT. The praise which Grainger, as quoted below,
"liberally bestows" on this fruit, is, if we might judge from the specimens
occasionally met with in India, absurd. With liberal pepper and salt there
may be a remote suggestion of marrow: but that is all. Indeed it is hardly
a fruit in the ordinary sense. Its common sea name of 'midshipman's butter'
[or 'subaltern's butter'] is suggestive of its merits, or demerits.

Though common and naturalised throughout the W. Indies and E. coasts of
tropical S. America, its actual native country is unknown. Its introduction
into the Eastern world is comparatively recent; not older than the middle
of 18th century. Had it been worth eating it would have come long before.

  1532-50.—"There are other fruits belonging to the country, such as
  fragrant pines and plantains, many excellent _guavas_, _caymitos_,
  AGUACATES, and other fruits."—_Cieza de Leon_, 16.

  1608.—"The _Palta_ is a great tree, and carries a faire leafe, which hath
  a fruite like to great peares; within it hath a great stone, and all the
  rest is soft meate, so as when they are full ripe, they are, as it were,
  butter, and have a delicate taste."—_Joseph de Acosta_, 250.

  c. 1660.—

   "The AGUACAT no less is _Venus_ Friend
    (To th' _Indies Venus_ Conquest doth extend)
    A fragrant Leaf the AGUACATA bears;
    Her Fruit in fashion of an Egg appears,
    With such a white and spermy Juice it swells
    As represents moist Life's first Principles."
               _Cowley, Of Plantes_, v.

  1680.—"This Tavoga is an exceeding pleasant Island, abounding in all
  manner of fruits, such as Pine-apples ... ALBECATOS, Pears,
  Mammes."—_Capt. Sharpe_, in _Dampier_, iv.

  1685.—"The AVOGATO Pear-tree is as big as most Pear-trees ... and the
  Fruit as big as a large Lemon.... The Substance in the inside is green,
  or a little yellowish, and soft as Butter...."—_Dampier_, i. 203.

  1736.—"AVOGATO, _Baum_.... This fruit itself has no taste, but when mixt
  with sugar and lemon juice gives a wholesome and tasty
  flavour."—_Zeidler's Lexicon_, s.v.

  1761.—

   "And thou green AVOCATO, charm of sense,
    Thy ripen'd marrow liberally bestows't."
               _Grainger_, Bk. I.

  1830.—"The AVOCADA, with its Brobdignag pear, as large as a purser's
  lantern."—_Tom Cringle_, ed. 1863, 40.

  [1861.—"There is a well-known West Indian fruit which we call an AVOCADO
  or ALLIGATOR PEAR."—_Tylor, Anahuac_, 227.]

  1870.—"The AGUACATE or ALLIGATOR PEAR."—_Squier, Honduras_, 142.

  1873.—"Thus the fruit of the _Persea gratissima_ was called AHUCATL' by
  the ancient Mexicans; the Spaniards corrupted it to AVOCADO, and our
  sailors still further to 'ALLIGATOR PEARS.'"—_Belt's Nicaragua_, 107.


[ALLYGOLE, ALIGHOL, ALLYGOOL, ALLEEGOLE, s. H.—P. _'aligol_, from _'ālī_
'lofty, excellent,' Skt. _gola_, a troop; a nondescript word used for
"irregular foot in the Maratha service, without discipline or regular arms.
According to some they are so named from charging in a dense mass and
invoking 'Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed, being chiefly
Mohammedans."—(_Wilson._)

  1796.—"The Nezibs (NUJEEB) are matchlockmen, and according to their
  different casts are called ALLEGOLES or Rohillas; they are indifferently
  formed of high-cast Hindoos and Musselmans, armed with the country
  Bandook (BUNDOOK), to which the ingenuity of De Boigne had added a
  Bayonet."—_W. H. Tone, A Letter on the Maratta People_, p. 50.

  1804.—"ALLEEGOLE, A sort of chosen light infantry of the Rohilla Patans:
  sometimes the term appears to be applied to troops supposed to be used
  generally for desperate service."—_Fraser, Military Memoirs of Skinner_,
  ii. 71 note, 75, 76.

  1817.—"The ALLYGOOLS answer nearly the same description."—_Blacker, Mem.
  of Operations in India_, p. 22.]


ALMADIA, s. This is a word introduced into Portuguese from Moorish Ar.
_al-ma'dīya_. Properly it means 'a raft' (see _Dozy_, s.v.). But it is
generally used by the writers on India for a canoe, or the like small
native boat.

  1514.—"E visto che non veniva nessuno ambasciata, solo venia molte
  ABADIE, cioè barche, a venderci galline...."—_Giov. da Empoli_, in
  _Archiv. Stor. Ital._, p. 59.

  [1539.—See quotation from Pinto under ALLIGATOR.

  c. 1610.—"Light vessels which they call ALMADIA."—_Pyrard della Valle_,
  Hak. Soc. i. 122; and also see under DONEY.]

  1644.—"Huma ALMADIA pera serviço do dito Baluarte, com seis marinheiros
  que cada hum ven-se hum x(erafi)^m por mes ... x^s 72."—_Expenses of
  Diu_, in _Bocarro_ (Sloane MSS. 197, fol. 175).


ALMANACK, s. On this difficult word see Dozy's Oosterlingen and _N.E.D._ In
a passage quoted by Eusebius from Porphyry (_Praep. Evangel._ t. iii. ed.
Gaisford) there is mention of Egyptian calendars called ἀλμενιχιανὰ. Also
in the _Vocabular Arauigo_ of Pedro de Alcala (1505) the Ar. _Manāk_ is
given as the equivalent of the Span. ALMANAQUE, which seems to show that
the Sp. Arabs did use _manākh_ in the sense required, probably having
adopted it from the Egyptian, and having assumed the initial _al_ to be
their own article.


ALMYRA, s. H. _almārī_. A wardrobe, chest of drawers, or like piece of
(closed) furniture. The word is in general use, by masters and servants in
Anglo-Indian households, in both N. and S. India. It has come to us from
the Port. ALMARIO, but it is the same word as Fr. _armoire_, Old E. _ambry_
[for which see _N.E.D._] &c., and Sc. _awmry_, orginating in the Lat.
_armarium_, or _-ria_, which occurs also in L. Gr. as ἀρμαρὴ, ἀρμάριον.

  c. B.C. 200.—"Hoc est quod olim clanculum ex ARMARIO te surripuisse
  aiebas uxori tuae...."—_Plautus, Men._ iii. 3.

  A.D. 1450.—"Item, I will my chambre prestes haue ... the thone of thame
  the to ALMER, & the tothir of yame the tother ALMAR whilk I ordnyd for
  kepyng of vestmentes."—_Will of Sir T. Cumberlege_, in _Academy_, Sept.
  27, 1879, p. 231.

  1589.—"—— item ane langsettle, item ane ALMARIE, ane Kist, ane sait
  burde...."—_Ext. Records Burgh of Glasgow_, 1876, 130.

  1878.—"Sahib, have you looked in Mr Morrison's ALMIRAH?"—_Life in
  Mofussil_, i. 34.


ALOES, s. The name of aloes is applied to two entirely different
substances: A. the drug prepared from the inspissated bitter juice of the
ALOË _Socotrina_, Lam. In this meaning (A) the name is considered (_Hanbury
and Flückiger, Pharmacographia_, 616) to be derived from the Syriac
_'elwai_ (in P. _alwā_). B. ALOES-wood, the same as EAGLE-WOOD. This is
perhaps from one of the Indian forms, through the Hebrew (pl. forms)
_ahālim_, _akhālim_ and _ahālōth_, _akhālōth_. Neither Hippocrates nor
Theophrastus mentions aloes, but Dioscorides describes two kinds of it
(_Mat. Med._ iii. 3). "It was probably the Socotrine aloes with which the
ancients were most familiar. Eustathius says the aloe was called ἱερὰ, from
its excellence in preserving life (ad. _Il._ 630). This accounts for the
powder of aloes being called _Hiera picra_ in the older writers on
Pharmacy."—(_Francis Adams, Names of all Minerals, Plants, and Animals
desc. by the Greek authors_, etc.)

  (A) c. A.D. 70.—"The best ALOE (Latin the same) is brought out of
  India.... Much use there is of it in many cases, but principally to
  loosen the bellie; being the only purgative medicine that is comfortable
  to the stomach...."—_Pliny_, Bk. xxvii (_Ph. Holland_, ii. 212).

  (B) "Ἤλθε δὲ καὶ Νικόδημος ... φέρων μίγμα σμύρνης και ἀλόης ὠσεὶ λίτρας
  ἑκατόν."—_John_ xix. 39.

  c. A.D. 545.—"From the remoter regions, I speak of Tzinista and other
  places, the imports to Taprobane are silk ALOES-wood (ἀλόη), cloves,
  sandal-wood, and so forth."—_Cosmas_, in _Cathay_, p. clxxvii.

  [c. 1605.—"In wch Iland of ALLASAKATRINA are good harbors faire depth and
  good Anchor ground."—_Discription_ in _Birdwood, First Letter Book_, 82.
  (Here there is a confusion of the name of the island Socotra with that of
  its best-known product—_Aloes Socotrina_).]

  1617.—"... a kind of lignum ALLOWAIES."—_Cocks's Diary_, i. 309 [and see
  i. 3].


ALOO, s. Skt.—H. _ālū_. This word is now used in Hindustani and other
dialects for the 'potato.' The original Skt. is said to mean the esculent
root _Arum campanulatum_.


ALOO BOKHARA, s. P. _ālū-bokhāra_, 'Bokh. plum'; a kind of prune commonly
brought to India by the Afghan traders.

  [c. 1666.—"Usbec being the country which principally supplies Delhi with
  ... many loads of dry fruit, as BOKARA prunes...."—_Bernier_, ed.
  Constable, 118.]

  1817.—

   "Plantains, the golden and the green,
    Malaya's nectar'd mangosteen;
    PRUNES OF BOKHARA, and sweet nuts
    From the far groves of Samarkand."
               _Moore, Lalla Rookh._



ALPEEN, s. H. _alpīn_, used in Bombay. A common pin, from Port. _alfinete_
(_Panjab N. & Q._, ii. 117).


AMAH, s. A wet nurse; used in Madras, Bombay, China and Japan. It is Port.
_ama_ (comp. German and Swedish _amme_).

  1839.—"... A sort of good-natured housekeeper-like bodies, who talk only
  of ayahs and AMAHS, and bad nights, and babies, and the advantages of
  Hodgson's ale while they are nursing: seeming in short devoted to
  'suckling fools and chronicling small beer.'"—_Letters from Madras_, 294.
  See also p. 106.


AMBAREE, s. This is a P. word (_'amārī_) for a HOWDAH, and the word occurs
in Colebrooke's letters, but is quite unusual now. Gladwin defines _Amaree_
as "an umbrella over the Howdeh" (_Index to Ayeen_, i.). The proper
application is to a canopied howdah, such as is still used by native
princes.

  [c. 1661.—"Aurengzebe felt that he might venture to shut his brother up
  in a covered EMBARY, a kind of closed litter in which women are carried
  on elephants."—_Bernier_ (ed. _Constable_), 69.]

  c. 1665.—"On the day that the King went up the Mountain of _Pire-ponjale_
  ... being followed by a long row of elephants, upon which sat the Women
  in _Mikdembers_ and EMBARYS...."—_Bernier_, E.T. 130 [ed. _Constable_,
  407].

  1798.—"The Rajah's _Sowarree_ was very grand and superb. He had twenty
  elephants, with richly embroidered AMBARREHS, the whole of them mounted
  by his sirdars,—he himself riding upon the largest, put in the
  centre."—_Skinner, Mem._ i. 157.

  1799.—"Many of the largest Ceylon and other Deccany Elephants bore
  AMBÁRIS on which all the chiefs and nobles rode, dressed with
  magnificence, and adorned with the richest jewels."—_Life of Colebrooke_,
  p. 164.

  1805.—"AMAURY, a canopied seat for an elephant. An open one is called
  _Houza_ or _Howda_."—_Dict. of Words used in E. Indies_, 2nd ed. 21.

  1807.—"A royal tiger which was started in beating a large cover for game,
  sprang up so far into the UMBARRY or state howdah, in which Sujah Dowlah
  was seated, as to leave little doubt of a fatal issue."—_Williamson,
  Orient. Field Sports_, 15.


AMBARREH, s. Dekh. Hind. and Mahr. _ambāṛā_, _ambāṛī_ [Skt. _amla-vāṭika]_,
the plant _Hibiscus cannabinus_, affording a useful fibre.


AMBOYNA, n.p. A famous island in the Molucca Sea, belonging to the Dutch.
The native form of the name is AMBUN [which according to Marsden means
'dew'].

  [1605.—"He hath sent hither his forces which hath expelled all the
  Portingalls out of the fforts they here hould att AMBWENO and
  Tydore."—_Birdwood, First Letter Book_, 68.]


AMEEN, s. The word is Ar. _amīn_, meaning 'a trustworthy person,' and then
an inspector, intendant, &c. In India it has several uses as applied to
native officials employed under the Civil Courts, but nearly all reducible
to the definition of _fide-commissarius_. Thus an AMEEN may be employed by
a Court to investigate accounts connected with a suit, to prosecute local
enquiries of any kind bearing on a suit, to sell or to deliver over
possession of immovable property, to carry out legal process as a bailiff,
&c. The name is also applied to native assistants in the duties of
land-survey. But see _Sudder Ameen_ (SUDDER).

  [1616.—"He declared his office of AMIN required him to hear and determine
  differences."—_Foster, Letters_, iv. 351.]

  1817.—"Native officers called AUMEENS were sent to collect accounts, and
  to obtain information in the districts. The first incidents that occurred
  were complaints against these AUMEENS for injurious treatment of the
  inhabitants...."—_Mill. Hist._, ed. 1840, iv. 12.

  1861.—"Bengallee dewans, once pure, are converted into demons; AMEENS,
  once harmless, become tigers; magistrates, supposed to be just, are
  converted into oppressors."—Peterson, _Speech for Prosecution_ in _Nil
  Durpan case_.

  1878.—"The AMEEN employed in making the partition of an estate."—_Life in
  the Mofussil_, i. 206.

  1882.—"A missionary ... might, on the other hand, be brought to a
  standstill when asked to explain all the terms used by an AMIN or
  valuator who had been sent to fix the judicial rents."—_Saty. Rev._, Dec.
  30, p. 866.


AMEER, s. Ar. _Amīr_ (root _amr_, 'commanding,' and so) 'a commander,
chief, or lord,' and, in Ar. application, any kind of chief from the
_Amīru' l-mūminīn_, 'the Amīr of the Faithful' _i.e._ the Caliph,
downwards. The word in this form perhaps first became familiar as applied
to the Princes of Sind, at the time of the conquest of that Province by Sir
C. J. Napier. It is the title affected by many Musulman sovereigns of
various calibres, as the Amīr of Kābul, the Amīr of Bokhārā, &c. But in
sundry other forms the word has, more or less, taken root in European
languages since the early Middle Ages. Thus it is the origin of the title
'Admiral,' now confined to generals of the sea service, but applied in
varying forms by medieval Christian writers to the AMĪRS, or lords, of the
court and army of Egypt and other Mohammedan States. The word also came to
us again, by a later importation from the Levant, in the French form, EMIR
or EMER.—See also OMRAH, which is in fact _Umarā_, the pl. of _Amīr_.
Byzantine writers use Ἀμὲρ, Ἀμηρᾶς, Ἀμυράς, Ἀμηραῖος, &c. (See _Ducange,
Gloss. Græcit._) It is the opinion of the best scholars that the forms
_Amiral_, _Ammiraglio_, _Admiral_ &c., originated in the application of a
Low Latin termination _-alis_ or _-alius_, though some doubt may still
attach to this question. (See Marcel Devic, s.v. _Amiral_, and Dozy,
Oosterlingen, s.v. _Admiraal_ [and _N.E.D._ s.v. _Admiral_].) The _d_ in
admiral probably came from a false imagination of connection with
_admirari_.

  1250.—"Li grand AMIRAUS des galies m'envoia querre, et me demanda si
  j'estoie cousins le roy; et je le di que nanin...."—_Joinville_, p. 178.
  This passage illustrates the sort of way in which our modern use of the
  word ADMIRAL originated.

  c. 1345.—"The Master of the Ship is like a great AMĪR; when he goes
  ashore the archers and the blackamoors march before him with javelins and
  swords, with drums and horns and trumpets."—_Ibn Batuta_, iv. 93.

  Compare with this description of the Commander of a Chinese Junk in the
  14th century, A. Hamilton's of an English Captain in Malabar in the end
  of the 17th:

  "Captain Beawes, who commanded the _Albemarle_, accompanied us also,
  carrying a Drum and two Trumpets with us, so as to make our Compliment
  the more solemn."—i. 294.

  And this again of an "interloper" skipper at Hooghly, in 1683:

  1683.—"Alley went in a splendid Equipage, habitted in scarlet richly
  laced. Ten Englishmen in Blue Capps and Coats edged with Red, all armed
  with Blunderbusses, went before his pallankeen, 80 (? 8) _Peons_ before
  them, and 4 Musicians playing on the Weights with 2 Flaggs, before him,
  like an Agent...."—_Hedges_, Oct. 8 (Hak. Soc. i. 123).

  1384.—"Il Soldano fu cristiano di Grecia, e fu venduto per schiavo quando
  era fanciullo a uno AMMIRAGLIO, come tu dicessi 'capitano di
  guerra.'"—_Frescobaldi_, p. 39.

  [1510.—See quotation from _Varthema_ under XERAFINE.]

  1615.—"The inhabitants (of Sidon) are of sundry nations and religions;
  governed by a succession of Princes whom they call EMERS; descended, as
  they say, from the Druses."—_Sandys, Iourney_, 210.


AMOY, n.p. A great seaport of Fokien in China, the name of which in
Mandarin dialect is _Hia-men_, meaning 'Hall Gate,' which is in the
Changchau dialect _A-mui^n_. In some books of the last century it is called
_Emwy_ and the like. It is now a Treaty-Port.

  1687.—"AMOY or Anhay, which is a city standing on a Navigable River in
  the Province of Fokien in China, and is a place of vast
  trade."—_Dampier_, i. 417. (This looks as if Dampier confounded the name
  of _Amoy_, the origin of which (as generally given) we have stated, with
  that of _An-hai_, one of the connected ports, which lies to the N.E.,
  about 30 m., as the crow flies, from Amoy).

  1727.—"There are some curiosities in AMOY. One is a large Stone that
  weighs above forty Tuns ... in such an Equilibrium, that a Youth of
  twelve Years old can easily make it move."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 243.


AMSHOM, s. Malayāl. _am̃śam_, from Skt. _āmśah_, 'a part,' defined by
Gundert as "part of a Talook, formerly called _hobili_, greater than a
_taṛa_." [Logan (Man. Malabar, i. 87) speaks of the _amsam_ as a 'parish.']
It is further explained in the following quotation:—

  1878.—"The AMSHOM is really the smallest revenue division there is in
  Malabar, and is generally a tract of country some square miles in extent,
  in which there is no such thing as a village, but a series of scattered
  homesteads and farms, where the owner of the land and his servants reside
  ... separate and apart, in single separate huts, or in scattered
  collections of huts."—_Report of Census Com. in India._


A MUCK, to run, v. There is we believe no room for doubt that, to us at
least, this expression came from the Malay countries, where both the phrase
and the practice are still familiar. Some valuable remarks on the
phenomenon, as prevalent among the Malays, were contributed by Dr Oxley of
Singapore to the _Journal of the Indian Archipelago_, vol. iii. p. 532; see
a quotation below. [Mr W. W. Skeat writes—"The best explanation of the fact
is perhaps that it was the Malay national method of committing suicide,
especially as one never hears of Malays committing suicide in any other
way. This form of suicide may arise from a wish to die fighting and thus
avoid a 'straw death, a cow's death'; but it is curious that women and
children are often among the victims, and especially members of the
suicide's own family. The act of running AMUCK is probably due to causes
over which the culprit has some amount of control, as the custom has now
died out in the British Possessions in the Peninsula, the offenders
probably objecting to being caught and tried in cold blood. I remember
hearing of only about two cases (one by a Sikh soldier) in about six years.
It has been suggested further that the extreme monotonous heat of the
Peninsula may have conduced to such outbreaks as those of Running AMUCK and
Latah.]

The word is by Crawfurd ascribed to the Javanese, and this is his
explanation:

  "_Amuk_ (J.). An _a-muck_; to run _a-muck_; to tilt; to run furiously and
  desperately at any one; to make a furious onset or charge in
  combat."—(_Malay Dict._) [The standard Malay, according to Mr Skeat, is
  rather _amok_ (_mengāmok_).]

Marsden says that the word rarely occurs in any other than the verbal form
_mengāmuk_, 'to make a furious attack' (_Mem. of a Malayan Family_, 96).

There is reason, however, to ascribe an Indian origin to the term; whilst
the practice, apart from the term, is of no rare occurrence in Indian
history. Thus Tod records some notable instances in the history of the
Rājputs. In one of these (1634) the eldest son of the Raja of Mārwār ran
_a-muck_ at the court of Shāh Jahān, failing in his blow at the Emperor,
but killing five courtiers of eminence before he fell himself. Again, in
the 18th century, Bījai Singh, also of Mārwār, bore strong resentment
against the Tālpura prince of Hyderabad, Bījar Khān, who had sent to demand
from the Rājput tribute and a bride. A Bhattī and a Chondāwat offered their
services for vengeance, and set out for Sind as envoys. Whilst Bījar Khān
read their credentials, muttering, 'No mention of the bride!' the Chondāwat
buried a dagger in his heart, exclaiming 'This for the bride!' 'And this
for the tribute!' cried the Bhattī, repeating the blow. The pair then plied
their daggers right and left, and 26 persons were slain before the envoys
were hacked to pieces (_Tod_, ii. 45 & 315).

But it is in Malabar that we trace the apparent origin of the Malay term in
the existence of certain desperadoes who are called by a variety of old
travellers AMOUCHI or AMUCO. The nearest approach to this that we have been
able to discover is the Malayālam _amar-kkan_, 'a warrior' (from _amar_,
'fight, war'). [The proper Malayālam term for such men was _Chaver_,
literally those who took up or devoted themselves to death.] One of the
special applications of this word is remarkable in connection with a
singular custom in Malabar. After the ZAMORIN had reigned 12 years, a great
assembly was held at Tirunāvāyi, when that Prince took his seat surrounded
by his dependants, fully armed. Any one might then attack him, and the
assailant, if successful in killing the Zamorin, got the throne. This had
often happened. [For a full discussion of this custom see _Frazer, Golden
Bough_, 2nd ed., ii. 14 sq.] In 1600 thirty such assailants were killed in
the enterprise. Now these men were called _amar-kkār_ (pl. of _amar-kkan_,
see _Gundert_ s.v.). These men evidently ran _a-muck_ in the true Malay
sense; and quotations below will show other illustrations from Malabar
which confirm the idea that both name and practice originated in
Continental India. There is indeed a difficulty as to the derivation here
indicated, in the fact that the _amuco_ or _amouchi_ of European writers on
Malabar seems by no means close enough to _amarkkan_, whilst it is so close
to the Malay _āmuk_; and on this further light may be hoped for. The
identity between the AMOUCOS of Malabar and the AMUCK runners of the Malay
peninsula is clearly shown by the passage from _Correa_ given below. [Mr
Whiteway adds—"Gouvea (1606) in his _Iornada_ (ch. 9, Bk. ii.) applies the
word AMOUQUES to certain Hindus whom he saw in S. Malabar near Quilon,
whose duty it was to defend the Syrian Christians with their lives. There
are reasons for thinking that the worthy priest got hold of the story of a
cock and a bull; but in any case the Hindus referred to were really
Jangadas."] (See JANCADA).

De Gubernatis has indeed suggested that the word _amouchi_ was derived from
the Skt. _amokshya_, 'that cannot be loosed'; and this would be very
consistent with several of the passages which we shall quote, in which the
idea of being 'bound by a vow' underlies the conduct of the persons to whom
the term was applicable both in Malabar and in the Archipelago. But
_amokshya_ is a word unknown to Malayālam, in such a sense at least.

We have seen _a-muck_ derived from the Ar. _aḥmaḳ_, 'fatuous' [(_e.g._
_Ball, Jungle Life_, 358).] But this is etymology of the kind which scorns
history.

The phrase has been thoroughly naturalised in England since the days of
Dryden and Pope. [The earliest quotation for "running _amuck_" in the
N.E.D. is from Marvell (1672).]

  c. 1430.—Nicolo Conti, speaking of the greater Islands of the Archipelago
  under the name of the Two Javas, does not use the word, but describes a
  form of the practice:—

  "Homicide is here a jest, and goes without punishment. Debtors are made
  over to their creditors as slaves; and some of these, preferring death to
  slavery, will with drawn swords rush on, stabbing all whom they fall in
  with of less strength than themselves, until they meet death at the hands
  of some one more than a match for them. This man, the creditors then sue
  in Court for the dead man's debt."—In _India in the XVth C._ 45.

  1516.—"There are some of them (Javanese) who if they fall ill of any
  severe illness vow to God that if they remain in health they will of
  their own accord seek another more honourable death for his service, and
  as soon as they get well they take a dagger in their hands, and go out
  into the streets and kill as many persons as they meet, both men, women,
  and children, in such wise that they go like mad dogs, killing until they
  are killed. These are called AMUCO. And as soon as they see them begin
  this work, they cry out, saying AMUCO, AMUCO, in order that people may
  take care of themselves, and they kill them with dagger and spear
  thrusts."—_Barbosa_, Hak. Soc. 194. This passage seems to show that the
  word _amuk_ must have been commonly used in Malay countries before the
  arrival of the Portuguese there, c. 1511.

  1539.—"... The Tyrant (_o Rey Ache_) sallied forth in person, accompanied
  with 5000 resolute men (_cinco mil_ AMOUCOS) and charged the _Bataes_
  very furiously."—_Pinto_ (orig. cap. xvii.) in _Cogan_, p. 20.

  1552.—De Barros, speaking of the capture of the Island of Beth (_Beyt_,
  off the N.W. point of Kāthiāwār) by Nuno da Cunha in 1531, says: "But the
  natives of Guzarat stood in such fear of Sultan Badur that they would not
  consent to the terms. And so, like people determined on death, all that
  night they shaved their heads (this is a superstitious practice of those
  who despise life, people whom they call in India AMAUCOS) and betook
  themselves to their mosque, and there devoted their persons to death ...
  and as an earnest of this vow, and an example of this resolution, the
  Captain ordered a great fire to be made, and cast into it his wife, and a
  little son that he had, and all his household and his goods, in fear lest
  anything of his should fall into our possession." Others did the like,
  and then they fell upon the Portuguese.—Dec. IV. iv. 13.

  c. 1561.—In war between the Kings of Calicut and Cochin (1503) two
  princes of Cochin were killed. A number of these desperadoes who have
  been spoken of in the quotations were killed.... "But some remained who
  were not killed, and these went in shame, not to have died avenging their
  lords ... these were more than 200, who all, according to their custom,
  shaved off all their hair, even to the eyebrows, and embraced each other
  and their friends and relations, as men about to suffer death. In this
  case they are as madmen—known as AMOUCOS—and count themselves as already
  among the dead. These men dispersed, seeking wherever they might find men
  of Calicut, and among these they rushed fearless, killing and slaying
  till they were slain. And some of them, about twenty, reckoning more
  highly of their honour, desired to turn their death to better account;
  and these separated, and found their way secretly to Calicut, determined
  to slay the king. But as it became known that they were AMOUCOS, the city
  gave the alarm, and the King sent his servants to slay them as they slew
  others. But they like desperate men played the devil (_fazião diabruras_)
  before they were slain, and killed many people, with women and children.
  And five of them got together to a wood near the city, which they haunted
  for a good while after, making robberies and doing much mischief, until
  the whole of them were killed."—_Correa_, i. 364-5.

  1566.—"The King of _Cochin_ ... hath a great number of gentlemen which he
  calleth AMOCCHI, and some are called _Nairi_: these two sorts of men
  esteem not their lives anything, so that it may be for the honour of
  their King."—_M. Cæsar Frederike_ in _Purchas_, ii. 1708. [See _Logan,
  Man. Malabar_, i. 138.]

  1584.—"Their forces (in Cochin) consist in a kind of soldiers whom they
  call AMOCCHI, who are under obligation to die at the King's pleasure, and
  all soldiers who in war lose their King or their general lie under this
  obligation. And of such the King makes use in urgent cases, sending them
  to die fighting."—Letter of _F. Sassetti_ to _Francesco I._, Gd. D. of
  Tuscany, in _De Gubernatis_, 154.

  c. 1584.—"There are some also who are called AMOCCHI ... who being weary
  of living, set themselves in the way with a weapon in their hands, which
  they call a _Crise_, and kill as many as they meete with, till somebody
  killeth them; and this they doe for the least anger they conceive, as
  desperate men."—_G. Balbi_ in _Purchas_, ii. 1724.

  1602.—De Couto, speaking of the Javanese: "They are chivalrous men, and
  of such determination that for whatever offence may be offered them they
  make themselves AMOUCOS in order to get satisfaction thereof. And were a
  spear run into the stomach of such an one he would still press forward
  without fear till he got at his foe."—_Dec._ IV. iii. 1.

     "    In another passage (_ib._ vii. 14) De Couto speaks of the AMOUCOS
  of Malabar just as Della Valle does below. In _Dec._ VI. viii. 8 he
  describes how, on the death of the King of Pimenta, in action with the
  Portuguese, "nearly 4000 Nairs made themselves AMOUCOS with the usual
  ceremonies, shaving their heads on one side, and swearing by their pagoda
  to avenge the King's death."

  1603.—"Este es el genero de milicia de la India, y los Reyes señalan mas
  o menos AMOYOS (ò AMACOS, que todo es uno) para su guarda
  ordinaria."—_San Roman, Historia_, 48.

  1604.—"Auia hecho vna junta de Amocos, con sus ceremonias para venir a
  morir adonde el Panical auia sedo muerto."—_Guerrero, Relacion_, 91.

  1611.—"VICEROY. What is the meaning of AMOUCOS? SOLDIER. It means men who
  have made up their mind to die in killing as many as they can, as is done
  in the parts about Malaca by those whom they call AMOUCOS in the language
  of the country."—_Couto, Dialogo do Soldado Pratico_, 2nd part, p.
  9.—(Printed at Lisbon in 1790).

  1615.—"Hos inter Nairos genus est et ordo quem AMOCAS vocant quibus ob
  studium rei bellicae praecipua laus tribuitur, et omnium habentur
  validissimi."—_Jarric, Thesaurus_, i. 65.

  1624.—"Though two kings may be at war, either enemy takes great heed not
  to kill the King of the opposite faction, nor yet to strike his umbrella,
  wherever it may go ... for the whole kingdom of the slain or wounded king
  would be bound to avenge him with the complete destruction of the enemy,
  or all, if needful, to perish in the attempt. The greater the king's
  dignity among these people, the longer period lasts this obligation to
  furious revenge ... this period or method of revenge is termed AMOCO, and
  so they say that the AMOCO of the Samori lasts one day; the AMOCO of the
  king of Cochin lasts a life-time; and so of others."—_P. della Valle_,
  ii. 745 [Hak. Soc., ii. 380 _seq._].

  1648.—"Derrière ces palissades s'estoit caché un coquin de Bantamois qui
  estoit revenu de la Mecque et jouoit à MOQUA ... il court par les rues et
  tue tous ceux qu'il rencontre...."—_Tavernier, V. des Indes_, _liv._ iii.
  ch. 24 [Ed. _Ball_, ii. 361 seq.].

  1659.—"I saw in this month of February at Batavia the breasts torn with
  red-hot tongs off a black Indian by the executioner; and after this he
  was broken on the wheel from below upwards. This was because through the
  evil habit of eating opium (according to the godless custom of the
  Indians) he had become mad and raised the cry of _Amocle_ (misp. for
  AMOCK) ... in which mad state he had slain five persons.... This was the
  third AMOCK-cryer whom I saw during that visit to Batavia (a few months)
  broken on the wheel for murder."

      *     *     *     *     *

  ... "Such a murderer and AMOCK-runner has sometimes the fame of being an
  invincible hero because he has so manfully repulsed all who tried to
  seize him.... So the Netherlands Government is compelled when such an
  AMOCK-runner is taken alive to punish him in a terrific manner."—_Walter
  Schulzens Ost-Indische Reise-Beschreibung_ (German ed.), Amsterdam, 1676,
  pp. 19-20 and 227.

  1672.—"Every community (of the Malabar Christians), every church has its
  own AMOUCHI, which ... are people who take an oath to protect with their
  own lives the persons and places put under their safeguard, from all and
  every harm."—_P. Vicenzo Maria_, 145.

     "    "If the Prince is slain the AMOUCHI, who are numerous, would
  avenge him desperately. If he be injured they put on festive raiment,
  take leave of their parents, and with fire and sword in hand invade the
  hostile territory, burning every dwelling, and slaying man, woman, and
  child, sparing none, until they themselves fall."—_Ibid._ 237-8.

  1673.—"And they (the Mohammedans) are hardly restrained from running A
  MUCK (which is to kill whoever they meet, till they be slain themselves),
  especially if they have been at _Hodge_ [HADGEE] a Pilgrimage to
  Mecca."—_Fryer_, 91.

  1687.—Dryden assailing Burnet:—

   "Prompt to assault, and careless of defence,
    Invulnerable in his impudence,
    He dares the World; and eager of a name,
    He thrusts about and justles into fame.
    Frontless and satire-proof, he scours the streets
    And runs an INDIAN MUCK at all he meets."
               _The Hind and the Panther_, line 2477.

  1689.—"Those that run these are called AMOUKI, and the doing of it
  _Running_ A MUCK."—_Ovington_, 237.

  1712.—"AMOUCO (Termo da India) val o mesmo que homem determinado e
  apostado que despreza a vida e não teme a morte."—_Bluteau_, s.v.

  1727.—"I answered him that I could no longer bear their Insults, and, if
  I had not Permission in three Days, I would RUN A MUCK (which is a mad
  Custom among the _Mallayas_ when they become desperate)."—_A. Hamilton_,
  ii. 231.

  1737.—

   "Satire's my weapon, but I'm too discreet
    To RUN A MUCK, and tilt at all I meet."
               _Pope, Im. of Horace_, B. ii. Sat. i. 69.

  1768-71.—"These acts of indiscriminate murder are called by us MUCKS,
  because the perpetrators of them, during their frenzy, continually cry
  out AMOK, AMOK, which signifies _kill, kill_...."—_Stavorinus_, i. 291.

  1783.—At Bencoolen in this year (1760)—"the Count (d'Estaing) afraid of
  an insurrection among the Buggesses ... invited several to the Fort, and
  when these had entered the Wicket was shut upon them; in attempting to
  disarm them, they _mangamoed_, that is RAN A MUCK; they drew their
  cresses, killed one or two Frenchmen, wounded others, and at last
  suffered themselves, for supporting this point of honour."—_Forrest's
  Voyage to Mergui_, 77.

  1784.—"It is not to be controverted that these desperate acts of
  indiscriminate murder, called by us MUCKS, and by the natives _mongamo_,
  do actually take place, and frequently too, in some parts of the east (in
  Java in particular)."—_Marsden, H. of Sumatra_, 239.

  1788.—"We are determined to RUN A MUCK rather than suffer ourselves to be
  forced away by these Hollanders."—_Mem. of a Malayan Family_, 66.

  1798.—"At Batavia, if an officer take one of these AMOKS, or MOHAWKS, as
  they have been called by an easy corruption, his reward is very
  considerable; but if he kill them, nothing is added to his usual
  pay...."—_Translator of Stavorinus_, i. 294.

  1803.—"We cannot help thinking, that one day or another, when they are
  more full of opium than usual, they (the Malays) will RUN A MUCK from
  Cape Comorin to the Caspian."—_Sydney Smith_, Works, 3rd ed., iii. 6.

  1846.—"On the 8th July, 1846, Sunan, a respectable Malay house-builder in
  Penang, RAN AMOK ... killed an old Hindu woman, a Kling, a Chinese boy,
  and a Kling girl about three years old ... and wounded two Hindus, three
  Klings, and two Chinese, of whom only two survived.... On the trial Sunan
  declared he did not know what he was about, and persisted in this at the
  place of execution.... The AMOK took place on the 8th, the trial on the
  13th, and the execution on the 15th July,—all within 8 days."—_J. Ind.
  Arch._, vol. iii. 460-61.

  1849.—"A man sitting quietly among his friends and relatives, will
  without provocation suddenly start up, weapon in hand, and slay all
  within his reach.... Next day when interrogated ... the answer has
  invariably been, "The Devil entered into me, my eyes were darkened, I did
  not know what I was about." I have received the same reply on at least 20
  different occasions; on examination of these monomaniacs, I have
  generally found them labouring under some gastric disease, or troublesome
  ulcer.... The Bugis, whether from revenge or disease, are by far the most
  addicted to run AMOK. I should think three-fourths of all the cases I
  have seen have been by persons of this nation."—_Dr T. Oxley_, in _J.
  Ind. Archip._, iii. 532.

  [1869.—"Macassar is the most celebrated place in the East for 'running A
  MUCK.'"—Wallace, _Malay Archip._ (ed. 1890), p. 134.]

  [1870.—For a full account of many cases in India, see _Chevers, Med.
  Jurisprudence_, p. 781 seqq.]

  1873.—"They (the English) ... crave governors who, not having bound
  themselves beforehand to 'RUN AMUCK,' may give the land some chance of
  repose."—_Blackwood's Magazine_, June, p. 759.

  1875.—"On being struck the Malay at once stabbed Arshad with a _kriss_;
  the blood of the people who had witnessed the deed was aroused, they ran
  AMOK, attacked Mr Birch, who was bathing in a floating bath close to the
  shore, stabbed and killed him."—_Sir W. D. Jervois_ to the E. of
  Carnarvon, Nov. 16, 1875.

  1876.—"Twice over, while we were wending our way up the steep hill in
  Galata, it was our luck to see a Turk 'RUN A MUCK' ... nine times out of
  ten this frenzy is feigned, but not always, as for instance in the case
  where a priest took to running _a-muck_ on an Austrian Lloyd's boat on
  the Black Sea, and after killing one or two passengers, and wounding
  others, was only stopped by repeated shots from the Captain's
  pistol."—_Barkley, Five Years in Bulgaria_, 240-41.

  1877.—The _Times_ of February 11th mentions a fatal MUCK run by a Spanish
  sailor, Manuel Alves, at the Sailors' Home, Liverpool; and the _Overland
  Times of India_ (31st August) another run by a sepoy at Meerut.

  1879.—"Running A-MUCK does not seem to be confined to the Malays. At
  Ravenna, on Monday, when the streets were full of people celebrating the
  festa of St John the Baptist, a maniac rushed out, snatched up a knife
  from a butcher's stall and fell upon everyone he came across ... before
  he was captured he wounded more or less seriously 11 persons, among whom
  was one little child."—_Pall Mall Gazette_, July 1.

     "    "Captain Shaw mentioned ... that he had known as many as 40
  people being injured by a single 'AMOK' runner. When the cry 'AMOK!
  AMOK!' is raised, people fly to the right and left for shelter, for after
  the blinded madman's _kris_ has once 'drunk blood,' his fury becomes
  ungovernable, his sole desire is to kill; he strikes here and there; he
  stabs fugitives in the back, his _kris_ drips blood, he rushes on yet
  more wildly, blood and murder in his course; there are shrieks and
  groans, his bloodshot eyes start from their sockets, his frenzy gives him
  unnatural strength; then all of a sudden he drops, shot through the
  heart, or from sudden exhaustion, clutching his bloody _kris_."—_Miss
  Bird, Golden Chersonese_, 356.


ANACONDA, s. This word for a great python, or boa, is of very obscure
origin. It is now applied in scientific zoology as the specific name of a
great S. American water-snake. Cuvier has "L'ANACONDO (_Boa scytale et
murina_, L.—_Boa aquatica_, Prince Max.)," (_Règne Animal_, 1829, ii. 78).
Again, in the Official Report prepared by the Brazilian Government for the
Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876, we find: "Of the genus Boa ... we may
mention the ... _sucuriù_ or _sucuriuba_ (B. ANACONDA), whose skins are
used for boots and shoes and other purposes." And as the subject was
engaging our attention we read the following in the _St James' Gazette_ of
April 3, 1882:—"A very unpleasant account is given by a Brazilian paper,
the _Voz do Povo_ of Diamantino, of the proceedings of a huge water-snake
called the _sucuruyu_, which is to be found in some of the rivers of
Brazil.... A slave, with some companions, was fishing with a net in the
river, when he was suddenly seized by a _sucuruyu_, who made an effort with
his hinder coils to carry off at the same time another of the fishing
party." We had naturally supposed the name to be S. American, and its S.
American character was rather corroborated by our finding in Ramusio's
version of Pietro Martire d'Angheria such S. American names as _Anacauchoa_
and _Anacaona_. Serious doubt was however thrown on the American origin of
the word when we found that Mr H. W. Bates entirely disbelieved it, and
when we failed to trace the name in any older books about S. America.

In fact the oldest authority that we have met with, the famous John Ray,
distinctly assigns the name, and the serpent to which the name properly
belonged, to Ceylon. This occurs in his _Synopsis Methodica Animalium
Quadrupedum et Serpentini Generis_, Lond. 1693. In this he gives a
Catalogue of Indian Serpents, which he had received from his friend Dr
Tancred Robinson, and which the latter had noted _e Museo Leydensi_. No. 8
in this list runs as follows:—

"8. _Serpens Indicus Bubalinus_, ANACANDAIA Zeylonensibus, id est Bubalorum
aliorumque jumentorum membra conterens," p. 332.

The following passage from St Jerome, giving an etymology, right or wrong,
of the word _boa_, which our naturalists now limit to certain great
serpents of America, but which is often popularly applied to the pythons of
E. Asia, shows a remarkable analogy to Ray's explanation of the name
_Anacandaia_:—

  c. A.D. 395-400.—"Si quidem draco mirae magnitudinis, quos gentili
  sermone _Boas_ vocant, _ab eo quod tam grandes sint ut_ boves _glutire
  soleant_, omnem late vastabat provinciam, et non solum armenta et pecudes
  sed agricolas quoque et pastores tractos ad se vi spiritus
  absorbebat."—In _Vita Scti. Hilarionis Eremitae_, Opera Scti. Eus.
  Hieron. Venetiis, 1767, ii. col. 35.

Ray adds that on this No. 8 should be read what D. Cleyerus has said in the
_Ephem. German._ An 12. obser. 7, entitled: _De Serpente magno Indiae
Orientalis Urobubalum deglutiente_. The serpent in question was 25 feet
long. Ray quotes in abridgment the description of its treatment of the
buffalo; how, if the resistance is great, the victim is dragged to a tree,
and compressed against it; how the noise of the crashing bones is heard as
far as a cannon: how the crushed carcass is covered with saliva, etc. It is
added that the country people (apparently this is in Amboyna) regard this
great serpent as most desirable food.

The following are extracts from Cleyer's paper, which is, more fully cited,
_Miscellanea Curiosa, sive Ephimeridum Medico-Physicarum Germanicarum
Academiae Naturae Curiosorum_, Dec. ii.—Annus Secundus, Anni MDCLXXXIII.
Norimbergae. Anno MDCLXXXIV. pp. 18-20. It is illustrated by a formidable
but inaccurate picture showing the serpent seizing an ox (not a buffalo) by
the muzzle, with huge teeth. He tells how he dissected a great snake that
he bought from a huntsman in which he found a whole stag of middle age,
entire in skin and every part; and another which contained a wild goat with
great horns, likewise quite entire; and a third which had swallowed a
porcupine armed with all his "sagittiferis aculeis." In Amboyna a woman
great with child had been swallowed by such a serpent....

  "Quod si animal quoddam robustius renitatur, ut spiris anguinis enecari
  non possit, serpens crebris cum animali convolutionibus caudâ suâ
  proximam arborem in auxilium et robur corporis arripit eamque circumdat,
  quo eo fortius et valentius gyris suis animal comprimere, suffocare, et
  demum enecare possit...."

  "Factum est hoc modo, ut (quod ex fide dignissimis habeo) in Regno Aracan
  ... talis vasti corporis anguis prope flumen quoddam, cum Uro-bubalo,
  sive sylvestri bubalo aut uro ... immani spectaculo congredi visus
  fuerit, eumque dicto modo occiderit; quo conflictu et plusquam hostili
  amplexu fragor ossium in bubalo comminutorum ad distantiam tormenti
  bellici majoris ... a spectatoribus sat eminus stantibus exaudiri
  potuit...."

The natives said these great snakes had poisonous fangs. These Cleyer could
not find, but he believes the teeth to be in some degree venomous, for a
servant of his scratched his hand on one of them. It swelled, greatly
inflamed, and produced fever and delirium:

  "Nec prius cessabant symptomata, quam Serpentinus lapis (see SNAKE-STONE)
  quam Patres Jesuitae hic componunt, vulneri adaptatus omne venenum
  extraheret, et ubique symptomata convenientibus antidotis essent
  profligata."

Again, in 1768, we find in the _Scots Magazine_, App. p. 673, but quoted
from "London pap. Aug. 1768," and signed by _R. Edwin_, a professed
eye-witness, a story with the following heading: "Description of the
ANACONDA, a monstrous species of serpent. In a letter from an English
gentleman, many years resident in the Island of Ceylon in the East
Indies.... The Ceylonese seem to know the creature well; they call it
ANACONDA, and talked of eating its flesh when they caught it." He describes
its seizing and disposing of an enormous "tyger." The serpent darts on the
"tyger" from a tree, attacking first with a bite, then partially crushing
and dragging it to the tree ... "winding his body round both the tyger and
the tree with all his violence, till the ribs and other bones began to give
way ... each giving a loud crack when it burst ... the poor creature all
this time was living, and at every loud crash of its bones gave a houl, not
loud, yet piteous enough to pierce the cruelest heart."

Then the serpent drags away its victim, covers it with slaver, swallows it,
etc. The whole thing is very cleverly told, but is evidently a romance
founded on the description by "D. Cleyerus," which is quoted by Ray. There
are no tigers in Ceylon. In fact, "R. Edwin" has developed the Romance of
the Anaconda out of the description of D. Cleyerus, exactly as "Mynheer
Försch" some years later developed the Romance of the Upas out of the older
stories of the poison tree of Macassar. Indeed, when we find "Dr Andrew
Cleyer" mentioned among the early relators of these latter stories, the
suspicion becomes strong that both romances had the same author, and that
"R. Edwin" was also the true author of the wonderful story told under the
name of Foersch. (See further under UPAS.)

In Percival's _Ceylon_ (1803) we read: "Before I arrived in the island I
had heard many stories of a monstrous snake, so vast in size as to devour
tigers and buffaloes, and so daring as even to attack the elephant" (p.
303). Also, in Pridham's _Ceylon and its Dependencies_ (1849, ii. 750-51):
"Pimbera or ANACONDA is of the genus Python, Cuvier, and is known in
English as the rock-snake." Emerson Tennent (_Ceylon_, 4th ed., 1860, i.
196) says: "The great python (the 'boa' as it is commonly designated by
Europeans, the 'ANACONDA' of Eastern story) which is supposed to crush the
bones of an elephant, and to swallow a tiger".... It may be suspected that
the letter of "R. Edwin" was the foundation of all or most of the stories
alluded to in these passages. Still we have the authority of Ray's friend
that Anaconda, or rather _Anacondaia_, was at Leyden applied as a Ceylonese
name to a specimen of this python. The only interpretation of this that we
can offer is Tamil _ānai-kondra_ [_āṇaik-kónḍa_], "which killed an
elephant"; an appellative, but not a name. We have no authority for the
application of this appellative to a snake, though the passages quoted from
Percival, Pridham, and Tennent are all suggestive of such stories, and the
interpretation of the name _anacondaia_ given to Ray: "_Bubalorum_ ...
membra conterens," is at least quite analogous as an appellative. It may be
added that in Malay ANAKANDA signifies "one that is well-born," which does
not help us.... [Mr Skeat is unable to trace the word in Malay, and rejects
the derivation from _anakanda_ given above. A more plausible explanation is
that given by Mr D. Ferguson (8 Ser. _N. & Q._ xii. 123), who derives
_anacandaia_ from Singhalese _Henakandayâ_ (_hena_, 'lightning'; _kanda_,
'stem, trunk,') which is a name for the whip-snake (_Passerita
mycterizans_), the name of the smaller reptile being by a blunder
transferred to the greater. It is at least a curious coincidence that
Ogilvy (1670) in his "_Description of the African Isles_" (p. 690), gives:
"_Anakandef_, a sort of small snakes," which is the Malagasy _Anakandîfy_,
'a snake.']

  1859.—"The skins of ANACONDAS offered at Bangkok come from the northern
  provinces."—_D. O. King_, in _J. R. G. Soc._, xxx. 184.


ANANAS, s. The Pine-apple (_Ananassa sativa_, Lindl.; _Bromelia Ananas_,
L.), a native of the hot regions of Mexico and Panama. It abounded, as a
cultivated plant, in Hispaniola and all the islands according to Oviedo.
The Brazilian _Nana_, or perhaps _Nanas_, gave the Portuguese _Ananas_ or
_Ananaz_. This name has, we believe, accompanied the fruit whithersoever,
except to England, it has travelled from its home in America. A pine was
brought home to Charles V., as related by J. D'Acosta below. The plant is
stated to have been first, in Europe, cultivated at Leyden about 1650 (?).
In England it first fruited at Richmond, in Sir M. Decker's garden, in
1712.[28] But its diffusion in the East was early and rapid. To one who has
seen the hundreds of acres covered with pine-apples on the islands
adjoining Singapore, or their profusion in a seemingly wild state in the
valleys of the Kasia country on the eastern borders of Bengal, it is hard
to conceive of this fruit as introduced in modern times from another
hemisphere. But, as in the case of tobacco, the name bewrayeth its true
origin, whilst the large natural family of plants to which it belongs is
exclusively American. The names given by Oviedo, probably those of
Hispaniola, are _Iaiama_ as a general name, and _Boniana_ and _Aiagua_ for
two species. Pine-apples used to cost a PARDAO (a coin difficult to
determine the value of in those days) when first introduced in Malabar,
says Linschoten, but "now there are so many grown in the country, that they
are good cheape" (91); [Hak. Soc. ii. 19]. Athanasius Kircher, in the
middle of the 17th century, speaks of the _ananas_ as produced in great
abundance in the Chinese provinces of Canton, Kiangsu and Fuhkien. In Ibn
Muhammad Wali's _H. of the Conquest of Assam_, written in 1662, the
pine-apples of that region are commended for size and flavour. In the last
years of the preceding century Carletti (1599) already commends the
excellent _ananas_ of Malacca. But even some 20 or 30 years earlier the
fruit was grown profusely in W. India, as we learn from Chr. d'Acosta
(1578). And we know from the _Āīn_ that (about 1590) the _ananas_ was
habitually served at the table of Akbar, the price of one being reckoned at
only 4 _dams_, or 1/10 of a rupee; whilst Akbar's son Jahāngīr states that
the fruit came from the sea-ports in the possession of the Portuguese.—(See
_Āīn_, i. 66-68.)

In Africa too, this royal fruit has spread, carrying the American name
along with it. "The Mānānāzi[29] or pine-apple," says Burton, "grows
luxuriantly as far as 3 marches from the coast (of Zanzibar). It is never
cultivated, nor have its qualities as a fibrous plant been discovered."
(_J.R.G.S._ xxix. 35). On the Ile Ste Marie, of Madagascar, it grew in the
first half of the 17th century as _manasse_ (_Flacourt_, 29).

Abul Faẓl, in the _Āīn_, mentions that the fruit was also called
_kaṭhal-i-safarī_, or 'travel jack-fruit,' "because young plants put into a
vessel may be taken on travels and will yield fruits." This seems a
nonsensical pretext for the name, especially as another American fruit, the
Guava, is sometimes known in Bengal as the _Safarī-ām_, or 'travel mango.'
It has been suggested by one of the present writers that these cases may
present an uncommon use of the word _safarī_ in the sense of 'foreign' or
'outlandish,' just as Clusius says of the pine-apple in India,
"_peregrinus_ est hic fructus," and as we begin this article by speaking of
the _ananas_ as having 'travelled' from its home in S. America. In the
_Tesoro_ of Cobarruvias (1611) we find "_Çafari_, cosa de Africa o Argel,
como grenada" ('a thing from Africa or Algiers, such as a pomegranate').
And on turning to _Dozy and Eng._ we find that in Saracenic Spain a
renowned kind of pomegranate was called _rommān safarī_: though this was
said to have its name from a certain _Safar ibn-Obaid al Kilāi_, who grew
it first. One doubts here, and suspects some connection with the Indian
terms, though the link is obscure. The lamented Prof. Blochmann, however,
in a note on this suggestion, would not admit the possibility of the use of
_safarī_ for 'foreign.' He called attention to the possible analogy of the
Ar. _safarjal_ for 'quince.' [Another suggestion may be hazarded. There is
an Ar. word, _āsāfīriy_, which the dicts. define as 'a kind of olive.'
Burton (_Ar. Nights_, iii. 79) translates this as 'sparrow-olives,' and
says that they are so called because they attract sparrows (_āsāfīr_). It
is perhaps possible that this name for a variety of olive may have been
transferred to the pine-apple, and on reaching India, have been connected
by a folk etymology with _safarī_ applied to a 'travelled' fruit.] In
Macassar, according to Crawfurd, the _ananas_ is called _Pandang_, from its
strong external resemblance, as regards fruit and leaves, to the
_Pandanus_. Conversely we have called the latter _screw-pine_, from its
resemblance to the _ananas_, or perhaps to the pine-cone, the original
owner of the name. Acosta again (1578) describes the _Pandanus
odoratissima_ as the 'wild _ananas_,' and in Malayālam the pine-apple is
called by a name meaning 'pandanus-jack-fruit.'

The term _ananas_ has been Arabized, among the Indian pharmacists at least,
as _'aīn-un-nās_ 'the eye of man'; in Burmese _nan-na-si_, and in
Singhalese and Tamil as _annāsi_ (see _Moodeen Sheriff_).

We should recall attention to the fact that pine-apple was good English
long before the discovery of America, its proper meaning being what we have
now been driven (for the avoiding of confusion) to call a _pine-cone_. This
is the only meaning of the term 'pine-apple' in Minsheu's _Guide into
Tongues_ (2nd ed. 1627). And the _ananas_ got this name from its strong
resemblance to a pine-cone. This is most striking as regards the large
cones of the Stone-Pine of S. Europe. In the following three first
quotations 'pine-apple' is used in the old sense:

  1563.—"To all such as die so, the people erecteth a chappell, and to each
  of them a pillar and pole made of _Pine-apple_ for a perpetuall
  monument."—_Reports of Japan_, in _Hakl._ ii. 567.

     "    "The greater part of the quadrangle set with savage trees, as
  Okes, Chesnuts, Cypresses, _Pine-apples_, Cedars."—_Reports of China_,
  tr. by _R. Willes_, in _Hakl._ ii. 559.

  1577.—"In these islandes they found no trees knowen vnto them, but
  _Pine-apple_ trees, and Date trees, and those of marueylous heyght, and
  exceedyng hardé."—_Peter Martyr_, in Eden's _H. of Trauayle_, fol. 11.

Oviedo, in _H. of the_ (Western) _Indies_, fills 2½ folio pages with an
enthusiastic description of the _pine-apple_ as first found in Hispaniola,
and of the reason why it got this name (_pina_ in Spanish, _pigna_ in
Ramusio's Italian, from which we quote). We extract a few fragments.

  1535.—"There are in this iland of Spagnuolo certain thistles, each of
  which bears a _Pigna_, and this is one of the most beautiful fruits that
  I have seen.... It has all these qualities in combination, viz. beauty of
  aspect, fragrance of colour, and exquisite flavour. The Christians gave
  it the name it bears (_Pigna_) because it is, in a manner, like that. But
  the _pine-apples_ of the Indies of which we are speaking are much more
  beautiful than the _pigne_ [_i.e._ pine-cones] of Europe, and have
  nothing of that hardness which is seen in those of Castile, which are in
  fact nothing but wood," &c.—_Ramusio_, iii. f. 135 v.

  1564.—"Their pines be of the bigness of two fists, the outside whereof is
  of the making of a _pine-apple_ [_i.e._ pine-cone], but it is softe like
  the rinde of a cucomber, and the inside eateth like an apple, but it is
  more delicious than any sweet apple sugared."—_Master John Hawkins_, in
  _Hakl._ iii. 602.

  1575.—"Aussi la plus part des Sauuages s'en nourrissent vne bonne partie
  de l'année, comme aussi ils font d'vne autre espece de fruit, nom̃é NANA,
  qui est gros com̃e vne moyenne citrouille, et fait autour comme vne pomme
  de pin...."—_A. Thevet, Cosmographie Vniverselle_, liv. xxii. ff. 935
  _v._, 936 (with a pretty good cut).

  1590.—"The Pines, or Pine-apples, are of the same fashion and forme
  outwardly to those of Castille, but within they wholly differ.... One
  presented one of these Pine-apples to the Emperour Charles the fift,
  which must have cost much paine and care to bring it so farre, with the
  plant from the Indies, yet would he not trie the taste."—_Jos. de
  Acosta_, E. T. of 1604 (Hak. Soc.), 236-7.

  1595.—"... with diuers sortes of excellent fruits and rootes, and great
  abundance of _Pinas_, the princesse of fruits that grow vnder the
  Sun."—_Ralegh, Disc. of Guiana_ (Hak. Soc.), 73.

  c. 1610.—"ANANATS, et plusieurs autres fruicts."—_P. de Laval_, i. 236
  [Hak. Soc. i. 328].

  1616.—"The ANANAS or Pine, which seems to the taste to be a pleasing
  compound, made of strawberries, claret-wine, rose-water, and sugar, well
  tempered together."—_Terry_, in _Purchas_, ii. 1469.

  1623.—"The ANANAS is esteemed, and with reason, for it is of excellent
  flavour, though very peculiar, and rather acid than otherwise, but having
  an indescribable dash of sweetness that renders it agreeable. And as even
  these books (Clusius, &c.) don't mention it, if I remember rightly, I
  will say in brief that when you regard the entire fruit externally, it
  looks just like one of our pine-cones (_pigna_), with just such scales,
  and of that very colour."—_P. della Valle_, ii. 582 [Hak. Soc., i. 135].

  1631.—Bontius thus writes of the fruit:—

   "Qui legitis Cynaras, atque Indica dulcia fraga,
    Ne nimis haec comedas, fugito hinc, latet anguis in herbâ."
               Lib. vi. cap. 50, p. 145.

  1661.—"I first saw the famous _Queen Pine_ brought from Barbados and
  presented to his Majestie; but the first that were ever seen in England
  were those sent to Cromwell House foure years since."—_Evelyn's Diary_,
  July 19.

  [c. 1665.—"Among other fruits, they preserve large citrons, such as we
  have in Europe, a certain delicate root about the length of sarsaparilla,
  that common fruit of the Indies called _amba_, another called
  ANANAS...."—_Bernier_ (ed. _Constable_), 438.]

  1667.—"Ie peux à très-juste titre appeller l'ANANAS le Roy des fruits,
  parcequ'il est le plus beau, et le meilleur de tous ceux qui sont sur la
  terre. C'est sans doute pour cette raison le Roy des Roys luy a mis une
  couronne sur la teste, qui est comme une marque essentielle de sa
  Royaute, puis qu'à la cheute du pere, il produit un ieune Roy qui luy
  succede en toutes ses admirables qualitez."—_P. Du Tertre, Hist. Gén. des
  Antilles Habitées par les François_, ii. 127.

  1668.—"Standing by his Majesty at dinner in the Presence, there was of
  that rare fruit call'd the _King-pine_, grown in the Barbadoes and the
  West indies, the first of them I have ever seene. His Majesty having cut
  it up was pleas'd to give me a piece off his owne plate to taste of, but
  in my opinion it falls short of those ravishing varieties of
  deliciousness describ'd in Capt. Ligon's history and others."—_Evelyn_,
  July 19.

  1673.—"The fruit the English call _Pine-Apple_ (the Moors ANANAS) because
  of the Resemblance."—_Fryer_, 182.

  1716.—"I had more reason to wonder that night at the King's table" (at
  Hanover) "to see a present from a gentleman of this country ... what I
  thought, worth all the rest, two ripe ANANASSES, which to my taste are a
  fruit perfectly delicious. You know they are naturally the growth of the
  Brazil, and I could not imagine how they came here but by
  enchantment."—_Lady M. W. Montagu_, Letter XIX.

  1727.—

   "Oft in humble station dwells
    Unboastful worth, above fastidious pomp;
    Witness, thou best ANANA, thou the pride
    Of vegetable life, beyond whate'er
    The poets imaged in the golden age."
               _Thomson, Summer._

  The poet here gives the word an unusual form and accent.

  c. 1730.—"They (the Portuguese) cultivate the skirts of the hills, and
  grow the best products, such as sugar-cane, _pine-apples_, and
  rice."—_Khāfī Khān_, in _Elliot_, vii. 345.

A curious question has been raised regarding the _ananas_, similar to that
discussed under CUSTARD-APPLE, as in the existence of the pine-apple to the
Old World, before the days of Columbus.

In Prof. Rawlinson's _Ancient Monarchies_ (i. 578), it is stated in
reference to ancient Assyria: "Fruits ... were highly prized; amongst those
of most repute were pomegranates, grapes, citrons, and apparently
pine-apples." A foot-note adds: "The representation is so exact that I can
hardly doubt the pine-apple being intended. Mr Layard expresses himself on
this point with some hesitation (_Nineveh and Babylon_, p. 338)." The cut
given is something like the conventional figure of a pine-apple, though it
seems to us by no means very exact as such. Again, in Winter Jones's tr. of
Conti (c. 1430) in _India in the 15th Century_, the traveller, speaking of
a place called _Panconia_ (read _Pauconia_ apparently Pegu) is made to say:
"they have _pine-apples_, oranges, chestnuts, melons, but small and green,
white sandal-wood and camphor."

We cannot believe that in either place the object intended was the
_Ananas_, which has carried that American name with it round the world.
Whatever the Assyrian representation was intended for, Conti seems to have
stated, in the words _pinus habent_ (as it runs in Poggio's Latin) merely
that they had pine-trees. We do not understand on what ground the
translator introduced _pine-apples_. If indeed any fruit was meant, it
might have been that of the screw-pine, which though not eaten might
perhaps have been seen in the bazars of Pegu, as it is used for some
economical purposes. But _pinus_ does not mean a fruit at all. 'Pine-cones'
even would have been expressed by _pineas_ or the like. [A reference to Mr
L. W. King was thus answered: "The identity of the tree with the date-palm
is, I believe, acknowledged by all naturalists who have studied the trees
on the Assyrian monuments, and the 'cones' held by the winged figures have
obviously some connection with the trees. I think it was Prof. Tylor of
Oxford (see _Academy_, June 8, 1886, p. 283) who first identified the
ceremony with the fertilization of the palm, and there is much to be said
for his suggestion. The date-palm was of very great use to the Babylonians
and Assyrians, for it furnished them with food, drink, and building
materials, and this fact would explain the frequent repetition on the
Assyrian monuments of the ceremony of fertilisation. On the other hand,
there is no evidence, so far as I know, that the pine-apple was extensively
grown in Assyria." Also see _Maspero, Dawn of Civ._ 556 _seq._; on the use
of the pine-cone in Greece, _Fraser, Pausanias_, iii. 65.]


ANCHEDIVA, ANJEDIVA, n.p. A small island off the W. coast of India, a
little S. of Carwar, which is the subject of frequent and interesting
mention in the early narratives. The name is interpreted by Malayālim as
_añju-dīvu_, 'Five Islands,' and if this is correct belongs to the whole
group. This may, however, be only an endeavour to interpret an old name,
which is perhaps traceable in Αἰγιδίων Νῆσος of Ptolemy. It is a remarkable
example of the slovenliness of English professional map-making that Keith
Johnston's _Royal Atlas_ map of India contains no indication of this famous
island. [The _Times Atlas_ and Constable's _Hand Atlas_ also ignore it.] It
has, between land surveys and sea-charts, been omitted altogether by the
compilers. But it is plain enough in the Admiralty charts; and the way Mr
Birch speaks of it in his translation of Alboquerque as an "Indian seaport,
no longer marked on the maps," is odd (ii. 168).

  c. 1345.—Ibn Batuta gives no name, but Anjediva is certainly the island
  of which he thus speaks: "We left behind us the island (of Sindābūr or
  Goa), passing close to it, and cast anchor by a small island near the
  mainland, where there was a temple, with a grove and a reservoir of
  water. When we had landed on this little island we found there a _Jogi_
  leaning against the wall of a _Budkhānah_ or house of idols."—_Ibn
  Batuta_, iv. 63.

The like may be said of the _Roteiro_ of V. da Gama's voyage, which
likewise gives no name, but describes in wonderful correspondence with Ibn
Batuta; as does Correa, even to the _Jogi_, still there after 150 years!

  1498.—"So the Captain-Major ordered Nicolas Coello to go in an armed
  boat, and see where the water was; and he found in the same island a
  building, a church of great ashlar-work, which had been destroyed by the
  Moors, as the country people said, only the chapel had been covered with
  straw, and they used to make their prayers to three black stones in the
  midst of the body of the chapel. Moreover they found, just beyond the
  church, a _tanque_ of wrought ashlar, in which we took as much water as
  we wanted; and at the top of the whole island stood a great _tanque_ of
  the depth of 4 fathoms, and moreover we found in front of the church a
  beach where we careened the ship."—_Roteiro_, 95.

  1510.—"I quitted this place, and went to another island which is called
  ANZEDIVA.... There is an excellent port between the island and the
  mainland, and very good water is found in the said island."—_Varthema_,
  120.

  c. 1552.—"Dom Francesco de Almeida arriving at the Island of ANCHEDIVA,
  the first thing he did was to send João Homem with letters to the factors
  of Cananor, Cochin, and Coulão...."—_Barros_, I. viii. 9.

  c. 1561.—"They went and put in at ANGEDIVA, where they enjoyed themselves
  much; there were good water springs, and there was in the upper part of
  the island a tank built with stone, with very good water, and much wood;
  ... there were no inhabitants, only a beggar man whom they called
  _Joguedes_...."—_Correa_, Hak. Soc. 239.

  1727.—"In January, 1664, my Lord (Marlborough) went back to England ...
  and left Sir Abraham with the rest, to pass the westerly Monsoons, in
  some Port on the Coast, but being unacquainted, chose a desolate Island
  called ANJADWA, to winter at.... Here they stayed from April to October,
  in which time they buried above 200 of their Men."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 182.
  At p. 274 the name is printed more correctly ANJEDIVA.


ANDAMAN, n.p. The name of a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal,
inhabited by tribes of a negrito race, and now partially occupied as a
convict settlement under the Government of India. The name (though perhaps
obscurely indicated by Ptolemy—see H. Y. in _P.R.G.S._ 1881, p. 665) first
appears distinctly in the Ar. narratives of the 9th century. [The Ar. dual
form is said to be from _Agamitae_, the Malay name of the aborigines.] The
persistent charge of cannibalism seems to have been unfounded. [See E. H.
Man, _On the Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands_, Intro. xiii.
45.]

  A.D. 851.—"Beyond are two islands divided by a sea called ANDĀMĀN. The
  natives of these isles devour men alive; their hue is black, their hair
  woolly; their countenance and eyes have something frightful in them ...
  they go naked, and have no boats...."—_Relation des Voyages_, &c. par
  _Reinaud_, i. 8.

  c. 1050.—These islands are mentioned in the great Tanjore
  temple-inscription (11th cent.) as _Tīmaittīvu_, 'Islands of Impurity,'
  inhabited by cannibals.

  c. 1292.—"ANGAMANAIN is a very large Island. The people are without a
  King and are idolators, and are no better than wild beasts ... they are a
  most cruel generation, and eat everybody that they can catch if not of
  their own race."—_Marco Polo_, Bk. iii. c. 13.

  c. 1430.—"... leaving on his right hand an island called ANDEMANIA, which
  means the island of Gold, the circumference of which is 800 miles. The
  inhabitants are cannibals. No travellers touch here unless driven to do
  so by bad weather, for when taken they are torn to pieces and devoured by
  these cruel savages."—_Conti_, in _India in XV. Cent._, 8.

  c. 1566.—"Da Nicubar sinò a Pegu é vna catena d'Isole infinite, delle
  quali molte sono habitate da gente seluaggia, e chiamansi ISOLE D'ANDEMAN
  ... e se per disgratia si perde in queste Isole qualche naue, come già se
  n'ha perso, non ne scampa alcuno, che tutti gli amazzano, e
  mangiano."—_Cesare de' Federici_, in _Ramusio_, iii. 391.

  1727.—"The Islands opposite the Coast of _Tanacerin_ are the ANDEMANS.
  They lie about 80 leagues off, and are surrounded by many dangerous Banks
  and Rocks; they are all inhabited with _Canibals_, who are so fearless
  that they will swim off to a Boat if she approach near the shore, and
  attack her with their wooden Weapons...."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 65.


ANDOR, s. Port. 'a litter,' and used in the old Port. writers for a
palankin. It was evidently a kind of MUNCHEEL or DANDY, _i.e._ a slung
hammock rather than a palankin. But still, as so often is the case, comes
in another word to create perplexity. For _andas_ is, in Port., a bier or a
_litter_, appearing in Bluteau as a genuine Port. word, and the use of
which by the writer of the Roteiro quoted below shows that it is so indeed.
And in defining ANDOR the same lexicographer says: "A portable vehicle in
India, in those regions where they do not use beasts, as in Malabar and
elsewhere. It is a kind of contrivance like an uncovered _Andas_, which men
bear on their shoulders, &c.... Among us ANDOR is a machine with four arms
in which images or reliques of the saints are borne in processions." This
last term is not, as we had imagined an old Port. word. It is Indian, in
fact Sanskrit, _hindola_, 'a swing, a swinging cradle or hammock,' whence
also Mahr. _hinḍolā_, and H. _hinḍolā_ or _hanḍolā_. It occurs, as will be
seen, in the old Ar. work about Indian wonders, published by MM. Van der
Lith and Marcel Devic. [To this Mr Skeat adds that in Malay ANDOR means 'a
buffalo-sledge for carting rice,' &c. It would appear to be the same as the
Port. word, though it is hard to say which is the original.]

  1013.—"Le même m'a conté qu'à Sérendîb, les rois et ceux qui se
  comportent à la façon des rois, se font porter dans le HANDOUL (handūl)
  qui est semblable à une litière, soutenu sur les épaules de quelques
  piétons."—_Kitāb 'Ajāīb-al Hind_, p. 118.

  1498.—"After two days had passed he (the Catual [COTWAL]) came to the
  factory in an ANDOR which men carried on their shoulders, and these
  (_andors_) consist of great canes which are bent overhead and arched, and
  from these are hung certain cloths of a half fathom wide, and a fathom
  and a half long, and at the ends are pieces of wood to bear the cloth
  which hangs from the cane; and laid over the cloth there is a great
  mattrass of the same size, and this all made of silk-stuff wrought with
  gold-thread, and with many decorations and fringes and tassels; whilst
  the ends of the cane are mounted with silver, all very gorgeous, and
  rich, like the lords who travel so."—_Correa_, i. 102.

  1498.—"Alii trouveram ao capitam mor humas ANDAS d'omeens em que os
  onrrados, custumam em a quella terra d'andar, e alguns mercadores se as
  querem ter pagam por ello a elrey certa cousa."—_Roteiro_, pp. 54-55.
  _I.e._ "There they brought for the Captain-Major certain ANDAS, borne by
  men, in which the persons of distinction in that country are accustomed
  to travel, and if any merchants desire to have the same they pay to the
  King for this a certain amount."

  1505.—"Il Re se fa portare in vna Barra quale chiamono ANDORA portata da
  homini."—_Italian version of Dom Manuel's Letter_ to the K. of Castille.
  (Burnell's Reprint) p. 12.

  1552.—"The Moors all were on foot, and their Captain was a valiant Turk,
  who as being their Captain, for the honour of the thing was carried in an
  ANDOR on the shoulders of 4 men, from which he gave his orders as if he
  were on horseback."—_Barros_, II. vi. viii.

  [1574.—See quotation under PUNDIT.]

  1623.—Della Valle describes three kinds of shoulder-borne vehicles in use
  at Goa: (1) _reti_ or nets, which were evidently the simple hammock,
  MUNCHEEL or DANDY; (2) the ANDOR; and (3) the palankin. "And these two,
  the palankins and the ANDORS, also differ from one another, for in the
  ANDOR the cane which sustains it is, as it is in the _reti_, straight;
  whereas in the palankin, for the greater convenience of the inmate, and
  to give more room for raising his head, the cane is arched upward like
  this, Ω. For this purpose the canes are bent when they are small and
  tender. And those vehicles are the most commodious and honourable that
  have the curved canes, for such canes, of good quality and strength to
  bear the weight, are not numerous; so they sell for 100 or 120 PARDAOS
  each, or about 60 of our _scudi_."—_P. della Valle_, ii. 610.

  c. 1760.—"Of the same nature as palankeens, but of a different name, are
  what they call ANDOLAS ... these are much cheaper, and less
  esteemed."—_Grose_, i. 155.


ANDRUM, s. Malayāl. _āndram_. The form of hydrocele common in S. India. It
was first described by Kaempfer, in his _Decas_, Leyden, 1694.—(See also
his _Amoenitates Exoticae_, Fascic. iii. pp. 557 _seqq._)


ANGELY-WOOD, s. Tam. _anjilī-_, or _anjalī-maram_; _artocarpus hirsuta_
Lam. [in Malabar also known as _Iynee_ (_áyini_) (_Logan_, i. 39)]. A wood
of great value on the W. Coast, for shipbuilding, house-building, &c.

  c. 1550.—"In the most eminent parts of it (Siam) are thick Forests of
  ANGELIN wood, whereof thousands of ships might be made."—_Pinto_, in
  _Cogan_, p. 285; see also p. 64.

  1598.—"There are in India other wonderfull and thicke trees, whereof
  Shippes are made: there are trees by Cochiin, that are called ANGELINA,
  whereof certaine scutes or skiffes called Tones [DONEY] are made ... it
  is so strong and hard a woode that Iron in tract of time would bee
  consumed thereby by reason of the hardness of the woode."—_Linschoten_,
  ch. 58 [Hak. Soc. ii. 56].

  1644.—"Another thing which this province of Mallavar produces, in
  abundance and of excellent quality, is timber, particularly that called
  ANGELIM, which is most durable, lasting many years, insomuch that even if
  you desire to build a great number of ships, or vessels of any kind ...
  you may make them all in a year."—_Bocarro_, MS. f. 315.


ANGENGO, n.p. A place on the Travancore coast, the site of an old English
Factory; properly said to be _Añju-tengu_, _Añchutennu_, Malayāl.; the
trivial meaning of which would be "five cocoa-nuts." This name gives rise
to the marvellous rhapsody of the once famous Abbé Raynal, regarding
"Sterne's Eliza," of which we quote below a few sentences from the 3½ pages
of close print which it fills.

  1711.—"... ANJENGO is a small Fort belonging to the _English East India
  Company_. There are about 40 Soldiers to defend it ... most of whom are
  _Topazes_, or mungrel Portuguese."—_Lockyer_, 199.

  1782.—"Territoire d'ANJINGA; tu n'es rien; mais tu as donné naissance à
  Eliza. Un jour, ces entrepôts ... ne subsisteront plus ... mais si mes
  écrits ont quelque durée, le nom d'ANJINGA restera dans le mémoire des
  hommes ... ANJINGA, c'est à l'influence de ton heureux climat qu'elle
  devoit, sans doute, cet accord presqu'incompatible de volupté et de
  décence qui accompagnoit toute sa personne, et qui se mêloit à tous ses
  mouvements, &c., &c."—_Hist. Philosophique des Deux Indes_, ii. 72-73.


ANICUT, s. Used in the irrigation of the Madras Presidency for the dam
constructed across a river to fill and regulate the supply of the channels
drawn off from it; the cardinal work in fact of the great irrigation
systems. The word, which has of late years become familiar all over India,
is the Tam. comp. _aṉai-kaṭṭu_, 'Dam-building.'

  1776.—"Sir—We have received your letter of the 24th. If the Rajah pleases
  to go to the ANACUT, to see the repair of the bank, we can have no
  objection, but it will not be convenient that you should leave the
  garrison at present."—_Letter from Council at Madras_ to Lt.-Col. Harper,
  Comm. at Tanjore, in _E. I. Papers_, 1777, 4to, i. 836.

  1784.—"As the cultivation of the Tanjore country appears, by all the
  surveys and reports of our engineers employed in that service, to depend
  altogether on a supply of water by the Cauvery, which can only be secured
  by keeping the ANICUT and banks in repair, we think it necessary to
  repeat to you our orders of the 4th July, 1777, on the subject of these
  repairs."—_Desp. of Court of Directors_, Oct. 27th, as amended by Bd. of
  Control, in _Burke_, iv. 104.

  1793.—"The ANNICUT is no doubt a _judicious building_, whether the work
  of _Solar Rajah_ or anybody else."—_Correspondence between A. Ross, Esq.,
  and G. A. Ram, Esq., at Tanjore_, on the subject of furnishing water to
  the N. Circars. In _Dalrymple, O. R._, ii. 459.

  1862.—"The upper Coleroon ANICUT or weir is constructed at the west end
  of the Island of Seringham."—_Markham, Peru & India_, 426.

  [1883.—"Just where it enters the town is a large stone dam called
  Fischer's ANAIKAT."—_Lefanu, Man. of Salem_, ii. 32.]


ANILE, NEEL, s. An old name for indigo, borrowed from the Port. _anil_.
They got it from the Ar. _al-nīl_, pron. _an-nīl_; _nīl_ again being the
common name of indigo in India, from the Skt. _nīla_, 'blue.' The
vernacular (in this instance Bengali) word appears in the title of a native
satirical drama _Nīl-Darpan_, 'The Mirror of Indigo (planting),' famous in
Calcutta in 1861, in connection with a _cause célèbre_, and with a sentence
which discredited the now extinct Supreme Court of Calcutta in a manner
unknown since the days of Impey.

"_Neel-walla_" is a phrase for an Indigo-planter [and his Factory is
"_Neel-kothee_"].

  1501.—Amerigo Vespucci, in his letter from the Id. of Cape Verde to
  Lorenzo di Piero Francesco de' Medici, reporting his meeting with the
  Portuguese Fleet from India, mentions among other things brought "ANIB
  and tuzia," the former a manifest transcriber's error for _anil_.—In
  _Baldelli Boni_, '_Il Milione_,' p. lvii.

  1516.—In Barbosa's price list of Malabar we have:

   "ANIL nadador (i.e. floating; see _Garcia_ below) very good,
    per _farazola_ ... _fanams_ 30.
    ANIL loaded, with much sand,
    per _farazola_ ... _fanams_ 18 to 20."
               In _Lisbon Collection_, ii. 393.

  1525.—"A load of ANYLL in cakes which weighs 3½ maunds, 353
  tangas."—_Lembrança_, 52.

  1563.—"ANIL is not a medicinal substance but an article of trade, so we
  have no need to speak thereof.... The best is pure and clear of earth,
  and the surest test is to burn it in a candle ... others put it in water,
  and if it floats then they reckon it good."—_Garcia_, f. 25 v.

  1583.—"NEEL, the churle 70 duckats, and a churle is 27 rottles and a half
  of Aleppo."—_Mr Iohn Newton_, in _Hakl._ ii. 378.

  1583.—"They vse to pricke the skinne, and to put on it a kind of ANILE,
  or blacking which doth continue alwayes."—_Fitch_, in _Hakl._ ii. 395.

  c. 1610.—"... l'ANIL ou Indique, qui est vne teinture bleüe violette,
  dont il ne s'en trouue qu'à Cambaye et Suratte."—_Pyrard de Laval_, ii.
  158; [Hak. Soc. ii. 246].

  [1614.—"I have 30 fardels ANIL Geree." _Foster_, _Letters_, ii. 140. Here
  _Geree_ is probably H. _jaṛi_ (from _jaṛ_, 'the root'), the crop of
  indigo growing from the stumps of the plants left from the former year.]

  1622.—"E conforme a dita pauta se dispachará o dito ANIL e canella."—In
  _Archiv. Port. Orient._, fasc. 2, 240.

  1638.—"Les autres marchandises, que l'on y débite le plus, sont ... du
  sel ammoniac, et de l'indigo, que ceux de pais appellent
  ANIL."—_Mandelslo_, Paris, 1659, 138.

  1648.—"... and a good quantity of ANIL, which, after the place where most
  of it is got, is called _Chirchees_ Indigo."—_Van Twist_, 14. Sharkej or
  Sirkej, 5 m. from Ahmedabad. "Cirquez Indigo" (1624) occurs in
  _Sainsbury_, iii. 442. It is the "_Sercase_" of Forbes [_Or. Mem._ 2nd
  ed. ii. 204]. The Dutch, about 1620, established a factory there on
  account of the indigo. Many of the Sultans of Guzerat were buried there
  (_Stavorinus_, iii. 109). Some account of the "Sarkhej _Rozas_," or
  Mausolea, is given in H. Brigg's _Cities of Gujaráshtra_ (Bombay, 1849,
  pp. 274, _seqq._). ["Indigo of Bian (Biana) _Sicchese_" (1609), _Danvers,
  Letters_, i. 28; "Indico, of Laher, here worth viij^s the pounde
  _Serchis_."—_Birdwood, Letter Book_, 287.]

  1653.—"Indico est un mot Portugais, dont l'on appelle une teinture bleüe
  qui vient des Indes Orientales, qui est de contrabande en France, les
  Turqs et les Arabes la nomment NIL."—_De la Boullaye-le-Gouz_, 543.

  [1670.—"The neighbourhood of Delhi produces ANIL or Indigo."—_Bernier_
  (ed. _Constable_), 283.]


ANNA, s. Properly H. _āna_, _ānah_, the 16th part of a rupee. The term
belongs to the Mohammedan monetary system (RUPEE). There is no coin of one
_anna_ only, so that it is a money of account only. The term _anna_ is used
in denoting a corresponding fraction of any kind of property, and
especially in regard to coparcenary shares in land, or shares in a
speculation. Thus a one-_anna_ share is 1/16 of such right, or a share of
1/16 in the speculation; a four-_anna_ is ¼, and so on. In some parts of
India the term is used as subdivision (1/16) of the current land measure.
Thus, in Saugor, the _anna_ = 16 _rūsīs_, and is itself 1/16 of a _kancha_
(_Elliot, Gloss._ s.v.). The term is also sometimes applied colloquially to
persons of mixt parentage. 'Such a one has at least 2 _annas_ of dark
blood,' or 'coffee-colour.' This may be compared with the Scotch expression
that a person of deficient intellect 'wants twopence in the shilling.'

  1708.—"Provided ... that a debt due from Sir Edward Littleton ... of
  80,407 Rupees and Eight ANNAS Money of _Bengal_, with Interest and
  Damages to the said English Company shall still remain to them...."—_Earl
  of Godolphin's Award_ between the Old and the New E. I. Co., in
  _Charters_, &c., p. 358.

  1727.—"The current money in Surat:

    Bitter Almonds go 32 to a _Pice_:
      1 ANNOE is     4 Pice.
      1 Rupee         16 ANNOES.

      *     *     *     *     *

  In Bengal their Accounts are kept in _Pice_:

    12 to an Annoe.
    16 ANNOES to a Rupee."
         _A. Hamilton_, ii. App. pp. 5, 8.



ANT, WHITE, s. The insect (_Termes bellicosus_ of naturalists) not properly
an ant, of whose destructive powers there are in India so many disagreeable
experiences, and so many marvellous stories. The phrase was perhaps taken
up by the English from the Port. _formigas branchas_, which is in Bluteau's
Dict. (1713, iv. 175). But indeed exactly the same expression is used in
the 14th century by our medieval authority. It is, we believe, a fact that
these insects have been established at Rochelle in France, for a long
period, and more recently at St. Helena. They exist also at the Convent of
Mt. Sinai, and a species in Queensland.

  A.D. c. 250.—It seems probable that Aelian speaks of White Ants.—"But the
  Indian ants construct a kind of heaped-up dwellings, and these not in
  depressed or flat positions easily liable to be flooded, but in lofty and
  elevated positions...."—_De Nat. Animal._ xvi. cap. 15.

  c. 1328.—"Est etiam unum genus parvissimarum _formicarum_ sicut lana
  _albarum_, quarum durities dentium tanta est quod etiam ligna rodunt et
  venas lapidum; et quotquot breviter inveniunt siccum super terram, et
  pannos laneos, et bombycinos laniant; et faciunt ad modum muri crustam
  unam de arenâ minutissimâ, ita quod sol non possit eas tangere; et sic
  remanent coopertae; verum est quod si contingat illam crustam frangi, et
  solem eas tangere, quam citius moriuntur."—_Fr. Jordanus_, p. 53.

  1679.—"But there is yet a far greater inconvenience in this Country,
  which proceeds from the infinite number of WHITE EMMETS, which though
  they are but little, have teeth so sharp, that they will eat down a
  wooden Post in a short time. And if great care be not taken in the places
  where you lock up your Bales of Silk, in four and twenty hours they will
  eat through a Bale, as if it had been saw'd in two in the
  middle."—_Tavernier's Tunquin_, E. T., p. 11.

  1688.—"Here are also abundance of Ants of several sorts, and Wood-lice,
  called by the English in the East Indies, WHITE ANTS."—_Dampier_, ii.
  127.

  1713.—"On voit encore des fourmis de plusieurs espèces; la plus
  pernicieuse est celle que les Européens ont nommé FOURMI
  BLANCHE."—_Lettres Edifiantes_, xii. 98.

  1727.—"He then began to form Projects how to clear Accounts with his
  Master's Creditors, without putting anything in their Pockets. The first
  was on 500 chests of _Japon_ Copper ... and they were brought into
  Account of Profit and Loss, for so much eaten up by the WHITE ANTS."—_A.
  Hamilton_, ii. 169.

  1751.—"... concerning the Organ, we sent for the Revd. Mr. Bellamy, who
  declared that when Mr. Frankland applied to him for it that he told him
  that it was not in his power to give it, but wished it was removed from
  thence, as Mr. Pearson informed him it was eaten up by the WHITE
  ANTS."—_Ft. Will. Cons._, Aug. 12. In _Long_, 25.

  1789.—"The WHITE ANT is an insect greatly dreaded in every house; and
  this is not to be wondered at, as the devastation it occasions is almost
  incredible."—_Munro, Narrative_, 31.

  1876.—"The metal cases of his baggage are disagreeably suggestive of
  WHITE ANTS, and such omnivorous vermin."—_Sat. Review_, No. 1057, p. 6.


APĪL, s. Transfer of Eng. 'Appeal'; in general native use, in connection
with our Courts.

  1872.—"There is no Sindi, however wild, that cannot now understand
  'Rasíd' (receipt) [RASEED] and 'APĪL' (appeal)."—_Burton, Sind
  Revisited_, i. 283.


APOLLO BUNDER, n.p. A well-known wharf at Bombay. A street near it is
called Apollo Street, and a gate of the Fort leading to it 'the Apollo
Gate.' The name is said to be a corruption, and probably is so, but of what
it is a corruption is not clear. The quotations given afford different
suggestions, and Dr Wilson's dictum is entitled to respect, though we do
not know what _pālawā_ here means. Sir G. Birdwood writes that it used to
be said in Bombay, that _Apollo-bandar_ was a corr. of _palwa_-bandar,
because the pier was the place where the boats used to land _palwa_ fish.
But we know of no fish so called; it is however possible that the _palla_
or _Sable-fish_ (HILSA) is meant, which is so called in Bombay, as well as
in Sind. [The _Āīn_ (ii. 338) speaks of "a kind of fish called _palwah_
which comes up into the Indus from the sea, unrivalled for its fine and
exquisite flavour," which is the HILSA.] On the other hand we may observe
that there was at Calcutta in 1748 a frequented tavern called the Apollo
(see _Long_, p. 11). And it is not impossible that a house of the same name
may have given its title to the Bombay street and wharf. But Sir Michael
Westropp's quotation below shows that _Pallo_ was at least the native
representation of the name more than 150 years ago. We may add that a
native told Mr W. G. Pedder, of the Bombay C.S., from whom we have it, that
the name was due to the site having been the place where the "_poli_" cake,
eaten at the Holi festival, was baked. And so we leave the matter.

  [1823.—"Lieut. Mudge had a tent on APOLLO-green for astronomical
  observations."—_Owen, Narrative_, i. 327.]

  1847.—"A little after sunset, on 2nd Jan. 1843, I left my domicile in
  Ambrolie, and drove to the PÁLAWÁ BANDAR, which receives from our
  accommodative countrymen the more classical name of _Apollo_
  pier."—_Wilson, Lands of the Bible_, p. 4.

  1860.—"And atte what place ye Knyghte came to Londe, theyre ye ffolke ...
  worschyppen II Idolys in cheefe. Ye ffyrste is APOLLO, wherefore yē
  cheefe londynge place of theyr Metropole is hyght APOLLO-BUNDAR...."—Ext.
  from a MS. of Sir John Mandeville, lately discovered. (A friend here
  queries: 'By Mr. Shapira?')

  1877.—"This bunder is of comparatively recent date. Its name 'APOLLO' is
  an English corruption of the native word _Pallow_ (fish), and it was
  probably not extended and brought into use for passenger traffic till
  about the year 1819...."—_Maclean, Guide to Bombay_, 167. The last work
  adds a note: "Sir Michael Westropp gives a different derivation....:
  _Polo_, a corruption of _Pálwa_, derived from _Pál_, which _inter alia_
  means a fighting vessel, by which kind of craft the locality was probably
  frequented. From _Pálwa_ or _Pálwar_, the bunder now called Apollo is
  supposed to take its name. In the memorial of a grant of land, dated 5th
  Dec., 1743, the _pákhádé_ in question is called _Pallo_."—_High Court
  Reports_, iv. pt. 3.

  [1880.—"His mind is not prehensile like the tail of the APOLLO
  BUNDAR."—_Aberigh-Mackay, Twenty-one Days in India_, p. 141.]


APRICOT, s. _Prunus Armeniaca_, L. This English word is of curious origin,
as Dozy expounds it. The Romans called it _Malum Armeniacum_, and also
(_Persicum_?) _praecox_, or 'early.' Of this the Greeks made πραικόκκιον,
&c., and the Arab conquerors of Byzantine provinces took this up as
_birḳōḳ_ and _barḳōḳ_, with the article _al-barḳōḳ_, whence Sp.
_albarcoque_, Port. _albricoque_, _alboquorque_, Ital. _albercocca_,
_albicocca_, Prov. _aubricot_, _ambricot_, Fr. _abricot_, Dutch _abricock_,
_abrikoos_, Eng. _apricock_, APRICOT. Dozy mentions that Dodonaeus, an old
Dutch writer on plants, gives the vernacular name as _Vroege Persen_,
'Early Peaches,' which illustrates the origin. In the Cyprus bazars,
apricots are sold as χρυσόμηλα; but the less poetical name of
'_kill-johns_' is given by sailors to the small hard kinds common to St.
Helena, the Cape, China, &c. _Zard ālū_ [ALOO] (Pers.) 'yellow-plum' is the
common name in India.

  1615.—"I received a letter from Jorge Durois ... with a baskit of
  APRECOCKES for my selfe...."—_Cocks's Diary_, i. 7.

  1711.—"APRICOCKS—the Persians call _Kill Franks_, because Europeans not
  knowing the Danger are often hurt by them."—_Lockyer_, p. 231.

  1738.—"The common APRICOT ... is ... known in the Frank language (in
  Barbary) by the name of _Matza Franca_, or the Killer of
  Christians."—_Shaw's Travels_, ed. 1757, p. 144.


ARAB, s. This, it may be said, in Anglo-Indian always means 'an Arab
horse.'

  1298.—"Car il va du port d'Aden en Inde moult grant quantité de bons
  destriers ARRABINS et chevaus et grans roncins de ij selles."—_Marco
  Polo_, Bk. iii. ch. 36. [See _Sir H. Yule's_ note, 1st ed., vol. ii.
  375.]

  1338.—"Alexandre descent du destrier ARRABIS."—_Rommant d'Alexandre_
  (Bodl. MS.).

  c. 1590.—"There are fine horses bred in every part of the country; but
  those of Cachh excell, being equal to ARABS."—_Āīn_, i. 133.

  1825.—"ARABS are excessively scarce and dear; and one which was sent for
  me to look at, at a price of 800 rupees, was a skittish, cat-legged
  thing."—_Heber_, i. 189 (ed. 1844).

  c. 1844.—A local magistrate at Simla had returned from an unsuccessful
  investigation. An acquaintance hailed him next day: 'So I hear you came
  back _re infectâ_?' 'No such thing,' was the reply; 'I came back on my
  grey ARAB!'

  1856.—

       "... the true blood-royal of his race,
    The silver ARAB with his purple veins
    Translucent, and his nostrils caverned wide,
    And flaming eye...."
               _The Banyan Tree._



ARAKAN, ARRACAN, n.p. This is an European form, perhaps through Malay
[which Mr Skeat has failed to trace], of _Rakhaing_, the name which the
natives give themselves. This is believed by Sir Arthur Phayre [see _Journ.
As. Soc. Ben._ xii. 24 _seqq._] to be a corruption of the Skt. _rākshasa_,
Pali _rakkhaso_, _i.e._ 'ogre' or the like, a word applied by the early
Buddhists to unconverted tribes with whom they came in contact. It is not
impossible that the Ἀργυρῆ of Ptolemy, which unquestionably represents
Arakan, may disguise the name by which the country is still known to
foreigners; at least no trace of the name as 'Silver-land' in old Indian
Geography has yet been found. We may notice, without laying any stress upon
it, that in Mr. Beal's account of early Chinese pilgrims to India, there
twice occurs mention of an Indo-Chinese kingdom called _O-li-ki-lo_, which
transliterates fairly into some name like _Argyrē_, and not into any other
yet recognisable (see _J.R.A.S._ (N.S.) xiii. 560, 562).

  c. 1420-30.—"Mari deinceps cum mense integro ad ostium RACHANI fluvii
  pervenisset."—_N. Conti_, in _Poggius, De Varietate Fortunae_.

  1516.—"Dentro fra terra del detto regno di Verma, verso tramontana vi è
  vn altro regno di Gentili molto grande ... confina similmente col regno
  di Bẽgala e col regno di Aua, e chiamasi ARACAN."—_Barbosa_, in
  _Ramusio_, i. 316.

  [c. 1535.—"_Arquam_": See CAPELAN.]

  1545.—"They told me that coming from India in the ship of Jorge Manhoz
  (who was a householder in Goa), towards the Port of Chatigaon in the
  kingdom of Bengal, they were wrecked upon the shoals of RACAON owing to a
  badly-kept watch."—_Pinto_, cap. clxvii.

  1552.—"Up to the Cape of Negraes ... will be 100 leagues, in which space
  are these populated places, Chocoriá, Bacalá, ARRACÃO City, capital of
  the kingdom so styled...."—_Barros_, I. ix. 1.

  1568.—"Questo Re di RACHAN ha il suo stato in mezzo la costa, tra il
  Regno di Bengala e quello di Pegù, ed è il maggiore nemico che habbia il
  Re del Pegù."—_Cesare de' Federici_, in _Ramusio_, iii. 396.

  1586.—"... Passing by the Island of Sundiua, Porto grande, or the
  Countrie of Tippera, the Kingdom of RECON and _Mogen_ (MUGG) ... our
  course was S. and by E. which brought vs to the barre of Negrais."—_R.
  Fitch_, in _Hakl._ ii. 391.

  c. 1590.—"To the S.E. of Bengal is a large country called ARKUNG to which
  the Bunder of Chittagong properly belongs."—_Gladwin's Ayeen_, ed. 1800,
  ii. 4. [Ed. _Jarrett_, ii. 119] in orig. (i. 388) ARKHANG.

  [1599.—ARRACAN. See MACAO.

  [1608.—RAKHANG. See CHAMPA.

  [c. 1069.—ARACAN. See PROME.

  [1659.—Aracan. See TALAPOIN.]

  1660.—"Despatches about this time arrived from Mu'azzam Khān, reporting
  his successive victories and the flight of Shuja to the country of
  RAKHANG, leaving Bengal undefended."—_Khāfī Khān_, in _Elliot_, vii. 254.

  [c. 1660.—"The Prince ... sent his eldest son, Sultan Banque, to the King
  of RACAN, or Mog."—_Bernier_ (ed. _Constable_), 109.]

  c. 1665.—"Knowing that it is impossible to pass any Cavalry by Land, no,
  not so much as any Infantry, from _Bengale_ into RAKAN, because of the
  many channels and rivers upon the Frontiers ... he (the Governor of
  Bengal) thought upon this experiment, viz. to engage the _Hollanders_ in
  his design. He therefore sent a kind of Ambassador to
  Batavia."—_Bernier_, E. T., 55 [(ed. _Constable_, 180)].

  1673.—"... A mixture of that Race, the most accursedly base of all
  Mankind who are known for their Bastard-brood lurking in the Islands at
  the Mouths of the Ganges, by the name of RACANNERS."—_Fryer_, 219. (The
  word is misprinted _Buccaneers_; but see Fryer's _Index_.)

  1726.—"It is called by some Portuguese ORRAKAN, by others among them
  ARRAKAON, and by some again RAKAN (after its capital) and also Mog
  (MUGG)."—_Valentijn_, v. 140.

  1727.—"ARACKAN has a Conveniency of a noble spacious River."—_A.
  Hamilton_, ii. 30.


ARBOL TRISTE, s. The tree or shrub, so called by Port. writers, appears to
be the _Nyctanthes arbor tristis_, or _Arabian jasmine_ (N. O.
_Jasmineae_), a native of the drier parts of India. [The quotations explain
the origin of the name.]

  [c. 1610.—"Many of the trees they call TRISTES, of which they make
  saffron."—_Pyrard de Laval_, Hak. Soc., i. 411.

     "    "That tree called TRISTE, which is produced in the East Indies,
  is so named because it blooms only at night."—_Ibid._ ii. 362; and see
  Burnell's _Linschoten_, Hak. Soc. ii. 58-62.

  1624.—"I keep among my baggage to show the same in Italy, as also some of
  the tree TRIFOE (in orig. _Arbor Trisoe_, a misprint for _Tristo_) with
  its odoriferous flowers, which blow every day and night, and fall at the
  approach of day."—_P. della Valle_, Hak. Soc. ii. 406.]


ARCOT, n.p. _Arkāt_, a famous fortress and town in the Madras territory, 65
miles from Madras. The name is derived by Bp. Caldwell from Tam. _āṛkāḍ_,
the 'Six Forests,' confirmed by the Tam.-Fr. Dict. which gives a form
_āṛukāḍu_ = 'Six forêts' ["the abode of six Rishis in former days. There
are several places of this name in the southern districts besides the town
of Arcot near Vellore. One of these in Tanjore would correspond better than
that with Harkatu of Ibn Batuta, who reached it on the first evening of his
march inland after landing from Ceylon, apparently on the shallow coast of
Madura or Tanjore."—_Madras Ad. Man._ ii. 211]. Notwithstanding the
objection made by Maj.-Gen. Cunningham in his _Geog. of Ancient India_, it
is probable that Arcot is the Ἀρκατοῦ βασίλειον Σῶρα of Ptolemy, 'Arkatu,
residence of K. Sora.'

  c. 1346.—"We landed with them on the beach, in the country of Ma'bar ...
  we arrived at the fortress of HARKĀTŪ, where we passed the night."—_Ibn
  Batuta_, iv. 187, 188.

  1785.—"It may be said that this letter was written by the Nabob of ARCOT
  in a moody humour.... Certainly it was; but it is in such humours that
  the truth comes out."—_Burke's Speech_, Feb. 28th.


ARECA, s. The seed (in common parlance the nut) of the palm _Areca
catechu_, L., commonly, though somewhat improperly, called 'betel-nut'; the
term BETEL belonging in reality to the leaf which is chewed along with the
_areca_. Though so widely cultivated, the palm is unknown in a truly
indigenous state. The word is Malayāl. _aḍakka_ [according to Bp. Caldwell,
from _adai_ 'close arrangement of the cluster,' _kay_, 'nut' _N.E.D._], and
comes to us through the Port.

  1510.—"When they eat the said leaves (betel), they eat with them a
  certain fruit which is called _coffolo_, and the tree of the said
  _coffolo_ is called ARECHA."—_Varthema_, Hak. Soc., 144.

  1516.—"There arrived there many zambucos [SAMBOOK] ... with
  ARECA."—_Barbosa_, Hak. Soc., 64.

  1521.—"They are always chewing ARECCA, a certaine Fruit like a Peare, cut
  in quarters and rolled up in leaves of a Tree called _Bettre_ (or
  _Vettele_), like Bay leaves; which having chewed they spit forth. It
  makes the mouth red. They say they doe it to comfort the heart, nor could
  live without it."—_Pigafetta_, in _Purchas_, i. 38.

  1548.—"In the _Renda do Betel_, or Betel duties at Goa are included
  Betel, AREQUA, jacks, green ginger, oranges, lemons, figs, coir, mangos,
  citrons."—_Botelho, Tombo_, 48. The Port. also formed a word _ariqueira_
  for the tree bearing the nuts.

  1563.—"... and in Malabar they call it _pac_ (Tam. _pāk_); and the Nairs
  (who are the gentlemen) call it ARECA."—_Garcia D'O._, f. 91 _b._

  c. 1566.—"Great quantitie of ARCHA, which is a fruite of the bignesse of
  nutmegs, which fruite they eate in all these parts of the Indies, with
  the leafe of an Herbe, which they call _Bettell_."—_C. Frederike_,
  transl. in _Hakl._ ii. 350.

  1586.—"Their friends come and bring gifts, cocos, figges, ARRECAES, and
  other fruits."—_Fitch_, in _Hakl._, ii. 395.

  [1624.—"And therewith they mix a little ashes of sea-shells and some
  small pieces of an Indian nut sufficiently common, which they here call
  _Foufel_, and in other places ARECA; a very dry fruit, seeming within
  like perfect wood; and being of an astringent nature they hold it good to
  strengthen the Teeth."—_P. della Valle_, Hak. Soc. i. 36. Mr Grey says:
  "As to the Port. name, _Foufel_ or _Fofel_, the origin is uncertain. In
  Sir J. Maundeville's Travels it is said that black pepper "is called
  _Fulful_," which is probably the same word as "_Foufel_." But the Ar.
  _Fawfal_ or _Fufal_ is 'betel-nut.'"]

  1689.—"... the _Neri_ which is drawn from the AREQUIES Tree in a fresh
  earthen vessel, is as sweet and pleasant as Milk."—_Ovington_, 237.
  [_Neri_ = H. and Mahr. _nīr_, 'sap,' but _neri_ is, we are told, Guzerati
  for toddy in some form.]


