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Title: Petersburg National Military Park, Virginia - National Park Service Historical Handbook Series No. 13
Author: Lykes, Richard Wayne
Language: English
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    [Illustration: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR · March 3, 1849]

                UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                     Stewart L. Udall, _Secretary_

                         NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
                      Conrad L. Wirth, _Director_


                 _HISTORICAL HANDBOOK NUMBER THIRTEEN_

This publication is one of a series of handbooks describing the
historical and archeological areas in the National Park System
administered by the National Park Service of the United States
Department of the Interior. It is printed by the Government Printing
Office and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents,
Washington 25, D. C.

                            Price 25 cents.



                               PETERSBURG
                   _National Military Park, Virginia_


                        _by Richard Wayne Lykes_

    [Illustration: Wickerware.]

        NATIONAL PARK SERVICE HISTORICAL HANDBOOK SERIES NO. 13
                        Washington, D. C., 1951
                             (Reprint 1961)


_The National Park System, of which this area is a unit, is dedicated to
conserving the scenic, scientific, and historic heritage of the United
States for the benefit and inspiration of its people._

    [Illustration: NATIONAL PARK SERVICE: DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR]



                               _Contents_


                                                                   _Page_
  The Union Strategy of 1864                                            2
  The Strategic Importance of Petersburg                                4
  The Battle of Petersburg, June 15-18, 1864                            8
  First Union Attempt on the Weldon Railroad                           11
  The Battle of the Crater, July 30, 1864                              12
  The Fight for the Weldon Railroad                                    22
  Union Encirclement Continues                                         25
  The South Strikes Back—the Battle of Fort Stedman                    34
  Union Encirclement Becomes a Reality                                 39
  The Fall of the City                                                 43
  Guide to the Area                                                    46
  How to Reach the Park                                                55
  Administration                                                       56
  Related Areas                                                        56
  Visitor Facilities                                                   56



                            TABLE OF EVENTS


I. Events in 1864 Preceding the Campaign

  Mar. 9. U. S. Grant made commander in chief of the Union armies.
  May 4. Butler and the Army of the James capture City Point, Virginia.
  May 5-7. Battle of the Wilderness.
  May 8-19. Battle of Spotsylvania Court House.
  May 23. Battle of North Anna River.
  May 29. Battle of Totopotomoy Creek.
  June 3. Battle of Cold Harbor.
  June 9. Raid by Union cavalry on Petersburg lines.


II. Events in 1864 During the Campaign

  June 15-18. Opening Battle of Petersburg.
  June 22-23. Union attack on Weldon Railroad repulsed.
  July 30. Battle of the Crater.
  Aug. 18-21. Union forces capture the Weldon Railroad.
  Aug. 25. Battle of Reams Station.
  Sept. 14-17. Hampton’s cavalry raid on Union beef supply.
  Sept. 29-Oct. 1. Battle of Peebles’ Farm and Capture of Fort Harrison.
  Oct. 19. Battle of Cedar Creek.
  Oct. 27. Battle of Burgess’ Mill.


III. Events in 1865 During the Campaign

  Feb. 5-7. Battle of the Boydton Plank Road.
  Mar. 25. Battle of Fort Stedman.
  Apr. 1. Battle of Five Forks.
  Apr. 2. General Union attacks on Confederate lines outside Petersburg.
  Apr. 3. Union troops enter Richmond and Petersburg.
  Apr. 9. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia surrender at Appomattox
          Court House.

    [Illustration: Frontispiece: _View of Petersburg in 1865 looking
    south across the Appomattox River._ Courtesy, National Archives.]

    [Illustration: Battlefield monument.]


_In the final year of the Civil war in the East, the fighting centered
upon Petersburg, an important supply depot for the Richmond area. After
10 months of combat, both from behind prepared positions and along the
main routes of supply, the Confederates were forced to give up
Petersburg and Richmond on April 2, 1865. One week later Lee surrendered
the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House._


By June of 1864, the Civil War lay heavily on both the North and the
South. For more than 3 years the two antagonists—the Blue and the
Gray—had struggled to determine the fate of the Union.

The capitals of the embattled forces stood only 110 miles apart. But
these miles of rolling Virginia countryside which separated Richmond
from Washington had proven exceedingly difficult for the Union forces to
cross. Various Northern generals had been placed in command of the Army
of the Potomac and had faced Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. So far not
one had been successful in destroying Lee’s army or in capturing
Richmond.

Perhaps Gen. George B. McClellan had come the closest to success when in
the late spring and early summer of 1862 the Northern troops had
threatened the Confederate capital, only to be repulsed on the
outskirts. The other Northern commanders who followed McClellan, such as
Pope, Burnside, and Hooker, were less successful. Their drives had been
met and turned aside by Lee, the able Southern guardian of Richmond.

After 36 months of bitter conflict the war in the East seemed, to many
observers, to be far from a final settlement. The failure of Union
forces to deliver a decisive blow against the Army of Northern Virginia
was a source of growing concern in Washington. The Confederacy, for its
part, was no more successful in settling the issue. Attempted invasions
of the Northern States by Lee were turned back at Antietam in September
1862 and at Gettysburg in July 1863.

    [Illustration: _Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, Union commander at
    Petersburg._ Courtesy, National Archives.]

    [Illustration: _Gen. Robert E. Lee, Confederate commander at
    Petersburg._ Courtesy, National Archives.]

Farther west the picture was brighter for Northern hopes. In the same
month as the Battle of Gettysburg, the town of Vicksburg, Miss., fell
into Union hands. A few days later, July 9, 1863, Port Hudson, the last
remaining stronghold of the Confederacy on the banks of the Mississippi
River, surrendered. Later in 1863, the Union capture of Chattanooga,
Tenn., threw open the gateway to Georgia and South Carolina.

Strategically, despite the stalemate in Virginia, the beginning of 1864
found the Northern armies in a stronger position than the Confederate
military forces. Not only was there a distinct possibility that the
South could be split into two parts, but the greater resources at the
command of the Lincoln administration were beginning to count more
heavily with each passing day. All that seemed to be needed to end the
war was an able Union commander who could marshal the mighty resources
of his country for a last tremendous blow at the South. Such a man was
found in Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, the victor at Vicksburg and Chattanooga,
who was made commander in chief of all the Union armies on March 9,
1864.



                      _The Union Strategy of 1864_


To accomplish the conquest of the Confederacy the Northern plan called
for a huge two-pronged attack. Gen. William T. Sherman was in command of
the southern prong which was assigned the task of capturing Atlanta,
marching to the sea, and then turning north to effect a junction with
Grant. Opposed to Sherman was the Army of Tennessee led by Gen. Joseph
E. Johnston.

It was the upper arm of the movement which was directly concerned with
Richmond and Petersburg. This was composed of two armies: the Army of
the Potomac and the Army of the James. It was the task of these armies
to capture Richmond, crush the Army of Northern Virginia, and march
south toward Sherman.

The story of the Army of the James in the early phase of the offensive
may be briefly told. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler was ordered to advance upon
Richmond from the south and threaten communications between the
Confederate capital and the Southern States. With some 40,000 Union
troops the advance was begun. City Point, located at the junction of the
James and Appomattox Rivers and soon to be the supply center for the
attack on Petersburg, was captured on May 4, 1864. Within 2 weeks,
however, a numerically inferior Confederate force shut up the Army of
the James, “as if it had been in a bottle strongly corked,” in Bermuda
Hundred, a loop formed by the winding James and Appomattox Rivers. Here
Butler waited, while north of him the Army of the Potomac and the Army
of Northern Virginia engaged in a series of bloody battles.

    [Illustration: THE VIRGINIA CAMPAIGN
    1864-65]

  WILDERNESS
    MAY 5-7, 1864
  SPOTSYLVANIA
    MAY 8-19, 1864
  COLD HARBOR
    JUNE 3, 1864
  PETERSBURG CAMPAIGN
    JUNE 1864-April 1865
  Five Forks
    April 1, 1865
  AMELIA COURT HOUSE
  SAYLOR’S CREEK
    APRIL 6, 1865
  APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE
    APRIL 9, 1865

The Battle of the Wilderness, May 5-7, 1864, began what proved to be the
start of the final campaign against the Army of Northern Virginia. Here
the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Gen. George G. Meade and numbering
approximately 118,000 troops, fought the Confederate defenders of
Richmond. Lee had about 62,000 men with him, while an additional 30,000
under Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard held the Richmond-Petersburg area. The
battle resulted in a fearful loss of men on both sides, although the
armies remained intact. This was followed by an equally heavy series of
engagements around Spotsylvania Court House from May 8 to 19.

Failing to destroy the Army of Northern Virginia in these battles, Grant
moved the Army of the Potomac to the east of Richmond. It was his hope
that he would outflank the Confederate defenders by persistent night
marches. Lee was not to be so easily outguessed, however, and after
minor battles at the North Anna River (May 23) and Totopotomoy Creek
(May 29), Grant arrived at Cold Harbor, about 8 miles east of Richmond.
Between him and that city stood Lee’s army. On June 3, 2 days after he
arrived at Cold Harbor, Grant ordered a direct frontal assault. He was
repulsed with heavy losses.

This was the situation at the end of the first month of Grant’s
campaign:

1. Both sides had suffered heavy casualties. The approximate percentage
of casualties to total strength, including reinforcements, was 31
percent for the North and 32 percent for the South.

2. The ability of the Union to refill the depleted ranks was greater
than that of the Confederacy.

3. The offensive strength of Lee had been sapped. From the time of the
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House until the end of the war, except for
local, small-scale actions, the Army of Northern Virginia was a
defensive weapon only. This Army, although hurt, had not been crushed,
and the Confederate flag still waved over Richmond.

In June, after Cold Harbor, Grant decided to turn quickly to the south
of Richmond and isolate the city and the defending troops by cutting the
railroads which supplied it. To do this he would need to attack
Petersburg.



                _The Strategic Importance of Petersburg_


According to the United States census of 1860, Petersburg was a city of
18,266 people. It was situated on the southern bank of the Appomattox
River less than 8 miles from City Point, the place where the Appomattox
joins the James; 23 miles north was Richmond. As the war progressed and
the territory to the north and east was shut off, Richmond became
increasingly dependent on Petersburg for supplies. Through it passed a
constant stream of war materials and necessities of life from the South
to sustain the straining war effort. In short, Petersburg was a road and
rail center of considerable importance to the Confederacy.

    [Illustration: Map showing the network of railroads and the
    strategic location of Petersburg to Richmond. The shaded area is the
    approximate line of Union control in early 1864. The three arrows
    indicate the major drives planned by the Union Army for 1864.
    (Railroads serving Richmond and Petersburg are in heavy lines.)

