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Title: Index of the Project Gutenberg Works of John Stuart Mill
Author: Mill, John Stuart
Language: English
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CONTENTS


THE CONTEST IN AMERICA

##  CONSIDERATIONS ON REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT

##  AUTOBIOGRAPHY

##  UTILITARIANISM

##  SOME UNSETTLED QUESTIONS OF POLITICAL ECONOMY

AUGUST COMTE AND POSITIVISM

THE SUBJECTION OF WOMEN

##  PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY

ON LIBERTY

##  7th ED. VOL 1: A SYSTEM OF LOGIC RATIOCINATIVE AND INDUCTIVE

##  7th ED, Vol. II: A SYSTEM OF LOGIC RATIOCINATIVE AND INDUCTIVE

##  8th ED: A SYSTEM OF LOGIC RATIOCINATIVE AND INDUCTIVE

SOCIALISM

##  PHENOMENA OF THE HUMAN MIND



TABLES OF CONTENTS OF VOLUMES



CONSIDERATIONS ON REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT
By John Stuart Mill



CONTENTS
Preface
Chapter I 	To What Extent Forms of Government are a Matter of Choice.
Chapter II 	The Criterion of a Good Form of Government.
Chapter III 	That the ideally best Form of Government is Representative Government.
Chapter IV 	Under what Social Conditions Representative Government is Inapplicable.
Chapter V 	Of the Proper Functions of Representative Bodies.
Chapter VI 	Of the Infirmities and Dangers to which Representative Government is Liable.
Chapter VII 	Of True and False Democracy; Representation of All, and Representation of the Majority only.
Chapter VIII 	Of the Extension of the Suffrage.
Chapter IX 	Should there be Two Stages of Election?
Chapter X 	Of the Mode of Voting.
Chapter XI 	Of the Duration of Parliaments.
Chapter XII 	Ought Pledges to be Required from Members of Parliament?
Chapter XIII 	Of a Second Chamber.
Chapter XIV 	Of the Executive in a Representative Government.
Chapter XV 	Of Local Representative Bodies.
Chapter XVI 	Of Nationality, as connected with Representative Government.
Chapter XVII 	Of Federal Representative Governments.
Chapter XVIII 	Of the Government of Dependencies by a Free State.
Footnotes



AUTOBIOGRAPHY
By John Stuart Mill



CONTENTS
CHAPTER I 	1806-1819 — CHILDHOOD AND EARLY EDUCATION
CHAPTER II 	1813-1821 — MORAL INFLUENCES IN EARLY YOUTH — MY FATHER'S CHARACTER AND OPINIONS
CHAPTER III 	1821-1823 — LAST STAGE OF EDUCATION, AND FIRST OF SELF-EDUCATION
CHAPTER IV 	1823-1828 — YOUTHFUL PROPAGANDISM. THE "WESTMINSTER REVIEW"
CHAPTER V 	1826-1832 — CRISIS IN MY MENTAL HISTORY. ONE STAGE ONWARD
CHAPTER VI. 	1830-1840 — COMMENCEMENT OF THE MOST VALUABLE FRIENDSHIP OF MY LIFE—MY FATHER'S DEATH—WRITINGS AND OTHER PROCEEDINGS UP TO 1840
CHAPTER VII. 	1840-1870 — GENERAL VIEW OF THE REMAINDER OF MY LIFE.—COMPLETION OF THE "SYSTEM OF LOGIC"—PUBLICATION OF THE "PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY" —MARRIAGE—RETIREMENT FROM THE INDIA HOUSE—PUBLICATION OF "LIBERTY" —"CONSIDERATIONS ON REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT"—CIVIL WAR IN AMERICA —EXAMINATION OF SIR WILLIAM HAMILTON'S PHILOSOPHY—PARLIAMENTARY LIFE —REMAINDER OF MY LIFE
NOTES:



UTILITARIANISM
By John Stuart Mill



CONTENTS
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I 	GENERAL REMARKS
CHAPTER II 	WHAT UTILITARIANISM IS
CHAPTER III 	OF THE ULTIMATE SANCTION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY
CHAPTER IV 	OF WHAT SORT OF PROOF THE PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY IS SUSCEPTIBLE
CHAPTER V 	OF THE CONNEXION BETWEEN JUSTICE AND UTILITY



ESSAYS ON SOME UNSETTLED QUESTIONS OF POLITICAL ECONOMY
By John Stuart Mill



CONTENTS
PREFACE.
CONTENTS.
ESSAY I. 	Of the Laws of Interchange between Nations; and the Distribution of the Gains of Commerce among the Countries of the Commercial World
ESSAY II. 	Of the Influence of Consumption upon Production
ESSAY III. 	On the Words Productive and Unproductive
ESSAY IV. 	On Profits, and Interest
ESSAY V. 	On the Definition of Political Economy; and on the Method of Investigation proper to it



PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY
By John Stuart Mill
Contents
Preface.
Introductory.
A Sketch Of The History Of Political Economy.
Books For Consultation (From English, French, And German Authors).
Preliminary Remarks.
Book I. Production.
Chapter I. Of The Requisites Of Production.
§ 1. The requisites of production.
§ 2. The Second Requisite of Production, Labor.
§ 3. Of Capital as a Requisite of Production.
Chapter II. Of Unproductive Labor.
§ 1. Definition of Productive and Unproductive Labor.
§ 2. Productive and Unproductive Consumption.
§ 3. Distinction Between Labor for the Supply of Productive Consumption and Labor for the Supply of Unproductive Consumption.
Chapter III. Of Capital.
§ 1. Capital is Wealth Appropriated to Reproductive Employment.
§ 2. More Capital Devoted to Production than Actually Employed in it.
§ 3. Examination of Cases Illustrative of the Idea of Capital.
Chapter IV. Fundamental Propositions Respecting Capital.
§ 1. Industry is Limited by Capital.
§ 2. Increase of Capital gives Increased Employment to Labor, Without Assignable Bounds.
§ 3. Capital is the result of Saving, and all Capital is Consumed.
§ 4. Capital is kept up by Perpetual Reproduction, as shown by the Recovery of Countries from Devastation.
§ 5. Effects of Defraying Government Expenditure by Loans.
§ 6. Demand for Commodities is not Demand for Labor.
Chapter V. On Circulating And Fixed Capital.
§ 1. Fixed and Circulating Capital.
§ 2. Increase of Fixed Capital, when, at the Expense of Circulating, might be Detrimental to the Laborers.
§ 3. -This seldom, if ever, occurs.
Chapter VI. Of Causes Affecting The Efficiency Of Production.
§ 1. General Causes of Superior Productiveness.
§ 2. Combination and Division of Labor Increase Productiveness.
§ 3. Advantages of Division of Labor.
§ 4. Production on a Large and Production on a Small Scale.
Chapter VII. Of The Law Of The Increase Of Labor.
§ 1. The Law of the Increase of Production Depends on those of Three Elements-Labor. Capital, and Land.
§ 2. The Law of Population.
§ 3. By what Checks the Increase of Population is Practically Limited.
Chapter VIII. Of The Law Of The Increase Of Capital.
§ 1. Means for Saving in the Surplus above Necessaries.
§ 2. Motive for Saving in the Surplus above Necessaries.
§ 3. Examples of Deficiency in the Strength of this Desire.
§ 4. Examples of Excess of this Desire.
Chapter IX. Of The Law Of The Increase Of Production From Land.
§ 1. The Law of Production from the Soil, a Law of Diminishing Return in Proportion to the Increased Application of Labor and Capital.
§ 2. Antagonist Principle to the Law of Diminishing Return; the Progress of Improvements in Production.
§ 3. -In Railways.
§ 4. -In Manufactures.
§ 5. Law Holds True of Mining.
Chapter X. Consequences Of The Foregoing Laws.
§ 1. Remedies for Weakness of the Principle of Accumulation.
§ 2. Even where the Desire to Accumulate is Strong, Population must be Kept within the Limits of Population from Land.
§ 3. Necessity of Restraining Population not superseded by Free Trade in Food.
§ 4. -Nor by Emigration.
Book II. Distribution.
Chapter I. Of Property.
§ 1. Individual Property and its opponents.
§ 2. The case for Communism against private property presented.
§ 3. The Socialists who appeal to state-help.
§ 4. Of various minor schemes, Communistic and Socialistic.
§ 5. The Socialist objections to the present order of Society examined.
§ 6. Property in land different from property in Movables.
Chapter II. Of Wages.
§ 1. Of Competition and Custom.
§ 2. The Wages-fund, and the Objections to it Considered.
§ 3. Examination of some popular Opinions respecting Wages.
§ 4. Certain rare Circumstances excepted, High Wages imply Restraints on Population.
§ 5. Due Restriction of Population the only Safeguard of a Laboring-Class.
Chapter III. Of Remedies For Low Wages.
§ 1. A Legal or Customary Minimum of Wages, with a Guarantee of Employment.
§ 2. -Would Require as a Condition Legal Measures for Repression of Population.
§ 3. Allowances in Aid of Wages and the Standard of Living.
§ 4. Grounds for Expecting Improvement in Public Opinion on the Subject of Population.
§ 5. Twofold means of Elevating the Habits of the Laboring-People; by Education, and by Foreign and Home Colonization.
Chapter IV. Of The Differences Of Wages In Different Employments.
§ 1. Differences of Wages Arising from Different Degrees of Attractiveness in Different Employments.
§ 2. Differences arising from Natural Monopolies.
§ 3. Effect on Wages of the Competition of Persons having other Means of Support.
§ 4. Wages of Women, why Lower than those of Men.
§ 5. Differences of Wages Arising from Laws, Combinations, or Customs.
Chapter V. Of Profits.
§ 1. Profits include Interest and Risk; but, correctly speaking, do not include Wages of Superintendence.
§ 2. The Minimum of Profits; what produces Variations in the Amount of Profits.
§ 3. General Tendency of Profits to an Equality.
§ 4. The Cause of the Existence of any Profit; the Advances of Capitalists consist of Wages of Labor.
§ 5. The Rate of Profit depends on the Cost of Labor.
Chapter VI. Of Rent.
§ 1. Rent the Effect of a Natural Monopoly.
§ 2. No Land can pay Rent except Land of such Quality or Situation as exists in less Quantity than the Demand.
§ 3. The Rent of Land is the Excess of its Return above the Return to the worst Land in Cultivation.
§ 4. -Or to the Capital employed in the least advantageous Circumstances.
§ 5. Opposing Views of the Law of Rent.
§ 6. Rent does not enter into the Cost of Production of Agricultural Produce.
Book III. Exchange.
Chapter I. Of Value.
§ 1. Definitions of Value in Use, Exchange Value, and Price.
§ 2. Conditions of Value: Utility, Difficulty of Attainment, and Transferableness.
§ 3. Commodities limited in Quantity by the law of Demand and Supply: General working of this Law.
§ 4. Miscellaneous Cases falling under this Law.
§ 5. Commodities which are Susceptible of Indefinite Multiplication without Increase of Cost. Law of their Value Cost of Production.
§ 6. The Value of these Commodities confirm, in the long run, to their Cost of Production through the operation of Demand and Supply.
Chapter II. Ultimate Analysis Of Cost Of Production.
§ 1. Of Labor, the principal Element in Cost of Production.
§ 2. Wages affect Values, only if different in different employments; "non-competing groups."
§ 3. Profits an element in Cost of Production.
§ 4. Cost of Production properly represented by sacrifice, or cost, to the Laborer as well as to the Capitalist; the relation of this conception to the Cost of Labor.
§ 5. When profits vary from Employment to Employment, or are spread over unequal lengths of Time, they affect Values accordingly.
§ 6. Occasional Elements in Cost of Production; taxes and ground-rent.
Chapter III. Of Rent, In Its Relation To Value.
§ 1. Commodities which are susceptible of indefinite Multiplication, but not without increase of Cost. Law of their Value, Cost of Production in the most unfavorable existing circumstances.
§ 2. Such commodities, when Produced in circumstances more favorable, yield a Rent equal to the difference of Cost.
§ 3. Rent of Mines and Fisheries and ground-rent of Buildings, and cases of gain analogous to Rent.
§ 4. Résumé of the laws of value of each of the three classes of commodities.
Chapter IV. Of Money.
§ 1. The three functions of Money-a Common Denominator of Value, a Medium of Exchange, a "Standard of Value".
§ 2. Gold and Silver, why fitted for those purposes.
§ 3. Money a mere contrivance for facilitating exchanges, which does not affect the laws of value.
Chapter V. Of The Value Of Money, As Dependent On Demand And Supply.
§ 1. Value of Money, an ambiguous expression.
§ 2. The Value of Money depends on its quantity.
§ 3. -Together with the Rapidity of Circulation.
§ 4. Explanations and Limitations of this Principle.
Chapter VI. Of The Value Of Money, As Dependent On Cost Of Production.
§ 1. The value of Money, in a state of Freedom, conforms to the value of the Bullion contained in it.
§ 2. -Which is determined by the cost of production.
§ 3. This law, how related to the principle laid down in the preceding chapter.
Chapter VII. Of A Double Standard And Subsidiary Coins.
§ 1. Objections to a Double Standard.
§ 2. The use of the two metals as money, and the management of Subsidiary Coins.
§ 3. The experience of the United States with a double standard from 1792 to 1883.
Chapter VIII. Of Credit, As A Substitute For Money.
§ 1. Credit not a creation but a Transfer of the means of Production.
§ 2. In what manner it assists Production.
§ 3. Function of Credit in economizing the use of Money.
§ 4. Bills of Exchange.
§ 5. Promissory Notes.
§ 6. Deposits and Checks.
Chapter IX. Influence Of Credit On Prices.
§ 1. What acts on prices is Credit, in whatever shape given.
§ 2. Credit a purchasing Power, similar to Money.