ARGEMONE MEXICANA. This American weed (N.O. _Papaveraceae_) is notable as
having overrun India, in every part of which it seems to be familiar. It is
known by a variety of names, _Firinghī dhatūra_, gamboge thistle, &c. [See
Watt, _Dict. Econ. Prod._, i. 306 _seqq._]


ARGUS PHEASANT, s. This name, which seems more properly to belong to the
splendid bird of the Malay Peninsula (_Argusanus giganteus_, Tem., _Pavo
argus_, Lin.), is confusingly applied in Upper India to the Himālayan
horned pheasant _Ceriornis_ (Spp. _satyra_, and _melanocephala_) from the
round white eyes or spots which mark a great part of the bird's
plumage.—See remark under MOONAUL.


ARRACK, RACK, s. This word is the Ar. _'araḳ_, properly 'perspiration,' and
then, first the exudation or sap drawn from the date palm (_'araḳ
al-tamar_); secondly any strong drink, 'distilled spirit,' 'essence,' etc.
But it has spread to very remote corners of Asia. Thus it is used in the
forms _ariki_ and _arki_ in Mongolia and Manchuria, for spirit distilled
from grain. In India it is applied to a variety of common spirits; in S.
India to those distilled from the fermented sap of sundry palms; in E. and
N. India to the spirit distilled from cane-molasses, and also to that from
rice. The Turkish form of the word, _rāḳi_, is applied to a spirit made
from grape-skins; and in Syria and Egypt to a spirit flavoured with
aniseed, made in the Lebanon. There is a popular or slang Fr. word,
_riquiqui_, for brandy, which appears also to be derived from _araḳī_
(_Marcel Devic_). Humboldt (_Examen_, &c., ii. 300) says that the word
first appears in Pigafetta's Voyage of Magellan; but this is not correct.

  c. 1420.—"At every _yam_ (post-house) they give the travellers a sheep, a
  goose, a fowl ... 'ARAK...."—_Shah Rukh's Embassy to China_, in N. & E.,
  xiv. 396.

  1516.—"And they bring cocoa-nuts, HURRACA (which is something to
  drink)...."—_Barbosa_, Hak. Soc. 59.

  1518.—"—que todos os mantimentos asy de pão, como vinhos, ORRACAS,
  arrozes, carnes, e pescados."—In _Archiv. Port. Orient._, fasc. 2, 57.

  1521.—"When these people saw the politeness of the captain, they
  presented some fish, and a vessel of palm-wine, which they call in their
  language URACA...."—_Pigafetta_, Hak. Soc. 72.

  1544.—"Manueli a cruce ... commendo ut plurimum invigilet duobus illis
  Christianorum Carearum pagis, diligenter attendere ... nemo potu ORRACAE
  se inebriet ... si ex hoc deinceps tempore Punicali ORRACHA potetur,
  ipsos ad mihi suo gravi damno luituros."—_Scti. Fr. Xav. Epistt._, p.
  111.

  1554.—"And the excise on the _orraquas_ made from palm-trees, of which
  there are three kinds, viz., _çura_, which is as it is drawn; ORRAQUA,
  which is _çura_ once boiled (_cozida_, qu. distilled?); _sharab_
  (_xarao_) which is boiled two or three times and is stronger than
  _orraqua_."—_S. Botelho, Tombo_, 50.

  1563.—"One kind (of coco-palm) they keep to bear fruit, the other for the
  sake of the _çura_, which is _vino mosto_; and this when it has been
  distilled they call ORRACA."—_Garcia D'O._, f. 67. (The word _surā_, used
  here, is a very ancient importation from India, for Cosmas (6th century)
  in his account of the coco-nut, confounding (it would seem) the milk with
  the toddy of that palm, says: "The _Argellion_ is at first full of a very
  sweet water, which the Indians drink from the nut, using it instead of
  wine. This drink is called _rhoncosura_, and is extremely pleasant." It
  is indeed possible that the RHONCO here may already be the word
  _arrack_).

  1605.—"A Chines borne, but now turned Iauan, who was our next neighbour
  ... and brewed ARACKE which is a kind of hot drinke, that is vsed in most
  of these parts of the world, instead of Wine...."—_E. Scot_, in
  _Purchas_, i. 173.

  1631.—"... jecur ... a potu istius maledicti ARAC, non tantum in
  temperamento immutatum, sed etiam in substantiâ suâ corrumpitur."—_Jac.
  Bontius_, lib. ii. cap. vii. p. 22.

  1687.—"Two jars of ARACK (made of rice as I judged) called by the Chinese
  _Samshu_ [SAMSHOO]."—_Dampier_, i. 419.

  1719.—"We exchanged some of our wares for opium and some
  ARRACK...."—_Robinson Crusoe_, Pt. II.

  1727.—"Mr Boucher had been 14 Months soliciting to procure his
  _Phirmaund_; but his repeated Petitions ... had no Effect. But he had an
  _Englishman_, one _Swan_, for his Interpreter, who often took a large
  Dose of ARRACK.... Swan got pretty near the King (Aurungzeb) ... and
  cried with a loud Voice in the Persian Language that his Master wanted
  Justice done him" (see DOAI).—_A. Hamilton_, i. 97.

RACK is a further corruption; and RACK-PUNCH is perhaps not quite obsolete.

  1603.—"We taking the But-ends of Pikes and Halberts and Faggot-sticks,
  drave them into a RACKE-house."—_E. Scot_, in _Purchas_, i. 184.

  Purchas also has VRACA and other forms; and at i. 648 there is mention of
  a strong kind of spirit called RACK-_apee_ (Malay _āpī_ = 'fire'). See
  FOOL'S RACK.

  1616.—"Some small quantitie of Wine, but not common, is made among them;
  they call it RAACK, distilled from Sugar and a spicie Rinde of a Tree
  called _Iagra_ [JAGGERY]."—_Terry_, in _Purchas_, ii. 1470.

  1622.—"We'll send him a jar of RACK by next conveyance."—Letter in
  _Sainsbury_, iii. 40.

  1627.—"Java hath been fatal to many of the English, but much through
  their own distemper with RACK."—_Purchas, Pilgrimage_, 693.

  1848.—"Jos ... finally insisted upon having a bowl of RACK PUNCH.... That
  bowl of RACK PUNCH was the cause of all this history."—_Vanity Fair_, ch.
  vi.


ARSENAL, s. An old and ingenious etymology of this word is _arx navalis_.
But it is really Arabic. Hyde derives it from _tars-khānah_, 'domus
terroris,' contracted into _tarsānah_, the form (as he says) used at
Constantinople (_Syntagma Dissertt._, i. 100). But it is really the Ar.
_dār-al-ṣinā'a_, 'domus artificii,' as the quotations from Mas'ūdī clearly
show. The old Ital. forms _darsena_, _darsinale_ corroborate this, and the
Sp. _ataraçana_, which is rendered in Ar. by Pedro de Alcala, quoted by
Dozy, as _dar a cinaa_.—(See details in _Dozy, Oosterlingen_, 16-18.)

  A.D. 943-4.—"At this day in the year of the Hijra 332, Rhodes (_Rodas_)
  is an arsenal (_dār-ṣinā'a_) where the Greeks build their
  war-vessels."—_Mas'ūdī_, ii. 423. And again "_dār-ṣinā'at al marākib_,"
  'an arsenal of ships,' iii. 67.

  1573.—"In this city (Fez) there is a very great building which they call
  DARAÇANA, where the Christian captives used to labour at blacksmith's
  work and other crafts under the superintendence and orders of renegade
  headmen ... here they made cannon and powder, and wrought swords,
  cross-bows, and arquebusses."—_Marmol, Desc. General de Affrica_, lib.
  iii. f. 92.

  1672.—"On met au TERSHANA deux belles galères à l'eau."—_Antoine Galland,
  Journ._, i. 80.


ART, EUROPEAN. We have heard much, and justly, of late years regarding the
corruption of Indian art and artistic instinct by the employment of the
artists in working for European patrons, and after European patterns. The
copying of such patterns is no new thing, as we may see from this passage
of the brightest of writers upon India whilst still under Asiatic
government.

  c. 1665.—"... not that the Indians have not wit enough to make them
  successful in Arts, they doing very well (as to some of them) in many
  parts of India, and it being found that they have inclination enough for
  them, and that some of them make (even without a Master) very pretty
  workmanship and imitate so well our work of Europe, that the difference
  thereof will hardly be discerned."—_Bernier_, E. T., 81-82 [ed.
  _Constable_, 254].


ARTICHOKE, s. The genealogy of this word appears to be somewhat as follows:
The Ar. is AL-ḤARSHŪF (perhaps connected with _ḥarash_, 'rough-skinned') or
_al-kharshūf_; hence Sp. ALCARCHOFA and It. _carcioffo_ and _arciocco_, Fr.
_artichaut_, Eng. _artichoke_.

  c. 1348.—"The Incense (benzoin) tree is small ... its branches are like
  those of a thistle or an artichoke (AL-KHARSHAF)."—_Ibn Batuta_, iv. 240.
  AL-KHARSHAF in the published text. The spelling with _ḥ_ instead of
  _k̲h̲_ is believed to be correct (see _Dozy_, s.v. _Alcarchofa_); [also
  see _N.E.D._ s.v. _Artichoke_].


ARYAN, adj. Skt. _Ārya_, 'noble.' A term frequently used to include all the
races (Indo-Persic, Greek, Roman, Celtic, Sclavonic, &c.) which speak
languages belonging to the same family as Sanskrit. Much vogue was given to
the term by Pictet's publication of _Les Origines Indo-Européennes, ou les
Aryas Primitifs_ (Paris, 1859), and this writer seems almost to claim the
name in this sense as his own (see quotation below). But it was in use long
before the date of his book. Our first quotation is from Ritter, and there
it has hardly reached the full extent of application. Ritter seems to have
derived the use in this passage from Lassen's _Pentapotamia_. The word has
in great measure superseded the older term _Indo-Germanic_, proposed by F.
Schlegel at the beginning of the last century. The latter is, however,
still sometimes used, and M. Hovelacque, especially, prefers it. We may
observe here that the connection which evidently exists between the several
languages classed together as Aryan cannot be regarded, as it was formerly,
as warranting an assumption of identity of race in all the peoples who
speak them.

It may be noted as curious that among the Javanese (a people so remote in
blood from what we understand by Aryan), the word _ārya_ is commonly used
as an honorary prefix to the names of men of rank; a survival of the
ancient Hindu influence on the civilisation of the island.

The earliest use of _Aryan_ in an ethnic sense is in the Inscription on the
tomb of Darius, in which the king calls himself an Aryan, and of Aryan
descent, whilst Ormuzd is in the Median version styled, 'God of the
Aryans.'

  B.C. c. 486.—"_Adam Dáryavush Khsháyathiya vazarka ... Pársa, Pársahiyá
  putra_, ARIYA, ARIYA _chitra_." _i.e._ "I (am) Darius, the Great King,
  the King of Kings, the King of all inhabited countries, the King of this
  great Earth far and near, the son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian, a
  Persian, an ARIAN, of _Arian_ descent."—In _Rawlinson's Herodotus_, 3rd
  ed., iv. 250.

  "These Medes were called anciently by all people ARIANS, but when Medêa,
  the Colchian, came to them from Athens, they changed their
  name."—_Herodot._, vii. 62 (Rawlins).

  1835.—"Those eastern and proper Indians, whose territory, however,
  Alexander never touched by a long way, call themselves in the most
  ancient period _Arians_ (ARIER) (_Manu_, ii. 22, x. 45), a name
  coinciding with that of the ancient Medes."—_Ritter_, v. 458.

  1838.—See also _Ritter_, viii. 17 seqq.; and Potto's art. in _Ersch &
  Grueber's Encyc._, ii. 18, 46.

  1850.—"The ARYAN tribes in conquering India, urged by the Brahmans, made
  war against the Turanian demon-worship, but not always with complete
  success."—_Dr. J. Wilson_, in _Life_, 450.

  1851.—"We must request the patience of our readers whilst we give a short
  outline of the component members of the great ARIAN family. The first is
  the Sanskrit.... The second branch of the Arian family is the Persian....
  There are other scions of the Arian stock which struck root in the soil
  of Asia, before the Arians reached the shores of Europe...."—(_Prof. Max
  Müller_) _Edinburgh Review_, Oct. 1851, pp. 312-313.

  1853.—"Sur les sept premières civilisations, qui sont celles de l'ancien
  monde, six appartiennent, en partie au moins, à la race
  ARIANE."—_Gobineau, De l'Inégalité des Races Humaines_, i. 364.

  1855.—"I believe that all who have lived in India will bear testimony ...
  that to natives of India, of whatever class or caste, Mussulman, Hindoo,
  or Parsee, 'ARYAN or Tamulian,' unless they have had a special training,
  our European paintings, prints, drawings, and photographs, plain or
  coloured, if they are landscapes, are absolutely unintelligible."—_Yule,
  Mission to Ava_, 59 (publ. 1858).

  1858.—"The ARYAN tribes—for that is the name they gave themselves, both
  in their old and new homes—brought with them institutions of a simplicity
  almost primitive."—_Whitney, Or. & Ling. Studies_, ii. 5.

  1861.—"Latin, again, with Greek, and the Celtic, the Teutonic, and
  Slavonic languages, together likewise with the ancient dialects of India
  and Persia, must have sprung from an earlier language, the mother of the
  whole Indo-European or ARYAN family of speech."—_Prof. Max Müller,
  Lectures_, 1st Ser. 32.

We also find the verb _Aryanize_:

  1858.—"Thus all India was brought under the sway, physical or
  intellectual and moral, of the alien race; it was thoroughly
  ARYANIZED."—_Whitney, u. s._ 7.


ASHRAFEE, s. Arab. _ashrafī_, 'noble,' applied to various gold coins (in
analogy with the old English 'noble'), especially to the _dīnār_ of Egypt,
and to the Gold MOHUR of India.—See XERAFINE.

  c. 1550.—"There was also the sum of 500,000 Falory ASHRAFIES equal in the
  currency of Persia to 50,000 royal Irak tomāns."—_Mem. of Humayun_, 125.
  A note suggests that _Falory_, or _Flori_, indicates _florin_.


ASSAM, n.p. The name applied for the last three centuries or more to the
great valley of the Brahmaputra River, from the emergence of its chief
sources from the mountains till it enters the great plain of Bengal. The
name _Āsām_ and sometimes _Āshām_ is a form of _Āhām_ or _Āhom_, a dynasty
of Shan race, who entered the country in the middle ages, and long ruled
it. Assam politically is now a province embracing much more than the name
properly included.

  c. 1590.—"The dominions of the Rajah of ASHAM join to Kamroop; he is a
  very powerful prince, lives in great state, and when he dies, his
  principal attendants, both male and female, are voluntarily buried alive
  with his corpse."—_Gladwin's Ayeen_ (ed. 1800) ii. 3; [_Jarrett_, trans.
  ii. 118].

  1682.—"Ye Nabob was very busy dispatching and vesting divers principal
  officers sent with all possible diligence with recruits for their army,
  lately overthrown in ASHAM and _Sillet_, two large plentiful countries 8
  days' journey distant from this city (Dacca)."—_Hedges, Diary_, Oct.
  29th; [Hak. Soc. i. 43].

  1770.—"In the beginning of the present century, some Bramins of Bengal
  carried their superstitions to ASHAM, where the people were so happy as
  to be guided solely by the dictates of natural religion."—_Raynal_ (tr.
  1777) i. 420.

  1788.—"M. Chevalier, the late Governor of Chandernagore, by permission of
  the King, went up as high as the capital of ASSAM, about the year
  1762."—_Rennell's Mem._, 3rd ed. p. 299.


ASSEGAY, s. An African throwing-spear. Dozy has shown that this is Berber
_zaghāya_, with the Ar. article prefixed (p. 223). Those who use it often
seem to take it for a S. African or Eastern word. So Godinho de Eredia
seems to use it as if Malay (f. 21_v_). [Mr Skeat remarks that the nearest
word in Malay is _seligi_, explained by Klinkert as 'a short wooden
throwing-spear,' which is possibly that referred to by G. de Eredia.]

  c. 1270.—"There was the King standing with three 'exortins' (or men of
  the guard) by his side armed with javelins [_ab lur_
  ATZAGAYES]".—_Chronicle of K. James of Aragon_, tr. by Mr. Foster, 1883,
  i. 173.

  c. 1444.—"... They have a quantity of AZAGAIAS, which are a kind of light
  darts."—_Cadamosto, Navegação primeira_, 32.

  1552.—"But in general they all came armed in their fashion, some with
  AZAGAIAS and shields and others with bows and quivers of
  arrows."—_Barros_, I. iii. 1.

  1572.—

   "Hum de escudo embraçado, e de AZAGAIA,
    Outro de arco encurvado, e setta ervada."
               _Camões_, i. 86.

  By Burton:

   "this, targe on arm and ASSEGAI in hand,
    that, with his bended bow, and venom'd reed."

  1586.—"I loro archibugi sono belli, e buoni, come i nostri, e le lance
  sono fatte con alcune canne piene, e forti, in capo delle quali mettono
  vn ferro, come uno di quelli delle nostri ZAGAGLIE."—_Balbi_, 111.

  1600.—"These they use to make Instruments of wherewith to fish ... as
  also to make weapons, as Bows, Arrowes, Aponers, and ASSAGAYEN."—_Disc.
  of Guinea_, from the Dutch, in _Purchas_, ii. 927.

  1608.—"Doncques voyant que nous ne pouvions passer, les deux hommes sont
  venu en nageant auprès de nous, et ayans en leurs mains trois Lancettes
  ou ASAGAYES."—_Houtman_, 5_b_.

  [1648.—"The ordinary food of these Cafres is the flesh of this animal
  (the elephant), and four of them with their ASSEGAIS (in orig.
  AGEAGAYES), which are a kind of short pike, are able to bring an elephant
  to the ground and kill it."—_Tavernier_ (ed. _Ball_), ii. 161, cf. ii.
  295.]

  1666.—"Les autres armes offensives (in India) sont l'arc et la flêche, le
  javelot ou ZAGAYE...."—_Thevenot_, v. 132 (ed. 1727).

  1681.—"... encontraron diez y nueve hombres bazos armados con dardas, y
  AZAGAYAS, assi llaman los Arabes vnas lanças pequeñas arrojadizas, y
  pelearon con ellos."—_Martinez de la Puente, Compendio_, 87.

  1879.—

   "Alert to fight, athirst to slay,
    They shake the dreaded ASSEGAI,
    And rush with blind and frantic will
    On all, when few, whose force is skill."
          _Isandlana_, by _Ld. Stratford de
            Redcliffe, Times_, March 29.



ATAP, ADAP, s. Applied in the Malayo-Javanese regions to any palm-fronds
used in thatching, commonly to those of the NIPA (_Nipa fruticans_,
Thunb.). [_Atap_, according to Mr Skeat, is also applied to any roofing;
thus tiles are called _atap batu_, 'stone _ataps_.'] The Nipa, "although a
wild plant, for it is so abundant that its culture is not necessary, it is
remarkable that its name should be the same in all the languages from
Sumatra to the Philippines."—(_Crawfurd, Dict. Ind. Arch._ 301). ATĔP is
Javanese for 'thatch.'

  1672.—"ATAP or leaves of Palm-trees...."—_Baldaeus, Ceylon_, 164.

  1690.—"ADAPOL (quae folia sunt sicca et vetusta)...."—_Rumphius, Herb.
  Amb._ i. 14.

  1817.—"In the maritime districts, ĀTAP or thatch is made ... from the
  leaves of the _nipa_."—_Raffles, Java_, i. 166; [2nd ed. i. 186].

  1878.—"The universal roofing of a Perak house is ATTAP stretched over
  bamboo rafters and ridge-poles. This _attap_ is the dried leaf of the
  nipah palm, doubled over a small stick of bamboo, or _nibong_."—_McNair,
  Perak, &c._, 164.


ATLAS, s. An obsolete word for 'satin,' from the Ar. _aṭlas_, used in that
sense, literally 'bare' or 'bald' (comp. the Ital. _raso_ for 'satin'). The
word is still used in German. [The _Draper's Dict._ (s.v.) says that "a
silk stuff wrought with threads of gold and silver, and known by this name,
was at one time imported from India." Yusuf Ali (_Mon. on Silk Fabrics_, p.
93) writes: "_Atlas_ is the Indian satin, but the term _satan_ (corrupted
from the English) is also applied, and sometimes specialised to a thicker
form of the fabric. This fabric is always substantial, _i.e._ never so thin
or netted as to be semi-transparent; more of the weft showing on the upper
surface than of the warp."]

  1284.—"Cette même nuit par ordre du Sultan quinze cents de ses Mamlouks
  furent revêtus de robes d'ATLAS rouges brodées...."—_Makrizi_, t. ii. pt.
  i. 69.

     "    "The Sultan Mas'ūd clothed his dogs with trappings of AṬLAS of
  divers colours, and put bracelets upon them."—_Fakhrī_, p. 68.

  1505.—"Raso por seda rasa."—ATLĀS, _Vocabular Arauigo of Fr. P. de
  Alcala_.

  1673.—"They go Rich in Apparel, their Turbats of Gold, Damask'd Gold
  ATLAS Coats to their Heels, Silk, _Alajah_ or Cuttanee
  breeches."—_Fryer_, 196.

  1683.—"I saw ye _Taffaties_ and ATLASSES in ye Warehouse, and gave
  directions concerning their several colours and stripes."—_Hedges,
  Diary_, May 6; [Hak. Soc. i. 85].

  1689.—(Surat) "is renown'd for ... rich Silks, such as ATLASSES ... and
  for Zarbafts [ZERBAFT]...."—_Ovington_, 218.

  1712.—In the _Spectator_ of this year are advertised "a purple and gold
  ATLAS gown" and "a scarlet and gold ATLAS petticoat edged with
  silver."—Cited in _Malcolm's Anecdotes_ (1808), 429.

  1727.—"They are exquisite in the Weaver's Trade and Embroidery, which may
  be seen in the rich ATLASSES ... made by them."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 160.

  c. 1750-60.—"The most considerable (manufacture) is that of their
  ATLASSES or satin flowered with gold and silver."—_Grose_, i. 117.

  _Note._—I saw not long ago in India a Polish Jew who was called Jacob
  ATLAS, and he explained to me that when the Jews (about 1800) were forced
  to assume surnames, this was assigned to his grandfather, because he wore
  a black satin gaberdine!—(_A. B._ 1879.)


ATOLL, s. A group of coral islands forming a ring or chaplet, sometimes of
many miles in diameter, inclosing a space of comparatively shallow water,
each of the islands being on the same type as the _atoll_. We derive the
expression from the Maldive islands, which are the typical examples of this
structure, and where the form of the word is _atoḷu_. [P. de Laval (Hak.
Soc. i. 93) states that the provinces in the Maldives were known as
_Atollon_.] It is probably connected with the Singhalese _ätul_, 'inside';
[or _etula_, as Mr Gray (_P. de Laval_, Hak. Soc. i. 94) writes the word.
The _Mad. Admin. Man._ in the Glossary gives Malayāl. _attālam_, 'a sinking
reef']. The term was made a scientific one by Darwin in his publication on
Coral Reefs (see below), but our second quotation shows that it had been
generalised at an earlier date.

  c. 1610.—"Estant au milieu d'vn ATOLLON, vous voyez autour de vous ce
  grand banc de pierre que jay dit, qui environne et qui defend les isles
  contre l'impetuosité de la mer."—_Pyrard de Laval_, i. 71 (ed. 1679);
  [Hak. Soc. i. 94].

  1732.—"ATOLLON, a name applied to such a place in the sea as exhibits a
  heap of little islands lying close together, and almost hanging on to
  each other."—_Zeidler's_ (German) _Universal Lexicon_, s.v.

  1842.—"I have invariably used in this volume the term ATOLL, which is the
  name given to these circular groups of coral islets by their inhabitants
  in the Indian Ocean, and is synonymous with 'lagoon-island.'"—_Darwin,
  The Structure, &c., of Coral Reefs_, 2.


AUMIL, s. Ar. and thence H. _'āmil_ (noun of agency from _'amal_, 'he
performed a task or office,' therefore 'an agent'). Under the native
governments a collector of Revenue; also a farmer of the Revenue invested
with chief authority in his District. Also


AUMILDAR. Properly _'amaldār_, 'one holding office'; (Ar. _'amal_, 'work,'
with P. term of agency). A factor or manager. Among the Mahrattas the
_'Amaldār_ was a collector of revenue under varying conditions—(See details
in _Wilson_). The term is now limited to Mysore and a few other parts of
India, and does not belong to the standard system of any Presidency. The
word in the following passage looks as if intended for _'amaldār_, though
there is a term _Māldār_, 'the holder of property.'

  1680.—"The MAULDAR or _Didwan_ [DEWAN] that came with the _Ruccas_
  [ROOCKA] from Golcondah sent forward to Lingappa at Conjiveram."—_Ft. St.
  Geo. Cons._, 9th Novr. No. III., 38.

  c. 1780.—"... having detected various frauds in the management of the
  AMULDAR or renter ... (M. Lally) paid him 40,000 rupees."—_Orme_, iii.
  496 (ed. 1803).

  1793.—"The AUMILDARS, or managers of the districts."—_Dirom_, p. 56.

  1799.—"I wish that you would desire one of your people to communicate
  with the AMILDAR of Soondah respecting this road."—_A. Wellesley_ to T.
  Munro, in _Munro's Life_, i. 335.

  1804.—"I know the character of the Peshwah, and his ministers, and of
  every Mahratta AMILDAR sufficiently well...."—_Wellington_, iii. 38.

  1809.—"Of the AUMIL I saw nothing."—_Ld. Valentia_, i. 412.


AURUNG, s. H. from P. _aurang_, 'a place where goods are manufactured, a
depôt for such goods.' During the Company's trading days this term was
applied to their factories for the purchase, on advances, of native
piece-goods, &c.

  1778.—"... Gentoo-factors in their own pay to provide the investments at
  the different AURUNGS or cloth markets in the province."—_Orme_, ii. 51.

  1789.—"I doubt, however, very much whether he has had sufficient
  experience in the commercial line to enable him to manage so difficult
  and so important an AURUNG as Luckipore, which is almost the only one of
  any magnitude which supplies the species of coarse cloths which do not
  interfere with the British manufacture."—_Cornwallis_, i. 435.


AVA, n.p. The name of the city which was for several centuries the capital
of the Burmese Empire, and was applied often to that State itself. This
name is borrowed, according to Crawfurd, from the form _Awa_ or _Awak_ used
by the Malays. The proper Burmese form was _Eng-wa_, or 'the Lake-Mouth,'
because the city was built near the opening of a lagoon into the Irawadi;
but this was called, even by the Burmese, more popularly _A-wā_, 'The
Mouth.' The city was founded A.D. 1364. The first European occurrence of
the name, so far as we know, is (c. 1440) in the narrative of Nicolo Conti,
and it appears again (no doubt from Conti's information) in the great
World-Map of Fra Mauro at Venice (1459).

  c. 1430.—"Having sailed up this river for the space of a month he arrived
  at a city more noble than all the others, called AVA, and the
  circumference of which is 15 miles."—_Conti_, in _India in the XVth
  Cent._ 11.

  c. 1490.—"The country (Pegu) is distant 15 days' journey by land from
  another called AVA in which grow rubies and many other precious
  stones."—_Hier. di Sto. Stefano_, u. s. p. 6.

  1516.—"Inland beyond this Kingdom of Pegu ... there is another Kingdom of
  Gentiles which has a King who resides in a very great and opulent city
  called AVA, 8 days' journey from the sea; a place of rich merchants, in
  which there is a great trade of jewels, rubies, and spinel-rubies, which
  are gathered in this Kingdom."—_Barbosa_, 186.

  c. 1610.—"... The King of OVÁ having already sent much people, with
  cavalry, to relieve Porão (Prome), which marches with the Pozão (?) and
  city of OVÁ or ANVÁ, (which means 'surrounded on all sides with
  streams')...."—_Antonio Bocarro, Decada_, 150.

  1726.—"The city AVA is surpassing great.... One may not travel by land to
  Ava, both because this is permitted by the Emperor to none but envoys, on
  account of the Rubies on the way, and also because it is a very perilous
  journey on account of the tigers."—_Valentijn, V._ (_Chorom._) 127.


AVADAVAT, s. Improperly for _Amadavat_. The name given to a certain pretty
little cage-bird (_Estrelda amandava_, L. or 'Red Wax-Bill') found
throughout India, but originally brought to Europe from _Aḥmadābād_ in
Guzerat, of which the name is a corruption. We also find Aḥmadābād
represented by _Madava_: as in old maps _Astarābād_ on the Caspian is
represented by _Strava_ (see quotation from _Correa_ below). [One of the
native names for the bird is _lāl_, 'ruby,' which appears in the quotation
from Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali below.]

  1538.—"... o qual veyo d'AMADAVA principall cidade do reino."—In _S.
  Botelho, Tombo_, 228.

  1546.—"The greater the resistance they made, the more of their blood was
  spilt in their defeat, and when they took to flight, we gave them chase
  for the space of half a league. And it is my belief that as far as the
  will of the officers and lascarys went, we should not have halted on this
  side of MADAVÁ; but as I saw that my people were much fatigued, and that
  the Moors were in great numbers, I withdrew them and brought them back to
  the city."—D. João de Castro's despatch to the City of Goa respecting the
  victory at Diu.—_Correa_, iv. 574.

  1648.—"The capital (of Guzerat) lies in the interior of the country and
  is named _Hamed-Ewat_, _i.e._ the City of King _Hamed_ who built it;
  nowadays they call it _Amadavar_ or AMADABAT."—_Van Twist_, 4.

  1673.—"From AMIDAVAD, small Birds, who, besides that they are spotted
  with white and Red no bigger than Measles, the principal Chorister
  beginning, the rest in Consort, Fifty in a Cage, make an admirable
  Chorus."—_Fryer_, 116.

  [1777.—"... a few presents now and then—china, shawls, congou tea,
  AVADAVATS, and Indian crackers."—_The School for Scandal_, v. i.]

  1813.—"... AMADAVATS, and other songsters are brought thither (Bombay)
  from Surat and different countries."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ i. 47. [The 2nd
  ed. (i. 32) reads AMADAVADS.]

  [1832.—"The lollah, known to many by the name of HAVER-DEWATT, is a
  beautiful little creature, about one-third the size of a
  hedge-sparrow."—_Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali, Observat._ ii. 54.]


AVATAR, s. Skt. _Avatāra_, an incarnation on earth of a divine Being. This
word first appears in Baldaeus (1672) in the form AUTAAR (_Afgoderye_, p.
52), which in the German version generally quoted in this book takes the
corrupter shape of _Altar_.

  [c. 1590.—"In the city of Sambal is a temple called Hari Mandal (the
  temple of Vishnu) belonging to a Brahman, from among whose descendants
  the tenth AVATAR will appear at this spot."—_Āīn_, tr. Jarrett, ii. 281.]

  1672.—"Bey den Benjanen haben auch diese zehen Verwandlungen den Namen
  daas sie ALTARE heissen, und also hat Mats _Altar_ als dieser erste,
  gewähret 2500 Jahr."—_Baldaeus_, 472.

  1784.—"The ten AVATÁRS or descents of the deity, in his capacity of
  Preserver."—_Sir W. Jones_, in _Asiat. Res._ (reprint) i. 234.

  1812.—"The AWATARS of Vishnu, by which are meant his descents upon earth,
  are usually counted ten...."—_Maria Graham_, 49.

  1821.—"The Irish AVATAR."—_Byron._

  1845.—"In Vishnu-land what AVATAR?"—_Browning, Dramatic Romances, Works_,
  ed. 1870, iv. pp. 209, 210.

  1872.—"... all which cannot blind us to the fact that the Master is
  merely another AVATAR of Dr Holmes himself."—_Sat. Review_, Dec. 14, p.
  768.

  1873.—"He ... builds up a curious History of Spiritualism, according to
  which all matter is mediately or immediately the AVATAR of some
  Intelligence, not necessarily the highest."—_Academy_, May 15th, 172_b_.

  1875.—"Balzac's AVATARS were a hundredfold as numerous as those of
  Vishnu."—_Ibid._, April 24th, p. 421.


AVERAGE, s. Skeat derives this in all its senses from L. Latin _averia_,
used for cattle; for his deduction of meanings we must refer to his
Dictionary. But it is worthy of consideration whether _average_, in its
special marine use for a proportionate contribution towards losses of those
whose goods are cast into the sea to save a ship, &c., is not directly
connected with the Fr. _avarie_, which has quite that signification. And
this last Dozy shows most plausibly to be from the Ar. '_awār_, spoilt
merchandise.' [This is rejected by the _N.E.D._, which concludes that the
Ar. _'awār_ is "merely a mod. Arabic translation and adaptation of the
Western term in its latest sense."] Note that many European words of trade
are from the Arabic; and that _avarie_ is in Dutch _avarij_, _averij_, or
_haverij_.—(See Dozy, _Oosterlingen_.)


AYAH, s. A native lady's-maid or nurse-maid. The word has been adopted into
most of the Indian vernaculars in the forms _āya_ or _āyā_, but it is
really Portuguese (f. AIA, 'a nurse, or governess'; m. _aio_, 'the governor
of a young noble'). [These again have been connected with L. Latin _aidus_,
Fr. _aide_, 'a helper.']

  1779.—"I was sitting in my own house in the compound, when the IYA came
  down and told me that her mistress wanted a candle."—_Kitmutgar's
  evidence_, in the case of _Grand v. Francis_. Ext. in _Echoes of Old
  Calcutta_, 225.

  1782.—(A Table of Wages):—

   "_Consumah_.........10 (rupees a month).
        *   *   *   *   *   *
    EYAH....................5."—_India Gazette_, Oct. 12.

  1810.—"The female who attends a lady while she is dressing, etc., is
  called an AYAH."—_Williamson, V. M._ i. 337.

  1826.—"The lieutenant's visits were now less frequent than usual; one
  day, however, he came ... and on leaving the house I observed him slip
  something, which I doubted not was money, into the hand of the AYAH, or
  serving woman, of Jane."—_Pandurang Hari_, 71; [ed. 1873, i. 99].

  1842.—"Here (at Simla) there is a great preponderence of Mahometans. I am
  told that the guns produced absolute consternation, visible in their
  countenances. One AYAH threw herself upon the ground in an agony of
  despair.... I fired 42 guns for Ghuzni and Cabul; the 22nd (42nd?)
  gun—which announced that all was finished—was what overcame the
  Mahometans."—_Lord Ellenborough_, in _Indian Administration_ 295. This
  stuff was written to the great Duke of Wellington!

  1873.—"The white-robed AYAH flits in and out of the tents, finding a home
  for our various possessions, and thither we soon retire."—_Fraser's
  Mag._, June, i. 99.

  1879.—"He was exceedingly fond of his two children, and got for them
  servants; a man to cook their dinner, and an AYAH to take care of
  them."—_Miss Stokes, Indian Fairy Tales_, 7.


B

BABA, s. This is the word usually applied in Anglo-Indian families, by both
Europeans and natives, to the children—often in the plural form, _bābā lōg_
(_lōg_ = folk). The word is not used by the natives among themselves in the
same way, at least not habitually: and it would seem as if our word _baby_
had influenced the use. The word _bābā_ is properly Turki = 'father';
sometimes used to a child as a term of endearment (or forming part of such
a term, as in the P. _Bābājān_, 'Life of your Father'). Compare the Russian
use of _batushka_. [_Bābājī_ is a common form of address to a Faḳīr,
usually a member of one of the Musulman sects. And hence it is used
generally as a title of respect.]

  [1685.—"A Letter from the Pettepolle BOBBA."—_Pringle, Diary, Fort St.
  Geo._ iv. 92.]

  1826.—"I reached the hut of a Gossein ... and reluctantly tapped at the
  wicket, calling, 'O BABA, O Maharaj.'"—_Pandurang Hari_ [ed. 1873, i.
  76].

  [1880.—"While SUNNY BABA is at large, and might at any time make a raid
  on Mamma, who is dozing over a novel on the spider chair near the mouth
  of the thermantidote, the Ayah and Bearer dare not leave their
  charge."—_Aberigh-Mackay, Twenty-one Days_, p. 94.]


BABAGOOREE, s. H. _Bābāghūrī_, the white agate (or chalcedony?) of Cambay.
[For these stones see _Forbes, Or. Mem._ 2nd ed. i. 323: _Tavernier_, ed.
Ball, i. 68.] It is apparently so called from the patron saint or martyr of
the district containing the mines, under whose special protection the
miners place themselves before descending into the shafts. Tradition
alleges that he was a prince of the great Ghori dynasty, who was killed in
a great battle in that region. But this prince will hardly be found in
history.

  1516.—"They also find in this town (Limadura in Guzerat) much chalcedony,
  which they call BABAGORE. They make beads with it, and other things which
  they wear about them."—_Barbosa_, 67.

  1554.—"In this country (Guzerat) is a profusion of BĀBĀGHŪRĪ and
  carnelians; but the best of these last are those coming from
  Yaman."—_Sidi 'Ali Kapudān_, in _J.A.S.B._ v. 463.

  1590.—"By the command of his Majesty grain weights of BĀBĀGHŪRĪ were
  made, which were used in weighing."—_Āīn_, i. 35, and note, p. 615
  (_Blochmann_).

  1818.—"On the summit stands the tomb ... of the titular saint of the
  country, BABA GHOR, to whom a devotion is paid more as a deity than as a
  saint...."—_Copland_, in _Tr. Lit. Soc. Bo._, i. 294.

  1849.—Among ten kinds of carnelians specified in H. Briggs's _Cities of
  Gujaráshtra_ we find "BAWA GORI Akik, a veined kind."—p. 183.


BABBS, n.p. This name is given to the I. of Perim, in the St. of
Babelmandel, in the quotation from Ovington. It was probably English
sea-slang only. [Mr Whiteway points out that this is clearly from _albabo_,
the Port. form of the Ar. word. João de Castro in Roteiro (1541), p. 34,
says: "This strait is called by the neighbouring people, as well as those
who dwell on the shores of the Indian Ocean, ALBABO, which in Arabic
signifies 'gates.'"]

  [1610.—"We attempting to work up to the BABE."—_Danvers, Letters_, i.
  52.]

  [1611.—"There is at the BABB a ship come from Swahell."—_Ibid._ i. 111.]

  1690.—"The BABBS is a small island opening to the _Red Sea_.... Between
  this and the Main Land is a safe Passage...."—_Ovington_, 458.

  [1769.—"Yet they made no estimation of the currents without the BABS";
  (note), "This is the common sailors' phrase for the Straits of
  Babelmandel."—_Bruce, Travels to discover the Source of the Nile_, ed.
  1790, Bk. i. cap. ii.]


BABER, BHABUR, s. H. _bābar_, _bhābar_. A name given to those districts of
the N.W. Provinces which lie immediately under the Himālaya to the dry
forest belt on the talus of the hills, at the lower edge of which the
moisture comes to the surface and forms the wet forest belt called Tarāī.
(See TERAI.) The following extract from the report of a lecture on Indian
Forests is rather a happy example of the danger of "a little learning" to a
reporter:

  1877.—"Beyond that (the Tarāī) lay another district of about the same
  breadth, called in the native dialect the BAHADAR. That in fact was a
  great filter-bed of sand and vegetation."—_London Morning Paper of 26th
  May._


BABI-ROUSSA, s. Malay _babi_[30] ('hog') _rūsa_ ('stag'). The 'Stag-hog,' a
remarkable animal of the swine genus (_Sus babirussa_, L.; _Babirussa
alfurus_, F. Cuvier), found in the island of Bourou, and some others of the
I. Archipelago, but nowhere on continental Asia. Yet it seems difficult to
apply the description of Pliny below, or the name and drawing given by
Cosmas, to any other animal. The 4-horned swine of Aelian is more probably
the African Wart-hog, called accordingly by F. Cuvier _Phacochoerus
Aeliani_.

  c. A.D. 70.—"The wild bores of India have two bowing fangs or tuskes of a
  cubit length, growing out of their mouth, and as many out of their
  foreheads like calves hornes."—_Pliny_, viii. 52 (_Holland's Tr._ i.
  231).

  c. 250. "Λέγει δὲ Δίνων ἐν Αἰθιωπίᾳ γίνεσθαι ... ὕς τετράκερως."—_Aelian,
  De Nat. Anim._ xvii. 10.

  c. 545.—"The _Choirelaphus_ ('Hog-stag') I have both seen and
  eaten."—_Cosmas Indicopleustes_, in _Cathay_, &c., p. clxxv.

  1555.—"There are _hogs also with hornes_, and parats which prattle much
  which they call _noris_ (LORY)."—_Galvano, Discoveries of the World_,
  Hak. Soc. 120.

  1658.—"Quadrupes hoc inusitatatae figurae monstrosis bestiis ascribunt
  Indi quod adversae speciei animalibus, Porco scilicet et Cervo, pronatum
  putent ... ita ut primo intuitu quatuor cornibus juxta se positis
  videatur armatum hoc animal BABY-ROUSSA."—_Piso_, App. to _Bontius_, p.
  61.

  [1869.—"The wild pig seems to be of a species peculiar to the island
  (Celebes); but a much more curious animal of this family is the BABIRUSA
  or Pig-deer, so named by the Malays from its long and slender legs, and
  curved tusks resembling horns. This extraordinary creature resembles a
  pig in general appearance, but it does not dig with its snout, as it
  feeds on fallen fruits.... Here again we have a resemblance to the
  Wart-hogs of Africa, whose upper canines grow outwards and curve up so as
  to form a transition from the usual mode of growth to that of the
  _Babirusa_. In other respects there seems no affinity between these
  animals, and the _Babirusa_ stands completely isolated, having no
  resemblance to the pigs of any other part of the world."—_Wallace, Malay
  Archip._ (ed. 1890), p. 211, _seqq._]


BABOO, s. Beng. and H. _Bābū_ [Skt. _vapra_, 'a father']. Properly a term
of respect attached to a name, like _Master_ or _Mr._, and formerly in some
parts of Hindustan applied to certain persons of distinction. Its
application as a term of respect is now almost or altogether confined to
Lower Bengal (though C. P. Brown states that it is also used in S. India
for 'Sir, My lord, your Honour'). In Bengal and elsewhere, among
Anglo-Indians, it is often used with a slight savour of disparagement, as
characterizing a superficially cultivated, but too often effeminate,
Bengali. And from the extensive employment of the class, to which the term
was applied as a title, in the capacity of clerks in English offices, the
word has come often to signify 'a native clerk who writes English.'

  1781.—"I said.... From my youth to this day I am a servant to the
  English. I have never gone to any Rajahs or BAUBOOS nor will I go to
  them."—Depn. of _Dooud Sing_, Commandant. In _Narr. of Insurn. at
  Banaras_ in 1781. Calc. 1782. Reprinted at Roorkee, 1853. App., p. 165.

  1782.—"_Cantoo_ BABOO" appears as a subscriber to a famine fund at Madras
  for 200 Sicca Rupees.—_India Gazette_, Oct. 12.

  1791.

   "Here Edmund was making a monstrous ado,
    About some bloody Letter and Conta BAH-BOOH."[31]
               _Letters of Simkin the Second_, 147.

  1803.—"... Calling on Mr. Neave I found there BABOO Dheep Narrain,
  brother to Oodit Narrain, Rajah at Benares."—_Lord Valentia's Travels_,
  i. 112.

  1824.—"... the immense convent-like mansion of some of the more wealthy
  BABOOS...."—_Heber_, i. 31, ed. 1844.

  1834.—"The BABOO and other Tales, descriptive of Society in India."—Smith
  & Elder, London. (By Augustus Prinsep.)

  1850.—"If instruction were sought for from them (the Mohammedan
  historians) we should no longer hear bombastic BABOOS, enjoying under our
  Government the highest degree of personal liberty ... rave about
  patriotism, and the degradation of their present position."—_Sir H. M.
  Elliot_, Orig. Preface to _Mahom. Historians of India_, in Dowson's ed.,
  I. xxii.

  c. 1866.

   "But I'd sooner be robbed by a tall man who showed me a yard of steel,
    Than be fleeced by a sneaking BABOO, with a peon and badge at his
        heel."
               _Sir A. C. Lyall, The Old Pindaree._

  1873.—"The pliable, plastic, receptive BABOO of Bengal eagerly avails
  himself of this system (of English education) partly from a servile wish
  to please the _Sahib logue_, and partly from a desire to obtain a
  Government appointment."—_Fraser's Mag._, August, 209.

  [1880.—"English officers who have become de-Europeanised from long
  residence among undomesticated natives.... Such officials are what Lord
  Lytton calls White BABOOS."—_Aberigh-Mackay, Twenty-one Days_, p. 104.]

_N.B._—In Java and the further East _bābū_ means a nurse or female servant
(Javanese word).


BABOOL, s. H. _babūl_, _babūr_ (though often mispronounced _bābul_, as in
two quotations below); also called _kīkar_. A thorny mimosa common in most
parts of India except the Malabar Coast; the _Acacia arabica_, Willd. The
Bhils use the gum as food.

  1666.—"L'eau de Vie de ce Païs ... qu'on y boit ordinairement, est faicte
  de _jagre_ ou sucre noir, qu'on met dans l'eau avec de l'écorce de
  l'arbre BABOUL, pour y donner quelque force, et ensuite on les distile
  ensemble."—_Thevenot_, v. 50.

  1780.—"Price Current. _Country Produce_: BABLE Trees, large, 5 pc. each
  tree."—_Hickey's Bengal Gazette_, April 29. [This is _bāblā_, the Bengali
  form of the word.]

  1824.—"Rampoor is ... chiefly remarkable for the sort of fortification
  which surrounds it. This is a high thick hedge ... of bamboos ... faced
  on the outside by a formidable underwood of cactus and BÂBOOL."—_Heber_,
  ed. 1844, i. 290.

  1849.—"Look at that great tract from Deesa to the Hāla mountains. It is
  all sand; sometimes it has a little ragged clothing of BĀBUL or
  milk-bush."—_Dry Leaves from Young Egypt_, 1.


BABOON, s. This, no doubt, comes to us through the Ital. _babuino_; but it
is probable that the latter word is a corruption of Pers. _maimūn_ ['the
auspicious one'], and then applied by way of euphemism or irony to the
baboon or monkey. It also occurs in Ital. under the more direct form of
_maimone_ in _gatto-maimone_, 'cat-monkey,' or rather 'monkey-cat.' [The
_N.E.D._ leaves the origin of the word doubtful, and does not discuss this
among other suggested derivations.]


BACANORE and BARCELORE, nn.pp. Two ports of Canara often coupled together
in old narratives, but which have entirely disappeared from modern maps and
books of navigation, insomuch that it is not quite easy to indicate their
precise position. But it would seem that Bacanore, Malayāl. _Vakkanūr_, is
the place called in Canarese _Bārkūr_, the _Barcoor-pettah_ of some maps,
in lat. 13° 28½′. This was the site of a very old and important city, "the
capital of the Jain kings of Tulava ... and subsequently a stronghold of
the Vijiyanagar Rajas."—_Imp. Gazet._ [Also see Stuart, _Man. S. Canara_,
ii. 264.]

Also that _Barcelore_ is a Port. corruption of _Basrūr_ [the Canarese
_Basarūru_, 'the town of the waved-leaf fig tree.' (_Mad. Adm. Man.
Gloss._, s.v.).] It must have stood immediately below the 'Barsilur Peak'
of the Admiralty charts, and was apparently identical with, or near to, the
place called Seroor in Scott's Map of the Madras Presidency, in about lat.
13° 55′. [See Stuart, _ibid._ ii. 242. Seroor is perhaps the _Shirūr_ of Mr
Stuart (_ibid._ p. 243).]

  c. 1330.—"Thence (from Hannaur) the traveller came to BĀSARŪR, a small
  city...."—_Abulfeda_, in _Gildemeister_, 184.

  c. 1343.—"The first town of Mulaibār that we visited was ABU-SARŪR, which
  is small, situated on a great estuary, and abounding in coco-nut
  trees.... Two days after our departure from that town we arrived at
  FĀKANŪR, which is large and situated on an estuary. One sees there an
  abundance of sugar-cane, such as has no equal in that country."—_Ibn
  Batuta_, iv. 77-78.

  c. 1420.—"Duas praeterea ad maritimas urbes, alteram PACHAMURIAM ...
  nomine, xx diebus transiit."—_Conti_, in _Poggius de Var. Fort._ iv.

  1501.—"BACANUT," for Bacanur, is named in Amerigo Vespucci's letter,
  giving an account of Da Gama's discoveries, first published by Baldelli
  Boni, _Il Milione_, pp. liii. _seqq._

  1516.—"Passing further forward ... along the coast, there are two little
  rivers on which stand two places, the one called BACANOR, and the other
  BRACALOR, belonging to the kingdom of Narsyngua and the province of
  Tolinate (_Tulu-nāḍa_, _Tuluva_ or S. Canara). And in them is much good
  rice grown round about these places, and this is loaded in many foreign
  ships and in many of Malabar...."—_Barbosa_, in Lisbon Coll. 294.

  1548.—"The Port of the River of BARCALOR pays 500 loads (of rice as
  tribute)."—_Botelho, Tombo_, 246.

  1552.—"Having dispatched this vessel, he (V. da Gama) turned to follow
  his voyage, desiring to erect the _padrão_ (votive pillar) of which we
  have spoken; and not finding a place that pleased him better, he erected
  one on certain islets joined (as it were) to the land, giving it the name
  of Sancta Maria, whence these islands are now called Saint Mary's Isles,
  standing between BACANOR and Baticalá, two notable places on that
  coast."—_De Barros_, I. iv. 11.

     "    "... the city Onor, capital of the kingdom, Baticalá, Bendor,
  BRACELOR, BACANOR."—_Ibid._ I. ix. 1.

  1726.—"In BARSELOOR or BASSELOOR have we still a factory ... a little
  south of Basseloor lies BAQUANOOR and the little River
  Vier."—_Valentijn_, v. (Malabar) 6.

  1727.—"The next town to the Southward of _Batacola_ [BATCUL] is
  BARCELOAR, standing on the Banks of a broad River about 4 Miles from the
  Sea.... The Dutch have a Factory here, only to bring up Rice for their
  Garrisons.... BACCANOAR and _Molkey_ lie between BARCELOAR and
  _Mangalore_, both having the benefit of Rivers to export the large
  quantities of Rice that the Fields produce."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 284-5.
  [_Molkey_ is _Mulki_, see Stuart, _op. cit._ ii. 259.]

  1780.—"St Mary's Islands lie along the coast N. and S. as far as off the
  river of BACANOR, or Callianpoor, being about 6 leagues.... In lat. 13°
  50′ N., 5 leagues from _Bacanor_, runs the river BARSALOR."—_Dunn's N.
  Directory_, 5th ed. 105.

  1814.—"BARCELORE, now frequently called Cundapore."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._
  iv. 109, also see 113; [2nd ed. II. 464].


BACKDORE, s. H. _bāg-ḍor_ ('bridle-cord'); a halter or leading rein.


BACKSEE. Sea H. _bāksī_: nautical 'aback,' from which it has been formed
(_Roebuck_).


BADEGA, n.p. The Tamil _Vaḍagar_, _i.e._ 'Northerners.' The name has at
least two specific applications:

A. To the Telegu people who invaded the Tamil country from the kingdom of
Vijayanagara (the BISNAGA or NARSINGA of the Portuguese and old travellers)
during the later Middle Ages, but especially in the 16th century. This word
first occurs in the letters of St. Francis Xavier (1544), whose Parava
converts on the Tinnevelly Coast were much oppressed by these people. The
_Badega_ language of Lucena, and other writers regarding that time, is the
Telegu. The Badagas of St. Fr. Xavier's time were in fact the emissaries of
the Nāyaka rulers of Madura, using violence to exact tribute for those
rulers, whilst the Portuguese had conferred on the Paravas "the somewhat
dangerous privilege of being Portuguese subjects."—See _Caldwell, H. of
Tinnevelly_, 69 _seqq._

  1544.—"Ego ad Comorinum Promontorium contendo eòque naviculas deduco xx.
  cibariis onustas, ut miseris illis subveniam Neophytis, qui BAGADARUM
  (read BADAGARUM) acerrimorum Christiani nominis hostium terrore perculsi,
  relictis vicis, in desertas insulas se abdiderunt."—_S. F. Xav. Epistt._
  I. vi., ed. 1677.

  1572.—"Gens est in regno Bisnagae quos BADAGAS vocant."—_E. Acosta_, 4
  _b._

  1737.—"In eâ parte missionis Carnatensis in quâ _Telougou_, ut aiunt,
  lingua viget, seu inter BADAGOS, quinque annos versatus sum; neque
  quamdiu viguerunt vires ab illâ dilectissimâ et sanctissimâ Missione
  Pudecherium veni."—In _Norbert_, iii. 230.

  1875.—"Mr C. P. Brown informs me that the early French missionaries in
  the Guntur country wrote a vocabulary 'de la langue Talenga, dite
  vulgairement le BADEGA."—_Bp. Caldwell, Dravidian Grammar_, Intr. p. 33.


B. To one of the races occupying the Nilgiri Hills, speaking an old
Canarese dialect, and being apparently a Canarese colony, long separated
from the parent stock.—(See _Bp. Caldwell's Grammar_, 2nd ed., pp. 34, 125,
&c.) [The best recent account of this people is that by Mr Thurston in
_Bulletin of the Madras Museum_, vol. ii. No. 1.] The name of these people
is usually in English corrupted to BURGHERS.


BADGEER, s. P. _bād-gīr_, 'wind-catch.' An arrangement acting as a windsail
to bring the wind down into a house; it is common in Persia and in Sind.
[It is the _Bādhanj_ of Arabia, and the _Malkaf_ of Egypt (_Burton, Ar.
Nights_, i. 237; _Lane, Mod. Egypt_, i. 23.]

  1298.—"The heat is tremendous (at Hormus), and on that account the houses
  are built with ventilators (_ventiers_) to catch the wind. These
  ventilators are placed on the side from which the wind comes, and they
  bring the wind down into the house to cool it."—_Marco Polo_, ii. 450.

  [1598.—A similar arrangement at the same place is described by
  _Linschoten_, i. 51, Hak. Soc.]

  1682.—At Gamron (GOMBROON) "most of the houses have a square tower which
  stands up far above the roof, and which in the upper part towards the
  four winds has ports and openings to admit air and catch the wind, which
  plays through these, and ventilates the whole house. In the heat of
  summer people lie at night at the bottom of these towers, so as to get
  good rest."—_Nieuhof, Zee en Lant-Reize_, ii. 79.

  [1798.—"The air in it was continually refreshed and renewed by a
  cool-sail, made like a funnel, in the manner of M. du
  Hamel."—_Stavorinus, Voyage_, ii. 104.]

  1817.

   "The _wind-tower_ on the Emir's dome
    Can scarcely win a breath from heaven."
               _Moore, Fire-worshippers._

  1872.—"... BADGIRS or windcatchers. You see on every roof these
  diminutive screens of wattle and dab, forming acute angles with the
  hatches over which they project. Some are moveable, so as to be turned to
  the S.W. between March and the end of July, when the monsoon sets in from
  that quarter."—_Burton's Sind Revisited_, 254.

  1881.—"A number of square turrets stick up all over the town; these are
  BADGIRS or ventilators, open sometimes to all the winds, sometimes only
  to one or two, and divided inside like the flues of a great chimney,
  either to catch the draught, or to carry it to the several rooms
  below."—_Pioneer Mail, March 8th._


BADJOE, BAJOO, s. The Malay jacket (Mal. _bājū_) [of which many varieties
are described by Dennys (_Disc. Dict._ p. 107)].

  [c. 1610.—"The women (Portuguese) take their ease in their smocks or
  BAJUS, which are more transparent and fine than the most delicate crape
  of those parts."—_Pyrard de Laval_, Hak. Soc. ii. 112.]

  1784.—"Over this they wear the BADJOO, which resembles a morning gown,
  open at the neck, but fastened close at the wrist, and half-way up the
  arm."—_Marsden, H. of Sumatra_, 2nd ed. 44.

  1878.—"The general Malay costume ... consists of an inner vest, having a
  collar to button tight round the neck, and the BAJU, or jacket, often of
  light coloured dimity, for undress."—_McNair_, 147.

  1883.—"They wear above it a short-sleeved jacket, the BAJU, beautifully
  made, and often very tastefully decorated in fine needlework."—_Miss
  Bird, Golden Chersonese_, 139.


BAEL, s. H. _bel_, Mahr. _bail_, from Skt. _vilva_, the Tree and Fruit of
_Aegle marmelos_ (Correa), or 'Bengal Quince,' as it is sometimes called,
after the name (_Marmelos de Benguala_) given it by Garcia de Orta, who
first described the virtues of this fruit in the treatment of dysentery,
&c. These are noticed also by P. Vincenzo Maria and others, and have always
been familiar in India. Yet they do not appear to have attracted serious
attention in Europe till about the year 1850. It is a small tree, a native
of various parts of India. The dried fruit is now imported into
England.—(See _Hanbury and Flückiger_, 116); [_Watt, Econ. Dict._ i. 117
_seqq._]. The shelly rind of the bel is in the Punjab made into carved
snuff-boxes for sale to the Afghans.

  1563.—"And as I knew that it was called BELI in Baçaim, I enquired of
  those native physicians which was its proper name, _cirifole_ or _beli_,
  and they told me that _cirifole_ [_śriphala_] was the physician's name
  for it."—_Garcia De O._, ff. 221 _v._, 222.

  [1614.—"One jar of BYLE at ru. 5 per maund."—_Foster, Letters_, iii. 41.]

  1631.—Jac. Bontius describes the BEL as _malum cydonium_ (_i.e._ a
  quince), and speaks of its pulp as good for dysentery and the _cholerae
  immanem orgasmum_.—Lib. vi. cap. viii.

  1672.—"The BILI plant grows to no greater height than that of a man [this
  is incorrect], all thorny ... the fruit in size and hardness, and nature
  of rind, resembles a pomegranate, dotted over the surface with little
  dark spots equally distributed.... With the fruit they make a decoction,
  which is a most efficacious remedy for dysenteries or fluxes, proceeding
  from excessive heat...."—_P. Vincenzo_, 353.

  1879.—"... On this plain you will see a large BÉL-tree, and on it one big
  BÉL-fruit."—_Miss Stokes, Indian Fairy Tales_, 140.


BAFTA, s. A kind of calico, made especially at Baroch; from the Pers.
_bāfta_, 'woven.' The old Baroch _baftas_ seem to have been fine goods.
Nothing is harder than to find intelligible explanations of the distinction
between the numerous varieties of cotton stuffs formerly exported from
India to Europe under a still greater variety of names; names and trade
being generally alike obsolete. _Baftas_ however survived in the Tariffs
till recently. [_Bafta_ is at present the name applied to a silk fabric.
(See quotation from _Yusuf Ali_ below.) In Bengal, Charpata and Noakhali in
the Chittagong Division were also noted for their cotton _baftas_
(_Birdwood, Industr. Arts_, 249).]

  1598.—"There is made great store of Cotton Linnen of diuers sort ...
  BOFFETAS."—_Linschoten_, p. 18. [Hak. Soc. i. 60.]

  [1605-6.—"_Patta Kassa_ of the ffinest _Totya_, BAFFA."—_Birdwood, First
  Letter Book_, 73. We have also "Black BAFFATTA."—_Ibid._ 74.]

  [1610.—"BAFFATA, the corge Rs. 100."—_Danvers, Letters_, i. 72.]

  1612.—"BAFTAS or white Callicos, from twentie to fortie Royals the
  _corge_."—_Capt. Saris_, in _Purchas_, i. 347.

  1638.—"... tisserans qui y font cette sorte de toiles de cotton, que l'on
  appelle BAFTAS, qui sont les plus fines de toutes celles qui se font dans
  la Prouince de Guzaratta."—_Mandelslo_, 128.

  1653.—"BAFTAS est un nom Indien qui signifie des toiles fort serrées de
  cotton, lesquelles la pluspart viennent de Baroche, ville du Royaume de
  Guzerat, appartenant au Grand Mogol."—_De la B. le Gouz_, 515.

  1665.—"The BAFTAS, or Calicuts painted red, blue, and black, are carried
  white to _Agra_ and _Amadabad_, in regard those cities are nearest the
  places where the _Indigo_ is made that is us'd in
  colouring."—_Tavernier_, (E. T.) p. 127; [ed. _Ball_, ii. 5].

  1672.—"_Broach_ BAFTAS, broad and narrow."—_Fryer_, 86.

  1727.—"The _Baroach_ BAFTAS are famous throughout all India, the country
  producing the best Cotton in the World."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 144.

  1875.—In the Calcutta Tariff valuation of this year we find Piece Goods,
  Cotton:

    BAFTAHS, score, Rs. 30.

  [1900.—"Akin to the _pot thāns_ is a fabric known as BAFTA (literally
  woven), produced in Benares; body pure silk, with _butis_ in _kalabatun_
  or cloth; ... used for _angarkhas_, _kots_, and women's _paijamas_
  (Musulmans)."—_Yusuf Ali, Mon. on Silk Fabrics_, 97.]

It is curious to find this word now current on Lake Nyanza. The burial of
King Mtesa's mother is spoken of:

  1883.—"The chiefs half filled the nicely-padded coffin with BUFTA
  (bleached calico) ... after that the corpse and then the coffin was
  filled up with more BUFTA...."—In _Ch. Missy. Intelligencer_, N.S., viii.
  p. 543.


BAHAR, s. Ar. _bahār_, Malayāl. _bhāram_, from Skt. _bhāra_, 'a load.' A
weight used in large trading transactions; it varied much in different
localities; and though the name is of Indian origin it was naturalised by
the Arabs, and carried by them to the far East, being found in use, when
the Portuguese arrived in those seas, at least as far as the Moluccas. In
the Indian islands the _bahār_ is generally reckoned as equal to 3 PECULS
(q.v.), or 400 avoirdupois. But there was a different _bahār_ in use for
different articles of merchandise; or, rather, each article had a special
surplus allowance in weighing, which practically made a different _bahār_
(see PICOTA). [Mr. Skeat says that it is now uniformly equal to 400 lbs.
av. in the British dominions in the Malay Peninsula; but Klinkert gives it
as the equivalent of 12 _pikuls_ of AGAR-AGAR; 6 of cinnamon; 3 of
TRIPANG.]

  1498.—"... and begged him to send to the King his Lord a BAGAR of
  cinnamon, and another of clove ... for sample" (_a mostra_).—_Roteiro de
  V. da Gama_, 78.

  1506.—"In Cananor el suo Re si è zentil, e qui nasce zz. (_i.e._
  _zenzeri_ or 'ginger'); ma li zz. pochi e non cusi boni come quelli de
  Colcut, e suo peso si chiama BAAR, che sono K. (Cantari) 4 da
  Lisbona."—_Relazione di Leonardo Ca' Masser_, 26.

  1510.—"If the merchandise about which they treat be spices, they deal by
  the _bahar_, which BAHAR weighs three of our _cantari_."—_Varthema_, p.
  170.

  1516.—"It (Malacca) has got such a quantity of gold, that the great
  merchants do not estimate their property, nor reckon otherwise than by
  _bahars_ of gold, which are 4 quintals to each BAHAR."—_Barbosa_, 193.

  1552.—"300 BAHARES of pepper."—_Castanheda_, ii. 301. Correa writes
  BARES, as does also Couto.

  1554.—"The BAAR of nuts (_noz_) contains 20 faraçolas, and 5 maunds more
  of PICOTA; thus the _baar_, with its _picota_, contains 20½
  faraçolas...."—_A. Nunes_, 6.

  c. 1569.—"After this I saw one that would have given a BARRE of Pepper,
  which is two Quintals and a halfe, for a little Measure of water, and he
  could not have it."—_C. Fredericke_, in _Hakl._ ii. 358.

  1598.—"Each BHAR of _Sunda_ weigheth 330 _catten_ of
  China."—_Linschoten_, 34: [Hak. Soc. i. 113].

  1606.—"... their came in his company a Portugall Souldier, which brought
  a Warrant from the Capitaine to the Gouernor of _Manillia_, to trade with
  vs, and likewise to giue _John Rogers_, for his pains a BAHAR of
  Cloues."—_Middleton's Voyage_, D. 2. _b_.

  1613.—"Porque os naturaes na quelle tempo possuyão muytos BÂRES de
  ouro."—_Godinho de Eredia_, 4 v.

  [1802.—"That at the proper season for gathering the pepper and for a
  _Pallam_ weighing 13 rupees and 1½ _Viessam_ 120 of which are equal to a
  _Tulam_ or _Maund_ weighing 1,732 rupees, calculating, at which standard
  for one BAROM or _Candy_ the Sircar's price is Rs. 120."—_Procl. at
  Malabar_, in _Logan_, iii. 348. This makes the BAROM equal to 650 lbs.]


BAHAUDUR, s. H. _Bahādur_, 'a hero, or champion.' It is a title affixed
commonly to the names of European officers in Indian documents, or when
spoken of ceremoniously by natives (_e.g._ "Jones Ṣāhib _Bahādur_"), in
which use it may be compared with "the gallant officer" of Parliamentary
courtesy, or the _Illustrissimo Signore_ of the Italians. It was conferred
as a title of honour by the Great Mogul and by other native princes [while
in Persia it was often applied to slaves (Burton, _Ar. Nights_, iii. 114)].
Thus it was particularly affected to the end of his life by Hyder Ali, to
whom it had been given by the Raja of Mysore (see quotation from John
Lindsay below [and Wilks, _Mysoor_, Madras reprint, i. 280]). _Bahādur_ and
_Sirdār Bahādur_ are also the official titles of members of the 2nd and 1st
classes respectively of the Order of British India, established for native
officers of the army in 1837. [The title of _Rāē Bahādur_ is also conferred
upon Hindu civil officers.]

As conferred by the Court of Delhi the usual gradation of titles was
(ascending):—1. _Bahādur_; 2. _Bahādur Jang_; 3. _Bahādur ud-Daulah_; 4.
_Bahādur ul-mulk_. At Hyderabad they had also _Bahādur ul-Umrā_
(_Kirkpatrick_, in _Tippoo's Letters_, 354). [Many such titles of Europeans
will be found in _North Indian N. & Q._, i. 35, 143, 179; iv. 17.]

In Anglo-Indian colloquial parlance the word denotes a haughty or pompous
personage, exercising his brief authority with a strong sense of his own
importance; a _don_ rather than a swaggerer. Thackeray, who derived from
his Indian birth and connections a humorous felicity in the use of
Anglo-Indian expressions, has not omitted this serviceable word. In that
brilliant burlesque, the _Memoirs of Major Gahagan_, we have the Mahratta
traitor _Bobachee Bahauder_. It is said also that Mr Canning's malicious
wit bestowed on Sir John Malcolm, who was not less great as a talker than
as a soldier and statesman, the title, not included in the Great Mogul's
repertory, of _Bahauder Jaw_.[32]

_Bahādur_ is one of the terms which the hosts of Chingiz Khan brought with
them from the Mongol Steppes. In the Mongol genealogies we find Yesugai
_Bahādur_, the father of Chingiz, and many more. Subutai _Bahādur_, one of
the great soldiers of the Mongol host, twice led it to the conquest of
Southern Russia, twice to that of Northern China. In Sanang Setzen's
poetical annals of the Mongols, as rendered by I. J. Schmidt, the word is
written _Baghatur_, whence in Russian _Bogatir_ still survives as a memento
probably of the Tartar domination, meaning 'a hero or champion.' It occurs
often in the old Russian epic ballads in this sense; and is also applied to
Samson of the Bible. It occurs in a Russian chronicler as early as 1240,
but in application to Mongol leaders. In Polish it is found as _Bohatyr_,
and in Hungarian as _Bátor_,—this last being in fact the popular Mongol
pronunciation of _Baghatur_. In Turki also this elision of the guttural
extends to the spelling, and the word becomes _Bātur_, as we find it in the
Dicts. of Vambéry and Pavet de Courteille. In Manchu also the word takes
the form of _Baturu_, expressed in Chinese characters as _Pa-tu-lu_;[33]
the Kirghiz has it as _Batyr_; the Altai-Tataric as _Paattyr_, and the
other dialects even as _Magathyr_. But the singular history of the word is
not yet entirely told. Benfey has suggested that the word originated in
Skt. _bhaga-dhara_ ('happiness-possessing').[34] But the late lamented
Prof. A. Schiefner, who favoured us with a note on the subject, was
strongly of opinion that the word was rather a corruption "through
dissimulation of the consonant," of the Zend _bagha-puthra_ 'Son of God,'
and thus but another form of the famous term FAGHFŪR, by which the old
Persians rendered the Chinese _Tien-tsz_ ('Son of Heaven'), applying it to
the Emperor of China.

  1280-90.—In an eccentric Persian poem purposely stuffed with Mongol
  expressions, written by Purbahā Jāmī in praise of Arghūn Khān of Persia,
  of which Hammer has given a German translation, we have the following:—

   "The Great Kaan names thee his _Ulugh-Bitekchī_ [Great Secretary],
    Seeing thou art _bitekchi_ and BEHĀDIR to boot;
    O Well-beloved, the _yarlīgh_ [rescript] that thou dost issue is obeyed
    By Turk and Mongol, by Persian, Greek, and Barbarian!"
               _Gesch. der Gold. Horde_, 461.

  c. 1400.—"I ordained that every Ameer who should reduce a Kingdom, or
  defeat an army, should be exalted by three things: by a title of honour,
  by the _Tugh_ [Yak's tail standard], and by the _Nakkára_ [great kettle
  drum]; and should be dignified by the title of BAHAUDUR."—_Timour's
  Institutes_, 283; see also 291-293.

  1404.—"E elles le dixeron q̃ aquel era uno de los valiẽtes e BAHADURES
  q'en el linage del Señor auia."—_Clavijo_, § lxxxix.

     "    "E el home q̃ este haze e mas vino beue dizen que es BAHADUR, que
  dizen elles por homem rezio."—Do. § cxii.

  1407.—"The Prince mounted, escorted by a troop of BAHADURS, who were
  always about his person."—_Abdurrazāk's Hist._ in _Not. et Ext._ xiv.
  126.

  1536.—(As a proper name.) "Itaq̃ ille potentissimus Rex BADUR, Indiae
  universae terror, a quo nonulli regnũ Pori maximi quõdam regis teneri
  affirmant...."—Letter from _John III. of Portugal_ to Pope Paul III.

Hardly any native name occurs more frequently in the Portuguese Hist. of
India than this of _Badur_—viz. Bahādur Shāh, the warlike and powerful king
of Guzerat (1526-37), killed in a fray which closed an interview with the
Viceroy, Nuno da Cunha, at Diu.

  1754.—"The _Kirgeese Tartars_ ... are divided into three _Hordas_, under
  the Government of a _Khan_. That part which borders on the Russian
  dominions was under the authority of _Jean Beek_, whose name on all
  occasions was honoured with the title of BATER."—_Hanway_, i. 239. The
  name _Jean Beek_ is probably _Janibek_, a name which one finds among the
  hordes as far back as the early part of the 14th century (see _Ibn
  Batuta_, ii. 397).

  1759.—"From Shah Alum BAHADRE, son of Alum Guire, the Great Mogul, and
  successor of the Empire, to Colonel Sabut Jung BAHADRE" (_i.e._
  Clive).—Letter in _Long_, p. 163.

We have said that the title _Behauder_ (_Bahādur_) was one by which Hyder
Ali of Mysore was commonly known in his day. Thus in the two next
quotations:

  1781.—"Sheikh Hussein upon the guard tells me that our army has beat the
  BEHAUDER [_i.e._ Hyder Ali], and that peace was making. Another sepoy in
  the afternoon tells us that the BEHAUDER had destroyed our army, and was
  besieging Madras."—_Captivity of Hon. John Lindsay_, in _Lives of the
  Lindsays_, iii. 296.

  1800.—"One lac of BEHAUDRY pagodas."—_Wellington_, i. 148.

  1801.—"Thomas, who was much in liquor, now turned round to his _sowars_,
  and said—'Could any one have stopped Sahib BAHAUDOOR at this gate but one
  month ago?' 'No, no,' replied they; on which——"—_Skinner, Mil. Mem._ i.
  236.

  1872.—"... the word 'BAHÁDUR' ... (at the Mogul's Court) ... was only
  used as an epithet. Ahmed Shah used it as a title and ordered his name to
  be read in the Friday prayer as 'Mujahid ud dín Muhammad Abú naçr Ahmad
  Sháh BAHÁDUR. Hence also '_Kampaní_ BAHADUR,' the name by which the E. I.
  Company is still known in India. The modern 'Khan BAHÁDUR' is, in Bengal,
  by permission assumed by Muhammedan Deputy Magistrates, whilst Hindu
  Deputy Magistrates assume 'Rái BAHÁDUR'; it stands, of course, for
  'Khán-i-BAHÁDUR,' 'the courageous Khán.' The compound, however, is a
  modern abnormal one; for 'Khán' was conferred by the Dihli Emperors, and
  so also 'Bahádur' and 'Bahádur Khán,' but not 'Khán Bahádur.'"—_Prof.
  Blochmann_, in _Ind. Antiquary_, i. 261.

  1876.—"Reverencing at the same time bravery, dash, and boldness, and
  loving their freedom, they (the Kirghiz) were always ready to follow the
  standard of any BATYR, or hero, ... who might appear on the
  stage."—_Schuyler's Turkistan_, i. 33.

  1878.—"Peacock feathers for some of the subordinate officers, a yellow
  jacket for the successful general, and the bestowal of the Manchoo title
  of BATURU, or 'Brave,' on some of the most distinguished brigadiers, are
  probably all the honours which await the return of a triumphal army. The
  reward which fell to the share of 'Chinese Gordon' for the part he took
  in the suppression of the Taiping rebellion was a yellow jacket, and the
  title of _Baturu_ has lately been bestowed on Mr Mesny for years of
  faithful service against the rebels in the province of
  Kweichow."—_Saturday Rev._, Aug. 10, p. 182.

     "    "There is nothing of the great BAHAWDER about him."—_Athenaeum_,
  No. 2670, p. 851.

  1879.—"This strictly prohibitive Proclamation is issued by the Provincial
  Administrative Board of Likim ... and Chang, Brevet-Provincial Judge,
  chief of the Foochow Likim Central Office, Taot'ai for special service,
  and BAT'URU with the title of 'Awe-inspiring Brave'"—Transl. of
  _Proclamation against the cultivation of the Poppy_ in Foochow, July
  1879.


BAHIRWUTTEEA, s. Guj. _bāhirwatū_. A species of outlawry in Guzerat;
_bāhirwatīā_, the individual practising the offence. It consists "in the
Rajpoots or GRASSIAS making their ryots and dependants quit their native
village, which is suffered to remain waste; the _Grassia_ with his brethren
then retires to some asylum, whence he may carry on his depredations with
impunity. Being well acquainted with the country, and the redress of
injuries being common cause with the members of every family, the
_Bahirwutteea_ has little to fear from those who are not in the immediate
interest of his enemy, and he is in consequence enabled to commit very
extensive mischief."—_Col. Walker_, quoted in _Forbes, Rās Māla_, 2nd ed.,
p. 254-5. Col. Walker derives the name from _bāhir_, 'out,' and _wāt_, 'a
road.' [Tod, in a note to the passage quoted below, says "this term is a
compound of _bār_ (_bāhir_) and _wuttan_ (_wat̤an_), literally _ex
patriâ_."]

  [1829.—"This petty chieftain, who enjoyed the distinctive epithet of
  outlaw (_barwattia_), was of the Sonigurra clan."...—_Pers. Narr._, in
  _Annals of Raj_. (Calcutta reprint), i. 724.]

The origin of most of the brigandage in Sicily is almost what is here
described in Kattiwār.


BAIKREE, s. The Bombay name for the BARKING-DEER. It is Guzarātī _bekṛī_;
and acc. to Jerdon and [Blandford, _Mammalia_, 533] Mahr. _bekra_ or
_bekar_, but this is not in Molesworth's Dict. [Forsyth (_Highlands of C.
I._, p. 470) gives the Gond and Korku names as _Bherki_, which may be the
original].

  1879.—"Any one who has shot BAIKRI on the spurs of the Ghats can tell how
  it is possible unerringly to mark down these little beasts, taking up
  their position for the day in the early dawn."—_Overl. Times of India_,
  Suppt. May 12, 7_b_.


BAJRA, s. H. _bājrā_ and _bājrī_ (_Penicillaria spicata_, Willden.). One of
the tall millets forming a dry crop in many parts of India. Forbes calls it
_bahjeree_ (_Or. Mem._ ii. 406; [2nd ed. i. 167), and _bajeree_ (i. 23)].

  1844.—"The ground (at Maharajpore) was generally covered with BAJREE,
  full 5 or 6 feet high."—_Lord Ellenborough_, in _Ind. Admin._ 414.


BĀKIR-KHĀNĪ, s. P.—H. _bāqir-khānī_; a kind of cake almost exactly
resembling pie-crust, said to owe its name to its inventor, _Bākir Khān_.

  [1871.—"The best kind (of native cakes) are BAKA KANAH and '_sheer mahl_'
  (SHEER-MAUL)."—_Riddell, Ind. Domest. Econ._ 386.]


BALÁCHONG, BLACHONG, s. Malay _balāchān_; [acc. to Mr Skeat the standard
Malay is _blachan_, in full _belachan_.] The characteristic condiment of
the Indo-Chinese and Malayan races, composed of prawns, sardines, and other
small fish, allowed to ferment in a heap, and then mashed up with salt. [Mr
Skeat says that it is often, if not always, trodden out like grapes.]
Marsden calls it 'a species of caviare,' which is hardly fair to caviare.
It is the _ngāpi_ (NGAPEE) of the Burmese, and _trāsi_ of the Javanese, and
is probably, as Crawfurd says, the Roman _garum_. One of us, who has
witnessed the process of preparing _ngāpi_ on the island of Negrais, is
almost disposed to agree with the Venetian Gasparo Balbi (1583), who says
"he would rather smell a dead dog, to say nothing of eating it" (f.
125_v_). But when this experience is absent it may be more tolerable.

  1688.—Dampier writes it BALACHAUN, ii. 28.

  1727.—"_Bankasay_ is famous for making BALLICHANG, a Sauce made of dried
  Shrimps, Cod-pepper, Salt, and a Sea-weed or Grass, all well mixed and
  beaten up to the Consistency of thick Mustard."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 194.
  The same author, in speaking of Pegu, calls the like sauce _Prock_ (44),
  which was probably the Talain name. It appears also in Sonnerat under the
  form _Prox_ (ii. 305).

  1784.—"BLACHANG ... is esteemed a great delicacy among the Malays, and is
  by them exported to the west of India.... It is a species of caviare, and
  is extremely offensive and disgusting to persons who are not accustomed
  to it."—_Marsden's H. of Sumatra_, 2nd ed. 57.

  [1871.—Riddell (_Ind. Domest. Econ._ p. 227) gives a receipt for
  BALLACHONG, of which the basis is prawns, to which are added chillies,
  salt, garlic, tamarind juice, &c.]

  1883.—"... BLACHANG—a Malay preparation much relished by European lovers
  of decomposed cheese...."—_Miss Bird, Golden Chersonese_, 96.


BALAGHAUT, used as n.p.; P. _bālā_, 'above,' H. Mahr., &c., _ghāt_, 'a
pass,'—the country 'above the passes,' _i.e._ above the passes over the
range of mountains which we call the "Western GHAUTS." The mistaken idea
that _ghāt_ means 'mountains' causes Forbes to give a nonsensical
explanation, cited below. The expression may be illustrated by the old
Scotch phrases regarding "below and above the Pass" of so and so, implying
Lowlands and Highlands.

  c. 1562.—"All these things were brought by the Moors, who traded in
  pepper which they brought from the hills where it grew, by land in
  Bisnega, and BALAGATE, and Cambay."—_Correa_, ed. Ld. Stanley, Hak. Soc.
  p. 344.

  1563.—"_R._ Let us get on horseback and go for a ride; and as we go you
  shall tell me what is the meaning of _Nizamosha_ (NIZAMALUCO), for you
  often speak to me of such a person.

  "_O._ I will tell you now that he is King in the BAGALATE (misprint for
  _Balagate_), whose father I have often attended medically, and the son
  himself sometimes. From him I have received from time to time more than
  12,000 PARDAOS; and he offered me a salary of 40,000 pardaos if I would
  visit him for so many months every year, but I would not accept."—_Garcia
  de Orta_, f. 33_v_.

  1598.—"This high land on the toppe is very flatte and good to build upon,
  called BALAGATTE."—_Linschoten_, 20; [Hak. Soc. i. 65; cf. i. 235].

     "    "BALLAGATE, that is to say, above the hill, for _Balla_ is above,
  and _Gate_ is a hill...."—_Ibid._ 49; [Hak. Soc. i. 169].

  1614.—"The coast of Coromandel, BALAGATT or Telingana."—_Sainsbury_, i.
  301.

  1666.—"BALAGATE est une des riches Provinces du Grand Mogol.... Elle est
  au midi de celle de Candich."—_Thevenot_, v. 216.

  1673.—"... opening the ways to BALIGAOT, that Merchants might with safety
  bring down their Goods to Port."—_Fryer_, 78.

  c. 1760.—"The BALL-A-GAT Mountains, which are extremely high, and so
  called from _Bal_, mountain, and _gatt_, flat [!], because one part of
  them affords large and delicious plains on their summit, little known to
  Europeans."—_Grose_, i. 231.

This is nonsense, but the following are also absurd misdescriptions:—

  1805.—"BALA GHAUT, the higher or upper _Gaut_ or _Ghaut_, a range of
  mountains so called to distinguish them from the Payen Ghauts, the lower
  Ghauts or Passes."—_Dict. of Words used in E. Indies_, 28.

  1813.—"In some parts this tract is called the BALLA-GAUT, or high
  mountains; to distinguish them from the lower Gaut, nearer the
  sea."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ i. 206; [2nd ed. i. 119].


BALASORE, n.p. A town and district of Orissa; the site of one of the
earliest English factories in the "BAY," established in 1642, and then an
important seaport; supposed to be properly _Bāleśvara_, Skt. _bāla_,
'strong,' _īśvara_, 'lord,' perhaps with reference to Krishna. Another
place of the same name in Madras, an isolated peak, 6762′ high, lat. 11°
41′ 43″, is said to take its name from the Asura Bana.

  1676.—

   "When in the vale of BALASER I fought,
    And from Bengal the captive Monarch brought."
               _Dryden, Aurungzebe_, ii. 1.

  1727.—"The Sea-shore of BALASORE being very low, and the Depths of Water
  very gradual from the Strand, make Ships in BALLASORE Road keep a good
  Distance from the Shore; for in 4 or 5 Fathoms, they ride 3 Leagues
  off."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 397.


BALASS, s. A kind of ruby, or rather a rose-red spinelle. This is not an
Anglo-Indian word, but it is a word of Asiatic origin, occurring frequently
in old travellers. It is a corruption of _Balakhshī_, a popular form of
_Badakhshī_, because these rubies came from the famous mines on the Upper
Oxus, in one of the districts subject to Badakhshān. [See _Vambéry,
Sketches_, 255; _Ball, Tavernier_, i. 382 _n._]

  c. 1350.—"The mountains of Badakhshān have given their name to the
  Badakhshi ruby, vulgarly called _al_-BALAKHSH."—_Ibn Batuta_, iii. 59,
  394.

  1404.—"Tenia (Tamerlan) vestido vna ropa et vn paño de seda raso sin
  lavores e ẽ la cabeça tenia vn sombrero blãco alto con un BALAX en cima e
  con aljofar e piedras."—_Clavijo_, § cx.

  1516.—"These BALASSES are found in Balaxayo, which is a kingdom of the
  mainland near Pegu and Bengal."—_Barbosa_, 213. This is very bad
  geography for Barbosa, who is usually accurate and judicious, but it is
  surpassed in much later days.

  1581.—"I could never understand from whence those that be called BALASSI
  come."—_Caesar Fredericke_, in _Hakl._ ii. 372.

  [1598.—"The BALLAYESES are likewise sold by weight."—_Linschoten_, Hak.
  Soc. ii. 156.]

  1611.—"Of BALLACE Rubies little and great, good and bad, there are single
  two thousand pieces" (in Akbar's treasury).—_Hawkins_, in _Purchas_, i.
  217.

  [1616.—"Fair pearls, BALLAST rubies."—_Foster, Letters_, iv. 243.]

  1653.—"Les Royaumes de Pegou, d'où viennent les rubis BALETS."—_De la
  Boullaye-le-Gouz_, 126.

  1673.—"The last sort is called a BALLACE Ruby, which is not in so much
  esteem as the Spinell, because it is not so well coloured."—_Fryer_, 215.

  1681.—"... ay ciertos BALAXES, que llmana candidos, que son como los
  diamantes."—_Martinez de la Puente_, 12.

  1689.—"... The BALACE Ruby is supposed by some to have taken its name
  from _Palatium_, or Palace; ... the most probable Conjecture is that of
  _Marcus Paulus Venetus_, that it is borrow'd from the Country, where they
  are found in greatest Plentie...."—_Ovington_, 588.


BALCONY, s. Not an Anglo-Indian word, but sometimes regarded as of Oriental
origin; a thing more than doubtful. The etymology alluded to by Mr.
Schuyler and by the lamented William Gill in the quotations below, is not
new, though we do not know who first suggested it. Neither do we know
whether the word _balagani_, which Erman (_Tr. in Siberia_, E. T. i. 115)
tells us is the name given to the wooden booths at the Nijnei Fair, be the
same P. word or no. Wedgwood, Littré, [and the _N.E.D._] connect _balcony_
with the word which appears in English as _balk_, and with the Italian
_balco_, 'a scaffolding' and the like, also used for 'a box' at the play.
_Balco_, as well as _palco_, is a form occurring in early Italian. Thus
Franc. da Buti, commenting on Dante (1385-87), says: "_Balco_ è luogo alto
doue si monta e scende." Hence naturally would be formed _balcone_, which
we have in Giov. Villani, in Boccaccio and in Petrarch. Manuzzi
(_Vocabolario It._) defines _balcone_ as = _finestra_ (?).

It may be noted as to the modern pronunciation that whilst ordinary mortals
(including among verse-writers Scott and Lockhart, Tennyson and Hood)
accent the word as a dactyl (_bālcŏny̆_), the _crême de la crême_, if we
are not mistaken, makes it, or did in the last generation make it, as
Cowper does below, an amphibrach (_bălcōny̆_): "Xanthus his name with those
of heavenly birth, But called Scamander by the sons of earth!" [According
to the _N.E.D._ the present pronunciation, "which," said Sam. Rogers,
"makes me sick," was established about 1825.]

  c. 1348.—"E al continuo v'era pieno di belle donne a' BALCONI."—_Giov.
  Villani_, x. 132-4.

  c. 1340-50.—

   "Il figliuol di Latona avea già nove
    Volte guardato dal BALCON sovrano,
    Per quella, ch'alcun tempo mosse
    I suoi sospir, ed or gli altrui commove in vano."
               _Petrarca, Rime_, Pte. i. Sonn. 35,
               ed. Pisa, 1805.

  c. 1340-50.—

   "Ma si com' uom talor che piange, a parte
    Vede cosa che gli occhi, e 'l cor alletta,
    Così colei per ch'io son in prigione
    Standosi ad un BALCONE,
    Che fù sola a' suoi di cosa perfetta
    Cominciai a mirar con tale desío
    Che me stesso, e 'l mio mal pose in oblío:
    I'era in terra, e 'l cor mio in Paradiso."
               _Petrarca, Rime_, Pte. ii. Canzone 4.

  1645-52.—"When the King sits to do Justice, I observe that he comes into
  the BALCONE that looks into the Piazza."—_Tavernier_, E. T. ii. 64; [ed.
  _Ball_, i. 152].

  1667.—"And be it further enacted, That in the Front of all Houses,
  hereafter to be erected in any such Streets as by Act of Common Council
  shall be declared to be High Streets, _Balconies_ Four Foot broad with
  Rails and Bars of Iron ... shall be placed...."—Act 19 Car. II., cap. 3,
  sect. 13. (Act for Rebuilding the City of London.)

  1783.

   "At Edmonton his loving wife
      From the BALCŌNY spied
    Her tender husband, wond'ring much
      To see how he did ride."
               _John Gilpin._

  1805.—

   "For from the lofty BALCŎNY,
    Rung trumpet, shalm and psaltery."
               _Lay of the Last Minstrel._

  1833.—

   "Under tower and BALCŎNY,
    By garden-wall and gallery,
    A gleaming shape she floated by,
    Dead pale between the houses high."
               _Tennyson's Lady of Shalott._

  1876.—"The houses (in Turkistan) are generally of but one story, though
  sometimes there is a small upper room called _bala-khana_ (P. _bala_,
  upper, and _khana_, room) whence we get our BALCONY."—_Schuyler's
  Turkistan_, i. 120.

  1880.—"_Bālā khānă_ means 'upper house,' or 'upper place,' and is applied
  to the room built over the archway by which the _chăppă khānă_ is
  entered, and from it, by the way, we got our word 'BALCONY.'"—MS. Journal
  in Persia of _Captain W. J. Gill_, R.E.


BALOON, BALLOON, &c., s. A rowing vessel formerly used in various parts of
the Indies, the basis of which was a large canoe, or 'dug-out.' There is a
Mahr. word _balyānw_, a kind of barge, which is probably the original. [See
_Bombay Gazetteer_, xiv. 26.]

  1539.—"E embarcando-se ... partio, eo forão accompanhando dez ou doze
  BALÕES ate a Ilha de Upe...."—_Pinto_, ch. xiv.

  1634.—

   "Neste tempo da terra para a armada
      BALÕES, e cal' luzes cruzar vimos...."
               _Malaca Conquistada_, iii. 44.

  1673.—"The President commanded his own BALOON (a Barge of State, of Two
  and Twenty Oars) to attend me."—_Fryer_, 70.

  1755.—"The Burmas has now Eighty BALLONGS, none of which as [_sic_] great
  Guns."—Letter from _Capt. R. Jackson_, in _Dalrymple Or. Repert._ i. 195.

  1811.—"This is the simplest of all boats, and consists merely of the
  trunk of a tree hollowed out, to the extremities of which pieces of wood
  are applied, to represent a stern and prow; the two sides are boards
  joined by rottins or small bambous without nails; no iron whatsoever
  enters into their construction.... The BALAUMS are used in the district
  of Chittagong."—_Solvyns_, iii.


BALSORA, BUSSORA, &c., n.p. These old forms used to be familiar from their
use in the popular version of the Arabian Nights after Galland. The place
is the sea-port city of _Basra_ at the mouth of the Shat-al-'Arab, or
United Euphrates and Tigris. [Burton (_Ar. Nights_, x. 1) writes
_Bassorah_.]

  1298.—"There is also on the river as you go from Baudas to Kisi, a great
  city called BASTRA surrounded by woods in which grow the best dates in
  the world."—_Marco Polo_, Bk. i. ch. 6.

  c. 1580.—"BALSARA, altrimente detta BASSORA, è una città posta nell'
  Arabia, la quale al presente e signoreggiata dal Turco ... è città di
  gran negocio di spetiarie, di droghe, e altre merci che uengono di Ormus;
  è abondante di dattoli, risi, e grani."—_Balbi_, f. 32_f_.

  [1598.—"The town of BALSORA; also BASSORA."—_Linschoten_, Hak. Soc. i.
  45.]

  1671.—

   "From Atropatia and the neighbouring plains
    Of Adiabene, Media, and the south
    Of Susiana to BALSARA'S Haven...."
               _Paradise Regained_, iii.

  1747.—"He (the Prest. of Bombay) further advises us that they have wrote
  our Honble. Masters of the Loss of Madrass by way of BUSSERO, the 7th of
  November."—_Ft. St. David Consn._, 8th January 1746-7. MS. in India
  Office.

  [Also see CONGO.]


BALTY, s. H. _bāltī_, 'a bucket,' [which Platts very improbably connects
with Skt. _vări_, 'water'], is the Port. _balde_.


BÁLWAR, s. This is the native servant's form of 'barber,' shaped by the
'striving after meaning' as _bālwār_, for _bālwālā_, _i.e._ 'capillarius,'
'hair-man.' It often takes the further form BĀL-BŪR, another factitious
hybrid, shaped by P. _būrīdan_, 'to cut,' quasi 'hair-cutter.' But though
now obsolete, there was also (see both _Meninski_ and _Vullers_ s.v.) a
Persian word _bărbăr_, for a barber or surgeon, from which came this
Turkish term "Le _Berber_-bachi, qui fait la barbe au Pacha," which we find
(c. 1674) in the Appendix to the journal of Antoine Galland, pubd. at
Paris, 1881 (ii. 190). It looks as if this must have been an early loan
from Europe.


BAMBOO, s. Applied to many gigantic grasses, of which _Bambusa arundinacea_
and _B. vulgaris_ are the most commonly cultivated; but there are many
other species of the same and allied genera in use; natives of tropical
Asia, Africa, and America. This word, one of the commonest in Anglo-Indian
daily use, and thoroughly naturalised in English, is of exceedingly obscure
origin. According to Wilson it is Canarese _bănbŭ_ [or as the _Madras
Admin. Man._ (_Gloss._ s.v.) writes it, _bombu_, which is said to be
"onomatopaeic from the crackling and explosions when they burn"]. Marsden
inserts it in his dictionary as good Malay. Crawfurd says it is certainly
used on the west coast of Sumatra as a native word, but that it is
elsewhere unknown to the Malay languages. The usual Malay word is _buluh_.
He thinks it more likely to have found its way into English from Sumatra
than from Canara. But there is evidence enough of its familiarity among the
Portuguese before the end of the 16th century to indicate the probability
that we adopted the word, like so many others, through them. We believe
that the correct Canarese word is _baṇwu_. In the 16th century the form in
the Concan appears to have been _mambu_, or at least it was so represented
by the Portuguese. Rumphius seems to suggest a quaint _onomatopoeia_:
"vehementissimos edunt ictus et sonitus, quum incendio comburuntur, quando
notum ejus nomen _Bambu, Bambu_, facile exauditur."—(_Herb. Amb._ iv. 17.)
[Mr. Skeat writes: "Although _buluh_ is the standard Malay, and _bambu_
apparently introduced, I think _bambu_ is the form used in the low Javanese
vernacular, which is quite a different language from high Javanese. Even in
low Javanese, however, it may be a borrowed word. It looks curiously like a
trade corruption of the common Malay word _samambu_, which means the
well-known 'Malacca cane,' both the bamboo and the Malacca cane being
articles of export. Klinkert says that the _samambu_ is a kind of rattan,
which was used as a walking-stick, and which was called the Malacca cane by
the English. This Malacca cane and the rattan 'bamboo cane' referred to by
Sir H. Yule must surely be identical. The fuller Malay name is actually
_rotan samambu_, which is given as the equivalent of _Calamus Scipionum_,
Lour. by Mr. Ridley in his Plant List (_J.R.A.S._, July 1897).]

The term applied to _ṭābāshīr_ (TABASHEER), a siliceous concretion in the
bamboo, in our first quotation seems to show that _bambu_ or _mambu_ was
one of the words which the Portuguese inherited from an earlier use by
Persian or Arab traders. But we have not been successful in finding other
proof of this. With reference to _sakkar-mambu_ Ritter says: "That this
drug (_Tabashir_), as a product of the bamboo-cane, is to this day known in
India by the name of _Sacar Mambu_ is a thing which no one needs to be
told" (ix. 334). But in fact the name seems now entirely unknown.

It is possible that the Canarese word is a vernacular corruption, or
development, of the Skt. _vaṇśa_ [or _vambha_], from the former of which
comes the H. _bāṇs_. _Bamboo_ does not occur, so far as we can find, in any
of the _earlier_ 16th-century books, which employ _canna_ or the like.

In England the term _bamboo-cane_ is habitually applied to a kind of
walking-stick, which is formed not from any bamboo but from a species of
_rattan_. It may be noted that some 30 to 35 years ago there existed along
the high road between Putney Station and West Hill a garden fence of
bamboos of considerable extent; it often attracted the attention of one of
the present writers.

  1563.—"The people from whom it (_tabashir_) is got call it _sacar_-MAMBUM
  ... because the canes of that plant are called by the Indians
  MAMBU."—_Garcia_, f. 194.

  1578.—"Some of these (canes), especially in Malabar, are found so large
  that the people make use of them as boats (_embarcaciones_) not opening
  them out, but cutting one of the canes right across and using the natural
  knots to stop the ends, and so a couple of naked blacks go upon it ...
  each of them at his own end of the MAMBU [in orig. _mãbu_] (so they call
  it), being provided with two paddles, one in each hand ... and so upon a
  cane of this kind the folk pass across, and sitting with their legs
  clinging naked."—_C. Acosta, Tractado_, 296.

  Again:

  "... and many people on that river (of Cranganor) make use of these canes
  in place of boats, to be safe from the numerous Crocodiles or _Caymoins_
  (as they call them) which are in the river (which are in fact great and
  ferocious lizards)" [_lagartos_].—_Ibid._ 297.

  These passages are curious as explaining, if they hardly justify,
  Ctesias, in what we have regarded as one of his greatest bounces, viz.
  his story of Indian canes big enough to be used as boats.

  1586.—"All the houses are made of canes, which they call BAMBOS, and bee
  covered with Strawe."—_Fitch_, in _Hakl._ ii. 391.

  1598.—"... a thicke reede as big as a man's legge, which is called
  BAMBUS."—_Linschoten_, 56; [Hak. Soc. i. 195].

  1608.—"Iava multas producit arundines grossas, quas MANBU vocant."—_Prima
  Pars Desc. Itin. Navalis in Indiam_ (Houtman's _Voyage_), p. 36.

  c. 1610.—"Les Portugais et les Indiens ne se seruent point d'autres
  bastons pour porter leurs palanquins ou litieres. Ils l'appellent partout
  BAMBOU."—_Pyrard_, i. 237; [Hak. Soc. i. 329].

  1615.—"These two kings (of Camboja and Siam) have neyther Horses, nor any
  fiery Instruments: but make use only of bowes, and a certaine kind of
  pike, made of a knottie wood like Canes, called BAMBUC, which is
  exceeding strong, though pliant and supple for vse."—_De Monfart_, 33.

  1621.—"These Forts will better appeare by the Draught thereof, herewith
  sent to your Worships, inclosed in a BAMBOO."—Letter in _Purchas_, i.
  699.

  1623.—"Among the other trees there was an immense quantity of BAMBÙ, or
  very large Indian canes, and all clothed and covered with pretty green
  foliage that went creeping up them."—_P. della Valle_, ii. 640; [Hak.
  Soc. ii. 220].

  c. 1666.—"Cette machine est suspendue à une longue barre que l'on appelle
  PAMBOU."—_Thevenot_, v. 162. (This spelling recurs throughout a chapter
  describing palankins, though elsewhere the traveller writes _bambou_.)

  1673.—"A BAMBO, which is a long hollow cane."—_Fryer_, 34.

  1727.—"The City (Ava) tho' great and populous, is only built of BAMBOU
  canes."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 47.

  1855.—"When I speak of bamboo huts, I mean to say that post and walls,
  wall-plates and rafters, floor and thatch and the withes that bind them,
  are all of bamboo. In fact it might almost be said that among the
  Indo-Chinese nations the staff of life is _a_ BAMBOO. Scaffolding and
  ladders, landing-jetties, fishing apparatus, irrigation-wheels and
  scoops, oars, masts and yards, spears and arrows, hats and helmets, bow,
  bow-string and quiver, oil-cans, water-stoups and cooking-pots,
  pipe-sticks, conduits, clothes-boxes, pan-boxes, dinner-trays, pickles,
  preserves, and melodious musical instruments, torches, footballs,
  cordage, bellows, mats, paper, these are but a few of the articles that
  are made from the bamboo."—_Yule, Mission to Ava_, p. 153. To these may
  be added, from a cursory inspection of a collection in one of the museums
  at Kew, combs, mugs, sun-blinds, cages, grotesque carvings, brushes,
  fans, shirts, sails, teapots, pipes and harps.

Bamboos are sometimes popularly distinguished (after a native idiom) as
male and female; the latter embracing all the common species with hollow
stems, the former title being applied to a certain kind (in fact, a sp. of
a distinct genus, _Dendrocalamus strictus_), which has a solid or nearly
solid core, and is much used for bludgeons (see LATTEE) and spear-shafts.
It is remarkable that this popular distinction by sex was known to Ctesias
(c. B.C. 400) who says that the Indian reeds were divided into male and
female, the male having no ἐντερώνην.

One of the present writers has seen (and partaken of) rice cooked in a
joint of bamboo, among the Khyens, a hill-people of Arakan. And Mr Markham
mentions the same practice as prevalent among the Chunchos and savage
aborigines on the eastern slopes of the Andes (_J. R. Geog. Soc._ xxv.
155). An endeavour was made in Pegu in 1855 to procure the largest
obtainable bamboo. It was a little over 10 inches in diameter. But Clusius
states that he had seen two great specimens in the University at Leyden, 30
feet long and from 14 to 16 inches in diameter. And E. Haeckel, in his
_Visit to Ceylon_ (1882), speaks of bamboo-stems at Peridenia, "each from a
foot to two feet thick." We can obtain no corroboration of anything
approaching 2 feet.—[See Gray's note on _Pyrard_, Hak. Soc. i. 330.]


BAMÓ, n.p. Burm. _Bha-maw_, Shan _Manmaw_; in Chinese _Sin-Kai_,
'New-market.' A town on the upper Irawadi, where one of the chief routes
from China abuts on that river; regarded as the early home of the Karens.
[(_McMahon, Karens of the Golden Cher._, 103.)] The old Shan town of Bamó
was on the Tapeng R., about 20 m. east of the Irawadi, and it is supposed
that the English factory alluded to in the quotations was there.

  [1684.—"A Settlement at _Bammoo_ upon the confines of China."—_Pringle,
  Madras Cons._, iii. 102.]

  1759.—"This branch seems formerly to have been driven from the
  Establishment at _Prammoo_."—_Dalrymple, Or. Rep._, i. 111.


BANANA, s. The fruit of _Musa paradisaica_, and _M. sapientum_ of Linnaeus,
but now reduced to one species under the latter name by R. Brown. This word
is not used in India, though one hears it in the Straits Settlements. The
word itself is said by De Orta to have come from Guinea; so also Pigafetta
(see below). The matter will be more conveniently treated under PLANTAIN.
Prof. Robertson Smith points out that the coincidence of this name with the
Ar. _banān_, 'fingers or toes,' and _banāna_, 'a single finger or toe,' can
hardly be accidental. The fruit, as we learn from Muḳaddasī, grew in
Palestine before the Crusades; and that it is known in literature only as
_mauz_ would not prove that the fruit was not somewhere popularly known as
'fingers.' It is possible that the Arabs, through whom probably the fruit
found its way to W. Africa, may have transmitted with it a name like this;
though historical evidence is still to seek. [Mr. Skeat writes: "It is
curious that in Norwegian and Danish (and I believe in Swedish), the exact
Malay word _pisang_, which is unknown in England, is used. Prof. Skeat
thinks this may be because we had adopted the word _banana_ before the word
_pisang_ was brought to Europe at all."]

  1563.—"The Arab calls these _musa_ or _amusa_; there are chapters on the
  subject in Avicenna and Serapion, and they call them by this name, as
  does Rasis also. Moreover, in Guinea they have these figs, and call them
  BANANAS."—_Garcia_, 93_v_.