    Railroads and important roads serving Petersburg in 1864. The dashed
    line indicates the original Confederate defense line built in
    1862-63. January 1951, NMP-PET-7006]

  Railroads
    Richmond and Petersburg R. R.
    City Point R. R.
    Southside R. R.
    Norfolk and Petersburg R. R.
    Petersburg and Weldon R. R.
  Roads
    Richmond Turnpike
    CITY POINT ROAD
    JORDAN POINT ROAD
    PRINCE GEORGE C. H. ROAD
    BAXTER ROAD
    JERUSALEM PLANK ROAD
    BOYDTON PLANK ROAD
    ORIGINAL CONFEDERATE LINE
    COX ROAD
    SQUIRREL LEVEL ROAD
    HALIFAX ROAD
    VAUGHAN ROAD
  Confederate defenses
    _BATTERY 5_
    _ORIGINAL CONFEDERATE LINE (THE “DIMMOCK LINE”)_

The transportation vehicles of that day did not require the wide,
straight highways of the present. However, several good roads came into
the city from the east, south, and west where they effected a junction
with the Richmond Turnpike. Along these roads passed supply wagons,
couriers, and, on occasion, troops on their way to repel the foe.
Several were built of logs laid across the road to form a hard surface.
Because of this they were called “plank roads.” Thus two of the most
important arteries of traffic into Petersburg were the Jerusalem Plank
Road, connecting Petersburg with Jerusalem (now Courtland), Va., and the
Boydton Plank Road which led south through Dinwiddie Court House. Among
others of importance were the City Point, Prince George Court House,
Baxter, Halifax, Squirrel Level, and Cox Roads.

It was the railroads, more than the highways, however, which imparted a
significance to Petersburg out of all proportion to its size.
Confederate leaders were painfully aware that loss of control over their
small and harassed network of railroads would mean the loss of the war.
Since Petersburg was a point of convergence for five lines, it was of
great importance to the South. As other lines of supply were cut off or
threatened, the dependence of Richmond upon Petersburg increased. By
June 1864 all but one railroad from the south into the Confederate
capital—the Richmond and Danville Railroad—passed through Petersburg.

Tracks radiated from Petersburg in all directions. The Richmond and
Petersburg Railroad left the city to the north. The Southside Railroad
ran west to Lynchburg, while the Petersburg and Weldon Railroad led
south to North Carolina. The Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad passed
through a ravine east of the city before turning southeast in the
direction of Norfolk. For good measure the Petersburg and City Point
Railroad struck out for the hamlet of City Point, situated at the
junction of the James and Appomattox Rivers 8 miles away. Because of its
proximity, Petersburg was a part of the transportation system of the
Confederate capital. It served as a major point of transfer to the
larger metropolis for products and materials from the vast region to the
south.

In the spring of 1862, McClellan had threatened Richmond from the east
and southeast. This “Peninsular Campaign” made the defenders of Richmond
acutely aware of the need for a system of fortifications around
Petersburg. In August of that same year a defense line was begun, and
work continued until its completion about a year later. Capt. Charles H.
Dimmock was in charge of it under the direction of the Engineer Bureau,
Confederate States Army, and the line so constructed became unofficially
known as the “Dimmock Line.”

When finished, the chain of breastworks and artillery emplacements
around Petersburg was 10 miles long. It began and ended on the
Appomattox River and protected all but the northern approaches to the
city. The 55 artillery batteries were consecutively numbered from east
to west. Although natural terrain features were utilized whenever
possible, some glaring weaknesses existed. For example, between
Batteries 7 and 8 lay a deep ravine which could provide a means of
penetration by an attacking force. The very length and size of the
fortifications proved to be a disadvantage. It meant that a larger
number of troops would be necessary to defend the line than General
Beauregard, charged with this heavy responsibility, had present for
duty. Col. Alfred Roman, an aide-de-camp of Beauregard, estimated that
the long “Dimmock Line” would take more than 10 times as many men to
defend as were available.

    [Illustration: _Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard, who held the Confederate
    defense line before Petersburg until Lee arrived._ Courtesy,
    National Archives.]

The first serious threat to the untested line occurred when the Army of
the James was dispatched to approach Richmond from the southeast by way
of the James River. Although, the Army of the James was soon neutralized
by being bottled up in Bermuda Hundred by a smaller Confederate force,
it would be wrong to assume that the Union force was completely out of
the picture. It not only immobilized a considerable number of
Confederate soldiers assigned to guard it, but it provided a reservoir
of troops for operations in other parts of the field. On several
occasions raids were made on the railroads south and west of Petersburg.
The most serious of these occurred on June 9, 1864, when 3,000 infantry
and 1,300 cavalry appeared in force along the eastern sector of the
Dimmock Line. The infantry contented itself with a menacing
demonstration, but the cavalry attacked on the Jerusalem Plank Road. It
was halted by the joint efforts of regular Southern Army units assisted
by a hastily summoned home guard of old men and youths. The damage done
by raids such as this was quickly patched up, but they were a constant
nuisance to the city’s transportation lines. To shut off permanently the
supplies that streamed along the railroads, the Union commanders
realized that it would be necessary to take permanent physical
possession of them.



              _The Battle of Petersburg, June 15-18, 1864_


After the Battle of Cold Harbor on June 3, Grant had abandoned, for a
time at least, his plan to capture Richmond by direct assault. With
characteristic zeal he had ordered Meade to move the Army of the Potomac
across the James River and to invest the more southerly city. On June 14
Grant and Butler conferred at Bermuda Hundred. At that time orders were
given for the attack on Petersburg.

The first of the Northern forces to arrive on the scene of battle was
the XVIII Corps of the Army of the James. Early in the morning of June
15 these troops, commanded by Gen. William F. Smith, crossed from
Bermuda Hundred to the south side of the Appomattox by means of a
pontoon bridge at Broadway Landing. Eighteen thousand Union soldiers
were on their way to face less than 4,000 under Beauregard. Throughout
the day they approached the city and assembled for the attack.

The Union offensive opened shortly after 7 p. m. on June 15. Among the
first places to fall was Battery 5, one of the strongest of the
Confederate positions. Entering the ravine between Batteries 7 and 8,
Smith’s men were able to approach Battery 5 and take it from the rear,
the direction from which an attack was least expected. Within a few
hours Beauregard had lost not only Battery 5 but all the line for more
than a mile south. The defenders withdrew and threw up a hasty
entrenchment along Harrison’s Creek, well to the rear of the captured
section of the line. While this Confederate retreat was taking place,
the Union II Corps, commanded by Gen. Winfield S. Hancock, arrived to
reinforce the attacking columns.

The appearance on the field of the II Corps was an ominous sign for the
Confederacy. While the initial attacks were taking place on June 15, the
Army of the Potomac had been busily engaged in crossing the James River
farther to the east, on pontoon bridges. The number of Union troops
south of the river was increasing hourly until by midnight of June 16
the entire army, numbering at least 90,000, had crossed.

Darkness ended the fighting on June 15, but early the next day the
attacks were renewed. More of the defense line south of the portion
captured the previous day now gave way. In response to repeated
entreaties from Beauregard throughout June 15 and 16, Lee ordered more
divisions to the support of Petersburg. This necessitated the draining
of precious reserves from the Richmond lines. By dusk of that second day
Beauregard could muster about 14,000 to face the enemy. Thus, the center
of attention rapidly shifted from Richmond to Petersburg, which had so
recently seemed of but secondary importance.

    [Illustration: _Broadway Landing on the Appomattox River where the
    XVIII Corps of the Army of the James crossed on June 15, 1864. It
    was later used as an ordnance depot by the Union Army._ Courtesy,
    National Archives.]

    [Illustration: _Pontoon bridge at Broadway Landing constructed by
    the Union Army in 1864._ Courtesy, National Archives.]

The third day of battle was practically a repetition of that of the
preceding day. Again the Northern forces attacked the Confederate
troops, concentrating their efforts to the south of the positions
captured earlier. Again the Confederates were forced to draw back. A
decisive breakthrough of the opposing line was now anticipated by the
assaulting forces. At about 12:30 a. m., June 18, Beauregard ordered his
troops to begin a withdrawal to new positions about a mile closer to the
city. Throughout the early morning hours of that day Beauregard had his
men busily engaged in the construction of this defense line. Colonel
Roman, aide to Beauregard, later recalled that “without a moment’s rest
the digging of the trenches was begun, with such utensils as had been
hastily collected at Petersburg, many of the men using their bayonets,
their knives, and even their tin cans, to assist in the rapid execution
of the work.”

A general assault was ordered for the Union forces at 4 a. m. on June
18. When the attack began it was soon discovered that the ranks of the
enemy had not been broken nor had the city fallen into Northern hands.
The eastern section of the Dimmock Line was empty except for a thin line
of skirmishers who were gradually forced back. The Northern troops came
on, crossing the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad south of where the
defenders had constructed their line. The advance continued until they
were brought face to face with the muzzles of the defender’s guns.
Meanwhile, elements of Lee’s command continued pouring in to aid their
comrades. Lee, himself, came down from his temporary headquarters near
Chester, Va., to direct the defense operations in person.

Throughout that June Saturday, brisk action occurred on the new
Petersburg front. The major Union drive, involving elements of four
corps, came about 3 p. m. Artillery hammered the Confederates. Charges
of infantry were made only to be hurled back. During the course of one
of these futile drives the 1st Maine Heavy Artillery, according to
William F. Fox (_Regimental Losses in the American Civil War_), suffered
the most severe losses of any regiment in a single engagement of the
entire war. About 4 p. m. this unit, 850 strong, charged from the
concealment of the Prince George Court House Road north of where Fort
Stedman was soon to stand. Met by a heavy crossfire, it withdrew in less
than one-half hour, with 632 casualties.

As on the previous days, fighting ended with the coming of darkness.
Grant’s attempt to capture Petersburg had failed, with a loss of 10,000
men; but his efforts could not be considered entirely unsuccessful. Two
of the railroads leading into the city had been cut, and several roads
were in Union hands. Behind the Northern troops was City Point which
Grant speedily converted into a huge supply base.

The major result of the opening 4 days of combat, however, was the
failure of the Federal forces to break the Confederate defense line.
First Beauregard, and then Lee, had held against heavy odds. They had
been pushed back closer to their base—but they had held. Possibly if
Smith had advanced his XVIII Corps farther into the defenses on the
opening night, Petersburg would have fallen on June 15 or 16. But that
had not been done, and the campaign was to run nearly 10 more months.

The lines of battle before Petersburg were clearly drawn. Between 47,000
and 51,000 men defended it against 111,000 to 113,000 besiegers. The
defenses of Richmond now stretched from White Oak Swamp, east of that
city, south to the Jerusalem Plank Road, 26 miles away. The fate of the
Army of Northern Virginia—of the Confederate capital itself—would depend
upon the outcome of the drive against Petersburg.



              _First Union Attempt on the Weldon Railroad_


The Union Army, having failed in its initial attack on Petersburg, was
now committed to doing something further to effect its capture.

The period from June 19 to July 9 was spent in three types of activity.
First, elements of the army were set to work consolidating the positions
captured in the 4-day battle and constructing the devices needed for
siege operations. A second type of effort consisted of jabbing thrusts
at the important supply routes into Petersburg. The last was a
reconnoitering of the Confederate defenses to determine a plan which
would result in the fall of the city.

A threatening movement toward the Weldon Railroad was soon made by the
Northern troops. Three days after the failure to capture the city a
small force began to push to the southwest of Grant’s flank on the
Jerusalem Plank Road. The following day, June 22, Confederate divisions
led by Generals Cadmus M. Wilcox and William Mahone advanced from the
defense line south of Petersburg and forced the Union troops to a
temporary halt.