§ 3. Great extensions and contractions of Credit. Phenomena of a commercial crisis analyzed.
§ 4. Influence of the different forms of Credit on Prices.
§ 5. On what the use of Credit depends.
§ 6. What is essential to the idea of Money?
Chapter X. Of An Inconvertible Paper Currency.
§ 1. What determines the value of an inconvertible paper money?
§ 2. If regulated by the price of Bullion, as inconvertible Currency might be safe, but not Expedient.
§ 3. Examination of the doctrine that an inconvertible Current is safe, if representing actual Property.
§ 4. Experiments with paper Money in the United States.
§ 5. Examination of the gain arising from the increase and issue of paper Currency.
§ 6. Résumé of the subject of money.
Chapter XI. Of Excess Of Supply.
§ 1. The theory of a general Over-Supply of Commodities stated.
§ 2. The supply of commodities in general can not exceed the power of Purchase.
§ 3. There can never be a lack of Demand arising from lack of Desire to Consume.
§ 4. Origin and Explanation of the notion of general Over-Supply.
Chapter XII. Of Some Peculiar Cases Of Value.
§ 1. Values of commodities which have a joint cost of production.
§ 2. Values of the different kinds of agricultural produce.
Chapter XIII. Of International Trade.
§ 1. Cost of Production not a regulator of international values. Extension of the word "international."
§ 2. Interchange of commodities between distance places determined by differences not in their absolute, but in the comparative, costs of production.
§ 3. The direct benefits of commerce consist in increased Efficiency of the productive powers of the World.
§ 4. -Not in a Vent for exports, nor in the gains of Merchants.
§ 5. Indirect benefits of Commerce, Economical and Moral; still greater than the Direct.
Chapter XIV. Of International Values.
§ 1. The values of imported commodities depend on the Terms of international interchange.
§ 2. The values of foreign commodities depend, not upon Cost of Production, but upon Reciprocal Demand and Supply.
§ 3. -As illustrated by trade in cloth and linen between England and Germany.
§ 4. The conclusion states in the Equation of International Demand.
§ 5. The cost to a country of its imports depends not only on the ratio of exchange, but on the efficiency of its labor.
Chapter XV. Of Money Considered As An Imported Commodity.
§ 1. Money imported on two modes; as a Commodity, and as a medium of Exchange.
§ 2. As a commodity, it obeys the same laws of Value as other imported Commodities.
Chapter XVI. Of The Foreign Exchanges.
§ 1. Money passes from country to country as a Medium of Exchange, through the Exchanges.
§ 2. Distinction between Variations in the Exchanges which are self-adjusting and those which can only be rectified through Prices.
Chapter XVII. Of The Distribution Of The Precious Metals Through The Commercial World.
§ 1. The substitution of money for barter makes no difference in exports and imports, nor in the Law of international Values.
§ 2. The preceding Theorem further illustrated.
§ 3. The precious metals, as money, are of the same Value, and distribute themselves according to the same Law, with the precious metals as a Commodity.
§ 4. International payments entering into the "financial account."
Chapter XVIII. Influence Of The Currency On The Exchanges And On Foreign Trade.
§ 1. Variations in the exchange, which originate in the Currency.
§ 2. Effect of a sudden increase of a metallic Currency, or of the sudden creation of Bank-Notes or other substitutes for Money.
§ 3. Effect of the increase of an inconvertible paper Currency. Real and nominal exchange.
Chapter XIX. Of The Rate Of Interest.
§ 1. The Rate of Interest depends on the Demand and Supply of Loans.
§ 2. Circumstances which Determine the Permanent Demand and Supply of Loans.
§ 3. Circumstances which Determine the Fluctuations.
§ 4. The Rate of Interest not really Connected with the value of Money, but often confounded with it.
§ 5. The Rate of Interest determines the price of land and of Securities.
Chapter XX. Of The Competition Of Different Countries In The Same Market.
§ 1. Causes which enable one Country to undersell another.
§ 2. High wages do not prevent one Country from underselling another.
§ 3. Low wages enable a Country to undersell another, when Peculiar to certain branches of Industry.
§ 4. -But not when common to All.
§ 5. Low profits as affecting the carrying Trade.
Chapter XXI. Of Distribution, As Affected By Exchange.
§ 1. Exchange and money make no Difference in the law of Wages.
§ 2. In the law of Rent.
§ 3. -Nor in the law of Profits.
Book IV. Influence Of The Progress Of Society On Production And Distribution.
Chapter I. Influence Of The Progress Of Industry And Population On Values And Prices.
§ 1. Tendency of the progress of society toward increased Command over the powers of Nature; increased Security, and increased Capacity of Co-Operation.
§ 2. Tendency to a Decline of the Value and Cost of Production of all Commodities.
§ 3. -except the products of Agriculture and Mining, which have a tendency to Rise.
§ 4. -that tendency from time to time Counteracted by Improvements in Production.
§ 5. Effect of the Progress of Society in moderating fluctuations of Value.
Chapter II. Influence Of The Progress Of Industry And Population On Rents, Profits, And Wages.
§ 1. Characteristic features of industrial Progress.
§ 2. First two cases, Population and Capital increasing, the arts of production stationary.
§ 3. The arts of production advancing, capital and population stationary.
§ 4. Theoretical results, if all three Elements progressive.
§ 5. Practical Results.
Chapter III. Of The Tendency Of Profits To A Minimum.
§ 1. Different Theories as to the fall of Profits.
§ 2. What determines the minimum rate of Profit?
§ 3. In old and opulent countries, profits habitually near to the minimum.
§ 4. -prevented from reaching it by commercial revulsions.
§ 5. -by improvements in Production.
§ 6. -by the importation of cheap Necessaries and Implements.
§ 7. -by the emigration of Capital.
Chapter IV. Consequences Of The Tendency Of Profits To A Minimum, And The Stationary State.
§ 1. Abstraction of Capital not necessarily a national loss.
§ 2. In opulent countries, the extension of machinery not detrimental but beneficial to Laborers.
§ 3. Stationary state of wealth and population dreaded by some writers, but not in itself undesirable.
Chapter V. On The Possible Futurity Of The Laboring-Classes.
§ 1. The possibility of improvement while Laborers remain merely receivers of Wages.
§ 2.-through small holdings, by which the landlord's gain is shared.
§ 3. -through co-operation, by which the manager's wages are shared.
§ 4. Distributive Co-operation.
§ 5. Productive Co-Operation.
§ 6. Industrial Partnership.
§ 7. People's Banks.
Book V. On The Influence Of Government.
Chapter I. On The General Principles Of Taxation.
§ 1. Four fundamental rules of Taxation.
§ 2. Grounds of the principle of Equality of Taxation.
§ 3. Should the same percentage be levied on all amounts of Income?
§ 4. Should the same percentage be levied on Perpetual and on Terminable Incomes?
§ 5. The increase of the rent of land from natural causes a fit subject of peculiar Taxation.
§ 6. Taxes falling on Capital not necessarily objectionable.
Chapter II. Of Direct Taxes.
§ 1. Direct taxes either on income or expenditure.
§ 2. Taxes on rent.
§ 3. -on profits.
§ 4. -on Wages.
§ 5. -on Income.
§ 6. A House-Tax.
Chapter III. Of Taxes On Commodities, Or Indirect Taxes.
§ 1. A Tax on all commodities would fall on Profits.
§ 2. Taxes on particular commodities fall on the consumer.
§ 3. Peculiar effects of taxes on Necessaries.
§ 4. -how modified by the tendency of profits to a minimum.
§ 5. Effects of discriminating Duties.
§ 6. Effects produced on international Exchange by Duties on Exports and on Imports.
Chapter IV. Comparison Between Direct And Indirect Taxation.
§ 1. Arguments for and against direct Taxation.
§ 2. What forms of indirect taxation are most eligible?
§ 3. Practical rules for indirect taxation.
§ 4. Taxation systems of the United States and other Countries.
§ 5. A Résumé of the general principles of taxation.
Chapter V. Of A National Debt.
§ 1. Is it desirable to defray extraordinary public expenses by loans?
§ 2. Not desirable to redeem a national Debt by a general Contribution.
§ 3. In what cases desirable to maintain a surplus revenue for the redemption of Debt.
Chapter VI. Of An Interference Of Government Grounded On Erroneous Theories.
§ 1. The doctrine of Protection to Native Industry.
§ 2. -had its origin in the Mercantile System.
§ 3. -supported by pleas of national subsistence and national defense.
§ 4. -on the ground of encouraging young industries; colonial policy.
§ 5. -on the ground of high wages.
§ 6. -on the ground of creating a diversity of industries.
§ 7. -on the ground that it lowers prices.
Appendix I. Bibliographies.
Appendix II. Examination Questions.
Footnotes