  1598.—"Other fruits there are termed BANANA, which we think to be the
  _Muses_ of Egypt and Soria ... but here they cut them yearly, to the end
  they may bear the better."—Tr. of _Pigafetta's Congo_, in Harleian Coll.
  ii. 553 (also in _Purchas_, ii. 1008.)

  c. 1610.—"Des _bannes_ (marginal rubric BANNANES) que les Portugais
  appellent figues d'Inde, et aux Maldives _Quella_."—_Pyrard de Laval_, i.
  85; [Hak. Soc. i. 113]. The Maldive word is here the same as H. _kelā_
  (Skt. _kadala_).

  1673.—"BONANOES, which are a sort of _Plantain_, though less, yet much
  more grateful."—_Fryer_, 40.

  1686.—"The BONANO tree is exactly like the Plantain for shape and
  bigness, not easily distinguishable from it but by the Fruit, which is a
  great deal smaller."—_Dampier_, i. 316.


BANCHOOT, BETEECHOOT, ss. Terms of abuse, which we should hesitate to print
if their odious meaning were not obscure "to the general." If it were known
to the Englishmen who sometimes use the words, we believe there are few who
would not shrink from such brutality. Somewhat similar in character seem
the words which Saul in his rage flings at his noble son (1 Sam. xx. 30).

  1638.—"L'on nous monstra à vne demy lieue de la ville vn sepulchre,
  qu'ils appellent BETY-CHUIT, c'est à dire la vergogne de la fille
  decouverte."—_Mandelslo_, Paris, 1659, 142. See also _Valentijn_, iv.
  157.

There is a handsome tomb and mosque to the N. of Ahmedabad, erected by
Hajji Malik Bahā-ud-dīn, a wazīr of Sultan Mohammed Bigara, in memory of
his wife _Bībī Achut_ or _Achhūt_; and probably the vile story to which the
17th-century travellers refer is founded only on a vulgar misrepresentation
of this name.

  1648.—"BETY-CHUIT; dat is (onder eerbredinge gesproocken) in onse tale te
  seggen, u Dochters Schaemelheyt."—_Van Twist_, 16.

  1792.—"The officer (of Tippoo's troops) who led, on being challenged in
  Moors answered (_Agari que logue_), 'We belong to the advance'—the title
  of Lally's brigade, supposing the people he saw to be their own
  Europeans, whose uniform also is red; but soon discovering his mistake
  the commandant called out (_Feringhy_ BANCHOOT!—_chelow_) 'they are the
  rascally English! Make off'; in which he set the corps a ready
  example."—_Dirom's Narrative_, 147.


BANCOCK, n.p. The modern capital of Siam, properly _Bang-kok_; see
explanation by Bp. Pallegoix in quotation. It had been the site of forts
erected on the ascent of the Menam to the old capital Ayuthia, by
Constantine Phaulcon in 1675; here the modern city was established as the
seat of government in 1767, after the capture of Ayuthia (see JUDEA) by the
Burmese in that year. It is uncertain if the first quotation refer to
BANCOCK.

  1552.—"... and BAMPLACOT, which stands at the mouth of the
  Menam."—_Barros_, I. ix. 1.

  1611.—"They had arrived in the Road of _Syam_ the fifteenth of August,
  and cast Anchor at three fathome high water.... The Towne lyeth some
  thirtie leagues vp along the Riuer, whither they sent newes of their
  arrivall. The Sabander (see SHAHBUNDER) and the Governor of MANCOCK (a
  place scituated by the Riuer), came backe with the Messengers to receiue
  his Majesties Letters, but chiefly for the presents expected."—_P.
  Williamson Floris_, in _Purchas_, i. 321.

  1727.—The Ship arrived at BENCOCK, a Castle about half-way up, where it
  is customary for all Ships to put their Guns ashore."—_A. Hamilton_, i.
  363.

  1850.—"Civitas regia tria habet nomina: ... _ban măkōk_, per
  contractionem BANGKŌK, pagus oleastrorum, est nomen primitivum quod hodie
  etiam vulgo usurpatur."—_Pallegoix, Gram. Linguae Thai._, Bangkok, 1850,
  p. 167.


BANDANNA, s. This term is properly applied to the rich yellow or red silk
handkerchief, with diamond spots left white by pressure applied to prevent
their receiving the dye. The etymology may be gathered from Shakespear's
Dict., which gives "_Bāndhnū_: 1. A mode of dyeing in which the cloth is
tied in different places, to prevent the parts tied from receiving the
dye;... 3. A kind of silk cloth." A class or caste in Guzerat who do this
kind of preparation for dyeing are called _Bandhārā_ (_Drummond_). [Such
handkerchiefs are known in S. India as PULICAT handkerchiefs. Cloth dyed in
this way is in Upper India known as _Chūnrī_. A full account of the process
will be found in _Journ. Ind. Art_, ii. 63, and _S. M. Hadi's Mon. on Dyes
and Dyeing_, p. 35.]

  c. 1590.—"His Majesty improved this department in four ways....
  _Thirdly_, in stuffs as ... BÁNDHNÚN, _Chhínt_, _Alchah_."—_Āīn_, i. 91.

  1752.—"The Cossembazar merchants having fallen short in gurrahs, plain
  taffaties, ordinary BANDANNOES, and chappas."—In _Long_, 31.

  1813.—"BANDANNOES ... 800."—_Milburn_ (List of Bengal Piece-goods, and
  no. to the ton), ii. 221.

  1848.—"Mr Scape, lately admitted partner into the great Calcutta House of
  Fogle, Fake, and Cracksman ... taking Fake's place, who retired to a
  princely Park in Sussex (the Fogles have long been out of the firm, and
  Sir Horace Fogle is about to be raised to the peerage as Baron BANDANNA),
  ... two years before it failed for a million, and plunged half the Indian
  public into misery and ruin."—_Vanity Fair_, ii. ch. 25.

  1866.—"'Of course,' said Toogood, wiping his eyes with a large red
  BANDANA handkerchief. 'By all means, come along, Major.' The major had
  turned his face away, and he also was weeping."—_Last Chronicle of
  Barset_, ii. 362.

  1875.—"In Calcutta Tariff Valuations: 'Piece goods silk: BANDANAH
  Choppahs, per piece of 7 handkerchiefs ... score ... 115 _Rs._"


BANDAREE, s. Mahr. _Bhanḍārī_, the name of the caste or occupation. It is
applied at Bombay to the class of people (of a low caste) who tend the
coco-palm gardens in the island, and draw toddy, and who at one time formed
a local militia. [It has no connection with the more common _Bhândârî_, 'a
treasurer or storekeeper.']

  1548.—"... certain duties collected from the BANDARYS who draw the toddy
  (_sura_) from the aldeas...."—_S. Botelho, Tombo_, 203.

  1644.—"The people ... are all Christians, or at least the greater part of
  them consisting of artizans, carpenters, _chaudaris_ (this word is
  manifestly a mistranscription of BANDARIS), whose business is to gather
  nuts from the coco-palms, and _corumbis_ (see KOONBEE) who till the
  ground...."—_Bocarro, MS._

  1673.—"The President ... if he go abroad, the BANDARINES and Moors under
  two Standards march before him."—_Fryer_, 68.

     "    "... besides 60 Field-pieces ready in their Carriages upon
  occasion to attend the Militia and BANDARINES."—_Ibid._ 66.

  c. 1760.—"There is also on the island kept up a sort of militia, composed
  of the land-tillers, and BANDAREES, whose living depends chiefly on the
  cultivation of the coco-nut trees."—_Grose_, i. 46.

  1808.—"... whilst on the BRAB trees the cast of BHUNDAREES paid a due for
  extracting the liquor."—_Bombay Regulation_, i. of 1808, sect. vi. para.
  2.

  1810.—"Her husband came home, laden with toddy for distilling. He is a
  BANDARI or toddy-gatherer."—_Maria Graham_, 26.

  c. 1836.—"Of the BHUNDAREES the most remarkable usage is their fondness
  for a peculiar species of long trumpet, called _Bhongalee_, which, ever
  since the dominion of the Portuguese, they have had the privilege of
  carrying and blowing on certain State occasions."—_R. Murphy_, in _Tr.
  Bo. Geog. Soc._ i. 131.

  1883.—"We have received a letter from one of the large BHUNDARRIES in the
  city, pointing out that the tax on toddy trees is now Rs. 18 (? _Rs._ 1,
  8 _as._) per tapped toddy tree per annum, whereas in 1872 it was only Re.
  1 per tree; ... he urges that the Bombay toddy-drawers are entitled to
  the privilege of practising their trade free of license, in consideration
  of the military services rendered by their ancestors in garrisoning
  Bombay town and island, when the Dutch fleet advanced towards it in
  1670."—_Times of India_ (_Mail_), July 17th.


BANDEJAH, s. Port. _bandeja_, 'a salver,' 'a tray to put presents on.' We
have seen the word used only in the following passages:—

  1621.—"We and the Hollanders went to vizet Semi Dono, and we carid hym a
  bottell of strong water, and an other of Spanish wine, with a great box
  (or BANDEJA) of sweet bread."—_Cocks's Diary_, ii. 143.

  [1717.—"Received the _Phirmaund_ (see FIRMAUN) from Captain Boddam in a
  BANDAYE couered with a rich piece of Atlass (see ATLAS)."—_Hedges,
  Diary_, Hak. Soc. ii. ccclx.]

  1747.—"Making a small Cott (see COT) and a rattan BANDIJAS for the
  Nabob.... (Pagodas) 4: 32: 21."—_Acct. Expenses at Fort St. David_,
  Jany., _MS. Records in India Office_.

  c. 1760.—"(_Betel_) in large companies is brought in ready made up on
  Japan chargers, which they call from the Portuguese name, BANDEJAHS,
  something like our tea-boards."—_Grose_, i. 237.

  1766.—"To Monurbad Dowla Nabob—

                         R.  A. P.
    1 Pair Pistols      216  0  0
    2 China BANDAZES    172 12  9"

  —_Lord Clive's Durbar Charges_, in _Long_, 433.

  BANDEJA appears in the _Manilla Vocabular_ of Blumentritt as used there
  for the present of cakes and sweetmeats, tastefully packed in an elegant
  basket, and sent to the priest, from the wedding feast. It corresponds
  therefore to the Indian _ḍāli_ (see DOLLY).


BANDEL, n.p. The name of the old Portuguese settlement in Bengal about a
mile above Hoogly, where there still exists a monastery, said to be the
oldest church in Bengal (see _Imp. Gazeteer_). The name is a Port.
corruption of _bandar_, 'the wharf'; and in this shape the word was applied
among the Portuguese to a variety of places. Thus in Correa, under 1541-42,
we find mention of a port in the Red Sea, near the mouth, called _Bandel
dos Malemos_ ('of the Pilots'). Chittagong is called _Bandel de Chatigão_
(_e.g._ in _Bocarro_, p. 444), corresponding to _Bandar Chātgām_ in the
Autobiog. of Jahāngīr (_Elliot_, vi. 326). [In the Diary of Sir T. Roe (see
below) it is applied to GOMBROON], and in the following passage the
original no doubt runs _Bandar-i-Hūghlī_ or _Hūglī-Bandar_.

  [1616.—"To this Purpose took BANDELL theyr foort on the Mayne."—_Sir T.
  Roe_, Hak. Soc. i. 129.]

  1631.—"... these Europeans increased in number, and erected large
  substantial buildings, which they fortified with cannons, muskets, and
  other implements of war. In due course a considerable place grew up,
  which was known by the name of PORT OF HŪGLĪ."—_'Abdul Hamīd_, in
  _Elliot_, vii. 32.

  1753.—"... les établissements formés pour assurer leur commerce sont
  situés sur les bords de cette rivière. Celui des Portugais, qu'ils ont
  appelé BANDEL, en adoptant le terme Persan de _Bender_, qui signifie
  port, est aujourd'hui reduit à peu de chose ... et il est presque contigu
  à Ugli en remontant."—_D'Anville, Éclaircissemens_, p. 64.

  1782.—"There are five European factories within the space of 20 miles, on
  the opposite banks of the river Ganges in Bengal; Houghly, or BANDELL,
  the Portuguese Presidency; Chinsura, the Dutch; Chandernagore, the
  French; Sirampore, the Danish; and Calcutta, the English."—_Price's
  Observations_, &c., p. 51. In _Price's Tracts_, i.


BANDICOOT, s. Corr. from the Telegu _pandi-kokku_, lit. 'pig-rat.' The name
has spread all over India, as applied to the great rat called by
naturalists _Mus malabaricus_ (Shaw), _Mus giganteus_ (Hardwicke), _Mus
bandicota_ (Bechstein), [_Nesocia bandicota_ (Blanford, p. 425)]. The word
is now used also in Queensland, [and is the origin of the name of the
famous _Bendigo_ gold-field (3 ser. _N. & Q._ ix. 97)].

  c. 1330.—"In Lesser India there be some rats as big as foxes, and
  venomous exceedingly."—_Friar Jordanus_, Hak. Soc. 29.

  c. 1343.—"They imprison in the dungeons (of Dwaigīr, _i.e._ Daulatābād)
  those who have been guilty of great crimes. There are in those dungeons
  enormous rats, bigger than cats. In fact, these latter animals run away
  from them, and can't stand against them, for they would get the worst of
  it. So they are only caught by stratagem. I have seen these rats at
  Dwaigīr, and much amazed I was!"—_Ibn Batuta_, iv. 47.

Fryer seems to exaggerate worse than the Moor:

  1673.—"For Vermin, the strongest huge Rats as big as our Pigs, which
  burrow under the Houses, and are bold enough to venture on
  Poultry."—_Fryer_, 116.

The following surprisingly confounds two entirely different animals:

  1789.—"The BANDICOOT, or musk rat, is another troublesome animal, more
  indeed from its offensive smell than anything else."—_Munro, Narrative_,
  32. See MUSK-RAT.

  [1828.—"They be called BRANDY-CUTES."—_Or. Sporting Mag._ i. 128.]

  1879.—"I shall never forget my first night here (on the Cocos Islands).
  As soon as the Sun had gone down, and the moon risen, thousands upon
  thousands of rats, in size equal to a BANDICOOT, appeared."—_Pollok,
  Sport in B. Burmah_, &c., ii. 14.

  1880.—"They (wild dogs in Queensland) hunted Kangaroo when in numbers ...
  but usually preferred smaller and more easily obtained prey, as rats,
  BANDICOOTS, and 'possums.'"—_Blackwood's Mag._, Jan., p. 65.

  [1880.—"In England the Collector is to be found riding at anchor in the
  BANDICOOT Club."—_Aberigh-Mackay, Twenty-one Days_, 87.]


BANDICOY, s. The colloquial name in S. India of the fruit of _Hibiscus
esculentus_; Tamil _veṇḍai-khāi_, _i.e._ unripe fruit of the _veṇḍai_,
called in H. _bhenḍi_. See BENDY.


BANDO! H. imperative _bāndho_, 'tie or make fast.' "This and probably other
Indian words have been naturalised in the docks on the Thames frequented by
Lascar crews. I have heard a London lighter-man, in the Victoria Docks,
throw a rope ashore to another Londoner, calling out, BANDO!"—(_M.-Gen.
Keatinge._)


BANDY, s. A carriage, bullock-carriage, buggy, or cart. This word is usual
in both the S. and W. Presidencies, but is unknown in Bengal, and in the
N.W.P. It is the Tamil _vaṇḍi_, Telug. _baṇḍi_, 'a cart or vehicle.' The
word, as _bendi_, is also used in Java. [Mr Skeat writes—"Klinkert has Mal.
_bendi_, 'a chaise or caleche,' but I have not heard the word in standard
Malay, though Clifford and Swett. have _bendu_, 'a kind of sedan-chair
carried by men,' and the commoner word _tandu_ 'a sedan-chair or litter,'
which I have heard in Selangor. Wilkinson says that _kereta_ (_i.e. kreta
bendi_) is used to signify any two-wheeled vehicle in Johor."]

  1791.—"To be sold, an elegant new and fashionable BANDY, with copper
  panels, lined with Morocco leather."—_Madras Courier_, 29th Sept.

  1800.—"No wheel-carriages can be used in Canara, not even a
  buffalo-BANDY."—Letter of _Sir T. Munro_, in _Life_, i. 243.

  1810.—"None but open carriages are used in Ceylon; we therefore went in
  BANDIES, or, in plain English, _gigs_."—_Maria Graham_, 88.

  1826.—"Those persons who have not European coachmen have the horses of
  their ... 'BANDIES' or gigs, led by these men.... Gigs and hackeries all
  go here (in Ceylon) by the name of _bandy_."—_Heber_ (ed. 1844), ii. 152.

  1829.—"A mighty solemn old man, seated in an open BUNDY (read _bandy_)
  (as a gig with a head that has an opening behind is called) at
  Madras."—_Mem. of Col. Mountain_, 2nd ed. 84.

  1860.—"Bullock BANDIES, covered with cajans met us."—_Tennent's Ceylon_,
  ii. 146.

  1862.—"At Coimbatore I bought a BANDY or country cart of the simplest
  construction."—_Markham's Peru and India_, 393.


BANG, BHANG, s. H. _bhāng_, the dried leaves and small stalks of hemp
(_i.e._ _Cannabis indica_), used to cause intoxication, either by smoking,
or when eaten mixed up into a sweetmeat (see MAJOON). _Ḥashīsh_ of the
Arabs is substantially the same; Birdwood says it "consists of the tender
tops of the plants after flowering." [_Bhang_ is usually derived from Skt.
_bhaṇga_, 'breaking,' but Burton derives both it and the Ar. _banj_ from
the old Coptic _Nibanj_, "meaning a preparation of hemp; and here it is
easy to recognise the Homeric _Nepenthe_."

  "On the other hand, not a few apply the word to the henbane (_hyoscyamus
  niger_) so much used in mediæval Europe. The Kámús evidently means
  henbane, distinguishing it from Hashísh _al haráfísh_, 'rascal's grass,'
  _i.e._ the herb Pantagruelion.... The use of Bhang doubtless dates from
  the dawn of civilisation, whose earliest social pleasures would be
  inebriants. Herodotus (iv. c. 75) shows the Scythians burning the seeds
  (leaves and capsules) in worship and becoming drunk upon the fumes, as do
  the S. African Bushmen of the present day."—(_Arab. Nights_, i. 65.)]

  1563.—"The great Sultan Badur told Martim Affonzo de Souza, for whom he
  had a great liking, and to whom he told all his secrets, that when in the
  night he had a desire to visit Portugal, and the Brazil, and Turkey, and
  Arabia, and Persia, all he had to do was to eat a little
  BANGUE...."—_Garcia_, f. 26.

  1578.—"BANGUE is a plant resembling hemp, or the Cannabis of the Latins
  ... the Arabs call this BANGUE '_Axis_'" (_i.e._ Ḥashīsh).—_C. Acosta_,
  360-61.

  1598.—"They have ... also many kinds of Drogues, as Amfion, or Opium,
  Camfora, BANGUE and Sandall Wood."—_Linschoten_, 19; [Hak. Soc. i. 61;
  also see ii. 115].

  1606.—"O mais de tẽpo estava cheo de BANGUE."—_Gouvea_, 93.

  1638.—"Il se fit apporter vn petit cabinet d'or ... dont il tira deux
  layettes, et prit dans l'vne de l'_offion_, ou opium, et dans l'autre du
  BENGI, qui est vne certaine drogue ou poudre, dont ils se seruent pour
  s'exciter à la luxure."—_Mandelslo_, Paris, 1659, 150.

  1685.—"I have two sorts of the BANGUE, which were sent from two several
  places of the East Indies; they both differ much from our Hemp, although
  they seem to differ most as to their magnitude."—_Dr. Hans Sloane to Mr.
  Ray_, in _Ray's Correspondence_, 1848, p. 160.

  1673.—"BANG (a pleasant intoxicating Seed mixed with Milk)...."—_Fryer_,
  91.

  1711.—"BANG has likewise its Vertues attributed to it; for being used as
  Tea, it inebriates, or exhilarates them according to the Quantity they
  take."—_Lockyer_, 61.

  1727.—"Before they engage in a Fight, they drink BANG, which is made of a
  Seed like Hemp-seed, that has an intoxicating Quality."—_A. Hamilton_, i.
  131.

  1763.—"Most of the troops, as is customary during the agitations of this
  festival, had eaten plentifully of BANG...."—_Orme_, i. 194.

  1784.—"... it does not appear that the use of BANK, an intoxicating weed
  which resembles the hemp of Europe, ... is considered even by the most
  rigid (Hindoo) a breach of the law."—_G. Forster, Journey_, ed. 1808, ii.
  291.

  1789.—"A shop of BANG may be kept with a capital of no more than two
  shillings, or one rupee. It is only some mats stretched under some tree,
  where the _Bangeras_ of the town, that is, the vilest of mankind,
  assemble to drink BANG."—Note on _Seir Mutaqherin_, iii. 308.

  1868.—

   "The Hemp—with which we used to hang
    Our prison pets, yon felon gang,—
    In Eastern climes produces BANG,
        Esteemed a drug divine.
    As Hashish dressed, its magic powers
    Can lap us in Elysian bowers;
    But sweeter far our social hours,
        O'er a flask of rosy wine."
               _Lord Neaves._



BANGED—is also used as a participle, for 'stimulated by _bang_,' _e.g._
"_banged_ up to the eyes."


BANGLE, s. H. _bangṛī_ or _bangrī_. The original word properly means a ring
of coloured glass worn on the wrist by women; [the _chūrī_ of N. India;]
but _bangle_ is applied to any native ring-bracelet, and also to an
_anklet_ or ring of any kind worn on the ankle or leg. Indian silver
bangles on the wrist have recently come into common use among English
girls.

  1803.—"To the _cutwahl_ he gave a heavy pair of gold BANGLES, of which he
  considerably enhanced the value by putting them on his wrists with his
  own hands."—Journal of _Sir J. Nicholls_, in note to _Wellington
  Despatches_, ed. 1837, ii. 373.

  1809.—"BANGLES, or bracelets."—_Maria Graham_, 13.

  1810.—"Some wear ... a stout silver ornament of the ring kind, called a
  BANGLE, or _karrah_ [_kaṛā_] on either wrist."—_Williamson, V. M._ i.
  305.

  1826.—"I am paid with the silver BANGLES of my enemy, and his cash to
  boot."—_Pandurang Hari_, 27; [ed. 1873, i. 36].

  1873.—"Year after year he found some excuse for coming up to Sirmoori—now
  a proposal for a tax on BANGLES, now a scheme for a new mode of
  Hindustani pronunciation."—_The True Reformer_, i. 24.


BANGUN, s.—See BRINJAUL.


BANGUR, s. Hind. _bāngar_. In Upper India this name is given to the higher
parts of the plain country on which the towns stand—the older alluvium—in
contradistinction to the _khāḍar_ [KHĀDIR] or lower alluvium immediately
bordering the great rivers, and forming the limit of their inundation and
modern divagations; the _khāḍar_ having been cut out from the _bāngar_ by
the river. Medlicott spells _bhāngar_ (_Man. of Geol. of India_, i. 404).


BANGY, BANGHY, &c. s. H. _bahaṅgī_, Mahr. _baṅgī_; Skt. _vihaṅgamā_, and
_vihaṅgikā_.

A. A shoulder-yoke for carrying loads, the yoke or bangy resting on the
shoulder, while the load is apportioned at either end in two equal weights,
and generally hung by cords. The milkmaid's yoke is the nearest approach to
a survival of the bangy-staff in England. Also such a yoke with its pair of
baskets or boxes.—(See PITARRAH).


B. Hence a parcel post, carried originally in this way, was called BANGY or
dawk-BANGY, even when the primitive mode of transport had long become
obsolete. "A BANGY parcel" is a parcel received or sent by such post.

A.—

  1789.—

   "But I'll give them 2000, with BHANGES and _Coolies_,
    With elephants, camels, with hackeries and _doolies_."
               _Letters of Simpkin the Second_, p. 57.

  1803.—"We take with us indeed, in six BANGHYS, sufficient changes of
  linen."—_Ld. Valentia_, i. 67.

  1810.—"The BANGY-_wollah_, that is the bearer who carries the BANGY,
  supports the bamboo on his shoulder, so as to equipoise the baskets
  suspended at each end."—_Williamson, V. M._ i. 323.

  [1843.—"I engaged eight bearers to carry my palankeen. Besides these I
  had four BANGHY-_burdars_, men who are each obliged to carry forty pound
  weight, in small wooden or tin boxes, called _petarrahs_."—_Traveller's
  account, Carey, Good Old Days_, ii. 91.]

B.—

  c. 1844.—"I will forward with this by BHANGY _dâk_ a copy of Capt.
  Moresby's Survey of the Red Sea."—_Sir G. Arthur_, in _Ind. Admin. of
  Lord Ellenborough_, p. 221.

  1873.—"The officers of his regiment ... subscribed to buy the young
  people a set of crockery, and a plated tea and coffee service (got up by
  DAWK BANGHEE ... at not much more than 200 per cent. in advance of the
  English price."—_The True Reformer_, i. 57.


BANJO, s. Though this is a West- and not East-Indian term, it may be worth
while to introduce the following older form of the word:

  1764.—

   "Permit thy slaves to lead the choral dance
    To the wild BANSHAW'S melancholy sound."—_Grainger_, iv.

  See also _Davies_, for example of BANJORE, [and _N.E.D_ for BANJER].


BANKSHALL, s. A. A warehouse. B. The office of a Harbour Master or other
Port Authority. In the former sense the word is still used in S. India; in
Bengal the latter is the only sense recognised, at least among
Anglo-Indians; in Northern India the word is not in use. As the Calcutta
office stands on the _banks_ of the Hoogly, the name is, we believe, often
accepted as having some indefinite reference to this position. And in a
late work we find a positive and plausible, but entirely unfounded,
explanation of this kind, which we quote below. In Java the word has a
specific application to the open hall of audience, supported by wooden
pillars without walls, which forms part of every princely residence. The
word is used in Sea Hindustani, in the forms _bansār_, and _bangsāl_ for a
'store-room' (_Roebuck_).

_Bankshall_ is in fact one of the oldest of the words taken up by foreign
traders in India. And its use not only by Correa (c. 1561) but by King John
(1524), with the regularly-formed Portuguese plural of words in _-al_,
shows how early it was adopted by the Portuguese. Indeed, Correa does not
even explain it, as is his usual practice with Indian terms.

More than one serious etymology has been suggested:—(1). Crawfurd takes it
to be the Malay word _bangsal_, defined by him in his Malay Dict. thus:
"(J.) A shed; a storehouse; a workshop; a porch; a covered passage" (see
_J. Ind. Archip._ iv. 182). [Mr Skeat adds that it also means in Malay
'half-husked paddy,' and 'fallen timber, of which the outer layer has
rotted and only the core remains.'] But it is probable that the Malay word,
though marked by Crawfurd ("J.") as Javanese in origin, is a corruption of
one of the two following:

(2) Beng. _baṇkaśāla_, from Skt. _baṇik_ or _vaṇik_, 'trade,' and _śāla_,
'a hall.' This is Wilson's etymology.

(3). Skt. _bhāṇḍaśāla_, Canar. _bhaṇdaśāle_, Malayāl. _pāṇḍiśāla_, Tam.
_paṇḍaśālai_ or _paṇḍakaśālai_, 'a storehouse or magazine.'

It is difficult to decide which of the two last is the original word; the
prevalence of the second in S. India is an argument in its favour; and the
substitution of _g_ for _ḍ_ would be in accordance with a phonetic practice
of not uncommon occurrence.

A.—

  c. 1345.—"For the _bandar_ there is in every island (of the Maldives) a
  wooden building, which they call BAJANṢĀR [evidently for _banjaṣār_,
  _i.e._ Arabic spelling for _bangaṣār_] where the Governor ... collects
  all the goods, and there sells or barters them."—_Ibn Batuta_, iv. 120.

  [1520.—"Collected in his BAMGASAL" (in the Maldives).—_Doc. da Torre do
  Tombo_, p. 452.]

  1524.—A grant from K. John to the City of Goa, says: "that henceforward
  even if no market rent in the city is collected from the BACACÉS, viz.
  those at which are sold honey, oil, butter, _betre_ (_i.e._ betel),
  spices, and cloths, for permission to sell such things in the said
  _bacacés_, it is our pleasure that they shall sell them freely." A note
  says: "Apparently the word should be _bacaçaes_, or BANCACAES, or
  _bangaçaes_, which then signified any place to sell things, but now
  particularly a wooden house."—_Archiv. Portug. Or._, Fasc. ii. 43.

  1561.—"... in the BENGAÇAES, in which stand the goods ready for
  shipment."—_Correa, Lendas_, i. 2, 260.

  1610.—The form and use of the word have led P. Teixeira into a curious
  confusion (as it would seem) when, speaking of foreigners at Ormus, he
  says: "hay muchos gentiles, Baneanes [see BANYAN], BANGASALYS, y
  Cambayatys"—where the word in italics probably represents _Bangalys_,
  _i.e._ Bengālis (_Rel. de Harmuz_, 18).

  c. 1610.—"Le facteur du Roy chrestien des Maldiues tenoit sa BANQUESALLE
  ou plustost cellier, sur le bord de la mer en l'isle de Malé."—_Pyrard de
  Laval_, ed. 1679, i. 65; [Hak. Soc. i. 85; also see i. 267].

  1613.—"The other settlement of Yler ... with houses of wood thatched
  extends ... to the fields of Tanjonpacer, where there is a BANGASAL or
  sentry's house without other defense."—_Godinho de Eredia_, 6.

  1623.—"BANGSAL, a shed (or barn), or often also a roof without walls to
  sit under, sheltered from the rain or sun."—_Gaspar Willens,
  Vocabularium_, &c., ins' Gravenhaage; repr. Batavia, 1706.

  1734-5.—"Paid the BANKSHALL Merchants for the house poles, country
  REAPERS, &c., necessary for housebuilding."—In _Wheeler_, iii. 148.

  1748.—"A little below the town of Wampo.... These people (_compradores_)
  build a house for each ship.... They are called by us BANKSALLS. In these
  we deposit the rigging and yards of the vessel, chests, water-casks, and
  every thing that incommodes us aboard."—_A Voyage to the E. Indies_ in
  1747 and 1748 (1762), p. 294. It appears from this book (p. 118) that the
  place in Canton River was known as BANKSALL Island.

  1750-52.—"One of the first things on arriving here (Canton River) is to
  procure a BANCSHALL, that is, a great house, constructed of bamboo and
  mats ... in which the stores of the ship are laid up."—_A Voyage_, &c.,
  by _Olof Toreen_ ... in a series of letters to Dr Linnæus, Transl. by J.
  R. Forster (with Osbeck's Voyage), 1771.

  1783.—"These people (_Chulias_, &c., from India, at Achin) ... on their
  arrival immediately build, by contract with the natives, houses of
  bamboo, like what in China at Wampo is called BANKSHALL, very regular, on
  a convenient spot close to the river."—_Forrest, V. to Mergui_, 41.

  1788.—"BANKSAULS—Storehouses for depositing ships' stores in, while the
  ships are unlading and refitting."—_Indian Vocab._ (Stockdale).

  1813.—"The East India Company for seventy years had a large BANKSAUL, or
  warehouse, at Mirzee, for the reception of the pepper and sandalwood
  purchased in the dominions of the Mysore Rajah."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ iv.
  109.

  1817.—"The BĀNGSAL or _mendōpo_ is a large open hall, supported by a
  double row of pillars, and covered with shingles, the interior being
  richly decorated with paint and gilding."—_Raffles, Java_ (2nd ed.), i.
  93. The Javanese use, as in this passage, corresponds to the meaning
  given in Jansz, Javanese Dict.: "BANGSAL, Vorstelijke Zitplaats"
  (Prince's Sitting-place).

B.—

  [1614.—"The custom house or BANKSALL at Masulpatam."—_Foster, Letters_,
  ii. 86.]

  1623.—"And on the Place by the sea there was the Custom-house, which the
  Persians in their language call BENKSAL, a building of no great size,
  with some open outer porticoes."—_P. della Valle_, ii. 465.

  1673.—"... Their BANK SOLLS, or Custom House Keys, where they land, are
  Two; but mean, and shut only with ordinary Gates at Night."—_Fryer_, 27.

  1683.—"I came ashore in Capt. Goyer's Pinnace to ye BANKSHALL, about 7
  miles from Ballasore."—_Hedges, Diary_, Feb. 2; [Hak. Soc. i. 65].

  1687.—"The Mayor and Aldermen, etc., do humbly request the Honourable
  President and Council would please to grant and assign over to the
  Corporation the petty dues of BANKSALL Tolls."—In _Wheeler_, i. 207.

  1727.—"Above it is the _Dutch_ BANKSHALL, a Place where their Ships ride
  when they cannot get further up for the too swift Currents."—_A.
  Hamilton_, ii. 6.

  1789.—"And that no one may plead ignorance of this order, it is hereby
  directed that it be placed constantly in view at the BANKSHALL in the
  English and country languages."—_Procl. against Slave-Trading_ in
  _Seton-Karr_, ii. 5.

  1878.—"The term 'BANKSOLL' has always been a puzzle to the English in
  India. It is borrowed from the Dutch. The 'Soll' is the Dutch or Danish
  'Zoll,' the English 'Toll.' The BANKSOLL was then the place on the 'bank'
  where all tolls or duties were levied on landing goods."—_Talboys
  Wheeler, Early Records of B. India_, 196. (Quite erroneous, as already
  said; and _Zoll_ is not Dutch.)


BANTAM, n.p. The province which forms the western extremity of Java,
properly _Bāntan_. [Mr Skeat gives _Bantan_, Crawfurd, _Bantân_.] It formed
an independent kingdom at the beginning of the 17th century, and then
produced much pepper (no longer grown), which caused it to be greatly
frequented by European traders. An English factory was established here in
1603, and continued till 1682, when the Dutch succeeded in expelling us as
interlopers.

  [1615.—"They were all valued in my invoice at BANTAN."—_Foster, Letters_,
  iv. 93.]

  1727.—"The only Product of BANTAM is Pepper, wherein it abounds so much,
  that they can export 10,000 Tuns per annum."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 127.


BANTAM FOWLS, s. According to Crawfurd, the dwarf poultry which we call by
this name were imported from Japan, and received the name "not from the
place that produced them, but from that where our voyagers first found
them."—(_Desc. Dict._ s.v. _Bantam_). The following evidently in Pegu
describes Bantams:

  1586.—"They also eat certain cocks and hens called _lorine_, which are
  the size of a turtle-dove, and have feathered feet; but so pretty, that I
  never saw so pretty a bird. I brought a cock and hen with me as far as
  Chaul, and then, suspecting they might be taken from me, I gave them to
  the Capuchin fathers belonging to the Madre de Dios."—_Balbi_, f. 125_v_,
  126.

  1673.—"From Siam are brought hither little _Champore_ Cocks with ruffled
  Feet, well armed with Spurs, which have a strutting Gate with them, the
  truest mettled in the World."—_Fryer_, 116.

  [1703.—"Wilde cocks and hens ... much like the small sort called
  _Champores_, severall of which we have had brought us from
  Camboja."—_Hedges, Diary_, Hak. Soc. ii. cccxxxiii.

This looks as if they came from CHAMPA (q.v.).


(1) BANYAN, s. A. A Hindu trader, and especially of the Province of
Guzerat, many of which class have for ages been settled in Arabian ports
and known by this name; but the term is often applied by early travellers
in Western India to persons of the Hindu religion generally. B. In Calcutta
also it is (or perhaps rather was) specifically applied to the native
brokers attached to houses of business, or to persons in the employment of
a private gentleman doing analogous duties (now usually called SIRCAR).

The word was adopted from _Vāṇiya_, a man of the trading caste (in Gujarāti
_vāṇiyo_), and that comes from Skt. _vaṇij_, 'a merchant.' The terminal
nasal may be a Portuguese addition (as in _palanquin_, _mandarin_,
_Bassein_), or it may be taken from the plural form _vāṇiyān_. It is
probable, however, that the Portuguese found the word already in use by the
Arab traders. Sidi 'Ali, the Turkish Admiral, uses it in precisely the same
form, applying it to the Hindus generally; and in the poem of Sassui and
Panhu, the Sindian Romeo and Juliet, as given by Burton in his _Sindh_ (p.
101), we have the form _Wāniyān_. P. F. Vincenzo Maria, who is quoted below
absurdly alleges that the Portuguese called these Hindus of Guzerat
BAGNANI, because they were always washing themselves "... chiamati da
Portughesi _Bagnani_, per la frequenza e superstitione, con quale si lauano
piu volte il giorno" (251). See also Luillier below. The men of this class
profess an extravagant respect for animal life; but after Stanley brought
home Dr. Livingstone's letters they became notorious as chief promoters of
slave-trade in Eastern Africa. A. K. Forbes speaks of the mediæval WĀNIAS
at the Court of Anhilwāra as "equally gallant in the field (with Rajputs),
and wiser in council ... already in profession puritans of peace, but not
yet drained enough of their fiery Kshatri blood."—(_Rās Māla_, i. 240; [ed.
1878, 184].)

_Bunya_ is the form in which _vāṇiya_ appears in the Anglo-Indian use of
Bengal, with a different shade of meaning, and generally indicating a
grain-dealer.

  1516.—"There are three qualities of these Gentiles, that is to say, some
  are called Razbuts ... others are called BANIANS, and are merchants and
  traders."—_Barbosa_, 51.

  1552.—"... Among whom came certain men who are called BANEANES of the
  same heathen of the Kingdom of Cambaia ... coming on board the ship of
  Vasco da Gama, and seeing in his cabin a pictorial image of Our Lady, to
  which our people did reverence, they also made adoration with much more
  fervency...."—_Barros_, Dec., I. liv. iv. cap. 6.

  1555.—"We may mention that the inhabitants of Guzerat call the
  unbelievers BANYĀNS, whilst the inhabitants of Hindustan call them
  Hindū."—_Sidi 'Ali Kapudān_, in J. As., 1^{ère} S. ix. 197-8.

  1563.—"_R._ If the fruits were all as good as this (mango) it would be no
  such great matter in the BANEANES, as you tell me, not to eat flesh. And
  since I touch on this matter, tell me, prithee, who are these BANEANES
  ... who do not eat flesh?..."—_Garcia_, f. 136.

  1608.—"The Gouernour of the Towne of _Gandeuee_ is a BANNYAN, and one of
  those kind of people that obserue the Law of Pythagoras."—_Jones_, in
  _Purchas_, i. 231.

  [1610.—"BANEANES." See quotation under BANKSHALL, A.]

  1623.—"One of these races of Indians is that of those which call
  themselves _Vanià_, but who are called, somewhat corruptly by the
  Portuguese, and by all our other Franks, BANIANS; they are all, for the
  most part, traders and brokers."—_P. della Valle_, i. 486-7; [and see i.
  78 Hak. Soc.].

  1630.—"A people presented themselves to mine eyes, cloathed in linnen
  garments, somewhat low descending, of a gesture and garbe, as I may say,
  maidenly and well nigh effeminate; of a countenance shy, and somewhat
  estranged; yet smiling out a glosed and bashful familiarity.... I asked
  what manner of people these were, so strangely notable, and notably
  strange. Reply was made that they were BANIANS."—_Lord, Preface._

  1665.—"In trade these BANIANS are a thousand times worse than the _Jews_;
  more expert in all sorts of cunning tricks, and more maliciously
  mischievous in their revenge."—_Tavernier_, E. T. ii. 58; [ed. _Ball_, i.
  136, and see i. 91].

  c. 1666.—"Aussi chacun a son BANIAN dans les Indes, et il y a des
  personnes de qualité qui leur confient tout ce qu'ils
  ont...."—_Thevenot_, v. 166. This passage shows in anticipation the
  transition to the Calcutta use (B., below).

  1672.—"The inhabitants are called Guizeratts and BENYANS."—_Baldaeus_, 2.

     "    "It is the custom to say that to make one BAGNAN (so they call
  the Gentile Merchants) you need three Chinese, and to make one Chinese
  three Hebrews."—_P. F. Vincenzo di Maria_, 114.

  1673.—"The BANYAN follows the Soldier, though as contrary in Humour as
  the Antipodes in the same Meridian are opposite to one another.... In
  Cases of Trade they are not so hide-bound, giving their Consciences more
  Scope, and boggle at no Villainy for an Emolument."—_Fryer_, 193.

  1677.—"In their letter to Ft. St. George, 15th March, the Court offer £20
  reward to any of our servants or soldiers as shall be able to speak,
  write, and translate the BANIAN language, and to learn their
  arithmetic."—In Madras _Notes and Exts._, No. I. p. 18.

  1705.—"... ceux des premieres castes, comme les BAIGNANS."—_Luillier_,
  106.

  1813.—"... it will, I believe, be generally allowed by those who have
  dealt much with BANIANS and merchants in the larger trading towns of
  India, that their moral character cannot be held in high
  estimation."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ ii. 456.

  1877.—"Of the _Wani_, BANYAN, or trader-caste there are five great
  families in this country."—_Burton, Sind Revisited_, ii. 281.

B.—

  1761.—"We expect and positively direct that if our servants employ
  BANIANS or black people under them, they shall be accountable for their
  conduct."—_The Court of Directors_, in _Long_, 254.

  1764.—"_Resolutions and Orders._ That no Moonshee, Linguist, BANIAN, or
  Writer, be allowed to any officer, excepting the
  Commander-in-Chief."—_Ft. William Proc._, in _Long_, 382.

  1775.—"We have reason to suspect that the intention was to make him
  (Nundcomar) BANYAN to General Clavering, to surround the General and us
  with the Governor's creatures, and to keep us totally unacquainted with
  the real state of the Government."—_Minute by Clavering, Monson, and
  Francis, Ft. William_, 11th April. In _Price's Tracts_, ii. 138.

  1780.—"We are informed that the Juty Wallahs or Makers and Vendors of
  Bengal Shoes in and about Calcutta ... intend sending a Joint Petition to
  the Supreme Council ... on account of the great decay of their Trade,
  entirely owing to the Luxury of the Bengalies, chiefly the BANGANS
  (_sic_) and Sarcars, as there are scarce any of them to be found who does
  not keep a Chariot, Phaeton, Buggy or Pallanquin, and some all
  four...."—In _Hicky's Bengal Gazette_, June 24th.

  1783.—"Mr. Hastings' BANNIAN was, after this auction, found possessed of
  territories yielding a rent of £140,000 a year."—_Burke, Speech on E. I.
  Bill_, in _Writings_, &c., iii. 490.

  1786.—"The said Warren Hastings did permit and suffer his own BANYAN or
  principal black steward, named Canto Baboo, to hold farms ... to the
  amount of 13 lacs of rupees per annum."—_Art. agst. Hastings, Burke_,
  vii. 111.

     "    "A practice has gradually crept in among the BANIANS and other
  rich men of Calcutta, of dressing some of their servants ... nearly in
  the uniform of the Honourable Company's Sepoys and
  Lascars...."—_Notification_, in _Seton Karr_, i. 122.

  1788.—"BANYAN—A Gentoo servant employed in the management of commercial
  affairs. Every English gentleman at Bengal has a BANYAN who either acts
  of himself, or as the substitute of some great man or black
  merchant."—_Indian Vocabulary_ (Stockdale).

  1810.—"The same person frequently was BANIAN to several European
  gentlemen; all of whose concerns were of course accurately known to him,
  and thus became the subject of conversation at those meetings the BANIANS
  of Calcutta invariably held...."—_Williamson, V. M._ i. 189.

  1817.—"The European functionary ... has first his BANYAN or native
  secretary."—_Mill, Hist._ (ed. 1840), iii. 14. Mr. Mill does not here
  accurately interpret the word.


(2). BANYAN, s. An undershirt, originally of muslin, and so called as
resembling the body garment of the Hindus; but now commonly applied to
under body-clothing of elastic cotton, woollen, or silk web. The following
quotations illustrate the stages by which the word reached its present
application. And they show that our predecessors in India used to adopt the
native or BANYAN costume in their hours of ease. C. P. Brown defines BANYAN
as "a _loose dressing-gown_, such as Hindu tradesmen wear." Probably this
may have been the original use; but it is never so employed in Northern
India.

  1672.—"It is likewise ordered that both Officers and Souldiers in the
  Fort shall, both on every Sabbath Day, and on every day when they
  exercise, _weare English apparel_; in respect the garbe is most becoming
  as Souldiers, and correspondent to their profession."—_Sir W. Langhorne's
  Standing Order_, in _Wheeler_, iii. 426.

  1731.—"The Ensign (as it proved, for his first appearance, being
  undressed and in his BANYON coat, I did not know him) came off from his
  cot, and in a very haughty manner cried out, 'None of your disturbance,
  Gentlemen.'"—In _Wheeler_, iii. 109.

  1781.—"I am an Old Stager in this Country, having arrived in Calcutta in
  the Year 1736.... Those were the days, when Gentlemen studied _Ease_
  instead of _Fashion_; when even the Hon. Members of the Council met in
  BANYAN SHIRTS, LONG DRAWERS (q.v.), and Conjee (CONGEE) caps; with a Case
  Bottle of good old Arrack, and a Gouglet of Water placed on the Table,
  which the Secretary (a Skilful Hand) frequently converted into
  Punch...."—Letter from _An Old Country Captain_, in _India Gazette_, Feb.
  24th.

  [1773.—In a letter from Horace Walpole to the Countess of Upper Ossory,
  dated April 30th, 1773 (_Cunningham's_ ed., v. 459) he describes a ball
  at Lord Stanley's, at which two of the dancers, Mr. Storer and Miss
  Wrottesley, were dressed "in BANIANS with furs, for winter, cock and
  hen." It would be interesting to have further details of these garments,
  which were, it may be hoped, different from the modern BANYAN.]

  1810.—"... an undershirt, commonly called a BANIAN."—_Williamson, V.M._
  i. 19.


(3) BANYAN, s. See BANYAN-TREE.


BANYAN-DAY, s. This is sea-slang for a _jour maigre_, or a day on which no
ration of meat was allowed; when (as one of our quotations above expresses
it) the crew had "to observe the Law of Pythagoras."

  1690.—"Of this (_Kitchery_ or KEDGEREE, q.v.) the _European_ Sailors feed
  in these parts once or twice a Week, and are forc'd at those times to a
  Pagan Abstinence from Flesh, which creates in them a perfect Dislike and
  utter Detestation to those BANNIAN DAYS, as they commonly call
  them."—_Ovington_, 310, 311.


BANYAN-FIGHT, s. Thus:

  1690.—"This Tongue Tempest is termed there a BANNIAN-FIGHT, for it never
  rises to blows or bloodshed."—_Ovington_, 275. Sir G. Birdwood tells us
  that this is a phrase still current in Bombay.


BANYAN-TREE, also elliptically BANYAN, s. The Indian Fig-Tree (_Ficus
Indica_, or _Ficus bengalensis_, L.), called in H. _baṛ_ [or _baṛgat_, the
latter the "_Bourgade_" of Bernier (ed. _Constable_, p. 309).] The name
appears to have been first bestowed popularly on a famous tree of this
species growing near GOMBROON (q.v.), under which the _Banyans_ or Hindu
traders settled at that port, had built a little pagoda. So says Tavernier
below. This original _Banyan-tree_ is described by P. della Valle (ii.
453), and by Valentijn (v. 202). P. della Valle's account (1622) is
extremely interesting, but too long for quotation. He calls it by the
Persian name, _lūl_. The tree still stood, within half a mile of the
English factory, in 1758, when it was visited by Ives, who quotes Tickell's
verses given below. [Also see CUBEER BURR.]

  c. A.D. 70.—"First and foremost, there is a Fig-tree there (in India)
  which beareth very small and slender figges. The propertie of this Tree,
  is to plant and set it selfe without mans helpe. For it spreadeth out
  with mightie armes, and the lowest water-boughes underneath, do bend so
  downeward to the very earth, that they touch it againe, and lie upon it:
  whereby, within one years space they will take fast root in the ground,
  and put foorth a new Spring round about the Mother-tree: so as these
  braunches, thus growing, seeme like a traile or border of arbours most
  curiously and artificially made," &c.—_Plinies Nat. Historie_, by
  _Philemon Holland_, i. 360.

  1624.—

     "... The goodly bole being got
    To certain cubits' height, from every side
    The boughs decline, which, taking root afresh,
    Spring up new boles, and these spring new, and newer,
    Till the whole tree become a porticus,
    Or arched arbour, able to receive
    A numerous troop."
               _Ben Jonson, Neptune's Triumph._

  c. 1650.—"Cet Arbre estoit de même espece que celuy qui est a une lieue
  du Bander, et qui passe pour une merveille; mais dans les Indes il y en a
  quantité. Les Persans l'appellent _Lul_, les Portugais _Arber de Reys_,
  et les Français L'ARBRE DES BANIANES; parce que les Banianes ont fait
  bâtir dessous une Pagode avec un carvansera accompagné de plusieurs
  petits étangs pour se laver."—_Tavernier, V. de Perse_, liv. v. ch. 23.
  [Also see ed. _Ball_, ii. 198.]

  c. 1650.—"Near to the City of Ormus was a BANNIANS TREE, being the only
  tree that grew in the Island."—_Tavernier_, Eng. Tr. i. 255.

  c. 1666.—"Nous vimes à cent ou cent cinquante pas de ce jardin, l'arbre
  _War_ dans toute son etenduë. On l'appelle aussi _Ber_, et ARBRE DES
  BANIANS, et _arbre des racines_...."—_Thevenot_, v. 76.

  1667.—

   "The fig-tree, not that kind for fruit renown'd;
    But such as at this day, to Indians known,
    In Malabar or Decan spreads her arms
    Branching so broad and long, that in the ground
    The bended twigs take root, and daughters grow
    About the mother-tree, a pillar'd shade
    High over-arch'd, and echoing walks between."
               _Paradise Lost_, ix. 1101.

  [Warton points out that Milton must have had in view a description of the
  Banyan-tree in _Gerard's Herbal_ under the heading "of the arched Indian
  fig-tree."]

  1672.—"_Eastward of Surat_ two _Courses_, _i.e._ a League, we pitched our
  Tent under a Tree that besides its Leafs, the Branches bear its own
  Roots, therefore called by the _Portugals_, _Arbor de Raiz_; For the
  Adoration the _Banyans_ pay it, the BANYAN-TREE."—_Fryer_, 105.

  1691.—"About a (Dutch) mile from Gamron ... stands a tree, heretofore
  described by Mandelslo and others.... Beside this tree is an idol temple
  where the BANYANS do their worship."—_Valentijn_, v. 267-8.

  1717.—

   "The fair descendants of thy sacred bed
    Wide-branching o'er the Western World shall spread,
    Like the fam'd BANIAN TREE, whose pliant shoot
    To earthward bending of itself takes root,
    Till like their mother plant ten thousand stand
    In verdant arches on the fertile land;
    Beneath her shade the tawny Indians rove,
    Or hunt at large through the wide-echoing grove."
               _Tickell, Epistle from a Lady in
               England to a Lady in Avignon._

  1726.—"On the north side of the city (Surat) is there an uncommonly great
  Pichar or _Waringin_[35] tree.... The Portuguese call this tree Albero de
  laiz, _i.e._ Root-tree.... Under it is a small chapel built by a
  _Benyan_.... Day and night lamps are alight there, and BENYANS constantly
  come in pilgrimage, to offer their prayers to this saint."—_Valentijn_,
  iv. 145.

  1771.—"... being employed to construct a military work at the fort of
  Triplasore (afterwards called Marsden's Bastion) it was necessary to cut
  down a BANYAN-TREE which so incensed the brahmans of that place, that
  they found means to poison him" (_i.e._ Thomas Marsden of the Madras
  Engineers).—_Mem. of W. Marsden_, 7-8.

  1809.—"Their greatest enemy (_i.e._ of the buildings) is the
  BANYAN-TREE."—_Ld. Valentia_, i. 396.

  1810.—

   "In the midst an aged BANIAN grew.
    It was a goodly sight to see
        That venerable tree,
    For o'er the lawn, irregularly spread,
    Fifty straight columns propt its lofty head;
    And many a long depending shoot,
        Seeking to strike its root,
    Straight like a plummet grew towards the ground,
    Some on the lower boughs which crost their way,
    Fixing their bearded fibres, round and round,
    With many a ring and wild contortion wound;
    Some to the passing wind at times, with sway
        Of gentle motion swung;
    Others of younger growth, unmoved, were hung
    Like stone-drops from the cavern's fretted height."
               _Southey, Curse of Kehama_, xiii. 51.
                 [Southey takes his account from
                 _Williamson, Orient. Field Sports_, ii. 113.]

  1821.—

   "Des BANIANS touffus, par les brames adorés,
    Depuis longtemps la langueur nous implore,
    Courbés par le midi, dont l'ardeur les dévore,
    Ils étendent vers nous leurs rameaux altérés."
               _Casimir Delavigne, Le Paria_, iii. 6.

  A note of the publishers on the preceding passage, in the edition of
  1855, is diverting:

  "Un journaliste allemand a accusé M. Casimir Delavigne d'avoir pris pour
  un arbre une secte religieuse de l'Inde...." The German journalist was
  wrong here, but he might have found plenty of matter for ridicule in the
  play. Thus the Brahmins (men) are _Akebar_ (!), _Idamore_ (!!), and
  _Empsael_ (!!!); their women _Néala_ (?), _Zaide_ (!), and _Mirza_ (!!).

  1825.—"Near this village was the finest BANYAN-TREE which I had ever
  seen, literally a grove rising from a single primary stem, whose massive
  secondary trunks, with their straightness, orderly arrangement, and
  evident connexion with the parent stock, gave the general effect of a
  vast vegetable organ. The first impression which I felt on coming under
  its shade was, 'What a noble place of worship!'"—_Heber_, ii. 93 (ed.
  1844).

  1834.—"Cast forth thy word into the everliving, everworking universe; it
  is a seed-grain that cannot die; unnoticed to-day, it will be found
  flourishing as a BANYAN-GROVE—(perhaps alas! as a hemlock forest) after a
  thousand years."—_Sartor Resartus._

  1856.—

   "... its pendant branches, rooting in the air,
    Yearn to the parent earth and grappling fast,
    Grow up huge stems again, which shooting forth
    In massy branches, these again despatch
    Their drooping heralds, till a labyrinth
    Of root and stem and branch commingling, forms
    A great cathedral, aisled and choired in wood."
               _The_ BANYAN TREE, a Poem.

  1865.—"A family tends to multiply families around it, till it becomes the
  centre of a tribe, just as the BANYAN tends to surround itself with a
  forest of its own offspring."—_Maclennan, Primitive Marriage_, 269.

  1878.—"... des BANYANS soutenus par des racines aëriennes et dont les
  branches tombantes engendrent en touchant terre des sujets
  nouveaux."—_Rev. des Deux Mondes_, Oct. 15, p. 832.


BĀRASINHĀ, s. The H. name of the widely-spread _Cervus Wallichii_, Cuvier.
This H. name ('12-horn') is no doubt taken from the number of tines being
approximately twelve. The name is also applied by sportsmen in Bengal to
the _Rucervus Duvaucellii_, or _Swamp-Deer_. [See _Blanford, Mamm._ 538
_seqq._].

  [1875.—"I know of no flesh equal to that of the ibex; and the _navo_, a
  species of gigantic antelope of Chinese Tibet, with the BARRA-SINGH, a
  red deer of Kashmir, are nearly equally good."—_Wilson, Abode of Snow_,
  91.]


[BARBER'S BRIDGE, n.p. This is a curious native corruption of an English
name. The bridge in Madras, known as BARBER'S BRIDGE, was built by an
engineer named Hamilton. This was turned by the natives into _Ambuton_, and
in course of time the name _Ambuton_ was identified with the Tamil
_ambattan_, 'barber,' and so it came to be called _Barber's Bridge_.—See
_Le Fanu, Man. of the Salem Dist._ ii. 169, note.]


BARBICAN, s. This term of mediæval fortification is derived by Littré, and
by Marcel Devic, from Ar. _barbakh_, which means a sewer-pipe or
water-pipe. And _one_ of the meanings given by Littré is, "une ouverture
longue et étroite pour l'écoulement des eaux." Apart from the possible, but
untraced, history which this alleged meaning may involve, it seems
probable, considering the usual meaning of the word as 'an outwork before a
gate,' that it is from Ar. P. _bāb-khāna_, 'gate-house.' This etymology was
suggested in print about 50 years ago by one of the present writers,[36]
and confirmed to his mind some years later, when in going through the
native town of Cawnpore, not long before the Mutiny, he saw a brand-new
double-towered gateway, or gate-house, on the face of which was the
inscription in Persian characters: "_Bāb-Khāna_-i-Mahommed Bakhsh," or
whatever was his name, _i.e._ "The BARBICAN of _Mahommed Bakhsh_." [The
_N.E.D._ suggests P. _barbar-khānah_, 'house on the wall,' it being
difficult to derive the Romanic forms in _bar-_ from _bāb-khāna_.]

The editor of the Chron. of K. James of Aragon (1833, p. 423) says that
_barbacana_ in Spain means a second, outermost and lower wall; _i.e._ a
fausse-braye. And this agrees with facts in that work, and with the
definition in Cobarruvias; but not at all with Joinville's use, nor with
V.-le-Duc's explanation.

  c. 1250.—"Tuit le baron ... s'acorderent que en un tertre ... féist l'en
  une forteresse qui fust bien garnie de gent, si qui se li Tur fesoient
  saillies ... cell tore fust einsi come BARBACANE (orig. '_quasi
  antemurale_') de l'oste."—The Med. Fr. tr. of _William of Tyre_, ed.
  _Paul Paris_, i. 158.

  c. 1270.—"... on condition of his at once putting me in possession of the
  albarrana tower ... and should besides make his Saracens construct a
  BARBACANA round the tower."—_James of Aragon_, as above.

  1309.—"Pour requerre sa gent plus sauvement, fist le roys faire une
  BARBAQUANE devant le pont qui estoit entre nos dous os, en tel maniere
  que l'on pooit entrer de dous pars en la BARBAQUANE à
  cheval."—_Joinville_, p. 162.

  1552.—"Lourenço de Brito ordered an intrenchment of great strength to be
  dug, in the fashion of a BARBICAN (BARBACÃ) outside the wall of the fort
  ... on account of a well, a stone-cast distant...."—_Barros_, II. i. 5.

  c. 1870.—"_Barbacane._ Défense extérieure protégeant une entrée, et
  permettant de réunir un assez grand nombre d'hommes pour disposer des
  sorties ou protéger une retraite."—_Viollet-le-Duc, H. d'une Forteresse_,
  361.


BARBIERS, s. This is a term which was formerly very current in the East, as
the name of a kind of paralysis, often occasioned by exposure to chills. It
began with numbness and imperfect command of the power of movement,
sometimes also affecting the muscles of the neck and power of articulation,
and often followed by loss of appetite, emaciation, and death. It has often
been identified with BERIBERI, and medical opinion seems to have come back
to the view that the two are _forms_ of one disorder, though this was not
admitted by some older authors of the last century. The allegation of Lind
and others, that the most frequent subjects of _barbiers_ were Europeans of
the lower class who, when in drink, went to sleep in the open air, must be
contrasted with the general experience that _beriberi_ rarely attacks
Europeans. The name now seems obsolete.

  1673.—"Whence follows Fluxes, Dropsy, Scurvy, BARBIERS (which is an
  enervating (_sic_) the whole Body, being neither able to use hands or
  Feet), Gout, Stone, Malignant and Putrid Fevers."—_Fryer_, 68.

  1690.—"Another Distemper with which the Europeans are sometimes
  afflicted, is the BARBEERS, or a deprivation of the Vse and Activity of
  their Limbs, whereby they are rendered unable to move either Hand or
  Foot."—_Ovington_, 350.

  1755.—(If the land wind blow on a person sleeping) "the consequence of
  this is always dangerous, as it seldom fails to bring on a fit of the
  BARBIERS (as it is called in this country), that is, a total deprivation
  of the use of the limbs."—_Ives_, 77.

  [c. 1757.—"There was a disease common to the lower class of Europeans,
  called the BARBERS, a species of palsy, owing to exposure to the land
  winds after a fit of intoxication."—In _Carey, Good Old Days_, ii. 266.]

  1768.—"The BARBIERS, a species of palsy, is a disease most frequent in
  India. It distresses chiefly the lower class of Europeans, who when
  intoxicated with liquors frequently sleep in the open air, exposed to the
  land winds."—_Lind_ on _Diseases of Hot Climates_, 260. (See BERIBERI.)


BARGANY, BRAGANY, H. _bārakānī_. The name of a small silver coin current in
W. India at the time of the Portuguese occupation of Goa, and afterwards
valued at 40 _reis_ (then about 5¼_d._). The name of the coin was
apparently a survival of a very old system of coinage-nomenclature. _Kānī_
is an old Indian word, perhaps Dravidian in origin, indicating ¼ of ¼ of ¼,
or 1-64th part. It was applied to the _jital_ (see JEETUL) or 64th part of
the mediæval Delhi silver _tanka_—this latter coin being the prototype in
weight and position of the Rupee, as the _kānī_ therefore was of the modern
Anglo-Indian pice (= 1-64th of a Rupee). There were in the currency of
Mohammed Tughlak (1324-1351) of Delhi, aliquot parts of the _tanka_,
_Dokānīs_, _Shash-kānīs_, _Hasht-kānīs_, _Dwāzda-kānīs_, and
_Shānzda-kānīs_, representing, as the Persian numerals indicate, pieces of
2, 6, 8, 12, and 16 _kānīs_ or _jitals_. (See _E. Thomas, Pathan Kings of
Delhi_, pp. 218-219.) Other fractional pieces were added by Fīroz Shāh,
Mohammed's son and successor (see _Id._ 276 _seqq._ and quotation under c.
1360, below). Some of these terms long survived, _e.g._ _do-kānī_ in
localities of Western and Southern India, and in Western India in the
present case the _bārakānī_ or 12 _kānī_, a vernacular form of the
_dwāzda-kānī_ of Mohammed Tughlak.

  1330.—"Thousands of men from various quarters, who possessed thousands of
  these copper coins ... now brought them to the treasury, and received in
  exchange gold _tankas_ and silver _tankas_ (TANGA), _shash-gānīs_ and
  _du-gānīs_, which they carried to their homes."—_Táríkh-i-Fíroz-Sháhi_,
  in _Elliot_, iii. 240-241.

  c. 1350—"Sultan Fíroz issued several varieties of coins. There was the
  gold _tanka_ and the silver _tanka_. There were also distinct coins of
  the respective value of 48, 25, 24, 12, 10, 8 and 6, and one _jītal_,
  known as _chihal-o-hasht-gānī_, _bist-o-panjgānī_, _bist-o-chahār-gānī_,
  _dwāzdah-gānī_, _dah-gānī_, _hasht-gānī_, _shāsh-gānī_, and _yak
  jītal_."—_Ibid._ 357-358.

  1510.—BARGANYM, in quotation from Correa under PARDAO.

  1554.—"E as _tamgas_ brancas que se recebem dos foros, são de 4 BARGANIS
  a _tamga_, e de 24 leaes o BARGANY ..." _i.e._ "And the white _tangas_
  that are received in payment of land revenues are at the rate of 4
  BARGANIS to the _tanga_, and of 24 _leals_ to the BARGANY."—_A. Nunez_,
  in _Subsidios_, p. 31.

     "    "_Statement of the Revenues which the King our Lord holds in the
  Island and City of Guoa._

  "Item—The Islands of _Tiçoary_, and _Divar_, and that of _Chorão_, and
  _Johão_, all of them, pay in land revenue (_de foro_) according to
  ancient custom 36,474 white _tanguas_, 3 BARGUANIS, and 21 _leals_, at
  the tale of 3 BARGUANIS to the _tangua_ and 24 _leals_ to the BARGUANIM,
  the same thing as 24 _bazarucos_, amounting to 14,006 _pardaos_, 1
  _tangua_ and 47 _leals_, making 4,201,916-2/5 _reis_. The Isle of Tiçoary
  (SALSETTE) is the largest, and on it stands the city of Guoa; the others
  are much smaller and are annexed to it, they being all contiguous, only
  separated by rivers."—_Botelho, Tombo_, _ibid._ pp. 46-7.

  1584.—"They vse also in Goa amongst the common sort to bargain for coals,
  wood, lime and such like, at so many BRAGANINES, accounting 24
  _basaruchies_ for one _braganine_, albeit there is no such money
  stamped."—_Barret_, in _Hakl._ ii. 411; (but it is copied from _G.
  Balbi's_ Italian, f. 71_v_).


BARGEER, s. H. from P. _bārgīr_. A trooper of irregular cavalry who is not
the owner of his troop horse and arms (as is the normal practice (see
SILLADAR)), but is either put in by another person, perhaps a native
officer in the regiment, who supplies horses and arms and receives the
man's full pay, allowing him a reduced rate, or has his horse from the
State in whose service he is. The P. word properly means 'a load-taker,' 'a
baggage horse.' The transfer of use is not quite clear. ["According to a
man's reputation or connections, or the number of his followers, would be
the rank (_mansab_) assigned to him. As a rule, his followers brought their
own horses and other equipment; but sometimes a man with a little money
would buy extra horses, and mount relations or dependants upon them. When
this was the case, the man riding his own horse was called, in later
parlance, a _silaḥdār_ (literally, 'equipment-holder'), and one riding
somebody else's horse was a _bārgīr_ ('burden-taker')."—_W. Irvine, The
Army of the Indian Moghuls, J.R.A.S._ July 1896, p. 539.]

  1844.—"If the man again has not the cash to purchase a horse, he rides
  one belonging to a native officer, or to some privileged person, and
  becomes what is called his BARGEER...."—_Calcutta Rev._, vol ii. p. 57.


BARKING-DEER, s. The popular name of a small species of deer (_Cervulus
aureus_, Jerdon) called in H. _kākar_, and in Nepal _ratwā_; also called
_Ribfaced-Deer_, and in Bombay BAIKREE. Its common name is from its call,
which is a kind of short bark, like that of a fox but louder, and may be
heard in the jungles which it frequents, both by day and by
night.—(_Jerdon_).

  [1873.—"I caught the cry of a little BARKING-DEER."—_Cooper, Mishmee
  Hills_, 177.]


BARODA, n.p. Usually called by the Dutch and older English writers
_Brodera_; proper name according to the _Imp. Gazetteer_, _Wadodra_; a
large city of Guzerat, which has been since 1732 the capital of the
Mahratta dynasty of Guzerat, the Gaikwārs. (See GUICOWAR).

  1552.—In Barros, "Cidade de BARODAR," IV. vi. 8.

  1555.—"In a few days we arrived at _Barūj_; some days after at BALOUDRA,
  and then took the road towards _Champaïz_ (read _Champanīr_?)."—_Sidī
  'Alī_, p. 91.

  1606.—"That city (Champanel) may be a day's journey from DEBERADORA or
  BARODAR, which we commonly call VERDORA."—_Couto_, IV. ix. 5.

  [1614.—"We are to go to Amadavar, Cambaia and BROTHERA."—_Foster,
  Letters_, ii. 213; also see iv. 197.]

  1638.—-"La ville de BRODRA est située dans une plaine sablonneuse, sur la
  petite riviere de _Wasset_, a trente _Cos_, ou quinze lieües de
  _Broitschea_."—_Mandelslo_, 130.

  1813.—BRODERA, in _Forbes, Or. Mem._, iii. 268; [2nd ed. ii. 282, 389].

  1857.—"The town of BARODA, originally _Barpatra_ (or a bar leaf, _i.e._
  leaf of the _Ficus indica_, in shape), was the first large city I had
  seen."—_Autob. of Lutfullah_, 39.


BAROS, n.p. A fort on the West Coast of Sumatra, from which the chief
export of Sumatra camphor, so highly valued in China, long took place. [The
name in standard Malay is, according to Mr Skeat, _Barus_.] It is perhaps
identical with the _Panṣūr_ or _Fanṣūr_ of the Middle Ages, which gave its
name to the _Fanṣūrī_ camphor, famous among Oriental writers, and which by
the perpetuation of a misreading is often styled _Ḳaiṣūrī_ camphor, &c.
(See CAMPHOR, and _Marco Polo_, 2nd ed. ii. 282, 285 _seqq._) The place is
called BARROWSE in the _E. I. Colonial Papers_, ii. 52, 153.

  1727.—"BAROS is the next place that abounds in Gold, Camphire, and
  Benzoin, but admits of no foreign Commerce."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 113.


BARRACKPORE, n.p. The auxiliary Cantonment of Calcutta, from which it is 15
m. distant, established in 1772. Here also is the country residence of the
Governor-General, built by Lord Minto, and much frequented in former days
before the annual migration to Simla was established. The name is a hybrid.
(See ACHANOCK).


BARRAMUHUL, n.p. H. _Bāramaḥall_, 'Twelve estates'; an old designation of a
large part of what is now the district of Salem in the Madras Presidency.
The identification of the Twelve Estates is not free from difficulty; [see
a full note in _Le Fanu's Man. of Salem_, i. 83, _seqq._].

  1881.—"The BARAMAHAL and Dindigal was placed under the Government of
  Madras; but owing to the deficiency in that Presidency of civil servants
  possessing a competent knowledge of the native languages, and to the
  unsatisfactory manner in which the revenue administration of the older
  possessions of the Company under the Madras Presidency had been
  conducted, Lord Cornwallis resolved to employ military officers for a
  time in the management of the Baramahl."—_Arbuthnot, Mem. of Sir T.
  Munro_, xxxviii.


BASHAW, s. The old form of what we now call _pasha_, the former being taken
from _bāshā_, the Ar. form of the word, which is itself generally believed
to be a corruption of the P. _pādishāh_. Of this the first part is Skt.
_patis_, Zend. _paitis_, Old P. _pati_, 'a lord or master' (comp. Gr.
δεσπότης). _Pechah_, indeed, for 'Governor' (but with the _ch_ guttural)
occurs in I. Kings x. 15, II. Chron. ix. 14, and in Daniel iii. 2, 3, 27.
Prof. Max Müller notices this, but it would seem merely as a curious
coincidence.—(See _Pusey on Daniel_, 567.)

  1554.—"Hujusmodi BASSARUM sermonibus reliquorum Turcarum sermones
  congruebant."—_Busbeq._ Epist. ii. (p. 124).

  1584.—

   "Great kings of Barbary and my portly BASSAS."
               _Marlowe, Tamburlane the Great_,
                   1st Part, iii. 1.

  c. 1590.—"Filius alter Osmanis, Vrchanis frater, alium non habet in
  Annalibus titulum, quam Alis BASSA: quod _bassae_ vocabulum Turcis caput
  significat."—_Lennclavius, Annales Sultanorum Othmanidarum_, ed. 1650, p.
  402. This etymology connecting _bāshā_ with the Turkish _bāsh_, 'head,'
  must be rejected.

  c. 1610.—"Un BASCHA estoit venu en sa Cour pour luy rendre compte du
  tribut qu'il luy apportoit; mais il fut neuf mois entiers à attendre que
  celuy qui a la charge ... eut le temps et le loisir de le
  compter...."—_Pyrard de Laval_ (of the Great Mogul), ii. 161.

  1702.—"... The most notorious injustice we have suffered from the Arabs
  of Muscat, and the BASHAW of Judda."—In _Wheeler_, ii. 7.

  1727.—"It (Bagdad) is now a prodigious large City, and the Seat of a
  _Beglerbeg_.... The BASHAWS of _Bassora_, _Comera_, and _Musol_ (the
  ancient Nineveh) are subordinate to him."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 78.


BASIN, s. H. _besan_. Pease-meal, generally made of GRAM (q.v.) and used,
sometimes mixed with ground orange-peel or other aromatic substance, to
cleanse the hair, or for other toilette purposes.

  [1832.—"The attendants present first the powdered peas, called BASUN,
  which answers the purpose of soap."—_Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali, Observations_,
  i. 328.]


BASSADORE, n.p. A town upon the island of KISHM in the Persian Gulf, which
belonged in the 16th century to the Portuguese. The place was ceded to the
British Crown in 1817, though the claim now seems dormant. The permission
for the English to occupy the place as a naval station was granted by
Saiyyid Sultan bin Aḥmad of 'Omān, about the end of the 18th century; but
it was not actually occupied by us till 1821, from which time it was the
depôt of our Naval Squadron in the Gulf till 1882. The real form of the
name is, according to Dr. Badger's transliterated map (in _H. of Imâns, &c.
of Omân_), _Bāsīdū_.

  1673.—"At noon we came to BASSATU, an old ruined town of the Portugals,
  fronting Congo."—_Fryer_, 320.


BASSAN, s. H. _bāsan_, 'a dinner-plate'; from Port. _bacia_ (_Panjab N. &
Q._ ii. 117).


BASSEIN, n.p. This is a corruption of three entirely different names, and
is applied to various places remote from each other.

(1) _Wasāi_, an old port on the coast, 26 m. north of Bombay, called by the
Portuguese, to whom it long pertained, BAÇAIM (_e.g._ _Barros_, I. ix. 1).

  c. 1565.—"Dopo Daman si troua BASAIN con molte ville ... ne di questa
  altro si caua che risi, frumenti, e molto ligname."—_Cesare de' Federici_
  in _Ramusio_, iii. 387v.

  1756.—"Bandar BASSAI."—_Mirat-i-Ahmadi_, Bird's tr., 129.

  1781.—"General Goddard after having taken the fortress of BESSI, which is
  one of the strongest and most important fortresses under the Mahratta
  power...."—_Seir Mutaqherin_, iii. 327.

(2) A town and port on the river which forms the westernmost delta-arm of
the Irawadi in the Province of Pegu. The Burmese name BATHEIN, was,
according to Prof. Forchammer, a change, made by the Burmese conqueror
Alompra, from the former name _Kuthein_ (_i.e._ _Kusein_), which was a
native corruption of the old name _Kusima_ (see COSMIN). We cannot explain
the old European corruption _Persaim_. [It has been supposed that the name
represents the _Besynga_ of Ptolemy (_Geog._ ii. 4; see _M‘Crindle_ in
_Ind. Ant._ xiii. 372); but (_ibid._ xxii. 20) Col. Temple denies this on
the ground that the name BASSEIN does not date earlier than about 1780.
According to the same authority (_ibid._ xxii. 19), the modern Burmese name
is _Patheng_, by ordinary phonetics used for _Putheng_, and spelt _Pusin_
or _Pusim_. He disputes the statement that the change of name was made by
Alaungp'aya or Alompra. The Talaing pronunciation of the name is _Pasem_ or
_Pasim_, according to dialect.]

  [1781.—"Intanto piaciutto era alla Congregazione di Propagando che il
  Regno di Ava fosse allora coltivato nella fede da' Sacerdoti secolari di
  essa Congregazione, e a' nostri destino li Regni di BATTIAM, Martaban, e
  Pegu."—_Quirini, Percoto_, 93.

  [1801.—"An ineffectual attempt was made to repossess and defend BASSIEN
  by the late Chekey or Lieutenant."—_Symes, Mission_, 16.]

  The form PERSAIM occurs in _Dalrymple_, (1759) (_Or. Repert._, i. 127 and
  _passim_).

(3) _Basim_, or properly _Wāsim_; an old town in Berar, the chief place of
the district so-called. [See _Berar Gazett._ 176.]


BATÁRA, s. This is a term applied to divinities in old Javanese
inscriptions, &c., the use of which was spread over the Archipelago. It was
regarded by W. von Humboldt as taken from the Skt. _avatāra_ (see AVATAR);
but this derivation is now rejected. The word is used among R. C.
Christians in the Philippines now as synonymous with 'God'; and is applied
to the infant Jesus (_Blumentritt, Vocabular_). [Mr. Skeat (_Malay Magic_,
86 _seqq._) discusses the origin of the word, and prefers the derivation
given by Favre and Wilkin, Skt. _bhaṭṭāra_, 'lord.' A full account of the
"_Petara_, or Sea Dyak gods," by Archdeacon J. Perham, will be found in
_Roth, Natives of Sarawak_, I. 168 _seqq._]


BATAVIA, n.p. The famous capital of the Dutch possessions in the Indies;
occupying the site of the old city of Jakatra, the seat of a Javanese
kingdom which combined the present Dutch Provinces of Bantam, Buitenzorg,
Krawang, and the Preanger Regencies.

  1619.—"On the day of the capture of Jakatra, 30th May 1619, it was
  certainly time and place to speak of the Governor-General's
  dissatisfaction that the name of BATAVIA had been given to the
  Castle."—_Valentijn_, iv. 489.

The Governor-General, Jan Pietersen Coen, who had taken Jakatra, desired to
have called the new fortress _New Hoorn_, from his own birth-place, Hoorn,
on the Zuider Zee.

  c. 1649.—"While I stay'd at BATAVIA, my Brother dy'd; and it was pretty
  to consider what the _Dutch_ made me pay for his Funeral."—_Tavernier_
  (E.T.), i. 203.


BATCUL, BATCOLE, BATECALA, &c., n.p. _Bhatkal_. A place often named in the
older narratives. It is on the coast of Canara, just S. of Pigeon Island
and Hog Island, in lat. 13° 59′, and is not to be confounded (as it has
been) with BEITCUL.

  1328.—"... there is also the King of BATIGALA, but he is of the
  Saracens."—_Friar Jordanus_, p. 41.

  1510.—The "BATHECALA, a very noble city of India," of Varthema (119),
  though misplaced, must we think be this place and not BEITCUL.

  1548.—"Trelado (_i.e._ 'Copy') do Contrato que o Gouernador Gracia de Saa
  fez com a Raynha de BATECALAA por não aver Reey e ela reger o Reeyno."—In
  _S. Botelho, Tombo_, 242.

  1599.—"... part is subject to the Queene of BATICOLA, who selleth great
  store of pepper to the Portugals, at a towne called Onor...."—_Sir Fulke
  Greville_ to Sir Fr. Walsingham, in _Bruce's Annals_, i. 125.

  1618.—"The fift of March we anchored at BATACHALA, shooting three Peeces
  to give notice of our arriuall...."—_Wm. Hore_, in _Purchas_, i. 657. See
  also _Sainsbury_, ii. p. 374.

  [1624.—"We had the wind still contrary, and having sail'd three other
  leagues, at the usual hour we cast anchor near the Rocks of
  BATICALA."—_P. della Valle_, Hak. Soc. ii. 390.]

  1727.—"The next Sea-port, to the Southward of _Onoar_, is BATACOLA, which
  has the _vestigia_ of a very large city...."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 282.

  [1785.—"BYTE KOAL." See quotation under DHOW.]


BATEL, BATELO, BOTELLA, s. A sort of boat used in Western India, Sind, and
Bengal. Port. _batell_, a word which occurs in the _Roteiro de V. da Gama_,
91 [cf. PATTELLO].

  [1686.—"About four or five hundred houses burnt down with a great number
  of their BETTILOS, Boras and boats."—_Hedges, Diary_, Hak. Soc. ii. 55.]

  1838.—"The BOTELLA may be described as a Dow in miniature.... It has
  invariably a square flat stern, and a long grab-like head."—_Vaupell_, in
  _Trans. Bo. Geog. Soc._ vii. 98.

  1857.—"A Sindhi BATTÉLA, called _Rahmatí_, under the Tindal Kasim, laden
  with dry fish, was about to proceed to Bombay."—_Lutfullah_, 347. See
  also _Burton, Sind Revisited_ (1877), 32, 33.

  [1900.—"The Sheikh has some fine war-vessels, called BATILS."—_Bent,
  Southern Arabia_, 8.]


BATTA, s. Two different words are thus expressed in Anglo-Indian
colloquial, and in a manner confounded.

A. H. _bhata_ or _bhātā_: an extra allowance made to officers, soldiers, or
other public servants, when in the field, or on other special grounds; also
subsistence money to witnesses, prisoners, and the like. Military BATTA,
originally an occasional allowance, as defined, grew to be a constant
addition to the pay of officers in India, and constituted the chief part of
the excess of Indian over English military emoluments. The question of the
right to _batta_ on several occasions created great agitation among the
officers of the Indian army, and the measure of economy carried out by Lord
William Bentinck when Governor-General (G. O. of the Gov.-Gen. in Council,
29th November 1828) in the reduction of full _batta_ to half _batta_, in
the allowances received by all regimental officers serving at stations
within a certain distance of the Presidency in Bengal (viz. Barrackpore,
Dumdum, Berhampore, and Dinapore) caused an enduring bitterness against
that upright ruler.

It is difficult to arrive at the origin of this word. There are, however,
several Hindi words in rural use, such as _bhāt_, _bhantā_, 'advances made
to ploughmen without interest,' and _bhaṭṭa_, _bhaṇṭā_, 'ploughmen's wages
in kind,' with which it is possibly connected. It has also been suggested,
without much probability, that it may be allied to _bahut_, 'much, excess,'
an idea entering into the meaning of both A and B. It is just possible that
the familiar military use of the term in India may have been influenced by
the existence of the European military term _bât_ or _bât-money_. The
latter is from _bât_, 'a pack-saddle,' [Late Lat. _bastum_], and implies an
allowance for carrying baggage in the field. It will be seen that one
writer below seems to confound the two words.

B. H. _baṭṭā_ and _bāṭṭā_: agio, or difference in exchange, discount on
coins not current, or of short weight. We may notice that Sir H. Elliot
does not recognize an absolute separation between the two senses of BATTA.
His definition runs thus: "Difference of exchange; anything extra; an extra
allowance; discount on uncurrent, or short-weight coins; usually called
BATTA. The word has been supposed to be a corruption of _Bharta_, increase,
but it is a pure Hindi vocable, and is more usually applied to discount
than to premium."—(_Supp. Gloss._ ii. 41.) [Platts, on the other hand,
distinguishes the two words—_Baṭṭa_, Skt. _vṛitta_, 'turned,' or _varta_,
'livelihood'—"Exchange, discount, difference of exchange, deduction, &c.,"
and _Bhaṭṭa_, Skt. _bhakta_ 'allotted,'—"advances to ploughmen without
interest; ploughman's wages in kind."] It will be seen that we have early
Portuguese instances of the word apparently in both senses.

The most probable explanation is that the word (and I may add, the thing)
originated in the Portuguese practice, and in the use of the Canarese word
_bhatta_, Mahr. _bhāt_, 'rice' in 'the husk,' called by the Portuguese
_bate_ and _bata_, for a maintenance allowance.

The word _batty_, for what is more generally called _paddy_, is or was
commonly used by the English also in S. and W. India (see _Linschoten_,
_Lucena_ and _Fryer_ quoted s.v. PADDY, and _Wilson's Glossary_, s.v.
_Bhatta_).

The practice of giving a special allowance for _mantimento_ began from a
very early date in the Indian history of the Portuguese, and it evidently
became a recognised augmentation of pay, corresponding closely to our
_batta_, whilst the quotation from Botelho below shows also that _bata_ and
_mantimento_ were used, more or less interchangeably, for this allowance.
The correspondence with our Anglo-Indian _batta_ went very far, and a case
singularly parallel to the discontent raised in the Indian army by the
reduction of full-_batta_ to half-_batta_ is spoken of by Correa (iv. 256).
The _mantimento_ had been paid all the year round, but the Governor, Martin
Afonso de Sousa, in 1542, "desiring," says the historian, "a way to curry
favour for himself, whilst going against the people and sending his soul to
hell," ordered that in future the _mantimento_ should be paid only during
the 6 months of WINTER (_i.e._ of the rainy season), when the force was on
shore, and not for the other 6 months when they were on board the cruisers,
and received rations. This created great bitterness, perfectly analogous in
depth and in expression to that entertained with regard to Lord W. Bentinck
and Sir John Malcolm, in 1829. Correa's utterance, just quoted, illustrates
this, and a little lower down he adds: "And thus he took away from the
troops the half of their _mantimento_ (_half their batta_, in fact), and
whether he did well or ill in that, he'll find in the next world."—(See
also _ibid._ p. 430).

The following quotations illustrate the Portuguese practice from an early
date:

  1502.—"The Captain-major ... between officers and men-at-arms, left 60
  men (at Cochin), to whom the factor was to give their pay, and every
  month a _cruzado_ of _mantimento_, and to the officers when on service 2
  _cruzados_...."—_Correa_, i. 328.

  1507.—(In establishing the settlement at Mozambique) "And the Captains
  took counsel among themselves, and from the money in the chest, paid the
  force each a _cruzado_ a month for _mantimento_, with which the men
  greatly refreshed themselves...."—_Ibid._ 786.

  1511.—"All the people who served in Malaca, whether by sea or by land,
  were paid their pay for six months in advance, and also received monthly
  _two cruzados_ of _mantimento_, cash in hand" (_i.e._ they had _double
  batta_).—_Ibid._ ii. 267.

A.

  1548.—"And for 2 _ffarazes_ (see FARASH) 2 pardaos a month for the two
  and 4 tangas for BATA."...—_S. Botelho, Tombo_, 233. The editor thinks
  this is for _bate_, _i.e._ _paddy_. But even if so it is used exactly
  like BATTA or maintenance money. A following entry has: "To the constable
  38,920 reis a year, in which is comprised maintenance (_mantimento_)."

  1554.—An example of BATEE for rice will be found s.v. MOORAH.

The following quotation shows _battee_ (or _batty_) used at Madras in a way
that also indicates the original identity of _batty_, 'rice,' and BATTA,
'extra allowance':—

  1680.—"The _Peons_ and _Tarryars_ (see TALIAR) sent in quest of two
  soldiers who had deserted from the garrison returned with answer that
  they could not light of them, whereupon the Peons were turned out of
  service, but upon Verona's intercession were taken in again, and fined
  each one month's pay, and to repay the money paid them for
  BATTEE...."—_Ft. St. Geo. Consn._, Feb. 10. In _Notes and Exts._ No. iii.
  p. 3.

  1707.—"... that they would allow BATTA or subsistence money to all that
  should desert us."—In _Wheeler_, ii. 63.

  1765.—"... orders were accordingly issued ... that on the 1st January,
  1766, the double BATTA should cease...."—_Caraccioli's Clive_, iv. 160.

  1789.—"... BATTA, or as it is termed in England, _bât_ and forage money,
  which is here, in the field, almost double the peace allowance."—_Munro's
  Narrative_, p. 97.

  1799.—"He would rather live on half-pay, in a garrison that could boast
  of a fives court, than vegetate on _full_ BATTA, where there was
  none."—_Life of Sir T. Munro_, i. 227.

The following shows Batty used for rice in Bombay:

  [1813.—"Rice, or BATTY, is sown in June."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ 2nd ed. i.
  23.]

  1829.—"_To the Editor of the Bengal Hurkaru._—Sir,—Is it understood that
  the Wives and daughters of officers on _half_ BATTA are included in the
  order to mourn for the Queen of Wirtemberg; or will _half_-mourning be
  considered sufficient for them?"—Letter in above, dated 15th April 1829.

  1857.—"They have made me a K.C.B. I may confess to you that I would much
  rather have got a year's BATTA, because the latter would enable me to
  leave this country a year sooner."—_Sir Hope Grant_, in _Incidents of the
  Sepoy War_.

B.—

  1554.—"And gold, if of 10 _mates_ or 24 carats, is worth 10 cruzados the
  tael ... if of 9 _mates_, 9 cruzados; and according to whatever the
  _mates_ may be it is valued; but moreover it has its BATAO, _i.e._ its
  shroffage (_çarrafagem_) or agio (_caibo_) varying with the season."—_A.
  Nunes_, 40.

  1680.—"The payment or receipt of BATTA or VATUM upon the exchange of
  Pollicat for Madras pagodas prohibited, both coines being of the same
  MATT and weight, upon pain of forfeiture of 24 pagodas for every offence
  together with the loss of the BATTA."—_Ft. St. Geo. Consn._, Feb. 10. In
  _Notes and Exts._, p. 17.

  1760.—"The Nabob receives his revenues in the SICCAS of the current year
  only ... and all SICCAS of a lower date being esteemed, like the coin of
  foreign provinces, only a merchandize, are bought and sold at a certain
  discount called BATTA, which rises and falls like the price of other
  goods in the market...."—_Ft. Wm. Cons._, June 30, in _Long_, 216.

  1810.—"... he immediately tells master that the BATTA, _i.e._ the
  exchange, is altered."—_Williamson, V. M._ i. 203.


BATTAS, BATAKS, &c. n.p. [the latter, according to Mr. Skeat, being the
standard Malay name]; a nation of Sumatra, noted especially for their
singular cannibal institutions, combined with the possession of a written
character of their own and some approach to literature.

  c. 1430.—"In ejus insulae, quam dicunt BATHECH, parte, anthropophagi
  habitant ... capita humana in thesauris habent, quae ex hostibus captis
  abscissa, esis carnibus recondunt, iisque utuntur pro nummis."—_Conti_,
  in _Poggius, De Var. Fort._ lib. iv.

  c. 1539.—"This Embassador, that was Brother-in-law to the King of BATTAS
  ... brought him a rich Present of Wood of Aloes, Calambaa, and five
  quintals of Benjamon in flowers."—_Cogan's Pinto_, 15.

  c. 1555.—"This Island of Sumatra is the first land wherein we know man's
  flesh to be eaten by certaine people which liue in the mountains, called
  BACAS (read BATAS), who vse to gilde their teethe."—_Galvano, Discoveries
  of the World_, Hak. Soc. 108.

  1586.—"Nel regno del Dacin sono alcuni luoghi, ne' quali si ritrouano
  certe genti, che mangiano le creature humane, e tali genti, si chaimano
  BATACCHI, e quando frà loro i padri, e le madri sono vechhi, si accordano
  i vicinati di mangiarli, e li mangiano."—_G. Balbi_, f. 130.

  1613.—"In the woods of the interior dwelt Anthropophagi, eaters of human
  flesh ... and to the present day continues that abuse and evil custom
  among the BATTAS of Sumatra."—_Godinho de Eredia_, f. 23_v_.

  [The fact that the Battas are cannibals has recently been confirmed by
  Dr. Volz and H. von Autenrieth (_Geogr. Jour._, June 1898, p. 672.]


BAWUSTYE, s. Corr. of _bobstay_ in Lascar dialect (_Roebuck_).


BAY, The, n.p. In the language of the old Company and its servants in the
17th century, _The_ BAY meant the Bay of Bengal, and their factories in
that quarter.

  1683.—"And the Councell of the BAY is as expressly distinguished from the
  Councell of Hugly, over which they have noe such power."—In _Hedges_,
  under Sept. 24. [Hak. Soc. i. 114.]

  1747.—"We have therefore laden on her 1784 Bales ... which we sincerely
  wish may arrive safe with You, as We do that the Gentlemen at the BAY had
  according to our repeated Requests, furnished us with an earlier
  conveyance...."—_Letter from Ft. St. David_, 2nd May, to the Court (MS.
  in India Office).


BAYA, s. H. _baiā_ [_bayā_], the Weaver-bird, as it is called in books of
Nat. Hist., _Ploceus baya_, Blyth (Fam. _Fringillidae_). This clever little
bird is not only in its natural state the builder of those remarkable
pendant nests which are such striking objects, hanging from eaves or
palm-branches; but it is also docile to a singular degree in domestication,
and is often exhibited by itinerant natives as the performer of the most
delightful tricks, as we have seen, and as is detailed in a paper of Mr
Blyth's quoted by Jerdon. "The usual procedure is, when ladies are present,
for the bird on a sign from its master to take a cardamom or sweatmeat in
its bill, and deposit it between a lady's lips.... A miniature cannon is
then brought, which the bird loads with coarse grains of powder one by one
... it next seizes and skilfully uses a small ramrod: and then takes a
lighted match from its master, which it applies to the touch-hole." Another
common performance is to scatter small beads on a sheet; the bird is
provided with a needle and thread, and proceeds in the prettiest way to
thread the beads successively. [The quotation from Abul Faẓl shows that
these performances are as old as the time of Akbar and probably older
still.]

  [c. 1590.—"The BAYA is like a wild sparrow but yellow. It is extremely
  intelligent, obedient and docile. It will take small coins from the hand
  and bring them to its master, and will come to a call from a long
  distance. Its nests are so ingeniously constructed as to defy the rivalry
  of clever artificers."—_Āīn_ (trans. Jarrett), iii. 122.]

  1790.—"The young Hindu women of Banáras ... wear very thin plates of
  gold, called _tíca's_, slightly fixed by way of ornament between the
  eyebrows; and when they pass through the streets, it is not uncommon for
  the youthful libertines, who amuse themselves with training BAYĀ'S, to
  give them a sign, which they understand, and to send them to pluck the
  pieces of gold from the foreheads of their mistresses."—_Asiat.
  Researches_, ii. 110.

  [1813.—Forbes gives a similar account of the nests and tricks of the
  BAYA.—_Or. Mem._, 2nd ed. i. 33.]


BAYADÈRE, s. A Hindu dancing-girl. The word is especially used by French
writers, from whom it has been sometimes borrowed as if it were a genuine
Indian word, particularly characteristic of the persons in question. The
word is in fact only a Gallicized form of the Portuguese _bailadeira_, from
_bailar_, to dance. Some 50 to 60 years ago there was a famous ballet
called _Le dieu et la_ BAYADÈRE, and under this title _Punch_ made one of
the most famous hits of his early days by presenting a cartoon of Lord
Ellenborough as the BAYADÈRE dancing before the idol of Somnāth; [also see
DANCING-GIRL].

  1513.—"There also came to the ground many dancing women (_molheres_
  BAILADEIRAS) with their instruments of music, who make their living by
  that business, and these danced and sang all the time of the
  banquet...."—_Correa_, ii. 364.

  1526.—"XLVII. The dancers and danceresses (bayladores e BAYLADEIRAS) who
  come to perform at a village shall first go and perform at the house of
  the principal man of the village" (_Gancar_, see GAUM).—_Foral de usos
  costumes dos Gancares e Lavradores de esta Ilha de Goa_, in _Arch. Port.
  Or._, fascic. 5, 132.

  1598.—"The heathenish whore called BALLIADERA, who is a
  dancer."—_Linschoten_, 74; [Hak. Soc. i. 264].

  1599.—"In hâc icone primum proponitur _Inda_ BALLIADERA, id est
  saltatrix, quae in publicis ludis aliisque solennitatibus saltando
  spectaculum exhibet."—_De Bry_, Text to pl. xii. in vol. ii. (also see p.
  90, and vol. vii. 26), etc.

  [c. 1676.—"All the BALADINES of Gombroon were present to dance in their
  own manner according to custom."—_Tavernier_, ed. _Ball_, ii. 335.]

  1782.—"Surate est renommé par ses BAYADÈRES, dont le véritable nom est
  _Dévédassi_: celui de _Bayadères_ que nous leur donnons, vient du mot
  BALLADEIRAS, qui signifie en Portugais _Danseuses_."—_Sonnerat_, i. 7.

  1794.—"The name of BALLIADERE, we never heard applied to the dancing
  girls; or saw but in Raynal, and 'War in Asia, by an Officer of Colonel
  Baillie's Detachment;' it is a corrupt Portuguese word."—_Moor's
  Narrative of Little's Detachment_, 356.

  1825.—"This was the first specimen I had seen of the southern BAYADÈRE,
  who differ considerably from the nâch girls of northern India, being all
  in the service of different temples, for which they are purchased
  young."—_Heber_, ii. 180.

  c. 1836.—"On one occasion a rumour reached London that a great success
  had been achieved in Paris by the performance of a set of Hindoo dancers,
  called LES BAYADÈRES, who were supposed to be priestesses of a certain
  sect, and the London theatrical managers were at once on the _qui vive_
  to secure the new attraction.... My father had concluded the arrangement
  with the Bayadères before his brother managers arrived in Paris. Shortly
  afterwards, the Hindoo priestesses appeared at the Adelphi. They were
  utterly uninteresting, wholly unattractive. My father lost £2000 by the
  speculation; and in the family they were known as the 'BUY-EM-DEARS' ever
  after."—_Edmund Yates, Recollections_, i. 29, 30 (1884).


BAYPARREE, BEOPARRY, s. H. _bepārī_, and _byopārī_ (from Skt. _vyāpārin_);
a trader, and especially a petty trader or dealer.

A friend long engaged in business in Calcutta (Mr J. F. Ogilvy, of
Gillanders & Co.) communicates a letter from an intelligent Bengalee
gentleman, illustrating the course of trade in country produce before it
reaches the hands of the European shipper:

  1878.—"... the enhanced rates ... do not practically benefit the producer
  in a marked, or even in a corresponding degree; for the lion's share goes
  into the pockets of certain intermediate classes, who are the growth of
  the above system of business.

  "Following the course of trade as it flows into Calcutta, we find that
  between the cultivators and the exporter these are: 1st. The BEPPARREE,
  or petty trader; 2nd. The _Aurut-dar_;[37] and 3rd. The MAHAJUN,
  interested in the Calcutta trade. As soon as the crops are cut, BEPPARREE
  appears upon the scene; he visits village after village, and goes from
  homestead to homestead, buying there, or at the village marts, from the
  RYOTS; he then takes his purchases to the _Aurut-dar_, who is stationed
  at a centre of trade, and to whom he is perhaps under advances, and from
  the _Aurut-dar_ the Calcutta Mahajun obtains his supplies ... for
  eventual despatch to the capital. There is also a fourth class of dealers
  called _Phoreas_, who buy from the Mahajun and sell to the European
  exporter. Thus, between the cultivator and the shipper there are so many
  middlemen, whose participation in the trade involves a multiplication of
  profits, which goes a great way towards enhancing the price of
  commodities before they reach the shipper's hands."—_Letter from Baboo
  Nobokissin Ghose._ [Similar details for Northern India will be found in
  _Hoey, Mon. Trade and Manufactures of Lucknow_, 59 _seqq._]


BAZAAR, s. H. &c. From P. _bāzār_, a permanent market or street of shops.
The word has spread westward into Arabic, Turkish, and, in special senses,
into European languages, and eastward into India, where it has generally
been adopted into the vernaculars. The popular pronunciation is _băzár_. In
S. India and Ceylon the word is used for a single shop or stall kept by a
native. The word seems to have come to S. Europe very early. F. Balducci
Pegolotti, in his Mercantile Handbook (c. 1340) gives BAZARRA as a Genoese
word for 'market-place' (_Cathay_, &c. ii. 286). The word is adopted into
Malay as _pāsār_, [or in the poems _pasara_].

  1474.—Ambrose Contarini writes of Kazan, that it is "walled like Como,
  and with BAZARS (_bazzari_) like it."—_Ramusio_, ii. f. 117.

  1478.—Josafat Barbaro writes: "An Armenian Choza Mirech, a rich merchant
  in the BAZAR" (_bazarro_).—_Ibid._ f. 111_v_.

  1563.—"... BAZAR, as much as to say the place where things are
  sold."—_Garcia_, f. 170.

  1564.—A privilege by Don Sebastian of Portugal gives authority "to sell
  garden produce freely in the BAZARS (_bazares_), markets, and streets (of
  Goa) without necessity for consent or license from the farmers of the
  garden produce, or from any other person whatsoever."—_Arch. Port. Or._,
  fasc. 2, 157.

  c. 1566.—"La Pescaria delle Perle ... si fa ogn' anno ... e su la costa
  all' in contro piantano vna villa di case, e BAZARRI di paglia."—_Cesare
  de' Federici_, in _Ramusio_, iii. 390.

  1606.—"... the Christians of the BAZAR."—_Gouvea_, 29.

  1610.—"En la Ville de Cananor il y a vn beau marché tous les jours,
  qu'ils appellent BASARE."—_Pyrard de Laval_, i. 325; [Hak. Soc. i. 448].

  [1615.—"To buy pepper as cheap as we could in the BUSSER."—_Foster,
  Letters_, iii. 114.]

  [   "    "He forbad all the BEZAR to sell us victuals or
  else...."—_Ibid._ iv. 80.]

  [1623.—"They call it BEZARI KELAN, that is the Great Merkat...."—_P.
  della Valle_, Hak. Soc. i. 96. (P. _Kalān_, 'great').]

  1638.—"We came into a BUSSAR, or very faire Market place."—_W. Bruton_,
  in _Hakl._ v. 50.

  1666.—"Les BAZARDS ou Marchés sont dans une grande rue qui est au pié de
  la montagne."—_Thevenot_, v. 18.

  1672.—"... Let us now pass the Pale to the Heathen Town (of Madras) only
  parted by a wide Parrade, which is used for a BUZZAR or
  Mercate-place."—_Fryer_, 38.

  [1826.—"The Kotwall went to the BAZAAR-MASTER."—_Pandurang Hari_, ed.
  1873, p. 156.]

  1837.—"Lord, there is a honey BAZAR, repair thither."—_Turnour's_ transl.
  of _Mahawanso_, 24.

  1873.—"This, remarked my handsome Greek friend from Vienna, is the finest
  wife-BAZAAR in this part of Europe.... Go a little way east of this, say
  to Roumania, and you will find wife-BAZAAR completely undisguised, the
  ladies seated in their carriages, the youths filing by, and pausing
  before this or that beauty, to bargain with papa about the dower, under
  her very nose."—_Fraser's Mag. N. S._ vii. p. 617 (_Vienna_, by _M. D.
  Conway_).


BDELLIUM, s. This aromatic gum-resin has been identified with that of the
_Balsamodendron Mukul_, Hooker, inhabiting the dry regions of Arabia and
Western India; _gugal_ of Western India, and _moḳl_ in Arabic, called in P.
_bo-i-jahūdān_ (Jews' scent). What the Hebrew _bdolah_ of the R. Phison
was, which was rendered _bdellium_ since the time of Josephus, remains very
doubtful. Lassen has suggested _musk_ as possible. But the argument is only
this: that Dioscorides says some called bdellium μάδελκον; that μάδελκον
perhaps represents _Madālaka_, and though there is no such Skt. word as
_madālaka_, there _might_ be _madāraka_, because there is _madāra_, which
means some perfume, no one knows what! (_Ind. Alterth._ i. 292.) Dr. Royle
says the Persian authors describe the BDELLIUM as being the product of the
Doom palm (see _Hindu Medicine_, p. 90). But this we imagine is due to some
ambiguity in the sense of _moḳl_. [See the authorities quoted in _Encycl.
Bibl._ s.v. BDELLIUM which still leave the question in some doubt.]

  c. A.D. 90.—"In exchange are exported from Barbarice (Indus Delta)
  costus, BDELLA...."—_Periplus_, ch. 39.

  c. 1230.—"BDALLYŪN. A Greek word which as some learned men think, means
  'The Lion's Repose.' This plant is the same as _moḳl_."—_Ebn El-Baithár_,
  i. 125.

  1612.—"BDELLIUM, the pund ... xxs."—Rates and Valuatiouns (_Scotland_),
  p. 298.


BEADALA, n.p. Formerly a port of some note for native craft on the Rāmnād
coast (Madura district) of the Gulf of Manar, _Vadaulay_ in the Atlas of
India. The proper name seems to be _Vēdālai_, by which it is mentioned in
Bishop Caldwell's _Hist. of Tinnevelly_ (p. 235), [and which is derived
from Tam. _vedu_, 'hunting,' and _al_, 'a banyan-tree' (_Mad. Adm. Man.
Gloss._ p. 953)]. The place was famous in the Portuguese History of India
for a victory gained there by Martin Affonso de Sousa (_Capitão Mór do
Mar_) over a strong land and sea force of the Zamorin, commanded by a
famous Mahommedan Captain, whom the Portuguese called Pate Marcar, and the
Tuḥfat-al Mujāhidīn calls 'Ali Ibrahīm Markār, 15th February, 1538. Barros
styles it "one of the best fought battles that ever came off in India."
This occurred under the viceroyalty of Nuno da Cunha, not of Stephen da
Gama, as the allusions in Camões seem to indicate. Captain Burton has too
hastily identified _Beadala_ with a place on the coast of Malabar, a fact
which has perhaps been the cause of this article (see _Lusiads_,
Commentary, p. 477).