The next morning saw the resumption of the advance toward the Weldon
Railroad. A small cavalry force was successful in reaching the tracks on
the 23d, and it promptly started the work of destruction which was its
mission. Alarmed by the threat to this important supply line, the
Confederates launched a sharp attack which forced the withdrawal of the
Union forces from the vicinity of the railroad. However, the Union lines
confronting Petersburg had been extended across the Jerusalem Plank
Road, thus cutting off its use to the city.

In itself the battle of June 22-23 was not important. The North could
quickly replace the loss of 2,300 men. The railroad, although its days
were numbered, was still able to deliver a few supplies to Petersburg.
But as an indication of Grant’s tactics, it pointed the course of the
campaign ahead. It marked the first of several attempts to encircle
Petersburg. The others to follow would not all be as disappointing to
Northern hopes. In these repeated drives to the west lay the essence of
the basic tactics to capture Petersburg.

On July 9, 1864, the plan of operations decided upon by the Union high
command was revealed in an order issued from Meade’s headquarters. This
order gave detailed instructions on the building of fortifications and
the development of siege tactics. Thus it became apparent that the Union
plan was to reduce Petersburg by a lengthy process of attrition.

    [Illustration: _Lt. Col. Henry Pleasants, Commanding Officer of the
    48th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment which dug the Union tunnel under
    the Confederate line._ From Battles and Leaders of the Civil War.]

There were still those in the attacking forces, however, who felt that,
with a little imagination, the city could be taken by direct assault.
While most of the troops were digging siege lines, another, and smaller,
group had already begun work on a unique plan which would, if
successful, make further encirclement unnecessary.



               _The Battle of the Crater, July 30, 1864_


At several places east of the city the opposing lines were extremely
close together. One of these locations was in front of Elliott’s
Salient, a Confederate strong point near Cemetery Hill and old Blandford
Church. Here the Confederate position and the Union picket line were
less than 400 feet apart. Because of the proximity of the Union line,
Elliott’s Salient was well fortified. Behind earthen embankments was a
battery of four guns, and two veteran South Carolina infantry regiments
were stationed on either side. Behind these were other defensive works;
before them the ground sloped gently downward toward the Union advance
line.

    [Illustration: _Cross-section view of a scale model of the Union
    tunnel._]

  THE FEDERAL TUNNEL
    Built by the Forty-eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, commanded by
          Colonel Henry Pleasants.
    THE EXPLOSION OF THIS MINE PRODUCED THE CRATER
    FEDERAL LINE ESTABLISHED JUNE 18, 1864
    TUNNEL STARTED JUNE 25, 1864
    TUNNEL SLOPED UP TO AVOID HEAVY CLAY
    8000 LBS POWDER PLACED HERE JULY 27, 1864
    CONFEDERATE PEGRAMS BATTERY DESTROYED BY EXPLOSION JULY 30, 1864

    [Illustration: _The explosion of the Union mine as recorded by A. R.
    Waud, a contemporary artist._ From Battles and Leaders of the Civil
    War.]

This forward Union line was built on the crest of a ravine which had
been crossed on June 18. Through this ravine, and between the sentry
line and the main line, lay the roadbed of the Norfolk and Petersburg
Railroad. The front in this sector was manned by Gen. Ambrose E.
Burnside’s IX Corps. Among the many units which composed this corps was
the 48th Regiment, Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry. A large
proportion of this regiment had been coal miners, and it seemed to have
occurred to one or more of them that Elliott’s Salient would provide an
excellent place to use their civilian occupation. Lt. Col. Henry
Pleasants, the commanding officer of the 48th and a mining engineer by
profession, overheard one of the enlisted men mutter, “We could blow
that damned fort out of existence if we could run a mine shaft under
it.” From this and similar remarks came the germ of the idea for the
Union mine. This is what the 48th Regiment proposed to do: dig a long
gallery from the bottom of the ravine behind their picket line to a
point beneath the Confederate battery at Elliott’s Salient, blow up the
position by means of powder placed in the end of the tunnel, and,
finally, send a strong body of troops through the gap created in the
enemy’s line by the explosion. They saw as the reward for their effort
the capitulation of Petersburg and, perhaps, the end of the war.

After obtaining the permission of Burnside and Grant, Pleasants and his
men commenced digging their mine shaft on June 25. The lack of proper
equipment made it necessary constantly to improvise tools and apparatus
with which to excavate. Mining picks were created from straightened army
picks. Cracker boxes were converted into hand-barrows in which the dirt
was removed from the end of the tunnel. A sawmill changed a bridge into
timber necessary for shoring up the mine. Pleasants estimated both
direction and depth of the tunnel by means of a theodolite
(old-fashioned even in 1864) sent him from Washington. The outmoded
instrument served its purpose well, however; the mine shaft hit exactly
beneath the salient at which it was aimed.

One of the most remarkable features of the gallery was the method
devised to supply the diggers at the end with fresh air. The longer the
tunnel grew, the more serious became the problem of ventilation. It had
been considered impossible to dig a tunnel for any considerable distance
without spacing shafts at regular intervals in order to replace the
polluted air with a fresh supply. This problem had been solved by the
application of the simple physical principle that warm air tends to
rise. Behind the Union picket line and to the right of the mine gallery,
although connected with it, the miners dug a ventilating chimney.
Between the chimney and the mine entrance they erected an airtight
canvas door. Through that door and along the floor of the gallery there
was laid a square wooden pipe. A fire was then built at the bottom of
the ventilating shaft. As the fire warmed the air it went up the
chimney. The draft thus created drew the bad air from the end of the
tunnel where the men were digging. As this went out, fresh air was drawn
in through the wooden pipe to replace it.

Work on the tunnel had been continuously pushed from the start on June
25. By July 17 the diggers were nearly 511 feet from the entrance and
directly beneath the battery in Elliott’s Salient. The Confederates had
become suspicious by this time, for the faint sounds of digging could be
heard issuing from the earth. Their apprehension took the form of
countermines behind their own lines. Several of these were dug in an
effort to locate the Union gallery. Two were very close, being sunk on
either side of where the Pennsylvanians were at work. Although digging
in the countermines continued throughout the month of July, Confederate
fears seemed to quiet down during the same period. There were many
reasons for this. One was the failure of their tunnels to strike any
Union construction. Another major reason, undoubtedly, was a belief held
by many that it was impossible to ventilate a shaft of any length over
400 feet without constructing air shafts along it.

The next step in the Union plan was to burrow out into lateral galleries
at the end of the long shaft. Accordingly, on July 18 work was begun on
these branches which extended to the right and left, paralleling the
Confederate fortifications above. When completed, these added another 75
feet to the total length of the tunnel which now reached 586 feet into
the earth. It was about 20 feet from the floor of the tunnel to the
enemy works above. The average internal dimensions of the shaft were 5
feet high, with a base 4½ feet in width tapering to 2 feet at the top.

Digging was finally completed on July 23. Four days later the task of
charging the mine with black powder was accomplished. Three hundred and
twenty kegs of powder weighing, on the average, 25 pounds each were
arranged in the two lateral galleries in eight magazines. The total
charge was 4 tons, or 8,000 pounds. The powder was sandbagged to direct
the force of the explosion upward and two fuses were spliced together to
form a 98-foot line.

Meanwhile, preparations for the attack which was to follow the explosion
of the mine had been carried out. Burnside was convinced of the
necessity for a large-scale attack by the entire IX Corps. His request
was acceded to by Meade and Grant with but one important exception. It
had been Burnside’s hope that a fresh and numerically strong (about
4,300) Negro division should lead the charge after the explosion. Meade
opposed this on the grounds that if the attack failed the Union
commanders could be accused of wanting to get rid of the only Negro
troops then with the Army of the Potomac. Burnside was not informed of
this decision until the day before the battle, July 29, and he was
forced to change his plans at the last moment. Three white divisions
were to make the initial charge along with the colored troops. Burnside
had the commanding generals of these three divisions draw straws to see
which would lead. Gen. James F. Ledlie of the 1st Division won the draw.

Despite these eleventh-hour changes, a plan of battle had been evolved.
During the night of July 29-30 the bulk of the IX Corps had assembled in
the ravine behind the mine entrance. Troops from other Union corps were
sent to act as reinforcements. A total of 110 guns and 54 mortars was
alerted to begin their shelling of the Confederate line. A Union
demonstration before Richmond had forced Lee to withdraw troops from
Petersburg. Only about 18,000 soldiers were left to guard the city.

    [Illustration: _A contemporary sketch by Waud showing the Union
    charge to the Crater._ From Battles and Leaders of the Civil War.]

    [Illustration: _The Crater as it appeared in 1865. The Union soldier
    seated at the end of the tunnel gives an idea of the size of the
    Crater._ Courtesy, National Archives.]

At 3:15 a. m., July 30, Pleasants lit the fuse of the mine and mounted
the parapet to see the results of his regiment’s work. The explosion was
expected at 3:30 a. m. Minutes passed slowly by, and the men huddled
behind the lines grew more apprehensive. By 4:15 there could be no doubt
but that something had gone wrong. Two volunteers from the 48th Regiment
(Lt. Jacob Douty and Sgt. Harry Reese) crawled into the tunnel and found
that the fuse had burned out at the splice. They relighted it and
scrambled to safety. Finally, at about 4:45 a. m., the explosion took
place. The earth trembled as men, equipment, and debris were hurled high
into the air. At least 278 Confederate troops were killed or wounded in
the tremendous blast, and 2 of the 4 guns in the battery were destroyed
beyond repair. The measurements of the size of the crater torn by the
powder vary considerably, but it seems to have been at least 170 feet
long, 60 to 80 feet wide, and 30 feet deep.

The awesome spectacle of the mine explosion caused a delay in the Union
charge following the explosion. Removal of obstructions between the
lines caused further delay. Soon, however, an advance was made to the
crater where many of the attacking force paused to seek shelter on its
steep slopes or to look at the havoc caused by the mine. The
hard-pressed Confederates rallied quickly and soon were pouring shells
and bullets into their opponents. Union reinforcements poured into the
breach; but, instead of going forward, they either joined their comrades
in the crater or branched out to the immediate right and left along the
lines. By 8:30 that morning a large part of the IX Corps had been poured
into the captured enemy salient. Over 15,000 troops now filled and
surrounded the crater.

By prompt action and determined effort the Confederates had stopped the
attack. The attention of three batteries was soon directed on the
Blue-clad men in the crater. Repeated volleys of artillery shot and
shell raked the huddled groups of increasingly demoralized men. In
addition, mortars were brought to within 50 yards of the crater and
started to drop shells on the soldiers with deadly effect.

Successful as these devices were in halting the Union advance, Lee was
aware that an infantry charge would be necessary to dislodge the enemy.
By 6 a. m. an order had been sent to General Mahone to move two brigades
of his division from the lines south of Petersburg to the defense of the
threatened position. Then Lee joined Beauregard in observing the battle
from the Gee house, 500 yards to the rear of the scene of strife.

    [Illustration: _Maj. Gen. William Mahone, Confederate leader at the
    Battle of the Crater._ Courtesy, National Archives.]