A SYSTEM OF LOGIC RATIOCINATIVE AND INDUCTIVE--VOLUME I.
BEING A CONNECTED VIEW OF THE PRINCIPLES OF EVIDENCE AND THE METHODS OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION
IN TWO VOLUMES
VOL. I.
SEVENTH EDITION
By John Stuart Mill



CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME

INTRODUCTION.
§ 1. 	A definition at the commencement of a subject must be provisional 	1
2. 	Is logic the art and science of reasoning? 	2
3. 	Or the art and science of the pursuit of truth? 	3
4. 	Logic is concerned with inferences, not with intuitive truths 	5
5. 	Relation of logic to the other sciences 	8
6. 	Its utility, how shown 	10
7. 	Definition of logic stated and illustrated 	11

BOOK I.
OF NAMES AND PROPOSITIONS.

Chapter I. Of the Necessity of commencing with an Analysis of Language.
§ 1. 	Theory of names, why a necessary part of logic 	17
2. 	First step in the analysis of Propositions 	18
3. 	Names must be studied before Things 	21

Chapter II. Of Names.
§ 1. 	Names are names of things, not of our ideas 	23
2. 	Words which are not names, but parts of names 	24
3. 	General and Singular names 	26
4. 	Concrete and Abstract 	29
5. 	Connotative and Non-connotative 	31
6. 	Positive and Negative 	42
7. 	Relative and Absolute 	44
8. 	Univocal and Æquivocal 	47
	[Pg xii]
Chapter III. Of the Things denoted by Names.
§ 1. 	Necessity of an enumeration of Nameable Things. The Categories of Aristotle 	49
2. 	Ambiguity of the most general names 	51
3. 	Feelings, or states of consciousness 	54
4. 	Feelings must be distinguished from their physical antecedents. Perceptions, what 	56
5. 	Volitions, and Actions, what 	58
6. 	Substance and Attribute 	59
7. 	Body 	61
8. 	Mind 	67
9. 	Qualities 	69
10. 	Relations 	72
11. 	Resemblance 	74
12. 	Quantity 	78
13. 	All attributes of bodies are grounded on states of consciousness 	79
14. 	So also all attributes of mind 	80
15. 	Recapitulation 	81

Chapter IV. Of Propositions.
§ 1. 	Nature and office of the copula 	85
2. 	Affirmative and Negative propositions 	87
3. 	Simple and Complex 	89
4. 	Universal, Particular, and Singular 	93

Chapter V. Of the Import of Propositions.
§ 1. 	Doctrine that a proposition is the expression of a relation between two ideas 	96
2. 	Doctrine that it is the expression of a relation between the meanings of two names 	99
3. 	Doctrine that it consists in referring something to, or excluding something from, a class 	103
4. 	What it really is 	107
5. 	It asserts (or denies) a sequence, a coexistence, a simple existence, a causation 	110
6. 	—or a resemblance 	112
7. 	Propositions of which the terms are abstract 	115
	[Pg xiii]
Chapter VI. Of Propositions merely Verbal.
§ 1. 	Essential and Accidental propositions 	119
2. 	All essential propositions are identical propositions 	120
3. 	Individuals have no essences 	124
4. 	Real propositions, how distinguished from verbal 	126
5. 	Two modes of representing the import of a Real proposition 	127

Chapter VII. Of the Nature of Classification, and the Five Predicables.
§ 1. 	Classification, how connected with Naming 	129
2. 	The Predicables, what 	131
3. 	Genus and Species 	131
4. 	Kinds have a real existence in nature 	134
5. 	Differentia 	139
6. 	Differentiæ for general purposes, and differentiæ for special or technical purposes 	141
7. 	Proprium 	144
8. 	Accidens 	146

Chapter VIII. Of Definition.
§ 1. 	A definition, what 	148
2. 	Every name can be defined, whose meaning is susceptible of analysis 	150
3. 	Complete, how distinguished from incomplete definitions 	152
4. 	—and from descriptions 	154
5. 	What are called definitions of Things, are definitions of Names with an implied assumption of the existence of Things corresponding to them 	157
6. 	—even when such things do not in reality exist 	165
7. 	Definitions, though of names only, must be grounded on knowledge of the corresponding Things 	167
[Pg xiv]
BOOK II.
OF REASONING.

Chapter I. Of Inference, or Reasoning, in general.
§ 1. 	Retrospect of the preceding book 	175
2. 	Inferences improperly so called 	177
3. 	Inferences proper, distinguished into inductions and ratiocinations 	181

Chapter II. Of Ratiocination, or Syllogism.
§ 1. 	Analysis of the Syllogism 	184
2. 	The dictum de omni not the foundation of reasoning, but a mere identical proposition 	191
3. 	What is the really fundamental axiom of Ratiocination 	196
4. 	The other form of the axiom 	199

Chapter III. Of the Functions, and Logical Value, of the Syllogism.
§ 1. 	Is the syllogism a petitio principii? 	202
2. 	Insufficiency of the common theory 	203
3. 	All inference is from particulars to particulars 	205
4. 	General propositions are a record of such inferences, and the rules of the syllogism are rules for the interpretation of the record 	214
5. 	The syllogism not the type of reasoning, but a test of it 	218
6. 	The true type, what 	222
7. 	Relation between Induction and Deduction 	226
8. 	Objections answered 	227
9. 	Of Formal Logic, and its relation to the Logic of Truth 	231

Chapter IV. Of Trains of Reasoning, and Deductive Sciences.
§ 1. 	For what purpose trains of reasoning exist 	234
2. 	A train of reasoning is a series of inductive inferences 	234
3. 	—from particulars to particulars through marks of marks 	237
4. 	Why there are deductive sciences 	240
5. 	Why other sciences still remain experimental 	244
6. 	Experimental sciences may become deductive by the progress of experiment 	246
7. 	In what manner this usually takes place 	247
	[Pg xv]
Chapter V. Of Demonstration, and Necessary Truths.
§ 1. 	The Theorems of geometry are necessary truths only in the sense of necessarily following from hypotheses 	251
2. 	Those hypotheses are real facts with some of their circumstances exaggerated or omitted 	255
3. 	Some of the first principles of geometry are axioms, and these are not hypothetical 	256
4. 	—but are experimental truths 	258
5. 	An objection answered 	261
6. 	Dr. Whewell's opinions on axioms examined 	264

Chapter VI. The same Subject continued.
§ 1. 	All deductive sciences are inductive 	281
2. 	The propositions of the science of number are not verbal, but generalizations from experience 	284
3. 	In what sense hypothetical 	289
4. 	The characteristic property of demonstrative science is to be hypothetical 	290
5. 	Definition of demonstrative evidence 	292

Chapter VII. Examination of some Opinions opposed to the preceding doctrines.
§ 1. 	Doctrine of the Universal Postulate 	294
2. 	The test of inconceivability does not represent the aggregate of past experience 	296
3. 	—nor is implied in every process of thought 	299
4. 	Sir W. Hamilton's opinion on the Principles of Contradiction and Excluded Middle 	306

BOOK III.
OF INDUCTION.