  1552.—"Martin Affonso, with this light fleet, on which he had not more
  than 400 soldiers, went round Cape Comorin, being aware that the enemy
  were at BEADALÁ...."—_Barros_, Dec. IV., liv. viii. cap. 13.

  1562.—"The Governor, departing from Cochym, coasted as far as Cape
  Comoryn, doubled that Cape, and ran for BEADALÁ, which is a place
  adjoining the Shoals of CHILAO [CHILAW]...."—_Correa_, iv. 324.

  c. 1570.—"And about this time Alee Ibrahim Murkar, and his brother-in-law
  Kunjee-Alee-Murkar, sailed out with 22 grabs in the direction of Kaeel,
  and arriving off BENTALAH, they landed, leaving their grabs at anchor....
  But destruction overtook them at the arrival of the Franks, who came upon
  them in their galliots, attacking and capturing all their grabs.... Now
  this capture by the Franks took place in the latter part of the month of
  Shaban, in the year 944 [end of January, 1538]."—_Tohfut-ul-Mujahideen_,
  tr. by Rowlandson, 141.

  1572.—

   "E despois junto ao Cabo Comorim
    Huma façanha faz esclarecida,
    A frota principal do Samorim,
    Que destruir o mundo não duvida,
    Vencerá co o furor do ferro e fogo;
    Em si verá BEADÁLA o martio jogo."
               _Camões_, x. 65.


By Burton (but whose misconception of the locality has here affected his
translation):

   "then _well nigh reached_ the Cape 'clept Comorin,
    another wreath of Fame by him is won;
    the strongest squadron of the Samorim
    who doubted not to see the world undone,
    he shall destroy with rage of fire and steel:
    BE'ADÁLÁ'S self his martial yoke shall feel."

  1814.—"VAIDÁLAI, a pretty populous village on the coast, situated 13
  miles east of Mutupetta, inhabited chiefly by Musulmans and Shánárs, the
  former carrying on a wood trade."—_Account of the Prov. of Ramnad_, from
  Mackenzie Collections in _J. R. As. Soc._ iii. 170.


BEAR-TREE, BAIR, &c. s. H. _ber_, Mahr. _bora_, in Central Provinces _bor_,
[Malay _bedara_ or _bidara China_,] (Skt. _badara_ and _vadara_) _Zizyphus
jujuba_, Lam. This is one of the most widely diffused trees in India, and
is found wild from the Punjab to Burma, in all which region it is probably
native. It is cultivated from Queensland and China to Morocco and Guinea.
"Sir H. Elliot identifies it with the lotus of the ancients, but although
the large juicy product of the garden _Zizyphus_ is by no means bad, yet,
as Madden quaintly remarks, one might eat any quantity of it without risk
of forgetting home and friends."—(_Punjab Plants_, 43.)

  1563.—"_O._ The name in Canarese is _bor_, and in the Decan BÉR, and the
  Malays call them _vidaras_, and they are better than ours; yet not so
  good as those of Balagate ... which are very tasty."—_Garcia De O._, 33.]

  [1609.—"Here is also great quantity of gum-lack to be had, but is of the
  tree called BER, and is in grain like unto red mastic."—_Danvers,
  Letters_, i. 30.]


BEARER, s. The word has two meanings in Anglo-Indian colloquial: A. A
palanquin-carrier; B. (In the Bengal Presidency) a domestic servant who has
charge of his master's clothes, household furniture, and (often) of his
ready money. The word in the latter meaning has been regarded as distinct
in origin, and is stated by Wilson to be a corruption of the Bengali
_vehārā_ from Skt. _vyavahāri_, a domestic servant. There seems, however,
to be no _historical_ evidence for such an origin, _e.g._ in any habitual
use of the term _vehārā_, whilst as a matter of fact the domestic bearer
(or _sirdār-bearer_, as he is usually styled by his fellow-servants, often
even when he has no one under him) was in Calcutta, in the penultimate
generation when English gentlemen still kept palankins, usually just what
this literally implies, viz. the head-man of a set of palankin-bearers. And
throughout the Presidency the BEARER, or valet, still, as a rule, belongs
to the caste of _Kahārs_ (see KUHAR), or palki-bearers. [See BOY.]

A.—

  c. 1760.—"... The poles which ... are carried by six, but most commonly
  four BEARERS."—_Grose_, i. 153.

  1768-71.—"Every house has likewise ... one or two sets of BERRAS, or
  palankeen-bearers."—_Stavorinus_, i. 523.

  1771.—"Le bout le plus court du Palanquin est en devant, et porté par
  deux BERAS, que l'on nomme BOYS à la Côte (c'est-à-dire _Garçons_,
  _Serviteurs_, en Anglois). Le long bout est par derrière et porte par
  trois BERAS."—_Anquetil du Perron, Desc. Prelim._ p. xxiii. _note_.

  1778.—"They came on foot, the town having neither horses nor
  palankin-BEARERS to carry them, and Colonel Coote received them at his
  headquarters...."—_Orme_, iii. 719.

  1803.—"I was ... detained by the scarcity of BEARERS."—_Lord Valentia_,
  i. 372.

B.—

  1782.—"... imposition ... that a gentleman should pay a rascal of a
  _Sirdar_ BEARER monthly wages for 8 or 10 men ... out of whom he gives 4,
  or may perhaps indulge his master with 5, to carry his palankeen."—_India
  Gazette_, Sept. 2.

  c. 1815.—"_Henry and his_ BEARER."—(Title of a well-known book of Mrs.
  Sherwood's.)

  1824.—"... I called to my _sirdar_-BEARER who was lying on the floor,
  outside the bedroom."—_Seely, Ellora_, ch. i.

  1831.—"... le grand maître de ma garde-robe, _sirdar_
  BEEHRAH."—_Jacquemont, Correspondance_, i. 114.

  1876.—"My BEARER who was to go with us (Eva's ayah had struck at the last
  moment and stopped behind) had literally girt up his loins, and was
  loading a diminutive mule with a miscellaneous assortment of brass pots
  and blankets."—_A True Reformer_, ch. iv.


BEEBEE, s. H. from P. _bībī_, a lady. [In its contracted form _bī_, it is
added as a title of distinction to the names of Musulman ladies.] On the
principle of degradation of titles which is so general, this word in
application to European ladies has been superseded by the hybrids
_Mem-Ṣāhib_, or _Madam-Ṣāhib_, though it is often applied to European
maid-servants or other Englishwomen of that rank of life. [It retains its
dignity as the title of the _Bībī_ of Cananore, known as _Bībī Valiya_,
Malayāl., 'great lady,' who rules in that neighbourhood and exercises
authority over three of the islands of the Laccadives, and is by race a
Moplah Mohammedan.] The word also is sometimes applied to a prostitute. It
is originally, it would seem, Oriental Turki. In Pavet de Courteille's
Dict. we have "_Bībī_, dame, épouse légitime" (p. 181). In W. India the
word is said to be pronounced _bobo_ (see _Burton's Sind_). It is curious
that among the Sákaláva of Madagascar the wives of chiefs are termed
_biby_; but there seems hardly a possibility of this having come from
Persia or India. [But for Indian influence on the island, see _Encycl.
Britt._ 9th ed. xv. 174.] The word in Hova means 'animal.'—(_Sibree's
Madagascar_, p. 253.)

  [c. 1610.—"Nobles in blood ... call their wives BYBIS."—_Pyrard de
  Laval_, Hak. Soc. i. 217.]

  1611.—"... the title BIBI ... is in Persian the same as among us,
  sennora, or doña."—_Teixeira, Relacion ... de Hormuz._ 19.

  c. 1786.—"The word _Lowndika_, which means the son of a slave-girl, was
  also continually on the tongue of the Nawaub, and if he was angry with
  any one he called him by this name; but it was also used as an endearing
  fond appellation to which was attached great favour,[38] until one day,
  Ali Zumán Khan ... represented to him that the word was low,
  discreditable, and not fit for the use of men of knowledge and rank. The
  Nawaub smiled, and said, 'O friend, you and I are both the sons of slave
  women, and the two Husseins only (on whom be good wishes and Paradise!)
  are the sons of a BIBI."—_Hist. of Hydur Naik_, tr. by Miles, 486.

  [1793.—"I, BEEBEE BULEA, the Princess of Cannanore and of the Laccadives
  Islands, &c., do acknowledge and give in writing that I will pay to the
  Government of the English East India Company the moiety of whatever is
  the produce of my country...."—_Engagement_ in _Logan, Malabar_, iii.
  181.]


BEECH-DE-MER, s. The old trade way of writing and pronouncing the name,
_bicho-de-mar_ (borrowed from the Portuguese) of the sea-slug or
_holothuria_, so highly valued in China. [See menu of a dinner to which the
Duke of Connaught was invited, in _Ball, Things Chinese_, 3rd ed. p. 247.]
It is split, cleaned, dried, and then carried to the Straits for export to
China, from the Maldives, the Gulf of Manar, and other parts of the Indian
seas further east. The most complete account of the way in which this
somewhat important article of commerce is prepared, will be found in the
_Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indie_, Jaarg. xvii. pt. i. See also SWALLOW
and TRIPANG.


BEECHMÁN, also MEECHILMÁN, s. Sea-H. for 'midshipman.' (_Roebuck_).


BEEGAH, s. H. _bīghā_. The most common Hindu measure of land-area, and
varying much in different parts of India, whilst in every part that has a
_bīghā_ there is also certain to be a _pucka beegah_ and a _kutcha beegah_
(vide CUTCHA and PUCKA), the latter being some fraction of the former. The
_beegah_ formerly adopted in the Revenue Survey of the N.W. Provinces, and
in the Canal Department there, was one of 3025 sq. yards or ⅝ of an acre.
This was apparently founded on Akbar's _beegah_, which contained 3600 sq.
_Ilāhi gaz_, of about 33 inches each. [For which see Āīn, trans. _Jarrett_,
ii. 62.] But it is now in official returns superseded by the English acre.

  1763.—"I never seized a BEEGA or _beswa_ (1/20 _bīghā_) belonging to
  Calcutta, nor have I ever impressed your gomastahs." ... _Nawāb Kāsim
  'Ali_, in _Gleig's Mem. of Hastings_, i. 129.

  1823.—"A BEGAH has been computed at one-third of an acre, but its size
  differs in almost every province. The smallest _Begah_ may perhaps be
  computed at one-third, and the largest at two-thirds of an
  acre."—Malcolm's _Central India_, ii. 15.

  1877.—"The Resident was gratified at the low rate of assessment, which
  was on the general average eleven annas or 1_s._ 4½_d._ per BEEGAH, that
  for the Nizam's country being upwards of four rupees."—_Meadows Taylor,
  Story of my Life_, ii. 5.


BEEGUM, BEGUM, &c. s. A Princess, a Mistress, a Lady of Rank; applied to
Mahommedan ladies, and in the well-known case of the _Beegum Sumroo_ to the
professedly Christian (native) wife of a European. The word appears to be
Or. Turki. _bīgam_, [which some connect with Skt. _bhaga_, 'lord,'] a
feminine formation from _Beg_, 'chief, or lord,' like _Khānum_ from _Khān_;
hence P. _begam_. [_Beg_ appears in the early travellers as _Beage_.]

  [1614.—"Narranse saith he standeth bound before BEAGE for 4,800 and odd
  mamoodies."—_Foster, Letters_, ii. 282.]

  [1505.—"BEGUM." See quotation under KHANUM.]

  [1617.—"Their Company that offered to rob the BEAGAM'S junck."—_Sir T.
  Roe_, Hak. Soc. ii. 454.]

  1619.—"Behind the girl came another BEGUM, also an old woman, but lean
  and feeble, holding on to life with her teeth, as one might say."—_P.
  della Valle_, Hak. Soc. ii. 6.

  1653.—"BEGUN, Reine, ou espouse du Schah."—_De la Boullaye le Gouz_, 127.

  [1708.—"They are called for this reason 'BEGOM,' which means Free from
  Care or Solicitude" (as if P. _be-gham_, 'without care'!)—_Catrou, H. of
  the Mogul Dynasty in India_, E. T., 287.]

  1787.—"Among the charges (against Hastings) there is but one engaged, two
  at most—the BEGUM'S to Sheridan; the Rannee of Goheed (Gohud) to Sir
  James Erskine. So please your palate."—_Ed. Burke_ to Sir G. Elliot. _L.
  of Ld. Minto_, i. 119.


BEEJOO, s. Or 'Indian badger,' as it is sometimes called, H. _bījū_
[_bijjū_], _Mellivora indica_, Jerdon, [_Blanford, Mammalia_, 176]. It is
also often called in Upper India the _Grave-digger_, [_gorkhodo_] from a
belief in its bad practices, probably unjust.


BEER, s. This liquor, imported from England, [and now largely made in the
country], has been a favourite in India from an early date. _Porter_ seems
to have been common in the 18th century, judging from the advertisements in
the _Calcutta Gazette_; and the _Pale Ale_ made, it is presumed, expressly
for the India market, appears in the earliest years of that publication.
That expression has long been disused in India, and _beer_, simply, has
represented the thing. Hodgson's at the beginning of this century, was the
beer in almost universal use, replaced by Bass, and Allsopp, and of late
years by a variety of other brands. [Hodgson's ale is immortalised in _Bon
Gualtier_.]

  1638.—"... the Captain ... was well provided with ... excellent good
  Sack, _English_ BEER, French Wines, _Arak_, and other
  refreshments."—_Mandelslo, E. T._, p. 10.

  1690.—(At Surat in the English Factory) "... _Europe_ Wines and _English_
  BEER, because of their former acquaintance with our Palates, are most
  coveted and most desirable Liquors, and tho' sold at high Rates, are yet
  purchased and drunk with pleasure."—_Ovington_, 395.

  1784.—"London Porter and _Pale Ale_, light and excellent ... 150 Sicca
  Rs. per hhd...."—In _Seton-Karr_, i. 39.

  1810.—"Porter, pale-ale and table-BEER of great strength, are often drank
  after meals."—_Williamson, V. M._ i. 122.

  1814.—

   "What are the luxuries they boast them here?
    The lolling couch, the joys of bottled BEER."

  From '_The Cadet_, a Poem in 6 parts, &c. by a late resident in the
  East.' This is a most lugubrious production, the author finding nothing
  to his taste in India. In this respect it reads something like a
  caricature of "Oakfield," without the noble character and sentiment of
  that book. As the Rev. Hobart Caunter, the author seems to have come to a
  less doleful view of things Indian, and for some years he wrote the
  letter-press of the "Oriental Annual."


BEER, COUNTRY. At present, at least in Upper India, this expression simply
indicates ale made in India (see COUNTRY) as at Masūri, Kasauli, and
Ootacamund Breweries. But it formerly was (and in Madras perhaps still is)
applied to ginger-beer, or to a beverage described in some of the
quotations below, which must have become obsolete early in the last
century. A drink of this nature called _Sugar-beer_ was the ordinary drink
at Batavia in the 17th century, and to its use some travellers ascribed the
prevalent unhealthiness. This is probably what is described by Jacob
Bontius in the first quotation:

  1631.—There is a recipe given for a BEER of this kind, "not at all less
  good than Dutch beer.... Take a hooped cask of 30 _amphorae_ (?), fill
  with pure river water; add 2lb. black Java sugar, 4oz. tamarinds, 3
  lemons cut up, cork well and put in a cool place. After 14 hours it will
  boil as if on a fire," &c.—_Hist. Nat. et Med. Indiae Orient._, p. 8. We
  doubt the result anticipated.

  1789.—"They use a pleasant kind of drink, called COUNTRY-BEER, with their
  victuals; which is composed of toddy ... porter, and brown-sugar; is of a
  brisk nature, but when cooled with saltpetre and water, becomes a very
  refreshing draught."—_Munro, Narrative_, 42.

  1810.—"A temporary beverage, suited to the very hot weather, and called
  COUNTRY-BEER, is in rather _general_ use, though water artificially
  cooled is commonly drunk during the repasts."—_Williamson, V. M._ ii.
  122.


BEER-DRINKING. Up to about 1850, and a little later, an ordinary exchange
of courtesies at an Anglo-Indian dinner-table in the provinces, especially
a mess-table, was to ask a guest, perhaps many yards distant, to "drink
beer" with you; in imitation of the English custom of drinking wine
together, which became obsolete somewhat earlier. In Western India, when
such an invitation was given at a mess-table, two tumblers, holding half a
bottle each, were brought to the inviter, who carefully divided the bottle
between the two, and then sent one to the guest whom he invited to drink
with him.

  1848.—"'He aint got distangy manners, dammy,' Bragg observed to his first
  mate; 'he wouldn't do at Government House, Roper, where his Lordship and
  Lady William was as kind to me ... and asking me at dinner to TAKE BEER
  with him before the Commander-in-Chief himself....'"—_Vanity Fair_, II.
  ch. xxii.

  1853.—"First one officer, and then another, asked him to DRINK BEER at
  mess, as a kind of tacit suspension of hostilities."—_Oakfield_, ii. 52.


BEETLEFAKEE, n.p. "In some old Voyages coins used at Mocha are so called.
The word is _Bait-ul-fākiha_, the 'Fruit-market,' the name of a bazar
there." So C. P. Brown. The place is in fact the Coffee-mart of which
Hodeida is the port, from which it is about 30 m. distant inland, and 4
marches north of Mocha. And the name is really _Bait-al-Faḳīh_, 'The House
of the Divine,' from the tomb of the Saint Aḥmad Ibn Mūsā, which was the
nucleus of the place.—(See _Ritter_, xii. 872; see also BEETLE-FACKIE,
_Milburn_, i. 96.)

  1690.—"Coffee ... grows in abundance at BEETLE-FUCKEE ... and other
  parts."—_Ovington_, 465.

  1710.—"They daily bring down coffee from the mountains to BETELFAQUY,
  which is not above 3 leagues off, where there is a market for it every
  day of the week."—_(French) Voyage to Arabia the Happy_, E. T., London,
  1726, p. 99.

  1770.—"The tree that produces the Coffee grows in the territory of
  BETEL-FAQUI, a town belonging to Yemen."—_Raynal_ (tr. 1777), i. 352.


BEGAR, BIGARRY, s. H. _begārī_, from P. _begār_, 'forced labour' [_be_
'without,' _gār_ (for _kār_), 'one who works']; a person pressed to carry a
load, or do other work really or professedly for public service. In some
provinces _begār_ is the forced labour, and _bigārī_ the pressed man;
whilst in Karnāta, _begārī_ is the performance of the lowest village
offices without money payment, but with remuneration in grain or land
(_Wilson_). C. P. Brown says the word is Canarese; but the P. origin is
hardly doubtful.

  [1519.—"It happened that one day sixty BIGAIRIS went from the Comorin
  side towards the fort loaded with oyster-shells."—_Castanheda_, Bk. V.
  ch. 38.]

  [1525.—"The inhabitants of the villages are bound to supply BEGARINS who
  are workmen."—_Archiv. Port. Orient._ Fasc. V. p. 126.]

  [1535.—"Telling him that they fought like heroes and worked (at building
  the fort) like BYGAIRYS."—_Correa_, iii. 625.]

  1554.—"And to 4 BEGGUARYNS, who serve as water carriers to the Portuguese
  and others in the said intrenchment, 15 leals a day to each...."—_S.
  Botelho, Tombo_, 78.

  1673.—"_Gocurn_, whither I took a Pilgrimage, with one other of the
  Factors, Four Peons, and Two BIGGEREENS, or Porters only."—_Fryer_, 158.

  1800.—"The BYGARRY system is not bearable: it must be abolished
  entirely."—_Wellington_, i. 244.

  1815.—_Aitchison's Indian Treaties_, &c., contains under this year
  numerous _sunnuds_ issued, in Nepāl War, to Hill Chiefs, stipulating for
  attendance when required with "BEGAREES and sepoys."—ii. 339 _seqq._

  1882.—"The Malauna people were some time back ordered to make a
  practicable road, but they flatly refused to do anything of the kind,
  saying they had never done any BEGÂR labour, and did not intend to do
  any."—(_ref. wanting._)


BEHAR, n.p. H. _Bihār_. That province of the Mogul Empire which lay on the
Ganges immediately above Bengal, was so called, and still retains the name
and character of a province, under the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, and
embracing the ten modern districts of Patna, Sāran, Gāya, Shāhābād, Tirhut,
Champāran, the Santāl Parganas, Bhāgalpūr, Monghyr, and Purnīah. The name
was taken from the old city of BIHĀR, and that derived its title from being
the site of a famous VIHĀRA in Buddhist times. In the later days of
Mahommedan rule the three provinces of Bengal, Behar and Orissa were under
one Subadar, viz. the Nawāb, who resided latterly at Murshidābād.

  [c. 1590.—"Sarkar of BEHAR; containing 46 Mahals...."—_Āīn_ (tr.
  _Jarrett_), ii. 153.]

  [1676.—"Translate of a letter from Shausteth Caukne (Shaista Khan) ... in
  answer to one from Wares Cawne, Great Chancellor of the Province of
  BEARRA about the English."—In _Birdwood, Rep._ 80].

The following is the first example we have noted of the occurrence of the
three famous names in combination:

  1679.—"On perusal of several letters relating to the procuring of the
  Great Mogul's Phyrmaund for trade, custome free, in the Bay of Bengall,
  the Chief in Council at Hugly is ordered to procure the same, for the
  English to be Customs free in BENGAL, ORIXA and BEARRA...."—_Ft. St. Geo.
  Cons._, 20th Feb. in _Notes and Exts._, Pt. ii. p. 7.


BEHUT, n.p. H. _Behat_. One of the names, and in fact the proper name, of
the Punjab river which we now call Jelum (_i.e._ _Jhīlam_) from a town on
its banks: the _Hydaspes_ or _Bidaspes_ of the ancients. Both _Behat_ and
the Greek name are corruptions, in different ways, of the Skt. name
_Vitastā_. Sidi 'Alī (p. 200) calls it the river of _Bahra_. Bahra or Bhera
was a district on the river, and the town and taḥsīl still remain, in
Shahpur Dist. [It "is called by the natives of Kaśmīr, where it rises, the
_Bedasta_, which is but a slightly-altered form of its Skt. name, the
_Vitastā_, which means 'wide-spread.'"—_McCrindle, Invasion of India_, 93
_seqq._]


BEIRAMEE, BYRAMEE, also BYRAMPAUT, s. P. _bairam_, _bairamī_. The name of a
kind of cotton stuff which appears frequently during the flourishing period
of the export of these from India; but the exact character of which we have
been unable to ascertain. In earlier times, as appears from the first
quotation, it was a very fine stuff. [From the quotation dated 1609 below,
they appear to have resembled the fine linen known as "Holland" (for which
see _Draper's Dict._ s.v.).]

  c. 1343.—Ibn Batuta mentions, among presents sent by Sultan Mahommed
  Tughlak of Delhi to the great Kaan, "100 suits of raiment called
  BAIRAMĪYAH, _i.e._ of a cotton stuff, which were of unequalled beauty,
  and were each worth 100 dīnārs [rupees]."—iv. 2.

  [1498.—"20 pieces of white stuff, very fine, with gold embroidery which
  they call BEYRAMIES."—_Correa_, Hak. Soc. 197.]

  1510.—"Fifty ships are laden every year in this place (Bengala) with
  cotton and silk stuffs ... that is to say BAIRAM."—_Varthema_, 212.

  [1513.—"And captured two Chaul ships laden with BEIRAMES."—_Albuquerque,
  Cartas_, p. 166.]

  1554.—"From this country come the muslins called Candaharians, and those
  of Daulatābād, Berūpātri, and BAIRAMI."—_Sidi 'Ali_, in _J.A.S.B._, v.
  460.

     "    "And for 6 BEIRAMES for 6 surplices, which are given annually ...
  which may be worth 7 pardaos."—_S. Botelho, Tombo_, 129.

  [1609.—"A sort of cloth called BYRAMY resembling Holland
  cloths."—_Danvers, Letters_, i. 29.]

  [1610.—"BEARAMS white will vent better than the black."—_Ibid._ i. 75].

  1615.—"10 pec. BYRAMS nill (see ANILE) of 51 Rs. per corg...."—_Cocks's
  Diary_, i. 4.

  [1648.—"BERONIS." Quotation from Van Twist, s.v. GINGHAM.]

  [c. 1700.—"50 blew BYRAMPANTS" (read BYRAMPAUTS, H. _pāt_, 'a length of
  cloth').—In _Notes and Queries_, 7th Ser. ix. 29.]

  1727.—"Some Surat _Baftaes_ dyed blue, and some BERAMS dyed red, which
  are both coarse cotton cloth."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 125.

  1813.—"BYRAMS of sorts," among Surat piece-goods, in _Milburn_, i. 124.


BEITCUL, n.p. We do not know how this name should be properly written. The
place occupies the isthmus connecting Carwar Head in Canara with the land,
and lies close to the Harbour of Carwar, the inner part of which is
_Beitcul Cove_.

  1711.—"Ships may ride secure from the South West Monsoon at _Batte Cove_
  (qu. BATTECOLE?), and the River is navigable for the largest, after they
  have once got in."—_Lockyer_, 272.

  1727.—"The _Portugueze_ have an Island called Anjediva [see ANCHEDIVA]
  ... about two miles from BATCOAL."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 277.


BELGAUM, n.p. A town and district of the Bombay Presidency, in the S.
Mahratta country. The proper name is said to be Canarese _Vennu-grāmā_,
'Bamboo-Town.' [The name of a place of the same designation in the
Vizagapatam district in Madras is said to be derived from Skt.
_bila-grāma_, 'cave-village.'—_Mad. Admin. Man. Gloss._ s.v.] The name
occurs in De Barros under the form "Cidade de BILGAN" (Dec. IV., liv. vii.
cap. 5).


BENAMEE, adj. P.—H. _be-nāmī_, 'anonymous'; a term specially applied to
documents of transfer or other contract in which the name entered as that
of one of the chief parties (_e.g._ of a purchaser) is not that of the
person really interested. Such transactions are for various reasons very
common in India, especially in Bengal, and are not by any means necessarily
fradulent, though they have often been so. ["There probably is no country
in the world except India, where it would be necessary to write a chapter
'On the practice of putting property into a false name.'"—(_Mayne, Hindu
Law_, 373).] In the Indian Penal Code (Act XLV. of 1860), sections 421-423,
"on fraudulent deeds and dispositions of Property," appear to be especially
directed against the dishonest use of this _benamee_ system.

It is alleged by C. P. Brown on the authority of a statement in the _Friend
of India_ (without specific reference) that the proper term is _banāmī_,
adopted from such a phrase as _banāmī chiṭṭhī_, 'a transferable note of
hand,' such notes commencing, '_ba-nām-i-fulāna_,' 'to the name or address
of' (Abraham Newlands). This is conceivable, and probably true, but we have
not the evidence, and it is opposed to all the authorities: and in any case
the present form and interpretation of the term _be-nāmī_ has become
established.

  1854.—"It is very much the habit in India to make purchases in the name
  of others, and from whatever causes the practice may have arisen, it has
  existed for a series of years: and these transactions are known as
  'BENAMEE transactions'; they are noticed at least as early as the year
  1778, in Mr. Justice Hyde's Notes."—_Ld. Justice Knight Bruce_, in
  Moore's Reports of Cases on Appeal before the P. C., vol. vi. p. 72.

  "The presumption of the Hindoo law, in a joint undivided family, is that
  the whole property of the family is joint estate ... where a purchase of
  real estate is made by a Hindoo in the name of one of his sons, the
  presumption of the Hindoo law is in favour of its being a BENAMEE
  purchase, and the burthen of proof lies on the party in whose name it was
  purchased, to prove that he was solely entitled."—_Note by the Editor of
  above Vol._, p. 53.

  1861.—"The decree Sale law is also one chief cause of that nuisance, the
  BENAMEE system.... It is a peculiar contrivance for getting the benefits
  and credit of property, and avoiding its charges and liabilities. It
  consists in one man holding land, nominally for himself, but really in
  secret trust for another, and by ringing the changes between the two ...
  relieving the land from being attached for any liability personal to the
  proprietor."—_W. Money, Java_, ii. 261.

  1862.—"Two ingredients are necessary to make up the offence in this
  section (§ 423 of Penal Code). First a fraudulent intention, and secondly
  a false statement as to the consideration. The mere fact that an
  assignment has been taken in the name of a person not really interested,
  will not be sufficient. Such ... known in Bengal as BENAMEE transactions
  ... have nothing necessarily fraudulent."—_J. D. Mayne's Comm. on the
  Penal Code_, Madras, 1862, p. 257.


BENARES, n.p. The famous and holy city on the Ganges. H. _Banāras_ from
Skt. _Vārānasī_. The popular Pundit etymology is from the names of the
streams _Varaṇā_ (mod. _Barnā_) and _Āsī_, the former a river of some size
on the north and east of the city, the latter a rivulet now embraced within
its area; [or from the mythical founder, _Rājā Bānār_]. This origin is very
questionable. The name, as that of a city, has been (according to Dr. F.
Hall) familiar to Sanscrit literature since B.C. 120. The Buddhist legends
would carry it much further back, the name being in them very familiar.

  [c. 250 A.D.—"... and the ERRENYSIS from the Mathai, an Indian tribe,
  unite with the Ganges."—_Aelian, Indika_, iv.]

  c. 637.—"The Kingdom of _P'o-lo-nis-se_ (VÂRÂNAÇÎ _Bénarès_) is 4000 _li_
  in compass. On the west the capital adjoins the Ganges...."—_Hiouen
  Thsang_, in _Pèl. Boudd._ ii. 354.

  c. 1020.—"If you go from Bárí on the banks of the Ganges, in an easterly
  direction, you come to Ajodh, at the distance of 25 parasangs; thence to
  the great Benares (BĀNĀRAS) about 20."—_Al-Birūnī_, in _Elliot_, i. 56.

  1665.—"BANAROU is a large City, and handsomely built; the most part of
  the Houses being either of Brick or Stone ... but the inconveniency is
  that the Streets are very narrow."—_Tavernier_, E. T., ii. 52; [ed.
  _Ball_, i. 118. He also uses the forms BENAREZ and BANAROUS, _Ibid._ ii.
  182, 225].


BENCOOLEN, n.p. A settlement on the West Coast of Sumatra, which long
pertained to England, viz. from 1685 to 1824, when it was given over to
Holland in exchange for Malacca, by the Treaty of London. The name is a
corruption of Malay _Bangkaulu_, and it appears as _Mangkoulou_ or
_Wénkouléou_ in Pauthier's Chinese geographical quotations, of which the
date is not given (_Marc. Pol._, p. 566, note). The English factory at
Bencoolen was from 1714 called Fort Marlborough.

  1501.—"BENCOLU" is mentioned among the ports of the East Indies by
  Amerigo Vespucci in his letter quoted under BACANORE.

  1690.—"We ... were forced to bear away to BENCOULI, another English
  Factory on the same Coast.... It was two days before I went ashoar, and
  then I was importuned by the Governour to stay there, to be Gunner of the
  Fort."—_Dampier_, i. 512.

  1727.—"BENCOLON is an English colony, but the European inhabitants not
  very numerous."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 114.

  1788.—"It is nearly an equal absurdity, though upon a smaller scale, to
  have an establishment that costs nearly 40,000_l._ at BENCOOLEN, to
  facilitate the purchase of one cargo of pepper."—_Cornwallis_, i. 390.


BENDAMEER, n.p. Pers. _Bandamīr_. A popular name, at least among
foreigners, of the River Kur (_Araxes_) near Shiraz. Properly speaking, the
word is the name of a dam constructed across the river by the Amīr Fanā
Khusruh, otherwise called Aded-ud-daulah, a prince of the Buweih family
(A.D. 965), which was thence known in later days as the _Band-i-Amīr_, "The
Prince's Dam." The work is mentioned in the Geog. Dict. of Yāḳūt (c. 1220)
under the name of _Sikru Fannā-Khusrah Khurrah_ and _Kirdu Fannā Khusrah_
(see _Barb. Meynard, Dict. de la Perse_, 313, 480). Fryer repeats a
rigmarole that he heard about the miraculous formation of the dam or bridge
by BAND HAIMERO (!) a prophet, "wherefore both the Bridge and the Plain, as
well as the River, by Boterus is corruptly called BINDAMIRE" (_Fryer_,
258).

  c. 1475.—"And from thense, a daies iorney, ye come to a great bridge vpon
  the BYNDAMYR, which is a notable great ryver. This bridge they said
  Salomon caused to be made."—_Barbaro_ (Old E. T.), Hak. Soc. 80.

  1621.—"... having to pass the Kur by a longer way across another bridge
  called BEND' EMIR, which is as much as to say the Tie (_ligatura_), or in
  other words the Bridge, of the Emir, which is two leagues distant from
  Chehil minar ... and which is so called after a certain Emir Hamza the
  Dilemite who built it.... Fra Filippo Ferrari, in his Geographical
  Epitome, attributes the name of _Bendemir_ to the river, but he is wrong,
  for _Bendemir_ is the name of the bridge and not of the river."—_P. della
  Valle_, ii. 264.

  1686.—"Il est bon d'observer, vue le commun Peuple appelle le BEND-EMIR
  en cet endroit _ab pulneu_, c'est à dire le Fleuve du Pont Neuf; qu'on ne
  l'appelle par son nom de BEND-EMIR que proche de la _Digue_, qui lui a
  fait donner ce nom."—_Chardin_ (ed. 1711), ix. 45.

  1809.—"We proceeded three miles further, and crossing the River
  BEND-EMIR, entered the real plain of Merdasht."—_Morier_ (First Journey),
  124. See also (1811) 2nd Journey, pp. 73-74, where there is a view of the
  _Band-Amir_.

  1813.—"The river BUND EMEER, by some ancient Geographers called the
  _Cyrus_,[39] takes its present name from a dyke (in Persian a _bund_)
  erected by the celebrated Ameer Azad-a-Doulah Delemi."—_Macdonald
  Kinneir, Geog. Mem. of the Persian Empire_, 59.

  1817.—

   "There's a bower of roses by BENDAMEER'S stream,
    And the nightingale sings round it all the day long."—_Lalla Rookh._

  1850.—"The water (of Lake Neyriz) ... is almost entirely derived from the
  Kur (known to us as the BUND AMIR River)...."—_Abbott_, in _J.R.G.S._,
  xxv. 73.

  1878.—We do not know whether the BAND-I-AMĪR is identical with the
  quasi-synonymous _Pul-i-Khān_ by which Col. Macgregor crossed the Kur on
  his way from Shiraz to Yezd. See his _Khorassan_, i. 45.


BENDÁRA, s. A term used in the Malay countries as a title of one of the
higher ministers of state—Malay _bandahāra_, Jav. _bendårå_, 'Lord.' The
word enters into the numerous series of purely honorary Javanese titles,
and the etiquette in regard to it is very complicated. (See _Tijdschr. v.
Nederl. Indie_, year viii. No. 12, 253 _seqq._). It would seem that the
title is properly _bānḍārā_, 'a treasurer,' and taken from the Skt.
_bhāṇḍārin_, 'a steward or treasurer.' Haex in his Malay-Latin Dict. gives
_Banḍàri_, 'Oeconomus, quaestor, expenditor.' [Mr. Skeat writes that
Clifford derives it from _Benda-hara-an_, 'a treasury,' which he again
derives from Malay _benda_, 'a thing,' without explaining _hara_, while
Wilkinson with more probability classes it as Skt.]

  1509.—"Whilst Sequeira was consulting with his people over this matter,
  the King sent his BENDHARA or Treasure-Master on board."—_Valentijn_, v.
  322.

  1539.—"There the BANDARA (_Bendara_) of _Malaca_, (who is as it were
  Chief Justicer among the Mahometans), (_o supremo no mando, na honra e ne
  justica dos mouros_) was present in person by the express commandment of
  _Pedro de Faria_ for to entertain him."—_Pinto_ (orig. cap. xiv.), in
  _Cogan_, p. 17.

  1552.—"And as the BENDARA was by nature a traitor and a tyrant, the
  counsel they gave him seemed good to him."—_Castanheda_, ii. 359, also
  iii. 433.

  1561.—"Então manson ... que dizer que matára o seu BANDARA polo mao
  conselho que lhe deve."—_Correa, Lendas_, ii. 225.

  [1610.—An official at the Maldives is called _Rana_-BANDERY _Tacourou_,
  which Mr. Gray interprets—Singh. _ran_, 'gold,' _bandhara_, 'treasury,'
  _ṭhakkura_, Skt., 'an idol.'—_Pyrard de Laval_, Hak. Soc. i. 58.]

  1613.—"This administration (of Malacca) is provided for a three years'
  space with a governor ... and with royal officers of revenue and justice,
  and with the native BENDARA in charge of the government of the lower
  class of subjects and foreigners."—_Godinho de Eredia_, 6_v._

  1631.—"There were in Malaca five principal officers of dignity ... the
  second is BENDARÁ, he is the superintendent of the executive (_veador da
  fazenda_) and governs the Kingdom: sometimes the _Bendará_ holds both
  offices, that of Puduca raja and of BENDARÁ."—_D'Alboquerque,
  Commentaries_ (orig.), 358-359.

  1634.—

   "O principal sogeito no governo
    De Mahomet, e privanca, era o BENDÁRA,
    Magistrado supremo."
               _Malaca Conquistada_, iii. 6.

  1726.—"BANDARES or _Adassing_ are those who are at the Court as Dukes,
  Counts, or even Princes of the Royal House."—_Valentijn_ (Ceylon), _Names
  of Officers, &c._, 8.

  1810.—"After the Raja had amused himself with their speaking, and was
  tired of it ... the BINTARA with the green eyes (for it is the custom
  that the eldest BINTARA should have green shades before his eyes, that he
  may not be dazzled by the greatness of the Raja, and forget his duty)
  brought the books and packets, and delivered them to the BINTARA with the
  black _baju_, from whose hands the Raja received them, one by one, in
  order to present them to the youths."—A _Malay's_ account of a visit to
  Govt. House, Calcutta, transl. by Dr. Leyden in _Maria Graham_, p. 202.

  1883.—"In most of the States the reigning prince has regular officers
  under him, chief among whom ... the BANDAHARA or treasurer, who is the
  first minister...."—_Miss Bird, The Golden Chersonese_, 26.


BENDY, BINDY, s.: also BANDICOY (q.v.), the form in S. India; H. _bhinḍī_,
[_bhenḍī_], Dakh. _bhenḍī_, Mahr. _bhenḍā_; also in H. _rāmturἀī_; the
fruit of the plant _Abelmoschus esculentus_, also _Hibiscus esc._ It is
called in Arab. _bāmiyah_ (_Lane, Mod. Egypt_, ed. 1837, i. 199: [5th ed.
i. 184: _Burton, Ar. Nights_, xi. 57]), whence the modern Greek μπάμια. In
Italy the vegetable is called _corni de' Greci_. The Latin name
_Abelmoschus_ is from the Ar. _ḥabb-ul-mushk_, 'grain of musk' (_Dozy_).

  1810.—"The BENDY, called in the West Indies _okree_, is a pretty plant
  resembling a hollyhock; the fruit is about the length and thickness of
  one's finger ... when boiled it is soft and mucilaginous."—_Maria
  Graham_, 24.

  1813.—"The BANDA (_Hibiscus esculentus_) is a nutritious oriental
  vegetable."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ i. 32; [2nd ed. i. 22].

  1880.—"I recollect the West Indian _Ookroo_ ... being some years ago
  recommended for introduction in India. The seed was largely advertised,
  and sold at about 8_s._ the ounce to eager horticulturists, who ... found
  that it came up nothing other than the familiar BENDY, the seed of which
  sells at Bombay for 1_d._ the ounce. Yet ... _ookroo_ seed continued to
  be advertised and sold at 8_s._ the ounce...."—_Note_ by _Sir G.
  Birdwood_.


BENDY-TREE, s. This, according to Sir G. Birdwood, is the _Thespesia
populnea_, Lam. [_Watt, Econ. Dict._ vi. pt. iv. 45 _seqq._], and gives a
name to the '_Bendy Bazar_' in Bombay. (See PORTIA.)


BENGAL, n.p. The region of the Ganges Delta and the districts immediately
above it; but often in English use with a wide application to the whole
territory garrisoned by the Bengal army. This name does not appear, so far
as we have been able to learn, in any Mahommedan or Western writing before
the latter part of the 13th century. In the earlier part of that century
the Mahommedan writers generally call the province _Lakhnaotī_, after the
chief city, but we have also the old form _Bang_, from the indigenous
_Vaṅga_. Already, however, in the 11th century we have it as _Vaṅgālam_ on
the Inscription of the great Tanjore Pagoda. This is the oldest occurrence
that we can cite.

The alleged _City_ of _Bengala_ of the Portuguese which has greatly
perplexed geographers, probably originated with the Arab custom of giving
an important foreign city or seaport the name of the country in which it
lay (compare the city of _Solmandala_, under COROMANDEL). It long kept a
place in maps. The last occurrence that we know of is in a chart of 1743,
in Dalrymple's Collection, which identifies it with Chittagong, and it may
be considered certain that Chittagong was the place intended by the older
writers (see _Varthema_ and _Ovington_). The former, as regards his
visiting _Banghella_, deals in fiction—a thing clear from internal
evidence, and expressly alleged, by the judicious Garcia de Orta: "As to
what you say of Ludovico Vartomano, I have spoken, both here and in
Portugal, with men who knew him here in India, and they told me that he
went about here in the garb of a Moor, and then reverted to us, doing
penance for his sins; and that the man never went further than Calecut and
Cochin."—_Colloquios_, f. 30.

  c. 1250.—"Muhammad Bakhtiyár ... returned to Behár. Great fear of him
  prevailed in the minds of the infidels of the territories of Lakhnauti,
  Behar, BANG, and Kámrúp."—_Tabakát-i-Násiri_, in _Elliot_, ii. 307.

  1298.—"BANGALA is a Province towards the south, which up to the year 1290
  ... had not yet been conquered...." (&c.).—_Marco Polo_, Bk. ii. ch. 55.

  c. 1300.—"... then to Bijalár (but better reading BANGĀLĀ), which from of
  old is subject to Delhi...."—_Rashīduddīn_, in _Elliot_, i. 72.

  c. 1345.—"... we were at sea 43 days and then arrived in the country of
  BANJĀLA, which is a vast region abounding in rice. I have seen no country
  in the world where provisions are cheaper than in this; but it is muggy,
  and those who come from Khorāsān call it 'a hell full of good
  things.'"—_Ibn Batuta_, iv. 211. (But the Emperor Aurungzebe is alleged
  to have "emphatically styled it the _Paradise of Nations_."—Note in
  _Stavorinus_, i. 291.)

  c. 1350.—

   "_Shukr shikan shawand hama ṭūṭiān-i-Hind
    Zīn ḳand-i-Pārsī kih ba_ BANGĀLA _mi rawad_."
               _Hāfiz._

  _i.e._,

   "Sugar nibbling are all the parrots of Ind
    From this Persian candy that travels to BENGAL"
               (viz. his own poems).

  1498.—"BEMGALA: in this Kingdom are many Moors, and few Christians, and
  the King is a Moor ... in this land are many cotton cloths, and silk
  cloths, and much silver; it is 40 days with a fair wind from
  Calicut."—_Roteiro de V. da Gama_, 2nd ed. p. 110.

  1506.—"A BANZELO, el suo Re è Moro, e li se fa el forzo de' panni de
  gotton...."—_Leonardo do Ca' Masser_, 28.

  1510.—"We took the route towards the city of BANGHELLA ... one of the
  best that I had hitherto seen."—_Varthema_, 210.

  1516.—"... the Kingdom of BENGALA, in which there are many towns....
  Those of the interior are inhabited by Gentiles subject to the King of
  Bengala, who is a Moor; and the seaports are inhabited by Moors and
  Gentiles, amongst whom there is much trade and much shipping to many
  parts, because this sea is a gulf ... and at its inner extremity there is
  a very great city inhabited by Moors, which is called BENGALA, with a
  very good harbour."—_Barbosa_, 178-9.

  c. 1590.—"BUNGALEH originally was called BUNG; it derived the additional
  _al_ from that being the name given to the mounds of earth which the
  ancient Rajahs caused to be raised in the low lands, at the foot of the
  hills."—_Ayeen Akbery_, tr. _Gladwin_, ii. 4 (ed. 1800); [tr. _Jarrett_,
  ii. 120].

  1690.—"Arracan ... is bounded on the _North-West_ by the Kingdom of
  _Bengala_, some Authors making _Chatigam_ to be its first Frontier City;
  but _Teixeira_, and generally the _Portuguese_ Writers, reckon that as a
  City of BENGALA; and not only so, but place the City of _Bengala_ it self
  ... more South than _Chatigam_. Tho' I confess a late _French_ Geographer
  has put _Bengala_ into his Catalogue of imaginary Cities...."—_Ovington_,
  554.


BENGAL, s. This was also the designation of a kind of piece-goods exported
from that country to England, in the 17th century. But long before, among
the Moors of Spain, a fine muslin seems to have been known as _al-bangala_,
surviving in Spanish _albengala_. (See _Dozy and Eng._ s.v. [What were
called "_Bengal_ Stripes" were striped ginghams brought first from Bengal
and first made in Great Britain at Paisley. (_Draper's Dict._ s.v.). So a
particular kind of silk was known as "_Bengal_ wound," because it was
"rolled in the rude and artless manner immemorially practised by the
natives of that country." (_Milburn_, in _Watt, Econ. Dict._ vi. pt. 3,
185.) See _N.E.D._ for examples of the use of the word as late as Lord
Macaulay.]

  1696.—"Tis granted that BENGALS and stain'd Callicoes, and other _East
  India_ Goods, do hinder the Consumption of Norwich stuffs...."—_Davenant,
  An Essay on the East India Trade_, 31.


BENGALA, s. This is or was also applied in Portuguese to a sort of cane
carried in the army by sergeants, &c. (_Bluteau_).


BENGALEE, n.p. A native of Bengal [BABOO]. In the following early
occurrence in Portuguese, _Bengala_ is used:

  1552.—"In the defence of the bridge died three of the King's captains and
  Tuam Bandam, to whose charge it was committed, a _Bengali_ (BENGALA) by
  nation, and a man sagacious and crafty in stratagems rather than a
  soldier (cavalheiro)."—_Barros_, II., vi. iii.

  [1610.—"BANGASALYS." See quotation from Teixeira under BANKSHALL.]

  A note to the _Seir Mutaqherin_ quotes a Hindustani proverb: BANGĀLĪ
  _jangālī, Kashmīrī bepīrī_, _i.e._ 'The Bengalee is ever an entangler,
  the Cashmeeree without religion.'

[In modern Anglo-Indian parlance the title is often applied in provinces
other than Bengal to officers from N. India. The following from Madras is a
curious early instance of the same use of the word:—

  [1699.—"Two BENGALLES here of Council."—_Hedges, Diary_, Hak. Soc. ii.
  cclxvii.]


BENIGHTED, THE, adj. An epithet applied by the denizens of the other
Presidencies, in facetious disparagement to Madras. At Madras itself "all
Carnatic fashion" is an habitual expression among older English-speaking
natives, which appears to convey a similar idea. (See MADRAS, MULL.)

  1860.—"... to ye Londe of St Thomé. It ys ane darke Londe, & ther dwellen
  ye Cimmerians whereof speketh HOMERUS Poeta in hys ODYSSEIA & to thys
  Daye thei clepen TENEBROSI, OR YE BENYHTED FOLKE."—_Fragments of Sir J.
  Maundevile, from a MS. lately discovered._


BENJAMIN, BENZOIN, &c., s. A kind of incense, derived from the resin of the
_Styrax benzoin_, Dryander, in Sumatra, and from an undetermined species in
Siam. It got from the Arab traders the name _lubān-Jāwī_, _i.e._ 'Java
Frankincense,' corrupted in the Middle Ages into such forms as we give. The
first syllable of the Arabic term was doubtless taken as an article—_lo
bengioi_, whence _bengioi_, _benzoin_, and so forth. This etymology is
given correctly by De Orta, and by Valentijn, and suggested by Barbosa in
the quotation below. Spanish forms are _benjui_, _menjui_; Modern Port.
_beijoim_, _beijuim_; Ital. _belzuino_, &c. The terms _Jāwā_, _Jāwī_ were
applied by the Arabs to the Malay countries generally (especially Sumatra)
and their products. (See _Marco Polo_, ii. 266; [_Linschoten_, Hak. Soc.
ii. 96] and the first quotation here.)

  c. 1350.—"After a voyage of 25 days we arrived at the Island of Jāwa
  (here Sumatra) which gives its name to the _Jāwī_ incense (al-LUBĀN
  al-JĀWĪ)."—_Ibn Batuta_, iv. 228.

  1461.—"Have these things that I have written to thee next thy heart, and
  God grant that we may be always at peace. The presents (herewith):
  BENZOI, rotoli 30. Legno Aloë, rotoli 20. Due paja di tapeti...."—Letter
  from the _Soldan of Egypt_ to the Doge Pasquale Malipiero, in the Lives
  of the Doges, _Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores_, xxii. col. 1170.

  1498.—"_Xarnauz_ ... is from Calecut 50 days' sail with a fair wind (see
  SARNAU) ... in this land there is much BEIJOIM, which costs iii cruzados
  the _farazalla_, and much _aloee_ which costs xxv cruzados the farazalla"
  (see FRAZALA).—_Roteiro da Viagem de V. da Gama_, 109-110.

  1516.—"BENJUY, each farazola lx, and the very good lxx fanams."—_Barbosa_
  (Tariff of Prices at Calicut), 222.

     "    "BENJUY, which is a resin of trees which the Moors call _luban
  javi_."—_Ibid._ 188.

  1539.—"Cinco quintais de BEIJOIM de boninas."[40]—_Pinto_, cap. xiii.

  1563.—"And all these species of BENJUY the inhabitants of the country
  call _cominham_,[41] but the Moors call them LOUAN JAOY, _i.e._ 'incense
  of Java' ... for the Arabs call incense _louan_."—_Garcia_, f. 29_v_.

  1584.—"BELZUINUM mandolalo[40] from Sian and Baros. Belzuinum, burned,
  from Bonnia" (Borneo?).—_Barret_, in _Hakl._ ii. 413.

  1612.—"BENIAMIN, the pund iiii _li._"—_Rates and Valuatioun of
  Merchandize_ (Scotland), pub. by the Treasury, Edin. 1867, p. 298.


BENUA, n.p. This word, Malay _banuwa_, [in standard Malay, according to Mr.
Skeat, _benuwa_ or _benua_], properly means 'land, country,' and the Malays
use _orang-banuwa_ in the sense of aborigines, applying it to the wilder
tribes of the Malay Peninsula. Hence "Benuas" has been used by Europeans as
a proper name of those tribes.—See _Crawfurd, Dict. Ind. Arch._ sub voce.

  1613.—"The natives of the interior of Viontana (UJONG-TANA, q.v.) are
  properly those BANUAS, black anthropophagi, and hairy, like
  satyrs."—_Godinho de Eredia_, 20.


BERBERYN, BARBERYN, n.p. Otherwise called _Beruwala_, a small port with an
anchorage for ships and a considerable coasting trade, in Ceylon, about 35
m. south of Columbo.

  c. 1350.—"Thus, led by the Divine mercy, on the morrow of the Invention
  of the Holy Cross, we found ourselves brought safely into port in a
  harbour of Seyllan, called PERVILIS, over against
  Paradise."—_Marignolli_, in _Cathay_, ii. 357.

  c. 1618.—"At the same time Barreto made an attack on BERBELIM, killing
  the Moorish modeliar [MODELLIAR] and all his kinsfolk."—_Bocarro,
  Decada_, 713.

  1780.—"BARBARIEN Island."—_Dunn, New Directory_, 5th ed. 77.

  1836.—"BERBERYN Island.... There is said to be an anchorage north of it,
  in 6 or 7 fathoms, and a small bay further in ... where small craft may
  anchor."—_Horsburgh_, 5th ed. 551.

  [1859.—Tennent in his map (_Ceylon_, 3rd ed.) gives BARBERYN, BARBERY,
  BARBERRY.]


BERIBERI, s. An acute disease, obscure in its nature and pathology,
generally but not always presenting dropsical symptoms, as well as
paralytic weakness and numbness of the lower extremities, with oppressed
breathing. In cases where debility, oppression, anxiety and dyspnœa are
extremely severe, the patient sometimes dies in 6 to 30 hours. Though
recent reports seem to refer to this disease as almost confined to natives,
it is on record that in 1795, in Trincomalee, 200 Europeans died of it.

The word has been alleged to be Singhalese _beri_ [the _Mad. Admin. Man.
Gloss._ s.v. gives _baribari_], 'debility.' This kind of reduplication is
really a common Singhalese practice. It is also sometimes alleged to be a
W. Indian Negro term; and other worthless guesses have been made at its
origin. The Singhalese origin is on the whole most probable [and is
accepted by the _N.E.D._]. In the quotations from Bontius and Bluteau, the
disease described seems to be that formerly known as BARBIERS. Some
authorities have considered these diseases as quite distinct, but Sir
Joseph Fayrer, who has paid attention to _beriberi_ and written upon it
(see _The Practitioner_, January 1877), regards Barbiers as "the dry form
of _beri-beri_," and Dr. Lodewijks, quoted below, says briefly that "the
Barbiers of some French writers is incontestably the same disease." (On
this it is necessary to remark that the use of the term _Barbiers_ is by no
means confined to French writers, as a glance at the quotations under that
word will show). The disease prevails endemically in Ceylon, and in
Peninsular India in the coast-tracts, and up to 40 or 60 m. inland; also in
Burma and the Malay region, including all the islands, at least so far as
New Guinea, and also Japan, where it is known as _kakké_: [see
_Chamberlain, Things Japanese_, 3rd ed. p. 238 _seqq._]. It is very
prevalent in certain Madras Jails. The name has become somewhat
old-fashioned, but it has recurred of late years, especially in hospital
reports from Madras and Burma. It is frequently epidemic, and some of the
Dutch physicians regard it as infectious. See a pamphlet, BERI-BERI _door
J. A. Lodewijks, ondofficier van Gezondheit bij het Ned. Indische Leger_,
Harderwijk, 1882. In this pamphlet it is stated that in 1879 the total
number of _beri-beri_ patients in the military hospitals of
Netherlands-India, amounted to 9873, and the deaths among these to 1682. In
the great military hospitals at Achin there died of _beri-beri_ between 1st
November 1879, and 1st April 1880, 574 persons, of whom the great majority
were _dwangarbeiders_, _i.e._ 'forced labourers.' These statistics show the
extraordinary prevalence and fatality of the disease in the Archipelago.
Dutch literature on the subject is considerable.

Sir George Birdwood tells us that during the Persian Expedition of 1857 he
witnessed _beri-beri_ of extraordinary virulence, especially among the East
African stokers on board the steamers. The sufferers became dropsically
distended to a vast extent, and died in a few hours.

In the second quotation _scurvy_ is evidently meant. This seems much allied
by _causes_ to _beriberi_ though different in character.

  [1568.—"Our people sickened of a disease called BERBERE, the belly and
  legs swell, and in a few days they die, as there died many, ten or twelve
  a day."—_Couto_, viii. ch. 25.]

  c. 1610.—"Ce ne fut pas tout, car i'eus encor ceste fascheuse maladie de
  _louende_ que les Portugais appellent autrement BERBER et les Hollandais
  _scurbut_."—_Mocquet_, 221.

  1613.—"And under the orders of the said General André Furtado de Mendoça,
  the discoverer departed to the court of Goa, being ill with the malady of
  the BEREBERE, in order to get himself treated."—_Godinho de Eredia_, f.
  58.

  1631.—"... Constat frequenti illorum usu, praesertim liquoris _saguier_
  dicti, non solum diarrhaeas ... sed et paralysin BERIBERI dictam hinc
  natam esse."—_Jac. Bontii_, Dial. iv. See also Lib. ii. cap. iii., and
  Lib. iii. p. 40.

  1659.—"There is also another sickness which prevails in Banda and Ceylon,
  and is called BARBERI; it does not vex the natives so much as
  foreigners."—_Sarr_, 37.

  1682.—"The Indian and Portuguese women draw from the green flowers and
  cloves, by means of firing with a still, a water or spirit of marvellous
  sweet smell ... especially is it good against a certain kind of paralysis
  called BEREBERY."—_Nieuhof, Zee en Lant-Reize_, ii. 33.

  1685.—"The Portuguese in the Island suffer from another sickness which
  the natives call BÉRI-BÉRI."—_Ribeiro_, f. 55.

  1720.—"BEREBERE (termo da India). Huma _Paralysia_ bastarde, ou
  entorpecemento, com que fica o corpo como tolhido."—_Bluteau, Dict._ s.v.

  1809.—"A complaint, as far as I have learnt, peculiar to the island
  (Ceylon), the BERRI-BERRI; it is in fact a dropsy that frequently
  destroys in a few days."—_Ld. Valentia_, i. 318.

  1835.—(On the Maldives) "... the crew of the vessels during the survey
  ... suffered mostly from two diseases; the BERI-BERI which attacked the
  Indians only, and generally proved fatal."—_Young and Christopher_, in
  _Tr. Ro. Geog. Soc._, vol. i.

  1837.—"Empyreumatic oil called _oleum nigrum_, from the seeds of
  _Celastrus nutans_ (_Malkungnee_) described in Mr. Malcolmson's able
  prize Essay on the Hist. and Treatment of BERIBERI ... the most
  efficacious remedy in that intractable complaint."—_Royle on Hindu
  Medicine_, 46.

  1880.—"A malady much dreaded by the Japanese, called _Kakké_.... It
  excites a most singular dread. It is considered to be the same disease as
  that which, under the name of BERIBERI, makes such havoc at times on
  crowded jails and barracks."—_Miss Bird's Japan_, i. 288.

  1882.—"BERBÁ, a disease which consists in great swelling of the
  abdomen."—_Blumentritt, Vocabular_, s.v.

  1885.—"Dr. Wallace Taylor, of Osaka, Japan, reports important discoveries
  respecting the origin of the disease known as BERI-BERI. He has traced it
  to a microscopic spore largely developed in rice. He has finally detected
  the same organism in the earth of certain alluvial and damp
  localities."—_St. James's Gazette_, Aug. 9th.

  Also see Report on Prison Admin. in Br. Burma, for 1878, p. 26.


BERYL, s. This word is perhaps a very ancient importation from India to the
West, it having been supposed that its origin was the Skt. _vaidūrya_,
Prak. _velūriya_, whence [Malay _baiduri_ and _biduri_], P. _billaur_, and
Greek βήρυλλος. Bochart points out the probable identity of the two last
words by the transposition of _l_ and _r_. Another transposition appears to
have given Ptolemy his Ὀρούδια ὄρη (for the Western Ghats), representing
probably the native _Vaidūrya_ mountains. In Ezekiel xxvii. 13, the Sept.
has Βηρύλλιον, where the Hebrew now has _tarshīsh_, [another word with
probably the same meaning being _shohsm_ (see Professor Ridgeway in
_Encycl. Bibl._ s.v. _Beryl_)]. Professor Max Müller has treated of the
possible relation between _vaidūrya_ and _vidāla_, 'a cat,' and in
connection with this observes that "we should, at all events, have learnt
the useful lesson that the chapter of accidents is sometimes larger than we
suppose."—(_India, What can it Teach us?_" p. 267). This is a lesson which
many articles in our book suggest; and in dealing with the same words, it
may be indicated that the resemblance between the Greek αἴλουρος, _bilaur_,
a common H. word for a cat, and the P. _billaur_, 'beryl,' are at least
additional illustrations of the remark quoted.

  c. A.D. 70.—"BERYLS ... from India they come as from their native place,
  for seldom are they to be found elsewhere.... Those are best accounted of
  which carrie a sea-water greene."—_Pliny_, Bk. XXXVII. cap. 20 (in _P.
  Holland_, ii. 613).

  c. 150.—"Πυννάτα ἐν ᾗ βήρυλλος."—_Ptolemy_, l. vii.


BETEL, s. The leaf of the _Piper betel_, L., chewed with the dried
ARECA-nut (which is thence improperly called _betel-nut_, a mistake as old
as Fryer—1673,—see p. 40), _chunam_, etc., by the natives of India and the
Indo-Chinese countries. The word is Malayāl. _veṭṭila_, _i.e._ _veru_ +
_ila_ = 'simple or mere leaf,' and comes to us through the Port. _betre_
and _betle_. PAWN (q.v.) is the term more generally used by modern
Anglo-Indians. In former times the _betel-leaf_ was in S. India the subject
of a monopoly of the E. I. Co.

  1298.—"All the people of this city (Cael) as well as of the rest of
  India, have a custom of perpetually keeping in the mouth a certain leaf
  called _Tembul_ ... the lords and gentlefolks and the King have these
  leaves prepared with camphor and other aromatic spices, and also mixt
  with quicklime...."—_Marco Polo_, ii. 358. See also _Abdurrazzāk_, in
  _India in XV. Cent._, p. 32.

  1498.—In Vasco da Gama's _Roteiro_, p. 59, the word used is _atombor_,
  _i.e._ _al-tambūl_ (Arab.) from the Skt. _tāmbūla_. See also _Acosta_, p.
  139. [See TEMBOOL.]

  1510.—"This BETEL resembles the leaves of the sour orange, and they are
  constantly eating it."—_Varthema_, p. 144.

  1516.—"We call this BETEL Indian leaf."[42]—_Barbosa_, 73.

  [1521.—"BETTRE (or VETTELE)." See under ARECA.]

  1552.—"... at one side of the bed ... stood a man ... who held in his
  hand a gold plate with leaves of BETELLE...."—_De Barros_, Dec. I. liv.
  iv. cap. viii.

  1563.—"We call it BETRE, because the first land known by the Portuguese
  was Malabar, and it comes to my remembrance that in Portugal they used to
  speak of their coming not to _India_, but to Calecut ... insomuch that in
  all the names that occur, which are not Portuguese, are Malabar, like
  BETRE."—_Garcia_, f. 37_g_.

  1582.—The transl. of _Castañeda_ by N. L. has BETELE (f. 35), and also
  VITELE (f. 44).

  1585.—A King's letter grants the revenue from betel (BETRE) to the bishop
  and clergy of Goa.—In _Arch. Port. Or._, fasc. 3, p. 38.

  1615.—"He sent for Coco-Nuts to give the Company, himselfe chewing BITTLE
  and lime of Oyster-shels, with a Kernell of Nut called _Arracca_, like an
  Akorne, it bites in the mouth, accords rheume, cooles the head,
  strengthens the teeth, & is all their Phisicke."—_Sir T. Roe_, in
  _Purchas_, i. 537; [with some trifling variations in _Foster's_ ed. (Hak.
  Soc.) i. 19].

  1623.—"Celebratur in universo oriente radix quaedam vocata BETEL, quam
  Indi et reliqui in ore habere et mandere consueverunt, atque ex eâ
  mansione mire recreantur, et ad labores tolerandos, et ad languores
  discutiendos ... videtur autem esse ex _narcoticis_, quia magnopere
  denigrat dentes."—_Bacon, Historia Vitae et Mortis_, ed. Amst. 1673, p.
  97.

  1672.—"They pass the greater part of the day in indolence, occupied only
  with talk, and chewing BETEL and Areca, by which means their lips and
  teeth are always stained."—_P. di Vincenzo Maria_, 232.

  1677.—The Court of the E. I. Co. in a letter to Ft. St. George, Dec. 12,
  disapprove of allowing "Valentine Nurse 20 Rupees a month for diet, 7 Rs.
  for house-rent, 2 for a cook, 1 for BEETLE, and 2 for a Porter, which is
  a most extravagant rate, which we shall not allow him or any
  other."—_Notes and Exts._, No. i. p. 21.

  1727.—"I presented the Officer that waited on me to the Sea-side (at
  Calicut) with 5 zequeens for a feast of BETTLE to him and his
  companions."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 306.


BETTEELA, BEATELLE, &c., s. The name of a kind of muslin constantly
mentioned in old trading-lists and narratives. This seems to be a Sp. and
Port. word _beatilla_ or _beatilha_, for 'a veil,' derived, according to
Cobarruvias, from "certain _beatas_, who invented or used the like."
_Beata_ is a _religieuse_. ["The BETILLA is a certain kind of white E. I.
chintz made at Masulipatam, and known under the name of _Organdi_."—_Mad.
Admin. Man. Gloss._ p. 233.]

  [1566.—"A score BYATILHAS, which were worth 200 pardaos."—_Correa_, iii.
  479.]

  1572.—

   "Vestida huma camisa preciosa
    Trazida de delgada BEATILHA,
    Que o corpo crystallino deixa ver-se;
    Que tanto bem não he para esconder-se."
               _Camões_, vi. 21.

  1598.—"... this linnen is of divers sorts, and is called Serampuras,
  Cassas, Comsas, BEATTILLIAS, Satopassas, and a thousand such
  names."—_Linschoten_, 28; [Hak. Soc. i. 95; and cf. i. 56].

  1685.—"To servants, 3 pieces BETEELAES."—In _Wheeler_, i. 149.

  1727.—"Before _Aurangzeb_ conquered _Visiapore_, this country (Sundah)
  produced the finest BETTEELAS or Muslins in India."—_A. Hamilton_, i.
  264.

  [1788.—"There are various kinds of muslins brought from the East Indies,
  chiefly from Bengal: BETELLES, &c."—_Chambers' Cycl._, quoted in 3 ser.
  _Notes & Q._ iv. 88.]


BEWAURIS, adj. P.—H. _be-wāris_, 'without heir.' Unclaimed, without heir or
owner.


BEYPOOR, n.p. Properly _Veppūr_, or _Bēppūr_, [derived from Malayāl.
_veppu_, 'deposit,' _ur_, 'village,' a place formed by the receding of the
sea, which has been turned into the Skt. form _Vāyupura_, 'the town of the
Wind-god']. The terminal town of the Madras Railway on the Malabar coast.
It stands north of the river; whilst the railway station is on the S. of
the river—(see CHALIA). Tippoo Sahib tried to make a great port of Beypoor,
and to call it Sultanpatnam. [It is one of the many places which have been
suggested as the site of Ophir (_Logan, Malabar_, i. 246), and is probably
the _Belliporto_ of Tavernier, "where there was a fort which the Dutch had
made with palms" (ed. _Ball_, i. 235).]

  1572.—

   "Chamará o Samorim mais gente nova;
    Virão Reis de BIPUR, e de Tanor...."
               _Camões_, x. 14.

  1727.—"About two Leagues to the Southward of _Calecut_, is a fine River
  called BAYPORE, capable to receive ships of 3 or 400 Tuns."—_A.
  Hamilton_, i. 322.


BEZOAR, s. This word belongs, not to the A.-Indian colloquial, but to the
language of old oriental trade and _materia medica_. The word is a
corruption of the P. name of the thing, _pādzahr_, 'pellens venenum,' or
_pāzahr_. The first form is given by Meninski as the etymology of the word,
and this is accepted by Littré [and the _N.E.D._]. The quotations of Littré
from Ambrose Paré show that the word was used generically for 'an
antidote,' and in this sense it is used habitually by Avicenna. No doubt
the term came to us, with so many others, from Arab medical writers, so
much studied in the Middle Ages, and this accounts for the _b_, as Arabic
has no _p_, and writes _bāzahr_. But its usual application was, and is,
limited to certain hard concretions found in the bodies of animals, to
which antidotal virtues were ascribed, and especially to one obtained from
the stomach of a wild goat in the Persian province of Lar. Of this animal
and the _bezoar_ an account is given in Kaempfer's _Amoenitates Exoticae_,
pp. 398 _seqq._ The _Bezoar_ was sometimes called SNAKE-STONE, and
erroneously supposed to be found in the head of a snake. It may have been
called so really because, as Ibn Baithar states, such a stone was laid upon
the bite of a venomous creature (and was believed) to extract the poison.
Moodeen Sheriff, in his Suppt. to the Indian Pharmacopœia, says there are
various _bezoars_ in use (in native _mat. med._), distinguished according
to the animal producing them, as a goat-, camel-, fish-, and
snake-_bezoar_; the last quite distinct from SNAKE-STONE (q.v.).

[A false Bezoar stone gave occasion for the establishment of one of the
great distinctions in our Common Law, viz. between actions founded upon
contract, and those founded upon wrongs: _Chandelor_ v. _Lopus_ was decided
in 1604 (reported in 2. _Croke_, and in _Smith's Leading Cases_). The
head-note runs—"The defendant sold to the plaintiff a stone, which he
affirmed to be a Bezoar stone, but which proved not to be so. No action
lies against him, unless he either knew that it was not a Bezoar stone, or
warranted it to be a Bezoar stone" (quoted by _Gray, Pyrard de Laval_, Hak.
Soc. ii. 484).]

  1516.—Barbosa writes PAJAR.

  [1528.—"Near this city (Lara) in a small mountain are bred some animals
  of the size of a buck, in whose stomach grows a stone they call
  BAZAR."—_Tenreiro_, ch. iii. p. 14.]

  [1554.—Castanheda (I. ch. 46) calls the animal whence bezoar comes
  _bagoldaf_, which he considers an Indian word.]

  c. 1580.—"... adeo ut ex solis BEZAHAR nonnulla vasa conflata viderim,
  maxime apud eos qui a venenis sibi cavere student."—_Prosper Alpinus_,
  Pt. i. p. 56.

  1599.—"Body o' me, a shrewd mischance. Why, had you no unicorn's horn,
  nor BEZOAR'S stone about you, ha?"—_B. Jonson, Every Man out of his
  Humour_, Act v. sc. 4.

  [   "    "BEZAR sive BAZAR"; see quotation under MACE.]

  1605.—The King of Bantam sends K. James I. "two BEASAR
  stones."—_Sainsbury_, i. 143.

  1610.—"The Persian calls it, _par excellence_, PAZAHAR, which is as much
  as to say 'antidote' or more strictly 'remedy of poison or venom,' from
  _Zahar_, which is the general name of any poison, and _pá_, 'remedy'; and
  as the Arabic lacks the letter _p_, they replace it by _b_, or _f_, and
  so they say, instead of _Pázahar_, _Bázahar_, and we with a little
  additional corruption BEZAR."—_P. Teixeira, Relaciones, &c._, p. 157.

  1613.—"... elks, and great snakes, and apes of BAZAR stone, and every
  kind of game birds."—_Godinho de Eredia_, 10_v._

  1617.—"... late at night I drunke a little BEZAS stone, which gave me
  much paine most parte of night, as though 100 Wormes had byn knawing at
  my hart; yet it gave me ease afterward."—_Cocks's Diary_, i. 301; [in i.
  154 he speaks of "BEZA stone"].

  1634.—Bontius claims the etymology just quoted from Teixeira,
  erroneously, as his own.—Lib. iv. p. 47.

  1673.—"The Persians then call this stone PAZAHAR, being a compound of
  _Pa_ and _Zahar_, the first of which is _against_, and the other is
  _Poyson_."—_Fryer_, 238.

     "    "The Monkey BEZOARS which are long, are the best...."—_Ibid._
  212.

  1711.—"In this animal (Hog-deer of Sumatra, apparently a sort of
  chevrotain or _Tragulus_) is found the bitter BEZOAR, called _Pedra di
  Porco Siacca_, valued at ten times its Weight in Gold."—_Lockyer_, 49.

  1826.—"What is spikenard? what is _mumiai_? what is PAHZER? compared even
  to a twinkle of a royal eye-lash?"—_Hajji Baba_, ed. 1835, p. 148.


BHAT, s. H. &c. _bhāṭ_ (Skt. _bhàṭṭa_, a title of respect, probably
connected with _bhàrtṛi_, 'a supporter or master'), a man of a tribe of
mixed descent, whose members are professed genealogists and poets; a bard.
These men in Rājputāna and Guzerat had also extraordinary privileges as the
guarantors of travellers, whom they accompanied, against attack and
robbery. See an account of them in _Forbes's Rās Mālā_, I. ix. &c., reprint
558 _seqq._; [for Bengal, _Risley, Tribes & Castes_, i. 101 seqq.; for the
N.W.P., _Crooke, Tribes & Castes_, ii. 20 _seqq._

  [1554.—"BATS," see quotation under RAJPUT.]

  c. 1555.—"Among the infidel Bānyāns in this country (Guzerat) there is a
  class of _literati_ known as BĀTS. These undertake to be guides to
  traders and other travellers ... when the caravans are waylaid on the
  road by _Rāshbūts_, _i.e._ Indian horsemen, coming to pillage them, the
  BĀT takes out his dagger, points it at his own breast, and says: 'I have
  become surety! If aught befals the caravan I must kill myself!' On these
  words the Rāshbūts let the caravan pass unharmed."—_Sidi 'Ali_, 95.

  [1623.—"Those who perform the office of Priests, whom they call
  BOTI."—_P. della Valle_, Hak. Soc. i. 80.]

  1775.—"The Hindoo rajahs and Mahratta chieftains have generally a BHAUT
  in the family, who attends them on public occasions ... sounds their
  praise, and proclaims their titles in hyperbolical and figurative
  language ... many of them have another mode of living; they offer
  themselves as security to the different governments for payment of their
  revenue, and the good behaviour of the Zemindars, patels, and public
  farmers; they also become guarantees for treaties between native princes,
  and the performance of bonds by individuals."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ ii. 89;
  [2nd ed. i. 377; also see ii. 258]. See TRAGA.

  1810.—"India, like the nations of Europe, had its minstrels and poets,
  concerning whom there is the following tradition: At the marriage of Siva
  and Parvatty, the immortals having exhausted all the amusements then
  known, wished for something new, when Siva, wiping the drops of sweat
  from his brow, shook them to earth, upon which the BAWTS, or Bards,
  immediately sprang up."—_Maria Graham_, 169.

  1828.—"A 'BHAT' or Bard came to ask a gratuity."—_Heber_, ed. 1844, ii.
  53.


BHEEL, n.p. Skt. _Bhilla_; H. _Bhīl_. The name of a race inhabiting the
hills and forests of the Vindhya, Malwa, and of the N.-Western Deccan, and
believed to have been the aborigines of Rājputāna; some have supposed them
to be the Φυλλῖται of Ptolemy. They are closely allied to the COOLIES
(q.v.) of Guzerat, and are believed to belong to the _Kolarian_ division of
Indian aborigines. But no distinct Bhīl language survives.

  1785.—"A most infernal yell suddenly issued from the deep ravines. Our
  guides informed us that this was the noise always made by the BHEELS
  previous to an attack."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ iii. 480.

  1825.—"All the BHEELS whom we saw to-day were small, slender men, less
  broad-shouldered ... and with faces less Celtic than the Puharees of the
  Rajmahal.... Two of them had rude swords and shields, the remainder had
  all bows and arrows."—_Heber_, ed. 1844, ii. 75.


BHEEL, s. A word used in Bengal—_bhīl_: a marsh or lagoon; same as JEEL
(q.v.)

  [1860.—"The natives distinguish a lake so formed by a change in a river's
  course from one of usual origin or shape by calling the former a
  _bowr_—whilst the latter is termed a BHEEL."—_Grant, Rural Life in
  Bengal_, 35.]

  1879.—"Below Shouy-doung there used to be a big BHEEL, wherein I have
  shot a few duck, teal, and snipe."—_Pollok, Sport in B. Burmah_, i. 26.


BHEESTY, s. The universal word in the Anglo-Indian households of N. India
for the domestic (corresponding to the _saḳḳā_ of Egypt) who supplies the
family with water, carrying it in a MUSSUCK, (q.v.), or goatskin, slung on
his back. The word is P. _bihishtī_, a person of _bihisht_ or paradise,
though the application appears to be peculiar to Hindustan. We have not
been able to trace the history of this term, which does not apparently
occur in the _Āīn_, even in the curious account of the way in which water
was cooled and supplied in the Court of Akbar (_Blochmann_, tr. i. 55
_seqq._), or in the old travellers, and is not given in Meninski's lexicon.
Vullers gives it only as from Shakespear's Hindustani Dict. [The trade must
be of ancient origin in India, as the leather bag is mentioned in the Veda
and Manu (_Wilson, Rig Veda_, ii. 28; _Institutes_, ii. 79.) Hence Col.
Temple (_Ind. Ant._, xi. 117) suggests that the word is Indian, and
connects it with the Skt. _vish_, 'to sprinkle.'] It is one of the fine
titles which Indian servants rejoice to bestow on one another, like
_Mehtar_, _Khalīfa_, &c. The title in this case has some justification. No
class of men (as all Anglo-Indians will agree) is so diligent, so faithful,
so unobtrusive, and uncomplaining as that of the _bihishtīs_. And often in
battle they have shown their courage and fidelity in supplying water to the
wounded in face of much personal danger.

  [c. 1660.—"Even the menials and carriers of water belonging to that
  nation (the Pathāns) are high-spirited and war-like."—_Bernier_, ed.
  _Constable_, 207.]

  1773.—"BHEESTEE, Waterman" (etc.)—_Fergusson, Dict. of the Hindostan
  Language_, &c.

  1781.—"I have the happiness to inform you of the fall of Bijah Gurh on
  the 9th inst. with the loss of only 1 sepoy, 1 BEASTY, and a cossy (?
  COSSID) killed...."—Letter in _India Gazette_ of Nov. 24th.

  1782.—(Table of Wages in Calcutta),

    Consummah............10 Rs.
    Kistmutdar............6  "
    BEASTY................5  "
               _India Gazette_, Oct. 12.

  Five Rupees continued to be the standard wage of a _bihishtī_ for full 80
  years after the date given.

  1810.—"... If he carries the water himself in the skin of a goat,
  prepared for that purpose, he then receives the designation of
  BHEESTY."—_Williamson, V.M._ i. 229.

  1829.—"Dressing in a hurry, find the drunken BHEESTY ... has mistaken
  your boot for the goglet in which you carry your water on the line of
  march."—_Camp Miseries_, in _John Shipp_, ii. 149. N.B.—We never knew a
  drunken _bheesty_.

  1878.—"Here comes a seal carrying a porpoise on its back. No! it is only
  our friend the BHEESTY."—_In my Indian Garden_, 79.

  [1898.

   "Of all them black-faced crew,
    The finest man I knew
    Was our regimental BHISTI, Ganga Din."
               _R. Kipling, Barrack-room Ballads_, p. 23.]



BHIKTY, s. The usual Calcutta name for the fish _Lates calcarifer_. See
COCKUP.


[BHOOSA, s. H. Mahr. _bhus_, _bhusa_; the husks and straw of various kinds
of corn, beaten up into chaff by the feet of the oxen on the
threshing-floor; used as the common food of cattle all over India.

  [1829.—"Every commune is surrounded with a circumvallation of thorns ...
  and the stacks of BHOOS, or 'chaff,' which are placed at intervals, give
  it the appearance of a respectable fortification. These _bhoos_ stacks
  are erected to provide provender for the cattle in scanty rainy
  seasons."—_Tod, Annals_, Calcutta reprint, i. 737.]


[BHOOT, s. H. &c., _bhūt_, _bhūta_, Skt. _bhūta_, 'formed, existent,' the
common term for the multitudinous ghosts and demons of various kinds by
whom the Indian peasant is so constantly beset.]

  [1623.—"All confessing that it was BUTO, _i.e._ the Devil."—_P. della
  Valle_, Hak. Soc. ii. 341.]

  [1826.—"The sepoys started up, and cried 'B,HOOH, _b,hooh, arry arry_.'
  This cry of 'a ghost' reached the ears of the officer, who bid his men
  fire into the tree, and that would bring him down, if there."—_Pandurang
  Hari_, ed. 1873, i. 107.]


BHOUNSLA, n.p. Properly _Bhoslah_ or _Bhonslah_, the surname of Sivaji, the
founder of the Mahratta empire. It was also the surname of Parsoji and
Raghuji, the founders of the Mahratta dynasty of Berar, though not of the
same family as Sivaji.

  1673.—"Seva Gi, derived from an Ancient Line of Rajahs, of the Cast of
  the BOUNCELOES, a Warlike and Active Offspring."—_Fryer_, 171.

  c. 1730.—"At this time two _parganas_, named Púna and Súpa, became the
  _jagír_ of Sáhú BHOSLAH. Sívají became the manager.... He was
  distinguished in his tribe for courage and intelligence; and for craft
  and trickery he was reckoned a sharp son of the devil."—_Khāfī Khān_, in
  _Elliot_, vii. 257.

  1780.—"It was at first a particular tribe governed by the family of
  BHOSSELAH, which has since lost the sovereignty."—_Seir Mutaqherin_, iii.
  214.

  1782.—"... le BONZOLO, les Marates, et les Mogols."—_Sonnerat_, i. 60.


BHYACHARRA, s. H. _bhayāchārā_. This is a term applied to settlements made
with the village as a community, the several claims and liabilities being
regulated by established customs, or special traditional rights. Wilson
interprets it as "fraternal establishments." [This hardly explains the
tenure, at least as found in the N.W.P., and it would be difficult to do so
without much detail. In its perhaps most common form each man's holding is
the measure of his interest in the estate, irrespective of the share to
which he may be entitled by ancestral right.]


BICHÁNA, s. Bedding of any kind. H. _bichhānā_.

  1689.—"The Heat of the Day is spent in Rest and Sleeping ... sometimes
  upon Cotts, and sometimes upon BECHANAHS, which are thick
  Quilts."—_Ovington_, 313.


BIDREE, BIDRY, s. H. _Bidrī_; the name applied to a kind of ornamental
metal-work, made in the Deccan, and deriving its name from the city of
Bīdar (or Bedar), which was the chief place of manufacture. The work was,
amongst natives, chiefly applied to hooka-bells, rose-water bottles and the
like. The term has acquired vogue in England of late amongst amateurs of
"art manufacture." The ground of the work is pewter alloyed with one-fourth
copper: this is inlaid (or damascened) with patterns in silver; and then
the pewter ground is blackened. A short description of the manufacture is
given by Dr. G. Smith in the _Madras Lit. Soc. Journ._, N.S. i. 81-84; [by
Sir G. Birdwood, _Indust. Arts_, 163 _seqq._; _Journ. Ind. Art_, i. 41
_seqq._] The ware was first descrbed by B. Heyne in 1813.


BILABUNDY, s. H. _bilabandī_. An account of the revenue settlement of a
district, specifying the name of each _mahal_ (estate), the farmer of it,
and the amount of the rent (_Wilson_). In the N.W.P. it usually means an
arrangement for securing the payment of revenue (_Elliot_). C. P. Brown
says, quoting Raikes (p. 109), that the word is _bila-bandī_,
'hole-stopping,' viz. stopping those vents through which the coin of the
proprietor might ooze out. This, however, looks very like a 'striving after
meaning,' and Wilson's suggestion that it is a corruption of _behrī-bandī_,
from _behrī_, 'a share,' 'a quota,' is probably right.

  [1858.—"This transfer of responsibility, from the landholder to his
  tenants, is called '_Jumog Lagána_,' or transfer of _jumma_. The assembly
  of the tenants, for the purpose of such adjustment, is called _zunjeer
  bundee_, or linking together. The adjustment thus made is called the
  BILABUNDEE."—_Sleeman, Journey through Oudh_, i. 208.]


BILAYUT, BILLAÏT, &c. n.p. Europe. The word is properly Ar. _Wilāyat_, 'a
kingdom, a province,' variously used with specific denotation, as the
Afghans term their own country often by this name; and in India again it
has come to be employed for distant Europe. In Sicily _Il Regno_ is used
for the interior of the island, as we use _Mofussil_ in India. _Wilāyat_ is
the usual form in Bombay.


BILAYUTEE PAWNEE, BILÁTEE PANEE. The adject. _bilāyatī_ or _wilāyatī_ is
applied specifically to a variety of exotic articles, _e.g._ _bilāyatī
baingan_ (see BRINJAUL), to the tomato, and most especially _bilāyatī
pānī_, 'European water,' the usual name for soda-water in Anglo-India.

  1885.—"'But look at us English,' I urged, 'we are ordered thousands of
  miles away from home, and we go without a murmur.' 'It is true,
  _Khudawund_,' said Gunga Pursad, 'but you _sahebs_ drink ENGLISH-WATER
  (soda-water), and the strength of it enables you to bear up under all
  fatigues and sorrows.' His idea (adds Mr. Knighton) was that the
  effervescing force of the soda-water, and the strength of it which drove
  out the cork so violently, gave strength to the drinker of it."—_Times of
  India Mail_, Aug. 11, 1885.


BILDÁR, s. H. from P. _beldār_, 'a spade-wielder,' an excavator or digging
labourer. Term usual in the Public Works Department of Upper India for men
employed in that way.

  1847.—

   "Ye Lyme is alle oute! Ye Masouns lounge aboute!
    Ye BELDARS have alle strucke, and are smoaking atte their Eese!
    Ye Brickes are alle done! Ye Kyne are Skynne and Bone,
    And ye Threasurour has bolted with xii thousand Rupeese!"
               _Ye Dreme of an Executive Engineere._



BILOOCH, BELOOCH. n.p. The name (_Balūch or Bilūch_) applied to the race
inhabiting the regions west of the Lower Indus, and S.E. of Persia, called
from them _Bilūchistān_; they were dominant in Sind till the English
conquest in 1843. [Prof. Max Müller (_Lectures_, i. 97, note) identified
the name with Skt. _mlechcha_, used in the sense of the Greek βάρβαρος for
a despised foreigner.]

  A.D. 643.—"In the year 32 H. 'Abdulla bin 'A'mar bin Rabi' invaded Kirmán
  and took the capital Kuwáshír, so that the aid of 'the men of Kúj and
  BALÚJ' was solicited in vain by the Kirmánis."—In _Elliot_, i. 417.

  c. 1200.—"He gave with him from Kandahār and Lār, mighty BALOCHIS,
  servants ... with nobles of many castes, horses, elephants, men,
  carriages, charioteers, and chariots."—_The Poem of Chand Bardāi_, in
  _Ind. Ant._ i. 272.

  c. 1211.—"In the desert of Khabis there was a body ... of BULUCHÍS who
  robbed on the highway.... These people came out and carried off all the
  presents and rarities in his possession."—_'Utbi_, in _Elliot_, ii. 193.

  1556.—"We proceeded to Gwādir, a trading town. The people here are called
  BALŬJ; their prince was Malik Jalaluddīn, son of Malik Dīnār."—_Sidi
  'Ali_, p. 73.

  [c. 1590.—"This tract is inhabited by an important BALOCH tribe called
  Kalmani."—_Āīn_, trans. _Jarret_, ii. 337.]

  1613.—The BOLOCHES are of Mahomet's Religion. They deale much in Camels,
  most of them robbers...."—_N. Whittington_, in _Purchas_, i. 485.

  1648.—"Among the Machumatists next to the Pattans are the BLOTIAS of
  great strength" [? _Wilāyatī_].—_Van Twist_, 58.

  1727.—"They were lodged in a _Caravanseray_, when the BALLOWCHES came
  with about 300 to attack them; but they had a brave warm Reception, and
  left four Score of their Number dead on the Spot, without the loss of one
  _Dutch_ Man."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 107.

  1813.—_Milburn_ calls them BLOACHES (_Or. Com._ i. 145).

  1844.—"Officers must not shoot Peacocks: if they do the BELOOCHES will
  shoot officers—at least so they have threatened, and M.-G. Napier has not
  the slightest doubt but that they will keep their word. There are no wild
  peacocks in Scinde,—they are all private property and sacred birds, and
  no man has any right whatever to shoot them."—_Gen. Orders_ by _Sir C.
  Napier_.


BINKY-NABOB, s. This title occurs in documents regarding Hyder and Tippoo,
_e.g._ in Gen. Stewart's desp. of 8th March 1799: "Mohammed Rezza, the
Binky Nabob." [Also see _Wilks, Mysoor_, Madras reprint, ii. 346.] It is
properly _benkī-nawāb_, from Canarese _benkī_, 'fire,' and means the
Commandant of the Artillery.


BIRD OF PARADISE. The name given to various beautiful birds of the family
_Paradiseidae_, of which many species are now known, inhabiting N. Guinea
and the smaller islands adjoining it. The largest species was called by
Linnæus _Paradisaea apoda_, in allusion to the fable that these birds had
no feet (the dried skins brought for sale to the Moluccas having usually
none attached to them). The name _Manucode_ which Buffon adopted for these
birds occurs in the form _Manucodiata_ in some of the following quotations.
It is a corruption of the Javanese name _Manuk-devata_, 'the Bird of the
Gods,' which our popular term renders with sufficient accuracy. [The
Siamese word for 'bird,' according to Mr. Skeat, is _nok_, perhaps from
_manok_.]

  c. 1430.—"In majori Java avis præcipua reperitur sine pedibus, instar
  palumbi, pluma levi, cauda oblonga, semper in arboribus quiescens: caro
  non editur, pellis et cauda habentur pretiosiores, quibus pro ornamento
  capitis utuntur."—_N. Conti_, in _Poggius de Varietate Fortunae_, lib.
  iv.

  1552.—"The Kings of the said (Moluccas) began only a few years ago to
  believe in the immortality of souls, taught by no other argument than
  this, that they had seen a most beautiful little bird, which never
  alighted on the ground or on any other terrestrial object, but which they
  had sometimes seen to come from the sky, that is to say, when it was dead
  and fell to the ground. And the Machometan traders who traffic in those
  islands assured them that this little bird was a NATIVE OF PARADISE, and
  that _Paradise_ was the place where the souls of the dead are; and on
  this account the princes attached themselves to the sect of the
  Machometans, because it promised them many marvellous things regarding
  this place of souls. This little bird they called by the name of
  _Manucodiata_...."—Letter of _Maximilian of Transylvania_, Sec. to the
  Emp. Charles V., in _Ramusio_, i. f. 351_v_; see also f. 352.

  c. 1524.—"He also (the K. of Bachian) gave us for the King of Spain two
  most beautiful dead birds. These birds are as large as thrushes; they
  have small heads, long beaks, legs slender like a writing pen, and a span
  in length; they have no wings, but instead of them long feathers of
  different colours, like plumes; their tail is like that of the thrush.
  All the feathers, except those of the wings (?), are of a dark colour;
  they never fly except when the wind blows. They told us that these BIRDS
  _come from the terrestrial_ PARADISE, and they call them '_bolon
  dinata_,' [_burung-dewata_, same as Javanese _Manuk-dewata_, _supra_]
  that is, divine birds."—_Pigafetta_, Hak. Soc. 143.

  1598.—"... in these Ilands (Moluccas) onlie is found the bird, which the
  Portingales call _Passaros de Sol_, that is Foule of the Sunne, the
  Italians call it _Manu codiatas_, and the Latinists _Paradiseas_, by us
  called PARADICE BIRDES, for ye beauty of their feathers which passe al
  other birds: these birds are never seene alive, but being dead they are
  found vpon the Iland; they flie, as it is said, alwaies into the Sunne,
  and keepe themselues continually in the ayre ... for they haue neither
  feet nor wings, but onely head and bodie, and the most part
  tayle...."—_Linschoten_, 35; [Hak. Soc. i. 118].

  1572.—

   "Olha cá pelos mares do Oriente
    As infinitas ilhas espalhadas
        *   *   *   *   *   *   *
    Aqui as aureas aves, que não decem
    Nunca á terra, e só mortas aparecem."
               _Camões_, x. 132.


Englished by Burton:

   "Here see o'er oriental seas bespread
    infinite island-groups and alwhere strewed
        *   *   *   *   *   *   *
    here dwell the golden fowls, whose home is air,
    and never earthward save in death may fare."

  1645.—"... the male and female _Manucodiatae_, the male having a hollow
  in the back, in which 'tis reported the female both layes and hatches her
  eggs."—_Evelyn's Diary_, 4th Feb.

  1674.—

   "The strangest long-wing'd hawk that flies,
    That like a BIRD OF PARADISE,
    Or herald's martlet, has no legs...."
               _Hudibras_, Pt. ii. cant. 3.

  1591.—"As for the story of the _Manucodiata_ or BIRD OF PARADISE, which
  in the former Age was generally received and accepted for true, even by
  the Learned, it is now discovered to be a fable, and rejected and
  exploded by all men" (_i.e._ that it has no feet).—_Ray, Wisdom of God
  Manifested in the Works of the Creation_, ed. 1692, Pt. ii. 147.

  1705.—"The BIRDS OF PARADICE are about the bigness of a Pidgeon. They are
  of varying Colours, and are never found or seen alive; neither is it
  known from whence they come...."—_Funnel_, in _Dampier's Voyages_, iii.
  266-7.

  1868.—"When seen in this attitude, the BIRD OF PARADISE really deserves
  its name, and must be ranked as one of the most beautiful and wonderful
  of living things."—_Wallace, Malay Archip._, 7th ed., 464.


BIRDS' NESTS. The famous edible nests, formed with mucus, by certain
swiftlets, _Collocalia nidifica_, and _C. linchi_. Both have long been
known on the eastern coasts of the B. of Bengal, in the Malay Islands [and,
according to Mr. Skeat in the islands of the Inland Sea (_Tale Sap_) at
Singora]. The former is also now known to visit Darjeeling, the Assam
Hills, the Western Ghats, &c., and to breed on the islets off Malabar and
the Concan.


BISCOBRA, s. H. _biskhoprā_ or _biskhaprā_. The name popularly applied to a
large lizard alleged, and commonly believed, to be mortally venomous. It is
very doubtful whether there is any real lizard to which this name applies,
and it may be taken as certain that there is none in India with the
qualities attributed. It is probable that the name does carry to many the
terrific character which the ingenious author of _Tribes on My Frontier_
alleges. But the name has nothing to do with either _bis_ in the sense of
'twice,' or _cobra_ in that of 'snake.' The first element is no doubt BISH,
(q.v.) 'poison,' and the second is probably _khoprā_, 'a shell or skull.'
[See _J. L. Kipling, Beast and Man in India_ (p. 317), who gives the
scientific name as _varanus dracaena_, and says that the name _biscobra_ is
sometimes applied to the lizard generally known as the _ghoṛpad_, for which
see GUANA.]

  1883.—"But of all the things on earth that bite or sting, the palm
  belongs to the BISCOBRA, a creature whose very name seems to indicate
  that it is twice as bad as the cobra. Though known by the terror of its
  name to natives and Europeans alike, it has never been described in the
  Proceedings of any learned Society, nor has it yet received a scientific
  name.... The awful deadliness of its bite admits of no question, being
  supported by countless authentic instances.... The points on which
  evidence is required are—first, whether there is any such animal; second,
  whether, if it does exist, it is a snake with legs, or a lizard without
  them."—_Tribes on my Frontier_, p. 205.


BISH, BIKH, &c., n. H. from Skt. _visha_, 'poison.' The word has several
specific applications, as (A) to the poison of various species of aconite,
particularly _Aconitum ferox_, otherwise more specifically called in Skt.
_vatsanābha_, 'calf's navel,' corrupted into _bachnābh_ or _bachnāg_, &c.
But it is also applied (B) in the Himālaya to the effect of the rarefied
atmosphere at great heights on the body, an effect which there and over
Central Asia is attributed to poisonous emanations from the soil, or from
plants; a doctrine somewhat naïvely accepted by Huc in his famous
narrative. The Central Asiatic (Turki) expression for this is _Esh_,
'smell.'

A.—

  1554.—"Entre les singularités que le consul de Florentins me monstra, me
  feist gouster vne racine que les Arabes nomment _Bisch_: laquelle me
  causa si grande chaleur en la bouche, qui me dura deux iours, qu'il me
  sembloit y auoir du feu.... Elle est bien petite comme vn petit naueau:
  les autres (_auteurs?_) l'ont nommée _Napellus_...."—_Pierre Belon,
  Observations, &c._, f. 97.

B.—

  1624.—Antonio Andrada in his journey across the Himālaya, speaking of the
  sufferings of travellers from the POISONOUS EMANATIONS.—See _Ritter,
  Asien._, iii. 444.

  1661-2.—"Est autem Langur mons omnium altissimus, ita ut in summitate
  ejus viatores vix respirare ob aëris subtilitatim queant: neque is ob
  VIRULENTAS nonnullarum HERBARUM EXHALATIONES aestivo tempore, sine
  manifesto vitae periculo transire possit."—_PP. Dorville and Grueber_, in
  _Kircher, China Illustrata_, 65. It is curious to see these intelligent
  Jesuits recognise the true cause, but accept the fancy of their guides as
  an additional one!

  (?) "La partie supérieure de cette montagne est remplie D'EXHALAISONS
  PESTILENTIELLES."—_Chinese Itinerary to Hlassa_, in _Klaproth, Magasin
  Asiatique_, ii. 112.

  1812.—"Here begins the ESH—this is a Turkish word signifying Smell ... it
  implies something the odour of which induces indisposition; far from
  hence the breathing of horse and man, and especially of the former,
  becomes affected."—_Mir Izzet Ullah_, in _J. R. As. Soc._ i. 283.

  1815.—"Many of the coolies, and several of the Mewattee and Ghoorkha
  sepoys and chuprasees now lagged, and every one complained of the BĪS or
  poisoned wind. I now suspected that the supposed poison was nothing more
  than the effect of the rarefaction of the atmosphere from our great
  elevation."—_Fraser, Journal of a Tour, &c._, 1820, p. 442.

  1819.—"The difficulty of breathing which at an earlier date Andrada, and
  more recently Moorcroft had experienced in this region, was confirmed by
  Webb; the Butias themselves felt it, and call it BIS KI HUWA, _i.e._
  poisonous air; even horses and yaks ... suffer from it."—_Webb's
  Narrative_, quoted in _Ritter, Asien._, ii. 532, 649.

  1845.—"Nous arrivâmes à neuf heures au pied du Bourhan-Bota. La caravane
  s'arrêta un instant ... on se montrait avec anxiété un gaz subtil et
  léger, qu'on nommait VAPEUR PESTILENTIELLE, et tout le monde paraissait
  abattu et découragé.... Bientot les chevaux se refusent à porter leurs
  cavaliers, et chacun avance à pied et à petits pas ... tous les visages
  blémissent, on sent le cœur s'affadir, et les jambes ne pouvent plus
  fonctionner.... Une partie de la troupe, par mesure de prudence s'arrêta
  ... le reste par prudence aussi épuisa tous les efforts pour arriver
  jusqu'au bout, et ne pas mourir asphyxié au milieu de cet air chargé
  d'acide carbonique," &c.,—_Huc et Gabet_, ii. 211: [E. T., ii. 114].


[BISMILLAH, intj., lit. "In the name of God"; a pious ejaculation used by
Mahommedans at the commencement of any undertaking. The ordinary form
runs—_Bi-'smi 'llāhi 'r-raḥmāni 'r-raḥīm_, _i.e._ "In the name of God, the
Compassionate, the Merciful," is of Jewish origin, and is used at the
commencement of meals, putting on new clothes, beginning any new work, &c.
In the second form, used at the time of going into battle or slaughtering
animals, the allusion to the attribute of mercy is omitted.

  [1535.—"As they were killed after the Portuguese manner without the
  BYSMELA, which they did not say over them."—_Correa_, iii. 746.]


BISNAGAR, BISNAGA, BEEJANUGGER, n.p. These and other forms stand for the
name of the ancient city which was the capital of the most important Hindu
kingdom that existed in the peninsula of India, during the later Middle
Ages, ruled by the _Rāya_ dynasty. The place is now known as _Humpy_
(_Hampī_), and is entirely in ruins. [The modern name is corrupted from
_Pampa_, that of the river near which it stood. (_Rice, Mysore_, ii. 487.)]
It stands on the S. of the Tungabhadra R., 36 m. to the N.W. of Bellary.
The name is a corruption of _Vijayanagara_ (City of Victory), or
_Vidyanagara_ (City of learning), [the latter and earlier name being
changed into the former (_Rice, Ibid._ i. 342, note).] Others believe that
the latter name was applied only since the place, in the 13th century,
became the seat of a great revival of Hinduism, under the famous Sayana
Mādhava, who wrote commentaries on the Vedas, and much besides. Both the
city and the kingdom were commonly called by the early Portuguese NARSINGA
(q.v.), from _Narasimha_ (c. 1490-1508), who was king at the time of their
first arrival. [Rice gives his dates as 1488-1508.]

  c. 1420.—"Profectus hinc est procul a mari milliaribus trecentis, ad
  civitatem ingentem, nomine BIZENEGALIAM, ambitu milliarum sexaginta,
  circa praeruptos montes sitam."—_Conti_, in _Poggius de Var. Fortunae_,
  iv.

  1442.—"... the chances of a maritime voyage had led Abd-er-razzak, the
  author of this work, to the city of BIDJANAGAR. He saw a place extremely
  large and thickly peopled, and a King possessing greatness and
  sovereignty to the highest degree, whose dominion extends from the
  frontier of Serendib to the extremity of the county of Kalbergah—from the
  frontiers of Bengal to the environs of Malabar."—_Abdurrazzāk_, in _India
  in XV. Cent._, 22.

  c. 1470.—"The Hindu sultan Kadam is a very powerful prince. He possesses
  a numerous army, and resides on a mountain at BICHENEGHER."—_Athan.
  Nikitin_, in _India in XV. Cent._, 29.

  1516.—"45 leagues from these mountains inland, there is a very great
  city, which is called BIJANAGHER...."—_Barbosa_, 85.

  1611.—"Le Roy de BISNAGAR, qu'on appelle aussi quelquefois le Roy de
  Narzinga, est puissant."—_Wytfliet, H. des Indes_, ii. 64.


BISON, s. The popular name, among Southern Anglo-Indian sportsmen, of the
great wild-ox called in Bengal _gaur_ and _gaviāl_ (_Gavaeus gaurus_,
Jerdon); [_Bos gaurus_, Blanford]. It inhabits sparsely all the large
forests of India, from near Cape Comorin to the foot of the Himālayas (at
least in their Eastern portion), and from Malabar to Tenasserim.

  1881.—"Once an unfortunate native superintendent or _mistari_ [MAISTRY]
  was pounded to death by a savage and solitary BISON."—_Saty. Review_,
  Sept. 10, p. 335.


BLACAN-MATEE, n.p. This is the name of an island adjoining Singapore, which
forms the beautiful 'New Harbour' of that port; Malay _bĕlākang_, or
_blakang-māti_, lit. 'Dead-Back island,' [of which, writes Mr. Skeat, no
satisfactory explanation has been given. According to Dennys (_Discr.
Dict._, 51), "one explanation is that the Southern, or as regards
Singapore, hinder, face was so unhealthy that the Malays gave it a
designation signifying by _onomatopoea_ that death was to be found behind
its ridge"]. The island (_Blacan-mati_) appears in one of the charts of
Godinho de Eredia (1613) published in his _Malaca_, &c. (Brussels, 1882),
and though, from the excessive looseness of such old charts, the island
seems too far from Singapore, we are satisfied after careful comparison
with the modern charts that the island now so-called is intended.


BLACK, s. Adj. and substantive denoting natives of India. Old-fashioned,
and heard, if still heard, only from the lower class of Europeans; even in
the last generation its habitual use was chiefly confined to these, and to
old officers of the Queen's Army.

  [1614.—"The 5th ditto came in a ship from Mollacco with 28 Portugals and
  36 BLACKS."—_Foster, Letters_, ii. 31.]

  1676.—"We do not approve of your sending any persons to St. Helena
  against their wills. One of them you sent there makes a great complaint,
  and we have ordered his liberty to return again if he desires it; for we
  know not what effect it may have if complaints should be made to the King
  that we send away the natives; besides that it is against our inclination
  to buy any BLACKS, and to transport them from their wives and children
  without their own consent."—_Court's Letter to Ft. St. Geo._, in _Notes
  and Exts._ No. i. p. 12.