In spite of the Confederate resistance, most of the Northern Negro
division and other regiments had, by 8 a. m., advanced a short distance
beyond their companions at the crater. Shortly after 8 o’clock Mahone’s
Confederate division began to arrive on the scene. The men filed into a
ravine about 200 yards west of the crater and between it and Petersburg.
No sooner had they entered this protected position than, perceiving the
danger to their lines, they charged across the open field into the mass
of enemy soldiers. Although outnumbered, they forced the Northerners to
flee back to the comparative shelter of the crater. Then they swept on
to regain a portion of the line north of the Union-held position.

Again, at about 10:30 a. m., more of Mahone’s troops charged, but were
repulsed. Meanwhile, the lot of the Northern soldiers was rapidly
becoming unbearable. The spectacle within the crater was appalling.
Confederate artillery continued to beat upon them. The closely packed
troops (dead, dying, and living mixed indiscriminately together) lacked
shade from the blazing sun, food, water and, above all, competent
leadership. Meade had ordered their withdrawal more than an hour before
the second Confederate charge, but Burnside delayed the transmission of
the order till after midday. Many men had chosen to run the gantlet of
fire back to their own lines, but others remained clinging to the
protective sides of the crater.

The last scene in the battle occurred shortly after 1 p. m. A final
charge by Mahone’s men was successful in gaining the slopes of the
crater. Some of the Union men, overcome with exhaustion and realizing
the helplessness of their situation, surrendered; but others continued
to fight. At one point where resistance centered, the Confederates put
their hats on ramrods and lifted them over the rim of the crater. The
caps were promptly torn to shreds by a volley. Before their foe could
reload, Mahone’s forces jumped into the crater where a desperate
struggle with bayonets, rifle butts, and fists ensued.

Soon it was all over. The Union Army had suffered a loss of over 4,000
in killed, wounded, or captured as against about 1,500 for the
Confederates. Again, as on June 15-18, a frontal assault had failed to
take the Confederate citadel.



                  _The Fight for the Weldon Railroad_


Grant, if he reviewed the fruits of his campaign shortly after July 30,
could not have felt much comfort. Two hammering blows delivered against
Petersburg had failed. Moreover, two important railroads still connected
the city with the south. Lee, despite his numerically inferior numbers,
was still able to maintain a long line of defenses around Petersburg and
Richmond. Farther south, the Union outlook was brighter. Two days before
the Battle of the Crater, final operations against Atlanta had been
begun by Sherman. On September 2 it was to fall and the march to the sea
follow.

Yet it was equally certain that Grant had accomplished an important
objective. By committing Lee’s weakened but still potent Army of
Northern Virginia to a defensive position in the area adjacent to the
Capital he was immobilizing the South’s most powerful striking force.
Moreover, the Union failure at the crater decided the future direction
of the campaign to capture Petersburg. All Grant’s energy now turned to
extending siege fortifications around the city.

The first step taken in this direction after July 30 was a strong effort
to capture the Weldon Railroad, which the Confederates had so nearly
lost in June. On August 16, Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren, Union V Corps
commander, received orders to attack, occupy, and hold the Weldon
Railroad 3 miles below the city.

The seizure of the objective was quickly accomplished on August 18, the
opening day of battle. More than a mile of track in the vicinity of an
old colonial inn named Globe Tavern was soon in Union hands. Then Warren
marched most of his forces northward toward the city. Soon they were in
unfamiliar and heavily wooded terrain where they encountered strong
artillery and musket fire from the enemy. They then halted and
bivouacked in the woods below Petersburg.

On the afternoon of the next day, August 19, four brigades of Gen. A. P.
Hill’s Corps struck the Union infantry. Two of the brigades managed to
slip in behind their opponents by taking advantage of the concealment
offered by the heavy growth of trees. They inflicted serious losses and
captured 2,700 prisoners. By nightfall Warren had been forced back a
half mile nearer his new headquarters at Globe Tavern.

    [Illustration: _Globe Tavern near the Weldon Railroad. This building
    served as headquarters for the Union V Corps (Maj. Gen. G. K.
    Warren) during the Battle of Globe Tavern, August 18-21, 1864._
    Courtesy, National Archives.]

August 20 was marked by comparative inactivity, although there was some
skirmishing in the morning. Throughout the following day Hill threw his
men at the Union positions around the tavern. The attacks were in vain,
for the new Union lines held. General Lee arrived with infantry
replacements during the afternoon, but even this did not turn the tide
of battle. By the end of the day Lee realized that the upper portion of
the Weldon Railroad had been lost and that any attempt to regain it
would be a needless sacrifice of manpower.

One sentence from a dispatch sent by Lee to the Confederate Secretary of
War on August 22 shows the seriousness of the loss of the railroad: “Our
supply of corn is exhausted today, and I am informed that the small
reserve in Richmond is consumed.” For a time the Confederate government
was able to utilize the Weldon Railroad as far as Stony Creek, 20 miles
below Petersburg, where supplies were transferred to wagons and hauled
around the left of the Northern Army to Petersburg and Richmond. Soon
the railroad line was destroyed below Stony Creek and henceforth the
beleaguered cities had only two direct rail communications with the
south. These were the Richmond and Danville Railroad out of Richmond and
the Southside from Petersburg.

    [Illustration: _Union soldier on picket duty in the lines before
    Petersburg._ Courtesy, National Archives.]

On August 25, 4 days after the attack on Globe Tavern, the Confederates
scored a minor victory with a surprise attack. Their blow was aimed at
the Union II Corps which was engaged in destroying railroad tracks at
Reams Station, nearly 5 miles below Globe Tavern. The II Corps,
containing large numbers of inexperienced recruits, was badly beaten and
more than 2,000 were taken prisoner. The Southern victory was
short-lived, for the destruction of their rail communications was
continued. The best that Lee could hope for in the future would be to
stem the Blue advance.

In mid-September, Wade Hampton, cavalry commander of the Army of
Northern Virginia, led a remarkable raid of 4,000 mounted troops around
the rear of the Union Army, which now numbered 80,000. He succeeded in
returning to Petersburg on September 17 with over 2,400 head of cattle
and more than 300 prisoners, while suffering losses of only 61 men in
two engagements with the enemy. Although this raised the morale of the
Confederates, it did not change the course of the campaign. The iron
band being forged outside their city was a reality, and Grant, a
tenacious man, had not loosened his grip.

    [Illustration: _The wharves and supply vessels at City Point, Va.,
    Union headquarters and supply base on the James River._ Courtesy,
    National Archives.]



                     _Union Encirclement Continues_


The relentless westerly advance of the besieging force was soon resumed
after the capture of the Weldon Railroad in August. Constant skirmishing
occurred between the lines until, in late September, Grant struck again.

The Battle of Peebles’ Farm, September 29 to October 1, was really the
second section of a two-part struggle. The first took place closer to
Richmond and was directed at Fort Harrison, a strongly fortified point
on the outer defense line of the capital. Fort Harrison was located a
mile north of the James River and approximately midway between Richmond
and Petersburg. On the morning of September 29, Union troops advanced
and captured the fort and held it the next day against a counterattack
by the late occupants. At the same time Meade was moving toward a
further encirclement of Petersburg with about 16,000 troops. The
direction of his attack was northwest toward Confederate earthworks
along the Squirrel Level Road. The ultimate goal was the capture of the
Southside Railroad.

Fighting began on the 29th as the Blue vanguard approached the
Confederates in the vicinity of Peebles’ Farm. The engagement increased
in fury on the 30th and continued into the 1st day of October. When the
smoke of battle had blown away on October 2, Meade had extended the
Union left flank 3 miles farther west and had secured the ground on
which Fort Fisher would soon be built. This fort was to be the Union’s
biggest and was one of the largest earthen forts in Civil War history.
He had, however, stopped short of the coveted Southside Railroad.
Against the gain in territory the Union Army had suffered a loss of over
1,500 prisoners to the Confederacy and more than 1,000 in killed and
wounded. The Southerners found that their lines, while unbroken, were
again extended. Each extension meant a thinner Confederate defense line.

    [Illustration: PETERSBURG NATIONAL MILITARY PARK
    TOUR MAP]

  Petersburg to Richmond 23 Miles (Via U S 1 & 301)
  Petersburg to Blackstone 35 Miles (Via U S 460)
  Petersburg to Raleigh 136 Miles (Via U S 1)
  Petersburg to Hopewell 9 Miles (Via State 36)
  Petersburg to Norfolk 73 Miles (Via U S 460)
  Petersburg to Emporia 41 Miles (Via U S 301) and South
  Indicates Park Tour Routes
  Indicates Park Boundary
  Circled Numbers refer to Historic Points Mentioned in “Guide to the
          Area.”

    [Illustration: _Photograph of one of the engines used on the United
    States military railroad taken at City Point in 1865. This engine
    hauled men and supplies to various parts of the long line around
    Petersburg._ Courtesy, National Archives.]

    [Illustration: _“The Dictator” or “The Petersburg Express,” a
    13-inch, 17,000-pound mortar which the Union Army used to shell
    Petersburg from a distance of two and one-half miles._ Courtesy,
    National Archives.]

For a period of a little over 3 weeks after the Battle of Peebles’ Farm
the shovel and pick again replaced the musket as the principal tools for
soldiers on both sides. Forts were built, breastworks dug, and gabions
constructed. Then, on October 27, the Union troops moved again. This
time they turned toward Boydton Plank Road and a stream known as
Hatcher’s Run, 12 miles southwest of Petersburg.

The general plan of operations was nearly the same as that used at
Peebles’ Farm. Butler’s Army of the James was ordered to threaten attack
in front of Richmond. Meanwhile, at the left of the Union line 17,000
infantry and cavalry of the Army of the Potomac started for the Boydton
Plank Road. They made rapid progress, driving the enemy outposts ahead
of them and advancing in two long columns until they reached the
vicinity of Burgess’ Mill where the Boydton Plank Road crossed Hatcher’s
Run.

It was in the neighborhood of Burgess’ Mill that heavy Confederate
opposition was met. Here a spirited engagement took place between the
two contending forces. A failure of Union Generals Hancock of the II
Corps and Warren of the V Corps to coordinate the efforts of their
respective columns, coupled with stout Confederate infantry resistance
and a dashing charge by Hampton’s cavalry in a manner reminiscent of
“Jeb” Stuart, resulted in a speedy Northern withdrawal. The Boydton
Plank Road, for a time at least, remained in Southern hands, and Grant’s
encircling movement had received a temporary check.

The approach of winter made any large-scale effort by either side less
probable, although daily skirmishes and tightening of the siege lines
continued. The slackening of hostile action was used to good advantage
by Union and Confederate alike, as it had been in the previous respites
between battles, in the strengthening of the battle lines and efforts to
develop some rudimentary comforts in the cheerless camps. Throughout the
last 2 months of 1864 and the first month of the new year there were no
strong efforts by either side before Petersburg; picket duty, sniping,
and patrolling prevailed. Lee now had a 35-mile front, with the left
resting on the Williamsburg Road east of Richmond and the right on
Hatcher’s Run southwest of Petersburg. To hold this long line he had but
57,402 effective soldiers on December 31. Facing these undernourished
and ragged soldiers, there were, according to official returns of the
same date, 110,364 well-fed and equipped Union troops.