Chapter I. Preliminary Observations on Induction in general.
§ 1. 	Importance of an Inductive Logic 	313
2. 	The logic of science is also that of business and life 	314

Chapter II. Of Inductions improperly so called.
§ 1. 	Inductions distinguished from verbal transformations 	319
2. 	—from inductions, falsely so called, in mathematics 	321
3. 	—and from descriptions 	323
4. 	Examination of Dr. Whewell's theory of Induction 	326
5. 	Further illustration of the preceding remarks 	336
	[Pg xvi]
Chapter III. On the Ground of Induction.
§ 1. 	Axiom of the uniformity of the course of nature 	341
2. 	Not true in every sense. Induction per enumerationem simplicem 	346
3. 	The question of Inductive Logic stated 	348

Chapter IV. Of Laws of Nature.
§ 1. 	The general regularity in nature is a tissue of partial regularities, called laws 	351
2. 	Scientific induction must be grounded on previous spontaneous inductions 	355
3. 	Are there any inductions fitted to be a test of all others? 	357

Chapter V. Of the Law of Universal Causation.
§ 1. 	The universal law of successive phenomena is the Law of Causation 	360
2. 	—i.e. the law that every consequent has an invariable antecedent 	363
3. 	The cause of a phenomenon is the assemblage of its conditions 	365
4. 	The distinction of agent and patient illusory 	373
5. 	The cause is not the invariable antecedent, but the unconditional invariable antecedent 	375
6. 	Can a cause be simultaneous with its effect? 	380
7. 	Idea of a Permanent Cause, or original natural agent 	383
8. 	Uniformities of coexistence between effects of different permanent causes, are not laws 	386
9. 	Doctrine that volition is an efficient cause, examined 	387

Chapter VI. Of the Composition of Causes.
§ 1. 	Two modes of the conjunct action of causes, the mechanical and the chemical 	405
2. 	The composition of causes the general rule; the other case exceptional 	408
3. 	Are effects proportional to their causes? 	412

Chapter VII. Of Observation and Experiment.
§ 1. 	The first step of inductive inquiry is a mental analysis of complex phenomena into their elements 	414
2. 	The next is an actual separation of those elements 	416
3. 	Advantages of experiment over observation 	417
4. 	Advantages of observation over experiment 	420
	[Pg xvii]
Chapter VIII. Of the Four Methods of Experimental Inquiry.
§ 1. 	Method of Agreement 	425
2. 	Method of Difference 	428
3. 	Mutual relation of these two methods 	429
4. 	Joint Method of Agreement and Difference 	433
5. 	Method of Residues 	436
6. 	Method of Concomitant Variations 	437
7. 	Limitations of this last method 	443

Chapter IX. Miscellaneous Examples of the Four Methods.
§ 1. 	Liebig's theory of metallic poisons 	449
2. 	Theory of induced electricity 	453
3. 	Dr. Wells' theory of dew 	457
4. 	Dr. Brown-Séquard's theory of cadaveric rigidity 	465
5. 	Examples of the Method of Residues 	471
6. 	Dr. Whewell's objections to the Four Methods 	475

Chapter X. Of Plurality of Causes; and of the Intermixture of Effects.
§ 1. 	One effect may have several causes 	482
2. 	—which is the source of a characteristic imperfection of the Method of Agreement 	483
3. 	Plurality of Causes, how ascertained 	487
4. 	Concurrence of Causes which do not compound their effects 	489
5. 	Difficulties of the investigation, when causes compound their effects 	494
6. 	Three modes of investigating the laws of complex effects 	499
7. 	The method of simple observation inapplicable 	500
8. 	The purely experimental method inapplicable 	501

Chapter XI. Of the Deductive Method.
§ 1. 	First stage; ascertainment of the laws of the separate causes by direct induction 	507
2. 	Second stage; ratiocination from the simple laws of the complex cases 	512
3. 	Third stage; verification by specific experience 	514
	[Pg xviii]
Chapter XII. Of the Explanation of Laws of Nature.
§ 1. 	Explanation defined 	518
2. 	First mode of explanation, by resolving the law of a complex effect into the laws of the concurrent causes and the fact of their coexistence 	518
3. 	Second mode; by the detection of an intermediate link in the sequence 	519
4. 	Laws are always resolved into laws more general than themselves 	520
5. 	Third mode; the subsumption of less general laws under a more general one 	524
6. 	What the explanation of a law of nature amounts to 	526

Chapter XIII. Miscellaneous Examples of the Explanation of Laws of Nature.
§ 1. 	The general theories of the sciences 	529
2. 	Examples from chemical speculations 	531
3. 	Example from Dr. Brown-Séquard's researches on the nervous system 	533
4. 	Examples of following newly-discovered laws into their complex manifestations 	534
5. 	Examples of empirical generalizations, afterwards confirmed and explained deductively 	536
6. 	Example from mental science 	538
7. 	Tendency of all the sciences to become deductive 	539



A SYSTEM OF LOGIC RATIOCINATIVE AND INDUCTIVE, VOLUME II.
BEING A CONNECTED VIEW OF THE PRINCIPLES OF EVIDENCE AND THE METHODS OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION
By John Stuart Mill
IN TWO VOLUMES
SEVENTH EDITION



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME

BOOK III.
ON INDUCTION.—(Continued.)

Chapter XIV. Of the Limits to the Explanation of Laws of Nature; and of Hypotheses.
§ 1. 	Can all the sequences in nature be resolvable into one law? 	3
2. 	Ultimate laws cannot be less numerous than the distinguishable feelings of our nature 	4
3. 	In what sense ultimate facts can be explained 	7
4. 	The proper use of scientific hypotheses 	8
5. 	Their indispensableness 	16
6. 	Legitimate, how distinguished from illegitimate hypotheses 	18
7. 	Some inquiries apparently hypothetical are really inductive 	25

Chapter XV. Of Progressive Effects; and of the Continued Action of Causes.
§ 1. 	How a progressive effect results from the simple continuance of the cause 	29
2. 	—and from the progressiveness of the cause 	33
3. 	Derivative laws generated from a single ultimate law 	36

Chapter XVI. Of Empirical Laws.
§ 1. 	Definition of an empirical law 	38
2. 	Derivative laws commonly depend on collocations 	39
3. 	The collocations of the permanent causes are not reducible to any law 	41
[Pg vi]4. 	Hence empirical laws cannot be relied on beyond the limits of actual experience 	41
5. 	Generalizations which rest only on the Method of Agreement can only be received as empirical laws 	43
6. 	Signs from which an observed uniformity of sequence may be presumed to be resolvable 	44
7. 	Two kinds of empirical laws 	47

Chapter XVII. Of Chance, and its Elimination.
§ 1. 	The proof of empirical laws depends on the theory of chance 	49
2. 	Chance defined and characterized 	50
3. 	The elimination of chance 	55
4. 	Discovery of residual phenomena by eliminating chance 	57
5. 	The doctrine of chances 	59