  1747.—"Vencatachlam, the Commanding Officer of the BLACK Military, having
  behaved very commendably on several occasions against the French; In
  consideration thereof _Agreed_ that a Present be made him of Six hundred
  Rupees to buy a Horse, that it may encourage him to act in like
  manner."—_Ft. St. David Cons._, Feb. 6. (MS. Record, in India Office).

  1750.—"Having received information that some BLACKS residing in this town
  were dealing with the French for goods proper for the Europe market, we
  told them if we found any proof against any residing under your Honors'
  protection, that such should suffer our utmost displeasure."—_Ft. Wm.
  Cons._, Feb. 4, in _Long_, 24.

  1753.—"John Wood, a free merchant, applies for a pass which, if refused
  him, he says 'it will reduce a free merchant to the condition of a
  foreigner, or indeed of the meanest BLACK fellow.'"—_Ft. Wm. Cons._, in
  _Long_, p. 41.

  1761.—"You will also receive several private letters from Hastings and
  Sykes, which must convince me as Circumstances did me at the time, that
  the Dutch forces were not sent with a View only of defending their own
  Settlements, but absolutely with a Design of disputing our Influence and
  Possessions; certain Ruin must have been the Consequence to the East
  India Company. They were raising BLACK Forces at Patna, Cossimbazar,
  Chinsura, &c., and were working Night and day to compleat a Field
  Artillery ... all these preparations previous to the commencement of
  Hostilities plainly prove the Dutch meant to act offensively not
  defensively."—_Holograph Letter from Clive_ (unpublished) _in the_ India
  Office Records. _Dated_ Berkeley Square, and _indorsed_ "27th Decr.
  1761."

  1762.—"The BLACK inhabitants send in a petition setting forth the great
  hardship they labour under in being required to sit as arbitrators in the
  Court of Cutcherry."—_Ft. Wm. Cons._, in _Long_, 277.

  1782.—See quotation under SEPOY, from _Price_.

     "    "... the 35th Regiment, commanded by Major Popham, which had
  lately behaved in a mutinous manner ... was broke with infamy.... The
  BLACK officers with halters about their necks, and the sepoys stript of
  their coats and turbands were drummed out of the Cantonments."—_India
  Gazette_, March 30.

  1787.—"As to yesterday's particular charge, the thing that has made me
  most inveterate and unrelenting in it is only that it related to cruelty
  or oppression inflicted on two BLACK ladies...."—_Lord Minto_, in _Life,
  &c._, i. 128.

  1789.—"I have just learned from a Friend at the India House, y^t the
  object of Treves' ambition at present is to be appointed to the _Adaulet_
  of Benares, w^h is now held by a BLACK named Alii Caun. Understanding
  that most of the _Adaulets_ are now held by Europeans, and as I am
  informed y^t it is the intention y^t the Europeans are to be so placed in
  future, I s^{hd} be vastly happy if without committing any injustice you
  c^d place young Treves in y^t situation."—_George P. of Wales_, to Lord
  Cornwallis, in _C.'s Corresp._ ii. 29.

  1832-3.—"And be it further enacted that ... in all captures which shall
  be made by H. M.'s Army, Royal Artillery, provincial, BLACK, or other
  troops...."—_Act_ 2 & 3 Will. IV., ch. 53, sec. 2.

The phrase is in use among natives, we know not whether originating with
them, or adopted from the usage of the foreigner. But _Kālā ādmī_ 'BLACK
MAN,' is often used by them in speaking to Europeans of other natives. A
case in point is perhaps worth recording. A statue of Lord William
Bentinck, on foot, and in bronze, stands in front of the Calcutta Town
Hall. Many years ago a native officer, returning from duty at Calcutta to
Barrackpore, where his regiment was, reported himself to his adjutant (from
whom we had the story in later days). 'Anything new, Sūbadār, Sāhib?' said
the Adjutant. 'Yes,' said the Sūbadār, 'there is a figure of the former
Lord Sahib arrived.' 'And what do you think of it?' '_Sāhib_,' said the
Sūbadār, '_abhi hai_ kālā ādmī _kā sā, jab potā ho jaegā jab achchhā
hogā_!' ('It is now just like a native—'a BLACK MAN'; when the whitewash is
applied it will be excellent.')

In some few phrases the term has become crystallised and semi-official.
Thus the native dressers in a hospital were, and possibly still are, called
BLACK DOCTORS.

  1787.—"The Surgeon's assistant and BLACK DOCTOR take their station 100
  paces in the rear, or in any place of security to which the Doolies may
  readily carry the wounded."—_Regulations for the H. C.'s Troops on the
  Coast of Coromandel_.

In the following the meaning is special:

  1788.—"_For Sale._ That small upper-roomed Garden House, with about 5
  biggahs (see BEEGAH) of ground, on the road leading from Cheringhee to
  the Burying Ground, which formerly belonged to the Moravians; it is very
  private, from the number of trees on the ground, and having lately
  received considerable additions and repairs, is well adapted for a BLACK
  _Family_. [hand] Apply to Mr. Camac."—_In Seton-Karr_, i. 282.


BLACK ACT. This was the name given in odium by the non-official Europeans
in India to Act XI., 1836, of the Indian Legislature, which laid down that
no person should by reason of his place of birth or of his descent be, in
any civil proceeding, excepted from the jurisdiction of the Courts named,
viz.: Sudder Dewanny Adawlut, Zillah and City Judge's Courts, Principal
Sudder Ameens, Sudder Ameens, and Moonsiff's Court, or, in other words, it
placed European subjects on a level with natives as to their subjection in
civil causes to all the Company's Courts, including those under Native
Judges. This Act was drafted by T. B. Macaulay, then Legislative Member of
the Governor-General's Council, and brought great abuse on his head. Recent
agitation caused by the "Ilbert Bill," proposing to make Europeans subject
to native magistrates in regard to police and criminal charges, has been,
by advocates of the latter measure, put on all fours with the agitation of
1836. But there is much that discriminates the two cases.

  1876.—"The motive of the scurrility with which Macaulay was assailed by a
  handful of sorry scribblers was his advocacy of the Act, familiarly known
  as the BLACK ACT, which withdrew from British subjects resident in the
  provinces their so called privilege of bringing civil appeals before the
  Supreme Court at Calcutta."—_Trevelyan's Life of Macaulay_, 2nd ed., i.
  398.


[BLACK BEER, s. A beverage mentioned by early travellers in Japan. It was
probably not a malt liquor. Dr. Aston suggests that it was _kuro-hi_, a
dark-coloured _saké_ used in the service of the Shinto gods.

  [1616.—"One jar of BLACK BEER."—_Foster, Letters_, iv. 270.]


BLACK-BUCK, s. The ordinary name of the male antelope (_Antilope
bezoartica_, Jerdon) [_A. cervicapra_, Blanford], from the dark hue of its
back, by no means however literally black.

  1690.—"The _Indians_ remark, _'tis_ September's _Sun which caused the
  black lines on the Antelopes' Backs_."—_Ovington_, 139.


BLACK COTTON SOIL.—(See REGUR.)


[BLACK JEWS, a term applied to the Jews of S. India; see 2 ser. _N. & Q._,
iv. 4. 429; viii. 232, 418, 521; _Logan, Malabar_, i. 246 _seqq._]


BLACK LANGUAGE. An old-fashioned expression, for Hindustani and other
vernaculars, which used to be common among officers and men of the Royal
Army, but was almost confined to them.


BLACK PARTRIDGE, s. The popular Indian name of the common francolin of S.E.
Europe and Western Asia (_Francolinus vulgaris_, Stephens), notable for its
harsh quasi-articulate call, interpreted in various parts of the world into
very different syllables. The rhythm of the call is fairly represented by
two of the imitations which come nearest one another, viz. that given by
Sultan Baber (Persian): '_Shīr dāram, shakrak_' ('I've got milk and
sugar'!) and (Hind.) one given by Jerdon: '_Lahsan piyāz adrak_' ('Garlic,
onion, and ginger'!) A more pious one is: _Khudā terī ḳudrat_, 'God is thy
strength!' Another mentioned by Capt. Baldwin is very like the truth: 'Be
quick, pay your debts!' But perhaps the Greek interpretation recorded by
Athenaeus (ix. 39) is best of all: τρὶς τοῖς κακούργοις κακά 'Three-fold
ills to the ill-doers!' see _Marco Polo_, Bk. i. ch. xviii. and note 1;
[_Burton, Ar. Nights_, iii. 234, iv. 17].


BLACK TOWN, n.p. Still the popular name of the native city of Madras, as
distinguished from the Fort and southern suburbs occupied by the English
residents, and the bazars which supply their wants. The term is also used
at Bombay.

  1673.—Fryer calls the native town of Madras "the Heathen Town," and "the
  Indian Town."

  1727.—"The BLACK TOWN (of Madras) is inhabited by _Gentows_,
  _Mahometans_, and _Indian Christians_.... It was walled in towards the
  Land, when Governor _Pit_ ruled it."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 367.

  1780.—"Adjoining the glacis of Fort St. George, to the northward, is a
  large town commonly called the BLACK TOWN, and which is fortified
  sufficiently to prevent any surprise by a body of horse."—_Hodges_, p. 6.

  1780.—"... Cadets upon their arrival in the country, many of whom ... are
  obliged to take up their residence in dirty punch-houses in the BLACK
  TOWN...."—_Munro's Narrative_, 22.

  1782.—"When Mr. Hastings came to the government he added some new
  regulations ... divided the BLACK and white TOWN (Calcutta) into 35
  wards, and purchased the consent of the natives to go a little further
  off."—_Price, Some Observations, &c._, p. 60. In _Tracts_, vol. i.

  [1813.—"The large bazar, or the street in the BLACK TOWN, (Bombay) ...
  contained many good Asiatic houses."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._, 2nd ed., i. 96.
  Also see quotation (1809) under BOMBAY.]

  1827.—"Hartley hastened from the BLACK TOWN, more satisfied than before
  that some deceit was about to be practised towards Menie Gray."—_Walter
  Scott, The Surgeon's Daughter_, ch. xi.


BLACK WOOD. The popular name for what is in England termed 'rose-wood';
produced chiefly by several species of _Dalbergia_, and from which the
celebrated carved furniture of Bombay is made. [The same name is applied to
the Chinese ebony used in carving (_Ball, Things Chinese_, 3rd ed., 107).]
(See SISSOO.)

  [1615.—"Her lading is BLACK WOOD, I think ebony."—_Cocks's Diary_, Hak.
  Soc. i. 35.

  [1813.—"BLACK WOOD furniture becomes like heated metal."—_Forbes, Or.
  Mem._, 2nd ed., i. 106.]

  1879.—(In Babylonia). "In a mound to the south of the mass of city ruins
  called Jumjuma, Mr. Rassam discovered the remains of a rich hall or
  palace ... the cornices were of painted brick, and the roof of rich
  Indian BLACKWOOD."—_Athenaeum_, July 5, 22.


BLANKS, s. The word is used for 'whites' or 'Europeans' (Port. _branco_) in
the following, but we know not if anywhere else in English:

  1718.—"The Heathens ... too shy to venture into the Churches of the
  BLANKS (so they call the Christians), since these were generally adorned
  with fine cloaths and all manner of proud apparel."—(_Ziegenbalg and
  Plutscho_), _Propagation of the Gospel, &c._ Pt. I., 3rd ed., p. 70.


[BLATTY, adj. A corr. of _wilāyatī_, 'foreign' (see BILAYUT). A name
applied to two plants in S. India, the _Sonneratia acida_, and _Hydrolea
zeylanica_ (see _Mad. Admin. Man. Gloss._ s.v.). In the old records it is
applied to a kind of cloth. Owen (_Narrative_, i. 349) uses BLAT as a name
for the land-wind in Arabia, of which the origin is perhaps the same.

  [1610.—"BLATTY, the corge Rs. 060."—_Danvers, Letters_, i. 72.]


BLIMBEE, s. Malayāl. _vilimbi_; H. _belambū_ [or _bilambū_;] Malay.
_bălimbing_ or _belimbing_. The fruit of _Averrhoa bilimbi_, L. The genus
was so called by Linnæus in honour of Averrhoes, the Arab commentator on
Aristotle and Avicenna. It embraces two species cultivated in India for
their fruits; neither known in a wild state. See for the other CARAMBOLA.


BLOOD-SUCKER, s. A harmless lizard (_Lacerta cristata_) is so called,
because when excited it changes in colour (especially about the neck) from
a dirty yellow or grey, to a dark red.

  1810.—"On the morn, however, I discovered it to be a large lizard, termed
  a BLOOD-SUCKER."—_Morton's Life of Leyden_, 110.

  [1813.—"The large seroor, or lacerta, commonly called the
  BLOODSUCKER."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ i. 110 (2nd ed.).]


BOBACHEE, s. A cook (male). This is an Anglo-Indian vulgarisation of
_bāwarchī_, a term originally brought, according to Hammer, by the hordes
of Chingiz Khan into Western Asia. At the Mongol Court the _Bāwarchī_ was a
high dignitary, 'Lord Sewer' or the like (see _Hammer's Golden Horde_, 235,
461). The late Prof. A. Schiefner, however, stated to us that he could not
trace a Mongol origin for the word, which appears to be Or. Turki. [Platts
derives it from P. _bāwar_, 'confidence.']

  c. 1333.—"Chaque émir a un BÂWERDJY, et lorsque la table a éte dressée,
  cet officier s'assied devant son maître ... le _bâwerdjy_ coupe la viande
  en petits morceaux. Ces gens-là possèdent une grande habileté pour
  dépecer la viande."—_Ibn Batuta_, ii. 407.

  c. 1590.—BĀWARCHĪ is the word used for cook in the original of the _Āīn_
  (_Blochmann's_ Eng. Tr. i. 58).

  1810.—"... the dripping ... is returned to the meat by a bunch of
  feathers ... tied to the end of a short stick. This little neat,
  _cleanly_, and cheap dripping-ladle, answers admirably; it being in the
  power of the BABACHY to baste any part with great
  precision."—_Williamson, V. M._ i. 238.

  1866.—

   "And every night and morning
      The BOBACHEE shall kill
    The sempiternal _moorghee_,
      And we'll all have a grill."
               _The Dawk Bungalow_, 223.



BOBACHEE CONNAH, s. H. _Bāwarchī-khāna_, 'Cook-house,' _i.e._ Kitchen;
generally in a cottage detached from the residence of a European household.

  [1829.—"In defiance of all BAWURCHEE-KHANA rules and regulations."—_Or.
  Sport Mag._, i. 118.]


BOBBERY, s. For the origin see BOBBERY-BOB. A noise, a disturbance, a row.

  [1710.—"And beat with their hand on the mouth, making a certain noise,
  which we Portuguese call BABARE. BABARE is a word composed of _baba_, 'a
  child' and _are_, an adverb implying 'to call.'"—_Oriente Conquistado_,
  vol ii.; _Conquista_, i. div. i. sec. 8.]

  1830.—"When the band struck up (my Arab) was much frightened, made
  BOBBERY, set his foot in a hole and nearly pitched me."—_Mem. of Col.
  Mountain_, 2nd ed., 106.

  1866.—"But what is the meaning of all this BOBBERY?"—_The Dawk Bungalow_,
  p. 387.

_Bobbery_ is used in 'pigeon English,' and of course a Chinese origin is
found for it, viz. _pa-pi_, Cantonese, 'a noise.' [The idea that there is a
similar English word (see 7 ser. _N. & Q._, v. 205, 271, 338, 415, 513) is
rejected by the _N.E.D._]


BOBBERY-BOB! interj. The Anglo-Indian colloquial representation of a common
exclamation of Hindus when in surprise or grief—'BĀP-RĒ! or BAP-RĒ BĀP,' 'O
Father!' (we have known a friend from north of Tweed whose ordinary
interjection was 'My great-grandmother!'). Blumenroth's _Philippine
Vocabulary_ gives _Nacú!_ = _Madre mia_, as a vulgar exclamation of
admiration.

  1782.—"Captain Cowe being again examined ... if he had any opportunity to
  make any observations concerning the execution of Nundcomar? said, he
  had; that he saw the whole except the immediate act of execution ...
  there were 8 or 10,000 people assembled; who at the moment the Rajah was
  turned off, dispersed suddenly, crying 'AH-BAUPAREE!' leaving nobody
  about the gallows but the Sheriff and his attendants, and a few European
  spectators. He explains the term AH-BAUP-AREE, to be an exclamation of
  the BLACK people, upon the appearance of anything very alarming, and when
  they are in great pain."—_Price's 2nd Letter to E. Burke_, p. 5. In
  _Tracts_, vol. ii.

     "    "If an Hindoo was to see a house on fire, to receive a smart slap
  on the face, break a china basin, cut his finger, see two Europeans
  boxing, or a sparrow shot, he would call out AH-BAUP-AREE!"—From _Report
  of Select Committee of H. of C., Ibid._ pp. 9-10.

  1834.—"They both hastened to the spot, where the man lay senseless, and
  the syce by his side muttering BĀPRE BĀPRE."—_The Baboo_, i. 48.

  1863-64.—"My men soon became aware of the unwelcome visitor, and raised
  the cry, 'A bear, a bear!'

  "'AHI! BAP-RE-BAP! Oh, my father! go and drive him away,' said a timorous
  voice from under a blanket close by."—_Lt.-Col. Lewin, A Fly on the
  Wheel_, 142.


BOBBERY-PACK, s. A pack of hounds of different breeds, or (oftener) of no
breed at all, wherewith young officers hunt jackals or the like; presumably
so called from the noise and disturbance that such a pack are apt to raise.
And hence a 'scratch pack' of any kind, as a 'scratch match' at cricket,
&c. (See a quotation under BUNOW.)

  1878.—"... on the mornings when the 'BOBBERA' PACK went out, of which
  Macpherson was 'master,' and I 'whip,' we used to be up by 4 A.M."—_Life
  in the Mofussil_, i. 142.

The following occurs in a letter received from an old Indian by one of the
authors, some years ago:

  "What a Cabinet —— has put together!—a regular BOBBERY-PACK."


BOCCA TIGRIS, n.p. The name applied to the estuary of the Canton River. It
appears to be an inaccurate reproduction of the Portuguese _Boca do Tigre_,
and that to be a rendering of the Chinese name _Hu-mēn_, "Tiger Gate."
Hence in the second quotation _Tigris_ is supposed to be the name of the
river.

  1747.—"At 8 o'clock we passed the BOG OF TYGERS, and at noon the Lyon's
  Tower."—_A Voy. to the E. Indies in 1747 and 1748._

  1770.—"The City of Canton is situated on the banks of the TIGRIS, a large
  river...."—_Raynal_ (tr. 1771), ii. 258.

  1782.—"... à sept lieues de la BOUCHE DU TIGRE, on apperçoit la Tour du
  Lion."—_Sonnerat, Voyage_, ii. 234.

  [1900.—"The launch was taken up the Canton River and abandoned near the
  BOCCA TIGRIS (the Bogue)."—_The Times_, 29 Oct.]


BOCHA, s. H. _bochā_. A kind of chair-palankin formerly in use in Bengal,
but now quite forgotten.

  1810.—"Ladies are usually conveyed about Calcutta ... in a kind of
  palanquin called a BOCHAH ... being a compound of our sedan chair with
  the body of a chariot.... I should have observed that most of the
  gentlemen residing at Calcutta ride in BOCHAHS."—_Williamson, V. M._ i.
  322.


BOGUE, n.p. This name is applied by seamen to the narrows at the mouth of
the Canton River, and is a corruption of _Boca_. (See BOCCA TIGRIS.)


BOLIAH, BAULEAH, s. Beng. _bāūlīa_. A kind of light accommodation boat with
a cabin, in use on the Bengal rivers. We do not find the word in any of the
dictionaries. Ives, in the middle of the 18th century, describes it as a
boat very long, but so narrow that only one man could sit in the breadth,
though it carried a multitude of rowers. This is not the character of the
boat so called now. [Buchanan Hamilton, writing about 1820, says: "The
BHAULIYA is intended for the same purpose, [conveyance of passengers], and
is about the same size as the _Pansi_ (see PAUNCHWAY). It is sharp at both
ends, rises at the ends less than the _Pansi_, and its tilt is placed in
the middle, the rowers standing both before and behind the place of
accommodation of passengers. On the Kosi, the _Bhauliya_ is a large
fishing-boat, carrying six or seven men." (_Eastern India_, iii. 345.)
Grant (_Rural Life_, p. 5) gives a drawing and description of the modern
boat.]

  1757.—"To get two BOLIAS, a Goordore, and 87 dandies from the
  Nazir."—_Ives_, 157.

  1810.—"On one side the picturesque boats of the natives, with their
  floating huts; on the other the BOLIOS and pleasure-boats of the
  English."—_Maria Graham_, 142.

  1811.—"The extreme lightness of its construction gave it incredible ...
  speed. An example is cited of a Governor General who in his BAWALEEA
  performed in 8 days the voyage from Lucknow to Calcutta, a distance of
  400 marine leagues."—_Solvyns_, iii. The drawing represents a very light
  skiff, with only a small kiosque at the stern.

  1824.—"We found two BHOLIAHS, or large row-boats, with convenient
  cabins...."—_Heber_, i. 26.

  1834.—"Rivers's attention had been attracted by seeing a large BEAULIAH
  in the act of swinging to the tide."—_The Baboo_, i. 14.


BOLTA, s. A turn of a rope; sea H. from Port. _volta_ (_Roebuck_).


BOMBASA, n.p. The Island of Mombasa, off the E. African Coast, is so called
in some old works. _Bombāsī_ is used in Persia for a negro slave; see
quotation.

  1516.—"... another island, in which there is a city of the Moors called
  BOMBAZA, very large and beautiful."—_Barbosa_, 11. See also _Colonial
  Papers_ under 1609, i. 188.

  1883.—"... the BOMBASSI, or coal-black negro of the interior, being of
  much less price, and usually only used as a cook."—_Wills, Modern
  Persia_, 326.


BOMBAY, n.p. It has been alleged, often and positively (as in the
quotations below from Fryer and Grose), that this name is an English
corruption from the Portuguese _Bombahia_, 'good bay.' The grammar of the
alleged etymon is bad, and the history is no better; for the name can be
traced long before the Portuguese occupation, long before the arrival of
the Portuguese in India. C. 1430, we find the islands of Mahim and
_Mumba_-Devi, which united form the existing island of Bombay, held, along
with Salsette, by a Hindu Rāī, who was tributary to the Mohammedan King of
Guzerat. (See _Rās Mālā_, ii. 350); [ed. 1878, p. 270]. The same form
reappears (1516) in Barbosa's Tana-_Mayambu_ (p. 68), in the _Estado da
India_ under 1525, and (1563) in Garcia de Orta, who writes both _Mombaim_
and _Bombaim_. The latter author, mentioning the excellence of the areca
produced there, speaks of himself having had a grant of the island from the
King of Portugal (see below). It is customarily called _Bombaim_ on the
earliest English Rupee coinage. (See under RUPEE.) The shrine of the
goddess MUMBA-_Devī_ from whom the name is supposed to have been taken,
stood on the Esplanade till the middle of the 17th century, when it was
removed to its present site in the middle of what is now the most
frequented part of the native town.

  1507.—"Sultan Mahommed Bigarrah of Guzerat having carried an army against
  Chaiwal, in the year of the Hijra 913, in order to destroy the Europeans,
  he effected his designs against the towns of Bassai (see BASSEIN) and
  MANBAI, and returned to his own capital...."—_Mirat-i-Ahmedi_ (Bird's
  transl.), 214-15.

  1508.—"The Viceroy quitted Dabul, passing by Chaul, where he did not care
  to go in, to avoid delay, and anchored at BOMBAIM, whence the people fled
  when they saw the fleet, and our men carried off many cows, and caught
  some blacks whom they found hiding in the woods, and of these they took
  away those that were good, and killed the rest."—_Correa_, i. 926.

  1516.—"... a fortress of the before-named King (of Guzerat), called
  Tana-MAYAMBU, and near it is a Moorish town, very pleasant, with many
  gardens ... a town of very great Moorish mosques, and temples of worship
  of the Gentiles ... it is likewise a sea port, but of little
  trade."—_Barbosa_, 69. The name here appears to combine, in a common
  oriental fashion, the name of the adjoining town of Thana (see TANA) and
  Bombay.

  1525.—"E a Ilha de MOMBAYN, que no forall velho estaua em catorze mill e
  quatro cento fedeas ... j̃ xiiij. iiii.^c fedeas.

  "E os anos otros estaua arrendada por mill trezentos setenta e cinque
  pardaos ... j̃ iii.^c lxxv. pardaos.

  "Foy aforada a mestre Dioguo pelo dito governador, por mill quatro centos
  trinta dous pardaos méo ... j̃ iiij.^c xxxij. pardaos méo."—_Tombo do
  Estada da India_, 160-161.

  1531.—"The Governor at the island of BOMBAIM awaited the junction of the
  whole expedition, of which he made a muster, taking a roll from each
  captain, of the Portuguese soldiers and sailors and of the captive slaves
  who could fight and help, and of the number of musketeers, and of other
  people, such as servants. And all taken together he found in the whole
  fleet some 3560 soldiers (_homens d'armas_), counting captains and
  gentlemen; and some 1450 Portuguese seamen, with the pilots and masters;
  and some 2000 soldiers who were Malabars and Goa Canarines; and 8000
  slaves fit to fight; and among these he found more than 3000 musketeers
  (_espingardeiros_), and 4000 country seamen who could row (_marinheiros
  de terra remeiros_), besides the mariners of the junks who were more than
  800; and with married and single women, and people taking goods and
  provisions to sell, and menial servants, the whole together was more than
  30,000 souls...."—_Correa_, iii. 392.

  1538.—"The Isle of BOMBAY has on the south the waters of the bay which is
  called after it, and the island of Chaul; on the N. the island of
  SALSETE; on the east Salsete also; and on the west the Indian Ocean. The
  land of this island is very low, and covered with great and beautiful
  groves of trees. There is much game, and abundance of meat and rice, and
  there is no memory of any scarcity. Nowadays it is called the island of
  BOA-VIDA; a name given to it by Hector da Silveira, because when his
  fleet was cruising on this coast his soldiers had great refreshment and
  enjoyment there."—_J. de Castro, Primeiro Roteiro_, p. 81.

  1552.—"... a small stream called _Bate_ which runs into the Bay of
  BOMBAIN, and which is regarded as the demarcation between the Kingdom of
  Guzurate and the Kingdom of Decan."—_Barros_, I. ix. 1.

  1552.—"The Governor advanced against BOMBAYM on the 6th February, which
  was moreover the very day on which Ash Wednesday fell."—_Couto_, IV., v.
  5.

  1554.—"Item of Mazaguao 8500 _fedeas_.

  "Item of MONBAYM, 17,000 _fedeas_.

  "Rents of the land surrendered by the King of Canbaya in 1543, from 1535
  to 1548."—_S. Botelho, Tombo_, 139.

  1563.—"... and better still is (that the ARECA) of MOMBAIM, an estate and
  island which the King our Lord has graciously granted me on perpetual
  lease."[43]—_Garcia De Orta_, f. 91_v_.

     "    "SERVANT. Sir, here is Simon Toscano, your tenant at BOMBAIM, who
  has brought this basket of mangoes for you to make a present to the
  Governor; and he says that when he has moored his vessel he will come
  here to put up."—_Ibid._ f. 134_v_.

  1644.—"_Description of the Port of_ MOMBAYM.... The Viceroy Conde de
  Linhares sent the 8 councillors to fortify this Bay, so that no European
  enemy should be able to enter. These Ministers visited the place, and
  were of opinion that the width (of the entrance) being so great, becoming
  even wider and more unobstructed further in, there was no place that you
  could fortify so as to defend the entrance...."—_Bocarro_, MS. f. 227.

  1666.—"Ces Tchérons ... demeurent pour la plupart à Baroche, à BAMBAYE et
  à Amedabad."—_Thevenot_, v. 40.

     "    "De Bacaim à BOMBAIIM il y a six lieues."—_Ibid._ 248.

  1673.—"December the Eighth we paid our Homage to the Union-flag flying on
  the Fort of BOMBAIM."—_Fryer_, 59.

     "    "Bombaim ... ventures furthest out into the Sea, making the Mouth
  of a spacious Bay, whence it has its Etymology; BOMBAIM, quasi _Boon
  bay_."—_Ibid._ 62.

  1676.—"Since the present King of _England_ married the Princess of
  _Portugall_, who had in Portion the famous Port of BOMBEYE ... they coin
  both Silver, Copper, and Tinn."—_Tavernier_, E. T., ii. 6.

  1677.—"Quod dicta Insula de BOMBAIM, una cum dependentiis suis, nobis ab
  origine bonâ fide ex pacto (sicut oportuit) tradita non fuerit."—_King
  Charles II._ to the Viceroy L. de Mendoza Furtado, in _Descn., &c. of the
  Port and Island of_ BOMBAY, 1724, p. 77.

  1690.—"This Island has its Denomination from the Harbour, which ... was
  originally called BOON BAY, _i.e._ in the _Portuguese_ Language, a Good
  Bay or Harbour."—_Ovington_, 129.

  1711.—Lockyer declares it to be impossible, with all the Company's
  Strength and Art, to make BOMBAY "a Mart of great Business."—P. 83.

  c. 1760.—"... one of the most commodious bays perhaps in the world, from
  which distinction it received the denomination of BOMBAY, by corruption
  from the Portuguese _Buona-Bahia_, though now usually written by them
  BOMBAIM."—_Grose_, i. 29.

  1770.—"No man chose to settle in a country so unhealthy as to give rise
  to the proverb _That at_ BOMBAY _a man's life did not exceed two
  monsoons_."—_Raynal_ (E. T., 1777), i. 389.

  1809.—"The largest pagoda in BOMBAY is in the Black Town.... It is
  dedicated to _Momba Devee_ ... who by her images and attributes seems to
  be Parvati, the wife of Siva."—_Maria Graham_, 14.


BOMBAY BOX-WORK. This well-known manufacture, consisting in the decoration
of boxes, desks, &c., with veneers of geometrical mosaic, somewhat after
the fashion of Tunbridge ware, is said to have been introduced from Shiraz
to Surat more than a century ago, and some 30 years later from Surat to
Bombay. The veneers are formed by cementing together fine triangular prisms
of ebony, ivory, green-stained ivory, stag's horn, and tin, so that the
sections when sawn across form the required pattern, and such thin sections
are then attached to the panels of the box with strong glue.


BOMBAY DUCK.—See BUMMELO.


BOMBAY MARINE. This was the title borne for many years by the meritorious
but somewhat depressed service which in 1830 acquired the style of the
"Indian Navy," and on 30th April, 1863, ceased to exist. The detachments of
this force which took part in the China War (1841-42) were known to their
brethren of the Royal Navy, under the temptation of alliteration, as the
"Bombay Buccaneers." In their earliest employment against the pirates of
Western India and the Persian Gulf, they had been known as "the GRAB
Service." But, no matter for these names, the history of this Navy is full
of brilliant actions and services. We will quote two noble examples of
public virtue:

(1) In July 1811, a squadron under Commodore John Hayes took two large
junks issuing from Batavia, then under blockade. These were lawful prize,
laden with Dutch property, valued at £600,000. But Hayes knew that such a
capture would create great difficulties and embarrassments in the English
trade at Canton, and he directed the release of this splendid prize.

(2) 30th June 1815, Lieut. Boyce in the brig 'Nautilus' (180 tons, carrying
ten 18-pr. carronades, and four 9-prs.) encountered the U. S. sloop-of-war
'Peacock' (539 tons, carrying twenty 32-pr. carronades, and two long
18-prs.). After he had informed the American of the ratification of peace,
Boyce was peremptorily ordered to haul down his colours, which he answered
by a flat refusal. The 'Peacock' opened fire, and a short but brisk action
followed, in which Boyce and his first lieutenant were shot down. The
gallant Boyce had a special pension from the Company (£435 in all) and
lived to his 93rd year to enjoy it.

We take the facts from the History of this Navy by one of its officers,
Lieut. C. R. Low (i. 294), but he erroneously states the pension to have
been granted by the U.S. Govt.

  1780.—"The Hon. Company's schooner, Carinjar, with Lieut. Murry
  Commander, of the BOMBAY MARINES, is going to Archin (_sic_, see ACHEEN)
  to meet the Ceres and the other Europe ships from Madrass, to put on
  board of them the St. Helena stores."—_Hicky's Bengal Gazette_, April
  8th.


BONITO, s. A fish (_Thynnus pelamys_, Day) of the same family
(_Scombridae_) as mackerel and tunny, very common in the Indian seas. The
name is Port., and apparently is the adj. BONITO, 'fine.'

  c. 1610.—"On y pesche vne quantité admirable de gros poissons, de sept ou
  huit sortes, qui sont néantmoins quasi de mesme race et espece ... commes
  BONITES, albachores, daurades, et autres."—_Pyrard_, i. 137.

  1615.—"BONITOES and albicores are in colour, shape, and taste much like
  to Mackerils, but grow to be very large."—_Terry_, in _Purchas_, ii.
  1464.

  c. 1620.—

   "How many sail of well-mann'd ships
    As the BONITO does the Flying-fish
    Have we pursued...."
               _Beaum. & Flet., The Double Marriage_, ii. 1.

  c. 1760.—"The fish undoubtedly takes its name from relishing so well to
  the taste of the Portuguese ... that they call it BONITO, which answers
  in our tongue to delicious."—_Grose_, i. 5.

  1764.—

   "While on the yard-arm the harpooner sits,
    Strikes the BONETA, or the shark ensnares."—_Grainger_, B. ii.

  1773.—"The Captain informed us he had named his ship the BONNETTA, out of
  gratitude to Providence; for once ... the ship in which he then sailed
  was becalmed for five weeks, and during all that time, numbers of the
  fish BONNETTA swam close to her, and were caught for food; he resolved
  therefore that the ship he should next get should be called the
  _Bonnetta_."—_Boswell, Journal of a Tour, &c._, under Oct. 16, 1773.


BONZE, s. A term long applied by Europeans in China to the Buddhist clergy,
but originating with early visitors to Japan. Its origin is however not
quite clear. The Chinese _Fán-sēng_, 'a religious person' is in Japanese
_bonzi_ or _bonzô_; but Köppen prefers _fă-sze_, 'Teacher of the Law,'
pron. in Japanese _bo-zi_ (_Die Rel. des Buddha_, i. 321, and also Schott's
_Zur Litt. des Chin. Buddhismus_, 1873, p. 46). It will be seen that some
of the old quotations favour one, and some the other, of these sources. On
the other hand, _Bandhya_ (for Skt. _vandya_, 'to whom worship or reverence
is due, very reverend') seems to be applied in Nepal to the Buddhist
clergy, and Hodgson considers the Japanese bonze (_bonzô?_) traceable to
this. (_Essays_, 1874, p. 63.) The same word, as _bandhe_ or _bande_, is in
Tibetan similarly applied.—(See _Jaeschke's Dict._, p. 365.) The word first
occurs in Jorge Alvarez's account of Japan, and next, a little later, in
the letters of St. Francis Xavier. Cocks in his Diary uses forms
approaching _boze_.

  1549.—"I find the common secular people here less impure and more
  obedient to reason than their priests, whom they call BONZOS."—_Letter of
  St. F. Xavier_, in _Coleridge's Life_, ii. 238.

  1552.—"Erubescunt enim, et incredibiliter confunduntur BONZII, ubi male
  cohaerere, ac pugnare inter sese ea, quae docent, palam
  ostenditur."—_Scti. Fr. Xaverii Epistt._ V. xvii., ed. 1667.

  1572.—"... sacerdotes ... qui ipsorum linguâ BONZII appellantur."—_E.
  Acosta_, 58.

  1585.—"They have amongst them (in Japan) many priests of their idols whom
  they call BONSOS, of the which there be great convents."—_Parkes's Tr. of
  Mendoza_ (1589), ii. 300.

  1590.—"This doctrine doe all they embrace, which are in China called
  _Cen_, but with us at Iapon are named BONZI."—_An Exct. Treatise of the
  Kingd. of China, &c., Hakl._ ii. 580.

  c. 1606.—"Capt. Saris has BONZEES."—_Purchas_, i. 374.

  1618.—"And their is 300 BOZE (or pagon pristes) have alowance and
  mentaynance for eaver to pray for his sole, in the same sorte as munkes
  and fryres use to doe amongst the Roman papistes."—_Cocks's Diary_, ii.
  75; [in i. 117, BOSE]; BOSSES (i. 143).

  [1676.—"It is estimated that there are in this country (Siam) more than
  200,000 priests called BONZES."—_Tavernier_, ed. _Ball_, ii. 293.]

  1727.—"... or perhaps make him fadge in a China BONZEE in his Calendar,
  under the name of a Christian Saint."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 253.

  1794-7.—

   "Alike to me encas'd in Grecian bronze
    Koran or Vulgate, Veda, Priest, or BONZE."
               _Pursuits of Literature_, 6th ed., p. 335.

  c. 1814.—

   "While Fum deals in Mandarins, BONZES, Bohea—
    Peers, Bishops, and Punch, Hum—are sacred to thee."
               _T. Moore, Hum and Fum._



[(1) BORA, BOORA, s. Beng. _bhada_, a kind of cargo-boat used in the rivers
of Bengal.

  [1675.—"About noone overtook the eight BORAES."—_Hedges, Diary_, Hak.
  Soc. ii. ccxxxvii.

  [1680.—"The BOORA ... being a very floaty light boat, rowinge with 20 to
  30 Owars, these carry Salt Peeter and other goods from Hugly downewards,
  and some trade to Dacca with salt; they also serve for tow boats for ye
  ships bound up or downe ye river."—_Ibid._ ii. 15.]


(2) BORA s. H. and Guz. _bohrā_ and _bohorā_, which H. H. Wilson refers to
the Skt. _vyavahārī_, 'a trader, or man of affairs,' from which are formed
the ordinary H. words _byoharā_, _byohariyā_ (and a Guzerati form which
comes very near _bohorā_). This is confirmed by the quotation from Nurullah
below, but it is not quite certain. Dr. John Wilson (see below) gives an
Arabic derivation which we have been unable to verify. [There can be no
reasonable doubt that this is incorrect.]

There are two classes of Bohrās belonging to different Mohammedan sects,
and different in habit of life.

1. The Shī'a _Bohrās_, who are essentially townspeople, and especially
congregate in Surat, Burhanpur, Ujjain, &c. They are those best known far
and wide by the name, and are usually devoted to trading and money-lending.
Their original seat was in Guzerat, and they are most numerous there, and
in the Bombay territory generally, but are also to be found in various
parts of Central India and the N.-W. Provinces, [where they are all
Hindus]. The word in Bombay is often used as synonymous with pedlar or
BOXWALLAH. They are generally well-to-do people, keeping very cleanly and
comfortable houses. [See an account of them in _Forbes, Or. Mem._ i. 470
_seqq._ 2nd ed.] These BOHRAS appear to form one of the numerous Shī'a
sects, akin in character to, and apparently of the same origin as, the
Ismāīlīyah (or _Assassins_ of the Middle Ages), and claim as their original
head and doctor in India one Ya'ḳūb, who emigrated from Egypt, and landed
in Cambay A.D. 1137. But the chief seat of the doctrine is alleged to have
been in Yemen, till that country was conquered by the Turks in 1538. A
large exodus of the sect to India then took place. Like the Ismāīlīs they
attach a divine character to their Mullah or chief Pontiff, who now resides
at Surat. They are guided by him in all things, and they pay him a
percentage on their profits. But there are several sectarian subdivisions:
_Dāūdi_ Bohrās, _Sulaimāni_ Bohrās, &c. [See _Forbes, Rās Mālā_, ed. 1878,
p. 264 _seqq._]

2. The Sunni _Bohrās_. These are very numerous in the Northern Concan and
Guzerat. They are essentially peasants, sturdy, thrifty, and excellent
cultivators, retaining much of Hindu habit; and are, though they have
dropped caste distinctions, very exclusive and "denominational" (as the
_Bombay Gazetteer_ expresses it). Exceptionally, at Pattan, in Baroda
State, there is a rich and thriving community of trading Bohrās of the
Sunni section; they have no intercourse with their Shī'a namesakes.

The history of the Bohrās is still very obscure; nor does it seem
ascertained whether the two sections were originally one. Some things
indicate that the Shī'a Bohrās may be, in accordance with their tradition,
in some considerable part of foreign descent, and that the Sunni Bohrās,
who are unquestionably of Hindu descent, may have been native converts of
the foreign immigrants, afterwards forcibly brought over to Sunnism by the
Guzerat Sultans. But all this must be said with much reserve. The history
is worthy of investigation.

The quotation from Ibn Batuta, which refers to Gandari on the Baroda river,
south of Cambay, alludes most probably to the Bohrās, and may perhaps,
though not necessarily, indicate an origin for the name different from
either of those suggested.

  c. 1343.—"When we arrived at Ḳandahār ... we received a visit from the
  principal Musulmans dwelling at his (the pagan King's) Capital, such as
  the _Children of Khojah_ BOHRAH, among whom was the Nākhoda Ibrahīm, who
  had 6 vessels belonging to him."—_Ibn Batuta_, iv. 58.

  c. 1620.—Nurullah of Shuster, quoted by Colebrooke, speaks of this class
  as having been converted to Islam 300 years before. He says also: "Most
  of them subsist by commerce and mechanical trades; as is indicated by the
  name BOHRAH, which signifies 'merchant' in the dialect of Gujerat."—In
  _As. Res._, vii. 338.

  1673.—"... The rest (of the Mohammedans) are adopted under the name of
  the Province or Kingdom they are born in, as _Mogul_ ... or Schisms they
  have made, as _Bilhim_, _Jemottee_, and the lowest of all is
  BORRAH."—_Fryer_, 93.

  c. 1780.—"Among the rest was the whole of the property of a certain
  Muhammad Mokrim, a man of the BOHRA tribe, the Chief of all the
  merchants, and the owner of three or four merchant ships."—_H. of Hydur
  Naik_, 383.

  1810.—"The BORAHS are an inferior set of travelling merchants. The inside
  of a _Borah's_ box is like that of an English country shop,
  spelling-books, prayer-books, lavender water, eau de luce, soap, tapes,
  scissors, knives, needles, and thread make but a small part of the
  variety."—_Maria Graham_, 33.

  1825.—"The BORAS (at Broach) in general are unpopular, and held in the
  same estimation for parsimony that the Jews are in England."—_Heber_, ed.
  1844, ii. 119; also see 72.

  1853.—"I had the pleasure of baptizing Ismail Ibraim, the first BOHORÁ
  who, as far as we know, has yet embraced Christianity in India.... He
  appears thoroughly divorced from Muhammad, and from 'Ali the son-in-law
  of Muhammad, whom the _Bohorás_ or _Initiated_, according to the meaning
  of the Arabic word, from which the name is derived, esteem as an
  improvement on his father-in-law, having a higher degree of inspiration,
  which has in good measure, as they imagine, manifested itself among his
  successors, recognised by the BOHORAS and by the Ansariyah, Ismaeliyah,
  Drus, and Metawileh of Syria...."—_Letter of Dr. John Wilson_, in _Life_,
  p. 456.

  1863.—"... India, between which and the north-east coast of Africa, a
  considerable trade is carried on, chiefly by BORAH merchants of Guzerat
  and Cutch."—_Badger, Introd. to Varthema_, Hak. Soc. xlix.


BORNEO, n.p. This name, as applied to the great Island in its entirety, is
taken from that of the capital town of the chief Malay State existing on it
when it became known to Europeans, _Bruné_, _Burné_, _Brunai_, or _Burnai_,
still existing and known as _Brunei_.

  1516.—"In this island much camphor for eating is gathered, and the
  Indians value it highly.... This island is called BORNEY."—_Barbosa_,
  203-4.

  1521.—"The two ships departed thence, and running among many islands came
  on one which contained much cinnamon of the finest kind. And then again
  running among many islands they came to the Island of BORNEO, where in
  the harbour they found many junks belonging to merchants from all the
  parts about Malacca, who make a great mart in that BORNEO."—_Correa_, ii.
  631.

  1584.—"Camphora from BRIMEO (misreading probably for BRUNEO) neare to
  China."—_Barret_, in _Hakl._ ii. 412.

  [1610.—"BORNELAYA are with white and black quarls, like checkers, such as
  Polingknytsy are."—_Danvers, Letters_, i. 72.]

  The cloth called BORNELAYA perhaps took its name from this island.

  [   "    "There is brimstone, pepper, BOURNESH camphor."—_Danvers,
  Letters_, i. 79.]

  1614.—In _Sainsbury_, i. 313 [and in _Foster, Letters_, ii. 94], it is
  written BURNEA.

  1727.—"The great island of BORNEW or BORNEO, the largest except
  _California_ in the known world."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 44.


BORO-BODOR, or -BUDUR, n.p. The name of a great Buddhistic monument of
Indian character in the district of Kadū in Java; one of the most
remarkable in the world. It is a quasi-pyramidal structure occupying the
summit of a hill, which apparently forms the core of the building. It is
quadrangular in plan, the sides, however, broken by successive projections;
each side of the basement, 406 feet. Including the basement, it rises in
six successive terraces, four of them forming corridors, the sides of which
are panelled with bas-reliefs, which Mr. Fergusson calculated would, if
extended in a single line, cover three miles of ground. These represent
scenes in the life of Sakya Muni, scenes from the Jātakas, or
pre-existences of Sakya, and other series of Buddhistic groups. Above the
corridors the structure becomes circular, rising in three shallower stages,
bordered with small dagobas (72 in number), and a large dagoba crowns the
whole. The 72 dagobas are hollow, built in a kind of stone lattice, and
each contains, or has contained, within, a stone Buddha in the usual
attitude. In niches of the corridors also are numerous Buddhas larger than
life, and about 400 in number. Mr. Fergusson concludes from various data
that this wonderful structure must date from A.D. 650 to 800.

This monument is not mentioned in Valentijn's great History of the Dutch
Indies (1726), nor does its name ever seem to have reached Europe till Sir
Stamford Raffles, the British Lieut.-Governor of Java, visited the district
in January 1814. The structure was then covered with soil and vegetation,
even with trees of considerable size. Raffles caused it to be cleared, and
drawings and measurements to be made. His _History of Java_, and Crawfurd's
_Hist. of the Indian Archipelago_, made it known to the world. The Dutch
Government, in 1874, published a great collection of illustrative plates,
with a descriptive text.

The meaning of the name by which this monument is known in the
neighbourhood has been much debated. Raffles writes it _Bóro Bódo_ [_Hist.
of Java_, 2nd ed., ii. 30 _seqq._]. [Crawfurd, _Descr. Dict._ (s.v.), says:
"_Boro_ is, in Javanese, the name of a kind of fish-trap, and _budor_ may
possibly be a corruption of the Sanscrit _buda_, 'old.'"] The most probable
interpretation, and accepted by Friedrich and other scholars of weight, is
that of '_Myriad Buddhas_.' This would be in some analogy to another famous
Buddhist monument in a neighbouring district, at Brambánan, which is called
_Chandi Sewu_, or the "Thousand Temples," though the number has been really
238.


BOSH, s. and interj. This is alleged to be taken from the Turkish _bosh_,
signifying "empty, vain, useless, void of sense, meaning or utility"
(_Redhouse's Dict._). But we have not been able to trace its history or
first appearance in English. [According to the _N.E.D._ the word seems to
have come into use about 1834 under the influence of Morier's novels,
_Ayesha_, _Hajji Baba_, &c. For various speculations on its origin see 5
ser. _N. & Q._ iii. 114, 173, 257.

  [1843.—"The people flatter the Envoy into the belief that the tumult is
  BASH (nothing)."—_Lady Sale, Journal_, 47.]


BOSMÁN, BOCHMÁN, s. Boatswain. Lascar's H. (_Roebuck_).


BOTICKEER, s. Port. _botiqueiro_. A shop or stall-keeper. (See BOUTIQUE.)

  1567.—"Item, pareceo que ... os BOTIQUEIROS não tenhão as BUTICAS apertas
  nos dias de festa, senão depois la messa da terça."—Decree 31 of Council
  of Goa, in _Archiv. Port. Orient._, fasc. 4.

  1727.—"... he past all over, and was forced to relieve the poor
  BOTICKEERS or Shopkeepers, who before could pay him Taxes."—_A.
  Hamilton_, i. 268.


BO TREE, s. The name given in Ceylon to the Pipal tree (see PEEPUL) as
reverenced by the Buddhists; Singh. _bo-gās_. See in _Emerson Tennent_
(_Ceylon_, ii. 632 _seqq._), a chronological series of notices of the
Bo-tree from B.C. 288 to A.D. 1739.

  1675.—"Of their (the Veddas') worship there is little to tell, except
  that like the Cingaleze, they set round the high trees BOGAS, which our
  people call _Pagod-trees_, with a stone base and put lamps upon
  it."—_Ryklof Van Goens_, in _Valentijn_ (Ceylon), 209.

  1681.—"I shall mention but one Tree more as famous and highly set by as
  any of the rest, if not more so, tho' it bear no fruit, the benefit
  consisting chiefly in the Holiness of it. This tree they call BOGAHAH; we
  the _God-tree_."—_Knox_, 18.


BOTTLE-TREE, s. Qu. _Adansonia digitata_, or 'baobab'? Its aspect is
somewhat suggestive of the name, but we have not been able to ascertain.
[It has also been suggested that it refers to the BABOOL, on which the
BAYA, often builds its nest. "These are formed in a very ingenious manner,
by long grass woven together in the shape of a BOTTLE." _Forbes, Or. Mem._,
2nd ed., i. 33.)]

  1880.—"Look at this prisoner slumbering peacefully under the suggestive
  BOTTLE-TREE."—_Ali Baba_, 153.


[BOUND-HEDGE, s. A corruption of _boundary-hedge_, and applied in old
military writers to the thick plantation of bamboo or prickly-pear which
used to surround native forts.

  1792.—"A BOUND HEDGE, formed of a wide belt of thorny plants (at
  Seringapatam)."—_Wilks, Historical Sketches_, iii. 217.]


BOUTIQUE, s. A common word in Ceylon and the Madras Presidency (to which it
is now peculiar) for a small native shop or booth: Port. _butica_ or
_boteca_. From Bluteau (Suppt.) it would seem that the use of _butica_ was
peculiar to Portuguese India.

  [1548.—BUTICAS. See quotation under SIND.]

  1554.—"... nas quaes BUTICAS ninguem pode vender senão os que se
  concertam com o Rendeiro."—_Botelho, Tombo do Estado da India_, 50.

  c. 1561.—"The Malabars who sold in the BOTECAS."—_Correa_, i. 2, 267.

  1739.—"That there are many BATTECAS built close under the
  Town-wall."—_Remarks on Fortfns. of Fort St. George_, in _Wheeler_, iii.
  188.

  1742.—In a grant of this date the word appears as BUTTECA.—_Selections
  from Records of S. Arcot District_, ii. 114.

  1767.—"Mr. Russell, as Collector-General, begs leave to represent to the
  Board that of late years the Street by the river side ... has been
  greatly encroached upon by a number of GOLAHS, little straw huts, and
  BOUTIQUES...."—In _Long_, 501.

  1772.—"... a BOUTIQUE merchant having died the 12th inst., his widow was
  desirous of being burnt with his body."—_Papers relating to E. I.
  Affairs_, 1821, p. 268.

  1780.—"You must know that Mrs. Henpeck ... is a great buyer of Bargains,
  so that she will often go out to the Europe Shops and the BOUTIQUES, and
  lay out 5 or 600 Rupees in articles that we have not the least occasion
  for."—_India Gazette_, Dec. 9.

  1782.—"For Sale at No. 18 of the range BOTIQUES to the northward of
  Lyon's Buildings, where MUSTERS (q.v.) may be seen...." _India Gazette_,
  Oct. 12.

  1834.—"The BOUTIQUES are ranged along both sides of the street."—_Chitty,
  Ceylon Gazetteer_, 172.


BOWLA, s. A portmanteau. H. _bāolā_, from Port. _baul_, and _bahu_, 'a
trunk.'


BOWLY, BOWRY, s. H. _bāolī_, and _bāorī_, Mahr. _bāvaḍi_. C. P. Brown
(_Zillah Dict._ s.v.) says it is the Telegu _bāviḍi_; _bāvī_ and _bāviḍi_,
= 'well.' This is doubtless the same word, but in all its forms it is
probably connected with Skt. _vavra_, 'a hole, a well,' or with _vāpi_, 'an
oblong reservoir, a pool or lake.' There is also in Singhalese _væva_, 'a
lake or pond,' and in inscriptions _vaviya_. There is again Maldivian
_weu_, 'a well,' which comes near the Guzerati forms mentioned below. A
great and deep rectangular well (or tank dug down to the springs),
furnished with a descent to the water by means of long flights of steps,
and generally with landings and _loggie_ where travellers may rest in the
shade. This kind of structure, almost peculiar to Western and Central
India, though occasionally met with in Northern India also, is a favourite
object of private native munificence, and though chiefly beneath the level
of the ground, is often made the subject of most effective architecture.
Some of the finest specimens are in Guzerat, where other forms of the word
appear to be _wāo_ and _wāīn_. One of the most splendid of these structures
is that at Asārwa in the suburbs of Ahmedabad, known as the Well of Dhāī
(or 'the Nurse') Harīr, built in 1485 by a lady of the household of Sultan
Mohammed Bigara (that famous 'Prince of Cambay' celebrated by Butler—see
under CAMBAY), at a cost of 3 lakhs of rupees. There is an elaborate model
of a great Guzerati _bāolī_ in the Indian Museum at S. Kensington.

We have seen in the suburbs of Palermo a regular _bāolī_, excavated in the
tufaceous rock that covers the plain. It was said to have been made at the
expense of an ancestor of the present proprietor (Count Ranchibile) to
employ people in a time of scarcity.

  c. 1343.—"There was also a BĀĪN, a name by which the Indians designate a
  very spacious kind of well, revetted with stone, and provided with steps
  for descent to the water's brink. Some of these wells have in the middle
  and on each side pavilions of stone, with seats and benches. The Kings
  and chief men of the country rival each other in the construction of such
  reservoirs on roads that are not supplied with water."—_Ibn Batuta_, iv.
  13.

  1526.—"There was an empty space within the fort (of Agra) between
  Ibrahim's palace and the ramparts. I directed a large WÂIN to be
  constructed on it, ten gez by ten. In the language of Hindostân they
  denominate a large well having a staircase down it WÂIN."—_Baber, Mem._,
  342.

  1775.—"Near a village called Sevasee Contra I left the line of march to
  sketch a remarkable building ... on a near approach I discerned it to be
  a well of very superior workmanship, of that kind which the natives call
  BHOUREE or BHOULIE."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ ii. 102; [2nd ed. i. 387].

  1808.—"'Who-so digs a well deserves the love of creatures and the grace
  of God,' but a VAVIDEE is said to value 10 _Kooas_ (or wells) because the
  water is available to bipeds without the aid of a rope."—_R. Drummond,
  Illustrations of Guzerattee, &c._

  1825.—"These BOOLEES are singular contrivances, and some of them
  extremely handsome and striking...."—_Heber_, ed. 1844, ii. 37.

  1856.—"The WĀV (Sansk. _wápeeká_) is a large edifice of a picturesque and
  stately as well as peculiar character. Above the level of the ground a
  row of four or five open pavilions at regular distances from each other
  ... is alone visible.... The entrance to the WĀV is by one of the end
  pavilions."—_Forbes, Rās Mālā_, i. 257; [reprint 1878, p. 197].

  1876.—"To persons not familiar with the East such an architectural object
  as a BOWLEE may seem a strange perversion of ingenuity, but the grateful
  coolness of all subterranean apartments, especially when accompanied by
  water, and the quiet gloom of these recesses, fully compensate in the
  eyes of the Hindu for the more attractive magnificence of the ghâts.
  Consequently the descending flights of which we are now speaking, have
  often been more elaborate and expensive pieces of architecture than any
  of the buildings above-ground found in their vicinity."—_Fergusson,
  Indian and Eastern Architecture_, 486.


BOXWALLAH, s. Hybrid H. _Bakas-_ (_i.e._ box) _wālā_. A native itinerant
pedlar, or _packman_, as he would be called in Scotland by an analogous
term. The _Boxwālā_ sells cutlery, cheap nick-nacks, and small wares of all
kinds, chiefly European. In former days he was a welcome visitor to small
stations and solitary bungalows. The BORĀ of Bombay is often a _boxwālā_,
and the _boxwālā_ in that region is commonly called _Borā_. (See BORA.)


BOY, s.

A. A servant. In Southern India and in China a native personal servant is
so termed, and is habitually summoned with the vocative 'BOY!' The same was
formerly common in Jamaica and other W. I. Islands. Similar uses are
familiar of _puer_ (_e.g._ in the Vulgate _Dixit Giezi_ puer _Viri Dei_. II
Kings v. 20), Ar. _walad_, παιδάριον, _garçon_, _knave_ (Germ. _Knabe_);
and this same word is used for a camp-servant in Shakespeare, where Fluelen
says: "Kill the POYS and the luggage! 'tis expressly against the laws of
arms."—See also _Grose's Mil. Antiquities_, i. 183, and Latin quotation
from Xavier under CONICOPOLY. The word, however, came to be especially used
for 'Slave-boy,' and applied to slaves of any age. The Portuguese used
_moço_ in the same way. In 'Pigeon English' also 'servant' is _Boy_, whilst
'boy' in our ordinary sense is discriminated as '_smallo-boy_!'

B. A Palankin-bearer. From the name of the caste, Telug. and Malayāl.
_bōyi_, Tam. _bōvi_, &c. Wilson gives _bhoi_ as H. and Mahr. also. The word
is in use northward at least to the Nerbudda R. In the Konkan, people of
this class are called _Kahār bhūī_ (see _Ind. Ant._ ii. 154, iii. 77). P.
Paolino is therefore in error, as he often is, when he says that the word
_boy_ as applied by the English and other Europeans to the coolies or
_facchini_ who carry the dooly, "has nothing to do with any Indian
language." In the first and third quotations (under B), the use is more
like A, but any connection with English at the dates seems impossible.

A.—

  1609.—"I bought of them a _Portugall_ BOY (which the Hollanders had given
  unto the King) ... hee cost mee fortie-five Dollers."—_Keeling_, in
  _Purchas_, i. 196.

     "    "My BOY Stephen Grovenor."—_Hawkins_, in _Purchas_, 211. See also
  267, 296.

  1681.—"We had a _black_ BOY my Father brought from Porto Nova to attend
  upon him, who seeing his Master to be a Prisoner in the hands of the
  People of his own Complexion, would not now obey his Command."—_Knox_,
  124.

  1696.—"Being informed where the Chief man of the Choultry lived, he (Dr.
  Brown) took his sword and pistol, and being followed by his BOY with
  another pistol, and his horse keeper...."—In _Wheeler_, i. 300.

  1784.—"_Eloped._ From his master's House at Moidapore, a few days since,
  A Malay Slave BOY."—In _Seton-Karr_, i. 45; see also pp. 120, 179.

  1836.—"The real Indian ladies lie on a sofa, and if they drop their
  handkerchief, they just lower their voices and say BOY! in a very gentle
  tone."—_Letters from Madras_, 38.

  1866.—"Yes, Sahib, I Christian BOY. Plenty poojah do. Sunday time never
  no work do."—_Trevelyan, The Dawk Bungalow_, p. 226.

Also used by the French in the East:

  1872.—"Mon BOY m'accompagnait pour me servir à l'occasion de guide et
  d'interprète."—_Rev. des Deux Mondes_, xcviii. 957.

  1875.—"He was a faithful servant, or BOY, as they are here called, about
  forty years of age."—_Thomson's Malacca_, 228.

  1876.—"A Portuguese BOY ... from Bombay."—_Blackwood's Mag._, Nov., p.
  578.

B.—

  1554.—(At Goa) "also to a _naique_, with 6 _peons_ (_piães_) and a
  _mocadam_ with 6 torch-bearers (_tochas_), one umbrella BOY (_hum_ BÓY
  _do sombreiro_), two washermen (_mainatos_), 6 water-carriers (BÓYS
  _d'aguoa_) all serving the governor ... in all 280 pardaos and 4 tangas
  annually, or 84,240 reis."—_S. Botelho, Tombo_, 57.

  [1563.—"And there are men who carry this umbrella so dexterously to ward
  off the sun, that although their master trots on his horse, the sun does
  not touch any part of his body, and such men are called in India
  BOI."—_Barros_, Dec. 3, Bk. x. ch. 9.]

  1591.—A proclamation of the viceroy, Matthias d'Alboquerque, orders:
  "that no person, of what quality or condition soever, shall go in a
  _palanquim_ without my express licence, save they be over 60 years of
  age, to be first proved before the Auditor-General of Police ... and
  those who contravene this shall pay a penalty of 200 cruzados, and
  persons of mean estate the half, the _palanquys_ and their belongings to
  be forfeited, and the BOIS or mouços who carry such _palanquys_ shall be
  condemned to his Majesty's galleys."—_Archiv. Port. Orient._, fasc. 3,
  324.

  1608-10.—"... faisans les graues et obseruans le _Sossiego_ à
  l'Espagnole, ayans tousiours leur BOAY qui porte leur parasol, sans
  lequel ils n'osent sortir de logis, ou autrement on les estimeroit
  _picaros_ et miserables."—_Mocquet, Voyages_, 305.

  1610.—"... autres Gentils qui sont comme Crocheteurs et Porte-faix,
  qu'ils appellent BOYE, c'est a dire Bœuf pour porter quelque pesãt faix
  que ce soit."—_Pyrard de Laval_, ii. 27; [Hak. Soc. ii. 44. On this Mr.
  Gray notes: "Pyrard's fanciful interpretation 'ox,' Port. _boi_, may be
  due either to himself or to some Portuguese friend who would have his
  joke. It is repeated by Boullaye-de-Gouz (p. 211), who finds a parallel
  indignity in the use of the term _mulets_ by the French gentry towards
  their chair-men."]

  1673.—"We might recite the Coolies ... and _Palenkeen_ BOYS; by the very
  Heathens esteemed a degenerate Offspring of the _Holencores_ (see
  HALALCORE)."—_Fryer_, 34.

  1720.—"BOIS. In Portuguese India are those who carry the _Andores_ (see
  ANDOR), and in Salsete there is a village of them which pays its dues
  from the fish which they sell, buying it from the fishermen of the
  shores."—_Bluteau, Dict._ s.v.

  1755-60.—"... Palankin-BOYS."—_Ives_, 50.

  1778.—"BOYS _de palanquim_, Kàhàr."—_Gramatica Indostana_ (Port.), Roma,
  86.

  1782.—"... un bambou arqué dans le milieu, qui tient au palanquin, et sur
  les bouts duquel se mettent 5 ou 6 porteurs qu'on appelle
  BOUÉS."—_Sonnerat, Voyage_, i. 58.

  1785.—"The BOYS with Colonel Lawrence's palankeen having straggled a
  little out of the line of march, were picked up by the
  Morattas."—_Carraccioli, Life of Clive_, i. 207.

  1804.—"My palanquin BOYS will be laid on the road on
  Monday."—_Wellington_, iii. 553.

  1809.—"My BOYS were in high spirits, laughing and singing through the
  whole night."—_Ld. Valentia_, i. 326.

  1810.—"The palankeen-bearers are called BHOIS, and are remarkable for
  strength and swiftness."—_Maria Graham_, 128.


BOYA, s. A buoy. Sea H. (_Roebuck_). [Mr. Skeat adds: "The Malay word is
also _boya_ or _bai-rop_, which latter I cannot trace."]


[BOYANORE, BAONOR, s. A corr. of the Malayāl. _Vāllunavar_, 'Ruler.'

  [1887.—"Somewhere about 1694-95 ... the Kadattunād Raja, known to the
  early English as the BOYANORE or BAONOR of Badagara, was in
  semi-independent possession of Kaduttanād, that is, of the territory
  lying between the Mahé and Kōtta rivers."—_Logan, Man. of Malabar_, i.
  345.]


BRAB, s. The Palmyra Tree (see PALMYRA) or _Borassus flabelliformis_. The
Portuguese called this Palmeira BRAVA ('wild' palm), whence the English
corruption. The term is unknown in Bengal, where the tree is called
'fan-palm,' 'palmyra,' or by the H. name _tāl_ or _tār_.

  1623.—"The book is made after the fashion of this country, _i.e._ not of
  paper which is seldom or never used, but of palm leaves, viz. of the
  leaves of that which the Portuguese call _palmum_ BRAMA (_sic_), or wild
  palm."—_P. della Valle_, ii. 681; [Hak. Soc. ii. 291].

  c. 1666.—"Tous les Malabares écrivent comme nous de gauche à droit sur
  les feuïlles des _Palmeras_ BRAVAS."—_Thevenot_, v. 268.

  1673.—"Another Tree called BRABB, bodied like the Cocoe, but the leaves
  grow round like a Peacock's Tail set upright."—_Fryer_, 76.

  1759.—"BRABB, so called at Bombay: _Palmira_ on the coast; and _Tall_ at
  Bengal."—_Ives_, 458.

  c. 1760.—"There are also here and there interspersed a few BRAB-trees, or
  rather wild palm-trees (the word _brab_ being derived from BRABO, which
  in Portuguese signifies wild) ... the chief profit from that is the
  toddy."—_Grose_, i. 48.

  [1808.—See quotation under BANDAREE.]

  1809.—"The _Palmyra_ ... here called the BRAB, furnishes the best leaves
  for thatching, and the dead ones serve for fuel."—_Maria Graham_, 5.


BRAHMIN, BRAHMAN, BRAMIN, s. In some parts of India called _Bahman_; Skt.
_Brāhmaṇa_. This word now means a member of the priestly caste, but the
original meaning and use were different. Haug, (_Brahma und die Brahmanen_,
pp. 8-11) traces the word to the root _brih_, 'to increase,' and shows how
it has come to have its present signification. The older English form is
BRACHMAN, which comes to us through the Greek and Latin authors.

  c. B.C. 330.—"... τῶν ἐν Ταξίλοις σοφιστῶν ἰδεῖν δύο φησὶ, Βραχμᾶνας
  ἀμφοτέρους, τὸν μὲν πρεσβύτερον ἐξυρημένον, τὸν δὲ νεώτερον κομήτην,
  ἀμφοτέροις δ' ἀκολουθεῖν μαθητάς...."—_Aristobulus_, quoted in _Strabo_,
  xv. c. 61.

  c. B.C. 300.—"Ἄλλην δὲ διαίρεσιν ποιεῖται περὶ τῶν φιλοσόφων δύο γενη
  φάσκων, ὥν τοὺς μὲν Βραχμᾶνας καλεῖ, τοὺς δὲ Γαρμάνας [Σαρμάνας?]"—From
  _Megasthenes_, in _Strabo_, xv. c. 59.

  c. A.D. 150.—"But the evil stars have not forced the BRAHMINS to do evil
  and abominable things; nor have the good stars persuaded the rest of the
  (Indians) to abstain from evil things."—_Bardesanes_, in _Cureton's
  Spicilegium_, 18.

  c. A.D. 500.—"Βραχμᾶνες; Ἰνδικὸν ἔθνος σοφώτατον οὓς καὶ βράχμας
  καλοῦσιν."—_Stephanus Byzantinus._

  1298.—Marco Polo writes (pl.) ABRAIAMAN or _Abraiamin_, which seems to
  represent an incorrect Ar. plural (_e.g._ _Abrāhamīn_) picked up from
  Arab sailors; the correct Ar. plural is _Barāhima_.

  1444.—Poggio taking down the reminiscences of Nicolo Conti writes
  BRAMMONES.

  1555.—"Among these is ther a people called BRACHMANES, whiche (as Didimus
  their Kinge wrote unto Alexandre ...) live a pure and simple life, led
  with no likerous lustes of other mennes vanities."—_W. Watreman, Fardle
  of Faciouns_.

  1572.—

   "BRAHMENES são os seus religiosos,
    Nome antiguo, e de grande preeminencia:
    Observam os preceitos tão famosos
    D'hum, que primeiro poz nomo á sciencia."
               _Camões_, vii. 40.

  1578.—Acosta has BRAGMEN.

  1582.—"Castañeda, tr. by N. L.," has _Bramane_.

  1630.—"The BRAMANES ... Origen, cap. 13 & 15, affirmeth to bee descended
  from Abraham by Cheturah, who seated themselves in India, and that so
  they were called ABRAHMANES."—_Lord, Desc. of the Banian Rel._, 71.

  1676.—

   "Comes he to upbraid us with his innocence?
    Seize him, and take this preaching BRACHMAN hence."
               _Dryden, Aurungzebe_, iii. 3.

  1688.—"The public worship of the pagods was tolerated at Goa, and the
  sect of the BRACHMANS daily increased in power, because these Pagan
  priests had bribed the Portuguese officers."—_Dryden, Life of Xavier._

  1714.—"The Dervis at first made some scruple of violating his promise to
  the dying BRACHMAN."—_The Spectator_, No. 578.


BRAHMINY BULL, s. A bull devoted to Śiva and let loose; generally found
frequenting Hindu bazars, and fattened by the run of the Bunyas' shops. The
term is sometimes used more generally (_Brahminy_ bull, -ox, or -cow) to
denote the humped Indian ox as a species.

  1872.—"He could stop a huge BRAMINI BULL, when running in fury, by
  catching hold of its horns."—_Govinda Samanta_, i. 85.

  [1889.—"Herbert Edwards made his mark as a writer of the BRAHMINEE BULL
  LETTERS in the Delhi Gazette."—_Calcutta Rev._, app. xxii.]


BRAHMINY BUTTER, s. This seems to have been an old name for GHEE (q.v.). In
MS. "Acct. Charges, Dieting, &c., at Fort St. David for Nov.-Jany.,
1746-47," in India Office, we find:

 "BUTTER       _Pagodas_  2   2  0
  BRAHMINY do.     "      1  34  0."


BRAHMINY DUCK, s. The common Anglo-Indian name of the handsome bird
_Casarca rutila_ (Pallas), or 'Ruddy Shieldrake'; constantly seen on the
sandy shores of the Gangetic rivers in single pairs, the pair almost always
at some distance apart. The Hindi name is _chakwā_, and the _chakwā-chakwī_
(male and female of the species) afford a commonplace comparison in Hindi
literature for faithful lovers and spouses. "The Hindus have a legend that
two lovers for their indiscretion were transformed into Brahminy Ducks,
that they are condemned to pass the night apart from each other, on
opposite banks of the river, and that all night long each, in its turn,
asks its mate if it shall come across, but the question is always met by a
negative—"Chakwa, shall I come?" "No, Chakwi." "Chakwi, shall I come?" "No,
Chakwa."—(_Jerdon._) The same author says the bird is occasionally killed
in England.


BRAHMINY KITE, s. The _Milvus Pondicerianus_ of Jerdon, _Haliastur Indus_,
Boddaert. The name is given because the bird is regarded with some
reverence by the Hindus as sacred to Vishnu. It is found throughout India.

  c. 1328.—"There is also in this India a certain bird, big, like a KITE,
  having a white head and belly, but all red above, which boldly snatches
  fish out of the hands of fishermen and other people, and indeed [these
  birds] go on just like dogs."—_Friar Jordanus_, 36.

  1673.—"... 'tis Sacrilege with them to kill a Cow or Calf; but highly
  piacular to shoot a KITE, _dedicated to the_ BRACHMINS, for which Money
  will hardly pacify."—_Fryer_, 33.

  [1813.—"We had a still bolder and more ravenous enemy in the hawks and
  BRAHMINEE KITES."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._, 2nd ed., ii. 162.]


BRAHMO-SOMÁJ, s. The Bengali pronunciation of Skt. _Brahma Samāja_,
'assembly of Brahmists'; Brahma being the Supreme Being according to the
Indian philosophic systems. The reform of Hinduism so called was begun by
Ram Mohun Roy (_Rāma Mohana Rāī_) in 1830. Professor A. Weber has shown
that it does not constitute an independent Indian movement, but is derived
from European Theism. [Also see _Monier-Williams, Brahmanism_, 486.]

  1876.—"The BRAHMO SOMAJ, or Theistic Church of India, is an experiment
  hitherto unique in religious history."—_Collet, Brahmo Year-book_, 5.


BRANDUL, s. 'Backstay,' in Sea H. Port. _brandal_ (_Roebuck_).


BRANDY COORTEE, -COATEE, s. Or sometimes simply _Brandy_. A corruption of
_bārānī_, 'a cloak,' literally pluviale, from P. _bārān_, 'rain.'
BĀRĀNĪ-KURTĪ seems to be a kind of hybrid shaped by the English word
_coat_, though _kurtā_ and _kurtī_ are true P. words for various forms of
jacket or tunic.

  [1754.—"Their women also being not less than 6000, were dressed with
  great coats (these are called BARANNI) of crimson cloth, after the manner
  of the men, and not to be distinguished at a distance; so that the whole
  made a very formidable appearance."—_H. of Nadir Shah_, in _Hanway_,
  367.]

  1788.—"BARRANNEE—a cloak to cover one from the rain."—_Ind. Vocab._
  (Stockdale).

[The word BĀRĀNĪ is now commonly used to describe those crops which are
dependent on the annual rains, not on artificial irrigation.

  [1900.—"The recent rain has improved the BARANI crops."—_Pioneer Mail_,
  19th Feb.]


BRANDYPAWNEE, s. Brandy and water; a specimen of genuine _Urdū_, _i.e._
Camp jargon, which hardly needs interpretation. H. _panī_, 'water.'
Williamson (1810) has _brandy-shraub-pauny_ (_V. M._ ii. 123).

  [1854.—"I'm sorry to see you gentlemen drinking BRANDY-PAWNEE," says he;
  "it plays the deuce with our young men in India."—_Thackeray, Newcomes_,
  ch. i.]

  1866.—"The BRANDY PAWNEE of the East, and the 'sangaree' of the West
  Indies, are happily now almost things of the past, or exist in a very
  modified form."—_Waring, Tropical Resident_, 177.


BRASS, s. A brace. Sea dialect.—(_Roebuck._)


[BRASS-KNOCKER, s. A term applied to a _réchauffé_ or serving up again of
yesterday's dinner or supper. It is said to be found in a novel by Winwood
Reade called _Liberty Hall_, as a piece of Anglo-Indian slang; and it is
supposed to be a corruption of _bāsī khāna_, H. 'stale food'; see 5 ser.
_N. & Q._, 34, 77.]


BRATTY, s. A word, used only in the South, for cakes of dry cow-dung, used
as fuel more or less all over India. It is Tam. _varaṭṭi_, [or _virāṭṭi_],
'dried dung.' Various terms are current elsewhere, but in Upper India the
most common is _uplā_.—(Vide OOPLA).


BRAVA, n.p. A sea-port on the east coast of Africa, lat. 1° 7′ N., long.
44° 3′, properly BARĀWA.

  1516.—"... a town of the Moors, well walled, and built of good stone and
  whitewash, which is called BRAVA.... It is a place of trade, which has
  already been destroyed by the Portuguese, with great slaughter of the
  inhabitants...."—_Barbosa_, 15.


BRAZIL-WOOD, s. This name is now applied in trade to the dye-wood imported
from Pernambuco, which is derived from certain species of _Caesalpinia_
indigenous there. But it originally applied to a dye-wood of the same genus
which was imported from India, and which is now known in trade as SAPPAN
(q.v.). [It is the _andam_ or _baḳḳam_ of the Arabs (_Burton, Ar. Nights_,
iii. 49).] The history of the word is very curious. For when the name was
applied to the newly discovered region in S. America, probably, as Barros
alleges, because it produced a dye-wood similar in character to the BRAZIL
of the East, the trade-name gradually became appropriated to the S.
American product, and was taken away from that of the E. Indies. See some
further remarks in _Marco Polo_, 2nd ed., ii. 368-370 [and _Encycl. Bibl._
i. 120].

This is alluded to also by _Camões_ (x. 140):

 "But here where Earth spreads wider, ye shall claim
  realms by the _ruddy Dye-wood_ made renown'd;
  these of the 'Sacred Cross' shall win the name:
  by your first Navy shall that world be found."
             _Burton._

The medieval forms of _brazil_ were many; in Italian it is generally
_verzi_, _verzino_, or the like.

  1330.—"And here they burn the BRAZIL-wood (_verzino_) for fuel...."—_Fr.
  Odoric_, in _Cathay_, &c., p. 77.

  1552.—"... when it came to the 3d of May, and Pedralvares was about to
  set sail, in order to give a name to the land thus newly discovered, he
  ordered a very great Cross to be hoisted at the top of a tree, after mass
  had been said at the foot of the tree, and it had been set up with the
  solemn benediction of the priests, and then he gave the country the name
  of _Sancta Cruz_.... But as it was through the symbol of the Cross that
  the Devil lost his dominion over us ... as soon as the red wood called
  BRAZIL began to arrive from that country, he wrought that _that_ name
  should abide in the mouth of the people, and that the name of _Holy
  Cross_ should be lost, as if the name of a wood for colouring cloth were
  of more moment than that wood which imbues all the sacraments with the
  tincture of salvation, which is the Blood of Jesus Christ."—_Barros_, I.
  v. 2.

  1554.—"The baar (BAHAR) of BRAZIL contains 20 faraçolas (see FRAZALA),
  weighing it in a coir rope, and there is no _picotaa_ (see PICOTA)"—_A.
  Nunes_, 18.

  1641.—"We went to see the Rasp-house where the lusty knaves are compelled
  to labour, and the rasping of BRAZILL and Logwood is very hard
  labour."—_Evelyn's Diary, August [19]._


BREECH-CANDY, n.p. A locality on the shore of Bombay Island to the north of
Malabar Hill. The true name, as Dr. Murray Mitchell tells me, is believed
to be _Burj-khāḍī_, 'the Tower of the Creek.'


BRIDGEMÁN, s. Anglo-Sepoy H. _brijmān_, denoting a military _prisoner_, of
which word it is a quaint corruption.


BRINJARRY, s. Also BINJARREE, BUNJARREE, and so on. But the first form has
become classical from its constant occurrence in the Indian Despatches of
Sir A. Wellesley. The word is properly H. _banjārā_, and Wilson derives it
from Skt. _baṇij_, 'trade,' _kāra_, 'doer.' It is possible that the form
_brinjārā_ may have been suggested by a supposed connection with the Pers.
_birinj_, 'rice.' (It is alleged in the _Dict. of Words used in the E.
Indies_, 2nd ed., 1805, to be derived from _brinj_, 'rice,' and _ara_,
'bring'!) The _Brinjarries_ of the Deccan are dealers in grain and salt,
who move about, in numerous parties with cattle, carrying their goods to
different markets, and who in the days of the Deccan wars were the great
resource of the commissariat, as they followed the armies with supplies for
sale. They talk a kind of Mahratta or Hindi patois. Most classes of
Banjārās in the west appear to have a tradition of having first come to the
Deccan with Moghul camps as commissariat carriers. In a pamphlet called
_Some Account of the Bunjarrah Class_, by N. R. Cumberlege, _District Sup.
of Police, Basein, Berar_ (Bombay, 1882; [_North Indian N. & Q._ iv. 163
_seqq._]), the author attempts to distinguish between _brinjarees_ as
'grain-carriers,' and _bunjarrahs_, from _bunjār_, 'waste land' (meaning
_banjar_ or _bānjaṛ_). But this seems fanciful. In the N.-W. Provinces the
name is also in use, and is applied to a numerous tribe spread along the
skirt of the Himālaya from Hardwār to Gorakhpur, some of whom are settled,
whilst the rest move about with their cattle, sometimes transporting goods
for hire, and sometimes carrying grain, salt, lime, forest produce, or
other merchandise for sale. [See _Crooke, Tribes and Castes_, i. 149
_seqq._] VANJĀRĀS, as they are called about Bombay, used to come down from
Rajputāna and Central India, with large droves of cattle, laden with grain,
&c., taking back with them salt for the most part. These were not mere
carriers, but the actual dealers, paying ready money, and they were orderly
in conduct.

  c. 1505.—"As scarcity was felt in his camp (Sultan Sikandar Lodi's) in
  consequence of the non-arrival of the BANJÁRAS, he despatched 'Azam
  Humáyun for the purpose of bringing in supplies."—_Ni'amat Ullah_, in
  _Elliot_, v. 100 (written c. 1612).

  1516.—"The Moors and Gentiles of the cities and towns throughout the
  country come to set up their shops and cloths at Cheul ... they bring
  these in great caravans of domestic oxen, with packs, like donkeys, and
  on the top of these long white sacks placed crosswise, in which they
  bring their goods; and one man drives 30 or 40 beasts before
  him."—_Barbosa_, 71.

  1563.—"... This King of Dely took the Balagat from certain very powerful
  gentoos, whose tribe are those whom we now call VENEZARAS, and from
  others dwelling in the country, who are called _Colles_; and all these,
  Colles, and _Venezaras_, and Reisbutos, live by theft and robbery to this
  day."—_Garcia De O._, f. 34.

  c. 1632.—"The very first step which Mohabut Khan [Khān Khānān] took in
  the Deccan, was to present the BUNJARAS of Hindostan with elephants,
  horses, and cloths; and he collected (by these conciliatory measures) so
  many of them that he had one chief _Bunjara_ at Agrah, another in
  Goojrat, and another above the Ghats, and established the advanced price
  of 10 _sers_ per rupee (in his camp) to enable him to buy it
  cheaper."—MS. _Life of Mohabut Khan_ (_Khan Khanan_), in _Briggs's_ paper
  quoted below, 183.

  1638.—"Il y a dans le Royaume de _Cuncam_ vn certain peuple qu'ils
  appellent VENESARS, qui achettent le bled et le ris ... pour le reuendre
  dans _l'Indosthan_ ... ou ils vont auec des _Caffilas_ ou _Caravances_ de
  cinq ou six, et quelque fois de neuf ou dix mille bestes de
  somme...."—_Mandelslo_, 245.

  1793.—"Whilst the army halted on the 23rd, accounts were received from
  Captain Read ... that his convoy of BRINJARRIES had been attacked by a
  body of horse."—_Dirom_, 2.

  1800.—"The BINJARRIES I look upon in the light of servants of the public,
  of whose grain I have a right to regulate the sale ... always taking care
  that they have a proportionate advantage."—_A. Wellesley_, in _Life of
  Sir T. Munro_, i. 264.

     "    "The BRINJARRIES drop in by degrees."—_Wellington_, i. 175.

  1810.—"Immediately facing us a troop of BRINJAREES had taken up their
  residence for the night. These people travel from one end of India to the
  other, carrying salt, grain, assafœtida, almost as necessary to an army
  as salt."—_Maria Graham_, 61.

  1813.—"We met there a number of VANJARRAHS, or merchants, with large
  droves of oxen, laden with valuable articles from the interior country,
  to commute for salt on the sea-coast."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ i. 206; [2nd
  ed. i. 118; also see ii. 276 _seqq._].

     "    "As the Deccan is devoid of a single navigable river, and has no
  roads that admit of wheel-carriages, the whole of this extensive
  intercourse is carried on by laden bullocks, the property of that class
  of people known as BUNJARAS."—_Acc. of Origin, Hist., and Manners of ...
  Bunjaras_, by _Capt. John Briggs_, in _Tr. Lit. Soc. Bo._ i. 61.

  1825.—"We passed a number of BRINJARREES who were carrying salt.... They
  ... had all bows ... arrows, sword and shield.... Even the children had,
  many of them, bows and arrows suited to their strength, and I saw one
  young woman equipped in the same manner."—_Heber_, ii. 94.

  1877.—"They were BRINJARRIES, or carriers of grain, and were quietly
  encamped at a village about 24 miles off; trading most unsuspiciously in
  grain and salt."—_Meadows Taylor, Life_, ii. 17.


BRINJAUL, s. The name of a vegetable called in the W. Indies the
_Egg-plant_, and more commonly known to the English in Bengal under that of
_bangun_ (prop. _baingan_). It is the _Solanum Melongena_, L., very
commonly cultivated on the shores of the Mediterranean as well as in India
and the East generally. Though not known in a wild state under this form,
there is no reasonable doubt that _S. Melongena_ is a derivative of the
common Indian _S. insanum_, L. The word in the form _brinjaul_ is from the
Portuguese, as we shall see. But probably there is no word of the kind
which has undergone such extraordinary variety of modifications, whilst
retaining the same meaning, as this. The Skt. is _bhaṇṭākī_, H. _bhāṇṭā_,
_baigan_, _baingan_, P. _badingān_, _badilgān_, Ar. _badinjān_, Span.
_alberengena_, _berengena_, Port. _beringela_, _bringiela_, BRINGELLA, Low
Latin _melangolus_, _merangolus_, Ital. _melangola_, _melanzana_, _mela
insana_, &c. (see _P. della Valle_, below), French _aubergine_ (from
_alberengena_), _melongène_, _merangène_, and provincially _belingène_,
_albergaine_, _albergine_, _albergame_. (See _Marcel Devic_, p. 46.)
Littré, we may remark, explains (_dormitante Homero?_) _aubergine_ as
'_espèce de morelle_,' giving the etym. as "diminutif de _auberge_" (in the
sense of a kind of peach). _Melongena_ is no real Latin word, but a
factitious rendering of _melanzana_, or, as Marcel Devic says, "Latin du
botaniste." It looks as if the Skt. word were the original of all. The H.
_baingan_ again seems to have been modified from the P. _badingān_, [or, as
Platts asserts, direct from the Skt. _vanga_, _vangana_, 'the plant of
Bengal,'] and _baingan_ also through the Ar. to have been the parent of the
Span. _berengena_, and so of all the other European names except the
English 'egg-plant.' The Ital. _mela insana_ is the most curious of these
corruptions, framed by the usual effort after meaning, and connecting
itself with the somewhat indigestible reputation of the vegetable as it is
eaten in Italy, which is a fact. When cholera is abroad it is considered
(_e.g._ in Sicily) to be an act of folly to eat the _melanzana_. There is,
however, behind this, some notion (exemplified in the quotation from
_Lane's Mod. Egypt._ below) connecting the _badinjān_ with madness.
[_Burton, Ar. Nights_, iii. 417.] And it would seem that the old Arab
medical writers give it a bad character as an article of diet. Thus
Avicenna says the _badinjān_ generates melancholy and obstructions. To the
N. O. _Solanaceae_ many poisonous plants belong.

The word has been carried, with the vegetable, to the Archipelago, probably
by the Portuguese, for the Malays call it _berinjalā_. [On this Mr. Skeat
writes: "The Malay form _brinjal_, from the Port., not _berinjalā_, is
given by Clifford and Swettenham, but it cannot be established as a Malay
word, being almost certainly the Eng. _brinjaul_ done into Malay. It finds
no place in Klinkert, and the native Malay word, which is the only word
used in pure Peninsular Malay, is _terong_ or _trong_. The form
_berinjalā_, I believe, must have come from the Islands if it really
exists."]

  1554.—(At Goa). "And the excise from garden stuff under which are
  comprised these things, viz.: Radishes, beetroot, garlick, onions green
  and dry, green tamarinds, lettuces, _conbalinguas_, ginger, oranges,
  dill, coriander, mint, cabbage, salted mangoes, BRINJELAS, lemons,
  gourds, citrons, cucumbers, which articles none may sell in retail except
  the Rendeiro of this excise, or some one who has got permission from
  him...."—_S. Botelho, Tombo_, 49.

  c. 1580.—"Trifolium quoque virens comedunt _Arabes_, mentham _Judaei_
  crudam, ... MALA INSANA...."—_Prosper Alpinus_, i. 65.

  1611.—"We had a market there kept upon the Strand of diuers sorts of
  prouisions, towit ... PALLINGENIES, cucumbers...."—_N. Dounton_, in
  _Purchas_, i. 298.

  1616.—"It seems to me to be one of those fruits which are called in good
  Tuscan _petronciani_, but which by the Lombards are called MELANZANE, and
  by the vulgar at Rome _marignani_; and if my memory does not deceive me,
  by the Neapolitans in their patois _molegnane_."—_P. della Valle_, i.
  197.

  1673.—"The Garden ... planted with Potatoes, Yawms, BERENJAWS, both hot
  plants...."—_Fryer_, 104.

  1738.—"Then follow during the rest of the summer, _calabashas_ ...
  BEDIN-JANAS, and tomatas."—_Shaw's Travels_, 2nd ed. 1757, p. 141.

  c. 1740.—"This man (Balaji Rao), who had become absolute in Hindostan as
  well as in Decan, was fond of bread made of Badjrah ... he lived on raw
  BRINGELAS, on unripe mangoes, and on raw red pepper."—_Seir Mutaqherin_,
  iii. 229.

  1782.—Sonnerat writes BÉRINGÉDES.—i. 186.

  1783.—Forrest spells brinjalles (_V. to Mergui_, 40); and (1810)
  Williamson BIRINGAL (_V. M._ i. 133). Forbes (1813), BRINGAL and BERENJAL
  (_Or. Mem._ i. 32) [in 2nd ed. i. 22, BUNGAL,] ii. 50; [in 2nd ed. i.
  348].

  1810.—"I saw last night at least two acres covered with BRINJAAL, a
  species of Solanum."—_Maria Graham_, 24.

  1826.—"A plate of poached eggs, fried in sugar and butter; a dish of
  BADENJÂNS, slit in the middle and boiled in grease."—_Hajji Baba_, ed.
  1835, p. 150.

  1835.—"The neighbours unanimously declared that the husband was mad....
  One exclaimed: 'There is no strength nor power but in God! God restore
  thee!' Another said: 'How sad! He was really a worthy man.' A third
  remarked: 'BADINGÂNS are very abundant just now.'"—_Lane, Mod.
  Egyptians_, ed. 1860, 299.

  1860.—"Amongst other triumphs of the native cuisine were some singular,
  but by no means inelegant _chefs d'œuvre_, BRINJALS boiled and stuffed
  with savoury meats, but exhibiting ripe and undressed fruit growing on
  the same branch."—_Tennent's Ceylon_, ii. 161. This dish is mentioned in
  the Sanskrit Cookery Book, which passes as by King Nala. It is managed by
  wrapping part of the fruit in wet cloths whilst the rest is being cooked.


BROACH, n.p. _Bharōch_, an ancient and still surviving city of Guzerat, on
the River Nerbudda. The original forms of the name are _Bhṛigu-kachchha_,
and _Bhāru-Kachchha_, which last form appears in the Sunnar Cave
Inscription No. ix., and this was written with fair correctness by the
Greeks as Βαρυγάζα and Βαργόση. "Illiterate Guzerattees would in attempting
to articulate _Bhreeghoo-Kshetra_ (_sic_), lose the half in coalescence,
and call it _Barigache_."—_Drummond, Illus. of Guzerattee_, &c.

  c. B.C. 20.—"And then laughing, and stript naked, anointed and with his
  loin-cloth on, he leaped upon the pyre. And this inscription was set upon
  his tomb: _Zarmanochēgas the Indian from_ BARGÓSĒ _having rendered
  himself immortal after the hereditary custom of the Indians lieth
  here_."—_Nicolaus Damascenus_, in _Strabo_, xv. 72. [Lassen takes the
  name Zarmanochēgas to represent the Skt. _Śrámanácharya_, teacher of the
  _Śrámanas_, from which it would appear that he was a Buddhist priest.]

  c. A.D. 80.—"On the right, at the very mouth of the gulf, there is a long
  and narrow strip of shoal.... And if one succeeds in getting into the
  gulf, still it is hard to hit the mouth of the river leading to BARYGAZA,
  owing to the land being so low ... and when found it is difficult to
  enter, owing to the shoals of the river near the mouth. On this account
  there are at the entrances fishermen employed by the King ... to meet
  ships as far off as Syrastrene, and by these they are piloted up to
  Barygaza."—_Periplus_, sect. 43. It is very interesting to compare
  Horsburgh with this ancient account. "From the sands of Swallow to Broach
  a continued bank extends along the shore, which at BROACH river projects
  out about 5 miles.... The tide flows here ... velocity 6 knots ... rising
  nearly 30 feet.... On the north side of the river, a great way up, the
  town of Broach is situated; vessels of considerable burden may proceed to
  this place, as the channels are deep in many places, but too intricate to
  be navigated without a pilot."—_India Directory_ (_in loco_).

  c. 718.—BARÚS is mentioned as one of the places against which Arab
  attacks were directed.—See _Elliot_, i. 441.

  c. 1300.—"... a river which lies between the Sarsut and Ganges ... has a
  south-westerly course till it falls into the sea near
  BAHRÚCH."—_Al-Birūni_, in _Elliot_, i. 49.

  A.D. 1321.—"After their blessed martyrdom, which occurred on the Thursday
  before Palm Sunday, in Thana of India, I baptised about 90 persons in a
  certain city called PAROCCO, 10 days' journey distant
  therefrom...."—_Friar Jordanus_, in _Cathay_, &c., 226.

  1552.—"A great and rich ship said to belong to Meleque Gupij, Lord of
  BAROCHE."—_Barros_, II. vi. 2.

  1555.—"Sultan Ahmed on his part marched upon BARŪJ."—_Sidī 'Ali_, 85.

  [1615.—"It would be necessary to give credit unto two or three Guzzaratts
  for some cloth to make a voyage to BURROUSE."—_Foster, Letters_, iv. 94.]

  1617.—"We gave our host ... a peece of _backar_ BAROCHE to his children
  to make them 2 coates."—_Cocks's Diary_, i. 330. [_Backar_ here seems to
  represent a port connected with Broach, called in the _Āīn_ (ii. 243)
  _Bhankora_ or _Bhakor_; Bayley gives _Bhakorah_ as a village on the
  frontier of Gujerat.]

  1623.—"Before the hour of complines ... we arrived at the city of
  BAROCHI, or BEHRUG as they call it in Persian, under the walls of which,
  on the south side, flows a river called Nerbedà."—_P. della Valle_, ii.
  529; [Hak. Soc. i. 60].

  1648.—In _Van Twist_ (p. 11), it is written BROICHIA.

  [1676.—"From Surat to BAROCHE, 22 coss."—_Tavernier_, ed. _Ball_, i. 66.]

  1756.—"Bandar of BHRŌCH."—(Bird's tr. of) _Mirat-i-Ahmadi_, 115.

  1803.—"I have the honour to enclose ... papers which contain a detailed
  account of the ... capture of BAROACH."—_Wellington_, ii. 289.


BUCK, v. To prate, to chatter, to talk much and egotistically. H. _baknā_.
[A _buck-stick_ is a chatterer.]

  1880.—"And then ... he BUCKS with a quiet stubborn determination that
  would fill an American editor, or an Under Secretary of State with
  despair. He belongs to the 12-foot-tiger school, so perhaps he can't help
  it."—_Ali Baba_, 164.


BUCKAUL, s. Ar. H. _baḳḳāl_, 'a shopkeeper;' a _bunya_ (q.v. under BANYAN).
In Ar. it means rather a 'second-hand' dealer.

  [c. 1590.—"There is one cast of the Vaiśyas called Banik, more commonly
  termed Baniya (grain-merchant). The Persians name them BAKKÁL...."—_Āīn_,
  _tr. Jarrett_, iii. 118.]

  1800.—"... a BUCCAL of this place told me he would let me have 500 bags
  to-morrow."—_Wellington_, i. 196.

  1826.—"Should I find our neighbour the BAQUAL ... at whose shop I used to
  spend in sweetmeats all the copper money that I could purloin from my
  father."—_Hajji Baba_, ed. 1835, 295.


BUCKSHAW, s. We have not been able to identify the fish so called, or the
true form of the name. Perhaps it is only H. _bachchā_, Mahr. _bachchā_ (P.
_bacha_, Skt. _vatsa_), 'the young of any creature.' But the Konkani Dict.
gives '_boussa_—peixe pequeno de qualquer sorte,' 'little fish of any
kind.' This is perhaps the real word; but it also may represent _bachcha_.
The practice of manuring the coco-palms with putrid fish is still rife, as
residents of the Government House at Parell never forget. The fish in use
is refuse BUMMELO (q.v.). [The word is really the H. _bachhuā_, a
well-known edible fish which abounds in the Ganges and other N. Indian
rivers. It is either the _Pseudoutropius garua_, or P. _murius_ of Day,
_Fish. Ind._, nos. 474 or 471; _Fau. Br. Ind._ i. 141, 137.]

  1673.—"... Cocoe Nuts, for Oyl, which latter they dunging with (BUBSHO)
  Fish, the Land-Breezes brought a poysonous Smell on board Ship."—_Fryer_,
  55. [Also see _Wheeler, Early Rec._, 40.]

  1727.—"The Air is somewhat unhealthful, which is chiefly imputed to their
  dunging their Cocoa-nut trees with BUCKSHOE, a sort of small Fishes which
  their Sea abounds in."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 181.

  c. 1760.—"... manure for the coconut-tree ... consisting of the small fry
  of fish, and called by the country name of BUCKSHAW."—_Grose_, i. 31.

  [1883.—"_Mahsīr_, rohū and BATCHWA are found in the river
  Jumna."—_Gazetteer of Delhi District_, 21.]


BUCKSHAW, s. This is also used in _Cocks's Diary_ (i. 63, 99) for some kind
of Indian piece-goods, we know not what. [The word is not found in modern
lists of piece-goods. It is perhaps a corruption of Pers. _buḳchah_, 'a
bundle,' used specially of clothes. Tavernier (see below) uses the word in
its ordinary sense.]

  [1614.—"Percalla, BOXSHAES."—_Foster, Letters_, ii. 88.

  [1615.—"80 pieces BOXSHA gingams"; "Per PUXSHAWS, double piece, at 9
  mas."—_Ibid._ iii. 156; iv. 50.

  [1665.—"I went to lie down, my BOUCHHA being all the time in the same
  place, half under the head of my bed and half outside."—_Tavernier_, ed.
  _Ball_, ii. 166.]


BUCKSHEESH, BUXEES, s. P. through P.—H. _bakhshish_. Buonamano, Trinkgeld,
pourboire; we don't seem to have in England any exact equivalent for the
word, though the thing is so general; 'something for (the driver)' is a
poor expression; _tip_ is accurate, but is slang; gratuity is official or
dictionary English.

  [1625.—"Bacsheese (as they say in the Arabicke tongue) that is gratis
  freely."—_Purchas_, ii. 1340 [N.E.D.].

  1759.—"To Presents:—

                                    R.   A.   P.
    2 Pieces of flowered Velvet    532   7    0
    1 ditto of Broad Cloth          50   0    0
    BUXIS to the Servants           50   0    0"

  _Cost of Entertainment to Jugget Set._ In _Long_, 190.

  c. 1760.—"... BUXIE money."—_Ives_, 51.

  1810.—"... each mile will cost full one rupee (_i.e._ 2_s._ 6_d._),
  besides various little disbursements by way of BUXEES, or presents, to
  every set of bearers."—_Williamson, V. M._ ii. 235.

  1823.—"These Christmas-boxes are said to be an ancient custom here, and I
  could almost fancy that our name of _box_ for this particular kind of
  present ... is a corruption of BUCKSHISH, a gift or gratuity, in Turkish,
  Persian, and Hindoostanee."—_Heber_, i. 45.

  1853.—"The relieved bearers opened the shutters, thrust in their torch,
  and their black heads, and most unceremoniously demanded BUXEES."—_W.
  Arnold, Oakfield_, i. 239.


BUCKYNE, s. H. _bakāyan_, the tree _Melia sempervivens_, Roxb. (N. O.
_Meliaceae_). It has a considerable resemblance to the _nīm_ tree (see
NEEM); and in Bengali is called _mahā-nīm_, which is also the Skt. name,
_mahā-nimba_. It is sometimes erroneously called Persian Lilac.


BUDDHA, BUDDHISM, BUDDHIST. These words are often written with a quite
erroneous assumption of precision _Bhudda_, &c. All that we shall do here
is to collect some of the earlier mentions of Buddha and the religion
called by his name.

  c. 200.—"Εἰσὶ δὲ τῶν Ἰνδῶν οἱ τοῖς Βούττα πειθόμενοι παραγγέλμασιν· ὃν
  δι' ὑπερβολὴν σεμνότητος εἰς θεὸν τετιμήκασι."—_Clemens Alexandrinus_,
  Strōmatōn, Liber I. (Oxford ed., 1715, i. 359).

  c. 240.—"Wisdom and deeds have always from time to time been brought to
  mankind by the messengers of God. So in one age they have been brought to
  mankind by the messenger called BUDDHA to India, in another by Zarâdusht
  to Persia, in another by Jesus to the West. Thereupon this revelation has
  come down, this prophecy in this last age, through me, Mânî, the
  messenger of the God of truth to Babylonia."—The Book of _Mānī_, called
  _Shābūrkān_, quoted by _Albirūnī_, in his _Chronology_, tr. by Sachau, p.
  190.

  c. 400.—"Apud Gymnosophistas Indiae quasi per manus hujus opinionis
  auctoritas traditur, quod BUDDAM principem dogmatis eorum, e latere suo
  virgo generaret. Nec hoc mirum de barbaris, quum Minervam quoque de
  capite Jovis, et Liberum patrem de femore ejus procreatos, docta finxit
  Graecia."—_St. Jerome, Adv. Jovinianum_, Lib. i. ed. Vallarsii, ii. 309.

  c. 440.—"... Τηνικαῦτα γαρ τὸ Ἐμπεδοκλέους τοῦ παρ' Ἕλλησι φιλοσόφου
  δόγμα, διὰ τοῦ Μανιχαίου χριστιανισμὸν ὑπεκρίνατο ... τούτου δὲ τοῦ
  Σκυθιανοῦ μαθητὴς γίνεται Βούδδας, πρότερον Τερέβινθος καλούμενος ... κ.
  τ. λ." (see the same matter from _Georgius Cedrenus_ below).—_Socratis,
  Hist. Eccles._ Lib. I. cap. 22.

  c. 840.—"An certè Bragmanorum sequemur opinionem, ut quemadmodum illi
  sectae suae auctorem BUBDAM, per virginis latus narrant exortum, ita nos
  Christum fuisse praedicemus? Vel magis sic nascitur Dei sapientia de
  virginis cerebro, quomodo Minerva de Jovis vertice, tamquam Liber Pater
  de femore? Ut Christicolam de virginis partu non solennis natura, vel
  auctoritas sacrae lectionis, sed superstitio Gentilis, et commenta
  perdoceant fabulosa."—_Ratramni Corbeiensis L. de Nativitate Xti._, cap.
  iii. in _L. D'Achery, Spicilegium_, tom. i. p. 54, Paris, 1723.

  c. 870.—"The Indians give in general the name of BUDD to anything
  connected with their worship, or which forms the object of their
  veneration. So, an idol is called _budd_."—_Biládurí_, in _Elliot_, i.
  123.

  c. 904.—"BUDĀSAF was the founder of the Sabaean Religion ... he preached
  to mankind renunciation (of this world) and the intimate contemplation of
  the superior worlds.... There was to be read on the gate of the
  Naobihar[44] at Balkh an inscription in the Persian tongue of which this
  is the interpretation: 'The words of BUDĀSAF: In the courts of kings
  three things are needed, Sense, Patience, Wealth.' Below had been written
  in Arabic: 'BUDĀSAF lies. If a free man possesses any of the three, he
  will flee from the courts of Kings.'"—_Mas'ūdī_, iv. 45 and 49.