The picture throughout the rest of the South was no more reassuring to
the Confederate sympathizers. In the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia,
northwest of Richmond, Gen. Philip H. Sheridan had crushed the Southern
forces of Gen. Jubal A. Early at Cedar Creek on October 19 and was
destroying the scattered resistance that remained. Far to the south Gen.
William T. Sherman had captured Atlanta, Ga., in September 1864, and
Savannah had surrendered on December 21. As the new year dawned, his
army was prepared to march north toward Grant. To complete the gloomy
Southern prospects, Fort Fisher, bastion of Wilmington, N. C., which was
the last of the great Atlantic Coast ports to remain in their
possession, was under fatal bombardment by mid-January.

    [Illustration: _A section of the Union siege line around Petersburg.
    Note the use of wickerware (gabions), sharpened stakes (fraises),
    and branches (abatis) to protect the lines._ Courtesy, National
    Archives.]

    [Illustration: _Making sap rollers, Union line._ Courtesy, National
    Archives.]

    [Illustration: _Deserted huts on the Confederate line in 1865._
    Courtesy, National Archives.]

    [Illustration: _Union battery of Parrott guns before Petersburg._
    Courtesy, National Archives.]

The Battle of Hatcher’s Run, February 5 to 7, 1865, was the result of a
further drive by the Northern forces in their attempt to encircle
Petersburg. The two Union Corps (the II and the V), which had been
stopped at Burgess’ Mill, again marched toward Hatcher’s Run. As before,
their objective was the Boydton Plank Road. This time they reached their
goal with little trouble on February 5.

    [Illustration: _Camp scene on the Union line. Behind the seated
    soldiers are good examples of the type of improvised quarters built
    by many of the troops._ Courtesy, National Archives.]

Confederate opposition to this advance lasted through 3 days, but it was
ineffective. This was due to several factors: the inferior numbers of
the Southern Army, the extremely bad weather which made a Union attack
appear unlikely, the ravages of cold on badly equipped and uniformed
men, and, most important, the breakdown of the food supply system.

After having been successful in capturing the Boydton Plank Road and
beating off Confederate attacks, the Northern leaders decided that the
road was not worth holding. It was not as important an artery of traffic
as they had supposed. Consequently, they made no attempt to hold it, but
they did occupy and fortify the newly extended line to Hatcher’s Run at
a point 3 miles below Burgess’ Mill. Thus, again the Union lines had
been pushed to the west, and, as before, Lee was forced to lengthen his
defenses. The Petersburg-Richmond front with its recent extension now
stretched over 37 miles, and the army holding it had dwindled through
casualties and desertion to a little more than 46,000 in number on March
1, 1865.

The Battle of Hatcher’s Run was another fight in the constant movement
of the Union Army to the west after June 18, 1864. In its relentless
extension around Petersburg, which continued day by day with the
addition of a few more feet or yards of picket line and rifle pits,
there had occurred five important thrusts aimed by the Northern leaders
at encircling Petersburg. They included two attacks on the Weldon
Railroad, in June and August 1864; Peebles’ Farm, in September and
October; Burgess’ Mill, in October; and, finally, the move on the
Boydton Plank Road in February 1865. They met with varying degrees of
success, but still the Union noose was not drawn tightly enough.

    [Illustration: _Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon, Confederate commander at
    the Battle of Fort Stedman._ Courtesy, National Archives.]

The enlisted men of both armies, however, remained largely unaware of
the strategy of their commanders. Their daily existence during the
campaign took on a marked flavor, different in many respects from the
more dashing engagements which preceded it. Too often war is a
combination of bloodshed and boredom, and Petersburg, unlike most other
military operations of the Civil War, had more than its share of the
latter. The Petersburg episode—assault and resistance—dragged on to
become the longest unbroken campaign against a single city in the
history of the United States. The romantic and heroic exploits were
relatively few, and between them came long stretches of uninspiring and
backbreaking routine.

The men of both sides had much in common, despite the bitterness with
which they fought. In battle they were enemies, but in camp they were on
the same common level. Stripped of the emotional tension and
exhilaration of combat they all appear as bored, war-weary, homesick
men. The greater part of their time was primarily concerned with digging
and constructing fortifications, performing sentry and picket duty, and
striving to speed up the long succession of days. They lived in rude
improvised shelters, often made of mud and log walls with tent roofs.
Chimneys were made of mud and barrels. There was some friendly
interchange of words and gifts between the lines, but enmity was more
rampant than brotherly regard. Off duty, the amusements and pastimes of
the soldiers were simple and few—limited in most cases to their ability
to improvise them. The most striking difference between the armies as
the Petersburg campaign lengthened was that, while the Northerners
suffered most from boredom, the Confederates were plagued by the more
serious and unpleasant pangs of hunger.

The Petersburg campaign, however, was grim business. Amusements could
lighten the heart for only a brief time at best. Ever present were the
mud and disease which followed every Civil War camp. Both opposing
forces felt the chill of winter and the penetrating rain. The
discouragement of the homesick, who never knew when, or if, he would
return to his fireside, was not a hardship peculiar to any rank.
However, when spring came to warm the air there was a difference between
the two armies. It was more than a numerical superiority. Then the Union
trooper felt confidence, while the Southern veteran, ill-clothed,
ill-fed, and nearly surrounded, knew only despair.



          _The South Strikes Back—The Battle of Fort Stedman_


By mid-March of 1865 the climax of the campaign, and of the war, was
close at hand. Lee’s forces in both Richmond and Petersburg had dwindled
to under 50,000, with only 35,000 fit for duty. Grant, on the other
hand, had available, or within easy march, at least 150,000. Moreover,
Sheridan, having destroyed the remnants of Early’s forces at Waynesboro,
Va., on March 2, had cleared the Shenandoah Valley of Confederates and
was now free to join Grant before Petersburg.

Everywhere Lee turned the picture was black. Union forces under Sherman,
driving Johnston before them, split the Confederacy and were now in
North Carolina. With President Jefferson Davis’ consent, Lee sent a
letter to General Grant on March 2 suggesting an interview. In the early
morning hours of the second day following the dispatch of the letter,
Lee and Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon discussed the three possible solutions
to the problem which perplexed them. In order, they were as follows:

  (1) Try to negotiate satisfactory peace terms. This had already been
          acted upon in Lee’s note to Grant.
  (2) Retreat from Richmond and Petersburg and unite with Johnston for a
          final stand.
  (3) Attack Grant in order to facilitate the retreat.

There followed a series of interviews with high Government officials in
Richmond. Each of the plans was analyzed. The first was quickly dropped
when Grant made it clear that he was not empowered to negotiate. Nor was
the second proposal, that of retreat, deemed advisable by President
Davis who wished to strike one more blow before surrendering his
capital. This left only the third alternative—to attack.

    [Illustration: _An exterior view of Fort Stedman as it appeared in
    1865._ Courtesy, National Archives.]

The plan evolved by the Southern commander was relatively simple. He
ordered General Gordon to make a reconnaissance of the lines around
Petersburg. Gordon soon reported that the best place for the proposed
attack was at Fort Stedman. This Union position was near the City Point
Railroad which Grant used as a major supply line between his base at
City Point and the entrenchments around Petersburg. Capture of this
railroad would cut the Northern supply line. An additional advantage,
from the Confederate viewpoint, was the fact that Fort Stedman was but
150 yards to the east of a strongly fortified Southern position named
Colquitt’s Salient.

About one-half of the besieged army would be used to charge the Union
line in the vicinity of Fort Stedman. It was hoped that this would cause
Grant to shorten his front in order to protect the endangered supply
route. Then Lee could detach a portion of his army to send to the aid of
Johnston as, with shorter lines, he would not need as many men in
Petersburg. Should the attack fail, he would attempt to retreat with his
forces intact for a final stand with Johnston. This was the last
desperate gamble of the Army of Northern Virginia.

The details for the attack were worked out by Gordon. During the night
preceding the attack, the obstructions before the Confederate lines were
to be removed and the Union pickets overcome as quietly as possible. A
group of 50 men were to remove the chevaux-de-frise and abatis
protecting Fort Stedman; then 3 companies of 100 men each were to charge
and capture the fort. When Stedman was safely in Confederate hands,
these men were to pretend they were Union troops and, forming into 3
columns, were to rush to the rear to capture other positions.



                        THE PETERSBURG CAMPAIGN


                                               January 1951 NMP-PET-7007

    [Illustration: ①]

  UNION TROOPS ADVANCE ON PETERSBURG
    JUNE 15-18, 1864. PORTION OF ORIGINAL CONFEDERATE LINE CAPTURED AND
          NEW LINE BUILT NEARER CITY
    JUNE 22-23, 1864. UNION ATTEMPT TO CAPTURE THE WELDON R. R. TURNED
          BACK

    [Illustration: ②]

  JULY 30, 1864. THE CRATER. UNION ATTEMPT TO CAPTURE PETERSBURG BY
          SURPRISE FAILED.
  AUGUST 16-21, 1864. UNION TROOPS CAPTURE THE WELDON R. R.
  SEPTEMBER 29-30, 1864. BATTLE OF PEEBLES’ FARM. UNION LINES PUSHED
          WEST OF THE WELDON R. R.

    [Illustration: ③]

  OCTOBER 27, 1864. BATTLE OF BURGESS MILL UNION DRIVE TOWARD THE
          SOUTHSIDE R. R. TURNED BACK
  FEBRUARY 5-7, 1865. UNION TROOPS CUT BOYDTON PLANK ROAD AND EXTEND
          LINE TO HATCHER’S RUN
  MARCH 25, 1865. FORT STEDMAN. CONFEDERATE OFFENSIVE FAILS.
  APRIL 1, 1865. BATTLE OF FIVE FORKS. UNION VICTORY OPENS WAY TO
          SOUTHSIDE R. R.
  APRIL 2, 1865. UNION FORCES BREAK THROUGH OUTER DEFENSES OF CITY AND
          REACH APPOMATTOX RIVER
  NIGHT OF APRIL 2-3, 1865. CONFEDERATES EVACUATE PETERSBURG AND RETREAT
          WEST. UNION TROOPS ENTER CITY MORNING OF APRIL 3
  UNION ARMY SETS OUT IN IMMEDIATE PURSUIT OF THE CONFEDERATES ON APRIL
          3

The next step was to send a division of infantry to gain possession of
the siege lines north and south of the fallen bastion. When the breach
had been sufficiently widened, Southern cavalry were to rush through and
destroy telegraphic communication with Grant’s headquarters at City
Point. They were also ordered to cut the military railroad. Additional
reserves were to follow the cavalry.

The attack was scheduled for the morning of March 25. The 50 axemen and
the 300 soldiers who were to make up the advance columns were given
strips of white cloth to wear across their breasts in order to tell
friend from foe. The officers in charge were given the names of Union
officers known to be in the vicinity and were told to shout their
assumed names if challenged. Beginning about 3 a. m., Confederates
professing to be deserters crossed to the Union pickets with requests to
surrender. Their actual purpose was to be near at hand to overwhelm the
unsuspecting pickets when the attack began.

At 4 a. m. Gordon gave the signal, and the Confederates sprang forward.
At first the attack went as planned. Blue-clad pickets were silenced so
effectively that not a shot was fired. Union obstructions were quickly
hewn down by the axemen, and the small vanguard of 300 swept through
Battery 10 which stood immediately north of Fort Stedman. They then
rushed into the fort from the northwest. The sleeping, or partially
awakened, occupants were completely surprised and surrendered without a
fight. Battery 11 to the south of Fort Stedman was also soon in
Confederate hands. Union resistance in this early stage was ineffective,
although Battery 11 was recaptured for a brief time.