Chapter XVIII. Of the Calculation of Chances.
§ 1. 	Foundation of the doctrine of chances, as taught by mathematics 	61
2. 	The doctrine tenable 	63
3. 	On what foundation it really rests 	64
4. 	Its ultimate dependence on causation 	68
5. 	Theorem of the doctrine of chances which relates to the cause of a given event 	72
6. 	How applicable to the elimination of chance 	74

Chapter XIX. Of the Extension of Derivative Laws to Adjacent Cases.
§ 1. 	Derivative laws, when not casual, are almost always contingent on collocations 	78
2. 	On what grounds they can be extended to cases beyond the bounds of actual experience 	80
3. 	Those cases must be adjacent cases 	82

Chapter XX. Of Analogy.
§ 1. 	Various senses of the word analogy 	86
2. 	Nature of analogical evidence 	87
3. 	On what circumstances its value depends 	91
[Pg vii]
Chapter XXI. Of the Evidence of the Law of Universal Causation.
§ 1. 	The law of causality does not rest on an instinct 	95
2. 	But on an induction by simple enumeration 	100
3. 	In what cases such induction is allowable 	102
4. 	The universal prevalence of the law of causality, on what grounds admissible 	105

Chapter XXII. Of Uniformities of Coexistence not dependent on Causation.
§ 1. 	Uniformities of coexistence which result from laws of sequence 	110
2. 	The properties of Kinds are uniformities of coexistence 	111
3. 	Some are derivative, others ultimate 	113
4. 	No universal axiom of coexistence 	114
5. 	The evidence of uniformities of coexistence, how measured 	117
6. 	When derivative, their evidence is that of empirical laws 	117
7. 	So also when ultimate 	119
8. 	The evidence stronger in proportion as the law is more general 	120
9. 	Every distinct Kind must be examined 	121

Chapter XXIII. Of Approximate Generalizations, and Probable Evidence.
§ 1. 	The inferences called probable, rest on approximate generalizations 	124
2. 	Approximate generalizations less useful in science than in life 	124
3. 	In what cases they may be resorted to 	126
4. 	In what manner proved 	127
5. 	With what precautions employed 	130
6. 	The two modes of combining probabilities 	131
7. 	How approximate generalizations may be converted into accurate generalizations equivalent to them 	136
[Pg viii]
Chapter XXIV. Of the Remaining Laws of Nature.
§ 1. 	Propositions which assert mere existence 	139
2. 	Resemblance, considered as a subject of science 	141
3. 	The axioms and theorems of mathematics comprise the principal laws of resemblance 	143
4. 	—and those of order in place, and rest on induction by simple enumeration 	145
5. 	The propositions of arithmetic affirm the modes of formation of some given number 	146
6. 	Those of algebra affirm the equivalence of different modes of formation of numbers generally 	151
7. 	The propositions of geometry are laws of outward nature 	154
8. 	Why geometry is almost entirely deductive 	156
9. 	Function of mathematical truths in the other sciences, and limits of that function 	158

Chapter XXV. Of the Grounds of Disbelief.
§ 1. 	Improbability and impossibility 	161
2. 	Examination of Hume's doctrine of miracles 	162
3. 	The degrees of improbability correspond to differences in the nature of the generalization with which an assertion conflicts 	166
4. 	A fact is not incredible because the chances are against it 	170
5. 	Are coincidences less credible than other facts? 	172
6. 	An opinion of Laplace examined 	175

BOOK IV.
OF OPERATIONS SUBSIDIARY TO INDUCTION.

Chapter I. Of Observation and Description.
§ 1. 	Observation, how far a subject of logic 	183
2. 	A great part of what seems observation is really inference 	184
3. 	The description of an observation affirms more than is contained in the observation 	187
4. 	—namely an agreement among phenomena; and the comparison of phenomena to ascertain such agreements is a preliminary to induction 	190
[Pg ix]
Chapter II. Of Abstraction, or the Formation of Conceptions.
§ 1. 	The comparison which is a preliminary to induction implies general conceptions 	193
2. 	—but these need not be pre-existent 	194
3. 	A general conception, originally the result of a comparison, becomes itself the type of comparison 	198
4. 	What is meant by appropriate conceptions 	200
5. 	—and by clear conceptions 	203
6. 	Further illustration of the subject 	205

Chapter III. Of Naming, as subsidiary to Induction.
§ 1. 	The fundamental property of names as an instrument of thought 	209
2. 	Names are not indispensable to induction 	210
3. 	In what manner subservient to it 	211
4. 	General names not a mere contrivance to economize the use of language 	213

Chapter IV. Of the Requisites of a Philosophical Language, and the Principles of Definition.
§ 1. 	First requisite of philosophical language, a steady and determinate meaning for every general name 	215
2. 	Names in common use have often a loose connotation 	215
3. 	—which the logician should fix, with as little alteration as possible 	218
4. 	Why definition is often a question not of words but of things 	220
5. 	How the logician should deal with the transitive applications of words 	224
6. 	Evil consequences of casting off any portion of the customary connotation of words 	229
[Pg x]
Chapter V. On the Natural History of the Variations in the Meaning of Terms.
§ 1. 	How circumstances originally accidental become incorporated into the meaning of words 	236
2. 	—and sometimes become the whole meaning 	238
3. 	Tendency of words to become generalized 	240
4. 	—and to become specialized 	243

Chapter VI. The Principles of a Philosophical Language further considered.
§ 1. 	Second requisite of philosophical language, a name for every important meaning 	248
2. 	—viz. first, an accurate descriptive terminology 	248
3. 	—secondly, a name for each of the more important results of scientific abstraction 	252
4. 	—thirdly, a nomenclature, or system of the names of Kinds 	255
5. 	Peculiar nature of the connotation of names which belong to a nomenclature 	257
6. 	In what cases language may, and may not, be used mechanically 	259

Chapter VII. Of Classification, as subsidiary to Induction.
§ 1. 	Classification as here treated of, wherein different from the classification implied in naming 	266
2. 	Theory of natural groups 	267
3. 	Are natural groups given by type, or by definition? 	271
4. 	Kinds are natural groups 	274
5. 	How the names of Kinds should be constructed 	280

Chapter VIII. Of Classification by Series.
§ 1. 	Natural groups should be arranged in a natural series 	284
2. 	The arrangement should follow the degrees of the main phenomenon 	285
3. 	—which implies the assumption of a type-species 	287
[Pg xi]4. 	How the divisions of the series should be determined 	288
5. 	Zoology affords the completest type of scientific classification 	289

BOOK V.
ON FALLACIES.