  1000.—"... pseudo-prophets came forward, the number and history of whom
  it would be impossible to detail.... The first mentioned is BÛDHÂSAF, who
  came forward in India."—_Albirûnî, Chronology_, by Sachau, p. 186. This
  name given to Buddha is specially interesting as showing a step nearer
  the true _Bodhisattva_, the origin of the name Ἰωάσαφ, under which Buddha
  became a Saint of the Church, and as elucidating Prof. Max Müller's
  ingenious suggestion of that origin (see _Chips_, &c., iv. 184; see also
  _Academy_, Sept. 1, 1883, p. 146).

  c. 1030.—"A stone was found there in the temple of the great BUDDA on
  which an inscription ... purporting that the temple had been founded
  50,000 years ago...."—_Al 'Utbi_, in _Elliot_, ii. 39.

  c. 1060.—"This madman then, Manēs (also called Scythianus) was by race a
  Brachman, and he had for his teacher BUDAS, formerly called Terebinthus,
  who having been brought up by Scythianus in the learning of the Greeks
  became a follower of the sect of Empedocles (who said there were two
  first principles opposed to one another), and when he entered Persia
  declared that he had been born of a virgin, and had been brought up among
  the hills ... and this BUDAS (alias Terebinthus) did perish, crushed by
  an unclean spirit."—_Georg. Cedrenus, Hist. Comp._, Bonn ed., 455 (old
  ed. i. 259). This wonderful jumble, mainly copied, as we see, from
  Socrates (_supra_), seems to bring Buddha and Manes together. "Many of
  the ideas of Manicheism were but fragments of Buddhism."—_E. B. Cowell_,
  in _Smith's Dict. of Christ. Biog._

  c. 1190.—"Very grieved was Sārang Deva. Constantly he performed the
  worship of the Arihant; the BUDDHIST religion he adopted; he wore no
  sword."—_The Poem of Chand Bardai_, paraphr. by _Beames_, in _Ind. Ant._
  i. 271.

  1610.—"... This Prince is called in the histories of him by many names:
  his proper name was _Dramá Rajo_; but that by which he has been known
  since they have held him for a saint is the BUDAO, which is as much as to
  say 'Sage' ... and to this name the Gentiles throughout all India have
  dedicated great and superb Pagodas."—_Couto_, Dec. V., liv. vi. cap. 2.

  [1615.—"The image of DIBOTTES, with the hudge collosso or bras imadg (or
  rather idoll) in it."—_Cocks's Diary_, i. 200.]

  c. 1666.—"There is indeed another, a seventh Sect, which is called BAUTÉ,
  whence do proceed 12 other different sects; but this is not so common as
  the others, the Votaries of it being hated and despised as a company of
  irreligious and atheistical people, nor do they live like the
  rest."—_Bernier_, E. T., ii. 107; [ed. _Constable_, 336].

  1685.—"Above all these they have one to whom they pay much veneration,
  whom they call BODU; his figure is that of a man."—_Ribeiro_, f. 40_b_.

  1728.—"Before Gautama BUDHUM there have been known 26
  _Budhums_—viz.:...."—_Valentijn_, v. (Ceylon) 369.

  1753.—"Edrisi nous instruit de cette circonstance, en disant que le
  _Balahar_ est adorateur de BODDA. Les Brahmènes du Malabar disent que
  c'est le nom que Vishtnu a pris dans une de ses apparitions, et on
  connoît Vishtnu pour une des trois principales divinités Indiennes.
  Suivant St. Jerôme et St. Clément d'Alexandrie, BUDDA ou BUTTA est le
  legislateur des Gymno-Sophistes de l'Inde. La secte des SHAMANS ou
  Samanéens, qui est demeurée la dominante dans tous les royaumes d'au delà
  du Gange, a fait de BUDDA en cette qualité son objet d'adoration. C'est
  la première des divinités Chingulaises ou de Ceilan, selon Ribeiro.
  Samano-Codom (see GAUTAMA), la grande idole des Siamois, est par eux
  appelé Putti."—_D'Anville, Éclaircissemens_, 75. What knowledge and
  apprehension, on a subject then so obscure, is shown by this great
  Geographer! Compare the pretentious ignorance of the flashy Abbé Raynal
  in the quotations under 1770.

  1770.—"Among the deities of the second order, particular honours are paid
  to BUDDOU, who descended upon earth to take upon himself the office of
  mediator between God and mankind."—_Raynal_ (tr. 1777), i. 91.

  "The _Budzoists_ are another sect of Japan, of which BUDZO was the
  founder.... The spirit of _Budzoism_ is dreadful. It breathes nothing but
  penitence, excessive fear, and cruel severity."—_Ibid._ i. 138. Raynal in
  the two preceding passages shows that he was not aware that the religions
  alluded to in Ceylon and in Japan were the same.

  1779.—"Il y avoit alors dans ces parties de l'Inde, et principalement à
  la Côte de Coromandel et à Ceylan, un Culte dont on ignore absolument les
  Dogmes; le Dieu BAOUTH, dont on ne connoit aujourd'hui, dans l'Inde que
  le Nom et l'objet de ce Culte; mais il est tout-à-fait aboli, si ce
  n'est, qu'il se trouve encore quelques familles d'Indiens séparées et
  méprisées des autres Castes, qui sont restées fidèles à BAOUTH, et qui ne
  reconnoissent pas la religion des Brames."—_Voyage de M. Gentil_, quoted
  by _W. Chambers_, in _As. Res._ i. 170.

  1801.—"It is generally known that the religion of BOUDDHOU is the
  religion of the people of _Ceylon_, but no one is acquainted with its
  forms and precepts. I shall here relate what I have heard upon the
  subject."—_M. Joinville_, in _As. Res._ vii. 399.

  1806.—"... The head is covered with the cone that ever adorns the head of
  the Chinese deity Fo, who has been often supposed to be the same as
  BOUDAH."—_Salt, Caves of Salsette_, in _Tr. Lit. Soc. Bo._ i. 50.

  1810.—"Among the BHUDDISTS there are no distinct castes."—_Maria Graham_,
  89.

It is remarkable how many poems on the subject of Buddha have appeared of
late years. We have noted:

1. BUDDHA, _Epische Dichtung in Zwanzig Gesängen_, _i.e._ an Epic Poem in
20 cantos (in _ottava rima_). Von Joseph Vittor Widmann, Bern. 1869.

2. _The Story of_ GAUTAMA BUDDHA _and his Creed_: An Epic by Richard
Phillips, Longmans, 1871. This is also printed in octaves, but each octave
consists of 4 heroic couplets.

3. _Vasadavatta_, a BUDDHIST _Idyll_; by Dean Plumtre. Republished in
_Things New and Old_, 1884. The subject is the story of the Courtesan of
Mathura ("Vāsavadattā and Upagupta"), which is given in Burnouf's _Introd.
a l'Histoire du Buddhisme Indien_, 146-148; a touching story, even in its
original crude form.

It opens:

 "Where proud MATHOURA rears her hundred towers...."

The Skt. Dict. gives indeed as an alternative _Mathūra_, but _Mathŭra_ is
the usual name, whence Anglo-Ind. MUTTRA.

4. The brilliant Poem of Sir Edwin Arnold, called _The Light of Asia, or
the Great Renunciation, being the Life and Teaching of_ GAUTAMA, _Prince of
India, and Founder of_ BUDDHISM, _as told in verse by an Indian_ BUDDHIST,
1879.


BUDGE-BUDGE, n.p. A village on the Hooghly R., 15 m. below Calcutta, where
stood a fort which was captured by Clive when advancing on Calcutta to
recapture it, in December, 1756. The _Imperial Gazetteer_ gives the true
name as _Baj-baj_, [but Hamilton writes _Bhuja-bhuj_].

  1756.—"On the 29th _December_, at six o'clock in the morning, the admiral
  having landed the Company's troops the evening before at _Mayapour_,
  under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Clive, cannonaded BOUGEE BOUGEE
  Fort, which was strong and built of mud, and had a wet ditch round
  it."—_Ives_, 99.

  1757.—The Author of _Memoir of the Revolution in Bengal_ calls it
  BUSBUDGIA; (1763), Luke Scrafton BUDGE BOODJEE.


BUDGEROW, s. A lumbering keelless barge, formerly much used by Europeans
travelling on the Gangetic rivers. Two-thirds of the length aft was
occupied by cabins with Venetian windows. Wilson gives the word as H. and
B. _bajrā_; Shakespear gives H. _bajrā_ and _bajra_, with an improbable
suggestion of derivation from _bajar_, 'hard or heavy.' Among Blochmann's
extracts from Mahommedan accounts of the conquest of Assam we find, in a
detail of Mīr Jumla's fleet in his expedition of 1662, mention of 4
_bajras_ (_J. As. Soc. Ben._ xli. pt. i. 73). The same extracts contain
mention of war-sloops called _bach'haris_ (pp. 57, 75, 81), but these last
must be different. _Bajra_ may possibly have been applied in the sense of
'thunder-bolt.' This may seem unsuited to the modern budgerow, but is not
more so than the title of 'lightning-darter' is to the modern BURKUNDAUZE
(q.v.)! We remember how Joinville says of the approach of the great galley
of the Count of Jaffa:—"_Sembloit que foudre cheist des ciex_." It is
however perhaps more probable that _bajrā_ may have been a variation of
_baglā_. And this is especially suggested by the existence of the
Portuguese form _pajeres_, and of the Ar. form _bagara_ (see under
BUGGALOW). Mr. Edye, Master Shipwright of the Naval Yard in Trincomalee, in
a paper on the Native Craft of India and Ceylon, speaks of the BAGGALA or
BUDGEROW, as if he had been accustomed to hear the words used
indiscriminately. (See _J. R. A. S._, vol. i. p. 12). [There is a drawing
of a modern Budgerow in _Grant, Rural Life_, p. 5.]

  c. 1570.—"Their barkes be light and armed with oares, like to Foistes ...
  and they call these barkes BAZARAS and Patuas" (in Bengal).—_Cæsar
  Frederick_, E. T. in _Hakl._ ii. 358.

  1662.—(Blochmann's Ext. as above).

  1705.—"... des BAZARAS qui sont de grands bateaux."—_Luillier_, 52.

  1723.—"Le lendemain nous passâmes sur les BAZARAS de la compagnie de
  France."—_Lett. Edif._ xiii. 269.

  1727.—"... in the evening to recreate themselves in Chaises or Palankins;
  ... or by water in their BUDGEROES, which is a convenient Boat."—_A.
  Hamilton_, ii. 12.

  1737.—"Charges, BUDGROWS ... Rs. 281. 6. 3."—MS. _Account from Ft.
  William_, in India Office.

  1780.—"A gentleman's BUGEROW was drove ashore near Chaun-paul
  Gaut...."—_Hicky's Bengal Gazette_, May 13th.

  1781.—"The boats used by the natives for travelling, and also by the
  Europeans, are the BUDGEROWS, which both sail and row."—_Hodges_, 39.

  1783.—"... his boat, which, though in Kashmire (it) was thought
  magnificent, would not have been disgraced in the station of a
  Kitchen-tender to a Bengal BUDGERO."—_G. Forster, Journey_, ii. 10.

  1784.—"I shall not be at liberty to enter my BUDGEROW till the end of
  July, and must be again at Calcutta on the 22nd of October."—_Sir W.
  Jones_, in _Mem._ ii. 38.

  1785.—"Mr. Hastings went aboard his BUDGEROW, and proceeded down the
  river, as soon as the tide served, to embark for Europe on the
  Berrington."—In _Seton-Karr_, i. 86.

  1794.—"By order of the Governor-General in Council ... will be sold the
  Hon'ble Company's BUDGEROW, named the Sonamookhee[45] ... the Budgerow
  lays in the nullah opposite to Chitpore."—_Ibid._ ii. 114.

  1830.—

   "Upon the bosom of the tide
    Vessels of every fabric ride;
    The fisher's skiff, the light canoe,
        *   *   *   *   *   *
    The BUJRA broad, the _Bholia_ trim,
    Or _Pinnaces_ that gallant swim,
    With favouring breeze—or dull and slow
    Against the heady current go...."
               _H. H. Wilson_, in _Bengal Annual_, 29.



BUDGROOK, s. Port. _bazarucco_. A coin of low denomination, and of varying
value and metal (copper, tin, lead, and tutenague), formerly current at Goa
and elsewhere on the Western Coast, as well as at some other places on the
Indian seas. It was also adopted from the Portuguese in the earliest
English coinage at Bombay. In the earliest Goa coinage, that of Albuquerque
(1510), the _leal_ or _bazarucco_ was equal to 2 _reis_, of which _reis_
there went 420 to the gold _cruzado_ (_Gerson da Cunha_). The name appears
to have been a native one in use in Goa at the time of the conquest, but
its etymology is uncertain. In Van Noort's Voyage (1648) the word is
derived from _bāzār_, and said to mean 'market-money' (perhaps
_bāzār-rūka_, the last word being used for a copper coin in Canarese).
[This view is accepted by Gray in his notes on _Pyrard_ (Hak. Soc. ii. 68),
and by Burnell (_Linschoten_, Hak. Soc. ii. 143). The _Madras. Admin. Man.
Gloss._ (s.v.) gives the Can. form as _bajāra-rokkha_, 'market-money.'] C.
P. Brown (MS. notes) makes the word = _baḍaga-rūka_, which he says would in
Canarese be 'base-penny,' and he ingeniously quotes Shakspeare's "beggarly
denier," and Horace's "_vilem assem_." This is adopted in substance by Mr.
E. Thomas, who points out that _rukā_ or _rukkā_ is in Mahratti (see
_Molesworth_, s.v.) one-twelfth of an anna. But the words of Khāfi Khān
below suggest that the word may be a corruption of the P. _buzurg_, 'big,'
and according to Wilson, _budrūkh_ (s.v.) is used in Mahratti as a
dialectic corruption of _buzūrg_. This derivation may be partially
corroborated by the fact that at Mocha there is, or was formerly, a coin
(which had become a money of account only, 80 to the dollar) called
_kabīr_, _i.e._ 'big' (see _Ovington_, 463, and _Milburn_, i. 98). If we
could attach any value to Pyrard's spelling—_bousuruques_—this would be in
favour of the same etymology; as is also the form _besorg_ given by
Mandelslo. [For a full examination of the value of the _budgrook_ based on
the most recent authorities, see _Whiteway, Rise of the Port. Power_, p.
68.]

  1554.—_Bazarucos_ at Maluco (Moluccas) 50 = 1 tanga, at 60 reis to the
  tanga, 5 tangas = 1 pardao. "Os quaes bazarucos se faz comta de 200
  caixas" (_i.e._ to the tanga).—_A. Nunes_, 41.

  [1584.—BASARUCHIES, _Barret_, in _Hakl._ See SHROFF.]

  1598.—"They pay two BASARUKES, which is as much as a Hollander's Doit....
  It is molten money of badde Tinne."—_Linschoten_, 52, 69; [Hak. Soc. i.
  180, 242].

  1609.—"Le plus bas argent, sont BASARUCOS ... et sont fait de mauvais
  Estain."—_Houtmann_, in _Navigation des Hollandois_, i. 53_v_.

  c. 1610.—"Il y en a de plusieurs sortes. La premiere est appellée
  BOUSURUQUES, dont il en faut 75 pour une _Tangue_. Il y a d'autre
  BOUSURUQUES vieilles, dont il en faut 105 pour le Tangue.... Il y a de
  cette monnoye qui est de fer; et d'autre de _callin_, metal de Chine"
  (see CALAY).—_Pyrard_, ii. 39; see also 21; [Hak. Soc. ii. 33, 68].

  1611.—"Or a Viceroy coins false money; for so I may call it, as the
  people lose by it. For copper is worth 40 _xerafims_ (see XERAFINE) the
  hundred weight, but they coin the BASARUCCOS at the rate of 60 and 70.
  The Moors on the other hand, keeping a keen eye on our affairs, and
  seeing what a huge profit there is, coin there on the mainland a great
  quantity of BASARUCOS, and gradually smuggle them into Goa, making a
  pitful of gold."—_Couto, Dialogo do Soldado Pratico_, 138.

  1638.—"They have (at Gombroon) a certain Copper Coin which they call
  BESORG, whereof 6 make a _Peys_, and 10 _Peys_ make a _Chay_ (_Shāhī_)
  which is worth about 5_d._ English."—_V. and Tr. of J. A. Mandelslo into
  the E. Indies_, E. T. 1669, p. 8.

  1672.—"Their coins (at TANOR in Malabar) ... of Copper, a BUSEROOK, 20 of
  which make a Fanam."—_Fryer_, 53. [He also spells the word BASROOK. See
  quotation under REAS.]

  1677.—"Rupees, Pices and BUDGROOKS."—_Letters Patent of Charles II._ in
  _Charters of the E. I. Co._, p. 111.

  1711.—"The BUDGEROOKS (at Muskat) are mixt Mettle, rather like Iron than
  anything else, have a Cross on one side, and were coin'd by the
  Portuguese. Thirty of them make a silver _Mamooda_, of about Eight Pence
  Value."—_Lockyer_, 211.

  c. 1720-30.—"They (the Portuguese) also use bits of copper which they
  call _buzurg_, and four of these BUZURGS pass for a _fulús_."—_Khāfī
  Khān_, in _Elliot_, v. 345.

  c. 1760.—"At Goa the sceraphim is worth 240 Portugal _reas_, or about
  16_d._ sterling; 2 _reas_ make a BASARACO, 15 BASARACOS a _vintin_, 42
  _vintins_ a _tanga_, 4 _tangas_ a _paru_, 2½ _parues_ a pagoda of
  gold."—_Grose_, i. 282.

  1838.—"Only eight or ten loads (of coffee) were imported this year,
  including two loads of 'Kopes' (see COPECK), the copper currency of
  Russia, known in this country by the name of BUGHRUKCHA. They are
  converted to the same uses as copper."—_Report from Kabul_, by _A.
  Burnes_; in _Punjab Trade Report_, App. p. iii.

  This may possibly contain some indication of the true form of this
  obscure word, but I have derived no light from it myself. The _budgrook_
  was apparently current at Muscat down to the beginning of last century
  (see _Milburn_, i. 116).


BUDLEE, s. A substitute in public or domestic service. H. _badlī_,
'exchange; a person taken in exchange; a _locum tenens_'; from Ar. _badal_,
'he changed.' (See MUDDLE.)


BUDMÁSH, s. One following evil courses; Fr. _mauvais sujet_; It.
_malandrino_. Properly _bad-ma'āsh_, from P. _bad_, 'evil,' and Ar.
_ma'āsh_, 'means of livelihood.'

  1844.—"... the reputation which John Lawrence acquired ... by the
  masterly manœuvring of a body of police with whom he descended on a nest
  of gamblers and cut-throats, 'BUDMASHES' of every description, and took
  them all prisoners."—_Bosworth Smith's Life of Ld. Lawrence_, i. 178.

  1866.—"The truth of the matter is that I was foolish enough to pay these
  BUDMASHES beforehand, and they have thrown me over."—_The Dawk Bungalow_,
  by _G. O. Trevelyan_, in _Fraser_, p. 385.


BUDZAT, s. H. from P. _badzāt_, 'evil race,' a low fellow, 'a bad lot,' a
blackguard.

  1866.—"_Cholmondeley_. Why the shaitan didn't you come before, you lazy
  old BUDZART?"—_The Dawk Bungalow_, p. 215.


BUFFALO, s. This is of course originally from the Latin _bubalus_, which we
have in older English forms, _buffle_ and _buff_ and _bugle_, through the
French. The present form probably came from India, as it seems to be the
Port. _bufalo_. The proper meaning of _bubalus_, according to Pliny, was
not an animal of the ox-kind (βοόβαλις was a kind of African antelope); but
in Martial, as quoted, it would seem to bear the vulgar sense, rejected by
Pliny.

At an early period of our connection with India the name of _buffalo_
appears to have been given erroneously to the common Indian ox, whence came
the still surviving misnomer of London shops, '_buffalo_ humps.' (See also
the quotation from _Ovington_.) The _buffalo_ has no hump. Buffalo
_tongues_ are another matter, and an old luxury, as the third quotation
shows. The ox having appropriated the name of the buffalo, the true Indian
domestic buffalo was differentiated as the '_water buffalo_,' a phrase
still maintained by the British soldier in India. This has probably misled
Mr. Blochmann, who uses the term '_water buffalo_,' in his excellent
English version of the _Āīn_ (_e.g._ i. 219). We find the same phrase in
_Barkley's Five Years in Bulgaria_, 1876: "Besides their bullocks every
well-to-do Turk had a drove of _water-buffaloes_" (32). Also in
_Collingwood's Rambles of a Naturalist_ (1868), p. 43, and in _Miss Bird's
Golden Chersonese_ (1883), 60, 274. [The unscientific use of the word as
applied to the American Bison is as old as the end of the 18th century (see
_N.E.D._).]

The domestic buffalo is apparently derived from the wild buffalo (_Bubalus
arni_, Jerd.; _Bos bubalus_, Blanf.), whose favourite habitat is in the
swampy sites of the Sunderbunds and Eastern Bengal, but whose haunts extend
north-eastward to the head of the Assam valley, in the Terai west to Oudh,
and south nearly to the Godavery; not beyond this in the Peninsula, though
the animal is found in the north and north-east of Ceylon.

The domestic buffalo exists not only in India but in Java, Sumatra, and
Manilla, in Mazanderan, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Adherbijan, Egypt, Turkey,
and Italy. It does not seem to be known how or when it was introduced into
Italy.—(See _Hehn_.) [According to the _Encycl. Britt._ (9th ed. iv. 442),
it was introduced into Greece and Italy towards the close of the 6th
century.]

  c. A.D. 70.—"Howbeit that country bringeth forth certain kinds of goodly
  great wild bœufes: to wit the Bisontes, mained with a collar, like Lions;
  and the Vri [Urus], a mightie strong beast, and a swift, which the
  ignorant people call _Buffles_ (BUBALOS), whereas indeed the _Buffle_ is
  bred in Affrica, and carieth some resemblance of a calfe rather, or a
  Stag."—_Pliny_, by _Ph. Hollande_, i. 199-200.

  c. A.D. 90.—

   "Ille tulit geminos facili cervice juvencos
    Illi cessit atrox BUBALUS atque bison."
               _Martial, De Spectaculis_, xxiv.

  c. 1580.—"Veneti mercatores linguas BUBALORUM, tanquam mensis optimas,
  sale conditas, in magna copia Venetias mittunt."—_Prosperi Alpini, Hist.
  Nat. Aegypti_, P. I. p. 228.

  1585.—"Here be many Tigers, wild BUFS, and great store of wilde
  Foule...."—_R. Fitch_, in _Hakl._ ii. 389.

  "Here are many wilde BUFFES and Elephants."—_Ibid._ 394.

  "The King (Akbar) hath ... as they doe credibly report, 1000 Elephants,
  30,000 horses, 1400 tame deere, 800 concubines; such store of ounces,
  tigers, BUFFLES, cocks and Haukes, that it is very strange to
  see."—_Ibid._ 386.

  1589.—"They doo plough and till their ground with kine, BUFALOS, and
  bulles."—_Mendoza's China_, tr. by _Parkes_, ii. 56.

  [c. 1590.—Two methods of snaring the BUFFALO are described in _Āīn,
  Blochmann_, tr. i. 293.]

  1598.—"There is also an infinite number of wild BUFFS that go wandering
  about the desarts."—_Pigafetta, E. T._ in _Harleian Coll. of Voyages_,
  ii. 546.

  [1623.—"The inhabitants (of Malabar) keep Cows, or BUFFALLS."—_P. della
  Valle_, Hak. Soc. ii. 207.]

  1630.—"As to Kine and BUFFALOES ... they besmeare the floores of their
  houses with their dung, and thinke the ground sanctified by such
  pollution."—_Lord, Discoverie of the Banian Religion_, 60-61.

  1644.—"We tooke coach to Livorno, thro' the Great Duke's new Parke, full
  of huge corke-trees; the underwood all myrtills, amongst which were many
  BUFFALOS feeding, a kind of wild ox, short nos'd, horns
  reversed."—_Evelyn_, Oct. 21.

  1666.—"... it produces Elephants in great number, oxen and BUFFALOES"
  (_bufaros_).—_Faria y Souza_, i. 189.

  1689.—"... both of this kind (of Oxen), and the BUFFALOES, are remarkable
  for a big piece of Flesh that rises above Six Inches high between their
  Shoulders, which is the choicest and delicatest piece of Meat upon them,
  especially put into a dish of Palau."—_Ovington_, 254.

  1808.—"... the BUFFALA milk, and curd, and butter simply churned and
  clarified, is in common use among these Indians, whilst the dainties of
  the Cow Dairy is prescribed to valetudinarians, as Hectics, and preferred
  by vicicous (_sic_) appetites, or impotents alone, as that of the caprine
  and assine is at home."—_Drummond, Illus. of Guzerattee_, &c.

  1810.—

   "The tank which fed his fields was there ...
    There from the intolerable heat
          The BUFFALOES retreat;
    Only their nostrils raised to meet the air,
    Amid the shelt'ring element they rest."
               _Curse of Kehama_ ix. 7.

  1878.—"I had in my possession a head of a cow BUFFALO that measures 13
  feet 8 inches in circumference, and 6 feet 6 inches between the tips—the
  largest BUFFALO head in the world."—_Pollok, Sport in Br. Burmah_, &c.,
  i. 107.


BUGGALOW, s. Mahr. _baglā_, _bagalā_. A name commonly given on the W. coast
of India to Arab vessels of the old native form. It is also in common use
in the Red Sea (_bakalā_) for the larger native vessels, all built of teak
from India. It seems to be a corruption of the Span. and Port. _bajel_,
_baxel_, _baixel_, _baxella_, from the Lat. _vascellum_ (see _Diez, Etym.
Wörterb._ i. 439, s.v.). Cobarruvias (1611) gives in his Sp. Dict.
"_Baxel_, quasi _vasel_" as a generic name for a vessel of any kind going
on the sea, and quotes St. Isidore, who identifies it with _phaselus_, and
from whom we transcribe the passage below. It remains doubtful whether this
word was introduced into the East by the Portuguese, or had at an earlier
date passed into Arabic marine use. The latter is most probable. In
_Correa_ (c. 1561) this word occurs in the form _pajer_, pl. _pajeres_ (_j_
and _x_ being interchangeable in Sp. and Port. See _Lendas_, i. 2, pp. 592,
619, &c.). In Pinto we have another form. Among the models in the Fisheries
Exhibition (1883), there was "A _Zaroogat_ or BAGARAH from Aden." [On the
other hand Burton (_Ar. Nights_, i. 119) derives the word from the Ar.
_baghlah_, 'a she-mule.' Also see BUDGEROW.]

  c. 636.—"PHASELUS est navigium quod nos corrupte _baselum_ dicimus. De
  quo Virgilius: _Pictisque phaselis_."—_Isodorus Hispalensis, Originum et
  Etymol._ lib. xix.

  c. 1539.—"Partida a nao pera Goa, Fernão de Morais ... seguio sua viage
  na volta do porto de Dabul, onde chegou ao outro dia as nove horas, e
  tomando nelle hũ PAGUEL de Malavares, carregado de algodao e de pimenta,
  poz logo a tormento o Capitano e o piloto delle, os quaes
  confessarão...."—_Pinto_, ch. viii.

  1842.—"As store and horse boats for that service, Capt. Oliver, I find,
  would prefer the large class of native BUGGALAS, by which so much of the
  trade of this coast with Scinde, Cutch ... is carried on."—_Sir G.
  Arthur_, in _Ind. Admin. of Lord Ellenborough_, 222.

  [1900.—"His tiny BAGGALA, which mounted ten tiny guns, is now employed in
  trade."—_Bent, Southern Arabia_, 8.]


BUGGY, s. In India this is a (two-wheeled) gig with a hood, like the
gentleman's cab that was in vogue in London about 1830-40, before broughams
came in. Latham puts a (?) after the word, and the earliest examples that
he gives are from the second quarter of this century (from Praed and I.
D'Israeli). Though we trace the word much further back, we have not
discovered its birthplace or etymology. The word, though used in England,
has never been very common there; it is better known both in Ireland and in
America. Littré gives _boghei_ as French also. The American _buggy_ is
defined by Noah Webster as "a light, one-horse, four-wheel vehicle, usually
with one seat, and with or without a calash-top." Cuthbert Bede shows (_N.
& Q._ 5 ser. v. p. 445) that the adjective 'buggy' is used in the Eastern
Midlands for 'conceited.' This suggests a possible origin. "When the
Hunterian spelling-controversy raged in India, a learned Member of Council
is said to have stated that he approved the change until —— —— began to
spell _buggy_ as _bagī_. Then he gave it up."—(_M.-G. Keatinge._) I have
recently seen this spelling in print. [The _N.E.D._ leaves the etymology
unsettled, merely saying that it has been connected with _bogie_ and _bug_.
The earliest quotation given is that of 1773 below.]

  1773.—"Thursday 3d (June). At the sessions at Hicks's Hall two boys were
  indicted for driving a post-coach and four against a single horse-chaise,
  throwing out the driver of it, and breaking the chaise to pieces. Justice
  Welch, the Chairman, took notice of the frequency of the brutish custom
  among the post drivers, and their insensibility in making it a matter of
  sport, ludicrously denominating mischief of this kind 'Running down the
  BUGGIES.'—The prisoners were sentenced to be confined in Newgate for 12
  months."—_Gentleman's Magazine_, xliii. 297.

  1780.—

   "Shall D(_onal_)d come with Butts and tons
    And knock down Epegrams and Puns?
    With Chairs, old Cots, and BUGGIES trick ye?
    Forbid it, Phœbus, and forbid it, Hicky!"
               In _Hicky's Bengal Gazette_, May 13th.

     "    "... go twice round the Race-Course as hard as we can set legs to
  ground, but we are beat hollow by Bob Crochet's Horses driven by Miss
  Fanny Hardheart, who in her career oversets Tim Capias the Attorney in
  his BUGGY...."—In _India Gazette_, Dec. 23rd.

  1782.—"Wanted, an excellent BUGGY Horse about 15 Hands high, that will
  trot 15 miles an hour."—_India Gazette_, Sept. 14.

  1784.—"For sale at Mr. Mann's, Rada Bazar. A Phaeton, a four-spring'd
  BUGGY, and a two-spring'd ditto...."—_Calcutta Gazette_, in _Seton-Karr_,
  i. 41.

  1793.—"For sale. A good BUGGY and Horse...."—_Bombay Courier_, Jan. 20th.

  1824.—"... the Archdeacon's BUGGY and horse had every appearance of
  issuing from the back-gate of a college in Cambridge on Sunday
  morning."—_Heber_, i. 192 (ed. 1844).

  [1837.—"The vehicles of the place (Monghir), amounting to four BUGGIES
  (that is a foolish term for a cabriolet, but as it is the only vehicle in
  use in India, and as _buggy_ is the only name for said vehicle, I give it
  up), ... were assembled for our use."—_Miss Eden, Up the Country_, i.
  14.]

  c. 1838.—"But substitute for him an average ordinary, uninteresting
  Minister; obese, dumpy ... with a second-rate wife—dusty,
  deliquescent—... or let him be seen in one of those Shem-Ham-and-Japhet
  BUGGIES, made on Mount Ararat soon after the subsidence of the
  waters...."—_Sydney Smith_, 3rd Letter to Archdeacon Singleton.

  1848.—"'Joseph wants me to see if his—his BUGGY is at the door.'

  "'What is a BUGGY, papa?'

  "'It is a one-horse palanquin,' said the old gentleman, who was a wag in
  his way."—_Vanity Fair_, ch. iii.

  1872.—"He drove his charger in his old BUGGY."—_A True Reformer_, ch. i.

  1878.—"I don't like your new Bombay BUGGY. With much practice I have
  learned to get into it, I am hanged if I can ever get out."—_Overland
  Times of India_, 4th Feb.

  1879.—"Driven by that hunger for news which impels special
  correspondents, he had actually ventured to drive in a 'spider,'
  apparently a kind of BUGGY, from the Tugela to Ginglihovo."—_Spectator_,
  May 24th.


BUGIS, n.p. Name given by the Malays to the dominant race of the island of
Celébes, originating in the S.-Western limb of the island; the people
calling themselves _Wugi_. But the name used to be applied in the
Archipelago to native soldiers in European service, raised in any of the
islands. Compare the analogous use of TELINGA (q.v.) formerly in India.

  [1615.—"All these in the kingdom of Macassar ... besides BUGIES, Mander
  and Tollova."—_Foster, Letters_, iii. 152.]

  1656.—"Thereupon the _Hollanders_ resolv'd to unite their forces with the
  BOUQUISES, that were in rebellion against their Soveraign."—_Tavernier_,
  E. T. ii. 192.

  1688.—"These BUGGASSES are a sort of warlike trading Malayans and
  mercenary soldiers of India. I know not well whence they come, unless
  from Macassar in the Isle of Celebes."—_Dampier_, ii. 108.

  [1697.—"... with the help of BUGGESSES...."—_Hedges, Diary_, Hak. Soc.
  ii. cxvii.]

  1758.—"The Dutch were commanded by Colonel Roussely, a French soldier of
  fortune. They consisted of nearly 700 Europeans, and as many BUGGOSES,
  besides country troops."—_Narr. of Dutch attempt in Hoogly_, in
  _Malcolm's Clive_, ii. 87.

  1783.—"BUGGESSES, inhabitants of Celebes."—_Forrest, Voyage to Mergui_,
  p. 59.

  1783.—"The word BUGGESS has become among Europeans consonant to soldier,
  in the east of India, as Sepoy is in the West."—_Ibid._ 78.

  1811.—"We had fallen in with a fleet of nine BUGGESE prows, when we went
  out towards Pulo Mancap."—_Lord Minto in India_, 279.

  1878.—"The BUGIS are evidently a distinct race from the Malays, and come
  originally from the southern part of the Island of Celebes."—_McNair,
  Perak_, 130.


BULBUL, s. The word _bulbul_ is originally Persian (no doubt intended to
imitate the bird's note), and applied to a bird which does duty with
Persian poets for the nightingale. Whatever the Persian _bulbul_ may be
correctly, the application of the name to certain species in India "has led
to many misconceptions about their powers of voice and song," says Jerdon.
These species belong to the family _Brachipodidae_, or short-legged
thrushes, and the true bulbuls to the sub-family _Pycnonotinae_, _e.g._
genera _Hypsipetes_, _Hemixos_, _Alcurus_, _Criniger_, _Ixos_, _Kelaartia_,
_Rubigula_, _Brachipodius_, _Otocompsa_, _Pycnonotus_ (_P. pygaeus_, common
Bengal Bulbul; _P. haemorhous_, common Madras Bulbul). Another sub-family,
_Phyllornithinae_, contains various species which Jerdon calls _green
Bulbuls_.

  [A lady having asked the late Lord Robertson, a Judge of the Court of
  Session, "What sort of animal is the _bull-bull_?" he replied, "I
  suppose, Ma'am, it must be the mate of the _coo-coo_."—3rd ser., _N. &
  Q._ v. 81.]

  1784.—"We are literally lulled to sleep by Persian nightingales, and
  cease to wonder that the BULBUL, with a thousand tales, makes such a
  figure in Persian poetry."—_Sir W. Jones_, in _Memoirs_, &c., ii. 37.

  1813.—"The BULBUL or Persian nightingale.... I never heard one that
  possessed the charming variety of the English nightingale ... whether the
  Indian BULBUL and that of Iran entirely correspond I have some
  doubts."—_Forbes, Oriental Memoirs_, i. 50; [2nd ed. i. 34].

  1848.—"'It is one's nature to sing and the other's to hoot,' he said,
  laughing, 'and with such a sweet voice as you have yourself, you must
  belong to the BULBUL faction.'"—_Vanity Fair_, ii. ch. xxvii.


BULGAR, BOLGAR, s. P. _bulghār_. The general Asiatic name for what we call
'Russia leather,' from the fact that the region of manufacture and export
was originally BOLGHĀR on the Volga, a kingdom which stood for many
centuries, and gave place to Kazan in the beginning of the 15th century.
The word was usual also among Anglo-Indians till the beginning of last
century, and is still in native Hindustani use. A native (mythical) account
of the manufacture is given in _Baden-Powell's Punjab Handbook_, 1872, and
this fanciful etymology: "as the scent is derived from soaking in the pits
(_ghār_), the leather is called _Balghār_" (p. 124).

  1298.—"He bestows on each of those 12,000 Barons ... likewise a pair of
  boots of BORGAL, curiously wrought with silver thread."—_Marco Polo_, 2nd
  ed. i. 381. See also the note on this passage.

  c. 1333.—"I wore on my feet boots (or stockings) of wool; over these a
  pair of linen lined, and over all a thin pair of BORGHĀLI, _i.e._ of
  horse-leather lined with wolf skin."—_Ibn Batuta_, ii. 445.

  [1614.—"Of your BULLGARYAN hides there are brought hither some
  150."—_Foster, Letters_, iii. 67.]

  1623.—Offer of Sheriff Freeman and Mr. Coxe to furnish the Company with
  "BULGARY red hides."—_Court Minutes_, in _Sainsbury_, iii. 184.

  1624.—"Purefy and Hayward, Factors at Ispahan to the E. I. Co., have
  bartered morse-teeth and 'BULGARS' for carpets."—_Ibid._ p. 268.

  1673.—"They carry also BULGAR-Hides, which they form into Tanks to bathe
  themselves."—_Fryer_, 398.

  c. 1680.—"Putting on a certain dress made of BULGAR-leather, stuffed with
  cotton."—_Seir Mutaqherin_, iii. 387.

  1759.—Among expenses on account of the Nabob of Bengal's visit to
  Calcutta we find:

  "To 50 pair of BULGER Hides at 13 per pair, Rs. 702 : 0 : 0."—_Long_,
  193.

  1786.—Among "a very capital and choice assortment of Europe goods" we
  find "BULGAR Hides."—_Cal. Gazette_, June 8, in _Seton-Karr_, i. 177.

  1811.—"Most of us furnished at least one of our servants with a kind of
  bottle, holding nearly three quarts, made of BULGHÁR ... or
  Russia-leather."—_W. Ousely's Travels_, i. 247.

  In Tibetan the word is BULHARI.


BULKUT, s. A large decked ferry-boat; from Telug. _balla_, a board. (C. P.
Brown).


BULLUMTEER, s. Anglo-Sepoy dialect for '_Volunteer_.' This distinctive
title was applied to certain regiments of the old Bengal Army, whose terms
of enlistment embraced service beyond sea; and in the days of that army
various ludicrous stories were current in connection with the name.


BUMBA, s. H. _bamba_, from Port. _bomba_, 'a pump.' Haex (1631) gives:
"_Bomba_, organum pneumaticum quo aqua hauritur," as a Malay word. This is
incorrect, of course, as to the origin of the word, but it shows its early
adoption into an Eastern language. The word is applied at Ahmedabad to the
water-towers, but this is modern; [and so is the general application of the
word in N. India to a canal distributary].

  1572.—

   "'Alija, disse o mestre rijamente,
    Alija tudo ao mar, não falte acordo
    Vão outros dar á BOMBA, não cessando;
    Á BOMBA que nos imos alagando.'"
               _Camões_, vi. 72.

  By Burton:

   "'Heave!' roared the Master with a mighty roar,
    'Heave overboard your all, together's the word!
    Others go work the pumps, and with a will:
    The pumps! and sharp, look sharp, before she fill!'"



BUMMELO, s. A small fish, abounding on all the coasts of India and the
Archipelago; _Harpodon nehereus_ of Buch. Hamilton; the specific name being
taken from the Bengali name _nehare_. The fish is a great delicacy when
fresh caught and fried. When dried it becomes the famous Bombay Duck (see
DUCKS, BOMBAY), which is now imported into England.

The origin of either name is obscure. Molesworth gives the word as Mahratti
with the spelling _bombīl_, or _bombīla_ (p. 595 a). _Bummelo_ occurs in
the Supp. (1727) to Bluteau's Dict. in the Portuguese form bambulim, as
"the name of a very savoury fish in India." The same word _bambulim_ is
also explained to mean '_humas pregas na saya a moda_,' 'certain plaits in
the fashionable ruff,' but we know not if there is any connection between
the two. The form _Bombay Duck_ has an analogy to _Digby Chicks_ which are
sold in the London shops, also a kind of dried fish, pilchards we believe,
and the name may have originated in imitation of this or some similar
English name. [The _Digby Chick_ is said to be a small herring cured in a
peculiar manner at _Digby_, in Lincolnshire: but the Americans derive them
from _Digby_ in Nova Scotia; see 8 ser. _N. & Q._ vii. 247.]

In an old chart of Chittagong River (by B. Plaisted, 1764, published by A.
Dalrymple, 1785) we find a point called _Bumbello Point_.

  1673.—"Up the Bay a Mile lies Massigoung, a great Fishing-Town,
  peculiarly notable for a Fish called BUMBELOW, the Sustenance of the
  Poorer sort."—_Fryer_, 67.

  1785.—"My friend General Campbell, Governor of Madras, tells me that they
  make Speldings in the East Indies, particularly at Bombay, where they
  call them BUMBALOES."—Note by _Boswell_ in his _Tour to the Hebrides_,
  under August 18th, 1773.

  1810.—"The BUMBELO is like a large sand-eel; it is dried in the sun, and
  is usually eaten at breakfast with kedgeree."—_Maria Graham_, 25.

  1813.—Forbes has BUMBALO; _Or. Mem._, i. 53; [2nd ed., i. 36].

  1877.—"BUMMALOW or _Bobil_, the dried fish still called 'Bombay
  Duck.'"—_Burton, Sind Revisited_, i. 68.


BUNCUS, BUNCO, s. An old word for cheroot. Apparently from the Malay
_bungkus_, 'a wrapper, bundle, thing wrapped.'

  1711.—"Tobacco ... for want of Pipes they smoke in BUNCOS, as on the
  _Coromándel_ Coast. A BUNCO is a little Tobacco wrapt up in the Leaf of a
  Tree, about the Bigness of one's little Finger, they light one End, and
  draw the Smoke thro' the other ... these are curiously made up, and sold
  20 or 30 in a bundle."—_Lockyer_, 61.

  1726.—"After a meal, and on other occasions it is one of their greatest
  delights, both men and women, old and young, to eat _Pinang_ (areca), and
  to smoke tobacco, which the women do with a BONGKOS, or dry leaf rolled
  up, and the men with a _Gorregorri_ (a little can or flower pot) whereby
  they both manage to pass most of their time."—_Valentijn_, v. _Chorom._,
  55. [_Gorregorri_ is Malay _guri-guri_, 'a small earthenware pot, also
  used for holding provisions' (_Klinkert_).]

     "    (In the retinue of Grandees in Java):

  "One with a coconut shell mounted in gold or silver to hold their tobacco
  or BONGKOOSES (i.e. tobacco in rolled leaves)."—_Valentijn_, iv. 61.

  c. 1760.—"The tobacco leaf, simply rolled up, in about a finger's length,
  which they call a BUNCUS, and is, I fancy, of the same make as what the
  West Indians term a segar; and of this the Gentoos chiefly make
  use."—_Grose_, i. 146.


BUND, s. Any artificial embankment, a dam, dyke, or causeway. H. _band_.
The root is both Skt. (_bandh_) and P., but the common word, used as it is
without aspirate, seems to have come from the latter. The word is common in
Persia (_e.g._ see BENDAMEER). It is also naturalised in the Anglo-Chinese
ports. It is there applied especially to the embanked quay along the shore
of the settlements. In Hong Kong alone this is called (not _bund_, but)
_praia_ (Port. 'shore' [see PRAYA]), probably adopted from Macao.

  1810.—"The great BUND or dyke."—_Williamson, V. M._ ii. 279.

  1860.—"The natives have a tradition that the destruction of the BUND was
  effected by a foreign enemy."—_Tennent's Ceylon_, ii. 504.

  1875.—"... it is pleasant to see the Chinese ... being propelled along
  the BUND in their hand carts."—_Thomson's Malacca_, &c., 408.

  1876.—"... so I took a stroll on Tien-Tsin BUND."—_Gill, River of Golden
  Sand_, i. 28.


BUNDER, s. P. _bandar_, a landing-place or quay; a seaport; a harbour; (and
sometimes also a custom-house). The old Ital. _scala_, mod. _scalo_, is the
nearest equivalent in most of the senses that occurs to us. We have (c.
1565) the _Mīr-bandar_, or Port Master, in Sind (_Elliot_, i. 277) [cf.
SHABUNDER]. The Portuguese often wrote the word BANDEL. BUNDER is in S.
India the popular native name of MASULIPATAM, or _Machli-bandar_.

  c. 1344.—"The profit of the treasury, which they call BANDAR, consists in
  the right of buying a certain portion of all sorts of cargo at a fixed
  price, whether the goods be only worth that or more; and this is called
  the _Law of the Bandar_."—_Ibn Batuta_, iv. 120.

  c. 1346.—"So we landed at the BANDAR, which is a large collection of
  houses on the sea-shore."—_Ibid._ 228.

  1552.—"Coga-atar sent word to Affonzo d'Alboquerque that on the coast of
  the main land opposite, at a port which is called BANDAR Angon ... were
  arrived two ambassadors of the King of Shiraz."—_Barros_, II. ii. 4.

  [1616.—"Besides the danger in intercepting our boats to and from the
  shore, &c., their firing from the BANDA would be with much
  difficulty."—_Foster, Letters_, iv. 328.]

  1673.—"We fortify our Houses, have BUNDERS or Docks for our Vessels, to
  which belong Yards for Seamen, Soldiers, and Stores."—_Fryer_, 115.

  1809.—"On the new BUNDER or pier."—_Maria Graham_, 11.

  [1847, 1860.—See quotations under APOLLO BUNDER.]


BUNDER-BOAT, s. A boat in use on the Bombay and Madras coast for
communicating with ships at anchor, and also much employed by officers of
the civil departments (Salt, &c.) in going up and down the coast. It is
rigged as Bp. Heber describes, with a cabin amidships.

  1825.—"We crossed over ... in a stout boat called here a BUNDUR BOAT. I
  suppose from '_bundur_' a harbour, with two masts, and two lateen
  sails...."—_Heber_, ii. 121, ed. 1844.


BUNDOBUST, s. P.—H.—_band-o-bast_, lit. 'tying and binding.' Any system or
mode of regulation; discipline; a revenue settlement.

  [1768.—"Mr. Rumbold advises us ... he proposes making a tour through that
  province ... and to settle the BANDOBUST for the ensuing year."—_Letter
  to the Court of Directors_, in _Verelst, View of Bengal_, App. 77.]

  c. 1843.—"There must be _bahut achch'hā bandobast_ (_i.e._ very good
  order or discipline) in your country," said an aged Khānsamā (in
  Hindustani) to one of the present writers. "When I have gone to the
  Sandheads to meet a young gentleman from _Bilāyat_, if I gave him a cup
  of tea, '_tānki tānki_,' said he. Three months afterwards this was all
  changed; bad language, violence, no more _tānki_."

  1880.—"There is not a more fearful wild-fowl than your travelling M.P.
  This unhappy creature, whose mind is a perfect blank regarding _Faujdari_
  and BANDOBAST...."—_Ali Baba_, 181.


BUNDOOK, s. H. _bandūḳ_, from Ar. _bunduḳ_. The common H. term for a musket
or matchlock. The history of the word is very curious. Bunduḳ, pl.
_banādiḳ_, was a name applied by the Arabs to filberts (as some allege)
because they came from Venice (_Banadiḳ_, comp. German _Venedig_). The name
was transferred to the nut-like pellets shot from cross-bows, and thence
the cross-bows or arblasts were called _bunduḳ_, elliptically for _kaus
al-b._, 'pellet-bow.' From cross-bows the name was transferred again to
firearms, as in the parallel case of _arquebus_. [Al-Banduḳāni, 'the man of
the pellet-bow,' was one of the names by which the Caliph Hārūn-al-Rashīd
was known, and Al Zahir Baybars al-Banduḳdāri, the fourth Baharite Soldan
(A.D. 1260-77) was so entitled because he had been slave to a Bandukdār, or
Master of Artillery (_Burton, Ar. Nights_, xii. 38).]

  [1875.—"BANDŪQIS, or orderlies of the Maharaja, carrying long guns in a
  loose red cloth cover."—_Drew, Jummoo and Kashmir_, 74.]


BUNGALOW, s. H. and Mahr. _banglā_. The most usual class of house occupied
by Europeans in the interior of India; being on one story, and covered by a
pyramidal roof, which in the normal bungalow is of thatch, but may be of
tiles without impairing its title to be called a _bungalow_. Most of the
houses of officers in Indian cantonments are of this character. In
reference to the style of the house, _bungalow_ is sometimes employed in
contradistinction to the (usually more pretentious) _pucka house_; by which
latter term is implied a masonry house with a terraced roof. A _bungalow_
may also be a small building of the type which we have described, but of
temporary material, in a garden, on a terraced roof for sleeping in, &c.,
&c. The word has also been adopted by the French in the East, and by
Europeans generally in Ceylon, China, Japan, and the coast of Africa.

Wilson writes the word _bānglā_, giving it as a Bengālī word, and as
probably derived from _Banga_, Bengal. This is fundamentally the etymology
mentioned by Bp. Heber in his _Journal_ (see below), and that etymology is
corroborated by our first quotation, from a native historian, as well as by
that from F. Buchanan. It is to be remembered that in Hindustan proper the
adjective 'of or belonging to Bengal' is constantly pronounced as _bangălā_
or _banglā_. Thus one of the eras used in E. India is distinguished as the
_Banglā_ era. The probability is that, when Europeans began to build houses
of this character in Behar and Upper India, these were called _Banglā_ or
'Bengal-fashion' houses; that the name was adopted by the Europeans
themselves and their followers, and so was brought back to Bengal itself,
as well as carried to other parts of India. ["In Bengal, and notably in the
districts near Calcutta, native houses to this day are divided into
_ath-chala_, _chau-chala_, and _Bangala_, or eight-roofed, four-roofed, and
Bengali, or common huts. The first term does not imply that the house has
eight coverings, but that the roof has four distinct sides with four more
projections, so as to cover a verandah all round the house, which is
square. The _Bangala_, or Bengali house, or _bungalow_ has a sloping roof
on two sides and two gable ends. Doubtless the term was taken up by the
first settlers in Bengal from the native style of edifice, was materially
improved, and was thence carried to other parts of India. It is not
necessary to assume that the first bungalows were erected in Behar."
(_Saturday Rev._, 17th April 1886, in a review of the first ed. of this
book).]

  A.H. 1041 = A.D. 1633.—"Under the rule of the Bengalis
  (_darahd-i-Bangālīyān_) a party of Frank merchants, who are inhabitants
  of Sundíp, came trading to Sátgánw. One kos above that place they
  occupied some ground on the banks of the estuary. Under the pretence that
  a building was necessary for their transactions in buying and selling,
  they erected several houses in the BENGÁLÍ style."—_Bādshāhnāma_, in
  _Elliot_, vii. 31.

  c. 1680.—In the tracing of an old Dutch chart in the India Office, which
  may be assigned to about this date, as it has no indication of Calcutta,
  we find at Hoogly: "_Ougli_ ... _Hollantze Logie_ ... BANGELAER _of
  Speelhuys_," _i.e._ "Hoogly ... Dutch Factory ... BUNGALOW, or
  Pleasure-house."

  1711.—"_Mr. Herring, the Pilot's, Directions for bringing of Ships down
  the River of Hughley._

  "From _Gull Gat_ all along the _Hughley_ Shore until below the _New
  Chaney_ almost as far as the _Dutch_ BUNGELOW lies a Sand...."—_Thornton,
  The English Pilot_, Pt. III. p. 54.

  1711.—"_Natty_ BUNGELO or _Nedds_ BANGALLA River lies in this Reach
  (Tanna) on the Larboard side...."—_Ibid._ 56. The place in the chart is
  _Nedds_ BENGALLA, and seems to have been near the present Akra on the
  Hoogly.

  1747.—"Nabob's Camp near the Hedge of the Bounds, building a BANGALLAA,
  raising Mudd Walls round the Camp, making Gun Carriages, &c. ...
  (Pagodas) 55:10:73."—_Acct. of Extraordinary Charges_ ... January, at
  _Fort St. David, MS. Records in India Office_.

  1758.—"I was talking with my friends in Dr. Fullerton's BANGLA when news
  came of Ram Narain's being defeated."—_Seir Mutaqherin_, ii. 103.

  1780.—"To be Sold or Let, A Commodious BUNGALO and out Houses ...
  situated on the Road leading from the Hospital to the Burying Ground, and
  directly opposite to the Avenue in front of Sir Elijah Impey's
  House...."—_The India Gazette_, Dec. 23.

  1781-83.—"BUNGELOWS are buildings in India, generally raised on a base of
  brick, one, two, or three feet from the ground, and consist of only one
  story: the plan of them usually is a large room in the center for an
  eating and sitting room, and rooms at each corner for sleeping; the whole
  is covered with one general thatch, which comes low to each side; the
  spaces between the angle rooms are _viranders_ or open porticoes ...
  sometimes the center _viranders_ at each end are converted into
  rooms."—_Hodges, Travels_, 146.

  1784.—"To be let at Chinsurah.... That large and commodious House.... The
  out-buildings are—a warehouse and two large _bottle-connahs_, 6
  store-rooms, a cook-room, and a garden, with a BUNGALOW near the
  house."—_Cal. Gazette_, in _Seton-Karr_, i. 40.

  1787.—"At Barrackpore many of the BUNGALOWS much damaged, though none
  entirely destroyed."—_Ibid._ p. 213.

  1793.—"... the BUNGALO, or Summer-house...."—_Dirom_, 211.

     "    "For Sale, a BUNGALO situated between the two Tombstones, in the
  Island of Coulaba."—_Bombay Courier_, Jan. 12.

  1794.—"The candid critic will not however expect the parched plains of
  India, or BUNGALOES in the land-winds, will hardly tempt the Aonian maids
  wont to disport on the banks of Tiber and Thames...."—_Hugh Boyd_, 170.

  1809.—"We came to a small BUNGALO or garden-house, at the point of the
  hill, from which there is, I think, the finest view I ever saw."—_Maria
  Graham_, 10.

  c. 1810.—"The style of private edifices that is proper and peculiar to
  Bengal consists of a hut with a pent roof constructed of two sloping
  sides which meet in a ridge forming the segment of a circle.... This kind
  of hut, it is said, from being peculiar to Bengal, is called by the
  natives BANGGOLO, a name which has been somewhat altered by Europeans,
  and applied by them to all their buildings in the cottage style, although
  none of them have the proper shape, and many of them are excellent brick
  houses."—_Buchanan's Dinagepore_ (in _Eastern India_, ii. 922).

  1817.—"The _Yorŭ-bangala_ is made like two thatched houses or BANGALAS,
  placed side by side.... These temples are dedicated to different gods,
  but are not now frequently seen in Bengal."—_Ward's Hindoos_, Bk. II. ch.
  i.

  c. 1818.—"As soon as the sun is down we will go over to the Captain's
  BUNGALOW."—_Mrs Sherwood, Stories_, &c., ed. 1873, p. 1. The original
  editions of this book contain an engraving of "The Captain's Bungalow at
  Cawnpore" (c. 1811-12), which shows that no material change has occurred
  in the character of such dwellings down to the present time.

  1824.—"The house itself of Barrackpore ... barely accommodates Lord
  Amherst's own family; and his aides-de-camp and visitors sleep in
  bungalows built at some little distance from it in the Park. BUNGALOW, a
  corruption of Bengalee, is the general name in this country for any
  structure in the cottage style, and only of one floor. Some of these are
  spacious and comfortable dwellings...."—_Heber_, ed. 1844, i. 33.

  1872.—"L'emplacement du BUNGALOU avait été choisi avec un soin tout
  particulier."—_Rev. des Deux Mondes_, tom. xcviii. 930.

  1875.—"The little groups of officers dispersed to their respective
  BUNGALOWS to dress and breakfast."—_The Dilemma_, ch. i.

[In Oudh the name was specially applied to Fyzabad.

  [1858.—"Fyzabad ... was founded by the first rulers of the reigning
  family, and called for some time BUNGALOW, from a bungalow which they
  built on the verge of the stream."—_Sleeman, Journey through the Kingdom
  of Oudh_, i. 137.]


BUNGALOW, DAWK-, s. A rest-house for the accommodation of travellers,
formerly maintained (and still to a reduced extent) by the paternal care of
the Government of India. The _matériel_ of the accommodation was humble
enough, but comprised the things essential for the weary traveller—shelter,
a bed and table, a bathroom, and a servant furnishing food at a very
moderate cost. On principal lines of thoroughfare these bungalows were at a
distance of 10 to 15 miles apart, so that it was possible for a traveller
to make his journey by marches without carrying a tent. On some less
frequented roads they were 40 or 50 miles apart, adapted to a night's run
in a palankin.

  1853.—"DÂK-BUNGALOWS have been described by some Oriental travellers as
  the 'Inns of India.' Playful satirists!"—_Oakfield_, ii. 17.

  1866.—"The DAWK BUNGALOW; or, Is his Appointment Pucka?"—By _G. O.
  Trevelyan_, in _Fraser's Magazine_, vol. 73, p. 215.

  1878.—"I am inclined to think the value of life to a DAK BUNGALOW fowl
  must be very trifling."—_In my Indian Garden_, 11.


BUNGY, s. H. _bhangī_. The name of a low caste, habitually employed as
sweepers, and in the lowest menial offices, the man being a house sweeper
and dog-boy, [his wife an AYAH]. Its members are found throughout Northern
and Western India, and every European household has a servant of this
class. The colloquial application of the term _bungy_ to such servants is
however peculiar to Bombay, [but the word is commonly used in the N.W.P.
but always with a contemptuous significance]. In the Bengal Pry. he is
generally called MEHTAR (q.v.), and by politer natives Halālkhor (see
HALALCORE), &c. In Madras _totī_ (see TOTY) is the usual word; [in W. India
_Dheṛ_ or _Dheḍ_]. Wilson suggests that the caste name may be derived from
_bhang_ (see BANG), and this is possible enough, as the class is generally
given to strong drink and intoxicating drugs.

  1826.—"The _Kalpa_ or Skinner, and the BUNGHEE, or Sweeper, are yet one
  step below the _Dher_."—_Tr. Lit. Soc. Bombay_, iii. 362.


BUNOW, s. and v. H. _banāo_, used in the sense of 'preparation,
fabrication,' &c., but properly the imperative of _banānā_, 'to make,
prepare, fabricate.' The Anglo-Indian word is applied to anything
fictitious or factitious, 'a cram, a shave, a sham'; or, as a verb, to the
manufacture of the like. The following lines have been found among old
papers belonging to an officer who was at the Court of the Nawāb Sa'ādat
'Ali at Lucknow, at the beginning of the last century:—

   "Young Grant and Ford the other day
      Would fain have had some Sport,
    But Hound nor Beagle none had they,
      Nor aught of Canine sort.
    A luckless _Parry_[46] came most pat
      When Ford—'we've Dogs enow!
    Here _Maitre—Kawn aur Doom ko Kaut_
      _Juld_! Terrier BUNNOW!'[47]

   "So Saadut with the like design
      (I mean, to form a Pack)
    To * * * * * t gave a Feather fine
      And Red Coat to his Back;
    A Persian Sword to clog his side,
      And Boots Hussar _sub-nyah_,[48]
    Then eyed his Handiwork with Pride,
      Crying _Meejir myn_ BUNNAYAH!!!"[49]

  "Appointed to be said or sung in all Mosques, Mutts, Tuckeahs, or Eedgahs
  within the Reserved Dominions."[50]

  1853.—"You will see within a week if this is anything more than a
  BANAU."—_Oakfield_, ii. 58.

  [1870.—"We shall be satisfied with choosing for illustration, out of
  many, one kind of BENOWED or prepared evidence."—_Chevers, Med.
  Jurisprud._, 86.]


BURDWÁN, n.p. A town 67 m. N.W. of Calcutta—_Bardwān_, but in its original
Skt. form _Vardhamāna_, 'thriving, prosperous,' a name which we find in
Ptolemy (_Bardamana_), though in another part of India. Some closer
approximation to the ancient form must have been current till the middle of
18th century, for Holwell, writing in 1765, speaks of "_Burdwan_, the
principal town of _Burdomaan_" (_Hist. Events_, &c., 1. 112; see also 122,
125).


BURGHER. This word has three distinct applications.

A. s. This is only used in Ceylon. It is the Dutch word _burger_,
'citizen.' The Dutch admitted people of mixt descent to a kind of
citizenship, and these people were distinguished by this name from pure
natives. The word now indicates any persons who claim to be of partly
European descent, and is used in the same sense as '_half-caste_' and
'_Eurasian_' in India Proper. [In its higher sense it is still used by the
Boers of the Transvaal.]

  1807.—"The greater part of them were admitted by the Dutch to all the
  privileges of citizens under the denomination of BURGHERS."—_Cordiner,
  Desc. of Ceylon._

  1877.—"About 60 years ago the BURGHERS of Ceylon occupied a position
  similar to that of the Eurasians of India at the present
  moment."—_Calcutta Review_, cxvii. 180-1.

B. n.p. People of the NILGHERRY Hills, properly _Baḍagas_, or
Northerners.'—See under BADEGA.

C. s. A rafter, H. _bargā_.


BURKUNDAUZE, s. An armed retainer; an armed policeman, or other armed
unmounted employé of a civil department; from Ar.-P. _barḳandāz_,
'lightning-darter,' a word of the same class as _jān-bāz_, &c. [Also see
BUXERRY.]

  1726.—"2000 men on foot, called BIRCANDES, and 2000 pioneers to make the
  road, called _Bieldars_ (see BILDAR)."—_Valentijn_, iv. _Suratte_, 276.

  1793.—"Capt. Welsh has succeeded in driving the Bengal BERKENDOSSES out
  of Assam."—_Cornwallis_, ii. 207.

  1794.—"Notice is hereby given that persons desirous of sending escorts of
  BURKUNDAZES or other armed men, with merchandise, are to apply for
  passports."—In _Seton-Karr_, ii. 139.

  [1832.—"The whole line of march is guarded in each procession by
  BURKHANDHARS (matchlock men), who fire singly, at intervals, on the
  way."—_Mrs Meer Hassan Ali_, i. 87.]


BURMA, BURMAH (with BURMESE, &c.) n.p. The name by which we designate the
ancient kingdom and nation occupying the central basin of the Irawadi
River. "British Burma" is constituted of the provinces conquered from that
kingdom in the two wars of 1824-26 and 1852-53, viz. (in the first) Arakan,
Martaban, Tenasserim, and (in the second) Pegu. [Upper Burma and the Shan
States were annexed after the third war of 1885.]

The name is taken from MRAN-MĀ, the national name of the Burmese people,
which they themselves generally pronounce _Bam-mā_, unless when speaking
formally and emphatically. Sir Arthur Phayre considers that this name was
in all probability adopted by the Mongoloid tribes of the Upper Irawadi, on
their conversion to Buddhism by missionaries from Gangetic India, and is
identical with that (_Brām-mā_) by which the first and holy inhabitants of
the world are styled in the (Pali) Buddhist Scriptures. _Brahma-desa_ was
the term applied to the country by a Singhalese monk returning thence to
Ceylon, in conversation with one of the present writers. It is however the
view of Bp. Bigandet and of Prof. Forchhammer, supported by considerable
arguments, that _Mran_, _Myan_, or _Myen_ was the original name of the
Burmese people, and is traceable in the names given to them by their
neighbours; _e.g._ by Chinese _Mien_ (and in Marco Polo); by Kakhyens,
_Myen_ or _Mren_; by Shans, _Mān_; by Sgaw Karens, _Payo_; by Pgaw Karens,
_Payān_; by Paloungs, _Parān_, &c.[51] Prof. F. considers that Mran-_mā_
(with this honorific suffix) does not date beyond the 14th century. [In _J.
R. A. Soc._ (1894, p. 152 _seqq._), Mr. St John suggests that the word
_Myamma_ is derived from _myan_, 'swift,' and _ma_, 'strong,' and was taken
as a soubriquet by the people at some early date, perhaps in the time of
Anawrahta, A.D. 1150.]

  1516.—"Having passed the Kingdom of Bengale, along the coast which turns
  to the South, there is another Kingdom of Gentiles, called BERMA.... They
  frequently are at war with the King of Peigu. We have no further
  information respecting this country, because it has no
  shipping."—_Barbosa_, 181.

  [   "    "VERMA." See quotation under ARAKAN.

  [1538.—"But the war lasted on and the BRAMÃS took all the
  kingdom."—_Correa_, iii. 851.]

  1543.—"And folk coming to know of the secrecy with which the force was
  being despatched, a great desire took possession of all to know whither
  the Governor intended to send so large an armament, there being no Rumis
  to go after, and nothing being known of any other cause why ships should
  be despatched in secret at such a time. So some gentlemen spoke of it to
  the Governor, and much importuned him to tell them whither they were
  going, and the Governor, all the more bent on concealment of his
  intentions, told them that the expedition was going to Pegu to fight with
  the BRAMAS who had taken that Kingdom."—_Ibid._ iv. 298.

  c. 1545.—"_How the King of_ BRAMÂ _undertook the conquest of this kingdom
  of Sião_ (Siam), _and of what happened till his arrival at the City of
  Odiâ_."—_F. M. Pinto_ (orig.) cap. 185.

  [1553.—"BREMÁ." See quotation under JANGOMAY.]

  1606.—"Although one's whole life were wasted in describing the
  superstitions of these Gentiles—the Pegus and the BRAMAS—one could not
  have done with the half, therefore I only treat of some, in passing, as I
  am now about to do."—_Couto_, viii. cap. xii.

  [1639.—"His (King of Pegu's) Guard consists of a great number of
  Souldiers, with them called BRAHMANS, is kept at the second
  Port."—_Mandelslo, Travels_, E. T. ii. 118.]

  1680.—"ARTICLES of COMMERCE to be proposed to the King of BARMA and Pegu,
  in behalfe of the English Nation for the settling of a Trade in those
  countrys."—_Ft. St. Geo. Cons._, in _Notes and Exts._, iii. 7.

  1727.—"The Dominions of BARMA are at present very large, reaching from
  _Moravi_ near _Tanacerin_, to the Province of _Yunan_ in _China_."—_A.
  Hamilton_, ii. 41.

  1759.—"The BÛRAGHMAHS are much more numerous than the Peguese and more
  addicted to commerce; even in Pegu their numbers are 100 to 1."—Letter in
  _Dalrymple, O. R._, i. 99. The writer appears desirous to convey by his
  unusual spelling some accurate reproduction of the name as he had heard
  it. His testimony as to the predominance of Burmese in Pegu, at that date
  even, is remarkable.

  [1763.—"BURMAH." See quotation under MUNNEEPORE.

  [1767.—"BURAGHMAGH." See quotation under SONAPARANTA.

  [1782.—"BAHMANS." See quotation under GAUTAMA.]

  1793.—"BURMAH borders on Pegu to the north, and occupies both banks of
  the river as far as the frontiers of China."—_Rennell's Memoir_, 297.

  [1795.—"BIRMAN." See quotation under SHAN.

  [c. 1819.—"In fact in their own language, their name is not BURMESE,
  which we have borrowed from the Portuguese, but BIAMMA."—_Sangermano_,
  36.]


BURRA-BEEBEE, s. H. _baṛī bībī_, 'Grande dame.' This is a kind of slang
word applied in Anglo-Indian society to the lady who claims precedence at a
party. [Nowadays _Baṛī Mem_ is the term applied to the chief lady in a
Station.]

  1807.—"At table I have hitherto been allowed but one dish, namely the
  BURRO BEBEE, or lady of the highest rank."—_Lord Minto in India_, 29.

  1848.—"The ladies carry their BURRAH-BIBISHIP into the steamers when they
  go to England.... My friend endeavoured in vain to persuade them that
  whatever their social importance in the 'City of Palaces,' they would be
  but small folk in London."—_Chow Chow_, by _Viscountess Falkland_, i. 92.


[BURRA-DIN, s. H. _baṛā-din_. A 'great day,' the term applied by natives to
a great festival of Europeans, particularly to Christmas Day.

  [1880.—"This being the BURRA DIN, or great day, the fact of an animal
  being shot was interpreted by the men as a favourable augury."—_Ball,
  Jungle Life_, 279.]


BURRA-KHANA, s. H. _baṛā khāna_, 'big dinner'; a term of the same character
as the two last, applied to a vast and solemn entertainment.

  [1880.—"To go out to a BURRA KHANA, or big dinner, which is succeeded in
  the same or some other house by a larger evening party."—_Wilson, Abode
  of Snow_, 51.]


BURRA SAHIB. H. _baṛā_, 'great'; 'the great _Ṣāḥib_ (or Master),' a term
constantly occurring, whether in a family to distinguish the father or the
elder brother, in a station to indicate the Collector, Commissioner, or
whatever officer may be the recognised head of the society, or in a
department to designate the head of that department, local or remote.

  [1889.—"At any rate a few of the great lords and ladies (BURRA SAHIB and
  BURRA MEM SAHIB) did speak to me without being driven to it."—_Lady
  Dufferin_, 34.]


BURRAMPOOTER, n.p. Properly (Skt.) _Brahmaputra_ ('the son of Brahmā'), the
great river _Brahmputr_ of which Assam is the valley. Rising within 100
miles of the source of the Ganges, these rivers, after being separated by
17 degrees of longitude, join before entering the sea. There is no distinct
recognition of this great river by the ancients, but the _Diardanes_ or
_Oidanes_, of Curtius and Strabo, described as a large river in the remoter
parts of India, abounding in dolphins and crocodiles, probably represents
this river under one of its Skt. names, _Hlādini_.

  1552.—Barros does not mention the name before us, but the Brahmaputra
  seems to be the river of _Caor_, which traversing the kingdom so called
  (GOUR) and that of COMOTAY, and that of _Cirote_ (see SILHET), issues
  above _Chatigão_ (see CHITTAGONG), in that notable arm of the Ganges
  which passes through the island of Sornagam.

  c. 1590.—"There is another very large river called BERHUMPUTTER, which
  runs from Khatai to Coach (see COOCH BEHAR) and from thence through
  Bazoohah to the sea."—_Ayeen Akberry_ (Gladwin) ed. 1800, ii. 6; [ed.
  _Jarrett_, ii. 121].

  1726.—"Out of the same mountains we see ... a great river flowing which
  ... divides into two branches, whereof the easterly one on account of its
  size is called the Great BARREMPOOTER."—_Valentijn_, v. 154.

  1753.—"Un peu au-dessous de Daka, le Gange est joint par une grosse
  rivière, qui sort de la frontière du Tibet. Le nom de BRAMANPOUTRE qu'on
  lui trouve dans quelques cartes est une corruption de celui de
  BRAHMAPUTREN, qui dans le langage du pays signifie tirant son origine de
  Brahma."—_D'Anville, Éclaircissemens_, 62.

  1767.—"Just before the Ganges falls into ye Bay of Bengall, it receives
  the BARAMPUTREY or Assam River. The Assam River is larger than the Ganges
  ... it is a perfect Sea of fresh Water after the Junction of the two
  Rivers...."—_MS. Letter_ of _James Rennell_, d. 10th March.

  1793.—"... till the year 1765, the BURRAMPOOTER, as a capital river, was
  unknown in Europe. On tracing this river in 1765, I was no less surprised
  at finding it rather larger than the Ganges, than at its course previous
  to its entering Bengal.... I could no longer doubt that the BURRAMPOOTER
  and Sanpoo were one and the same river."—_Rennell, Memoir_, 3rd ed. 356.


BURREL, s. H. _bharal_; _Ovis nahura_, Hodgson. The blue wild sheep of the
Himālaya. [_Blanford, Mamm._ 499, with illustration.]


BURSAUTEE, s. H. _barsātī_, from _barsāt_, 'the Rains.'

A. The word properly is applied to a disease to which horses are liable in
the rains, pustular eruptions breaking out on the head and fore parts of
the body.

  [1828.—"That very extraordinary disease, the BURSATTEE."—_Or. Sport.
  Mag._, reprint, 1873, i. 125.

  [1832.—"Horses are subject to an infectious disease, which generally
  makes its appearance in the rainy season, and therefore called
  BURRHSAATIE."—_Mrs Meer Hassan Ali_, ii. 27.]

B. But the word is also applied to a waterproof cloak, or the like. (See
BRANDY COORTEE.)

  1880.—"The scenery has now been arranged for the second part of the Simla
  season ... and the appropriate costume for both sexes is the decorous
  BURSATTI."—_Pioneer Mail_, July 8.


BUS, adv. P.-H. _bas_, 'enough.' Used commonly as a kind of interjection:
'Enough! Stop! _Ohe jam satis! Basta, basta!_' Few Hindustani words stick
closer by the returned Anglo-Indian. The Italian expression, though of
obscure etymology, can hardly have any connection with _bas_. But in use it
always feels like a mere expansion of it!

  1853.—"'And if you pass,' say my dear good-natured friends, 'you may get
  an appointment. BUS! (you see my Hindostanee knowledge already carries me
  the length of that emphatic monosyllable)....'"—_Oakfield_, 2nd ed. i.
  42.


BUSHIRE, n.p. The principal modern Persian seaport on the Persian Gulf;
properly _Abūshahr_.

  1727.—"BOWCHIER is also a Maritim Town.... It stands on an Island, and
  has a pretty good Trade."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 90.


BUSTEE, s. An inhabited quarter, a village. H. _bastī_, from Skt. _vas_ =
'dwell.' Many years ago a native in Upper India said to a European
assistant in the Canal Department: "You Feringis talk much of your country
and its power, but we know that the whole of you come from five villages"
(_pānch_ BASTI). The word is applied in Calcutta to the separate groups of
huts in the humbler native quarters, the sanitary state of which has often
been held up to reprobation.

  [1889.—"There is a dreary BUSTEE in the neighbourhood which is said to
  make the most of any cholera that may be going."—_R. Kipling, City of
  Dreadful Night_, 54.]


BUTLER, s. In the Madras and Bombay Presidencies this is the title usually
applied to the head-servant of any English or quasi-English household. He
generally makes the daily market, has charge of domestic stores, and
superintends the table. As his profession is one which affords a large
scope for feathering a nest at the expense of a foreign master, it is often
followed at Madras by men of comparatively good caste. (See CONSUMAH.)

  1616.—"Yosky the BUTLER, being sick, asked lycense to goe to his howse to
  take phisick."—_Cocks_, i. 135.

  1689.—"... the BUTLERS are enjoin'd to take an account of the Place each
  Night, before they depart home, that they (the Peons) might be examin'd
  before they stir, if ought be wanting."—_Ovington_, 393.

  1782.—"Wanted a Person to act as Steward or BUTLER in a Gentleman's
  House, _he must understand Hairdressing_."—_India Gazette_, March 2.

  1789.—"No person considers himself as comfortably accommodated without
  entertaining a _Dubash_ at 4 pagodas per month, a BUTLER at 3, a Peon at
  2, a Cook at 3, a Compradore at 2, and kitchen boy at 1 pagoda."—_Munro's
  Narrative of Operations_, p. 27.

  1873.—"Glancing round, my eye fell on the pantry department ... and the
  BUTLER trimming the reading lamps."—_Camp Life in India, Fraser's Mag._,
  June, 696.

  1879.—"... the moment when it occurred to him (_i.e._ the Nyoung-young
  Prince of Burma) that he ought really to assume the guise of a Madras
  BUTLER, and be off to the Residency, was the happiest inspiration of his
  life."—_Standard_, July 11.


BUTLER-ENGLISH. The broken English spoken by native servants in the Madras
Presidency; which is not very much better than the PIGEON-ENGLISH of China.
It is a singular dialect; the present participle (_e.g._) being used for
the future indicative, and the preterite indicative being formed by 'done';
thus _I telling_ = 'I will tell'; _I done tell_ = 'I have told'; _done
come_ = 'actually arrived.' Peculiar meanings are also attached to words;
thus _family_ = 'wife.' The oddest characteristic about this jargon is (or
was) that masters used it in speaking to their servants as well as servants
to their masters.


BUXEE, s. A military paymaster; H. _bakhshī_. This is a word of complex and
curious history.

In origin it is believed to be the Mongol or Turki corruption of the Skt.
_bhikshu_, 'a beggar,' and thence a Buddhist or religious mendicant or
member of the ascetic order, bound by his discipline to obtain his daily
food by begging.[52] _Bakshi_ was the word commonly applied by the Tartars
of the host of Chingiz and his successors, and after them by the Persian
writers of the Mongol era, to the regular Buddhist clergy; and thus the
word appears under various forms in the works of medieval European writers
from whom examples are quoted below. Many of the class came to Persia and
the west with Hulākū and with Bātū Khān; and as the writers in the Tartar
camps were probably found chiefly among the _bakshis_, the word underwent
exactly the same transfer of meaning as our _clerk_, and came to signify a
_literatus_, scribe or secretary. Thus in the Latino-Perso-Turkish
vocabulary, which belonged to Petrarch and is preserved at Venice, the word
_scriba_ is rendered in Comanian, _i.e._ the then Turkish of the Crimea, as
_Bacsi_. The change of meaning did not stop here.

Abu'l-Faẓl in his account of Kashmīr (in the _Āīn_, [ed. _Jarrett_, iii.
212]) recalls the fact that _bakhshī_ was the title given by the learned
among Persian and Arabic writers to the Buddhist priests whom the Tibetans
styled _lāmās_. But in the time of Baber, say circa 1500, among the Mongols
the word had come to mean _surgeon_; a change analogous again, in some
measure, to our colloquial use of _doctor_. The modern Mongols, according
to Pallas, use the word in the sense of 'Teacher,' and apply it to the most
venerable or learned priest of a community. Among the Kirghiz Kazzāks, who
profess Mahommedanism, it has come to bear the character which Marco Polo
more or less associates with it, and means a mere conjurer or medicine-man;
whilst in Western Turkestan it signifies a 'Bard' or 'Minstrel.' [Vambéry
in his _Sketches of Central Asia_ (p. 81) speaks of a _Bakhshi_ as a
troubadour.]

By a further transfer of meaning, of which all the steps are not clear, in
another direction, under the Mohammedan Emperors of India the word
_bakhshi_ was applied to an officer high in military administration, whose
office is sometimes rendered 'Master of the Horse' (of horse, it is to be
remembered, the whole substance of the army consisted), but whose duties
sometimes, if not habitually, embraced those of Paymaster-General, as well
as, in a manner, of Commander-in-Chief, or Chief of the Staff. [Mr. Irvine,
who gives a detailed account of the Bakhshi under the latter Moguls (_J. R.
A. Soc._, July 1896, p. 539 _seqq._), prefers to call him
Adjutant-General.] More properly perhaps this was the position of the _Mīr
Bakhshī_, who had other _bakhshīs_ under him. _Bakhshīs_ in military
command continued in the armies of the Mahrattas, of Hyder Ali, and of
other native powers. But both the Persian spelling and the modern
connection of the title with _pay_ indicate a probability that some
confusion of association had arisen between the old Tartar title and the P.
_bakhsh_, 'portion,' _bakhshīdan_, 'to give,' _bakhshīsh_, 'payment.' In
the early days of the Council of Fort William we find the title BUXEE
applied to a European Civil officer, through whom payments were made (see
_Long_ and _Seton-Karr_, passim). This is obsolete, but the word is still
in the Anglo-Indian Army the recognised designation of a _Paymaster_.

This is the best known existing use of the word. But under some Native
Governments it is still the designation of a high officer of state. And
according to the _Calcutta Glossary_ it has been used in the N.W.P. for 'a
collector of a house tax' (?) and the like; in Bengal for 'a superintendent
of peons'; in Mysore for 'a treasurer,' &c. [In the N.W.P. the _Bakhshī_,
popularly known to natives as '_Bakhshī Tikkas_,' 'Tax Bakhshi,' is the
person in charge of one of the minor towns which are not under a Municipal
Board, but are managed by a _Panch_, or body of assessors, who raise the
income needed for watch and ward and conservancy by means of a graduated
house assessment.] See an interesting note on this word in _Quatremère, H.
des Mongols_, 184 _seqq._; also see _Marco Polo_, Bk. i. ch. 61, note.

  1298.—"There is another marvel performed by those BACSI, of whom I have
  been speaking as knowing so many enchantments...."—_Marco Polo_, Bk. I.
  ch. 61.

  c. 1300.—"Although there are many BAKHSHIS, Chinese, Indian and others,
  those of Tibet are most esteemed."—_Rashid-uddín_, quoted by _D'Ohsson_,
  ii. 370.

  c. 1300.—"Et sciendum, quod Tartar quosdam homines super omnes de mundo
  honorant: BOXITAS, scilicet quosdam pontifices ydolorum."—_Ricoldus de
  Montecrucis_, in _Peregrinatores, IV._ p. 117.

  c. 1308.—"Ταῦτα γὰρ Κουτζίμπαξις ἐπανήκων πρὸς βασιλέα διεβεβαίον· πρῶτος
  δὲ τῶν ἱερομάγων, τοὔνομα τοῦτο ἐξελληνίζεται."—_Georg. Pachymeres de
  Andronico Palaeologo, Lib._ vii. The last part of the name of this
  _Kutzimpaxis_, 'the first of the sacred magi,' appears to be BAKHSHI; the
  whole perhaps to be _Khoja_-BAKHSHI, or _Kūchin-Bakhshi_.

  c. 1340.—"The Kings of this country sprung from Jinghiz Khan ... followed
  exactly the _yassah_ (or laws) of that Prince and the dogmas received in
  his family, which consisted in revering the sun, and conforming in all
  things to the advice of the BAKSHIS."—_Shihābuddīn_, in _Not. et Extr._
  xiii. 237.

  1420.—"In this city of Kamcheu there is an idol temple 500 cubits square.
  In the middle is an idol lying at length, which measures 50 paces....
  Behind this image ... figures of BAKSHIS as large as life...."—_Shah
  Rukh's Mission to China_, in _Cathay_, i: cciii.

  1615.—"Then I moved him for his favor for an _English_ Factory to be
  Resident in the Towne, which hee willingly granted, and gave present
  order to the BUXY, to draw a _Firma_ both for their comming vp, and for
  their residence."—_Sir T. Roe_, in _Purchas_, i. 541; [Hak. Soc. i. 93.]

  c. 1660.—"... obliged me to take a Salary from the _Grand Mogol_ in the
  quality of a Phisitian, and a little after from _Danechmend-Kan_, the
  most knowing man of _Asia_, who had been BAKCHIS, or Great Master of the
  Horse."—_Bernier_, E.T. p. 2; [ed. _Constable_, p. 4].

  1701.—"The friendship of the BUXIE is not so much desired for the post he
  is now in, but that he is of a very good family, and has many relations
  near the King."—In _Wheeler_, i. 378.

  1706-7.—"So the Emperor appointed a nobleman to act as the BAKSHÍ of Kám
  Bakhsh, and to him he intrusted the Prince, with instructions to take
  care of him. The BAKSHÍ was Sultan Hasan, otherwise called Mír
  Malang."—_Dowson's Elliot_, vii. 385.

  1711.—"To his Excellency Zulfikar Khan Bahadur, Nurzerat Sing
  (_Nasrat-Jang?_) BACKSHEE of the whole Empire."—_Address of a Letter from
  President and Council of Fort St. George_, in _Wheeler_, ii. 160.

  1712.—"Chan Dhjehaan ... first BAKSI general, or Muster-Master of the
  horsemen."—_Valentijn_, iv. (Suratte), 295.

  1753.—"The BUXEY acquaints the Board he has been using his endeavours to
  get sundry artificers for the Negrais."—In _Long_, 43.

  1756.—Barth. Plaisted represents the bad treatment he had met with for
  "strictly adhering to his duty during the BUXY-ship of Messrs. Bellamy
  and Kempe"; and "the abuses in the post of BUXY."—_Letter to the Hon. the
  Court of Directors, &c._, p. 3.

  1763.—"The BUXEY or general of the army, at the head of a select body,
  closed the procession."—_Orme_, i. 26 (reprint).

  1766.—"The BUXEY lays before the Board an account of charges incurred in
  the BUXEY CONNAH ... for the relief of people saved from the
  _Falmouth_."—_Ft. William, Cons., Long_, 457.

  1793.—"The BUKSHEY allowed it would be prudent in the Sultan not to
  hazard the event."—_Dirom_, 50.

  1804.—"A BUCKSHEE and a body of horse belonging to this same man were
  opposed to me in the action of the 5th; whom I daresay that I shall have
  the pleasure of meeting shortly at the Peshwah's durbar."—_Wellington_,
  iii. 80.

  1811.—"There appear to have been different descriptions of BUKTSHIES (in
  Tippoo's service). The BUKTSHIES of Kushoons were a sort of commissaries
  and paymasters, and were subordinate to the _sipahdâr_, if not to the
  Resâladâr, or commandant of a battalion. The MEER BUKTSHY, however, took
  rank of the Sipahdâr. The BUKTSHIES of the _Ehsham_ and JYSHE were, I
  believe, the superior officers of these corps respectively."—Note to
  _Tippoo's Letters_, 165.

  1823.—"In the Mahratta armies the prince is deemed the Sirdar or
  Commander; next to him is the BUKSHEE or Paymaster, who is vested with
  the principal charge and responsibility, and is considered accountable
  for all military expenses and disbursements."—_Malcolm, Central India_,
  i. 534.

  1827.—"Doubt it not—the soldiers of the Beegum Mootee Mahul ... are less
  hers than mine. I am myself the BUKSHEE ... and her Sirdars are at my
  devotion."—_Walter Scott, The Surgeon's Daughter_, ch. xii.

  1861.—"To the best of my memory he was accused of having done his best to
  urge the people of Dhar to rise against our Government, and several of
  the witnesses deposed to this effect; amongst them the BUKSHI."—_Memo. on
  Dhar_, by _Major McMullen_.

  1874.—"Before the depositions were taken down, the gomasta of the planter
  drew aside the BAKSHÍ, who is a police-officer next to the
  darogá."—_Govinda Samanta_, ii. 235.


BUXERRY, s. A matchlock man; apparently used in much the same sense as
BURKUNDAUZE (q.v.) now obsolete. We have not found this term excepting in
documents pertaining to the middle decades of 18th century in Bengal; [but
see references supplied by Mr. Irvine below;] nor have we found any
satisfactory etymology. _Buxo_ is in Port. a gun-barrel (Germ. _Buchse_);
which suggests some possible word _buxeiro_. There is however none such in
Bluteau, who has, on the other hand, "_Butgeros_, an Indian term,
artillery-men, &c.," and quotes from _Hist. Orient._ iii. 7: "_Butgeri_
sunt hi qui quinque tormentis praeficiuntur." This does not throw much
light. _Bajjar_, 'thunderbolt,' may have given vogue to a word in analogy
to P. _barḳandāz_, 'lightning-darter,' but we find no such word. As an
additional conjecture, however, we may suggest _Baksāris_, from the
possible circumstance that such men were recruited in the country about
_Baksār_ (_Buxar_), _i.e._ the _Shāhābād_ district, which up to 1857 was a
great recruiting ground for sepoys. [There can be no doubt that this last
suggestion gives the correct origin of the word. _Buchanan Hamilton,
Eastern India_, i. 471, describes the large number of men who joined the
native army from this part of the country.]

  [1690.—The Mogul army was divided into three classes—_Suwārān_, or
  mounted men; _Topkhānah_, artillery; _Aḥshām_, infantry and artificers.

  ["_Aḥshām—Bandūqchī-i-jangī—Baksariyah wa Bundelah Aḥshām_, _i.e._
  regular matchlock-men, BAKSARIYAHS and Bundelahs."—_Dastūr-ul-'amal_,
  written about 1690-1; _B. Museum MS._, No. 1641, fol. 58_b_.]

  1748.—"Ordered the Zemindars to send BUXERRIES to clear the boats and
  bring them up as Prisoners."—_Ft. William Cons._, April, in _Long_, p. 6.

     "    "We received a letter from ... Council at Cossimbazar ...
  advising of their having sent Ensign McKion with all the Military that
  were able to travel, 150 BUXERRIES, 4 field pieces, and a large quantity
  of ammunition to Cutway."—_Ibid._ p. 1.

  1749.—"Having frequent reports of several straggling parties of this
  banditti plundering about this place, we on the 2d November ordered the
  Zemindars to entertain one hundred BUXERIES and fifty pike-men over and
  above what were then in pay for the protection of the outskirts of your
  Honor's town."—_Letter to Court_, Jan. 13, _Ibid._ p. 21.

  1755.—"Agreed, we despatch Lieutenant John Harding of a command of
  soldiers 25 BUXARIES in order to clear these boats if stopped in their
  way to this place."—_Ibid._ 55.

     "    "In an account for this year we find among charges on behalf of
  William Wallis, Esq., Chief at Cossimbazar:

                    Rs.
   "'4 BUXERIES    20 (year)    240.'"
                    _MS. Records in India Office._

  1761.—"The 5th they made their last effort with all the Sepoys and
  BUXERRIES they could assemble."—In _Long_, 254.

     "    "The number of BUXERRIÉS or matchlockmen was therefore augmented
  to 1500."—_Orme_ (reprint), ii. 59.

     "    "In a few minutes they killed 6 BUXERRIES."—_Ibid._ 65; see also
  279.

  1772.—"BUCKSERRIAS. Foot soldiers whose common arms are only sword and
  target."—_Glossary in Grose's Voyage_, 2nd ed. [This is copied, as Mr.
  Irvine shows, from the Glossary of 1757 prefixed to _An Address to the
  Proprietors of E. I. Stock_, in _Holwell's Indian Tracts_, 3rd ed.,
  1779.]

  1788.—"BUXERRIES—Foot soldiers, whose common arms are swords and targets
  or spears."—_Indian Vocabulary_ (Stockdale's).

  1850.—"Another point to which Clive turned his attention ... was the
  organization of an efficient native regular force.... Hitherto the native
  troops employed at Calcutta ... designated BUXARRIES were nothing more
  than _Burkandāz_, armed and equipped in the usual native
  manner."—_Broome, Hist. of the Rise and Progress of the Bengal Army_, i.
  92.


BYDE, or BEDE HORSE, s. A note by Kirkpatrick to the passage below from
_Tippoo's Letters_ says _Byde Horse_ are "the same as _Pindârehs_,
_Looties_, and _Kuzzâks_" (see PINDARRY, LOOTY, COSSACK). In the _Life of
Hyder Ali_ by Hussain 'Ali Khān Kirmāni, tr. by Miles, we read that Hyder's
Kuzzaks were under the command of "Ghazi Khan BEDE." But whether this
leader was so called from leading the "BEDE" Horse, or gave his name to
them, does not appear. Miles has the highly intelligent note: 'Bede is
another name for (Kuzzak): Kirkpatrick supposed the word Bede meant
infantry, which, I believe, it does not' (p. 36). The quotation from the
_Life of Tippoo_ seems to indicate that it was the name of a caste. And we
find in _Sherring's Indian Tribes and Castes_, among those of Mysore,
mention of the BEDAR as a tribe, probably of huntsmen, dark, tall, and
warlike. Formerly many were employed as soldiers, and served in Hyder's
wars (iii. 153; see also the same tribe in the S. Mahratta country, ii.
321). Assuming _-ar_ to be a plural sign, we have here probably the "BEDES"
who gave their name to these plundering horse. The BEDAR are mentioned as
one of the predatory classes of the peninsula, along with Marawars,
Kallars, Ramūsis (see RAMOOSY), &c., in Sir Walter Elliot's paper (_J.
Ethnol. Soc._, 1869, N.S. pp. 112-13). But more will be found regarding
them in a paper by the late Gen. Briggs, the translator of Ferishta's Hist.
(_J. R. A. Soc._ xiii.). Besides Bedar, BEDNOR (or Nagar) in Mysore seems
to take its name from this tribe. [See _Rice, Mysore_, i. 255.]

  1758.—"... The Cavalry of the Rao ... received such a defeat from Hydur's
  BEDES or Kuzzaks that they fled and never looked behind them until they
  arrived at Goori Bundar."—_Hist. of Hydur Naik_, p. 120.

  1785.—"BYDE HORSE, out of employ, have committed great excesses and
  depredations in the Sircar's dominions."—_Letters of Tippoo Sultan_, 6.

  1802.—"The Kakur and Chapao horse.... (Although these are included in the
  BEDE tribe, they carry off the palm even from them in the arts of
  robbery)...."—_H. of Tipú_, by _Hussein 'Ali Khan Kirmāni_, tr. by Miles,
  p. 76.


[BYLEE, s. A small two-wheeled vehicle drawn by two oxen. H. _bahal_,
_bahlī_, _bailī_, which has no connection, as is generally supposed, with
_bail_, 'an ox'; but is derived from the Skt. _vah_, 'to carry.' The
_bylee_ is used only for passengers, and a larger and more imposing vehicle
of the same class is the RUT. There is a good drawing of a Panjab _bylee_
in _Kipling's Beast and Man_ (p. 117); also see the note on the quotation
from Forbes under HACKERY.

  [1841.—"A native BYLEE will usually produce, in gold and silver of great
  purity, ten times the weight of precious metals to be obtained from a
  general officer's equipage."—_Society in India_, i. 162.

  [1854.—"Most of the party ... were in a barouch, but the rich man himself
  [one of the Muttra Seths] still adheres to the primitive conveyance of a
  BYLIS, a thing like a footboard on two wheels, generally drawn by two
  oxen, but in which he drives a splendid pair of white horses, sitting
  cross-legged the while!"—_Mrs Mackenzie, Life in the Mission_, &c., ii.
  205.]


C

CABAYA, s. This word, though of Asiatic origin, was perhaps introduced into
India by the Portuguese, whose writers of the 16th century apply it to the
surcoat or long tunic of muslin, which is one of the most common native
garments of the better classes in India. The word seems to be one of those
which the Portuguese had received in older times from the Arabic (_ḳabā_,
'a vesture'). From Dozy's remarks this would seem in Barbary to take the
form _ḳabāya_. Whether from Arabic or from Portuguese, the word has been
introduced into the Malay countries, and is in common use in Java for the
light cotton surcoat worn by Europeans, both ladies and gentlemen, in
dishabille. The word is not now used in India Proper, unless by the
Portuguese. But it has become familiar in Dutch, from its use in Java. [Mr.
Gray, in his notes to _Pyrard_ (i. 372), thinks that the word was
introduced before the time of the Portuguese, and remarks that KABAYA in
Ceylon means a coat or jacket worn by a European or native.]

  c. 1540.—"There was in her an Embassador who had brought _Hidalcan_
  [IDALCAN] a very rich CABAYA ... which he would not accept of, for that
  thereby he would not acknowledge himself subject to the Turk."—_Cogan's
  Pinto_, pp. 10-11.

  1552.—"... he ordered him then to bestow a CABAYA."—_Castanheda_, iv.
  438. See also Stanley's _Correa_, 132.

  1554.—"And moreover there are given to these Kings (Malabar Rajas) when
  they come to receive these allowances, to each of them a CABAYA of silk,
  or of scarlet, of 4 cubits, and a cap or two, and two sheath-knives."—_S.
  Botelho, Tombo_, 26.

  1572.—

   "Luzem da fina purpura as CABAYAS,
    Lustram os pannos da tecida seda."
               _Camões_, ii. 93.

   "CABAYA de damasco rico e dino
    Da Tyria cor, entre elles estimada."
               _Ibid._ 95.

  In these two passages Burton translates _caftan_.

  1585.—"The King is apparelled with a CABIE made like a shirt tied with
  strings on one side."—_R. Fitch_, in _Hakl._, ii. 386.

  1598.—"They wear sometimes when they go abroad a thinne cotton linnen
  gowne called CABAIA...."—_Linschoten_, 70; [Hak. Soc. i. 247].

  c. 1610.—"Cette jaquette ou soutane, qu'ils appellent _Libasse_ (P.
  _libās_, 'clothing') ou CABAYE, est de toile de Cotton fort fine et
  blanche, qui leur va jusqu'aux talons."—_Pyrard de Laval_, i. 265; [Hak.
  Soc. i. 372].

  [1614.—"The white CABAS which you have with you at Bantam would sell
  here."—_Foster, Letters_, ii. 44.]

  1645.—"Vne CABAYE qui est vne sorte de vestement comme vne large soutane
  couverte par le devant, à manches fort larges."—_Cardim, Rel. de la Prov.
  du Japon_, 56.

  1689.—"It is a distinction between the _Moors_ and _Bannians_, the
  _Moors_ tie their CABA'S always on the Right side, and the _Bannians_ on
  the left...."—_Ovington_, 314. This distinction is still true.

  1860.—"I afterwards understood that the dress they were wearing was a
  sort of native garment, which there in the country they call _sarong_ or
  KABAAI, but I found it very unbecoming."—_Max Havelaar_, 43. [There is
  some mistake here, SARONG and _Kabaya_ are quite different.]

  1878.—"Over all this is worn (by Malay women) a long loose dressing-gown
  style of garment called the KABAYA. This robe falls to the middle of the
  leg, and is fastened down the front with circular brooches."—_McNair,
  Perak_, &c., 151.


CABOB, s. Ar.-H. _kabāb_. This word is used in Anglo-Indian households
generically for roast meat. [It usually follows the name of the dish, _e.g.
murghī kabāb_, 'roast fowl'.] But specifically it is applied to the dish
described in the quotations from Fryer and Ovington.

  c. 1580.—"Altero modo ... ipsam (carnem) in parva frustra dissectam, et
  veruculis ferreis acuum modo infixam, super crates ferreas igne supposito
  positam torrefaciunt, quam succo limonum aspersam avidè
  esitant."—_Prosper Alpinus_, Pt. i. 229.

  1673.—"CABOB is Rostmeat on Skewers, cut in little round pieces no bigger
  than a Sixpence, and Ginger and Garlick put between each."—_Fryer_, 404.

  1689.—"CABOB, that is Beef or Mutton cut in small pieces, sprinkled with
  salt and pepper, and dipt with Oil and Garlick, which have been mixt
  together in a dish, and then roasted on a Spit, with sweet Herbs put
  between and stuff in them, and basted with Oil and Garlick all the
  while."—_Ovington_, 397.

  1814.—"I often partook with my Arabs of a dish common in Arabia called
  KABOB or KAB-AB, which is meat cut into small pieces and placed on thin
  skewers, alternately between slices of onion and green ginger, seasoned
  with pepper, salt, and Kian, fried in ghee, to be ate with rice and
  dholl."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ ii. 480; [2nd ed. ii. 82; in i. 315 he writes
  KEBABS].

  [1876.—"... _kavap_ (a name which is naturalised with us as CABOBS),
  small bits of meat roasted on a spit...."—_Schuyler, Turkistan_, i. 125.]


CABOOK, s. This is the Ceylon term for the substance called in India
LATERITE (q.v.), and in Madras by the native name MOORUM (q.v.). The word
is perhaps the Port. _cabouco_ or _cavouco_, 'a quarry.' It is not in
Singh. Dictionaries. [Mr. Ferguson says that it is a corruption of the
Port. _pedras de cavouco_, 'quarry-stones,' the last word being by a
misapprehension applied to the stones themselves. The earliest instance of
the use of the word he has met with occurs in the _Travels_ of Dr. Aegidius
Daalmans (1687-89), who describes KAPHOK stone as 'like small pebbles lying
in a hard clay, so that if a large square stone is allowed to lie for some
time in the water, the clay dissolves and the pebbles fall in a heap
together; but if this stone is laid in good mortar, so that the water
cannot get at it, it does good service' (_J. As. Soc. Ceylon_, x. 162). The
word is not in the ordinary Singhalese Dicts., but A. Mendis Gunasekara in
his Singhalese Grammar (1891), among words derived from the Port., gives
_kabuk-gal_ (_cabouco_), _cabook_ (stone), 'laterite.']

  1834.—"The soil varies in different situations on the Island. In the
  country round Colombo it consists of a strong red clay, or marl, called
  CABOOK, mixed with sandy ferruginous particles."—_Ceylon Gazetteer_, 33.

     "    "The houses are built with CABOOK, and neatly whitewashed with
  chunam."—_Ibid._ 75.

  1860.—"A peculiarity which is one of the first to strike a stranger who
  lands at Galle or Colombo is the bright red colour of the streets and
  roads ... and the ubiquity of the fine red dust which penetrates every
  crevice and imparts its own tint to every neglected article. Natives
  resident in these localities are easily recognisable elsewhere by the
  general hue of their dress. This is occasioned by the prevalence ... of
  _laterite_, or, as the Singhalese call it, CABOOK."—_Tennent's Ceylon_,
  i. 17.


CABUL, CAUBOOL, &c., n.p. This name (_Kābul_) of the chief city of N.
Afghanistan, now so familiar, is perhaps traceable in Ptolemy, who gives in
that same region a people called Καβολῖται, and a city called Κάβουρα.
Perhaps, however, one or both may be corroborated by the νάρδος Καβαλίτη of
the Periplus. The accent of Kābul is most distinctly on the first and long
syllable, but English mouths are very perverse in error here. Moore accents
the last syllable:

             "... pomegranates full
  Of melting sweetness, and the pears
  And sunniest apples that CAUBUL
  In all its thousand gardens bears."
             _Light of the Harem._

Mr. Arnold does likewise in _Sohrab and Rustam_:

 "But as a troop of pedlars from CABOOL,
  Cross underneath the Indian Caucasus...."

It was told characteristically of the late Lord Ellenborough that, after
his arrival in India, though for months he heard the name correctly spoken
by his councillors and his staff, he persisted in calling it _Căbōol_ till
he met Dost Mahommed Khan. After the interview the Governor-General
announced as a new discovery, from the Amir's pronunciation, that _Cābŭl_
was the correct form.

  1552.—Barros calls it "a Cidade CABOL, Metropoli dos Mogoles."—IV. vi. 1.

  [c. 1590.—"The territory of KÁBUL comprises twenty Tumáns."—_Āīn_, tr.
  _Jarrett_, ii. 410.]

  1856.—

   "Ah CABUL! word of woe and bitter shame;
    Where proud old England's flag, dishonoured, sank
    Beneath the Crescent; and the butcher knives
    Beat down like reeds the bayonets that had flashed
    From Plassey on to snow-capt Caucasus,
    In triumph through a hundred years of war."
               _The Banyan Tree_, a Poem.



CACOULI, s. This occurs in the App. to the _Journal d'Antoine Galland_, at
Constantinople in 1673: "Dragmes de CACOULI, drogue qu'on use dans le
Cahue," _i.e._ in coffee (ii. 206). This is Pers. Arab. _ḳāḳula_ for
Cardamom, as in the quotation from Garcia. We may remark that _Ḳāḳula_ was
a place somewhere on the Gulf of Siam, famous for its fine aloes-wood (see
_Ibn Batuta_, iv. 240-44). And a bastard kind of Cardamom appears to be
exported from Siam, _Amomum xanthoides_, Wal.

  1563.—"O. Avicena gives a chapter on the CACULLÁ, dividing it into the
  _bigger_ and the _less_ ... calling one of them _cacollá quebir_, and the
  other _cacollá ceguer_ [Ar. _kabīr_, _ṣaghīr_], which is as much as to
  say _greater cardamom_ and _smaller cardamom_."—_Garcia De O._, f. 47_v_.

  1759.—"These Vakeels ... stated that the Rani (of Bednore) would pay a
  yearly sum of 100,000 _Hoons_ or Pagodas, besides a tribute of other
  valuable articles, such as _Foful_ (betel), Dates, Sandal-wood, KAKUL ...
  black pepper, &c."—_Hist. of Hydur Naik_, 133.