More Confederates pressed into the torn line. While the three columns
set out in the general direction of City Point and along the Prince
George Court House Road behind Stedman, other infantry units moved north
and south along the Federal emplacements. To the north they captured the
fortifications as far as Battery 9 where they were stopped by the Union
defenders. In the opposite direction they progressed as far as the
ramparts of Fort Haskell. A desperate struggle ensued, but here, too,
the Northerners refused to yield. Despite these checks, the Confederates
were now in possession of about three-fourths of a mile of the Union
line.

In the center of the Confederate attack the three small columns quickly
advanced as far as Harrison’s Creek—a small stream which winds its way
north to the Appomattox River 650 yards behind Fort Stedman. One of the
columns succeeded in crossing the stream and continuing toward a small
Union artillery post on the site of what had been Confederate Battery 8,
but canister from the post forced the column back to the creek.
Confusion took hold of the Confederates who were unable to locate the
positions they had been ordered to capture in the rear of the Union
line. Artillery fire from Northern guns on a ridge to the east held them
on the banks of Harrison’s Creek. By 6 a. m. their forward momentum had
been checked.

Union infantry then charged from the ridge to attack the Southerners.
The forces joined battle along the banks of Harrison’s Creek and the
Confederates were soon forced back to Fort Stedman. For a brief time
they held their newly captured positions. At 7:30 a. m. Gen. John F.
Hartranft advanced on them with a division of Northern troops. Heavy
musket and artillery fire on Gordon’s men threatened them with
annihilation unless they retired to their own lines soon. Shortly after
7:30 a. m., Gordon received an order from Lee to withdraw his men. The
order was quickly dispatched across the open fields to the soldiers in
the captured Union works. By now, however, the line of retreat was raked
by a vicious crossfire and many Confederates preferred surrender to
withdrawal. About 7:45 a. m., the Union line was completely restored and
the forlorn Southern hope of a successful disruption of Northern
communications, followed by secret withdrawal from the city, was now
lost. Equally bad, if not worse, to the Confederates was the loss of
more than 4,000 killed, wounded, and captured as compared to the Union
casualties of less than 1,500.

Of the three Confederate plans of action before the Battle of Fort
Stedman, now only the second—retreat—was possible. The situation
demanded immediate action, for, even as Gordon had been preparing on
March 24 to launch his attack, Grant had been engaged in planning more
difficulties for the harassed defenders of Petersburg.



                 _Union Encirclement Becomes a Reality_


The coming of better weather heralded the opportunity for the final
blows against the city. Grant, who was now passing some of the most
anxious moments of his life, planned that this effort should be
concentrated on the extreme right of the long Confederate line which
protected Richmond and Petersburg. This meant that hostilities would
soon commence somewhere west of Hatcher’s Run, perhaps in the
neighborhood of Dinwiddie Court House or a road junction called Five
Forks which lay 17 miles southwest of Petersburg. On March 24, Grant
ordered the II and IX Corps and three divisions of the Army of the James
to the extreme left of the Union lines facing Lee. This resulted in a
strong concentration southwest of Hatcher’s Run. Two days later Gen.
Philip Sheridan arrived in City Point, fresh from a victorious campaign
in the Shenandoah Valley, and was ordered to join his troops to the
concentration on the left. Finally, it began to appear as if the Army of
Northern Virginia was to be encircled.

Meanwhile, Lee was waiting only until he collected supplies and rations
to last his men for a week and until the roads were passable before
leaving to join Johnston. He hoped to leave on or about April 10. The
information he received about the rapid accumulation of Union forces
opposite his lightly held right was very disturbing, for it not only
threatened to cut off his retreat to the west and south, but it also
posed a serious danger to the Southside Railroad—the last remaining
communication of Petersburg with the south, which continued to deliver a
trickle of supplies to the city. So, while Sheridan was assembling his
troops around Dinwiddie, Lee issued orders on March 29 which sent
Generals George E. Pickett and Fitzhugh Lee to the Confederate right
near Five Forks, far beyond Petersburg.

    [Illustration: _Union soldiers on the ramparts of Confederate Fort
    Mahone, April 2, 1865._ Courtesy, National Archives.]

Sheridan was prepared to move against the Confederates with his cavalry
on March 30, but heavy rains lasting from the evening of March 29 until
the morning of the 31st made a large-scale movement impracticable over
the unpaved roads. During the storm he kept his horses around Dinwiddie.
On the last day of the month a portion of Sheridan’s forces which had
pushed northwest toward Five Forks were engaged by Southern forces who
succeeded in driving them back toward the main Union troop concentration
at Dinwiddie Court House. Pickett, the Confederate leader, then found
his men badly outnumbered and withdrew them to Five Forks without
pressing the advantage he had gained. This incident, often called the
Battle of Dinwiddie Court House, was a minor Confederate victory,
although Sheridan’s men were neither demoralized nor disorganized by the
attack, and Lee could find small comfort in the situation. Lee was able
to concentrate on his right only about 10,600 cold and hungry
Confederates to meet the expected Union drive to turn his right flank.
Massed against him at this part of the line were more than 10,000
Northern cavalry and 43,000 infantry. The desperate urgency of Lee’s
fears was indicated in the dispatch he sent to Pickett early on April 1,
the day of the struggle for Five Forks. “_Hold Five Forks at all
hazards._ Protect road to Ford’s Depot and prevent Union forces from
striking the south-side railroad. Regret exceedingly your forced
withdrawal, and your inability to hold the advantage you had gained.”

    [Illustration: _A Union Army wagon train entering Petersburg._
    Courtesy, National Archives.]

Throughout April 1, Pickett’s troops worked unceasingly, erecting
barricades of logs, branches, and earth around Five Forks. At about 4 p.
m., with only 2 hours of daylight remaining, Sheridan’s cavalry and
Warren’s infantry attacked. While the dismounted cavalry charged the
Confederates from the front of their newly erected defense line, two
divisions of foot soldiers from the V Corps drove around to the left of
Pickett’s troops and, after crossing the White Oak Road which connected
Five Forks with Petersburg, hit them on the weakly held left flank.
Lacking sufficient artillery support, the Southerners were quickly
overcome. Realizing that their position was no longer tenable, portions
of the Confederate troops tried to retreat to Petersburg, but the avenue
of escape had been cut by the Union advance across the White Oak Road.

By dusk, the Battle of Five Forks had ended. Union troops were in
possession of the disputed area. They had cut off and captured over
3,200 prisoners, while suffering a loss which was probably less than
1,000. Now the besieging forces had nearly succeeded in accomplishing
Grant’s objective of encircling the city. The western extremity of Lee’s
defenses had crumbled.

Those Confederates who survived the Battle of Five Forks had fallen back
to the Southside Railroad where they rallied for a defensive stand, but
darkness had prevented a Union pursuit. Grant’s troops were within
striking distance of the rail line, located less than 3 miles from Five
Forks. Lee now knew that Petersburg must be evacuated without delay or
the Army of Northern Virginia would be completely cut off from outside
help and all possible escape routes would be gone.

The problem of assigning a proper significance to Five Forks is a
difficult one. It is now known that Lee and the Confederate government
officials were on the eve of the abandonment of their capital. In June
of the previous year the Southside Railroad had been a most important
objective of the invading army, but the plight of Lee’s army had grown
so desperate during the intervening months that whether the railroad
remained open or not mattered little. Grant, of course, did not know
this as a positive fact, although the uncomfortable situation of his
opponents was something of which he was doubtless aware. The real
importance of Five Forks lay in the probability that, by making it more
difficult for Lee to escape, it brought the inevitable a little closer.
Brig. Gen. Horace Porter, of Grant’s staff, was positive more than 30
years later that news of Sheridan’s success prompted the Union commander
in chief to issue the orders for the attack that carried the city.

    [Illustration: _Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, Union commander at the
    Battle of Five Forks._ Courtesy, National Archives.]



                         _The Fall of the City_


Continuously throughout the night following the Battle of Five Forks,
the Union artillery played upon the Confederate earthworks and dropped
shells within the city. Troops were prepared for a large general assault
which had been ordered for the following dawn. At 4:40 a. m., April 2,
1865, a wide frontal attack was begun with the sound of a signal gun
from Fort Fisher. A heavy fog, however, prevented the action from
gaining full momentum until after 7 a. m.

The story of the fighting along the Petersburg front on that spring
Sunday is one of Union success over stout Confederate resistance. The
Union VI Corps, under Gen. Horatio G. Wright, broke through the
Confederate right and rushed on to the Southside Railroad. Other
elements of Grant’s army swept away the remnants of the Confederate
lines along Hatcher’s Run. Early in the day, Lt. Gen. Ambrose P. Hill, a
Confederate corps commander, had been killed by the bullet of a Union
soldier near the Boydton Plank Road when on the way to rally his men at
Hatcher’s Run.

The desperateness of the Southern position was shown when, about 10 a.
m., Lee telegraphed President Davis to inform him of the turn events had
taken at Petersburg. The message read: “I advise that all preparations
be made for leaving Richmond tonight.” Davis received the message while
attending Sunday services at St. Paul’s Church. He left immediately,
destroying the calm of worship, in order to prepare for evacuating the
capital. The flight of the Confederate government was promptly begun.

By midday the entire outer line to the west of Petersburg had been
captured with the exception of Forts Gregg and Baldwin. The city was now
completely surrounded except to the north. The left of the Union line
finally rested on the bank of the Appomattox River after months of
strenuous effort.

It now became apparent to Lee that he must hold an inner line west of
Petersburg until nightfall, when it would be possible for him to retreat
from the city. While gray-clad troops were forming along this line built
on the banks of Old Indian Town Creek, the defenders of Forts Gregg and
Baldwin put up a stubborn delaying action against the Northern advance.
At Fort Gregg, particularly, there was a desperate Confederate defense.
Approximately 300 men and 2 pieces of artillery met an onslaught of
5,000 Northerners. The outcome of the struggle was determined by the
numbers in the attacking force, but the capture of Fort Gregg occurred
only after bitter hand-to-hand combat. Fort Baldwin was forced to yield
shortly after the fall of Fort Gregg. The purpose of the defense of
these two positions had been accomplished, however, for a thin but
sturdy line running behind them from Battery 45 to the Appomattox River
had been manned. Temporarily, at least, street fighting within
Petersburg had been avoided. Blows directed at this line at other
points, such as Fort Mahone near the southeast corner of the defense
works, were turned back. Yet there was no doubt in the mind of Lee and
other Southern leaders that all hope of retaining Petersburg and
Richmond was gone. It was obvious that, if the lines held the Union Army
in check on April 2, they must be surrendered on the morrow. The object
was to delay until evening when retreat would be possible.

    [Illustration: _The Crater area. The bank in the background is the
    original Confederate earthwork constructed in 1864._]

The close of the day found the weary Confederates concentrating within
Petersburg and making all possible plans to withdraw. Lee had issued the
necessary instructions at 3 o’clock that afternoon. By 8 p. m. the
retreat was under way, the artillery preceding the infantry across the
Appomattox River. Amelia Court House, 40 miles to the west, was
designated as the assembly point for the troops from Petersburg and
Richmond.