Chapter I. Of Fallacies in General.
§ 1. 	Theory of fallacies a necessary part of logic 	295
2. 	Casual mistakes are not fallacies 	297
3. 	The moral sources of erroneous opinion, how related to the intellectual 	297

Chapter II. Classification of Fallacies.
§ 1. 	On what criteria a classification of fallacies should be grounded 	301
2. 	The five classes of fallacies 	302
3. 	The reference of a fallacy to one or another class is sometimes arbitrary 	305

Chapter III. Fallacies of Simple Inspection, or à priori Fallacies.
§ 1. 	Character of this class of Fallacies 	309
2. 	Natural prejudice of mistaking subjective laws for objective, exemplified in popular superstitions 	310
3. 	Natural prejudices, that things which we think of together must exist together, and that what is inconceivable must be false 	314
4. 	Natural prejudice, of ascribing objective existence to abstractions 	321
5. 	Fallacy of the Sufficient Reason 	322
6. 	Natural prejudice, that the differences in nature correspond to the distinctions in language 	325
7. 	Prejudice, that a phenomenon cannot have more than one cause 	329
8. 	Prejudice, that the conditions of a phenomenon must resemble the phenomenon 	332
[Pg xii]
Chapter IV. Fallacies of Observation.
§ 1. 	Non-observation, and Mal-observation 	341
2. 	Non-observation of instances, and non-observation of circumstances 	341
3. 	Examples of the former 	342
4. 	—and of the latter 	347
5. 	Mal-observation characterized and exemplified 	352

Chapter V. Fallacies of Generalization.
§ 1. 	Character of the class 	356
2. 	Certain kinds of generalization must always be groundless 	356
3. 	Attempts to resolve phenomena radically different into the same 	357
4. 	Fallacy of mistaking empirical for causal laws 	359
5. 	Post hoc, ergo propter hoc; and the deductive fallacy corresponding to it 	364
6. 	Fallacy of False Analogies 	366
7. 	Function of metaphors in reasoning 	373
8. 	How fallacies of generalization grow out of bad classification 	375

Chapter VI. Fallacies of Ratiocination.
§ 1. 	Introductory Remarks 	377
2. 	Fallacies in the conversion and æquipollency of propositions 	377
3. 	Fallacies in the syllogistic process 	379
4. 	Fallacy of changing the premises 	379

Chapter VII. Fallacies of Confusion.
§ 1. 	Fallacy of Ambiguous Terms 	384
2. 	Fallacy of Petitio Principii 	396
3. 	Fallacy of Ignoratio Elenchi 	405
[Pg xiii]
BOOK VI.
ON THE LOGIC OF THE MORAL SCIENCES.

Chapter I. Introductory Remarks.
§ 1. 	The backward state of the Moral Sciences can only be remedied by applying to them the methods of Physical Science, duly extended and generalized 	413
2. 	How far this can be attempted in the present work 	415

Chapter II. Of Liberty and Necessity.
§ 1. 	Are human actions subject to the law of causality? 	417
2. 	The doctrine commonly called Philosophical Necessity, in what sense true 	418
3. 	Inappropriateness and pernicious effect of the term Necessity 	420
4. 	A motive not always the anticipation of a pleasure or a pain 	424

Chapter III. That there is, or may be, a Science of Human Nature.
§ 1. 	There may be sciences which are not exact sciences 	426
2. 	To what scientific type the Science of Human Nature corresponds 	429

Chapter IV. Of the Laws of Mind.
§ 1. 	What is meant by Laws of Mind 	432
2. 	Is there a science of Psychology? 	433
3. 	The principal investigations of Psychology characterized 	435
4. 	Relation of mental facts to physical conditions 	440

Chapter V. Of Ethology, or the Science of the Formation of Character.
§ 1. 	The Empirical Laws of Human Nature 	445
2. 	—are merely approximate generalizations. The universal laws are those of the formation of character 	447
[Pg xiv]3. 	The laws of the formation of character cannot be ascertained by observation and experiment 	449
4. 	—but must be studied deductively 	454
5. 	The Principles of Ethology are the axiomata media of mental science 	455
6. 	Ethology characterized 	459

Chapter VI. General Considerations on the Social Science.
§ 1. 	Are Social Phenomena a subject of Science? 	461
2. 	Of what nature the Social Science must be 	463

Chapter VII. Of the Chemical, or Experimental, Method in the Social Science.
§ 1. 	Characters of the mode of thinking which deduces political doctrines from specific experience 	466
2. 	In the Social Science experiments are impossible 	468
3. 	—the Method of Difference inapplicable 	469
4. 	—and the Methods of Agreement, and of Concomitant Variations, inconclusive 	471
5. 	The Method of Residues also inconclusive, and presupposes Deduction 	472

Chapter VIII. Of the Geometrical, or Abstract Method.
§ 1. 	Characters of this mode of thinking 	476
2. 	Examples of the Geometrical Method 	478
3. 	The interest-philosophy of the Bentham school 	479

Chapter IX. Of the Physical, or Concrete Deductive Method.
§ 1. 	The Direct and Inverse Deductive Methods 	486
2. 	Difficulties of the Direct Deductive Method in the Social Science 	489
3. 	To what extent the different branches of sociological speculation can be studied apart. Political Economy characterized 	492
4. 	Political Ethology, or the science of national character 	497
5. 	The Empirical Laws of the Social Science 	500
6. 	The Verification of the Social Science 	502
[Pg xv]
Chapter X. Of the Inverse Deductive, or Historical Method.
§ 1. 	Distinction between the general Science of Society, and special sociological inquiries 	506
2. 	What is meant by a State of Society? 	506
3. 	The Progressiveness of Man and Society 	508
4. 	The laws of the succession of states of society can only be ascertained by the Inverse Deductive Method 	511
5. 	Social Statics, or the science of the Coexistences of Social Phenomena 	513
6. 	Social Dynamics, or the science of the Successions of Social Phenomena 	521
7. 	Outlines of the Historical Method 	522
8. 	Future prospects of Sociological Inquiry 	525

Chapter XI. Additional Elucidations of the Science of History.
§ 1. 	The subjection of historical facts to uniform laws is verified by statistics 	529
2. 	—does not imply the insignificance of moral causes 	532
3. 	—nor the inefficacy of the characters of individuals and of the acts of governments 	535
4. 	The historical importance of eminent men and of the policy of governments illustrated 	540

Chapter XII. Of the Logic of Practice, or Art; including Morality and Policy.
§ 1. 	Morality not a science, but an Art 	544
2. 	Relation between rules of art and the theorems of the corresponding science 	544
3. 	What is the proper function of rules of art? 	546
4. 	Art cannot be Deductive 	548
5. 	Every Art consists of truths of Science, arranged in the order suitable for some practical use 	549
6. 	Teleology, or the Doctrine of Ends 	550
7. 	Necessity of an ultimate standard, or first principle of Teleology 	552
8. 	Conclusion 	554