CADDY, s. _i.e._ tea-caddy. This is possibly, as Crawfurd suggests, from
CATTY (q.v.), and may have been originally applied to a small box
containing a _catty_ or two of tea. The suggestion is confirmed by this
advertisement:

  1792.—"By R. Henderson.... A Quantity of Tea in Quarter Chests and
  CADDIES, imported last season...."—_Madras Courier_, Dec. 2.


CADET, s. (From Prov. _capdet_, and Low Lat. _capitettum_, [dim. of
_caput_, 'head'] Skeat). This word is of course by no means exclusively
Anglo-Indian, but it was in exceptionally common and familiar use in India,
as all young officers appointed to the Indian army went out to that country
as _cadets_, and were only promoted to ensigncies and posted to regiments
after their arrival—in olden days sometimes a considerable time after their
arrival. In those days there was a building in Fort William known as the
'Cadet Barrack'; and for some time early in last century the cadets after
their arrival were sent to a sort of college at Baraset; a system which led
to no good, and was speedily abolished.

  1763.—"We should very gladly comply with your request for sending you
  young persons to be brought up as assistants in the Engineering branch,
  but as we find it extremely difficult to procure such, you will do well
  to employ any who have a talent that way among the CADETS or
  others."—_Court's Letter_, in _Long_, 290.

  1769.—"Upon our leaving England, the CADETS and WRITERS used the great
  cabin promiscuously; but finding they were troublesome and quarrelsome,
  we brought a Bill into the house for their ejectment."—_Life of Lord
  Teignmouth_, i. 15.

  1781.—"The CADETS of the end of the years 1771 and beginning of 1772
  served in the country four years as CADETS and carried the musket all the
  time."—Letter in _Hicky's Bengal Gazette_, Sept. 29.


CADJAN, s. Jav. and Malay _ḳājāng_, [or according to Mr. Skeat, _kajang_],
meaning 'palm-leaves,' especially those of the NIPA (q.v.) palm, dressed
for thatching or matting. Favre's Dict. renders the word _feuilles
entrelacées_. It has been introduced by foreigners into S. and W. India,
where it is used in two senses:

A. Coco-palm leaves matted, the common substitute for thatch in S. India.

  1673.—"... flags especially in their Villages (by them called CAJANS,
  being Cocoe-tree branches) upheld with some few sticks, supplying both
  Sides and Coverings to their Cottages."—_Fryer_, 17. In his Explanatory
  Index Fryer gives 'CAJAN, a bough of a Toddy-tree.'

  c. 1680.—"Ex iis (foliis) quoque rudiores mattae, CADJANG vocatae,
  conficiuntur, quibus aedium muri et navium orae, quum frumentum aliquod
  in iis deponere velimus, obteguntur."—_Rumphius_, i. 71.

  1727.—"We travelled 8 or 10 miles before we came to his (the Cananore
  Raja's) Palace, which was built with Twigs, and covered with CADJANS or
  Cocoa-nut Tree Leaves woven together."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 296.

  1809.—"The lower classes (at Bombay) content themselves with small huts,
  mostly of clay, and roofed with CADJAN."—_Maria Graham_, 4.

  1860.—"Houses are timbered with its wood, and roofed with its plaited
  fronds, which under the name of CADJANS, are likewise employed for
  constructing partitions and fences."—_Tennent's Ceylon_, ii. 126.

B. A strip of fan-palm leaf, i.e. either of the TALIPOT (q.v.) or of the
PALMYRA, prepared for writing on; and so a document written on such a
strip. (See OLLAH.)

  1707.—"The officer at the Bridge Gate bringing in this morning to the
  Governor a CAJAN letter that he found hung upon a post near the Gate,
  which when translated seemed to be from a body of the Right Hand
  Caste."—In _Wheeler_, ii. 78.

  1716.—"The President acquaints the Board that he has intercepted a
  villainous letter or CAJAN."—_Ibid._ ii. 231.

  1839.—"At Rajahmundry ... the people used to sit in our reading room for
  hours, copying our books on their own little CADJAN leaves."—_Letters
  from Madras_, 275.


CADJOWA, s. [P. _kajāwah_]. A kind of frame or pannier, of which a pair are
slung across a camel, sometimes made like litters to carry women or sick
persons, sometimes to contain sundries of camp equipage.

  1645.—"He entered the town with 8 or 10 camels, the two CAJAVAS or
  Litters on each side of the Camel being close shut.... But instead of
  Women, he had put into every CAJAVA two Souldiers."—_Tavernier_, E. T.
  ii. 61; [ed. _Ball_, i. 144].

  1790.—"The camel appropriated to the accommodation of passengers, carries
  two persons, who are lodged in a kind of pannier, laid loosely on the
  back of the animal. This pannier, termed in the Persic KIDJAHWAH, is a
  wooden frame, with the sides and bottom of netted cords, of about 3 feet
  long and 2 broad, and 2 in depth ... the journey being usually made in
  the night-time, it becomes the only place of his rest.... Had I been even
  much accustomed to this manner of travelling, it must have been irksome;
  but a total want of practice made it excessively grievous."—_Forster's
  Journey_, ed. 1808, ii. 104-5.


CAEL, n.p. Properly _Kāyal_ [Tam. _kāyu_, 'to be hot'], 'a lagoon' or
'backwater.' Once a famous port near the extreme south of India at the
mouth of the Tamraparni R., in the Gulf of Manaar, and on the coast of
Tinnevelly, now long abandoned. Two or three miles higher up the river lies
the site of _Korkai_ or _Kolkai_, the Κόλχοι ἐμπόριον of the Greeks, each
port in succession having been destroyed by the retirement of the sea.
Tutikorin, six miles N., may be considered the modern and humbler
representative of those ancient marts; [see _Stuart, Man. of Tinnevelly_,
38 _seqq._].

  1298.—"CAIL is a great and noble city.... It is at this city that all the
  ships touch that come from the west."—_Marco Polo_, Bk. iii. ch. 21.

  1442.—"The Coast, which includes Calicut with some neighbouring ports,
  and which extends as far as Kabel (read ḲĀYEL) a place situated opposite
  the Island of Serendib...."—_Abdurrazzāk_, in _India in the XVth Cent._,
  19.

  1444.—"Ultra eas urbs est CAHILA, qui locus margaritas ...
  producit."—_Conti_, in _Poggius, De Var. Fortunae_.

  1498.—"Another Kingdom, CAELL, which has a Moorish King, whilst the
  people are Christian. It is ten days from Calecut by sea ... here there
  be many pearls."—_Roteiro de V. da Gama_, 108.

  1514.—"Passando oltre al Cavo Comedi (C. Comorin), sono gentili; e intra
  esso e GAEL è dove si pesca le perle."—_Giov. da Empoli_, 79.

  1516.—"Further along the coast is a city called CAEL, which also belongs
  to the King of Coulam, peopled by Moors and Gentoos, great traders. It
  has a good harbour, whither come many ships of Malabar; others of
  Charamandel and Benguala."—_Barbosa_, in _Lisbon Coll._, 357-8.


CAFFER, CAFFRE, COFFREE, &c., n.p. The word is properly the Ar. _Kāfir_,
pl. _Kofra_, 'an infidel, an unbeliever in Islām.' As the Arabs applied
this to Pagan negroes, among others, the Portuguese at an early date took
it up in this sense, and our countrymen from them. A further appropriation
in one direction has since made the name specifically that of the black
tribes of South Africa, whom we now call, or till recently did call,
CAFFRES. It was also applied in the Philippine Islands to the Papuas of N.
Guinea, and the Alfuras of the Moluccas, brought into the slave-market.

In another direction the word has become a quasi-proper name of the (more
or less) fair, and non-Mahommedan, tribes of Hindu-Kush, sometimes called
more specifically the _Siāhposh_ or 'black-robed' CAFIRS.

The term is often applied malevolently by Mahommedans to Christians, and
this is probably the origin of the mistake pervading some of the early
Portuguese narratives, especially the _Roteiro of Vasco da Gama_, which
described many of the Hindu and Indo-Chinese States as being Christian.[53]

  [c. 1300.—"KĀFIR." See under LACK.]

  c. 1404.—Of a people near China: "They were Christians after the manner
  of those of Cathay."—_Clavijo_ by _Markham_, 141.

     "    And of India: "The people of India are Christians, the Lord and
  most part of the people, after the manner of the Greeks; and among them
  also are other Christians who mark themselves with fire in the face, and
  their creed is different from that of the others; for those who thus mark
  themselves with fire are less esteemed than the others. And among them
  are Moors and Jews, but they are subject to the Christians."—_Clavijo_,
  (orig.) § cxxi.; comp. _Markham_, 153-4. Here we have (1) the confusion
  of CAFFER and Christian; and (2) the confusion of Abyssinia (_India
  Tertia_ or _Middle India_ of some medieval writers) with India Proper.

  c. 1470.—"The sea is infested with pirates, all of whom are KOFARS,
  neither Christians nor Mussulmans; they pray to stone idols, and know not
  Christ."—_Athan. Nitikin_, in _India in the XVth Cent._, p. 11.

  1552.—"... he learned that the whole people of the Island of S. Lourenço
  ... were black CAFRES with curly hair like those of
  Mozambique."—_Barros_, II. i. 1.

  1563.—"In the year 1484 there came to Portugal the King of Benin, a
  CAFFRE by nation, and he became a Christian."—_Stanley's Correa_, p. 8.

  1572.—

   "Verão os CAFRES asperos e avaros
    Tirar a linda dama seus vestidos."
               _Camões_, v. 47.

  By Burton:

   "shall see the CAFFRES, greedy race and fere
   "strip the fair Ladye of her raiment torn."

  1582.—"These men are called CAFRES and are Gentiles."—_Castañeda_ (by
  N.L.), f. 42_b_.

  c. 1610.—"Il estoit fils d'vn CAFRE d'Ethiopie, et d'vne femme de ces
  isles, ce qu'on appelle Mulastre."—_Pyrard de Laval_, i. 220; [Hak. Soc.
  i. 307].

  [c. 1610.—"... a Christian whom they call CAPAROU."—_Ibid._, Hak. Soc. i.
  261.]

  1614.—"That knave Simon the CAFFRO, not what the writer took him for—he
  is a knave, and better lost than found."—_Sainsbury_, i. 356.

  [1615.—"Odola and Gala are CAPHARRS which signifieth misbelievers."—_Sir
  T. Roe_, Hak. Soc. i. 23.]

  1653.—"... toy mesme qui passe pour vn KIAFFER, ou homme sans Dieu, parmi
  les Mausulmans."—_De la Boullaye-le-Gouz_, 310 (ed. 1657).

  c. 1665.—"It will appear in the sequel of this History, that the pretence
  used by _Aureng-Zebe_, his third Brother, to cut off his (_Dara's_) head,
  was that he was turned KAFER, that is to say, an Infidel, of no Religion,
  an Idolater."—_Bernier_, E. T. p. 3; [ed. _Constable_, p. 7].

  1673.—"They show their Greatness by their number of Sumbreeroes and
  COFFERIES, whereby it is dangerous to walk late."—_Fryer_, 74.

     "    "Beggars of the Musslemen Cast, that if they see a Christian in
  good Clothes ... are presently upon their Punctilios with God Almighty,
  and interrogate him, Why he suffers him to go afoot and in Rags, and this
  COFFERY (Unbeliever) to vaunt it thus?"—_Ibid._ 91.

  1678.—"The Justices of the Choultry to turn Padry Pasquall, a Popish
  Priest, out of town, not to return again, and if it proves to be true
  that he attempted to seduce Mr. Mohun's COFFRE Franck from the Protestant
  religion."—_Ft. St. Geo. Cons._ in _Notes and Exts._, Pt. i. p. 72.

  1759.—"Blacks, whites, COFFRIES, and even the natives of the country
  (Pegu) have not been exempted, but all universally have been subject to
  intermittent Fevers and Fluxes" (at Negrais).—In _Dalrymple, Or. Rep._ i.
  124.

     "    Among expenses of the Council at Calcutta in entertaining the
  Nabob we find "Purchasing a COFFRE boy, Rs. 500."—In _Long_, 194.

  1781.—"_To be sold by Private Sale_—Two COFFREE Boys, who can play
  remarkably well on the French Horn, about 18 Years of Age: belonging to a
  Portuguese Paddrie lately deceased. For particulars apply to the Vicar of
  the Portuguese Church, Calcutta, March 17th, 1781."—_The India Gazette or
  Public Advertiser_, No. 19.

  1781.—"Run away from his Master, a good-looking COFFREE Boy, about 20
  years old, and about _6 feet 7 inches in height.... When he went off he
  had a high toupie_."—_Ibid._ Dec. 29.

  1782.—"On Tuesday next will be sold three COFFREE Boys, two of whom play
  the French Horn ... a three-wheel'd Buggy, and a variety of other
  articles."—_India Gazette_, June 15.

  1799.—"He (Tippoo) had given himself out as a Champion of the Faith, who
  was to drive the English CAFFERS out of India."—Letter in _Life of Sir T.
  Munro_, i. 221.

  1800.—"The CAFFRE slaves, who had been introduced for the purpose of
  cultivating the lands, rose upon their masters, and seizing on the boats
  belonging to the island, effected their escape."—_Symes, Embassy to Ava_,
  p. 10.

  c. 1866.—

   "And if I were forty years younger, and my life before me to choose,
    I wouldn't be lectured by KAFIRS, or swindled by fat Hindoos."
               _Sir A. C. Lyall, The Old Pindaree._



CAFILA, s. Arab. _ḳāfila_; a body or convoy of travellers, a CARAVAN
(q.v.). Also used in some of the following quotations for a sea convoy.

  1552.—"Those roads of which we speak are the general routes of the
  CAFILAS, which are sometimes of 3,000 or 4,000 men ... for the country is
  very perilous because of both hill-people and plain-people, who haunt the
  roads to rob travellers."—_Barros_, IV. vi. 1.

  1596.—"The ships of _Chatins_ (see CHETTY) of these parts are not to sail
  along the coast of Malavar or to the north except in a CAFILLA, that they
  may come and go more securely, and not be cut off by the Malavars and
  other corsairs."—_Proclamation of Goa Viceroy_, in _Archiv. Port. Or._,
  fasc. iii. 661.

  [1598.—"Two CAFFYLEN, that is companies of people and
  Camelles."—_Linschoten_, Hak. Soc. ii. 159.]

  [1616.—"A CAFILOWE consisting of 200 broadcloths," &c.—_Foster, Letters_,
  iv. 276.]

  [1617.—"By the failing of the Goa CAFFILA."—_Sir T. Roe_, Hak. Soc. ii.
  402.]

  1623.—"Non navigammo di notte, perchè la CAFILA era molto grande, al mio
  parere di più di ducento vascelli."—_P. della Valle_, ii. 587; [and comp.
  Hak. Soc. i. 18].

  1630.—"... some of the Raiahs ... making Outroades prey on the CAFFALOES
  passing by the Way...."—_Lord, Banian's Religion_, 81.

  1672.—"Several times yearly numerous CAFILAS of merchant barques,
  collected in the Portuguese towns, traverse this channel (the Gulf of
  Cambay), and these always await the greater security of the full moon. It
  is also observed that the vessels which go through with this voyage
  should not be joined and fastened with iron, for so great is the
  abundance of loadstone in the bottom, that indubitably such vessels go to
  pieces and break up."—_P. Vincenzo_, 109. A curious survival of the old
  legend of the Loadstone Rocks.

  1673.—"... Time enough before the CAPHALAS out of the Country come with
  their Wares."—_Fryer_, 86.

  1727.—"_In Anno_ 1699, a pretty rich CAFFILA was robbed by a Band of 4 or
  5000 villains ... which struck Terror on all that had commerce at
  _Tatta_."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 116.

  1867.—"It was a curious sight to see, as was seen in those days, a
  carriage enter one of the northern gates of Palermo preceded and followed
  by a large convoy of armed and mounted travellers, a kind of KAFILA, that
  would have been more in place in the opening chapters of one of James's
  romances than in the latter half of the 19th century."—_Quarterly
  Review_, Jan., 101-2.


CAFIRISTAN, n.p. P. _Kāfiristān_, the country of _Kāfirs_, _i.e._ of the
pagan tribes of the Hindu Kush noticed in the article CAFFER.

  c. 1514.—"In Cheghânserâi there are neither grapes nor vineyards; but
  they bring the wines down the river from KAFERISTÂN.... So prevalent is
  the use of wine among them that every KAFER has a _khig_, or leathern
  bottle of wine about his neck; they drink wine instead of
  water."—_Autobiog. of Baber_, p. 144.

  [c. 1590.—The KÁFIRS in the Túmáns of Alishang and Najrao are mentioned
  in the _Āīn_, tr. _Jarrett_, ii. 406.]

  1603.—"... they fell in with a certain pilgrim and devotee, from whom
  they learned that at a distance of 30 days' journey there was a city
  called CAPPERSTAM, into which no Mahomedan was allowed to
  enter...."—_Journey of Bened. Goës_, in _Cathay_, &c. ii. 554.


CAIMAL, s. A Nair chief; a word often occurring in the old Portuguese
historians. It is Malayāl. _kaimal_.

  1504.—"So they consulted with the Zamorin, and the Moors offered their
  agency to send and poison the wells at Cochin, so as to kill all the
  Portuguese, and also to send Nairs in disguise to kill any of our people
  that they found in the palm-woods, and away from the town.... And
  meanwhile the Mangate CAIMAL, and the CAIMAL of Primbalam, and the CAIMAL
  of Diamper, seeing that the Zamorin's affairs were going from bad to
  worse, and that the castles which the Italians were making were all wind
  and nonsense, that it was already August when ships might be arriving
  from Portugal ... departed to their own estates with a multitude of their
  followers, and sent to the King of Cochin their OLLAS of
  allegiance."—_Correa_, i. 482.

  1566.—"... certain lords bearing title, whom they call CAIMALS"
  (_caimães_).—_Damian de Goës, Chron. del Rei Dom Emmanuel_, p. 49.

  1606.—"The Malabars give the name of CAIMALS (_Caimães_) to certain great
  lords of vassals, who are with their governments haughty as kings; but
  most of them have confederation and alliance with some of the great
  kings, whom they stand bound to aid and defend...."—_Gouvea_, f. 27_v_.

  1634.—

   "Ficarão seus CAIMAIS prezos e mortos."
               _Malaca Conquistada_, v. 10.



CAIQUE, s. The small skiff used at Constantinople, Turkish _ḳāīḳ_. Is it by
accident, or by a radical connection through Turkish tribes on the Arctic
shores of Siberia, that the Greenlander's _kayak_ is so closely identical?
[The _Stanf. Dict._ says that the latter word is Esquimaux, and recognises
no connection with the former.]


CAJAN, s. This is a name given by Sprengel (_Cajanus indicus_), and by
Linnæus (_Cytisus cajan_), to the leguminous shrub which gives DHALL
(q.v.). A kindred plant has been called _Dolichos catjang_, Willdenow. We
do not know the origin of this name. The _Cajan_ was introduced to America
by the slave-traders from Africa. De Candolle finds it impossible to say
whether its native region is India or Africa. (See DHALL, CALAVANCE.)
[According to Mr. Skeat the word is Malay. _poko'kachang_, 'the plant which
gives beans,' quite a different word from _kajang_ which gives us CADJAN.]


CAJEPUT, s. The name of a fragrant essential oil produced especially in
Celebes and the neighbouring island of Bouro. A large quantity is exported
from Singapore and Batavia. It is used most frequently as an external
application, but also internally, especially (of late) in cases of cholera.
The name is taken from the Malay _kayu-putih_, _i.e._ '_Lignum album_.'
Filet (see p. 140) gives six different trees as producing the oil, which is
derived from the distillation of the leaves. The chief of these trees is
_Melaleuca leucadendron_, L., a tree diffused from the Malay Peninsula to
N.S. Wales. The drug and tree were first described by Rumphius, who died
1693. (See _Hanbury and Flückiger_, 247 [and _Wallace, Malay Arch._, ed.
1890, p. 294].)


CAKSEN, s. This is Sea H. for _Coxswain_ (_Roebuck_).


CALALUZ, s. A kind of swift rowing vessel often mentioned by the Portuguese
writers as used in the Indian Archipelago. We do not know the etymology,
nor the exact character of the craft. [According to Mr. Skeat, the word is
Jav. _kelulus_, _kalulus_, spelt _keloeles_ by Klinkert, and explained by
him as a kind of vessel. The word seems to be derived from _loeloes_, 'to
go right through anything,' and thus the literal translation would be 'the
threader,' the reference being, as in the case of most Malay boat names, to
the special figure-head from which the boat was supposed to derive its
whole character.]

  [1513.—CALAUZ, according to Mr. Whiteway, is the form of the word in
  _Andrade's Letter to Albuquerque of Feb. 22nd_.—_India Office MS._]

  1525.—"4 great _lancharas_, and 6 CALALUZES and _manchuas_ which row very
  fast."—_Lembrança_, 8.

  1539.—"The King (of Achin) set forward with the greatest possible
  despatch, a great armament of 200 rowing vessels, of which the greater
  part were _lancharas_, _joangas_, and CALALUZES, besides 15 high-sided
  junks."—_F. M. Pinto_, cap. xxxii.

  1552.—"The King of Siam ... ordered to be built a fleet of some 200 sail,
  almost all _lancharas_ and CALALUZES, which are
  rowing-vessels."—_Barros_, II. vi. 1.

  1613.—"And having embarked with some companions in a CALELUZ or rowing
  vessel...."—_Godinho de Eredia_, f. 51.


CALAMANDER WOOD, s. A beautiful kind of rose-wood got from a Ceylon tree
(_Diospyros quaesita_). Tennent regards the name as a Dutch corruption of
_Coromandel_ wood (i. 118), and Drury, we see, calls one of the ebony-trees
(_D. melanoxylon_) "Coromandel-ebony." Forbes Watson gives as Singhalese
names of the wood _Calumidiriya_, _Kalumederiye_, &c., and the term
_Kalumadīriya_ is given with this meaning in Clough's Singh. Dict.; still
in absence of further information, it may remain doubtful if this be not a
borrowed word. It may be worth while to observe that, according to
Tavernier, [ed. _Ball_, ii. 4] the "painted calicoes" or "chites" of
Masulipatam were called "_Calmendar_, that is to say, done with a pencil"
(_Ḳalam-dār_?), and possibly this appellation may have been given by
traders to a delicately veined wood. [The _N.E.D._ suggests that the Singh.
terms quoted above may be adaptations from the Dutch.]

  1777.—"In the Cingalese language CALAMINDER is said to signify a black
  flaming tree. The heart, or woody part of it, is extremely handsome, with
  whitish or pale yellow and black or brown veins, streaks and
  waves."—_Thunberg_, iv. 205-6.

  1813.—"CALAMINDER wood" appears among Ceylon products in _Milburn_, i.
  345.

  1825.—"A great deal of the furniture in Ceylon is made of ebony, as well
  as of the CALAMANDER tree ... which is become scarce from the improvident
  use formerly made of it."—_Heber_ (1844), ii. 161.

  1834.—"The forests in the neighbourhood afford timber of every kind
  (CALAMANDER excepted)."—_Chitty, Ceylon Gazetteer_, 198.


CALAMBAC, s. The finest kind of aloes-wood. Crawfurd gives the word as
Javanese, _kalambak_, but it perhaps came with the article from CHAMPA
(q.v.).

  1510.—"There are three sorts of aloes-wood. The first and most perfect
  sort is called CALAMPAT."—_Varthema_, 235.

  1516.—"... It must be said that the very fine CALEMBUCO and the other
  eagle-wood is worth at Calicut 1000 maravedis the pound."—_Barbosa_, 204.

  1539.—"This Embassador, that was Brother-in-law to the King of the Batas
  ... brought him a rich Present of Wood of Aloes, CALAMBAA, and 5 quintals
  of Benjamon in flowers."—_F. M. Pinto_, in Cogan's tr. p. 15 (orig. cap.
  xiii.).

  1551.—(Campar, in Sumatra) "has nothing but forests which yield
  aloeswood, called in India CALAMBUCO."—_Castanheda_, bk. iii. cap. 63, p.
  218, quoted by _Crawfurd_, Des. Dic. 7.

  1552.—"Past this kingdom of Camboja begins the other Kingdom called Campa
  (CHAMPA), in the mountains of which grows the genuine aloes-wood, which
  the Moors of those parts call CALAMBUC."—_Barros_, I. ix. 1.

  [c. 1590.—"KALANBAK (calembic) is the wood of a tree brought from ZÍRBÁD;
  it is heavy and full of veins. Some believe it to be the raw wood of
  aloes."—_Āīn_, ed. _Blochmann_, i. 81.

  [c. 1610.—"From this river (the Ganges) comes that excellent wood
  CALAMBA, which is believed to come from the Earthly Paradise."—_Pyrard de
  Laval_, Hak. Soc. i. 335.]

  1613.—"And the CALAMBA is the most fragrant _medulla_ of the said
  tree."—_Godinho de Eredia_, f. 15_v_.

  [1615.—"Lumra (a black gum), gumlack, COLLOMBACK."—_Foster, Letters_, iv.
  87.]

  1618.—"We opened the ij chistes which came from Syam with CALLAMBACK and
  silk, and waid it out."—_Cocks's Diary_, ii. 51.

  1774.—"Les Mahometans font de ce KALAMBAC des chapelets qu'ils portent à
  la main par amusement. Ce bois quand il est échauffé ou un peu frotté,
  rend un odeur agréable."—_Niebuhr, Desc. de l'Arabie_, 127.

See EAGLE-WOOD and ALOES.


CALASH, s. French _calèche_, said by Littré to be a Slav word, [and so
_N.E.D._]. In Bayly's Dict. it is _calash_ and _caloche_. [The _N.E.D._
does not recognise the latter form; the former is as early as 1679]. This
seems to have been the earliest precursor of the BUGGY in Eastern
settlements. Bayly defines it as 'a small open chariot.' The quotation
below refers to Batavia, and the President in question was the Prest. of
the English Factory at Chusan, who, with his council, had been expelled
from China, and was halting at Batavia on his way to India.

  1702.—"The Shabander riding home in his CALASH this Morning, and seeing
  the President sitting without the door at his Lodgings, alighted and came
  and Sat with the President near an hour ... what moved the Shabander to
  speak so plainly to the President thereof he knew not, But observed that
  the Shahbander was in his Glasses at his first alighting from his
  CALASH."—_Procgs._ "Munday, 30th March," _MS. Report in India Office_.


CALAVANCE, s. A kind of bean; acc. to the quotation from Osbeck, _Dolichos
sinensis_. The word was once common in English use, but seems forgotten,
unless still used at sea. Sir Joseph Hooker writes: "When I was in the
Navy, haricot beans were in constant use as a substitute for potatoes and
in Brazil and elsewhere, were called CALAVANCES. I do not remember whether
they were the seed of _Phaseolus lunatus_ or _vulgaris_, or of _Dolichos
sinensis_, alias _Catjang_" (see CAJAN). The word comes from the Span.
_garbanzos_, which De Candolle mentions as Castilian for '_pois chiche_,'
or _Cicer arietinum_, and as used also in Basque under the form
_garbantzua_, [or _garbatzu_, from _garau_, 'seed,' _antzu_, 'dry,'
_N.E.D._]

  1620.—"... from hence they make their provition in aboundance, viz. beefe
  and porke ... GARVANCES, or small peaze or beanes...."—_Cocks's Diary_,
  ii. 311.

  c. 1630.—"... in their Canoos brought us ... green pepper, CARAVANCE,
  Buffols, Hens, Eggs, and other things."—_Sir T. Herbert_, ed. 1665, p.
  350.

  1719.—"I was forc'd to give them an extraordinary meal every day, either
  of _Farina_ or CALAVANCES, which at once made a considerable consumption
  of our water and firing."—_Shelvocke's Voyage_, 62.

  1738.—"But GARVANÇOS are prepared in a different manner, neither do they
  grow soft like other pulse, by boiling...."—_Shaw's Travels_, ed. 1757,
  p. 140.

  1752.—"... CALLVANSES (_Dolichos sinensis_)."—_Osbeck_, i. 304.

  1774.—"When I asked any of the men of Dory why they had no gardens of
  plantains and KALAVANSAS ... I learnt ... that the Haraforas supply
  them."—_Forrest, V. to N. Guinea_, 109.

  1814.—"His Majesty is authorised to permit for a limited time by Order in
  Council, the Importation from any Port or Place whatever of ... any Beans
  called Kidney, French Beans, Tares, Lentiles, CALLIVANCES, and all other
  sorts of Pulse."—Act 54 Geo. III. cap. xxxvi.


CALAY, s. Tin; also v., to tin copper vessels—H. _ḳala'ī karnā_. The word
is Ar. _ḳala'i_, 'tin,' which according to certain Arabic writers was so
called from a mine in India called _ḳala'_. In spite of the different
initial and terminal letters, it seems at least possible that the place
meant was the same that the old Arab geographers called _Kalah_, near which
they place mines of tin (_al-ḳala'i_), and which was certainly somewhere
about the coast of Malacca, possibly, as has been suggested, at _Kadah_[54]
or as we write it, QUEDDA. [See _Āīn_, tr. _Jarrett_, iii. 48.]

The tin produce of that region is well known. _Kalang_ is indeed also a
name of tin in Malay, which may have been the true origin of the word
before us. It may be added that the small State of Salangor between Malacca
and Perak was formerly known as _Nagri_-KALANG, or the 'Tin Country,' and
that the place on the coast where the British Resident lives is called
KLANG (see _Miss Bird, Golden Chersonese_, 210, 215). The Portuguese have
the forms _calaim_ and _calin_, with the nasal termination so frequent in
their Eastern borrowings. Bluteau explains _calaim_ as 'Tin of India, finer
than ours.' The old writers seem to have hesitated about the identity with
tin, and the word is confounded in one quotation below with TOOTNAGUE
(q.v.). The French use _calin_. In the P. version of the Book of Numbers
(ch. xxxi. v. 22) _ḳala'ī_ is used for 'tin.' See on this word Quatremère
in the _Journal des Savans_, Dec. 1846.

  c. 920.—"Kalah is the focus of the trade in aloeswood, in camphor, in
  sandalwood, in ivory, in the lead which is called AL-KALA'I."—_Relation
  des Voyages, &c._, i. 94.

  c. 1154.—"Thence to the Isles of Lankiāliūs is reckoned two days, and
  from the latter to the Island of Kalah 5.... There is in this last island
  an abundant mine of tin (AL-KALA'I). The metal is very pure and
  brilliant."—_Edrisi_, by _Jaubert_, i. 80.

  1552.—"—Tin, which the people of the country call CALEM."—_Castanheda_,
  iii. 213. It is mentioned as a staple of Malacca in ii. 186.

  1606.—"That all the chalices which were neither of gold, nor silver, nor
  of tin, nor of CALAIM, should be broken up and destroyed."—_Gouvea,
  Synodo_, f. 29_b_.

  1610.—"They carry (to Hormuz) ... clove, cinnamon, pepper, cardamom,
  ginger, mace, nutmeg, sugar, CALAYN, or tin."—_Relaciones de P.
  Teixeira_, 382.

  c. 1610.—"... money ... not only of gold and silver, but also of another
  metal, which is called CALIN, which is white like tin, but harder, purer,
  and finer, and which is much used in the Indies."—_Pyrard de Laval_
  (1679) i. 164; [Hak. Soc. i. 234, with Gray's note].

  1613.—"And he also reconnoitred all the sites of mines, of gold, silver,
  mercury, tin or CALEM, and iron and other metals...."—_Godinho de
  Eredia_, f. 58.

  [1644.—"CALLAYM." See quotation under TOOTNAGUE.]

  1646.—"... il y a (_i.e._ in Siam) plusieurs minieres de CALAIN, qui est
  vn metal metoyen, entre le plomb et l'estain."—_Cardim, Rel. de la Prov.
  de Japon_, 163.

  1726.—"The goods exported hither (from Pegu) are ... KALIN (a metal
  coming very near silver)...."—_Valentijn_, v. 128.

  1770.—"They send only one vessel (viz. the Dutch to Siam) which
  transports Javanese horses, and is freighted with sugar, spices, and
  linen; for which they receive in return CALIN, at 70 livres 100
  weight."—_Raynal_ (tr. 1777), i. 208.

  1780.—"... the port of Quedah; there is a trade for CALIN or tutenague
  ... to export to different parts of the Indies."—In _Dunn, N. Directory_,
  338.

  1794-5.—In the _Travels to China_ of the younger Deguignes, CALIN is
  mentioned as a kind of tin imported into China from Batavia and
  Malacca.—iii. 367.


CALCUTTA, n.p. B. _Kalikātā_, or _Kalikattā_, a name of uncertain
etymology. The first mention that we are aware of occurs in the
_Āīn-i-Akbari_. It is well to note that in some early charts, such as that
in Valentijn, and the oldest in the _English Pilot_, though Calcutta is not
entered, there is a place on the Hoogly _Calcula_, or _Calcuta_, which
leads to mistake. It is far below, near the modern Fulta. [With reference
to the quotations below from Luillier and Sonnerat, Sir H. Yule writes
(_Hedges, Diary_, Hak. Soc. ii. xcvi.): "In Orme's _Historical Fragments_,
Job Charnock is described as 'Governor of the Factory at Golgot near
Hughley.' This name Golgot and the corresponding Golghāt in an extract from
Muhabbat Khān indicate the name of the particular locality where the
English Factory at Hugli was situated. And some confusion of this name with
that of Calcutta may have led to the curious error of the Frenchman Luiller
and Sonnerat, the former of whom calls Calcutta _Golgouthe_, while the
latter says: 'Les Anglais prononcent et ecrivent _Golgota_.'"]

  c. 1590.—"KALIKATĀ _wa Bakoya wa Barbakpūr_, 3 _Mahal_."—_Āīn_. (orig.)
  i. 408; [tr. _Jarrett_, ii. 141].

  [1688.—"Soe myself accompanyed with Capt. Haddock and the 120 soldiers we
  carryed from hence embarked, and about the 20th September arrived at
  CALCUTTA."—_Hedges, Diary_, Hak. Soc. ii. lxxix.]

  1698.—"This avaricious disposition the English plied with presents, which
  in 1698 obtained his permission to purchase from the Zemindar ... the
  towns of Sootanutty, CALCUTTA, and Goomopore, with their districts
  extending about 3 miles along the eastern bank of the river."—_Orme_,
  repr. ii. 71.

  1702.—"The next Morning we pass'd by the _English_ Factory belonging to
  the old Company, which they call GOLGOTHA, and is a handsome Building, to
  which were adding stately Warehouses."—_Voyage to the E. Indies, by Le
  Sieur Luillier_, E. T. 1715, p. 259.

  1726.—"The ships which sail thither (to Hugli) first pass by the English
  Lodge in COLLECATTE, 9 miles (Dutch miles) lower down than ours, and
  after that the French one called _Chandarnagor_...."—_Valentijn_, v. 162.

  1727.—"The Company has a pretty good Hospital at CALCUTTA, where many go
  in to undergo the Penance of Physic, but few come out to give an Account
  of its Operation.... One Year I was there, and there were reckoned in
  August about 1200 _English_, some Military, some Servants to the Company,
  some private Merchants residing in the Town, and some Seamen belong to
  Shipping lying at the Town, and before the beginning of _January_ there
  were 460 Burials registred in the Clerk's Books of Mortality."—_A.
  Hamilton_, ii. 9 and 6.

  c. 1742.—"I had occasion to stop at the city of Firáshdánga
  (Chandernagore) which is inhabited by a tribe of Frenchmen. The city of
  CALCUTTA, which is on the other side of the water, and inhabited by a
  tribe of English who have settled there, is much more extensive and
  thickly populated...."—_'Abdul Karím Khán_, in _Elliot_, viii. 127.

  1753.—"Au dessous d'Ugli immédiatement, est l'établissement Hollandois de
  SHINSURA, puis SHANDERNAGOR, établissement François, puis la loge Danoise
  (Serampore), et plus bas, sur la rivage opposé, qui est celui de la
  gauche en descendant, Banki-bazar, où les Ostendois n'ont pû se
  maintenir; enfin COLICOTTA aux Anglois, à quelques lieues de Banki-bazar,
  et du même côté."—_D'Anville, Éclaircissemens_, 64. With this compare:
  "Almost opposite to the _Danes_ Factory is _Banke-banksal_, a Place where
  the Ostend Company settled a Factory, but, in _Anno_ 1723, they
  quarrelled with the _Fouzdaar_ or Governor of _Hughly_, and he forced the
  _Ostenders_ to quit...."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 18.

  1782.—"Les Anglais pourroient retirer aujourd'hui des sommes immenses de
  l'Inde, s'ils avoient eu l'attention de mieux composer le conseil suprême
  de CALECUTA."[55]—_Sonnerat, Voyage_, i. 14.


CALEEFA, s. Ar. _Khalīfa_, the Caliph or Vice-gerent, a word which we do
not introduce here in its high Mahommedan use, but because of its quaint
application in Anglo-Indian households, at least in Upper India, to two
classes of domestic servants, the tailor and the cook, and sometimes to the
barber and farrier. The first is _always_ so addressed by his
fellow-servants (_Khalīfa-jī_). In South India the cook is called MAISTRY,
_i.e._ _artiste_. In Sicily, we may note, he is always called _Monsù_ (!)
an indication of what ought to be his nationality. The root of the word
_Khalīfa_, according to Prof. Sayce, means 'to change,' and another
derivative, _khālif_, 'exchange or agio' is the origin of the Greek
κολλύβος (_Princ. of Philology_, 2nd ed., 213).

  c. 1253.—"... vindrent marcheant en l'ost qui nous distrent et conterent
  que li roys des Tartarins avoit prise la citei de Baudas et l'apostole
  des Sarrazins ... lequel on appeloit le CALIFE de
  Baudas...."—_Joinville_, cxiv.

  1298.—"Baudas is a great city, which used to be the seat of the CALIF of
  all the Saracens in the world, just as Rome is the seat of the Pope of
  all the Christians."—_Marco Polo_, Bk. I. ch. 6.

  1552.—"To which the Sheikh replied that he was the vassal of the Soldan
  of Cairo, and that without his permission who was the sovereign CALIFA of
  the Prophet Mahamed, he could hold no communication with people who so
  persecuted his followers...."—_Barros_, II. i. 2.

  1738.—"Muzeratty, the late KALEEFA, or lieutenant of this province,
  assured me that he saw a bone belonging to one of them (ancient stone
  coffins) which was near two of their _drass_ (_i.e._ 36 inches) in
  length."—_Shaw's Travels in Barbary_, ed. 1757, p. 30.

  1747.—"As to the house, and the patrimonial lands, together with the
  appendages of the murdered minister, they were presented by the QHALIF of
  the age, that is by the Emperor himself, to his own daughter."—_Seir
  Mutaqherin_, iii. 37.

  c. 1760 (?).—

   "I hate all Kings and the thrones they sit on,
    From the King of France to the Caliph of Britain."

  These lines were found among the papers of Pr. Charles Edward, and
  supposed to be his. But Lord Stanhope, in the 2nd ed. of his
  _Miscellanies_, says he finds that they are slightly altered from a poem
  by Lord Rochester. This we cannot find. [The original lines of Rochester
  (_Poems on State Affairs_, i. 171) run:

   "I hate all Monarchs, and the thrones they sit on,
    From the Hector of France to the Cully of Britain."]

  [1813.—"The most skilful among them (the wrestlers) is appointed
  KHULEEFU, or superintendent for the season...."—_Broughton, Letters_, ed.
  1892, p. 164.]


CALEEOON, CALYOON, s. P. _kaliyūn_, a water-pipe for smoking; the Persian
form of the HUBBLE-BUBBLE (q.v.).

  [1812.—"A Persian visit, when the guest is a distinguished personage,
  generally consists of three acts: first, the KALEOUN, or water
  pipe...."—_Morier, Journey through Persia_, &c., p. 13.]

  1828.—"The elder of the men met to smoke their CALLEOONS under the
  shade."—_The Kuzzilbash_, i. 59.

  [1880.—"KALLIÚNS." See quotation under JULIBDAR.]


CALICO, s. Cotton cloth, ordinarily of tolerably fine texture. The word
appears in the 17th century sometimes in the form of _Calicut_, but
possibly this may have been a purism, for _calicoe_ or _callico_ occurs in
English earlier, or at least more commonly in early voyages. [_Callaca_ in
1578, _Draper's Dict._ p. 42.] The word may have come to us through the
French _calicot_, which though retaining the _t_ to the eye, does not do so
to the ear. The quotations sufficiently illustrate the use of the word and
its origin from Calicut. The fine cotton stuffs of Malabar are already
mentioned by Marco Polo (ii. 379). Possibly they may have been all brought
from beyond the Ghauts, as the Malabar cotton, ripening during the rains,
is not usable, and the cotton stuffs now used in Malabar all come from
Madura (see _Fryer_ below; and _Terry_ under CALICUT). The Germans, we may
note, call the turkey _Calecutische Hahn_, though it comes no more from
Calicut than it does from Turkey. [See TURKEY.]

  1579.—"3 great and large Canowes, in each whereof were certaine of the
  greatest personages that were about him, attired all of them in white
  Lawne, or cloth of CALECUT."—_Drake, World Encompassed_, Hak. Soc. 139.

  1591.—"The commodities of the shippes that come from Bengala bee ... fine
  CALICUT cloth, _Pintados_, and Rice."—_Barker's Lancaster_, in _Hakl._
  ii. 592.

  1592.—"The CALICOS were book-CALICOS, CALICO launes, broad white CALICOS,
  fine starched CALICOS, coarse white CALICOS, browne coarse
  CALICOS."—_Desc. of the Great Carrack Madre de Dios._

  1602.—"And at his departure gaue a robe, and a Tucke of CALICO wrought
  with gold."—_Lancaster's Voyage_, in _Purchas_, i. 153.

  1604.—"It doth appear by the abbreviate of the Accounts sent home out of
  the Indies, that there remained in the hands of the Agent, Master
  Starkey, 482 fardels of CALICOS."—In _Middleton's Voyage_, Hak. Soc. App.
  iii. 13.

     "    "I can fit you, gentlemen, with fine CALLICOES too, for doublets;
  the only sweet fashion now, most delicate and courtly: a meek gentle
  CALLICO, cut upon two double affable taffatas; all most neat, feat, and
  unmatchable."—_Dekker, The Honest Whore_, Act. II. Sc. v.

  1605.—"... about their loynes they (the Javanese) weare a kind of
  CALLICO-cloth."—_Edm. Scot, ibid._ 165.

  1608.—"They esteem not so much of money as of CALECUT clothes, Pintados,
  and such like stuffs."—_Iohn Davis, ibid._ 136.

  1612.—"CALICO copboord claiths, the piece ... xls."—_Rates and
  Valuatiouns_, &c. (Scotland), p. 294.

  1616.—"Angarezia ... inhabited by Moores trading with the Maine, and
  other three Easterne Ilands with their Cattell and fruits, for CALLICOES
  or other linnen to cover them."—_Sir T. Roe_, in _Purchas_; [with some
  verbal differences in Hak. Soc. i. 17].

  1627.—"CALICOE, _tela delicata Indica_. H. Calicúd, _dicta_ à Calecút,
  _Indiae regione ubi conficitur_."—_Minsheu_, 2nd ed., s.v.

  1673.—"Staple Commodities are CALICUTS, white and painted."—_Fryer_, 34.

     "    "Calecut for Spice ... and no Cloath, though it give the name of
  CALECUT to all in India, it being the first Port from whence they are
  known to be brought into Europe."—_Ibid._ 86.

  1707.—"The Governor lays before the Council the insolent action of
  Captain Leaton, who on Sunday last marched part of his company ... over
  the Company's CALICOES that lay a dyeing."—Minute in _Wheeler_, ii. 48.

  1720.—Act 7 Geo. I. cap. vii. "An Act to preserve and encourage the
  woollen and silk manufacture of this kingdom, and for more effectual
  employing of the Poor, by prohibiting the Use and Wear of all printed,
  painted, stained or dyed CALLICOES in Apparel, Houshold Stuff, Furniture,
  or otherwise...."—_Stat. at Large_, v. 229.

  1812.—

   "Like Iris' bow down darts the painted clue,
    Starred, striped, and spotted, yellow, red, and blue,
    Old CALICO, torn silk, and muslin new."
               _Rejected Addresses (Crabbe)._



CALICUT, n.p. In the Middle Ages the chief city, and one of the chief ports
of Malabar, and the residence of the ZAMORIN (q.v.). The name _Kōl̤ikōḍu_
is said to mean the 'Cock-Fortress.' [Logan (_Man. Malabar_, i. 241 note)
gives _koli_, 'fowl,' and _kottu_, 'corner or empty space,' or _kotta_, 'a
fort.' There was a legend, of the Dido type, that all the space within
cock-crow was once granted to the Zamorin.]

  c. 1343.—"We proceeded from Fandaraina to ḲALIḲŪT, one of the chief ports
  of Mulībār. The people of Chīn, of Java, of Sailān, of Mahal (Maldives),
  of Yemen, and Fārs frequent it, and the traders of different regions meet
  there. Its port is among the greatest in the world."—_Ibn Batuta_, iv.
  89.

  c. 1430.—"COLLICUTHIAM deinceps petiit, urbem maritimam, octo millibus
  passuum ambitu, nobile totius Indiae emporium, pipere, lacca, gingibere,
  cinnamomo crassiore,[56] kebulis, zedoaria fertilis."—_Conti_, in
  _Poggius, De Var. Fortunae_.

  1442.—"CALICUT is a perfectly secure harbour, which like that of Ormuz
  brings together merchants from every city and from every
  country."—_Abdurrazzāk_, in _India in XVth Cent._, p. 13.

  c. 1475.—"CALECUT is a port for the whole Indian sea.... The country
  produces pepper, ginger, colour plants, muscat [nutmeg?], cloves,
  cinnamon, aromatic roots, _adrach_ [green ginger] ... and everything is
  cheap, and servants and maids are very good."—_Ath. Nikitin., ibid._ p.
  20.

  1498.—"We departed thence, with the pilot whom the king gave us, for a
  city which is called QUALECUT."—_Roteiro de V. da Gama_, 49.

  1572.—

   "Já fóra de tormenta, e dos primeiros
    Mares, o temor vão do peito voa;
    Disse alegre o Piloto Melindano,
    'Terra he de CALECUT, se não me engano.'"
               _Camões_, vi. 92.

  By Burton:

   "now, 'scaped the tempest and the first sea-dread,
    fled from each bosom terrors vain, and cried
    the Melindanian Pilot in delight,
    'Calecut-land, if aught I see aright!'"

  1616.—"Of that wool they make divers sorts of _Callico_, which had that
  name (as I suppose) from CALLICUTTS, not far from Goa, where that kind of
  cloth was first bought by the Portuguese."—_Terry_, in _Purchas_. [In ed.
  1777, p. 105, CALLICUTE.]


CALINGULA, s. A sluice or escape. Tam. _kalingal_; much used in reports of
irrigation works in S. India.

  [1883.—"Much has been done in the way of providing sluices for minor
  channels of supply, and CALINGULAHS, or water weirs for surplus
  vents."—_Venkasami Row, Man. of Tanjore_, p. 332.]


CALPUTTEE, s. A caulker; also the process of caulking; H. and Beng.
_kālāpattī_ and _kalāpāttī_, and these no doubt from the Port. _calafate_.
But this again is oriental in origin, from the Arabic _ḳālāfat_, the
'process of caulking.' It is true that Dozy (see p. 376) and also Jal (see
his _Index_, ii. 589) doubt the last derivation, and are disposed to
connect the Portuguese and Spanish words, and the Italian _calafattare_,
&c., with the Latin _calefacere_, a view which M. Marcel Devic rejects. The
latter word would apply well enough to the process of _pitching_ a vessel
as practised in the Mediterranean, where we have seen the vessel careened
over, and a great fire of thorns kindled under it to keep the pitch fluid.
But caulking is not pitching; and when both form and meaning correspond so
exactly, and when we know so many other marine terms in the Mediterranean
to have been taken from the Arabic, there does not seem to be room for
reasonable doubt in this case. The Emperor Michael V. (A.D. 1041) was
called καλαφάτης, because he was the son of a caulker (see _Ducange, Gloss.
Graec._, who quotes _Zonaras_).

  1554.—(At Mozambique) ... "To two CALAFATTES ... of the said brigantines,
  at the rate annually of 20,000 _reis_ each, with 9000 _reis_ each for
  maintenance and 6 measures of millet to each, of which no count is
  taken."—_Simão Botelho, Tombo_, 11.

  c. 1620.—"S'il estoit besoin de CALFADER le Vaisseau ... on y auroit
  beaucoup de peine dans ce Port, principalement si on est constraint de se
  seruir des Charpentiers et des CALFADEURS du Pays; parce qu'ils dependent
  tous du Gouverneur de Bombain."—_Routier ... des Indes Orient._, par
  Aleixo da Motta, in Thevenot's Collection.


CALUAT, s. This in some old travels is used for Ar. _khilwat_, 'privacy, a
private interview' (_C. P. Brown, MS._).

  1404.—"And this Garden they call _Talicia_, and in their tongue they call
  it CALBET."—_Clavijo_, § cix. Comp. _Markham_, 130.

  [1670.—"Still deeper in the square is the third tent, called CALUET-KANE,
  the retired spot, or the place of the privy Council."—_Bernier_, ed.
  _Constable_, 361.]

  1822.—"I must tell you what a good fellow the little Raja of Tallaca is.
  When I visited him we sat on two musnads without exchanging one single
  word, in a very respectable durbar; but the moment we retired to a
  KHILWUT the Raja produced his Civil and Criminal Register, and his Minute
  of demands, collections and balances for the 1st quarter, and began
  explaining the state of his country as eagerly as a young
  Collector."—_Elphinstone_, in _Life_, ii. 144.

  [1824.—"The KHELWET or private room in which the doctor was
  seated."—_Hajji Baba_, p. 87.]


CALUETE, CALOETE, s. The punishment of impalement; Malayāl. _kaluekki_
(pron. _etti_). [See IMPALE.]

  1510.—"The said wood is fixed in the middle of the back of the
  malefactor, and passes through his body ... this torture is called
  'UNCALVET.'"—_Varthema_, 147.

  1582.—"The Capitaine General for to encourage them the more, commanded
  before them all to pitch a long staffe in the ground, the which was made
  sharp at ye one end. The same among the Malabars is called CALVETE, upon
  ye which they do execute justice of death, unto the poorest or vilest
  people of the country."—_Castañeda_, tr. by N. L., ff. 142_v_, 143.

  1606.—"The Queen marvelled much at the thing, and to content them she
  ordered the sorcerer to be delivered over for punishment, and to be set
  on the CALOETE, which is a very sharp stake fixed firmly in the
  ground...." &c.—_Gouvea_, f. 47_v_; see also f. 163.


CALYAN, n.p. The name of more than one city of fame in W. and S. India;
Skt. _Kalyāna_, 'beautiful, noble, propitious,' One of these is the place
still known as _Kalyān_, on the Ulas river, more usually called by the name
of the city, 33 m. N.E. of Bombay. This is a very ancient port, and is
probably the one mentioned by Cosmas below. It appears as the residence of
a donor in an inscription on the Kanheri caves in Salsette (see _Fergusson
and Burgess_, p. 349). Another KALYĀNA was the capital of the Chalukyas of
the Deccan in the 9th-12th centuries. This is in the Nizam's district of
Naldrūg, about 40 miles E.N.E. of the fortress called by that name. A third
KALYĀNA was a port of Canara, between Mangalore and Kundapur, in lat. 13°
28′ or thereabouts, on the same river as BACANORE (q.v.). [This is
apparently the place which Tavernier (ed. _Ball_, ii. 206) calls _Callian
Bondi_ or _Kalyān Bandar_.] The quotations refer to the first Calyan.

  c. A.D. 80-90.—"The local marts which occur in order after Barygaza are
  Akabaru, Suppara, KALLIENA, a city which was raised to the rank of a
  regular mart in the time of Saraganes, but, since Sandanes became its
  master, its trade has been put under restrictions; for if Greek vessels,
  even by accident, enter its ports, a guard is put on board, and they are
  taken to Barygaza."—_Periplus_, § 52.

  c. A.D. 545.—"And the most notable places of trade are these: Sindu,
  Orrhotha, KALLIANA, Sibor...."—_Cosmas_, in _Cathay, &c._, p. clxxviii.

  1673.—On both sides are placed stately _Aldeas_, and dwellings of the
  _Portugal Fidalgos_; till on the Right, within a Mile or more of GULLEAN,
  they yield possession to the neighbouring _Seva Gi_, at which City (the
  key this way into that Rebel's Country), Wind and Tide favouring us, we
  landed."—_Fryer_, p. 123.

  1825.—"Near Candaulah is a waterfall ... its stream winds to join the
  sea, nearly opposite to Tannah, under the name of the CALLIANEE
  river."—_Heber_, ii. 137.

  Prof. Forchhammer has lately described the great remains of a Pagoda and
  other buildings with inscriptions, near the city of Pegu, called KALYĀNI.


CAMBAY, n.p. Written by Mahommedan writers _Kanbāyat_, sometimes
_Kinbāyat_. According to Col. Tod, the original Hindu name was
_Khambavati_, 'City of the Pillar'; [the _Mad. Admin. Man. Gloss._ gives
_stambha-tīrtha_, 'sacred pillar pool']. Long a very famous port of
Guzerat, at the head of the Gulf to which it gives its name. Under the
Mahommedan Kings of Guzerat it was one of their chief residences, and they
are often called Kings of Cambay. Cambay is still a feudatory State under a
Nawab. The place is in decay, owing partly to the shoals, and the
extraordinary rise and fall of the tides in the Gulf, impeding navigation.
[See _Forbes, Or. Mem._ 2nd ed. i. 313 _seqq._].

  c. 951.—"From KAMBÁYA to the sea about 2 parasangs. From Kambáya to
  Súrabáya (?) about 4 days."—_Istakhri_, in _Elliot_, i. 30.

  1298.—"CAMBAET is a great kingdom.... There is a great deal of trade....
  Merchants come here with many ships and cargoes...."—_Marco Polo_, Bk.
  iii. ch. 28.

  1320.—"Hoc vero Oceanum mare in illis partibus principaliter habet duos
  portus: quorum vnus nominatur _Mahabar_, et alius CAMBETH."—_Marino
  Sanudo_, near beginning.

  c. 1420.—"CAMBAY is situated near to the sea, and is 12 miles in circuit;
  it abounds in spikenard, lac, indigo, myrabolans, and silk."—_Conti_, in
  _India in XVth Cent._, 20.

  1498.—"In which Gulf, as we were informed, there are many cities of
  Christians and Moors, and a city which is called QUAMBAYA."—_Roteiro_,
  49.

  1506.—"In COMBEA è terra de Mori, e il suo Re è Moro; el è una gran
  terra, e li nasce turbiti, e spigonardo, e milo (read _nilo_—see ANIL),
  lache, corniole, calcedonie, gotoni...."—_Rel. di Leonardo Ca' Masser_,
  in _Archivio Stor. Italiano_, App.

  1674.—

   "The Prince of CAMBAY'S daily food
    Is asp and basilisk and toad,
    Which makes him have so strong a breath,
    Each night he stinks a queen to death."
               _Hudibras_, Pt. ii. Canto i.

  Butler had evidently read the stories of Mahmūd Bigara, Sultan of
  Guzerat, in Varthema or Purchas.


CAMBOJA, n.p. An ancient kingdom in the eastern part of Indo-China, once
great and powerful: now fallen, and under the 'protectorate' of France,
whose Saigon colony it adjoins. The name, like so many others of Indo-China
since the days of Ptolemy, is of Skt. origin, being apparently a transfer
of the name of a nation and country on the N.W. frontier of India,
_Kamboja_, supposed to have been about the locality of Chitral or
Kafiristan. Ignoring this, fantastic Chinese and other etymologies have
been invented for the name. In the older Chinese annals (c. 1200 B.C.) this
region had the name of _Fu-nan_; from the period after our era, when the
kingdom of Camboja had become powerful, it was known to the Chinese as
_Chin-la_. Its power seems to have extended at one time westward, perhaps
to the shores of the B. of Bengal. Ruins of extraordinary vastness and
architectural elaboration are numerous, and have attracted great attention
since M. Mouhot's visit in 1859; though they had been mentioned by 16th
century missionaries, and some of the buildings when standing in splendour
were described by a Chinese visitor at the end of the 13th century. The
Cambojans proper call themselves _Khmer_, a name which seems to have given
rise to singular confusions (see COMAR). The gum GAMBOGE (_Cambodiam_ in
the early records [_Birdwood, Rep. on Old Rec._, 27]) so familiar in use,
derives its name from this country, the chief source of supply.

  c. 1161.—"... although ... because the belief of the people of Rámánya
  (Pegu) was the same as that of the Buddha-believing men of Ceylon....
  Parakrama the king was living in peace with the king of Rámánya—yet the
  ruler of Rámánya ... forsook the old custom of providing maintenance for
  the ambassadors ... saying: 'These messengers are sent to go to KÁMBOJA,'
  and so plundered all their goods and put them in prison in the Malaya
  country.... Soon after this he seized some royal virgins sent by the King
  of Ceylon to the King of KÁMBOJA...."—Ext. from _Ceylonese Annals_, by
  _T. Rhys Davids_, in _J.A.S.B._ xli. Pt. i. p. 198.

  1295.—"Le pays de Tchin-la.... Les gens du pays le nomment KAN-PHOU-TCHI.
  Sous la dynastie actuelle, les livres sacrés des Tibétains nomment ce
  pays KAN-PHOU-TCHI...."—Chinese _Account of Chinla_, in _Abel Rémusat,
  Nouv. Mél._ i. 100.

  c. 1535.—"Passing from Siam towards China by the coast we find the
  kingdom of Cambaia (read CAMBOIA) ... the people are great warriors ...
  and the country of CAMBOIA abounds in all sorts of victuals ... in this
  land the lords voluntarily burn themselves when the king
  dies...."—_Sommario de' Regni_, in _Ramusio_, i. f. 336.

  1552.—"And the next State adjoining Siam is the kingdom of CAMBOJA,
  through the middle of which flows that splendid river the Mecon, the
  source of which is in the regions of China...."—_Barros_, Dec. I. Liv.
  ix. cap. 1.

  1572.—

   "Vês, passa por CAMBOJA Mecom rio,
    Que capitão das aguas se interpreta...."
               _Camões_, x. 127.

  [1616.—"22 cattes CAMBOJA (gamboge)."—_Foster, Letters_, iv. 188.]


CAMEEZE, s. This word (_ḳamīṣ_) is used in colloquial H. and Tamil for 'a
shirt.' It comes from the Port. _camisa_. But that word is directly from
the Arab _ḳamīṣ_, 'a tunic.' Was St. Jerome's Latin word an earlier loan
from the Arabic, or the source of the Arabic word? probably the latter; [so
_N.E.D._ s.v. _Camise_]. The Mod. Greek Dict. of Sophocles has καμίσιον.
_Camesa_ is, according to the _Slang Dictionary_, used in the cant of
English thieves; and in more ancient slang it was made into '_commission_.'

  c. 400.—"Solent militantes habere lineas quas CAMISIAS vocant, sic aptas
  membris et adstrictas corporibus, ut expediti sint vel ad cursum, vel ad
  praelia ... quocumque necessitas traxerit."—_Scti. Hieronymi Epist._
  (lxiv.) _ad Fabiolam_, § 11.

  1404.—"And to the said Ruy Gonzalez he gave a big horse, an ambler, for
  they prize a horse that ambles, furnished with saddle and bridle, very
  well according to their fashion; and besides he gave him a CAMISA and an
  umbrella" (see SOMBRERO).—_Clavijo_, § lxxxix.; _Markham_, 100.

  1464.—"to William and Richard my sons, all my fair CAMISES...."—_Will of
  Richard Strode_, of Newnham, Devon.

  1498.—"That a very fine CAMYSA, which in Portugal would be worth 300
  _reis_, was given here for 2 _fanons_, which in that country is the
  equivalent of 30 _reis_, though the value of 30 _reis_ is in that country
  no small matter."—_Roteiro de V. da Gama_, 77.

  1573.—"The richest of all (the shops in Fez) are where they sell
  CAMISAS...."—_Marmol. Desc. General de Affrica_, Pt. I. Bk. iii. f.
  87_v_.


CAMP, s. In the Madras Presidency [as well as in N. India] an official not
at his headquarters is always addressed as 'in Camp.'


CAMPHOR, s. There are three camphors:—

A. The Bornean and Sumatran camphor from _Dryobalanops aromatica_.

B. The camphor of China and Japan, from _Cinnamomum Camphora_. (These are
the two chief camphors of commerce; the first immensely exceeding the
second in market value: see _Marco Polo_, Bk. iii. ch. xi. Note 3.)

C. The camphor of _Blumea balsamifera_, D.C., produced and used in China
under the name of _ngai_ camphor.

The relative ratios of value in the Canton market may be roundly given as
B, 1; C, 10; A, 80.

The first Western mention of this drug, as was pointed out by Messrs
Hanbury and Flückiger, occurs in the Greek medical writer Aëtius (see
below), but it probably came through the Arabs, as is indicated by the
_ph_, or _f_ of the Arab _kāfūr_, representing the Skt. _karpūra_. It has
been suggested that the word was originally Javanese, in which language
_kāpūr_ appears to mean both 'lime' and 'camphor.'

Moodeen Sheriff says that _kăfūr_ is used (in Ind. Materia Medica) for
'amber.' _Tābashīr_ (see TABASHEER), is, according to the same writer,
called _bāns-kāfūr_ 'bamboo-camphor'; and _ras-kāfūr_ (mercury-camphor) is
an impure subchloride of mercury. According to the same authority, the
varieties of camphor now met with in the bazars of S. India are—1.
_kāfūr-i-ḳaiṣūrī_, which is in Tamil called _pach'ch'ai_ (_i.e._ crude
_karuppuram_; 2. _Ṣūratī kāfūr_; 3. _chīnī_; 4. _batai_ (from the _Batta_
country?). The first of these names is a curious instance of the
perpetuation of a blunder, originating in the misreading of loose Arabic
writing. The name is unquestionably _fanṣūrī_, which carelessness as to
points has converted into _ḳaiṣūrī_ (as above, and in _Blochmann's Āīn_, i.
79). The camphor _alfanṣūrī_ is mentioned as early as by Avicenna, and by
Marco Polo, and came from a place called _Pansūr_ in Sumatra, perhaps the
same as Barus, which has now long given its name to the costly Sumatran
drug.

A curious notion of Ibn Batuta's (iv. 241) that the camphor of Sumatra (and
Borneo) was produced in the inside of a cane, filling the joints between
knot and knot, may be explained by the statement of Barbosa (p. 204), that
the Borneo camphor as exported was packed in tubes of bamboo. This camphor
is by Barbosa and some other old writers called 'eatable camphor' (_da
mangiare_), because used in medicine and with betel.

Our form of the word seems to have come from the Sp. _alcanfor_ and
_canfora_, through the French _camphre_. Dozy points out that one Italian
form retains the truer name _cafura_, and an old German one (Mid. High
Germ.) is _gaffer_ (_Oosterl._ 47).

  c. A.D. 540.—"Hygromyri cõfectio, olei salca lib. ij, opobalsami lib. i.,
  spicænardi, folij singu. unc. iiii. carpobalsami, arnabonis, amomi, ligni
  aloes, sing. unc. ij. mastichae, moschi, sing. scrup. vi. quod si etiã
  CAPHURA non deerit ex ea unc. ij adjicito...."—_Aetii Amideni_, Librorum
  xvi. Tomi Dvo.... Latinitate donati, Basil, MDXXXV., Liv. xvi. cap. cxx.

  c. 940.—"These (islands called al-Ramīn) abound in gold mines, and are
  near the country of Ḳansūr, famous for its CAMPHOR...."—_Maṣ'ūdī_, i.
  338. The same work at iii. 49, refers back to this passage as "the
  country of _Manṣūrah_." Probably Maṣ'ūdī wrote correctly _Fanṣūrah_.

  1298.—"In this kingdom of _Fansur_ grows the best _camphor_ in the world,
  called CAMFERA _Fansuri_."—_Marco Polo_, bk. iii. ch. xi.

  1506.—"... e de li (Tenasserim) vien pevere, canella ... CAMFORA _da
  manzar_ e de _quella non se manza_...." (_i.e._ both camphor to eat and
  not to eat, or Sumatra and China camphor).—_Leonardo Ca' Masser._

  c. 1590.—"The CAMPHOR _tree_ is a large tree growing in the ghauts of
  Hindostan and in China. A hundred horsemen and upwards may rest in the
  shade of a single tree.... Of the various kinds of camphor the best is
  called _Ribáhi_ or _Qaiçúri_.... In some books camphor in its natural
  state is called ... _Bhimsíni_."—_Āīn, Blochmann_ ed. i. 78-9.
  [_Bhimsínī_ is more properly _bhimsenī_, and takes its name from the
  demi-god Bhīmsen, second son of Pandu.]

  1623.—"In this shipp we have laden a small parcell of CAMPHIRE of
  _Barouse_, being in all 60 _catis_."—_Batavian Letter_, pubd. in _Cocks's
  Diary_, ii. 343.

  1726.—"The Persians name the Camphor of Baros, and also of Borneo to this
  day KAFUR _Canfuri_, as it also appears in the printed text of Avicenna
  ... and _Bellunensis_ notes that in some MSS. of the author is found
  KAFUR FANSURI...."—_Valentijn_, iv. 67.

  1786.—"The CAMPHOR Tree has been recently discovered in this part of the
  Sircar's country. We have sent two bottles of the essential oil made from
  it for your use."—_Letter of Tippoo, Kirkpatrick_, p. 231.

  1875.—

   "CAMPHOR, Bhimsaini (barus), valuation  1 lb.   80 rs.
    Refined cake                           1 cwt.  65 rs."
               _Table of Customs Duties on Imports into
                 Br. India up to 1875._

  The first of these is the fine Sumatran camphor; the second at 1/138 of
  the price is China camphor.


CAMPOO, s. H. _kampū_, corr. of the English '_camp_,' or more properly of
the Port. '_campo_.' It is used for 'a camp,' but formerly was specifically
applied to the partially disciplined brigades under European commanders in
the Mahratta service.

  [1525.—Mr. Whiteway notes that Castanheda (bk. vi. ch. ci. p. 217) and
  Barros (iii. 10, 3) speak of a ward of Malacca as CAMPU _China_; and de
  Eredia (1613) calls it CAMPON _China_, which may supply a link between
  CAMPOO and _Kampung_. (See COMPOUND).

  1803.—"Begum Sumroo's CAMPOO has come up the ghauts, and I am afraid ...
  joined Scindiah yesterday. Two deserters ... declared that Pohlman's
  CAMPOO was following it."—_Wellington_, ii. 264.

  1883.—"... its unhappy plains were swept over, this way and that, by the
  cavalry of rival Mahratta powers, Mogul and Rohilla horsemen, or CAMPOS
  and _pultuns_ (battalions) under European adventurers...."—_Quarterly
  Review_, April, p. 294.


CANARA, n.p. Properly _Kannaḍa_. This name has long been given to that part
of the West coast which lies below the Ghauts, from Mt. Dely northward to
the Goa territory; and now to the two British districts constituted out of
that tract, viz. N. and S. Canara. This appropriation of the name, however,
appears to be of European origin. The name, probably meaning 'black
country' [Dravid. _kar_, 'black,' _nādu_, 'country'], from the black cotton
soil prevailing there, was properly synonymous with _Karṇātaka_ (see
CARNATIC), and apparently a corruption of that word. Our quotations show
that throughout the sixteenth century the term was applied to the country
above the Ghauts, sometimes to the whole kingdom of NARSINGA or Vijayanagar
(see BISNAGAR). Gradually, and probably owing to local application at Goa,
where the natives seem to have been from the first known to the Portuguese
as _Canarijs_, a term which in the old Portuguese works means the Konkani
people and language of Goa, the name became appropriated to the low country
on the coast between Goa and Malabar, which was subject to the kingdom in
question, much in the same way that the name _Carnatic_ came at a later
date to be misapplied on the other side of the Peninsula.

The _Kanara_ or Canarese language is spoken over a large tract above the
Ghauts, and as far north as Bidar (see _Caldwell, Introd._ p. 33). It is
only one of several languages spoken in the British districts of Canara,
and that only in a small portion, viz. near Kundāpur. _Tuḷu_ is the chief
language in the Southern District. KANAḌAM occurs in the great Tanjore
inscription of the 11th century.

  1516.—"Beyond this river commences the Kingdom of Narsinga, which
  contains five very large provinces, each with a language of its own. The
  first, which stretches along the coast to Malabar, is Tulinate (_i.e._
  _Tuḷu-nādu_, or the modern district of S. Canara); another lies in the
  interior ...; another has the name of Telinga, which confines with the
  Kingdom of Orisa; another is CANARI, in which is the great city of
  Bisnaga; and then the Kingdom of Charamendel, the language of which is
  Tamul."—_Barbosa._ This passage is exceedingly corrupt, and the version
  (necessarily imperfect) is made up from three—viz. Stanley's English,
  from a Sp. MS., Hak. Soc. p. 79; the Portuguese of the Lisbon Academy, p.
  291; and Ramusio's Italian (i. f. 299_v_).

  c. 1535.—"The last Kingdom of the First India is called the Province
  CANARIM; it is bordered on one side by the Kingdom of Goa and by
  Anjadiva, and on the other side by Middle India or Malabar. In the
  interior is the King of Narsinga, who is chief of this country. The
  speech of those of CANARIM is different from that of the Kingdom of Decan
  and of Goa."—Portuguese _Summary of Eastern Kingdoms_, in _Ramusio_, i.
  f. 330.

  1552.—"The third province is called CANARÁ, also in the
  interior...."—_Castanheda_, ii. 50.

And as applied to the language:—

  "The language of the Gentoos is CANARÁ."—_Ibid._ 78.

  1552.—"The whole coast that we speak of back to the Ghaut (_Gate_)
  mountain range ... they call Concan, and the people properly Concanese
  (_Conquenijs_), though our people call them CANARESE (_Canarijs_).... And
  as from the Ghauts to the sea on the west of the Decan all that strip is
  called Concan, so from the Ghauts to the sea on the west of CANARÁ,
  always excepting that stretch of 46 leagues of which we have spoken
  [north of Mount Dely] which belongs to the same _Canará_, the strip which
  stretches to Cape Comorin is called Malabar."—_Barros_, Dec. I. liv. ix.
  cap. 1.

  1552.—"... The Kingdom of CANARÁ, which extends from the river called
  Gate, north of Chaul, to Cape Comorin (so far as concerns the interior
  region east of the Ghats) ... and which in the east marches with the
  kingdom of Orisa; and the Gentoo Kings of this great Province of CANARÁ
  were those from whom sprang the present Kings of Bisnaga."—_Ibid._ Dec.
  II. liv. v. cap. 2.

  1572.—

   "Aqui se enxerga lá do mar undoso
    Hum monte alto, que corre longamente
    Servindo ao Malabar de forte muro,
    Com que do CANARÁ vive seguro."
               _Camões_, vii. 21.

  Englished by Burton:

   "Here seen yonside where wavy waters play
    a range of mountains skirts the murmuring main
    serving the Malabar for mighty mure,
    who thus from him of CANARÁ dwells secure."

  1598.—"The land itselfe is called Decan, and also CANARA."—_Linschoten_,
  49; [Hak. Soc. i. 169].

  1614.—"Its proper name is _Charnathaca_, which from corruption to
  corruption has come to be called CANARA."—_Couto_, Dec. VI. liv. v. cap.
  5.

In the following quotations the term is applied, either inclusively or
exclusively, to the territory which we _now_ call Canara:—

  1615.—"CANARA. Thence to the Kingdome of the CANNARINS, which is but a
  little one, and 5 dayes journey from _Damans_. They are tall of stature,
  idle, for the most part, and therefore the greater theeves."—_De
  Monfart_, p. 23.

  1623.—"Having found a good opportunity, such as I desired, of getting out
  of Goa, and penetrating further into India, that is more to the south, to
  CANARA...."—_P. della Valle_, ii. 601; [Hak. Soc. ii. 168].

  1672.—"The strip of land CANARA, the inhabitants of which are called
  CANARINS, is fruitful in rice and other food-stuffs."—_Baldaeus_, 98.
  There is a good map in this work, which shows 'Canara' in the modern
  acceptation.

  1672.—"_Description of_ CANARA _and Journey to Goa_.—This kingdom is one
  of the finest in India, all plain country near the sea, and even among
  the mountains all peopled."—_P. Vincenzo Maria_, 420. Here the title
  seems used in the modern sense, but the same writer applies _Canara_ to
  the whole Kingdom of Bisnagar.

  1673.—"At Mirja the Protector of CANORA came on board."—_Fryer_ (margin),
  p. 57.

  1726.—"The Kingdom CANARA (under which Onor, Batticala, and Garcopa are
  dependent) comprises all the western lands lying between Walkan
  (_Konkan_?) and Malabar, two great coast countries."—_Valentijn_, v. 2.

  1727.—"The country of CANARA is generally governed by a Lady, who keeps
  her Court at a Town called _Baydour_, two Days journey from the Sea."—_A.
  Hamilton_, i. 280.


CANARIN, n.p. This name is applied in some of the quotations under CANARA
to the people of the district now so called by us. But the Portuguese
applied it to the (_Konkani_) people of Goa and their language. Thus a
Konkani grammar, originally prepared about 1600 by the Jesuit, Thomas
Estevão (Stephens, an Englishman), printed at Goa, 1640, bears the title
_Arte da Lingoa_ CANARIN. (See A. B(urnell) in _Ind. Antiq._ ii. 98).

  [1823.—"CANAREEN, an appellation given to the Creole Portuguese of Goa
  and their other Indian settlements."—_Owen, Narrative_, i. 191.]


CANAUT, CONAUT, CONNAUGHT, s. H. from Ar. _ḳanāt_, the side wall of a tent,
or canvas enclosure. [See SURRAPURDA.]

  [1616.—"High CANNATTES of a coarse stuff made like arras."—_Sir T. Roe,
  Diary_, Hak. Soc. ii. 325.]

     "    "The King's Tents are red, reared on poles very high, and placed
  in the midst of the Camp, covering a large Compasse, encircled with
  CANATS (made of red calico stiffened with Canes at every breadth)
  standing upright about nine foot high, guarded round every night with
  Souldiers."—_Terry_, in _Purchas_, ii. 1481.

  c. 1660.—"And (what is hard enough to believe in _Indostan_, where the
  Grandees especially are so jealous ...) I was so near to the wife of this
  Prince (Dara), that the cords of the KANATES ... which enclosed them (for
  they had not so much as a poor tent), were fastened to the wheels of my
  chariot."—_Bernier_, E. T. 29; [ed. _Constable_, 89].

  1792.—"They passed close to Tippoo's tents: the CANAUT (misprinted
  CANAUL) was standing, but the green tent had been removed."—_T. Munro_,
  in _Life_, iii. 73.

  1793.—"The CANAUT of canvas ... was painted of a beautiful sea-green
  colour."—_Dirom_, 230.

  [c. 1798.—"On passing a skreen of Indian CONNAUGHTS, we proceeded to the
  front of the Tusbeah Khanah."—_Asiatic Res._, iv. 444.]

  1817.—"A species of silk of which they make tents and KANAUTS."—_Mill_,
  ii. 201.

  1825.—Heber writes CONNAUT.—Orig. ed. ii. 257.

  [1838.—"The KHENAUTS (the space between the outer covering and the lining
  of our tents)."—_Miss Eden, Up the Country_, ii. 63.]


CANDAHAR, n.p. _Ḳandahār_. The application of this name is now exclusively
to (A) the well-known city of Western Afghanistan, which is the object of
so much political interest. But by the Ar. geographers of the 9th to 11th
centuries the name is applied to (B) the country about Peshāwar, as the
equivalent of the ancient Indian _Gandhāra_, and the _Gandaritis_ of
Strabo. Some think the name was transferred to (A) in consequence of a
migration of the people of Gandhāra carrying with them the begging-pot of
Buddha, believed by Sir H. Rawlinson to be identical with a large sacred
vessel of stone preserved in a mosque of Candahar. Others think that
Candahar may represent _Alexandropolis_ in Arachosia. We find a third
application of the name (C) in Ibn Batuta, as well as in earlier and later
writers, to a former port on the east shore of the Gulf of Cambay, Ghandhar
in the Broach District.

  A.—1552.—"Those who go from Persia, from the kingdom of Horaçam
  (Khorasan), from Bohára, and all the Western Regions, travel to the city
  which the natives corruptly call CANDAR, instead of Scandar, the name by
  which the Persians call Alexander...."—_Barros_, IV. vi. 1.

  1664.—"All these great preparations give us cause to apprehend that,
  instead of going to _Kachemire_, we be not led to besiege that important
  city of KANDAHAR, which is the Frontier to Persia, Indostan, and Usbeck,
  and the Capital of an excellent Country."—_Bernier_, E. T., p. 113; [ed.
  _Constable_, 352].

  1671.—

   "From Arachosia, from CANDAOR east,
    And Margiana to the Hyrcanian cliffs
    Of Caucasus...."
               _Paradise Regained_, iii. 316 _seqq._

  B.—c. 1030.—"... thence to the river Chandráha (Chináb) 12 (parasangs);
  thence to Jailam on the West of the Báyat (or Hydaspes) 18; thence to
  Waihind, capital of ḲANDAHÁR ... 20; thence to Parsháwar
  14...."—_Al-Birūni_, in _Elliot_, i. 63 (corrected).

  C.—c. 1343.—"From Kinbāya (Cambay) we went to the town of Kāwi (_Kānvi_,
  opp. Cambay), on an estuary where the tide rises and falls ... thence to
  ḲANDAHĀR, a considerable city belonging to the Infidels, and situated on
  an estuary from the sea."—_Ibn Batuta_, iv. 57-8.

  1516.—"Further on ... there is another place, in the mouth of a small
  river, which is called GUENDARI.... And it is a very good town, a
  seaport."—_Barbosa_, 64.

  1814.—"CANDHAR, eighteen miles from the wells, is pleasantly situated on
  the banks of a river; and a place of considerable trade; being a great
  thoroughfare from the sea coast to the Gaut mountains."—_Forbes, Or.
  Mem._ i. 206; [2nd ed. i. 116].


CANDAREEN, s. In Malay, to which language the word apparently belongs,
_kandūrī_. A term formerly applied to the hundredth of the Chinese ounce or
weight, commonly called by the Malay name _tāhil_ (see TAEL). Fryer (1673)
gives the Chinese weights thus:—

  1 _Cattee_ is nearest 16 _Taies_
  1 _Teen_ (Taie?) is 10 _Mass_
  1 _Mass_ in Silver is 10 QUANDREENS
  1 QUANDREEN is 10 _Cash_
  733 _Cash_ make 1 _Royal_
  1 grain English weight is 2 cash.

  1554.—"In Malacca the weight used for gold, musk, &c., the _cate_,
  contains 20 _taels_, each tael 16 _mazes_, each maz 20 CUMDURYNS; also 1
  paual 4 mazes, each maz 4 _cupongs_; each cupong 5 CUMDURYNS."—_A.
  Nunes_, 39.

  1615.—"We bought 5 greate square postes of the Kinges master carpenter;
  cost 2 _mas_ 6 CONDRINS per peece."—_Cocks_, i. 1.


(1) CANDY, n.p. A town in the hill country of Ceylon, which became the
deposit of the sacred tooth of Buddha at the beginning of the 14th century,
and was adopted as the native capital about 1592. Chitty says the name is
unknown to the natives, who call the place _Mahā nuvera_, 'great city.' The
name seems to have arisen out of some misapprehension by the Portuguese,
which may be illustrated by the quotation from Valentijn.

  c. 1530.—"And passing into the heart of the Island, there came to the
  Kingdom of CANDIA, a certain Friar Pascoal with two companions, who were
  well received by the King of the country Javira Bandar ... in so much
  that he gave them a great piece of ground, and everything needful to
  build a church, and houses for them to dwell in."—_Couto_, Dec. VI. liv.
  iv. cap. 7.

  1552.—"... and at three or four places, like the passes of the Alps of
  Italy, one finds entrance within this circuit (of mountains) which forms
  a Kingdom called CANDE."—_Barros_, Dec. III. Liv. ii. cap. 1.

  1645.—"Now then as soon as the Emperor was come to his Castle in CANDI he
  gave order that the 600 captive Hollanders should be distributed
  throughout his country among the peasants, and in the City."—_J. J.
  Saar's 15-Jährige Kriegs-Dienst_, 97.

  1681.—"The First is the City of _Candy_, so generally called by the
  _Christians_, probably from _Conde_, which in the _Chingulays_ Language
  signifies _Hills_, for among them it is situated, but by the Inhabitants
  called _Hingodagul-neure_, as much as to say 'The City of the _Chingulay_
  people,' and _Mauneur_, signifying the 'Chief or Royal City.'"—_R. Knox_,
  p. 5.

  1726.—"CANDI, otherwise _Candia_, or named in Cingalees _Conde Ouda_,
  _i.e._ the high mountain country."—_Valentijn_ (_Ceylon_), 19.


(2) CANDY, s. A weight used in S. India, which may be stated roughly at
about 500 lbs., but varying much in different parts. It corresponds broadly
with the Arabian BAHAR (q.v.), and was generally equivalent to 20 MAUNDS,
varying therefore with the maund. The word is Mahr. and Tel. _khaṇḍi_,
written in Tam. and Mal. _kaṇḍi_, or Mal. _kaṇṭi_, [and comes from the Skt.
_khaṇḍ_, 'to divide.' A CANDY of land is supposed to be as much as will
produce a _candy_ of grain, approximately 75 acres]. The Portuguese write
the word _candil_.

  1563.—"A CANDIL which amounts to 522 pounds" (_arrateis_).—_Garcia_, f.
  55.

  1598.—"One CANDIEL (v.l. _candiil_) is little more or less than 14
  bushels, wherewith they measure Rice, Corne, and all
  graine."—_Linschoten_, 69; [Hak. Soc. i. 245].

  1618.—"The CANDEE at this place (Batecala) containeth neere 500
  pounds."—_W. Hore_, in _Purchas_, i. 657.

  1710.—"They advised that they have supplied Habib Khan with ten CANDY of
  country gunpowder."—In _Wheeler_, ii. 136.

  c. 1760.—Grose gives the Bombay CANDY as 20 maunds of 28 lbs. each = 560
  lbs.; the Surat ditto as 20 maunds of 37⅓ lbs. = 746⅔ lbs.; the Anjengo
  ditto 560 lbs.; the Carwar ditto 575 lbs.; the Coromandel ditto at 500
  lbs. &c.


(3) CANDY (SUGAR-). This name of crystallized sugar, though it came no
doubt to Europe from the P.-Ar. _ḳand_ (P. also _shakar ḳand_; Sp. _azucar
cande_; It. _candi_ and _zucchero candito_; Fr. _sucre candi_) is of Indian
origin. There is a Skt. root _khaṇḍ_, 'to break,' whence _khaṇḍa_,
'broken,' also applied in various compounds to granulated and candied
sugar. But there is also Tam. _kar-kaṇḍa_, _kala-kaṇḍa_, Mal. _kaṇḍi_,
_kalkaṇḍi_, and _kalkaṇṭu_, which may have been the direct source of the P.
and Ar. adoption of the word, and perhaps its original, from a Dravidian
word = 'lump.' [The Dravidian terms mean 'stone-piece.']

A German writer, long within last century (as we learn from Mahn, quoted in
Diez's Lexicon), appears to derive CANDY from Candia, "because most of the
sugar which the Venetians imported was brought from that island"—a fact
probably invented for the nonce. But the writer was the same wiseacre who
(in the year 1829) characterised the book of Marco Polo as a "clumsily
compiled ecclesiastical fiction disguised as a Book of Travels" (see
_Introduction_ to _Marco Polo_, 2nd ed. pp. 112-113).

  c. 1343.—"A centinajo si vende giengiovo, cannella, lacca, incenso,
  indaco ... verzino scorzuto, zucchero ... ZUCCHERO CANDI ... porcellane
  ... costo...."—_Pegolotti_, p. 134.

  1461.—"... Un ampoletto di balsamo. Teriaca bossoletti 15. Zuccheri
  Moccari (?) panni 42. ZUCCHERI CANDITI, scattole 5...."—_List of Presents
  from Sultan of Egypt to the Doge._ (See under BENJAMIN.)

  c. 1596.—"White sugar candy (ḲANDĪ _safed_) ... 5½ _dams_ per
  _ser._"—_Āīn_, i. 63.

  1627.—"SUGAR CANDIE, or Stone Sugar."—_Minshew_, 2nd ed. s.v.

  1727.—"The Trade they have to China is divided between them and _Surat_
  ... the Gross of their own Cargo, which consists in Sugar, SUGAR-CANDY,
  Allom, and some Drugs ... are all for the _Surat_ Market."—_A. Hamilton_,
  i. 371.


CANGUE, s. A square board, or portable pillory of wood, used in China as a
punishment, or rather, as Dr. Wells Williams says, as a kind of censure,
carrying no disgrace; strange as that seems to us, with whom the essence of
the pillory is disgrace. The frame weighs up to 30 lbs., a weight limited
by law. It is made to rest on the shoulders without chafing the neck, but
so broad as to prevent the wearer from feeding himself. It is generally
taken off at night (_Giles_, [and see _Gray, China_, i. 55 _seqq._]).

The _Cangue_ was introduced into China by the Tartar dynasty of Wei in the
5th century, and is first mentioned under A.D. 481. In the _Kwang-yun_ (a
Chin. Dict. published A.D. 1009) it is called _kanggiai_ (modern mandarin
_hiang-hiai_), _i.e._ 'Neck-fetter.' From this old form probably the
Anamites have derived their word for it, _gong_, and the Cantonese
_k'ang-ka_, 'to wear the _Cangue_,' a survival (as frequently happens in
Chinese vernaculars) of an ancient term with a new orthography. It is
probable that the Portuguese took the word from one of these latter forms,
and associated it with their own _canga_, 'an ox-yoke,' or 'porter's yoke
for carrying burdens.' [This view is rejected by the _N.E.D._ on the
authority of Prof. Legge, and the word is regarded as derived from the
Port. form given above. In reply to an enquiry, Prof. Giles writes: "I am
entirely of opinion that the word is from the Port., and not from any
Chinese term."] The thing is alluded to by F. M. Pinto and other early
writers on China, who do not give it a name.

Something of this kind was in use in countries of Western Asia, called in
P. _doshāka_ (_bilignum_). And this word is applied to the Chinese _cangue_
in one of our quotations. _Doshāka_, however, is explained in the lexicon
_Burhān-i-Ḳāṭi_ as 'a piece of timber with two branches placed on the neck
of a criminal' (_Quatremère_, in _Not. et Extr._ xiv. 172, 173).

  1420.—"... made the ambassadors come forward side by side with certain
  prisoners.... Some of these had a _doshāka_ on their necks."—_Shah Rukh's
  Mission to China_, in _Cathay_, p. cciv.

  [1525.—Castanheda (Bk. VI. ch. 71, p. 154) speaks of women who had come
  from Portugal in the ships without leave, being tied up in a CAGA and
  whipped.]

  c. 1540.—"... Ordered us to be put in a horrid prison with fetters on our
  feet, manacles on our hands, and _collars_ on our necks...."—_F. M.
  Pinto_, (orig.) ch. lxxxiv.

  1585.—"Also they doo lay on them a certaine covering of timber, wherein
  remaineth no more space of hollownesse than their bodies doth make: thus
  they are vsed that are condemned to death."—_Mendoza_ (tr. by Parke,
  1599), Hak. Soc. i. 117-118.

  1696.—"He was imprisoned, CONGOED, tormented, but making friends with his
  Money ... was cleared, and made Under-Customer...."—_Bowyer's Journal_ at
  Cochin China, in _Dalrymple, Or. Rep._ i. 81.

  [1705.—"All the people were under confinement in separate houses and also
  in CONGASS."—_Hedges, Diary_, Hak. Soc. ii. cccxl.]

     "    "I desir'd several Times to wait upon the Governour; but could
  not, he was so taken up with over-halling the Goods, that came from _Pulo
  Condore_, and weighing the Money, which was found to amount to 21,300
  Tale. At last upon the 28th, I was obliged to appear as a Criminal in
  CONGAS, before the Governour and his Grand Council, attended with all the
  Slaves in the CONGAS."—Letter from _Mr. James Conyngham_, survivor of the
  Pulo Condore massacre, in _Lockyer_, p. 93. Lockyer adds: "I understood
  the CONGAS to be Thumbolts" (p. 95).

  1727.—"With his neck in the CONGOES which are a pair of Stocks made of
  bamboos."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 175.

  1779.—"Aussitôt on les mit tous trois en prison, des chaines aux pieds,
  une CANGUE au cou."—_Lettres Edif._ xxv. 427.

  1797.—"The punishment of the _cha_, usually called by Europeans the
  CANGUE, is generally inflicted for petty crimes."—_Staunton, Embassy_,
  &c., ii. 492.

  1878.—"... frapper sur les joues a l'aide d'une petite lame de cuir;
  c'est, je crois, la seule correction infligée aux femmes, car je n'en ai
  jamais vu aucune porter la CANGUE."—_Léon Rousset, À Travers la Chine_,
  124.


CANHAMEIRA, CONIMERE, [COONIMODE], n.p. _Kanyimeḍu_ [or _Kunimeḍu_, Tam.
_kūni_, 'humped,' _meḍu_, 'mound']; a place on the Coromandel coast, which
was formerly the site of European factories (1682-1698) between Pondicherry
and Madras, about 13 m. N. of the former.

  1501.—In Amerigo Vespucci's letter from C. Verde to Lorenzo de' Medici,
  giving an account of the Portuguese discoveries in India, he mentions on
  the coast, before _Mailepur_, "CONIMAL."—In _Baldelli-Boni_, Introd. to
  _Il Milione_, p. liii.

  1561.—"On this coast there is a place called CANHAMEIRA, where there are
  so many deer and wild cattle that if a man wants to buy 500 deer-skins,
  within eight days the blacks of the place will give him delivery,
  catching them in snares, and giving two or three skins for a
  fanam."—_Correa_, ii. 772.

  1680.—"It is resolved to apply to the Soobidar of Sevagee's Country of
  Chengy for a Cowle to settle factories at Cooraboor (?) and COONEMERRO,
  and also at Porto Novo, if desired."—_Ft. St. Geo. Consns._, 7th Jan., in
  _Notes and Exts._, No. iii. p. 44.

  [1689.—"We therefore conclude it more safe and expedient that the Chief
  of CONIMERE ... do go and visit Rama Raja."—In _Wheeler, Early Rec._, p.
  97.]

  1727.—"CONNYMERE or CONJEMEER is the next Place, where the _English_ had
  a Factory many Years, but, on their purchasing Fort St. _David_, it was
  broken up.... At present its name is hardly seen in the Map of
  Trade."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 357.

  1753.—"De Pondicheri, à Madras, la côte court en général nord-nord-est
  quelques degrés est. Le premier endroit de remarque est CONGI-MEDU,
  vulgairement dit CONGIMER, à quatre lieues marines plus que moins de
  Pondicheri."—_D'Anville_, p. 123.


CANNANORE, n.p. A port on the coast of northern Malabar, famous in the
early Portuguese history, and which still is the chief British military
station on that coast, with a European regiment. The name is _Kaṇṇūr_ or
_Kaṇṇanūr_, 'Krishna's Town.' [The _Madras Gloss._ gives Mal. _kannu_,
'eye,' _ur_, 'village,' _i.e._ 'beautiful village.']

  c. 1506.—"In CANANOR il suo Re si è zentil, e qui nasce zz. (_i.e._
  _zenzari_, 'ginger'); ma li zz. pochi e non cusi boni come quelli de
  Colcut."—_Leonardo Ca' Masser_, in _Archivio Storico Ital._, Append.

  1510.—"CANONOR is a fine and large city, in which the King of Portugal
  has a very strong castle.... This Canonor is a port at which horses which
  come from Persia disembark."—_Varthema_, 123.

  1572.—

   "Chamará o Samorim mais gente nova
        *     *     *     *     *
    Fará que todo o Nayre em fim se mova
    Que entre Calecut jaz, e CANANOR."
               _Camões_, x. 14.


By Burton:

   "The Samorin shall summon fresh allies;
        *     *     *     *     *
    lo! at his bidding every Nayr-man hies,
    that dwells 'twixt Calecut and CANANOR."

  [1611.—"The old Nahuda Mahomet of CAINNOR goeth aboard in this
  boat."—_Danvers, Letters_, i. 95.]


CANONGO, s. P. _ḳānūn-go_, _i.e._ 'Law-utterer' (the first part being Arab.
from Gr. κανών). In upper India, and formerly in Bengal, the registrar of a
_taḥṣīl_, or other revenue subdivision, who receives the reports of the
_patwārīs_, or village registrars.

  1758.—"Add to this that the King's CONNEGOES were maintained at our
  expense, as well as the Gomastahs and other servants belonging to the
  Zemindars, whose accounts we sent for."—_Letter to Court_, Dec. 31, in
  _Long_, 157.

  1765.—"I have to struggle with every difficulty that can be thrown in my
  way by ministers, _mutseddies_, CONGOES (!), &c., and their
  dependents."—Letter from _F. Sykes_, in _Carraccioli's Life of Clive_, i.
  542.


CANTEROY, s. A gold coin formerly used in the S.E. part of Madras
territory. It was worth 3 rs. Properly _Kanṭhiravi hun_ (or pagoda) from
_Kanṭhiravā Rāyā_, 'the lion-voiced,' [Skt. _kaṇṭha_, 'throat,' _rava_,
'noise'], who ruled in Mysore from 1638 to 1659 (_C. P. Brown, MS._;
[_Rice, Mysore_, i. 803]. See _Dirom's Narrative_, p. 279, where the
revenues of the territory taken from Tippoo in 1792 are stated in CANTERAY
pagodas.

  1790.—"The full collections amounted to five Crores and ninety-two lacks
  of CANTEROY pagodas of 3 Rupees each."—_Dalrymple, Or. Rep._ i. 237.

  1800.—"Accounts are commonly kept in Canter'raia PALAMS, and in an
  imaginary money containing 10 of these, by the Musulmans called
  _chucrams_ [see CHUCKRUM], and by the English CANTEROY
  Pagodas...."—_Buchanan's Mysore_, i. 129.


CANTON, n.p. The great seaport of Southern China, the chief city of the
Province of Kwang-tung, whence we take the name, through the Portuguese,
whose older writers call it _Cantão_. The proper name of the city is
_Kwang-chau-fu_. The Chin. name _Kwang-tung_ (= 'Broad East') is an
ellipsis for "capital of the E. Division of the Province _Liang-Kwang_ (or
'Two Broad Realms')."—(_Bp. Moule_).

  1516.—"So as this went on Fernão Peres arrived from Pacem with his cargo
  (of pepper), and having furnished himself with necessaries set off on his
  voyage in June 1516 ... they were 7 sail altogether, and they made their
  voyage with the aid of good pilots whom they had taken, and went without
  harming anybody touching at certain ports, most of which were subject to
  the King of China, who called himself the Son of God and Lord of the
  World. Fernão Peres arrived at the islands of China, and when he was seen
  there came an armed squadron of 12 junks, which in the season of
  navigation always cruized about, guarding the sea, to prevent the
  numerous pirates from attacking the ships. Fernão Peres knew about this
  from the pilots, and as it was late, and he could not double a certain
  island there, he anchored, sending word to his captains to have their
  guns ready for defence if the Chins desired to fight. Next day he made
  sail towards the island of Veniaga, which is 18 leagues from the city of
  CANTÃO. It is on that island that all the traders buy and sell, without
  licence from the rulers of the city.... And 3 leagues from that island of
  Veniaga is another island, where is posted the Admiral or Captain-Major
  of the Sea, who immediately on the arrival of strangers at the island of
  Veniaga reports to the rulers of CANTÃO, who they are, and what goods
  they bring or wish to buy; that the rulers may send orders what course to
  take."—_Correa_, ii. 524.

  c. 1535.—"... queste cose ... vanno alla China con li lor giunchi, e a
  CAMTON, che è Città grande...."—_Sommario de' Regni, Ramusio_, i. f. 337.

  1585.—"The Chinos do vse in their pronunciation to terme their cities
  with this sylable, Fu, that is as much as to say, citie, as Taybin fu,
  CANTON fu, and their townes with this syllable, Cheu."—_Mendoza_, Parke's
  old E. T. (1588) Hak. Soc. i. 24.

  1727.—"CANTON or _Quantung_ (as the Chinese express it) is the next
  maritime Province."—_A. Hamilton_, ii. 217.


CANTONMENT, s. (Pron. _Cantoonment_, with accent on penult.). This English
word has become almost appropriated as Anglo-Indian, being so constantly
used in India, and so little used elsewhere. It is applied to military
stations in India, built usually on a plan which is originally that of a
standing camp or 'cantonment.'

  1783.—"I know not the full meaning of the word CANTONMENT, and a camp
  this singular place cannot well be termed; it more resembles a large
  town, very many miles in circumference. The officers' bungalos on the
  banks of the Tappee are large and convenient," &c.—_Forbes_, Letter in
  _Or. Mem._ describing the "Bengal Cantonments near Surat," iv. 239.

  1825.—"The fact, however, is certain ... the CANTONMENTS at Lucknow, nay
  Calcutta itself, are abominably situated. I have heard the same of
  Madras; and now the lately-settled CANTONMENT of Nusseerabad appears to
  be as objectionable as any of them."—_Heber_, ed. 1844, ii. 7.

  1848.—"Her ladyship, our old acquaintance, is as much at home at Madras
  as at Brussels—in the CANTONMENT as under the tents."—_Vanity Fair_, ii.
  ch. 8.


CAPASS, s. The cotton plant and cotton-wool. H. _kapās_, from Skt.
_karpasa_, which seems as if it must be the origin of κάρπασος, though the
latter is applied to flax.

  1753.—"... They cannot any way conceive the musters of 1738 to be a fit
  standard for judging by them of the cloth sent us this year, as the
  COPASS or country cotton has not been for these two years past under nine
  or ten rupees...."—_Ft. Wm. Cons._, in _Long_, 40.

  [1813.—"Guzerat cows are very fond of the CAPAUSSIA, or
  cotton-seed."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ 2nd ed. ii. 35.]


CAPEL, s. Malayāl. _kappal_, 'a ship.' This word has been imported into
Malay, _kāpal_, and Javanese. [It appears to be still in use on the W.
Coast; see _Bombay Gazetteer_, xiii. (2) 470.]

  1498.—In the vocabulary of the language of Calicut given in the _Roteiro
  de V. de Gama_ we have—

  "_Naoo_; CAPELL."—p. 118.

  1510.—"Some others which are made like ours, that is in the bottom, they
  call CAPEL."—_Varthema_, 154.


CAPELAN, n.p. This is a name which was given by several 16th-century
travellers to the mountains in Burma from which the rubies purchased at
Pegu were said to come; the idea of their distance, &c., being very vague.
It is not in our power to say what name was intended. [It was perhaps
_Kyat-pyen_.] The real position of the 'ruby-mines' is 60 or 70 m. N.E. of
Mandalay. [See Ball's _Tavernier_, ii. 99, 465 _seqq._]

  1506.—"... e qui è uno porto appresso uno loco che si chiama ACAPLEN,
  dove li se trova molti rubini, e spinade, e zoie d'ogni sorte."—_Leonardo
  di Ca' Masser_, p. 28.

  1510.—"The sole merchandise of these people is jewels, that is, rubies,
  which come from another city called CAPELLAN, which is distant from this
  (Pegu) 30 days' journey."—_Varthema_, 218.

  1516.—"Further inland than the said Kingdom of Ava, at five days journey
  to the south-east, is another city of Gentiles ... called CAPELAN, and
  all round are likewise found many and excellent rubies, which they bring
  to sell at the city and fair of Ava, and which are better than those of
  Ava."—_Barbosa_, 187.

  c. 1535.—"This region of Arquam borders on the interior with the great
  mountain called CAPELANGAM, where are many places inhabited by a not very
  civilised people. These carry musk and rubies to the great city of Ava,
  which is the capital of the Kingdom of Arquam...."—_Sommario de Regni_,
  in _Ramusio_, i. 334_v_.

  c. 1660.—"... A mountain 12 days journey or thereabouts, from _Siren_
  towards the North-east; the name whereof is CAPELAN. In this mine are
  found great quantities of Rubies."—_Tavernier_ (E. T.) ii. 143; [ed.
  _Ball_, ii. 99].

  Phillip's Mineralogy (according to Col. Burney) mentions the locality of
  the ruby as "the CAPELAN mountains, sixty miles from Pegue, a city in
  Ceylon!"—(_J. As. Soc. Bengal_, ii. 75). This writer is certainly very
  loose in his geography, and Dana (ed. 1850) is not much better: "The best
  ruby sapphires occur in the CAPELAN mountains, near Syrian, a city of
  Pegu."—_Mineralogy_, p. 222.


CAPUCAT, n.p. The name of a place on the sea near Calicut, mentioned by
several old authors, but which has now disappeared from the maps, and
probably no longer exists. The proper name is uncertain. [It is the little
port of Kāppatt or Kappaṭ-ṭangadi (Mal. _kāval_, 'guard,' _pātu_, 'place,')
in the Cooroombranaud Taluka of the Malabar District. (_Logan, Man. of
Malabar_, i. 73). The _Madras Gloss._ calls it _Caupaud_. Also see Gray,
_Pyrard_, i. 360.]

  1498.—In the _Roteiro_ it is called CAPUA.

  1500.—"This being done the Captain-Major (Pedralvares Cabral) made sail
  with the foresail and mizen, and went to the port of CAPOCATE which was
  attached to the same city of Calecut, and was a haven where there was a
  great loading of vessels, and where many ships were moored that were all
  engaged in the trade of Calicut...."—_Correa_, i. 207.

  1510.—"... another place called CAPOGATTO, which is also subject to the
  King of Calecut. This place has a very beautiful palace, built in the
  ancient style."—_Varthema_, 133-134.

  1516.—"Further on ... is another town, at which there is a small river,
  which is called CAPUCAD, where there are many country-born Moors, and
  much shipping."—_Barbosa_, 152.

  1562.—"And they seized a great number of grabs and vessels belonging to
  the people of KABKAD, and the new port, and Calicut, and Funan [_i.e._
  _Ponany_], these all being subject to the
  Zamorin."—_Tohfat-ul-Mujahideen_, tr. by _Rowlandson_, p. 157. The want
  of editing in this last book is deplorable.


CARACOA, CARACOLLE, KARKOLLEN, &c., s. Malay _kōra-kōra_ or _kūra-kūra_,
which is [either a transferred use of the Malay _kūra-kūra_, or _ku-kūra_,
'a tortoise,' alluding, one would suppose, either to the shape or pace of
the boat, but perhaps the tortoise was named from the boat, or the two
words are independent; or from the Ar. _ḳurḳūr_, pl. _ḳarāḳīr_, 'a large
merchant vessel.' Scott (s.v. _Coracora_), says: "In the absence of proof
to the contrary, we may assume _kora-kora_ to be native Malayan."] Dozy
(s.v. _Carraca_) says that the Ar. _ḳura-ḳūra_ was, among the Arabs, a
merchant vessel, sometimes of very great size. Crawfurd describes the Malay
_ḳura-ḳura_, as 'a large kind of sailing vessel'; but the quotation from
Jarric shows it to have been the Malay galley. Marre (_Kata-Kata Malayou_,
87) says: "The Malay KORA-KORA is a great row-boat; still in use in the
Moluccas. Many measure 100 feet long and 10 wide. Some have as many as 90
rowers."

  c. 1330.—"We embarked on the sea at Lādhikiya in a big _ḳurḳūra_
  belonging to Genoese people, the master of which was called
  Martalamin."—_Ibn Batuta_, ii. 254.