Grant had ordered the assault on Petersburg to be renewed early the next
morning (April 3). It was discovered at 3 a. m. that the Southern
earthworks had been abandoned, and so an attack was not necessary. Union
troops took possession of the city shortly after 4 a. m. Richmond
officially surrendered 4 hours later.

President Lincoln, who had been in the vicinity of Petersburg for
several days, came from Army Headquarters at City Point that same day
for a brief visit with Grant. They talked quietly on the porch of a
private home for an hour and a half before the President returned to
City Point. Grant with all of his army, except the detachments necessary
to police Petersburg and Richmond and to protect City Point, set out in
immediate pursuit of Lee. He left Maj. Gen. George L. Hartsuff in
command at Petersburg.

Petersburg had fallen, but it was at a heavy price. In the absence of
complete records the exact casualties will never be known, but in the
10-month campaign at least 42,000 Union troops had been killed, wounded,
and captured, while the Confederates had suffered losses of more than
28,000. Although the Northern forces had lost more men than their
opponents, they had been able to replenish them more readily. Moreover,
Grant had been prepared to utilize the greater resources at his
disposal, and the Petersburg campaign had been turned by him into a form
of relentless attrition which the Southern Army had not been able to
stand. The result had been the capture of Petersburg and, more
important, of the Southern capital. It had also resulted in the flight
of the remnants of the once mighty Army of Northern Virginia.

On the Sunday following the evacuation of Petersburg and Richmond, Lee’s
troops at Appomattox Court House were cut off from any possibility of
uniting with Johnston in North Carolina. In this small Virginia town,
nearly 100 miles west of Petersburg, the Army of Northern Virginia, now
numbering little more than 28,000, surrendered to the Union forces.
Within a week of the fall of Petersburg the major striking force of the
Confederacy had capitulated. The Civil War finally was all but ended.
Gen. Joseph E. Johnston surrendered his army to General Sherman in North
Carolina on April 26, 1865.

    [Illustration: _View from east to west across the Crater._]



                          _Guide to the Area_


A self-guided tour of Petersburg National Military Park may be made by
automobile. This tour, extending 27 miles, begins at the Crater and park
museum and follows the lines of earthworks around the city. It offers a
nearly complete picture of the engagements which occurred during the
campaign and gives an idea of the scope and magnitude of the area
covered by the contending forces. Throughout the tour you will have an
opportunity to study exhibits and narrative markers which will help you
to orient yourself with the terrain.

In the description of the tour which follows an attempt has been made to
provide you with a guide to all the important points of interest. The
following remarks about this description may prove useful. The total
road distances from the starting point at the Crater and park museum to
the various points of interest are shown in parentheses. The distances
are stated to the nearest tenth of a mile. All route numbers are State
or county unless they are identified as United States highway routes.
Points of historic interest are identified in capital letters (FORT
FISHER, BATTERY PEGRAM, etc.) where they are mentioned for the first
time. The numbers at the beginning of various paragraphs correspond to
the circled numbers on the Park Tour Map found on pages 26-27.


1. The CRATER (0.0) is the scene of the Battle of the Crater, July 30,
1864. You may see the results of the explosion of the Union mine and the
ground for which both armies contested. Information can be obtained at
the park museum, where there is usually a member of the staff on duty.
Talks on the Battle of the Crater and the Petersburg Campaign are given
at frequent intervals. The museum contains exhibits pertinent to the
fighting at Petersburg.

You should then follow the small “Park Tour” signs which will conduct
you to Battery 5. Return to the junction of the Crater entrance with U.
S. 460 and 501 (0.3). A _left turn_ is made on this highway (called in
1864 the JERUSALEM PLANK ROAD) which is followed to the fork where U. S.
460 branches left (east) to Norfolk (0.5). Follow U. S. 460 across the
bridge which spans the tracks of the Norfolk and Western Railroad. These
tracks are on the same approximate roadbed used by the NORFOLK AND
PETERSBURG RAILROAD in 1864-65. Continue across bridge to the
intersection of Siege Road (1.3) which is identified by a large “Park
Tour” sign. _Turn left_ on Siege Road.


2. BATTERY 16 was located at the left of this intersection. This is one
of many Union artillery emplacements constructed during the campaign.
Similar batteries were constructed by the Confederates. Siege Road
follows the Union lines east of Petersburg which were held from June 18,
1864, to April 2, 1865.

    [Illustration: _An interior view of the remains of Fort Stedman._]


3. FORT MORTON (1.4). The site of this fort is a short distance past
Battery 16 and on the left of Siege Road. This fort, obliterated after
the war, was the place from which Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside directed the
attack of the Union IX Corps during the Battle of the Crater. It was a
strongly fortified position and considered by many contemporary
observers as one of the best of the nearly 50 forts surrounding the
city.


4. Union BATTERY 13 (1.7). The tour continues along Siege Road, passing
the remains of this battery, which are to the left. The Union batteries
were numbered consecutively, beginning with Battery 1 on the Appomattox
River east of Petersburg and running south and west around the city.
There were 42 of these Union batteries by the end of the campaign. In a
like manner, the Confederate batteries were numbered starting at the
river. In the original defense lines (the “Dimmock Line”) there were 55
Confederate batteries.

Notice on the left of Siege Road, and at numerous other places
throughout the tour, the low breastworks which connect the forts and
batteries to make a long, continuous line. It was behind these that the
enlisted men spent much of their time during the campaign.


5. FORT HASKELL (2.0), on the left of Siege Road, is one of the best
preserved of the earthworks. The most important event in its history
occurred on the morning of March 25, 1865, when the defense made here by
Union troops helped turn the tide against the Confederates during the
Battle of Fort Stedman. The moat, or ditch, around the embankments was
made more formidable at that time with the aid of sharpened stakes
(fraise) or brush (abatis). Chevaux-de-frise (timbers with sharpened
stakes driven through at right angles) may also have been placed outside
the moat. Gabions (cylindrical wicker baskets) and sandbags were placed
on the fortifications to protect them from shot and shell. All of these
devices were used regularly by both armies.

Siege Road crosses the Union siege line a short distance beyond Fort
Haskell so that the earthworks are now on the right (east) of you. The
road leads through a ravine.


6. BATTERY 11 (2.3) is situated at the top of the rise from the ravine.
This, along with BATTERY 12 (since destroyed), was captured by the
Confederates in the Battle of Fort Stedman, March 25, 1865. In the
course of the engagement that followed, the battery changed hands
several times. After the final Southern withdrawal that same day, the
battery remained in Northern possession until the end of the war.


7. FORT STEDMAN (2.4) is close to Battery 11. The site is marked by
well-preserved remains. This Union fort was the place selected by
Confederate General Gordon for his attack on Grant’s supply line. This
attack occurred only 15 days before Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court
House and was the last large-scale offensive movement of the Army of
Northern Virginia. Although captured by the Confederates shortly after 4
a. m. on March 25, 1865, it was regained by the Northern forces within 4
hours. Fort Stedman also stands on the site of heavy fighting on June
18, 1864, when Grant failed to break the defense line that had been
built the night before. However, the fort was not constructed until a
month following this opening battle. Inside the fort is a monument
erected by the State of Pennsylvania to the memory of the 3d Division,
IX Corps, Army of the Potomac, which participated in the Battle of Fort
Stedman.

Twenty-five yards past the Fort Stedman trailside exhibit, _turn left_
on Sortie Road. This road passes between the lines and indicates their
proximity at this point.

    [Illustration: _Battery 5 on the original Confederate defense line,
    captured by Union forces on June 15, 1864._]

    [Illustration: _Monument to Col. George W. Gowen, 48th Pennsylvania
    Regiment, killed in the assault on Fort Mahone, April 2, 1865._]


8. The MAINE MONUMENT may be seen near the bottom of the gentle slope on
the right (north) of Sortie Road. This marks the scene of the heaviest
fighting on June 18, 1864. At this point the 1st Maine Heavy Artillery
suffered the heavy casualties referred to in the text.


9. COLQUITT’S SALIENT (2.6) is reached after traversing the short
distance between the lines. This fortified position was named for
Confederate Gen. A. H. Colquitt. It was one of the closest to the Union
lines and was selected by Gordon as the place from which to launch the
attack of March 25, 1865.


10. GRACIE’s DAM ruins (2.8) are behind Colquitt’s Salient. This dam was
one of several constructed by the Confederates around the city in order
to flood the ground between the lines and prevent a surprise attack.

The tour continues around Colquitt’s Salient and back to Siege Road. A
_left turn_ is made on Siege Road where it is followed by a _right turn_
on PRINCE GEORGE COURT HOUSE ROAD (3.2) 50 yards north. This road is a
colonial stage route which connected Petersburg with Prince George Court
House. Part of the road has been restored. It leads east behind the
Union siege line and in the general direction of Grant’s supply base at
City Point.


11. HARRISON’S CREEK (3.5) is the major point of historic interest on
this road. On the banks of this stream the Confederate drive of March
25, 1865, was checked by a Union artillery barrage from a low ridge to
the east followed by charges of Blue-clad infantry.

Continue straight on Prince George Court House Road to Attack Road
(4.1). This is the first intersection past Harrison’s Creek.


12. BATTERY 9. The partially destroyed remains of this battery may be
seen across Attack Road. This Confederate artillery position was part of
the “Dimmock Line.” It was captured by Union troops advancing from the
north in the early evening of June 15, 1864. About one-third of a mile
southeast of this point Prince George Court House Road crossed Grant’s
military railroad. MEADE’S STATION, an important Union supply and
hospital depot, was located at this intersection.

A _left turn_ is made on Attack Road. The tour now travels north along
the site of the original Confederate line (“Dimmock Line”).


13. BATTERY 8 (4.5) lies to the left of a sharp curve in Attack Road.
This Confederate battery, like Battery 9, was part of the line which
fell on June 15, 1864. It was turned into a Union artillery post named
FORT FRIEND and, ironically, guns placed here by the Northerners were
used to repel the Confederates who had broken the line at Fort Stedman.
The spires of Petersburg may be seen about 2½ miles west of Battery 8.

Continue on Attack Road to the intersection (4.9) with State Route 36
(Petersburg-Hopewell Road). _Turn right_ on this highway and continue to
the _entrance to the park on the left_. This entrance is marked by a
large “Petersburg National Military Park” sign (5.1). _Turn left_ on
this road.


14. BATTERY 5 (5.4) is located at the end of this short park road. This
is another of the original Confederate works which fell on the evening
of June 15. The Union Army renamed it BATTERY 4. You may follow a path
through the battery and observe the commanding position it held against
attack from the north and east. Grant’s troops overcame this by slipping
around to the southwest and entering it there. This path also leads to a
full-size replica of the large siege mortar known as “THE DICTATOR,” or
“THE PETERSBURG EXPRESS.” This huge 17,000-pound, 13-inch mortar shelled
Petersburg from the approximate position where the replica now stands.

To continue the tour proceed on Mortar Road, which encircles Battery 5,
and brings you back to State Route 36 (1 mile). Retrace your route from
this point to the intersection (10.7) of U. S. 460 and 301.

At the intersection of U. S. 460 and 301A _turn left_ on U. S. 301 and
continue to intersection (11.8) with U. S. 301A.