A SYSTEM OF LOGIC, RATIOCINATIVE AND INDUCTIVE
BEING A CONNECTED VIEW OF THE PRINCIPLES OF EVIDENCE, AND THE METHODS OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION.
By John Stuart Mill
CONTENTS
Preface To The First Edition.
Preface To The Third And Fourth Editions.
Introduction.
Book I 	Of Names And Propositions.
Chapter I 	Of The Necessity Of Commencing With An Analysis Of Language.
Chapter II 	Of Names.
Chapter III 	Of The Things Denoted By Names.
Chapter IV 	Of Propositions.
Chapter V 	Of The Import Of Propositions.
Chapter VI 	Of Propositions Merely Verbal.
Chapter VII 	Of The Nature Of Classification, And The Five Predicables.
Chapter VIII 	Of Definition.
Book II 	On Reasoning.
Chapter I 	Of Inference, Or Reasoning, In General.
Chapter II 	Of Ratiocination, Or Syllogism.
Chapter III 	Of The Functions And Logical Value Of The Syllogism.
Chapter IV 	Of Trains Of Reasoning, And Deductive Sciences.
Chapter V 	Of Demonstration, And Necessary Truths.
Chapter VI 	The Same Subject Continued.
Chapter VII 	Examination Of Some Opinions Opposed To The Preceding Doctrines.
Book III 	Of Induction.
Chapter I 	Preliminary Observations On Induction In General.
Chapter II 	Of Inductions Improperly So Called.
Chapter III 	Of The Ground Of Induction.
Chapter IV 	Of Laws Of Nature.
Chapter V 	Of The Law Of Universal Causation.
Chapter VI 	On The Composition Of Causes.
Chapter VII 	On Observation And Experiment.
Chapter VIII 	Of The Four Methods Of Experimental Inquiry.
Chapter IX 	Miscellaneous Examples Of The Four Methods.
Chapter X 	Of Plurality Of Causes, And Of The Intermixture Of Effects.
Chapter XI 	Of The Deductive Method.
Chapter XII 	Of The Explanation Of Laws Of Nature.
Chapter XIII 	Miscellaneous Examples Of The Explanation Of Laws Of Nature.
Chapter XIV 	Of The Limits To The Explanation Of Laws Of Nature; And Of Hypotheses.
Chapter XV 	Of Progressive Effects; And Of The Continued Action Of Causes.
Chapter XVI 	Of Empirical Laws.
Chapter XVII 	Of Chance And Its Elimination.
Chapter XVIII 	Of The Calculation Of Chances.
Chapter XIX 	Of The Extension Of Derivative Laws To Adjacent Cases.
Chapter XX 	Of Analogy.
Chapter XXI 	Of The Evidence Of The Law Of Universal Causation.
Chapter XXII 	Of Uniformities Of Co-Existence Not Dependent On Causation.
Chapter XXIV 	Of The Remaining Laws Of Nature.
Chapter XXV 	Of The Grounds Of Disbelief.
Book IV 	Of Operations Subsidiary To Induction.
Chapter I 	Of Observation And Description.
Chapter II 	Of Abstraction, Or The Formation Of Conceptions.
Chapter III 	Of Naming, As Subsidiary To Induction.
Chapter IV 	Of The Requisites Of A Philosophical Language, And The Principles Of Definition.
Chapter V 	On The Natural History Of The Variations In The Meaning Of Terms.
Chapter VI 	The Principles Of A Philosophical Language Further Considered.
Chapter VII 	Of Classification, As Subsidiary To Induction.
Chapter VIII 	Of Classification By Series.
Book V 	On Fallacies.
Chapter I 	Of Fallacies In General.
Chapter II 	Classification Of Fallacies.
Chapter III 	Fallacies Of Simple Inspection; Or A Priori Fallacies.
Chapter IV 	Fallacies Of Observation.
Chapter V 	Fallacies Of Generalization.
Chapter VI 	Fallacies Of Ratiocination.
Chapter VII 	Fallacies Of Confusion.
Book VI 	On The Logic Of The Moral Sciences.
Chapter I 	Introductory Remarks.
Chapter II 	Of Liberty And Necessity.
Chapter III 	That There Is, Or May Be, A Science Of Human Nature.
Chapter IV 	Of The Laws Of Mind.
Chapter V 	Of Ethology, Or The Science Of The Formation Of Character.
Chapter VI 	General Considerations On The Social Science.
Chapter VII 	Of The Chemical, Or Experimental, Method In The Social Science.
Chapter VIII 	Of The Geometrical, Or Abstract, Method.
Chapter IX 	Of The Physical, Or Concrete Deductive, Method.
Chapter X 	Of The Inverse Deductive, Or Historical, Method.
Chapter XI 	Additional Elucidations Of The Science Of History.
Chapter XII 	Of The Logic Of Practice, Or Art; Including Morality And Policy.
Footnotes



ANALYSIS OF THE PHENOMENA OF THE HUMAN MIND
By James Mill (John Stuart Mill)



CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME

	PAGE
INTRODUCTION 	1
CHAPTER I.
Sensation 	2
	SECTION 	1. Smell
7
	2. Hearing 	16
	3. Sight 	21
	4. Taste 	25
	5. Touch 	28
	6. Sensations of Disorganization, or of the Approach to Disorganization, in any part of the Body 	37
	7. Muscular Sensations, or those Feelings which accompany the Action of the Muscles 	40
	8. Sensations in the Alimentary Canal 	45

CHAPTER II.
Ideas 	51

CHAPTER III.
The Association of Ideas 	70

CHAPTER IV.
Naming 	127
	SECTION 	1. Nouns Substantive
134
	2. Nouns Adjective 	134
	3. Verbs 	151
	4. Predication 	159
xxiv
	SECTION 	5. Pronouns
194
	6. Adverbs 	199
	7. Prepositions 	201
	8. Conjunctions 	212

CHAPTER V.
Consciousness 	223

CHAPTER VI.
Conception 	233

CHAPTER VII.
Imagination 	238

CHAPTER VIII.
Classification 	247

CHAPTER IX.
Abstraction 	294

CHAPTER X.
Memory 	318

CHAPTER XI.
Belief 	341

CHAPTER XII.
Ratiocination 	424

CHAPTER XIII.
Evidence 	428
APPENDIX 	440
CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME
CHAPTER XIV.
	PAGE
Some Names which require a particular Explanation 	1
	SECTION 	1. Names of Names 	3
	2. Relative Terms 	6

	Abstract Relative Terms 	72
	3. Numbers 	89
	4. Privative Terms 	99
	5. Time 	116
	6. Motion 	142
	7. Identity 	164

CHAPTER XV.
Reflection 	176

CHAPTER XVI.
The Distinction between the Intellectual and Active Powers of the Human Mind 	181

CHAPTER XVII.
Pleasurable and Painful Sensations 	184

CHAPTER XVIII.
Causes of the Pleasurable and Painful Sensations 	187

CHAPTER XIX.
Ideas of the Pleasurable and Painful Sensations, and of the Causes of them 	189

CHAPTER XX.
The Pleasurable and Painful Sensations, contemplated as passed, or future 	196
volume 2 vi
CHAPTER XXI.
The Causes of Pleasurable and Painful Sensations, contemplated as passed, or future 	201
	SECTION 	1. The immediate Causes of Pleasurable and Painful Sensations, contemplated as passed, or as future 	201
	2. The Remote Causes of Pleasurable and Painful Sensations contemplated as passed, or future 	206
	SUB-SECT. 	1. Wealth, Power, and Dignity, and their Contraries, contemplated as Causes of our Pleasures and Pains 	207
	2. Our Fellow-Creatures contemplated as Causes of our Pleasures and Pains 	214
	1.—Friendship 	216
	2.—Kindness 	216
	3.—Family 	218
	4.—Country 	226
	5.—Party; Class 	227
	6.—Mankind 	229
	3. The Objects called Sublime and Beautiful, and their Contraries, contemplated as Causes of our Pleasures and Pains 	230

CHAPTER XXII.
Motives 	256
	SECTION 	1. Pleasurable or Painful States, contemplated as the Consequents of our own Acts 	256
	2. Causes of our Pleasurable and Painful States, contemplated as the Consequents of our own Acts 	265

CHAPTER XXIII.
The Acts of our Fellow-creatures, which are Causes of our Pains and Pleasures, contemplated as Consequents of our own Acts 	280

CHAPTER XXIV.
The Will 	327

CHAPTER XXV.
Intention 	396





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