  1349.—"I took the sea on a small _ḳurḳūra_ belonging to a
  Tunisian."—_Ibid._ iv. 327.

  1606.—"The foremost of these galleys or CARACOLLES recovered our Shippe,
  wherein was the King of Tarnata."—_Middleton's Voyage_, E. 2.

     "    "... Nave conscensâ, quam linguâ patriâ CARACORA noncupant.
  Navigii genus est oblõgum, et angustum, triremis instar, velis simul et
  remis impellitur."—_Jarric, Thesaurus_, i. 192.

  [1613.—"CURRA-CURRA." See quotation under ORANKAY.]

  1627.—"They have Gallies after their manner, formed like Dragons, which
  they row very swiftly, they call them KARKOLLEN."—_Purchas, Pilgrimage_,
  606.

  1659.—"They (natives of Ceram, &c.) hawked these dry heads backwards and
  forwards in their KORREKORRES as a special rarity."—_Walter Schultzen's
  Ost-Indische Reise, &c._, p. 41.

  1711.—"Les Philippines nomment ces batimens CARACOAS. C'est vne espèce de
  petite galère à rames et à voiles."—_Lettres Edif._ iv. 27.

  1774.—"A COROCORO is a vessel generally fitted with outriggers, having a
  high arched stem and stern, like the points of a half moon.... The Dutch
  have fleets of them at Amboyna, which they employ as
  guarda-costos."—_Forrest, Voyage to N. Guinea_, 23. Forrest has a plate
  of a COROCORO, p. 64.

  [1869.—"The boat was one of the kind called KORA-KORA, quite open, very
  low, and about four tons burden. It had out-riggers of bamboo, about five
  off each side, which supported a bamboo platform extending the whole
  length of the vessel. On the extreme outside of this sat the twenty
  rowers, while within was a convenient passage fore and aft. The middle of
  the boat was covered with a thatch-house, in which baggage and passengers
  are stowed; the gunwale was not more than a foot above water, and from
  the great side and top weight, and general clumsiness, these boats are
  dangerous in heavy weather, and are not infrequently lost."—_Wallace,
  Malay Arch._, ed. 1890, p. 266.]


CARAFFE, s. Dozy shows that this word, which in English we use for a
water-bottle, is of Arabic origin, and comes from the root _gharaf_, 'to
draw' (water), through the Sp. _garráfa_. But the precise Arabic word is
not in the dictionaries. (See under CARBOY.)


CARAMBOLA, s. The name given by various old writers on Western India to the
beautiful acid fruit of the tree (_N.O. Oxalideae_) called by Linn. from
this word, _Averrhoa carambola_. This name was that used by the Portuguese.
De Orta tells us that it was the Malabar name. The word _karanbal_ is also
given by Molesworth as the Mahratti name; [another form is _karambela_,
which comes from the Skt. _karmara_ given below in the sense of
'food-appetizer']. In Upper India the fruit is called _kamranga_,
_kamrakh_, or _khamrak_ (Skt. _karmara_, _karmāra_, _karmaraka_,
_karmaranga_).[57] (See also BLIMBEE.) Why a cannon at billiards should be
called by the French _carambolage_ we do not know. [If Mr. Ball be right,
the fruit has a name, Cape-Gooseberry, in China which in India is used for
the Tiparry.—_Things Chinese_, 3rd ed. 253.]

  c. 1530.—"Another fruit is the KERMERIK. It is fluted with five sides,"
  &c.—_Erskine's Baber_, 325.

  1563.—"_O._ Antonia, pluck me from that tree a CARAMBOLA or two (for so
  they call them in Malavar, and we have adopted the Malavar name, because
  that was the first region where we got acquainted with them).

  "_A._ Here they are.

  "_R._ They are beautiful; a sort of sour-sweet, not _very_ acid.

  "_O._ They are called in Canarin and Decan _camariz_, and in Malay
  _balimba_ ... they make with sugar a very pleasant conserve of these....
  Antonia! bring hither a preserved CARAMBOLA."—_Garcia_, ff. 46_v_, 47.

  1598.—"There is another fruite called CARAMBOLAS, which hath 8 (5 really)
  corners, as bigge as a smal aple, sower in eating, like vnripe plums, and
  most vsed to make Conserues. (_Note by Paludanus_). The fruite which the
  Malabars and Portingales call CARAMBOLAS, is in Decan called CAMARIX, in
  Canar, _Camarix_ and _Carabeli_; in Malaio, _Bolumba_, and by the
  Persians CHAMAROCH."—_Linschoten_, 96; [Hak. Soc. ii. 33].

  1672.—"The CARAMBOLA ... as large as a pear, all sculptured (as it were)
  and divided into ribs, the ridges of which are not round but sharp,
  resembling the heads of those iron maces that were anciently in use."—_P.
  Vincenzo Maria_, 352.

  1878.—"... the oxalic KAMRAK."—_In my Indian Garden_, 50.

  [1900.—"... that most curious of fruits, the CARAMBOLA, called by the
  Chinese the _yong-t'o_, or foreign peach, though why this name should
  have been selected is a mystery, for when cut through, it looks like a
  star with five rays. By Europeans it is also known as the _Cape
  gooseberry_."—_Ball, Things Chinese_, 3rd ed. p. 253.]


CARAT, s. Arab _ḳirrāt_, which is taken from the Gr. κεράτιον, a bean of
the κερατεία or carob tree (_Ceratonia siliqua_, L.). This bean, like the
Indian _rati_ (see RUTTEE) was used as a weight, and thence also it gave
name to a coin of account, if not actual. To discuss the carat fully would
be a task of extreme complexity, and would occupy several pages.

Under the name of _siliqua_ it was the 24th part of the golden solidus of
Constantine, which was again = 1/6 of an ounce. Hence this carat was =
1/144 of an ounce. In the passage from St. Isidore quoted below, the
_cerates_ is distinct from the _siliqua_, and = 1½ _siliquae_. This we
cannot explain, but the _siliqua Graeca_ was the κεράτιον; and the
_siliqua_ as 1/24 of a solidus is the parent of the _carat_ in all its
uses. [See Prof. Gardner, in Smith, _Dict. Ant._ 3rd ed. ii. 675.] Thus we
find the _carat_ at Constantinople in the 14th century = 1/24 of the
_hyperpera_ or Greek _bezant_, which was a debased representative of the
solidus; and at Alexandria 1/24 of the Arabic _dīnār_, which was a purer
representative of the solidus. And so, as the Roman _uncia_ signified 1/12
of any unit (compare _ounce_, _inch_), so to a certain extent _carat_ came
to signify 1/24. Dictionaries give Arab. _ḳirrāṭ_ as "1/24 of an ounce." Of
this we do not know the evidence. The _English Cyclopaedia_ (s.v.) again
states that "the _carat_ was originally the 24th part of the _marc_, or
half-pound, among the French, from whom the word came." This sentence
perhaps contains more than one error; but still both of these allegations
exhibit the _carat_ as 1/24th part. Among our goldsmiths the term is still
used to measure the proportionate quality of gold; pure gold being put at
24 _carats_, gold with 1/12 alloy at 22 _carats_, with ¼ alloy at 18
_carats_, &c. And the word seems also (like ANNA, q.v.) sometimes to have
been used to express a proportionate scale in other matters, as is
illustrated by a curious passage in Marco Polo, quoted below.

The _carat_ is also used as a weight for diamonds. As 1/144 of an ounce
troy this ought to make it 3⅓ grains. But these carats really run 151½ to
the ounce troy, so that the diamond _carat_ is 3-1/6 grs. nearly. This we
presume was adopted direct from some foreign system in which the carat
_was_ 1/144 of the local ounce. [See Ball, _Tavernier_, ii. 447.]

  c. A.D. 636.—"Siliqua vigesima quarta pars solidi est, ab arboris semine
  vocabulum tenens. _Cerates_ oboli pars media est siliquã habens unam
  semis. Hanc latinitas semiobulũ vocat; CERATES autem Graece, Latine
  siliqua cornuũ interpretatur. Obulus siliquis tribus appenditur, habens
  _cerates_ duos, calcos quatuor."—_Isidori Hispalensis Opera_ (ed. Paris,
  1601), p. 224.

  1298.—"The Great Kaan sends his commissioners to the Province to select
  four or five hundred ... of the most beautiful young women, according to
  the scale of beauty enjoined upon them. The commissioners ... assemble
  all the girls of the province, in presence of appraisers appointed for
  the purpose. These carefully survey the points of each girl.... They will
  then set down some as estimated at 16 CARATS, some at 17, 18, 20, or more
  or less, according to the sum of the beauties or defects of each. And
  whatever standard the Great Kaan may have fixed for those that are to be
  brought to him, whether it be 20 carats or 21, the commissioners select
  the required number from those who have attained to that
  standard."—_Marco Polo_, 2nd ed. i. 350-351.

  1673.—"A stone of one Carrack is worth 10_l._"—_Fryer_, 214.


CARAVAN, s. P. _karwān_; a convoy of travellers. The Ar. _ḳāfila_ is more
generally used in India. The word is found in French as early as the 13th
century (_Littré_). A quotation below shows that the English transfer of
the word to a wheeled conveyance for travellers (now for goods also) dates
from the 17th century. The abbreviation _van_ in this sense seems to have
acquired rights as an English word, though the altogether analogous _bus_
is still looked on as slang.

  c. 1270.—"Meanwhile the convoy (la CARAVANA) from Tortosa ... armed seven
  vessels in such wise that any one of them could take a galley if it ran
  alongside."—_Chronicle of James of Aragon_, tr. by _Foster_, i. 379.

  1330.—"De hac civitate recedens cum CARAVANIS et cum quadam societate,
  ivi versus Indiam Superiorem."—_Friar Odoric_, in _Cathay_, &c., ii. App.
  iii.

  1384.—"Rimonda che l'avemo, vedemo venire una grandissima CAROVANA di
  cammelli e di Saracini, che recavano spezierie delle parti
  d'India."—_Frescobaldi_, 64.

  c. 1420.—"Is adolescens ab Damasco Syriae, ubi mercaturae gratiâ erat,
  perceptâ prius Arabum linguâ, in coetu mercatorum—hi sexcenti erant—quam
  vulgo CAROANAM dicunt...."—_N. Conti_, in _Poggius de Varietate
  Fortunae_.

  1627.—"A CARAVAN is a convoy of souldiers for the safety of merchants
  that trauell in the East Countreys."—_Minshew_, 2nd ed. s.v.

  1674.—"CARAVAN or KARAVAN (Fr. _caravane_) a Convoy of Souldiers for the
  safety of Merchants that travel by Land. Also of late corruptly used with
  us for a kind of Waggon to carry passengers to and from
  London."—_Glossographia_, &c., by J. E.


CARAVANSERAY, s. P. _karwānsarāī_; a SERAI (q.v.) for the reception of
CARAVANS (q.v.).

  1404.—"And the next day being Tuesday, they departed thence and going
  about 2 leagues arrived at a great house like an Inn, which they call
  CARABANSACA (read _-sara_), and here were Chacatays looking after the
  Emperor's horses."—_Clavijo_, § xcviii. Comp. _Markham_, p. 114.

  [1528.—"In the Persian language they call these houses CARVANCARAS, which
  means resting-place for caravans and strangers."—_Tenreiro_, ii. p. 11.]

  1554.—"I'ay à parler souuent de ce nom de CARBACHARA: ... Ie ne peux le
  nommer autrement en François, sinon vn CARBACHARA: et pour le sçauoir
  donner à entendre, il fault supposer qu'il n'y a point d'hostelleries es
  pays ou domaine le Turc, ne de lieux pour se loger, sinon dedens celles
  maisons publiques appellée CARBACHARA...."—_Observations_ par _P. Belon_,
  f. 59.

  1564.—"Hic diverti in diversorium publicum, CARAVASARAI Turcae vocant ...
  vastum est aedificium ... in cujus medio patet area ponendis sarcinis et
  camelis."—_Busbequii, Epist._ i. (p. 35).

  1619.—"... a great bazar, enclosed and roofed in, where they sell stuffs,
  cloths, &c. with the House of the Mint, and the great CARAVANSERAI, which
  bears the name of _Lala Beig_ (because Lala Beig the Treasurer gives
  audiences, and does his business there) and another little CARAVANSERAI,
  called that of the _Ghilac_ or people of Ghilan."—_P. della Valle_ (from
  Ispahan), ii. 8; [comp. Hak. Soc. i. 95].

  1627.—"At _Band Ally_ we found a neat CARRAVANSRAW or Inne ... built by
  mens charity, to give all civill passengers a resting place _gratis_; to
  keepe them from the injury of theeves, beasts, weather, &c."—_Herbert_,
  p. 124.


CARAVEL, s. This often occurs in the old Portuguese narratives. The word is
alleged to be not Oriental, but Celtic, and connected in its origin with
the old British _coracle_; see the quotation from Isidore of Seville, the
indication of which we owe to Bluteau, s.v. The Portuguese _caravel_ is
described by the latter as a 'round vessel' (_i.e._ not long and sharp like
a galley), with lateen sails, ordinarily of 200 tons burthen. The character
of swiftness attributed to the _caravel_ (see both Damian and Bacon below)
has suggested to us whether the word has not come rather from the Persian
Gulf—Turki _ḳarāwul_, 'a scout, an outpost, a vanguard.' Doubtless there
are difficulties. [The _N.E.D._ says that it is probably the dim. of Sp.
_caraba_.] The word is found in the following passage, quoted from the Life
of St. Nilus, who died c. 1000, a date hardly consistent with Turkish
origin. But the Latin translation is by Cardinal Sirlet, c. 1550, and the
word may have been changed or modified:—

  "Cogitavit enim in unaquaque Calabriae regione perficere navigia.... Id
  autem non ferentes Russani cives ... simul irruentes ac tumultuantes
  navigia combusserunt et eas quae CARAVELLAE appellantur secuerunt."—In
  the Collection of _Martene_ and _Durand_, vi. col. 930.

  c. 638.—"CARABUS, parua scafa ex vimine facta, quae contexta crudo corio
  genus navigii praebet."—_Isidori Hispal. Opera._ (Paris, 1601), p. 255.

  1492.—"So being one day importuned by the said Christopher, the Catholic
  King was persuaded by him that nothing should keep him from making this
  experiment; and so effectual was this persuasion that they fitted out for
  him a ship and two CARAVELS, with which at the beginning of August 1492,
  with 120 men, sail was made from Gades."—_Summary of the H. of the
  Western Indies_, by _Pietro Martire_ in _Ramusio_, iii. f. 1.

  1506.—"Item traze della Mina d'oro de Ginea ogn anno ducati 120 mila che
  vien ogni mise do' CARAVELLE con ducati 10 mila."—_Leonardo di Ca'
  Masser_, p. 30.

  1549.—"Viginti et quinque agiles naues, quas et CARAVELLAS dicimus, quo
  genere nauium soli Lusitani utuntur."—_Damiani a Goës, Diensis
  Oppugnatio_, ed. 1602, p. 289.

  1552.—"Ils lâchèrent les bordées de leurs KARAWELLES; ornèrent leurs
  vaisseaux de pavillons, et s'avancèrent sur nous."—_Sidi Ali_, p. 70.

  c. 1615.—"She may spare me her mizen and her bonnets; I am a CARVEL to
  her."—_Beaum. & Flet., Wit without Money_, i. 1.

  1624.—"Sunt etiam naves quaedam nunciae quae ad officium celeritatis
  apposite exstructae sunt (quas CARUELLAS vocant)."—_Bacon, Hist.
  Ventorum._

  1883.—"The deep-sea fishing boats called _Machoās_ ... are CARVEL built,
  and now generally iron fastened...."—_Short Account of Bombay Fisheries_,
  by _D. G. Macdonald_, M.D.


CARBOY, s. A large glass bottle holding several gallons, and generally
covered with wicker-work, well known in England, where it is chiefly used
to convey acids and corrosive liquids in bulk. Though it is not an
Anglo-Indian word, it comes (in the form _ḳarāba_) from Persia, as Wedgwood
has pointed out. Kaempfer, whom we quote from his description of the wine
trade at Shiraz, gives an exact etching of a carboy. Littré mentions that
the late M. Mohl referred CARAFFE to the same original; but see that word.
_Ḳarāba_ is no doubt connected with Ar. _ḳirba_, 'a large leathern
milk-bottle.'

  1712.—"Vasa vitrea, alia sunt majora, ampullacea et circumducto scirpo
  tunicata, quae vocant KARABÀ.... Venit _Karaba_ una apud vitriarios
  duobus mamudi, raro carius."—_Kaempfer, Amoen. Exot._ 379.

  1754.—"I delivered a present to the Governor, consisting of oranges and
  lemons, with several sorts of dried fruits, and six KARBOYS of Isfahan
  wine."—_Hanway_, i. 102.

  1800.—"Six CORABAHS of rose-water."—_Symes, Emb. to Ava_, p. 488.

  1813.—"CARBOY of Rosewater...."—_Milburn_, ii. 330.

  1875.—"People who make it (Shiraz Wine) generally bottle it themselves,
  or else sell it in huge bottles called 'KURABA' holding about a dozen
  quarts."—_Macgregor, Journey through Khorassan_, &c., 1879, i. 37.


CARCANA, CARCONNA, s. H. from P. _kārkhāna_, 'a place where business is
done'; a workshop; a departmental establishment such as that of the
commissariat, or the artillery park, in the field.

  1663.—"There are also found many raised Walks and Tents in sundry Places,
  that are the offices of several Officers. Besides these there are many
  great Halls that are called KAR-KANAYS, or places where Handy-craftsmen
  do work."—_Bernier_, E. T. 83; [ed. _Constable_, 258].

  c. 1756.—"In reply, Hydur pleaded his poverty ... but he promised that as
  soon as he should have established his power, and had time to regulate
  his departments (KĀRKHĀNAJĀT), the amount should be paid."—_Hussein Ali
  Khan, History of Hydur Naik_, p. 87.

  1800.—"The elephant belongs to the KARKANA, but you may as well keep him
  till we meet."—_Wellington_, i. 144.

  1804.—"If the (bullock) establishment should be formed, it should be in
  regular KARKANAS."—_Ibid._ iii. 512.


CARCOON, s. Mahr. _kārkūn_, 'a clerk,' H.—P. _kār-kun_, (_faciendorum
factor_) or 'manager.'

  [c. 1590.—"In the same way as the KARKUN sets down the transactions of
  the assessments, the _muḳaddam_ and the _patwāri_ shall keep their
  respective accounts."—_Āīn_, tr. _Jarrett_, ii. 45.

  [1615.—"Made means to the CORCONE or Scrivano to help us to the copia of
  the King's licence."—_Foster, Letters_, iii. 122.

  [1616.—"Addick Raia Pongolo, CORCON of this place."—_Ibid._ iv. 167.]

  1826.—"My benefactor's chief CARCOON or clerk allowed me to sort out and
  direct despatches to officers at a distance who belonged to the command
  of the great Sawant Rao."—_Pandurang Hari_, 21; [ed. 1873, i. 28.]


CARÉNS, n.p. Burm. _Ka-reng_, [a word of which the meaning is very
uncertain. It is said to mean 'dirty-feeders,' or 'low-caste people,' and
it has been connected with the _Kirāta_ tribe (see the question discussed
by _McMahon, The Karens of the Golden Chersonese_, 43 _seqq._)]. A name
applied to a group of non-Burmese tribes, settled in the forest and hill
tracts of Pegu and the adjoining parts of Burma, from Mergui in the south,
to beyond Toungoo in the north, and from Arakan to the Salwen, and beyond
that river far into Siamese territory. They do not know the name _Kareng_,
nor have they one name for their own race; distinguishing, among these whom
we call Karens, three tribes, _Sgaw_, _Pwo_, and _Bghai_, which differ
somewhat in customs and traditions, and especially in language. "The
results of the labours among them of the American Baptist Mission have the
appearance of being almost miraculous, and it is not going too far to state
that the cessation of blood feuds, and the peaceable way in which the
various tribes are living ... and have lived together since they came under
British rule, is far more due to the influence exercised over them by the
missionaries than to the measures adopted by the English Government,
beneficial as these doubtless have been" (_Br. Burma Gazetteer_, [ii.
226]). The author of this excellent work should not, however, have admitted
the quotation of Dr. Mason's fanciful notion about the identity of Marco
Polo's _Carajan_ with Karen, which is totally groundless.

  1759.—"There is another people in this country called CARIANNERS, whiter
  than either (Burmans or Peguans), distinguished into _Buraghmah_ and
  _Pegu_ CARIANNERS; they live in the _woods_, in small Societies, of ten
  or twelve _houses_; are not wanting in industry, though it goes no
  further than to procure them an annual subsistence."—In _Dalrymple, Or.
  Rep._ i. 100.

  1799—"From this reverend father (V. Sangermano) I received much useful
  information. He told me of a singular description of people called
  CARAYNERS or CARIANERS, that inhabit different parts of the country,
  particularly the western provinces of Dalla and Bassein, several
  societies of whom also dwell in the district adjacent to Rangoon. He
  represented them as a simple, innocent race, speaking a language distinct
  from that of the Birmans, and entertaining rude notions of religion....
  They are timorous, honest, mild in their manners, and exceedingly
  hospitable to strangers."—_Symes_, 207.

  c. 1819.—"We must not omit here the CARIAN, a good and peaceable people,
  who live dispersed through the forests of Pegù, in small villages
  consisting of 4 or 5 houses ... they are totally dependent upon the
  despotic government of the Burmese."—_Sangermano_, p. 34.


CARICAL, n.p. Etymology doubtful; Tam. _Karaikkāl_, [which is either
_kārai_, 'masonry' or 'the plant, thorny webera': _kāl_, 'channel' (_Madras
Adm. Man._ ii. 212, _Gloss._ s.v.)]. A French settlement within the limits
of Tanjore district.


CARNATIC, n.p. _Karṇāṭaka_ and _Kārṇāṭaka_, Skt. adjective forms from
_Karṇāṭa_ or _Kārṇāṭa_, [Tam. _kar_, 'black,' _nādu_, 'country']. This word
in native use, according to Bp. Caldwell, denoted the Telegu and Canarese
people and their language, but in process of time became specially the
appellation of the people speaking Canarese and their language (_Drav.
Gram._ 2nd ed. Introd. p. 34). The Mahommedans on their arrival in S. India
found a region which embraces Mysore and part of Telingāna (in fact the
kingdom of Vijayanagara), called the _Karṇāṭaka_ country, and this was
identical in application (and probably in etymology) with the CANARA
country (q.v.) of the older Portuguese writers. The _Karṇāṭaka_ became
extended, especially in connection with the rule of the Nabobs of Arcot,
who partially occupied the Vijayanagara territory, and were known as Nawābs
of the _Karṇāṭaka_, to the country below the Ghauts, on the eastern side of
the Peninsula, just as the other form _Canara_ had become extended to the
country below the Western Ghauts; and eventually among the English the term
_Carnatic_ came to be understood in a sense more or less restricted to the
eastern low country, though never quite so absolutely as Canara has become
restricted to the western low country. The term _Carnatic_ is now obsolete.

  c. A.D. 550.—In the _Bṛihat-Saṅhitā_ of Varāhamihira, in the enumeration
  of peoples and regions of the south, we have in Kern's translation (_J.
  R. As. Soc._ N.S. v. 83) _Karnatic_; the original form, which is not
  given by Kern, is KARNĀTA.

  c. A.D. 1100.—In the later Sanskrit literature this name often occurs,
  _e.g._ in the _Kathasaritsāgara_, or 'Ocean of Rivers of Stories,' a
  collection of tales (in verse) of the beginning of the 12th century, by
  Somadeva, of Kashmir; but it is not possible to attach any very precise
  meaning to the word as there used. [See refs. in _Tawney_, tr. ii. 651.]

  A.D. 1400.—The word also occurs in the inscriptions of the Vijayanagara
  dynasty, _e.g._ in one of A.D. 1400.—(_Elem. of S. Indian Palaeography_,
  2nd ed. pl. xxx.)

  1608.—"In the land of KARṆĀṬA and Vidyānagara was the King
  Mahendra."—_Taranatha's H. of Buddhism_, by _Schiefner_, p. 267.

  c. 1610.—"The Zamindars of Singaldip (Ceylon) and KARNÁTAK came up with
  their forces and expelled Sheo Rai, the ruler of the Dakhin."—_Firishta_,
  in _Elliot_, vi. 549.

  1614.—See quotation from Couto under CANARA.

  [1623.—"His Tributaries, one of whom was the Queen of CURNAT."—_P. della
  Valle_, Hak. Soc. ii. 314.]

  c. 1652.—"Gandicot is one of the strongest Cities in the Kingdom of
  CARNATICA."—_Tavernier_, E. T. ii. 98; [ed. _Ball_, i. 284].

  c. 1660.—"The Ráís of the KARNÁTIK, Mahratta (country), and Telingana,
  were subject to the Ráí of Bidar."—_'Amal-i-Sálih_, in _Elliot_ vii. 126.

  1673.—"I received this information from the natives, that the CANATICK
  country reaches from _Gongola_ to the _Zamerhin's_ Country of the
  _Malabars_ along the Sea, and inland up to the Pepper Mountains of
  _Sunda_.... _Bedmure_, four Days Journey hence, is the Capital
  City."—_Fryer_, 162, in Letter IV., _A Relation of the_ CANATICK
  _Country_.—Here he identifies the "Canatick" with Canara below the
  Ghauts.

So also the coast of Canara seems meant in the following:—

  c. 1760.—"Though the navigation from the CARNATIC coast to Bombay is of a
  very short run, of not above six or seven degrees...."—_Grose_, i. 232.

     "    "The CARNATIC or province of Arcot ... its limits now are greatly
  inferior to those which bounded the ancient CARNATIC; for the Nabobs of
  Arcot have never extended their authority beyond the river Gondegama to
  the north; the great chain of mountains to the west; and the branches of
  the Kingdom of Trichinopoli, Tanjore, and Maissore to the south; the sea
  bounds it on the east."—_Ibid._ II. vii.

  1762.—"Siwaee Madhoo Rao ... with this immense force ... made an
  incursion into the KARNATIC Balaghaut."—_Hussein Ali Khan, History of
  Hydur Naik_, 148.

  1792.—"I hope that our acquisitions by this peace will give so much
  additional strength and compactness to the frontier of our possessions,
  both in the CARNATIC, and on the coast of Malabar, as to render it
  difficult for any power above the Ghauts to invade us."—_Lord
  Cornwallis's_ Despatch from Seringapatam, in _Seton-Karr_, ii. 96.

  1826.—"Camp near Chillumbrum (CARNATIC), March 21st." This date of a
  letter of Bp. Heber's is probably one of the latest instances of the use
  of the term in a natural way.


CARNATIC FASHION. See under BENIGHTED.


(1). CARRACK, n.p. An island in the upper part of the Persian Gulf, which
has been more than once in British occupation. Properly KHĀRAK. It is so
written in _Jaubert's Edrisi_ (i. 364, 372). But Dr. Badger gives the
modern Arabic as _el-Khārij_, which would represent old P. _Khārig_.

  c. 830.—"KHAREK ... cette isle qui a un farsakh en long et en large,
  produit du blé, des palmiers, et des vignes."—_Ibn Khurdādba_, in _J.
  As._ ser. vi. tom. v. 283.

  c. 1563.—"Partendosi da Basora si passa 200 miglia di Golfo co'l mare a
  banda destra sino che si giunge nell' isola di CARICHI...."—_C.
  Federici_, in _Ramusio_, iii. 386v.

  1727.—"The Islands of CARRICK ly, about West North West, 12 Leagues from
  _Bowchier_."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 90.

  1758.—"The Baron ... immediately sailed for the little island of KAREC,
  where he safely landed; having attentively surveyed the spot he at that
  time laid the plan, which he afterwards executed with so much
  success."—_Ives_, 212.


(2). CARRACK, s. A kind of vessel of burden from the Middle Ages down to
the end of the 17th century. The character of the earlier _carrack_ cannot
be precisely defined. But the larger cargo-ships of the Portuguese in the
trade of the 16th century were generally so styled, and these were
sometimes of enormous tonnage, with 3 or 4 decks. Charnock (_Marine
Architecture_, ii. p. 9) has a plate of a Genoese carrack of 1542. He also
quotes the description of a Portuguese carrack taken by Sir John Barrough
in 1592. It was of 1,600 tons burden, whereof 900 merchandize; carried 32
brass pieces and between 600 and 700 passengers (?); was built with 7
decks. The word (L. Lat.) _carraca_ is regarded by Skeat as properly
_carrica_, from _carricare_, It. _caricare_, 'to lade, to charge.' This is
possible; but it would be well to examine if it be not from the Ar.
_ḥarāḳah_, a word which the dictionaries explain as 'fire-ship'; though
this is certainly not always the meaning. Dozy is inclined to derive
_carraca_ (which is old in Sp. he says) from _ḳarāḳir_, the pl. of _ḳurḳūr_
or _ḳurḳūra_ (see CARACOA). And _ḳurḳūra_ itself he thinks may have come
from _carricare_, which already occurs in St. Jerome. So that Mr. Skeat's
origin is possibly correct. [The _N.E.D._ refers to _carraca_, of which the
origin is said to be uncertain.] Ibn Batuta uses the word twice at least
for a state barge or something of that kind (see _Cathay_ p. 499, and _Ibn
Bat._ ii. 116; iv. 289). The like use occurs several times in _Makrizi_
(_e.g._ I. i. 143; I. ii. 66; and II. i. 24). Quatremère at the place first
quoted observes that the _ḥarāḳah_ was not a fire ship in our sense, but a
vessel with a high deck from which fire could be thrown; but that it could
also be used as a transport vessel, and was so used on sea and land.

  1338.—"... after that we embarked at Venice on board a certain CARRACK,
  and sailed down the Adriatic Sea."—_Friar Pasqual_, in _Cathay_, &c.,
  231.

  1383.—"Eodem tempore venit in magnâ tempestate ad Sandevici portum navis
  quam dicunt CARIKA (mirae) magnitudinis, plena divitiis, quae facile
  inopiam totius terrae relevare potuisset, si incolarum invidia
  permisisset."—_T. Walsingham, Hist. Anglic._, by _H. T. Riley_, 1864, ii.
  83-84.

  1403.—"The prayer being concluded, and the storm still going on, a light
  like a candle appeared in the cage at the mast-head of the CARRACA, and
  another light on the spar that they call bowsprit (_bauprés_) which is
  fixed in the forecastle; and another light like a candle _in una vara de
  espinelo_ (?) over the poop, and these lights were seen by as many as
  were in the CARRACK, and were called up to see them, and they lasted
  awhile and then disappeared, and all this while the storm did not cease,
  and by-and-by all went to sleep except the steersman and certain sailors
  of the watch."—_Clavijo_, § xiii. Comp. _Markham_, p. 13.

  1548.—"De Thesauro nostro munitionum artillariorum, Tentorum, Pavilionum,
  pro Equis navibus CARACATIS, Galeis et aliis navibus
  quibuscumque...."—Act of Edw. VI. in _Rymer_, xv. 175.

  1552.—"Ils avaient 4 barques, grandes comme des _ḳarrāḳa_...."—_Sidi
  'Ali_, p. 67.

  1566-68.—"... about the middle of the month of Ramazan, in the year 974,
  the inhabitants of Funan and Fandreeah [_i.e._ Ponany and PANDARĀNI,
  q.v.], having sailed out of the former of these ports in a fleet of 12
  grabs, captured a CARACCA belonging to the Franks, which had arrived from
  Bengal, and which was laden with rice and sugar ... in the year 976
  another party ... in a fleet of 17 grabs ... made capture off Shaleeat
  (see CHALIA) of a large CARACCA, which had sailed from Cochin, having on
  board nearly 1,000 Franks...."—_Tohfut-ul-Mujahideen_, p. 159.

  1596.—"It comes as farre short as ... a cocke-boate of a CARRICK."—_T.
  Nash, Have with you to Saffron Walden_, repr. by _J. P. Collier_, p. 72.

  1613.—"They are made like CARRACKS, only strength and storage."—_Beaum. &
  Flet., The Coxcomb_, i. 3.

  1615.—"After we had given her chase for about 5 hours, her colours and
  bulk discovered her to be a very great Portugal CARRACK bound for
  Goa."—_Terry_, in _Purchas_; [ed. 1777, p. 34].

  1620.—"The harbor at Nangasaque is the best in all Japon, wheare there
  may be 1000 seale of shipps ride landlockt, and the greatest shipps or
  CARICKES in the world ... ride before the towne within a cable's length
  of the shore in 7 or 8 fathom water at least."—_Cocks, Letter to
  Batavia_, ii. 313.

  c. 1620.—"Il faut attendre là des Pilotes du lieu, que les Gouverneurs de
  Bombaim et de Marsagão ont soin d'envoyer tout à l'heure, pour conduire
  le Vaisseau à Turumba [_i.e._ Trombay] où les CARAQUES ont coustume
  d'hyverner."—_Routier ... des Indes Or._, by _Aleixo da Motta_, in
  _Thevenot_.

  c. 1635.—

   "The bigger Whale, like some huge CARRACK lay
    Which wanted Sea room for her foes to play...."
               _Waller, Battle of the Summer Islands._

  1653.—"... pour moy il me vouloit loger en son Palais, et que si i'auois
  la volonté de retourner a Lisbone par mer, il me feroit embarquer sur les
  premieres KARAQUES...."—_De la Boullaye-le-Gouz_, ed. 1657, p. 213.

  1660.—"And further, That every Merchant Denizen who shall hereafter ship
  any Goods or Merchandize in any CARRACK or Galley shall pay to your
  Majesty all manner of Customs, and all the Subsidies aforesaid, as any
  Alien born out of the Realm."—Act 12 Car. II. cap. iv. s. iv. (Tonnage
  and Poundage).

  c. 1680.—"To this City of the floating ... which foreigners, with a
  little variation from _carroços_, call CARRACAS."—_Vieira_, quoted by
  _Bluteau_.

  1684.—"... there was a CARACK of Portugal cast away upon the Reef having
  on board at that Time 4,000,000 of Guilders in Gold ... a present from
  the King of Siam to the King of Portugal."—_Cowley_, 32, in _Dampier's
  Voyages_, iv.


CARRAWAY, s. This word for the seed of _Carum carui_, L., is (probably
through Sp. _alcaravea_) from the Arabic _karawiyā_. It is curious that the
English form is thus closer to the Arabic than either the Spanish, or the
French and Italian _carvi_, which last has passed into Scotch as _carvy_.
But the Arabic itself is a corruption [not immediately, _N.E.D._] of Lat.
_careum_, or Gr. κάρον (_Dozy_).


CARTMEEL, s. This is, at least in the Punjab, the ordinary form that
'mail-cart' takes among the natives. Such inversions are not uncommon. Thus
Sir David Ochterlony was always called by the Sepoys _Loni-okhtar_. In our
memory an officer named _Holroyd_ was always called by the Sepoys _Roydāl_,
[and _Brownlow_, _Lobrūn_. By another curious corruption _Mackintosh_
becomes _Makkhanī-tosh_, 'buttered toast'!]


CARTOOCE, s. A cartridge; _kārtūs_, Sepoy H.; [comp. TOSTDAUN].


CARYOTA, s. This is the botanical name (_Caryota urens_, L.) of a
magnificent palm growing in the moister forest regions, as in the Western
Ghauts and in Eastern Bengal, in Ceylon, and in Burma. A conspicuous
character is presented by its enormous bipinnate leaves, somewhat
resembling colossal bracken-fronds, 15 to 25 feet long, 10 to 12 in width;
also by the huge pendent clusters of its inflorescence and seeds, the
latter like masses of rosaries 10 feet long and upwards. It affords much
TODDY (q.v.) made into spirit and sugar, and is the tree chiefly affording
these products in Ceylon, where it is called _Kitul_. It also affords a
kind of sago, and a woolly substance found at the foot of the leaf-stalks
is sometimes used for caulking, and forms a good tinder. The sp. name
_urens_ is derived from the acrid, burning taste of the fruit. It is
called, according to Brandis, the _Mhār_-palm in Western India. We know of
no Hindustani or familiar Anglo-Indian name. [Watt, (_Econ. Dict._ ii. 206)
says that it is known in Bombay as the _Hill_ or _Sago_ palm. It has
penetrated in Upper India as far as Chunār.] The name _Caryota_ seems taken
from Pliny, but his application is to a kind of date-palm; his statement
that it afforded the best wine of the East probably suggested the transfer.

  c. A.D. 70.—"Ab his CARYOTAE maxume celebrantur, et cibo quidem et suco
  uberrimae, ex quibus praecipua vina orienti, iniqua capiti, unde pomo
  nomen."—_Pliny_, xiii. § 9.

  1681.—"The next tree is the _Kettule_. It groweth straight, but not so
  tall or big as a _Coker-Nut-Tree_; the inside nothing but a white pith,
  as the former. It yieldeth a sort of Liquor ... very sweet and pleasing
  to the Pallate.... The which Liquor they boyl and make a kind of brown
  sugar called _Jaggory_ [see JAGGERY], &c."—_Knox_, p. 15.

  1777.—"The CARYOTA _urens_, called the Saguer tree, grew between Salatiga
  and Kopping, and was said to be the real tree from which sago is
  made."—_Thunberg_, E. T. iv. 149. A mistake, however.

  1861.—See quotation under PEEPUL.


CASH, s. A name applied by Europeans to sundry coins of low value in
various parts of the Indies. The word in its original form is of extreme
antiquity, "Skt. _karsha_ ... a weight of silver or gold equal to 1/400 of
a _Tulā_" (_Williams, Skt. Dict._; and see also a Note on the _Kārsha_, or
rather _kārshāpaṇa_, as a copper coin of great antiquity, in _E. Thomas's
Pathân Kings of Delhi_, 361-362). From the Tam. form _kāsu_, or perhaps
from some Konkani form which we have not traced, the Portuguese seem to
have made _caixa_, whence the English _cash_. In Singalese also _kāsi_ is
used for 'coin' in general. The English term was appropriated in the
monetary system which prevailed in S. India up to 1818; thus there was a
copper coin for use in Madras struck in England in 1803, which bears on the
reverse, "XX Cash." A figure of this coin is given in _Ruding_. Under this
system 80 cash = 1 fanam, 42 fanams = 1 star pagoda. But from an early date
the Portuguese had applied _caixa_ to the small money of foreign systems,
such as those of the Malay Islands, and especially to that of the Chinese.
In China the word _cash_ is used, by Europeans and their hangers-on, as the
synonym of the Chinese _le_ and _tsien_, which are those coins made of an
alloy of copper and lead with a square hole in the middle, which in former
days ran 1000 to the _liang_ or TAEL (q.v.), and which are strung in
certain numbers on cords. [This type of money, as was recently pointed out
by Lord Avebury, is a survival of the primitive currency, which was in the
shape of an axe.] Rouleaux of coin thus strung are represented on the
surviving bank-notes of the Ming dynasty (A.D. 1368 onwards), and probably
were also on the notes of their Mongol predecessors.

The existence of the distinct English word _cash_ may probably have
affected the form of the corruption before us. This word had a European
origin from It. _cassa_, French _caisse_, 'the money-chest': this word in
book-keeping having given name to the heading of account under which actual
disbursements of coin were entered (see _Wedgwood_ and _N.E.D._ s.v.). In
Minsheu (2nd ed. 1627) the present sense of the word is not attained. He
only gives "a tradesman's CASH, or Counter to keepe money in."

  1510.—"They have also another coin called CAS, 16 of which go to a _tare_
  of silver."—_Varthema_, 130.

     "    "In this country (Calicut) a great number of apes are produced,
  one of which is worth 4 CASSE, and one CASSE is worth a
  _quattrino_."—_Ibid._ 172. (Why a monkey should be worth 4 _casse_ is
  obscure.)

  1598.—"You must understand that in _Sunda_ there is also no other kind of
  money than certaine copper mynt called CAIXA, of the bignes of a Hollãdes
  doite, but not half so thicke, in the middle whereof is a hole to hang it
  on a string, for that commonlie they put two hundreth or a thousand vpon
  one string."—_Linschoten_, 34; [Hak. Soc. i. 113].

  1600.—"Those (coins) of Lead are called CAXAS, whereof 1600 make one
  mas."—_John Davis_, in _Purchas_, i. 117.

  1609.—"Ils (les Chinois) apportent la monnoye qui a le cours en toute
  l'isle de Iava, et Isles circonvoisines, laquelle en lãgue Malaique est
  appellee CAS.... Cette monnoye est jettée en moule en Chine, a la Ville
  de Chincheu."—_Houtman_, in _Nav. des Hollandois_, i. 30_b_.

  [1621.—"In many places they threw abroad CASHES (or brasse money) in
  great quantety."—_Cocks, Diary_, ii. 202.]

  1711.—"Doodoos and CASH are Copper Coins, eight of the former make one
  Fanham, and ten of the latter one Doodoo."—_Lockyer_, 8. [_Doodoo_ is the
  Tel. _duddu_, Skt. _dvi_, 'two'; a more modern scale is: 2 _dooggaunies_
  = 1 _doody_: 3 _doodies_ = 1 _anna_.—_Mad. Gloss._ s.v.]

  1718.—"CASS (a very small coin, eighty whereof make one
  Fano)."—_Propagation of the Gospel in the East_, ii. 52.

  1727.—"At Atcheen they have a small coin of leaden Money called CASH,
  from 12 to 1600 of them goes to one _Mace_, or _Masscie_."—_A. Hamilton_,
  ii. 109.

  c. 1750-60.—"At Madras and other parts of the coast of Coromandel, 80
  CASCHES make a fanam, or 3d. sterling; and 36 fanams a silver pagoda, or
  7s. 8d. sterling."—_Grose_, i. 282.

  1790.—"So far am I from giving credit to the late Government (of Madras)
  for œconomy, in not making the necessary preparations for war, according
  to the positive orders of the Supreme Government, after having received
  the most gross insult that could be offered to any nation! I think it
  very possible that every CASH of that ill-judged saving may cost the
  company a crore of rupees."—Letter of _Lord Cornwallis_ to E. J. Hollond,
  Esq., see the _Madras Courier_, 22nd Sept. 1791.

  [1792.—"Whereas the sum of Raheties 1223, 6 fanams and 30 KHAS has been
  deducted."—Agreement in _Logan, Malabar_, iii. 226.]

  1813.—At Madras, according to Milburn, the coinage ran:

  "10 CASH = 1 _doodee_; 2 _doodees_ = 1 pice; 8 _doodees_ = 1 single
  fanam," &c.

The following shows a singular corruption, probably of the Chinese _tsien_,
and illustrates how the striving after meaning shapes such corruptions:—

  1876.—"All money transactions (at Manwyne on the Burman-Chinese frontier)
  are effected in the copper coin of China called '_change_,' of which
  about 400 or 500 go to the rupee. These coins are generally strung on
  cord," &c.—_Report on the Country through which the Force passed to meet
  the Governor_, by _W. J. Charlton, M.D._

An intermediate step in this transformation is found in Cocks's _Japan
Journal_, _passim_, _e.g._, ii. 89:

  "But that which I tooke most note of was of the liberalitee and devotion
  of these heathen people, who thronged into the Pagod in multetudes one
  after another to cast money into a littel chapell before the idalles,
  most parte ... being _gins_ or brass money, whereof 100 of them may
  vallie som 10d. str., and are about the bignes of a 3d. English money."


CASHEW, s. The tree, fruit, or nut of the _Anacardium occidentale_, an
American tree which must have been introduced early into India by the
Portuguese, for it was widely diffused apparently as a wild tree long
before the end of the 17th century, and it is described as an Indian tree
by Acosta, who wrote in 1578. Crawfurd also speaks of it as abundant, and
in full bearing, in the jungly islets of Hastings Archipelago, off the
coast of Camboja (_Emb. to Siam, &c._, i. 103) [see _Teele's_ note on
_Linschoten_, Hak. Soc. ii. 27]. The name appears to be S. American,
_acajou_, of which an Indian form, _kājū_, [and Malay _gajus_], have been
made. The so-called fruit is the fleshy top of the peduncle which bears the
nut. The oil in the shell of the nut is acrid to an extraordinary degree,
whilst the kernels, which are roasted and eaten, are quite bland. The tree
yields a gum imported under the name of _Cadju_ gum.

  1578.—"This tree gives a fruit called commonly CAIU; which being a good
  stomachic, and of good flavour, is much esteemed by all who know it....
  This fruit does not grow everywhere, but is found in gardens at the city
  of Santa Cruz in the Kingdom of Cochin."—_C. Acosta, Tractado_, 324
  _seqq._

  1598.—"CAJUS groweth on trees like apple-trees, and are of the bignes of
  a Peare."—_Linschoten_, p. 94; [Hak. Soc. ii. 28].

  [1623.—_P. della Valle_, Hak. Soc. i. 135, calls it CAGIU.]

  1658.—In _Piso, De Indiae utriusque Re Naturali et Medicâ_, Amst., we
  have a good cut of the tree as one of Brasil, called _Acaibaa_ "et
  fructus ejus ACAJU."

  1672.—"... il CAGIU.... Questo è l'Amandola ordinaria dell'India, per il
  che se ne raccoglie grandissima quantità, essendo la pianta fertilissima
  e molto frequente, ancora nelli luoghi più deserti et inculti."—_Vincenzo
  Maria_, 354.

  1673.—Fryer describes the tree under the name _Cheruse_ (apparently some
  mistake), p. 182.

  1764.—

         "... Yet if
    The ACAJOU haply in the garden bloom...."
               _Grainger_, iv.

  [1813.—Forbes calls it "the _chashew_-apple," and the
  "_cajew_-apple."—_Or. Mem._ 2nd ed. i. 232, 238.]

  c. 1830.—"The CASHEW, with its apple like that of the cities of the
  Plain, fair to look at, but acrid to the taste, to which the far-famed
  nut is appended like a bud."—_Tom Cringle_, ed. 1863, p. 140.

  1875.—"CAJOO kernels."—_Table of Customs Duties imposed in Br. India up
  to 1875._


CASHMERE, n.p. The famous valley province of the Western Himālaya, H. and
P. _Kashmīr_, from Skt. _Kaśmīra_, and sometimes _Kāśmīra_, alleged by
Burnouf to be a contraction of _Kaśyapamīra_. [The name is more probably
connected with the _Khasa_ tribe.] Whether or not it be the _Kaspatyrus_ or
_Kaspapyrus_ of Herodotus, we believe it undoubtedly to be the _Kaspeiria_
(kingdom) of Ptolemy. Several of the old Arabian geographers write the name
with the guttural _ḳ_, but this is not so used in modern times.

  c. 630.—"The Kingdom of KIA-SHI-MI-LO (_Kaśmīra_) has about 7000 _li_ of
  circuit. On all sides its frontiers are surrounded by mountains; these
  are of prodigious height; and although there are paths affording access
  to it, these are extremely narrow."—_Hwen T'sang_ (_Pèl. Bouddh._) ii.
  167.

  c. 940.—"ḲASHMĪR ... is a mountainous country, forming a large kingdom,
  containing not less than 60,000 or 70,000 towns or villages. It is
  inaccessible except on one side, and can only be entered by one
  gate."—_Mas'ūdi_, i. 373.

  1275.—"ḲASHMĪR, a province of India, adjoining the Turks; and its people
  of mixt Turk and Indian blood excel all others in beauty."—_Zakarīya
  Kazvīni_, in _Gildemeister_, 210.

  1298.—"KESHIMUR also is a province inhabited by a people who are
  idolaters and have a language of their own ... this country is the very
  source from which idolatry has spread abroad."—_Marco Polo_, i. 175.

  1552.—"The Mogols hold especially towards the N.E. the region Sogdiana,
  which they now call QUEXIMIR, and also Mount Caucasus which divides India
  from the other Provinces."—_Barros_, IV. vi. 1.

  1615.—"CHISHMEERE, the chiefe Citie is called _Sirinakar_."—_Terry_, in
  _Purchas_, ii. 1467; [so in _Roe's_ Map, vol. ii. Hak. Soc. ed.; CHISMER
  in _Foster, Letters_, iii. 283].

  1664.—"From all that hath been said, one may easily conjecture, that I am
  somewhat charmed with KACHEMIRE, and that I pretend there is nothing in
  the world like it for so small a kingdom."—_Bernier_, E. T. 128; [ed.
  _Constable_, 400].

  1676.—

   "A trial of your kindness I must make;
    Though not for mine, so much as virtue's sake,
    The Queen of CASSIMERE...."
               _Dryden's Aurungzebe_, iii. 1.

  1814.—"The shawls of CASSIMER and the silks of Iran."—_Forbes, Or. Mem._
  iii. 177; [2nd ed. ii. 232]. (See KERSEYMERE.)


CASIS, CAXIS, CACIZ, &c., s. This Spanish and Portuguese word, though Dozy
gives it only as _prêtre chrétien_, is frequently employed by old
travellers, and writers on Eastern subjects, to denote Mahommedan divines
(_mullas_ and the like). It may be suspected to have arisen from a
confusion of two Arabic terms—_kāḍi_ (see CAZEE) and _ḳashīsh_ or _ḳasīs_,
'a Christian Presbyter' (from a Syriac root signifying _senuit_). Indeed we
sometimes find the precise word _ḳashīsh_ (_Caxix_) used by Christian
writers as if it were the special title of a Mahommedan theologian, instead
of being, as it really is, the special and technical title of a Christian
priest (a fact which gives Mount Athos its common Turkish name of _Ḳashīsh
Dāgh_). In the first of the following quotations the word appears to be
applied by the Mussulman historian to _pagan_ priests, and the word for
churches to pagan temples. In the others, except that from Major Millingen,
it is applied by Christian writers to Mahommedan divines, which is indeed
its recognised signification in Spanish and Portuguese. In Jarric's
_Thesaurus_ (Jesuit Missions, 1606) the word _Cacizius_ is constantly used
in this sense.

  c. 1310.—"There are 700 churches (_kalīsīa_) resembling fortresses, and
  every one of them overflowing with presbyters (ḲASHĪSHĀN) without faith,
  and monks without religion."—_Description of the Chinese City of Khanzai_
  (Hangchau) in _Wasāf's History_ (see also _Marco Polo_, ii. 196).

  1404.—"The town was inhabited by Moorish hermits called CAXIXES; and many
  people came to them on pilgrimage, and they healed many
  diseases."—_Markham's Clavijo_, 79.

  1514.—"And so, from one to another, the message passed through four or
  five hands, till it came to a GAZIZI, whom we should call a bishop or
  prelate, who stood at the King's feet...."—Letter of _Giov. de Empoli_,
  in _Archiv. Stor. Ital._ Append. p. 56.

  1538.—"Just as the Cryer was offering to deliver me unto whomsoever would
  buy me, in comes that very CACIS Moulana, whom they held for a Saint,
  with 10 or 11 other CACIS his Inferiors, all Priests like himself of
  their wicked sect."—_F. M. Pinto_ (tr. by H. C.), p. 8.

  1552.—CACIZ in the same sense used by _Barros_, II. ii. 1.

  [1553.—See quotation from _Barros_ under LAR.

  [1554.—"Who was a CACIZ of the Moors, which means in Portuguese an
  ecclesiastic."—_Castañeda_, Bk. I. ch. 7.]

  1561.—"The King sent off the Moor, and with him his CASIS, an old man of
  much authority, who was the principal priest of his Mosque."—_Correa_, by
  _Ld. Stanley_, 113.

  1567.—"... The Holy Synod declares it necessary to remove from the
  territories of His Highness all the infidels whose office it is to
  maintain their false religion, such as are the CĀCIZES of the Moors, and
  the preachers of the Gentoos, _jogues_, sorcerers, (_feiticeiros_),
  _jousis_, _grous_ (_i.e._ _joshis_ or astrologers, and _gurūs_), and
  whatsoever others make a business of religion among the infidels, and so
  also the bramans and _paibus_ (? _prabhūs_, see PURVOE)."—_Decree 6 of
  the Sacred Council of Goa_, in _Arch. Port. Or._ fasc. 4.

  1580.—"... e foi sepultado no campo per CACISES."—_Primor e Honra_, &c.,
  f. 13_v_.

  1582.—"And for pledge of the same, he would give him his sonne, and one
  of his chief chaplaines, the which they call CACIS."—_Castañeda_, by N.
  L.

  1603.—"And now those initiated priests of theirs called _Cashishes_
  (CASCISCIS) were endeavouring to lay violent hands upon his
  property."—_Benedict Goës_, in _Cathay_, &c., ii. 568.

  1648.—"Here is to be seen an admirably wrought tomb in which a certain
  CASIS lies buried, who was the _Pedagogue_ or Tutor of a King of
  _Guzuratte_."—_Van Twist_, 15.

  1672.—"They call the common priests CASIS, or by another name _Schierifi_
  (see SHEREEF), who like their bishops are in no way distinguished in
  dress from simple laymen, except by a bigger turban ... and a longer
  mantle...."—_P. Vincenzo Maria_, 55.

  1688.—"While they were thus disputing, a CACIZ, or doctor of the law,
  joined company with them."—_Dryden, L. of Xavier, Works_, ed. 1821, xvi.
  68.

  1870.—"A hierarchical body of priests, known to the people (Nestorians)
  under the names of KIESHISHES and _Abunas_, is at the head of the tribes
  and villages, entrusted with both spiritual and temporal
  powers."—_Millingen, Wild Life among the Koords_, 270.


CASSANAR, CATTANAR, s. A priest of the Syrian Church of Malabar; Malayāl.
_kattanār_, meaning originally 'a chief,' and formed eventually from the
Skt. _kartṛi_.

  1606.—"The Christians of St. Thomas call their priests
  CAÇANARES."—_Gouvea_, f. 28_b_. This author gives CATATIARA and CAÇANEIRA
  as feminine forms, 'a Cassanar's wife.' The former is Malayāl.
  _kàttatti_, the latter a Port. formation.

  1612.—"A few years ago there arose a dispute between a Brahman and a
  certain CASSANAR on a matter of jurisdiction."—_P. Vincenzo Maria_, 152.

  [1887.—"Mgr. Joseph ... consecrated as a bishop ... a CATENAR."—_Logan,
  Man. of Malabar_, i. 211.]


CASSAY, n.p. A name often given in former days to the people of MUNNEEPORE
(Manipur), on the eastern frontier of Bengal. It is the Burmese name of
this people, _Kasé_, or as the Burmese pronounce it, _Kathé_. It must not
be confounded with CATHAY (q.v.) with which it has nothing to do. [See
SHAN.]

  1759.—In _Dalrymple's Orient. Repert._ we find CASSAY (i. 116).

  1795.—"All the troopers in the King's service are natives of CASSAY, who
  are much better horsemen than the Burmans."—_Symes_, p. 318.


CASSOWARY, s. The name of this great bird, of which the first species known
(_Casuarius galeatus_) is found only in Ceram Island (_Moluccas_), is Malay
_kasavārī_ or _kasuārī_; [according to Scott, the proper reading is
_kasuwārī_, and he remarks that no Malay Dict. records the word before
1863]. Other species have been observed in N. Guinea, N. Britain, and N.
Australia.

  [1611.—"St. James his Ginny Hens, the CASSAWARWAY moreover."—(_Note by
  Coryat._) "An East Indian bird at St. James in the keeping of Mr. Walker,
  that will carry no coales, but eat them as whot you will."—_Peacham_, in
  _Paneg. verses_ on Coryat's _Crudities_, sig. 1. 3r. (1776); quoted by
  Scott.]

  1631.—"De Emeu, vulgo CASOARIS. In insula Ceram, aliisque Moluccensibus
  vicinis insulis, celebris haec avis reperitur."—_Jac. Bontii_, lib. v. c.
  18.

  1659.—"This aforesaid bird COSSEBÀRES also will swallow iron and lead, as
  we once learned by experience. For when our Connestabel once had been
  casting bullets on the Admiral's Bastion, and then went to dinner, there
  came one of these COSSEBÀRES on the bastion, and swallowed 50 of the
  bullets. And ... next day I found that the bird after keeping them a
  while in his maw had regularly cast up again all the 50."—_J. J. Saar_,
  86.

  1682.—"On the islands Sumatra (?) Banda, and the other adjoining islands
  of the Moluccas there is a certain bird, which by the natives is called
  _Emeu_ or _Eme_, but otherwise is commonly named by us
  KASUARIS."—_Nieuhof_, ii. 281.

  1705.—"The CASSAWARIS is about the bigness of a large Virginia Turkey.
  His head is the same as a Turkey's; and he has a long stiff hairy Beard
  upon his Breast before, like a Turkey...."—_Funnel_, in _Dampier_, iv.
  266.


CASTE, s. "The artificial divisions of society in India, first made known
to us by the Portuguese, and described by them under their term _caste_,
signifying 'breed, race, kind,' which has been retained in English under
the supposition that it was the native name" (_Wedgwood_, s.v.). [See the
extraordinary derivation of Hamilton below.] Mr. Elphinstone prefers to
write "_Cast_."

We do not find that the early Portuguese writer Barbosa (1516) applies the
word _casta_ to the divisions of Hindu society. He calls these divisions in
Narsinga and Malabar so many _leis de gentios_, _i.e._ 'laws' of the
heathen, in the sense of sectarian rules of life. But he uses the word
_casta_ in a less technical way, which shows how it should easily have
passed into the technical sense. Thus, speaking of the King of Calicut:
"This King keeps 1000 women, to whom he gives regular maintenance, and they
always go to his court to act as the sweepers of his palaces ... these are
ladies, and of good family" (_estas saom fidalgas e de boa_ CASTA.—In
_Coll. of Lisbon Academy_, ii. 316). So also Castanheda: "There fled a
knight who was called Fernão Lopez, _homem de boa_ CASTA" (iii. 239). In
the quotations from Barros, Correa, and Garcia de Orta, we have the word in
what we may call the technical sense.

  c. 1444.—"Whence I conclude that this race (CASTA) of men is the most
  agile and dexterous that there is in the world."—_Cadamosto, Navegação_,
  i. 14.

  1552.—"The Admiral ... received these Naires with honour and joy, showing
  great contentment with the King for sending his message by such persons,
  saying that he expected this coming of theirs to prosper, as there did
  not enter into the business any man of the CASTE of the Moors."—_Barros_,
  I. vi. 5.

  1561.—"Some of them asserted that they were of the CASTE (_casta_) of the
  Christians."—_Correa, Lendas_, i. 2, 685.

  1563.—"One thing is to be noted ... that no one changes from his father's
  trade, and all those of the same CASTE (_casta_) of shoemakers are the
  same."—_Garcia_, f. 213_b_.

  1567.—"In some parts of this Province (of Goa) the Gentoos divide
  themselves into distinct races or CASTES (_castas_) of greater or less
  dignity, holding the Christians as of lower degree, and keep these so
  superstitiously that no one of a higher caste can eat or drink with those
  of a lower...."—Decree 2nd of the _Sacred Council of Goa_, in _Archiv.
  Port. Orient._, fasc. 4.

  1572.—

   "Dous modos ha de gente; porque a nobre
    Nairos chamados são, e a menos dina
    Poleas tem por nome, a quem obriga
    A lei não misturar a CASTÀ antiga."—
               _Camões_, vii. 37.

  By Burton:

   "Two modes of men are known; the nobles know
    the name of Nayrs, who call the lower CASTE
    Poléas, whom their haughty laws contain
    from intermingling with the higher strain."

  1612.—"As regards the CASTES (_castas_) the great impediment to the
  conversion of the Gentoos is the superstition which they maintain in
  relation to their CASTES, and which prevents them from touching,
  communicating, or mingling with others, whether superior or inferior;
  these of one observance with those of another."—_Couto_, Dec. V. vi. 4.
  See also as regards the Portuguese use of the word, _Gouvea_, ff. 103,
  104, 105, 106_b_, 129_b_; _Synodo_, 18_b_, &c.

  1613.—"The Banians kill nothing; there are thirtie and odd severall CASTS
  of these that differ something in Religion, and may not eat with each
  other."—_N. Withington_, in _Purchas_, i. 485; see also _Pilgrimage_, pp.
  997, 1003.

  1630.—"The common _Bramane_ hath eighty two CASTS or Tribes, assuming to
  themselves the name of that tribe...."—_Lord's Display of the Banians_,
  p. 72.

  1673.—"The mixture of CASTS or Tribes of all India are distinguished by
  the different modes of binding their Turbats."—_Fryer_, 115.

  c. 1760.—"The distinction of the Gentoos into their tribes or CASTS,
  forms another considerable object of their religion."—_Grose_, i. 201.

  1763.—"The CASTS or tribes into which the Indians are divided, are
  reckoned by travellers to be eighty-four."—_Orme_ (ed. 1803), i. 4.

  [1820.—"The Kayasthas (pronounced Kaists, hence the word CASTE) follow
  next."—_W. Hamilton, Descr. of Hindostan_, i. 109.]

  1878.—"There are thousands and thousands of these so-called CASTES; no
  man knows their number, no man can know it; for the conception is a very
  flexible one, and moreover new _castes_ continually spring up and pass
  away."—_F. Jagor, Ost-Indische Handwerk und Gewerbe_, 13.

CASTES are, according to Indian social views, either high or low.

  1876.—"LOW-CASTE Hindoos in their own land are, to all ordinary
  apprehension, slovenly, dirty, ungraceful, generally unacceptable in
  person and surroundings.... Yet offensive as is the _low-caste_ Indian,
  were I estate-owner, or colonial governor, I had rather see the lowest
  Pariahs of the low, than a single trim, smooth-faced, smooth-wayed,
  clever HIGH-CASTE Hindoo, on my lands or in my colony."—_W. G. Palgrave_,
  in _Fortnightly Rev._, cx. 226.

In the Madras Pres. _castes_ are also '_Right-hand_' and '_Left-hand_.'
This distinction represents the agricultural classes on the one hand, and
the artizans, &c., on the other, as was pointed out by F. W. Ellis. In the
old days of Ft. St. George, faction-fights between the two were very
common, and the terms _right-hand_ and _left-hand_ castes occur early in
the old records of that settlement, and frequently in Mr. Talboys Wheeler's
extracts from them. They are mentioned by Couto. [See _Nelson, Madura_, Pt.
ii. p. 4; _Oppert, Orig. Inhab._ p. 57.]

Sir Walter Elliot considers this feud to be "nothing else than the
occasional outbreak of the smouldering antagonism between Brahmanism and
Buddhism, although in the lapse of ages both parties have lost sight of the
fact. The points on which they split now are mere trifles, such as parading
on horse-back or in a palankeen in procession, erecting a PANDAL or
marriage-shed on a given number of pillars, and claiming to carry certain
flags, &c. The right-hand party is headed by the Brahmans, and includes the
Parias, who assume the van, beating their tom-toms when they come to blows.
The chief of the left-hand are the Panchalars [_i.e._ the Five Classes,
workers in metal and stone, &c.], followed by the Pallars and workers in
leather, who sound their long trumpets and engage the Parias." (In _Journ.
Ethnol. Soc._ N.S. 1869, p. 112.)

  1612.—"From these four CASTES are derived 196; and those again are
  divided into two parties, which they call _Valanga_ and _Elange_ [Tam.
  _valangai_, _idangai_], which is as much as to say 'the right hand' and
  'the left hand'...."—_Couto_, u. s.

The word is current in French:

  1842.—"Il est clair que les CASTES n'ont jamais pu exister solidement
  sans une veritable conservation religieuse."—_Comte, Cours de Phil.
  Positive_, vi. 505.

  1877.—"Nous avons aboli les CASTES et les privilèges, nous avons inscrit
  partout le principe de l'égalité devant la loi, nous avons donné le
  suffrage à tous, mais voilà qu'on réclame maintenant l'égalité des
  conditions."—_E. de Laveleye, De la Propriété_, p. iv.

CASTE is also applied to breeds of animals, as 'a HIGH-CASTE Arab.' In such
cases the usage may possibly have come directly from the Port. _alta
casta_, _casta baixa_, in the sense of breed or strain.


CASTEES, s. Obsolete. The Indo-Portuguese formed from _casta_ the word
_castiço_, which they used to denote children born in India of Portuguese
parents; much as _creole_ was used in the W. Indies.

  1599.—"Liberi vero nati in Indiâ, utroque parente Lusitano, CASTISOS
  vocantur, in omnibus fere Lusitanis similes, colore tamen modicum
  differunt, ut qui ad gilvum non nihil deflectant. Ex CASTISIS deinde nati
  magis magisque gilvi fiunt, a parentibus et _mesticis_ magis
  deflectentes; porro et _mesticis_ nati per omnia indigenis respondent,
  ita ut in tertiâ generatione Lusitani reliquis Indis sunt simillimi."—_De
  Bry_, ii. 76; (_Linschoten_ [Hak. Soc. i. 184]).

  1638.—"Les habitans sont ou CASTIZES, c'est à dire Portugais naturels, et
  nez de pere et de mere Portugais, ou _Mestizes_, c'est à dire, nez d'vn
  pere Portugais et d'vne mere Indienne."—_Mandelslo._

  1653.—"Les CASTISSOS sont ceux qui sont nays de pere et mere reinols
  (REINOL); ce mot vient de Casta, qui signifie Race, ils sont mesprizez
  des Reynols...."—_Le Gouz, Voyages_, 26 (ed. 1657).

  1661.—"Die Stadt (Negapatam) ist zimlich volksreich, doch mehrentheils
  von Mastycen CASTYCEN, und Portugesichen Christen."—_Walter Schulze_,
  108.

  1699.—"CASTEES wives at Fort St. George."—_Census of English on the
  Coast_, in _Wheeler_, i. 356.

  1701-2.—In the MS. _Returns of Persons in the Service of the Rt. Honble.
  the E. I. Company_, in the India Office, for this year, we find, "4th (in
  Council) Matt. Empson, Sea Customer, marry'd CASTEES," and under 1702,
  "13. Charles Bugden ... marry'd CASTEEZ."

  1726.—"... or the offspring of the same by native women, to wit
  _Mistices_ and CASTICES, or blacks ... and Moors."—_Valentijn_, v. 3.


CASUARINA, s. A tree (_Casuarina muricata_, Roxb.—_N. O. Casuarineae_)
indigenous on the coast of Chittagong and the Burmese provinces, and
southward as far as Queensland. It was introduced into Bengal by Dr. F.
Buchanan, and has been largely adopted as an ornamental tree both in Bengal
and in Southern India. The tree has a considerable superficial resemblance
to a larch or other finely-feathered conifer, making a very acceptable
variety in the hot plains, where real pines will not grow. [The name,
according to Mr. Scott, appears to be based on a Malayan name associating
the tree with the CASSOWARY, as Mr. Skeat suggests from the resemblance of
its needles to the quills of the bird.]

  1861.—See quotation under PEEPUL.

  1867.—"Our road lay chiefly by the sea-coast, along the white sands,
  which were fringed for miles by one grand continuous line or border of
  CASUARINA trees."—_Lt.-Col. Lewin, A Fly on the Wheel_, 362.

  1879.—"It was lovely in the white moonlight, with the curving shadows of
  palms on the dewy grass, the grace of the drooping CASUARINAS, the
  shining water, and the long drift of surf...."—_Miss Bird, Golden
  Chersonese_, 275.


CATAMARÁN, s. Also CUTMURRAM, CUTMURÁL. Tam. _kaṭṭu_, 'binding,' _maram_,
'wood.' A raft formed of three or four logs of wood lashed together. The
Anglo-Indian accentuation of the last syllable is not correct.

  1583.—"Seven round timbers lashed together for each of the said boats,
  and of the said seven timbers five form the bottom; one in the middle
  longer than the rest makes a cutwater, and another makes a poop which is
  under water, and on which a man sits.... These boats are called
  GATAMERONI."—_Balbi, Viaggio_, f. 82.

  1673.—"Coasting along some CATTAMARANS (Logs lashed to that advantage
  that they waft off all their Goods, only having a Sail in the midst and
  Paddles to guide them) made after us...."—_Fryer_, 24.

  1698.—"Some time after the CATTAMARAN brought a letter...."—In _Wheeler_,
  i. 334.

  1700.—"Un pecheur assis sur un CATIMARON, c'est à dire sur quelques
  grosses pièces de bois liées ensemble en manière de radeau."—_Lett.
  Edif._ x. 58.

  c. 1780.—"The wind was high, and the ship had but two anchors, and in the
  next forenoon parted from that by which she was riding, before that one
  who was coming from the shore on a CATAMARAN could reach her."—_Orme_,
  iii. 300.

  1810.—Williamson (_V. M._ i. 65) applies the term to the rafts of the
  Brazilian fishermen.

  1836.—"None can compare to the CATAMARANS and the wonderful people that
  manage them ... each CATAMARAN has one, two, or three men ... they sit
  crouched upon their heels, throwing their paddles about very dexterously,
  but very unlike rowing."—_Letters from Madras_, 34.

  1860.—"The CATTAMARAN is common to Ceylon and Coromandel."—_Tennent,
  Ceylon_, i. 442.

[During the war with Napoleon, the word came to be applied to a sort of
fire-ship. "Great hopes have been formed at the Admiralty (in 1804) of
certain vessels which were filled with combustibles and called
CATAMARANS."—(_Ld. Stanhope, Life of Pitt_, iv. 218.) This may have
introduced the word in English and led to its use as 'old cat' for a
shrewish hag.]


CATECHU, also CUTCH and CAUT, s. An astringent extract from the wood of
several species of Acacia (_Acacia catechu_, Willd.), the _khair_, and
_Acacia suma_, Kurz, _Ac. sundra_, D. C. and probably more. The extract is
called in H. _kaṭh_, [Skt. _kvath_, 'to decoct'], but the two first
commercial names which we have given are doubtless taken from the southern
forms of the word, e.g. Can. _kāchu_, Tam. _kāsu_, Malay _kachu_. De Orta,
whose judgments are always worthy of respect, considered it to be the
_lycium_ of the ancients, and always applied that name to it; but Dr. Royle
has shown that _lycium_ was an extract from certain species of _berberis_,
known in the bazars as _rasōt_. Cutch is first mentioned by Barbosa, among
the drugs imported into Malacca. But it remained unknown in Europe till
brought from Japan about the middle of the 17th century. In the 4th ed. of
Schröder's _Pharmacop. Medico-chymica_, Lyons, 1654, it is briefly
described as _Catechu_ or _Terra Japonica_, "_genus terrae exoticae_"
(_Hanbury and Flückiger_, 214). This misnomer has long survived.

  1516.—"... drugs from Cambay; amongst which there is a drug which we do
  not possess, and which they call _puchô_ (see PUTCHOCK) and another
  called CACHÔ."—_Barbosa_, 191.

  1554.—"The bahar of CATE, which here (at Ormuz) they call CACHO, is the
  same as that of rice."—_A. Nunes_, 22.

  1563.—"Colloquio XXXI. Concerning the wood vulgarly called CATE; and
  containing profitable matter on that subject."—_Garcia_, f. 125.

  1578.—"The Indians use this CATE mixt with Areca, and with Betel, and by
  itself without other mixture."—_Acosta, Tract._ 150.

  1585.—Sassetti mentions CATU as derived from the _Khadira_ tree, _i.e._
  in modern Hindi the _Khair_ (Skt. _khadira_).

  [1616.—"010 bags CATCHA."—_Foster, Letters_, iv. 127.]

  1617.—"And there was rec. out of the _Adviz,_ viz. ... 7 hhds. drugs
  CACHA; 5 hampers pochok" (see PUTCHOCK).—_Cocks's Diary_, i. 294.

  1759.—"_Hortal_ [see HURTAUL] and COTCH, Earth-oil, and Wood-oil."—_List
  of Burma Products in Dalrymple, Oriental Repert._ i. 109.

  c. 1760.—"To these three articles (betel, areca, and chunam) is often
  added for luxury what they call CACHOONDA, a Japan-earth, which from
  perfumes and other mixtures, chiefly manufactured at Goa, receives such
  improvement as to be sold to advantage when re-imported to Japan....
  Another addition too they use of what they call CATCHOO, being a blackish
  granulated perfumed composition...."—_Grose_, i. 238.

  1813.—"... The peasants manufacture CATECHU, or _terra Japonica_, from
  the _Keiri_ [_khair_] tree (_Mimosa catechu_) which grows wild on the
  hills of Kankana, but in no other part of the Indian Peninsula"
  [erroneous].—_Forbes, Or. Mem._ i. 303; [2nd ed. i. 193].


CATHAY, n.p. China; originally Northern China. The origin of the name is
given in the quotation below from the Introduction to Marco Polo. In the
16th century, and even later, from a misunderstanding of the medieval
travellers, Cathay was supposed to be a country north of China, and is so
represented in many maps. Its identity with China was fully recognised by
P. Martin Martini in his _Atlas Sinensis_; also by Valentijn, iv. _China_,
2.

  1247.—"KITAI autem ... homines sunt pagani, qui habent literam specialem
  ... homines benigni et humani satis esse videantur. Barbam non habent, et
  in dispositione faciei satis concordant cum Mongalis, non tamen sunt in
  facie ita lati ... meliores artifices non inveniuntur in toto mundo ...
  terra eorum est opulenta valde."—_J. de Plano Carpini, Hist. Mongalorum_,
  653-4.

  1253.—"Ultra est magna CATAYA, qui antiquitus, ut credo, dicebantur
  Seres.... Isti Catai sunt parvi homines, loquendo multum aspirantes per
  nares et ... habent parvam aperturam oculorum," &c.—_Itin. Wilhelmi de
  Rubruk_, 291-2.

  c. 1330.—"CATHAY is a very great Empire, which extendeth over more than
  c. days' journey, and it hath only one lord...."—_Friar Jordanus_, p. 54.

  1404.—"E lo mas alxofar [see ALJOFAR] que en el mundo se ha, se pesia e
  falla en aq̃l mar del CATAY."—_Clavijo_, f. 32.

  1555.—"The Yndians called CATHEIES have eche man many wiues."—_Watreman,
  Fardle of Faciouns_, M. ii.

  1598.—"In the lande lying westward from China, they say there are white
  people, and the land called CATHAIA, where (as it is thought) are many
  Christians, and that it should confine and border upon
  _Persia_."—_Linschoten_, 57; [Hak. Soc. i. 126].

  [1602.—"... and arriued at any porte within the dominions of the
  kingdomes of CATAYA, China, or Japan."—_Birdwood, First Letter Book_, 24.
  Here _China_ and _Cataya_ are spoken of as different countries. Comp.
  _Birdwood, Rep. on Old Rec._, 168 note.]

  Before 1633.—

   "I'll wish you in the Indies or CATAIA...."
               _Beaum. & Fletch., The Woman's Prize_, iv. 5.

  1634.—

   "Domadores das terras e dos mares
    Não so im Malaca, Indo e Perseu streito
    Mas na China, CATAI, Japão estranho
    Lei nova introduzindo em sacro banho."
               _Malaca Conquistada._

  1664.—"'Tis not yet twenty years, that there went caravans every year
  from _Kachemire_, which crossed all those mountains of the great _Tibet_,
  entred into Tartary, and arrived in about three months at
  CATAJA...."—_Bernier_, E. T., 136; [ed. _Constable_, 425].

  1842.—

   "Better fifty years of Europe
        than a cycle of CATHAY."
               _Tennyson, Locksley Hall._

  1871.—"For about three centuries the Northern Provinces of China had been
  detached from native rule, and subject to foreign dynasties; first to the
  _Khitan_ ... whose rule subsisted for 200 years, and originated the name
  of _Khitai_, Khata, or CATHAY, by which for nearly 1000 years China has
  been known to the nations of Inner Asia, and to those whose acquaintance
  with it was got by that channel."—_Marco Polo, Introd._ ch. ii.


CAT'S-EYE, s. A stone of value found in Ceylon. It is described by Dana as
a form of chalcedony of a greenish grey, with glowing internal reflections,
whence the Portuguese call it _Olho de gato_, which our word translates. It
appears from the quotation below from Dr. Royle that the _Beli oculus_ of
Pliny has been identified with the _cat's-eye_, which may well be the case,
though the odd circumstance noticed by Royle may be only a curious
coincidence. [The phrase _billī kī ānkh_ does not appear in _Platt's Dict._
The usual name is _lahsaniyā_, 'like garlic.' The Burmese are said to call
it _kyoung_, 'a cat.']

  c. A.D. 70.—"The stone called _Belus eye_ is white, and hath within it a
  black apple, the mids whereof a man shall see to glitter like
  gold...."—_Holland's Plinie_, ii. 625.

  c. 1340.—"Quaedam regiones monetam non habent, sed pro ea utuntur
  lapidibus quos dicimus CATI OCULOS."—_Conti_, in _Poggius, De Var.
  Fortunae_, lib. iv.

  1516.—"And there are found likewise other stones, such as OLHO DE GATO,
  Chrysolites, and amethysts, of which I do not treat because they are of
  little value."—_Barbosa_, in _Lisbon Acad._, ii. 390.

  1599.—"Lapis insuper alius ibi vulgaris est, quem Lusitani OLHOS DE
  GATTO, id est, _oculum felinum_ vocant, propterea quod cum eo et colore
  et facie conveniat. Nihil autem aliud quam achates est."—_De Bry_, iv. 84
  (after _Linschoten_); [Hak. Soc. i. 61, ii. 141].

  1672.—"The CAT'S-EYES, by the Portuguese called _Olhos de Gatos_, occur
  in _Zeylon_, _Cambaya_, and _Pegu_; they are more esteemed by the Indians
  than by the Portuguese; for some Indians believe that if a man wears this
  stone his power and riches will never diminish, but always
  increase."—_Baldaeus_, Germ. ed. 160.

  1837.—"Beli oculus, mentioned by Pliny, xxxvii. c. 55, is considered by
  Hardouin to be equivalent to ŒIL DE CHAT—named in India _billi ke
  ankh_."—_Royle's Hindu Medicine_, p. 103.


CATTY, s.

A. A weight used in China, and by the Chinese introduced into the
Archipelago. The Chinese name is _kin_ or _chin_. The word _kātī_ or _katī_
is Malayo-Javanese. It is equal to 16 taels, _i.e._ 1⅓ lb. avoird. or 625
grammes. This is the weight fixed by treaty; but in Chinese trade it varies
from 4 oz. to 28 oz.; the lowest value being used by tea-vendors at Peking,
the highest by coal-merchants in Honan.

  [1554.—"CATE." See quotation under PECUL.]

  1598.—"Everie CATTE is as much as 20 Portingall ounces."—_Linschoten_,
  34; [Hak. Soc. i. 113].

  1604.—"Their pound they call a CATE, which is one and twentie of our
  ounces."—_Capt. John Davis_, in _Purchas_, i. 123.

  1609.—"Offering to enact among them the penaltie of death to such as
  would sel one CATTIE of spice to the Hollanders."—_Keeling, ibid._ i.
  199.

  1610.—"And (I prayse God) I have aboord one hundred thirtie nine Tunnes,
  six CATHAYES, one quarterne two pound of nutmegs and sixe hundred two and
  twenty suckettes of Mace, which maketh thirtie sixe Tunnes, fifteene
  CATHAYES one quarterne, one and twentie pound."—_David Midleton, ibid._
  i. 247. In this passage, however, _Cathayes_ seems to be a strange
  blunder of Purchas or his copyist for _Cwt. Suckette_ is probably Malay
  _sukat_, "a measure, a stated quantity." [The word appears as _suckell_
  in a letter of 1615 (_Foster_, iii. 175). Mr. Skeat suggests that it is a
  misreading for PECUL. _Sukat_, he says, means 'to measure anything'
  (indefinitely), but is never used for a definite measure.]

B. The word CATTY occurs in another sense in the following passage. A note
says that "_Catty_ or more literally _Kuttoo_ is a Tamil word signifying
BATTA" (q.v.). But may it not rather be a clerical error for _batty_?

  1659.—"If we should detain them longer we are to give them CATTY."—Letter
  in _Wheeler_, i. 162.


CATUR, s. A light rowing vessel used on the coast of Malabar in the early
days of the Portuguese. We have not been able to trace the name to any
Indian source, [unless possibly Skt. _chatura_, 'swift']. Is it not
probably the origin of our '_cutter_'? We see that Sir R. Burton in his
Commentary on Camoens (vol. iv. 391) says: "_Catur_ is the Arab. _katīreh_,
a small craft, our 'cutter.'" [This view is rejected by the _N.E.D._, which
regards it as an English word from 'to cut.'] We cannot say when _cutter_
was introduced in marine use. We cannot find it in Dampier, nor in
_Robinson Crusoe_; the first instance we have found is that quoted below
from _Anson's Voyage_. [The _N.E.D._ has nothing earlier than 1745.]

Bluteau gives _catur_ as an Indian term indicating a small war vessel,
which in a calm can be aided by oars. Jal (_Archéologie Navale_, ii. 259)
quotes Witsen as saying that the _Caturi_ or ALMADIAS were Calicut vessels,
having a length of 12 to 13 paces (60 to 65 feet), sharp at both ends, and
curving back, using both sails and oars. But there was a larger kind, 80
feet long, with only 7 or 8 feet beam.

  1510.—"There is also another kind of vessel.... These are all made of one
  piece ... sharp at both ends. These ships are called CHATURI, and go
  either with a sail or oars more swiftly than any galley, _fusta_, or
  brigantine."—_Varthema_, 154.

  1544.—"... navigium majus quod vocant CATUREM."—_Scti. Franc. Xav.
  Epistolae_, 121.

  1549.—"Naves item duas (quas Indi CATURES vocant) summâ celeritate armari
  jussit, vt oram maritimam legentes, hostes commeatu prohiberent."—_Goës,
  de Bello Cambaico_, 1331.

  1552.—"And this winter the Governor sent to have built in Cochin thirty
  CATURES, which are vessels with oars, but smaller than
  brigantines."—_Castanheda_, iii. 271.

  1588.—"Cambaicam oram Jacobus Lacteus duobos CATURIBUS tueri
  jussus...."—_Maffei_, lib. xiii. ed. 1752, p. 283.

  1601.—"Biremes, seu CATHURIS quam plurimae conduntur in Lassaon, Javae
  civitate...."—_De Bry_, iii. 109 (where there is a plate, iii. No.
  xxxvii.).

  1688.—"No man was so bold to contradict the man of God; and they all went
  to the Arsenal. There they found a good and sufficient bark of those they
  call CATUR, besides seven old foysts."—_Dryden, Life of Xavier_, in
  _Works_, 1821, xvi. 200.

  1742.—"... to prevent even the possibility of the galeons escaping us in
  the night, the two CUTTERS belonging to the _Centurion_ and the
  _Gloucester_ were both manned and sent in shore...."—_Anson's Voyage_,
  9th ed. 1756, p. 251. CUTTER also occurs pp. 111, 129, 150, and other
  places.


CAUVERY, n.p. The great river of S. India. Properly Tam. _Kāviri_, or
rather _Kāveri_, and Sanscritized _Kāvērī_. The earliest mention is that of
Ptolemy, who writes the name (after the Skt. form) Χάβηρος (sc. ποταμός).
The Καμάρα of the Periplus (c. A.D. 80-90) probably, however, represents
the same name, the Χαβηρὶς ἐμποριόν of Ptolemy. The meaning of the name has
been much debated, and several plausible but unsatisfactory explanations
have been given. Thus the Skt. form _Kāvērī_ has been explained from that
language by _kāvēra_ 'saffron.' A river in the Tamil country is, however,
hardly likely to have a non-mythological Skt. name. The Cauvery in flood,
like other S. Indian rivers, assumes a reddish hue. And the form _Kāvēri_
has been explained by Bp. Caldwell as possibly from the Dravidian _kāvi_,
'red ochre' or _kā_ (_kā-va_), 'a grove,' and _ēr-u_, Tel. 'a river,'
_ēr-i_, Tam. 'a sheet of water'; thus either 'red river' or 'grove river.'
[The _Madras Admin. Gloss._ takes it from _kā_, Tam. 'grove,' and _ēri_,
Tam. 'tank,' from its original source in a garden tank.] _Kā-viri_,
however, the form found in inscriptions, affords a more satisfactory Tamil
interpretation, viz. _Kā-viri_, 'grove-extender,' or developer. Any one who
has travelled along the river will have noticed the thick groves all along
the banks, which form a remarkable feature of the stream.

  c. 150 A.D.—

   "Χαβήρου ποταμοῦ ἐκβολάι
    Χαβηρὶς ἐμποριόν."—_Ptolemy_, lib. vii. 1.

  The last was probably represented by _Kaveripatan_.

  c. 545.—"Then there is Sieledēba, _i.e._ Taprobane ... and then again on
  the Continent, and further back, is Marallo, which exports conch-shells;
  KABER, which exports alabandinum."—_Cosmas, Topog. Christ._ in _Cathay_,
  &c. clxxviii.

  1310-11.—"After traversing the passes, they arrived at night on the banks
  of the river KĀNOBARĪ, and bivouacked on the sands."—_Amīr Khusrū_, in
  _Elliot_, ii. 90.

The _Cauvery_ appears to be ignored in the older European account and maps.


CAVALLY, s. This is mentioned as a fish of Ceylon by _Ives_, 1775 (p. 57).
It is no doubt the same that is described in the quotation from Pyrard [see
_Gray's_ note, Hak. Soc. i. 388]. It may represent the genus _Equula_, of
which 12 spp. are described by Day (_Fishes of India_, pp. 237-242), two
being named by different zoologists E. _caballa_. But Dr. Day hesitates to
identify the fish now in question. The fish mentioned in the fourth and
fifth quotations may be the same species; but that in the fifth seems
doubtful. Many of the spp. are extensively sun-dried, and eaten by the
poor.

  c. 1610.—"Ces Moucois pescheurs prennent entr'autres grande quantité
  d'vne sorte de petit poisson, qui n'est pas plus grande que la main et
  large comme vn petit bremeau. Les Portugais l'appellent Pesche CAUALLO.
  Il est le plus commun de toute ceste coste, et c'est de quoy ils font le
  plus grand trafic; car ils le fendent par la moitié, ils le salent, et le
  font secher au soleil."—_Pyrard de Laval_, i. 278; see also 309; [Hak.
  Soc. i. 427; ii. 127, 294, 299].

  1626.—"The Ile inricht us with many good things; Buffols, ... oysters,
  Breams, CAVALLOES, and store of other fish."—_Sir T. Herbert_, 28.

  1652.—"There is another very small fish vulgarly called CAVALLE, which is
  good enough to eat, but not very wholesome."—_Philippus a Sanct.
  Trinitate_, in Fr. Tr. 383.

  1796.—"The _ayla_, called in Portuguese CAVALA, has a good taste when
  fresh, but when salted becomes like the herring."—_Fra Paolini_, E. T.,
  p. 240.

  1875.—"_Caranx denter_ (Bl. Schn.). This fish of wide range from the
  Mediterranean to the coast of Brazil, at St. Helena is known as the
  CAVALLEY, and is one of the best table fish, being indeed the salmon of
  St. Helena. It is taken in considerable numbers, chiefly during the
  summer months, around the coast, in not very deep water: it varies in
  length from nine inches up to two or three feet."—_St. Helena_, by _J. C.
  Melliss_, p. 106.


CAWNEY, CAWNY, s. Tam. _kāni_, 'property,' hence 'land,' [from Tam. _kan_,
'to see,' what is known and recognised,] and so a measure of land used in
the Madras Presidency. It varies, of course, but the standard _Cawny_ is
considered to be = 24 _manai_ or GROUNDS (q.v.), of 2,400 sq. f. each,
hence 57,600 sq. f. or ac. 1.322. This is the only sense in which the word
is used in the Madras dialect of the Anglo-Indian tongue. The 'Indian
Vocabulary' of 1788 has the word in the form CONNYS, but with an
unintelligible explanation.

  1807.—"The land measure of the _Jaghire_ is as follows: 24 Adies square =
  1 Culy; 100 Culies = 1 CANAY. Out of what is called charity however the
  Culy is in fact a Bamboo 26 Adies or 22 feet 8 inches in length ... the
  _Ady_ or Malabar foot is therefore 10-46/100 inches nearly; and the
  customary CANAY contains 51,375 sq. feet, or 1-18/100 acres nearly; while
  the proper CANAY would only contain 43,778 feet."—_F. Buchanan, Mysore,
  &c._ i. 6.


CAWNPORE, n.p. The correct name is _Kānhpur_, 'the town of Kānh, Kanhaiya
or Krishna.' The city of the Doab so called, having in 1891 a population of
188,712, has grown up entirely under British rule, at first as the bazar
and dependence of the cantonment established here under a treaty made with
the Nabob of Oudh in 1766, and afterwards as a great mart of trade.


CAYMAN, s. This is not used in India. It is an American name for an
alligator; from the Carib _acayuman_ (_Littré_). But it appears formerly to
have been in general use among the Dutch in the East. [It is one of those
words "which the Portuguese or Spaniards very early caught up in one part
of the world, and naturalised in another." (_N.E.D._)].

  1530.—"The country is extravagantly hot; and the rivers are full of
  CAIMANS, which are certain water-lizards (_lagarti_)."—_Nunno de Guzman_,
  in _Ramusio_, iii. 339.

  1598.—"In this river (Zaire or Congo) there are living divers kinds of
  creatures, and in particular, mighty great crocodiles, which the country
  people there call CAIMAN."—_Pigafetta_, in Harleian Coll. of Voyages, ii.
  533.

This is an instance of the way in which we so often see a word belonging to
a different quarter of the world undoubtingly ascribed to Africa or Asia,
as the case may be. In the next quotation we find it ascribed to India.

  1631.—"Lib. v. cap. iii. De Crocodilo qui per totam Indiam CAYMAN
  audit."—_Bontius, Hist. Nat. et Med._

  1672.—"The figures so represented in Adam's footsteps were ... 41. The
  King of the CAIMANS or Crocodiles."—_Baldaeus_ (_Germ. ed._), 148.

  1692.—"Anno 1692 there were 3 newly arrived soldiers ... near a certain
  gibbet that stood by the river outside the boom, so sharply pursued by a
  KAIEMAN that they were obliged to climb the gibbet for safety whilst the
  creature standing up on his hind feet reached with his snout to the very
  top of the gibbet."—_Valentijn_, iv. 231.


CAYOLAQUE, s. _Kayu_ = 'wood,' in Malay. _Laka_ is given in Crawfurd's
Malay Dict. as "name of a red wood used as incense, _Myristica iners_." In
his _Descr. Dict._ he calls it the "_Tanarius major_; a tree with a
red-coloured wood, a native of Sumatra, used in dyeing and in pharmacy. It
is an article of considerable native trade, and is chiefly exported to
China" (p. 204). [The word, according to Mr. Skeat, is probably kayu,
'wood,' _lakh_, 'red dye' (see LAC), but the combined form is not in
Klinkert, nor are these trees in Ridley's plant list. He gives _Laka-laka_
or _Malaka_ as the name of the _phyllanthus emblica_.]

  1510.—"There also grows here a very great quantity of LACCA for making
  red colour, and the tree of this is formed like our trees which produce
  walnuts."—_Varthema_, p. 238.

  c. 1560.—"I being in Cantan there was a rich (bed) made wrought with
  Iuorie, and of a sweet wood which they call CAYOLAQUE, and of _Sandalum_,
  that was prized at 1500 Crownes."—_Gaspar Da Cruz_, in _Purchas_, iii.
  177.

  1585.—"Euerie morning and euening they do offer vnto their idolles
  frankensence, benjamin, wood of aguila, and CAYOLAQUE, the which is
  maruelous sweete...."—_Mendoza's China_, i. 58.


CAZEE, KAJEE, &c., s. Arab. _ḳāḍi_, 'a judge,' the letter _ẓwād_ with which
it is spelt being always pronounced in India like a _z_. The form _Cadi_,
familiar from its use in the old version of the Arabian Nights, comes to us
from the Levant. The word with the article, _al-ḳāḍi_, becomes in Spanish
_alcalde_;[58] not _alcaide_, which is from _ḳā'īd_, 'a chief'; nor
_alguacil_, which is from _wazīr_. So Dozy and Engelmann, no doubt
correctly. But in Pinto, cap. 8, we find "ao _guazil_ da justica q̃ em
elles he como corregedor entre nos"; where _guazil_ seems to stand for
_ḳāẓī_.

It is not easy to give an accurate account of the position of the _Ḳāẓī_ in
British India, which has gone through variations of which a distinct record
cannot be found. But the following outline is believed to be substantially
correct.

Under ADAWLUT I have given a brief sketch of the history of the judiciary
under the Company in the Bengal Presidency. Down to 1790 the greater part
of the administration of criminal justice was still in the hands of native
judges, and other native officials of various kinds, though under European
supervision in varying forms. But the native judiciary, except in positions
of a quite subordinate character, then ceased. It was, however, still in
substance Mahommedan law that was administered in criminal cases, and also
in civil cases between Mahommedans as affecting succession, &c. And a
_Ḳāẓī_ and a _Muftī_ were retained in the Provincial Courts of Appeal and
Circuit as the exponents of Mahommedan law, and the deliverers of a formal
FUTWA. There was also a _Ḳāẓī-al-Ḳoẓāt_, or chief _Ḳāẓī_ of Bengal, Behar
and Orissa, attached to the Sudder Courts of Dewanny and Nizamut, assisted
by two _Muftis_, and these also gave written _futwas_ on references from
the District Courts.

The style of _Ḳāẓī_ and _Muftī_ presumably continued in formal existence in
connection with the Sudder Courts till the abolition of these in 1862; but
with the earlier abolition of the Provincial Courts in 1829-31 it had quite
ceased, in this sense, to be familiar. In the District Courts the
corresponding exponents were in English officially designated LAW-OFFICERS,
and, I believe, in official vernacular, as well as commonly among
Anglo-Indians, MOOLVEES (q.v.).

Under the article LAW-OFFICER, it will be seen that certain trivial cases
were, at the discretion of the magistrate, referred for disposal by the
Law-officer of the district. And the latter, from this fact, as well as,
perhaps, from the tradition of the elders, was in some parts of Bengal
popularly known as 'the _Ḳāẓī_.' "In the Magistrate's office," writes my
friend Mr. Seton-Karr, "it was quite common to speak of this case as
referred to the joint magistrate, and that to the _Chhoṭā Ṣāḥib_ (the
Assistant), and that again to the _Ḳāẓī_."

But the duties of the _Ḳāẓī_ popularly so styled and officially recognised,
had, almost from the beginning of the century, become limited to certain
notarial functions, to the performance and registration of Mahommedan
marriages, and some other matters connected with the social life of their
co-religionists. To these functions must also be added as regards the 18th
century and the earlier years of the 19th, duties in connection with
distraint for rent on behalf of Zemindars. There were such _Ḳāẓīs_
nominated by Government in towns and pergunnas, with great variation in the
area of the localities over which they officiated. The Act XI. of 1864,
which repealed the laws relating to law-officers, put an end also to the
appointment by Government of _Kāẓīs_. But this seems to have led to
inconveniences which were complained of by Mahommedans in some parts of
India, and it was enacted in 1880 (Act XII., styled "The _Ḳāẓīs_ Act") that
with reference to any particular locality, and after consultation with the
chief Musulman residents therein, the Local Government might select and
nominate a _Ḳāẓī_ or _Ḳāẓīs_ for that local area (see FUTWA, LAW-OFFICER,
MUFTY).

  1338.—"They treated me civilly and set me in front of their mosque during
  their Easter; at which mosque, on account of its being their Easter,
  there were assembled from divers quarters a number of their CADINI,
  _i.e._ of their bishops."—Letter of _Friar Pascal_, in _Cathay, &c._,
  235.

  c. 1461.—

   "Au tems que Alexandre regna
    Ung hom, nommé Diomedès
    Devant luy, on luy amena
    Engrilloné poulces et detz
    Comme ung larron; car il fut des
    Escumeurs que voyons courir
    Si fut mys devant le CADÈS,
    Pour estre jugé à mourir."
               _Gd. Testament de Fr. Villon._

  [c. 1610.—"The Pandiare is called CADY in the Arabic tongue."—_Pyrard de
  Laval_, Hak. Soc. i. 199.]

  1648.—"The Government of the city (Ahmedabad) and surrounding villages
  rests with the Governor _Coutewael_, and the Judge (whom they call
  CASGY)."—_Van Twist_, 15.

  [1670.—"The Shawbunder, COZZY."—_Hedges, Diary_, Hak. Soc. ii. ccxxix.]

  1673.—"Their Law-Disputes, they are soon ended; the Governor hearing; and
  the CADI or Judge determining every Morning."—_Fryer_, 32.

     "    "The CAZY or Judge ... marries them."—_Ibid._ 94.

  1683.—"... more than that 3000 poor men gathered together, complaining
  with full mouths of his exaction and injustice towards them: some
  demanding Rupees 10, others Rupees 20 per man, which Bulchund very
  generously paid them in the CAZEE'S presence...."—_Hedges_, Nov. 5; [Hak.
  Soc. i. 134; CAZZE in i. 85].

  1684.—"_January 12._—From Cassumbazar 'tis advised ye Merchants and
  Picars appeal again to ye CAZEE for Justice against Mr. Charnock. Ye
  CAZEE cites Mr. Charnock to appear...."—_Ibid._ i. 147.

  1689.—"A COGEE ... who is a Person skilled in their Law."—_Ovington_,
  206.

  Here there is perhaps a confusion with COJA.

  1727.—"When the Man sees his Spouse, and likes her, they agree on the
  Price and Term of Weeks, Months, or Years, and then appear before the
  CADJEE or Judge."—_A. Hamilton_, i. 52.

  1763.—"The CADI holds court in which are tried all disputes of
  property."—_Orme_, i. 26 (ed. 1803).

  1773.—"That they should be mean, weak, ignorant, and corrupt, is not
  surprising, when the salary of the principal judge, the CAZI, does not
  exceed Rs. 100 per month."—_From_ Impey's _Judgment in the Patna Cause_,
  quoted by _Stephen_, ii. 176.

  1790.—"_Regulations for the Court of Circuit._

  "24. That each of the Courts of Circuit be superintended by two
  covenanted civil servants of the Company, to be denominated Judges of the
  Courts of Circuit ... assisted by a KAZI and a Mufti."—_Regns. for the
  Adm. of Justice in the Foujdarry or Criminal Courts in Bengal, Bahar, and
  Orissa._ Passed by the G.-G. in C., Dec. 3, 1790.

  "32. ... The charge against the prisoner, his confession, which is always
  to be received with circumspection and tenderness ... &c. ... being all
  heard and gone through in his presence and that of the KAZI and Mufti of
  the Court, the KAZI and Mufti are then to write at the bottom of the
  record of the proceedings held in the trial, the _futwa_ or law as
  applicable to the circumstances of the case.... The Judges of the Court
  shall attentively consider such _futwa_, &c."—_Ibid._

  1791.—"The Judges of the Courts of Circuit shall refer to the KAZI and
  Mufti of their respective Courts all questions on points of law ...
  regarding which they may not have been furnished with specific
  instructions from the G.-G. in C. or the _Nizamut Adawlut_...."—_Regn.
  No. XXXV._

  1792.—Revenue Regulation of July 20, No. lxxv., empowers Landholders and
  Farmers of Land to distrain for Arrears of Rent or Revenue. The "KAZI of
  the Pegunnah" is the official under the Collector, repeatedly referred to
  as regulating and carrying out the distraint. So, again, in _Regn._ XVII.
  of 1793.

  1793.—"lxvi. The Nizamut Adaulat shall continue to be held at Calcutta.

  "lxvii. The Court shall consist of the Governor-General, and the members
  of the Supreme Council, assisted by the head CAUZY of Bengal, Behar, and
  Orissa, and two Muftis." (This was already in the Regulations of
  1791.)—_Regn. IX. of 1793._ See also quotation under MUFTY.

  1793.—"I. CAUZIES are stationed at the Cities of Patna, Dacca, and
  Moorshedabad, and the principal towns, and in the pergunnahs, for the
  purpose of preparing and attesting deeds of transfer, and other law
  papers, celebrating marriages, and performing such religious duties or
  ceremonies prescribed by the Mahommedan law, as have been hitherto
  discharged by them under the British Government."—_Reg. XXXIX. of 1793._

  1803.—Regulation XLVI. regulates the appointment of CAUZY in towns and
  pergunnahs, "for the purpose of preparing and attesting deeds of
  transfer, and other law papers, celebrating marriages," &c., but makes no
  allusion to judicial duties.

  1824.—"Have you not learned this common saying—'Every one's teeth are
  blunted by acids except the CADI'S, which are by sweets.'"—_Hajji Baba_,
  ed. 1835, p. 316.

  1864.—"Whereas it is unnecessary to continue the offices of Hindoo and
  Mahomedan LAW-OFFICERS, and is inexpedient that the appointment of
  CAZEE-_ool-Cozaat_, or of City, Town, or Pergunnah CAZEES should be made
  by Government, it is enacted as follows:—

      *     *     *     *     *

  "II. Nothing contained in this Act shall be construed so as to prevent a
  CAZEE-_ool-Cozaat_ or other CAZEE from performing, when required to do
  so, any duties or ceremonies prescribed by the Mahomedan Law."—_Act No.
  XI. of 1864._

  1880.—"... whereas by the usage of the Muhammadan community in some parts
  of India the presence of KÁZÍS appointed by the Government is required at
  the celebration of marriages...."—_Bill introduced into the Council of
  Gov.-Gen._, January 30, 1880.

     "    "An Act for the appointment of persons to the office of KÁZÍ.

  "Whereas by the preamble to Act No. XI. of 1864 ... it was (among other
  things declared inexpedient, &c.) ... and whereas by the usage of the
  Muhammadan community in some parts of India the presence of KÁZÍS
  appointed by the Government is required at the celebration of marriages
  and the performance of certain other rites and ceremonies, and it is
  therefore expedient that the Government should again be empowered to
  appoint such persons to the office of KÁZÍ; It is hereby
  enacted...."—_Act No. XII. of 1880._

  1885.—"To come to something more specific. 'There were instances in which
  men of the most venerable dignity, persecuted without a cause by
  extortioners, died of rage and shame in the gripe of the vile alguazils
  of Impey'" [Macaulay's _Essay on Hastings_].

  "Here we see one CAZI turned into an indefinite number of 'men of the
  most venerable dignity'; a man found guilty by legal process of corruptly
  oppressing a helpless widow into 'men of the most venerable dignity'
  persecuted by extortioners without a cause; and a guard of sepoys, with
  which the Supreme Court had nothing to do, into 'vile alguazils of
  Impey.'"—_Stephen, Story of Nuncomar_, ii. 250-251.

CAZEE also is a title used in Nepal for Ministers of State.

  1848.—"KAJEES, Counsellors, and mitred Lamas were there, to the number of
  twenty, all planted with their backs to the wall, mute and motionless as
  statues."—_Hooker's Himalayan Journals_, ed. 1855, i. 286.

  1868.—"The Durbar (of Nepal) have written to the four KAJEES of Thibet
  enquiring the reason."—Letter from _Col. R. Lawrence_, dated 1st April,
  regarding persecution of R. C. Missions in Tibet.

  1873.—

   "Ho, lamas, get ye ready,
      Ho, KAZIS, clear the way;
    The chief will