15. The GOWEN MONUMENT erected in honor of Col. George W. Gowen, a Union
officer from Pennsylvania, who was killed on the last day of battle at
Petersburg, April 2, 1865, stands at the right of this intersection.


16. “FORT HELL” (FORT SEDGWICK) of the Union line may be seen on the
left of U. S. 301, a short distance past the Gowen Monument. It was
given its nickname because of the heavy Confederate artillery fire,
which was concentrated there when the fort was begun. Fort Sedgwick is
now privately owned.


17. FORT DAVIS. Continue on U. S. 301 until you come to this fort, on
the right of the highway (12.5). It is one of the best remaining
examples of Union works. Near here Grant launched his first attack on
the WELDON RAILROAD on June 21-22, 1864, but was driven back. Within the
fort, evidences of “bombproofs” and traversing trenches still exist.

_Turn right_ on to Flank Road at Fort Davis. This follows the Union
siege lines south and southwest of Petersburg. Low breastworks still
remain between the forts and batteries in many places.


18. FORT ALEXANDER HAYS (13.5). On the right of Flank Road may be seen
the almost completely obliterated remains of this fort. It was built in
August and September of 1864.


19. Union BATTERY 24 (13.9) Stands on the left of Flank Road. This, like
other batteries on both sides, was very active during the siege
operations. It participated in the final artillery barrage during the
night of April 1-2, 1865.


20. BATTERY 25 (14.4) will next be seen as you continue driving to the
west on the tour.


21. The site of FORT HOWARD is approximately one-third of a mile beyond
Battery 25, although not visible from the tour route. At Battery 25 the
Union line crosses Flank Road and continues north, or right, of the
road.


22. BATTERY 26 (15.3), like Battery 25, is found on the left. Near this
battery Flank Road recrosses the earthworks.

The next important landmark after passing Battery 26 is the junction
(16.0) of Flank Road with State Route 604 (Halifax Road). In front of
you is the monument to Johnson Hagood’s South Carolina brigade, and Fort
Wadsworth.


23. FORT WADSWORTH stands on the left, a short distance past this
intersection. This was a strategically located position for the Union
Army, as it was close to the tracks of the Weldon Railroad. In this
vicinity, but before Fort Wadsworth was built, the Battle of Globe
Tavern was fought on August 18-21, 1864. The site of GLOBE TAVERN is
about one-half mile southeast of Fort Wadsworth. Globe Tavern was Gen.
G. K. Warren’s headquarters during the August battle.

Directly west of Fort Wadsworth, Flank Road underpasses the Atlantic
Coast Line Railroad. The tour continues straight west, following Union
infantry breastworks on the left, to the intersection (16.7) with State
Route 675. State Route 675 may be found mentioned in Civil War
dispatches as VAUGHAN ROAD. A _left turn_ is made on State Route 675.


24. The POPLAR GROVE NATIONAL CEMETERY entrance (16.2) is identified by
a marker. _Turn left_ on to the cemetery grounds. Poplar Grove is
situated on ground captured by the Union Army in the fight for the
Weldon Railroad, August 18-21. In the winter of 1864-65, the 50th New
York Engineers, encamped here, constructed a large log church. The
cemetery contains the graves of more than 6,000 soldiers and veterans,
of which over 4,000 are unknown. Nearly all are Union veterans of the
Civil War.

After a drive through the cemetery grounds the tour returns to State
Route 675 (17.9). _Turn right_ and drive north to the junction (18.3)
with State Route 676 which intersects 675 on the left. A _turn_ is made
on Route 676. That route is followed to the end, where it connects with
State Route 613 (19.1), known to history as the SQUIRREL LEVEL ROAD.

    [Illustration: _The moat and embankments of Union Fort Davis._]


25. Union FORT URMSTON was constructed in the autumn and early winter of
1864 on the west side of the Squirrel Level Road. It was named in honor
of a Union officer killed at the Battle of Peebles’ Farm (September
29-October 1, 1864). The heaviest fighting of this engagement took place
around Peebles’ Farm, three-quarters of a mile southwest of here.

_Turn left_ on State Route 613 and continue to the intersection (19.6)
with State Route 672 (CHURCH ROAD). State Route 672 is the right fork at
this intersection. _Turn_ on this road and continue in a northwest
direction.


26. FORT FISHER (20.3) is situated on the right side of the road. This
Union stronghold is in an excellent state of preservation, and it is one
of the largest earthen forts constructed in the Civil War. Fort Fisher
played an important part in the campaign after it was built in late
1864. Near it was a 150-foot Union watchtower used to observe enemy
movements and to spot artillery fire. Behind it, a short distance to the
south, was a field of execution for military offenders and spies where,
according to one observer, violators paid the supreme penalty nearly
every week. It was a signal gun from Fort Fisher which boomed the
beginning of the final assault on the defenses of Petersburg, April 2,
1865.


27. FORTS WELCH and GREGG. On the left of the road the Union line
continues to these forts, the remains of which are not visible from the
road.

The tour is resumed on State Route 672, or Church Road. This runs from
the Union to the Confederate line. The road crosses the tracks of the
Seaboard Air Line Railroad and, later, overpasses the Norfolk and
Western Beltline Railroad. The direction of the tour is north toward the
Appomattox River (21.8). _Turn right_ at the intersection with State
Route 603 and continue to the end of State Route 672 (21.3) where it
intersects State Route 142. This road (142) was named the BOYDTON PLANK
ROAD at the time of the siege. _Turn right_ on State Route 142. The
direction of the tour is east along the Confederate defense line which
was built south of Petersburg.


28. Confederate FORT GREGG (22.4). The partially destroyed remains of
this fort are located nearly opposite a Union fort of the same name.
Fort Gregg is situated about 100 yards to the left, or north, of the
highway. It is memorable for the desperate struggle it put up against
the Union attack on April 2, 1865. When it fell, the last Confederate
stronghold on the outer line west of the city was in Northern hands.


29. FORT LEE (23.3). Continue on State Route 142 to this fort and
junction with Park Road (Defense Road) on the right. Originally Battery
45 on the “Dimmock Line,” Fort Lee was renamed in honor of the
Confederate commander in chief. It was successfully held after the outer
line fell on April 2, but was evacuated when the Confederates fled from
Petersburg that night.

_Turn right_ on Defense Road at Fort Lee and continue to the junction
(23.8) with the Squirrel Level Road (State Route 613). On the right, or
south, of Defense Road may be seen the remains of Confederate
breastworks. _Cross_ Squirrel Level Road and follow Defense Road. A
short distance past this intersection the route underpasses the Atlantic
Coast Line Railroad. After winding through a stand of tall pine trees,
Defense Road merges with City Park Road (25.0).

    [Illustration: _Poplar Grove National Cemetery._]


30. BATTERY PEGRAM, an important Confederate artillery position, lies
100 yards to the right of this point.

The tour continues straight on City Park Road, which is a continuation
of Defense Road. This curves through a ravine and, on the right, as the
ascent from the ravine is begun, is Wilcox Lake, owned by the city of
Petersburg.


31. FORT WALKER (25.5) is at the top of the hill. This, like Fort Lee,
was taken by the Union troops after Lee’s withdrawal during the night of
April 2-3, 1865.

At Fort Walker, City Park Road _merges_ with South Boulevard. This
street approximates the Confederate defense line and now passes through
the Walnut Hill section of Petersburg. Follow South Boulevard to the
junction (26.6) with South Sycamore Street (U. S. 301).

    [Illustration: _Interior of Confederate Fort Mahone as it looked
    shortly after its capture in April 1865._ Courtesy, National
    Archives.]


32. Confederate FORT MAHONE was situated near the large Pennsylvania
Monument which is visible 150 yards to the right of this intersection.
This fort was the scene of heavy fighting on April 2, 1865.

You may turn on South Sycamore Street if you so desire. A right turn
will lead toward Emporia, Va.; a left turn north toward Richmond.

Cross South Sycamore Street and continue on South Boulevard to
intersection (26.8) with U. S. 301. _Turn left_ on U. S. 301 and return
to the Crater (28.0) and park museum where tour commenced.


In addition to these tours you may follow U. S. 1 south to the point
where Gen. A. P. Hill fell, and on to Hatcher’s Run, Burgess’ Mill, and
Dinwiddie Court House. These, and other important historical points, are
identified by Virginia State historical markers. Four miles south of U.
S. 460, west of Petersburg, is the Five Forks Battlefield where the
fight occurred on April 1, 1865. The point closest to it on U. S. 460 is
also indicated by a Virginia marker.



                        _How To Reach the Park_


The city of Petersburg, 23 miles south of Richmond, Va., is on U. S. 1,
301, 301A, and 460 and may also be reached by railroad or bus.
Petersburg National Military Park lies southeast of the city. You are
advised to begin your tour of the park by first going to the Crater and
park museum. They may be reached by U. S. 301 and 460.



                            _Administration_


Petersburg National Military Park, established by act of Congress
approved July 3, 1926, has a gross acreage of more than 1,500. It is a
part of the National Park System owned by the people of the United
States and administered for them by the National Park Service of the
Department of the Interior. Communications and inquiries should be
addressed to the Superintendent, Petersburg National Military Park,
Petersburg, Va.



                            _Related Areas_


There are numerous other Civil War battlefields located in Virginia
within easy driving distance of Petersburg National Military Park. Among
them are Manassas and Richmond National Battlefield Parks and
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park. The site of the
surrender of Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant and his
Union forces is also commemorated by Appomattox Court House National
Historical Park.

Two important battles outside the boundaries of Virginia in which the
Army of Northern Virginia engaged were at Antietam National Battlefield
Site, Md., and Gettysburg National Military Park, Pa. These areas are
also administered by the National Park Service for the benefit of the
people of the United States.



                          _Visitor Facilities_


For the visitor’s convenience and information, the park offers the
following facilities and services: extensive drives and foot trails
marked with interpretive devices; a field museum and library which is
located in the Museum and Administration Building at the Crater; and
frequent talks on the Battle of the Crater and the Petersburg Campaign.


                         U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961 0-584509


                         NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
                       HISTORICAL HANDBOOK SERIES

  For Sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
  Office, Washington 25, D.C. Write to that office for Price List 35,
  which lists this series and other publications published by the
  National Park Service.

  Antietam
  Bandelier
  Chalmette
  Chickamauga and Chattanooga Battlefields
  Custer Battlefield
  Custis-Lee Mansion, the Robert E. Lee Memorial
  Fort Laramie
  Fort McHenry
  Fort Necessity
  Fort Pulaski
  Fort Raleigh
  Fort Sumter
  George Washington Birthplace
  Gettysburg
  Guilford Courthouse
  Hopewell Village
  Independence
  Jamestown, Virginia
  Kings Mountain
  The Lincoln Museum and the House Where Lincoln Died
  Manassas (Bull Run)
  Montezuma Castle
  Morristown, a Military Capital of the Revolution
  Ocmulgee
  Petersburg Battlefields
  Saratoga
  Scotts Bluff
  Shiloh
  Statue of Liberty
  Vanderbilt Mansion
  Vicksburg
  Yorktown

    [Illustration: _“The Dictator”_]



                          Transcriber’s Notes


—Silently corrected a few typos.

—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





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